Science.gov

Sample records for growth coalition development

  1. Cast Metal Coalition Research and Development Closeout Report

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.

    2000-08-01

    The Cast Metal Coalition, composed of more than 22 research providers and universities and 149 industrial partners, has completed a four-year research and development partnership with the Department of Energy. This report provides brief summaries of the 29 projects performed by the Coalition. These projects generated valuable information in such aspects of the metals industry as process prediction technologies, quality control, improved alloys, product machinability, and casting process improvements.

  2. Development of a Community Readiness Survey for Coalitions to Address Prescription Opioid Misuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudeau, Kimberlee J.

    2015-01-01

    A community readiness survey for coalitions to address the growing epidemic of prescription opioid misuse was developed in this four-part study. A total of 70 coalition members participated. 1) We conducted 30-minute phone interviews with coalition members (n = 30) and a literature review to develop an item list. 2) Coalition members rated these…

  3. Defining elements of success: a critical pathway of coalition development.

    PubMed

    Downey, Laura M; Ireson, Carol L; Slavova, Svetla; McKee, Genia

    2008-04-01

    In recent decades, coalitions have been established to address many public health problems, including injury prevention. A partnership among the Kentucky Injury Prevention and Research Center and four injury prevention coalitions has documented the developmental stages of successful coalitions. This developmental process was constructed through the analysis of participating coalition documents, such as each coalition's mission statement, bylaws or rules of operation, the use of committees within the organization, frequency of meetings, and additional historical documents. Themes from this analysis guided researchers in designing a critical pathway model that describes milestones in coalition formation. Critical components in coalition formation include a clear definition of the coalition structure, coalition enhancement, funding, community support, leadership, education and outreach to the community, membership, partnerships, data and evaluation, and publicity. These findings are applicable to public health professionals who work with community-based coalitions and citizens who participate in local coalitions.

  4. Organizational Member Involvement in Physical Activity Coalitions across the United States: Development and Testing of a Novel Survey Instrument for Assessing Coalition Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Daniel B.; Pate, Russell R.; Beets, Michael W.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Coalitions are often composed of member organizations. Member involvement is thought to be associated with coalition success. No instrument currently exists for evaluating organizational member involvement in physical activity coalitions. This study aimed to develop a survey instrument for evaluating organizational member involvement…

  5. Developing and maintaining state-wide adolescent pregnancy prevention coalitions: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Nezlek, J B; Galano, J

    1993-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of state-wide adolescent pregnancy prevention coalitions. Key informants in five states throughout the southern United States were given semi-structured interviews regarding the adolescent pregnancy prevention coalitions in their states. From these interviews and other documents, conclusions were drawn regarding the nature and importance of the environments within which these coalitions operate, the universe of activities in which coalitions engage, and the stages of development of these coalitions. Katz and Kahn's model of social organizations served as the basis for understanding coalitions in terms of these three considerations. Future research should consider the utility of organizational models that can explain more fully the organization--committee hybrid structure that tends to characterize these coalitions.

  6. Benefits and Challenges in Building a Community Youth Development Coalition. REACH Issue Brief Series. Number One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, David; Erbstein, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    How can the field of youth development move from being an assortment of valuable but often disconnected programs to become a coordinated system or sector with greater policy relevance? One strategy for working toward this goal involves building a community youth development coalition. Successful coalitions can take various forms, but most are…

  7. An advocacy coalition framework analysis of the development of offshore wind energy in South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Marines

    Offshore winds blow considerably harder and more uniformly than on land, and can thus produce higher amounts of electricity. Design, installation, and distribution of an offshore wind farm is more difficult and expensive, but is nevertheless a compelling energy source. With its relatively shallow offshore waters South Carolina has the potential to offer one of the first offshore wind farms in the United States, arguably ideal for wind-farm construction and presenting outstanding potential for the state's growth and innovation. This study analyzes the policy process involved in the establishment of an offshore wind industry in South Carolina through the use of Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) concepts. The ACF studies policy process by analyzing policy subsystems, understanding that stakeholders motivated by belief systems influence policy subsystem affairs, and recognizing the assembly of these stakeholders into coalitions as the best way to simplify the analysis. The study interviewed and analyzed responses from stakeholders involved to different but significant degrees with South Carolina offshore wind industry development, allowing for their categorization into coalitions. Responses and discussion analysis through the implementation of ACF concepts revealed, among other observations, direct relationships of opinions to stakeholder's belief systems. Most stakeholders agreed that a potential for positive outputs is real and substantial, but differed in opinion when discussing challenges for offshore wind development in South Carolina. The study importantly considers policy subsystem implications at national and regional levels, underlining the importance of learning from other offshore wind markets and policy arenas worldwide. In this sense, this study's discussions and conclusions are a step towards the right direction.

  8. Parent child coalitions: innovative public-sector management and early childhood development in Manitoba.

    PubMed

    Cottes, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This article considers a coalition model of governance as an innovative approach to public management. In general, the coalition governance model adopts key principles of new public management and inherits criticisms similar to those levelled against the new managerialism. Looking at a case study of parent child coalitions in Manitoba, this article explores some benefits and consequences of implementing and utilizing coalition governance as a model for social policy. It finds that the attempt to increase child-centred programming across the province required innovative adjustments to the management of this social policy issue, as well as a restructuring of the overarching policy structure. Innovative public management and the implementation of a coalition governance approach helped transform early childhood development in Manitoba from a private and personal family concern to a public policy issue. It has increased citizen engagement and has also increased government access to a previously inaccessible segment of society. Although these innovations resolved some key concerns, additional criticisms remain as yet unaddressed.

  9. Stone Soup: A Recipe for Successful Coalitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Joan

    1999-01-01

    Considers the implications of community connections by examining a coalition developed by the Pekin Public Library (Illinois): the Pekin Intergenerational Network (PIN). Highlights include recognizing the need for coalitions; developing a team; and evaluating the coalition's progress. (AEF)

  10. From local development policies to strategic planning-Assessing continuity in institutional coalitions.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo Rinaldi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    In the last two decades, EU policies have had a fundamental role in orienting regional/local development. The objective of this work is set in this context as it intends to analyze the local development programs activated in Sicily in the last three programming periods. The main aim is to explore whether the EU partnership principle influenced cooperation among local actors, assessing the continuity of local institutional coalition in managing different local development programs within the regional development policy system. We focus, in particular, on Strategic Plans (SP) promoted in Sicily in the transition phase between the 2000-2006 and the 2007-2013 periods.

  11. From local development policies to strategic planning-Assessing continuity in institutional coalitions.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo Rinaldi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    In the last two decades, EU policies have had a fundamental role in orienting regional/local development. The objective of this work is set in this context as it intends to analyze the local development programs activated in Sicily in the last three programming periods. The main aim is to explore whether the EU partnership principle influenced cooperation among local actors, assessing the continuity of local institutional coalition in managing different local development programs within the regional development policy system. We focus, in particular, on Strategic Plans (SP) promoted in Sicily in the transition phase between the 2000-2006 and the 2007-2013 periods. PMID:27065045

  12. Ecological Contexts in the Development of Coalitions for Youth Violence Prevention: An Organizational Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, Kimberly D.; Speer, Paul W.; Perkins, Douglas D.

    2012-01-01

    Community coalitions are a recognized strategy for addressing pressing public health problems. Despite the promise of coalitions as an effective prevention strategy, results linking coalition efforts to positive community outcomes are mixed. To date, research has primarily focused on determining organizational attributes related to successful…

  13. New education coalition formed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt Ireto, M. Frank

    The Coalition for Earth Science Education (CESE) was recently formed to promote Earth science education at all levels. Earth science is a diverse group of sciences and as a result, professional and academic organizations from the various areas, though united in their goal to stimulate student enthusiasm for the Earth sciences, have not had an effective way of reaching students or their precollege teachers. Over the past year, meetings sponsored by the National Academy of Science's Board on Earth Sciences and Resources and the National Science Foundation have paved the way for this coalition. Victor Mayer, Director of the Program for Leadership in Earth Systems Science (PLESE) project at the University of Ohio, has been the leader in initiating and promoting this effort for the last several years.The purpose of CESE is to promote communication among the member organizations and to coordinate projects in Earth science education. Individual organizations will continue to develop and run projects, but will be able to find out what types of projects others are working on or have completed through a coalition clearinghouse. The clearinghouse should aid organizations as they design projects and should afford opportunities for collaborative efforts. This will directly benefit teachers, who will be able to contact one source for information on the multitude of projects in the Earth and space sciences. The new coalition's steering committee is working on goals and guidelines, and will give a report at the next coalition meeting at the National Science Teachers Association annual convention in Boston.

  14. International Clean Energy Coalition

    SciTech Connect

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  15. Measuring coalition functioning: refining constructs through factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Louis D; Feinberg, Mark E; Greenberg, Mark T

    2012-08-01

    Internal and external coalition functioning is an important predictor of coalition success that has been linked to perceived coalition effectiveness, coalition goal achievement, coalition ability to support evidence-based programs, and coalition sustainability. Understanding which aspects of coalition functioning best predict coalition success requires the development of valid measures of empirically unique coalition functioning constructs. The goal of the present study is to examine and refine the psychometric properties of coalition functioning constructs in the following six domains: leadership, interpersonal relationships, task focus, participation benefits/costs, sustainability planning, and community support. The authors used factor analysis to identify problematic items in our original measure and then piloted new items and scales to create a more robust, psychometrically sound, multidimensional measure of coalition functioning. Scales displayed good construct validity through correlations with other measures. Discussion considers the strengths and weaknesses of the refined instrument. PMID:22193112

  16. Assessing Rural Coalitions That Address Safety and Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgus, Shari; Schwab, Charles; Shelley, Mack

    2012-01-01

    Community coalitions can help national organizations meet their objectives. Farm Safety 4 Just Kids depends on coalitions of local people to deliver farm safety and health educational programs to children and their families. These coalitions are called chapters. An evaluation was developed to identify individual coalition's strengths and…

  17. Extension Professionals and Community Coalitions: Professional Development Opportunities Related to Leadership and Policy, System, and Environment Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smathers, Carol A.; Lobb, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Community coalitions play an important role in community-wide strategies to promote health and wellbeing, and Extension professionals may provide leadership, technical assistance, and other support to coalitions. Extension professionals across a Midwestern state were invited to participate in an online survey about their coalition involvement and…

  18. Amputee Coalition of America

    MedlinePlus

    Donate Fundraise Connect Contact Us Materiales en español Amputee Coalition Amputee Coalition Navigation Home Who We Are About Us Mission & Goals History Impact Leadership Financials Ethics Policy ...

  19. Building Effective Coalitions: Some Planning Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croan, Gerald M.; Lees, Joan F.

    Coalitions of service providers are playing increasingly large roles in developing policies and programs affecting youth. Community coalitions are cost-effective, efficient ways to expand services and to increase the capacity of the community to plan and program for young people. This manual provides a basis for examination of the coalition…

  20. How does community context influence coalitions in the formation stage? a multiple case study based on the Community Coalition Action Theory

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Community coalitions are rooted in complex and dynamic community systems. Despite recognition that environmental factors affect coalition behavior, few studies have examined how community context impacts coalition formation. Using the Community Coalition Action theory as an organizing framework, the current study employs multiple case study methodology to examine how five domains of community context affect coalitions in the formation stage of coalition development. Domains are history of collaboration, geography, community demographics and economic conditions, community politics and history, and community norms and values. Methods Data were from 8 sites that participated in an evaluation of a healthy cities and communities initiative in California. Twenty-three focus groups were conducted with coalition members, and 76 semi-structured interviews were conducted with local coordinators and coalition leaders. Cross-site analyses were conducted to identify the ways contextual domains influenced selection of the lead agency, coalition membership, staffing and leadership, and coalition processes and structures. Results History of collaboration influenced all four coalition factors examined, from lead agency selection to coalition structure. Geography influenced coalition formation largely through membership and staffing, whereas the demographic and economic makeup of the community had an impact on coalition membership, staffing, and infrastructure for coalition processes. The influence of community politics, history, norms and values was most noticeable on coalition membership. Conclusions Findings contribute to an ecologic and theory-based understanding of the range of ways community context influences coalitions in their formative stage. PMID:20178633

  1. The Influence of Community Context on How Coalitions Achieve HIV-Preventive Structural Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Sarah J.; Miller, Robin Lin; Francisco, Vincent T.

    2014-01-01

    Community coalition action theory (CCAT) depicts the processes and factors that affect coalition formation, maintenance, institutionalization, actions, and outcomes. CCAT proposes that community context affects coalitions at every phase of development and operation. We analyzed data from 12 "Connect to Protect" coalitions using inductive…

  2. Appalachian regional model for organizing and sustaining county-level diabetes coalitions.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Richard; Shrewsberry, Molly; Cornelius-Averhart, Darrlyn; King, Henry B

    2011-07-01

    This article describes a model for developing diabetes coalitions in rural Appalachian counties and presents evidence of their sustainability. The rural Appalachian coalition model was developed through a partnership between two federal agencies and a regional university. Coalitions go through a competitive application process to apply for one-time $10,000 grants. The project has funded 7 to 9 coalitions annually since 2001, reaching 66 total coalitions in 2008. Sustainability of the coalitions is defined by the number of coalitions that voluntarily report on their programs and services. In 2008, 58 of 66 (87%) coalitions in the Appalachian region continue to function and voluntarily submit reports even after their grant funds have been depleted. The factors that may contribute to sustainability are discussed in the article. This model for organizing coalitions has demonstrated that it is possible for coalitions to be maintained over time in rural underserved areas in Appalachia.

  3. Immunization Action Coalition

    MedlinePlus

    ... IAC | Contact | A-Z Index | Donate | Shop | SUBSCRIBE Immunization Action Coalition Handouts for Patients & Staff A-Z ... Index Supplies Checklist Administering Vaccines Temperature Logs Adult Vaccination Topics of Interest Documenting Vaccination Translations Parent Handouts ...

  4. Business-Led Coalitions: Aligning Supply and Demand in Workforce Development. Workforce Brief #9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Stephen M.; Jimenez, Manuel

    The test for today's economy is to create a workforce development system that capitalizes on current opportunities across states, regions, and local communities. The economic environment is positive, with tight, dynamic, and global labor markets. The business need for job-ready, entry-level workers; high-skilled workers; and workers who can…

  5. Sustainability in a state comprehensive cancer control coalition: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Renee A; Chapman, Kathryn; Graf, Gavin; Stanfield, Bret; Waterbor, John W

    2014-03-01

    The Alabama Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalition (ACCCC) has developed an integrated and coordinated approach to reducing cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality, and to improving the quality of life for cancer survivors, their families, and their caregivers. The ACCCC is currently in a maintenance phase and a formal plan for sustainability of the coalition was needed to keep the members engaged and productive. A training session in coalition sustainability conducted in 2013 identified the following elements as essential to success: (1) increased marketing of the coalition by simplifying its mission; (2) improved networking including flexibility in coalition meeting location and attendance; (3) increased membership satisfaction through transformational leadership; (4) revision of the working structure of committees and improved accountability; and (5) enhancement of partner satisfaction with coalition activities designed to recruit and retain new partners. A self-administered membership satisfaction survey was given to assess coalition mission, meeting logistics, organization, capacity building, and coalition goals. Results indicated that the subcategories of communication, mission, and meeting logistics were rated satisfied to very satisfied on a five-point scale. Although the ACCCC had clearly written goals, improvement could be made in leadership participation and new member orientation could be improved. Most members rated their parent organization as highly involved with the ACCCC and many offered suggestions on capacity building. Results of the sustainability training have clarified the ACCCC's plans to ensure coalition viability and improve strategies to inform stakeholders of the benefits of participation in the coalition.

  6. Sustainability in a state comprehensive cancer control coalition: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Renee A; Chapman, Kathryn; Graf, Gavin; Stanfield, Bret; Waterbor, John W

    2014-03-01

    The Alabama Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalition (ACCCC) has developed an integrated and coordinated approach to reducing cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality, and to improving the quality of life for cancer survivors, their families, and their caregivers. The ACCCC is currently in a maintenance phase and a formal plan for sustainability of the coalition was needed to keep the members engaged and productive. A training session in coalition sustainability conducted in 2013 identified the following elements as essential to success: (1) increased marketing of the coalition by simplifying its mission; (2) improved networking including flexibility in coalition meeting location and attendance; (3) increased membership satisfaction through transformational leadership; (4) revision of the working structure of committees and improved accountability; and (5) enhancement of partner satisfaction with coalition activities designed to recruit and retain new partners. A self-administered membership satisfaction survey was given to assess coalition mission, meeting logistics, organization, capacity building, and coalition goals. Results indicated that the subcategories of communication, mission, and meeting logistics were rated satisfied to very satisfied on a five-point scale. Although the ACCCC had clearly written goals, improvement could be made in leadership participation and new member orientation could be improved. Most members rated their parent organization as highly involved with the ACCCC and many offered suggestions on capacity building. Results of the sustainability training have clarified the ACCCC's plans to ensure coalition viability and improve strategies to inform stakeholders of the benefits of participation in the coalition. PMID:24132542

  7. [Population Growth and Development].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, A. W.

    Rapid population growth as a central development problem, the proper domain of government in reducing population growth, and effective measures which can be taken to reduce fertility are examined. Rapid population growth puts a brake on development because it exacerbates the difficult choice between higher consumption now and the investment needed…

  8. Symptomatic carpal coalition: scaphotrapezial joint.

    PubMed

    Campaigniac, Erin; Eskander, Mark; Jones, Marci

    2013-12-01

    Carpal coalition is an uncommon congenital abnormality that arises from incomplete cavitation of the common cartilaginous precursor that forms the carpal bones. When carpal coalition is discovered, it is typically an asymptomatic incidental radiographic finding, and is often bilateral. We present a case of symptomatic unilateral carpal coalition of the scaphotrapezial joint, which was treated by excising the fibrous coalition and placing an interposition fat graft. This treatment was effective in alleviating the patient's symptoms.

  9. A Brief Manual on the Building of a Neighborhood Coalition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen; Margolis, Arlene

    Guidelines for the organization and operation of neighborhood development programs are provided, based on the experiences of a community coalition coordinated by Northern Essex Community College (NECC). This neighborhood development project attempted to provide staff support to local neighborhood associations, structure a coalition among the…

  10. Growing Pains: An Evaluation of the SUCCEED Coalition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brawner, Catherine E.; Serow, Robert C.

    The SUCCEED coalition, one of the NSF Engineering Education Coalitions, was founded on a vision in which all engineering graduates will possess not only highly developed technical skills, but also the attitudes and awareness needed to prosper in the contemporary workplace. This vision manifested itself within SUCCEED by the development of…

  11. GLOBAL WATER RESEARCH COALITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC) is a collaboration of 14 member drinking and wastewater research organizations. The USEPA is currently a partner to the GWRC membership. Through the GWRC, the members are able to leverage research funds on mutually desired efforts to m...

  12. 45 CFR 1370.4 - State domestic violence coalition grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State domestic violence coalition grants. 1370.4... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS § 1370.4 State domestic violence coalition grants....

  13. 45 CFR 1370.4 - State domestic violence coalition grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false State domestic violence coalition grants. 1370.4... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS § 1370.4 State domestic violence coalition grants....

  14. 45 CFR 1370.4 - State domestic violence coalition grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false State domestic violence coalition grants. 1370.4... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS § 1370.4 State domestic violence coalition grants....

  15. 45 CFR 1370.4 - State domestic violence coalition grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false State domestic violence coalition grants. 1370.4... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS § 1370.4 State domestic violence coalition grants....

  16. 45 CFR 1370.4 - State domestic violence coalition grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false State domestic violence coalition grants. 1370.4... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS § 1370.4 State domestic violence coalition grants....

  17. ECOSYSTEM GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermodynamically, ecosystem growth and development is the process by which energy throughflow and stored biomass increase. Several proposed hypotheses describe the natural tendencies that occur as an ecosystem matures, and here, we consider five: minimum entropy production, maxi...

  18. Building a State Coalition for Nursing Home Excellence

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This article describes the successful evolution of a state coalition for nursing home excellence that brought together organizations that had once worked in silos to improve the quality of care through the implementation of culture change for Arkansas’ 240 nursing homes with 27,700 residents. Design and Methods: The Coalition was established in 2004 when stakeholders were invited to participate in a retreat to explore how they could come together with a common goal to improve the care of older Arkansans. These stakeholders were encouraged to bring their organization’s perspectives to the Coalition and determine ways to work with others. The continuous refinement of the Coalition’s activities involved revisiting goals of the Coalition, assessing the need for other stakeholders, identifying gaps and overlaps in quality and culture change programming, and providing feedback to Coalition members. Results: The Coalition stakeholders had the leadership to articulate and mobilize others around a common vision of improving quality of care in nursing homes through culture change. Over time, the Coalition members developed a willingness to share resources and to speak as one voice. Implications: Stakeholders from diverse organizations and governing bodies can come together to complement each other’s work and collaborate on programs to build a better system of care for the frail and elderly persons across a state. The success of this statewide effort lends support for policies that encourage regional coalitions of providers to improve care. PMID:24443610

  19. Coalition for photonics and optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breault, Robert P.

    2002-05-01

    The Coalition for Optics and Photonics (CPO) happened for all the best of reasons, while born out of a somewhat tumultuous past that could not have predicted it. First, there were optical societies. Born from each other, or because of each other, they had their own agendas. Each felt strongly that they had the one and only right path. There was little cooperation and even, from time to time, some non-constructive competition among the professional societies and trade associations. The optical industry was still in its infancy stage for the most part. It was probably due to the combination of intelligent people from all societies, and the rapid growth of the industry and their conferences that made some coordination necessary. What started as high-level discussions, complete with some staff, led to a better understanding and cooperation between the societies and preceded the formation of CPO.

  20. Report of the Jumpstarting Brain Tumor Drug Development Coalition and FDA clinical trials neuroimaging endpoint workshop (January 30, 2014, Bethesda MD)

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Patrick Y.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Ellingson, Benjamin M.; Reardon, David A.; Fine, Howard A.; Abrey, Lauren; Ballman, Karla; Bendszuz, Martin; Buckner, Jan; Chang, Susan M.; Prados, Michael D.; Pope, Whitney B.; Gregory Sorensen, Alma; van den Bent, Martin; Yung, Wai-Kwan Alfred

    2014-01-01

    On January 30, 2014, a workshop was held on neuroimaging endpoints in high-grade glioma. This workshop was sponsored by the Jumpstarting Brain Tumor Drug Development Coalition, consisting of the National Brain Tumor Society, the Society for Neuro-Oncology, Accelerate Brain Cancer Cure, and the Musella Foundation for Research and Information, and conducted in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration. The workshop included neuro-oncologists, neuroradiologists, radiation oncologists, neurosurgeons, biostatisticians, patient advocates, and representatives from industry, clinical research organizations, and the National Cancer Institute. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions of that workshop and the proposals that emerged to improve the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria and standardize neuroimaging parameters. PMID:25313237

  1. Coalition Building for Health: A Community Garden Pilot Project with Apartment Dwelling Refugees.

    PubMed

    Eggert, Lynne K; Blood-Siegfried, Jane; Champagne, Mary; Al-Jumaily, Maha; Biederman, Donna J

    2015-01-01

    Refugees often experience compromised health from both pre- and post-migration stressors. Coalition theory has helped guide the development of targeted programs to address the health care needs of vulnerable populations. Using the Community Coalition Action Theory as a framework, a coalition was formed to implement a community garden with apartment-dwelling refugees. Outcomes included successful coalition formation, a community garden, reported satisfaction from all gardeners with increased vegetable intake, access to culturally meaningful foods, and evidence of increased community engagement. The opportunity for community health nurses to convene a coalition to affect positive health for refugees is demonstrated. PMID:26212466

  2. Reciprocal relations between coalition functioning and the provision of implementation support.

    PubMed

    Brown, Louis D; Feinberg, Mark E; Shapiro, Valerie B; Greenberg, Mark T

    2015-01-01

    Community coalitions have been promoted as a strategy to help overcome challenges to the dissemination and implementation of evidence-based prevention programs. This paper explores the characteristics of coalitions that enable the provision of implementation support for prevention programs in general and for the implementation of evidence-based prevention programs with fidelity. Longitudinal cross-lagged panel models were used to study 74 Communities That Care (CTC) coalitions in Pennsylvania. These analyses provide evidence of a unidirectional influence of coalition functioning on the provision of implementation support. Coalition member knowledge of the CTC model best predicted the coalition's provision of support for evidence-based program implementation with fidelity. Implications for developing and testing innovative methods for delivering training and technical assistance to enhance coalition member knowledge are discussed.

  3. CUBOID-NAVICULAR TARSAL COALITION

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Marcelo Pires; Mendes, Alberto Abussamara Moreira; Olivi, Rogério; Amodio, Daniel Tassetto

    2015-01-01

    The authors present the case of a nine-year-old female patient who presented with pain in her right foot associated with physical activities. After this case was diagnosed as cuboid-navicular tarsal coalition, the patient was treated surgically with resection of the coalition, thereby resolving the symptoms. The literature was reviewed and the importance of adequate physical examination and imaging assessment for investigating foot pain in children and adolescents was discussed. PMID:27047815

  4. Advanced dendritic web growth development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    A program to develop the technology of the silicon dendritic web ribbon growth process is examined. The effort is being concentrated on the area rate and quality requirements necessary to meet the JPL/DOE goals for terrestrial PV applications. Closed loop web growth system development and stress reduction for high area rate growth is considered.

  5. Reciprocal Relations between Coalition Functioning and the Provision of Implementation Support

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louis D.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Shapiro, Valerie B.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Community coalitions have been promoted as a strategy to help overcome challenges to the dissemination and implementation of evidence-based prevention programs. This paper explores the characteristics of coalitions that enable the provision of implementation support for prevention programs in general, and for the implementation of evidence-based prevention programs with fidelity. Longitudinal cross-lagged panel models were used to study 74 Communities That Care (CTC) coalitions in Pennsylvania. These analyses provide evidence of a unidirectional influence of coalition functioning on the provision of implementation support. Coalition member knowledge of the CTC model best predicted the coalition’s provision of support for evidence-based program implementation with fidelity. Implications for developing and testing innovative methods for delivering training and technical assistance to enhance coalition member knowledge are discussed. PMID:24323363

  6. Guide to Building a Broad-Based Coalition: Supporting the Development and Sustainability of a System of Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ConnectEd: The California Center for College and Career, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As communities across California commit to developing systems of high school pathways that will engage students in school and prepare them to succeed in postsecondary opportunities and contribute to a vital regional economy, many are realizing the importance of providing "broad-based support" for this work. Students need a choice of pathways…

  7. A Tailored Approach to Launch Community Coalitions Focused on Achieving Structural Changes: Lessons Learned from a HIV Prevention Mobilization Study

    PubMed Central

    Chutuape, Kate S.; Willard, Nancy; Walker, Bendu C.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Ellen, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Public health HIV prevention efforts have begun to focus on addressing social and structural factors contributing to HIV risk, such as unstable housing, unemployment and access to healthcare. With a limited body of evidence-based structural interventions for HIV, communities tasked with developing structural changes need a defined process to clarify their purpose and goals. This paper describes the adaptations made to a coalition development model with the purpose of improving the start-up phase for a second group of coalitions. Modifications focused on preparing coalitions to more efficiently apply structural change concepts to their strategic planning activities, create more objectives that met study goals, and enhance coalition procedures, such as building distributed coalition leadership, to better support the mobilization process. We report on primary modifications to the process, findings for the coalitions and recommendations for public health practitioners that are seeking to start a similar coalition. PMID:26785397

  8. Coalitions: partnerships to promote agricultural health and safety.

    PubMed

    Palermo, T; Ehlers, J

    2002-05-01

    Throughout the 1990s, a variety of partnerships and community-based organizations have been formed with the primary mission to promote agricultural safety and health. These groups are altruistic, creative, energetic, and provide critical perspectives for improving the safety and health of the agricultural workforce at the local, regional, and national levels. These coalitions have been created as a result of philanthropic support, public funding, grassroots interest, and personal experiences with agricultural injuries andfatalities. They are playing important roles in collaborating with researchers and in reaching the individual agricultural communities. They have been instrumental in conducting needs assessments and are critical to the development and implementation of successful surveillance programs and interventions. Outreach and dissemination of research findings and other safety and health information to target audiences are strengths of these diverse coalitions. This article will focus on primarily community-based coalitions, providing an overview of the development, foci, membership activities, and contributions or impact of these groups during the 1990s and the challenges in maintaining and sustaining the coalitions. This information should be useful to those seeking to understand the activities of existing coalitions and identify potential partnerships for future activities.

  9. Normal growth and development

    MedlinePlus

    ... and development can be divided into four periods: Infancy Preschool years Middle childhood years Adolescence Soon after ... child's age. Healthy eating habits should begin during infancy. This can help prevent diseases such as high ...

  10. Seven Principles of Success: A Primer for Business-Led Coalitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theis, Audrey; Creticos, Peter; McMahon, Amanda

    Intended to help business-led coalitions master the seven principles of success in education and workforce development, this primer begins with a discussion of the problems stemming from the structural transition underway in the U.S. economy, an overview of the 21st century workforce system, and the potential role of business-led coalitions in…

  11. Tarsal coalition and painful flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Vincent, K A

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of tarsal coalition is probably 1% or less. The two sites most commonly affected are the calcaneonavicular joint and the middle facet of the talocalcaneal joint. Diagnosis should be suspected in the preteen or teenage patient with insidious or sudden onset of pain in the midfoot to hindfoot associated with a lack of motion in the subtalar joint. Initial treatment with immobilization or an orthosis may relieve symptoms, but most patients will have persistent symptoms that warrant surgical correction. Long-term results indicate that excision of the coalition is moderately successful in relieving symptoms in the calcaneonavicular bar. Long-term success with excision of subtalar bars is less clear, although early relief of symptoms is usually possible. PMID:9753754

  12. Marching toward reproductive justice: coalitional (re) framing of the March for Women's Lives.

    PubMed

    Luna, Zakiya T

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how coalition frames develop and what happens to that frame after the formal coalition ends. To that end, I analyze the frame shift around the 2004 March for Women's Lives (March). The March initially focused on established ideas of reproductive rights around which the four national mainstream co-sponsors previously organized. However, after a newer reproductive justice organization joined the coalition, material and organizing reflected a shift in framing to reproductive justice. How did this change happen? What are the impacts of this event for the women's movement? Through document analysis and interviews, I trace the negotiations that facilitated this framing shift. I argue that this new coalition frame translated into positive lasting changes in organizing for women's reproductive health even as the coalition dissolved and some of the tensions within the larger women's movement remain.

  13. Nutrition, Development, and Population Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Alan

    1973-01-01

    Focuses on the problem of malnutrition in developing countries through a description of its interrelationships with human development, national economies, economic growth and income, agricultural advances, the crisis in infant feeding practices, new foods, and the population dilemma. Outlines possible future policy directions to significantly…

  14. The paradoxes and promise of community coalitions.

    PubMed

    Chavis, D M

    2001-04-01

    Community coalitions, as they are currently applied, are unique organizations whose ability to promote community change is different from other types of community organizations. This article explores those differences and elaborates how community coalitions can use those differences to transform conflict into greater capacity, equity, and justice. Concerns are also raised in this article about how community coalitions can intentionally and unintentionally protect the status quo and contain the empowerment of grassroots leadership and those of marginalized groups. There is a need for more theory, research, and discourse on how community coalitions can transform conflict into social change and how they can increase the power of grassroots and other citizen-lead organizations.

  15. Hospital-Based Coalition to Improve Regional Surge Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Terndrup, Thomas E.; Leaming, James M.; Adams, R. Jerry; Adoff, Spencer

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Surge capacity for optimization of access to hospital beds is a limiting factor in response to catastrophic events. Medical facilities, communication tools, manpower, and resource reserves exist to respond to these events. However, these factors may not be optimally functioning to generate an effective and efficient surge response. The objective was to improve the function of these factors. Methods Regional healthcare facilities and supporting local emergency response agencies developed a coalition (the Healthcare Facilities Partnership of South Central Pennsylvania; HCFP-SCPA) to increase regional surge capacity and emergency preparedness for healthcare facilities. The coalition focused on 6 objectives: (1) increase awareness of capabilities and assets, (2) develop and pilot test advanced planning and exercising of plans in the region, (3) augment written medical mutual aid agreements, (4) develop and strengthen partnership relationships, (5) ensure National Incident Management System compliance, and (6) develop and test a plan for effective utilization of volunteer healthcare professionals. Results In comparison to baseline measurements, the coalition improved existing areas covered under all 6 objectives documented during a 24-month evaluation period. Enhanced communications between the hospital coalition, and real-time exercises, were used to provide evidence of improved preparedness for putative mass casualty incidents. Conclusion The HCFP-SCPA successfully increased preparedness and surge capacity through a partnership of regional healthcare facilities and emergency response agencies. PMID:23316266

  16. Strengthening Ecological Mindfulness through Hybrid Learning in Vital Coalitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sol, Jifke; Wals, Arjen E. J.

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution a key policy "tool" used in the Dutch Environmental Education and Learning for Sustainability Policy framework is introduced as a means to develop a sense of place and associated ecological mindfulness. The key elements of this tool, called the vital coalition, are described while an example of its use in practice,…

  17. A survey of hospitals to determine the prevalence and characteristics of healthcare coalitions for emergency preparedness and response.

    PubMed

    Rambhia, Kunal J; Waldhorn, Richard E; Selck, Frederick; Mehta, Ambereen Kurwa; Franco, Crystal; Toner, Eric S

    2012-09-01

    Previous reports have identified the development of healthcare coalitions as the foundation for disaster response across the United States. This survey of acute care hospitals characterizes the current status of participation by US hospitals in healthcare coalitions for emergency preparedness planning and response. The survey results show the nearly universal nature of a coalition approach to disaster response. The results suggest a need for wide stakeholder involvement but also for flexibility in structure and organization. Based on the survey results, the authors make recommendations to guide the further development of healthcare coalitions and to improve local and national response to disasters.

  18. Coalition Education Policy: Thatcherism's Long Shadow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Coalition education policy threatens to transform the school system in England. A combination of public spending cuts, and the drive to making all schools Academies, represents a key moment in the restructuring of the education service along neo-liberal lines. This article argues that there is nothing distinctively "new" about Coalition schools…

  19. Campus and Community Coalitions. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on campus and community coalitions. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Campus and Community Coalitions: Implementing Environmental Prevention Strategies (John D. Clapp); (2) Campus Brief: University of Rhode Island; (3) International Town & Gown Association; (4) Q&A With Traci Toomey and…

  20. The Dynamics of Coalition Formation on Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Auer, S.; Heitzig, J.; Kornek, U.; Schöll, E.; Kurths, J.

    2015-01-01

    Complex networks describe the structure of many socio-economic systems. However, in studies of decision-making processes the evolution of the underlying social relations are disregarded. In this report, we aim to understand the formation of self-organizing domains of cooperation (“coalitions”) on an acquaintance network. We include both the network’s influence on the formation of coalitions and vice versa how the network adapts to the current coalition structure, thus forming a social feedback loop. We increase complexity from simple opinion adaptation processes studied in earlier research to more complex decision-making determined by costs and benefits, and from bilateral to multilateral cooperation. We show how phase transitions emerge from such coevolutionary dynamics, which can be interpreted as processes of great transformations. If the network adaptation rate is high, the social dynamics prevent the formation of a grand coalition and therefore full cooperation. We find some empirical support for our main results: Our model develops a bimodal coalition size distribution over time similar to those found in social structures. Our detection and distinguishing of phase transitions may be exemplary for other models of socio-economic systems with low agent numbers and therefore strong finite-size effects. PMID:26303622

  1. The Dynamics of Coalition Formation on Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, S.; Heitzig, J.; Kornek, U.; Schöll, E.; Kurths, J.

    2015-08-01

    Complex networks describe the structure of many socio-economic systems. However, in studies of decision-making processes the evolution of the underlying social relations are disregarded. In this report, we aim to understand the formation of self-organizing domains of cooperation (“coalitions”) on an acquaintance network. We include both the network’s influence on the formation of coalitions and vice versa how the network adapts to the current coalition structure, thus forming a social feedback loop. We increase complexity from simple opinion adaptation processes studied in earlier research to more complex decision-making determined by costs and benefits, and from bilateral to multilateral cooperation. We show how phase transitions emerge from such coevolutionary dynamics, which can be interpreted as processes of great transformations. If the network adaptation rate is high, the social dynamics prevent the formation of a grand coalition and therefore full cooperation. We find some empirical support for our main results: Our model develops a bimodal coalition size distribution over time similar to those found in social structures. Our detection and distinguishing of phase transitions may be exemplary for other models of socio-economic systems with low agent numbers and therefore strong finite-size effects.

  2. Building Local Infrastructure for Community Adoption of Science-Based Prevention: The Role of Coalition Functioning.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Valerie B; Hawkins, J David; Oesterle, Sabrina

    2015-11-01

    The widespread adoption of science-based prevention requires local infrastructures for prevention service delivery. Communities That Care (CTC) is a tested prevention service delivery system that enables a local coalition of community stakeholders to use a science-based approach to prevention and improve the behavioral health of young people. This paper uses data from the Community Youth Development Study (CYDS), a community-randomized trial of CTC, to examine the extent to which better internal team functioning of CTC coalitions increases the community-wide adoption of science-based prevention within 12 communities, relative to 12 matched comparison communities. Specifically, this paper examines the potential of both a direct relationship between coalition functioning and the community-wide adoption of science-based prevention and a direct relationship between functioning and the coalition capacities that ultimately enable the adoption of science-based prevention. Findings indicate no evidence of a direct relationship between four dimensions of coalition functioning and the community-wide adoption of a science-based approach to prevention, but suggest a relationship between coalition functioning and coalition capacities (building new member skills and establishing external linkages with existing community organizations) that enable science-based prevention.

  3. Salt Lake Clean Cities Coalition: Outstanding coalition director: Beverly Miller (Clean Cities alternative fuel information series fact sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, S.

    2000-04-26

    The Salt Lake metropolitan area faces some interesting economic and environmental challenges. It ranks eighth in the nation in population growth, so managing its increasing numbers without spoiling the beauty of its high mountain valley may seem to be a contradiction in goals. In addition, the 2002 Winter Olympics will attract almost 2 million visitors during February, when Salt Lake's unusual topography encourages its highest levels of air pollution. The Clean Cities Coalition is working with the Salt Lake Olympic Organizing Committee to find clean vehicles to transport visitors to and from the various Olympic venues. A major goal of the Coalition is to keep as many AFVs as possible in Utah after the Olympics.

  4. [Early childhood growth and development].

    PubMed

    Arce, Melitón

    2015-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to the process of childhood growth and development, with emphasis on the early years, a period in which this process reaches critical speed on major structures and functions of the human economy. We reaffirm that this can contribute to the social availability of a generation of increasingly better adults, which in turn will be able to contribute to building a better world and within it a society that enjoys greater prosperity. In the first chapter, we discuss the general considerations on the favorable evolution of human society based on quality of future adults, meaning the accomplishments that today’s children will gain. A second chapter mentions the basics of growth and development in the different fields and the various phenomena that occur in it. In the third we refer to lost opportunities and negative factors that can affect delaying the process and thereby result in not obtaining the expected accomplishments. In the fourth, conclusions and recommendations are presented confirming the initial conception that good early child care serves to build a better society and some recommendations are formulated to make it a good practice.

  5. Freedom for the Black: A Workable Coalition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Gilbert

    1970-01-01

    Speech dealing with the factors which prevent blacks and whites from working together outlines the basis for building an effective coalition of both groups to secure justice and equality for all. (DM)

  6. The paradoxes and promise of community coalitions.

    PubMed

    Chavis, D M

    2001-04-01

    Community coalitions, as they are currently applied, are unique organizations whose ability to promote community change is different from other types of community organizations. This article explores those differences and elaborates how community coalitions can use those differences to transform conflict into greater capacity, equity, and justice. Concerns are also raised in this article about how community coalitions can intentionally and unintentionally protect the status quo and contain the empowerment of grassroots leadership and those of marginalized groups. There is a need for more theory, research, and discourse on how community coalitions can transform conflict into social change and how they can increase the power of grassroots and other citizen-lead organizations. PMID:11446286

  7. Distal metatarsal coalition: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Vun, Shen Hwa; Drampalos, Efstathios; Shareef, Sajan; Sinha, Satyajit; Bramley, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Metatarsal coalition is an extremely rare condition. We report the second documented case of 4th and 5th distal metatarsal coalition in the literature. Presentation of case An eight-year-old girl was referred to an orthopaedic clinic with a four-month history of forefoot pain and swelling on the plantar aspect of the right little toe. Radiograph and clinical examination confirmed distal metatarsal coalition between the 4th and 5th metatarsals. Following a period of conservative treatment, excision was eventually performed due to worsening symptoms. Patient re-attended two years later with a recurrence of the coalition confirmed by computed tomography (CT) scan. The case was discussed at a tertiary paediatric orthopaedic insititution. Decision was made to manage patient conservatively with insole and physiotherapy until skeletal maturity. A year later, patient’s symptoms did not worsen, and her foot displayed no evidence of change in the arch and shape. Discussion The timing of ossification of coalition varies from one anatomical site to another. Surgery when performed before ossification is complete runs the risk of recurrence. Conclusion Our case report illustrates the importance of restoring normal weight bearing dynamics and pain relief when managing metatarsal coalition, or synostosis in skeletally immature patients. We recommend persevering with conservative treatment, with operative treatment reserved only as a later option, and ideally, until skeletal maturity is achieved. PMID:25670408

  8. The Culture of Health Survey: a qualitative assessment of a diabetes prevention coalition.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Cecilia B; Coe, M Kathryn; Stroupe, Nancy R; Hackman, Anna; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey

    2010-02-01

    In the past two decades, the fields of public health and social services have increasingly turned toward collaborative and community-based approaches to address complex health and social issues. One aspect of these approaches has been the development and implementation of community coalitions. Coalitions have been used to successfully address a wide range of issues, including cancer prevention, tobacco use, HIV/AIDS, youth violence, heart disease, diabetes, and sexual exploitation of youth runaways. In south Tucson, Arizona the SEAH coalition was developed to address diabetes and substance abuse prevention. Using a qualitative interview guide, the Culture of Health Survey, this study was aimed at identifying community perceptions of the coalition and its effectiveness in the areas of community leadership, partnerships, trust, and movement towards positive change. We also sought to document the dissemination, throughout a community, of information on the activities and functioning of a community based coalition and whether or not it was seen as one that held fast to the community values and not to individual agendas. Results highlight the importance of outreach, education, trust, and partnerships in promoting diabetes prevention through a community coalition. PMID:19856085

  9. Intercell scheduling: A negotiation approach using multi-agent coalitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yunna; Li, Dongni; Zheng, Dan; Jia, Yunde

    2016-10-01

    Intercell scheduling problems arise as a result of intercell transfers in cellular manufacturing systems. Flexible intercell routes are considered in this article, and a coalition-based scheduling (CBS) approach using distributed multi-agent negotiation is developed. Taking advantage of the extended vision of the coalition agents, the global optimization is improved and the communication cost is reduced. The objective of the addressed problem is to minimize mean tardiness. Computational results show that, compared with the widely used combinatorial rules, CBS provides better performance not only in minimizing the objective, i.e. mean tardiness, but also in minimizing auxiliary measures such as maximum completion time, mean flow time and the ratio of tardy parts. Moreover, CBS is better than the existing intercell scheduling approach for the same problem with respect to the solution quality and computational costs.

  10. Smoke-free coalition cohesiveness in rural tobacco-growing communities.

    PubMed

    Butler, Karen M; Begley, Kathy; Riker, Carol; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Anderson, Debra; Adkins, Sarah; Record, Rachael; Hahn, Ellen J

    2014-06-01

    Promoting tobacco control policies in rural tobacco-growing communities presents unique challenges. The purpose of this study was to assess smoke-free coalition cohesiveness in rural communities and identify coalition members' perceived barriers or divisive issues that impede the development of smoke-free policies. A secondary aim was to evaluate differences in coalition cohesiveness between advocates in communities receiving stage-based, tailored policy advocacy assistance versus those without assistance. Tobacco control advocates from 40 rural Kentucky communities were interviewed by telephone during the final wave of a 5-year longitudinal study of community readiness for smoke-free policy. On average, five health advocates per county participated in the 45-min interview. Participants rated coalition cohesiveness as not at all cohesive, somewhat cohesive, or very cohesive, and answered one open-ended question about potentially divisive issues within their coalitions. The mean age of the 186 participants was 48.1 years (SD = 13.3). The sample was predominantly female (83.6%) and Caucasian (99.5%). Divisive concerns ranged from rights issues, member characteristics, type of law, and whether or not to allow certain exemptions. Three of the divisive concerns were significantly associated with their rankings of coalition cohesiveness: raising tobacco in the community, the belief that smoke-free would adversely affect the economy, and government control. Educating coalition members on the economics of smoke-free laws and the actual economic impact on tobacco-growing may promote smoke-free coalition cohesiveness. More resources are needed to support policy advocacy in rural tobacco-growing communities as well as efforts to reduce the divisive concerns reported in this study. PMID:24338076

  11. Smoke-free Coalition Cohesiveness in Rural Tobacco-growing Communities

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Karen M.; Begley, Kathy; Riker, Carol; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Anderson, Debra; Adkins, Sarah; Record, Rachael; Hahn, Ellen J.

    2014-01-01

    Promoting tobacco control policies in rural tobacco-growing communities presents unique challenges. The purpose of this study was to assess smoke-free coalition cohesiveness in rural communities and identify coalition members’ perceived barriers or divisive issues that impede the development of smoke-free policies. A secondary aim was to evaluate differences in coalition cohesiveness between advocates in communities receiving stage-based, tailored policy advocacy assistance vs. those without assistance. Tobacco control advocates from 40 rural Kentucky communities were interviewed by telephone during the final wave of a 5-year longitudinal study of community readiness for smoke-free policy. On average, five health advocates per county participated in the 45-minute interview. Participants rated coalition cohesiveness as not at all cohesive, somewhat cohesive, or very cohesive, and answered one open-ended question about potentially divisive issues within their coalitions. The mean age of the 186 participants was 48.1 years (SD=13.3). The sample was predominantly female (83.6%) and Caucasian (99.5%). Divisive concerns ranged from rights issues, member characteristics, type of law, and whether or not to allow certain exemptions. Three of the divisive concerns were significantly associated with their rankings of coalition cohesiveness: raising tobacco in the community, the belief that smoke-free would adversely affect the economy, and government control. Educating coalition members on the economics of smoke-free laws and the actual economic impact on tobacco-growing may promote smoke-free coalition cohesiveness. More resources are needed to support policy advocacy in rural tobacco-growing communities as well as efforts to reduce the divisive concerns reported in this study. PMID:24338076

  12. The regenerative medicine coalition. Interview with Frank-Roman Lauter.

    PubMed

    Lauter, Frank-Roman

    2012-11-01

    Frank-Roman Lauter, Secretary General of the recently launched Regenerative Medicine Coalition, explains how the coalition was formed and what they hope to achieve. Frank-Roman Lauter has served as Secretary General of the Regenerative Medicine Coalition since 2012, and as Head of Business Development at Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies since 2007. Frank-Roman Lauter's interest is the organization of academic infrastructures to promote efficient translation of research findings into new therapies. He co-organizes joined strategy development for regenerative medicine clusters from seven European countries (FP7-EU Project) and has initiated cooperation between the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine and the German Federal Ministry for Education & Research, resulting in a joined funding program. Recently, he cofounded the international consortium of Regenerative Medicine translational centers (RMC; www.the-rmc.org ). Trained as a molecular biologist at the Max-Planck Institute in Berlin-Dahlem and at Stanford, he has 16 years of experience as an entrepreneur and life science manager in Germany and the USA. PMID:23210813

  13. The development of growth references and growth charts

    PubMed Central

    Cole, T J

    2014-01-01

    Context De Montbeillard produced the first growth chart in the late 18th century. Since then, growth assessment has developed to become an essential component of child health practice. Objective To provide a brief history of i) anthropometry, i.e. growth measurements; ii) growth references, the statistical summary of anthropometry, and iii) growth charts, the visual representation of growth references for clinical use. Methods The major contributors in the three categories over the past 200 years were identified, and their historical contributions put in context with more recent developments. Results Anthropometry was originally collected for administrative or public health purposes, its medical role emerging at the end of the 19th century. Growth reference data were collected in earnest from the 19th century, during which time the familiar summary statistics – mean, SD, centiles – were developed. More advanced statistical methods emerged much later. Growth charts first appeared in the late 19th century, and Tanner and Whitehouse later popularised the concepts of velocity and conditional references for growth in puberty. The recent WHO growth standard has been adopted by many countries including the UK, where the UK-WHO charts have pioneered many design features to improve usability and accuracy. Conclusion Growth charts have come a long way in 200 years, and they represent an impressive synthesis of anthropometry, statistical summary and chart design. PMID:22780429

  14. Evaluation of a successful fetal alcohol spectrum disorder coalition in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Clarke-McMullen, Donna M

    2010-01-01

    Leading a successful coalition that benefits both the members and the community is a difficult task. Coalitions are complex and require a great deal of skill to initiate, lead, and evaluate. This article examines a successful coalition, developed to build community capacity to address fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). FASD is a complex, multidimensional health issue common in many communities. Coalitions can be effective in tackling these types of issues and fit with community capacity-building approaches to health promotion. The Internal Coalition Outcome Hierarchy (ICOH) model (Cramer, Atwood, & Stoner, 2006a, 2006b) is used to retrospectively examine the internal constructs of the FASD Action Network and provide useful lessons learned for other coalition leaders and public health nurses. This hierarchical model demonstrates that sound internal processes lead to more successful outcomes and ultimately an increased impact on community issues. The usefulness of ICOH as a tool in evaluating the FASD Action Network and its application to other health-promotion situations with community capacity goals is described in this article.

  15. Strengthening ecological mindfulness through hybrid learning in vital coalitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sol, Jifke; Wals, Arjen E. J.

    2015-03-01

    In this contribution a key policy `tool' used in the Dutch Environmental Education and Learning for Sustainability Policy framework is introduced as a means to develop a sense of place and associated ecological mindfulness. The key elements of this tool, called the vital coalition, are described while an example of its use in practice, is analysed using a form of reflexive monitoring and evaluation. The example focuses on a multi-stakeholder learning process around the transformation of a somewhat sterile pre-school playground into an intergenerational green place suitable for play, discovery and engagement. Our analysis of the policy-framework and the case leads us to pointing out the importance of critical interventions at so-called tipping points within the transformation process and a discussion of the potential of hybrid learning in vital coalitions in strengthening ecological mindfulness. This paper does not focus on establishing an evidence base for the causality between this type of learning and a change in behavior or mindfulness among participants as a result contributing to a vital coalition but rather focusses on the conditions, processes and interventions that allow for such learning to take place in the first place.

  16. Coalition command and control: a Canadian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpentier, Robert; Demers, David; Gouin, Denis; McCann, Carol; Nourry, Gerard; Pigeau, Ross; Smith, Donald L.; Vezina, Guy; Walker, Robert S.

    1998-08-01

    Canada has been, and remains, committed to participating in coalition operations to promote peace and stability in the post-Cold War world. However, coalition operations challenge traditional command and control concepts, from both the technological and the human perspectives. In the short term, Canada is working closely with traditional NATO and ABCA allies to ensure that the next generation of automated C2 information systems are able to exchange information effectively through structured messages, gateways and standardized data models. Canada is also conducting R&D, and participating in collaborative experiments, to evolve the next generation of systems to permit richer, more dynamic information sharing, along the lines of the Internet and World Wide Web. However, information technology alone will not solve the problems of coalition operations. Research needs to be undertaken to understand task assignment and information flow among coalition partners at the process or operational level. Research is also required at the human level, where differences between coalition partners in culture, personal values, military expectations, religions, and societal values are proving to be less tractable than differences in message formats and communication protocols.

  17. Advancing coalition theory: the effect of coalition factors on community capacity mediated by member engagement.

    PubMed

    Kegler, Michelle C; Swan, Deanne W

    2012-08-01

    Community coalitions have the potential to enhance a community's capacity to engage in effective problem solving for a range of community concerns. Although numerous studies have documented correlations between member engagement and coalition processes and structural characteristics, fewer have examined associations between coalition factors and community capacity outcomes. The current study uses data from an evaluation of the California Healthy Cities and Communities program to examine pathways between coalition factors (i.e. membership, processes), member engagement (i.e. participation, satisfaction) and community capacity as hypothesized by the Community Coalition Action Theory (CCAT). Surveys were completed by 231 members of 19 healthy cities and communities coalitions. Multilevel mediation analyses were used to examine possible mediating effects of member engagement on three community capacity indicators: new skills, sense of community and social capital. Results generally supported CCAT. Member engagement mediated the effects of leadership and staffing on community capacity outcomes. Results also showed that member engagement mediated several relationships between process variables (i.e. task focus, cohesion) and community capacity, but several unmediated direct effects were also observed. This suggests that although member engagement does explain some relationships, it alone is not sufficient to explain how coalition processes influence indicators of community capacity.

  18. Coalition Cooperation Defines Roadmap for E85 and Biodiesel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-06-01

    This Clean Cities success story relates how Colorado's Colorado Biofuels Coalition was formed and provides guidance on forming other such coalitions. This Colorado's coalition sucessfully increase the number of fueling stations providing biofuels and has goals to the number even more. Plans also include assisting with financing infrastructure, making alternative fuels available to more fleets, and educating about E85 and biodiesel use.

  19. Rethinking the Factors of Success: Social Support and Community Coalitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haithcox-Dennis, Melissa; DeWeese, Amanda; Goodman, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coalitions are often the strategy of choice when needs are great, resources are few, and individual efforts have proven unsuccessful in addressing serious health issues. Despite the widespread use of coalitions and extensive research, no definitive list of factors predicting coalition success has been identified. One factor, social…

  20. Statewide Coalitions and State Systems. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This "Issues in Prevention" focuses on statewide coalitions and state systems. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Statewide Coalitions for Prevention; (2) Louisiana Higher Education Coalition; (3) Statewide Initiative Grantees; (4) The Ohio College Initiative; and (5) Higher Education Center Resources.

  1. Pressures on TV Programs: Coalition for Better Television's Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, John M., Jr.

    In 1981, the conservative Coalition for Better Television (CBTV) threatened an economic boycott against advertisers who marketed their wares on programs that the coalition felt had excessive sex and violence. Because television networks are dependent on advertising, the coalition believed economic pressure on advertisers would force a…

  2. A Summary of Orientation Meetings and Planning Exercises Conducted Within the OCE Coalition, Appendix J. Vol. II, A Plan for Managing the Development, Implementation and Operation of a Model Elementary Teacher Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Coll. of Education, Monmouth.

    This report summarizes the orientation meetings and the planning review sessions held with members of all the Oregon College of Education coalition constituencies. Three separate orientation meetings were held, one with staff and administrators from the public schools, one with staff and administrators from the college as a whole, and one with…

  3. The Coalition's Higher Education Reforms in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The Coalition Government of Conservatives and Liberal Democrats in office from 2010 until 2015 sharply increased the maximum tuition fees for UK and EU undergraduates at English universities to £9,000. Although this is often portrayed as a radical change, it is argued that the reform was an evolution rather than a revolution. Common pessimistic…

  4. Growth and nutrition effects on gilt development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The growth and development of gilts are a component of their lifetime potential for productivity. Growth and development affects not only their ability to reach puberty, they also likely affect their reproductive performance through later parities and their physical soundness as they age. Because of...

  5. Population and growth causality in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kapuria-foreman, V

    1995-07-01

    This study empirically tests the null hypotheses of no causality between population growth and economic growth and of no causality between economic growth and population growth in 15 developing countries. The model follows the Cheng Hsiao form with lag lengths to minimize Akaike's Final Prediction Error (FPE). Equations are run separately for each country. Lag lengths and Granger causality test were chosen according to three steps. 1) Each of the variables was regressed on its own lagged values with a maximum lag of five years. A lag length was chosen that minimized FPE, which was calculated for each regression. 2) Bivariate regressions were run with a fixed lag length for population growth and mixed lag lengths for the other variable, until the lag length which minimized FPE was determined. 3) The last step involved checking the lag length of population growth by keeping the lag fixed for economic growth. The economic growth measure was gross domestic product per capita. Findings indicate that in seven countries the null hypothesis of no causality between population growth and economic growth, either positive or negative, cannot be rejected (Ghana, Sri Lanka, Bolivia, Philippines, Syria, Thailand, and Argentina). In Nepal, India, China, Guatemala, Peru, Turkey, Chile, and Mexico lagged values of population growth improve predictions of economic growth. Higher economic growth has no significant effect on population growth rates in Nepal, Bolivia, Philippines, Guatemala, Peru, Thailand, Argentina, and Mexico. Interaction between economic growth and population growth was found in India, China, Turkey, and Chile. The direction of causation tests indicate that population growth has a significant positive impact on income growth in China, Guatemala, Turkey, Chile, and Mexico. India shows a negative impact of population growth on income. A significant negative impact of economic growth on population growth is evident only in Sri Lanka. There is weak evidence of a

  6. Human Growth and Development Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Allegheny School District, Pittsburgh, PA.

    This K-12 curriculum guide represents North Allegheny's integrated, planned, and continuous program covering various topics concerning human development at different age levels. The major objective of the guide is to establish for teachers acceptable content and materials which focus generally on human development but more specifically on topics…

  7. The Coalition for Networked Information and the Rewards of Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    The Coalition for Networked Information (CNI) enabled the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) to develop increased visibility among leaders shaping the development of the Internet. It also provided a mechanism for ARL member institutions and others to engage in partnership strategies to develop projects that would bring digital content and…

  8. How a housing advocacy coalition adds health: A culture of claims-making.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Kushan; Lichterman, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Organizations that pursue health advocacy often tackle other issues too. How do these multi-issue organizations articulate and combine health with other issues? We examine how a Los Angeles coalition focused primarily on housing took up health in its 2008-2011 campaign against a residential development. Participant observation and archival data reveal that cultural context influenced how the coalition made claims about health, in two ways. First, advocates shared two major symbolic categories, which oriented the great bulk of their appeals regarding health. Second, advocates crafted rhetorical appeals that reflected their shared sense of social identity and obligation as spokespersons for a distinctive kind of community. These two kinds of cultural context influenced advocates' claims in public, formal settings as well more internal communication. These distinct, cultural influences on claims-making create challenges for socioeconomically diverse coalitions collaborating on health problems. PMID:27139006

  9. Environmental factors influencing growth and pubertal development.

    PubMed Central

    Delemarre-van de Waal, H A

    1993-01-01

    Postnatal growth is based on hereditary signals and environmental factors in a complex regulatory network. Each factor must be in an optimal state for normal growth of the child. Fetal conditions may also have consequences on postnatal height. Intrauterine growth retardation can be recovered postnatally, although postnatal growth remains depressed in about one-third of cases. After birth, the environment may exert either a positive or negative effect on growth. In underdeveloped countries, malnutrition plays a major role in inhibiting the growth process. Children from families of higher socioeconomic classes are taller than their coevals in the lower socioeconomic groups. Urbanization also has a positive effect on growth. Better child care is supported by sufficient food supply, appropriate health and sanitation services, and a higher level of education. Over the last century, these factors have induced a taller stature and a more rapid maturity in Europe, North America, and Australia; a phenomenon which has been referred to as "the secular trend" in growth. Recently, a secular trend has also been reported in some developing countries. Although urbanization in general appears to be associated with better conditions of living, this is not the case in the slums of South America or in Africa where rural children are better off than children living in the poor cities. This paper describes in more detail the different hereditary and environmental factors that act during the fetal period and postnatally, and which play a role in human growth and pubertal development. PMID:8243404

  10. A Case Study of Michigan's Breastfeeding Initiative: The Role of Coalitions in Community-Based Breastfeeding Support.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Iris J; Rutledge, Gia; Roberts Ayers, Diane

    2015-11-01

    The Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH) funded 9 local breastfeeding coalitions to implement breastfeeding support groups and to develop breastfeeding resources for mothers and health professionals. The authors conducted qualitative analyses of reports, success stories, and MDCH grantees' interview responses (via follow-up call with 3 coalitions) to assess key barriers, facilitators, and lessons learned for coalitions implementing breastfeeding support groups. Coalitions noted implementation barriers related to their organizational structure and to recruiting mothers and finding meeting locations. Facilitators to implementing breastfeeding support groups included referrals, expertise, resources, and incentives. The following themes emerged from the reports analysis regarding how to implement breastfeeding support groups: "meet moms where they are," build community partnerships, and leverage in-kind and financial resources to sustain breastfeeding support groups. PMID:26286470

  11. Sustaining tobacco control coalitions amid declining resources.

    PubMed

    Carver, Vivien; Reinert, Bonita; Range, Lillian M

    2007-07-01

    Mississippi is unique among the 50 states in settling a lawsuit against tobacco companies earlier than the Master Settlement Agreement, devoting a relatively high amount of per capita funding on tobacco control, and avoiding tobacco-control budget cuts. Using a social-ecological approach combining insider and outsider strategies, tobacco-prevention coalitions in Mississippi succeeded in sustaining funding despite serious obstacles. Lessons learned included taking specific actions to embed themselves in the local community, wisely aligning with legislators, choosing courageous and effective champions, and ensuring that people are keenly aware of their existence and efforts. In using these strategies, tobacco-prevention coalitions in Mississippi have become an institution of the community and in so doing helped sustain their funding. PMID:17105805

  12. Intermediary Organizations in Charter School Policy Coalitions: Evidence from New Orleans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBray, Elizabeth; Scott, Janelle; Lubienski, Christopher; Jabbar, Huriya

    2014-01-01

    This article develops a framework for investigating research use, using an "advocacy coalition framework" and the concepts of a "supply side" (mainly organizations) and "demand side" (policymakers). Drawing on interview data and documents from New Orleans about the charter school reforms that have developed there…

  13. SUCCEED (Southeastern University and College Coalition for Engineering Education) Strategic Plan, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohland, Matthew W., Ed.; Anderson, Tim J., Ed.

    This document outlines the strategic plan developed in 1998 by the Southeastern University and College Coalition for Engineering Education (SUCCEED). The organizational structure, overall goals and milestones, and core strategies of the SUCCEED Project are described. Focus Team strategic plans for faculty development, outcomes assessment, student…

  14. SUCCEED (Southeastern University and College Coalition for Engineering Education) Strategic Plan, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohland, Matthew W., Ed.; Anderson, Tim J., Ed.

    This document outlines the strategic plan developed in 1999 by the Southeastern University and College Coalition for Engineering Education (SUCCEED). The organizational structure, overall goals and milestones, and core strategies of the SUCCEED Project are described. This plan overviews faculty development, outcomes assessment, student…

  15. Resources, environment and population. The Global Tomorrow Coalition Conference.

    PubMed

    Olson, R K

    1983-01-01

    The challenge for environmental action has been direct and powerful for the Global Tomorrow Coalition. In June 1983 a major international conference was held by the Coalition in Washington, D.C., the Conference examined the issues of acid rain, biological diversity, foresight capability, hazardous exports, water resources, the oceans, sustainable development, population, and nuclear issues. The Conference presented a unique portrait of the US environmental movement, its problems and the possibilities for US leadership at the international level. The Coalition issued an indictment of the Reagan Administration, charging that it had reversed American domestic and international policies and was threatening the foundation on international cooperation which the US had worked hard to establish. Specifically, the Administration did the following: prevented cooperative international action on acid rain; destroyed the effectiveness of the Council on Environmental Quality by cutting its budget by 2/3 and replacing the entire professional staff with new personnel lacking environmental expertise; withdrew US participation from the Law of the Sea Conference; discouraged initiatives and programs on environment and resource trends by OECD; obstructed OECD's efforts to harmonize testing for new chemicals; sought more than a 25% reduction in US fiscal 1984 support for the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA); opposed UN efforts to control hazardous exports and removed US governmental restraints on this trade; withdrew support for the Internatioanl Man and the Biopshere program; proposed cutting the US voluntary contribution to the UN Environment Program by 2/3; proposed weakening the rules under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species and withdrew support for the World Heritage Convention and the Convention for the Protection of Nature and Preservation of Wildlife in the Western hemisphere; and withdrew funding for participation in US and international

  16. Development of growth hormone secretagogues.

    PubMed

    Smith, Roy G

    2005-05-01

    The GH secretagogues (GHS) were developed by reverse pharmacology. The objective was to develop small molecules with pharmacokinetics suitable for once-daily oral administration that would rejuvenate the GH/IGF-I axis. Neither the receptor nor the ligand that controlled pulse amplitude of hormone release was known; therefore, identification of lead structures was based on function. I reasoned that GH pulse amplitude could be increased by four possible mechanisms: 1) increasing GHRH release; 2) amplifying GHRH signaling in somatotrophs of the anterior pituitary gland; 3) reducing somatostatin release; and 4) antagonizing somatostatin receptor signaling. Remarkably, the GHS act through all four mechanisms to reproduce a young adult physiological GH profile in elderly subjects that was accompanied by increased bone mineral density and lean mass, modest improvements in strength, and improved recovery from hip fracture. Furthermore, restoration of thymic function was induced in old mice. The GHS receptor (GHS-R) was subsequently identified by expression cloning and found to be a previously unknown G protein-coupled receptor expressed predominantly in brain, pituitary gland, and pancreas. Reverse pharmacology was completed when the cloned GHS-R was exploited to identify an endogenous agonist (ghrelin) and a partial agonist (adenosine); ghsr-knockout mice studies confirmed that GHS are ghrelin mimetics. PMID:15814848

  17. Global alliances effect in coalition forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradova, Galina; Galam, Serge

    2014-11-01

    Coalition forming is investigated among countries, which are coupled with short range interactions, under the influence of externally-set opposing global alliances. The model extends a recent Natural Model of coalition forming inspired from Statistical Physics, where instabilities are a consequence of decentralized maximization of the individual benefits of actors. In contrast to physics where spins can only evaluate the immediate cost/benefit of a flip of orientation, countries have a long horizon of rationality, which associates with the ability to envision a way up to a better configuration even at the cost of passing through intermediate loosing states. The stabilizing effect is produced through polarization by the global alliances of either a particular unique global interest factor or multiple simultaneous ones. This model provides a versatile theoretical tool for the analysis of real cases and design of novel strategies. Such analysis is provided for several real cases including the Eurozone. The results shed a new light on the understanding of the complex phenomena of planned stabilization in the coalition forming.

  18. Three years of evaluating community tobacco prevention coalitions: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Reinert, Bonita; Carver, Vivien; Range, Lillian M; Pike, Chris

    Though challenging, evaluation is essential for successful coalitions. In three years of annual evaluations of 30 tobacco prevention coalitions, lessons learned involve contracts, people (leaders, board members, oversight staff), and entire coalitions. Contracts should adjust within limits, include all work requirements, promote networking, and link directly to evaluation. Leaders need quarterly meetings and no numbers assigned to their performance. Board members, even youth, must be involved. Program monitors need practical or public health experience to provide encouragement with firmness. Fiscal monitors need financial acuity, fair-mindedness, communication skills, and a firm contract foundation. Program evaluators need people skills, program evaluation experience, and a coalition history. Coalitions improve nonlinearly, with awareness activities diminishing and programmatic activities increasing, so evaluation should evolve also. Oversight agencies are influential, so should restrain from introducing many new requirements and avoid blindsiding leaders. Best evaluations are cooperative, collegial dialogs between evaluator(s) and the entire coalition. PMID:17686689

  19. Growth and development: hereditary and mechanical modulations.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jeremy J; Nah, Hyun-Duck

    2004-06-01

    Growth and development is the net result of environmental modulation of genetic inheritance. Mesenchymal cells differentiate into chondrogenic, osteogenic, and fibrogenic cells: the first 2 are chiefly responsible for endochondral ossification, and the last 2 for sutural growth. Cells are influenced by genes and environmental cues to migrate, proliferate, differentiate, and synthesize extracellular matrix in specific directions and magnitudes, ultimately resulting in macroscopic shapes such as the nose and the chin. Mechanical forces, the most studied environmental cues, readily modulate bone and cartilage growth. Recent experimental evidence demonstrates that cyclic forces evoke greater anabolic responses of not only craniofacial sutures, but also cranial base cartilage. Mechanical forces are transmitted as tissue-borne and cell-borne mechanical strain that in turn regulates gene expression, cell proliferation, differentiation, maturation, and matrix synthesis, the totality of which is growth and development. Thus, hereditary and mechanical modulations of growth and development share a common pathway via genes. Combined approaches using genetics, bioengineering, and quantitative biology are expected to bring new insight into growth and development, and might lead to innovative therapies for craniofacial skeletal dysplasia including malocclusion, dentofacial deformities, and craniofacial anomalies such as cleft palate and craniosynostosis, as well as disorders associated with the temporomandibular joint.

  20. Europa Uomo: the European Prostate Cancer Coalition.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Tom; Denis, Louis J

    2007-01-01

    Europa Uomo is a patient-led, non-governmental association (NGO), launched formally in Milan in 2004 with a legal base in Antwerp. As a coalition of prostate cancer patient groups with representation in 18 European countries, the NGO focusses on awareness, early detection, optimal treatment, multi-professional care and, above all, quality of life and patient advocacy. In the majority of European countries prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer affecting men beyond middle age. The incidence and substantial mortality rises with age, peaking in the seventh decade. Standards of diagnosis and treatment vary across Europe and attitudes differ. Information about the early detection and awareness of prostate cancer available to the public leaves much to be desired. Since 2002, involved individuals, patient support groups, patients, family members, physicians, urologists, oncologists and nurses joined in the formation of an independent, international, non-profit association of patient-led prostate cancer support groups from European countries known as Europa Uomo, the European Prostate Cancer Coalition. This Coalition was legally established as an NGO in June 2004 in Milan with the headquarters and secretariat in Antwerp, Belgium. Its membership represents 18 countries by the national or regional groups listed in Table 16.1 with their respective contact persons. The coalition is led by a steering committee under the control of the annual general assembly. The steering committee members and their co-ordinates are listed in Table 16.2. Scientific advice is given by a scientific committee chaired by Prof. H. Van Poppel as the liaison officer with the European Association of Urology (EAU). The support for EAU guidelines appears on the Web site and will be linked to all members in their own language (www.cancerworld.org/europauomo). The goals and activities of Europa Uomo have been condensed in a series of slides at the request of the Eurocan+Plus collaboration to

  1. The Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply project: An introduction.

    PubMed

    Swanson, J C; Mench, J A; Karcher, D

    2015-03-01

    In the United States, empirical information on the sustainability of commercial-scale egg production is lacking. The passage of state regulations specific to hen housing created urgency to better understand the effects of different housing systems on the sustainability of the egg supply, and stimulated the formation of a coalition, the Coalition for a Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES), to conduct research on this topic. The CSES is a multi-stakeholder group with 27 members, including food manufacturers, research institutions, scientists, restaurants, food service, retail food companies, egg suppliers, and nongovernmental organizations. A commercial-scale study was developed to better understand the effect of 3 housing systems (conventional cage, enriched colony, and cage-free aviary) on 5 areas related to a sustainable egg supply. These 5 sustainability areas represent effects on people, animals, and the environment: animal health and well-being, environment, food safety, worker health and safety, and food affordability. Five teams of scientists, each associated with a sustainability area, conducted an integrated field study at a commercial site in the upper Midwest through 2 flock cycles in 3 housing systems. This paper provides a brief overview of the CSES project to serve as an introduction for the papers that follow in this volume of Poultry Science. PMID:25737565

  2. The Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply project: An introduction

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, J. C.; Mench, J. A.; Karcher, D.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, empirical information on the sustainability of commercial-scale egg production is lacking. The passage of state regulations specific to hen housing created urgency to better understand the effects of different housing systems on the sustainability of the egg supply, and stimulated the formation of a coalition, the Coalition for a Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES), to conduct research on this topic. The CSES is a multi-stakeholder group with 27 members, including food manufacturers, research institutions, scientists, restaurants, food service, retail food companies, egg suppliers, and nongovernmental organizations. A commercial-scale study was developed to better understand the effect of 3 housing systems (conventional cage, enriched colony, and cage-free aviary) on 5 areas related to a sustainable egg supply. These 5 sustainability areas represent effects on people, animals, and the environment: animal health and well-being, environment, food safety, worker health and safety, and food affordability. Five teams of scientists, each associated with a sustainability area, conducted an integrated field study at a commercial site in the upper Midwest through 2 flock cycles in 3 housing systems. This paper provides a brief overview of the CSES project to serve as an introduction for the papers that follow in this volume of Poultry Science. PMID:25737565

  3. The Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply project: An introduction.

    PubMed

    Swanson, J C; Mench, J A; Karcher, D

    2015-03-01

    In the United States, empirical information on the sustainability of commercial-scale egg production is lacking. The passage of state regulations specific to hen housing created urgency to better understand the effects of different housing systems on the sustainability of the egg supply, and stimulated the formation of a coalition, the Coalition for a Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES), to conduct research on this topic. The CSES is a multi-stakeholder group with 27 members, including food manufacturers, research institutions, scientists, restaurants, food service, retail food companies, egg suppliers, and nongovernmental organizations. A commercial-scale study was developed to better understand the effect of 3 housing systems (conventional cage, enriched colony, and cage-free aviary) on 5 areas related to a sustainable egg supply. These 5 sustainability areas represent effects on people, animals, and the environment: animal health and well-being, environment, food safety, worker health and safety, and food affordability. Five teams of scientists, each associated with a sustainability area, conducted an integrated field study at a commercial site in the upper Midwest through 2 flock cycles in 3 housing systems. This paper provides a brief overview of the CSES project to serve as an introduction for the papers that follow in this volume of Poultry Science.

  4. Growth and development considerations for craniomaxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Costello, Bernard J; Rivera, Reynaldo D; Shand, Jocelyn; Mooney, Mark

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of craniomaxillofacial surgery is to improve function, occlusion, craniofacial balance, and aesthetics. Accurate diagnosis, assessment, and careful treatment planning are essential in achieving a successful outcome, and an understanding of the pattern of facial growth is integral in this process. Patients with craniofacial congenital dysmorphologies, posttraumatic asymmetries, or disturbances of facial balance from radiation may have functional and/or aesthetic issues that require treatment. Understanding the complexities of growth in the skull and face is a key component to appropriate treatment planning for these disorders. This article reviews growth and development in the craniofacial skeleton.

  5. Minnesota Tribal Coalition - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Triplett

    2006-12-19

    The project helped tribal leaders, staff and community members on the Grand Portage, Leech Lake, and White Earth Reservations better understand their community's energy usage, assess local resources that might be utilized to reduce energy consumption and begin to formulate appropriate development strategies. The principal guiding interest was to assess energy usage and the potential for wind resource development on each of the three reservations. Key tribal staff became familiar with wind energy technology and assessment methodologies that will be of continued use as each tribe moves forward with development projects. The findings were that wind resources are available at each reservation with varying degrees of potential for development. At White Earth moderate to excellent resources are present at White Earth village and along the U.S. 59 corridor sufficient to be tapped to serve several scattered tribal complexes. At Grand Portage a former community television repeater tower site provides a viable elevated location for a wind turbine to serve the tribal community settlement. At Leech Lake, while most constrained by tree cover, a site adjacent to a casino holds promise for the newer taller wind turbines now coming to market at ever-increasing taller rotor heights. The project developed considerable data of importance regarding the potential for wind development on and near each reservation.

  6. SUCCEED (Southeastern University and College Coalition for Engineering Education) Annual Report, Year 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohland, Matthew W., Ed.; Anderson, Tim J., Ed.

    This document presents the Year 8 Annual Report of the Southeastern University and College Coalition for Engineering Education (SUCCEED). Contents include: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Response to Recommendations of Prior Review Teams; (3) Major Accomplishments; (4) Faculty Development; (5) Outcomes Assessment; (6) Student Transitions; (7)…

  7. SUCCEED (Southeastern University and College Coalition for Engineering Education) Annual Report, Year 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohland, Matthew W., Ed.; Anderson, Tim J., Ed.

    This document presents the Year 9 Annual Report of the Southeastern University and College Coalition for Engineering Education (SUCCEED). Contents include: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Response to Recommendations of Prior Review Teams; (3) Major Accomplishments; (4) Faculty Development; (5) Outcomes Assessment; (6) Student Transitions; (7)…

  8. The Transformative Power of Youth Action Coalition's Multimodal Arts-for-Change Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, K. C. Nat; Way, Kate; Gray, Robin R. R.

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the potential of a series of Youth Action Coalition's (YAC) Arts-for-Change (AfC) youth programs for literacy and identity development, as well as for engaging youth in addressing issues of social justice. Drawing primarily on transcripts of interviews, surveys, and participant-observation fieldnotes inventorying changes in…

  9. Federal Information in the Networked Environment: A Perspective from the Coalition for Networked Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheverie, Joan F.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the development of strategies for providing access to and services for U.S. federal government information in higher education using the global information infrastructure, from the perspective of the Coalition for Networked Information (CNI). Discusses the preservation of electronic information and networked information discovery and…

  10. The Military Child Education Coalition[TM]: Supporting Military Families during Deployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surles, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    The Military Child Education Coalition (MCEC[TM]) has recently released a new support for military families facing deployment, with the addition of another kit to its "Growing, Learning, and Understanding: Making Meaning through Early Literacy"[TM] (GLU[TM]) initiative. The GLU initiative focuses on developing early literacy skills in children…

  11. SUCCEED (Southeastern University and College Coalition for Engineering Education) Strategic Plan Revision, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohland, Matthew W., Ed.; Anderson, Tim J., Ed.

    This document presents the Strategic Plan Revision of the Southeastern University and College Coalition for Engineering Education (SUCCEED). SUCCEED aims to institute a sustainable version of its curriculum model on each of the selected campuses. The areas of expertise in the program include faculty development, outcomes assessment,…

  12. SUCCEED (Southeastern University and College Coalition for Engineering Education) Strategic Plan Revision, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohland, Matthew W., Ed.; Anderson, Tim J., Ed.

    This document presents the Strategic Plan Revision of the Southeastern University and College Coalition for Engineering Education (SUCCEED). SUCCEED aims to institute a sustainable version of its curriculum model on each of the selected campuses. The areas of expertise in the program include faculty development, outcomes assessment,…

  13. Voting Behavior, Coalitions and Government Strength through a Complex Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dal Maso, Carlo; Pompa, Gabriele; Puliga, Michelangelo; Riotta, Gianni; Chessa, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the network of relations between parliament members according to their voting behavior. In particular, we examine the emergent community structure with respect to political coalitions and government alliances. We rely on tools developed in the Complex Network literature to explore the core of these communities and use their topological features to develop new metrics for party polarization, internal coalition cohesiveness and government strength. As a case study, we focus on the Chamber of Deputies of the Italian Parliament, for which we are able to characterize the heterogeneity of the ruling coalition as well as parties specific contributions to the stability of the government over time. We find sharp contrast in the political debate which surprisingly does not imply a relevant structure based on established parties. We take a closer look to changes in the community structure after parties split up and their effect on the position of single deputies within communities. Finally, we introduce a way to track the stability of the government coalition over time that is able to discern the contribution of each member along with the impact of its possible defection. While our case study relies on the Italian parliament, whose relevance has come into the international spotlight in the present economic downturn, the methods developed here are entirely general and can therefore be applied to a multitude of other scenarios. PMID:25549351

  14. Voting behavior, coalitions and government strength through a complex network analysis.

    PubMed

    Dal Maso, Carlo; Pompa, Gabriele; Puliga, Michelangelo; Riotta, Gianni; Chessa, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the network of relations between parliament members according to their voting behavior. In particular, we examine the emergent community structure with respect to political coalitions and government alliances. We rely on tools developed in the Complex Network literature to explore the core of these communities and use their topological features to develop new metrics for party polarization, internal coalition cohesiveness and government strength. As a case study, we focus on the Chamber of Deputies of the Italian Parliament, for which we are able to characterize the heterogeneity of the ruling coalition as well as parties specific contributions to the stability of the government over time. We find sharp contrast in the political debate which surprisingly does not imply a relevant structure based on established parties. We take a closer look to changes in the community structure after parties split up and their effect on the position of single deputies within communities. Finally, we introduce a way to track the stability of the government coalition over time that is able to discern the contribution of each member along with the impact of its possible defection. While our case study relies on the Italian parliament, whose relevance has come into the international spotlight in the present economic downturn, the methods developed here are entirely general and can therefore be applied to a multitude of other scenarios.

  15. Evaluation and community prevention coalitions: validation of an integrated Web-based/technical assistance consultant model.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Mark E; Gomez, Brendan J; Puddy, Richard W; Greenberg, Mark T

    2008-02-01

    Community coalitions (CCs) have labored with some difficulty to demonstrate empirical evidence of effectiveness in preventing a wide range of adolescent problem behaviors. Training and technical assistance (TA) have been identified as important elements in promoting improved functioning of CCs. A reliable, valid, and inexpensive method to assess functioning of CCs has been developed and is tested in this article in the context of Pennsylvania's Communities That Care (CTC) model. A CC Web-based questionnaire was developed and administered to more than 79 communities (867 participants) and the validity and reliability were assessed through multiple means, including the use of a companion TA implementation feedback questionnaire completed by TAs assigned to each of the sites. Results indicated adequate to good psychometric properties on internal reliability of the Web-based questionnaire, moderate construct validity across different reports of functioning, and relative stability throughout the course of 1 year. Implications for a variety of community prevention coalitions interested in a relatively low-cost, user friendly, and suitable methodology for evaluating coalition functioning are discussed. In addition, areas of application for future research including linking coalition functioning with the quality and nature of technical assistance, levels of risk and protective factors, and large data sets of youth risk factor and problem behavior data are highlighted.

  16. Discovery day: A community coalition for science awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, X.K.; Sanders, J.; Bull, E.

    1994-12-31

    This is a science awareness outreach program which drew approximately half a percent of Monterey County`s inhabitants for one day of hands-on science activities. Monterey County is about half the size of Massachusetts, but with a relatively small population (376,000). Yet, children from more than 120 rural and urban schools, along with their parents participated in DISCOVERY DAY 1993. Discovery Day is an outgrowth of a 1989 science fair workshop attended by about 60 students. Explosive growth came after changing from a goal-oriented workshop theme to an activity-based hands-on program emphasizing participation, enjoyment and the fascination value of science. Scaled to larger metropolitan areas, this six hour science program drew as many attendees as a professional sports team; the difference for our event being that participants far outnumbered spectators. The event is sponsored by the Monterey County Science and Engineering Fair Coalition, which includes the Monterey County Herald, First National Bank of Central California, Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey County Office of Education, Lyceum of Monterey County, Junior League of Monterey County, Naval Postgraduate School and the California American Water Company. The ownership of this event has expanded to a truly community-wide coalition as members of other organizations interested in science education provide activities, experiments and personnel. These include teachers from local elementary, middle and high schools, both public and private, community colleges, staff from the community hospital and the Monterey City Library, members of MOOSE (Monterey Organization Of Science Educators) and the local Sigma Xi Club. Local merchants contributed to insure success of this science awareness day. It was gratifying to observe that support for science education extended beyond our parocial circle of scientists.

  17. Disturbances of bone growth and development

    SciTech Connect

    Ledesma-Medina, J.; Newman, B.; Oh, K.S.

    1988-03-01

    ''What is growth anyway. Can one talk about positive growth in childhood, neutral growth in maturity, and negative growth in old age. Our goal is to help promote normal positive growth in infants and children. To achieve this, we must be cognizant of the morphologic changes of both normal and abnormal bone formation as they are reflected in the radiographic image of the skeleton. The knowledge of the various causes and the pathophysiologic mechanisms of the disturbances of bone growth and development allows us to recognize the early radiographic manifestations. Endocrine and metabolic disorders affect the whole skeleton, but the early changes are best seen in the distal ends of the femurs, where growth rate is most rapid. In skeletal infections and in some vascular injuries two-or three-phase bone scintigraphy supercedes radiography early in the course of the disease. MRI has proved to be very helpful in the early detection of avascular bone necrosis, osteomyelitis, and tumor. Some benign bone tumors and many bone dysplasias have distinct and diagnostic radiographic findings that may preclude further studies. In constitutional diseases of bone, including chromosomal aberrations, skeletal surveys of the patient and all family members together with biochemical and cytogenetic studies are essential for both diagnosis and genetic counseling. Our role is to perform the least invasive and most informative diagnostic imaging modalities that corroborate the biochemical and histologic findings to establish the definitive diagnosis. Unrecognized, misdiagnosed, or improperly treated disturbance of bone growth can result in permanent deformity usually associated with disability. 116 references.

  18. Growth and Development: Implications for Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haywood, Kathleen M.; Loughrey, Thomas J.

    1981-01-01

    A significant relationship exists between a person's body concept and his general self-concept. Physical educators need to be more concerned with the development of the body concept in children. Understanding how the growth process affects performance ability can help the teacher plan activities based on individual readiness factors. (JN)

  19. Growth Hormone Deficiency, Brain Development, and Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Available from: American Medical Association, 535 N. Dearborn Street, Chicago, Illinois 60610. In order to determine what effect, if any, growth hormone (GH) has on human brain development, 29 patients (mean age 11.7 years) with GH deficiency were selected according to the following criteria: no evidence of reversible GH deficiency, onset of…

  20. Brassinosteroids Regulate Root Growth, Development, and Symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhuoyun; Li, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are natural plant hormones critical for growth and development. BR deficient or signaling mutants show significantly shortened root phenotypes. However, for a long time, it was thought that these phenotypes were solely caused by reduced cell elongation in the mutant roots. Functions of BRs in regulating root development have been largely neglected. Nonetheless, recent detailed analyses, revealed that BRs are not only involved in root cell elongation but are also involved in many aspects of root development, such as maintenance of meristem size, root hair formation, lateral root initiation, gravitropic response, mycorrhiza formation, and nodulation in legume species. In this review, current findings on the functions of BRs in mediating root growth, development, and symbiosis are discussed.

  1. Social Norms Tactics to Promote a Campus Alcohol Coalition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinci, Debra M.; Philen, Robert C.; Walch, Susan E.; Kennedy, Rebecca; Harrell, Mica; Rime, Carla; Matthews, Jaclyn

    2010-01-01

    Background: Social norms posters usually contain a normative message, branding, campaign tagline and sponsoring coalition/contact information. There are limited data on which campaign components promote recognition of Campus Alcohol Coalitions (CAC). Purpose: To determine the most effective media channels/incentives to promote recognition of CAC…

  2. Coalition Building: Cultivating New Partners for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curva, Fely; Mosteller, James

    2010-01-01

    A coalition is about building power to accomplish change that no one group can reasonably accomplish on its own. A well-defined coalition not only builds power and influence, it broadens support, maximizes resources (e.g., time, money, people and connections), enhances legitimacy, creates synergy, and offers diverse perspectives on issues.…

  3. The National Home Visiting Coalition: A History of Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Jane; Gavaghan, Bridget; Howard, Karen; Kelley, Melissa L.; Schwartz, Marvin; Walzer, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The Home Visiting Coalition represents more than 75 organizations working together to articulate the effectiveness of home visiting to a range of policymakers and stakeholders in the early childhood field. Despite varying program goals and service delivery strategies, the Coalition participants share a commitment to expanding access to…

  4. Coalition releases declaration for healthy and productive oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-06-01

    Coalition releases declaration for healthy and productive oceans A coalition of 13 countries or federal agencies participating in a new Global Partnership for Oceans (GPO) indicated its support for a “Declaration for Healthy and Productive Oceans to Help Reduce Poverty” on 16 June, just prior to the Rio+20 conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  5. Coalition Building for Adult Literacy: Historical and Organizational Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Anabel P.; Lehman, Bernadette

    Selected successful literacy coalitions were examined to identify key issues and trends in coalition building. The six key issues identified (focus and functions, funding, governance, membership, key figures, and evaluation) were used as a framework to review the early efforts, current activities, and future visions of literacy coalitions…

  6. Community How To Guide On Underage Drinking Prevention: Coalition Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Governors' Highway Safety Representatives.

    Coalitions have been used successfully in the United States to tackle a number of seemingly intractable problems. For communities that want to reduce their underage drinking problem, putting together a broad-based coalition can bring substantial dividends. In this guide, readers will learn the steps that bring together a diverse group of people in…

  7. Coalition formation to address structural determinants of methamphetamine use in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Willard, Nancy; Srirojn, Bangorn; Thomson, Nicholas; Aramrattana, Apinun; Sherman, Susan; Galai, Noya; Celentano, David D; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2015-09-01

    Despite two recent government-sponsored 'wars on drugs', methamphetamine use continues to be a pervasive problem in Thailand. Out of concern for reported human rights abuses, there has been a call from the international community to take a different approach from the government's 'zero tolerance'. This paper describes the adaptation of the Connect to Protect® coalition formation process from urban U.S. cities to three districts in northern Thailand's Chiang Mai province, aimed to reduce methamphetamine use by altering the risk environment. Project materials, including manuals and materials (e.g. key actor maps and research staff memos), were reviewed to describe partnering procedures and selection criteria. Potential community partners were identified from various government and community sectors with a focus on including representatives from health, police, district and sub-district government officials. Of the 64 potential partners approached, 59 agreed to join one of three district-level coalitions. Partner makeup included 25% from the health sector, 22% who were sub-district government officials and 10% were representatives from the police sector. Key partners necessary for endorsement of and commitment to the coalition work included district-level governors, police chiefs and hospital directors for each district. Initial coalition strategic planning has resulted in policies and programs to address school retention, youth development initiatives and establishment of a new drug treatment and rehabilitation clinic in addition to other developing interventions. Similarities in building coalitions, such as the need to strategically develop buy-in with key constituencies, as well as differences of whom and how partners were identified are explored. PMID:24493782

  8. Coalition formation to address structural determinants of methamphetamine use in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Willard, Nancy; Srirojn, Bangorn; Thomson, Nicholas; Aramrattana, Apinun; Sherman, Susan; Galai, Noya; Celentano, David D.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite two recent government-sponsored ‘wars on drugs’, methamphetamine use continues to be a pervasive problem in Thailand. Out of concern for reported human rights abuses, there has been a call from the international community to take a different approach from the government's ‘zero tolerance’. This paper describes the adaptation of the Connect to Protect® coalition formation process from urban U.S. cities to three districts in northern Thailand's Chiang Mai province, aimed to reduce methamphetamine use by altering the risk environment. Project materials, including manuals and materials (e.g. key actor maps and research staff memos), were reviewed to describe partnering procedures and selection criteria. Potential community partners were identified from various government and community sectors with a focus on including representatives from health, police, district and sub-district government officials. Of the 64 potential partners approached, 59 agreed to join one of three district-level coalitions. Partner makeup included 25% from the health sector, 22% who were sub-district government officials and 10% were representatives from the police sector. Key partners necessary for endorsement of and commitment to the coalition work included district-level governors, police chiefs and hospital directors for each district. Initial coalition strategic planning has resulted in policies and programs to address school retention, youth development initiatives and establishment of a new drug treatment and rehabilitation clinic in addition to other developing interventions. Similarities in building coalitions, such as the need to strategically develop buy-in with key constituencies, as well as differences of whom and how partners were identified are explored. PMID:24493782

  9. Population growth and development planning in Africa.

    PubMed

    1980-12-01

    Some of the consequences of rapid population growth and their implications for the economic development of the Africa region in the 1980s are outlined. The total population of Africa was estimated to be 412 million in 1976, or 10.2% of the total world population of 4044 million. Population density of the region is comparatively low, but the crude density measure of 14 persons per square kilometer in 1977 obscures the very high percentage of Africa's land which is desert or otherwise not arable. Continued high fertility rates in the region coupled with substantial decline in mortality rates especially for infants and children has resulted in Africa having a youthful population. The growth of cities due primarily to rural-urban migration is 1 of the most pressing problems of the region. Some countries in the region maintain pronatalist policies because they have a small population and regard population growth as a stimulus to the socioeconomic development effort. Few countries such as Kenya, Mauritius, Egypt, and Morocco consider rapid population growth a constraint on their development efforts and are now implementing national policies which aim at reducing the rate of growth of their populations. Population problems in Africa arise mainly from the fact that additions to the population needing education, housing, employment and to be fed adequately are increasing at a rate far more than most African countries can cope with. To illustrate the potential impact of population factors on development, the potential relationships between population and health, education, food supply, labor force supply and employment are analyzed.

  10. Vitamin D and skeletal growth and development.

    PubMed

    Koo, Winston; Walyat, Nitin

    2013-09-01

    Vitamin D is critical to bone mineral metabolism and to the growth and development of the skeleton. Optimizing vitamin D status could be one of the cornerstones to optimize skeletal growth and achieving the maximum peak bone mass soon after the completion of adolescence. Maximizing peak bone mass is considered to be the key to primary prevention of osteoporosis. There is controversy, however, about what constitutes a healthy vitamin D status based on the most abundant circulating metabolite of vitamin D, namely 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25 OHD) in plasma or serum; and even the value of 25 OHD that should be used to define vitamin D deficiency. We reviewed the recent data on circulating 25 OHD concentrations and its relationship with skeletal growth in apparently healthy children and in those with nutritional vitamin D deficiency.

  11. Healthcare coalitions: the new foundation for national healthcare preparedness and response for catastrophic health emergencies.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Brooke; Toner, Eric; Waldhorn, Richard; Franco, Crystal; Rambhia, Kunal; Norwood, Ann; Inglesby, Thomas V; O'Toole, Tara

    2009-06-01

    After 9/11 and the 2001 anthrax letters, it was evident that our nation's healthcare system was largely underprepared to handle the unique needs and large volumes of people who would seek medical care following catastrophic health events. In response, in 2002 Congress established the Hospital Preparedness Program (HPP) in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to strengthen the ability of U.S. hospitals to prepare for and respond to bioterrorism and naturally occurring epidemics and disasters. Since 2002, the program has resulted in substantial improvements in individual hospitals' disaster readiness. In 2007, the HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) contracted with the Center for Biosecurity of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center to conduct an assessment of U.S. hospital preparedness and to develop tools and recommendations for evaluating and improving future hospital preparedness efforts. One of the most important findings from this work is that healthcare coalitions-collaborative groups of local healthcare institutions and response agencies that work together to prepare for and respond to emergencies-have emerged throughout the U.S. since the HPP began. This article provides an overview of the HPP and the Center's hospital preparedness research for ASPR. Based on that work, the article also defines healthcare coalitions and identifies their structure and core functions, provides examples of more developed coalitions and common challenges faced by coalitions, and proposes that healthcare coalitions should become the foundation of a national strategy for healthcare preparedness and response for catastrophic health events.

  12. Global change information support: A north-south coalition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blados, Walter R.; Cotter, Gladys A.

    1993-01-01

    On a daily basis we become more aware that our planet, earth, exists in a delicate balance; we, its inhabitants, must be informed caretakers. Global change communities have emerged around the globe to address this multidisciplinary subject. Information systems that integrate text, bibliographic, numeric and visual data are needed to support these global change communities. No one information center can hope to collect all the relevant data. Rather, we must form a coalition, North and South, to collect and provide access to disparate, multidisciplinary sources of information, and to develop standardized tools for documenting and manipulating this data and information. International resources need to be mobilized in a coordinated manner to move us towards this goal. This paper looks at emerging information technologies that can be utilized to build such a system, and outlines some cooperative North/South strategies.

  13. Nurse-police coalition: improves safety in acute psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Allen, Diane E; Harris, Frank N; de Nesnera, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Although police officers protect and secure the safety of citizens everywhere, nurses are the primary guardians of patient safety within the treatment milieu. At New Hampshire Hospital, both nurses and police officers share ownership of this responsibility, depending on the needs that arise specific to each profession. Psychiatric nurses take pride in their ability to de-escalate agitated and potentially aggressive patients; however, times arise when the best efforts of nurses fail, or when a situation requires intervention from police officers. Nurses and police officers at New Hampshire Hospital have worked together for many years to develop a trusting, respectful alliance. This coalition has resulted in a safe, clear, orderly process for transfer of authority from nurses to police during violent, clinically unmanageable psychiatric emergencies. Nurses and police officers work collaboratively toward the common goal of ensuring safety for patients and staff, while also acknowledging the unique strengths of each profession.

  14. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT SYMPOSIUM: Understanding and mitigating the impacts of inflammation on animal growth and development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Growth and Development Symposium titled “Understanding and mitigating the impacts of inflammation on animal growth and development” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science in New Orleans, LA, July 10 to 14, 2011. T...

  15. Population growth and development: the Kenyan experience.

    PubMed

    Nyamwange, M

    1995-01-01

    Rapid population growth in Kenya and high fertility impacts negatively on economic development. The growth and high fertility results in declines in gross national product, per capita food consumption, and land quality; a high dependency ratio; urban crowding; and inadequate health systems. East Africa has the highest crude birth rates in Africa, and Kenya has the highest birth rate of 54/1000 population in East Africa. The African crude death rate is 50% higher than the world average, but Kenya's death rate is the lowest in East Africa and comparable to North American and European death rates. Kenya has the highest rate of natural increase of about 4%. Population growth rates rose over the decades. Kenya's average population density is well above the sub-Saharan African average and much lower than very high density countries. Population is unequally distributed. Regional densities are widely divergent, and the highest densities in Western province are well above densities in Rwanda and Burundi. Urban growth has increased, as has migration to urban areas. Nairobi has 57% of urban population. Improved health and nutrition have contributed to increased life expectancy. The desired family size is large. The impact of demographic factors on economic conditions is evident in the decline in gross national product per capita growth to under 1% during 1972-88. A slight upswing occurred during 1988-93, but other crises are emerging. Food production has not kept pace with population growth. Production has been low due to serious land degradation, short fallow periods, and traditional farming practices. Population pressure has forced families to shift agriculture onto marginal lands, and desertification has increased. A growing proportion of the population is unemployed or underemployed. Population programs should address the underlying conditions for fertility decline.

  16. Growth and skeletal development of the pig.

    PubMed

    Reiland, S

    1978-01-01

    Growth and skeletal development of the domestic pig (Swedish landrace and Yorkshire) are reported and the weight curve of males from birth to maturity included. Other parameters were tooth development and growth of certain bones. It was concluded that daily weight gain increases rapidly to an age of about 5 months. Sexual maturity is reached by both the male and female pig at about 5--6 months of age. At this time there is an inflection point on the weight curve. The period from 5--6 months to about 18 months of age is called adolescence. After 18 months of age the weight curve is flattened. The data from the domestic pigs were compared with the corresponding data of the wild European hog. It was found that the wild hog has a much slower weight gain. PMID:233594

  17. Coalition possibility of riparian countries via game theory and fuzzy logic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucukmehmetoglu, Mehmet; ŞEn, Zekai; Ã-Zger, Mehmet

    2010-12-01

    In many respects, water resources allocation problems have fuzzy characteristics owing to uncertainty and imprecision not only as numerical data but also as linguistic data, in addition to the political nature of resource allocation. All classical techniques require numerical data and cannot treat linguistic data, but fuzzy inference systems (FIS) can deal with both types of data. Hence, it is suitable to reflect the dynamic nature of country benefits, reflective variations in the main drainage and subdrainage basin flows, and various system parameters in search of a coalition among a few riparian countries. The size of core, which is generated from a series of linear programming (LP) optimization models and game theory concepts, shows the potential extra benefit advantage of being in grand coalition to all parties, but it does not provide a sufficient condition to assemble a robust coalition unless an agreeable allocation scheme or principle is provided. In this respect, there is a fuzzy link between being in the grand coalition and percentage share received from a core. Hence, a proper FIS is proposed, and the necessary steps are developed with the Shapley value and the core as game theory methods, which provide a methodological base in the evaluation of possible allocation schemes among the parties. The application of the methodology is presented to search for coalition possibilities among the riparian countries: Turkey, Syria, and Iraq. Basic results are generated over the application of the Inter-Temporal Euphrates and Tigris River Basin Model, which is an optimization model for the allocation of scarce water resources considering agricultural and urban uses, energy generation, and conveyance costs in the Euphrates-Tigris basin.

  18. Redox control of plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Kocsy, Gábor; Tari, Irma; Vanková, Radomíra; Zechmann, Bernd; Gulyás, Zsolt; Poór, Péter; Galiba, Gábor

    2013-10-01

    Redox changes determined by genetic and environmental factors display well-organized interactions in the control of plant growth and development. Diurnal and seasonal changes in the environmental conditions are important for the normal course of these physiological processes and, similarly to their mild irregular alterations, for stress adaptation. However, fast or large-scale environmental changes may lead to damage or death of sensitive plants. The spatial and temporal redox changes influence growth and development due to the reprogramming of metabolism. In this process reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and antioxidants are involved as components of signalling networks. The control of growth, development and flowering by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and antioxidants in interaction with hormones at organ, tissue, cellular and subcellular level will be discussed in the present review. Unsolved problems of the field, among others the need for identification of new components and interactions in the redox regulatory network at various organization levels using systems biology approaches will be also indicated.

  19. Coalitional capacities and environmental strategies to prevent underage drinking.

    PubMed

    Nargiso, Jessica E; Friend, Karen B; Egan, Crystelle; Florin, Paul; Stevenson, John; Amodei, Brenda; Barovier, Linda

    2013-03-01

    Coalitions are the most common platform for implementing community-level environmental strategies (ES), such as media, policy, or enforcement for substance use prevention. The current study examines the associations between two types of coalition capacity (general and innovation-specific) and ES implementation efforts and outputs within 14 intervention communities over a three-year period. Efforts refer to the amount of energy exerted to implement an ES while outputs refer to the materials produced through these efforts. Quantitative measures of capacity were provided by coalition key informants and expert-raters. Additionally, Training and Technical Assistance (TTA) provided proactively to improve the implementation of ES was also examined. Greater general capacity, as rated by a coalition informant, was associated with more ES policy effort. Both expert-rated general and innovation-specific capacity, however, were associated with greater ES outputs. Study results also found that community coalitions that endorsed weaker mobilization, structure and task leadership, (measures of general capacity), utilized more TTA compared to those who perceived their coalition as having greater capacity. Moreover, communities that utilized more TTA resources reported a greater number of successful policy changes. The study supports the need to consider both general and innovation-specific capacity for ES implementation and offers promising preliminary findings regarding the role of TTA for improving coalitions' capacity to facilitate policy change. PMID:22752558

  20. Growth and development of the lung.

    PubMed

    Le Souëf, P N

    2001-04-01

    Over the last half of the last century, classic studies established many features of the development of the lung in humans. Early studies relied on meticulous measurement and evaluation of lung morphology and physiology. In recent years, such studies have been supplemented by carefully conducted, longitudinal studies and by the use of molecular biological methodologies to determine more detailed aspects of lung development. In addition, factors affecting the growth of the lung have been evaluated including preterm delivery, antenatal steroids, environmental factors, asthma and asthma medications. In the future, further advances are likely to come from the molecular biological approach.

  1. An Initial Attempt at Operationalizing and Testing the Community Coalition Action Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegler, Michelle C.; Swan, Deanne W.

    2011-01-01

    The Community Coalition Action Theory (CCAT) blends practice wisdom with empirical data to explain how community coalitions achieve community change and community capacity outcomes. The current study uses data from an evaluation of 20 "California Healthy Cities" and "Communities" coalitions to test relationships between coalition factors and…

  2. Recent growth trends in developing countries.

    PubMed

    1978-03-01

    The unprecedented economic conditions of the mid-1970s have created problems with economic development for all countries of the world. Recent economic growth trends in the following main groups of developing countries are reviewed: 1) low-income countries; 2) lower middle-income countries; 3) intermediate middle-income countries; 4) upper middle-come countries; and 5) balance of payments deficit oil exporting countries. Economic indicators for each group of countries are tabulated. The tables show that the developing countries have continued domestic economic growth at only moderately slower rates during the years since 1973. They have been helped by foreign aid or private-source borrowing. As a group, they have, in fact, helped to keep the world economy from plunging deeper into recession and to prevent world trade from contracting more than it actually did already in 1974 and 1975. The performance of these developing economies during these difficult years contributes to continued optimism regarding their future prospects. PMID:12335967

  3. Operational development of small plant growth systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheld, H. W.; Magnuson, J. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a study undertaken on the first phase of an empricial effort in the development of small plant growth chambers for production of salad type vegetables on space shuttle or space station are discussed. The overall effort is visualized as providing the underpinning of practical experience in handling of plant systems in space which will provide major support for future efforts in planning, design, and construction of plant-based (phytomechanical) systems for support of human habitation in space. The assumptions underlying the effort hold that large scale phytomechanical habitability support systems for future space stations must evolve from the simple to the complex. The highly complex final systems will be developed from the accumulated experience and data gathered from repetitive tests and trials of fragments or subsystems of the whole in an operational mode. These developing system components will, meanwhile, serve a useful operational function in providing psychological support and diversion for the crews.

  4. Gove v. the Blob: The Coalition and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillard, Derek

    2015-01-01

    The author provides a year-by-year account of events during the period of the Conservative-led coalition government from 2010 to 2015 and concludes with some observations on the damage done to England's state education system.

  5. The role of coalitions in drug policy. Some theoretical and observational considerations.

    PubMed

    Uchtenhagen, Ambros

    2011-01-01

    Democratically organised societies have to find ways how to proceed when in need of a reformulation of strategies in face of new societal and technological developments, especially in dealing with controversial preferences and interests. The area of drug policy change presents an excellent example for discussing the problem and the process of coalition building for finding acceptable answers to new challenges. Modern sociological theory has developed concepts and tools for a description and analysis of such processes. Some concrete case studies from Swiss cities are available as a basis for advanced discussion of theoretical concepts. The observational description of the coalition building in the city of Zurich helps to illustrate the inherent elements, problems and outcomes; a more detailed process analysis focuses on the initial phases and further development of the various formal and informal coalitions, introducing the importance of shared objectives for action and the need for concerted activities. A clear policy concept and a consistent action plan were not available at first, but they proved to be an important step in the consolidation of what was a non-systematic beginning. What started at local level and led to a new national policy was not so much a continued clash between two ideologies - harm reduction versus strict prohibition -, but was the beginning of a new thinking about how the various policy elements could successfully work together in the pursuit of a shared concrete objective. These observations may be considered in further theory development and policy considerations. PMID:21814706

  6. The role of coalitions in drug policy. Some theoretical and observational considerations.

    PubMed

    Uchtenhagen, Ambros

    2011-01-01

    Democratically organised societies have to find ways how to proceed when in need of a reformulation of strategies in face of new societal and technological developments, especially in dealing with controversial preferences and interests. The area of drug policy change presents an excellent example for discussing the problem and the process of coalition building for finding acceptable answers to new challenges. Modern sociological theory has developed concepts and tools for a description and analysis of such processes. Some concrete case studies from Swiss cities are available as a basis for advanced discussion of theoretical concepts. The observational description of the coalition building in the city of Zurich helps to illustrate the inherent elements, problems and outcomes; a more detailed process analysis focuses on the initial phases and further development of the various formal and informal coalitions, introducing the importance of shared objectives for action and the need for concerted activities. A clear policy concept and a consistent action plan were not available at first, but they proved to be an important step in the consolidation of what was a non-systematic beginning. What started at local level and led to a new national policy was not so much a continued clash between two ideologies - harm reduction versus strict prohibition -, but was the beginning of a new thinking about how the various policy elements could successfully work together in the pursuit of a shared concrete objective. These observations may be considered in further theory development and policy considerations.

  7. Optimizing Health Care Coalitions: Conceptual Frameworks and a Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Hupert, Nathaniel; Biala, Karen; Holland, Tara; Baehr, Avi; Hasan, Aisha; Harvey, Melissa

    2015-12-01

    The US health care system has maintained an objective of preparedness for natural or manmade catastrophic events as part of its larger charge to deliver health services for the American population. In 2002, support for hospital-based preparedness activities was bolstered by the creation of the National Bioterrorism Hospital Preparedness Program, now called the Hospital Preparedness Program, in the US Department of Health and Human Services. Since 2012, this program has promoted linking health care facilities into health care coalitions that build key preparedness and emergency response capabilities. Recognizing that well-functioning health care coalitions can have a positive impact on the health outcomes of the populations they serve, this article informs efforts to optimize health care coalition activity. We first review the landscape of health care coalitions in the United States. Then, using principles from supply chain management and high-reliability organization theory, we present 2 frameworks extending beyond the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response's current guidance in a way that may help health care coalition leaders gain conceptual insight into how different enterprises achieve similar ends relevant to emergency response. We conclude with a proposed research agenda to advance understanding of how coalitions can contribute to the day-to-day functioning of health care systems and disaster preparedness. PMID:26545194

  8. The agencies method for coalition formation in experimental games

    PubMed Central

    Nash, John F.; Nagel, Rosemarie; Ockenfels, Axel; Selten, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    In society, power is often transferred to another person or group. A previous work studied the evolution of cooperation among robot players through a coalition formation game with a non-cooperative procedure of acceptance of an agency of another player. Motivated by this previous work, we conduct a laboratory experiment on finitely repeated three-person coalition formation games. Human players with different strength according to the coalition payoffs can accept a transfer of power to another player, the agent, who then distributes the coalition payoffs. We find that the agencies method for coalition formation is quite successful in promoting efficiency. However, the agent faces a tension between short-term incentives of not equally distributing the coalition payoff and the long-term concern to keep cooperation going. In a given round, the strong player in our experiment often resolves this tension approximately in line with the Shapley value and the nucleolus. Yet aggregated over all rounds, the payoff differences between players are rather small, and the equal division of payoffs predicts about 80% of all groups best. One reason is that the voting procedure appears to induce a balance of power, independent of the individual player's strength: Selfish subjects tend to be voted out of their agency and are further disciplined by reciprocal behaviors. PMID:23175792

  9. A university, community coalition, and town partnership to promote walking.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Sarah F; Williams, Joel E; Hickman, Powell; Kirchner, Amber; Spitler, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    Less than half of all US adults report meeting physical activity recommendations of 30 minutes or more of moderate to vigorous physical activity on at least 5 days per week. Thus, community-wide ecological initiatives are needed to create environments that support incorporating physical activity into residents' daily lives. In this article we describe an ongoing collaborative service-learning partnership between Clemson University, a community coalition, and a neighboring small rural town to address local social and physical environment supports for walking. Years 1 to 3 of this collaborative initiative were evaluated using a mixed-method approach to assess physical environment changes, social environment changes, community perceptions of support for walking, community perceptions of collaborating with university students, and students' skill development. Results revealed several key environmental changes such as mapping and marking 3 walking trails in the community, development of broad marketing efforts linked to the trails that promote community health and heritage, and annual community events to promote walking and the newly developed walking trails. Interview data with community leaders identified several key themes critical to facilitating and enhancing our university and community collaboration. Lastly, students developed skills in developing partnerships, mapping, advocacy, event planning, critical reflection, and qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis. Through this process community members and students learn evidence-based public health skills for using data and planning frameworks to guide local initiatives, engage community members in decision making, and conducting evaluations.

  10. Albert Sabin and the Coalition to Eliminate Polio From the Americas

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Albert B. Sabin, MD, developer of the oral polio vaccine, was also a major proponent of its use in annual vaccination campaigns aimed at the elimination of polio. Sabin argued that administering his vaccine simultaneously to every child in a country would break polio's chains of transmission. Although he was already promoting mass vaccination by the 1960s, Sabin's efforts expanded considerably when he became an adviser to groups fighting polio in the Americas in the 1980s. Sabin's experiences provide a window into both the formation of the coalition that eliminated poliomyelitis from the Western Hemisphere and what can happen when biomedical researchers become public health policy advisers. Although the polio elimination coalition succeeded in part because member groups often accommodated each other's priorities, Sabin was often limited by his indifference to the interests of those he was advising and to the shortcomings of his vaccine. PMID:19008524

  11. Triennial Growth Symposium: Dietary regulation of growth development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2010 Triennial Growth Symposium was held immediately before the Joint Annual Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, Poultry Science Association, Asociación Mexicana de Producción Animal, Canadian Society of Animal Science, Western Section American Society of Animal Science, and Ameri...

  12. Determinants of Community Coalition Ability to Support Evidence-Based Programs

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, Mark E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how aspects of coalition functioning predict a coalition's ability to promote high-quality implementation of evidence-based programs (EBPs). The study involved 62 Communities That Care (CTC) coalitions in Pennsylvania measured annually from 2003 to 2007. Findings indicate that the communities with higher levels of poverty and longer existing coalitions are related to lower support for high-quality EBP implementation. Several aspects of coalition functioning—including higher levels of funding; leadership strength; board efficiency; strong internal and external relationships; and fidelity to the CTC model—significantly predicted support for high-quality EBP implementation. Earlier measurements of coalition functioning (2003–2004 and 2005–2006) predicted EBP implementation (2007) more strongly than concurrent coalition assessments (2007). The discussion focuses on how coalitions and technical assistance providers can improve coalition support for the implementation of EBPs. PMID:20352332

  13. Management and governance processes in community health coalitions: a procedural justice perspective.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Bryan J; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Shortell, Stephen M

    2002-12-01

    Community-based coalitions are a popular strategy for promoting community health despite the fact that coalitions often fail to achieve measurable results. Using a procedural justice framework, this study seeks to advance knowledge about the relationship between coalition governance and management processes and indicators of coalition functioning. Member survey data from 25 coalitions participating in the Community Care Network Demonstration Program were analyzed using two-stage least squares regression. Results show that personal influence in decision making. decision process clarity, and collaborative conflict resolution were significantly associated with procedural fairness perceptions. Procedural fairness perceptions, in turn, were positively associated with member satisfaction with coalition decisions, but not personal engagement in the coalition or organizational integration of coalition goals and activities. Personal influence in decision making and collaborative conflict resolution also exhibited direct relationships with all three indicators of coalition functioning examined in the study. PMID:12462195

  14. Early intestinal growth and development in poultry.

    PubMed

    Lilburn, M S; Loeffler, S

    2015-07-01

    While there are many accepted "facts" within the field of poultry science that are in truth still open for discussion, there is little debate with respect to the tremendous genetic progress that has been made with commercial broilers and turkeys (Havenstein et al., 2003, 2007). When one considers the changes in carcass development in poultry meat strains, these genetic "improvements" have not always been accompanied by correlated changes in other physiological systems and this can predispose some birds to developmental anomalies (i.e. ascites; Pavlidis et al., 2007; Wideman et al., 2013). Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in intestinal growth/health as poultry nutritionists have attempted to adopt new approaches to deal with the broader changes in the overall nutrition landscape. This landscape includes not only the aforementioned genetic changes but also a raft of governmental policies that have focused attention on the environment (phosphorus and nitrogen excretion), consumer pressure on the use of antibiotics, and renewable biofuels with its consequent effects on ingredient costs. Intestinal morphology has become a common research tool for assessing nutritional effects on the intestine but it is only one metric among many that can be used and histological results can often be interpreted in a variety of ways. This study will address the broader body of research on intestinal growth and development in commercial poultry and will attempt to integrate the topics of the intestinal: microbial interface and the role of the intestine as an immune tissue under the broad umbrella of intestinal physiology. PMID:25910905

  15. Early intestinal growth and development in poultry.

    PubMed

    Lilburn, M S; Loeffler, S

    2015-07-01

    While there are many accepted "facts" within the field of poultry science that are in truth still open for discussion, there is little debate with respect to the tremendous genetic progress that has been made with commercial broilers and turkeys (Havenstein et al., 2003, 2007). When one considers the changes in carcass development in poultry meat strains, these genetic "improvements" have not always been accompanied by correlated changes in other physiological systems and this can predispose some birds to developmental anomalies (i.e. ascites; Pavlidis et al., 2007; Wideman et al., 2013). Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in intestinal growth/health as poultry nutritionists have attempted to adopt new approaches to deal with the broader changes in the overall nutrition landscape. This landscape includes not only the aforementioned genetic changes but also a raft of governmental policies that have focused attention on the environment (phosphorus and nitrogen excretion), consumer pressure on the use of antibiotics, and renewable biofuels with its consequent effects on ingredient costs. Intestinal morphology has become a common research tool for assessing nutritional effects on the intestine but it is only one metric among many that can be used and histological results can often be interpreted in a variety of ways. This study will address the broader body of research on intestinal growth and development in commercial poultry and will attempt to integrate the topics of the intestinal: microbial interface and the role of the intestine as an immune tissue under the broad umbrella of intestinal physiology.

  16. Growth and development of the ovine conceptus.

    PubMed

    Bazer, F W; Spencer, T E; Thatcher, W W

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to characterize development of the ovine conceptus throughout gestation to establish the temporal relationships in metabolites, electrolytes, fluid volumes within the placenta, and hormonal changes with fetal growth. Length and weight of placentae, weight of cotyledons, and uterine weight increased between d 25 and 80 of gestation in advance of increases in fetal growth between d 80 and 140 of gestation. Allantoic fluid volumes changed (P < 0.01) between d 25 (21 mL) and 40 (91 mL), decreased to d 70 (32 mL), and then increased to d 140 (438 mL). Concentrations and total amounts of proteins in allantoic fluid were reduced between d 25 and 50, but total protein increased (P < 0.01) from d 40 (63 mg) to d 140 (2,991 mg). Concentrations of fructose in allantoic fluid varied between 2 and 6 mg/mL throughout gestation, but total fructose increased (P < 0.01) between d 25 (46 mg) and d 120 (679 mg). Concentrations of glucose ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 mg/mL, and total glucose increased (P < 0.05) from d 25 (3 mg) to d 140 (63 mg) of gestation. Amniotic fluid volume increased (P < 0.01) between d 30 and 140. Concentrations of estrogens in allantoic fluid, maternal uterine artery, and uterine vein increased (P < 0.01) with advancing pregnancy, and concentrations of progesterone in allantoic fluid (P < 0.07) and plasma (P < 0.05) were affected by day of gestation. Concentrations of glucose were greater (P < 0.05) in uterine artery than uterine vein, but concentrations of electrolytes and osmolarity of plasma were not affected by day of gestation. Increases in weights of fetal organs were proportional to increases in fetal weight during gestation. Results of the present study of conceptus growth and development highlight areas of needed research and provide benchmarks for comparisons when evaluating effects of various treatments, environmental conditions, and epigenetics on successful outcomes of pregnancy in sheep.

  17. Hormone symphony during root growth and development.

    PubMed

    Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; De La Paz Sánchez, María; García-Ponce, Berenice; Azpeitia, Eugenio; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R

    2012-12-01

    Hormones regulate plant growth and development in response to external environmental stimuli via complex signal transduction pathways, which in turn form complex networks of interaction. Several classes of hormones have been reported, and their activity depends on their biosynthesis, transport, conjugation, accumulation in the vacuole, and degradation. However, the activity of a given hormone is also dependent on its interaction with other hormones. Indeed, there is a complex crosstalk between hormones that regulates their biosynthesis, transport, and/or signaling functionality, although some hormones have overlapping or opposite functions. The plant root is a particularly useful system in which to study the complex role of plant hormones in the plastic control of plant development. Physiological, cellular, and molecular genetic approaches have been used to study the role of plant hormones in root meristem homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent findings on the synthesis, signaling, transport of hormones and role during root development and examine the role of hormone crosstalk in maintaining homeostasis in the apical root meristem.

  18. The Coalition for Plasma Science: Bringing Plasmas to the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Lee

    2003-10-01

    The Coalition for Plasma Science is a group of institutions, organizations, and companies that have joined forces to increase awareness and understanding of plasma science and its many applications and benefits for society. The CPS undertakes a range of activities to support this goal. Members include national laboratories, universities, industries, and individuals. The CPS maintains a web page (http://www.plasmacoalition.org), and has developed several types of plasma-related publications. The web page includes a compilation of evaluated plasma web sites. The evaluations were conducted by teachers and based on national teaching standards. The web site also contains copies of CPS publications including the brochure ''Plasmas are Everywhere.'' Thousands of these brochures are distributed each year, and a poster version is now available. Another publication is the ''About Plasmas'' series. Each of these two-page papers (which is written for a general audience) is about a specific plasma-related topic, such as lighting, fusion, space plasmas and plasma decontamination of biological hazards. Papers on other topics are under development. The CPS also organizes educational luncheon/seminars for Members of Congress and their staff. The most recent seminar was given by David Newman on January 28th of this year and was his ''state of the universe'' address. A second seminar is planned this year on the topic of semiconductor manufacturing. Activities under discussion include a topical science fair award for a project on plasmas and the development of a broad, history-based educational web site.

  19. Quantification of growth asymmetries in developing epithelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittig, T.; Wartlick, O.; González-Gaitán, M.; Jülicher, F.

    2009-09-01

    Many developmental processes of multicellular organisms involve the patterning and growth of two-dimensional tissues, so called epithelia. We have quantified the growth of the wing imaginal disk, which is the precursor of the adult wing, of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We find that growth follows a simple rule with exponentially decreasing area growth rate. Anisotropies of growth can be precisely determined by comparing experimental results to a continuum theory. Growth anisotropies are to good approximation constant in space and time. They are weak in wild-type wing disks but threefold increased in GFP-Dpp disks in which the morphogen Dpp is overexpressed. Our findings indicate that morphogens such as Dpp control tissue shape via oriented cell divisions that generate anisotropic growth. in here

  20. Compound equation developed for postnatal growth of birds and mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, A. K.

    1968-01-01

    Compound growth equation was developed in which the rate of this linear growth process is regarded as proportional to the mass already attained at any instant by an underlying Gompertz process. This compound growth model was fitted to the growth data of a variety of birds and mammals of both sexes.

  1. International Coalition of Library Consortia (ICOLC): Guidelines for Technical Issues in Request for Proposal (RFP) Requirements and Contract Negotiations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Libraries and Microcomputers, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents guidelines developed by the ICOLC (International Coalition of Library Consortia) regarding vendor contracts and negotiations that involve electronic information resources. Highlights include content issues, including HTML, use of printers, and use of multimedia; and platform issues, including system architecture, access control, security…

  2. Mechanical forces in plant growth and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, D. D.; Cyr, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    Plant cells perceive forces that arise from the environment and from the biophysics of plant growth. These forces provide meaningful cues that can affect the development of the plant. Seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana were used to examine the cytoplasmic tensile character of cells that have been implicated in the gravitropic response. Laser-trapping technology revealed that the starch-containing statoliths of the central columella cells in root caps are held loosely within the cytoplasm. In contrast, the peripheral cells have starch granules that are relatively resistant to movement. The role of the actin cytoskeleton in affecting the tensile character of these cells is discussed. To explore the role that biophysical forces might play in generating developmental cues, we have developed an experimental model system in which protoplasts, embedded in a synthetic agarose matrix, are subjected to stretching or compression. We have found that protoplasts subjected to these forces from five minutes to two hours will subsequently elongate either at right angles or parallel to the tensive or compressive force vector. Moreover, the cortical microtubules are found to be organized either at right angles or parallel to the tensive or compressive force vector. We discuss these results in terms of an interplay of information between the extracellular matrix and the underlying cytoskeleton.

  3. [Growth factors in human tooth development].

    PubMed

    Bellone, C; Barni, T; Pagni, L; Balboni, G C; Vannelli, G B

    1990-03-01

    Our research concerns the immunohistochemical localization of EGF and IGF-I receptors in the tooth germ, using monoclonal antibodies. The results show that in the early phases of human tooth development EGF and IGF-I receptors are present. At bud stage both receptors are localized at dental laminae level, in some epithelial cells of the tooth bud and in some mesenchymal cells. At cap stage the receptors are present in the outer and inner enamel epithelium, and in some cells of stellate reticulum. As far as concerns the mesenchymal cells, some cells of dental papilla in contact with enamel organ, are intensely positive. The immunopositivity is present also in some mesenchymal cells at follicular level. At late cap stage and at early bell stage receptors are not present at inner enamel epithelium level but they can be detectable in the mesenchyma of dental papilla and in some cells of the follicle. On the basis of these results it may be hypothesized that EGF and IGF-I can act as growth factors in the modulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation during the human tooth morphogenesis. Moreover, it is possible that these substances can play a role in the mesenchymal-epithelial interaction in the developing human tooth.

  4. Coalition contract management as a systems change strategy for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Darrow, William W; Montanea, Julie E; Sánchez-Braña, Elizabeth

    2010-11-01

    Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 provided a unique opportunity for minority community-based organizations (CBOs) to work together to eliminate disparities in HIV disease. A coalition was formed in Broward County to respond to the REACH 2010 program announcement, a university was chosen to coordinate efforts, and contracts were negotiated with CBO partners to develop, implement, and evaluate a community action plan. Contract management provided stability, focus, and a mechanism for coalition partners to measure progress toward achieving project objectives. By emphasizing documentation as well as the delivery of services, however, contract conditions also placed a heavy burden on educational outreach workers, restricted the reimbursable activities of member organizations, and created friction between minority agencies and university staff. Although the coalition met many of its objectives, the introduction and enforcement of a mutually agreed on set of rules and obligations as a way of promoting systems change in Broward County failed to make a lasting impact among community partners. CBOs continued to compete with one another for HIV prevention project funding and stopped collaborating as closely with another when federal support for our REACH 2010 community demonstration project ran out. PMID:19861702

  5. Coalition contract management as a systems change strategy for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Darrow, William W; Montanea, Julie E; Sánchez-Braña, Elizabeth

    2010-11-01

    Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 provided a unique opportunity for minority community-based organizations (CBOs) to work together to eliminate disparities in HIV disease. A coalition was formed in Broward County to respond to the REACH 2010 program announcement, a university was chosen to coordinate efforts, and contracts were negotiated with CBO partners to develop, implement, and evaluate a community action plan. Contract management provided stability, focus, and a mechanism for coalition partners to measure progress toward achieving project objectives. By emphasizing documentation as well as the delivery of services, however, contract conditions also placed a heavy burden on educational outreach workers, restricted the reimbursable activities of member organizations, and created friction between minority agencies and university staff. Although the coalition met many of its objectives, the introduction and enforcement of a mutually agreed on set of rules and obligations as a way of promoting systems change in Broward County failed to make a lasting impact among community partners. CBOs continued to compete with one another for HIV prevention project funding and stopped collaborating as closely with another when federal support for our REACH 2010 community demonstration project ran out.

  6. Bilateral os subtibiale and talocalcaneal coalitions in a college soccer player: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bellapianta, Joseph M; Andrews, James R; Ostrander, Roger V

    2011-01-01

    An os subtibiale is an accessory bone separated from the distal medial tibia proper. Subtalar tarsal coalition is a failure of joint formation between the talus and calcaneus during hindfoot maturation. The patient in this case report has large bilateral os subtibiale and subtalar coalitions, which were undiagnosed throughout his soccer career until recently when he began having anteriorlateral ankle pain. After failing conservative treatment the patient underwent ankle arthroscopy, which revealed a fully separated, large articular portion of the medial malleolus. The hypertrophic synovium and cartilage were debrided and the patient had a full recovery, returning to soccer 8 weeks after surgery. Os subtibiale is a rare but well-described entity in the radiology and orthopaedic liturature. To our knowledge, bilateral os subtibiale this large has not been described. In addition, an os subtibiale with concomitant subtalar coalition has never been reported. This report will hopefully alert clinicians about these 2 rare anatomic findings and encourage them to use caution when evaluating suspected fractures of the medial malleolus that could be functional os subtibiale ossicles. In addition, we hope to shed some light on the complicated coupling of motion between the ankle and subtalar joint. These may have developed together to allow more normal coupled motion between the ankle and subtalar joint in this high-level college soccer player, and may be relevant to future reports or research in this area.

  7. The Personalized Medicine Coalition: goals and strategies.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Edward; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Silver, Mike

    2005-01-01

    The concept of personalized medicine--that medical care can be tailored to the genomic and molecular profile of the individual--has repercussions that extend far beyond the technology that makes it possible. The adoption of personalized medicine will require changes in healthcare infrastructure, diagnostics and therapeutics business models, reimbursement policy from government and private payers, and a different approach to regulatory oversight. Personalized medicine will shift medical practices upstream from the reactive treatment of disease, to proactive healthcare management including screening, early treatment, and prevention, and will alter the roles of both physician and patient. It will create a greater reliance on electronic medical records and decision support systems in an industry that has a long history of resistance to information technology. Personalized medicine requires a systems approach to implementation. But in a healthcare economy that is highly decentralized and market driven, it is incumbent upon the stakeholders themselves to advocate for a consistent set of policies and legislation that pave the way for the adoption of personalized medicine. To address this need, the Personalized Medicine Coalition (PMC) was formed as a nonprofit umbrella organization of pharmaceutical, biotechnology, diagnostic, and information technology companies, healthcare providers and payers, patient advocacy groups, industry policy organizations, major academic institutions, and government agencies. The PMC provides a structure for achieving consensus positions among these stakeholders on crucial public policy issues, a role which will be vital to translating personalized medicine into widespread clinical practice. In this article, we outline the goals of the PMC, and the strategies it will take to foster communication, debate, and consensus on issues such as genetic discrimination, the reimbursement structures for pharmacogenomic drugs and diagnostics, regulation

  8. The Personalized Medicine Coalition: goals and strategies.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Edward; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Silver, Mike

    2005-01-01

    The concept of personalized medicine--that medical care can be tailored to the genomic and molecular profile of the individual--has repercussions that extend far beyond the technology that makes it possible. The adoption of personalized medicine will require changes in healthcare infrastructure, diagnostics and therapeutics business models, reimbursement policy from government and private payers, and a different approach to regulatory oversight. Personalized medicine will shift medical practices upstream from the reactive treatment of disease, to proactive healthcare management including screening, early treatment, and prevention, and will alter the roles of both physician and patient. It will create a greater reliance on electronic medical records and decision support systems in an industry that has a long history of resistance to information technology. Personalized medicine requires a systems approach to implementation. But in a healthcare economy that is highly decentralized and market driven, it is incumbent upon the stakeholders themselves to advocate for a consistent set of policies and legislation that pave the way for the adoption of personalized medicine. To address this need, the Personalized Medicine Coalition (PMC) was formed as a nonprofit umbrella organization of pharmaceutical, biotechnology, diagnostic, and information technology companies, healthcare providers and payers, patient advocacy groups, industry policy organizations, major academic institutions, and government agencies. The PMC provides a structure for achieving consensus positions among these stakeholders on crucial public policy issues, a role which will be vital to translating personalized medicine into widespread clinical practice. In this article, we outline the goals of the PMC, and the strategies it will take to foster communication, debate, and consensus on issues such as genetic discrimination, the reimbursement structures for pharmacogenomic drugs and diagnostics, regulation

  9. Hox in hair growth and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awgulewitsch, Alexander

    2003-05-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Hox gene family of transcriptional regulators has originally been known for specifying positional identities along the longitudinal body axis of bilateral metazoans, including mouse and man. It is believed that subsequent to this archaic role, subsets of Hox genes have been co-opted for patterning functions in phylogenetically more recent structures, such as limbs and epithelial appendages. Among these, the hair follicle is of particular interest, as it is the only organ undergoing cyclical phases of regression and regeneration during the entire life span of an organism. Furthermore, the hair follicle is increasingly capturing the attention of developmental geneticists, as this abundantly available miniature organ mimics key aspects of embryonic patterning and, in addition, presents a model for studying organ renewal. The first Hox gene shown to play a universal role in hair follicle development is Hoxc13, as both Hoxc13-deficient and overexpressing mice exhibit severe hair growth and patterning defects. Differential gene expression analyses in the skin of these mutants, as well as in vitro DNA binding studies performed with potential targets for HOXC13 transcriptional regulation in human hair, identified genes encoding hair-specific keratins and keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) as major groups of presumptive Hoxc13 downstream effectors in the control of hair growth. The Hoxc13 mutant might thus serve as a paradigm for studying hair-specific roles of Hoxc13 and other members of this gene family, whose distinct spatio-temporally restricted expression patterns during hair development and cycling suggest discrete functions in follicular patterning and hair cycle control. The main conclusion from a discussion of these potential roles vis-à-vis current expression data in mouse and man, and from the perspective of the results obtained with the Hoxc13 transgenic models, is that members of the Hox family are likely to fulfill essential roles

  10. Endoscopic Resection of a Talocalcaneal Coalition Using a Posteromedial Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Koji; Kumai, Tsukasa; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2013-01-01

    Resection is a standard surgical procedure for a talocalcaneal coalition (TCC). A posterior approach is the representative technique for hindfoot endoscopy, and there is only 1 report of endoscopic resection of TCC using this approach. Disadvantages of the posterior approach for TCC are as follows: (1) the indication is limited to posterior-facet coalition, (2) the flexor hallucis longus can be an obstacle in approaching the coalition, (3) the acute insertion angle between the endoscope and instrument reduces operability, and (4) a position change and additional skin incision are essential for conversion to an open procedure. In contrast, a posteromedial approach for TCC with established portals at the entrance and exit of the flexor retinaculum is a useful technique because (1) the indication is allow to middle- and posterior-facet coalitions, (2) increased perfusion pressure allows the creation of sufficient working space, (3) operating the instrument only at the coalition site decreases the risk of tendon injury and neurovascular damage, (4) the obtuse insertion angle between the endoscope and instrument improves operability, and (5) a position change and additional skin incision are unnecessary for conversion to an open procedure. PMID:24749021

  11. Forecasting Austrian national elections: The Grand Coalition model

    PubMed Central

    Aichholzer, Julian; Willmann, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Forecasting the outcomes of national elections has become established practice in several democracies. In the present paper, we develop an economic voting model for forecasting the future success of the Austrian ‘grand coalition’, i.e., the joint electoral success of the two mainstream parties SPOE and OEVP, at the 2013 Austrian Parliamentary Elections. Our main argument is that the success of both parties is strongly tied to the accomplishments of the Austrian system of corporatism, that is, the Social Partnership (Sozialpartnerschaft), in providing economic prosperity. Using data from Austrian national elections between 1953 and 2008 (n=18), we rely on the following predictors in our forecasting model: (1) unemployment rates, (2) previous incumbency of the two parties, and (3) dealignment over time. We conclude that, in general, the two mainstream parties benefit considerably from low unemployment rates, and are weakened whenever they have previously formed a coalition government. Further, we show that they have gradually been losing a good share of their voter basis over recent decades. PMID:26339109

  12. MRI Findings of Talocalcaneal Coalition: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Umul, Ayşe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tarsal coalition is abnormal fusion of two or more tarsal bones and is a common cause of foot pain. There are osseous, cartilaginous and fibrous subtypes. Calcaneonavicular and talocalcaneal coalitions are more frequent. Radiography is the primary diagnostic tool, however CT and MRI are precious examinations for differential diagnosis of osseous /non-osseous coalitions separations. Furthermore, cross-sectional imaging methods indicate the extension and secondary degenerative joint changes. Case reports: The detection of bone marrow of edema in the articulation area is valuable for diagnosis Hereby, we present two cases, 24 years old female and 35 years old male, with the diagnosis of talocalcaneal coaliation. We also discuss MRI and radiographic findings. PMID:26483601

  13. Evaluation informs coalition programming for environmental tobacco smoke reduction.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Mary E; Mueller, Keith J; Harrop, Dianne

    2003-01-01

    The objective for this formative evaluation was to establish baseline data for informing a community coalition's strategic planning in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) risk reduction. The coalition had chosen 3 targeted settings for ETS risk reduction: restaurants, childcare facilities, and government buildings. The evaluation methodology involved telephone interviews (restaurants, n = 805; governmental buildings, n = 258) and mailed surveys (childcare facilities, n = 1,142). Data on county residents and businesses were used for comparison purposes and were analyzed from the Nebraska Social Climate Survey (2001; n = 558). Evaluation baseline findings showed that licensed childcare facilities were more ETS knowledgeable, less ETS tolerant, and more smoke-free than restaurants. Residents were more bothered by ETS than what restaurant proprietors perceived. The majority of governmental buildings were not smoke-free. Conclusions were that community health nurse evaluators can provide coalitions with formative evaluative data to inform strategic planning and increase the likelihood of effective program interventions for community impact on ETS.

  14. Population growth: ecological success or development handicap?

    PubMed

    Coleman, D

    1991-01-01

    "This paper considers whether biological criteria of reproductive success are useful in considering the causes and consequences of...human population growth. Particular attention is given to the relative rates of growth of different human groups. The paper considers mechanisms of human population regulation, their classification as 'demographic regimes', and the relative importance of 'positive' and 'preventive' checks. It concludes that while in general rapid population growth now usually confers disadvantages in terms of human welfare, more traditional interpretations may still be appropriate in view of, for example, the increasing political and social influence enjoyed by rapidly increasing minorities compared with other populations in the same society which have lower rates of reproduction."

  15. Large-area sheet task advanced dendritic web growth development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hopkins, R. H.; Meier, D. L.; Schruben, J.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal models were developed that accurately predict the thermally generated stresses in the web crystal which, if too high, cause the crystal to degenerate. The application of the modeling results to the design of low-stress experimental growth configurations will allow the growth of wider web crystals at higher growth velocities. A new experimental web growth machine was constructed. This facility includes all the features necessary for carrying out growth experiments under steady thermal conditions. Programmed growth initiation was developed to give reproducible crystal starts. Width control permits the growth of long ribbons at constant width. Melt level is controlled to 0.1 mm or better. Thus, the capability exists to grow long web crystals of constant width and thickness with little operator intervention, and web growth experiments can now be performed with growth variables controlled to a degree not previously possible.

  16. Mapping one strong 'Ohana: using network analysis and GIS to enhance the effectiveness of a statewide coalition to prevent child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Cardazone, Gina; U Sy, Angela; Chik, Ivan; Corlew, Laura Kate

    2014-06-01

    Network analysis and GIS enable the presentation of meaningful data about organizational relationships and community characteristics, respectively. Together, these tools can provide a concrete representation of the ecological context in which coalitions operate, and may help coalitions identify opportunities for growth and enhanced effectiveness. This study uses network analysis and GIS mapping as part of an evaluation of the One Strong 'Ohana (OSO) campaign. The OSO campaign was launched in 2012 via a partnership between the Hawai'i Children's Trust Fund (HCTF) and the Joyful Heart Foundation. The OSO campaign uses a collaborative approach aimed at increasing public awareness of child maltreatment and protective factors that can prevent maltreatment, as well as enhancing the effectiveness of the HCTF Coalition. This study focuses on three elements of the OSO campaign evaluation: (1) Network analysis exploring the relationships between 24 active Coalition member organizations, (2) GIS mapping of responses to a randomized statewide phone survey (n = 1,450) assessing awareness of factors contributing to child maltreatment, and (3) Combined GIS maps and network data, illustrating opportunities for geographically-targeted coalition building and public awareness activities.

  17. Trust dynamics in multi-agent coalition formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulski, Dariusz G.; Lewis, Frank L.; Gu, Edward Y.; Hudas, Greg R.

    2011-05-01

    We present a rigorous treatment of coalition formation based on trust interactions in multi-agent systems. Current literature on trust in multi-agent systems primarily deals with trust models and protocols of interaction in noncooperative scenarios. Here, we use cooperative game theory as the underlying mathematical framework to study the trust dynamics between agents as a result of their trust synergy and trust liability in cooperative coalitions. We rigorously justify the behaviors of agents for different classes of games, and discuss ways to exploit the formal properties of these games for specific applications, such as unmanned cooperative control.

  18. From Read Ahead to Literacy Coalition: The Leadership Role of the Central New York Community Foundation in the Creation of a Local Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridzi, Frank; Carmody, Virginia; Byrnes, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies the lens of recent literature on neoinstitutionalism and institutional entrepreneurship to understand the stages of growth in a new community Literacy Coalition. It explores the interactional, technical and cultural phases of institution building identified in other case studies as they emerge in this community study. Finally,…

  19. Testing a Comprehensive Community Problem-Solving Framework for Community Coalitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Evelyn; Foster-Fishman, Pennie; Collins, Charles; Ahn, Soyeon

    2012-01-01

    Community problem solving is believed to help coalitions achieve community changes and subsequent population-level reductions in targeted community health problems. This study empirically examined a community problem solving model used by CADCA, a national coalition training organization, to determine if the model explains how coalitions become…

  20. Lessons from the Field: Community Anti-Drug Coalitions as Catalysts for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Theresa M.; Lenczner, Sarah J.

    This document describes a study of the organization, operation, sustainability, and impact of community anti-drug coalitions nationwide. The study involved case studies of eight highly effective community coalitions and a cross-case analysis of characteristics shared among the coalitions. A consistent set of distinguishing features was examined…

  1. Strategies for Building Local Literacy Coalitions as Seen through a Social Capital Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewiss, Jennifer; Pickard, Larissa Vigue

    2010-01-01

    Literacy coalitions have been organized in various settings, from small towns and cities to counties and states. Coalitions are alliances "created for the purpose of joint action [and] drawn together by common interests." Literacy coalitions promote the power and pleasure of reading and stimulate community conversations about literacy. This…

  2. Liking and Power as Factors Affecting Coalition Choices in the Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nacci, Peter L.; Tedeschi, James T.

    1976-01-01

    Effects of resource capability and interpersonal attraction on coalition behavior were studied. Introductory psychology students role played across three experimental conditions. Subjects were asked to select a coalition partner, predict formation of coalition, estimate winnings distribution. Male and female choices and predictions differed.…

  3. Growth Contracting for Faculty Development. Idea Paper No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Ed; Oggel, Terry

    The concept of growth contracting in higher education and the applications and limitations of growth plans are examined. In addition, critical steps in the process of developing contracts with faculty are identified. A professional growth plan is a binding agreement, which helps faculty and institutional representatives clarify specific goals.…

  4. Large-area sheet task advanced dendritic web growth development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    Modeling in the development of low stress configurations for wide web growth is presented. Parametric sensitivity to identify design features which can be used for dynamic trimming of the furnace element was studied. Temperature measurements of experimental growth behavior led to modification in the growth system to improve lateral temperature distributions.

  5. Adult Literacy Development and Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reder, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The research presented in this report offers new insights about the relationship between changes in adult literacy and changes in employment and earnings. This paper will first describe the design and methodology of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Literacy (LSAL) and then present the key findings from LSAL about individuals' literacy growth over…

  6. Omnishambles: Reactions to the Second Year of Coalition Education Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The UK's Coalition Government completed its second year in office in May 2012. Many of its policies and pronouncements have been divisive and are contributing to the dismantling of the state education system as we have known it. Here, reflecting George Orwell's observation that "Every joke against the established order is a tiny revolution", Colin…

  7. Guide to Performance Management for Community Literacy Coalitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatry, Harry; Morley, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    Coalitions have key roles in helping their communities accomplish the following: (1) Track the level of literacy in the community; (2) Use that information to help identify what, and how much, literacy assistance is needed; (3) Assess the extent to which community literacy programs are meeting the need, including how well existing literacy…

  8. Toward Community Research and Coalitional Literacy Practices for Educational Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campano, Gerald; Ghiso, María Paula; Yee, Mary; Pantoja, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Community-based research can provide an avenue for understanding the complexities of students' and families' lives and working together for educational justice through what we refer to as coalitional literacy practices. In this article, we share a critical incident about a student's absence from school as an illustrative case of the…

  9. Coalition in New York studies improving access to capital.

    PubMed

    Pallarito, K

    1992-11-16

    A coalition convened by the Greater New York Hospital Association is studying ways to improve access to capital, an area of healthcare reform the group says has been largely overlooked. The group, including representatives from hospitals, investment banking, accounting firms and the state, will issue a report outlining its recommendations. The findings also will be presented to the White House. PMID:10122217

  10. Unusual coalition seeks tighter NOx standards in northeast

    SciTech Connect

    Lobsenz, G.

    1994-08-25

    A coalition of environmentalists and major Northeast-based companies, including one utility, have called for stringent new regionwide controls on nitrogen oxides emissions from power plants and industrial facilities. A letter to the Northeastern Governors said the North east could not effectively address its urban smog problem with out significantly tighter limits.

  11. National Coalition of Advanced Technology Centers Proposal to the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition of Advanced Technology Centers, Waco, TX.

    In 1988, nine institutions operating advanced technology centers (ATC's) to provide workers with up-to-date technical skills formed the National Coalition of Advanced Technology Centers (NCATC). The center was established to increase awareness of ATC's, serve as a forum for the discussion and demonstration of new and underused technologies,…

  12. West Virginia's Environmental Council: Birth of a Citizen Coalition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Mary J.

    1995-01-01

    West Virginia's strong environmental legislation is due to the efforts of the West Virginia Environmental Council. The history of the statewide coalition is presented, as well as organizational aspects that make the council successful, such as loose structure based on consensus, and respect for all the different shades of green comprising the…

  13. Talocalcaneal coalition in a 15 year old female basketball player.

    PubMed

    Schenkel, David; Degraauw, Jennifer; Degraauw, Christopher

    2010-12-01

    This case reports an adolescent athlete with activity related chronic bilateral dorsal foot pain and stiffness. A 15 year old competitive female basketball player presented to a chiropractor subsequent to an unsuccessful course of conservative treatment for posterior tibial dysfunction. The patient's plain films were incorrectly read as normal and a CT scan obtained by the radiologist called the findings bilateral osteoarthritis. The patient was awaiting a referral to a rheumatologist at the time of initial consultation with the chiropractor. Examination revealed limited subtalar mobility and review of the images revealed bilateral non-osseous talocalcaneal coalition. The patient was subsequently directed to a pediatric orthopedic surgeon and is scheduled for a resection of the coalition. Primary care practitioners should be aware of this uncommon, but not rare, variable clinical presentation as misdiagnosis and mismanagement could lead to suboptimal patient outcomes. To our knowledge this is the first case report of a patient with tarsal coalition published in chiropractic literature. In addition, this case is the first to report radiographic evidence of chronic mechanical stress to the second metatarsal associated with tarsal coalition.

  14. Development of Technology Transfer Economic Growth Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastrangelo, Christina M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of producing technology transfer metrics that answer the question: Do NASA/MSFC technical assistance activities impact economic growth? The data for this project resides in a 7800-record database maintained by Tec-Masters, Incorporated. The technology assistance data results from survey responses from companies and individuals who have interacted with NASA via a Technology Transfer Agreement, or TTA. The goal of this project was to determine if the existing data could provide indications of increased wealth. This work demonstrates that there is evidence that companies that used NASA technology transfer have a higher job growth rate than the rest of the economy. It also shows that the jobs being supported are jobs in higher wage SIC codes, and this indicates improvements in personal wealth. Finally, this work suggests that with correct data, the wealth issue may be addressed.

  15. Mechanical regulation of plant growth and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Soybean and eggplant grown and shaken in a greenhouse exhibited decreased internode length, internode diameter, leaf area, and fresh and dry weight of roots and shoots in much the same way as outdoor-exposed plants. Perhaps more important than decreased dimensions of plant parts resulting from periodic seismic treatment is the inhibition of photosynthetic productivity that accompanies this stress. Soybeam plants briefly shaken or rubbed twice daily experienced a decrease in relative as well as absolute growth rate compared to that of undisturbed controls. Growth dynamics analysis revealed that virtually all of the decline in relative growth rate (RGR) was due to a decline in net assimilation rate (NAR), but not in leaf area ratio (LAR). Lower NAR suggests that the stress-induced decrease in dry weight gain is due to a decline in photosynthetic efficiency. Possible effects on stomatal aperture was investigated by measuring rates of whole plant transpiration as a function of seismo-stress, and a transitory decrease followed by a gradual, partial recovery was detected.

  16. Talocalcaneal coalition combined with flatfoot in children: diagnosis and treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Binghua; Tang, Kanglai; Hardy, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Talocalcaneal coalition often leads to a flatfoot deformity in children. Previous reports have uncovered many aspects of tarsal coalition and flatfoot respectively, including the etiology, clinical presentation, and diagnostic imaging, as well as treatment. However, the optimum surgical procedure for talocalcaneal coalition combined with flatfoot has not been definitively determined. The nonconformity of treatment options is due to our incomplete knowledge of biomechanics, diagnosis, and indication of treatment for talocalcaneal coalition with flatfoot. The objectives of this review are to provide an overview of the current knowledge about etiology, biomechanics, classification, diagnosis, and treatment options for talocalcaneal coalitions with flatfoot and highlight its therapies in children.

  17. Analysing growth and development of plants jointly using developmental growth stages

    PubMed Central

    Dambreville, Anaëlle; Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Normand, Frédéric; Guédon, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant growth, the increase of organ dimensions over time, and development, the change in plant structure, are often studied as two separate processes. However, there is structural and functional evidence that these two processes are strongly related. The aim of this study was to investigate the co-ordination between growth and development using mango trees, which have well-defined developmental stages. Methods Developmental stages, determined in an expert way, and organ sizes, determined from objective measurements, were collected during the vegetative growth and flowering phases of two cultivars of mango, Mangifera indica. For a given cultivar and growth unit type (either vegetative or flowering), a multistage model based on absolute growth rate sequences deduced from the measurements was first built, and then growth stages deduced from the model were compared with developmental stages. Key Results Strong matches were obtained between growth stages and developmental stages, leading to a consistent definition of integrative developmental growth stages. The growth stages highlighted growth asynchronisms between two topologically connected organs, namely the vegetative axis and its leaves. Conclusions Integrative developmental growth stages emphasize that developmental stages are closely related to organ growth rates. The results are discussed in terms of the possible physiological processes underlying these stages, including plant hydraulics, biomechanics and carbohydrate partitioning. PMID:25452250

  18. Sacroiliac Coalition: First Description and Report of a Successful Resection

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Axel; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea; Berezowska, Sabina; D'Anastasi, Melvin; Birkenmaier, Christof

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective This report describes the first case of a sacroiliac coalition, its clinical features, the diagnostic difficulties, and the surgical treatment chosen in this case. Methods A 33-year-old man presented to our outpatient clinics complaining of severe left-sided low back pain with an intermitted nondermatomal radiation into the left thigh. The only abnormality on a pelvic radiograph was a coin-size, faint hyperdensity, which was almost overlooked. Subsequent computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed two bridging bone spurs on the anterior surface of the left joint with a fibrous interruption at the apex. After the conservative treatment failed, a surgical treatment was offered to the patient. The coalition was resected via an anterior retroperitoneal approach and through the tissue plane between the psoas and the iliacus muscles. A histopathologic examination was performed and confirmed the diagnosis of a coalition. Results The patient's pain resolved immediately after surgery. After 8 months, a follow-up CT scan showed complete removal of the coalition without any signs of recurrence, and at 12 months' follow-up, the patient remained pain-free. Conclusions This is the first published case of a sacroiliac coalition. The only sign of this rare condition on the plain radiographs was very easy to miss. As has been discussed in the literature, CT and MRI are important in the differential diagnostics of such lesions. The histopathologic findings included that of a fibrous bar, confirming the diagnosis, which is further corroborated by the complete resolution of the symptoms. PMID:26430601

  19. Western and Chinese Development Discourses: Education, Growth and Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2009-01-01

    This article examines Western and Chinese discourses of education, sustainable growth and development. Education is increasingly considered as a means to fuel economic growth, especially since the 1980s, when conservative economic values became predominant in Western development thought. Despite a discourse on sustainability favouring ecologically…

  20. A Coalition on the Public Understanding of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, L.; Hehn, J.; Kass, J.; O'Grady, R.; Scotchmoor, J.; Stucky, R.

    2006-12-01

    For many of the problems facing contemporary societies, such as potential impacts of climate change, coastal degradation, reductions of fisheries stocks, volcanic and earthquake hazards in densely populated areas, quality and availability of water, and exploitation of hydrocarbon resources and development of alternative energy sources, formulation of wise public policy depends on evaluation of the state of geoscientific research in the relevant areas. In a democratic society, public discourse about and input to policy decisions on key issues affecting the public welfare requires a public that understands the scientific research process, values the contribution of science to society, and has a working knowledge of what science can and cannot yet say about specific issues. Arguably, that ideal falls short in contemporary American society. Disturbing trends in science education, low public scientific literacy, and increasing alarms about U.S. competitiveness have all been prominent national news topics in recent years. (1) A recent National Science Board report indicated that two-thirds of Americans do not understand what science is, how it is conducted, and what one can expect from it. (2) A recent Gallup poll reports widespread and increasingly prevalent belief in pseudoscience. (3) There is a growing public complacency about and disengagement from science at the very moment when the impact of science on public life is greater than ever. (4) The Business Roundtable of major U.S. companies notes that the scientific and technical building blocks of our economic leadership are eroding at a time when many other nations are gathering strength. In response, a Coalition on the Public Understanding of Science COPUS has been initiated. Essential to COPUS is the premise that public understanding of science and the scientific process and an awareness of the impacts of scientific advancements on our quality of life are necessary to increase student interest in science as a

  1. The Rare Cuboid-Navicular Coalition Presenting as Chronic Foot Pain

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Omer; Graham, James Allen

    2015-01-01

    Tarsal coalitions are relatively rare diagnoses affecting adolescent patients that typically present with progressive foot pain. Cuboid-navicular coalition, a type of tarsal coalition, is extremely rare with less than 10 reported cases to date. Most prevailing theories reported have described this specific type of coalition as asymptomatic except at specific moments of stress and exercise. The purpose in presenting this case is to demonstrate that cuboid-navicular coalition can be associated with chronic unremitting pain, as in our patient. We present a case of cuboid-navicular fibrocartilaginous coalition in an adolescent patient presenting with chronic foot pain. Furthermore, from an imaging standpoint, radiographic findings are often subtle and radiologists cannot rely on indirect signs such as talar beak in clinching the diagnosis of cuboid-navicular coalition. Instead, abnormal articulation between the cuboid and navicular must be sought. PMID:25688320

  2. Community coalitions for prevention and health promotion: factors predicting satisfaction, participation, and planning.

    PubMed

    Butterfoss, F D; Goodman, R M; Wandersman, A

    1996-02-01

    Coalitions currently are a popular tool for promoting community-based solutions to health problems, such as alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) abuse. Private foundations, granting agencies, and other public health organizations assume that participation of community members in health promotion coalitions will increase the likelihood of program success. This article examines whether key characteristics of coalitions are related to effectiveness as measured by member satisfaction, commitment to the coalition, and the quality of planning efforts. Member survey data from the first year evaluation of an ATOD coalition were analyzed using factor analysis, chi-square, and multiple regression techniques at both the individual and group levels. The results suggest that community leadership, shared decision making, linkages with other organizations, and a positive organizational climate were key determinants of member satisfaction and participation. These same factors were not related to the quality of coalition plans. However, the significance of coalitions for community empowerment and health promotion is discussed.

  3. [Intrauterine growth retardation and lung development].

    PubMed

    Zana-Taïeb, E; Aubelle, M-S; El Ayoubi, M; Lopez, E; Jarreau, P-H

    2013-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that intrauterine growth restriction is associated with increased respiratory morbidity in the neonatal period with an increased risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Respiratory consequences of environmental intrauterine changes extend into childhood and adulthood with abnormal lung function tests. In animal models, changes in surfactant and alveolarization disorders vary from one study to another. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Fetal adaptations to intrauterine malnutrition result in permanent changes in lung structure, raising the question of lung "programming". PMID:23886868

  4. Seedling growth and development on space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowles, J.; Lemay, R.; Jahns, G.

    1994-01-01

    Young pine seedlings, and mung bean and oat seeds were flown on shuttle flights, STS-3 and STS-51F, in March, 1982 and July/August, 1985, respectively. The plant growth units built to support the two experiments functioned mechanically as anticipated and provided the necessary support data. Pine seedlings exposed to the microgravity environment of the space shuttle for 8 days continued to grow at a rate similar to ground controls. Pine stems in flight seedlings, however, averaged 10 to 12% less lignin than controls. Flight mung beans grew slower than control beans and their stems contained about 25% less lignin than control seedlings. Reduced mung bean growth in microgravity was partly due to slower germination rate. Lignin also was reduced in flight oats as compared to controls. Oats and mung beans exhibited upward growing roots which were not observed in control seedlings. Chlorophyll A/B ratios were lower in flight tissues than controls. The sealed PGCs exhibited large variations in atmospheric gas composition but the changes were similar between flight and ground controls. Ethylene was present in low concentrations in all chambers.

  5. Seedling growth and development on space shuttle.

    PubMed

    Cowles, J; LeMay, R; Jahns, G

    1994-11-01

    Young pine seedlings, and mung bean and oat seeds were flown on shuttle flights, STS-3 and STS-51F, in March, 1982 and July/August, 1985, respectively. The plant growth units built to support the two experiments functioned mechanically as anticipated and provided the necessary support data. Pine seedlings exposed to the microgravity environment of the space shuttle for 8 days continued to grow at a rate similar to ground controls. Pine stems in flight seedlings, however, averaged 10 to 12% less lignin than controls. Flight mung beans grew slower than control beans and their stems contained about 25% less lignin than control seedlings. Reduced mung bean growth in microgravity was partly due to slower germination rate. Lignin also was reduced in flight oats as compared to controls. Oats and mung beans exhibited upward growing roots which were not observed in control seedlings. Chlorophyll A/B ratios were lower in flight tissues than controls. The sealed PGCs exhibited large variations in atmospheric gas composition but the changes were similar between flight and ground controls. Ethylene was present in low concentrations in all chambers.

  6. Seedling growth and development on space shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowles, J.; Lemay, R.; Jahns, G.

    1994-11-01

    Young pine seedlings, and mung bean and oat seeds were flown on shuttle flights, STS-3 and STS-51F, in March, 1982 and July/August, 1985, respectively. The plant growth units built to support the two experiments functioned mechanically as anticipated and provided the necessary support data. Pine seedlings exposed to the microgravity environment of the space shuttle for 8 days continued to grow at a rate similar to ground controls. Pine stems in flight seedlings, however, averaged 10 to 12% less lignin than controls. Flight mung beans grew slower than control beans and their stems contained about 25% less lignin than control seedlings. Reduced mung bean growth in microgravity was partly due to slower germination rate. Lignin also was reduced in flight oats as compared to controls. Oats and mung beans exhibited upward growing roots which were not observed in control seedlings. Chlorophll A/B ratios were lower in flight tissues than controls. The sealed PGCs exhibited large variations in atmospheric gas composition but the changes were similar between flight and ground controls. Ethylene was present in low concentrations in all chambers.

  7. Coalition Warfare Program (CWP): secure policy controlled information query and dissemination over a Bices network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Andrew; Pham, Tien; Karr, Todd; Bent, Graham; Harries, Dominic; Knox, Alan

    2013-05-01

    In 2006, the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) established a collaborative research alliance with academia and industry, called the International Technology Alliance (ITA) to address fundamental issues concerning Network and Information Sciences. Under the ITA research program, a US-UK transition project on "ITA Policy Controlled Information Query and Dissemination" was funded in 2011 by OSD's Coalition Warfare Program (CWP). The goal of this CWP project is to develop an extensible capability of performing distributed federated query and information dissemination across a coalition network of distributed disparate data/information sources with access­ controlled policies. The CWP project is lead by US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and UK Defence Science Technology Laboratory (Dstl) with software development by IBM UK and IBM US. The CWP project exploits two key technology components developed within the ITA, namely the Gaian Database and integrated Access Policy Decision and Enforcement mechanisms. The Gaian Database (GaianDB) is a Dynamic Distributed Federated Database (DDFD) that addresses a need to share information among coalition members by providing a means for policy-controlled access to data across a network of heterogeneous data sources. GaianDB implements a SQL-compliant Store-Locally-Query-Anywhere (SLQA) approach providing software applications with global access to data from any node in the database network via standard SQL queries. Security policy is stored locally and enforced at the database node level, reducing potential for unauthorized data access and waste of network bandwidth. A key metric of success for a CWP project is the transition of coalition-related technology from TRL-3 or 4 to TRL-6 or higher. Thus, the end goal of this CWP project was to demonstrate the GaianDB and policy technology within an operational environment at the NATO Intelligence Fusion Centre (NIFC) at Molesworth RAF. An initial

  8. Power and Politics in the Global Health Landscape: Beliefs, Competition and Negotiation Among Global Advocacy Coalitions in the Policy-Making Process

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Background: Advocacy coalitions play an increasingly prominent role within the global health landscape, linking actors and institutions to attract political attention and resources. This paper examines how coalitions negotiate among themselves and exercise hidden forms of power to produce policy on the basis of their beliefs and strategic interests. Methods: This paper examines the beliefs and behaviours of health advocacy coalitions using Sabatier’s Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) as an informal theoretical lens. Coalitions are further explored in relation to the concept of transnational advocacy networks (Keck and Sikkink) and of productive power (Shiffman). The ACF focuses on explaining how policy change takes place when there is conflict concerning goals and technical approaches among different actors. This study uses participant observation methods, self-reported survey results and semi-structured qualitative interviews to trace how a major policy project of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) era, the Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health, was constructed through negotiations among maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) advocacy coalitions. Results: The Global Strategy represented a new opportunity for high-level political attention. Despite differing policy beliefs, MNCH and SRHR actors collaborated to produce this strategy because of anticipated gains in political attention. While core beliefs did not shift fundamentally and collaboration was primarily a short-term tactical response to a time-bound opportunity, MNCH actors began to focus more on human rights perspectives and SRHR actors adopted greater use of quantifiable indicators and economic argumentation. This shift emphasises the inherent importance of SRHR to maternal and child health survival. Conclusion: As opportunities arise, coalitions respond based on principles and policy beliefs, as well as to perceptions of

  9. Genetic determinants of prepubertal and pubertal growth and development.

    PubMed

    Thomis, Martine A; Towne, Bradford

    2006-12-01

    This article surveys the current general understanding of genetic influences on within- and between-population variation in growth and development in the context of establishing an International Growth Standard for Preadolescent and Adolescent Children. Traditional genetic epidemiologic analysis methods are reviewed, and evidence from family studies for genetic effects on different measures of growth and development is then presented. Findings from linkage and association studies seeking to identify specific genomic locations and allelic variants of genes influencing variation in growth and maturation are then summarized. Special mention is made of the need to study the interactions between genes and environments. At present, specific genes and polymorphisms contributing to variation in growth and maturation are only beginning to be identified. Larger genetic epidemiologic studies are needed in different parts of the world to better explore population differences in gene frequencies and gene-environment interactions. As advances continue to be made in molecular and statistical genetic methods, the genetic architecture of complex processes, including those of growth and development, will become better elucidated. For now, it can only be concluded that although the fundamental genetic underpinnings of the growth and development of children worldwide are likely to be essentially the same, there are also likely to be differences between populations in the frequencies of allelic gene variants that influence growth and maturation and in the nature of gene-environment interactions. This does not necessarily preclude an international growth reference, but it does have important implications for the form that such a reference might ultimately take.

  10. Myxococcus xanthus Growth, Development, and Isolation.

    PubMed

    Vaksman, Zalman; Kaplan, Heidi B

    2015-11-03

    Myxobacteria are a highly social group among the delta proteobacteria that display unique multicellular behaviors during their complex life cycle and provide a rare opportunity to study the boundary between single cells and multicellularity. These organisms are also unusual as their entire life cycle is surface associated and includes a number of social behaviors: social gliding and rippling motility, 'wolf-pack'-like predation, and self-organizing complex biostructures, termed fruiting bodies, which are filled with differentiated environmentally resistant spores. Here we present methods for the growth, maintenance, and storage of Myxococcus xanthus, the most commonly studied of the myxobacteria. We also include methods to examine various developmental and social behaviors (fruiting body and spore formation, predation, and rippling motility). As the myxobacteria, similar to the streptomycetes, are excellent sources of many characterized and uncharacterized antibiotics and other natural products, we have provided a protocol for obtaining natural isolates from a variety of environmental sources.

  11. Growth and development after hematopoietic cell transplant in children.

    PubMed

    Sanders, J E

    2008-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) following high-dose chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy for children with malignant or nonmalignant hematologic disorders has resulted in an increasing number of long-term disease-free survivors. The preparative regimens include high doses of alkylating agents, such as CY with or without BU, and may include TBI. These agents impact the neuroendocrine system in growing children and their subsequent growth and development. Children receiving high-dose CY or BUCY have normal thyroid function, but those who receive TBI-containing regimens may develop thyroid function abnormalities. Growth is not impacted by chemotherapy-only preparative regimens, but TBI is likely to result in growth hormone deficiency and decreased growth rates that need to be treated with synthetic growth hormone therapy. Children who receive high-dose CY-only have normal development through puberty, whereas those who receive BUCY have a high incidence of delayed pubertal development. Following fractionated TBI preparative regimens, approximately half of the patients have normal pubertal development. These data demonstrate that the growth and development problems after HCT are dependent upon the preparative regimen received. All children should be followed for years after HCT for detection of growth and development abnormalities that are treatable with appropriate hormone therapy.

  12. Problems of urban development and growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerlach, A. C.; Wray, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The increase in the density of human population in urban areas and the effects on various aspects of the environment are discussed. The application of remote sensors to measure, analyze, and predict urban changes and their environmental impact is described. Examples of urban area mapping by aerial photography are included. The methods which have been developed to acquire, analyze, utilize, and preserve remotely sensed data on urban development are presented.

  13. The UC Berkeley K-12 Science Coalition - Facilitating Student Participation in Space Science Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, I.

    1999-05-01

    Although many astronomy undergraduate and graduate majors are interested in becoming professional astronomers, there is a growing number of students interested in following their astronomy training with alternate careers in science education. My talk will describe innovative opportunities for students at UC Berkeley to gain experience in K-12 science education and outreach through a coordinated effort, the UC Berkeley K-12 Science Coalition. At institutions of higher education, the many science departments and research units have disciplinary foci that are too specialized to meet the broad needs of the K-12 science curriculum. Thus, coordination of individual efforts is the only way to provide a cohesive program of support for K-12 schools, and fulfill science education standards and curricular requirements at the various grade levels. At UC Berkeley alone, scores of science education and outreach programs exist in many disciplinary areas working with schools at all grade levels. Until recently, these programs have traditionally worked independently of each other and without consistent levels of coordination with school district priorities. The UC Berkeley K-12 Science Coalition has recently been established under the leadership of the campus' Executive Vice Chancellor and Provost, to coordinate individual science outreach efforts to best serve the K-12 community. The goals of such coordination are to improve K-12 student achievement, teacher professional development, and curriculum through a cohesive structure in which the various programs and academic departments/units can contribute effectively. The Science Coalition will also serve as a framework for UC Berkeley students to participate effectively in science education, obtain needed training and experience, as well as an opportunity to explore alternate careers with an astronomy degree.

  14. Population growth and development: the case of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nakibullah, A

    1998-04-01

    In a poor, overly populated country such as Bangladesh, some believe that a high rate of population growth is a cause of poverty which impedes economic development. Population growth would therefore be exogenous to economic development. However, others believe that rapid population growth is a consequence rather than a cause of poverty. Population growth is therefore endogenous to economic development. Findings are presented from an investigation of whether population growth has been exogenous or endogenous with respect to Bangladesh's development process during the past 3 decades. The increase in per capita real gross domestic product (GDP) is used as a measure of development. Data on population, real GDP per capita, and real investment share of GDP are drawn from the Penn World Table prepared by Summers and Heston in 1991. The data are annual and cover the period 1959-90. Analysis of the data indicate that population growth is endogenous to Bangladesh's development process. These findings are reflected both in the Granger causality tests and the decompositions of variances of detrended real GDP per capita and population growth.

  15. Intellectual College Development Related to Alumni Perceptions of Personal Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, T. Dary

    2012-01-01

    Alumni self-ratings of their personal growth were linked to their intellectual development during college four to seven years earlier. Graduates that were satisfied with their personal growth in the arts, creative thinking, making logical inferences, learning independently, exercising initiative, and tolerating other points of view had higher…

  16. The Use of Twitter for Professional Growth and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstein, Jackie

    2011-01-01

    Twitter, the micro blogging tool, has seen unprecedented growth in the past year and is expected to continue into the future. Twitter's power, engagement, and popularity lie in its endless networking opportunities. Its potential as a venue for professional growth and development needs to be explored, discussed, and ultimately used as such. A brief…

  17. Educational Leadership: Personal Growth for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Herry

    2004-01-01

    Henry Tomlinson discusses how important it is that leaders of educational organizations know themselves in order to be successful. How that process of self-knowing can be undertaken is carefully developed in the first six chapters through discussion of a variety of approaches for this. The focus is initially very much on personal development…

  18. Individual Professional Development Plans: Cultivating Professional Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargens, Taryl M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last five years schools and districts have been under enormous pressure to improve student achievement scores on state accountability assessments. Educators agree that professional development plays a key role in providing the knowledge and skills needed to increase teacher effectiveness in the classroom. There is no reliable measure for…

  19. The Human Health, Growth, and Development Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyles, Linda R.; And Others

    This health and human development curriculum for grades 1-6 contains tips for teachers and overviews of the philosophy behind teaching these topics to elementary school students. The section on health education is structured around ten content strands: (1) health knowledge, attitudes, decisions, and behavior; (2) emotional and social health; (3)…

  20. Growth and development of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Berger, Aaron J; Kahn, David

    2012-11-01

    Every surgeon operating on the face, and particularly around the eye, should possess a working knowledge of the critical details related to development of the human orbit and recognized changes that occur during the course of aging. The anatomy of the orbit and periorbital region is complex, and the diagnosis and treatment of patients with orbital/periorbital disease requires expertise in congenital differences and awareness of the changes that occur as individuals age.

  1. Mode 2 fatigue crack growth specimen development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzard, R. J.; Gross, B.; Srawley, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    A Mode II test specimen was developed which has potential application in understanding phemonena associated with mixed mode fatigue failures in high performance aircraft engine bearing races. The attributes of the specimen are: it contains one single ended notch, which simplifiers data gathering and reduction; the fatigue crack grous in-line with the direction of load application; a single axis test machine is sufficient to perform testing; and the Mode I component is vanishingly small.

  2. Center for the development of commercial crystal growth in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, William R.

    1989-01-01

    The second year of operation of the Center for Commercial Crystal Growth in Space is described. This center is a consortium of businesses, universities and national laboratories. The primary goal of the Center's research is the development of commercial crystal growth in space. A secondary goal is to develop scientific understanding and technology which will improve commercial crystal growth on earth. In order to achieve these goals the Center's research is organized into teams by growth technique; melt growth, solution growth, and vapor growth. The melt growth team is working on solidification and characterization of bulk crystals of gallium arsenide and cadmium telluride. They used high resolution X-ray topography performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Streak-like features were found in the diffraction images of semi-insulating undoped LEC GaAs. These were shown to be (110) antiphase boundaries, which have not been reported before but appear to be pervasive and responsible for features seen via less-sensitive characterization methods. The results on CdTe were not as definitive, but indicate that antiphase boundaries may also be responsible for the double peaks often seen in X-ray rocking curves of this material. A liquid encapsulated melt zone system for GaAs has been assembled and techniques for casting feed rods developed. It was found that scratching the inside of the quartz ampoules with silicon carbide abrasive minimized sticking of the GaAs to the quartz. Twelve floating zone experiments were done.

  3. Experiments with Corn To Demonstrate Plant Growth and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haldeman, Janice H.; Gray, Margarit S.

    2000-01-01

    Explores using corn seeds to demonstrate plant growth and development. This experiment allows students to formulate hypotheses, observe and record information, and practice mathematics. Presents background information, materials, procedures, and observations. (SAH)

  4. Can race be erased? Coalitional computation and social categorization.

    PubMed

    Kurzban, R; Tooby, J; Cosmides, L

    2001-12-18

    Previous studies have established that people encode the race of each individual they encounter, and do so via computational processes that appear to be both automatic and mandatory. If true, this conclusion would be important, because categorizing others by their race is a precondition for treating them differently according to race. Here we report experiments, using unobtrusive measures, showing that categorizing individuals by race is not inevitable, and supporting an alternative hypothesis: that encoding by race is instead a reversible byproduct of cognitive machinery that evolved to detect coalitional alliances. The results show that subjects encode coalitional affiliations as a normal part of person representation. More importantly, when cues of coalitional affiliation no longer track or correspond to race, subjects markedly reduce the extent to which they categorize others by race, and indeed may cease doing so entirely. Despite a lifetime's experience of race as a predictor of social alliance, less than 4 min of exposure to an alternate social world was enough to deflate the tendency to categorize by race. These results suggest that racism may be a volatile and eradicable construct that persists only so long as it is actively maintained through being linked to parallel systems of social alliance.

  5. Development and evaluation of a biophysical tree growth model

    SciTech Connect

    Korol, R.L.H.

    1993-01-01

    Current research indicates projected climate change may influence the growth of individual trees. Therefore, growth and yield models that can respond to potential changes in climate need to be developed. TREE-BGC, a variant of the ecosystem process model FOREST-BGC, calculates the cycling of carbon, water and nitrogen in and through forested ecosystems. TREE-BGC allocates stand level estimates of photosynthesis (PSN) to each tree using a competition algorithm that incorporates tree height, radiation-use efficiency, and absorbed photosynthetically active radiation. This model was used to simulate the growth of trees grown in a dense and an open stand near Kamloops, B.C. Mortality occurred when the maintenance respiration demands of the tree exceeded the carbon allocated to the tree. The competition algorithm dynamically allocated stand estimates of PSN to individual trees such that the predicted reductions in diameter growth with stand density were similar to the observed reductions in diameter growth. Model results were tested statistically, using goodness-of-fit procedures to compare the cumulative diameter distributions, and the stand basal area and volume growth after a 20-year period. Model behavior was tested by simulating the growth, over a 100 year period, of individual trees initially grown at different stand densities. Plot level estimates of basal area growth and volume growth were highly correlated with actual measurements (r[sup 2] = 0.94 and 0.96, respectively; n = 24). The simulated cumulative diameter and height distributions were not significantly different than the actual cumulative diameter and height distributions for 23 of the 24 plots ([alpha] = 0.05). The model predicted volume growth to within 20 m[sup 3] ha[sup [minus]1], and basal area growth to within 10 m[sup 2] ha[sup [minus]1]. Individual tree diameter and height growth rates reflected the influences of competition, as did stand basal area and volume growth, and stand density.

  6. Eye growth and myopia development: Unifying theory and Matlab model.

    PubMed

    Hung, George K; Mahadas, Kausalendra; Mohammad, Faisal

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this article is to present an updated unifying theory of the mechanisms underlying eye growth and myopia development. A series of model simulation programs were developed to illustrate the mechanism of eye growth regulation and myopia development. Two fundamental processes are presumed to govern the relationship between physiological optics and eye growth: genetically pre-programmed signaling and blur feedback. Cornea/lens is considered to have only a genetically pre-programmed component, whereas eye growth is considered to have both a genetically pre-programmed and a blur feedback component. Moreover, based on the Incremental Retinal-Defocus Theory (IRDT), the rate of change of blur size provides the direction for blur-driven regulation. The various factors affecting eye growth are shown in 5 simulations: (1 - unregulated eye growth): blur feedback is rendered ineffective, as in the case of form deprivation, so there is only genetically pre-programmed eye growth, generally resulting in myopia; (2 - regulated eye growth): blur feedback regulation demonstrates the emmetropization process, with abnormally excessive or reduced eye growth leading to myopia and hyperopia, respectively; (3 - repeated near-far viewing): simulation of large-to-small change in blur size as seen in the accommodative stimulus/response function, and via IRDT as well as nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM), leading to the development of myopia; (4 - neurochemical bulk flow and diffusion): release of dopamine from the inner plexiform layer of the retina, and the subsequent diffusion and relay of neurochemical cascade show that a decrease in dopamine results in a reduction of proteoglycan synthesis rate, which leads to myopia; (5 - Simulink model): model of genetically pre-programmed signaling and blur feedback components that allows for different input functions to simulate experimental manipulations that result in hyperopia, emmetropia, and myopia. These model simulation programs

  7. Tobacco Control and Health Advocacy in the European Union: Understanding Effective Coalition-Building

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Jeff; Amos, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Coalitions of supporters of comprehensive tobacco control policy have been crucial in achieving policy success nationally and internationally, but the dynamics of such alliances are not well understood. Methods: Qualitative semi-structured, narrative interviews with 35 stakeholders involved in developing the European Council Recommendation on smoke-free environments. These were thematically analyzed to examine the dynamics of coalition-building, collaboration and leadership in the alliance of organizations which successfully called for the development of comprehensive European Union (EU) smoke-free policy. Results: An alliance of tobacco control and public health advocacy organizations, scientific institutions, professional bodies, pharmaceutical companies, and other actors shared the goal of fighting the harms caused by second-hand smoke. Alliance members jointly called for comprehensive EU smoke-free policy and the protection of the political debates from tobacco industry interference. The alliance’s success was enabled by a core group of national and European actors with long-standing experience in tobacco control, who facilitated consensus-building, mobilized allies and synchronized the actions of policy supporters. Representatives of Brussels-based organizations emerged as crucial strategic leaders. Conclusions: The insights gained and identification of key enablers of successful tobacco control advocacy highlight the strategic importance of investing into tobacco control at European level. Those interested in effective health policy can apply lessons learned from EU smoke-free policy to build effective alliances in tobacco control and other areas of public health. PMID:25634938

  8. Population growth, development and the environment.

    PubMed

    Keyfitz, N

    1996-11-01

    When Population Studies was founded in 1946 a main preoccupation of demographers and of the public was the prospective decline of the British population, and the falling off of its quality because on the average a poor family had more children than a better-off one. Over the course of the 50 years interests have shifted to the aging of populations as births decline and mortality improves; immigration, immigrants being welcomed for the decades after the war, and subsequently facing hostile political pressures; environmental degradation and the spread of new diseases. The fall in the birth rate, required both for development and for protection of the environment, is spreading from the original industrialized countries of Europe and America to Asia, somewhat more slowly to Latin America, slowest of all to Africa.

  9. Political coalitions and working women: how the tobacco industry built a relationship with the Coalition of Labor Union Women

    PubMed Central

    Balbach, Edith D; Herzberg, Abby; Barbeau, Elizabeth M

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To assess how the tobacco industry established a political relationship with the Coalition of Labor Union Women (CLUW) and to learn from this example how tobacco control advocates can work more effectively with organisations with which working class women are affiliated. Methods The study reviewed tobacco industry documents to determine Tobacco Institute strategy, using the CLUW News and other published material to corroborate our findings. Results The Tobacco Institute was effective at framing excise tax and smokefree worksite issues in a way that facilitated CLUW's support of industry positions on these issues. The Tobacco Institute was also willing to reciprocate by providing financial and other kinds of support to CLUW. Conclusions While tobacco control missed an opportunity to partner with CLUW on smokefree worksites and excise taxes in the 1980s and 1990s, tobacco control can also use issue framing and reciprocity to form coalitions with organisations representing the interests of working women. PMID:17708008

  10. Redefining Individual Growth and Development Indicators: Oral Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradfield, Tracy A.; Besner, Amanda C.; Wackerle-Hollman, Alisha K.; Albano, Anthony D.; Rodriguez, Michael C.; McConnell, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Language skills developed during preschool contribute strongly to later reading and academic achievement. Effective preschool assessment and intervention should focus on core components of language development, specifically oral language skills. The Early Language and Literacy Individual Growth and Development Indicators (IGDIs) are a set of…

  11. What motivates people to participate more in community-based coalitions?

    PubMed

    Wells, Rebecca; Ward, Ann J; Feinberg, Mark; Alexander, Jeffrey A

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify potential opportunities for improving member participation in community-based coalitions. We hypothesized that opportunities for influence and process competence would each foster higher levels of individual member participation. We tested these hypotheses in a sample of 818 members within 79 youth-oriented coalitions. Opportunities for influence were measured as members' perceptions of an inclusive board leadership style and members' reported committee roles. Coalition process competence was measured through member perceptions of strategic board directedness and meeting effectiveness. Members reported three types of participation within meetings as well as how much time they devoted to coalition business beyond meetings. Generalized linear models accommodated clustering of individuals within coalitions. Opportunities for influence were associated with individuals' participation both within and beyond meetings. Coalition process competence was not associated with participation. These results suggest that leadership inclusivity rather than process competence may best facilitate member participation. PMID:18594964

  12. The effects of leadership and governance processes on member participation in community health coalitions.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Maureen E; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Weiner, Bryan J

    2005-08-01

    This study examines the effects of coalition leadership and governance on member participation in voluntary community health coalitions. Path modeling was used to explore how leadership and governance processes in coalitions affect existing member costs, benefits, and levels of participation. It was hypothesized that the effects of coalition decision making and leadership variables would be indirect by working through their effects on participants' perceived influence over coalition decision making and on overall consensus around the coalition vision. Results of the analysis indicate that open and collaborative decision making and empowering leadership do have indirect, positive effects on the level of participation by way of vision consensus and participation benefits. Participation costs, however, show no significant direct effect on the level of participation. Perceived personal influence appears to be primarily an outcome of participation rather than an antecedent.

  13. What motivates people to participate more in community-based coalitions?

    PubMed

    Wells, Rebecca; Ward, Ann J; Feinberg, Mark; Alexander, Jeffrey A

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify potential opportunities for improving member participation in community-based coalitions. We hypothesized that opportunities for influence and process competence would each foster higher levels of individual member participation. We tested these hypotheses in a sample of 818 members within 79 youth-oriented coalitions. Opportunities for influence were measured as members' perceptions of an inclusive board leadership style and members' reported committee roles. Coalition process competence was measured through member perceptions of strategic board directedness and meeting effectiveness. Members reported three types of participation within meetings as well as how much time they devoted to coalition business beyond meetings. Generalized linear models accommodated clustering of individuals within coalitions. Opportunities for influence were associated with individuals' participation both within and beyond meetings. Coalition process competence was not associated with participation. These results suggest that leadership inclusivity rather than process competence may best facilitate member participation.

  14. Thyroid hormone mediates otolith growth and development during flatfish metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, A M; Wang, X; Tan, Y; Sievers, Q; Sievers, B; Lee, M; Burrall, K

    2010-11-01

    Flatfish begin life as bilaterally symmetrical larvae that swim up-right, then abruptly metamorphose into asymmetrically shaped juveniles with lateralized swimming postures. Flatfish metamorphosis is mediated entirely by thyroid hormone (TH). Changes in flatfish swim posture are thought to be regulated via vestibular remodeling, although the influence of TH on teleost inner ear development remains unclear. This study addresses the role of TH on the development of the three otolith end-organs (sacculus, utricle, and lagena) during southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) metamorphosis. Compared with pre-metamorphosis, growth rates of the sacculus and utricle otoliths increase dramatically during metamorphosis in a manner that is uncoupled from general somatic growth. Treatment of P. lethostigma larvae with methimazol (a pharmacological inhibitor of endogenous TH production) inhibits growth of the sacculus and utricle, whereas treatment with TH dramatically accelerates their growth. In contrast with the sacculus and utricle otoliths that begin to form and mineralize during embryogenesis, a non-mineralized lagena otolith is first visible 10-12 days after hatching. The lagena grows during pre- and pro-metamorphosis, then abruptly mineralizes during metamorphic climax. Mineralization of the lagena, but not growth, can be induced with TH treatment, whereas treatment with methimazol completely inhibits lagena mineralization without inhibiting its growth. These findings suggest that during southern flounder metamorphosis TH exerts differential effects on growth and development among the three types of otolith.

  15. EDITORIAL: Five years of development and growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimondo, Ennio

    2004-02-01

    The last issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics under my editorship has recently been published. During the last five years, since its change of title, the journal has significantly modified its targets. Starting from a balanced mix of quantum optics and semiclassical optics, new topics have been brought within the scope of the journal, such as atom optics, degenerate quantum gases, quantum computation and quantum information, representing the growing role played by lasers within our technologically oriented society. Furthermore, the journal has greatly expanded the number of Special Issues and has introduced PhD Tutorials. While many authors do not have time to invest in preparing review articles, we have found the review-style PhD Tutorials to be very popular. Looking back over the evolution of the journal, the most obvious criterion of its development, at least from the point of view of the prospective contributing author, has been the gratifying increase in the impact factor measured by ISI, reflecting the leading position of Journal of Optics B as a European journal devoted exclusively to optics research. It is most rewarding to report that the number of printed pages has increased by 77% since 1999 and by more than 20% in the last year, far above the target planned by the publisher. Furthermore, from an Editorial point of view, the high standing of the journal is demonstrated by the very high quality ratings given by referees to the top fraction of submitted manuscripts and by the large number of full text web downloads reported for those papers. Special Issues also attract high numbers of web downloads, demonstrating the special attention these issues attract within the scientific community. Such results have been achieved only through teamwork, and I wish to express my gratitude to all those who contributed to this result over the years: Françoise Chavel from the European Optical Society secretariat in Paris, John Haynes, Tom Spicer

  16. [Disturbances of growth and development of the maxillofacial skeleton].

    PubMed

    Becking, A G; Hoppenreijs, Th J M; Tuinzing, D B

    2007-01-01

    Due to many developments in oral and maxillofacial surgery, the contribution of oral and maxillofacial surgeons in the diagnostics and treatment of growth and development disorders of the craniomandibulo-maxillofacial skeleton has become more and more important. Many disorders are treated by multidisciplinary teams including orthodontists and prosthodontists. Arbitrarily, 3 categories of growth and developmental disorders can be distinguished: dento-alveolar, dento-maxillofacial, and dento-maxillo-craniofacial disorders. In addition to classic bony reconstruction methods, new methodologies have been developed, such as distraction osteogenesis and simultaneous skin and soft tissue corrections. For many decades, the treatment of growth and development disorders has been a frequent subject of doctoral dissertations in The Netherlands. Attention is currently being paid to developing methods for three-dimensional planning and correction of these disorders, and methods which are minimally invasive.

  17. Development of a Benchmark Example for Delamination Fatigue Growth Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The development of a benchmark example for cyclic delamination growth prediction is presented and demonstrated for a commercial code. The example is based on a finite element model of a Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimen, which is independent of the analysis software used and allows the assessment of the delamination growth prediction capabilities in commercial finite element codes. First, the benchmark result was created for the specimen. Second, starting from an initially straight front, the delamination was allowed to grow under cyclic loading in a finite element model of a commercial code. The number of cycles to delamination onset and the number of cycles during stable delamination growth for each growth increment were obtained from the analysis. In general, good agreement between the results obtained from the growth analysis and the benchmark results could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. Overall, the results are encouraging but further assessment for mixed-mode delamination is required.

  18. Development of a Benchmark Example for Delamination Fatigue Growth Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The development of a benchmark example for cyclic delamination growth prediction is presented and demonstrated for a commercial code. The example is based on a finite element model of a Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimen, which is independent of the analysis software used and allows the assessment of the delamination growth prediction capabilities in commercial finite element codes. First, the benchmark result was created for the specimen. Second, starting from an initially straight front, the delamination was allowed to grow under cyclic loading in a finite element model of a commercial code. The number of cycles to delamination onset and the number of cycles during stable delamination growth for each growth increment were obtained from the analysis. In general, good agreement between the results obtained from the growth analysis and the benchmark results could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. Overall, the results are encouraging but further assessment for mixed-mode delamination is required

  19. Magnetic fields: how is plant growth and development impacted?

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Dobránszki, Judit

    2016-03-01

    This review provides detailed insight on the effects of magnetic fields on germination, growth, development, and yield of plants focusing on ex vitro growth and development and discussing the possible physiological and biochemical responses. The MFs considered in this review range from the nanoTesla (nT) to geomagnetic levels, up to very strong MFs greater than 15 Tesla (T) and also super-weak MFs (near 0 T). The theoretical bases of the action of MFs on plant growth, which are complex, are not discussed here and thus far, there is limited mathematical background about the action of MFs on plant growth. MFs can positively influence the morphogenesis of several plants which allows them to be used in practical situations. MFs have thus far been shown to modify seed germination and affect seedling growth and development in a wide range of plants, including field, fodder, and industrial crops; cereals and pseudo-cereals; grasses; herbs and medicinal plants; horticultural crops (vegetables, fruits, ornamentals); trees; and model crops. This is important since MFs may constitute a non-residual and non-toxic stimulus. In addition to presenting and summarizing the effects of MFs on plant growth and development, we also provide possible physiological and biochemical explanations for these responses including stress-related responses of plants, explanations based on dia-, para-, and ferromagnetism, oriented movements of substances, and cellular and molecular changes.

  20. Versatile roles of plastids in plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Takehito; Ito-Inaba, Yasuko

    2010-11-01

    Plastids, found in plants and some parasites, are of endosymbiotic origin. The best-characterized plastid is the plant cell chloroplast. Plastids provide essential metabolic and signaling functions, such as the photosynthetic process in chloroplasts. However, the role of plastids is not limited to production of metabolites. Plastids affect numerous aspects of plant growth and development through biogenesis, varying functional states and metabolic activities. Examples include, but are not limited to, embryogenesis, leaf development, gravitropism, temperature response and plant-microbe interactions. In this review, we summarize the versatile roles of plastids in plant growth and development.

  1. Phase transition in tumor growth: I avascular development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo-Kulich, E.; Rebelo, I.; Tejera, E.; Nieto-Villar, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    We propose a mechanism for avascular tumor growth based on a simple chemical network. This model presents a logistic behavior and shows a “second order” phase transition. We prove the fractal origin of the empirical logistics and Gompertz constant and its relation to mitosis and apoptosis rate. Finally, the thermodynamics framework developed demonstrates the entropy production rate as a Lyapunov function during avascular tumor growth.

  2. California Workforce Development: A Policy Framework for Economic Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastin, Delaine; Hatamiya, Lon; Johnson, Grantland; Nussbaum, Thomas J.

    Provides public and system policy recommendations to state and local elected officials, governing bodies, and administrators responsible for the changes needed to create an integrated, comprehensive workforce development system that will sustain California's economic growth. Public policy recommendations include: workforce development services…

  3. Studying Children's Early Literacy Development: Confirmatory Multidimensional Scaling Growth Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody

    2012-01-01

    There has been considerable debate over the ways in which children's early literacy skills develop over time. Using confirmatory multidimensional scaling (MDS) growth analysis, this paper directly tested the hypothesis of a cumulative trajectory versus a compensatory trajectory of development in early literacy skills among a group of 1233…

  4. Growth and Exploration: Career Development Theory and Programs of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosine, Natalie R.; Lewis, Morgan V.

    2008-01-01

    Super's theory of career development states that the life stages of growth and exploration are inherent to the process of acquiring knowledge of how one's interests and abilities align with the requirements of occupations. Virtually all high school students are in the exploratory stage of their career development. This article examines the…

  5. Population growth, human development, and deforestation in biodiversity hotspots.

    PubMed

    Jha, S; Bawa, K S

    2006-06-01

    Human population and development activities affect the rate of deforestation in biodiversity hotspots. We quantified the effect of human population growth and development on rates of deforestation and analyzed the relationship between these causal factors in the 1980s and 1990s. We compared the averages of population growth, human development index (HDI, which measures income, health, and education), and deforestation rate and computed correlations among these variables for countries that contain biodiversity hotspots. When population growth was high and HDI was low there was a high rate of deforestation, but when HDI was high, rate of deforestation was low, despite high population growth. The correlation among variables was significant for the 1990s but not for the 1980s. The relationship between population growth and HDI had a regional pattern that reflected the historical process of development. Based on the changes in HDI and deforestation rate over time, we identified two drivers of deforestation: policy choice and human-development constraints. Policy choices that disregard conservation may cause the loss of forests even in countries that are relatively developed. Lack of development in other countries, on the other hand, may increase the pressure on forests to meet the basic needs of the human population. Deforestation resulting from policy choices may be easier to fix than deforestation arising from human development constraints. To prevent deforestation in the countries that have such constraints, transfer of material and intellectual resources from developed countries may be needed. Popular interest in sustainable development in developed countries can facilitate the transfer of these resources.

  6. Gravitational Effects on Reproduction, Growth, and Development of Mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oyama, J.

    1985-01-01

    The broad objective of this research program is to determine the role which gravity plays in the growth and development of mammalian animals. Current studies are focused on the effects of graded hypergravitatinal field intensities on mice, rats and other small sized laboratory animals using the chronic centrifugation technique. They include studies on reproduction and prenatal and postnatel growth and development. Among the important questions addressed are: (1) what stage or stages in animal development are affected by hypergravity and what are the effects? (2) is there a minimum or critical body size for hypergravity to produce a significant effect on growth and development? (3) are there field intensity thresholds for the preceding questions? From analysis of the body masses at birth of rats conceived and allowed to undergo gestation under 2.1G and under normal gravity (1G), it was found that there was no significant difference between the two groups. Futhermore, their growth rates postnatally were the same until they reached a body mass of approximately 50 grams when the 2.1G group showed a significantly slower rate. Results from these studies support the conclusion that prenatal as well as the early postnatal stages of growth and development of the rat are refractory to hyper-G.

  7. Growth and development rates have different thermal responses.

    PubMed

    Forster, Jack; Hirst, Andrew G; Woodward, Guy

    2011-11-01

    Growth and development rates are fundamental to all living organisms. In a warming world, it is important to determine how these rates will respond to increasing temperatures. It is often assumed that the thermal responses of physiological rates are coupled to metabolic rate and thus have the same temperature dependence. However, the existence of the temperature-size rule suggests that intraspecific growth and development are decoupled. Decoupling of these rates would have important consequences for individual species and ecosystems, yet this has not been tested systematically across a range of species. We conducted an analysis on growth and development rate data compiled from the literature for a well-studied group, marine pelagic copepods, and use an information-theoretic approach to test which equations best describe these rates. Growth and development rates were best characterized by models with significantly different parameters: development has stronger temperature dependence than does growth across all life stages. As such, it is incorrect to assume that these rates have the same temperature dependence. We used the best-fit models for these rates to predict changes in organism mass in response to temperature. These predictions follow a concave relationship, which complicates attempts to model the impacts of increasing global temperatures on species body size.

  8. Capital's Daisy Chain: Exposing Chicago's Corporate Coalition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrastia, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    This article uses the global city of Chicago as an urban exemplar of a thirty-year worldwide economic shift toward public (state) private (corporate) partnerships. Advanced by racialized youth-development discourses in Chicago, private corporations, public education, and social housing are in alliance to transform "the problems of urban America."…

  9. Insulin-like growth factors in embryonic and fetal growth and skeletal development (Review).

    PubMed

    Agrogiannis, Georgios D; Sifakis, Stavros; Patsouris, Efstratios S; Konstantinidou, Anastasia E

    2014-08-01

    The insulin-like growth factors (IGF)-I and -II have a predominant role in fetal growth and development. IGFs are involved in the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of fetal cells in vitro and the IGF serum concentration has been shown to be closely correlated with fetal growth and length. IGF transcripts and peptides have been detected in almost every fetal tissue from as early in development as pre‑implantation to the final maturation stage. Furthermore, IGFs have been demonstrated to be involved in limb morphogenesis. However, although ablation of Igf genes in mice resulted in growth retardation and delay in skeletal maturation, no impact on outgrowth and patterning of embryonic limbs was observed. Additionally, various molecular defects in the Igf1 and Igf1r genes in humans have been associated with severe intrauterine growth retardation and impaired skeletal maturation, but not with truncated limbs or severe skeletal dysplasia. The conflicting data between in vitro and in vivo observations with regard to bone morphogenesis suggests that IGFs may not be the sole trophic factors involved in fetal skeletal growth and that redundant mechanisms may exist in chondro- and osteogenesis. Further investigation is required in order to elucidate the functions of IGFs in skeletal development.

  10. Effects of growth hormone (GH) transgene and nutrition on growth and bone development in common carp.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tingbing; Zhang, Tanglin; Wang, Yaping; Chen, Yushun; Hu, Wei; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2013-10-01

    Limited information is available on effects of growth hormone transgene and nutrition on growth and development of aquatic animals. Here, we present a study to test these effects with growth-enhanced transgenic common carp under two nutritional conditions or feeding rations (i.e., 5% and 10% of fish body weight per day). Compared with the nontransgenic fish, the growth rates of the transgenic fish increased significantly in both feeding rations. The shape of the pharyngeal bone was similar among treatments, but the transgenic fish had relatively smaller and lighter pharyngeal bone compared with the nontransgenic fish. Calcium content of the pharyngeal bone of the transgenic fish was significantly lower than that of the nontransgenic fish. Feeding ration also affected growth rate but less of an effect on bone development. By manipulating intrinsic growth and controlling for both environment (e.g., feeding ration) and genetic background or genotype (e.g., transgenic or not), this study provides empirical evidence that the genotype has a stronger effect than the environment on pharyngeal bone development. The pharyngeal bone strength could be reduced by decreased calcium content and calcification in the transgenic carp.

  11. Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Atlanta

    SciTech Connect

    ICF Kaiser

    1999-05-19

    The Atlanta Clean City was the first to join the program in 1993, and has been successfully spreading the word about the benefits of alternative fuels ever since. They have already surpassed their year 2000 goal of operating more than 2,600 alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). More than 30 stakeholders continue to help spur the Atlanta AFV market development by implementing innovative alternative fuel projects. Stakeholders actively support legislation that encourages the use of AFVs and sponsor workshops on advancing the choice.

  12. Actor coalitions and implementation in strategic delta planning: Opening the Haringvliet sluices in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermoolen, Myrthe; Hermans, Leon

    2016-04-01

    The sustained development of urbanizing deltas is influenced by natural and societal processes. These processes are characterized by their long time span, in which conflicting interests of different stakeholders have to be reconciled. Reaching consent between actors is a challenge itself, but maintaining this consent throughout different stages of strategic planning - from advocacy and agenda setting to implementation - over these long periods of time is even more difficult. The implementation stage still includes many different actors involved, some of which are different than the ones who agreed before, due to both the long run of the strategic delta planning, and to a shift of tasks and responsibilities. Thus, implementation of strategic plans often features delays, deviations of agreed plans and unintended outcomes. A key question therefore is how coalition dynamics in (pre-)planning stages influence and are influenced by the coalition dynamics during implementation. The different stages in strategic planning are often studied from either a plan formulation or an implementation perspective, but the connection between the two proves an important bottleneck for strategic planning in deltas. For instance, many building with nature solutions are still in their pilot-phase, and their upscaling can profit from lessons concerning past implementation efforts. The proposed contribution will use the case of the management of the Dutch Haringvliet sluices and the decision ('Kierbesluit') in 2000 to put these sluices ajar, to study the link between the different strategic delta planning stages and the role of the formation and change of actor coalitions herein. With the completion of the Haringvliet dam with outlet sluices in 1970, the Haringvliet estuary of the rivers Rhine and Meuse was closed off from the sea, creating a fresh water lake. This was done to make the Dutch Southwest delta safe from flooding, and had positive effects for agricultural water supply and

  13. Large-area sheet task advanced dendritic web growth development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    The thermal models used for analyzing dendritic web growth and calculating the thermal stress were reexamined to establish the validity limits imposed by the assumptions of the models. Also, the effects of thermal conduction through the gas phase were evaluated and found to be small. New growth designs, both static and dynamic, were generated using the modeling results. Residual stress effects in dendritic web were examined. In the laboratory, new techniques for the control of temperature distributions in three dimensions were developed. A new maximum undeformed web width of 5.8 cm was achieved. A 58% increase in growth velocity of 150 micrometers thickness was achieved with dynamic hardware. The area throughput goals for transient growth of 30 and 35 sq cm/min were exceeded.

  14. Metropolitan migration and population growth in selected developing countries.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to estimate the components of metropolitan population growth in selected developing countries during 1960-1970 period. The study examines population growth in 26 cities: 5 are in Africa, 8 in Asia, and 13 in Latin America, using data from national census publications. These cities in general are the political capitals of their countries, but some additional large cities were selected in Brazil, Mexico, and South Africa. All cities, at the beginning of the 1960-1970 decade had over 500,000 population; Accra, the only exception, reached this population level during the 1960s. Some cities had over 4 million residents in 1970. Net migration contributed about 37% to total metropolitan population growth; the remainder of the growth is attributable to natural increase. Migration has a much stronger impact on metropolitan growth than suggested by the above figure: 1) Several metropolitan areas, for various reasons, are unlikely to receive many migrants; without those cities, the share of metropolitan growth from net migration is 44%. 2) Estimates of the natural increase of migrants after their arrival in the metropolitan areas, when added to migration itself, changes the total contribution of migration to 49% in some metropolitan areas. 3) Even where net migration contributes a smaller proportion to metropolitan growth than natural increase, the rates of net migration are generally high and should be viewed in the context of rapid metropolitan population growth from natural increase alone. Finally, the paper also compares the components of metropolitan growth with the components of growth in the remaining urban areas. The results show that the metropolitan areas, in general, grow faster than the remaining urban areas, and that this more rapid growth is mostly due to a higher rate of net migration. Given the significance of migration for metropolitan growth, further investigations of the effects of these migration streams, particularly with

  15. Hospital nursing benchmarks: the California Nursing Outcomes Coalition project.

    PubMed

    Brown, D S; Donaldson, N; Aydin, C E; Carlson, N

    2001-01-01

    The California Nursing Outcomes Coalition (CalNOC) project is an initiative that has become the largest ongoing nursing quality measurement repository in the nation. Launched in 1996 by California nursing leaders concerned with trends in hospital care, CalNOC has created reliable quality benchmark data to define patient safety thresholds in California. This article describes CalNOC's effort, which aligns with the strategy of the National Quality Forum for measuring and reporting healthcare quality. By tracing the evolution of the CalNOC project and its future potential, we hope to encourage other grassroots efforts to build the database repositories needed for healthcare quality measurement in the 21st century.

  16. Teaching child growth and development: the Christmas shoebox.

    PubMed

    Epp, Sheila M; McAulay, Judy E

    2008-01-01

    Teaching growth and development to nursing students can be dry, uninteresting, and labor-intensive. Engaging students in learning this material was the challenge of a short, 4-week pediatric experience. Students use growth and development knowledge to select toys and activities that fit in a shoebox and explain to their classmates the rationale for their selection. The Christmas shoebox activity increases their ability to transfer knowledge to both the examination questions and the clinical setting and provides a charitable service to the community.

  17. Cadaverine: a lysine catabolite involved in plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Pushpa C; Lakra, Nita; Mishra, S N

    2013-10-01

    The cadaverine (Cad) a diamine, imino compound produced as a lysine catabolite is also implicated in growth and development of plants depending on environmental condition. This lysine catabolism is catalyzed by lysine decarboxylase, which is developmentally regulated. However, the limited role of Cad in plants is reported, this review is tempted to focus the metabolism and its regulation, transport and responses, interaction and cross talks in higher plants. The Cad varied presence in plant parts/products suggests it as a potential candidate for taxonomic marker as well as for commercial exploitation along with growth and development.

  18. Ethylene production throughout growth and development of plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Peterson, Barbara V.; Stutte, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    Ethylene production by 10 or 20 m2 stands of wheat, soybean, lettuce, potato, and tomato was monitored throughout growth and development in an atmospherically closed plant chamber. Chamber ethylene levels varied among species and rose during periods of canopy expansion and rapid growth for all species. Following this, ethylene levels either declined during seed fill and maturation for wheat and soybean, or remained relatively constant for potato and tomato (during flowering and early fruit development). Lettuce plants were harvested during rapid growth and peak ethylene production. Chamber ethylene levels increased rapidly during tomato ripening, reaching concentrations about 10 times that measured during vegetative growth. The highest ethylene production rates during vegetative growth ranged from 1.6 to 2.5 nmol m-2 d-1 during rapid growth of lettuce and wheat stands, or about 0.3 to 0.5 nmol g-1 fresh weight per hour. Estimates of stand ethylene production during tomato ripening showed that rates reached 43 nmol m-2 d-1 in one study and 93 nmol m-2 d-1 in a second study with higher lighting, or about 50x that of the rate during vegetative growth of tomato. In a related test with potato, the photoperiod was extended from 12 to 24 hours (continuous light) at 58 days after planting (to increase tuber yield), but this change in the environment caused a sharp increase in ethylene production from the basal rate of 0.4 to 6.2 nmol m-2 d-1. Following this, the photoperiod was changed back to 12 h at 61 days and ethylene levels decreased. The results suggest three separate categories of ethylene production were observed with whole stands of plants: 1) production during rapid vegetative growth, 2) production during climacteric fruit ripening, and 3) production from environmental stress.

  19. Breaking the language barrier: an emergentist coalition model for the origins of word learning.

    PubMed

    Hollich, G J; Hirsh-Pasek, K; Golinkoff, R M; Brand, R J; Brown, E; Chung, H L; Hennon, E; Rocroi, C

    2000-01-01

    How do children learn their first words? The field of language development has been polarized by responses to this question. Explanations range from constraints/principles accounts that emphasize the importance of cognitive heuristics in language acquisition, to social-pragmatic accounts that highlight the role of parent-child interaction, to associationistic accounts that highlight the role of "dumb attentional mechanisms" in word learning. In this Monograph, an alternative to these accounts is presented: the emergentist coalition theory. A hybrid view of word learning, this theory characterizes lexical acquisition as the emergent product of multiple factors, including cognitive constraints, social-pragmatic factors, and global attentional mechanisms. The model makes three assumptions: (a) that children cull from multiple inputs available for word learning at any given time, (b) that these inputs are differentially weighted over development, and (c) that children develop emergent principles of word learning, which guide subsequent word acquisition. With few exceptions, competing accounts of the word learning process have examined children who are already veteran word learners. By focusing on the very beginnings of word learning at around 12 months of age, however, it is possible to see how social and cognitive factors are coordinated in the process of vocabulary development. After presenting a new method for investigating word learning, the development of reference is used as a test case of the theory. In 12 experiments, with children ranging in age from 12 to 25 months of age, data are described that support the emergentist coalition model. This fundamentally developmental theory posits that children construct principles of word learning. As children's word learning principles emerge and develop, the character of word learning changes over the course of the 2nd year of life.

  20. Large area sheet task: Advanced dendritic web growth development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hopkins, R. H.; Meier, D.; Schruben, J.

    1981-01-01

    The growth of silicon dendritic web for photovoltaic applications was investigated. The application of a thermal model for calculating buckling stresses as a function of temperature profile in the web is discussed. Lid and shield concepts were evaluated to provide the data base for enhancing growth velocity. An experimental web growth machine which embodies in one unit the mechanical and electronic features developed in previous work was developed. In addition, evaluation of a melt level control system was begun, along with preliminary tests of an elongated crucible design. The economic analysis was also updated to incorporate some minor cost changes. The initial applications of the thermal model to a specific configuration gave results consistent with experimental observation in terms of the initiation of buckling vs. width for a given crystal thickness.

  1. ASAS centennial paper: animal growth and development research: historical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Etherton, T D

    2009-09-01

    From a historical perspective, it is difficult to identify a specific date that launched the field of endocrinology. One "biomarker" of the inception of endocrinology traces back to Ernest Henry Starling, who first introduced the word hormone in a talk given in 1905 at the Royal College of Physicians in London (Starling, 1905). A historical look at the field of endocrine regulation of animal growth since 1905 conveys that countless scientists worldwide worked to advance the scientific evidence base, which led to the commercial development of hormone-based products that enhanced growth and beneficially changed carcass composition of meat animals. This review will discuss some of seminal contributions that include the discovery of hormones (like ST and beta-adrenergic agonists) that have been shown to play key roles in regulating growth and nutrient partitioning of livestock, the mechanisms by which these hormones act, and the development of products for application in animal agriculture.

  2. Cast Metals Coalition Technology Transfer and Program Management Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gwyn, Mike

    2009-03-31

    The Cast Metals Coalition (CMC) partnership program was funded to ensure that the results of the Department of Energy's (DOE) metalcasting research and development (R&D) projects are successfully deployed into industry. Specifically, the CMC program coordinated the transfer and deployment of energy saving technologies and process improvements developed under separately funded DOE programs and projects into industry. The transition of these technologies and process improvements is a critical step in the path to realizing actual energy savings. At full deployment, DOE funded metalcasting R&D results are projected to save 55% of the energy used by the industry in 1998. This closely aligns with DOE's current goal of driving a 25% reduction in industrial energy intensity by 2017. In addition to benefiting DOE, these energy savings provide metalcasters with a significant economic advantage. Deployment of already completed R&D project results and those still underway is estimated to return over 500% of the original DOE and industry investment. Energy savings estimates through December 2008 from the Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT) portfolio of projects alone are 12 x 1012 BTUs, with a projection of over 50 x 1012 BTUs ten years after program completion. These energy savings and process improvements have been made possible through the unique collaborative structure of the CMC partnership. The CMC team consists of DOE's Office of Industrial Technology, the three leading metalcasting technical societies in the U.S: the American Foundry Society; the North American Die Casting Association; and the Steel Founders Society of America; and the Advanced Technology Institute (ATI), a recognized leader in distributed technology management. CMC provides collaborative leadership to a complex industry composed of approximately 2,100 companies, 80% of which employ less than 100 people, and only 4% of which employ more than 250 people. Without collaboration

  3. Using Social Network Analysis to Predict Early Collaboration within Health Advocacy Coalitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeycutt, Todd C.; Strong, Debra A.

    2012-01-01

    Within coalitions of consumer advocates formed to advance health insurance coverage expansions, engaging in united advocacy activities soon after formation might be an important precursor to attaining coalition effectiveness in shaping policy. In this article, the authors apply social network analysis (SNA) to examine how organizational…

  4. 75 FR 56651 - ITS Joint Program Office; Trucking Industry Mobility & Technology Coalition Annual Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... ITS Joint Program Office; Trucking Industry Mobility & Technology Coalition Annual Meeting AGENCY... Trucking Industry Mobility & Technology Coalition (TIMTC) Annual ] Meeting will be held October 18-19, 2010... updates on trucking industry initiatives that improve the industry's safety and mobility. Send...

  5. The DELTA PREP Initiative" Accelerating Coalition Capacity for Intimate Partner Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakocs, Ronda; Freire, Kimberley E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The DELTA PREP Project aimed to build the prevention capacity of 19 state domestic violence coalitions by offering eight supports designed to promote prevention integration over a 3-year period: modest grant awards, training events, technical assistance, action planning, coaching hubs, the Coalition Prevention Capacity Assessment, an…

  6. Changes in Capacity among Local Coordinated Community Response Coalitions (CCRs) Supported by the DELTA Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Pamela J.; Finkelstein, Daniel M.; Perez, Victoria E.; Rosenbach, Margo L.

    2010-01-01

    Coalitions are often the means through which communities plan and coordinate services for individuals and address larger environmental issues associated with social problems. Since 2003, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has supported local coordinated community response coalitions (CCRs) in 14 states to prevent intimate partner…

  7. The Cleveland-Cuyahoga County Food Policy Coalition: "we have evolved".

    PubMed

    Walsh, Colleen C; Taggart, Morgan; Freedman, Darcy A; Trapl, Erika S; Borawski, Elaine A

    2015-01-01

    Several pieces of legislation passed in Cleveland, Ohio, from 2007 to 2011, focused on improving the city's food environment through urban agriculture initiatives. We used qualitative, case study methods, including interviews with 7 key informants, to examine the policy development process and investigate the role of the Cleveland-Cuyahoga County Food Policy Coalition in developing and implementing 4 pieces of legislation. In this article, we focus on 2 pieces of legislation: zoning designation of an urban garden and allowance of small farm animals and bees on residential property. Five key themes emerged: impetus for policy came from community needs; education and raising awareness helped mitigate barriers; a cultural shift took place among policy makers; social connections and individual champions were needed; and concerns over food access and health influenced policy decisions. Legislative actions are important tools to influence the nutrition environment, as long as they are based on local needs and context. PMID:26043301

  8. The Cleveland–Cuyahoga County Food Policy Coalition: “We Have Evolved”

    PubMed Central

    Taggart, Morgan; Freedman, Darcy A.; Trapl, Erika S.; Borawski, Elaine A.

    2015-01-01

    Several pieces of legislation passed in Cleveland, Ohio, from 2007 to 2011, focused on improving the city’s food environment through urban agriculture initiatives. We used qualitative, case study methods, including interviews with 7 key informants, to examine the policy development process and investigate the role of the Cleveland–Cuyahoga County Food Policy Coalition in developing and implementing 4 pieces of legislation. In this article, we focus on 2 pieces of legislation: zoning designation of an urban garden and allowance of small farm animals and bees on residential property. Five key themes emerged: impetus for policy came from community needs; education and raising awareness helped mitigate barriers; a cultural shift took place among policy makers; social connections and individual champions were needed; and concerns over food access and health influenced policy decisions. Legislative actions are important tools to influence the nutrition environment, as long as they are based on local needs and context. PMID:26043301

  9. The Cleveland-Cuyahoga County Food Policy Coalition: "we have evolved".

    PubMed

    Walsh, Colleen C; Taggart, Morgan; Freedman, Darcy A; Trapl, Erika S; Borawski, Elaine A

    2015-06-04

    Several pieces of legislation passed in Cleveland, Ohio, from 2007 to 2011, focused on improving the city's food environment through urban agriculture initiatives. We used qualitative, case study methods, including interviews with 7 key informants, to examine the policy development process and investigate the role of the Cleveland-Cuyahoga County Food Policy Coalition in developing and implementing 4 pieces of legislation. In this article, we focus on 2 pieces of legislation: zoning designation of an urban garden and allowance of small farm animals and bees on residential property. Five key themes emerged: impetus for policy came from community needs; education and raising awareness helped mitigate barriers; a cultural shift took place among policy makers; social connections and individual champions were needed; and concerns over food access and health influenced policy decisions. Legislative actions are important tools to influence the nutrition environment, as long as they are based on local needs and context.

  10. Impact of Personal Growth Projects on Leadership Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Summer F.; Boyd, Barry L.; Williams, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Within personal leadership education courses, leadership educators should include experiences which help students develop themselves as leaders. In this article, the authors discuss results from a qualitative research study involving the analysis of Personal Growth Project (PGP) assignments in a personal leadership education collegiate course. The…

  11. Human Growth and Development: Educational and Professional Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Malachy; Boland, Elizabeth A.; Sheppard-Jones, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    The 2004 Council on Rehabilitation Education (CORE) standards were revised to include Human Growth and Development (HGD) as a knowledge domain. The HGD domain introduces a significant amount of new content to the curriculum, including several topics that have not traditionally appeared in the rehabilitation counselor educational curriculum. Thus,…

  12. Skills Development, Employment and Sustained Growth in Ghana: Sustainability Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Against a backdrop of some two decades of sustained economic growth in Ghana, this paper argues that there are a series of sustainability challenges related to technical and vocational skills development (TVSD) that need to be addressed. This paper analyses several sustainability dimensions of TVSD related to: promoting the sustainability of…

  13. Human fetal growth and organ development: 50 years of discoveries.

    PubMed

    Pardi, Giorgio; Cetin, Irene

    2006-04-01

    Knowledge about human fetal growth and organ development has greatly developed in the last 50 years. Anatomists and physiologists had already described some crucial aspects, for example, the circulation of blood during intrauterine life through the fetal heart, the liver as well as the placenta. However, only in the last century physiologic studies were performed in animal models. In the human fetus, the introduction of ultrasound and Doppler velocimetry has provided data about the growth and development of the fetus and of the circulation through the different fetal districts. Moreover, in the last 2 decades we have learned about fetal oxygenation and fetal nutrient supply caused by the availability of fetal blood samples obtained under relatively steady state conditions. These studies, together with studies using stable isotope methodologies, have clarified some aspects of the supply of the major nutrients for the fetus such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids. At the same time, the relevance of placental function has been recognized as a major determinant of fetal diseases leading to intrauterine growth restriction. More recently, the availability of new tools such as 3-dimensional ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, have made possible the evaluation of the growth and development of fetal organs. This knowledge in the healthy fetus will improve the ability of clinicians to recognize abnormal phenotypes of the different fetal organs, thus allowing to stage fetal diseases.

  14. Growth and Development through the Life Span. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide is designed to prepare nursing professionals to assess clients' needs and help both the doctor and clients. The guide contains seven units. Unit 1 introduces the basic concepts of growth and development that the student will need to understand as a basis for the remaining units. Each of the remaining six units discusses…

  15. Economic Growth and Development in the Undergraduate Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acemoglu, Daron

    2013-01-01

    A central theme of this article is that economics instructors should spend more time teaching about economic growth and development at the undergraduate level because the topic is of interest to students, is less abstract than other macroeconomic topics, and is the focus of exciting research in economics. Facts and data can be presented to…

  16. Development and growth in synanthropic species: plasticity and constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kralj-Fišer, Simona; Čelik, Tatjana; Lokovšek, Tjaša; Šuen, Klavdija; Šiling, Rebeka; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2014-07-01

    Urbanization poses serious extinction risks, yet some species thrive in urban environments. This may be due to a pronounced developmental plasticity in these taxa, since phenotypically, plastic organisms may better adjust to unpredictable urban food resources. We studied phenotypic plasticity in Nuctenea umbratica, a common European forest and urban vegetation spider. We subjected spiderlings to low (LF), medium (MF) and high (HF) food treatments and documented their growth and developmental trajectories into adulthood. Spiders from the three treatments had comparable numbers of instars and growth ratios, but differed in developmental periods. Longest developing LF spiders (♀ = 390, ♂ = 320 days) had the smallest adults, but MF (♀ = 300, ♂ = 240 days) and HF (♀ = 240, ♂ = 210 days) spiders reached comparable adult sizes through shorter development. While males and females had comparable instar numbers, females had longer development, higher growth ratios, adult sizes and mass; and while males adjusted their moulting to food availability, female moulting depended on specific mass, not food treatment. We discussed the patterns of Nuctenea sex-specific development and compared our results with published data on two other Holarctic urban colonizers ( Larinioides sclopetarius, Zygiella x- notata) exhibiting high plasticity and fast generation turn-over. We conclude that despite relatively unconstrained developmental time in the laboratory enabling Nuctenea to achieve maximal mass and size—main female fitness proxies—their relatively fixed growth ratio and long generation turn-over may explain their lower success in urban environments.

  17. Growth of a species, an association, a science: 80 years of growth and development research.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Richard J; Duren, Dana L

    2013-01-01

    Physical anthropological research was codified in the United States with the creation of the American Association of Physical Anthropology (AAPA) in 1929. That same year, a study began in yellow springs, Ohio, with a goal of identifying "what makes people different." The approach used to answer that question was to study the growth and development of Homo sapiens. The resulting study, the Fels Longitudinal Study, is currently the longest continuous study of human growth and development in the world. Although the AAPA and the Fels Longitudinal Study have existed as separate entities for more than 80 years now, it is not surprising, given the relationship between anatomical and developmental research, there has been considerable overlap between the two. As the field of physical anthropology has blossomed to include subdisciplines such as forensics, genetics, primatology, as well as sophisticated statistical methodologies, the importance of growth and development research has escalated. Although current Fels Longitudinal Study research is largely directed at biomedical questions, virtually all findings are relevant to physical anthropology, providing insights into basic biological processes and life history parameters. Some key milestones from the early years of the AAPA and the Fels Longitudinal Study are highlighted here that address growth and development research in physical anthropology. These are still held as fundamental concepts that underscore the importance of this line of inquiry, not only across the subdisciplines of physical anthropology, but also among anthropological, biological, and biomedical inquiries.

  18. Eider females form non-kin brood-rearing coalitions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ost, M.; Vitikainen, E.; Waldeck, P.; Sundstrom, L.; Lindstrom, K.; Hollmen, Tuula E.; Franson, J.C.; Kilpi, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    Kin selection is a powerful tool for understanding cooperation among individuals, yet its role as the sole explanation of cooperative societies has recently been challenged on empirical grounds. These studies suggest that direct benefits of cooperation are often overlooked, and that partner choice may be a widespread mechanism of cooperation. Female eider ducks (Somateria mollissima) may rear broods alone, or they may pool their broods and share brood-rearing. Females are philopatric, and it has been suggested that colonies may largely consist of related females, which could promote interactions among relatives. Alternatively, shared brood care could be random with respect to relatedness, either because brood amalgamations are accidental and nonadaptive, or through group augmentation, assuming that the fitness of all group members increases with group size. We tested these alternatives by measuring the relatedness of co-tending eider females in enduring coalitions with microsatellite markers. Females formed enduring brood-rearing coalitions with each other at random with respect to relatedness. However, based on previous data, partner choice is nonrandom and dependent on female body condition. We discuss potential mechanisms underlying eider communal brood-rearing decisions, which may be driven by the specific ecological conditions under which sociality has evolved in this species.

  19. [Evaluation of growth and development of institutionalized children].

    PubMed

    Chaves, Caroline Magna Pessoa; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Mendonça, Larissa Bento de Araújo; Custódio, Ires Lopes; Matias, Erica Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the growth and development of institutionalized children from 0-6 years old. It had a descriptive, transversal and quantitative approach, and was held in a shelter from the Bureau of Labor and Social Development of the Government of the State of Ceará, in the months of March and April 2011. The sample comprised 44 children. It the sample prevailed male children (59.1%), aged 24 to 72 months (56.8%) and with time of sheltering more than one year (72.7%). It was found that the children were in the normal range of nutrition; however, 65.9% of children did not achieve at least one of the development milestones proposed by the Ministry of Health. The study suggests a reflection on how children living in shelters are being assisted by the health team, making it necessary follow up their growth and development, in order to intervene on the alterations.

  20. On the Perception of Newcomers: Toward an Evolved Psychology of Intergenerational Coalitions.

    PubMed

    Cimino, Aldo; Delton, Andrew W

    2010-06-01

    Human coalitions frequently persist through multiple, overlapping membership generations, requiring new members to cooperate and coordinate with veteran members. Does the mind contain psychological adaptations for interacting within these intergenerational coalitions? In this paper, we examine whether the mind spontaneously treats newcomers as a motivationally privileged category. Newcomers-though capable of benefiting coalitions-may also impose considerable costs (e.g., they may free ride on other members, they may be poor at completing group tasks). In three experiments we show (1) that the mind categorizes coalition members by tenure, including newcomers; (2) that tenure categorization persists in the presence of orthogonal and salient social dimensions; and (3) that newcomers elicit a pattern of impressions consistent with their probable ancestral costs. These results provide preliminary evidence for a specialized component of human coalitional psychology: an evolved concept of newcomer.

  1. Imprinted gene expression in fetal growth and development.

    PubMed

    Lambertini, L; Marsit, C J; Sharma, P; Maccani, M; Ma, Y; Hu, J; Chen, J

    2012-06-01

    Experimental studies showed that genomic imprinting is fundamental in fetoplacental development by timely regulating the expression of the imprinted genes to overlook a set of events determining placenta implantation, growth and embryogenesis. We examined the expression profile of 22 imprinted genes which have been linked to pregnancy abnormalities that may ultimately influence childhood development. The study was conducted in a subset of 106 placenta samples, overrepresented with small and large for gestational age cases, from the Rhode Island Child Health Study. We investigated associations between imprinted gene expression and three fetal development parameters: newborn head circumference, birth weight, and size for gestational age. Results from our investigation show that the maternally imprinted/paternally expressed gene ZNF331 inversely associates with each parameter to drive smaller fetal size, while paternally imprinted/maternally expressed gene SLC22A18 directly associates with the newborn head circumference promoting growth. Multidimensional Scaling analysis revealed two clusters within the 22 imprinted genes which are independently associated with fetoplacental development. Our data suggest that cluster 1 genes work by assuring cell growth and tissue development, while cluster 2 genes act by coordinating these processes. Results from this epidemiologic study offer solid support for the key role of imprinting in fetoplacental development.

  2. Mechanical stress regulation of plant growth and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. A.; Myers, P. N.

    1995-01-01

    The authors introduce the chapter with a discussion of lessons from nature, agriculture, and landscapes; terms and definitions; and an historical perspective of mechanical stress regulation of plant growth and development. Topics include developmental responses to mechanical stress; mechanical stress-environment interactions; metabolic, productivity, and compositional changes; hormonal involvement; mechanoperception and early transduction mechanisms; applications in agriculture; and research implications. The discussion of hormonal involvement in mechanical stress physiology includes ethylene, auxin, gibberellins, and other phytohormones. The discussion of applications in agriculture examines windbreaks, nursery practices, height control and conditioning, and enhancement of growth and productivity. Implications for research are related to handling plant materials, space biology, and future research needs.

  3. Control of root growth and development by reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Tsukagoshi, Hironaka

    2016-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are relatively simple molecules that exist within cells growing in aerobic conditions. ROS were originally associated with oxidative stress and seen as highly reactive molecules that are injurious to many cell components. More recently, however, the function of ROS as signal molecules in many plant cellular processes has become more evident. One of the most important functions of ROS is their role as a plant growth regulator. For example, ROS are key molecules in regulating plant root development, and as such, are comparable to plant hormones. In this review, the molecular mechanisms of ROS that are mainly associated with plant root growth are discussed. The molecular links between root growth regulation by ROS and other signals will also be briefly discussed.

  4. Vapor crystal growth technology development: Application to cadmium telluride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Banish, Michael; Duval, Walter M. B.

    1991-01-01

    Growth of bulk crystals by physical vapor transport was developed and applied to cadmium telluride. The technology makes use of effusive ampoules, in which part of the vapor contents escapes to a vacuum shroud through defined leaks during the growth process. This approach has the advantage over traditional sealed ampoule techniques that impurity vapors and excess vapor constituents are continuously removed from the vicinity of the growing crystal. Thus, growth rates are obtained routinely at magnitudes that are rather difficult to achieve in closed ampoules. Other advantages of this effusive ampoule physical vapor transport (EAPVT) technique include the predetermination of transport rates based on simple fluid dynamics and engineering considerations, and the growth of the crystal from close to congruent vapors, which largely alleviates the compositional nonuniformities resulting from buoyancy driven convective transport. After concisely reviewing earlier work on improving transport rates, nucleation control, and minimization of crystal wall interactions in vapor crystal growth, a detail account is given of the largely computer controlled EAPVT experimentation.

  5. A brief history of Forging New Frontiers, the annual conference of the Injury Free Coalition for Kids.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Estell Lenita; Barlow, Barbara

    2016-10-01

    The Injury Free Coalition for Kids Annual Conference has contributed to the dissemination of information pertaining to the development of the field of injury prevention. A content analysis was completed using conference agendas used during the span of 2005-2015, finding that more than 398 presentations covering a wide variety of injuries have taken place. Published work has appeared in the Journal of Trauma and there has been recognition of people who have contributed to the development of the field. Forging New Frontiers is a valuable tool for attendees to exchange information about injury prevention.

  6. Effect of lighting conditions on zebrafish growth and development.

    PubMed

    Villamizar, Natalia; Vera, Luisa María; Foulkes, Nicholas Simon; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier

    2014-04-01

    In the underwater environment, the properties of light (intensity and spectrum) change rapidly with depth and water quality. In this article, we have described how and to what extent lighting conditions can influence the development, growth, and survival of zebrafish. Fertilized eggs and the corresponding larvae were exposed to different visible light wavelengths (violet, blue, green, yellow, red, and white) in a 12-h light-12-h dark (LD) cycle until 30 days posthatching (dph), when the expression of morphometric parameters and growth (igf1a, igf2a)- and stress-related (crh and pomca) genes were examined. Another group of larvae was raised under constant darkness (DD) until 5 or 10 dph, after which they were transferred to a LD of white light. A third group remained under DD to investigate the effects of light deprivation upon zebrafish development. The results revealed that the hatching rate was highest under blue and violet light, while total length at 30 dph was greatest under blue, white, and violet light. Red light led to reduced feeding activity and poor survival (100% mortality). Larvae raised under constant white light (LL) showed a higher proportion of malformations, as did larvae raised under LD violet light. The expression of growth and stress factors was upregulated in the violet (igf1a, igf2a, pomca, and chr) and blue (igf2a) groups, which is consistent with the higher growth recorded and the higher proportion of malformations detected under the violet light. All larvae kept under DD died before 18 dph, but the survival rates improved in larvae transferred to LD at 5 dph and at 10 dph. In summary, these findings revealed that lighting conditions are crucial factors influencing zebrafish larval development and growth.

  7. Effect of Lighting Conditions on Zebrafish Growth and Development

    PubMed Central

    Villamizar, Natalia; Vera, Luisa María; Foulkes, Nicholas Simon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the underwater environment, the properties of light (intensity and spectrum) change rapidly with depth and water quality. In this article, we have described how and to what extent lighting conditions can influence the development, growth, and survival of zebrafish. Fertilized eggs and the corresponding larvae were exposed to different visible light wavelengths (violet, blue, green, yellow, red, and white) in a 12-h light–12-h dark (LD) cycle until 30 days posthatching (dph), when the expression of morphometric parameters and growth (igf1a, igf2a)- and stress-related (crh and pomca) genes were examined. Another group of larvae was raised under constant darkness (DD) until 5 or 10 dph, after which they were transferred to a LD of white light. A third group remained under DD to investigate the effects of light deprivation upon zebrafish development. The results revealed that the hatching rate was highest under blue and violet light, while total length at 30 dph was greatest under blue, white, and violet light. Red light led to reduced feeding activity and poor survival (100% mortality). Larvae raised under constant white light (LL) showed a higher proportion of malformations, as did larvae raised under LD violet light. The expression of growth and stress factors was upregulated in the violet (igf1a, igf2a, pomca, and chr) and blue (igf2a) groups, which is consistent with the higher growth recorded and the higher proportion of malformations detected under the violet light. All larvae kept under DD died before 18 dph, but the survival rates improved in larvae transferred to LD at 5 dph and at 10 dph. In summary, these findings revealed that lighting conditions are crucial factors influencing zebrafish larval development and growth. PMID:24367902

  8. Decapentaplegic and growth control in the developing Drosophila wing.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Takuya; Gibson, Matthew C

    2015-11-19

    As a central model for morphogen action during animal development, the bone morphogenetic protein 2/4 (BMP2/4)-like ligand Decapentaplegic (Dpp) is proposed to form a long-range signalling gradient that directs both growth and pattern formation during Drosophila wing disc development. While the patterning role of Dpp secreted from a stripe of cells along the anterior-posterior compartmental boundary is well established, the mechanism by which a Dpp gradient directs uniform cell proliferation remains controversial and poorly understood. Here, to determine the precise spatiotemporal requirements for Dpp during wing disc development, we use CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing to generate a flippase recognition target (FRT)-dependent conditional null allele. By genetically removing Dpp from its endogenous stripe domain, we confirm the requirement of Dpp for the activation of a downstream phospho-Mothers against dpp (p-Mad) gradient and the regulation of the patterning targets spalt (sal), optomotor blind (omb; also known as bifid) and brinker (brk). Surprisingly, however, third-instar wing blade primordia devoid of compartmental dpp expression maintain relatively normal rates of cell proliferation and exhibit only mild defects in growth. These results indicate that during the latter half of larval development, the Dpp morphogen gradient emanating from the anterior-posterior compartment boundary is not directly required for wing disc growth. PMID:26550824

  9. Decapentaplegic and growth control in the developing Drosophila wing.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Takuya; Gibson, Matthew C

    2015-11-19

    As a central model for morphogen action during animal development, the bone morphogenetic protein 2/4 (BMP2/4)-like ligand Decapentaplegic (Dpp) is proposed to form a long-range signalling gradient that directs both growth and pattern formation during Drosophila wing disc development. While the patterning role of Dpp secreted from a stripe of cells along the anterior-posterior compartmental boundary is well established, the mechanism by which a Dpp gradient directs uniform cell proliferation remains controversial and poorly understood. Here, to determine the precise spatiotemporal requirements for Dpp during wing disc development, we use CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing to generate a flippase recognition target (FRT)-dependent conditional null allele. By genetically removing Dpp from its endogenous stripe domain, we confirm the requirement of Dpp for the activation of a downstream phospho-Mothers against dpp (p-Mad) gradient and the regulation of the patterning targets spalt (sal), optomotor blind (omb; also known as bifid) and brinker (brk). Surprisingly, however, third-instar wing blade primordia devoid of compartmental dpp expression maintain relatively normal rates of cell proliferation and exhibit only mild defects in growth. These results indicate that during the latter half of larval development, the Dpp morphogen gradient emanating from the anterior-posterior compartment boundary is not directly required for wing disc growth.

  10. Triennial Growth Symposium--A role for vitamin D in skeletal muscle development and growth.

    PubMed

    Starkey, J D

    2014-03-01

    Although well known for its role in bone development and mineral homeostasis, there is emerging evidence that vitamin D is capable of functioning as a regulator of skeletal muscle development and hypertrophic growth. This review will focus on the relatively limited body of evidence regarding the impact of vitamin D on prenatal development and postnatal growth of skeletal muscle in meat animal species. Recent evidence indicating that improvement of maternal vitamin D status through dietary 25-hydroxycholecalciferol supplementation can positively affect fetal skeletal muscle fiber number and myoblast activity in swine as well as work demonstrating that posthatch vitamin D status enhancement stimulates a satellite cell-mediated skeletal muscle hypertrophy response in broiler chickens is discussed. The relative lack of information regarding how and when to best supply dietary vitamin D to promote optimal prenatal development and postnatal growth of skeletal muscle provides an exciting field of research. Expansion of knowledge in this area will ultimately improve our ability to efficiently and effectively produce the livestock required to meet the increasing worldwide demand for meat products.

  11. Tongue Growth during Prenatal Development in Korean Fetuses and Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Soo Jeong; Cha, Bong Geun; Kim, Yeon Sook; Lee, Suk Keun; Chi, Je Geun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prenatal tongue development may affect oral-craniofacial structures, but this muscular organ has rarely been investigated. Methods: In order to document the physiology of prenatal tongue growth, we histologically examined the facial and cranial base structures of 56 embryos and 106 fetuses. Results: In Streeter’s stages 13–14 (fertilization age [FA], 28 to 32 days), the tongue protruded into the stomodeal cavity from the retrohyoid space to the cartilaginous mesenchyme of the primitive cranial base, and in Streeter’s stage 15 (FA, 33 to 36 days), the tongue rapidly swelled and compressed the cranial base to initiate spheno-occipital synchondrosis and continued to swell laterally to occupy most of the stomodeal cavity in Streeter’s stage 16–17 (FA, 37 to 43 days). In Streeter’s stage 18–20 (FA, 44 to 51 days), the tongue was vertically positioned and filled the posterior nasopharyngeal space. As the growth of the mandible and maxilla advanced, the tongue was pulled down and protruded anteriorly to form the linguomandibular complex. Angulation between the anterior cranial base (ACB) and the posterior cranial base (PCB) was formed by the emerging tongue at FA 4 weeks and became constant at approximately 124°–126° from FA 6 weeks until birth, which was consistent with angulations measured on adult cephalograms. Conclusions: The early clockwise growth of the ACB to the maxillary plane became harmonious with the counter-clockwise growth of the PCB to the tongue axis during the early prenatal period. These observations suggest that human embryonic tongue growth affects ACB and PCB angulation, stimulates maxillary growth, and induces mandibular movement to achieve the essential functions of oral and maxillofacial structures. PMID:26471340

  12. Bilateral asymmetry of the humerus during growth and development.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Amanda

    2011-08-01

    The development of handedness throughout growth can be investigated by using bilateral asymmetry of the humerus as a proxy for this trait. A large skeletal sample of nonadults from English archaeological sites was examined using standard metric techniques to assess when right-sided asymmetry first appears in the human skeleton. Results of this work indicate a change in directional asymmetry during growth and development, with infants and young children exhibiting no significant asymmetry and older children and adolescents demonstrating right-sidedness. This trend is consistent with what has been observed in previous studies of upper limb asymmetry in skeletal material and behaviorally in living children, adding further strength to the premise that biomechanical forces strongly influence bilateral asymmetry in the upper limb bones. Variability in the magnitude of asymmetry between different features of the humerus was also noted. This characteristic can be explained by differing degrees of genetic canalization, with length and articular dimensions being more strongly canalized than diaphyseal properties.

  13. Allometric growth in the extant coelacanth lung during ontogenetic development.

    PubMed

    Cupello, Camila; Brito, Paulo M; Herbin, Marc; Meunier, François J; Janvier, Philippe; Dutel, Hugo; Clément, Gaël

    2015-09-15

    Coelacanths are lobe-finned fishes known from the Devonian to Recent that were long considered extinct, until the discovery of two living species in deep marine waters of the Mozambique Channel and Sulawesi. Despite extensive studies, the pulmonary system of extant coelacanths has not been fully investigated. Here we confirm the presence of a lung and discuss its allometric growth in Latimeria chalumnae, based on a unique ontogenetic series. Our results demonstrate the presence of a potentially functional, well-developed lung in the earliest known coelacanth embryo, and its arrested growth at later ontogenetic stages, when the lung is clearly vestigial. The parallel development of a fatty organ for buoyancy control suggests a unique adaptation to deep-water environments. Furthermore, we provide the first evidence for the presence of small, hard, flexible plates around the lung in L. chalumnae, and consider them homologous to the plates of the 'calcified lung' of fossil coelacanths.

  14. Impact of accelerated plant growth on seed variety development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christophersen, Eric

    1998-01-01

    The commercial lives of agricultural seed products have steadily declined in recent years. The introduction of genetically engineered crop seeds in 1966 has accentuated that trend. Widespread grower demand for genetically engineered seed requires competitive response by industry followers in order to avert market share losses to the industry leaders. Limitations on plant transformation technology, regulatory requirements and patent impediments require companies to rapidly convert transformed lines into elite commercial products. Massive multigenerational backcrossing efforts are required to distribute genetically engineered traits into a broad product mix. Significant incidents of expression failures, or ``gene silencing,'' have occurred unexpectedly, requiring product substitution strategies. First-to-market strategies, competitive response, broad germplasm conversion and rescue of product failures all share the element of urgency. Technologies which reliably accelerate product development rates can expect favorable reception by commercial seed developers. A growth chamber which dramatically accelerates the rate of plant growth is described.

  15. Development, Selection, and Validation of Tumor Growth Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahmoradi, Amir; Lima, Ernesto; Oden, J. Tinsley

    In recent years, a multitude of different mathematical approaches have been taken to develop multiscale models of solid tumor growth. Prime successful examples include the lattice-based, agent-based (off-lattice), and phase-field approaches, or a hybrid of these models applied to multiple scales of tumor, from subcellular to tissue level. Of overriding importance is the predictive power of these models, particularly in the presence of uncertainties. This presentation describes our attempt at developing lattice-based, agent-based and phase-field models of tumor growth and assessing their predictive power through new adaptive algorithms for model selection and model validation embodied in the Occam Plausibility Algorithm (OPAL), that brings together model calibration, determination of sensitivities of outputs to parameter variances, and calculation of model plausibilities for model selection. Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences.

  16. Root growth and development in response to CO2 enrichment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Frank P., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A non-destructive technique (minirhizotron observation tubes) was used to assess the effects of CO2 enrichment on root growth and development in experimental plots in a scrub oak-palmetto community at the Kennedy Space Center. Potential effects of CO2 enrichment on plants have a global significance in light of concerns over increasing CO2 concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere. The study at Kennedy Space Center focused on aboveground physiological responses (photosynthetic efficiency and water use efficiency), effects on process rates (litter decomposition and nutrient turnover), and belowground responses of the plants. Belowground dynamics are an exceptionally important component of total plant response but are frequently ignored due to methodological difficulties. Most methods used to examine root growth and development are destructive and, therefore, severely compromise results. Minirhizotrons allow nondestructive observation and quantification of the same soil volume and roots through time. Root length density and root phenology were evaluated for CO2 effects with this nondestructive technique.

  17. Allometric growth in the extant coelacanth lung during ontogenetic development

    PubMed Central

    Cupello, Camila; Brito, Paulo M.; Herbin, Marc; Meunier, François J; Janvier, Philippe; Dutel, Hugo; Clément, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    Coelacanths are lobe-finned fishes known from the Devonian to Recent that were long considered extinct, until the discovery of two living species in deep marine waters of the Mozambique Channel and Sulawesi. Despite extensive studies, the pulmonary system of extant coelacanths has not been fully investigated. Here we confirm the presence of a lung and discuss its allometric growth in Latimeria chalumnae, based on a unique ontogenetic series. Our results demonstrate the presence of a potentially functional, well-developed lung in the earliest known coelacanth embryo, and its arrested growth at later ontogenetic stages, when the lung is clearly vestigial. The parallel development of a fatty organ for buoyancy control suggests a unique adaptation to deep-water environments. Furthermore, we provide the first evidence for the presence of small, hard, flexible plates around the lung in L. chalumnae, and consider them homologous to the plates of the ‘calcified lung' of fossil coelacanths. PMID:26372119

  18. Growth and development of the root apical meristem.

    PubMed

    Perilli, Serena; Di Mambro, Riccardo; Sabatini, Sabrina

    2012-02-01

    A key question in plant developmental biology is how cell division and cell differentiation are balanced to modulate organ growth and shape organ size. In recent years, several advances have been made in understanding how this balance is achieved during root development. In the Arabidopsis root meristem, stem cells in the apical region of the meristem self-renew and produce daughter cells that differentiate in the distal meristem transition zone. Several factors have been implicated in controlling the different functional zones of the root meristem to modulate root growth; among these, plant hormones have been shown to play a main role. In this review, we summarize recent findings regarding the role of hormone signaling and transcriptional networks in regulating root development.

  19. [Mycorrhizal diversity and its significance in plant growth and development].

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhaoyong; Chen, Yinglong; Liu, Runjin

    2003-09-01

    Mycorrhizal diversity, including morphological, species and functional diversity, is an integrative component of biodiversities. Many experiments showed that mycorrhizal diversity played an important role in the origin, evolution, distribution, survival, growth and development of plants. But, mycorrhizal diversity is dependent on plant diversity. It was suggested that mycorrhizal and plant diversities stimulated or retarded each other. The significance of mycorrhizal diversity in plant diversity was also discussed.

  20. Human growth hormone and the development of osteochondritis dissecans lesions.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Waqas M; Hussain, Haroon M; Hussain, Mohammed S; Ho, Sherwin S W

    2011-12-01

    No single etiology regarding the cause of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions is unanimously accepted. This report documents a novel case of multiple OCD lesions affecting the left knee and a solitary defect of the right elbow in a patient with acquired human growth hormone (hGH) deficiency and supplementation. hGH deficiency and hormone replacement may be related to the development of OCD lesions.

  1. Bilateral Tarsal Coalition in a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Basketball Player: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Suits, Julie M.; Oliver, Gretchen D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To present a case of bilateral subtalar joint coalition in a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I basketball player and the treatment plan that was used to manage the coalition from the beginning of conference play through the postseason. Background A 20-year-old male basketball athlete (height = 182.8 cm, mass = 83.4 kg) presented with bilateral subtalar joint tarsal coalition that became symptomatic in 2006 and resulted in constant pain with any form of activity. Differential Diagnosis Traumatic injury of the talocalcaneal joint. Treatment Nonsurgical intervention of conservative therapy was elected. Uniqueness Less than 13% of the overall population is affected with tarsal coalition, so it is safe to assume that very few athletes competing at the collegiate or elite level suffer from this condition. This is the first report in the literature to document conservative manual therapies used to manage the symptoms of subtalar joint tarsal coalition in a Division I basketball player. Conclusions After the intensive treatment program for tarsal coalition was implemented, the patient experienced pain relief and was able to continue to compete at a competitive level. This case represents the need to further explore and document a conservative treatment protocol for tarsal coalition. PMID:23182021

  2. Radial force development during root growth measured by photoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Evelyne; Hartmann, Christian; Genet, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    The mechanical and topological properties of a soil like the global porosity and the distribution of void sizes greatly affect the development of a plant root, which in turn affects the shoot development. In particular, plant roots growing in heterogeneous medium like sandy soils or cracked substrates have to adapt their morphology and exert radial forces depending on the pore size in which they penetrate. We propose a model experiment in which a pivot root (chick-pea seeds) of millimetric diameter has to grow in a size-controlled gap δ (δ ranging 0.5-2.3 mm) between two photoelastic grains. By time-lapse imaging, we continuously monitored the root growth and the development of optical fringes in the photoelastic neighbouring grains when the root enters the gap. Thus we measured simultaneously and in situ the root morphological changes (length and diameter growth rates, circumnutation) as well as the radial forces the root exerts. Radial forces were increasing in relation with gap constriction and experiment duration but a levelling of the force was not observed, even after 5 days and for narrow gaps. The inferred mechanical stress was consistent with the turgor pressure of compressed cells. Therefore our set-up could be a basis for testing mechanical models of cellular growth.

  3. Redox signaling in the growth and development of colonial hydroids.

    PubMed

    Blackstone, Neil W

    2003-02-01

    Redox signaling provides a quick and efficient mechanism for clonal or colonial organisms to adapt their growth and development to aspects of the environment, e.g. the food supply. A 'signature' of mitochondrial redox signaling, particularly as mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), can be elucidated by experimental manipulation of the electron transport chain. The major sites of ROS formation are found at NADH dehydrogenase of complex I and at the interface between coenzyme Q and complex III. Inhibitors of complex III should thus upregulate ROS from both sites; inhibitors of complex I should upregulate ROS from the first but not the second site, while uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation should downregulate ROS from both sites. To investigate the possibility of such redox signaling, perturbations of colony growth and development were carried out using the hydroid Podocoryna carnea. Oxygen uptake of colonies was measured to determine comparable physiological doses of antimycin A(1) (an inhibitor of complex III), rotenone (an inhibitor of complex I) and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP; an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation). Using these doses, clear effects on colony growth and development were obtained. Treatment with antimycin A(1) results in 'runner-like' colony growth, with widely spaced polyps and stolon branches, while treatment with CCCP results in 'sheet-like' growth, with closely spaced polyps and stolon branches. Parallel results have been obtained previously with azide, an inhibitor of complex IV, and dinitrophenol, another uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. Perhaps surprisingly, rotenone produced effects on colony development similar to those of CCCP. Assays of peroxides using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and fluorescent microscopy suggest a moderate difference in ROS formation between the antimycin and rotenone treatments. The second site of ROS formation (the interface between coenzyme Q and complex III) may thus

  4. Coalition for Plasma Science (CPS) Education and Outreach Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, L. A.

    2002-11-01

    The Coalition for Plasma Science (http://plasmacoalition.org/, CPS@plasmacoalition.org) is a group of institutions, organizations, and companies joining forces to increase awareness and understanding of plasma science and its many applications and benefits for society. Ongoing CPS educational activities include: (1) Construction and maintenance of a web site featuring "A Teacher's Guide to Plasma Science on the Web," a page that links to a wide range of plasma-related education sites, most of them analyzed for consistency with national science standards. The web site also directs visitors to our "Plasma Page," a brief, clear summary of plasma-related news; (2) Preparation of two-page articles on a wide range of plasma topics, including lighting, fusion, and space plasmas; and (3) Printing and distribution of an educational brochure entitled "Plasmas are Everywhere." The audience for these activities is primarily nontechnical, and includes students, teachers, and policy makers.

  5. Nutritionally directed compensatory growth enhances heifer development and lactation potential.

    PubMed

    Ford, J A; Park, C S

    2001-07-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to examine the interactive influence of a compensatory nutrition regimen and lasalocid supplementation on dairy heifer growth performance and 2) to document the extent to which compensatory growth sustains lactation potential over the first two lactation cycles. Twelve Holstein heifers, weighing an average of 160 kg (about 6 mo of age) were randomly assigned to treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Treatment variables were two dietary regimens (control and stair-step compensatory nutrition) and two levels of lasalocid (0 and 200 mg/d). The control heifers were fed a diet containing 12% crude protein (CP) and 2.35 Mcal of metabolizable energy (ME) per kilogram of dry matter. The stair-step compensatory nutrition heifers were subjected to a phased nutrition regimen and reared according to an alternating 3-2-4-3-4-2-mo schedule. The first stair-step (prepubertal phase) consisted of energy restriction [17% CP and 2.35 Mcal/kg of ME] for 3 mo followed by realimentation (12% CP and 3.05 Mcal/kg of ME) for 2 mo. The second step (puberty and breeding) consisted of energy restriction for 4 mo followed by realimentation for 3 mo. The third step (gestation period) was energy restriction for 4 mo concluding with realimentation for 2 mo. Dry matter intake of heifers during the restriction phase was limited to 70% of the control intake. Heifers were given ad libitum access to a high energy density diet during realimentation to allow compensatory development. Stair-step heifers supplemented with lasalocid had the highest efficiency of growth (body weight gain/dry matter intake), suggesting synergistic metabolism of lasalocid with compensatory growth action. Compensatory growth induced during the last trimester enhanced metabolic status by increasing circulating insulin and decreasing triglyceride levels. Heifers on the stair-step regimen had a significant increase in milk yield during the first (21%) and second (15%) lactation

  6. Fibroblast growth factor signaling in skeletal development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Ornitz, David M.; Marie, Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathways are essential regulators of vertebrate skeletal development. FGF signaling regulates development of the limb bud and formation of the mesenchymal condensation and has key roles in regulating chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, and bone and mineral homeostasis. This review updates our review on FGFs in skeletal development published in Genes & Development in 2002, examines progress made on understanding the functions of the FGF signaling pathway during critical stages of skeletogenesis, and explores the mechanisms by which mutations in FGF signaling molecules cause skeletal malformations in humans. Links between FGF signaling pathways and other interacting pathways that are critical for skeletal development and could be exploited to treat genetic diseases and repair bone are also explored. PMID:26220993

  7. A growth and development course for allied health majors.

    PubMed

    Wutka, P B; Baxter, D H

    1981-11-01

    This article describes an interdisciplinary course in growth and development for allied health students. The course focuses on physical, nutritional, and psychosocial aspects of development and views the individual from the time of conception through adulthood. For each developmental stage, professors integrate course material and class activities for students so that a composite picture of the individual is presented. Students also complete a developmental study on a preschool child and compare their assigned child to normative expectations. The course has been successful during the past five years, and it is anticipated that students from other major fields will elect to take this course.

  8. [Mechanisms of growth, development and disease of the craniofacial skeleton].

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Craniofacial skeleton is derived from several pieces of bone, which hold the brain and house the sensory organ of vision, hearing, taste and smell. It also serves as an entrance of the digestive and respiratory tracts. Hence, craniofacial complex develops under sophisticated balance between the shape and the function. Disruption of such balance leads to various types of malformation and/or deformation of the face. This review focuses on the molecular aspects of growth and developments of the craniofacial structures and also on the genetic basis of congenital craniofacial malformations.

  9. The role of microbial signals in plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Ortíz-Castro, Randy; Contreras-Cornejo, Hexon Angel; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; López-Bucio, José

    2009-08-01

    Plant growth and development involves a tight coordination of the spatial and temporal organization of cell division, cell expansion and cell differentiation. Orchestration of these events requires the exchange of signaling molecules between the root and shoot, which can be affected by both biotic and abiotic factors. The interactions that occur between plants and their associated microorganisms have long been of interest, as knowledge of these processes could lead to the development of novel agricultural applications. Plants produce a wide range of organic compounds including sugars, organic acids and vitamins, which can be used as nutrients or signals by microbial populations. On the other hand, microorganisms release phytohormones, small molecules or volatile compounds, which may act directly or indirectly to activate plant immunity or regulate plant growth and morphogenesis. In this review, we focus on recent developments in the identification of signals from free-living bacteria and fungi that interact with plants in a beneficial way. Evidence has accumulated indicating that classic plant signals such as auxins and cytokinins can be produced by microorganisms to efficiently colonize the root and modulate root system architecture. Other classes of signals, including N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones, which are used by bacteria for cell-to-cell communication, can be perceived by plants to modulate gene expression, metabolism and growth. Finally, we discuss the role played by volatile organic compounds released by certain plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in plant immunity and developmental processes. The picture that emerges is one in which plants and microbes communicate themselves through transkingdom signaling systems involving classic and novel signals.

  10. The role of microbial signals in plant growth and development

    PubMed Central

    Ortíz-Castro, Randy; Contreras-Cornejo, Hexon Angel; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes

    2009-01-01

    Plant growth and development involves a tight coordination of the spatial and temporal organization of cell division, cell expansion and cell differentiation. Orchestration of these events requires the exchange of signaling molecules between the root and shoot, which can be affected by both biotic and abiotic factors. The interactions that occur between plants and their associated microorganisms have long been of interest, as knowledge of these processes could lead to the development of novel agricultural applications. Plants produce a wide range of organic compounds including sugars, organic acids and vitamins, which can be used as nutrients or signals by microbial populations. On the other hand, microorganisms release phytohormones, small molecules or volatile compounds, which may act directly or indirectly to activate plant immunity or regulate plant growth and morphogenesis. In this review, we focus on recent developments in the identification of signals from free-living bacteria and fungi that interact with plants in a beneficial way. Evidence has accumulated indicating that classic plant signals such as auxins and cytokinins can be produced by microorganisms to efficiently colonize the root and modulate root system architecture. Other classes of signals, including N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones, which are used by bacteria for cell-to-cell communication, can be perceived by plants to modulate gene expression, metabolism and growth. Finally, we discuss the role played by volatile organic compounds released by certain plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in plant immunity and developmental processes. The picture that emerges is one in which plants and microbes communicate themselves through transkingdom signaling systems involving classic and novel signals. PMID:19820333

  11. Nigerian population growth and its implications for economic development.

    PubMed

    Okpala, A O

    1990-12-01

    The population of Nigeria is growing at a rate of 3.75%/year indicating a doubling of the population every 22 years. Demographers estimated the population to be 91,178,000 in 1985. Even though population density is high (288 people/square mile), it is not equally distributed. It is highest in the south and southwest urban areas such as Lagos (1045 people/square mile) and lowest in the northeast (75 people/square mile). Moreover rural-urban migration is growing. A major reason for rural-urban migration is the dual nature of the economy in Nigeria. In urban areas, economic development brings about higher standards of living, but, in rural areas, a subsistence economy predominates. This coupled with rapid population growth results in small or no growth in per capita income. Only if the government were to integrate redistribution policies into complete economic development plans should it consider redistributing the population. It should stress rural development (e.g., incentives for firms to set up in rural areas). Further it should move some government offices to rural areas. The government also needs to adopt population policies encouraging the lowering of fertility levels. If it were to provide education through the secondary and prevocational education level free of charge, educated women will lower their fertility. Sex education should be included in the curriculum. Further the government must play an active role in family planning programs, especially educating rural women about family planning. It should also use the mass media to promote small family size, but it should not dictate family size. It also needs to recognize that population growth puts much pressure on the environment. For example, population growth causes soil erosion, nutrient exhaustion, rapid deforestation, and other problems which render the land unusable for agriculture.

  12. Fragile X syndrome: growth, development, and intellectual function.

    PubMed

    Prouty, L A; Rogers, R C; Stevenson, R E; Dean, J H; Palmer, K K; Simensen, R J; Coston, G N; Schwartz, C E

    1988-01-01

    We collected data on growth, psychomotor development, speech and language development, and intellectual function on a cohort of 100 males with the fragile X chromosome and 95 carrier females. The data include information on prenatal growth (33 males), growth during the preadult years (32 males), psychomotor development during the first 2 years (25 males), speech and language development (15 males and 5 females), and intellectual function (93 males, 33 females, and 10 obligate carriers who were cytogenetically normal). Birth measurements appeared normal when plotted on the Usher/McLean curves of newborn infants (mean head circumference - OFC - at 40th centile, length at 60th centile and weight at 55th centile). Following birth, OFC rose above the 50th percentile and continued above average throughout the preadult years, whereas average length was above average for the first 5 years only and weight did not deviate from the normal mean. Psychomotor development lagged behind the norm from birth with affected males requiring nearly twice as long as expected to sit alone, walk unassisted, and say first words clearly. All males and females studied had significant language delay; all except one male had abnormalities of articulation. All on whom a clear voice sample was obtained had low voice pitch, and 80% had a hoarse or harsh quality of voice. Five males had word repetitions or perseverative speech during the preadult years. The mean IQ of the 93 males studied was 33 and regression analysis demonstrated a decrease in intellectual performance with age. Four fifths of the female carriers who expressed the fra(X) had intellectual performance in the mentally retarded range and showed similar decrease in performance with age. Obligate female carriers who did not express the fra(X) site had normal IQs (IQ 102 +/- 13.3).

  13. Population growth and poverty in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Birdsall, N

    1980-12-01

    The links between rapid population growth and the absolute poverty currently affecting 780 million people in the developing countries (excluding China and other centrally planned economies) were examined. Absolute poverty is defined as having less than the income necessary to ensure a daily diet of 2150 calories per person ($200 per person a year in 1970 United States dollars). Focus is on poverty and demography in the developing world (defining poverty; income, fertility and life expectancy; demographic change and poverty), effect of poverty on fertility, family planning programs and the poor, and the outlook for the future. Rapid population growth stretches both national and family budgets thin with the increasing numbers of children to be fed and educated and workers to be provided with jobs. Slower per capita income growth, lack of progress in reducing income inequality, and more poverty are the probable consequences. Many characteristics of poverty can cause high fertility -- high infant mortality, lack of education for women in particular, too little family income to invest in children, inequitable shares in national income, and the inaccessibility of family planning. Experience in China, Indonesia, Taiwan, Colombia, Korea, Sri Lanka, Cuba and Costa Rica demonstrate that birthrates can decline rapidly in low income groups and countries when basic health care, education, and low-cost or free family planning services are made widely available. PMID:12262264

  14. Periconceptional growth hormone treatment alters fetal growth and development in lambs.

    PubMed

    Koch, J M; Wilmoth, T A; Wilson, M E

    2010-05-01

    Research in the area of fetal programming has focused on intrauterine growth restriction. Few studies have attempted to examine programming mechanisms that ultimately lead to lambs with a greater potential for postnatal growth. We previously demonstrated that treatment of ewes with GH at the time of breeding led to an increase in birth weight. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of a single injection of sustained-release GH given during the periconceptional period on fetal growth and development and to determine if the GH axis would be altered in these offspring. Estrus was synchronized using 2 injections of PGF(2alpha); at the time of the second injection, ewes assigned to treatment were also given an injection of sustained-release GH. A maternal jugular vein sample was taken weekly to analyze IGF-I as a proxy for GH to estimate the duration of the treatment effect. In ewes treated with GH, IGF-I increased (P < 0.05) by wk 1 and remained elevated until wk 4 postinjection. Lambs were weighed, crown-rump length and abdominal girth were determined, and a plasma sample was collected. In a subset of male lambs, liver, heart, and brain weights were obtained, as well as left and right ventricular wall thicknesses. On postnatal d 100, a subset of ewe lambs were weighed and challenged with an intravenous injection of GHRH. Lambs from treated ewes had increased (P < 0.05) birth weight and abdominal girth compared with control lambs; however, there was no difference in crown-rump length. Expression of GH receptor and IGF-I were increased (P < 0.05) in lambs gestated by GH-treated ewes compared with control ewes. The left ventricular wall was thinner (P < 0.05) from lambs in the GH-treated group compared with control lambs. On postnatal d 100, those ewe lambs born to ewes treated with GH continued to be heavier (P < 0.05) and had no IGF-I response to GHRH challenge. In conclusion, treating ewes with a single injection of GH appeared to alter

  15. Plant development in space: Observations on root formation and growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, H. G.; Kann, R. P.; Krikorian, Abraham D.

    1990-01-01

    Root growth in space is discussed and observations on root production from plants flown as part of the Chromex project that were defined as to their origin, stage of development and physiological status, are presented. Roots were generated from fully differentiated, aseptically maintained individuals of Haplopappus gracilis (Compositae) under spaceflight conditions. Results are compared for tissue culture generated plantlets and comparably sized seedling clone individuals, both of which had their roots trimmed on Earth before they were loaded into NASA's plant growth unit and subjected to a 5 day shuttle flight (STS-29). Asepsis was maintained throughout the experiment. Overall root production was 40 to 50 percent greater under spaceflight conditions than during ground control tests. However, root formation slowed down towards the end of the flight. This decrease in new roots did not occur in the ground controls that sought to simulate flight except for microgravity.

  16. [Effect of Distant Interactions on Growth and Development of Streptomycetes].

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, Yu A; Surgucheva, N A; Filippova, S N

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of streptomycete growth and development by distant interactions of physical nature was shown using a vial-in-vial experimental setup, providing physical isolation of the inducer and detector cultures. Some effects of distant interaction were observed with Streptomyces netropsis proliferating submerged culture as an inducer and a surface culture of the same strain as a detector. The growth rate of the detector strain doubled. Spore germination was stimulated, as was indicated by a 30% increase in the number of colony-forming units (CRU) in the detector culture plated as a spore suspension. The phase variation spectrum also changed, with an increased share of the colonies of the morphotype predominant under the standard conditions.

  17. Light-Mediated Hormonal Regulation of Plant Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Mieke; Galvão, Vinicius Costa; Fankhauser, Christian

    2016-04-29

    Light is crucial for plant life, and perception of the light environment dictates plant growth, morphology, and developmental changes. Such adjustments in growth and development in response to light conditions are often established through changes in hormone levels and signaling. This review discusses examples of light-regulated processes throughout a plant's life cycle for which it is known how light signals lead to hormonal regulation. Light acts as an important developmental switch in germination, photomorphogenesis, and transition to flowering, and light cues are essential to ensure light capture through architectural changes during phototropism and the shade avoidance response. In describing well-established links between light perception and hormonal changes, we aim to give insight into the mechanisms that enable plants to thrive in variable light environments.

  18. Polygenic Risk, Rapid Childhood Growth, and the Development of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Bennett, Gary G.; Biddle, Andrea K.; Blumenthal, James A.; Evans, James P.; Harrington, HonaLee; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies influence the development of obesity. Design A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants One thousand thirty-seven male and female study members. Main Exposures We assessed genetic risk with a multilocus genetic risk score. The genetic risk score was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of obesity-related phenotypes. We assessed family history from parent body mass index data collected when study members were 11 years of age. Main Outcome Measures Body mass index growth curves, developmental phenotypes of obesity, and adult obesity outcomes were defined from anthropometric assessments at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person interviews through 38 years of age. Results Individuals with higher genetic risk scores were more likely to be chronically obese in adulthood. Genetic risk first manifested as rapid growth during early childhood. Genetic risk was unrelated to birth weight. After birth, children at higher genetic risk gained weight more rapidly and reached adiposity rebound earlier and at a higher body mass index. In turn, these developmental phenotypes predicted adult obesity, mediating about half the genetic effect on adult obesity risk. Genetic associations with growth and obesity risk were independent of family history, indicating that the genetic risk score could provide novel information to clinicians. Conclusions Genetic variation linked with obesity risk operates, in part, through accelerating growth in the early childhood years after birth. Etiological research and prevention strategies should target early childhood to address the obesity epidemic. PMID:22665028

  19. Role of micronutrients for physical growth and mental development.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meharban

    2004-01-01

    Due to control of florid and severe cases of protein-energy malnutrition, deficiencies of micronutrients in children have assumed public health importance. According to National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau of India, over 50% of apparently healthy looking children have subclinical or biochemical deficiencies of vitamin A, vitamins B2, B6, folate and vitamin C. Over two-third of children have clinical evidences of iron deficiency while deficiency of trace minerals like iodine and zinc is quite common in certain populations. Children have food preferences and they are quite fussy to take green leafy vegetables and fruits thus compromising their intake of micronutrients from dietary sources. The full genetic potential of the child for physical growth and mental development may be compromised due to subclinical deficiencies of micronutrients which are commonly referred to as "hidden hunger". Micronutrients are required for the integrity and optimal functioning of immune system. Children with subclinical deficiency of micronutrients are more vulnerable to develop frequent and more severe common day-to-day infections thus triggering a vicious cycle of undernutrition and recurrent infections. A number of micronutrients are required for optimal physical growth and neuromotor development. Isolated deficiencies of micronutrients are rare in clinical practice and usually deficiencies of multiple micronutrients co-exist. The first 3 years of life are most crucial and vulnerable to the hazards of undernutrition. All efforts should be made so that preschool children are given a balanced and nutritious home-based diet. However, it has been shown that it is not possible to meet 100% requirements of recommended dietary allowances (RDA's) of micronutrients from dietary sources alone and most preschool children need administration of nutritional supplements to optimize their genetic potential for physical growth and mental development. PMID:14979388

  20. Ecological Network Analysis for Economic Systems: Growth and Development and Implications for Sustainable Development

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiali; Ulanowicz, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of growth and development is an important issue in economics, because these phenomena are closely related to sustainability. We address growth and development from a network perspective in which economic systems are represented as flow networks and analyzed using ecological network analysis (ENA). The Beijing economic system is used as a case study and 11 input–output (I-O) tables for 1985–2010 are converted into currency networks. ENA is used to calculate system-level indices to quantify the growth and development of Beijing. The contributions of each direct flow toward growth and development in 2010 are calculated and their implications for sustainable development are discussed. The results show that during 1985–2010, growth was the main attribute of the Beijing economic system. Although the system grew exponentially, its development fluctuated within only a small range. The results suggest that system ascendency should be increased in order to favor more sustainable development. Ascendency can be augmented in two ways: (1) strengthen those pathways with positive contributions to increasing ascendency and (2) weaken those with negative effects. PMID:24979465

  1. Ecological network analysis for economic systems: growth and development and implications for sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiali; Ulanowicz, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of growth and development is an important issue in economics, because these phenomena are closely related to sustainability. We address growth and development from a network perspective in which economic systems are represented as flow networks and analyzed using ecological network analysis (ENA). The Beijing economic system is used as a case study and 11 input-output (I-O) tables for 1985-2010 are converted into currency networks. ENA is used to calculate system-level indices to quantify the growth and development of Beijing. The contributions of each direct flow toward growth and development in 2010 are calculated and their implications for sustainable development are discussed. The results show that during 1985-2010, growth was the main attribute of the Beijing economic system. Although the system grew exponentially, its development fluctuated within only a small range. The results suggest that system ascendency should be increased in order to favor more sustainable development. Ascendency can be augmented in two ways: (1) strengthen those pathways with positive contributions to increasing ascendency and (2) weaken those with negative effects.

  2. The Use of Biofuel for Sustainable Growth in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, J.

    2014-12-01

    The biofuel industry is divided into four categories comprising of feedstocks used in 1st and 2nd generation bioethanol and biodiesel. In order to identify and quantify each biofuel feedstock's potential for sustainable growth, each were evaluated according to self-developed social, financial, and environmental criteria. From the investigation and analysis carried out, 1st generation biodiesel and bioethanol were determined to be feedstocks not capable of facilitating sustainable growth. Results showed low earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) of -0.5 to 1 USD per gallon for biodiesel and 0.25 to 0.5 USD per gallon for bioethanol. Results also showed a poor return on asset (ROA). The energy required to produce one MJ of 1st generation biofuel fuel was at least 0.4 MJ, showing poor energy balance. Furthermore, high land, water, pesticide, and fertilizer requirements strained surrounding ecosystems by affecting the food web, thus reducing biodiversity. Over 55% of land used by the biodiesel industry in Indonesia and Malaysia involved the deforestation of local rainforests. This not only displaced indigenous organisms from their habitat and decreased their scope of nutrition, but also contributed to soil erosion and increased the probability of flooding. If left unregulated, imbalances in the ecosystem due to unsustainable growth will result in a permanent reshaping of tropical rainforest ecosystems in Southeast Asia. Algae, an example of 2nd generation biodiesel feedstock, was concluded to be the biofuel feedstock most capable of supporting sustainable growth. This is due to its low production costs of $1-1.5/gal, high biological productivity of 5000 gallons of biodiesel per acre per year, and high ROA of 25-35%. Additionally, algae's adaptability to varying environmental conditions also makes it an appealing candidate for businesses in developing countries, where access to resource supplies is unstable. Additionally, its reduced net

  3. Growth and splitting of neural sequences in songbird vocal development

    PubMed Central

    Okubo, Tatsuo S.; Mackevicius, Emily L.; Payne, Hannah L.; Lynch, Galen F.; Fee, Michale S.

    2015-01-01

    Neural sequences are a fundamental feature of brain dynamics underlying diverse behaviors, but the mechanisms by which they develop during learning remain unknown. Songbirds learn vocalizations composed of syllables; in adult birds, each syllable is produced by a different sequence of action potential bursts in the premotor cortical area HVC. Here we carried out recordings of large populations of HVC neurons in singing juvenile birds throughout learning to examine the emergence of neural sequences. Early in vocal development, HVC neurons begin producing rhythmic bursts, temporally locked to a ‘prototype’ syllable. Different neurons are active at different latencies relative to syllable onset to form a continuous sequence. Through development, as new syllables emerge from the prototype syllable, initially highly overlapping burst sequences become increasingly distinct. We propose a mechanistic model in which multiple neural sequences can emerge from the growth and splitting of a common precursor sequence. PMID:26618871

  4. Simulating the growth and development of sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, D.A.

    1983-06-01

    An existing dynamic grain sorghum growth model was modified to predict the growth and development of sweet sorghum. Modifications were made to the leaf area/stalk length, leaf extinction and dry matter partitioning modules. The model predicted dates of half-bloom and physiological maturity for sweet sorghum with good accuracy. Total dry matter was consistently underpredicted, suggesting the need for further model refinements (e.g. potential net photosynthesis calculation). Dry matter partitioning was calibrated with one set of field data and was checked with another data set. The dry matter partitioning modifications checked out well for the two data sets; however, more research is required to expand the confidence of the empirical partitioning procedure. Another area of future research should be the partitioning of dry matter into fermentable and nonfermentable portions. One potential use of a dynamic sweet sorghum model would be to schedule commercial harvesting systems. Other production interactions could also be investigated to assess the implications of integrating sorghum into established cropping systems. Economic assessments could also be made by entering the yield coefficients from the crop model into a linear programming framework. Eventually, validated crop growth models could be transferred from the research arena to agricultural producers, allowing them to improve their management decisions.

  5. Do multiple micronutrient interventions improve child health, growth, and development?

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Goldenberg, Tamar; Allen, Lindsay H

    2011-11-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies are common and often co-occur in many developing countries. Several studies have examined the benefits of providing multiple micronutrient (MMN) interventions during pregnancy and childhood, but the implications for programs remain unclear. The key objective of this review is to summarize what is known about the efficacy of MMN interventions during early childhood on functional outcomes, namely, child health, survival, growth, and development, to guide policy and identify gaps for future research. We identified review articles including meta-analyses and intervention studies that evaluated the benefits of MMN interventions (3 or more micronutrients) in children (<5 y of age) using Pubmed and EMBASE. Several controlled trials (n = 45) and meta-analyses (n = 6) have evaluated the effects of MMN interventions primarily for child morbidity, anemia, and growth. Two studies found no effects on child mortality. The findings for respiratory illness and diarrhea are mixed, although suggestive of benefit when provided as fortified foods. There is evidence from several controlled trials (>25) and 2 meta-analyses that MMN interventions improve hemoglobin concentrations and reduce anemia, but the effects were small compared to providing only iron or iron with folic acid. Two recent meta-analyses and several intervention trials also indicated that MMN interventions improve linear growth compared to providing a placebo or single nutrients. Much less is known about the effects on MMN interventions during early childhood on motor and mental development. In summary, MMN interventions may result in improved outcomes for children in settings where micronutrient deficiencies are widespread.

  6. Gay activism behind the magnolia curtain: the Memphis Gay Coalition, 1979-1991.

    PubMed

    Buring, D

    1996-01-01

    In 1979, a full decade after the burgeoning and rapid expansion of the gay liberation movement, a handful of gay men organized the Memphis Gay Coalition and Tennessee's largest city entered the activist mainstream. The Memphis Gay Coalition remained active for over a decade sponsoring political, educational, and social events. After twelve years the Coalition disbanded amid accusations of racism, sexism, and elitism, having achieved some of its original purposes in providing services to the Memphis gay community. Documentary sources and community interviews reveal that personality conflicts, organizational problems, and the forces of Southern culture played a role in the disintegration of the Memphis Gay Coalition, which left the city and its neighboring region without a broad gay activist alliance.

  7. A kernel-oriented model for coalition-formation in general environments: Implementation and results

    SciTech Connect

    Shehory, O.; Kraus, S.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present a model for coalition formation and payoff distribution in general environments. We focus on a reduced complexity kernel-oriented coalition formation model, and provide a detailed algorithm for the activity of the single rational agent. The model is partitioned into a social level and a strategic level, to distinguish between regulations that must be agreed upon and are forced by agent-designers, and strategies by which each agent acts at will. In addition, we present an implementation of the model and simulation results. From these we conclude that implementing the model for coalition formation among agents increases the benefits of the agents with reasonable time consumption. It also shows that more coalition formations yield more benefits to the agents.

  8. Development of SiC Large Tapered Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Majority of very large potential benefits of wide band gap semiconductor power electronics have NOT been realized due in large part to high cost and high defect density of commercial wafers. Despite 20 years of development, present SiC wafer growth approach is yet to deliver majority of SiC's inherent performance and cost benefits to power systems. Commercial SiC power devices are significantly de-rated in order to function reliably due to the adverse effects of SiC crystal dislocation defects (thousands per sq cm) in the SiC wafer.

  9. Magnetic field effects on plant growth, development, and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Maffei, Massimo E.

    2014-01-01

    The geomagnetic field (GMF) is a natural component of our environment. Plants, which are known to sense different wavelengths of light, respond to gravity, react to touch and electrical signaling, cannot escape the effect of GMF. While phototropism, gravitropism, and tigmotropism have been thoroughly studied, the impact of GMF on plant growth and development is not well-understood. This review describes the effects of altering magnetic field (MF) conditions on plants by considering plant responses to MF values either lower or higher than those of the GMF. The possible role of GMF on plant evolution and the nature of the magnetoreceptor is also discussed. PMID:25237317

  10. Meteorological limits on the growth and development of screwworm populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, D. E.; Arp, G. K.

    1978-01-01

    A program to evaluate the use of remotely sensed data as an additional tool in existing and projected efforts to eradicate the screwworm began in 1973. Estimating weather conditions by use of remotely sensed data was part of the study. Next, the effect of weather on screwworm populations was modeled. A significant portion of the variation in screwworm population growth and development has been traced to weather-related parameters. This report deals with the salient points of the weather and the screwworm population interaction.

  11. Congenital hypothyroidism: etiology and growth-development outcome.

    PubMed

    Dalili, Setila; Rezvani, Seyed Mahmood; Dalili, Hossein; Mohtasham Amiri, Zahra; Mohammadi, Hamid; Abrisham Kesh, Sahar; Novin, Mohammad Hassan; Medghalchi, Abdolreza; Gholamnezhad, Hajar

    2014-01-01

    One of the most preventable causes of mental and growth retardation is congenital hypothyroidism (CH). This study tries to investigate growth and mental outcome of patients with CH. Since November 2006 and November 2007 in Guilan province, north of Iran, all neonates who were diagnosed with CH, evaluated for etiology of CH by laboratory follow up, thyroid sonography or scan. Growth and development of patients with CH were compared with healthy children in same age, geographical area, social and economical classes in four years old. Demographic characteristics including height, weight, and head circumference at birth, follow up time (four years old) and IQ (Good enough test) were recorded in questionnaires. Among 28904 screened neonates, 37 patients with CH were diagnosed. Incidence of CH was 1:781 in live births, 20 (54%) in female neonates and 17 (46%) in male neonates. The incidences of permanent and transient hypothyroidism were 43.2% (16 cases) and 56. 8% (21 cases) respectively. The incidence of permanent and transient hypothyroidism were 16 (43.2%) and 21 (56, 8%), respectively. In permanent CH, 11 cases (%.68.2) had dyshormonogenesis and 5 cases (%.31.2) had thyroid dysgenesis. Significant statistical difference was only in family history of thyroid disease (34, 3% Positive family history in CH vs. 13.2% in control group, P-value 0.03). All other demographic characteristics and IQ had no statistical difference. Patients with CH diagnosed through neonatal screening and treated had normal growth as general population that indicates effective screening program and treatment in this area (3.2%).

  12. Hepatic growth hormone and glucocorticoid receptor signaling in body growth, steatosis and metabolic liver cancer development.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Kristina M; Themanns, Madeleine; Friedbichler, Katrin; Kornfeld, Jan-Wilhelm; Esterbauer, Harald; Tuckermann, Jan P; Moriggl, Richard

    2012-09-25

    Growth hormone (GH) and glucocorticoids (GCs) are involved in the control of processes that are essential for the maintenance of vital body functions including energy supply and growth control. GH and GCs have been well characterized to regulate systemic energy homeostasis, particular during certain conditions of physical stress. However, dysfunctional signaling in both pathways is linked to various metabolic disorders associated with aberrant carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In liver, GH-dependent activation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5 controls a variety of physiologic functions within hepatocytes. Similarly, GCs, through activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), influence many important liver functions such as gluconeogenesis. Studies in hepatic Stat5 or GR knockout mice have revealed that they similarly control liver function on their target gene level and indeed, the GR functions often as a cofactor of STAT5 for GH-induced genes. Gene sets, which require physical STAT5-GR interaction, include those controlling body growth and maturation. More recently, it has become evident that impairment of GH-STAT5 signaling in different experimental models correlates with metabolic liver disease, ranging from hepatic steatosis to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While GH-activated STAT5 has a protective role in chronic liver disease, experimental disruption of GC-GR signaling rather seems to ameliorate metabolic disorders under metabolic challenge. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge about hepatic GH-STAT5 and GC-GR signaling in body growth, metabolism, and protection from fatty liver disease and HCC development.

  13. Symptomatic coalition between the first and second metatarsals in a child.

    PubMed

    Novak, Erik J; Elzik, Mark; Diab, Mohammad

    2008-12-01

    Coalitions of the foot are relatively uncommon abnormalities, occurring in approximately 1% of the population. Talocalcaneal and calcaneonavicular are the most common types of coalitions. Coalitions in the forefoot, however, are rare, with only a small number of case reports in the literature. We report on a unilateral, symptomatic coalition between the first and second metatarsals in a 12-year-old girl who presented with a several-month history of intermittent medial-sided, dorsal forefoot pain and difficulty with shoe wear. Her preoperative examination was notable for a firm, nontender dorsal medial forefoot mass centered between the first and second metatarsals. While the first metatarsal head was level with the second metatarsal head in the sagittal plane, the metatarsals were rigidly fixed to one another. First metatarsal-medial cuneiform motion was reduced compared to the unaffected foot. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a bony and cartilaginous coalition between the first and second metatarsals. Following resection, an immediate improvement was noted in motion between the first and second metatarsals, as well as the first metatarsal and medial cuneiform. In our patient, rigidity between the first and second metatarsals contributed to a stiff first ray with higher plantar pressures beneath the first metatarsal head with walking. The abnormal kinematics likely contributed to her medial forefoot pain with prolonged ambulation and sports activities. Prompt identification and resection of these less common coalitions affecting the forefoot allows symptomatic relief and restoration of normal kinematics.

  14. Elevated major ion concentrations inhibit larval mayfly growth and development.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brent R; Weaver, Paul C; Nietch, Christopher T; Lazorchak, James M; Struewing, Katherine A; Funk, David H

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances, including those from developing energy resources, can alter stream chemistry significantly by elevating total dissolved solids. Field studies have indicated that mayflies (Order Ephemeroptera) are particularly sensitive to high total dissolved solids. In the present study, the authors measured 20-d growth and survivorship of larval Neocloeon triangulifer exposed to a gradient of brine salt (mixed NaCl and CaCl2 ) concentrations. Daily growth rates were reduced significantly in all salt concentrations above the control (363 µS cm(-1) ) and larvae in treatments with specific conductance >812 µS cm(-1) were in comparatively earlier developmental stages (instars) at the end of the experiment. Survivorship declined significantly when specific conductance was >1513 µS cm(-1) and the calculated 20-d 50% lethal concentration was 2866 µS cm(-1) . The present study's results provide strong experimental evidence that elevated ion concentrations similar to those observed in developing energy resources, such as oil and gas drilling or coal mining, can adversely affect sensitive aquatic insect species.

  15. Elevated major ion concentrations inhibit larval mayfly growth and development.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brent R; Weaver, Paul C; Nietch, Christopher T; Lazorchak, James M; Struewing, Katherine A; Funk, David H

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances, including those from developing energy resources, can alter stream chemistry significantly by elevating total dissolved solids. Field studies have indicated that mayflies (Order Ephemeroptera) are particularly sensitive to high total dissolved solids. In the present study, the authors measured 20-d growth and survivorship of larval Neocloeon triangulifer exposed to a gradient of brine salt (mixed NaCl and CaCl2 ) concentrations. Daily growth rates were reduced significantly in all salt concentrations above the control (363 µS cm(-1) ) and larvae in treatments with specific conductance >812 µS cm(-1) were in comparatively earlier developmental stages (instars) at the end of the experiment. Survivorship declined significantly when specific conductance was >1513 µS cm(-1) and the calculated 20-d 50% lethal concentration was 2866 µS cm(-1) . The present study's results provide strong experimental evidence that elevated ion concentrations similar to those observed in developing energy resources, such as oil and gas drilling or coal mining, can adversely affect sensitive aquatic insect species. PMID:25307284

  16. Growth with pollution: unsustainable development in Taiwan and its consequences.

    PubMed

    Chi, C C

    1994-01-01

    Mutually supportive relationships between the Koumington (KMT) government and the private economic sector in Taiwan foster economic growth, which is incompatible with environmental protection. Environmental degradation in Taiwan is due almost exclusively to rapid economic growth; Taiwan should not be used as an example for developing countries. Taiwan's economic success was made possible because it did not have restrictions on pollution that its trading partners did. Air pollution reports in 1989 amounted to about 24 cases per day of appeals to environmental agencies country-wide. Major urban pollution sources include car, motorcycle, and industrial emissions. Acts passed in 1975 and 1982 have had little impact. Water pollution is caused by domestic sewage (25%), industrial waste water (54%), and domestic animal waste (21%). Untreated sewage in the water contributes to a high rate of hepatitis. Soil contamination is due to industrial development and agricultural intensification. Hazardous waste is dumped in the countryside; 3000 people in 1986 were poisoned by PCB-contaminated waste. Noise pollution standards are set at 60 decibels in residential areas and 65 decibels outside residential areas, but most find these levels too high. Industrial and toxic waste amounted in 1988 to 57,499 tons per day or 50% of Japan's volume. Waste is freely dumped into the air, water, and land. The food chain has been affected, and occupational diseases and cancer have doubled in 30 years. Deforestation on steep slopes contributes to serious soil erosion and fresh water resources problems. Economic growth maintains political legitimacy, sustains relationships between the government and the capitalist elites, and contributes to its monopoly of economic activities. The KMT government control of enterprises increased from 1 to 94 between the 1970s and 1986, while production by public enterprises declined over the same period. The Environmental Protection Agency has not been effective

  17. Deposit growth and property development in coal-fired furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.

    1995-11-01

    The objectives of this research project are: (1) to provide a self-consistent database of simultaneously measured, time-resolved ash deposit properties in well-controlled and well-defined environments and (2) to provide analytical expressions that relate deposit composition and structure to deposit properties of immediate relevance to PETC`s Combustion 2000 program. This project is distinguished from related work being done elsewhere by: (1) the development and deployment of in-situ diagnostics to monitor deposit properties, including heat transfer coefficients, porosity, emissivity, tenacity, strength, density, and viscosity; (2) the time resolution of such properties during deposit growth; (3) simultaneous measurement of structural and composition properties; (4) development of algorithms from a self-consistent, simultaneously measured database that includes the interdependence of properties; and (5) application of the results to technologically relevant environments such as those being planned under Combustion 2000 program. Work completed during FY94 emphasized diagnostic development. During FY95, this development work will be completed and we will emphasize application of the diagnostics to meet the other project objectives. Included in this work are the development and application of two in-situ, real-time diagnostic systems for monitoring the properties of inorganic materials on Heat transfer surfaces and in the gas-phase during controlled combustion of selected coal samples in Sandia`s Multifuel Combustor (MFC). Also, several diagnostics are being incorporated into the MFC that will eventually be used to characterize ash deposit properties.

  18. Strategies to Prevent and Reduce Diabetes and Obesity in Sacramento, California: The African American Leadership Coalition and University of California, Davis

    PubMed Central

    Styne, Dennis; Askia, Joyce; Roberts, Tina; Lewis, Edward T.; Edwards, Whitney

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes is one of the leading causes of illness and death for African Americans and people of African descent throughout the United States and in the city and county of Sacramento, California. The involvement of families and communities in developing prevention strategies can increase the likelihood that behavioral changes will be sustained. Context Three member organizations of the African American Leadership Coalition (AALC) entered into a partnership with the University of California, Davis (UC Davis) to engage families in developing a process to identify barriers to diabetes and obesity prevention and reduction, exchange strategies, and create action plans for prevention. Methods The intervention comprised 3 phases: 1) coalition formation and training; 2) data collection, analysis, and dissemination of results; and 3) development of family and community action plans. Academic and community partners planned and implemented all project phases together. Outcomes Sources of information about diabetes and obesity were primarily doctors and the Internet; barriers were related to lack of time needed to prepare healthy meals, high food costs, transportation to fresh markets, motivation around healthy habits, and unsafe environments. Action plans addressed behavioral change and family cohesion. The group discussion format encouraged mutual support and suggestions for better eating and physical exercise habits. Interpretation This collaborative partnership model can strengthen existing group relationships or promote new affiliations that form the basis for future action coalitions. Participants worked both within and across groups to exchange information, stories of success and challenges, and specific health improvement strategies. PMID:24229570

  19. The evolutionary significance of Red Sox nation: sport fandom as a by-product of coalitional psychology.

    PubMed

    Winegard, Benjamin; Deaner, Robert O

    2010-08-07

    Sport fandom has received considerable attention from social scientists, yet few have considered it from an evolutionary perspective. To redress this gap, we develop the hypothesis that team sports exhibit characteristics that activate mechanisms which evolved to facilitate the development of coalitions in the context of small-scale warfare. Based on this by-product hypothesis, we predicted a correlation between fandom and binding (i.e. group-relevant) concerns, especially loyalty. To test this prediction, we administered the Sport Spectator Identification Scale (SSI) and the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) to 495 undergraduates. The MFQ measures three binding concerns, including loyalty, and two individualizing ones, harm and fairness. As predicted, fandom correlated significantly with loyalty (r = .27) and, within men, the two other binding concerns, authority (r =.22) and purity (r = .24). By contrast, fandom did not significantly correlate with harm or fairness. In addition, we predicted and found that men reported significantly higher levels of fandom (Cohen's d =.45) and loyalty (d = .27) than did women. In conclusion, this study presents data supporting the coalitional by-product hypothesis of fandom and should spur further research using fandom as a window into our evolved psychology.

  20. The evolutionary significance of Red Sox nation: sport fandom as a by-product of coalitional psychology.

    PubMed

    Winegard, Benjamin; Deaner, Robert O

    2010-01-01

    Sport fandom has received considerable attention from social scientists, yet few have considered it from an evolutionary perspective. To redress this gap, we develop the hypothesis that team sports exhibit characteristics that activate mechanisms which evolved to facilitate the development of coalitions in the context of small-scale warfare. Based on this by-product hypothesis, we predicted a correlation between fandom and binding (i.e. group-relevant) concerns, especially loyalty. To test this prediction, we administered the Sport Spectator Identification Scale (SSI) and the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) to 495 undergraduates. The MFQ measures three binding concerns, including loyalty, and two individualizing ones, harm and fairness. As predicted, fandom correlated significantly with loyalty (r = .27) and, within men, the two other binding concerns, authority (r =.22) and purity (r = .24). By contrast, fandom did not significantly correlate with harm or fairness. In addition, we predicted and found that men reported significantly higher levels of fandom (Cohen's d =.45) and loyalty (d = .27) than did women. In conclusion, this study presents data supporting the coalitional by-product hypothesis of fandom and should spur further research using fandom as a window into our evolved psychology. PMID:22947811

  1. Hormonal mechanisms for regulation of aggression in human coalitions.

    PubMed

    Flinn, Mark V; Ponzi, Davide; Muehlenbein, Michael P

    2012-03-01

    Coalitions and alliances are core aspects of human behavior. All societies recognize alliances among communities, usually based in part on kinship and marriage. Aggression between groups is ubiquitous, often deadly, fueled by revenge, and can have devastating effects on general human welfare. Given its significance, it is surprising how little we know about the neurobiological and hormonal mechanisms that underpin human coalitionary behavior. Here we first briefly review a model of human coalitionary behavior based on a process of runaway social selection. We then present several exploratory analyses of neuroendocrine responses to coalitionary social events in a rural Dominican community, with the objective of understanding differences between in-group and out-group competition in adult and adolescent males. Our analyses indicate: (1) adult and adolescent males do not elevate testosterone when they defeat their friends, but they do elevate testosterone when they defeat outsiders; (2) pre-competition testosterone and cortisol levels are negatively associated with strength of coalitionary ties; and (3) adult males usually elevate testosterone when interacting with adult women who are potential mates, but in a striking reversal, they have lower testosterone if the woman is a conjugal partner of a close friend. These naturalistic studies hint that reciprocity, dampening of aggression, and competition among friends and allies may be biologically embedded in unique ways among humans.

  2. Regional growth and atlasing of the developing human brain.

    PubMed

    Makropoulos, Antonios; Aljabar, Paul; Wright, Robert; Hüning, Britta; Merchant, Nazakat; Arichi, Tomoki; Tusor, Nora; Hajnal, Joseph V; Edwards, A David; Counsell, Serena J; Rueckert, Daniel

    2016-01-15

    Detailed morphometric analysis of the neonatal brain is required to characterise brain development and define neuroimaging biomarkers related to impaired brain growth. Accurate automatic segmentation of neonatal brain MRI is a prerequisite to analyse large datasets. We have previously presented an accurate and robust automatic segmentation technique for parcellating the neonatal brain into multiple cortical and subcortical regions. In this study, we further extend our segmentation method to detect cortical sulci and provide a detailed delineation of the cortical ribbon. These detailed segmentations are used to build a 4-dimensional spatio-temporal structural atlas of the brain for 82 cortical and subcortical structures throughout this developmental period. We employ the algorithm to segment an extensive database of 420 MR images of the developing brain, from 27 to 45weeks post-menstrual age at imaging. Regional volumetric and cortical surface measurements are derived and used to investigate brain growth and development during this critical period and to assess the impact of immaturity at birth. Whole brain volume, the absolute volume of all structures studied, cortical curvature and cortical surface area increased with increasing age at scan. Relative volumes of cortical grey matter, cerebellum and cerebrospinal fluid increased with age at scan, while relative volumes of white matter, ventricles, brainstem and basal ganglia and thalami decreased. Preterm infants at term had smaller whole brain volumes, reduced regional white matter and cortical and subcortical grey matter volumes, and reduced cortical surface area compared with term born controls, while ventricular volume was greater in the preterm group. Increasing prematurity at birth was associated with a reduction in total and regional white matter, cortical and subcortical grey matter volume, an increase in ventricular volume, and reduced cortical surface area. PMID:26499811

  3. Regional growth and atlasing of the developing human brain.

    PubMed

    Makropoulos, Antonios; Aljabar, Paul; Wright, Robert; Hüning, Britta; Merchant, Nazakat; Arichi, Tomoki; Tusor, Nora; Hajnal, Joseph V; Edwards, A David; Counsell, Serena J; Rueckert, Daniel

    2016-01-15

    Detailed morphometric analysis of the neonatal brain is required to characterise brain development and define neuroimaging biomarkers related to impaired brain growth. Accurate automatic segmentation of neonatal brain MRI is a prerequisite to analyse large datasets. We have previously presented an accurate and robust automatic segmentation technique for parcellating the neonatal brain into multiple cortical and subcortical regions. In this study, we further extend our segmentation method to detect cortical sulci and provide a detailed delineation of the cortical ribbon. These detailed segmentations are used to build a 4-dimensional spatio-temporal structural atlas of the brain for 82 cortical and subcortical structures throughout this developmental period. We employ the algorithm to segment an extensive database of 420 MR images of the developing brain, from 27 to 45weeks post-menstrual age at imaging. Regional volumetric and cortical surface measurements are derived and used to investigate brain growth and development during this critical period and to assess the impact of immaturity at birth. Whole brain volume, the absolute volume of all structures studied, cortical curvature and cortical surface area increased with increasing age at scan. Relative volumes of cortical grey matter, cerebellum and cerebrospinal fluid increased with age at scan, while relative volumes of white matter, ventricles, brainstem and basal ganglia and thalami decreased. Preterm infants at term had smaller whole brain volumes, reduced regional white matter and cortical and subcortical grey matter volumes, and reduced cortical surface area compared with term born controls, while ventricular volume was greater in the preterm group. Increasing prematurity at birth was associated with a reduction in total and regional white matter, cortical and subcortical grey matter volume, an increase in ventricular volume, and reduced cortical surface area.

  4. Fibroblast growth factor signaling in mammalian tooth development.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Ying; Prochazka, Jan; Goodwin, Alice F; Klein, Ophir D

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the central role of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling in mammalian tooth development. The FGF family consists of 22 members, most of which bind to four different receptor tyrosine kinases, which in turn signal through a cascade of intracellular proteins. This signaling regulates a number of cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, cell adhesion and cell mobility. FGF signaling first becomes important in the presumptive dental epithelium at the initiation stage of tooth development, and subsequently, it controls the invagination of the dental epithelium into the underlying mesenchyme. Later, FGFs are critical in tooth shape formation and differentiation of ameloblasts and odontoblasts, as well as in the development and homeostasis of the stem cell niche that fuels the continuously growing mouse incisor. In addition, FGF signaling is critical in human teeth, as mutations in genes encoding FGF ligands or receptors result in several congenital syndromes characterized by alterations in tooth number, morphology or enamel structure. The parallel roles of FGF signaling in mouse and human tooth development demonstrate the conserved importance of FGF signaling in mammalian odontogenesis.

  5. Symbiotic regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, R.J.; Freeman, D. Carl; McArthur, E.D.; Kim, Y.-O.; Redman, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    The growth and development of rice (Oryzae sativa) seedlings was shown to be regulated epigenetically by a fungal endophyte. In contrast to un-inoculated (nonsymbiotic) plants, endophyte colonized (symbiotic) plants preferentially allocated resources into root growth until root hairs were well established. During that time symbiotic roots expanded at five times the rate observed in nonsymbiotic plants. Endophytes also influenced sexual reproduction of mature big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) plants. Two spatially distinct big sagebrush subspecies and their hybrids were symbiotic with unique fungal endophytes, despite being separated by only 380 m distance and 60 m elevation. A double reciprocal transplant experiment of parental and hybrid plants, and soils across the hybrid zone showed that fungal endophytes interact with the soils and different plant genotypes to confer enhanced plant reproduction in soil native to the endophyte and reduced reproduction in soil alien to the endophyte. Moreover, the most prevalent endophyte of the hybrid zone reduced the fitness of both parental subspecies. Because these endophytes are passed to the next generation of plants on seed coats, this interaction provides a selective advantage, habitat specificity, and the means of restricting gene flow, thereby making the hybrid zone stable, narrow and potentially leading to speciation. ?? 2009 Landes Bioscience.

  6. Effects of Phospholipase C on Fusarium graminearum Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qili; Zhou, Benguo; Gao, Zhengliang; Liang, Yuancun

    2015-12-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) plays important roles in regulating various biological processes in eukaryotes. Currently, little is known about the function of PLC in filamentous fungi, especially the plant pathogenic fungi. Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in many cereal crops. BLAST search revealed that Fusarium genome contains six FgPLC genes. Using quantitative RT-PCR, different FgPLC gene expressions in mycelia were analyzed. To investigate the role of FgPLC in F. graminearum biology, a pharmacological study using a known inhibitor of PLC (U73122) was conducted. Results showed that inhibition of FgPLC resulted in significant alterations of mycelial growth, conidiation, conidial germination, perithecium formation, and expressions of Tri5 and Tri6 genes. As expected, the treatment of F. graminearum with U73343, an inactive analog of U73122, showed no effect on F. graminearum biology. Our results suggested strongly that FgPLC plays important roles in F. graminearum growth and development. PMID:26316232

  7. Effects of Phospholipase C on Fusarium graminearum Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qili; Zhou, Benguo; Gao, Zhengliang; Liang, Yuancun

    2015-12-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) plays important roles in regulating various biological processes in eukaryotes. Currently, little is known about the function of PLC in filamentous fungi, especially the plant pathogenic fungi. Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in many cereal crops. BLAST search revealed that Fusarium genome contains six FgPLC genes. Using quantitative RT-PCR, different FgPLC gene expressions in mycelia were analyzed. To investigate the role of FgPLC in F. graminearum biology, a pharmacological study using a known inhibitor of PLC (U73122) was conducted. Results showed that inhibition of FgPLC resulted in significant alterations of mycelial growth, conidiation, conidial germination, perithecium formation, and expressions of Tri5 and Tri6 genes. As expected, the treatment of F. graminearum with U73343, an inactive analog of U73122, showed no effect on F. graminearum biology. Our results suggested strongly that FgPLC plays important roles in F. graminearum growth and development.

  8. The young athlete: challenges of growth, development, and society.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Michael F

    2010-01-01

    Youth sports provide numerous health-enhancing and other important benefits to participating children and adolescents. However, the motivations and goals of young athletes often conflict with those of adult stakeholders, and they are redirected. The youth sports industry has become exclusionary, as the professional model of development increasingly is prevalent and accepted. Youth who follow this model often cannot keep up with the unrealistic expectations and excessive demands. Too much play, training, travel, and pressure frequently lead to a variety of physical and psychological problems, particularly concurrent with the vulnerability of a young athlete going through pre- or early adolescence and the rapid growth phase. The need for alternative models, emphasizing fun and fundamentals, is becoming increasingly clear and urgent. With appropriate changes, youth sports once again can be an effective entry point for a lifetime of healthy sports participation and enjoyment.

  9. Corporate coalitions and policymaking in the European Union: How and why British American Tobacco promoted ‘Better Regulation’

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katherine E.; Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B.; Collin, Jeff; Weishaar, Heide

    2015-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, an inter-connected set of regulatory reforms, known as Better Regulation, has been adopted across Europe, marking a significant shift in the way European Union (EU) policies are developed. There has been little exploration of the origins of these reforms, which include mandatory ex-ante impact assessment. Drawing on documentary and interview data, this paper discusses how and why large corporations, notably British American Tobacco (BAT), worked to influence and promote these reforms. Our analysis highlights: (i) how policy entrepreneurs with sufficient resources (such as large corporations) can shape the membership and direction of advocacy coalitions; (ii) the extent to which ‘think tanks’ may be prepared to lobby on behalf of commercial clients; and (iii) why regulated industries (including tobacco) may favour the use of ‘evidence-tools’, such as impact assessments, in policymaking. We argue a key aspect of BAT’s ability to shape regulatory reform involved the deliberate construction of a vaguely defined idea that could be strategically adapted to appeal to diverse constituencies. We discuss the theoretical implications of this finding for the ‘Advocacy Coalition Framework’, as well as the practical implications of the findings for efforts to promote ‘transparency’ and public health in the EU. PMID:25646389

  10. Corporate coalitions and policy making in the European Union: how and why British American Tobacco promoted "Better Regulation".

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine Elizabeth; Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B; Collin, Jeff; Weishaar, Heide

    2015-04-01

    Over the past fifteen years, an interconnected set of regulatory reforms, known as Better Regulation, has been adopted across Europe, marking a significant shift in the way that European Union policies are developed. There has been little exploration of the origins of these reforms, which include mandatory ex ante impact assessment. Drawing on documentary and interview data, this article discusses how and why large corporations, notably British American Tobacco (BAT), worked to influence and promote these reforms. Our analysis highlights (1) how policy entrepreneurs with sufficient resources (such as large corporations) can shape the membership and direction of advocacy coalitions; (2) the extent to which "think tanks" may be prepared to lobby on behalf of commercial clients; and (3) why regulated industries (including tobacco) may favor the use of "evidence tools," such as impact assessments, in policy making. We argue that a key aspect of BAT's ability to shape regulatory reform involved the deliberate construction of a vaguely defined idea that could be strategically adapted to appeal to diverse constituencies. We discuss the theoretical implications of this finding for the Advocacy Coalition Framework, as well as the practical implications of the findings for efforts to promote transparency and public health in the European Union. PMID:25646389

  11. Corporate coalitions and policy making in the European Union: how and why British American Tobacco promoted "Better Regulation".

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine Elizabeth; Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B; Collin, Jeff; Weishaar, Heide

    2015-04-01

    Over the past fifteen years, an interconnected set of regulatory reforms, known as Better Regulation, has been adopted across Europe, marking a significant shift in the way that European Union policies are developed. There has been little exploration of the origins of these reforms, which include mandatory ex ante impact assessment. Drawing on documentary and interview data, this article discusses how and why large corporations, notably British American Tobacco (BAT), worked to influence and promote these reforms. Our analysis highlights (1) how policy entrepreneurs with sufficient resources (such as large corporations) can shape the membership and direction of advocacy coalitions; (2) the extent to which "think tanks" may be prepared to lobby on behalf of commercial clients; and (3) why regulated industries (including tobacco) may favor the use of "evidence tools," such as impact assessments, in policy making. We argue that a key aspect of BAT's ability to shape regulatory reform involved the deliberate construction of a vaguely defined idea that could be strategically adapted to appeal to diverse constituencies. We discuss the theoretical implications of this finding for the Advocacy Coalition Framework, as well as the practical implications of the findings for efforts to promote transparency and public health in the European Union.

  12. Latin American Cancer Research Coalition. Community primary care/academic partnership model for cancer control.

    PubMed

    Kreling, Barbara A; Cañar, Janet; Catipon, Ericson; Goodman, Michelle; Pallesen, Nancy; Pomeroy, Jyl; Rodriguez, Yosselyn; Romagoza, Juan; Sheppard, Vanessa B; Mandelblatt, Jeanne; Huerta, Elmer E

    2006-10-15

    The Latin American Cancer Research Coalition (LACRC) was funded by NCI as a Special Populations Network to 1) provide training to clinic staff in cancer control and foster development of Latino faculty training, 2) conduct a needs assessment with the community clinics, 3) enhance the ability of the clinics to promote healthy lifestyles, 4) collaborate on research projects to improve use of early detection, and 5) explore partnerships to increase access to culturally competent cancer care. The LACRC developed a model for cancer control focused on community-based clinics as the focal point for in-reach and community outreach targeted to Latinos to reduce cancer disparities. This framework was designed to link the community to local hospitals and academic centers, build capacity, and promote diffusion of innovations directly into delivery systems. Eight research projects submitted by junior investigator/clinic teams have been funded by NCI. These research projects range from recruiting for clinical trials to prevention to survivorship. The LACRC has trained 6 cancer control coordinators from partner sites and educated 59 undergraduate minority student interns in aspects of cancer control research. Central to LACRC's success to date has been the creation and maintenance of an infrastructure of trusting relationships, especially those developed between clinician/investigators and individuals within the greater Latino community. Community clinics can be effective agents for cancer control among Latinos. Latinos are likely to participate in research conducted by culturally representative teams of researchers using culturally appropriate recruiting strategies. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society. PMID:16986105

  13. State Growth Models for School Accountability: Progress on Development and Reporting Measures of Student Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Rolf K.

    2010-01-01

    The Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) is working to respond to increased interest in the use of growth models for school accountability. Growth models are based on tracking change in individual student achievement scores over multiple years. While growth models have been used for decades in academic research and program evaluation, a…

  14. Fetal, neonatal, infant, and child international growth standards: an unprecedented opportunity for an integrated approach to assess growth and development.

    PubMed

    Garza, Cutberto

    2015-07-01

    The recent publication of fetal growth and gestational age-specific growth standards by the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Project and the previous publication by the WHO of infant and young child growth standards based on the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study enable evaluations of growth from ∼9 wk gestation to 5 y. The most important features of these projects are the prescriptive approach used for subject selection and the rigorous testing of the assertion that growth is very similar among geographically and ethnically diverse nonisolated populations when health, nutrition, and other care needs are met and the environment imposes minimal constraints on growth. Both studies documented that with adequate controls, the principal source of variability in growth during gestation and early childhood resides among individuals. Study sites contributed much less to observed variability. The agreement between anthropometric measurements common to both studies also is noteworthy. Jointly, these studies provide for the first time, to my knowledge, a conceptually consistent basis for worldwide and localized assessments and comparisons of growth performance in early life. This is an important contribution to improving the health care of children across key periods of growth and development, especially given the appropriate interest in pursuing "optimal" health in the "first 1000 d," i.e., the period covering fertilization/implantation, gestation, and postnatal life to 2 y of age.

  15. Growth and psychomotor development of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, Elisabeth; von der Hagen, Maja; Schara, Ulrike; von Au, Katja; Kaindl, Angela M

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common hereditary degenerative neuromuscular diseases and caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. The objective of the retrospective study was to describe growth and psychomotor development of patients with DMD and to detect a possible genotype-phenotype correlation. Data from 263 patients with DMD (mean age 7.1 years) treated at the Departments of Pediatric Neurology in three German University Hospitals was assessed with respect to body measurements (length, weight, body mass index BMI, head circumference OFC), motor and cognitive development as well as genotype (site of mutation). Anthropometric measures and developmental data were compared to those of a reference population and deviations were analyzed for their frequency in the cohort as well as in relation to the genotypes. Corticosteroid therapy was implemented in 29 from 263 patients. Overall 30% of the patients exhibit a short statue (length < 3rd centile) with onset early in development at 2-5 years of age, and this is even more prevalent when steroid therapy is applied (45% of patients with steroid therapy). The BMI shows a rightwards shift (68% > 50th centile) and the OFC a leftwards shift (65% < 50th centile, 5% microcephaly). Gross motor development is delayed in a third of the patients (mean age at walking 18.3 months, 30% > 18 months, 8% > 24 months). Almost half of the patients show cognitive impairment (26% learning disability, 17% intellectual disability). Although there is no strict genotype-phenotype correlation, particularly mutations in the distal part of the dystrophin gene are frequently associated with short stature and a high rate of microcephaly as well as cognitive impairment.

  16. Wealth and well-being, economic growth, and integral development.

    PubMed

    Bunge, Mario

    2012-01-01

    This essay tackles a bimillenary problem in psychology, ethics, economics, and political philosophy: that of the relations between wealth and well-being. What are they, and should we live for pleasure, or rather seek to live a full and useful life? This is the ancient dilemma between hedonism, the cult of pleasure, and eudemonism, the search for a good life. Economists, almost without exception, have opted for hedonism, but they have not found out what percentage of the goods that ordinary people want are not merchandises. This gap is currently being filled by psychologists, sociologists, socioeconomists, and other workers in the new "science of happiness". Their main finding, that happiness is not for sale, might surprise the orthodox economists. On the social level, the former problem, concerning individuals, gets translated into the question of national development: what kind of development should we seek, and for whom? In particular, should economic growth be prioritized, or should we promote the simultaneous development of all sectors of society, including the political and cultural? In either case, should development benefit the chosen few or everybody? And should it enhance the well-being of the individual and make that of her offspring possible? This problem, of course, lies at the intersection of three sciences--psychology, economics, and political science--and two chapters of philosophy--ethics and political philosophy. Consequently, anyone daring to propose original solutions to the problem in question will risk being criticized by experts distributed among these five fields, who are not used to talking to one another.

  17. Implementing Earth Systems Science, K-16: Results of the 2005 Coalition for Earth Systems Education Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireton, F.; Carpenter, J.; Lewis, G.; Leck, J.

    2005-12-01

    The 2005 Coalition for Earth Systems Education meeting was held at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center on September 23-24. The focus of the meeting was on increasing and improving implementation of the Earth System Science (ESS) in K-16 schools by creating a large-scale effort and unified voice to bring about greater and more widespread teaching of ESS. The goals of the meeting where: (1) to establish action items to work toward overcoming barriers to implementation of ESS and (2) to facilitate development of partnerships and collaborations to work on selected action items. Presentations from invited speakers highlighted related ESS initiatives, including status of the Revolution in K-12 Earth and Space Science Education and efforts in Texas and California to keep Earth science in state curricula. A special session featured information on federal education opportunities and initiatives-NSF, NASA, NOAA, and USGS. During a morning plenary session attendees worked collaboratively to determine which barriers to broader implementation are most significant then, based on the outcome, moved to breakout groups to develop working plans and action plans and to create partnerships for addressing action items. An interactive poster session allowed attendees to share projects they were working on. Attendees represented a broad cross section of the ESS community including representatives from ESS research, museums and science centers, federal agencies, professional and scientific societies, and university and K-12 schools. This paper will provide a backdrop for events leading up to the meeting, lessons learned during the meeting, and resulting projects.

  18. The ontogeny of epidermal growth factor receptors during mouse development

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, E.D.; Meek, J.

    1984-05-01

    In an attempt to understand the role(s) of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in vivo during murine development, we have examined the /sup 125/I-EGF binding characteristics of EGF-receptors in membrane preparations of tissues from the 12th day of gestation to parturition. Using autoradiography, the earliest time that we could detect EGF-receptors was on trophoblast cells cultured for 3 days as blastocyst outgrowths. Trophoblast eventually forms a large portion of the placenta, where EGF-receptors have long been recognized. We measured the number and affinity of EGF-receptors on tissues dissected from conceptuses from the 12th day of gestation in order to identify a stage when tissues may be most sensitive to EGF. Whereas the number of EGF receptors increases during gestation for all tissues examined, the affinity of the receptors declines for carcass and placenta and remains relatively unchanged for brain and liver. This suggests that EGF may function differently throughout development. Our hypothesis is that EGF (or its embryonic equivalent) initially stimulates proliferation in embryonic cells and then stimulates differentiation as the tissues mature. In the adult, its main role could be to stimulate tissue repair after damage.

  19. Crucial Role of Elovl6 in Chondrocyte Growth and Differentiation during Growth Plate Development in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Manami; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Ishii, Kiyoaki; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Takayanagi, Misa; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    ELOVL family member 6, elongation of very long chain fatty acids (Elovl6) is a microsomal enzyme, which regulates the elongation of C12-16 saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Elovl6 has been shown to be associated with various pathophysiologies including insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. To investigate a potential role of Elovl6 during bone development, we here examined a skeletal phenotype of Elovl6 knockout (Elovl6-/-) mice. The Elovl6-/- skeleton was smaller than that of controls, but exhibited no obvious patterning defects. Histological analysis revealed a reduced length of proliferating and an elongated length of hypertrophic chondrocyte layer, and decreased trabecular bone in Elovl6-/- mice compared with controls. These results were presumably due to a modest decrease in chondrocyte proliferation and accelerated differentiation of cells of the chondrocyte lineage. Consistent with the increased length of the hypertrophic chondrocyte layer in Elovl6-/- mice, Collagen10α1 was identified as one of the most affected genes by ablation of Elovl6 in chondrocytes. Furthermore, this elevated expression of Collagen10α1 of Elovl6-null chondrocytes was likely associated with increased levels of Foxa2/a3 and Mef2c mRNA expression. Relative increases in protein levels of nuclear Foxa2 and cytoplasmic histone deacethylase 4/5/7 were also observed in Elovl6 knockdown cells of the chondrocyte lineage. Collectively, our data suggest that Elovl6 plays a critical role for proper development of embryonic growth plate. PMID:27467521

  20. Talocalcaneal Joint Middle Facet Coalition Resection With Interposition of a Juvenile Hyaline Cartilage Graft.

    PubMed

    Tower, Dyane E; Wood, Ryan W; Vaardahl, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Talocalcaneal joint middle facet coalition is the most common tarsal coalition, occurring in ≤2% of the population. Fewer than 50% of involved feet obtain lasting relief of symptoms after nonoperative treatment, and surgical intervention is commonly used to relieve symptoms, increase the range of motion, improve function, reconstruct concomitant pes planovalgus, and prevent future arthrosis from occurring at the surrounding joints. Several approaches to surgical intervention are available for patients with middle facet coalitions, ranging from resection to hindfoot arthrodesis. We present a series of 4 cases, in 3 adolescent patients, of talocalcaneal joint middle facet coalition resection with interposition of a particulate juvenile hyaline cartilaginous allograft (DeNovo(®) NT Natural Tissue Graft, Zimmer, Inc., Warsaw, IN). With a mean follow-up period of 42.8 ± 2.9 (range 41 to 47) months, the 3 adolescent patients in the present series were doing well with improved subtalar joint motion and decreased pain, and 1 foot showed no bony regrowth on a follow-up computed tomography scan. The use of a particulate juvenile hyaline cartilaginous allograft as interposition material after talocalcaneal middle facet coalition resection combined with adjunct procedures to address concomitant pes planovalgus resulted in good short-term outcomes in 4 feet in 3 adolescent patients. PMID:25922335

  1. Naviculocuneiform Coalition: Case Reports of Two Sibling Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Amol; Fournier, Magali

    2016-01-01

    Tarsal coalitions are an abnormal union between 2 tarsal bones. They occur most commonly between the calcaneus and talus or the calcaneus and navicular but can also arise from other joints in the foot. Isolated cases of coalitions between the medial cuneiform and navicular are extremely rare, and only a few cases have been reported. Treatment recommendations are, therefore, sparse, and no long-term follow-up data have been reported. We present the case of 2 sisters, each diagnosed with a symptomatic naviculocuneiform coalition. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case in 2 first-degree relatives. Both sisters were involved in sports and presented with pain during physical activities. After conservative treatment had failed, they were both treated successfully with surgical excision of the coalition and arthrodiastasis, followed by a progressive return to activities. At the last follow-up examination at 5 and 3 years postoperatively, they remained pain free and fully involved in college soccer, making excision of a naviculocuneiform coalition with arthrodiastasis a valid treatment in the young athletic population. PMID:26489490

  2. Research and Development of Individual Growth and Development Indicators for Children between Birth to Age Eight. Technical Report #4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Scott; McEvoy, Mary; Carta, Judith J.; Greenwood, Charles R.; Kaminski, Ruth; Good, Roland H., III; Shinn, Mark

    This document provides an overview of the rationale for, and characteristics of, individual growth and development indicators (IGDIs) for children birth to age 8 and their families. Development of such indicators is part of a 5-year project by the Early Childhood Research Institute Measuring Growth and Development to conduct research on, develop,…

  3. Sugar signals and the control of plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Lastdrager, Jeroen; Hanson, Johannes; Smeekens, Sjef

    2014-03-01

    Sugars have a central regulatory function in steering plant growth. This review focuses on information presented in the past 2 years on key players in sugar-mediated plant growth regulation, with emphasis on trehalose 6-phosphate, target of rapamycin kinase, and Snf1-related kinase 1 regulatory systems. The regulation of protein synthesis by sugars is fundamental to plant growth control, and recent advances in our understanding of the regulation of translation by sugars will be discussed.

  4. Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waag, Andreas

    This chapter is devoted to the growth of ZnO. It starts with various techniques to grow bulk samples and presents in some detail the growth of epitaxial layers by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The last section is devoted to the growth of nanorods. Some properties of the resulting samples are also presented. If a comparison between GaN and ZnO is made, very often the huge variety of different growth techniques available to fabricate ZnO is said to be an advantage of this material system. Indeed, growth techniques range from low cost wet chemical growth at almost room temperature to high quality MOCVD growth at temperatures above 1, 000∘C. In most cases, there is a very strong tendency of c-axis oriented growth, with a much higher growth rate in c-direction as compared to other crystal directions. This often leads to columnar structures, even at relatively low temperatures. However, it is, in general, not straight forward to fabricate smooth ZnO thin films with flat surfaces. Another advantage of a potential ZnO technology is said to be the possibility to grow thin films homoepitaxially on ZnO substrates. ZnO substrates are mostly fabricated by vapor phase transport (VPT) or hydrothermal growth. These techniques are enabling high volume manufacturing at reasonable cost, at least in principle. The availability of homoepitaxial substrates should be beneficial to the development of ZnO technology and devices and is in contrast to the situation of GaN. However, even though a number of companies are developing ZnO substrates, only recently good quality substrates have been demonstrated. However, these substrates are not yet widely available. Still, the situation concerning ZnO substrates seems to be far from low-cost, high-volume production. The fabrication of dense, single crystal thin films is, in general, surprisingly difficult, even when ZnO is grown on a ZnO substrate. However

  5. The social construction of occupational health and safety: barriers to environmental-labor health coalitions.

    PubMed

    Zoller, Heather M

    2009-01-01

    Occupational and environmental health advocates promote the potential of alliances between workers and community members to address shared health problems resulting from industrial processes. Advocates recognize the need to overcome job blackmail, which has successfully pitted these groups against one another by threatening job loss in the face of calls for improved standards. This strategic form of issue management represents a dualism between good health and clean environments on one hand and jobs and tax bases on the other. The author argues that overcoming job blackmail requires attention not only to this dualism, but to the broader social construction of occupational and environmental health. The article describes a series of oppositional constructions, in both strategic organizational rhetoric and everyday cultural discourse, which reinforces job blackmail and impedes the development of solidarity among workers, neighbors, and environmental advocates. These dualisms polarize our views of work and environment, science, and social identity, thereby producing barriers to coalition formation. Understanding these reifications helps to build an activist agenda and identify potential resources for organizing to overcome these barriers. PMID:19778829

  6. Why do key integrated delivery stakeholders really matter? Assessing control, coalitions, resources and power.

    PubMed

    Dymond, S; Nix, T W; Rotarius, T M; Savage, G T

    1995-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of articles describing and interpreting the results from the Facing the Uncertain Future (FUF) study. This article focuses on one vital aspect of strategic stakeholder management: assessment of key stakeholders. Specifically, the article uses Round Two data and presents an assessment of four key medical group practice stakeholders: integrated delivery systems/networks (IDS/Ns), managed care organizations (MCOs), physicians and hospitals. These key stakeholders were identified by medical group practice executives as some of the most important stakeholders in the year 2000. These four stakeholders are assessed on the criteria of organizational control, coalition formation, control of resources, and relative power. The FUF study was conducted jointly between the Center for Research in Ambulatory Health Care Administration (the research and development arm of MGMA), and The Institute for Management and Leadership Research (IMLR), College of Business Administration at Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas. MGMA's American College of Medical Practice Executives, faculty of Texas Tech University's Ph.D. and M.B.A. Programs in Health Organization Management (HOM), and faculty from the University of Alabama at Birmingham collaborated on the project. Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Ill., provided funding for the FUF project. The administration of Round One was completed in the Fall of 1994. The administration of Round Two was completed in the summer of 1995. Selected Round One and Round Two results have previously been presented in educational programs and publications.

  7. Disorders of childhood growth and development: precocious puberty.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Alia; Grissom, Maureen

    2013-07-01

    Precocious puberty is defined as pubertal development that begins at an earlier age than expected; most US pediatric endocrinology subspecialists use cutoff ages of 8 years for girls and 9 years for boys. Early activation and maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis leads to hormonal changes, physical signs of puberty, and acceleration of linear growth. Factors affecting puberty include race/ethnicity, obesity, and endocrine disruptors. The 2 forms of precocious puberty are central (gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty) and peripheral (gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty). Most cases of the former have no identifiable etiology, whereas the latter is caused by increased secretion of sex hormones by the gonads or adrenal glands. It is important to differentiate progressive from nonprogressive precocious puberty to avoid unnecessary treatment for the latter; if diagnosis is uncertain, the child should be reassessed within several months. Evaluation begins with a detailed history and physical examination followed by an x-ray for bone age; in precocious puberty, bone age is greater than chronologic age. If indicated, additional serum testing (basal luteinizing hormone) and imaging studies should be obtained. Patients should be referred to a pediatric endocrinology subspecialist for treatment. It is essential to manage underlying etiologies. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists should be considered only for children with progressive central precocious puberty to prevent short stature. For children with apparent nonprogressive precocious puberty, follow-up every 3 to 6 months between ages 6 and 7 years is recommended to assess for progression.

  8. Linking pseudouridine synthases to growth, development and cell competition.

    PubMed

    Tortoriello, Giuseppe; de Celis, José F; Furia, Maria

    2010-08-01

    Eukaryotic pseudouridine synthases direct RNA pseudouridylation and bind H/ACA small nucleolar RNA (snoRNAs), which, in turn, may act as precursors of microRNA-like molecules. In humans, loss of pseudouridine synthase activity causes dyskeratosis congenita (DC), a complex systemic disorder characterized by cancer susceptibility, failures in ribosome biogenesis and telomere stability, and defects in stem cell formation. Considering the significant interest in deciphering the various molecular consequences of pseudouridine synthase failure, we performed a loss of function analysis of minifly (mfl), the pseudouridine synthase gene of Drosophila, in the wing disc, an advantageous model system for studies of cell growth and differentiation. In this organ, depletion of the mfl-encoded pseudouridine synthase causes a severe reduction in size by decreasing both the number and the size of wing cells. Reduction of cell number was mainly attributable to cell death rather than reduced proliferation, establishing that apoptosis plays a key role in the development of the loss of function mutant phenotype. Depletion of Mfl also causes a proliferative disadvantage in mosaic tissues that leads to the elimination of mutant cells by cell competition. Intriguingly, mfl silencing also triggered unexpected effects on wing patterning and cell differentiation, including deviations from normal lineage boundaries, mingling of cells of different compartments, and defects in the formation of the wing margin that closely mimic the phenotype of reduced Notch activity. These results suggest that a component of the pseudouridine synthase loss of function phenotype is caused by defects in Notch signalling.

  9. Developing New Markets for Growth Industries. Panel II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Panelists discuss a ground-breaking study of new Pennsylvania firms; examine patterns/needs of small businesses during phases of start-up, growth, maturity, and decline; describe untapped markets in the federal government and through export trade; and review how states can support small business growth by legislative and regulatory change. (NEC)

  10. Growth Hormone Research Society perspective on the development of long-acting growth hormone preparations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Growth Hormone (GH) Research Society (GRS) convened a workshop to address important issues regarding trial design, efficacy, and safety of long-acting growth hormone preparations (LAGH). A closed meeting of 55 international scientists with expertise in GH, including pediatric and adult endocrino...

  11. Development and growth of potato tubers in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, M. E.; Croxdale, J. L.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Goins, G.; Brown, C. S.; Wheeler, R. M.

    A potato explant consisting of a leaf, its axillary bud, and a small segment of stem will develop a tuber in 10-14 days when grown on earth. The tubers develop from the axillary buds and accumulate starch derived from sugars produced through photosynthesis and/or mobilized from leaf tissue. Potato explants were harvested and maintained in the Astroculture^TM unit, a plant growth chamber designed for spaceflight. The unit provides an environment with controlled temperature, humidity, CO_2 level, light intensity, and a nutrient delivery system. The hardware was loaded onto the space shuttle Columbia 24 hours prior to the launch of the STS-73 mission. Explant leaf tissue appeared turgid and green for the first 11 days of flight, but then became chlorotic and eventually necrotic by the end of the mission. The same events occurred to ground control explants with approximately the same timing. At the end of the 16-day mission, tubers were present on each explant. The size and shape of the space-grown tubers were similar to the ground-control tubers. The arrangement of cells in the tuber interior and at the exterior in the periderm was similar in both environments. Starch and protein were present in the tubers grown in space and on the ground. The range in starch grain size was similar in tubers from both environments, but the distribution of grains into size classes differed somewhat, with the space-grown tubers having more small grains than the ground control tubers. Proteinaceous crystals were found in tubers formed in each condition.

  12. Differential effects of strategic planning on community change in two urban neighborhood coalitions.

    PubMed

    Watson-Thompson, Jomella; Fawcett, Stephen B; Schultz, Jerry A

    2008-09-01

    Community coalitions represent a promising approach for addressing the interrelated and multiply- determined issues affecting urban neighborhoods of concentrated poverty. The literature suggests a number of community processes that may affect coalition efforts to change and improve communities. This study uses an interrupted time-series design to examine the effects of a strategic planning intervention on community change in two urban neighborhoods in the Kansas City metropolitan area. Results showed that strategic planning was associated with increased rates of community change in the two urban neighborhood coalitions. Under appropriate conditions, such as the presence of consistent leadership, strategic planning may be a particularly effective mechanism for stimulating community change and addressing locally-determined goals in urban neighborhoods.

  13. Supporting tobacco control: stimulating local newspaper coverage with a technical assistance website for local coalitions.

    PubMed

    Buller, David B; Bettinghaus, Erwin P; Helme, Donald; Young, Walter F; Borland, Ron; Maloy, Julie A; Cutter, Gary R; Andersen, Peter A; Walther, Joseph B

    2011-11-01

    A large and growing literature confirms that well-designed web-based programs can be effective in preventing or treating several chronic diseases. This study examined how the Internet can deliver information and train community activists and specifically tested the effects of web-based technical assistance on local tobacco control coalitions' efforts to use media advocacy to advance their agendas. The authors compared a highly interactive, Enhanced website (intervention) to a noninteractive, Basic text-based website (comparison) in Colorado communities. A total of 24 tobacco control coalitions led by local county health departments and nursing services were enrolled in the project and randomly assigned to use either the intervention or comparison website. A total of 73 local daily and weekly newspapers were identified in the service areas of 23 of the 24 coalitions. A posttest assessment of newspaper coverage was conducted to locate all newspaper articles with tobacco control information published between January 1 and April 9, 2004, the last 3 months of the intervention. Although there was no evidence of a treatment effect on the frequency of newspaper articles on tobacco-related issues, there was, however, evidence that newspapers in counties where the coalition had access to the Enhanced website printed more stories focused on local/regional issues and more anti-tobacco local/regional stories than in the counties where coalitions had access to the Basic website. Coalitions can improve their influence on local media for community tobacco control when high-quality online technical assistance, training, and resources are available to them. PMID:22068581

  14. Structure and development of old-growth, unmanaged second-growth, and extended rotation Pinus resinosa forests in Minnesota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Silver, Emily J.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Fraver, Shawn; Palik, Brian J.; Bradford, John B.

    2013-01-01

    The structure and developmental dynamics of old-growth forests often serve as important baselines for restoration prescriptions aimed at promoting more complex structural conditions in managed forest landscapes. Nonetheless, long-term information on natural patterns of development is rare for many commercially important and ecologically widespread forest types. Moreover, the effectiveness of approaches recommended for restoring old-growth structural conditions to managed forests, such as the application of extended rotation forestry, has been little studied. This study uses several long-term datasets from old growth, extended rotation, and unmanaged second growth Pinus resinosa (red pine) forests in northern Minnesota, USA, to quantify the range of variation in structural conditions for this forest type and to evaluate the effectiveness of extended rotation forestry at promoting the development of late-successional structural conditions. Long-term tree population data from permanent plots for one of the old-growth stands and the extended rotation stands (87 and 61 years, respectively) also allowed for an examination of the long-term structural dynamics of these systems. Old-growth forests were more structurally complex than unmanaged second-growth and extended rotation red pine stands, due in large part to the significantly higher volumes of coarse woody debris (70.7 vs. 11.5 and 4.7 m3/ha, respectively) and higher snag basal area (6.9 vs. 2.9 and 0.5 m2/ha, respectively). In addition, old-growth forests, although red pine-dominated, contained a greater abundance of other species, including Pinus strobus, Abies balsamea, and Picea glauca relative to the other stand types examined. These differences between stand types largely reflect historic gap-scale disturbances within the old-growth systems and their corresponding structural and compositional legacies. Nonetheless, extended rotation thinning treatments, by accelerating advancement to larger tree diameter

  15. Implementing Research-Based Substance Abuse Prevention in Communities: Effects of a Coalition-Based Prevention Initiative in Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flewelling, Robert L.; Austin, David; Hale, Kelly; LaPlante, Marcia; Liebig, Melissa; Piasecki, Linda; Uerz, Lori

    2005-01-01

    Despite the popularity and perceived potential effectiveness of community-based coalitions in helping to prevent and reduce adolescent substance use, empirical evidence supporting this approach is sparse. Many reasons have been suggested for why coalition-based prevention initiatives, and community-level interventions in general, have not…

  16. The National Coalition for Sustained Optimal Iodine intake (NSOI): a case study of a successful experience from India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kapil; Chakrabarty, Arijit; Rah, Jee Hyun; Kumar, Rakesh; Aguayo, Victor; Ansari, Mohammad Anas; Sankar, Rajan; Karmarkar, Madhu Ganesh; Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2014-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single most important preventable cause of mental handicap at global level. Recognizing the importance of coordination and synergy of the activities of wide range of universal salt iodisation (USI) stakeholders, WHO/ Unicef/ ICCIDD has prescribed a national multi-sectoral coalition as one of the ten indicators essential for attaining sustainable elimination of IDD at national level. Challenge for coordination among different stakeholders of IDD/USI is even greater in democratic and diverse country like India. In the present article we present successful experience from India regarding formation of a national coalition and contributions made by the coalition towards promoting USI in India. The activities of the national coalition in India are classified into three phases; 1) Phase 1- year 2006 to 2009- the inception; 2) Phase 2- year 2009 to 2012- consolidation; 3) Phase 3- year 2013 and ongoing- expansion. The National coalition for Sustained Optimal Iodine Intake (NSOI) has been instrumental in ensuring greater coordination and synergy amongst IDD and USI stakeholders in India and partially responsible for the current 71 percentage household level coverage of adequately iodised salt. The most significant contribution of the national coalition has been to act as a high level advocacy channel and provide a platform for regular dialogue for all partners of the coalition. With "mission" approach and allocation of optimal resource, India can achieve and should achieve USI by 2015, an apt culmination of a decade of existence of the national coalition. PMID:25384725

  17. 31 CFR 576.511 - Property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... forces of the United States and their coalition partners in Iraq. 576.511 Section 576.511 Money and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations... States and their coalition partners in Iraq. The prohibition in § 576.201(a)(3) that deals with...

  18. 31 CFR 576.207 - Exemption for property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in Iraq. 576.207 Section 576.207... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS... coalition partners in Iraq. The prohibitions in § 576.201(a)(1) and (a)(2) shall not apply to property...

  19. 31 CFR 576.511 - Property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... forces of the United States and their coalition partners in Iraq. 576.511 Section 576.511 Money and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations... States and their coalition partners in Iraq. The prohibition in § 576.201(a)(3) that deals with...

  20. 31 CFR 576.511 - Property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... forces of the United States and their coalition partners in Iraq. 576.511 Section 576.511 Money and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations... States and their coalition partners in Iraq. The prohibition in § 576.201(a)(3) that deals with...

  1. 31 CFR 576.511 - Property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... forces of the United States and their coalition partners in Iraq. 576.511 Section 576.511 Money and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations... States and their coalition partners in Iraq. The prohibition in § 576.201(a)(3) that deals with...

  2. 31 CFR 576.207 - Exemption for property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in Iraq. 576.207 Section 576.207... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS... coalition partners in Iraq. The prohibitions in § 576.201(a)(1) and (a)(2) shall not apply to property...

  3. 31 CFR 576.207 - Exemption for property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in Iraq. 576.207 Section 576.207... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS... coalition partners in Iraq. The prohibitions in § 576.201(a)(1) and (a)(2) shall not apply to property...

  4. 31 CFR 576.207 - Exemption for property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in Iraq. 576.207 Section 576.207... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS... coalition partners in Iraq. The prohibitions in § 576.201(a)(1) and (a)(2) shall not apply to property...

  5. Large-area sheet task advanced dendritic web growth development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; McHugh, J. P.; Hopkins, R. H.; Meier, D.; Schruben, J.

    1982-09-01

    The computer code for calculating web temperature distribution was expanded to provide a graphics output in addition to numerical and punch card output. The new code was used to examine various modifications of the J419 configuration and, on the basis of the results, a new growth geometry was designed. Additionally, several mathematically defined temperature profiles were evaluated for the effects of the free boundary (growth front) on the thermal stress generation. Experimental growth runs were made with modified J419 configurations to complement the modeling work. A modified J435 configuration was evaluated.

  6. Large-area sheet task advanced dendritic web growth development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The thermal stress models were used to test the effect of melt level on stress generation and growth velocity. The results indicate that melt level has only small effects on stresses but significant effects on growth velocity. These results are consistent with experimental growth from measured melt levels. A new low-stress design concept is being evaluated with the models. A width-limiting version of the low-stress J460 configuration was tested experimentally with results consistent with the design goals.

  7. Large-area sheet task advanced dendritic web growth development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hopkins, R. H.; Meier, D.; Schruben, J.

    1982-01-01

    The computer code for calculating web temperature distribution was expanded to provide a graphics output in addition to numerical and punch card output. The new code was used to examine various modifications of the J419 configuration and, on the basis of the results, a new growth geometry was designed. Additionally, several mathematically defined temperature profiles were evaluated for the effects of the free boundary (growth front) on the thermal stress generation. Experimental growth runs were made with modified J419 configurations to complement the modeling work. A modified J435 configuration was evaluated.

  8. Ethylene and Hormonal Cross Talk in Vegetative Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    Van de Poel, Bram; Smet, Dajo; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2015-09-01

    Ethylene is a gaseous plant hormone that most likely became a functional hormone during the evolution of charophyte green algae, prior to land colonization. From this ancient origin, ethylene evolved into an important growth regulator that is essential for myriad plant developmental processes. In vegetative growth, ethylene appears to have a dual role, stimulating and inhibiting growth, depending on the species, tissue, and cell type, developmental stage, hormonal status, and environmental conditions. Moreover, ethylene signaling and response are part of an intricate network in cross talk with internal and external cues. Besides being a crucial factor in the growth control of roots and shoots, ethylene can promote flowering, fruit ripening and abscission, as well as leaf and petal senescence and abscission and, hence, plays a role in virtually every phase of plant life. Last but not least, together with jasmonates, salicylate, and abscisic acid, ethylene is important in steering stress responses.

  9. Effect of mechanical stress on cotton growth and development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Sufang; Xin, Wanwan; Tang, Juxiang; Wang, Qinglian

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural crops experience diverse mechanical stimuli, which may affect their growth and development. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of mechanical stresses caused by hanging labels from the flower petioles (HLFP) on plant shape and cotton yields in four cotton varieties: CCRI 41, DP 99B, CCRC 21, and BAI 1. HLFP significantly reduced plant height by between 7.8% and 36.5% in all four lines and also significantly reduced the number of fruiting positions per plant in the CCRI 41, DP 99B and CCRC 21 lines. However, the number of fruiting positions in BAI 1 was unaffected. HLFP also significantly reduced the boll weight for all four cultivars and the seed cotton yields for CCRI 41, DP 99B and BAI 1. Conversely, it significantly increased the seed cotton yield for CCRC 21 by 11.2%. HLFP treatment did not significantly affect the boll count in the fruiting branches of the 1(st) and 2(nd) layers in any variety, but did significantly reduce those on the 3(rd) and 4(th) fruiting branch layers for CCRI 41 and DP 99B. Similar trends were observed for the number of bolls per FP. In general, HLFP reduced plant height and boll weight. However, the lines responded differently to HLFP treatment in terms of their total numbers of fruiting positions, boll numbers, seed cotton yields, etc. Our results also suggested that HFLP responses might be delayed for some agronomy traits of some cotton genotypes, and that hanging labels from early-opening flowers might influence the properties related with those that opened later on.

  10. Joint Real-Time Energy and Demand-Response Management using a Hybrid Coalitional-Noncooperative Game

    SciTech Connect

    He, Fulin; Gu, Yi; Hao, Jun; Zhang, Jun Jason; Wei, Jiaolong; Zhang, Yingchen

    2015-11-11

    In order to model the interactions among utility companies, building demands and renewable energy generators (REGs), a hybrid coalitional-noncooperative game framework has been proposed. We formulate a dynamic non-cooperative game to study the energy dispatch within multiple utility companies, while we take a coalitional perspective on REGs and buildings demands through a hedonic coalition formation game approach. In this case, building demands request different power supply from REGs, then the building demands can be organized into an ultimate coalition structure through a distributed hedonic shift algorithm. At the same time, utility companies can also obtain a stable power generation profile. In addition, the interactive progress among the utility companies and building demands which cannot be supplied by REGs is implemented by distributed game theoretic algorithms. Numerical results illustrate that the proposed hybrid coalitional-noncooperative game scheme reduces the cost of both building demands and utility companies compared with the initial scene.

  11. Growth pattern and carcase development in male ducks selected for growth rate.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, K; Akbar, M K; Turk, C M

    1999-05-01

    1. Growth patterns of the whole body, eviscerated carcases, breast muscle, leg and thigh muscles and abdominal fat pads were compared in 4 lines (Lines A, B, C, and D) of male ducks selected for market weight (n = 1305) using growth curve analysis, allometric growth analysis and repeated measure analysis. At 49 d of age, Line A was heaviest, followed by Line B, Line C and Line D. 2. Ducks were fed ad libitum under 24-h lighting and 12 or 24 ducks were killed to determine body, carcase, breast-muscle, leg and thigh-muscle, and abdominal fat weights at time points from hatching until 53 d of age. 3. The Weibull function was chosen for growth curve analysis. The asymptote and inflection point from the Weibull growth curves identified 3 lines (Lines B, C, and D) with discrete body and carcase growth patterns but did not distinguish Line A from Line B. In all 4 lines the asymptote ranged from 4437 g to 3008 g for body weight and from 3334 g to 2098 g for carcase weight; the inflection point ranged from 22.5 d to 25.3 d for body weight and from 25.4 d to 29.6 d for carcase weight. 4. The allometric growth coefficient, relative to whole-body growth, was higher than 1.00 for breast muscle and lower than 1.00 for leg and thigh muscles during from 4 d to 53 d of age. 5. Body fat accumulation was estimated by abdominal fat. Line D accumulated more abdominal fat than other lines. The pattern of fat accumulation in Line D was different from Lines A, B and C and there were no differences between Lines A, B and C. PMID:10465391

  12. Ghrelin and the growth hormone secretagogue receptor in growth and development.

    PubMed

    Chanoine, J-P; De Waele, K; Walia, P

    2009-04-01

    The pancreas is a major source of ghrelin in the perinatal period, whereas gastric production progressively increases after birth. Loss of function of the genes for ghrelin or for the constitutively activated growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) does not affect birth weight and early postnatal growth. However, ghrl(-/-) or ghsr(-/-) mice fed a high fat diet starting soon after weaning are resistant to diet-induced obesity, suggesting that ghrelin affects the maturation of the metabolic axes involved in energy balance. In addition, animal and human studies suggest that GHSR plays a physiological role in linear growth. In mice, absence of the GHSR gene is associated with lower insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations and lower body mass in adult animals, independently of food intake. In humans, a mutation of the GHSR gene that impairs the constitutive activity of the receptor was found in two families with short stature. Administration of acylated ghrelin to rat pups directly does not affect weight gain. In contrast, administration of ghrelin to pregnant or lactating rats results in greater fetal weight and postnatal weight gain, respectively, suggesting that maternal ghrelin may stimulate perinatal growth. These data point toward a physiological role for ghrelin and GHSR in growth and/or in the maturation of hormonal systems involved in the regulation of energy balance.

  13. Is population growth a deterrent to development in the South Pacific?

    PubMed

    Ahlburg, D A

    1988-05-01

    "Some have argued that population growth deters development, while others claim that population growth either aids development or has no significant effect on development. In a sample of South Pacific nations, population growth and size were found to be unrelated to economic development, defined as GDP per capita. However, when indices of quality of life or social development such as mortality, health services and education were used, population growth and size were found to be negatively related to these indices. If these 'quality of life' indices are valued by nations, an argument may exist for policy support for family planning."

  14. Energy demand, energy substitution and economic growth : Evidence from developed and developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Aziz, Azlina

    This thesis contributes to the literature on energy demand in three ways. Firstly, it examines the major determinants of energy demand using a panel of 23 developed countries and 16 developing countries during 1978 to 2003. Secondly, it examines the demand for energy in the industrial sector and the extent of inter-fuel substitution, as well as substitution between energy and non-energy inputs, using data from 5 advanced countries and 5 energy producer's developing countries. Third, the thesis investigates empirically the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for these groups of countries over a 26-year period. The empirical results of this study confirm the majority of the findings in energy demand analysis. Income and price have shown to be important determinants for energy consumption in both developed and developing countries. Moreover, both economic structure and technical progress appear to exert significant impacts on energy consumption. Income has a positive impact on energy demand and the effect is larger in developing countries. In both developed and developing countries, price has a negative impact but these effects are larger in developed countries than in developing countries. The share of industry in GDP is positive and has a greater impact on energy demand in developing countries, whereas technological progress is found to be energy using in developed countries and energy saving in developing countries. With respect to the analysis of inter-factor and inter-fuel substitution in industrial energy demand, the results provide evidence for substitution possibilities between factor inputs and fuels. Substitutability is observed between capital and energy, capital and labour and labour and energy. These findings confirm previous evidence that production technologies in these countries allow flexibility in the capital-energy, capital-labour and labour-energy mix. In the energy sub-model, the elasticities of substitution show that large

  15. Early Literacy Individual Growth and Development Indicators (EL-IGDIs): Growth Trajectories Using a Large, Internet-Based Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseth, Cary J.; Missall, Kristen N.; McConnell, Scott R.

    2012-01-01

    Early literacy individual growth and development indicators (EL-IGDIs) assess preschoolers' expressive vocabulary development and phonological awareness. This study investigated longitudinal change in EL-IGDIs using a large (N=7355), internet-based sample of 36- to 60-month-old United States preschoolers without identified risks for later…

  16. Deiodinase knockdown during early zebrafish development affects growth, development, energy metabolism, motility and phototransduction.

    PubMed

    Bagci, Enise; Heijlen, Marjolein; Vergauwen, Lucia; Hagenaars, An; Houbrechts, Anne M; Esguerra, Camila V; Blust, Ronny; Darras, Veerle M; Knapen, Dries

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2) increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3) decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray), biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO) knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO) and knockdown of D3 (D3MO) both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle) development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct TH balance

  17. Deiodinase Knockdown during Early Zebrafish Development Affects Growth, Development, Energy Metabolism, Motility and Phototransduction

    PubMed Central

    Bagci, Enise; Heijlen, Marjolein; Vergauwen, Lucia; Hagenaars, An; Houbrechts, Anne M.; Esguerra, Camila V.; Blust, Ronny; Darras, Veerle M.; Knapen, Dries

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2) increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3) decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray), biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO) knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO) and knockdown of D3 (D3MO) both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle) development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct TH balance

  18. Eradication of hepatitis B: a nationwide community coalition approach to improving vaccination, screening, and linkage to care.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Chari; Caballero, Jeffrey; Martin, Melinda; Weerasinghe, Isha; Ninde, Michelle; Block, Joan

    2013-10-01

    Infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a significant public health concern in the US, disproportionately affecting Americans of Asian, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander descent, despite the availability of a simple blood test, approved treatments, and an effective vaccine. Hep B United, a national campaign to support and leverage the success of community-based HBV coalitions, convened a partner summit in 2012 to develop a strategic response to the HHS Action Plan for the Prevention, Care, and Treatment of Viral Hepatitis. The resulting community action plan focuses on advancing three areas of the HHS plan: educating providers and communities to reduce health disparities; improving testing and linkage to care to prevent HBV-related liver disease and cancer; and eliminating perinatal HBV transmission. PMID:23715963

  19. Development of SiC Large Tapered Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Phil

    2011-01-01

    Research Focus Area: Power Electronics, Temperature Tolerant Devices. Demonstrate initial feasibility of totally new "Large Tapered Crystal" (LTC) process for growing vastly improved large-diameter wide-band gap wafers. Addresses Targets: The goal of this research is to experimentally investigate and demonstrate feasibility of the key unproven LTC growth processes in SiC. Laser-assisted growth of long SiC fiber seeds. Radial epitaxial growth enlargement of seeds into large SiC boules. Uniqueness and Impacts open a new technology path to large-diameter SiC and GaN wafers with 1000-fold defect density improvement at 2-4 fold lower cost. Leapfrog improvement in wide band gap power device capability and cost.

  20. Plant Growth and Development in the ASTROCULTURE(trademark) Space-Based Growth Unit-Ground Based Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bula, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    The ASTROCULTURE(trademark) plant growth unit flown as part on the STS-63 mission in February 1995, represented the first time plants were flown in microgravity in a enclosed controlled environment plant growth facility. In addition to control of the major environmental parameters, nutrients were provided to the plants with the ZEOPONICS system developed by NASA Johnson Space Center scientists. Two plant species were included in this space experiment, dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum) and a unique mustard called "Wisconsin Fast Plants" (Brassica rapa). Extensive post-flight analyses have been performed on the plant material and it has been concluded that plant growth and development was normal during the period the plants were in the microgravity environment of space. However, adequate plant growth and development control data were not available for direct comparisons of plant responses to the microgravity environment with those of plants grown at 1 g. Such data would allow for a more complete interpretation of the extent that microgravity affects plant growth and development.

  1. Filopodial dynamics and growth cone stabilization in Drosophila visual circuit development.

    PubMed

    Özel, Mehmet Neset; Langen, Marion; Hassan, Bassem A; Hiesinger, P Robin

    2015-10-29

    Filopodial dynamics are thought to control growth cone guidance, but the types and roles of growth cone dynamics underlying neural circuit assembly in a living brain are largely unknown. To address this issue, we have developed long-term, continuous, fast and high-resolution imaging of growth cone dynamics from axon growth to synapse formation in cultured Drosophila brains. Using R7 photoreceptor neurons as a model we show that >90% of the growth cone filopodia exhibit fast, stochastic dynamics that persist despite ongoing stepwise layer formation. Correspondingly, R7 growth cones stabilize early and change their final position by passive dislocation. N-Cadherin controls both fast filopodial dynamics and growth cone stabilization. Surprisingly, loss of N-Cadherin causes no primary targeting defects, but destabilizes R7 growth cones to jump between correct and incorrect layers. Hence, growth cone dynamics can influence wiring specificity without a direct role in target recognition and implement simple rules during circuit assembly.

  2. Large-area sheet task advanced dendritic web growth development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hopkins, R. H.; Meier, D.; Schruben, J.

    1982-01-01

    The "discrete shield' temperature model was completed and verified. Modifications to the J419 low stress configuration were tested experimentally to evaluate effects on growth speed. A composite lid and shield configuration combining the low stress features of the J419 with the width limiting characteristics of the J98M3 was fabricated and tested in the N-furnace. Several long crystals were grown with width limited to about 3.3 cm and with melt replenishment, although the configuration is not yet optimized for steady state growth.

  3. Large area sheet task: Advanced Dendritic Web Growth Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hopkins, R. H.; Meier, D.; Schruben, J.

    1981-01-01

    A melt level control system was implemented to provide stepless silicon feed rates from zero to rates exactly matching the silicon consumed during web growth. Bench tests of the unit were successfully completed and the system mounted in a web furnace for operational verification. Tests of long term temperature drift correction techniques were made; web width monitoring seems most appropriate for feedback purposes. A system to program the initiation of the web growth cycle was successfully tested. A low cost temperature controller was tested which functions as well as units four times as expensive.

  4. Eudaimonic growth: Narrative growth goals predict increases in ego development and subjective well-being 3 years later.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jack J; McAdams, Dan P

    2010-07-01

    We examine (a) the normative course of eudaimonic well-being in emerging adulthood and (b) whether people's narratives of major life goals might prospectively predict eudaimonic growth 3 years later. We define eudaimonic growth as longitudinal increases in eudaimonic well-being, which we define as the combination of psychosocial maturity and subjective well-being (SWB). College freshmen and seniors took measures of ego development (ED; to assess maturity; Loevinger, 1976) and SWB at Time 1 (T1) and again 3 years later (Time 2). ED levels increased longitudinally across that time for men and T1 freshmen, but SWB levels did not change. Participants also wrote narratives of 2 major life goals at T1 that were coded for an explicit emphasis on specific kinds of personal growth. Participants' intellectual-growth goals (especially agentic ones) predicted increases in ED 3 years later, whereas participants' socioemotional-growth goals (especially communal ones) predicted increases in SWB 3 years later. These findings were independent of the effects of Big Five personality traits-notably conscientiousness, which on its own predicted increases in SWB. We discuss (a) emerging adulthood as the last stop for normative eudaimonic growth in modern society and (b) empirical and theoretical issues surrounding the relations among narrative identity, life planning, dispositional traits, eudaimonia, and 2 paths of personal growth.

  5. Neuropsychological development in preschool children born with asymmetrical intrauterine growth restriction and impact of postnatal head growth.

    PubMed

    Klaric, Andrea Simić; Galić, Slavka; Kolundzić, Zdravko; Bosnjak, Vlatka Mejaski

    2013-07-01

    Neuropsychological development and the impact of postnatal head growth were studied in preschool children with asymmetrical intrauterine growth restriction. Examinees born at term with a birth weight below the 10th percentile were matched to the control group according to chronological and gestational age, gender, and maternal education. Fifty children were in each group, with a mean age of 6 years, 4 months. The Touwen neurological examination, the Čuturić developmental test, an imitative hand positions test, and a visual attention test were performed. There were significant differences (P< .03) in motor variables, the developmental quotient, and the imitative hand positions test. Fine motor skills had the most discriminative power. Relative growth of the head in relation to weight gain was positively correlated to neurocognitive outcome. Intrauterine growth-restricted children with a current head circumference ≤10th percentile had poorer outcomes. Conclusively, intrauterine growth restriction has a negative impact on neurocognitive development. Slow postnatal head growth is correlated with a poorer neuropsychological outcome.

  6. More of the Same? New Labour, the Coalition and Education: Markets, Localism and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avis, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to draw out the continuities and ruptures in current English education policy. In particular it considers the relationship between Coalition policy rhetoric and that of the Labour Party. Although the paper is concerned with the British and more specifically English context, it examines a range of questions that move beyond that…

  7. The Conservative-Liberal Democrat Coalition Government's "Free Schools" in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Free schools are new state-funded but privately-run schools set up under the academies legislation. Free schools represent the most overtly market-oriented policy within the Conservative-led Coalition government's school reform programme in England and have provoked intense controversy, centering on issues of pupil attainment, social equality,…

  8. False Dawns, Bleak Sunset: The Coalition Government's Policies on Career Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    The Coalition Government's policies on career guidance are analysed. Its rhetorical concern for career guidance provision is based largely on its support for social mobility, and its recognition of the role of career guidance in moving towards a demand-led skills system. Initial policy statements affirmed its intention to establish an all-age…

  9. Practical Child Safety Education in England: A National Survey of the Child Safety Education Coalition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvaney, Caroline A.; Watson, Michael C.; Walsh, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the provision of practical safety education by Child Safety Education Coalition (CSEC) organizations in England. Design: A postal survey. Setting: Providers of child practical safety education who were also part of CSEC. Methods: In February 2010 all CSEC organizations were sent a self-completion postal questionnaire which…

  10. The Planning of a Communications Coalition for Educational Change. Final Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Louis J.

    To overcome communications failures which tend to impede useful educational change and to achieve the goal of an educationally informed public, the feasibility of a Communications Coalition was investigated. Two other long term goals were identified: to promote a national concern for educational change and to design a system which would be…

  11. The Coming Black/Hispanic Coalition. A Black View and An Hispanic View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Lillian; Arias, Ron

    1980-01-01

    Two journalists discuss political, economic, and social issues which unite Blacks and Hispanics and consider the problems which impede the formation of a formal political coalition between the two groups. Among the common issues identified are police brutality, voter registration, unemployment, health, housing, and the media. (GC)

  12. Fantasies of Empowerment: Mapping Neoliberal Discourse in the Coalition Government's Schools Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The swift nature of school reform enacted by the new Conservative-led coalition government has sparked debate over the future of state education in Britain. While the government rhetoric suggests a decisive break with past policies, there is evidence to suggest that these reforms constitute the next stage of a long revolution in education reform,…

  13. Evaluation and Community Prevention Coalitions: Validation of an Integrated Web-Based/Technical Assistance Consultant Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Mark E.; Gomez, Brendan J.; Puddy, Richard W.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Community coalitions (CCs) have labored with some difficulty to demonstrate empirical evidence of effectiveness in preventing a wide range of adolescent problem behaviors. Training and technical assistance (TA) have been identified as important elements in promoting improved functioning of CCs. A reliable, valid, and inexpensive method to assess…

  14. Principles at Work. Measuring the Success of the Coalition of Essential Schools. 1999-2000 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coalition of Essential Schools, Providence, RI.

    This brochure provides an overview of the Coalition of Essential Schools (CES). CES is a growing network of over 1,200 schools and 20 regional support centers that promotes higher student achievement. The CES arose out of "The Study of American High Schools," led by Theodore R. Sizer, and began with 12 schools in 1984. Today, CES membership…

  15. Unconscious Vigilance: Worldview Defense Without Adaptations for Terror, Coalition, or Uncertainty Management

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, Colin; Sousa, Paulo; Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Individuals subtly reminded of death, coalitional challenges, or feelings of uncertainty display exaggerated preferences for affirmations and against criticisms of their cultural in-groups. Terror management, coalitional psychology, and uncertainty management theories postulate this “worldview defense” effect as the output of mechanisms evolved either to allay the fear of death, foster social support, or reduce anxiety by increasing adherence to cultural values. In 4 studies, we report evidence for an alternative perspective. We argue that worldview defense owes to unconscious vigilance, a state of accentuated reactivity to affective targets (which need not relate to cultural worldviews) that follows detection of subtle alarm cues (which need not pertain to death, coalitional challenges, or uncertainty). In Studies 1 and 2, death-primed participants produced exaggerated ratings of worldview-neutral affective targets. In Studies 3 and 4, subliminal threat manipulations unrelated to death, coalitional challenges, or uncertainty evoked worldview defense. These results are discussed as they inform evolutionary interpretations of worldview defense and future investigations of the influence of unconscious alarm on judgment. PMID:21644809

  16. SUCCEED (Southeastern University and College Coalition for Engineering Education) Annual Report, Year 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohland, Matthew W., Ed.; Anderson, Tim J., Ed.

    This document contains the annual report for Year 7 of the Southeastern University and College Coalition for Engineering Education (SUCCEED). It features an Executive Summary, a response to recommendations of prior review teams, a description of major accomplishments, future plans, an evaluation, and reports on dissemination, industrial…

  17. SUCCEED (Southeastern University and College Coalition for Engineering Education) Annual Report: Year 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohland, Matthew W., Ed.; Anderson, Tim J., Ed.

    This document contains the annual report for Year 6 of the Southeastern University and College Coalition for Engineering Education (SUCCEED). It features an Executive Summary, a response to recommendations of prior review teams, a description of major accomplishments, future plans, an evaluation, and reports on dissemination, industrial…

  18. 78 FR 21928 - Demand Response Coalition v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Demand Response Coalition v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of... formal complaint against the PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. (Respondent or PJM), alleging that certain...

  19. Religion, Advocacy Coalitions, and the Politics of U.S. Public Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugg, Catherine A.; Robinson, Malila N.

    2009-01-01

    Employing the Advocacy Coalition Framework to ground the analysis, this article begins with an historical overview of the US Protestant Right and its involvement with the politics of public schooling. It then moves to a discussion of a few current legal and policy issues (intelligent design, evolution, the Kansas state board of education, school…

  20. Policy and System Change and Community Coalitions: Outcomes from Allies against Asthma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Noreen M.; Lachance, Laurie; Doctor, Linda Jo; Gilmore, Lisa; Kelly, Cindy; Krieger, James; Lara, Marielena; Meurer, John; Friedman Milanovich, Amy; Nicholas, Elisa; Rosenthal, Michael; Stoll, Shelley C.; Wilkin, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We assessed policy and system changes and health outcomes produced by the Allies Against Asthma program, a 5-year collaborative effort by 7 community coalitions to address childhood asthma. We also explored associations between community engagement and outcomes. Methods: We interviewed a sample of 1,477 parents of children with asthma…

  1. Vocational Education and Training in the Spotlight: Back to the Future for the UK's Coalition Government?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Alison; Unwin, Lorna

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the Coalition Government's plans for vocational education and training for 14- to 19-year-olds in England. It argues that new types of educational institutions will enable the emergence of new forms of segmentation in which the vocational track is likely to become split into 'technical education' and lower level 'practical…

  2. Grassroots Responsiveness to Human Rights Abuse: History of the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigrant Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Laura; Martinez, Ramiro; Harner, Margaret; Harner, Melanie; Horner, Pilar; Delva, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss how a community agency based in Washtenaw County, the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigration Rights (WICIR), emerged in response to increasing punitive immigration practices and human rights abuses toward the Latino community. The article discusses how WICIR is engaged in advocacy, community…

  3. Community Prevention Coalition Context and Capacity Assessment: Comparing the United States and Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Louis D.; Chilenski, Sarah M.; Ramos, Rebeca; Gallegos, Nora; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Effective planning for community health partnerships requires understanding how initial readiness--that is, contextual factors and capacity--influences implementation of activities and programs. This study compares the context and capacity of drug and violence prevention coalitions in Mexico to those in the United States. Measures of coalition…

  4. The Social Construction of Young People within Education Policy: Evidence from the UK's Coalition Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Since assuming power in May 2010, the UK's Coalition government has devoted considerable energy to formulating its policies with respect to young people. Evidence of this can be found in "Positive for youth: a new approach to cross-government policy for young people aged 13-19", a policy text that outlines a wide range of measures to be…

  5. A Coalitional View of Site-Based Management: Implications for School Administrators in Collective Bargaining Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Sharon C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes site-based management structures, using specific case of teacher unions and collective bargaining. From coalitional perspective, interview data suggest that teacher union leaders may be in a quandary, shifting between traditional "bread and butter" issues and professional/collegial concerns. A struggle exists involving the union's power…

  6. The Public Employment Program: An Evaluation by the National Urban Coalition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Urban Coalition, Washington, DC.

    The National Urban Coalition conducted this evaluation to determine the manner in which the provisions of the Emergency Employment Act of 1971 have been carried out, the problems raised by legislative and administrative guidelines, and the difficulties experienced in implementing projects locally. Some major findings were: (1) The Labor Department…

  7. Member and Affiliate Contact Directory. Triangle Coalition for Science and Technology Education. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triangle Coalition for Science and Technology Education, College Park, MD.

    This directory is designed to assist local action groups (existing local alliances; science mathematics, and technology teachers; superintendents, principals, and supervisors; guidance counselors and resource specialists; and university and college professors) in making contact with the local structure of the Triangle Coalition for Science and…

  8. Comprehensive cancer control programs and coalitions: partnering to launch successful colorectal cancer screening initiatives.

    PubMed

    Seeff, Laura C; Major, Anne; Townsend, Julie S; Provost, Ellen; Redwood, Diana; Espey, David; Dwyer, Diane; Villanueva, Robert; Larsen, Leslie; Rowley, Kathryn; Leonard, Banning

    2010-12-01

    Colorectal cancer control has long been a focus area for Comprehensive Cancer Control programs and their coalitions, given the high burden of disease and the availability of effective screening interventions. Colorectal cancer control has been a growing priority at the national, state, territorial, tribal, and local level. This paper summarizes several national initiatives and features several Comprehensive Cancer Control Program colorectal cancer control successes.

  9. Co-Producing Early Years Policy in England under the Coalition Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Eva

    2014-01-01

    During the first half of the current Coalition Government, co-production--a form of participatory governance--was implemented widely in the conceptualization, design and implementation of early years policies. Seen as a revolutionary approach to public service reform, resulting in more effective and more cost-effective public services, the joint…

  10. Effects of the Parental Coalition on Adolescent Emancipation from the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teyber, Edward

    1983-01-01

    Examined the relationship between adolescents' (N=72) perceptions of their parents' marital coalition and academic success as a college freshman. Results showed that students reporting a primary marital alliance tended to succeed academically and were more integral on the Rotter I-E scale than students reporting a nonmarital alliance as primary.…

  11. Family Resource Coalition Report. Focus: Families of Children with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Family Resource Coalition Report, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This special issue of a periodical focuses on building support and resources for families of children with special needs. It contains 13 articles in addition to descriptions of 10 programs serving special needs families at the local level, a list of 15 resource organizations and 10 publications/audiovisual aids, and a message from the coalition's…

  12. Drugs, Alcohol, and Women's Health: An Alliance of Regional Coalitions. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nellis, Muriel; And Others

    The needs of women and the content of existing information programs concerned with drug and alcohol abuse and general health were investigated through a nationwide Alliance of Regional Coalitions on Drugs, Alcohol, and Women's Health sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Results indicated that: (1) multi-substance abuse is common, but…

  13. 78 FR 52933 - Strengthening the Operating Framework and Furthering the Objectives of Coalition for Accelerating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Strengthening the Operating Framework and Furthering the Objectives of Coalition for Accelerating Standards and Therapies Initiative (U24) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing...

  14. Large-area sheet task advanced dendritic web growth development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hopkins, R. H.; Meier, D.; Schruben, J.

    1982-01-01

    The thermal stress model was used to generate the design of a low stress lid and shield configuration, which was fabricated and tested experimentally. In preliminary tests, the New Experimental Web Growth Facility performed as designed, producing web on the first run. These experiments suggested desirable design modifications in the melt level sensing system to improve further its performance, and these are being implemented.

  15. Group Leader Development: Effects of Personal Growth and Psychoeducational Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrt, Jonathan H.; Robinson, E. H., III; Hagedorn, W. Bryce

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to compare the effects of personal growth groups and psychoeducational groups on counselor education students' (n = 74) empathy and group leader self-efficacy. Additionally, we compared the degree to which participants in each group valued: (a) cohesion, (b) catharsis, and (c) insight. There were no…

  16. Comparative growth and development of hexaploid and tetraploid reed canarygrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) is a globally distributed forage species, a potential biofuel, and an important invasive weed. At more northern latitudes in exists as a tetraploid and at equatorial to mid-latitudes as a hexaploid, especially in Mediterranean climates. Growth and developme...

  17. Angiotensin II regulates growth of the developing papillas ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    Song, Renfang; Preston, Graeme; Khalili, Ali; El-Dahr, Samir S.

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that lack of angiotensin (ANG) II production in angiotensinogen (AGT)-deficient mice or pharmacologic antagonism of ANG II AT1 receptor (AT1R) impairs growth of the developing papillas ex vivo, thus contributing to the hypoplastic renal medulla phenotype observed in AGT- or AT1R-null mice. Papillas were dissected from Hoxb7GFP+ or AGT+/+, +/−, −/− mouse metanephroi on postnatal day P3 and grown in three-dimentional collagen matrix gels in the presence of media (control), ANG II (10−5 M), or the specific AT1R antagonist candesartan (10−6 M) for 24 h. Percent reduction in papillary length was attenuated in AGT+/+ and in AGT+/− compared with AGT−/− (−18.4 ± 1.3 vs. −32.2 ± 1.6%, P < 0.05, −22.8 ± 1.3 vs. −32.2 ± 1.6%, P < 0.05, respectively). ANG II blunted the decrease in papilla length observed in respective media-treated controls in Hoxb7GFP+ (−1.5 ± 0.3 vs. −10.0 ± 1.4%, P < 0.05) or AGT+/+, +/−, and −/− papillas (−12.8 ± 0.7 vs. −18.4 ± 1.3%, P < 0.05, −16.8 ± 1.1 vs. −23 ± 1.2%, P < 0.05; −26.2 ± 1.6 vs. −32.2 ± 1.6%, P < 0.05, respectively). In contrast, percent decrease in the length of Hoxb7GFP+ papillas in the presence of the AT1R antagonist candesartan was higher compared with control (−24.3 ± 2.1 vs. −10.5 ± 1.8%, P < 0.05). The number of proliferating phospho-histone H3 (pH3)-positive collecting duct cells was lower, whereas the number of caspase 3-positive cells undergoing apoptosis was higher in candesartan- vs. media-treated papillas (pH3: 12 ± 1.4 vs. 21 ± 2.1, P < 0.01; caspase 3: 3.8 ± 0.5 vs. 1.7 ± 0.2, P < 0.01). Using quantitative RT-PCR, we demonstrate that AT1R signaling regulates the expression of genes implicated in morphogenesis of the renal medulla. We conclude that AT1R prevents shrinkage of the developing papillas observed ex vivo via control of Wnt7b, FGF7, β-catenin, calcineurin B1, and α3 integrin gene expression, collecting duct cell

  18. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 (Igfbp5) compromises survival, growth, muscle development, and fertility in mice.

    PubMed

    Salih, Dervis A M; Tripathi, Gyanendra; Holding, Cathy; Szestak, Tadge A M; Gonzalez, M Ivelisse; Carter, Emma J; Cobb, Laura J; Eisemann, Joan E; Pell, Jennifer M

    2004-03-23

    The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are essential for development; bioavailable IGF is tightly regulated by six related IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). Igfbp5 is the most conserved and is developmentally up-regulated in key lineages and pathologies; in vitro studies suggest that IGFBP-5 functions independently of IGF interaction. Genetic ablation of individual Igfbps has yielded limited phenotypes because of substantial compensation by remaining family members. Therefore, to reveal Igfbp5 actions in vivo, we generated lines of transgenic mice that ubiquitously overexpressed Igfbp5 from early development. Significantly increased neonatal mortality, reduced female fertility, whole-body growth inhibition, and retarded muscle development were observed in Igfbp5-overexpressing mice. The magnitude of the response in individual transgenic lines was positively correlated with Igfbp5 expression. Circulating IGFBP-5 concentrations increased a maximum of only 4-fold, total and free IGF-I concentrations increased up to 2-fold, and IGFBP-5 was detected in high M(r) complexes; however, no detectable decrease in the proportion of free IGF-I was observed. Thus, despite only modest changes in IGF and IGFBP concentrations, the Igfbp5-overexpressing mice displayed a phenotype more extreme than that observed for other Igfbp genetic models. Although growth retardation was obvious prenatally, maximal inhibition occurred postnatally before the onset of growth hormone-dependent growth, regardless of Igfbp5 expression level, revealing a period of sensitivity to IGFBP-5 during this important stage of tissue programming. PMID:15010534

  19. Retarded Embryo Development 1 (RED1) regulates embryo development, seed maturation and plant growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Du, Qian; Wang, Huanzhong

    2016-07-20

    Plant seeds accumulate large amounts of protein and carbohydrate as storage reserves during maturation. Thus, understanding the genetic control of embryo and seed development may provide bioengineering tools for yield improvement. In this study, we report the identification of Retarded Embryo Development 1 (RED1) gene in Arabidopsis, whose two independent T-DNA insertion mutant lines, SALK_085642 (red1-1) and SALK_022583 (red1-2), show a retarded embryo development phenotype. The embryogenesis process ceases at the late heart stage in red1-1 and at the bent-cotyledon stage in red1-2, respectively, resulting in seed abortion in both lines. The retarded embryo development and seed abortion phenotypes reverted to normal when RED1 complementation constructs were introduced into mutant plants. Small red1-2 homozygous plants can be successfully rescued by culturing immature seeds, indicating that seed abortion likely results from compromised tolerance to the desiccation process associated with seed maturation. Consistent with this observation, red1-2 seeds accumulate less protein, and the expression of two late embryo development reporter transgenes, LEA::GUS and β-conglycinin::GUS, was significantly weak and started relatively late in the red1-2 mutant lines compared to the wild type. The RED1 gene encodes a plant specific novel protein that is localized in the nucleus. These results indicate that RED1 plays important roles in embryo development, seed maturation and plant growth. PMID:27477025

  20. Genetic Influences on Temporomandibular Joint Development and Growth.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Robert J; Jing, Junjun; Feng, Jian Q

    2015-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a small synovial joint at which the mandible articulates with the skull during movements involved in speaking and mastication. However, the secondary cartilage lining its joint surfaces is indicative of a very different developmental history than limb cartilages. This review summarizes our current knowledge of genes that regulate the formation of primary components of the TMJ, as well as genes that regulate postnatal growth of the TMJ. Although the TMJ is regulated by some of the same genes that are important in limb joints, others appear unique to the TMJ or have different actions. Runx2, Sox9, and members of the TGF-β/BMP family are critical drivers of chondrogenesis during condylar cartilage morphogenesis, and Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is important for formation of the articular disc and cavitation. Osterix (Osx) is a critical regulator of endochondral bone formation during postnatal TMJ growth. PMID:26589922

  1. Slow Growth and Urban Sprawl: Support for a New Regional Agenda?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainsborough, Juliet F.

    2002-01-01

    Assessed the possibilities for coalition building around growth related concerns, exploring support for slowing growth in New York City and Los Angeles. Analyzed data from surveys of urban and suburban dwellers regarding support for growth control measures. Suburbanites were much more receptive to slow growth policies than were urbanites, though…

  2. Assessing Community Coalition Capacity and its Association with Underage Drinking Prevention Effectiveness in the Context of the SPF SIG.

    PubMed

    Flewelling, Robert L; Hanley, Sean M

    2016-10-01

    Community coalitions are a prominent organizational structure through which community-based substance abuse prevention efforts are implemented. There is little empirical evidence, however, regarding the association between coalition attributes and success in achieving community-level reductions in substance abuse behaviors. In this study, we assessed the relationship between coalition capacity, based on coalition coordinator responses to 16 survey items, and reductions in underage drinking prevalence rates. The coalitions were funded through the federally sponsored Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant (SPF SIG). We first examined whether coalition capacity increased over the life of the projects. Mean capacity scores increased for all 16 capacity items examined (N = 318 coalitions), the majority of which were statistically significant. Analysis of the associations between capacity and reductions in underage drinking was limited to coalitions that targeted underage drinking and provided usable outcome measures based on student survey data for either past 30-day alcohol use (N = 129) or binge drinking (N = 100). Bivariate associations between the capacity items and prevalence reductions for each outcome were consistently positive, although many were not statistically significant. Composite measures of correlated items were then created to represent six different capacity constructs, and included in multivariate models to predict reductions in the targeted outcomes. Constructs that significantly predicted reductions in one or both outcome measures included internal organization and structure, community connections and outreach, and funding from multiple sources. The findings provide support for the expectation that high functioning community coalitions can be effective agents for producing desirable community-level changes in targeted substance abuse behaviors.

  3. A functional connection between pRB and transforming growth factor beta in growth inhibition and mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Francis, Sarah M; Bergsied, Jacqueline; Isaac, Christian E; Coschi, Courtney H; Martens, Alison L; Hojilla, Carlo V; Chakrabarti, Subrata; Dimattia, Gabriel E; Khoka, Rama; Wang, Jean Y J; Dick, Frederick A

    2009-08-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a crucial mediator of breast development, and loss of TGF-beta-induced growth arrest is a hallmark of breast cancer. TGF-beta has been shown to inhibit cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity, which leads to the accumulation of hypophosphorylated pRB. However, unlike other components of TGF-beta cytostatic signaling, pRB is thought to be dispensable for mammary development. Using gene-targeted mice carrying subtle missense changes in pRB (Rb1(DeltaL) and Rb1(NF)), we have discovered that pRB plays a critical role in mammary gland development. In particular, Rb1 mutant female mice have hyperplastic mammary epithelium and defects in nursing due to insensitivity to TGF-beta growth inhibition. In contrast with previous studies that highlighted the inhibition of cyclin/CDK activity by TGF-beta signaling, our experiments revealed that active transcriptional repression of E2F target genes by pRB downstream of CDKs is also a key component of TGF-beta cytostatic signaling. Taken together, our work demonstrates a unique functional connection between pRB and TGF-beta in growth control and mammary gland development.

  4. International Coalition for GeoInformatics" (iGeoInfo): Its origins, purpose, and future direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, R.

    2005-12-01

    The International Coalition for GeoInformatics" (iGeoInfo.org) was formed as an outgrowth of an inaugural workshop (attended by 35 scientists and 20 representatives of European, North American and Chinese funding organizations) held to launch a global forum on sedimentary geology and paleobiology at the 32nd International Geological Congress in Florence, Italy. A subsequent special session on geoinformatics was held at the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union (EGU) meeting in Vienna in April of 2005. iGeoInfo was founded to help build an international community that works together to promote data acquisition and sharing, to optimize IT concepts, to advance and advocate for geoinformatics in general, and to formulate a more coordinated approach to international funding agencies. What are the challenges confronting iGeoInfo and other internationally directed geoinformatics organizations? The main ones are the political, cultural, organizational, and technical diversity of the global science community that must be addressed to achieve a truly global cyberinfrastructure for the Geosciences. Thus, the international communities must work together for the development, management and deployment of these data and products. A key point is that no single group or institution can do all of this in terms of physical or intellectual capacity. Furthermore, this is by nature a real community effort - real in the sense that a very large proportion of the community will be actively involved. With everything in place, GeoInformatics through iGeoInfo can become an engine to help drive the next generation of science.

  5. Physical Growth and Development: From Conception to Maturity. A Programmed Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valadian, Isabelle; Porter, Douglas

    In 16 self-contained units, this programmed text explores those aspects of growth and development that form the basis of child health care. The text is designed for a wide audience--students beginning their study of growth and development, health-related and social service personnel, medical students, and physicians. The first two units cover…

  6. Growth and development of skeletal muscle in mu-calpain knockout mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The calpain system has been identified as a potential candidate in muscle growth and development due to its role in a variety of cellular processes such as cytoskeletal remodeling and myogenesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate growth and development of skeletal muscle in mu-calpain kno...

  7. Academic Enhancement through Planned Leadership Growth and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Susan; Bell, Lloyd

    This document describes the Experiential Leadership Development (ExLD) Program, a program designed to emphasize leadership and interpersonal skill development for undergraduate students. The program offers a comprehensive program of leadership and interpersonal skill development through academic coursework, leadership seminars, and practical…

  8. Mentoring as Professional Development: "Growth for Both" Mentor and Mentee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Teachers need professional development to keep current with teaching practices, although costs for extensive professional development can be prohibitive across an education system. Mentoring provides one way for embedding cost-effective professional development. This mixed-method study includes surveying mentor teachers ("n" = 101) on a…

  9. Development of neural crest cells expressing nerve growth factor receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The present study examines the ontogeny of the nerve growth factor receptor of neural crest cells in vitro and the phenotypic nature of the neural crest cells expressing this receptor. /sup 125/I-NGF binding assays and autoradiographic and immunofluorescence techniques have demonstrated the presence of a subpopulation of quail neural crest cells that express specific NGF receptors after 3-4 days in vitro. This subpopulations represents approximately 28% of the cells in 5-day primary cultures and 30-35% of the cells in secondary cultures; these cells generally exhibited a flattened, phase-dark morphology. Approximately one-third of these cells also labeled with a 2 hr pulse of /sup 3/H thymidine. Catecholamine-containing neural crest cells generally lacked NGF receptors. NGF receptor-positive cells also failed to demonstrate somatostatin-, neuron-specific enolase-, or S-100-like immunoreactivity. Melanocytes do not appear to express NGF receptors. Exogenous nerve growth factor did not influence the morphology or mitotic status of the cells in culture.

  10. Recovery, growth and development of Macroorchis spinulosus in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Ho-Chun; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2003-01-01

    The developmental features, growth and organogenesis of Macroorchis spinulosus were observed in albino rats. Globular and thick walled metacercariae, possessed a stylet, Y-shaped excretory bladder and extracecal testes. In albino rats, M. spinulosus showed habitat shifting. The majority of M. spinulosus reside in the jejunum for the first four days post infection (p.i.) and migrate to the duodenum at the later stage of infection. M. spinulosus grew rapidly during the first four days and reached full maturity at 14 days p.i. and later reduced in size. The ovary was separated from the genital primodium at one day p.i. The seminal vesicle appeared on the third day and divided into two sacs on the fourth day p.i. and intrauterine eggs and sperm mass were produced on the fourth day. Organogenesis and enlargement of reproductive organs governed the growth of M. spinulosus. The similarity of related species of the genus Macroorchis to M. spinulosus was discussed in consideration to developmental features. PMID:12666727

  11. Patterns of fluctuating asymmetry in developing primary feathers: a test of the compensational growth hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Aparicio, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    The study of asymmetry ontogeny may reveal the mechanisms controlling the development of bilaterally symmetrical characters and the causes of asymmetry. In birds, flight feather asymmetries appear to increase at the beginning of growth and decrease at the end of their development. It has been proposed that such a pattern could be proximately caused by a developmental mechanism of compensational growth between the left and right wings, which should act to restore trait symmetry at the end of growth. In this study, I tested the hypothesis of the existence of a mechanism of compensational growth by performing an experiment, which consisted of provoking small asymmetries in the seventh primary feathers of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) by inducing the two feathers (one each side) to moult two days apart. On each side, the feathers grew in a similar way, independently of the growth of the other side. Feather length asymmetries were shortened with the advance of growth. However, the differences in time of growth persisted throughout development. These results do not support the existence of a mechanism of compensational growth. Primary feathers' asymmetries could decrease at the end of growth because the growth of the two feathers follows a programmed trajectory, which tends towards a certain maximum potential size.

  12. Megakaryocyte growth and development factor is a potent growth factor for primitive hematopoietic progenitors in the human fetus.

    PubMed

    Muench, Marcus O; Bárcena, Alicia

    2004-06-01

    Megakaryocyte growth and development factor (MGDF), or thrombopoietin, has received considerable attention as a therapeutic agent for treating thrombocytopenia or for its use in the ex vivo culture of hematopoietic stem cells. MGDF is known to support the growth of a broad spectrum of hematopoietic precursors obtained from adult or neonatal tissues, but its effects on the growth of fetal progenitors and stem cells has not been studied. Human CD38(+)CD34(2+) progenitors and CD38(-)CD34(2+) cells, a population that contains stem cells, were isolated from midgestation liver and grown under defined conditions with MGDF and various cytokines known to support the growth of primitive hematopoietic precursors. In clonal assays of colony-forming cells (CFCs), MGDF supported the growth of 15-25% of candidate stem cells when combined with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), flk-2/flt3 ligand, or stem cell factor. MGDF was observed to strongly support the early stages of hematopoiesis and expansion of high proliferative potential CFCs. More mature progenitors were expanded nearly 78-fold in 1 wk of culture with MGDF+SCF+GM-CSF. MGDF alone was also found to support the short-term (2 d) survival of CD38(-)CD34(2+) high proliferative potential CFCs. The effects of MGDF were more modest on CD38(+)CD34(2+) progenitors with only additive increases in colony formation being observed. These findings suggest that MGDF administration in fetuses and neonates may strongly affect the growth and mobilization of primitive hematopoietic progenitors and that MGDF may find use in the ex vivo growth and expansion of fetal stem cells.

  13. Epidermal Growth Factor-Like Growth Factors in the Follicular Fluid: Role in Oocyte Development and Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Minnie; Zamah, A. Musa; Conti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The growth and maturation of the ovarian follicle requires the coordinate function of somatic cells and the oocyte. Over the past three decades, numerous growth factors involved in the bidirectional signals between the somatic and germ cells have been identified. A possible function of epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling at selected stages of follicle maturation had been proposed early on and is supported by many observations of in vitro effects of this growth factor on steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation, and cumulus expansion. However, attempts to link EGF levels in the follicular fluid with the state of follicle and oocyte maturation have been inconclusive. More recently, data generated using mouse genetic models perturbing ovulation and fertility indicate that EGF-like growth factors, rather than EGF itself, accumulate in the follicle at the time of ovulation. EGF-like growth factor mRNA is regulated by the luteinizing hormone surge, and corresponding proteins are detected in the follicle. The EGF-like growth factors amphiregulin, epiregulin, and betacellulin are potent stimulators of oocyte maturation and cumulus expansion, and perturbation of this EGF network in vivo impairs ovulation. Similar findings in species other than the mouse confirm an important physiological role for this network at the time of ovulation. Whether this network also plays a critical role in humans and whether it can be used as a biological marker of follicle development or for the improvement of fertility remains to be determined. This review summarizes the most recent findings on the EGF network during ovulation and the potential clinical applications of manipulating this intercellular communication pathway in the control of fertility. PMID:19197805

  14. Power and uneven globalization: Coalitions and energy trade dependence in the newly independent states of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linden, Corina Herron

    2000-10-01

    The economies of the European former Soviet Union were dependent upon energy subsidies in the form of virtually free oil and natural gas imports from Russia, the loss of which implied dramatic shocks to domestic production structures, and the maintenance of which implied continued policy concessions to Russia. Yet some of these states actively pursued integration into the global economy while others sought to maintain the shelter of domestic markets and Russian energy subsidies. While the economic costs of openness and restructuring would be high in all cases in the short term, it is the political costs of openness and restructuring that determine the policy of the state. Where the high costs of restructuring are borne by a politically disenfranchised group, a consensus coalition can emerge in favor of rapid restructuring and energy reorientation. Where the benefits of the status quo accrue to a well-organized coalition closely allied with the state, a consensus coalition emerges in favor of maintenance of energy subsidies from and political relationship with Russia. Where the costs of restructuring are borne broadly or by a well-organized minority group, power oscillation and fragmentation will lead to inconsistent policy and slow progress toward energy reorientation and reform. Integrating a state-in-society approach to coalition formation within the field of international political economy, the author argues that states dominated by globalist-liberalizing-nationalist coalitions were able to implement energy trade reorientation by politically disenfranchising the ethnic minorities who populated the sector most vulnerable to energy contraction, heavy industry. These "globalizers," Estonia and Latvia, bore the high costs of restructuring industries and importing energy at world prices. Belarus, dominated by pro-Moscow-statist-leftist coalitions, sought to preserve energy subsidies through political and economic reintegration with Russia. States ruled by divided

  15. Growth plate stress distribution implications during bone development: a simple framework computational approach.

    PubMed

    Guevara, J M; Moncayo, M A; Vaca-González, J J; Gutiérrez, M L; Barrera, L A; Garzón-Alvarado, D A

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical stimuli play a significant role in the process of long bone development as evidenced by clinical observations and in vivo studies. Up to now approaches to understand stimuli characteristics have been limited to the first stages of epiphyseal development. Furthermore, growth plate mechanical behavior has not been widely studied. In order to better understand mechanical influences on bone growth, we used Carter and Wong biomechanical approximation to analyze growth plate mechanical behavior, and explore stress patterns for different morphological stages of the growth plate. To the best of our knowledge this work is the first attempt to study stress distribution on growth plate during different possible stages of bone development, from gestation to adolescence. Stress distribution analysis on the epiphysis and growth plate was performed using axisymmetric (3D) finite element analysis in a simplified generic epiphyseal geometry using a linear elastic model as the first approximation. We took into account different growth plate locations, morphologies and widths, as well as different epiphyseal developmental stages. We found stress distribution during bone development established osteogenic index patterns that seem to influence locally epiphyseal structures growth and coincide with growth plate histological arrangement.

  16. Development of optical systems. [holographic technique for monitoring crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vikram, Chandra S.

    1995-01-01

    Several key aspects of multi-color holography and laser speckle technique to study holographic reconstructions are considered in the report. Holographic fringe contrast in two-color holography in the presence of a fluid cell in the object beam is discussed in detail. A specific example of triglycine sulfate crystal growth is also considered. A breadboard design using fiber optics and diode lasers for three-color holography for fluid experiments is presented. A possible role of multi-color holography in various new applications is summarized. Finally, the use of a a laser speckle technique is demonstrated for the study of holographic reconstructions. The demonstration is performed using a Spacelab 3 hologram.

  17. Developments in Characterizing Capture Zone Distributions in Island Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einstein, T. L.; Pimpinelli, Alberto; GonzáLez, Diego Luis; Sathiyanarayanan, Rajesh

    2013-03-01

    The utility of using the distribution of capture zones (CZD) to characterize epitaxial growth continues to mount. For non-Poisson deposition (i.e. when island nucleation is not fully random) the areas of these Voronoi cells (proximity polygons) can be well described by the generalized Wigner distribution (GWD), particularly in the central region around the mean area. We discuss several recent applications to experimental systems, showing how this perspective leads to insights about the critical nucleus size. In contrast, several studies have shown that the GWD may not describe the numerical data from painstaking simulations in both tails. We discuss some refinements that have been proposed. Finally, we comment on applications to social phenomena such as area distributions of secondary administrative units (like counties) and of Voronoi cells around Metro stops. Work at UMD supported by NSF-MRSEC Grant DMR 05-20471 and NSF CHE 07-49949

  18. Australian Higher Education: Regional Universities under a Coalition Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    Projected student enrolment growth places the Australian higher education system on the precipice of significant change, leading to philosophical debates about how the system should respond. One suggested policy change is that resources be redirected from non-research intensive regional universities to other providers. The Liberal Party is the…

  19. The Professional Growth Trilogy: Supervision, Evaluation, and Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, William J.

    Guidelines for developing personnel management programs in private-independent schools are provided in this book. Chapter 1 explains the need for a new perspective on personnel evaluation that encompasses three components: supervision, evaluation, and professional development. Chapter 2 outlines the elements of good instruction, and the third…

  20. Development and Application of a Camper Growth Index for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.; Thurber, Christopher A.; Whitaker, Leslie S.; Bialeschki, M. Deborah; Scanlin, Margery M.

    2006-01-01

    Many people believe in the value of outdoor experiential education opportunities such as organized camps for youth, but few instruments have been developed to measure the central youth development outcomes of camp. The purpose of this paper is to present the psychometric properties including the internal consistency and validity of scales designed…

  1. A Quick Study: Child Growth and Development Handbook. SHAPES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Mary Tom

    SHAPES--an acronym for the South Plains Child Care Management Services (SpCCMS) Helping, Assisting and Preparing Educators and Staff--is also the name of a preschool readiness curriculum that is being developed for use by administrators and teachers. The first phase of the curriculum development consists of the publication of five books to be used…

  2. A National Association: Our Growth, Organizational Development and Special Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Charles M.

    The establishment of a unified voice, the development of a learned society, and the democratization of the National Art Education Association's (NAEA) governance are the three most significant changes that have occurred in the development of the NAEA since its establishment in 1947. During NAEA's foundational years, 1947-1958, many important…

  3. Networking expertise: Discursive coalitions and collaborative networks of experts in a public creationism controversy in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Allgaier, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Experts do play a particular role in public socio-scientific debates, even more so if they form heterogeneous coalition with other actors and experts. A case study about a public science education controversy surrounding the teaching of evolution/creationism in the UK press is used to investigate in detail how connections and coalitions between experts and other actors involved in the controversy emerged and played out. The research focuses on the question of what role collaborative and other networks of experts played in terms of influence, visibility, credibility, consensus and weight of argument. Issues that are considered in the research are the status of the members of the coalitions forming during the debate and how it is displayed in media representations and letters and petitions, and also how these networks and coalitions of experts perform in relation to each other. PMID:23045882

  4. Networking expertise: discursive coalitions and collaborative networks of experts in a public creationism controversy in the UK.

    PubMed

    Allgaier, Joachim

    2012-04-01

    Experts do play a particular role in public socio-scientific debates, even more so if they form heterogeneous coalition with other actors and experts. A case study about a public science education controversy surrounding the teaching of evolution/creationism in the UK press is used to investigate in detail how connections and coalitions between experts and other actors involved in the controversy emerged and played out. The research focuses on the question of what role collaborative and other networks of experts played in terms of influence, visibility, credibility, consensus and weight of argument. Issues that are considered in the research are the status of the members of the coalitions forming during the debate and how it is displayed in media representations and letters and petitions, and also how these networks and coalitions of experts perform in relation to each other. PMID:23045882

  5. Transforming Health Care Coalitions From Hospitals to Whole of Community: Lessons Learned From Two Large Health Care Organizations.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Scott; Wargo, Michael; Winslow, Walter

    2015-12-01

    A health care emergency preparedness coalition (coalition) is a group of health care organizations, public safety agencies, and public health partners that join forces for the common cause of making their communities safer, healthier, and more resilient. Coalitions have been characterized as being focused on hospital systems instead of the health care of the community as a whole. We discuss 2 examples of coalition partners that use a more inclusive approach to planning, response, and recovery. The first is a large health care system spread across 23 states, and the other is a public safety agency in northeast Pennsylvania that took the lead to address the preparedness and response toward a large influx of burn patients and grew to encompass all aspects of community health care.

  6. Postnatal growth and development in the preterm and small for gestational age infant.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    A clear relationship exists between undernutrition, poorer growth and poor development in term and preterm infants. However, preterm infants are at greater risk than term infants. Undernutrition is more common and 'programmed' growth rates are almost six times faster. Thus, even short periods of nutritional deprivation may have significant effects. Recent advances have led to an improvement in early growth but very low birthweight infants remain small for gestational age at hospital discharge. Studies suggest that a 'window of opportunity' exists after hospital discharge, in that better growth between discharge and 2-3 months corrected age is paralleled by better development, and poorer growth is associated with poorer development. However, interventions aimed at improving growth and development have yielded varying results. This may partly be related to differences in study design as well as the composition of the nutrient-enriched formulas. Irrespective, one point is concerning, i.e. infant boys appear to be at a developmental disadvantage when fed a term infant formula after discharge. A single study has also suggested that dietary intervention can improve brain growth in term and preterm infants with perinatal brain injury. However, concern has been expressed about rapid 'catch-up' growth in preterm infants and the development of insulin resistance and visceral adiposity. Data from our group do not support the idea of increased or altered adiposity in preterm infants fed a nutrient-enriched formula after hospital discharge.

  7. Physical growth and development of the malnourished child: contributions from 50 years of research at INCAP.

    PubMed

    Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-03-01

    This paper reviews the main findings and policy implications of 50 years (1949-1999) of research conducted by INCAP on growth and development. Topical areas reviewed include a) maternal size and birthweight and the causes of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), b) patterns and causes of postnatal growth retardation, c) the relative importance of genetics and the environment in explaining differences in growth among populations, d) the implications of being small, for both children and adults, e) bone growth and maturation and dental development, f) menarche, and g) methodological contributions such as anthropometric reference data, quality control of data collection, development of risk indicators and use of anthropometry in nutrition surveillance systems. Key contributions to knowledge by INCAP include a) characterization of growth failure and maturational delays as mainly occurring during the intrauterine period and the first 3 years of life b) clarification of the role of small maternal size and of inadequate dietary intakes during pregnancy as major causes of intrauterine growth failure, c) evidence that diarrheal diseases and poor dietary intakes are the principal causes of growth failure in early childhood, d) demonstration that environmental factors related to poverty, and not genetic or racial ancestry, account for most of the differences in growth between populations, e) evidence that growth failure predicts functional impairment in the child as well as in the adult andf) demonstration that nutrition interventions are effective in preventing growth failure and its consequences, if targeted to needy women and young children. INCAP's work has contributed knowledge that has informed and improved policies and programs aimed at overcoming maternal and child undernutrition and promoting optimal growth and development.

  8. Development of compartment for studies on the growth of protein crystals in space.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, T; Tsukamoto, K; Yoshizaki, I; Fukuyama, S; Miura, H; Shimaoka, T; Maki, T; Oshi, K; Kimura, Y

    2016-03-01

    To clarify the growth mechanism of a protein crystal, it is essential to measure its growth rate with respect to the supersaturation. We developed a compartment (growth cell) for measuring the growth rate (<0.1 nm s(-1)) of the face of a protein crystal at a controlled supersaturation by interferometry over a period of half a year in space. The growth cell mainly consists of quartz glass, in which the growth solution and a seed crystal are enclosed by capillaries, the screw sample holder, and a helical insert. To avoid the destruction of the cell and the evaporation of the water from the solution inside the cell, we selected the materials for these components with care. The equipment was successfully used to examine the growth of a lysozyme crystal at a controlled supersaturation in space, where convection is negligible because of the microgravity environment, thereby advancing our understanding of the mechanism of protein crystal growth from solution. The technique used to develop the growth cell is useful not only for space experiments but also for kinetic studies of materials with very slow growth and dissolution rates (<10(-3) nm s(-1)).

  9. Development of compartment for studies on the growth of protein crystals in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, T.; Tsukamoto, K.; Yoshizaki, I.; Fukuyama, S.; Miura, H.; Shimaoka, T.; Maki, T.; Oshi, K.; Kimura, Y.

    2016-03-01

    To clarify the growth mechanism of a protein crystal, it is essential to measure its growth rate with respect to the supersaturation. We developed a compartment (growth cell) for measuring the growth rate (<0.1 nm s-1) of the face of a protein crystal at a controlled supersaturation by interferometry over a period of half a year in space. The growth cell mainly consists of quartz glass, in which the growth solution and a seed crystal are enclosed by capillaries, the screw sample holder, and a helical insert. To avoid the destruction of the cell and the evaporation of the water from the solution inside the cell, we selected the materials for these components with care. The equipment was successfully used to examine the growth of a lysozyme crystal at a controlled supersaturation in space, where convection is negligible because of the microgravity environment, thereby advancing our understanding of the mechanism of protein crystal growth from solution. The technique used to develop the growth cell is useful not only for space experiments but also for kinetic studies of materials with very slow growth and dissolution rates (<10-3 nm s-1).

  10. Development of compartment for studies on the growth of protein crystals in space.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, T; Tsukamoto, K; Yoshizaki, I; Fukuyama, S; Miura, H; Shimaoka, T; Maki, T; Oshi, K; Kimura, Y

    2016-03-01

    To clarify the growth mechanism of a protein crystal, it is essential to measure its growth rate with respect to the supersaturation. We developed a compartment (growth cell) for measuring the growth rate (<0.1 nm s(-1)) of the face of a protein crystal at a controlled supersaturation by interferometry over a period of half a year in space. The growth cell mainly consists of quartz glass, in which the growth solution and a seed crystal are enclosed by capillaries, the screw sample holder, and a helical insert. To avoid the destruction of the cell and the evaporation of the water from the solution inside the cell, we selected the materials for these components with care. The equipment was successfully used to examine the growth of a lysozyme crystal at a controlled supersaturation in space, where convection is negligible because of the microgravity environment, thereby advancing our understanding of the mechanism of protein crystal growth from solution. The technique used to develop the growth cell is useful not only for space experiments but also for kinetic studies of materials with very slow growth and dissolution rates (<10(-3) nm s(-1)). PMID:27036758

  11. Growth hormone prevents the development of autoimmune diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Villares, Ricardo; Kakabadse, Dimitri; Juarranz, Yasmina; Gomariz, Rosa P.; Martínez-A, Carlos; Mellado, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Evidence supports a relationship between the neuroendocrine and the immune systems. Data from mice that overexpress or are deficient in growth hormone (GH) indicate that GH stimulates T and B-cell proliferation and Ig synthesis, and enhances maturation of myeloid progenitor cells. The effect of GH on autoimmune pathologies has nonetheless been little studied. Using a murine model of type 1 diabetes, a T-cell–mediated autoimmune disease characterized by immune cell infiltration of pancreatic islets and destruction of insulin-producing β-cells, we observed that sustained GH expression reduced prodromal disease symptoms and eliminated progression to overt diabetes. The effect involves several GH-mediated mechanisms; GH altered the cytokine environment, triggered anti-inflammatory macrophage (M2) polarization, maintained activity of the suppressor T-cell population, and limited Th17 cell plasticity. In addition, GH reduced apoptosis and/or increased the proliferative rate of β-cells. These results support a role for GH in immune response regulation and identify a unique target for therapeutic intervention in type 1 diabetes. PMID:24218587

  12. Mechanical Stress Regulation of Plant Growth and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    Growth dynamics analysis was used to determine to what extent the seismic stress induced reduction in photosynthetic productivity in shaken soybeans was due to less photosynthetic surface, and to what extent to lower efficiency of assimulation. Seismic stress reduces shoot transpiration rate 17% and 15% during the first and second 45 minute periods following a given treatment. Shaken plants also had a 36% greater leaf water potential 30 minutes after treatment. Continuous measurement of whole plant photosynthetic rate shows that a decline in CO2 fixation began within seconds after the onset of shaking treatment and continued to decline to 16% less than that of controls 20 minutes after shaking, after which gradual recovery of photosynthesis begins. Photosynthetic assimilation recovered completely before the next treatment 5 hours later. The transitory decrease in photosynthetic rate was due entirely to a two fold increase in stomatal resistance to CO2 by the abaxial leaf surface. Mesophyll resistance was not significantly affected by periodic seismic treatment. Temporary stomatal aperture reduction and decreased CO2 fixation are responsible for the lower dry weight of seismic stressed plants growing in a controlled environment.

  13. Nerve growth factor: role in growth, differentiation and controlling cancer cell development.

    PubMed

    Aloe, Luigi; Rocco, Maria Luisa; Balzamino, Bijorn Omar; Micera, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in the Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) research has shown that this factor acts not only outside its classical domain of the peripheral and central nervous system, but also on non-neuronal and cancer cells. This latter observation has led to divergent hypothesis about the role of NGF, its specific distribution pattern within the tissues and its implication in induction as well as progression of carcinogenesis. Moreover, other recent studies have shown that NGF has direct clinical relevance in certain human brain neuron degeneration and a number of human ocular disorders. These studies, by suggesting that NGF is involved in a plethora of physiological function in health and disease, warrant further investigation regarding the true role of NGF in carcinogenesis. Based on our long-lasting experience in the physiopathology of NGF, we aimed to review previous and recent in vivo and in vitro NGF studies on tumor cell induction, progression and arrest. Overall, these studies indicate that the only presence of NGF is unable to generate cell carcinogenesis, both in normal neuronal and non-neuronal cells/tissues. However, it cannot be excluded the possibility that the co-expression of NGF and pro-carcinogenic molecules might open to different consequence. Whether NGF plays a direct or an indirect role in cell proliferation during carcinogenesis remains to demonstrate. PMID:27439311

  14. Expression of fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) in murine tooth development.

    PubMed

    Porntaveetus, Thantrira; Otsuka-Tanaka, Yoko; Basson, M Albert; Moon, Anne M; Sharpe, Paul T; Ohazama, Atsushi

    2011-05-01

    Fgf signalling is known to play critical roles in tooth development. Twenty-two Fgf ligands have been identified in mammals, but expression of only 10 in molars and three in the incisor loop stem cell region have been documented in murine tooth development. Our understanding of Fgf signalling in tooth development thus remains incomplete and we therefore carried out comparative in situ hybridisation analysis of unexamined Fgf ligands (eight in molars and 15 in cervical loops of incisors; Fgf11-Fgf14 were excluded from this analysis because they are not secreted and do not activate Fgf receptors) during tooth development. To identify where Fgf signalling is activated, we also examined the expression of Etv4 and Etv5, considered to be transcriptional targets of the Fgf signalling pathway. In molar tooth development, the expression of Fgf15 and Fgf20 was restricted to the primary enamel knots, whereas Etv4 and Etv5 were expressed in cells surrounding the primary enamel knots. Fgf20 expression was observed in the secondary enamel knots, whereas Fgf15 showed localised expression in the adjacent mesenchyme. Fgf16, Etv4 and Etv5 were strongly expressed in the ameloblasts of molars. In the incisor cervical loop stem cell region, Fgf17, Fgf18, Etv4 and Etv5 showed a restricted expression pattern. These molecules thus show dynamic temporo-spatial expression in murine tooth development. We also analysed teeth in Fgf15(-/-) and Fgf15(-/-) ;Fgf8(+/-) mutant mice. Neither mutant showed significant abnormalities in tooth development, indicating likely functional redundancy.

  15. Implementing change in health professions education: stakeholder analysis and coalition building.

    PubMed

    Baum, Karyn D; Resnik, Cheryl D; Wu, Jennifer J; Roey, Steven C

    2007-01-01

    The challenges facing the health sciences education fields are more evident than ever. Professional health sciences educators have more demands on their time, more knowledge to manage, and ever-dwindling sources of financial support. Change is often necessary to either keep programs viable or meet the changing needs of health education. This article outlines a simple but powerful three-step tool to help educators become successful agents of change. Through the application of principles well known and widely used in business management, readers will understand the concepts behind stakeholder analysis and coalition building. These concepts are part of a powerful tool kit that educators need in order to become effective agents of change in the health sciences environment. Using the example of curriculum change at a school of veterinary medicine, we will outline the three steps involved, from stakeholder identification and analysis to building and managing coalitions for change.

  16. The distribution of individual cabinet positions in coalition governments: A sequential approach

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Thomas M.; Müller, Wolfgang C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Multiparty government in parliamentary democracies entails bargaining over the payoffs of government participation, in particular the allocation of cabinet positions. While most of the literature deals with the numerical distribution of cabinet seats among government parties, this article explores the distribution of individual portfolios. It argues that coalition negotiations are sequential choice processes that begin with the allocation of those portfolios most important to the bargaining parties. This induces conditionality in the bargaining process as choices of individual cabinet positions are not independent of each other. Linking this sequential logic with party preferences for individual cabinet positions, the authors of the article study the allocation of individual portfolios for 146 coalition governments in Western and Central Eastern Europe. The results suggest that a sequential logic in the bargaining process results in better predictions than assuming mutual independence in the distribution of individual portfolios. PMID:27546952

  17. Implementing change in health professions education: stakeholder analysis and coalition building.

    PubMed

    Baum, Karyn D; Resnik, Cheryl D; Wu, Jennifer J; Roey, Steven C

    2007-01-01

    The challenges facing the health sciences education fields are more evident than ever. Professional health sciences educators have more demands on their time, more knowledge to manage, and ever-dwindling sources of financial support. Change is often necessary to either keep programs viable or meet the changing needs of health education. This article outlines a simple but powerful three-step tool to help educators become successful agents of change. Through the application of principles well known and widely used in business management, readers will understand the concepts behind stakeholder analysis and coalition building. These concepts are part of a powerful tool kit that educators need in order to become effective agents of change in the health sciences environment. Using the example of curriculum change at a school of veterinary medicine, we will outline the three steps involved, from stakeholder identification and analysis to building and managing coalitions for change. PMID:17446631

  18. Growth and development issues in adolescents with ostomies: a primer for the WOC nurses.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Lynn D

    2012-01-01

    Caring for the adolescent (13-18 years of age) with an ostomy presents multiple challenges. The purpose of this article is to provide strategies to assist the WOC nurse in minimizing the potential impact on growth and development for this age group with an ostomy. This is relevant to the WOC nurse since it is estimated that between 6% and 14% of all adolescents have symptoms of irritable bowel disease, and many will require an ostomy. Thus the WOC nurse will be called upon to provide care to this age group. This article discusses normal adolescent growth and development and provides strategies to support the normal growth and development.

  19. Development and Growth of the Normal Cranial Vault : An Embryologic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sung-Won; Kim, Sang-Dae

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the development of a skull deformity requires an understanding of the normal morphogenesis of the cranium. Craniosynostosis is the premature, pathologic ossification of one or more cranial sutures leading to skull deformities. A review of the English medical literature using textbooks and standard search engines was performed to gather information about the prenatal development and growth of the cranial vault of the neurocranium. A process of morphogenic sequencing begins during prenatal development and growth, continues postnatally, and contributes to the basis for the differential manner of growth of cranial vault bones. This improved knowledge might facilitate comprehension of the pathophysiology of craniosynostosis. PMID:27226848

  20. Reducing diabetes health disparities through community-based participatory action research: the Chicago Southeast Diabetes Community Action Coalition.

    PubMed

    Giachello, Aida L; Arrom, Jose O; Davis, Margaret; Sayad, Judith V; Ramirez, Dinah; Nandi, Chandana; Ramos, Catalina

    2003-01-01

    To address disproportionately high rates of diabetes morbidity and mortality in some of Chicago's medically underserved minority neighborhoods, a group of community residents, medical and social service providers, and a local university founded the Chicago Southeast Diabetes Community Action Coalition, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention REACH 2010 Initiative. A community-based participatory action research model guided coalition activities from conceptualization through implementation. Capacity building activities included training on: diabetes, coalition building, research methods, and action planning. Other activities sought to increase coalition members' understanding of the social causes and potential solutions for health disparities related to diabetes. Trained coalition members conducted epidemiologic analyses, focus groups, a telephone survey, and a community inventory. All coalition members participated in decisions. The participatory process led to increased awareness of the complexities of diabetes in the community and to a state of readiness for social action. Data documented disparities in diabetes. The participatory action research approach (a) encouraged key stakeholders outside of the health care sector to participate (e.g., business sector, church groups); (b) permitted an examination of the sociopolitical context affecting the health of the community; (c) provided an opportunity to focus on preventing the onset of diabetes and its complications; (d) increased understanding of the importance of community research in catalyzing social action aimed at community and systems change and change among change agents.

  1. Reducing diabetes health disparities through community-based participatory action research: the Chicago Southeast Diabetes Community Action Coalition.

    PubMed Central

    Giachello, Aida L.; Arrom, Jose O.; Davis, Margaret; Sayad, Judith V.; Ramirez, Dinah; Nandi, Chandana; Ramos, Catalina

    2003-01-01

    To address disproportionately high rates of diabetes morbidity and mortality in some of Chicago's medically underserved minority neighborhoods, a group of community residents, medical and social service providers, and a local university founded the Chicago Southeast Diabetes Community Action Coalition, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention REACH 2010 Initiative. A community-based participatory action research model guided coalition activities from conceptualization through implementation. Capacity building activities included training on: diabetes, coalition building, research methods, and action planning. Other activities sought to increase coalition members' understanding of the social causes and potential solutions for health disparities related to diabetes. Trained coalition members conducted epidemiologic analyses, focus groups, a telephone survey, and a community inventory. All coalition members participated in decisions. The participatory process led to increased awareness of the complexities of diabetes in the community and to a state of readiness for social action. Data documented disparities in diabetes. The participatory action research approach (a) encouraged key stakeholders outside of the health care sector to participate (e.g., business sector, church groups); (b) permitted an examination of the sociopolitical context affecting the health of the community; (c) provided an opportunity to focus on preventing the onset of diabetes and its complications; (d) increased understanding of the importance of community research in catalyzing social action aimed at community and systems change and change among change agents. PMID:12815078

  2. Predictors of Morphosyntactic Growth in Typically Developing Toddlers: Contributions of Parent Input and Child Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Pamela A.; Rispoli, Matthew; Fitzgerald, Colleen; Bahnsen, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Theories of morphosyntactic development must account for between-child differences in morphosyntactic growth rates. This study extends Legate and Yang's (2007) theoretically motivated cross-linguistic approach to determine if variation in properties of parent input accounts for differences in the growth of tense productivity. Method:…

  3. Development Planning and Population Growth and Redistribution in the Republic of Iraq.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Attar, M. E.; Salman, A. D.

    Utilizing the 1947, 1957, and l965 census data and the 1970 preliminary population count, the relationship between population growth and redistribution and development planning in Iraq was examined. Trends in rural-urban population growth, migration, and population redistribution were examined as they pertained to the socioeconomic development…

  4. Fetal dexamethasone exposure accelerates development of renal function: relationship to dose, cell differentiation and growth inhibition.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, T A; Seidler, F J; Kavlock, R J; Gray, J A

    1992-02-01

    Fetal exposure to high doses of glucocorticoids slows cellular development and impairs organ performance, in association with growth retardation. Nevertheless, low doses of glucocorticoids may enhance cell differentiation and accelerate specific functions. The current study examined this apparent paradox in the developing rat kidney, using doses of dexamethasone that span the threshold for growth impairment: 0.05 or 0.2 mg/kg given on gestational days 17, 18 and 19. At the lower dose, which did not significantly retard body growth, the postnatal development of tubular reabsorptive capabilities for sodium, potassium, osmotic particles, water and urea was accelerated. These effects were less notable at the higher dose, which caused initial body growth impairment. The selectivity toward promotion of tubular function was evidenced by the absence of effect of either dose of dexamethasone on development of glomerular filtration rate. Because of the wide spectrum of dexamethasone's effects on tubular function, we also assessed fetal kidney adenylate cyclase as a means of detecting altered cell differentiation in the prenatal period during which dexamethasone was given. Either glucocorticoid dose increased the total adenylate cyclase catalytic activity (assessed with forskolin). Thus, the net effect of fetal dexamethasone exposure on development of renal excretory capabilities probably represents the summation of promoted cell differentiation and slowed development consequent to growth retardation. At low dose levels, the former effect predominates, leading to enhanced functional development, whereas higher doses that interfere with general growth and development can offset the direct promotional effect.

  5. Professional Development Schools in Massachusetts: Maintenance and Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Barbara; Boris-Schacter, Sheryl

    This report focuses on three professional development school (PDS) programs in Massachusetts. The PDS collaborative programs involve the following partners: East Longmeadow High School and University of Massachusetts at Amherst; Devotion School (Brookline) and Wheelock College; and Coolidge Elementary School (Shrewsbury) and Anna Maria College.…

  6. Beyond Brain Growth: Other Factors Affecting Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefanich, Greg; Aldridge, Mary Nan

    The intellectual model of Jean Piaget asserts that individuals pass through a series of various intellectual stages as they mature. Human development is categorized into four basic stages: (1) sensory motor stage, which lasts from birth to about eighteen months; (2) preoperational stage, lasting from eighteen months to about seven years; (3)…

  7. Growth and development profile of Indian children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koshy, Beena; Navamani, Kirubakaran; Oommen, Samuel Philip; Srivastava, Vivi M

    2012-08-01

    In this retrospective study, we describe the profile of 88 children with Down syndrome. The average BMI for children showed a progressive increase with age. Compared to the previously published development profile, there was a significant improvement in the language domain.

  8. Some Growth Points in African Child Development Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots.…

  9. Helping Teachers Learn: Principal Leadership for Adult Growth and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drago-Severson, Eleanor

    2004-01-01

    How can a principal create opportunities for teacher learning that really work to support teachers with different needs and preferences? There is wide agreement that the best teacher development is informal, diverse, democratic, school-based, and continuous. The best programs ignite and sustain teachers' excitement in learning, growing, and…

  10. Redefining Individual Growth and Development Indicators: Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wackerle-Hollman, Alisha K.; Schmitt, Braden A.; Bradfield, Tracy A.; Rodriguez, Michael C.; McConnell, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Learning to read is one of the most important indicators of academic achievement. The development of early literacy skills during the preschool years is associated with improved reading outcomes in later grades. One of these skill areas, phonological awareness, shows particular importance because of its strong link to later reading success.…

  11. Financing Secondary Education in Developing Countries: Strategies for Sustainable Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Keith; Caillods, Francoise

    This book explores the problems and issues of secondary-school financing in developing countries. It outlines the rationale for expanding secondary education, investigates under what conditions it might be possible to do so at sustainable cost levels, presents case studies of secondary-school financing, and offers policy recommendations. The first…

  12. Understanding Youth Development: Promoting Positive Pathways of Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A conceptual model for understanding youth development is provided and the processes that enhance the adolescent experience and promote successful transition from childhood to adulthood are identified. Intended as a guide for professionals constructing and implementing policies and programs, the model is based on the proposition that development…

  13. Temperature extremes: Effect on plant growth and development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature is a primary factor affecting the rate of plant development. Warmer temperatures expected with climate change and the potential for more extreme temperature events will further impact plant productivity. Pollination is one of the most sensitive phenological stages to temperature extremes...

  14. Evolution of Growth in the Development of Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierschenk, Bernhard; Bierschenk, Inger

    This article presents the third study of a series that has been designed to manifest consciousness and to measure developed competence. The emphasis of the main hypothesis of this experiment has been put on the students ability to adapt to the main idea of a given story and to express his comprehension verbally. The way the two students of the…

  15. Social--Population Growth Rate Learning Module. Development Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This learning module has two main goals: (1) to increase students' knowledge and understanding of the often complex relationship between sustainable development and the social, economic, and environmental conditions in a country; and (2) to strengthen students' abilities to perform statistical calculations, make and interpret maps, charts, and…

  16. Large area sheet task. Advanced dendritic web growth development. [silicon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hopkins, R. H.; Meier, D.; Frantti, E.; Schruben, J.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a silicon dendritic web growth machine is discussed. Several refinements to the sensing and control equipment for melt replenishment during web growth are described and several areas for cost reduction in the components of the prototype automated web growth furnace are identified. A circuit designed to eliminate the sensitivity of the detector signal to the intensity of the reflected laser beam used to measure melt level is also described. A variable speed motor for the silicon feeder is discussed which allows pellet feeding to be accomplished at a rate programmed to match exactly the silicon removed by web growth.

  17. Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea, Cactaceae) age-height relationships and growth: the development of a general growth curve.

    PubMed

    Drezner, Taly Dawn

    2003-06-01

    Because the growth rate of saguaros varies across different environments, past studies on saguaro population structure required extensive data collection (often over many decades) followed by site-specific analysis to estimate age at the sampled locale. However, when height-growth data from different populations are compared, the overall shape of the growth curves is similar. In this study, a formula was developed to establish saguaro age-height relationships (using stepwise regression) that can be applied to any saguaro population and only requires a site-specific factor to adjust the curve to the local growth rate. This adjustment factor can be established more efficiently and requires less data than the full analyses required for previous studies. Saguaro National Park East (SNP-E) was used as the baseline factor, set to 1.0. Results yielded a factor of 0.743 for SNP West. When the formula was applied to 10-yr interval data from Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (OPCNM) in Arizona, USA, this location had a factor of 0.617 (relative to SNP-E). With this formula and relatively little field sampling, the age of any individual saguaro (whether the individual was sampled or not) in any population can be estimated. PMID:21659186

  18. Coalition for a Healthier Community: Lessons learned and implications for future work.

    PubMed

    Khare, Manorama M; Núñez, Ana E; James, Barbara F

    2015-08-01

    The Coalition for a Healthier Community (CHC) initiative was implemented to improve the health and well-being of women and girls. Underpinning CHC is a gender-based focus that uses a network of community partners working collaboratively to generate relevant behavior change and improved health outcomes. Ten programs are trying to determine whether gender-focused system approaches are cost-effective ways to address health disparities in women and girls. Programs implemented through coalitions made up of academic institutions, public health departments, community-based organizations, and local, regional, and national organizations, are addressing health issues such as domestic violence, cardiovascular disease prevention, physical activity, and healthy eating. Although these programs are ongoing, they have made significant progress. Key factors contributing to their early success include a comprehensive needs assessment, robust coalitions, the diversity of populations targeted, programs based on findings of the needs assessments, evaluations taking into consideration the effect of gender, and strong academic-community partnerships. A noteworthy impact of these programs has been their ability to shape and impact public, social, and health policies at the state and local levels. However, there have been challenges associated with the implementation of such a complex program. Lessons learned are discussed in this paper. PMID:25703608

  19. Policy and system change and community coalitions: outcomes from allies against asthma.

    PubMed

    Clark, Noreen M; Lachance, Laurie; Doctor, Linda Jo; Gilmore, Lisa; Kelly, Cindy; Krieger, James; Lara, Marielena; Meurer, John; Milanovich, Amy Friedman; Nicholas, Elisa; Rosenthal, Michael; Stoll, Shelley C; Wilkin, Margaret

    2014-10-01

    Objectives. We assessed policy and system changes and health outcomes produced by the Allies Against Asthma program, a 5-year collaborative effort by 7 community coalitions to address childhood asthma. We also explored associations between community engagement and outcomes. Methods. We interviewed a sample of 1,477 parents of children with asthma in coalition target areas and comparison areas at baseline and 1 year to assess quality-of-life and symptom changes. An extensive tracking and documentation procedure and a survey of 284 participating individuals and organizations were used to ascertain policy and system changes and community engagement levels. Results. A total of 89 policy and system changes were achieved, ranging from changes in interinstitutional and intrainstitutional practices to statewide legislation. Allies children experienced fewer daytime (P = .008) and nighttime (P = .004) asthma symptoms than comparison children. In addition, Allies parents felt less helpless, frightened, and angry (P = .01) about their child's asthma. Type of community engagement was associated with number of policy and system changes. Conclusions. Community coalitions can successfully achieve asthma policy and system changes and improve health outcomes. Increased core and ongoing community stakeholder participation rather than a higher overall number of participants was associated with more change.

  20. Advocacy coalitions and pharmacy policy in Denmark--solid cores with fuzzy edges.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jakob Bjerg; Vrangbaek, Karsten; Traulsen, Janine M

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the results from a qualitative study in which the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) was used to analyze deregulation of the distribution of medicine in Denmark in October 2001. The study is based on qualitative methods, and it examines the policy process between 1996 and 2001. Data sources were documents and qualitative interviews. The results show that minor modifications of the ACF are needed to make it fully applicable to the case of pharmacy policy, especially when the policy process proceeds in a predominantly corporatist state. We found that the policy process was framed by two coalitions advocating different belief systems. One coalition wanted the pharmacy sector to be controlled by the state, the other wanted a full-scale liberalization. Throughout the process there was a general shift in policy core beliefs among the actors involved--moving from positively disposed towards a market-oriented reform to being more negatively disposed towards such a reform. We argue that two factors contributed to this. First, as the discussions about a reform became more specific, technical matters began to influence the actors. Second, the legitimacy of a solution which did not alter the regulation of the pharmacy sector radically, was reinforced by institutionalized norms that made politicians take onboard pharmacy professionals' concerns.