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Sample records for growth factor heparin

  1. Synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOEpatents

    Pena, Louis A.; Zamora, Paul; Lin, Xinhua; Glass, John D.

    2007-01-23

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain that binds a heparin-binding growth factor receptor, covalently bound to a hydrophobic linker, which is in turn covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  2. Dual chain synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOEpatents

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua

    2009-10-06

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having two peptide chains each branched from a branch moiety, such as trifunctional amino acid residues, the branch moieties separated by a first linker of from 3 to about 20 backbone atoms, which peptide chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a second linker, which may be a hydrophobic second linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  3. Dual chain synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOEpatents

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua

    2012-04-24

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having two peptide chains each branched from a branch moiety, such as trifunctional amino acid residues, the branch moieties separated by a first linker of from 3 to about 20 backbone atoms, which peptide chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a second linker, which may be a hydrophobic second linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  4. Polyelectrolyte Complex for Heparin Binding Domain Osteogenic Growth Factor Delivery.

    PubMed

    Wing Moon Lam, Raymond; Abbah, Sunny Akogwu; Ming, Wang; Naidu, Mathanapriya; Ng, Felly; Tao, Hu; Goh Cho Hong, James; Ting, Kang; Hee Kit, Wong

    2016-01-01

    During reconstructive bone surgeries, supraphysiological amounts of growth factors are empirically loaded onto scaffolds to promote successful bone fusion. Large doses of highly potent biological agents are required due to growth factor instability as a result of rapid enzymatic degradation as well as carrier inefficiencies in localizing sufficient amounts of growth factor at implant sites. Hence, strategies that prolong the stability of growth factors such as BMP-2/NELL-1, and control their release could actually lower their efficacious dose and thus reduce the need for larger doses during future bone regeneration surgeries. This in turn will reduce side effects and growth factor costs. Self-assembled PECs have been fabricated to provide better control of BMP-2/NELL-1 delivery via heparin binding and further potentiate growth factor bioactivity by enhancing in vivo stability. Here we illustrate the simplicity of PEC fabrication which aids in the delivery of a variety of growth factors during reconstructive bone surgeries. PMID:27585207

  5. Growth factors with heparin binding affinity in human synovial fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Hamerman, D.; Taylor, S.; Kirschenbaum, I.; Klagsbrun, M.; Raines, E.W.; Ross, R.; Thomas, K.A.

    1987-12-01

    Synovial effusions were obtained from the knees of 15 subjects with joint trauma, menisceal or ligamentous injury, or osteoarthritis. Heparin-Sepharose affinity chromatography of these synovial fluids revealed, in general, three major peaks of mitogenic activity as measured by incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine into 3T3 cells. Gradient elution patterns showed activities at 0.5M NaCl, which is characteristic of platelet derived growth factor, and at 1.1 M NaCl and 1.6M NaCl, indicative of acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors, respectively. The identities of these mitogenic fractions were confirmed by specific immunologic and receptor-binding assays. The presence of platelet derived, acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors in the synovial fluid may contribute to wound healing in the arthritic joint.

  6. The activation of fibroblast growth factors by heparin: synthesis, structure, and biological activity of heparin-like oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    de Paz, J L; Angulo, J; Lassaletta, J M; Nieto, P M; Redondo-Horcajo, M; Lozano, R M; Giménez-Gallego, G; Martín-Lomas, M

    2001-09-01

    An effective strategy has been designed for the synthesis of oligosaccharides of different sizes structurally related to the regular region of heparin; this is illustrated by the preparation of hexasaccharide 1 and octasaccharide 2. This synthetic strategy provides the oligosaccharide sequence containing a D-glucosamine unit at the nonreducing end that is not available either by enzymatic or chemical degradation of heparin. It may permit, after slight modifications, the preparation of oligosaccharide fragments with different charge distribution as well. NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations have shown that the overall structure of 1 in solution is a stable right-hand helix with four residues per turn. Hexasaccharide 1 and, most likely, octasaccharide 2 are, therefore, chemically well-defined structural models of naturally occurring heparin-like oligosaccharides for use in binding and biological activity studies. Both compounds 1 and 2 induce the mitogenic activity of acid fibroblast growth factor (FGF1), with the half-maximum activating concentration of 2 being equivalent to that of heparin. Sedimentation equilibrium analysis with compound 2 suggests that heparin-induced FGF1 dimerization is not an absolute requirement for biological activity. PMID:11828504

  7. The activation of fibroblast growth factors by heparin: synthesis, structure, and biological activity of heparin-like oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    de Paz, J L; Angulo, J; Lassaletta, J M; Nieto, P M; Redondo-Horcajo, M; Lozano, R M; Giménez-Gallego, G; Martín-Lomas, M

    2001-09-01

    An effective strategy has been designed for the synthesis of oligosaccharides of different sizes structurally related to the regular region of heparin; this is illustrated by the preparation of hexasaccharide 1 and octasaccharide 2. This synthetic strategy provides the oligosaccharide sequence containing a D-glucosamine unit at the nonreducing end that is not available either by enzymatic or chemical degradation of heparin. It may permit, after slight modifications, the preparation of oligosaccharide fragments with different charge distribution as well. NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations have shown that the overall structure of 1 in solution is a stable right-hand helix with four residues per turn. Hexasaccharide 1 and, most likely, octasaccharide 2 are, therefore, chemically well-defined structural models of naturally occurring heparin-like oligosaccharides for use in binding and biological activity studies. Both compounds 1 and 2 induce the mitogenic activity of acid fibroblast growth factor (FGF1), with the half-maximum activating concentration of 2 being equivalent to that of heparin. Sedimentation equilibrium analysis with compound 2 suggests that heparin-induced FGF1 dimerization is not an absolute requirement for biological activity.

  8. Binding of the growth factor glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine by heparin.

    PubMed

    Rabenstein, D L; Robert, J M; Hari, S

    1995-12-01

    Evidence is presented that the growth factor glycyl-histidyl-lysine (GHK) binds to heparin, and the interaction has been characterized by [1H]NMR spectroscopy. 1H chemical shifts indicate that GHK interacts with both the carboxylic acid and the carboxylate forms of heparin. The chemical shift data are consistent with a weak delocalized binding of the triprotonated (ImH+, GlyNH3+, LysNH3+) form of GHK by the carboxylic acid form of heparin. As the pD is increased and the carboxylic acid groups are titrated, chemical shift data indicate that ammonium groups of GHK are hydrogen bonded to heparin carboxylate groups, while the histidyl imidazolium ring occupies the imidazolium-binding site of heparin. Evidence for site-specific binding includes displacement of chemical shift titration curves for heparin to lower pD, increased shielding of specific heparin protons by the imidazolium ring current and displacement of chemical shift titration curves for GHK to higher pD. Specific binding constants were determined for binding of the (ImH+, GlyNH3+), LysNH3+) forms of GHK by the carboxylate form of heparin from chemical shift vs. pD titration data. PMID:7498545

  9. Myogenic Growth Factor Present in Skeletal Muscle is Purified by Heparin-Affinity Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardami, Elissavet; Spector, Dennis; Strohman, Richard C.

    1985-12-01

    A myogenic growth factor has been purified from a skeletal muscle, the anterior latissimus dorsi, of adult chickens. In the range of 1-10 ng, this factor stimulates DNA synthesis as well as protein and muscle-specific myosin accumulation in myogenic cell cultures. Purification is achieved through binding of the factor to heparin. The factor is distinct from transferrin and works synergistically with transferrin in stimulating myogenesis in vitro.

  10. Synthetic heparin-binding factor analogs

    DOEpatents

    Pena, Louis A.; Zamora, Paul O.; Lin, Xinhua; Glass, John D.

    2010-04-20

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain, and preferably two peptide chains branched from a dipeptide branch moiety composed of two trifunctional amino acid residues, which peptide chain or chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a linker, which may be a hydrophobic linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  11. Keratinocyte growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor are heparin-binding growth factors for alveolar type II cells in fibroblast-conditioned medium.

    PubMed Central

    Panos, R J; Rubin, J S; Csaky, K G; Aaronson, S A; Mason, R J

    1993-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions mediate aspects of normal lung growth and development and are important in the restoration of normal alveolar architecture after lung injury. To determine if fibroblasts are a source of soluble growth factors for alveolar type II cells, we investigated the effect of fibroblast-conditioned medium (CM) on alveolar type II cell DNA synthesis. Serum-free CM from confluent adult human lung fibroblasts was concentrated fivefold by lyophilization. Type II cells were isolated from adult rats by elastase dissociation and incubated with [3H]thymidine and varying dilutions of concentrated CM and serum from day 1 to 3 of culture. Stimulation of type II cell DNA synthesis by fibroblast-CM was maximal after 48 h of conditioning and required the presence of serum. The activity of the CM was eliminated by boiling and by treatment with trypsin, pepsin, or dithiothreitol and was additive with saturating concentrations of acidic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and insulin. The growth factor activity bound to heparin-Sepharose and was eluted with 0.6 and 1.0 M NaCl. Neutralizing antibody studies demonstrated that the primary mitogens isolated in the 0.6 and 1.0 M NaCl fractions were keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, fibroblast growth factor 7) and hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF), respectively. HGF/SF was demonstrated in the crude CM and KGF was detected in the 0.6 M NaCl eluent by immunoblotting. Northern blot analysis confirmed that the lung fibroblasts expressed both KGF and HGF/SF transcripts. Human recombinant KGF and HGF/SF induced a concentration- and serum-dependent increase in rat alveolar type II cell DNA synthesis. We conclude that adult human lung fibroblasts produce at least two soluble heparin-binding growth factors, KGF and HGF/SF, which promote DNA synthesis and proliferation of rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture. KGF and HGF/SF may be important stimuli for alveolar type II cell

  12. Nanoscale Growth Factor Patterns by Immobilization on a Heparin Mimicking Polymer

    PubMed Central

    Christman, Karen L.; Vázquez-Dorbatt, Vimary; Schopf, Eric; Kolodziej, Christopher M.; Li, Ronald C.; Broyer, Rebecca M.; Chen, Yong; Maynard, Heather D.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, electrostatic interactions between sulfonate groups of an immobilized polymer and the heparin binding domains of growth factors important in cell signaling were exploited to nanopattern the proteins. Poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (pSS-co-pPEGMA) was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization using ethyl S-thiobenzoyl-2-thiopropionate as a chain transfer agent and 2,2′azoisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as the initiator. The resulting polymer (1) was characterized by 1H NMR, GPC, FT-IR, and UV-Vis and had a number average molecular weight (Mn) of 24,000 and a polydispersity index (PDI) of 1.17. The dithioester end group of 1 was reduced to the thiol, and the polymer subsequently immobilized on a gold substrate. Binding of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to the polymer via the heparin binding domains was then confirmed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The interactions were stable at physiological salt concentrations. Polymer 1 was cross-linked onto silicon wafers using an electron beam writer forming micron- and nano- patterns. Resolutions of 100 nm and arbitrary nanoscale features such as concentric circles and contiguous squares and triangles were achieved. Fluorescence microscopy confirmed that bFGF and VEGF were subsequently immobilized to the polymer micro- and nano- patterns. PMID:19554729

  13. A heparin-mimicking polymer conjugate stabilizes basic fibroblast growth factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thi H.; Kim, Sung-Hye; Decker, Caitlin G.; Wong, Darice Y.; Loo, Joseph A.; Maynard, Heather D.

    2013-03-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a protein that plays a crucial role in diverse cellular functions, from wound healing to bone regeneration. However, a major obstacle to the widespread application of bFGF is its inherent instability during storage and delivery. Here, we describe the stabilization of bFGF by covalent conjugation with a heparin-mimicking polymer, a copolymer consisting of styrene sulfonate units and methyl methacrylate units bearing poly(ethylene glycol) side chains. The bFGF conjugate of this polymer retained bioactivity after synthesis and was stable to a variety of environmentally and therapeutically relevant stressors—such as heat, mild and harsh acidic conditions, storage and proteolytic degradation—unlike native bFGF. Following the application of stress, the conjugate was also significantly more active than the control conjugate system in which the styrene sulfonate units were omitted from the polymer structure. This research has important implications for the clinical use of bFGF and for the stabilization of heparin-binding growth factors in general.

  14. Sustained release of vascular endothelial growth factor from calcium-induced alginate hydrogels reinforced by heparin and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Yoon, J J; Lee, J H; Kim, S Y; Jung, H J; Kim, S J; Joh, J W; Lee, H H; Lee, D S; Lee, S K

    2004-10-01

    A possible alternative for immunosuppression is a microencapsulation technique using hydrogels, which have been utilized for cell immobilization and drug delivery systems. Angiogenesis is crucial for delivery of the metabolic products to the host tissues as well as to supply oxygen and nutrients to cells. The local delivery of angiogenic growth factors, such as VEGF and basic FGF, has been recently studied to enhance angiogenesis on peripheral tissue of graft. In this study, we evaluated sustained VEGF release with a model using hydrogels coated with chitosan and heparin in vitro. We fabricated calcium alginate gels and chitosan-coated calcium alginate gels. Heparinized chitosan-coated calcium-induced alginate hydrogel beads were prepared by soaking chitosan-coated calcium alginate gels in heparin solution. We compared the stability and VEGF release manner between three kinds of hydrogels. To compare the stability, 5 mL of each hydrogel was incubated with 20 mL PBS under the rotational culture. Compression forces were measured using a rheometer. The amount of VEGF released from the gels was measured by ELISA. The heparin-coated chitosan alginate hydrogels showed the highest surface stability among the three hydrogels. VEGF from the heparinized gel was released in sustained manner up to 10 days in vitro. Chitosan-coated alginate gels released 90% of loaded VEGF within 5 days. These results suggest that local delivery of VEGF using a heparinized hydrogel may provide a long-term supply of angiogenic growth factor that might induce new vessel formation in vivo.

  15. Role of membrane-anchored heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor and CD9 on macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Ouchi, N; Kihara, S; Yamashita, S; Higashiyama, S; Nakagawa, T; Shimomura, I; Funahashi, T; Kameda-Takemura, K; Kawata, S; Taniguchi, N; Matsuzawa, Y

    1997-01-01

    Heparin-binding epidermal-growth-factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a potent mitogen for smooth-muscle cells (SMCs) belonging to the EGF family. We have previously determined that HB-EGF is expressed in macrophages and SMCs of human atherosclerotic lesions and that its membrane-anchored precursor, proHB-EGF, also has a juxtacrine mitogenic activity which is markedly enhanced by CD9, a surface marker of lymphohaemopoietic cells. Therefore, when both proHB-EGF and CD9 are expressed on macrophages, they may strongly promote the development of atherosclerosis. In the present study we have investigated the changes in proHB-EGF and CD9 in THP-1 cells during differentiation into macrophages and by the addition of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (OxLDL) and assessed juxtacrine growth activity of THP-1 macrophages for human aortic SMCs. HB-EGF and CD9 at both the mRNA and the protein level were up-regulated after differentiation into macrophages, and further expression of HB-EGF was induced by the addition of OxLDL or lysophosphatidylcholine. Juxtacrine induction by formalin-fixed growth was suppressed to control levels by an inhibitor of HB-EGF and was partially decreased by anti-CD9 antibodies. These results suggest that co-expression of proHB-EGF and CD9 on macrophages plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis by a juxtacrine mechanism. PMID:9396739

  16. Basic fibroblast growth factor binds to subendothelial extracellular matrix and is released by heparitinase and heparin-like molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Bashkin, P.; Doctrow, S.; Klagsbrun, M.; Svahn, C.M.; Folkman, J.; Vlodavsky, I. )

    1989-02-21

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) exhibits specific binding to the extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by cultured endothelial cells. Binding was saturable as a function both of time and of concentration of {sup 125}I-bFGF. Scatchard analysis of FGF binding revealed the presence of about 1.5 x 10{sup 12} binding sites/mm{sup 2} ECM with an apparent k{sub D} of 610 nM. FGF binds to heparan sulfate (HS) in ECM as evidenced by (i) inhibition of binding in the presence of heparin or HS at 0.1-1 {mu}g/mL, but not by chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, or hyaluronic acid at 10 {mu}g/mL, (ii) lack of binding to ECM pretreated with heparitinase, but not with chondroitinase ABC, and (iii) rapid release of up to 90% of ECM-bound FGF by exposure to heparin, HS, or heparitinase, but not to chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, hyaluronic acid, or chondroitinase ABC. Oligosaccharides derived from depolymerized heparin, and as small as the tetrasaccharide, released the ECM-bound FGF, but there was little or no release of FGF by modified nonanticoagulant heparins such as totally desulfated heparin, N-desulfated heparin, and N-acetylated heparin. FGF released from ECM was biologically active, as indicated by its stimulation of cell proliferation and DNA synthesis in vascular endothelial cells and 3T3 fibroblasts. Similar results were obtained in studies on release of endogenous FGF-like mitogenic activity from Descement's membranes of bovine corneas. It is suggested that ECM storage and release of bFGF provide a novel mechanism for regulation of capillary blood vessel growth. Whereas ECM-bound FGF may be prevented from acting on endothelial cells, its displacement by heparin-like molecules and/or HS-degrading enzymes may elicit a neovascular response.

  17. Delivery of basic fibroblast growth factors from heparinized decellularized adipose tissue stimulates potent de novo adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiqi; Li, Mingming; Zou, Yu; Cao, Tong

    2014-01-28

    Scaffolds based on decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) are gaining popularity in adipose tissue engineering due to their high biocompatibility and adipogenic inductive property. However, previous studies involving DAT-derived scaffolds have not fully revealed their potentials for in vivo adipose tissue construction. With the aim of developing a more efficient adipose tissue engineering technique based on DAT, in this study, we investigated the in vivo adipogenic potential of a basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) delivery system based on heparinized DAT (Hep-DAT). To generate this system, heparins were cross-linked to mouse DATs by using 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide and N-Hydroxysuccinimide. The bFGF-binding Hep-DATs were first tested for controlled release ability in vitro and then transplanted subcutaneously. Highly vascularized adipose tissues were formed 6weeks after transplantation. Histology and gene expression analysis revealed that majority of the Hep-DAT scaffolds were infiltrated with host-derived adipose tissues that possessed similar adipogenic and inflammatory gene expression as endogenous adipose tissues. Additionally, strong de novo adipogenesis could also be induced when bFGF-binding Hep-DATs were thoroughly minced and injected subcutaneously. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that bFGF-binding Hep-DAT could be an efficient, biocompatible and injectable adipogenic system for in vivo adipose tissue engineering.

  18. Epidermal transformation leads to increased perlecan synthesis with heparin-binding-growth-factor affinity.

    PubMed Central

    Tapanadechopone, P; Tumova, S; Jiang, X; Couchman, J R

    2001-01-01

    Perlecan, a proteoglycan of basement membrane and extracellular matrices, has important roles in both normal biological and pathological processes. As a result of its ability to store and protect growth factors, perlecan may have crucial roles in tumour-cell growth and invasion. Since the biological functions of different types of glycosaminoglycan vary with cellular origin and structural modifications, we analysed the expression and biological functions of perlecan produced by a normal epidermal cell line (JB6) and its transformed counterpart (RT101). Expression of perlecan in tumorigenic cells was significantly increased in both mRNA and protein levels. JB6 perlecan was exclusively substituted with heparan sulphate, whereas that of RT101 contained some additional chondroitin sulphate. Detailed structural analysis of the heparan sulphate (HS) chains from perlecan of both cell types revealed that their overall sulphation and chain length were similar (approximately 60 kDa), but the HS chains of tumour-cell-derived perlecan were less sulphated. This resulted from reduced 2-O- and 6-O-sulphation, but not N-sulphation, and an increase in the proportion of unsulphated disaccharides. Despite this, the heparan sulphate of RT101- and JB6-derived perlecan bound fibroblast growth factor-1, -2, -4 and -7 and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor with similar affinity. Therefore abundant tumour-derived perlecan may support the angiogenic responses seen in vivo and be a key player in tumorigenesis. PMID:11284741

  19. Structural determinants of heparin-transforming growth factor-β1 interactions and their effects on signaling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonathan; Wee, Sheena; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Chua, R J E; Smith, Raymond A A; Ling, Ling; Fernig, David G; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Nurcombe, Victor; Cool, Simon M

    2015-12-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, Uniprot: P01137) is a heparin-binding protein that has been implicated in a number of physiological processes, including the initiation of chondrogenesis by human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Here, we identify the molecular features in the protein and in heparin required for binding and their effects on the potentiation of TGF-β1's activity on hMSCs. Using a proteomics "Protect and Label" approach, lysines K291, K304, K309, K315, K338, K373, K375 and K388 were identified as being directly involved in binding heparin (Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002772). Competition assays in an optical biosensor demonstrated that TGF-β1 does require N- and 6-O-sulfate groups for binding but that 2-O-sulfate groups are unlikely to underpin the interaction. Heparin-derived oligosaccharides as short as degree of polymerization (dp) 4 have a weak ability to compete for TGF-β1 binding to heparin, which increases with the length of the oligosaccharide to reach a maximum between dp18 and dp24. In cell-based assays, heparin, 2-O-, 6-O- and N-desulfated re-N-acetylated heparin and oligosaccharides 14-24 saccharides (dp14-24) in length all increased the phosphorylation of mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2 (SMAD2) after 6 h of stimulation with TGF-β1. The results provide the structural basis for a model of heparin/heparan sulfate binding to TGF-β1 and demonstrate that the features in the polysaccharide required for binding are not identical to those required for sustaining the signaling by TGF-β1 in hMSCs.

  20. Magnetic field-responsive release of transforming growth factor beta 1 from heparin-modified alginate ferrogels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwi; Park, Honghyun; Lee, Jae Won; Lee, Kuen Yong

    2016-10-20

    Stimuli-responsive polymeric systems have been widely used for various drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. Magnetic stimulation can be also exploited to regulate the release of pharmaceutical drugs, growth factors, and cells from hydrogels in a controlled manner, on-demand. In the present study, alginate ferrogels containing iron oxide nanoparticles were fabricated via ionic cross-linking, and their various characteristics were investigated. The deformation of the ferrogels was dependent on the polymer concentration, calcium concentration, iron oxide concentration, and strength of magnetic field. To modulate the release of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) under magnetic stimulation, alginate was chemically modified with heparin, as TGF-β1 has a heparin-binding domain. Alginate was first modified with ethylenediamine, and heparin was then conjugated to the ethylenediamine-modified alginate via carbodiimide chemistry. Conjugation of heparin to alginate was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sustained release of TGF-β1 from alginate-g-heparin ferrogels was achieved, and application of a magnetic field to the ferrogels regulated TGF-β1 release, resultantly enhancing chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells, which were used as a model chondrogenic cell line. Alginate-based ferrogels that release drugs in a controlled manner may therefore be useful in many biomedical applications. PMID:27474590

  1. Heparinized magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles as multifunctional growth factor delivery carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiang; Liu, Chaoqun; Fan, Luna; Shi, Jiahua; Liu, Zhiqiang; Li, Ruifang; Sun, Liwei

    2012-12-01

    Well-defined magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MMSNs) with a core/shell structure were prepared via a one pot synthesis. Sphere-like magnetite aggregates were obtained as cores of the final nanoparticles by assembly in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. The nanoparticles have the property of superparamagnetism with a saturation magnetization value of 20.3 emu g-1. In addition, the combination of heparin and fluorescence-labeled MMSNs endows the resultant particles (denoted as MFMSNs-HP) with magnetism and fluorescence properties, excellent dispersity in the buffer solutions and cell culture media, anticoagulant activity in the blood stream, and the controlled release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Furthermore, the bFGF cell viability assays indicate that MFMSNs-HP has nearly no toxicity to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) up to a concentration of 200 μg ml-1, and the proliferation activity of bFGF incorporated into MFMSNs-HP could be retained for at least 6 days. All of these suggest that MFMSNs-HP may serve as a multifunctional carrier for the delivery of growth factors.

  2. The interaction of the transforming growth factor-betas with heparin/heparan sulfate is isoform-specific.

    PubMed

    Lyon, M; Rushton, G; Gallagher, J T

    1997-07-18

    We have undertaken a comparative study of the interaction of the three mammalian transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-beta) with heparin and heparan sulfate. TGF-beta1 and -beta2, but not -beta3, bind to heparin and the highly sulfated liver heparan sulfate. These polysaccharides potentiate the biological activity of TGF-beta1 (but not the other isoforms), whereas a low sulfated mucosal heparan sulfate fails to do so. Potentiation is due to antagonism of the binding and inactivation of TGF-beta1 by alpha2-macroglobulin, rather than by modulation of growth factor-receptor interactions. TGF-beta2.alpha2-macroglobulin complexes are more refractory to heparin/heparan sulfate, and those involving TGF-beta3 cannot be affected. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the TGF-beta isoforms strongly implicates the basic amino acid residue at position 26 of each monomer as being a vital binding determinant. A model is proposed in which polysaccharide binding occurs at two distinct sites on the TGF-beta dimer. Interaction with heparin and liver heparan sulfate may be most effective because of the ability of the dimer to co-operatively engage two specific sulfated binding sequences, separated by a distance of approximately seven disaccharides, within the same chain.

  3. Heparin-binding EGF-like Growth Factor Protects Pericytes from Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaoyi; Radulescu, Andrei; Chen, Chun-Liang; James, Iyore O.; Besner, Gail E.

    2010-01-01

    Background We have previously shown that heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) promotes angiogenesis and preserves mesenteric microvascular blood flow in several models of intestinal injury. The current study was designed to evaluate the effect of HB-EGF on pericytes, since these cells function to regulate capillary blood flow and new capillary growth. Materials and Methods C3H/10T1/2 mouse mesenchymal cells were differentiated into pericyte-like cells in vitro using transforming growth factor- β1 (TGF-β1). In addition, primary pericyte cultures were established from rat brain. The effect of HB-EGF on pericyte proliferation was assessed. In addition, cells were stressed by exposure to anoxia, and apoptosis determined. In vivo, we examined the effect of HB-EGF on pericytes in a model of intestinal I/R injury based on superior mesenteric artery occlusion (SMAO) in mice. Results Differentiated C3H/10T1/2 cells (pericyte-like cells) demonstrated morphologic characteristics of pericytes, and expressed pericyte specific markers. Addition of HB-EGF led to significant cell proliferation in differentiated pericyte-like cells, even under conditions of anoxic stress. Addition of the EGF receptor inhibitor AG 1478 led to complete inhibition of the proliferative effects of HB-EGF on pericyte-like cells. In addition, HB-EGF protected pericyte-like cells from anoxia-induced apoptosis. In addition, HB-EGF promoted cell proliferation in primary pericyte cultures. In vivo, administration of HB-EGF to mice subjected to intestinal I/R injury led to protection of pericytes from injury. Conclusions These results suggest that HB-EGF may function as a microcirculatory blood flow regulator, at least in part, via its effects on pericytes. PMID:20863525

  4. Heparin modulation of the neurotropic effects of acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors and nerve growth factor on PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Neufeld, G.; Gospodarowicz, D.; Dodge, L.; Fujii, D.K.

    1987-04-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and acidic or basic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF and bFGF, respectively) induce neurite outgrowth from the rat pheochromocytoma cell line, PC12. The neurites induced by these three factors are stable for up to a month in cell culture in the continued presence of any of the above growth factors. bFGF (ED50 = 30 pg/ml) is 800 fold more potent in stimulating neurite outgrowth than aFGF (ED50 = 25 ng/ml) and 260 fold more potent than NGF (ED50 = 8 ng/ml). While the neurotropic activities of aFGF and NGF are potentiated by heparin, that of bFGF is both partially inhibited or stimulated, depending upon the concentration of bFGF. Radioreceptor binding experiments show that aFGF and bFGF bind to a common binding site on the PC12 cell surface. Affinity labeling studies demonstrate a single receptor with an apparent molecular weight of 145,000 daltons, which corresponds to the high molecular weight receptor identified in BHK-21 cells. NGF does not appear to compete with aFGF or bFGF for binding to the receptor. Heparin blocked the binding of bFGF to the receptor but had only a small inhibitory effect on the binding of aFGF to the receptor. Thus, it appears that heparin inhibition of the neurotropic effects of bFGF occurs, at least in part, by impairing the interaction of bFGF with the receptor, while having little effect on that of aFGF. The stimulatory effects of heparin on the neurotropic activity of aFGF, bFGF, and NGF may occur through a site not associated with the respective cellular receptor for the growth factors.

  5. Heparin binding preference and structures in the fibroblast growth factor family parallel their evolutionary diversification

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chao; Wilkinson, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of a large number of extracellular proteins with heparan sulfate (HS) regulates their transport and effector functions, but the degree of molecular specificity underlying protein–polysaccharide binding is still debated. The 15 paracrine fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are one of the paradigms for this interaction. Here, we measure the binding preferences of six FGFs (FGF3, FGF4, FGF6, FGF10, FGF17, FGF20) for a library of modified heparins, representing structures in HS, and model glycosaminoglycans, using differential scanning fluorimetry. This is complemented by the identification of the lysine residues in the primary and secondary binding sites of the FGFs by a selective labelling approach. Pooling these data with previous sets provides good coverage of the FGF phylogenetic tree, deduced from amino acid sequence alignment. This demonstrates that the selectivity of the FGFs for binding structures in sulfated polysaccharides and the pattern of secondary binding sites on the surface of FGFs follow the phylogenetic relationship of the FGFs, and so are likely to be the result of the natural selection pressures that led to the expansion of the FGF family in the course of the evolution of more complex animal body plans. PMID:27030175

  6. Angiopoietin-1 prevents severe bleeding complications induced by heparin-like drugs and fibroblast growth factor-2 in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jerebtsova, Marina; Das, Jharna R.; Tang, Pingtao; Wong, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Critically ill children can develop bleeding complications when treated with heparin-like drugs. These events are usually attributed to the anticoagulant activity of these drugs. However, previous studies showed that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), a heparin-binding growth factor released in the circulation of these patients, could precipitate intestinal hemorrhages in mice treated with the heparin-like drug pentosan polysulfate (PPS). Yet very little is known about how FGF-2 induces bleeding complications in combination with heparin-like drugs. Here, we examined the mechanisms by which circulating FGF-2 induces intestinal hemorrhages in mice treated with PPS. We used a well-characterized mouse model of intestinal hemorrhages induced by FGF-2 plus PPS. Adult FVB/N mice were infected with adenovirus carrying Lac-Z or a secreted form of recombinant human FGF-2, and injected with PPS, at doses that do not induce bleeding complications per se. Mice treated with FGF-2 in combination with PPS developed an intestinal inflammatory reaction that increased the permeability and disrupted the integrity of submucosal intestinal vessels. These changes, together with the anticoagulant activity of PPS, induced lethal hemorrhages. Moreover, a genetically modified form of the endothelial ligand angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1*), which has powerful antipermeability and anti-inflammatory activity, prevented the lethal bleeding complications without correcting the anticoagulant status of these mice. These findings define new mechanisms through which FGF-2 and Ang-1* modulate the outcome of intestinal bleeding complications induced by PPS in mice and may have wider clinical implications for critically ill children treated with heparin-like drugs. PMID:26276817

  7. Controlled release of nerve growth factor from heparin-conjugated fibrin gel within the nerve growth factor-delivering implant

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Yong; Kim, Soung-Min; Kim, Myung-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although nerve growth factor (NGF) could promote the functional regeneration of an injured peripheral nerve, it is very difficult for NGF to sustain the therapeutic dose in the defect due to its short half-life. In this study, we loaded the NGF-bound heparin-conjugated fibrin (HCF) gel in the NGF-delivering implants and analyzed the time-dependent release of NGF and its bioactivity to evaluate the clinical effectiveness. Materials and Methods NGF solution was made of 1.0 mg of NGF and 1.0 mL of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Experimental group A consisted of three implants, in which 0.25 µL of NGF solution, 0.75 µL of HCF, 1.0 µL of fibrinogen and 2.0 µL of thrombin was injected via apex hole with micropipette and gelated, were put into the centrifuge tube. Three implants of experimental group B were prepared with the mixture of 0.5 µL of NGF solution, 0.5 µL HCF, 1.0 µL of fibrinogen and 2.0 µL of thrombin. These six centrifuge tubes were filled with 1.0 mL of PBS and stirred in the water-filled beaker at 50 rpm. At 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 days, 1.0 mL of solution in each tubes was collected and preserved at -20℃ with adding same amount of fresh PBS. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was done to determine in vitro release profile of NGF and its bioactivity was evaluated with neural differentiation of pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Results The average concentration of released NGF in the group A and B increased for the first 5 days and then gradually decreased. Almost all of NGF was released during 10 days. Released NGF from two groups could promote neural differentiation and neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells and these bioactivity was maintained over 14 days. Conclusion Controlled release system using NGF-HCF gel via NGF-delivering implant could be an another vehicle of delivering NGF to promote the nerve regeneration of dental implant related nerve damage. PMID:24627836

  8. Clinical significance and usefulness of soluble heparin binding-epidermal growth factor in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hye Won; Kong, Hoon Young; Lim, Jong-Baeck

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical usefulness of soluble heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (sHB-EGF) as a serum biomarker for gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: Serum sHB-EGF levels were measured by a commercially available human HB-EGF ELISA Kit and compared among 60 normal controls, 30 high-risk patients, 37 early gastric cancer (EGC), and 30 advanced gastric cancer (AGC) through ANOVA test. Correlations between serum sHB-EGF and clinicopathological features of GC were analyzed through Spearman’s correlation. The diagnostic performance of serum sHB-EGF for GC was evaluated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Serum sHB-EGF levels were significantly higher in AGC group (314.4 ± 127.5 pg/mL) than EGC (165.3 ± 123.2 pg/mL), high-risk (98.7 ± 67.3 pg/mL), and control (94.7 ± 83.6 pg/mL) groups (post-hoc Bonferroni, all P < 0.001), respectively. Serum sHB-EGF levels were also significantly higher in EGC group than high-risk (P = 0.049) and control (P = 0.006) groups. Clinicopathologically, serum sHB-EGF levels closely correlated with depth of invasion (T-stage, γs = 0.669, P < 0.001), lymph node metastasis (N-stage, γs = 0.407, P = 0.001), and distant metastasis (M-stage, γs = 0.261, P = 0.030). ROC curve and logistic regression analysis demonstrated a remarkable diagnostic potential of serum sHB-EGF. CONCLUSION: Serum sHB-EGF is closely correlated with advanced stage GC and can be a promising serological biomarker for GC. PMID:25717241

  9. Heparin-binding EGF-like Growth Factor Increases Intestinal Microvascular Blood Flow in Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaoyi; Radulescu, Andrei; Zorko, Nicholas; Besner, Gail E.

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency in neonates. Although the exact etiology remains unknown, decreased intestinal blood flow is thought to play a critical role. We have shown that heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) protects the intestines from injury in a rodent model of NEC. Our current goal was to assess the effect of HB-EGF on intestinal microvascular blood flow and intestinal injury in rat pups subjected to experimental NEC. Methods Newborn rat pups were subjected to stress by exposure to hypoxia, hypothermia, hypertonic feedings and lipopolysaccharide, with some pups receiving HB-EGF (800 μg/kg/dose) added to the feeds. Control animals received breast milk. Intestinal injury was graded using a standard histologic injury scoring system. Microvascular blood flow was assessed by FITC-dextran angiography with fluorescent images subjected to quantification, and by scanning electron microscopy. Results Intestinal microvascular blood flow (defined as the extent of vascular filling with FITC-dextran) was significantly decreased in pups subjected to stress compared to breast fed pups. Stressed pups treated with HB-EGF had significantly increased microvascular blood flow. The changes in villous microvasculature correlated with histologic injury scores, with stressed pups treated with HB-EGF showing decreased histologic injury. Conclusions HB-EGF significantly preserved intestinal microvascular blood flow in pups subjected to experimental NEC, indicating that HB-EGF may play a critical role in the therapy of various diseases manifested by decreased intestinal blood flow, including NEC. PMID:19361505

  10. The effect of a heparin-based coacervate of fibroblast growth factor-2 on scarring in the infarcted myocardium.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hunghao; Chen, Chien-Wen; Huard, Johnny; Wang, Yadong

    2013-02-01

    Effective delivery of exogenous angiogenic growth factors can provide a new therapy for ischemic diseases. However, clinical translation of growth factor therapies faces multiples challenges; the most significant one is the short half-life of the naked protein. We use heparin and a nontoxic polycation to form an injectable coacervate that protects growth factors and preserves their bioactivities. Here we report the effectiveness of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) coacervate in reducing scar burden in a mouse myocardial infarction model. The coacervate provides spatial and temporal control of the release of heparin-binding proteins. Coacervate treated animals show lower level of inflammation, fibrosis and cardiomyocyte death in the infarcted myocardium. Histological evaluation indicates that FGF2 coacervate significantly increases the number of endothelial and mural cells and results in stable capillaries and arterioles to at least 6 weeks post injection. Echocardiographic assessment shows that FGF2 coacervate promotes cardiac contractibility and inhibits ventricular dilation, suggesting that the improvement at the tissue level leads to better cardiac functions. On the contrary, identical dosage of free FGF2 shows no statistical difference from saline or vehicle control in histological or functional assessment. Overall, injection of FGF2 coacervate ameliorated the ischemic injury caused by myocardial infarction. The promising data in rodent warrant further examination of the potential of clinical translation of this technology.

  11. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor–like growth factor attenuates acute lung injury and multiorgan dysfunction after scald burn

    PubMed Central

    Lutmer, Jeffrey; Watkins, Daniel; Chen, Chun-Liang; Velten, Markus; Besner, Gail

    2013-01-01

    Background Impaired gut barrier function and acute lung injury (ALI) are significant components of the multiorgan dysfunction syndrome that accompanies severe burns. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor–like growth factor (HB-EGF) has been shown to reduce inflammation, preserve gut barrier function, and protect the lungs from acute injury in several models of intestinal injury; however, comparable effects of HB-EGF after burn injury have never been investigated. The present studies were based on the hypothesis that HB-EGF would reduce the severity of ALI and multiorgan dysfunction after scald burns in mice. Materials and methods Mice were randomized to sham, burn (25% of total body surface area with full thickness dorsal scald), and burn + HB-EGF groups. The HB-EGF group was pre-treated with two enteral doses of HB-EGF (1200 μg/kg/dose). Mice were resuscitated after injury and sacrificed at 8 h later. Their lungs were harvested for determination of pulmonary myeloperoxidase activity, wet:dry ratios, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end label and cleaved caspase 3 immunohistochemistry. Lung function was assessed using the SCIREQ Flexivent. Splenic apoptosis was quantified by Western blot for cleaved caspase 3, and intestinal permeability was measured using the everted gut sac method. Results Mice subjected to scald burn injury had increased lung myeloperoxidase levels, increased pulmonary and splenic apoptosis, elevated airway resistance and bronchial reactivity, and increased intestinal permeability compared with sham mice. These abnormalities were significantly attenuated in mice that were subjected to scald burn injury but treated with enteral HB-EGF. Conclusions These data suggest that HB-EGF protects mice from ALI after scald burn and attenuates the severity of postburn multiorgan dysfunction. PMID:23777985

  12. Heparin-binding growth factor type 1 (acidic fibroblast growth factor): a potential biphasic autocrine and paracrine regulator of hepatocyte regeneration.

    PubMed Central

    Kan, M; Huang, J S; Mansson, P E; Yasumitsu, H; Carr, B; McKeehan, W L

    1989-01-01

    Heparin-binding growth factor type 1 (HBGF-1; sometimes termed acidic fibroblast growth factor) is potentially an important factor in liver regeneration. HBGF-1 alone (half-maximal effect at 60 pM) stimulated hepatocyte DNA synthesis and bound to a high-affinity receptor (Kd = 62 pM; 5000 per cell). Epidermal growth factor (EGF) neutralized or masked the mitogenic effect of HBGF-1 concurrent with appearance of low-affinity HBGF-1 binding sites. HBGF-1 reduced the inhibitory effect of transforming growth factor type beta (TGF-beta) on the EGF stimulus. Nanomolar levels of HBGF-1 decreased the EGF stimulus. An increase in hepatic HBGF-1 gene expression after partial hepatectomy precedes increases in expression of the EGF homolog, TGF-alpha, and nonparenchymal-cell-derived TGF-beta in the regenerating liver. Expression of HBGF-1 mRNA occurs in both hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells and persists for 7 days in liver tissue after partial hepatectomy. HBGF-1 acting through a high-affinity receptor is a candidate for the early autocrine stimulus that drives hepatocyte DNA synthesis prior to or concurrent with the EGF/TGF-alpha stimulus. It may allow hepatocyte proliferation to proceed in the presence of low levels of TGF-beta. An EGF/TGF-alpha-dependent change in HBGF-1 receptor phenotype and increasing levels of nonparenchymal-cell-derived HBGF-1 and TGF-beta may serve to limit hepatocyte proliferation. Images PMID:2477840

  13. Involvement of reactive oxygen species in stimuli-induced shedding of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor.

    PubMed

    Umata, Toshiyuki

    2014-06-01

    Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a critical growth factor for a number of physiological and pathological processes, such as wound healing, atherosclerosis and cancer proliferation. HB-EGF is synthesized as a membrane form (proHB-EGF), and is shedded at the cell surface to yield soluble HB-EGF, resulting in making it active. In this study, the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in stimuli-induced shedding of HB-EGF was investigated using monkey kidney Vero cells overexpressing HB-EGF (Vero-H cells). 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) as a ligand for seventransmembrane G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) and sorbitol as stress induced shedding of HB-EGF mediated protein kinase C (PKC)-δ, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p38MAPK, respectively. These stimuli-induced sheddings of HB-EGF were inhibited by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), suggesting the involvement of ROS. As specific inhibitors of these protein kinases inhibited the shedding of HB-EGF, these signaling pathways seem to be independent, respectively. In contrast, γ-ray irradiation did not induce shedding although it did increase intracellular ROS levels. Taken together, these results suggest that the synergistic generation of ROS and the activation of protein kinase are required to promote stimuli-induced shedding of HB-EGF. PMID:24930874

  14. Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor contributes to reduced glomerular filtration rate during glomerulonephritis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lili; Garcia, Gabriela E.; Yang, Young; Xia, Yiyang; Gabbai, Francis B.; Peterson, Orjan W.; Abraham, Judith A.; Blantz, Roland C.; Wilson, Curtis B.

    2000-01-01

    Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor–like growth factor (HB-EGF), a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family, is expressed during inflammatory and pathological conditions. We have cloned the rat HB-EGF and followed the expression of HB-EGF in rat kidneys treated with anti– glomerular basement membrane (anti–GBM) antibody (Ab) to induce glomerulonephritis (GN). We observed glomerular HB-EGF mRNA and protein within 30 minutes of Ab administration and showed by in situ hybridization that glomerular HB-EGF mRNA expression was predominantly in mesangial and epithelial cells. Expression of HB-EGF correlated with the onset of decreased renal function in this model. To test the direct effect of HB-EGF on renal function, we infused the renal cortex with active rHB-EGF, prepared from transfected Drosophila melanogaster cells. This treatment induced a significant decrease in single nephron GFR (SNGFR), single nephron plasma flow, and glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient and an increase in the glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure gradient. In addition, anti–HB-EGF Ab administered just before anti-GBM Ab blocked the fall in SNGFR and GFR at 90 minutes without any change in the glomerular histologic response. These studies suggest that HB-EGF expressed early in the anti-GBM Ab GN model contributes to the observed acute glomerular hemodynamic alterations. PMID:10675360

  15. A Heparin-Mimicking Block Copolymer Both Stabilizes and Increases the Activity of Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF2)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is a protein involved in cellular functions in applications such as wound healing and tissue regeneration. Stabilization of this protein is important for its use as a therapeutic since the native protein is unstable during storage and delivery. Additionally, the ability to increase the activity of FGF2 is important for its application, particularly in chronic wound healing and the treatment of various ischemic conditions. Here we report a heparin mimicking block copolymer, poly(styrenesulfonate-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate)-b-vinyl sulfonate) (p(SS-co-PEGMA)-b-VS, that contains a segment that enhances the stability of FGF2 and one that binds to the FGF2 receptor. The FGF2 conjugate retained activity after exposure to refrigeration (4 °C) and room temperature (23 °C) for 7 days, while unmodified FGF2 was inactive after these standard storage conditions. A cell study performed with a cell line lacking native heparan sulfate proteoglycans indicated that the conjugated block copolymer facilitated binding of FGF2 to its receptor similar to the addition of heparin to FGF2. A receptor-based enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) confirmed the results. The conjugate also increased the migration of endothelial cells by 80% compared to FGF2 alone. Additionally, the FGF2-p(SS-co-PEGMA)-b-VS stimulated endothelial cell sprouting 250% better than FGF2 at low concentration. These data verify that this rationally designed protein-block copolymer conjugate enhances receptor binding, cellular processes such as migration and tube-like formation, and stability, and suggest that it may be useful for applications in biomaterials, tissue regeneration, and wound healing. PMID:27580376

  16. Midkine and pleiotrophin have bactericidal properties: preserved antibacterial activity in a family of heparin-binding growth factors during evolution.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Sara L; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Walse, Björn; Malmsten, Martin; Mörgelin, Matthias; Sjögren, Camilla; Olin, Anders I; Collin, Mattias; Schmidtchen, Artur; Palmer, Ruth; Egesten, Arne

    2010-05-21

    Antibacterial peptides of the innate immune system combat pathogenic microbes, but often have additional roles in promoting inflammation and as growth factors during tissue repair. Midkine (MK) and pleiotrophin (PTN) are the only two members of a family of heparin-binding growth factors. They show restricted expression during embryogenesis and are up-regulated in neoplasia. In addition, MK shows constitutive and inflammation-dependent expression in some non-transformed tissues of the adult. In the present study, we show that both MK and PTN display strong antibacterial activity, present at physiological salt concentrations. Electron microscopy of bacteria and experiments using artificial lipid bilayers suggest that MK and PTN exert their antibacterial action via a membrane disruption mechanism. The predicted structure of PTN, employing the previously solved MK structure as a template, indicates that both molecules consist of two domains, each containing three antiparallel beta-sheets. The antibacterial activity was mapped to the unordered C-terminal tails of both molecules and the last beta-sheets of the N-terminals. Analysis of the highly conserved MK and PTN orthologues from the amphibian Xenopus laevis and the fish Danio rerio suggests that they also harbor antibacterial activity in the corresponding domains. In support of an evolutionary conserved function it was found that the more distant orthologue, insect Miple2 from Drosophila melanogaster, also displays strong antibacterial activity. Taken together, the findings suggest that MK and PTN, in addition to their earlier described activities, may have previously unrealized important roles as innate antibiotics.

  17. Heparin-conjugated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanospheres enhance large-wound healing by delivering growth factors in platelet-rich plasma.

    PubMed

    La, Wan-Geun; Yang, Hee Seok

    2015-04-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains many growth factors that are involved in tissue regeneration processes. For successful tissue regeneration, protein growth factors require a delivery vehicle for long-term and sustained release to a defect site in order to maintain their bioactivity. Previously, we showed that heparin-conjugated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanospheres (HCPNs) can provide long-term delivery of growth factors with affinity for heparin. In this study, we hypothesize that treatment of a skin wound with a mixture of PRP and HCPNs would provide long-term delivery of several growth factors contained in PRP to promote the skin wound healing process with preservation of bioactivity. The release of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), contained in PRP, from HCPN with fibrin gel (FG) showed a prolonged release period versus a PRP mixture with FG alone (FG-PRP). Also, growth factors released from PRP with HCPN and FG showed sustained human dermal fibroblast growth for 12 days. Full-thickness skin wound treatment in mice with FG-HCPN-PRP resulted in much faster wound closure as well as dermal and epidermal regeneration at day 9 compared with treatment with FG-HCPN or FG-PRP. The enhanced wound healing using FG-HCPN-PRP may be due to the prolonged release not only of PDGF-BB but also of other growth factors in the PRP. The delivered growth factors accelerated angiogenesis at the wound site. PMID:25284020

  18. Heparin-conjugated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanospheres enhance large-wound healing by delivering growth factors in platelet-rich plasma.

    PubMed

    La, Wan-Geun; Yang, Hee Seok

    2015-04-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains many growth factors that are involved in tissue regeneration processes. For successful tissue regeneration, protein growth factors require a delivery vehicle for long-term and sustained release to a defect site in order to maintain their bioactivity. Previously, we showed that heparin-conjugated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanospheres (HCPNs) can provide long-term delivery of growth factors with affinity for heparin. In this study, we hypothesize that treatment of a skin wound with a mixture of PRP and HCPNs would provide long-term delivery of several growth factors contained in PRP to promote the skin wound healing process with preservation of bioactivity. The release of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), contained in PRP, from HCPN with fibrin gel (FG) showed a prolonged release period versus a PRP mixture with FG alone (FG-PRP). Also, growth factors released from PRP with HCPN and FG showed sustained human dermal fibroblast growth for 12 days. Full-thickness skin wound treatment in mice with FG-HCPN-PRP resulted in much faster wound closure as well as dermal and epidermal regeneration at day 9 compared with treatment with FG-HCPN or FG-PRP. The enhanced wound healing using FG-HCPN-PRP may be due to the prolonged release not only of PDGF-BB but also of other growth factors in the PRP. The delivered growth factors accelerated angiogenesis at the wound site.

  19. Heparin-Binding Epidermal Growth Factor and Its Receptors Mediate Decidualization and Potentiate Survival of Human Endometrial Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chobotova, Katya; Karpovich, Natalia; Carver, Janet; Manek, Sanjiv; Gullick, William J.; Barlow, David H.; Mardon, Helen J.

    2006-01-01

    Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) has pleiotropic biological functions in many tissues, including those of the female reproductive tract. It facilitates embryo development and mediates implantation and is thought to have a function in endometrial receptivity and maturation. The mature HB-EGF molecule manifests its activity as either a soluble factor (sol-HB-EGF) or a transmembrane precursor (tm-HB-EGF) and can bind two receptors, EGFR and ErbB4/HER4. In this study, we identify factors that modulate expression of HB-EGF, EGFR, and ErbB4 in endometrial stromal cells in vitro. We demonstrate that levels of sol- and tm-HB-EGF, EGFR, and ErbB4 are increased by cAMP, a potent inducer of decidualization of the endometrial stroma. We also show that production of sol- and tm-HB-EGF is differentially modulated by TNFα and TGFβ. Our data suggest that HB-EGF has a function in endometrial maturation in mediating decidualization and attenuating TNFα- and TGFβ-induced apoptosis of endometrial stromal cells. PMID:15562026

  20. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor in hippocampus: modulation of expression by seizures and anti-excitotoxic action.

    PubMed

    Opanashuk, L A; Mark, R J; Porter, J; Damm, D; Mattson, M P; Seroogy, K B

    1999-01-01

    The expression of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), an EGF receptor ligand, was investigated in rat forebrain under basal conditions and after kainate-induced excitotoxic seizures. In addition, a potential neuroprotective role for HB-EGF was assessed in hippocampal cultures. In situ hybridization analysis of HB-EGF mRNA in developing rat hippocampus revealed its expression in all principle cell layers of hippocampus from birth to postnatal day (P) 7, whereas from P14 through adulthood, expression decreased in the pyramidal cell layer versus the dentate gyrus granule cells. After kainate-induced excitotoxic seizures, levels of HB-EGF mRNA increased markedly in the hippocampus, as well as in several other cortical and limbic forebrain regions. In the hippocampus, HB-EGF mRNA expression increased within 3 hr after kainate treatment, continued to increase until 24 hr, and then decreased; increases occurred in the dentate gyrus granule cells, in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, and in and around hippocampal pyramidal CA3 and CA1 neurons. At 48 hr after kainate treatment, HB-EGF mRNA remained elevated in vulnerable brain regions of the hippocampus and amygdaloid complex. Western blot analysis revealed increased levels of HB-EGF protein in the hippocampus after kainate administration, with a peak at 24 hr. Pretreatment of embryonic hippocampal cell cultures with HB-EGF protected neurons against kainate toxicity. The kainate-induced elevation of [Ca2+]i in hippocampal neurons was not altered in cultures pretreated with HB-EGF, suggesting an excitoprotective mechanism different from that of previously characterized excitoprotective growth factors. Taken together, these results suggest that HB-EGF may function as an endogenous neuroprotective agent after seizure-induced neural activity/injury. PMID:9870945

  1. Electrospun poly(L-lactic acid-co-ɛ-caprolactone) fibers loaded with heparin and vascular endothelial growth factor to improve blood compatibility and endothelial progenitor cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Wang, Jing; An, Qingzhu; Li, Dawei; Liu, Peixi; Zhu, Wei; Mo, Xiumei

    2015-04-01

    Emulsion electrospinning is a convenient and promising method for incorporating proteins and drugs into nanofiber scaffolds. The aim of this study was to fabricate a nanofiber scaffold for anticoagulation and rapid endothelialization. For this purpose, we encapsulated heparin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) into the core of poly(L-lactic acid-co-ɛ-caprolactone) (P(LLA-CL)) core-shell nanofibers via emulsion electrospinning. The fiber morphology, core-shell structure and hydrophilicity of the nanofiber mats were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and water contact angle. The blood compatibility was measured by hemolysis and anticoagulation testing. A CCK-8 assay was performed to study the promotion of endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) growth and was complemented by immunofluorescent staining and SEM. Our study demonstrates that heparin and VEGF can be incorporated into P(LLA-CL) nanofibers via emulsion. The released heparin performed well as an anticoagulant, and the released VEGF promoted EPC growth on the fiber scaffolds. These results imply that electrospun P(LLA-CL) nanofibers containing heparin and VEGF have great potential in the development of vascular grafts in cases where antithrombogenicity and accelerated endothelialization are desirable.

  2. Developmentally regulated expression of pleiotrophin, a novel heparin binding growth factor, in the nervous system of the rat.

    PubMed

    Wanaka, A; Carroll, S L; Milbrandt, J

    1993-03-19

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a newly identified heparin-binding growth factor which is closely related to the retinoic acid-inducible MK protein. PTN is expressed at high levels in perinatal brain and promotes neurite outgrowth from embryonic brain neurons and mitogenesis in fibroblasts, suggesting that it may play an important role in the development of the nervous system. We have used in situ hybridization to examine PTN expression in the developing and adult rat nervous systems. During embryogenesis, PTN mRNA is primarily expressed by neuroglial progenitor cells in the subependymal layer of the central nervous system (CNS), whereas during the perinatal period high levels of PTN transcripts are found in neurons as well as glial elements (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes). In the adult brain, PTN expression is markedly decreased relative to early postnatal brain and, in contrast to the neuronal and glial expression observed in young animals, is confined to specific neuronal subpopulations (especially hippocampal CA1-3 regions, cerebral cortex laminae II-IV). PTN is also expressed in the developing spinal cord and eye. In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), PTN mRNA is present in ganglionic neurons during embryogenesis. In adult ganglia, however, PTN expression becomes localized to the satellite cells of the ganglia. The developmental pattern of PTN expression in the CNS and the 'switch' in expression from neurons to satellite cells in the PNS suggests that it has important functions not only in the developing nervous system, but also in the adult CNS and PNS and that the functions performed by this growth factor change during ontogeny. We have also found that levels of PTN mRNA are dramatically but transiently elevated in neurons of the hippocampus, piriform cortex and parietal cortex following a chemically induced seizure, indicating that neuronal PTN mRNA expression is increased by intense physiological stimuli and may play a role in the response to these stimuli.

  3. Heparin and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Loaded Poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) Nanofiber Covered Stent-Graft for Aneurysm Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; An, Qingzhu; Li, Dawei; Wu, Tong; Chen, Weiming; Sun, Binbin; El-Hamshary, Hany; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Zhu, Wei; Mo, Xiumei

    2015-11-01

    Restenosis caused by thrombopoiesis is one of the biggest hinders of endovascular stent-graft used in small-diameter vessels. Rapid endothelialization of the lumen of stent is a promising approach to prevent thrombosis. In this study, we aimed at loading heparin, a potent anticoagulants, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) into the core of poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) nanofiber via emulsion electrospinning. The nanofiber was covered on the stent and applied in the treatment of vascular diseases such as aneurysm. The morphologies of the emulsion electrospun nanofibers and core--shell structure were observed by scanning electron microscope and laser scanning confocal microscope. The release profiles of heparin and VEGF, degradation rate of nanofiber mats and cell proliferation in vitro were investigated. It was found that the release of both heparin and VEGF from the nanofiber lasted for more than 30 days without serious initial burst release. The degradation rate of nanofiber mats containing heparin and VEGF was faster than that of pure PLCL nanofiber mats. Moreover, the released VEGF could promote the proliferation of Pig iliac endothelial cells (PIECs) cultured on the nanofiber mat, which was of great benefit to stent endothelialization. The results of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) follow-up indicated the aneurysm was obliterated by separating the aneurysm dome from the blood circulation and the parent artery kept long-term patency. Results of the study demonstrated that the heparin and VEGF loaded nanofiber could provide an approach to fabricate covered stent-graft with properties of anticoagulation and induction of rapid endothelialization.

  4. Co-delivery of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) and bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2) coated onto heparinized titanium for improving osteoblast function and osteointegration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Eun; Yun, Young-Pil; Lee, Jae Yong; Shim, June-Sung; Park, Kyeongsoon; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to improve osteoblast function by delivering two growth factors, PDGF-BB and BMP-2, incorporated onto heparinized titanium (Hep-Ti) substrate. To achieve co-delivery of PDGF-BB and BMP-2, the surface of anodized Ti was immobilized with heparin, and then the two growth factors were coated onto the Hep-Ti surface. Incorporation of the two growth factors onto Hep-Ti was evaluated by SEM and XPS. Incorporated PDGF-BB and BMP-2 were released from the Hep-Ti substrate in a sustained manner. In vitro studies revealed that osteoblasts grown on PDGF-BB- and BMP-2-immobilized Hep-Ti increased ALP activity, calcium deposition, osteocalcin and osteopontin levels as compared to those grown on PDGF-BB alone- or BMP-2 alone-immobilized Hep-Ti. These results suggested that co-delivery of PDGF-BB and BMP-2 using Hep-Ti substrate will be a promising material for the enhancement of osteoblast function and osteointegration.

  5. A modular, plasmin-sensitive, clickable poly(ethylene glycol)-heparin-laminin microsphere system for establishing growth factor gradients in nerve guidance conduits.

    PubMed

    Roam, Jacob L; Yan, Ying; Nguyen, Peter K; Kinstlinger, Ian S; Leuchter, Michael K; Hunter, Daniel A; Wood, Matthew D; Elbert, Donald L

    2015-12-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration is a complex problem that, despite many advancements and innovations, still has sub-optimal outcomes. Compared to biologically derived acellular nerve grafts and autografts, completely synthetic nerve guidance conduits (NGC), which allow for precise engineering of their properties, are promising but still far from optimal. We have developed an almost entirely synthetic NGC that allows control of soluble growth factor delivery kinetics, cell-initiated degradability and cell attachment. We have focused on the spatial patterning of glial-cell derived human neurotrophic factor (GDNF), which promotes motor axon extension. The base scaffolds consisted of heparin-containing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) microspheres. The modular microsphere format greatly simplifies the formation of concentration gradients of reversibly bound GDNF. To facilitate axon extension, we engineered the microspheres with tunable plasmin degradability. 'Click' cross-linking chemistries were also added to allow scaffold formation without risk of covalently coupling the growth factor to the scaffold. Cell adhesion was promoted by covalently bound laminin. GDNF that was released from these microspheres was confirmed to retain its activity. Graded scaffolds were formed inside silicone conduits using 3D-printed holders. The fully formed NGC's contained plasmin-degradable PEG/heparin scaffolds that developed linear gradients in reversibly bound GDNF. The NGC's were implanted into rats with severed sciatic nerves to confirm in vivo degradability and lack of a major foreign body response. The NGC's also promoted robust axonal regeneration into the conduit.

  6. A modular, plasmin-sensitive, clickable poly(ethylene glycol)-heparin-laminin microsphere system for establishing growth factor gradients in nerve guidance conduits.

    PubMed

    Roam, Jacob L; Yan, Ying; Nguyen, Peter K; Kinstlinger, Ian S; Leuchter, Michael K; Hunter, Daniel A; Wood, Matthew D; Elbert, Donald L

    2015-12-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration is a complex problem that, despite many advancements and innovations, still has sub-optimal outcomes. Compared to biologically derived acellular nerve grafts and autografts, completely synthetic nerve guidance conduits (NGC), which allow for precise engineering of their properties, are promising but still far from optimal. We have developed an almost entirely synthetic NGC that allows control of soluble growth factor delivery kinetics, cell-initiated degradability and cell attachment. We have focused on the spatial patterning of glial-cell derived human neurotrophic factor (GDNF), which promotes motor axon extension. The base scaffolds consisted of heparin-containing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) microspheres. The modular microsphere format greatly simplifies the formation of concentration gradients of reversibly bound GDNF. To facilitate axon extension, we engineered the microspheres with tunable plasmin degradability. 'Click' cross-linking chemistries were also added to allow scaffold formation without risk of covalently coupling the growth factor to the scaffold. Cell adhesion was promoted by covalently bound laminin. GDNF that was released from these microspheres was confirmed to retain its activity. Graded scaffolds were formed inside silicone conduits using 3D-printed holders. The fully formed NGC's contained plasmin-degradable PEG/heparin scaffolds that developed linear gradients in reversibly bound GDNF. The NGC's were implanted into rats with severed sciatic nerves to confirm in vivo degradability and lack of a major foreign body response. The NGC's also promoted robust axonal regeneration into the conduit. PMID:26352518

  7. Oxidative stress increases gene expression of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor and amphiregulin in cultured rat gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Y; Shinomura, Y; Tsutsui, S; Yasunaga, Y; Zushi, S; Higashiyama, S; Taniguchi, N; Matsuzawa, Y

    1996-09-13

    We investigated the effects of oxidative stress on mRNA levels of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and amphiregulin (AR) in rat gastric epithelial RGM1 cells. In response to stimulation with hydrogen peroxide (100-400 microM), gene expression of HB-EGF and AR increased in a dose-dependent manner, peaked at 3 h, and returned to the base line at 7 h. Hydrogen peroxide-induced HB-EGF and AR gene expression was blocked by pretreatment with an antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine. In addition, it was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with EGF receptor-specific tyrphostin AG1478, but not by depletion of protein kinase C. These data indicate that oxidative stress upregulates expression of EGF-related polypeptides and the possible involvement of EGF receptor in this process.

  8. Heparin-binding properties of human serum spreading factor.

    PubMed

    Barnes, D W; Reing, J E; Amos, B

    1985-08-01

    Human serum spreading factor (SF) is a blood glycoprotein that promotes attachment and spreading and influences growth, migration, and differentiation of a variety of animal cells in culture. SF purified from human plasma or serum by chromatographic methods reported previously (Barnes, D. W., and Silnutzer, J. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 12548-12552) does not bind to heparin-Sepharose under conditions of physiological ionic strength and pH. In a further examination of the heparin-binding properties of human serum SF, we found that exposure of purified SF to 8 M urea altered several properties of the protein, including heparin affinity, and these alterations remained after removal of the urea from SF solutions. Urea-treated SF bound to heparin under physiological conditions, and salt concentrations of 0.4 M or higher were required for elution of urea-treated SF from heparin-Sepharose at pH 7.0. The alteration of heparin-binding properties of SF also was observed upon exposure of the protein to heat or acid. Treatment of SF with urea, heat, or acid resulted additionally in greatly decreased cell spreading-promoting activity of the molecule. The decreased biological activity was associated with a reduced ability of the treated SF to bind to the cell culture substratum, a prerequisite for the attachment-promoting activity of the molecule. Experiments examining the heparin-binding properties of native SF in unfractionated human plasma indicated that the major portion of SF in blood did not bind to heparin under conditions of physiological ionic strength and pH. PMID:2410408

  9. Synergistic Binding of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A and Its Receptors to Heparin Selectively Modulates Complex Affinity.

    PubMed

    Teran, Madelane; Nugent, Matthew A

    2015-06-26

    Angiogenesis is a highly regulated process orchestrated by the VEGF system. Heparin/heparan sulfate proteoglycans and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) have been identified as co-receptors, yet the mechanisms of action have not been fully defined. In the present study, we characterized molecular interactions between receptors and co-receptors, using surface plasmon resonance and in vitro binding assays. Additionally, we demonstrate that these binding events are relevant to VEGF activity within endothelial cells. We defined interactions and structural requirements for heparin/HS interactions with VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-1, NRP-1, and VEGF165 in complex with VEGFR-2 and NRP-1. We demonstrate that these structural requirements are distinct for each interaction. We further show that VEGF165, VEGFR-2, and monomeric NRP-1 bind weakly to heparin alone yet show synergistic binding to heparin when presented together in various combinations. This synergistic binding appears to translate to alterations in VEGF signaling in endothelial cells. We found that soluble NRP-1 increases VEGF binding and activation of VEGFR-2 and ERK1/2 in endothelial cells and that these effects require sulfated HS. These data suggest that the presence of HS/heparin and NRP-1 may dictate the specific receptor type activated by VEGF and ultimately determine the biological output of the system. The ability of co-receptors to fine-tune VEGF responsiveness suggests the possibility that VEGF-mediated angiogenesis can be selectively stimulated or inhibited by targeting HS/heparin and NRP-1. PMID:25979342

  10. Synergistic Binding of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A and Its Receptors to Heparin Selectively Modulates Complex Affinity*

    PubMed Central

    Teran, Madelane; Nugent, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a highly regulated process orchestrated by the VEGF system. Heparin/heparan sulfate proteoglycans and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) have been identified as co-receptors, yet the mechanisms of action have not been fully defined. In the present study, we characterized molecular interactions between receptors and co-receptors, using surface plasmon resonance and in vitro binding assays. Additionally, we demonstrate that these binding events are relevant to VEGF activity within endothelial cells. We defined interactions and structural requirements for heparin/HS interactions with VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-1, NRP-1, and VEGF165 in complex with VEGFR-2 and NRP-1. We demonstrate that these structural requirements are distinct for each interaction. We further show that VEGF165, VEGFR-2, and monomeric NRP-1 bind weakly to heparin alone yet show synergistic binding to heparin when presented together in various combinations. This synergistic binding appears to translate to alterations in VEGF signaling in endothelial cells. We found that soluble NRP-1 increases VEGF binding and activation of VEGFR-2 and ERK1/2 in endothelial cells and that these effects require sulfated HS. These data suggest that the presence of HS/heparin and NRP-1 may dictate the specific receptor type activated by VEGF and ultimately determine the biological output of the system. The ability of co-receptors to fine-tune VEGF responsiveness suggests the possibility that VEGF-mediated angiogenesis can be selectively stimulated or inhibited by targeting HS/heparin and NRP-1. PMID:25979342

  11. Synergistic Binding of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A and Its Receptors to Heparin Selectively Modulates Complex Affinity.

    PubMed

    Teran, Madelane; Nugent, Matthew A

    2015-06-26

    Angiogenesis is a highly regulated process orchestrated by the VEGF system. Heparin/heparan sulfate proteoglycans and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) have been identified as co-receptors, yet the mechanisms of action have not been fully defined. In the present study, we characterized molecular interactions between receptors and co-receptors, using surface plasmon resonance and in vitro binding assays. Additionally, we demonstrate that these binding events are relevant to VEGF activity within endothelial cells. We defined interactions and structural requirements for heparin/HS interactions with VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-1, NRP-1, and VEGF165 in complex with VEGFR-2 and NRP-1. We demonstrate that these structural requirements are distinct for each interaction. We further show that VEGF165, VEGFR-2, and monomeric NRP-1 bind weakly to heparin alone yet show synergistic binding to heparin when presented together in various combinations. This synergistic binding appears to translate to alterations in VEGF signaling in endothelial cells. We found that soluble NRP-1 increases VEGF binding and activation of VEGFR-2 and ERK1/2 in endothelial cells and that these effects require sulfated HS. These data suggest that the presence of HS/heparin and NRP-1 may dictate the specific receptor type activated by VEGF and ultimately determine the biological output of the system. The ability of co-receptors to fine-tune VEGF responsiveness suggests the possibility that VEGF-mediated angiogenesis can be selectively stimulated or inhibited by targeting HS/heparin and NRP-1.

  12. The Mitogenic Potential of Heparin-Binding Epidermal Growth Factor in the Human Endometrium Is Mediated by the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Is Modulated by Tumor Necrosis Factor

    PubMed Central

    CHOBOTOVA, KATYA; MUCHMORE, MARY-ELIZABETH; CARVER, JANET; YOO, HYUNG-J; MANEK, SANJIV; GULLICK, WILLIAM J.; BARLOW, DAVID H.; MARDON, HELEN J.

    2006-01-01

    Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family, is implicated in a variety of biological processes, including reproduction. Previous studies describe increased levels of HB-EGF in the human endometrium during the midsecretory stage of the menstrual cycle, suggesting a function for HB-EGF in implantation of the human blastocyst. Here we have investigated the expression and function of the soluble and transmembrane forms of HB-EGF in the human endometrium. We show that the expression of the transmembrane form of HB-EGF in the human endometrium is modulated according to the stage of the menstrual cycle. We present data demonstrating that both the soluble and transmembrane forms of HB-EGF induce DNA synthesis in human endometrial stromal cells. Furthermore, TNFα has a cooperative effect on HB-EGF, EGF, TGFα, and betacellulin-induced DNA synthesis in stromal cells, suggesting roles for the EGF family and TNFα in regeneration and maturation of human endometrium. Induction of DNA synthesis by HB-EGF and its modulation by TNFα in endometrial stromal cells are mediated by the EGF receptor and not the HB-EGF receptor ErbB4. Our data suggest key functions for HB-EGF, TNFα, and the EGF receptor in endometrial maturation, via autocrine/paracrine and juxtacrine pathways, in preparation for embryo implantation. PMID:12466384

  13. A comparison of the effects of unfractionated heparin, dalteparin and danaparoid on vascular endothelial growth factor-induced tumour angiogenesis and heparanase activity.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hidenori; Ebihara, Satoru; Okazaki, Tatsuma; Asada, Masanori; Sasaki, Hidetada; Yamaya, Mutsuo

    2005-10-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is the most common complication of solid tumours. In this study, the effectiveness of three polysaccharide anticoagulants (PSAs), at therapeutic doses, at inhibiting solid tumour growth was investigated. Mice with tumour xenografts were subcutaneously injected with either unfractionated heparin (UFH; 200 units kg(-1) day(-1)), dalteparin (75 units kg(-1) day(-1)) or danaparoid (50 units kg(-1) day(-1)). At these concentrations, these PSAs are equieffective at inhibiting blood coagulation activated factor X. In mice with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumours dalteparin and, to a lesser extent, UFH inhibited both tumour growth and angiogenesis, whereas danaparoid did not. In contrast, in mice with KLN205 tumours, all the PSAs inhibited tumour growth and angiogenesis. All the PSAs significantly inhibited proliferation, migration of endothelial cells and vessel formation in matrigel plugs containing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and there were no significant differences between these effects of the PSAs. The PSAs had no effect on endothelial cell tubular formation in vitro. Although all the PSAs inhibited VEGF production in KLN205 tumours in vivo and cells in vitro, in LLC tumours and cells only UFH and dalteparin inhibited VEGF production, whereas danaparoid did not. In both LLC and KLN205 tumours in vivo, heparanase activity was inhibited by UFH and dalteparin, but not by danaparoid. Hence, UFH and dalteparin may be more effective than danaparoid at inhibiting cancer progression in DIC patients with solid tumours, due at least in part to their ability to suppress VEGF and heparanase in tumours.

  14. FGF growth factor analogs

    DOEpatents

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua; Takahashi, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  15. Biomedical application of low molecular weight heparin/protamine nano/micro particles as cell- and growth factor-carriers and coating matrix.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Masayuki; Kishimoto, Satoko; Takikawa, Makoto; Hattori, Hidemi; Nakamura, Shingo; Shimizu, Masafumi

    2015-05-22

    Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)/protamine (P) nano/micro particles (N/MPs) (LMWH/P N/MPs) were applied as carriers for heparin-binding growth factors (GFs) and for adhesive cells including adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). A mixture of LMWH and P yields a dispersion of N/MPs (100 nm-3 μm in diameter). LMWH/P N/MPs can be immobilized onto cell surfaces or extracellular matrix, control the release, activate GFs and protect various GFs. Furthermore, LMWH/P N/MPs can also bind to adhesive cell surfaces, inducing cells and LMWH/P N/MPs-aggregate formation. Those aggregates substantially promoted cellular viability, and induced vascularization and fibrous tissue formation in vivo. The LMWH/P N/MPs, in combination with ADSCs or BMSCs, are effective cell-carriers and are potential promising novel therapeutic agents for inducing vascularization and fibrous tissue formation in ischemic disease by transplantation of the ADSCs and LMWH/P N/MPs-aggregates. LMWH/P N/MPs can also bind to tissue culture plates and adsorb exogenous GFs or GFs from those cells. The LMWH/P N/MPs-coated matrix in the presence of GFs may provide novel biomaterials that can control cellular activity such as growth and differentiation. Furthermore, three-dimensional (3D) cultures of cells including ADSCs and BMSCs using plasma-medium gel with LMWH/P N/MPs exhibited efficient cell proliferation. Thus, LMWH/P N/MPs are an adequate carrier both for GFs and for stromal cells such as ADSCs and BMSCs, and are a functional coating matrix for their cultures.

  16. Human trophoblast survival at low oxygen concentrations requires metalloproteinase-mediated shedding of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Armant, D. Randall; Kilburn, Brian A.; Petkova, Anelia; Edwin, Samuel S.; Duniec-Dmuchowski, Zophia M.; Edwards, Holly J.; Romero, Roberto; Leach, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF), which is expressed in the placenta during normal pregnancy, is downregulated in pre-eclampsia, a human pregnancy disorder associated with poor trophoblast differentiation and survival. This growth factor protects against apoptosis during stress, suggesting a role in trophoblast survival in the relatively low O2 (∼2%) environment of the first trimester conceptus. Using a well-characterized human first trimester cytotrophoblast cell line, we found that a 4-hour exposure to 2% O2 upregulates HBEGF synthesis and secretion independently of an increase in its mRNA. Five other expressed members of the EGF family are largely unaffected. At 2% O2, signaling via HER1 or HER4, known HBEGF receptors, is required for both HBEGF upregulation and protection against apoptosis. This positive-feedback loop is dependent on metalloproteinase-mediated cleavage and shedding of the HBEGF ectodomain. The restoration of trophoblast survival by the addition of soluble HBEGF in cultures exposed to low O2 and metalloproteinase inhibitor suggests that the effects of HBEGF are mediated by autocrine/paracrine, rather than juxtacrine, signaling. Our results provide evidence that a post-transcriptional mechanism induced in trophoblasts by low O2 rapidly amplifies HBEGF signaling to inhibit apoptosis. These findings have a high clinical significance, as the downregulation of HBEGF in pre-eclampsia is likely to be a contributing factor leading to the demise of trophoblasts. PMID:16407398

  17. The cell-penetrating peptide domain from human heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) has anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jue-Yeon; Seo, Yoo-Na; Park, Hyun-Jung; Park, Yoon-Jeong; Chung, Chong-Pyoung

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBP sequence identified from HB-EGF has cell penetration activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBP inhibits the NF-{kappa}B dependent inflammatory responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBP directly blocks phosphorylation and degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBP inhibits nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B p65 subunit. -- Abstract: A heparin-binding peptide (HBP) sequence from human heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) was identified and was shown to exhibit cell penetration activity. This cell penetration induced an anti-inflammatory reaction in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. HBP penetrated the cell membrane during the 10 min treatment and reduced the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cytokines (TNF-{alpha} and IL-6) in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, HBP inhibited the LPS-induced upregulation of cytokines, including TNF-{alpha} and IL-6, and decreased the interstitial infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in a lung inflammation model. HBP inhibited NF-{kappa}B-dependent inflammatory responses by directly blocking the phosphorylation and degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and by subsequently inhibiting the nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-{kappa}B. Taken together, this novel HBP may be potentially useful candidate for anti-inflammatory treatments and can be combined with other drugs of interest to transport attached molecules into cells.

  18. A comparison of the effects of unfractionated heparin, dalteparin and danaparoid on vascular endothelial growth factor-induced tumour angiogenesis and heparanase activity

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Hidenori; Ebihara, Satoru; Okazaki, Tatsuma; Asada, Masanori; Sasaki, Hidetada; Yamaya, Mutsuo

    2005-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is the most common complication of solid tumours. In this study, the effectiveness of three polysaccharide anticoagulants (PSAs), at therapeutic doses, at inhibiting solid tumour growth was investigated. Mice with tumour xenografts were subcutaneously injected with either unfractionated heparin (UFH; 200 units kg−1 day−1), dalteparin (75 units kg−1 day−1) or danaparoid (50 units kg−1 day−1). At these concentrations, these PSAs are equieffective at inhibiting blood coagulation activated factor X. In mice with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumours dalteparin and, to a lesser extent, UFH inhibited both tumour growth and angiogenesis, whereas danaparoid did not. In contrast, in mice with KLN205 tumours, all the PSAs inhibited tumour growth and angiogenesis. All the PSAs significantly inhibited proliferation, migration of endothelial cells and vessel formation in matrigel plugs containing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and there were no significant differences between these effects of the PSAs. The PSAs had no effect on endothelial cell tubular formation in vitro. Although all the PSAs inhibited VEGF production in KLN205 tumours in vivo and cells in vitro, in LLC tumours and cells only UFH and dalteparin inhibited VEGF production, whereas danaparoid did not. In both LLC and KLN205 tumours in vivo, heparanase activity was inhibited by UFH and dalteparin, but not by danaparoid. Hence, UFH and dalteparin may be more effective than danaparoid at inhibiting cancer progression in DIC patients with solid tumours, due at least in part to their ability to suppress VEGF and heparanase in tumours. PMID:16041398

  19. A comparison of the effects of unfractionated heparin, dalteparin and danaparoid on vascular endothelial growth factor-induced tumour angiogenesis and heparanase activity.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hidenori; Ebihara, Satoru; Okazaki, Tatsuma; Asada, Masanori; Sasaki, Hidetada; Yamaya, Mutsuo

    2005-10-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is the most common complication of solid tumours. In this study, the effectiveness of three polysaccharide anticoagulants (PSAs), at therapeutic doses, at inhibiting solid tumour growth was investigated. Mice with tumour xenografts were subcutaneously injected with either unfractionated heparin (UFH; 200 units kg(-1) day(-1)), dalteparin (75 units kg(-1) day(-1)) or danaparoid (50 units kg(-1) day(-1)). At these concentrations, these PSAs are equieffective at inhibiting blood coagulation activated factor X. In mice with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumours dalteparin and, to a lesser extent, UFH inhibited both tumour growth and angiogenesis, whereas danaparoid did not. In contrast, in mice with KLN205 tumours, all the PSAs inhibited tumour growth and angiogenesis. All the PSAs significantly inhibited proliferation, migration of endothelial cells and vessel formation in matrigel plugs containing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and there were no significant differences between these effects of the PSAs. The PSAs had no effect on endothelial cell tubular formation in vitro. Although all the PSAs inhibited VEGF production in KLN205 tumours in vivo and cells in vitro, in LLC tumours and cells only UFH and dalteparin inhibited VEGF production, whereas danaparoid did not. In both LLC and KLN205 tumours in vivo, heparanase activity was inhibited by UFH and dalteparin, but not by danaparoid. Hence, UFH and dalteparin may be more effective than danaparoid at inhibiting cancer progression in DIC patients with solid tumours, due at least in part to their ability to suppress VEGF and heparanase in tumours. PMID:16041398

  20. Heparin-binding growth factor, pleiotrophin, mediates neuritogenic activity of embryonic pig brain-derived chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate hybrid chains.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xingfeng; Mikami, Tadahisa; Yamada, Shuhei; Faissner, Andreas; Muramatsu, Takashi; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

    2005-03-11

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) chains play roles in the central nervous system. Most notably, CS/DS hybrid chains (E-CS/DS) purified from embryonic pig brains bind growth factors and promote neurite outgrowth toward embryonic mouse hippocampal neurons in culture. However, the neuritogenic mechanism is not well understood. Here we showed that pleiotrophin (PTN), a heparin-binding growth factor, produced mainly by glia cells, was the predominant binding partner for E-CS/DS in the membrane-associated protein fraction of neonatal rat brain. The CS/DS chains were separated on a PTN column into unbound, low affinity, and high affinity fractions. The latter two fractions promoted outgrowth of dendrite- and axon-like neurites, respectively, whereas the unbound fraction showed no such activity. The activity of the low affinity fraction was abolished by an anti-PTN antibody or when glia cells were removed from the culture. In contrast, the high affinity fraction displayed activity under both these conditions. Hence, PTN mainly from glia cells mediated the activity of the low affinity but not the high affinity fraction. The anti-CS antibody 473HD neutralized the neuritogenic activities of both fractions. Interaction analysis indicated that the 473HD epitope and PTN-binding domains in the E-CS/DS chains largely overlap. The three affinity subfractions differed in disaccharide composition and the distribution of l-iduronic acid-containing disaccharides along the chains. Oversulfated disaccharides and nonconsecutive iduronic acid-containing units were the requirements for the E-CS/DS chains to bind PTN and to exhibit the neuritogenic activities. Thus, CS subpopulations with distinct structures in the mammalian brain play different roles in neuritogenesis through distinct molecular mechanisms, at least in part by regulating the functions of growth factors.

  1. Controlled dual delivery of fibroblast growth factor-2 and Interleukin-10 by heparin-based coacervate synergistically enhances ischemic heart repair.

    PubMed

    Chen, William C W; Lee, Brandon G; Park, Dae Woo; Kim, Kyobum; Chu, Hunghao; Kim, Kang; Huard, Johnny; Wang, Yadong

    2015-12-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) causes myocardial necrosis, triggers chronic inflammatory responses, and leads to pathological remodeling. Controlled delivery of a combination of angiogenic and immunoregulatory proteins may be a promising therapeutic approach for MI. We investigated the bioactivity and therapeutic potential of an injectable, heparin-based coacervate co-delivering an angiogenic factor, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), and an anti-inflammatory cytokine, Interleukin-10 (IL-10) in a spatially and temporally controlled manner. Coacervate delivery of FGF2 and IL-10 preserved their bioactivities on cardiac stromal cell proliferation in vitro. Upon intramyocardial injection into a mouse MI model, echocardiography revealed that FGF2/IL-10 coacervate treated groups showed significantly improved long-term LV contractile function and ameliorated LV dilatation. FGF2/IL-10 coacervate substantially augmented LV myocardial elasticity. Additionally, FGF2/IL-10 coacervate notably enhanced long-term revascularization, especially at the infarct area. In addition, coacervate loaded with 500 ng FGF2 and 500 ng IL-10 significantly reduced LV fibrosis, considerably preserved infarct wall thickness, and markedly inhibited chronic inflammation at the infarct area. These results indicate that FGF2/IL-10 coacervate has notably greater therapeutic potential than coacervate containing only FGF2. Overall, our data suggest therapeutically synergistic effects of FGF-2/IL-10 coacervate, particularly coacervate with FGF2 and 500 ng IL-10, for the treatment of ischemic heart disease.

  2. Sustained release of hepatocyte growth factor by cationic self-assembling peptide/heparin hybrid hydrogel improves β-cell survival and function through modulating inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuyun; Zhang, Lanlan; Cheng, Jingqiu; Lu, Yanrong; Liu, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory response is a major cause of grafts dysfunction in islet transplantation. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) had shown anti-inflammatory activity in multiple diseases. In this study, we aim to deliver HGF by self-assembling peptide/heparin (SAP/Hep) hybrid gel to protect β-cell from inflammatory injury. The morphological and slow release properties of SAPs were analyzed. Rat INS-1 β-cell line was treated with tumor necrosis factor α in vitro and transplanted into rat kidney capsule in vivo, and the viability, apoptosis, function, and inflammation of β-cells were evaluated. Cationic KLD1R and KLD2R self-assembled to nanofiber hydrogel, which showed higher binding affinity for Hep and HGF because of electrostatic interaction. Slow release of HGF from cationic SAP/Hep gel is a two-step mechanism involving binding affinity with Hep and molecular diffusion. In vitro and in vivo results showed that HGF-loaded KLD2R/Hep gel promoted β-cell survival and insulin secretion, and inhibited cell apoptosis, cytokine release, T-cell infiltration, and activation of NFκB/p38 MAPK pathways in β-cells. This study suggested that SAP/Hep gel is a promising carrier for local delivery of bioactive proteins in islet transplantation. PMID:27729786

  3. Latent transforming growth factor β-binding protein-3 and fibulin-1C interact with the extracellular domain of the heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor precursor

    PubMed Central

    Brooke, Joanna S; Cha, Jeong-Heon; Eidels, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Background The membrane-bound cell-surface precursor and soluble forms of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) contribute to many cellular developmental processes. The widespread occurrence of HB-EGF in cell and tissue types has led to observations of its role in such cellular and tissue events as tumor formation, cell migration, extracellular matrix formation, wound healing, and cell adherence. Several studies have reported the involvement of such extracellular matrix proteins as latent transforming growth factor β-binding protein, TGF-β, and fibulin-1 in some of these processes. To determine whether HB-EGF interacts with extracellular matrix proteins we used the extracellular domain of proHB-EGF in a yeast two-hybrid system to screen a monkey kidney cDNA library. cDNA clones containing nucleotide sequences encoding domains of two proteins were obtained and their derived amino acid sequences were evaluated. Results From ≈ 3 × 106 screened monkey cDNA clones, cDNA clones were recovered that contained nucleotide sequences encoding domains of the monkey latent transforming growth factor-β binding protein-3 (MkLTBP-3) and fibulin-1C protein. The amino acid sequence derived from the MkLTBP-3 gene shared 98.6% identity with human LTBP-3 and 86.7% identity with mouse LTBP-3 amino acid sequences. The amino acid sequence derived from the monkey fibulin-1C gene shared 97.2% identity with human fibulin-1C. Yeast two-hybrid screens indicate that LTBP-3 and fibulin-1C interact with proHB-EGF through their calcium-binding EGF-like modules. Conclusions The interactions of the extracellular domain of proHB-EGF with LTBP-3 and fibulin-1C suggest novel functions for HB-EGF between cell and tissue surfaces. PMID:11846885

  4. Expression of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor in term chorionic villous explants and its role in trophoblast survival

    PubMed Central

    Imudia, Anthony N.; Kilburn, Brian A.; Petkova, Anelia; Edwin, Samuel S.; Romero, Roberto; Armant, D. Randall

    2008-01-01

    Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF) induces trophoblast extravillous differentiation and prevents apoptosis. These functions are compromised in preeclampsia. Because HBEGF is downregulated in placentas delivered by women with preeclampsia, we have examined its expression and cytoprotective activity in term villous explants. Chorionic villous explants prepared from non-pathological placentas collected by cesarean section at term were cultured at either 20% or 2% O2 and treated with the HBEGF antagonist CRM197 or recombinant HBEGF. Paraffin sections were assayed for trophoblast death, proliferation and HBEGF expression using the TUNEL method, immunohistochemistry for nuclear Ki67 expression and semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry with image analysis, respectively. Trophoblast cell death was increased significantly after 8 h of culture with CRM197 or by culture for 2 h at 2% O2. Exogenous HBEGF prevented cell death due to hypoxia. Proliferative capacity was not affected by culture at either 20% or 2% O2. Contrary to first trimester placenta, term trophoblasts do not elevate HBEGF expression in response to hypoxia. However, low endogenous levels of HBEGF are required to maintain survival. Therefore, HBEGF-mediated signaling significantly reduces trophoblast cell death at term and its deficiency in preeclampsia could negatively impact trophoblast survival. PMID:18691754

  5. Sustained dual release of placental growth factor-2 and bone morphogenic protein-2 from heparin-based nanocomplexes for direct osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yun; Deng, Li-Zhi; Sun, Hai-Peng; Xu, Jia-Yun; Li, Yi-Ming; Xie, Xin; Zhang, Li-Ming; Deng, Fei-Long

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the direct osteogenic effect between placental growth factor-2 (PlGF-2) and bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2). Methods Three groups of PlGF-2/BMP-2-loaded heparin–N-(2-hydroxyl) propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC) nanocomplexes were prepared: those with 0.5 μg PlGF-2; with 1.0 μg BMP-2; and with 0.5 μg PlGF-2 combined with 1.0 μg BMP-2. The loading efficiencies and release profiles of these growth factors (GFs) in this nanocomplex system were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, their biological activities were evaluated using cell counting kit-8, cell morphology, and cell number counting assays, and their osteogenic activities were quantified using alkaline phosphatase and Alizarin Red S staining assays. Results The loading efficiencies were more than 99% for the nanocomplexes loaded with just PlGF-2 and for those loaded with both PlGF-2 and BMP-2. For the nanocomplex loaded with just BMP-2, the loading efficiency was more than 97%. About 83%–84% of PlGF-2 and 89%–91% of BMP-2 were stably retained on the nanocomplexes for at least 21 days. In in vitro biological assays, PlGF-2 exhibited osteogenic effects comparable to those of BMP-2 despite its dose in the experiments being lower than that of BMP-2. Moreover, the results implied that heparin-based nanocomplexes encapsulating two GFs have enhanced potential in the enhancement of osteoblast function. Conclusion PlGF-2-loaded heparin–HTCC nanocomplexes may constitute a promising system for bone regeneration. Moreover, the dual delivery of PlGF-2 and BMP-2 appears to have greater potential in bone tissue regeneration than the delivery of either GFs alone. PMID:27042064

  6. M/sub r/ 25,000 heparin-binding protein from guinea pig brain is a high molecular weight form of basic fibroblast growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Moscatelli, D.; Joseph-Silverstein, J.; Manejias, R.; Rifkin, D.B.

    1987-08-01

    A M/sub r/ 25,000 form of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has been isolated from guinea pig grain along with the typical M/sub r/ 18,000 form. Both forms were purified to homogeneity by a combination of heparin-affinity chromatography and ion-exchange chromatography on an FPLC Mono S column. The M/sub r/ 25,000 form, like the M/sub r/ 18,000 form was not eluted from the heparin-affinity column with 0.95 M NaCl, but was eluted with 2 M NaCl. The M/sub r/ 25,000 guinea pig protein stimulated plasminogen activator production by cultured bovine capillary endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner at concentration of 0.1-10 ngml, the same range that was effective for guinea pig and human M/sub r/ 18,000 bFGFs. The binding of human /sup 125/I-labeled bFGF to baby hamster kidney cells is inhibited equally by the M/sub r/ 25,000 guinea pig protein and the M/sub r/ 18,000 guinea pig and human bFGFs. Polyclonal antibodies raised against human bFGF recognize both the M/sub r/ 25,000 and 18,000 guinea pig proteins in an immunoblot analysis. In a radioimmunoassay, both the M/sub r/ 25,000 and M/sub r/ 18,000 guinea pig proteins compete equally well with iodinated human bFGF for binding to the anti-human bFGF antibodies. When treated with low concentrations of trypsin, the M/sub r/ 25,000 guinea pig bFGF was converted to a M/sub r/ 18,000 protein. These results show that the two molecules are closely related and suggest that the M/sub r/ 25,000 protein shares substantial homology with the M/sub r/ 18,000 bFGF

  7. Conditional loss of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor results in enhanced liver fibrosis after bile duct ligation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Takemura, Takayo; Yoshida, Yuichi; Kiso, Shinichi; Kizu, Takashi; Furuta, Kunimaro; Ezaki, Hisao; Hamano, Mina; Egawa, Mayumi; Chatani, Norihiro; Kamada, Yoshihiro; Imai, Yasuharu; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Iwamoto, Ryo; Mekada, Eisuke; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2013-07-26

    Highlights: •HB-EGF expression was increased during the development of liver fibrosis. •Conditional HB-EGF knockout mouse showed enhanced experimental liver fibrosis. •HB-EGF antagonized TGF-β-induced activation of hepatic stellate cells. •We report a possible protective role of HB-EGF in cholestatic liver fibrosis. -- Abstract: Our aims were to evaluate the involvement of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) in liver fibrogenesis of humans and mice and to elucidate the effect of HB-EGF deficiency on cholestatic liver fibrosis using conditional HB-EGF knockout (KO) mice. We first demonstrated that gene expression of HB-EGF had a positive significant correlation with that of collagen in human fibrotic livers, and was increased in bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced fibrotic livers in mouse. We then generated conditional HB-EGF knockout (KO) mice using the interferon inducible Mx-1 promoter driven Cre recombinase transgene and wild type (WT) and KO mice were subjected to BDL. After BDL, KO mice exhibited enhanced liver fibrosis with increased expression of collagen, compared with WT mice. Finally, we used mouse hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to examine the role of HB-EGF in the activation of these cells and showed that HB-EGF antagonized TGF-β-induced gene expression of collagen in mouse primary HSCs. Interestingly, HB-EGF did not prevent the TGF-β-induced nuclear accumulation of Smad3, but did lead to stabilization of the Smad transcriptional co-repressor TG-interacting factor. In conclusion, our data suggest a possible protective role of HB-EGF in cholestatic liver fibrosis.

  8. The anti-tumor effect of cross-reacting material 197, an inhibitor of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, in human resistant ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Xiao-han; Deng, Suo; Li, Meng; Lu, Mei-song

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HB-EGF over-expression in A2780/Taxol, A2780/CDDP cells and the matched xenografts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRM197 induces enhanced apoptosis in A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRM197 arrests A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP cells at G0/G1 phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRM197 suppressed the A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP growth of xenografts. -- Abstract: Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a promising target for ovarian cancer therapy. Cross-reacting material 197 (CRM197), a specific HB-EGF inhibitor, has been proven to represent possible chemotherapeutic agent for ovarian cancer. However, the effect of CRM197 on the resistant ovarian carcinoma cells has not been sufficiently elucidated. Here, we found that HB-EGF was over-expressed in a paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian carcinoma cell line (A2780/Taxol) and a cisplatin-resistant cell line (A2780/CDDP), as well as the xenograft mouse tissue samples with these cells. To investigate the possible significance of the HB-EGF over-expression in A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP cells, we inhibited HB-EGF expression by CRM197 to investigate the effect of CRM197 treatment on these cells. We observed that CRM197 significantly induced anti-proliferative activity in a dose-dependent manner with the cell-cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and enhanced apoptosis in A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP cells. The sensitive ovarian carcinoma parental cell line (A2780), A2780/Taxol and A2780/CDDP cells formed tumors in nude mice, and enhanced tumorigenicity was observed in drug-resistant tumors. Furthermore, we observed that CRM197 significantly suppressed the growth of drug-resistant ovarian cancer xenografts in vivo (p < 0.001). These results suggest that CRM197 as an HB-EGF-targeted agent has potent anti-tumor activity in paclitaxel- and cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer which over-express HB-EGF.

  9. Solution structure of the ligand binding domain of the fibroblast growth factor receptor: role of heparin in the activation of the receptor.

    PubMed

    Hung, Kuo-Wei; Kumar, Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy S; Kathir, Karuppanan Muthusamy; Xu, Ping; Ni, Feng; Ji, Hsiang-Hui; Chen, Mei-Chi; Yang, Chu-Chi; Lin, Fu-Pang; Chiu, Ing-Ming; Yu, Chin

    2005-12-01

    The three-dimensional solution structure of the ligand binding D2 domain of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) is determined using multidimensional NMR techniques. The atomic root-mean-square distribution for the backbone atoms in the structured region is 0.64 A. Secondary structural elements in the D2 domain include 11 beta-strands arranged antiparallely into two layers of beta-sheets. The structure of the D2 domain is characterized by the presence of a short flexible helix that protrudes out of the layers of beta-sheets. Results of size exclusion chromatography and sedimentation velocity experiments show that the D2 domain exists in a monomeric state both in the presence and in the absence of bound sucrose octasulfate (SOS), a structural analogue of heparin. Comparison of the solution structure of the D2 domain with the crystal structure of the protein (D2 domain) in the FGF signaling complex reveals significant differences, suggesting that ligand (FGF) binding may induce significant conformational changes in the receptor. SOS binding sites in the D2 domain have been mapped on the basis of the 1H-15N chemical shift perturbation data. SOS binds to the positively charged residues located in beta-strand III and the flexible helix. Isothermal titration calorimetry data indicate that the ligand (hFGF-1) binds strongly (Kd approximately 10(-9) M) to the D2 domain even in the absence of SOS. Binding of SOS to either the D2 domain or hFGF-1 does not seem to be the driving force for the formation of the D2-hFGF-1 binary complex. The function of SOS binding appears to stabilize the preformed D2-FGF binary complex. PMID:16313182

  10. Heparin-Binding EGF-Like Growth Factor Is Essential for Preservation of Gut Barrier Function after Hemorrhagic Shock and Resuscitation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-yi; Radulescu, Andrei; Besner, Gail E.

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of the current study was to determine the role of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) as a mediator of gut barrier function after hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HS/R) in mice. Methods HS/R was induced in HB-EGF knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice. Intestinal histologic injury scores, intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, and gut barrier function were determined. Statistical analyses were performed using linear mixed models with p<0.05 considered statistically significant. Results All mice subjected to HS/R had significantly increased intestinal histologic injury scores, apoptosis indices and intestinal permeability compared to mice subjected to sham surgery. Compared to WT mice, HB-EGF KO mice subjected to HS/R had significantly increased histologic injury (mean injury grade 4.5 ± 1 vs. 2.75 ± 0.5 at 3 h of resuscitation, p<0.05), increased apoptosis indices (mean apoptosis index 6.84 ± 1.95 vs. 3.24 ± 1.00 at 3 h of resuscitation, p<.05), and increased mucosal permeability (FD4 clearance 78 ± 18.91 vs. 47.75 ± 8.06 nl /min/ cm2 at 3 h of resuscitation, p<.05). Conclusions HB-EGF is essential for the preservation of gut barrier function after HS/R. These findings support the clinical use of HB-EGF in protection of the intestines from disease states associated with intestinal hypoperfusion injury. PMID:19628093

  11. Effect of antigen-dependent clearance on pharmacokinetics of anti-heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Noriyuki; Yoshikawa, Yukitaka; Enokizono, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a member of the EGF family and is an important therapeutic target in some types of human cancers. KM3566 is a mouse anti-HB-EGF monoclonal antibody that neutralizes HB-EGF activity by inhibiting the binding of HB-EGF to its receptors. Based on the results of our pharmacokinetics study, a humanized derivative antibody, KHK2866, is rapidly cleared from serum and shows nonlinear pharmacokinetics in cynomolgus monkeys. In this study, we examined the antigen-dependent clearance of an anti-HB-EGF monoclonal antibody in vivo and in vitro in order to pharmacokinetically explain the rapid elimination of KHK2866. We revealed tumor size-dependent clearance of KM3566 in in vivo studies and obtained good fits between the observed and simulated concentrations of KM3566 based on the two-compartment with a saturable route of clearance model. Furthermore, in vivo imaging analyses demonstrated tumor-specific distribution of KM3566. We then confirmed rapid internalization and distribution to lysosome of KM3566 at a cellular level. Moreover, we revealed that the amounts of HB-EGF on cell surface membrane were maintained even while HB-EGF was internalized with KM3566. Recycled or newly synthesized HB-EGF, therefore, may contribute to a consecutive clearance of KM3566, which could explain a rapid clearance from serum. These data suggested that the rapid elimination in pharmacokinetics of KM3566 is due to antigen-dependent clearance. Given that its antigen is expressed in a wide range of normal tissue, it is estimated that the rapid elimination of KHK2866 from cynomolgus monkey serum is caused by antigen-dependent clearance. PMID:25517307

  12. G protein coupling and second messenger generation are indispensable for metalloprotease-dependent, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor shedding through angiotensin II type-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Mifune, Mizuo; Ohtsu, Haruhiko; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Hidekatsu; Brailoiu, Eugen; Dun, Nae J; Frank, Gerald D; Inagami, Tadashi; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Thomas, Walter G; Eckhart, Andrea D; Dempsey, Peter J; Eguchi, Satoru

    2005-07-15

    A G protein-coupled receptor agonist, angiotensin II (AngII), induces epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) transactivation possibly through metalloprotease-dependent, heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF) shedding. Here, we have investigated signal transduction of this process by using COS7 cells expressing an AngII receptor, AT1. In these cells AngII-induced EGFR transactivation was completely inhibited by pretreatment with a selective HB-EGF inhibitor, or with a metalloprotease inhibitor. We also developed a COS7 cell line permanently expressing a HB-EGF construct tagged with alkaline phosphatase, which enabled us to measure HB-EGF shedding quantitatively. In the COS7 cell line AngII stimulated release of HB-EGF. This effect was mimicked by treatment either with a phospholipase C activator, a Ca2+ ionophore, a metalloprotease activator, or H2O2. Conversely, pretreatment with an intracellular Ca2+ antagonist or an antioxidant blocked AngII-induced HB-EGF shedding. Moreover, infection of an adenovirus encoding an inhibitor of G(q) markedly reduced EGFR transactivation and HB-EGF shedding through AT1. In this regard, AngII-stimulated HB-EGF shedding was abolished in an AT1 mutant that lacks G(q) protein coupling. However, in cells expressing AT1 mutants that retain G(q) protein coupling, AngII is still able to induce HB-EGF shedding. Finally, the AngII-induced EGFR transactivation was attenuated in COS7 cells overexpressing a catalytically inactive mutant of ADAM17. From these data we conclude that AngII stimulates a metalloprotease ADAM17-dependent HB-EGF shedding through AT1/G(q)/phospholipase C-mediated elevation of intracellular Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species production, representing a key mechanism indispensable for EGFR transactivation.

  13. G3139, an Anti-Bcl-2 Antisense Oligomer that Binds Heparin-Binding Growth Factors and Collagen I, Alters In Vitro Endothelial Cell Growth and Tubular Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Stein, C.A.; Wu, SiJian; Voskresenskiy, Anatoliy M.; Zhou, Jin-Feng; Shin, Joongho; Miller, Paul; Souleimanian, Naira; Benimetskaya, Luba

    2009-01-01

    Purpose We examined the effects of G3139 on the interaction of heparin-binding proteins (e.g., FGF2 and collagen I) with endothelial cells. G3139 is an 18mer phosphorothioate oligonucleotide targeted to the initiation codon region of the Bcl-2 mRNA. A randomized, prospective global Phase III trial in advanced melanoma (GM301) has evaluted G3139 in combination with dacarbazine. However, the mechanism of action of G3139 is incompletely understood, as it is unlikely that Bcl-2 silencing is the sole mechanism for chemo-sensitization in melanoma cells. Experimental Design The ability of G3139 to interact with and protect heparin-binding proteins was quantitated. The effects of G3139 on the binding of FGF2 to high affinity cell surface receptors, and the induction of cellular mitogenesis and tubular morphogenesis in HMEC-1 and HUVEC cells were determined. Results G3139 binds with picomolar affinity to collagen I. By replacing heparin, the drug can potentiate the binding of FGF2 to FGFR1 IIIc, and it protects FGF from oxidation and from proteolysis. G3139 can increase endothelial cell mitogenesis and tubular morphogenesis of HMEC-1 cells in 3D collagen gels, increases the mitogenesis of HUVEC cells similarly, and induces vessel sprouts in the rat aortic ring model. Conclusions G3139 dramatically affects the behavior of endothelial cells. There may be a correlation between this observation and the treatment interaction with LDH observed clinically. PMID:19351753

  14. Quantitative description of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the platelet factor 4/heparin bonds.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi-Huong; Greinacher, Andreas; Delcea, Mihaela

    2015-06-14

    Heparin is the most important antithrombotic drug in hospitals. It binds to the endogenous tetrameric protein platelet factor 4 (PF4) forming PF4/heparin complexes which may cause a severe immune-mediated adverse drug reaction, so-called heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Although new heparin drugs have been synthesized to reduce such a risk, detailed bond dynamics of the PF4/heparin complexes have not been clearly understood. In this study, single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) is utilized to characterize the interaction of PF4 with heparins of defined length (5-, 6-, 8-, 12-, and 16-mers). Analysis of the force-distance curves shows that PF4/heparin binding strength rises with increasing heparin length. In addition, two binding pathways in the PF4/short heparins (≤8-mers) and three binding pathways in the PF4/long heparins (≥8-mers) are identified. We provide a model for the PF4/heparin complexes in which short heparins bind to one PF4 tetramer, while long heparins bind to two PF4 tetramers. We propose that the interaction between long heparins and PF4s is not only due to charge differences as generally assumed, but also due to hydrophobic interaction between two PF4s which are brought close to each other by long heparin. This complicated interaction induces PF4/heparin complexes more stable than other ligand-receptor interactions. Our results also reveal that the boundary between antigenic and non-antigenic heparins is between 8- and 12-mers. These observations are particularly important to understand processes in which PF4-heparin interactions are involved and to develop new heparin-derived drugs.

  15. Synthesis of the blood circulating C-terminal fragment of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-4 in its native conformation. Crystallization, heparin and IGF binding, and osteogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Tornero, Carlos; Lozano, Rosa M; Rivas, Germán; Jiménez, M Angeles; Ständker, Ludger; Díaz-Gonzalez, Diana; Forssmann, Wolf-Georg; Cuevas, Pedro; Romero, Antonio; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2005-05-13

    Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins play a critical role in a wide variety of important physiological processes. It has been demonstrated that both an N-terminal and a C-terminal fragment of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-4 exist and accumulate in the circulatory system, these fragments accounting for virtually the whole amino acid sequence of the protein. The circulating C-terminal fragment establishes three disulfide bridges, and the binding pattern of these has recently been defined. Here we show that the monodimensional 1H NMR spectrum of the C-terminal fragment is typical of a protein with a relatively close packed tertiary structure. This fragment can be produced in its native conformation in Escherichia coli, without the requirement of further refolding procedures, when synthesis is coupled to its secretion from the cell. The recombinant protein crystallizes with the unit cell parameters of a hexagonal system. Furthermore, it binds strongly to heparin, acquiring a well defined oligomeric structure that interacts with insulin-like growth factors, and promotes bone formation in cultures of murine calvariae.

  16. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: in vitro studies on the interaction of dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and low-sulfated heparin, with platelet factor 4 and anti-PF4/heparin antibodies.

    PubMed

    Krauel, Krystin; Hackbarth, Christine; Fürll, Birgitt; Greinacher, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    Heparin is a widely used anticoagulant. Because of its negative charge, it forms complexes with positively charged platelet factor 4 (PF4). This can induce anti-PF4/heparin IgG Abs. Resulting immune complexes activate platelets, leading to the prothrombotic adverse drug reaction heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). HIT requires treatment with alternative anticoagulants. Approved for HIT are 2 direct thrombin inhibitors (DTI; lepirudin, argatroban) and danaparoid. They are niche products with limitations. We assessed the effects of the DTI dabigatran, the direct factor Xa-inhibitor rivaroxaban, and of 2-O, 3-O desulfated heparin (ODSH; a partially desulfated heparin with minimal anticoagulant effects) on PF4/heparin complexes and the interaction of anti-PF4/heparin Abs with platelets. Neither dabigatran nor rivaroxaban had any effect on the interaction of PF4 or anti-PF4/heparin Abs with platelets. In contrast, ODSH inhibited PF4 binding to gel-filtered platelets, displaced PF4 from a PF4-transfected cell line, displaced PF4/heparin complexes from platelet surfaces, and inhibited anti-PF4/heparin Ab binding to PF4/heparin complexes and subsequent platelet activation. Dabigatran and rivaroxaban seem to be options for alternative anticoagulation in patients with a history of HIT. ODSH prevents formation of immunogenic PF4/heparin complexes, and, when given together with heparin, may have the potential to reduce the risk for HIT during treatment with heparin. PMID:22049520

  17. Active G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), matrix metalloproteinases 2/9 (MMP2/9), heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (hbEGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), erbB2, and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) are necessary for trenbolone acetate-induced alterations in protein turnover rate of fused bovine satellite cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Thornton, K J; Kamanga-Sollo, E; White, M E; Dayton, W R

    2016-06-01

    Trenbolone acetate (TBA), a testosterone analog, increases protein synthesis and decreases protein degradation in fused bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures. However, the mechanism through which TBA alters these processes remains unknown. Recent studies indicate that androgens improve rate and extent of muscle growth through a nongenomic mechanism involving G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (hbEGF), the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), erbB2, and the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R). We hypothesized that TBA activates GPCR, resulting in activation of MMP2/9 that releases hbEGF, which activates the EGFR and/or erbB2. To determine whether the proposed nongenomic pathway is involved in TBA-mediated alterations in protein turnover, fused BSC cultures were treated with TBA in the presence or absence of inhibitors for GPCR, MMP2/9, hbEGF, EGFR, erbB2, or IGF-1R, and resultant protein synthesis and degradation rates were analyzed. Assays were replicated at least 9 times for each inhibitor experiment utilizing BSC cultures obtained from at least 3 different steers that had no previous exposure to steroid compounds. As expected, fused BSC cultures treated with 10 n TBA exhibited increased ( < 0.05) protein synthesis rates and decreased ( < 0.05) protein degradation rates when compared to control cultures. Treatment of fused BSC cultures with 10 n TBA in the presence of inhibitors for GPCR, MMP2/9, hbEGF, EGFR, erbB2, or IGF-1R suppressed ( < 0.05) TBA-mediated increases in protein synthesis rate. Alternatively, inhibition of GPCR, MMP2/9, hbEGF, EGFR, erbB2, or IGF-1R in the presence of 10 n TBA each had no ( > 0.05) effect on TBA-mediated decreases in protein degradation. However, inhibition of both EGFR and erbB2 in the presence of 10 n TBA resulted in decreased ( < 0.05) ability of TBA to decrease protein degradation rate. Additionally, fused BSC cultures treated with 10 n

  18. Active G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), matrix metalloproteinases 2/9 (MMP2/9), heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (hbEGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), erbB2, and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) are necessary for trenbolone acetate-induced alterations in protein turnover rate of fused bovine satellite cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Thornton, K J; Kamanga-Sollo, E; White, M E; Dayton, W R

    2016-06-01

    Trenbolone acetate (TBA), a testosterone analog, increases protein synthesis and decreases protein degradation in fused bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures. However, the mechanism through which TBA alters these processes remains unknown. Recent studies indicate that androgens improve rate and extent of muscle growth through a nongenomic mechanism involving G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (hbEGF), the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), erbB2, and the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R). We hypothesized that TBA activates GPCR, resulting in activation of MMP2/9 that releases hbEGF, which activates the EGFR and/or erbB2. To determine whether the proposed nongenomic pathway is involved in TBA-mediated alterations in protein turnover, fused BSC cultures were treated with TBA in the presence or absence of inhibitors for GPCR, MMP2/9, hbEGF, EGFR, erbB2, or IGF-1R, and resultant protein synthesis and degradation rates were analyzed. Assays were replicated at least 9 times for each inhibitor experiment utilizing BSC cultures obtained from at least 3 different steers that had no previous exposure to steroid compounds. As expected, fused BSC cultures treated with 10 n TBA exhibited increased ( < 0.05) protein synthesis rates and decreased ( < 0.05) protein degradation rates when compared to control cultures. Treatment of fused BSC cultures with 10 n TBA in the presence of inhibitors for GPCR, MMP2/9, hbEGF, EGFR, erbB2, or IGF-1R suppressed ( < 0.05) TBA-mediated increases in protein synthesis rate. Alternatively, inhibition of GPCR, MMP2/9, hbEGF, EGFR, erbB2, or IGF-1R in the presence of 10 n TBA each had no ( > 0.05) effect on TBA-mediated decreases in protein degradation. However, inhibition of both EGFR and erbB2 in the presence of 10 n TBA resulted in decreased ( < 0.05) ability of TBA to decrease protein degradation rate. Additionally, fused BSC cultures treated with 10 n

  19. Mechanical prophylaxis is a heparin-independent risk for anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibody formation after orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Bito, Seiji; Miyata, Shigeki; Migita, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Mashio; Shinohara, Kazuhito; Sato, Tomotaro; Tonai, Takeharu; Shimizu, Motoyuki; Shibata, Yasuhiro; Kishi, Kazuhiko; Kubota, Chikara; Nakahara, Shinnosuke; Mori, Toshihito; Ikeda, Kazuo; Ota, Shusuke; Minamizaki, Takeshi; Yamada, Shigeru; Shiota, Naofumi; Kamei, Masataka; Motokawa, Satoru

    2016-02-25

    Platelet-activating antibodies, which recognize platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin complexes, induce spontaneous heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) syndrome or fondaparinux-associated HIT without exposure to unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). This condition mostly occurs after major orthopedic surgery, implying that surgery itself could trigger this immune response, although the mechanism is unclear. To investigate how surgery may do so, we performed a multicenter, prospective study of 2069 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or hip arthroplasty. Approximately half of the patients received postoperative thromboprophylaxis with UFH, LMWH, or fondaparinux. The other half received only mechanical thromboprophylaxis, including dynamic (intermittent plantar or pneumatic compression device), static (graduated compression stockings [GCSs]), or both. We measured anti-PF4/heparin immunoglobulins G, A, and M before and 10 days after surgery using an immunoassay. Multivariate analysis revealed that dynamic mechanical thromboprophylaxis (DMT) was an independent risk factor for seroconversion (odds ratio [OR], 2.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-3.02; P = .001), which was confirmed with propensity-score matching (OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.17-3.37; P = .018). For TKA, the seroconversion rates in patients treated with DMT but no anticoagulation and in patients treated with UFH or LMWH without DMT were similar, but significantly higher than in patients treated with only GCSs. The proportion of patients with ≥1.4 optical density units appeared to be higher among those treated with any anticoagulant plus DMT than among those not treated with DMT. Our study suggests that DMT increases risk of an anti-PF4/heparin immune response, even without heparin exposure. This trial was registered to www.umin.ac.jp/ctr as #UMIN000001366. PMID:26659923

  20. Mechanical prophylaxis is a heparin-independent risk for anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibody formation after orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Bito, Seiji; Miyata, Shigeki; Migita, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Mashio; Shinohara, Kazuhito; Sato, Tomotaro; Tonai, Takeharu; Shimizu, Motoyuki; Shibata, Yasuhiro; Kishi, Kazuhiko; Kubota, Chikara; Nakahara, Shinnosuke; Mori, Toshihito; Ikeda, Kazuo; Ota, Shusuke; Minamizaki, Takeshi; Yamada, Shigeru; Shiota, Naofumi; Kamei, Masataka; Motokawa, Satoru

    2016-02-25

    Platelet-activating antibodies, which recognize platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin complexes, induce spontaneous heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) syndrome or fondaparinux-associated HIT without exposure to unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). This condition mostly occurs after major orthopedic surgery, implying that surgery itself could trigger this immune response, although the mechanism is unclear. To investigate how surgery may do so, we performed a multicenter, prospective study of 2069 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or hip arthroplasty. Approximately half of the patients received postoperative thromboprophylaxis with UFH, LMWH, or fondaparinux. The other half received only mechanical thromboprophylaxis, including dynamic (intermittent plantar or pneumatic compression device), static (graduated compression stockings [GCSs]), or both. We measured anti-PF4/heparin immunoglobulins G, A, and M before and 10 days after surgery using an immunoassay. Multivariate analysis revealed that dynamic mechanical thromboprophylaxis (DMT) was an independent risk factor for seroconversion (odds ratio [OR], 2.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-3.02; P = .001), which was confirmed with propensity-score matching (OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.17-3.37; P = .018). For TKA, the seroconversion rates in patients treated with DMT but no anticoagulation and in patients treated with UFH or LMWH without DMT were similar, but significantly higher than in patients treated with only GCSs. The proportion of patients with ≥1.4 optical density units appeared to be higher among those treated with any anticoagulant plus DMT than among those not treated with DMT. Our study suggests that DMT increases risk of an anti-PF4/heparin immune response, even without heparin exposure. This trial was registered to www.umin.ac.jp/ctr as #UMIN000001366.

  1. Interactions between nattokinase and heparin/GAGs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuming; Zhang, Jianhua; Linhardt, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    Nattokinase (NK) is a serine protease extracted from a traditional Japanese food called natto. Due to its strong fibrinolytic and thrombolytic activity, NK is regarded as a valuable dietary supplement or nutraceutical for the oral thrombolytic therapy. In addition, NK has been investigated for some other medical applications including treatment of hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, and vitreoretinal disorders. The most widely used clinical anticoagulants are heparin and low molecular weight heparins. The interactions between heparin and proteins modulate diverse patho-physiological processes and heparin modifies the activity of serine proteases. Indeed, heparin plays important roles in almost all of NK's potential therapeutically applications. The current report relies on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy to examine NK interacting with heparin as well as other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). These studies showed that NK is a heparin binding protein with an affinity of ~250 nM. Examination with differently sized heparin oligosaccharides indicated that the interaction between NK and heparin is chain-length dependent and the minimum size for heparin binding is a hexasaccharide. Studies using chemically modified heparin showed the 6-O-sulfo as well as the N-sulfo groups but not the 2-O-sulfo groups within heparin, are essential for heparin's interaction with NK. Other GAGs (including HS, DS, and CSE) displayed modest binding affinity to NK. NK also interfered with other heparin-protein interactions, including heparin's interaction with antithrombin and fibroblast growth factors.

  2. Antibodies from patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia/thrombosis are specific for platelet factor 4 complexed with heparin or bound to endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Visentin, G P; Ford, S E; Scott, J P; Aster, R H

    1994-01-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia/thrombosis (HITP) is thought to be mediated by immunoglobulins that activate platelets in the presence of pharmacologic concentrations of heparin, but the molecular basis for this relatively common and often serious complication of heparin therapy has not been established. We found that plasma from each of 12 patients with HITP contained high titer (> or = 1:200) antibodies that reacted with immobilized complexes of heparin and platelet factor 4 (PF4), a heparin-binding protein contained in platelet alpha-granules. Recombinant human PF4 behaved similarly to PF4 isolated from platelets in this assay system. Complexes formed at an apparent heparin/PF4 molecular ratio of approximately 1:2 (fresh heparin) and approximately 1:12 (outdated heparin) were most effective in binding antibody. Immune complexes consisting of PF4, heparin, and antibody reacted with resting platelets; this interaction was inhibited by a monoclonal antibody specific for the Fc gamma RII receptor and by excess heparin. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells, known to express heparin-like glycosaminoglycan molecules on their surface, were recognized by antibody in the presence of PF4 alone; this reaction was inhibited by excess heparin, but not by anti-Fc gamma RII. Antibodies reactive with heparin/PF4 were not found in normal plasma, but IgG and IgM antibodies were detected at dilutions of 1:10 (IgG) and 1:50 (IgM) in 3 of 50 patients (6%) with other types of immune thrombocytopenia. These findings indicate that antibodies associated with HITP react with PF4 complexed with heparin in solution or with glycosaminoglycan molecules on the surface of endothelial cells and provide the basis for a new hypothesis to explain the development of thrombocytopenia with thrombosis or disseminated intravascular coagulation in patients sensitive to heparin. PMID:8282825

  3. The heparin binding domain of vitronectin is the region that is required to enhance insulin-like growth factor-I signaling.

    PubMed

    Maile, Laura A; Busby, Walker H; Sitko, Kevin; Capps, Byron E; Sergent, Tiffany; Badley-Clarke, Jane; Ling, Yan; Clemmons, David R

    2006-04-01

    We have shown that vitronectin (Vn) binding to a cysteine loop sequence within the extracellular domain of the beta3-subunit (amino acids 177-184) of alphaVbeta3 is required for the positive effects of Vn on IGF-I signaling. When Vn binding to this sequence is blocked, IGF-I signaling in smooth muscle cells is impaired. Because this binding site is distinct from the site on beta3 to which the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence of extracellular matrix ligands bind (amino acids 107-171), we hypothesized that the region of Vn that binds to the cysteine loop on beta3 is distinct from the region that contains the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence. The results presented in this study demonstrate that this heparin binding domain (HBD) is the region of Vn that binds to the cysteine loop region of beta3 and that this region is sufficient to mediate the positive effects of Vn on IGF-I signaling. We provide evidence that binding of the HBD of Vn to alphaVbeta3 has direct effects on the activation state of beta3 as measured by beta3 phosphorylation. The increase in beta3 phosphorylation associated with exposure of cells to this HBD is associated with enhanced phosphorylation of the adaptor protein Src homology 2 domain-containing transforming protein C and enhanced activation MAPK, a downstream mediator of IGF-I signaling. We conclude that the interaction of the HBD of Vn binding to the cysteine loop sequence of beta3 is necessary and sufficient for the positive effects of Vn on IGF-I-mediated effects in smooth muscle cells.

  4. Identification of Candidate Angiogenic Inhibitors Processed by Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) in Cell-Based Proteomic Screens: Disruption of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)/Heparin Affin Regulatory Peptide (Pleiotrophin) and VEGF/Connective Tissue Growth Factor Angiogenic Inhibitory Complexes by MMP-2 Proteolysis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Richard A.; Butler, Georgina S.; Hamma-Kourbali, Yamina; Delbé, Jean; Brigstock, David R.; Courty, José; Overall, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) exert both pro- and antiangiogenic functions by the release of cytokines or proteolytically generated angiogenic inhibitors from extracellular matrix and basement membrane remodeling. In the Mmp2−/− mouse neovascularization is greatly reduced, but the mechanistic aspects of this remain unclear. Using isotope-coded affinity tag labeling of proteins analyzed by multidimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry we explored proteome differences between Mmp2−/− cells and those rescued by MMP-2 transfection. Proteome signatures that are hallmarks of proteolysis revealed cleavage of many known MMP-2 substrates in the cellular context. Proteomic evidence of MMP-2 processing of novel substrates was found. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6, follistatin-like 1, and cystatin C protein cleavage by MMP-2 was biochemically confirmed, and the cleavage sites in heparin affin regulatory peptide (HARP; pleiotrophin) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were sequenced by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. MMP-2 processing of HARP and CTGF released vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from angiogenic inhibitory complexes. The cleaved HARP N-terminal domain increased HARP-induced cell proliferation, whereas the HARP C-terminal domain was antagonistic and decreased cell proliferation and migration. Hence the unmasking of cytokines, such as VEGF, by metalloproteinase processing of their binding proteins is a new mechanism in the control of cytokine activation and angiogenesis. PMID:17908800

  5. Two Novel Heparin-binding Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Splices, L-VEGF144 and L-VEGF138, are Expressed in Human Glioblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chiung-Chyi; Cheng, Wen-Yu; Chiao, Ming-Tsang; Liang, Yea-Jiuan; Mao, Tsuo-Fei; Liu, Bai-Shuan

    2016-01-01

    The expression levels of different vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) isoforms are associated with the angiogenesis and the patient's prognoses in human cancers. Ribosomes specifically scan from 5' to 3' CUG initiation codon in the long 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the VEGF mRNA, resulting in the generation of high mol wt VEGF isoform [call large VEGF (L-VEGF)]. Alternative splicing of VEGF mRNA transcripts results in several isoforms with distinct properties that are dependent up their exon compositions. In this study, we observed two novel kinds of splicing VEGF isoforms that transcripted at the first upstream CUG codon, and which we have named large-VEGF144 (LVEGF144), and large-VEGF138 (L-VEGF138). The expression levels of messenger RNA for the different VEGF splice forms were analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After DNA sequencing, the genetic structure of L-VEGF144 involved not only a partial exon 1, exon 6a, and exons 7-8, but also an unique 108- nucleotides insertion of VEGF intron 5 interposed between exon 1 and exon 6. At the same time, L-VEGF144 lacked most of the Nterminal fragments (exons 1-5). We further found that a specific detection model could easily and rapidly confirm the presence of L-VEGF144 mRNA fragments in the biopsies or cell lines via RT-PCR assay. In addition, we used visible fluorescent fusion proteins to prove that both L-VEGF144 and L-VEGF138 have nuclear localization ability. Taken together, the findings of this study indicate that, unlike previously identified isoforms, these novel VEGF isoforms are likely to suggest a further level of complexity in the angiogenic process. PMID:27220431

  6. Quantitative description of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the platelet factor 4/heparin bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thi-Huong; Greinacher, Andreas; Delcea, Mihaela

    2015-05-01

    Heparin is the most important antithrombotic drug in hospitals. It binds to the endogenous tetrameric protein platelet factor 4 (PF4) forming PF4/heparin complexes which may cause a severe immune-mediated adverse drug reaction, so-called heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Although new heparin drugs have been synthesized to reduce such a risk, detailed bond dynamics of the PF4/heparin complexes have not been clearly understood. In this study, single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) is utilized to characterize the interaction of PF4 with heparins of defined length (5-, 6-, 8-, 12-, and 16-mers). Analysis of the force-distance curves shows that PF4/heparin binding strength rises with increasing heparin length. In addition, two binding pathways in the PF4/short heparins (<=8-mers) and three binding pathways in the PF4/long heparins (>=8-mers) are identified. We provide a model for the PF4/heparin complexes in which short heparins bind to one PF4 tetramer, while long heparins bind to two PF4 tetramers. We propose that the interaction between long heparins and PF4s is not only due to charge differences as generally assumed, but also due to hydrophobic interaction between two PF4s which are brought close to each other by long heparin. This complicated interaction induces PF4/heparin complexes more stable than other ligand-receptor interactions. Our results also reveal that the boundary between antigenic and non-antigenic heparins is between 8- and 12-mers. These observations are particularly important to understand processes in which PF4-heparin interactions are involved and to develop new heparin-derived drugs.Heparin is the most important antithrombotic drug in hospitals. It binds to the endogenous tetrameric protein platelet factor 4 (PF4) forming PF4/heparin complexes which may cause a severe immune-mediated adverse drug reaction, so-called heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Although new heparin drugs have been synthesized to reduce such a risk, detailed

  7. Growth factors

    SciTech Connect

    Golde, D.W.; Herschman, H.R.; Lusis, A.J.; Groopman, J.E.

    1980-05-01

    Humoral regulation of somatic and hematopoietic cell growth has been intensely investigated during the past decade. Growth hormone is unique because it regulates the size of the person within the constraints of the genetic program. The somatomedins and insulin growth factors are low molecular weight polypeptides believed to mediate some functions of growth hormone. Epithelial growth factor and nerve growth factor are well-characterized polypeptides that influence the growth and differentiation of epithelial and neural tissues and interact with specific cell surface receptors. The hematopoietins are a family of polypeptide hormones that specifically regulate the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells giving rise to erythrocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, megakaryocytes, and B and T lymphocytes. Platelet-derived growth factor modulates the proliferation of fibroblasts in vitro and may have a role in the development of atherosclerosis and myelofibrosis. New knowledge on the biochemistry and physiology of growth factors will probably have a substantial impact on our understanding of human diseases involving abnormal cell growth.

  8. The multiple complexes formed by the interaction of platelet factor 4 with heparin.

    PubMed Central

    Bock, P E; Luscombe, M; Marshall, S E; Pepper, D S; Holbrook, J J

    1980-01-01

    The anisotropy of the fluorescence of dansyl (5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1- sulphonyl) groups covalently attached to human platelet factor 4 was used to detect the macromolecular compounds formed when the factor was mixed with heparin. At low heparin/protein ratios a very-high-molecular-weight compound (1) was formed that dissociated to give a smaller compound (2) when excess heparin was added. 2. A large complex was also detected as a precipitate that formed at high protein concentrations in chloride buffer. It contained 15.7% (w/w) polysaccharide, equivalent to four or five heparin tetrasaccharide units per protein tetramer. In this complex, more than one molecule of protein binds to each heparin molecule of molecular weight greater than about 6 X 10(3).3. The stability of these complexes varied with pH, salt concentration and the chain length of the heparin. The limit complexes found in excess of the larger heparins consisted of only one heparin molecule per protein tetramer, and the failure to observe complexes with four heparin molecules/protein tetramer is discussed. PMID:7283972

  9. DEPENDENCE OF PPAR LIGAND-INDUCED MAPK SIGNALING ON EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR TRANSACTIVATION HEPARIN-BINDING EGF CLEAVAGE MEDIATES ZINC-INDUCED EGF RECEPTOR PHOSPHORYLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that function as ligand-activated transcription factors regulating lipid metabolism and homeostasis. In addition to their ability to regulate PPAR-mediated gene transcription, PPARalpha and gamma li...

  10. Identification of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) as a biomarker for lysophosphatidic acid receptor type 1 (LPA1) activation in human breast and prostate cancers.

    PubMed

    David, Marion; Sahay, Debashish; Mege, Florence; Descotes, Françoise; Leblanc, Raphaël; Ribeiro, Johnny; Clézardin, Philippe; Peyruchaud, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a natural bioactive lipid with growth factor-like functions due to activation of a series of six G protein-coupled receptors (LPA₁₋₆). LPA receptor type 1 (LPA₁) signaling influences the pathophysiology of many diseases including cancer, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, as well as lung, liver and kidney fibrosis. Therefore, LPA₁ is an attractive therapeutic target. However, most mammalian cells co-express multiple LPA receptors whose co-activation impairs the validation of target inhibition in patients because of missing LPA receptor-specific biomarkers. LPA₁ is known to induce IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, as also do LPA₂ and LPA₃. In this work, we first determined the LPA induced early-gene expression profile in three unrelated human cancer cell lines expressing different patterns of LPA receptors (PC3: LPA₁,₂,₆; MDA-MB-231: LPA1,2; MCF-7: LPA₂,₆). Among the set of genes upregulated by LPA only in LPA₁-expressing cells, we validated by QPCR and ELISA that upregulation of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) was inhibited by LPA₁-₃ antagonists (Ki16425, Debio0719). Upregulation and downregulation of HB-EGF mRNA was confirmed in vitro in human MDA-B02 breast cancer cells stably overexpressing LPA₁ (MDA-B02/LPA₁) and downregulated for LPA₁ (MDA-B02/shLPA1), respectively. At a clinical level, we quantified the expression of LPA₁ and HB-EGF by QPCR in primary tumors of a cohort of 234 breast cancer patients and found a significantly higher expression of HB-EGF in breast tumors expressing high levels of LPA₁. We also generated human xenograph prostate tumors in mice injected with PC3 cells and found that a five-day treatment with Ki16425 significantly decreased both HB-EGF mRNA expression at the primary tumor site and circulating human HB-EGF concentrations in serum. All together our results demonstrate that HB-EGF is a new and relevant biomarker with potentially high value in quantifying LPA

  11. Diminished survival of human cytotrophoblast cells exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation injury and associated reduction of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Richard E.; Kilburn, Brian A.; Petkova, Anelia; Romero, Roberto; Armant, Randall D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The anti-apoptotic action of HBEGF and its regulation by O2 constitutes a key factor for trophoblast survival. The hypothesis that cytotrophoblast survival is compromised by exposure to hypoxia–reoxygenation (H/R) injury, which may contribute to preeclampsia and some missed abortions, prompted us to investigate HBEGF regulation and its role as a survival factor during H/R in cytotrophoblast cells Study Design A transformed human first trimester cytotrophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo was exposed to H/R (2% O2 followed by 20% O2) and assessed for HBEGF expression and cell death. Results Cellular HBEGF declined significantly within 30 minutes of reoxygenation after culture at 2% O2. H/R significantly reduced proliferation and increased cell death when compared to trophoblast cells cultured continuously at 2% or 20% O2. Restoration of cell survival also was achieved by adding recombinant HBEGF during reoxygenation. HBEGF inhibited apoptosis through its binding to either HER1 or HER4, its cognate receptors. Conclusion These results provide evidence that cytotrophoblast exposure to H/R induces apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation. HBEGF accumulation is diminished under these conditions, while restoration of HBEGF signaling improves trophoblast survival. PMID:18395045

  12. Endovascular Stents and Stent-Grafts: Is Heparin Coating Desirable?

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Stephen R.; Souza, Nandita M. de; Allison, David J.

    2000-07-15

    Heparins are glycosaminoglycans that, in addition to their anticoagulant activity, have interactions with growth factors and other glycoproteins. These interactions may stimulate neointimal hyperplasia when heparin is delivered locally on stents and stent-grafts. Modifying the structure of heparin to retain anticoagulant activity while minimizing these stimulatory effects on the vascular endothelium is desirable and may be achieved by understanding the relationships between the structure and function of the various parts of the heparin molecule.

  13. Sulfated Low Molecular Weight Lignins, Allosteric Inhibitors of Coagulation Proteinases via the Heparin Binding Site, Significantly Alter the Active Site of Thrombin and Factor Xa Compared to Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Brian L.; Desai, Umesh R.

    2014-01-01

    Sulfated low molecular weight lignins (LMWLs) have been found to bind in the heparin binding sites of coagulation proteinases. LMWLs represent a library of diverse non-carbohydrate, aromatic molecules which are structures different from heparin, but still potently inhibit thrombin and factor Xa. To better understand their mechanism of action, we studied the effects of three sulfated LMWLs (CDSO3, FDSO3, and SDSO3) on the active sites of thrombin and factor Xa. LMWLs were found to uniformly inhibit the catalytic activity of thrombin and factor Xa, regardless of the substrate used. Michaelis-Menten kinetic studies indicate that maximal velocity of hydrolysis of each chromogenic substrate decreases significantly in the presence of sulfated LMWLs, while the effect on Michaelis constant is dependent on the nature of the substrate. These studies indicate that LMWLs inhibit thrombin and factor Xa through allosteric disruption of the catalytic apparatus, specifically through the catalytic step. As opposed to heparin, LMWLs significantly alter the binding of the active site fluorescent ligand p-aminobenzamidine. LMWLs also had a greater effect on the molecular orientation of fluorescein-labeled His 57 than heparin. The molecular geometry surrounding the most important catalytic amino acid, Ser 195, was significantly altered by the binding of LMWLs while heparin had no measurable effect on Ser 195. These results further advance the concept of sulfated LMWLs as heparin mimics and will aid the design of anticoagulants based on their novel scaffold. PMID:25242245

  14. Sulfated low molecular weight lignins, allosteric inhibitors of coagulation proteinases via the heparin binding site, significantly alter the active site of thrombin and factor xa compared to heparin.

    PubMed

    Henry, Brian L; Desai, Umesh R

    2014-11-01

    Sulfated low molecular weight lignins (LMWLs) have been found to bind in the heparin binding sites of coagulation proteinases. LMWLs represent a library of diverse non-carbohydrate, aromatic molecules which are structures different from heparin, but still potently inhibit thrombin and factor Xa. To better understand their mechanism of action, we studied the effects of three sulfated LMWLs (CDSO3, FDSO3, and SDSO3) on the active sites of thrombin and factor Xa. LMWLs were found to uniformly inhibit the catalytic activity of thrombin and factor Xa, regardless of the substrate used. Michaelis-Menten kinetic studies indicate that maximal velocity of hydrolysis of each chromogenic substrate decreases significantly in the presence of sulfated LMWLs, while the effect on Michaelis constant is dependent on the nature of the substrate. These studies indicate that LMWLs inhibit thrombin and factor Xa through allosteric disruption of the catalytic apparatus, specifically through the catalytic step. As opposed to heparin, LMWLs significantly alter the binding of the active site fluorescent ligand p-aminobenzamidine. LMWLs also had a greater effect on the molecular orientation of fluorescein-labeled His 57 than heparin. The molecular geometry surrounding the most important catalytic amino acid, Ser 195, was significantly altered by the binding of LMWLs while heparin had no measurable effect on Ser 195. These results further advance the concept of sulfated LMWLs as heparin mimics and will aid the design of anticoagulants based on their novel scaffold. PMID:25242245

  15. The factor IXa heparin-binding exosite is a cofactor interactive site: mechanism for antithrombin-independent inhibition of intrinsic tenase by heparin.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qiu-Ping; Walke, Erik N; Sheehan, John P

    2005-03-01

    Therapeutic heparin concentrations selectively inhibit the intrinsic tenase complex in an antithrombin-independent manner. To define the molecular target and mechanism for this inhibition, recombinant human factor IXa with alanine substituted for solvent-exposed basic residues (H92, R170, R233, K241) in the protease domain was characterized with regard to enzymatic activity, heparin affinity, and inhibition by low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). These mutations only had modest effects on chromogenic substrate hydrolysis and the kinetics of factor X activation by factor IXa. Likewise, factor IXa H92A and K241A showed factor IXa-factor VIIIa affinity similar to factor IXa wild type (WT). In contrast, factor IXa R170A demonstrated a 4-fold increase in apparent factor IXa-factor VIIIa affinity and dramatically increased coagulant activity relative to factor IXa WT. Factor IXa R233A demonstrated a 2.5-fold decrease in cofactor affinity and reduced ability to stabilize cofactor half-life relative to wild type, suggesting that interaction with the factor VIIIa A2 domain was disrupted. Markedly (R233A) or moderately (H92A, R170A, K241A) reduced binding to immobilized LMWH was observed for the mutant proteases. Solution competition demonstrated that the EC(50) for LMWH was increased less than 2-fold for factor IXa H92A and K241A but over 3.5-fold for factor IXa R170A, indicating that relative heparin affinity was WT > H92A/K241A > R170A > R233A. Kinetic analysis of intrinsic tenase inhibition demonstrated that relative affinity for LMWH was WT > K241A > H92A > R170A > R233A, correlating with heparin affinity. Thus, LMWH inhibits intrinsic tenase by interacting with the heparin-binding exosite in the factor IXa protease domain, which disrupts interaction with the factor VIIIa A2 domain.

  16. Isolation of rabbit reticulocyte initiation factors by means of heparin bound to sepharose.

    PubMed Central

    Waldman, A A; Marx, G; Goldstein, J

    1975-01-01

    Passage of cell-free extracts of rabbit reticulocytes through heparin-Sepharose affinity columns results in the loss of the ability of the effluent to initiate protein synthesis. This is shown by the loss of response to added rabbit globin mRNA or to inhibitors of initiation of protein synthesis, such as heparin and aurin tricarboxylic acid, and by recovery of initiation activity by addition of protein retained and subsequently eluted from the columns. The effluent retains, however, the ability to elongate protein chains. Only 0.8% of the applied cell extract protein binds to heparin-Sepharose columns. This bound protein, which can be recovered by increasing the salt concentration of the eluting buffer, has initiation factor activity equal to that of a crude initiation factor preparation obtained from rabbit reticulocyte ribosomes by extraction with 0.5 M KCl. The protein patterns on polyacrylamide gels of the initiation factors prepared by either method are very similar and indicate a protein mixture, which may represent a complex. These data confirm that heparin interacts specifically with initiation factos, and indicate that heparin-Sepharose chromatography will simplify procedures for the preparation of initiation factors. Images PMID:1056034

  17. Heparin inhibits the intrinsic tenase complex by interacting with an exosite on factor IXa.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, John P; Kobbervig, Catherine E; Kirkpatrick, Heidi M

    2003-09-30

    The specific molecular target for direct heparin inhibition of factor X activation by intrinsic tenase (factor IXa-factor VIIIa) was investigated. Comparison of size-fractionated oligosaccharides demonstrated that an octasaccharide was sufficient to inhibit intrinsic tenase. Substitution of soluble dihexanoic phosphatidylserine (C6PS) for phospholipid (PL) vesicles demonstrated that inhibition by low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) was independent of factor IXa-factor VIIIa membrane assembly. LMWH also inhibited factor X activation by the factor IXa-PL complex via a distinct mechanism that required longer oligosaccharides and was independent of substrate concentrations. The apparent affinity of LMWH for the factor IXa-PL complex was higher in the absence of factor VIIIa, suggesting that the cofactor adversely affected the interaction of heparin with factor IXa-phospholipid. LMWH did not interact directly with the active site, as it failed to inhibit chromogenic substrate cleavage by the factor IXa-PL complex. LMWH induced a modest decrease in factor IXa-factor VIIIa affinity [K(D(app))] on PL vesicles that did not account for the inhibition. In contrast, LMWH caused a substantial reduction in factor IXa-factor VIIIa affinity in the presence of C6PS that fully accounted for the inhibition. Factor IXa bound LMWH with significantly higher affinity than factor X by competition solution affinity analysis, and the K(D(app)) for the factor IXa-LMWH complex agreed with the K(I) for inhibition of the factor IXa-PL complex by LMWH. Thus, LMWH binds to an exosite on factor IXa that antagonizes cofactor activity without disrupting factor IXa-factor VIIIa assembly on the PL surface. This exosite may contribute to the clinical efficacy of heparin and represents a novel target for antithrombotic therapy.

  18. Structural and functional characterization of full-length heparin-binding growth associated molecule.

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, B S; Marshak, D R; Burgess, W H

    1992-01-01

    Heparin-binding growth-associated molecule (HB-GAM) was purified from adult bovine brain and chicken heart. The yield of HB-GAM is increased by 5- to 10-fold when 250 mM NaCl is added to the homogenization buffer, indicating that HB-GAM may exist as a complex with an insoluble component of the tissue. The complete amino acid sequence of the brain-derived HB-GAM was established by automated Edman degradation of the intact protein and chemically or enzymatically derived fragments. The mass of bovine HB-GAM as determined by plasma desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry is 15,291 mass units, which compares favorably with the calculated mass of 15,289 based on the amino acid sequence. Therefore, HB-GAM has not undergone any major post-translational modifications other than cleavage of the signal peptide. These results indicate that previous amino acid sequence analysis of this protein was carried out using truncated HB-GAM. Full-length HB-GAM is not a mitogen for Balb/3T3 clone A31, Balb MK, NRK, or human umbilical vein endothelial cells. HB-GAM does, however, have adhesive properties and neurite extension activity for chick embryo cerebral cortical derived neurons when presented to these cells as a substrate. HB-GAM had little neurite extension activity when presented as a soluble factor. Images PMID:1550956

  19. The regulation of factor IXa by supersulfated low molecular weight heparin.

    PubMed

    Misenheimer, Tina M; Sheehan, John P

    2010-11-23

    Supersulfated low molecular weight heparin (ssLMWH) inhibits the intrinsic tenase (factor IXa-factor VIIIa) complex in an antithrombin-independent manner. Recombinant factor IXa with alanine substitutions in the protease domain (K126A, N129A, K132A, R165A, R170A, N178A, R233A) was assessed with regard to heparin affinity in solution and ability to regulate protease activity within the factor IXa-phospholipid (PL) and intrinsic tenase complexes. In a soluble binding assay, factor IXa K126A, K132A, and R233A dramatically (10-20-fold) reduced ssLMWH affinity, while factor IXa N129A and R165A moderately (5-fold) reduced affinity relative to wild type. In the factor IXa-PL complex, binding affinity for ssLMWH was increased 4-fold, and factor X activation was inhibited with a potency 7-fold higher than predicted for wild-type protease-ssLMWH affinity in solution. In the intrinsic tenase complex, ssLMWH inhibited factor X activation with a 4-fold decrease in potency relative to wild-type factor IXa-PL. The mutations increased resistance to inhibition by ssLMWH in a similar fashion for both enzyme complexes (R233A > K126A > K132A/R165A > N129A/N178A/wild type) except for factor IXa R170A. This protease had ssLMWH affinity and potency for the factor IXa-PL complex similar to wild-type protease but was moderately resistant (6-fold) to inhibition in the intrinsic tenase complex based on increased cofactor affinity. These results are consistent with conformational regulation of the heparin-binding exosite and macromolecular substrate catalysis by factor IXa. An extensive overlap exists between the heparin and factor VIIIa binding sites on the protease domain, with residues K126 and R233 dominating the heparin interaction and R165 dominating the cofactor interaction.

  20. In situ growth of nanogold on quartz crystal microbalance and its application in the interaction between heparin and antithrombin III.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qundan; Huang, Yanyan; Zhao, Rui; Liu, Guoquan; Chen, Yi

    2008-03-01

    A novel biosensor for detecting antithrombin III (AT III) was constructed based on in situ growth of nanogold on the gold electrode of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The growth process of nanogold was monitored by QCM in real time. Heparin was used as the affinity ligand and immobilized onto the nanogold modified gold electrode. A flow injection analysis-quartz crystal microbalance (FIA-QCM) system was used to investigate the relationship between nanogold growth and the AT III response. Along with the nanogold particle growth within initial 5 min, the amount of heparin immobilized onto the nanogold modified electrode increased quickly. Correspondingly, the frequency response to AT III binding increased rapidly at the same time. After that, both the immobilized amount of heparin and the sensor response to AT III decreased gradually. Compared with the directly immobilized large nanogold particles, the in situ grown particles with the same size occupy more sensor surface, resulting in higher frequency shifts to AT III in the interaction study between heparin and AT III. The obtained constants of AT III binding to immobilized heparin are k(ass)=(1.65+/-0.12)x10(3) L/mols, k diss=(2.63+/-0.18)x10(-2) 1/s and K(A)=(6.27+/-0.42)x10(4) L/mol.

  1. A novel thrombelastograph tissue factor/kaolin assay of activated clotting times for monitoring heparin anticoagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Jack J; Foley, Donald E; Snider, Carolyn C; Howell, James C; Cohen, Eli; Muenchen, Robert A; Carroll, Roger C

    2004-11-01

    We used a thrombelastograph (TEG) assay with tissue factor and kaolin (TEG TF/K) to measure activated clotting time (ACT) in 31 patients during cardiopulmonary bypass. For comparison, ACTs were also determined by a Hemochron Jr. Signature and a Hepcon HMS. The TEG TF/K correlated with both the Hepcon (r(2) = 0.789) and Hemochron (r(2) = 0.743) ACTs. The average ACT after heparin was 319 +/- 119 s (mean +/- sd) for the TEG TF/K compared with 624 +/- 118 s for the Hepcon instrument. To evaluate the effects of hemodilution on TEG TF/K and Hemochron assays, ACT assays were performed on blood diluted to 50% and titrated with heparin from 0 to 6 U/mL. Both instruments showed significant (P < 0.01) changes in the ACT-versus-heparin slope, but the 0 heparin intercept for the TEG TF/K ACTs was not significantly changed (P = 0.292), in contrast to that for the Hemochron device (P = 0.041). Both instruments also indicated the same 1.3:1 ratio of protamine to heparin for optimum heparin neutralization, with increasing ACTs at ratios >2.6:1. The TEG TF/K ACT assay rapidly monitors heparin anticoagulation, in addition to the capabilities of this instrument to monitor platelet function, clotting factors, and fibrinolysis.

  2. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between palifermin and heparin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing-Bing; Gillespie, Brad; Smith, Brian; Smith, William; Lissmats, Agneta; Rudebeck, Mattias; Kullenberg, Torbjörn; Olsson, Birgitta

    2015-10-01

    Oral mucositis, a severe complication during chemo- and/or radiotherapy, is prevented with palifermin treatment, a recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (KGF/FGF-7). The FGF family belongs to the larger family of heparin-binding growth factors. Because it has been shown that heparin modulates binding of KGF to the KGF receptor and subsequently affects cellular proliferation induced by the KGF mitogenic signal, it is critical to understand the drug-drug interactions between palifermin and heparin, particularly because of heparin's narrow therapeutic margin. Two studies were performed in healthy subjects to characterize the effect of palifermin on the pharmacodynamics of heparin (activated partial thromboplastin time) and evaluate the impact of heparin on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (Ki67 staining of buccal mucosal tissue) of palifermin. Results demonstrated a pronounced pharmacokinetic interaction; heparin coadministration increased the palifermin AUC 4- to 5-fold and decreased its half-life by 40%-45%, suggesting an approximate 70%-80% decrease in palifermin clearance and volume of distribution. These changes in the pharmacokinetics of palifermin during coadministration of heparin, however, did not affect the pharmacodynamic effect of palifermin, or the anticoagulant activity of heparin, and did not lead to increased safety findings. Therefore, these results suggest that dose adjustments for heparin and palifermin are not warranted when administered concurrently.

  3. Heparin-chitosan nanoparticle functionalization of porous poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels for localized lentivirus delivery of angiogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Aline M; Gomez, Andrew J; Palma, Jaime L; Yap, Woon Teck; Shea, Lonnie D

    2014-10-01

    Hydrogels have been extensively used for regenerative medicine strategies given their tailorable mechanical and chemical properties. Gene delivery represents a promising strategy by which to enhance the bioactivity of the hydrogels, though the efficiency and localization of gene transfer have been challenging. Here, we functionalized porous poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels with heparin-chitosan nanoparticles to retain the vectors locally and enhance lentivirus delivery while minimizing changes to hydrogel architecture and mechanical properties. The immobilization of nanoparticles, as compared to homogeneous heparin and/or chitosan, is essential to lentivirus immobilization and retention of activity. Using this gene-delivering platform, we over-expressed the angiogenic factors sonic hedgehog (Shh) and vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf) to promote blood vessel recruitment to the implant site. Shh enhanced endothelial recruitment and blood vessel formation around the hydrogel compared to both Vegf-delivering and control hydrogels. The nanoparticle-modified porous hydrogels for delivering gene therapy vectors can provide a platform for numerous regenerative medicine applications. PMID:25023395

  4. Heparin-chitosan nanoparticle functionalization of porous poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels for localized lentivirus delivery of angiogenic factors

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Aline M.; Gomez, Andrew J.; Palma, Jaime L.; Yap, Woon Teck

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogels have been extensively used for regenerative medicine strategies given their tailorable mechanical and chemical properties. Gene delivery represents a promising strategy by which to enhance the bioactivity of the hydrogels, though the efficiency and localization of gene transfer have been challenging. Here, we functionalized porous poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels with heparin-chitosan nanoparticles to retain the vectors locally and enhance lentivirus delivery while minimizing changes to hydrogel architecture and mechanical properties. The immobilization of nanoparticles, as compared to homogeneous heparin and/or chitosan, is essential to lentivirus immobilization and retention of activity. Using this gene-delivering platform, we over-expressed the angiogenic factors sonic hedgehog (Shh) and vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf) to promote blood vessel recruitment to the implant site. Shh enhanced endothelial recruitment and blood vessel formation around the hydrogel compared to both Vegf-delivering and control hydrogels. The nanoparticle-modified porous hydrogels for delivering gene therapy vectors can provide a platform for numerous regenerative medicine applications. PMID:25023395

  5. Electrochemical control of growth factor presentation to steer neural stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Herland, Anna; Persson, Kristin M; Lundin, Vanessa; Fahlman, Mats; Berggren, Magnus; Jager, Edwin W H; Teixeira, Ana I

    2011-12-23

    Let it grow: The conjugated polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was synthesized with heparin as the counterion to form a cell culture substrate. The surface of PEDOT:heparin in the neutral state associated biologically active growth factors. Electrochemical in situ oxidation of PEDOT during live cell culture decreased the bioavailability of the growth factor and created an exact onset of neural stem cell differentiation.

  6. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    2013-05-01

    Patients can develop thrombocytopenia during heparin therapy.The most frequent form, type I heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, does not require cessation of therapy. Type II heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is immune-mediated. It can cause venous or arterial thrombosis, which may be fatal or require amputation. Type II thrombocytopenia typically develops 5 to 10 days after initiation of treatment, sometimes earlier in patients previously exposed to heparins. The recommendations on platelet-count monitoring during heparin therapy are not based on high-level evidence. The main risk factors for type II thrombocytopenia must be taken into account: unfractionated heparin, previous heparin exposure, surgery, female patient. For patients considered at high risk for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, platelet-count monitoring is usually recommended at least twice a week for at least 2 weeks. The treatment of immune-mediated heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is based on stopping heparin and replacing it with danaparoid or argatroban. In practice, the decision to initiate treatment with unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin is not a trivial one. In addition to the bleeding risk, the risk of type II thrombocytopenia in the short- term, or during subsequent heparin therapy, should be taken into account when assessing the harm-benefit balance. PMID:23819174

  7. Production of Anti-platelet Factor 4/Heparin Complex Antibodies After Cardiovascular Surgery.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Takefumi; Motohashi, Shinya; Wanaka, Keiko; Walenga, Jeanine M

    2015-03-01

    To study the production of anti-platelet factor 4 (anti-PF4)/heparin complex antibodies of Ig (immunoglobulin) G/IgA/IgM using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; heparin-induced thrombocytopenia [HIT] antibodies) in 79 patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery, we employed Δoptical density (OD) as a marker of HIT-antibody production. The ΔODs were calculated from the differences in the ODs using ELISA. Patient were classified into 3 ΔOD ranges: ΔOD ≥ 1.0, ΔOD ≥ 0.4 to <1.0, and ΔOD < 0.4. The underlying disease, time course of the postoperative platelet count, D-dimer level, postoperative brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), use of cardiopulmonary bypass and postoperative thrombocytosis were not considered for the 3 ΔOD classifications. None of the 6 patients with ΔOD ≥ 1 .0 and a positive functional assay was diagnosed with HIT due to the absence of HIT-derived thrombocytopenia. In conclusion, HIT-antibody production increased until day 7 after heparin cessation and reached a trace level on day 14. It was demonstrated that HIT-antibody production is in remission unless there is any evidence of a further increase during the second week postsurgery.

  8. Dual delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor coacervate displays strong angiogenic effects.

    PubMed

    Awada, Hassan K; Johnson, Noah R; Wang, Yadong

    2014-05-01

    Controlled delivery of multiple growth factors (GFs) holds great potential for the clinical treatment of ischemic diseases and might be more therapeutically effective to reestablish vasculature than the provision of a single GF. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are two potent angiogenic factors. However, due to rapid degradation and dilution in the body, their clinical potential will rely on an effective mode of delivery. A coacervate, composed of heparin and a biodegradable polycation, which protects GFs from proteolysis and potentiates their bioactivities, is developed. Here, the coacervate incorporates VEGF and HGF and sustains their release for at least three weeks. Their strong angiogenic effects on endothelial cell proliferation and tube formation in vitro are confirmed. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that coacervate-based delivery of these factors has stronger effects than free application of both factors and to coacervate delivery of each GF separately.

  9. Platelet factor 4/heparin-particle gel immunoassay (PaGIA) is a weak method for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) evaluation of post cardio-pulmonary bypass surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Ganzel, Chezi; Rowe, Jacob; Raveh, David

    2014-10-01

    Diagnosis of heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is not always easy, especially when a confirmatory functional test is not available. In most cases the diagnosis relies on the combination of pretest probability and an immunologic test. Among patients post cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery, anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies tend to be high but with low clinical implication. The current retrospective study examined the behavior of patients with positive PF4/heparin-PaGIA results, divided into two groups according to whether or not they have undergone CPB surgery. The main focus of the study was on the reliability of the PF4/heparin-PaGIA test in these two settings. The files of 104 single center patients, who had a positive PF4/heparin-PaGIA test, were reviewed. 62% were post CPB and 38% were not. An association between the intensity of positivity of PF4/heparin-PaGIA test and both the 4Ts pretest probability method (p = 0.003) and the incidence of thrombosis (p = 0.02) was found only in the patients who have not undergone CPB surgery, but not in the CPB patients. This study suggests that PF4/heparin-PaGIA is not a reliable method in patients post CPB surgery who are investigated for a possible diagnosis of HIT.

  10. Cultured human foreskin fibroblasts produce a factor that stimulates their growth with properties similar to basic fibroblast growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Story, M.T. )

    1989-05-01

    To determine if fibroblasts could be a source of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) in tissue, cells were initiated in culture from newborn human foreskin. Fibroblast cell lysates promoted radiolabeled thymidine uptake by cultured quiescent fibroblasts. Seventy-nine percent of the growth-promoting activity of lysates was recovered from heparin-Sepharose. The heparin-binding growth factor reacted on immunoblots with antiserum to human placenta-derived basic FGF and competed with iodinated basic FGF for binding to antiserum to (1-24)bFGF synthetic peptide. To confirm that fibroblasts were the source of the growth factor, cell lysates were prepared from cells incubated with radiolabeled methionine. Heparin affinity purified material was immunoprecipitated with basic FGF antiserum and electrophoresed. Radiolabeled material was detected on gel autoradiographs in the same molecular weight region as authentic iodinated basic FGF. The findings are consistant with the notion that cultured fibroblasts express basic FGF. As these cells also respond to the mitogen, it is possible that the regulation of their growth is under autocrine control. Fibroblasts may be an important source of the growth factor in tissue.

  11. Subcellular localization of the heparin-neutralizing factor in blood platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Da Prada, M; Jakábová, M; Lüscher, E F; Pletscher, A; Richards, J G

    1976-01-01

    1. The distribution of the heparin-neutralizing factor (platelet factor 4, PF4) in subcellular organelles of blood platelets of rabbits and man was investigated. 2. In both species the organelles storing 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT storage organelles) contained only trivial amounts of PF4. 3. In contrast, the content of PF4 was highest in the subcellular fractions rich in alpha-granules. 4. In conclusion, PF4 is probably localized in the alpha-granules and therefore the platelets contain at least two types of organelles (5-HT organelles and alpha-granules) capable of releasing their contents in response to the same stimuli, such as exposure to collagen, thrombin, etc. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 PMID:950602

  12. Low-molecular-weight heparins and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Norrby, Klas

    2006-02-01

    The involvement of the vascular system in malignancy encompasses not only angiogenesis, but also systemic hypercoagulability and a pro-thrombotic state, and there is increasing evidence that pathways of blood coagulation and angiogenesis are reciprocally linked. In fact, cancer atients often display hypercoagulability resulting in markedly increased thromboembolism, which requires anti-coagulant treatment using heparins, for example. Clinical trials reveal that treatment with various low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) improves the survival time in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy compared with those receiving unfractionated standard heparin (UFH) or no heparin treatment, as well as in cancer patients receiving LMWH as thrombosis prophylaxis during primary surgery. This anti-tumor effect of the heparins appears to be unrelated to their anti-coagulant activity, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. Tumor growth and spread are dependent on angiogenesis and it is noteworthy that the most potent endogenous pro- and anti-angiogenic factors are heparin-binding proteins that may be affected by systemic treatment with heparins. Heparin and other glycosaminoglycans play a role in vascular endothelial cell function, as they are able to modulate the activities of angiogenic growth factors by facilitating the interaction with their receptor and promoting receptor activation. To date, preclinical studies have demonstrated that only LMWH fragments produced by the heparinase digestion of UFH, i.e. tinzaparin, exert anti-angiogenic effects in any type of tissue in vivo. These effects are fragment-mass-specific and angiogenesis-type-specific. Data on the effect of various LMWHs and UFH on endothelial cell capillary tube formation and proliferation in vitro are also presented. We hope that this paper will stimulate and facilitate future research designed to elucidate whether the anti-angiogenic or anti-tumor effects of commercial LMWHs in their own right are

  13. Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate inhibits plasma thrombin generation via targeting of the factor IXa heparin-binding exosite.

    PubMed

    Buyue, Yang; Sheehan, John P

    2009-10-01

    Depolymerized holothurian glycosaminoglycan (DHG) is a fucosylated chondroitin sulfate with antithrombin-independent antithrombotic properties. Heparin cofactor II (HCII)-dependent and -independent mechanisms for DHG inhibition of plasma thrombin generation were evaluated. When thrombin generation was initiated with 0.2 pM tissue factor (TF), the half maximal effective concentration (EC(50)) for DHG inhibition was identical in mock- or HCII-depleted plasma, suggesting a serpin-independent mechanism. In the presence of excess TF, the EC(50) for DHG was increased 13- to 27-fold, suggesting inhibition was dependent on intrinsic tenase (factor IXa-factor VIIIa) components. In factor VIII-deficient plasma supplemented with 700 pM factor VIII or VIIIa, and factor IX-deficient plasma supplemented with plasma-derived factor IX or 100 pM factor IXa, the EC(50) for DHG was similar. Thus, cofactor and zymogen activation did not contribute to DHG inhibition of thrombin generation. Factor IX-deficient plasma supplemented with mutant factor IX(a) proteins demonstrated resistance to DHG inhibition of thrombin generation [factor IX(a) R233A > R170A > WT] that inversely correlated with protease-heparin affinity. These results replicate the effect of these mutations with purified intrinsic tenase components, and establish the factor IXa heparin-binding exosite as the relevant molecular target for inhibition by DHG. Glycosaminoglycan-mediated intrinsic tenase inhibition is a novel antithrombotic mechanism with physiologic and therapeutic applications.

  14. Hydrolysis and Sulfation Pattern Effects on Release of Bioactive Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 from Heparin-Based Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tellier, Liane E.; Miller, Tobias; McDevitt, Todd C.; Temenoff, Johnna S.

    2015-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as heparin are promising materials for growth factor delivery due to their ability to efficiently bind positively charged growth factors including bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) through their negatively charged sulfate groups. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine BMP-2 release from heparin-based microparticles (MPs) after first, incorporating a hydrolytically degradable crosslinker and varying heparin content within MPs to alter MP degradation and second, altering the sulfation pattern of heparin within MPs to vary BMP-2 binding and release. Using varied MP formulations, it was found that the time course of MP degradation for 1 wt% heparin MPs was ~4 days slower than 10 wt% heparin MPs, indicating that MP degradation was dependent on heparin content. After incubating 100 ng BMP-2 with 0.1 mg MPs, most MP formulations loaded BMP-2 with ~50% efficiency and significantly more BMP-2 release (60% of loaded BMP-2) was observed from more sulfated heparin MPs (MPs with ~100% and 80% of native sulfation). Similarly, BMP-2 bioactivity in more sulfated heparin MP groups was at least four-fold higher than soluble BMP-2 and less sulfated heparin MP groups, as determined by an established C2C12 cell alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay. Ultimately, the two most sulfated 10 wt% heparin MP formulations were able to efficiently load and release BMP-2 while enhancing BMP-2 bioactivity, making them promising candidates for future growth factor delivery applications.

  15. The Anti-Factor Xa Range For Low Molecular Weight Heparin Thromboprophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Salena M.

    2015-01-01

    Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are now the mainstay option in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism. In some patients receiving therapeutic doses of LMWH, activity can be measured by quantifying the presence of Anti-factor Xa (AFXa) for dose adjustment. However, currently there are no guidelines for LMWH monitoring in patients on thromboprophylactic, doses, despite certain patient populations may be at risk of suboptimal dosing. This review found that while the AFXa ranges for therapeutic levels of LMWHs are relatively well defined in the literature, prophylactic ranges are much less clear, thus making it difficult to interpret current research data. From the studies published to date, we concluded that a reasonable AFXa target range for LMWH deep venous thromboses prophylaxis might be 0.2-0.5 IU/mL. PMID:26733269

  16. Covalent immobilization of stem cell inducing/recruiting factor and heparin on cell-free small-diameter vascular graft for accelerated in situ tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Shafiq, Muhammad; Jung, Youngmee; Kim, Soo Hyun

    2016-06-01

    The development of cell-free vascular grafts has tremendous potential for tissue engineering. However, thrombus formation, less-than-ideal cell infiltration, and a lack of growth potential limit the application of electrospun scaffolds for in situ tissue-engineered vasculature. To overcome these challenges, here we present development of an acellular tissue-engineered vessel based on electrospun poly(L-lactide-co-ɛ-caprolactone) scaffolds. Heparin was conjugated to suppress thrombogenic responses, and substance P (SP) was immobilized to recruit host cells. SP was released in a sustained manner from scaffolds and recruited human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The biocompatibility and biological performance of the grafts were evaluated by in vivo experiments involving subcutaneous scaffold implantation in Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 12) for up to 4 weeks. Histological analysis revealed a higher extent of accumulative host cell infiltration, neotissue formation, collagen deposition, and elastin deposition in scaffolds containing either SP or heparin/SP than in the control groups. We also observed the presence of a large number of laminin-positive blood vessels, von Willebrand factor (vWF(+) ) cells, and alpha smooth muscle actin-positive cells in the explants containing SP and heparin/SP. Additionally, SP and heparin/SP grafts showed the existence of CD90(+) and CD105(+) MSCs and induced a large number of M2 macrophages to infiltrate the graft wall compared with that observed with the control group. Our cell-free grafts could enhance vascular regeneration by endogenous cell recruitment and by mediating macrophage polarization into the M2 phenotype, suggesting that these constructs may be a promising cell-free graft candidate and are worthy of further in vivo evaluation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1352-1371, 2016. PMID:26822178

  17. Growth factor signalling.

    PubMed

    de Laat, S W; Boonstra, J; Defize, L H; Kruijer, W; van der Saag, P T; Tertoolen, L G; van Zoelen, E J; den Hertog, J

    1999-01-01

    Signalling between cells in the developing vertebrate embryo is essential for normal embryonic development. In the mid 1970's, signal transduction research started at the Hubrecht Laboratory with special emphasis on analysis of the signalling mechanisms that direct cell proliferation and differentiation. The introduction of in vitro model systems contributed tremendously to the success of the signal transduction research at the Hubrecht Laboratory. Initially neuroblastoma cell lines, and later embryonal carcinoma and embryonal stem cells played an important role in identification of the molecular key players in developmental signalling. For instance, embryonal carcinoma cells were used to identify and characterise polypeptide growth factors. Growth factor signalling research was extended to analysis of growth factor receptor activation. Moreover, the second messenger systems that are linked to growth factor receptors were studied, as well as the nuclear responses to growth factor receptor activation. Finally, the role of growth factor signalling in differentiation was established using embryonal carcinoma cells. Here, we will review work that was characteristic for the growth factor receptor signalling research that was done at the Hubrecht Laboratory between 1980 and the early 1990's.

  18. Antibodies to Platelet Factor 4–Heparin Complex and Outcome in Hemodialysis Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Mario; Lilienthal, Jürgen; Winkler, Karl; Schambeck, Christian; Wanner, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Hemodialysis patients with type 2 diabetes exhibit an excessive cardiovascular risk and regularly receive heparin. We tested whether antibodies to the platelet factor 4–heparin complex (PF4-H-AB) contribute to outcome. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: In 1255 hemodialysis patients with type 2 diabetes, the German Diabetes Dialysis Study evaluated the effect of atorvastatin (20 mg/d) versus placebo. In a post hoc analysis, the association among PF4-H-ABs, biochemistry, and prespecified, centrally adjudicated end points (combined cardiovascular end point [CVE], all-cause mortality, sudden death, myocardial infarction, stroke) was investigated. Results: During 4 years, 460 patients reached the CVE; 605 died, 159 of sudden death. Myocardial infarction and stroke occurred in 199 and 97 patients, respectively. Positive PF4-H-AB status was found in 231 (18.7%) of 1236 tested patients and was associated with lower albumin, higher C-reactive protein, and arrhythmia. In a multivariate model adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, and biochemistry, PF4-H-ABs were associated with sudden death. No significant association between PF4-H-ABs and all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, or the CVE was observed. Detecting an interaction between acetylsalicylic acid and PF4-H-ABs regarding sudden death and mortality, we found that the association between PF4-H-ABs and outcomes was restricted to patients with acetylsalicylic acid use, most likely because of indication bias. Conclusions: In hemodialysis patients who have type 2 diabetes and are treated with acetylsalicylic acid, PF4-H-ABs are associated with sudden and all-cause death. Further studies are needed to elucidate this association. PMID:20185595

  19. The modulation of biodistribution of stem cells by anchoring lipid-conjugated heparin on the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Chul; Tae, Giyoong

    2015-11-10

    Heparin is a bioactive glycosaminoglycan that can interact with various extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and growth factors. Lipid-conjugated heparin was synthesized, and was used to coat adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) by physical insertion on the cell membrane. Coating of lipid-conjugated heparin with two lipid moieties on ADSCs was stable for 24h in vitro. Biodistribution of heparin-coated ADSCs upon intravenous injection in mice was analyzed by In-Vivo Imaging System (IVIS), and showed enhanced accumulation in the liver and spleen while reduced entrapment in the lung. Thus, the coating of ADSCs with lipid-conjugated heparin could significantly modulate the biodistribution of cells.

  20. Induction of mast cell proliferation, maturation, and heparin synthesis by the rat c-kit ligand, stem cell factor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, M.; Takeishi, Takashi; Geissler, E.N. ); Thompson, H.; Metcalfe, D.D. ); Langley, K.E.; Zsebo, K.M.; Galli, S.J. )

    1991-07-15

    The authors investigated the effects of a newly recognized multifunctional growth factor, the c-kit ligand stem cell factor (SCF), on mouse mast cell proliferation and phenotype. Recombinant rat SCF{sup 164} (rrSCF{sup 164}) induced the development of large numbers of dermal mast cells in normal mice in vivo. Many of these mast cells had features of connective tissue-type mast cells (CTMC), in that they were reactive both with the heparin-binding fluorescent dye berberine sulfate and with safranin. In vitro, rrSCF{sup 164} induced the proliferation of cloned interleukin 3 (IL-3)-dependent mouse mast cells and primary populations of IL-3-dependent, bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (BMCMC), which represent immature mast cells, and purified peritoneal mast cells, which represent a type of mature CTMC> BMCMC maintained in rrSCF{sup 164} not only proliferated but also matured. These findings identify SCF as a single cytokine that can induce immature, IL-3-dependent mast cells to mature and to acquire multiple characteristics of CTMC. These findings also directly demonstrate that SCF can regulate the development of a cellular lineage expressing c-kit through effects on both proliferation and maturation.

  1. Attachment of Flexible Heparin Chains to Gelatin Scaffolds Improves Endothelial Cell Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Leijon, Jonas; Carlsson, Fredrik; Brännström, Johan; Sanchez, Javier; Larsson, Rolf; Nilsson, Bo; Rosenquist, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Long-term survival of implanted cells requires oxygen and nutrients, the need for which is met by vascularization of the implant. The use of scaffolds with surface-attached heparin as anchoring points for angiogenic growth factors has been reported to improve this process. We examined the potential role of surface modification of gelatin scaffolds in promoting endothelial cell infiltration by using a unique macromolecular conjugate of heparin as a coating. Compared to other heparin coatings, this surface modification provides flexible heparin chains, representing a new concept in heparin conjugation. In vitro cell infiltration of scaffolds was assessed using a three-dimensional model in which the novel heparin surface, without growth factors, showed a 2.5-fold increase in the number of infiltrating endothelial cells when compared to control scaffolds. No additional improvement was achieved by adding growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor and/or fibroblast growth factor-2) to the scaffold. In vivo experiments confirmed these results and also showed that the addition of angiogenic growth factors did not significantly increase the endothelial cell infiltration but increased the number of inflammatory cells in the implanted scaffolds. The endothelial cell-stimulating ability of the heparin surface alone, combined with its growth factor-binding capacity, renders it an interesting candidate surface treatment to create a prevascularized site prepared for implantation of cells and tissues, in particular those sensitive to inflammation but in need of supportive revascularization, such as pancreatic islets of Langerhans. PMID:23327585

  2. Effect of selective heparin desulfation on preservation of bone morphogenetic protein-2 bioactivity after thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Seto, Song P; Miller, Tobias; Temenoff, Johnna S

    2015-02-18

    Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) plays an important role in bone and cartilage formation and is of interest in regenerative medicine. Heparin can interact electrostatically with BMP-2 and thus has been explored for controlled release and potential stabilization of this growth factor in vivo. However, in its natively sulfated state, heparin has potent anticoagulant properties that may limit its use. Desulfation reduces anticoagulant properties, but may impact heparin's ability to interact and protect BMP-2 from denaturation. The goal of this study was to characterize three selectively desulfated heparin species (N-desulfated (Hep(-N)), 6-O,N-desulfated (Hep(-N,-6O)), and completely desulfated heparin (Hep(-))) and determine if the sulfation level of heparin affected the level of BMP-2 bioactivity after heat treatment at 65 °C. BMP-2 bioactivity was evaluated using the established C2C12 cell assay. The resulting alkaline phosphatase activity data demonstrated that native heparin maintained a significant amount of BMP-2 bioactivity and the effect appeared to be heparin concentration dependent. Although all three had the same molecular charge as determined by zeta potential measurements, desulfated heparin derivatives Hep(-N) and Hep(-N,-6O) were not as effective as native heparin in maintaining BMP-2 bioactivity (only ~35% of original activity remained in both cases). These findings can be used to better select desulfated heparin species that exhibit low anticoagulant activity while extending the half-life of BMP-2 in solution and in delivery systems.

  3. A common site within factor H SCR 7 responsible for binding heparin, C-reactive protein and streptococcal M protein.

    PubMed

    Giannakis, Eleni; Jokiranta, T Sakari; Male, Dean A; Ranganathan, Shoba; Ormsby, Rebecca J; Fischetti, Vince A; Mold, Carolyn; Gordon, David L

    2003-04-01

    The complement inhibitor factor H (fH) interacts via its seventh short consensus repeat (SCR) domain with multiple ligands including heparin, streptococcal M protein and C-reactive protein (CRP). The aim of this study was to localize the residues in SCR 7 required for these interactions. We initially built a homology model of fH SCR 6-7 using the averaged NMR structures of fH SCR 15-16 and vaccinia control protein SCR 3-4 as templates. Electrostatic potentials of the model's surface demonstrated a co-localization of three clusters of positively charged residues on SCR 7, labeled site A (R369 and K370), site B (R386 and K387) and site C (K392). These residues, localized to the linker region preceding SCR 7 and to the end of a "hypervariable loop" in SCR 7, were systematically replaced with uncharged alanine residues in an fH construct containing SCR 1-7. The resulting proteins were expressed in the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris. By ELISA analysis we demonstrated: first, that substituting site A inhibited heparin and CRP binding; secondly, that substituting site B inhibited binding to heparin, CRP and M protein; and thirdly, that substituting site C clearly inhibited only heparin binding.

  4. Growth factors for nanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Kajander, E. Olavi

    1999-12-01

    Nanobacteria are novel microorganisms recently isolated from fetal bovine serum and blood of cows and humans. These coccoid, gram negative bacteria in alpha-2 subgroup of Proteobacteria grow slowly under mammalian cell culture conditions but not in common media for microbes. Now we have found two different kinds of culture supplement preparations that improve their growth and make them culturable in the classical sense. These are supernatant fractions of conditioned media obtained from 1 - 3 months old nanobacteria cultures and from about a 2 weeks old Bacillus species culture. Both improved multiplication and particle yields and the latter increased their resistance to gentamicin. Nanobacteria cultured with any of the methods shared similar immunological property, structure and protein pattern. The growth supporting factors were heat-stabile and nondialyzable, and dialysis improved the growth promoting action. Nanobacteria formed stony colonies in a bacteriological medium supplemented with the growth factors. This is an implication that nanobacterial growth is influenced by pre-existing bacterial flora.

  5. Peptide growth factors, part A

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, D.; Sirbasku, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains information on the following topics: Epidermal Growth Factor;Transforming Growth Factors;Bone and Cartilage Growth Factors;Somatomedin/Insulin-Like Growth Factors;Techniques for the Study of Growth Factor Activity;Assays, Phosphorylation, and Surface Membrane Effects.

  6. Heparin rescues factor V Leiden–associated placental failure independent of anticoagulation in a murine high-risk pregnancy model

    PubMed Central

    An, Jianzhong; Waitara, Magarya S.; Bordas, Michelle; Arumugam, Vidhyalakshmi; Hoffmann, Raymond G.; Petrich, Brian G.; Sinha, Uma; North, Paula E.

    2013-01-01

    Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is being tested as an experimental drug for improving pregnancy outcome in women with inherited thrombophilia and placenta-mediated pregnancy complications, such as recurrent pregnancy loss. The role of thrombotic processes in these disorders remains unproven, and the issue of antithrombotic prophylaxis is intensely debated. Using a murine model of factor V Leiden–associated placental failure, we show that treatment of the mother with LMWH allows placental development to proceed and affords significant protection from fetal loss. Nonetheless, the therapeutic effect of LMWH is not replicated by anticoagulation; fondaparinux and a direct Xa inhibitor, C921-78, achieve anticoagulation similar to LMWH but produce little or no improvement in pregnancy outcome. Genetic attenuation of maternal platelet aggregation is similarly ineffective. In contrast, even a partial loss of thrombin sensitivity of maternal platelets protects pregnancies. Neonates born from these pregnancies are growth retarded, suggesting that placental function is only partially restored. The placentae are smaller but do not reveal any evidence of thrombosis. Our data demonstrate an anticoagulation-independent role of LMWH in protecting pregnancies and provide evidence against the involvement of thrombotic processes in thrombophilia-associated placental failure. Importantly, thrombin-mediated maternal platelet activation remains central in the mechanism of placental failure. PMID:23325830

  7. New microbial growth factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bok, S. H.; Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A screening procedure was used to isolate from soil a Penicillium sp., two bacterial isolates, and a Streptomyces sp. that produced a previously unknown microbial growth factor. This factor was an absolute growth requirement for three soil bacteria. The Penicillium sp. and one of the bacteria requiring the factor, an Arthrobacter sp., were selected for more extensive study concerning the production and characteristics of the growth factor. It did not seem to be related to the siderochromes. It was not present in soil extract, rumen fluid, or any other medium component tested. It appears to be a glycoprotein of high molecular weight and has high specific activity. When added to the diets for a meadow-vole mammalian test system, it caused an increased consumption of diet without a concurrent increase in rate of weight gain.

  8. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor is a Secreted Angiogenic Mitogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, David W.; Cachianes, George; Kuang, Wun-Jing; Goeddel, David V.; Ferrara, Napoleone

    1989-12-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was purified from media conditioned by bovine pituitary folliculostellate cells (FC). VEGF is a heparin-binding growth factor specific for vascular endothelial cells that is able to induce angiogenesis in vivo. Complementary DNA clones for bovine and human VEGF were isolated from cDNA libraries prepared from FC and HL60 leukemia cells, respectively. These cDNAs encode hydrophilic proteins with sequences related to those of the A and B chains of platelet-derived growth factor. DNA sequencing suggests the existence of several molecular species of VEGF. VEGFs are secreted proteins, in contrast to other endothelial cell mitogens such as acidic or basic fibroblast growth factors and platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor. Human 293 cells transfected with an expression vector containing a bovine or human VEGF cDNA insert secrete an endothelial cell mitogen that behaves like native VEGF.

  9. Synthesis and structural study of two new heparin-like hexasaccharides.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Ricardo; Angulo, Jesús; Nieto, Pedro M; Martín-Lomas, Manuel

    2003-07-01

    Two new heparin-like hexasaccharides, 5 and 6, have been synthesised using a convergent block strategy and their solution conformations have been determined by NMR spectroscopy and molecular modelling. Both hexasaccharides contain the basic structural motif of the regular region of heparin but with negative charge distributions which have been designed to get insight into the mechanism of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) activation.

  10. Peptide growth factors, part B

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, D.; Sirbasku, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the following topics: Platelet-Derived Growth Factor;Nerve and Glial Growth Factors;PC12 Pheochromocytoma Cells;Techniques for the Study of Growth Factor Activity;Genetic Approaches and Biological Effects.

  11. Development of a fluorescent anti-factor Xa assay to monitor unfractionated and low molecular weight heparins.

    PubMed

    Harris, Leanne F; Castro-López, Vanessa; Hammadi, Nissrin; O'Donnell, James S; Killard, Anthony J

    2010-06-15

    Fluorogenic assays have many potential advantages over traditional clot-based and chromogenic assays such as the absence of interference from a range of factor deficiencies as well as offering the possibility of assays in platelet rich plasma or whole blood. A fluorogenic anti-factor Xa (anti-FXa) assay has been developed for the determination of unfractionated heparin (UFH), low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs), namely enoxaparin and tinzaparin, and the synthetic heparinoid danaparoid, in commercial human pooled plasma. The assay was based on the complexation of heparin-spiked plasmas with exogenous FXa at a concentration of 4nM in the presence of 0.9microM of the fluorogenic substrate methylsulfonyl-D-cyclohexylalanyl-glycyl-arginine-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin acetate (Pefafluor FXa). Pooled plasma samples were spiked with concentrations of anticoagulants in the range 0-1.6U/ml. The assay was capable of the measurement of UFH and danaparoid in the range 0-1U/ml, and enoxaparin and tinzaparin in the range 0-0.8 and 0-0.6U/ml, respectively. Correlation coefficients generated by linear regression of the log/lin data analysis were between 0.93 and 0.96 for the anticoagulants tested. Assay percentage coefficients of variation were typically below 7%. PMID:20441964

  12. Milk Epidermal Growth Factor and Gut Protection

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, Bohuslav

    2010-01-01

    Maternal milk is a complex fluid with multifunctional roles within the developing gastrointestinal tract. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) are members of the family of EGF-related peptides. Biological actions of these growth factors are mediated via interaction with the EGF-receptor (EGF-R). In the early postnatal period, breast milk is the major source of EGF for the developing intestinal mucosa. HB-EGF is also detected in breast milk, but in concentrations 2 to 3 times lower than EGF. Under normal physiological conditions, the intestinal epithelium undergoes a continuing process of cell proliferation, differentiation and maturation. EGF plays an important role in these processes. In pathophysiologic situations, EGF contributes to epithelial protection from injury and post-injury mucosal repair. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease affecting prematurely born infants. The pathogenesis of NEC is not known and there is no effective treatment for this disease. In an experimental NEC model, oral administration of a physiological dose of EGF significantly reduces the incidence and severity of NEC. HB-EGF provides similar protection against NEC, but only when pharmacological doses are used. Further studies are necessary before EGF can be introduced as an efficient therapeutic approach of intestinal injury. PMID:20105663

  13. Heparin affin regulatory peptide modulates the endogenous anticoagulant activity of heparin and heparan sulphate mimetics.

    PubMed

    Mejdoubi-Charef, Najet; Courty, José; Sineriz, Fernando; Papy-Garcia, Dulce; Charef, Said

    2012-11-01

    Pleiotrophin, also known as heparin affin regulatory peptide (HARP), is a growth factor expressed in various tissues and cell lines. In this work, HARP was tested for its capacity to modulate the anticoagulant activity of heparin and heparan sulphate mimetics (OTR4120). We used both in vitro and in vivo assays. HARP was found to be differently effective for neutralization of the anticoagulant activity of the mimetic heparan sulphate (OTR4120) and heparin in purified system and human plasma. HARP was shown to compete with both antithrombin and thrombin for binding to heparin and to OTR4120, respectively. In the presence of OTR4120, the V(max) was constant and the calculated maximum velocity was 1.56 U/min; the thrombin Km value (0.011 nM) was affected by HARP concentrations. The Km (HARP) value was 0.085 nM, which is consistent with high affinity of HARP to OTR4120. Under the same conditions, initial velocity patterns for antithrombin-heparin were determined in the presence or in the absence of HARP. The antithrombin value Km (0.022 nM) was affected by HARP (0.077 nM). HARP exhibits efficacy equivalent to or greater than protamine. Interestingly, intraperitoneally administered HARP decreased the anticoagulant activity of heparin and of OTR4120 in mice. Taken together, these data provide the first evidence for a physiological role of HARP in the modulation of anticoagulant activity of heparin and heparin-like material.

  14. The suppression of fibroblast growth factor 2/fibroblast growth factor 4-dependent tumour angiogenesis and growth by the anti-growth factor activity of dextran derivative (CMDB7).

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri-Yarmand, R.; Kourbali, Y.; Mabilat, C.; Morère, J. F.; Martin, A.; Lu, H.; Soria, C.; Jozefonvicz, J.; Crépin, M.

    1998-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that carboxymethyl benzylamide dextran (CMDB7) blocks basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2)-dependent cell proliferation of a human breast epithelial line (HBL100), suggesting its potential role as a potent antiangiogenic substance. The derived cell line (HH9), which was transformed with the hst/FGF4 gene, has been shown to be highly proliferative in vitro and to induce angiogenic tumours in nude mice. We show here that CMDB7 inhibits the mitogenic activities of the conditioned media from HBL 100 and HH9 cells in a dose-dependent manner. When HH9 cells were injected s.c. into nude mice, CMDB7 treatment (300 mg kg(-1) week(-1)) suppressed the tumour take and the tumour growth by about 50% and 80% respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a highly significant decrease, by more than threefold, in the endothelial density of viable tumour regions, together with a significant increase in the necrosis area. This antiangiogenic activity of CMDB7 was further demonstrated by direct inhibition of calf pulmonary artery (CPAE) and human umbilical vein (HUVEC) endothelial cell proliferation and migration in vitro. In addition, we showed that CMDB7 inhibits specifically the mitogenic effects of the growth factors that bind to heparin such as FGF-2, FGF-4, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) and transforming growth factor (TGF-beta1), but not those of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1). These results demonstrate that CMDB7 inhibits FGF-2/FGF-4-dependent tumour growth and angiogenesis, most likely by disrupting the autocrine and paracrine effects of growth factors released from the tumour cells. Images Figure 4 PMID:9662260

  15. [Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia].

    PubMed

    Thiele, T; Althaus, K; Greinacher, A

    2010-09-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an adverse drug reaction that carries an increased risk of thromboembolic complications. HIT is caused by platelet-activating antibodies directed against a complex of platelet factor 4 (PF4) and heparin. HIT typically manifests in the second week after initiation of heparin therapy with a platelet count reduction of more than 50% of the highest level after the start of heparin administration as well as thromboembolic events. The clinical probability can be calculated by the 4 T's score. The laboratory diagnosis of HIT is based on confirmation of PF4/heparin antibodies or on functional tests that provide evidence of heparin-dependent platelet-activating antibodies. A low 4 T's score and negative HIT test virtually rule out the presence of HIT. Patients with acute HIT require anticoagulation with a compatible anticoagulant in a therapeutic dose. The drugs currently available for this include the direct thrombin inhibitors argatroban, lepirudin, bivalirudin, and desirudin and the indirect factor Xa inhibitors danaparoid and fondaparinux. PMID:20694716

  16. Heparin treatment increases thioredoxin interacting protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gunes, Aysim; Iscan, Evin; Topel, Hande; Avci, Sanem Tercan; Gumustekin, Mukaddes; Erdal, Esra; Atabey, Nese

    2015-08-01

    Heparins play an important role in cell growth, differentiation, migration and invasion. However, the molecular mechanisms of heparin mediated cellular behaviors are not well defined. To determine the effect of heparin on gene expression, we performed a cDNA microarray in a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line and found that heparin regulates transcription of genes involved in glucose metabolism. In this study, we showed a new role of heparin in the regulation of thioredoxin interacting protein, which is a major regulator of glucose metabolism, in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. We determined the importance of a unique carbohydrate response element located on its promoter for the heparin-induced activation of thioredoxin-interacting protein and the modulatory role of heparin on nuclear accumulation of carbohydrate response element associated proteins. We showed the importance of heparin mediated histone modifications and down-regulation of Enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 expression for heparin mediated overexpression of thioredoxin-interacting protein. When we tested biological significance of these data; we observed that cells overexpressing thioredoxin-interacting protein are less adhesive and proliferative, however they have a higher migration and invasion ability. Interestingly, heparin treatment increased thioredoxin-interacting protein expression in liver of diabetic rats. In conclusion, our results show that heparin activates thioredoxin-interacting protein expression in liver and hepatocellular carcinoma cells and provide the first evidences of regulatory roles of heparin on carbohydrate response element associated factors. This study will contribute future understanding of the effect of heparin on glucose metabolism and glucose independent overexpression of thioredoxin-interacting protein during hepatocarcinogenesis.

  17. The heparin-binding exosite is critical to allosteric activation of factor IXa in the intrinsic tenase complex: the role of arginine 165 and factor X.

    PubMed

    Misenheimer, Tina M; Buyue, Yang; Sheehan, John P

    2007-07-01

    Heparin inhibits the intrinsic tenase complex (factor IXa-factor VIIIa) via interaction with a factor IXa exosite. To define the role of this exosite, human factor IXa with alanine substituted for conserved surface residues (R126, N129, K132, R165, N178) was characterized. Chromogenic substrate hydrolysis by the mutant proteases was reduced 20-30% relative to factor IXa wild type. Coagulant activity was moderately (N129A, K132A, K126A) or dramatically (R165A) reduced relative to factor IXa wild type. Kinetic analysis demonstrated a marked reduction in apparent cofactor affinity (23-fold) for factor IXa R165, and an inability to stabilize cofactor activity. Factor IXa K126A, N129A, and K132A demonstrated modest reductions ( approximately 2-fold) in apparent cofactor affinity, and accelerated decay of intrinsic tenase activity. In the absence of factor VIIIa, factor IXa N178A and R165A demonstrated a defective Vmax(app) for factor X activation. In the presence of factor VIIIa, Vmax(app) varied in proportion to the predicted factor IXa-factor VIIIa concentration. However, factor IXa R165A had a 65% reduction in the kcat for factor X, suggesting an additional effect on catalysis. The ability of factor IXa to compete for physical assembly into the intrinsic tenase complex was enhanced by EGR-chloromethylketone bound to the factor IXa active site or addition of factor X, and reduced by selected mutations in the heparin-binding exosite (N178A, K126A, R165A). These results suggest that the factor IXa heparin-binding exosite participates in both cofactor binding and protease activation, and cofactor affinity is linked to active site conformation and factor X interaction during enzyme assembly.

  18. Sulfation patterns determine cellular internalization of heparin-like polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Karthik; Mencio, Caitlin; Desai, Umesh R.; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

    2013-01-01

    Heparin is a highly sulfated polysaccharide which serves biologically relevant roles as an anticoagulant and anti-cancer agent. While it is well known that modification of heparin’s sulfation pattern can drastically influence its ability to bind growth factors and other extracellular molecules, very little is known about the cellular uptake of heparin and the role sulfation patterns serve in affecting its internalization. In this study, we chemically synthesized several fluorescently-labeled heparins consisting of a variety of sulfation patterns. These polysaccharides were thoroughly characterized using anion exchange chromatography and size exclusion chromatography. Subsequently, we utilized flow cytometry and confocal imaging to show that sulfation patterns differentially affect the amount of heparin uptake in multiple cell types. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the effect of sulfation pattern on the cellular internalization of heparin or heparan sulfate like polysaccharides. The results of this study expand current knowledge regarding heparin internalization and provide insights into developing more effective heparin-based drug conjugates for applications in intracellular drug delivery. PMID:23398560

  19. Pinpointing the putative heparin/sialic acid-binding residues in the 'sushi' domain 7 of factor H: a molecular modeling study.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, S; Male, D A; Ormsby, R J; Giannakis, E; Gordon, D L

    2000-01-01

    Factor H, a secretory glycoprotein comprising 20 short consensus repeat (SCR) or 'sushi' domains of about 60 amino acids each, is a regulator of the complement system. The complement-regulatory functions of factor H are targeted by its binding to polyanions such as heparin/sialic acid, involving SCRs 7 and 20. Recently, the SCR 7 heparin-binding site was shown to be co-localized with the Streptococcus Group A M protein binding site on factor H (T.K. Blackmore et al., Infect. Immun. 66, 1427 (1998)). Using sequence analysis of all heparin-binding domains of factor H and its closest homologues, molecular modeling of SCRs 6 and 7, and surface electrostatic potential studies, the residues implicated in heparin/sialic acid binding to SCR 7 have been localized to four regions of sequence space containing stretches of basic as well as histidine residues. The heparin-binding site is spatially compact and lies near the interface between SCRs 6 and 7, with residues in the interdomain linker playing a significant role.

  20. Cellular uptake and activity of heparin functionalised cerium oxide nanoparticles in monocytes.

    PubMed

    Ting, S R Simon; Whitelock, John M; Tomic, Romana; Gunawan, Cindy; Teoh, Wey Yang; Amal, Rose; Lord, Megan S

    2013-06-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) are effective in scavenging intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study nanoceria synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis (dXRD = 12 nm) were functionalised with heparin via an organosilane linker, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. Nanoceria were functionalised with approximately 130 heparin molecules per nanoparticle as determined by thermo gravimetric analysis. Heparin functionalised nanoceria were more effectively internalised by the human monocyte cell line, U937, and U937 cells that had been activated with phorbol 12 myristate 13-acetate (PMA) than bare nanoceria. The heparin functionalised nanoceria were also more effective in scavenging ROS than nanoceria in both activated and unactivated U937 cells. Heparin coupled nanoceria were found to be biologically active due to their ability to bind fibroblast growth factor 2 and signal through FGF receptor 1. Additionally, the heparin-coupled nanoceria, once internalised by the cells, were found to be degraded by 48 h. Together these data demonstrated that heparin enhanced the biological properties of nanoceria in terms of cellular uptake and ROS scavenging, while the nanoceria themselves were more effective at delivering heparin intracellularly than exposing cells to heparin in solution. PMID:23478040

  1. Transcription-dependent epidermal growth factor receptor activation by hepatocyte growth factor.

    PubMed

    Reznik, Thomas E; Sang, Yingying; Ma, Yongxian; Abounader, Roger; Rosen, Eliot M; Xia, Shuli; Laterra, John

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms and biological implications of coordinated receptor tyrosine kinase coactivation remain poorly appreciated. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and c-Met are frequently coexpressed in cancers, including those associated with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) overexpression, such as malignant astrocytoma. In a previous analysis of the HGF-induced transcriptome, we found that two EGFR agonists, transforming growth factor-alpha and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), are prominently up-regulated by HGF in human glioma cells. We now report that stimulating human glioblastoma cells with recombinant HGF induces biologically relevant EGFR activation. EGFR phosphorylation at Tyr(845) and Tyr(1068) increased 6 to 24 h after cell stimulation with HGF and temporally coincided with the induction of transforming growth factor-alpha (~5-fold) and HB-EGF (~23-fold) expression. Tyr(845) and Tyr(1068) phosphorylation, in response to HGF, was inhibited by cycloheximide and actinomycin D, consistent with a requirement for DNA transcription and RNA translation. Specifically, blocking HB-EGF binding to EGFR with the antagonist CRM197 inhibited HGF-induced EGFR phosphorylation by 60% to 80% and inhibited HGF-induced S-G(2)-M transition. CRM197 also inhibited HGF-induced anchorage-dependent cell proliferation but had no effect on HGF-mediated cytoprotection. These findings establish that EGFR can be activated with functional consequences by HGF as a result of EGFR ligand expression. This transcription-dependent cross-talk between the HGF receptor c-Met and EGFR expands our understanding of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling networks and may have considerable consequences for oncogenic mechanisms and cancer therapeutics.

  2. Mode of heparin attachment to nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite affects its interaction with bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    PubMed

    Goonasekera, Chandhi S; Jack, Kevin S; Bhakta, Gajadhar; Rai, Bina; Luong-Van, Emma; Nurcombe, Victor; Cool, Simon M; Cooper-White, Justin J; Grøndahl, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Heparin has a high affinity for bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), which is a key growth factor in bone regeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate how the rate of release of BMP-2 was affected when adsorbed to nanosized hydroxyapatite (HAP) particles functionalized with heparin by different methods. Heparin was attached to the surface of HAP, either via adsorption or covalent coupling, via a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) layer. The chemical composition of the particles was evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and elemental microanalysis, revealing that the heparin grafting densities achieved were dependent on the curing temperature used in the fabrication of APTES-modified HAP. Comparable amounts of heparin were attached via both covalent coupling and adsorption to the APTES-modified particles, but characterization of the particle surfaces by zeta potential and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements indicated that the conformation of the heparin on the surface was dependent on the method of attachment, which in turn affected the stability of heparin on the surface. The release of BMP-2 from the particles after 7 days in phosphate-buffered saline found that 31% of the loaded BMP-2 was released from the APTES-modified particles with heparin covalently attached, compared to 16% from the APTES-modified particles with the heparin adsorbed. Moreover, when heparin was adsorbed onto pure HAP, it was found that the BMP-2 released after 7 days was 5% (similar to that from unmodified HAP). This illustrates that by altering the mode of attachment of heparin to HAP the release profile and total release of BMP-2 can be manipulated. Importantly, the BMP-2 released from all the heparin particle types was found by the SMAD 1/5/8 phosphorylation assay to be biologically active. PMID:26474791

  3. Mode of heparin attachment to nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite affects its interaction with bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    PubMed

    Goonasekera, Chandhi S; Jack, Kevin S; Bhakta, Gajadhar; Rai, Bina; Luong-Van, Emma; Nurcombe, Victor; Cool, Simon M; Cooper-White, Justin J; Grøndahl, Lisbeth

    2015-12-16

    Heparin has a high affinity for bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), which is a key growth factor in bone regeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate how the rate of release of BMP-2 was affected when adsorbed to nanosized hydroxyapatite (HAP) particles functionalized with heparin by different methods. Heparin was attached to the surface of HAP, either via adsorption or covalent coupling, via a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) layer. The chemical composition of the particles was evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and elemental microanalysis, revealing that the heparin grafting densities achieved were dependent on the curing temperature used in the fabrication of APTES-modified HAP. Comparable amounts of heparin were attached via both covalent coupling and adsorption to the APTES-modified particles, but characterization of the particle surfaces by zeta potential and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements indicated that the conformation of the heparin on the surface was dependent on the method of attachment, which in turn affected the stability of heparin on the surface. The release of BMP-2 from the particles after 7 days in phosphate-buffered saline found that 31% of the loaded BMP-2 was released from the APTES-modified particles with heparin covalently attached, compared to 16% from the APTES-modified particles with the heparin adsorbed. Moreover, when heparin was adsorbed onto pure HAP, it was found that the BMP-2 released after 7 days was 5% (similar to that from unmodified HAP). This illustrates that by altering the mode of attachment of heparin to HAP the release profile and total release of BMP-2 can be manipulated. Importantly, the BMP-2 released from all the heparin particle types was found by the SMAD 1/5/8 phosphorylation assay to be biologically active.

  4. Solution synthesis and biological activity of human pleiotrophin, a novel heparin-binding neurotrophic factor consisting of 136 amino acid residues with five disulfide bonds.

    PubMed

    Inui, T; Nakao, M; Nishio, H; Nishiuchi, Y; Kojima, S; Muramatsu, T; Kimura, T

    2000-05-01

    Human pleiotrophin (hPTN), a novel heparin-binding neurotrophic factor consisting of 136 amino acid residues with five intramolecular disulfide bonds, was synthesized by solution procedure in order to demonstrate the utility of our strategy using our newly developed solvent system, a mixture of trifluoroethanol (TFE) and dichloromethane (DCM) or chloroform (CHL). The final protected peptide was synthesized by coupling two larger protected intermediates, Boc-(1-64)-OH and H-(65-136)-OBzl, in CHL/TFE (3:1; v/v) using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) in the presence of 3,4-dihydro-3-hydroxy-4-oxo-1,2,3-benzotriazine (HOOBt). After removal of all protecting groups using the HF procedure followed by treatment with Hg(OAc)2, the fully deprotected peptide was subjected to an oxidative folding reaction. The product was confirmed as having the correct disulfide structure by examining the cystine peptides obtained by enzymatic digestions, and as possessing the same biological activities as those of the natural product. The N- and C-terminal half domains (1-64 and 65-136) were also synthesized, and measurement of their biological activities indicated that the C-terminal half domain displays almost all the activities of the full-length molecule, whereas the N-terminal half domain shows almost no activity. From these results, we were able to confirm that the C-terminal half domain is responsible for the expression of biological activities in the same manner as human midkine (hMK), another heparin-binding neurotrophic growth factor.

  5. The effects of danaparoid, dalteparin and heparin on tissue factor-induced experimental disseminated intravascular coagulation and bleeding time in the rat.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Y; Yokota, K; Fujishima, Y; Sukamoto, T

    2001-07-01

    Danaparoid and heparin, on the basis of anti-activated factor X (anti-FXa) activity, were equipotent in accelerating the rate of interaction of FXa and antithrombin III. In rat tissue factor-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) models, an intravenous administration of danaparoid inhibited the decrease in plasma fibrinogen and platelet counts and the increase in serum fibrinogen degradation products. Expressed on the basis of anti-FXa activity, these effects were comparable with those of dalteparin and heparin. In rat mesenteric small artery and vein, less bleeding was observed after intravenous administration of danaparoid than after dalteparin or heparin. Danaparoid did not affect adenosine diphosphate- or collagen-induced platelet aggregation, and showed weaker inhibitory effects on aggregation induced by thrombin, or collagen + thrombin, than did dalteparin or heparin. These findings suggest that danaparoid may be useful for the prevention of DIC and has less tendency to cause bleeding than dalteparin or heparin, probably as a result of its weaker ability to inhibit platelet aggregation. PMID:11505077

  6. Heparin inhibits pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation through guanine nucleotide exchange factor-H1/RhoA/Rho kinase/p27.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lunyin; Quinn, Deborah A; Garg, Hari G; Hales, Charles A

    2011-04-01

    Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) through Rho kinase kinase (ROCK), one of its downstream effectors, regulates a wide range of cell physiological functions, including vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, by degrading cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p27. Our previous studies found that heparin inhibition of pulmonary artery SMC (PASMC) proliferation and pulmonary hypertension was dependent on p27 up-regulation. To investigate whether ROCK, a regulator of p27, is involved in regulation of heparin inhibition of PASMC proliferation, we analyzed ROCK expression in the lungs from mice and from human PASMCs exposed to hypoxia, and investigated the effect of ROCK expression in vitro by RhoA cDNA transfection. We also investigated the effect of guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF)-H1, an upstream regulator of RhoA, on heparin inhibition of PASMC proliferation by GEF-H1 cDNA transfection. We found that: (1) hypoxia increased ROCK expression in mice and PASMCs; (2) overexpression of RhoA diminished the inhibitory effect of heparin on PASMC proliferation and down-regulated p27 expression; and (3) overexpression of GEF-H1 negated heparin inhibition of PASMC proliferation, which was accompanied by increased GTP-RhoA and decreased p27. This study demonstrates that the RhoA/ROCK pathway plays an important role in heparin inhibition on PASMC proliferation, and reveals that heparin inhibits PASMC proliferation through GEF-H1/RhoA/ROCK/p27 signaling pathway, by down-regulating GEF-H1, RhoA, and ROCK, and then up-regulating p27.

  7. SST0001, a chemically modified heparin, inhibits myeloma growth and angiogenesis via disruption of the heparanase/syndecan-1 axis

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Joseph P.; Ramani, Vishnu C.; Ren, Yongsheng; Naggi, Annamaria; Torri, Giangiacomo; Casu, Benito; Penco, Sergio; Pisano, Claudio; Carminati, Paolo; Tortoreto, Monica; Zunino, Franco; Vlodavsky, Israel; Sanderson, Ralph D.; Yang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Heparanase promotes myeloma growth, dissemination and angiogenesis through modulation of the tumor microenvironment, thus highlighting the potential of therapeutically targeting this enzyme. SST0001, a non-anticoagulant heparin with anti-heparanase activity was examined for its inhibition of myeloma tumor growth in vivo and for its mechanism of action. Experimental Design The ability of SST0001 to inhibit growth of myeloma tumors was assessed using multiple animal models and a diverse panel of human and murine myeloma cell lines. To investigate the mechanism of action of SST0001, pharmacodynamic markers of angiogenesis, heparanase activity, and pathways downstream of heparanase were monitored. The potential use of SST0001 as part of a combination therapy was also evaluated in vivo. Results SST0001 effectively inhibited myeloma growth in vivo, even when confronted with an aggressively growing tumor within human bone. In addition, SST0001 treatment causes changes within tumors consistent with the compound’s ability to inhibit heparanase; including down regulation of HGF, VEGF and MMP-9 expression and suppressed angiogenesis. SST0001 also diminishes heparanase-induced shedding of syndecan-1, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan known to be a potent promoter of myeloma growth. SST0001 inhibited the heparanase-mediated degradation of syndecan-1 heparan sulfate chains thus confirming the anti-heparanase activity of this compound. In combination with dexamethasone, SST0001 blocked tumor growth in vivo presumably through dual targeting of the tumor and its microenvironment. Conclusions These results provide mechanistic insight into the anti-tumor action of SST0001 and validate its use as a novel therapeutic tool for treating multiple myeloma. PMID:21257720

  8. Biohybrid networks of selectively desulfated glycosaminoglycans for tunable growth factor delivery.

    PubMed

    Zieris, Andrea; Dockhorn, Ron; Röhrich, Anika; Zimmermann, Ralf; Müller, Martin; Welzel, Petra B; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Sommer, Jens-Uwe; Freudenberg, Uwe; Werner, Carsten

    2014-12-01

    Sulfation patterns of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) govern the electrostatic complexation of biomolecules and thus allow for modulating the release profiles of growth factors from GAG-based hydrogels. To explore options related to this, selectively desulfated heparin derivatives were prepared, thoroughly characterized, and covalently converted with star-shaped poly(ethylene glycol) into binary polymer networks. The impact of the GAG sulfation pattern on the network characteristics of the obtained hydrogels was theoretically evaluated by mean field methods and experimentally analyzed by rheometry and swelling measurements. Sulfation-dependent differences of reactivity and miscibility of the heparin derivatives were shown to determine network formation. A theory-based design concept for customizing growth factor affinity and physical characteristics was introduced and validated by quantifying the release of fibroblast growth factor 2 from a set of biohybrid gels. The resulting new class of cell-instructive polymer matrices with tunable GAG sulfation will be instrumental for multiple applications in biotechnology and medicine. PMID:25329425

  9. Biohybrid networks of selectively desulfated glycosaminoglycans for tunable growth factor delivery.

    PubMed

    Zieris, Andrea; Dockhorn, Ron; Röhrich, Anika; Zimmermann, Ralf; Müller, Martin; Welzel, Petra B; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Sommer, Jens-Uwe; Freudenberg, Uwe; Werner, Carsten

    2014-12-01

    Sulfation patterns of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) govern the electrostatic complexation of biomolecules and thus allow for modulating the release profiles of growth factors from GAG-based hydrogels. To explore options related to this, selectively desulfated heparin derivatives were prepared, thoroughly characterized, and covalently converted with star-shaped poly(ethylene glycol) into binary polymer networks. The impact of the GAG sulfation pattern on the network characteristics of the obtained hydrogels was theoretically evaluated by mean field methods and experimentally analyzed by rheometry and swelling measurements. Sulfation-dependent differences of reactivity and miscibility of the heparin derivatives were shown to determine network formation. A theory-based design concept for customizing growth factor affinity and physical characteristics was introduced and validated by quantifying the release of fibroblast growth factor 2 from a set of biohybrid gels. The resulting new class of cell-instructive polymer matrices with tunable GAG sulfation will be instrumental for multiple applications in biotechnology and medicine.

  10. Heparin disaccharides inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by macrophages and arrest immune inflammation in rodents.

    PubMed

    Cahalon, L; Lider, O; Schor, H; Avron, A; Gilat, D; Hershkoviz, R; Margalit, R; Eshel, A; Shoseyev, O; Cohen, I R

    1997-10-01

    Inflammation is the clinical expression of chemical mediators such as the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF-)-alpha produced by macrophages and other cells activated in the immune response. Hence, agents that can inhibit TNF-alpha may be useful in treating arthritis and other diseases resulting from uncontrolled inflammation. We now report that the cleavage of heparin by the enzyme heparinase I generates sulfated disaccharide (DS) molecules that can inhibit the production of TNF-alpha. Administration of nanogram amounts of the sulfated DS molecules to experimental animals inhibited delayed-type hypersensitivity to a skin sensitizer and arrested the joint swelling of immunologically induced adjuvant arthritis. Notably, the sulfated DS molecules showed a bell-shaped dose-response curve in vitro and in vivo: decreased effects were seen using amounts of the DS molecules higher than optimal. Thus, molecular regulators of inflammation can be released from the natural molecule heparin by the action of an enzyme. PMID:9352356

  11. Heparin-functionalized polymeric biomaterials in tissue engineering and drug delivery applications

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yingkai; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2014-01-01

    Heparin plays an important role in many biological processes, via its interaction with various proteins, and hydrogels and nanoparticles comprising heparin exhibit attractive properties such as anticoagulant activity, growth factor binding, as well as antiangiogenic and apoptotic effects, making them great candidates for emerging applications. Accordingly, this review summarizes recent efforts in the preparation of heparin-based hydrogels and formation of nanoparticles, as well as the characterization of their properties and applications. The challenges and future perspectives for heparin-based materials are also discussed. Prospects are promising for heparin-containing polymeric biomaterials in diverse applications ranging from cell carriers for promoting cell differentiation to nanoparticle therapeutics for cancer treatment. PMID:23911941

  12. Heparin induced thrombocytopenia: review.

    PubMed

    Dasararaju, Radhika; Singh, Nirupama; Mehta, Amitkumar

    2013-08-01

    Heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a serious, potentially life and limb threatening immune adverse reaction to heparin. IgG antibodies against platelet factor 4 and heparin multimer complexes activate platelets to create a prothrombotic state. ELISA based immunoassay to detect these antibodies is sensitive while serotonin release assay is highly specific but is not widely available. 4T score is a simple score to calculate pre-test probability of HIT. Score < 3 is highly specific to exclude the diagnosis. Alternate anticoagulants like lepirudin, argatroban or danaparoid are recommended in therapeutic dose to treat or prevent thrombotic events in HIT. Increased awareness of this condition among clinicians is important to ensure its early recognition and treatment to avoid serious complications. PMID:23991928

  13. Beneficial use of fibroblast growth factor 2 and RGTA, a new family of heparan mimics, for endothelialization of PET prostheses.

    PubMed

    Desgranges, P; Caruelle, J P; Carpentier, G; Barritault, D; Tardieu, M

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the endothelialization of polyethylene terephtalate (PET) prostheses coated with collagen by adult human saphenous endothelial cells (EC) under various in vitro conditions. Collagenous PET was impregnated either by Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF2), heparin, a synthetic heparan sulfate mimic named RGTA 11 (for ReGeneraTing Agent), or combinations of these products. RGTA 11 belongs to a new family of drugs, which have been previously described as stabilizer and protector of heparin binding growth factors (HBGF), and to act in vivo as to stimulate wounded tissue repair. As endothelialization of prosthesis can be obtained in vivo after EC seeding and/or by transanastomotic, as well as by transprosthetic EC migrations, we have designed in vitro models to study the growth of EC seeded on PET, the EC colonization of an acellular area on PET, and the migration of EC from a collagen gel through the prosthesis. The combinations of either RGTA11 or heparin with FGF2 enhanced after a week by 5-fold the growth of seeded EC compared to RGTA or heparin alone and by 3-fold compared to FGF2 alone (p < 0.05). More than 80% of the colonization of an acellular area was achieved within 6 days when FGF2 was combined with RGTA11 or heparin. In contrast, colonization was only of 20% promoted in presence of FGF2 alone and not promoted in the presence of RGTA or heparin alone (p < 0.05). In addition, transprosthetic migration of EC and endothelialization of the luminal side were observed only when gel contained RGTA11 or heparin in combination with FGF2. The present work did strongly indicate that RGTA11 could be used in vivo as to improve endothelialization and should be the focus of continued investigation. PMID:11152991

  14. Mesoglycan and sulodexide act as stabilizers and protectors of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs).

    PubMed

    Tardieu, M; Bourin, M C; Desgranges, P; Barbier, P; Barritault, D; Caruelle, J P

    1994-01-01

    Heparin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) stabilize FGFs which belong to heparin-binding growth factors (HBGFs) on active conformation. They also strongly potentiate their mitogenic activity on many cell types, and protect them against thermal denaturation and enzymatic degradation. In the present work we have tested two heparin-like substances named mesoglycan and sulodexide obtained from bovine intestinal mucosal extracts. These products are used as heparin, in various of therapeutic fields such as atherosclerosis or antithrombotic therapy. The compositions of mesoglycan and sulodexide are partially known and include chondroitin, dermatan and heparan sulfate. We have shown that mesoglycan and sulodexide potentiated the mitogenic activity of FGF1 and FGF2. The magnitude of this effect was identical with that of heparin used as a control substance but at double concentration. Mesoglycan and sulodexide also exerted stabilizing and protective effects on FGFs for heat denaturation and enzymatic degradation. The suppression of the protective properties after heparinase treatment of mesoglycan and sulodexide indirectly demonstrated the presence of heparan sulfate which was shown to represent about 60% of the commercial products.

  15. Endothelial Cell-Derived Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor: Synthesis and Deposition into Subendothelial Extracellular Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlodavsky, Israel; Folkman, Judah; Sullivan, Robert; Fridman, Rafael; Ishai-Michaeli, Rivka; Sasse, Joachim; Klagsbrun, Michael

    1987-04-01

    Bovine aortic and corneal endothelial cells synthesize a growth factor that remains mostly cell-associated but can also be extracted from the subendothelial extracellular matrix (ECM) deposited by these cells. The endothelial cell-derived growth factors extracted from cell lysates and from the extracellular matrix appear to be structurally related to basic fibroblast growth factor by the criteria that they (i) bind to heparin-Sepharose and are eluted at 1.4-1.6 M NaCl, (ii) have a molecular weight of about 18,400, (iii) cross-react with anti-basic fibroblast growth factor antibodies when analyzed by electrophoretic blotting and immunoprecipitation, and (iv) are potent mitogens for bovine aortic and capillary endothelial cells. It is suggested that endothelium can store growth factors capable of autocrine growth promotion in two ways: by sequestering growth factor within the cell and by incorporating it into the underlying extracellular matrix.

  16. Diverse Roles of Heparan Sulfate and Heparin in Wound Repair

    PubMed Central

    Olczyk, Pawel; Mencner, Łukasz; Komosinska-Vassev, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) and heparin (Hp) are linear polysaccharide chains composed of repeating (1→4) linked pyrosulfuric acid and 2-amino-2-deoxy glucopyranose (glucosamine) residue. Mentioned glycosaminoglycans chains are covalently O-linked to serine residues within the core proteins creating heparan sulfate/heparin proteoglycans (HSPG). The latter ones participate in many physiological and pathological phenomena impacting both the plethora of ligands such as cytokines, growth factors, and adhesion molecules and the variety of the ECM constituents. Moreover, HS/Hp determine the effective wound healing process. Initial growth of HS and Hp amount is pivotal during the early phase of tissue repair; however heparan sulfate and heparin also participate in further stages of tissue regeneration. PMID:26236728

  17. The molecular charge and size of heparins determine their impact on the decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Fluhr, Herbert; Spratte, Julia; Heidrich, Stephanie; Ehrhardt, Jens; Greinacher, Andreas; Zygmunt, Marek

    2011-06-01

    Heparin modulates the decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs), but the molecular mechanisms behind these effects are still unknown. In the present study, we further specified this biological effect of heparin in human ESCs in vitro. ESCs were isolated from hysterectomy specimens, decidualized over 12 days using progesterone and 17β-estradiol and incubated with thrombin, factor Xa (FXa), unfractionated heparin, dextran sulfate, danaparoid or different low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs). Production of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, prolactin (PRL) and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-1 by ESCs was measured using ELISAs. Like heparin, thrombin and FXa cause an increase in IGF-I in ESCs, suggesting an action of heparin independent from its anticoagulatory effects. This was supported by demonstrating the induction of the same effects on IGF-I, PRL and IGFBP-1 as heparin by dextran sulfate, a polysaccharide of similar size and charge as heparin, but without anticoagulatory properties. LMWHs with the same anti-FXa activity as heparin showed less pronounced effects on ESCs than heparin, whereas the very short pentasaccharide fondaparinux (17 kDa) had barely any effect, further supporting the primary role of molecular size and charge mediating these biological effects of heparin on ESCs. In conclusion, the effects of heparin on the decidualization of human ESCs seem to be independent of its anticoagulatory function, but rather depend on the charge and the size of this polysulfated glycosaminoglycan. Therefore, highly sulfated polysaccharides with a molecular weight >17 kDa might be an interesting pharmacological approach for the therapy of endometrial pathologies, e.g. the treatment of women suffering from recurrent miscarriage or repeated implantation failure. PMID:21220249

  18. Dimerization Capacities of FGF2 Purified with or without Heparin-Affinity Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Liang-Yuan; Taouji, Said; Moroni, Elisabetta; Colombo, Giorgio; Chevet, Eric; Sue, Shih-Che; Bikfalvi, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) is a pleiotropic growth factor exhibiting a variety of biological activities. In this article, we studied the capacity of FGF2 purified with or without heparin affinity chromatography to self-associate. Analyzing the NMR HSQC spectra for different FGF2 concentrations, heparin-affinity purified FGF2 showed perturbations that indicate dimerization and are a higher-order oligomerization state. HSQC perturbation observed with different FGF2 concentrations revealed a heparin-binding site and two dimer interfaces. Thus, with increasing protein concentrations, FGF2 monomers make contacts with each other and form dimers or higher order oligomers. On the contrary, FGF2 purified with ion-exchange chromatography did not show similar perturbation indicating that self-association of FGF2 is eliminated if purification is done without heparin-affinity chromatography. The HSQC spectra of heparin-affinity purified FGF2 can be reproduced to some extent by adding heparin tetra-saccharide to ion exchange chromatography purified FGF2. Heparin-affinity purified FGF2 bound to acceptor and donor beads in a tagged form using His-tagged or GST-tagged proteins, also dimerized in the AlphaScreen™ assay. This assay was further validated using different experimental conditions and competitors. The assay constitutes an interesting tool to study dimerization of other FGF forms as well. PMID:25299071

  19. Oncogenes, genes, and growth factors

    SciTech Connect

    Guroff, G.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains 12 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene; Structure and Expression of the Nerve Growth Factor Gene; The Erythropoietin Gene; The Interleukin-2 Gene; The Transferrin Gene; and The Transferrin Receptor Gene.

  20. Molecular insights into the klotho-dependent, endocrine mode of action of fibroblast growth factor 19 subfamily members.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Regina; Beenken, Andrew; Ibrahimi, Omar A; Kalinina, Juliya; Olsen, Shaun K; Eliseenkova, Anna V; Xu, ChongFeng; Neubert, Thomas A; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J; Yu, Xijie; White, Kenneth E; Inagaki, Takeshi; Kliewer, Steven A; Yamamoto, Masaya; Kurosu, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Yasushi; Kuro-o, Makoto; Lanske, Beate; Razzaque, Mohammed S; Mohammadi, Moosa

    2007-05-01

    Unique among fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), FGF19, -21, and -23 act in an endocrine fashion to regulate energy, bile acid, glucose, lipid, phosphate, and vitamin D homeostasis. These FGFs require the presence of Klotho/betaKlotho in their target tissues. Here, we present the crystal structures of FGF19 alone and FGF23 in complex with sucrose octasulfate, a disaccharide chemically related to heparin. The conformation of the heparin-binding region between beta strands 10 and 12 in FGF19 and FGF23 diverges completely from the common conformation adopted by paracrine-acting FGFs. A cleft between this region and the beta1-beta2 loop, the other heparin-binding region, precludes direct interaction between heparin/heparan sulfate and backbone atoms of FGF19/23. This reduces the heparin-binding affinity of these ligands and confers endocrine function. Klotho/betaKlotho have evolved as a compensatory mechanism for the poor ability of heparin/heparan sulfate to promote binding of FGF19, -21, and -23 to their cognate receptors. PMID:17339340

  1. Molecular Insights into the Klotho-Dependent, Endocrine Mode of Action of Fibroblast Growth Factor 19 Subfamily Members

    SciTech Connect

    Goetz,R.; Beenken, A.; Ibrahimi, O.; Kalinina, J.; Olsen, S.; Eliseenkova, A.; Xu, C.; Neubert, T.; Zhang, F.; et al.

    2007-01-01

    Unique among fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), FGF19, -21, and -23 act in an endocrine fashion to regulate energy, bile acid, glucose, lipid, phosphate, and vitamin D homeostasis. These FGFs require the presence of Klotho/{beta}Klotho in their target tissues. Here, we present the crystal structures of FGF19 alone and FGF23 in complex with sucrose octasulfate, a disaccharide chemically related to heparin. The conformation of the heparin-binding region between {beta} strands 10 and 12 in FGF19 and FGF23 diverges completely from the common conformation adopted by paracrine-acting FGFs. A cleft between this region and the {beta}1-{beta}2 loop, the other heparin-binding region, precludes direct interaction between heparin/heparan sulfate and backbone atoms of FGF19/23. This reduces the heparin-binding affinity of these ligands and confers endocrine function. Klotho/{beta}Klotho have evolved as a compensatory mechanism for the poor ability of heparin/heparan sulfate to promote binding of FGF19, -21, and -23 to their cognate receptors.

  2. Click-coated, heparinized, decellularized vascular grafts

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrievska, Sashka; Cai, Chao; Weyers, Amanda; Balestrini, Jenna L.; Lin, Tylee; Sundaram, Sumati; Hatachi, Go; Spiegel, David A.; Kyriakides, Themis R.; Miao, Jianjun; Li, Guoyun; Niklason, Laura; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    A novel method enabling the engineering of a dense and appropriately oriented heparin-containing layer on decellularized aortas has been developed. Amino groups of decellularized aortas were first modified to azido groups using 3-azidobenzoic acid. Azide-clickable dendrons were attached onto the azido groups through “alkyne-azide” click chemistry, affording a ten-fold amplification of adhesions sites. Dendron end groups were finally decorated with end-on modified heparin chains. Heparin chains were oriented like heparan sulfate groups on native endothelial cells surface. XPS, NMR, MS and FTIR were used to characterize the synthesis steps, building the final heparin layered coatings. Continuity of the heparin coating was verified using fluorescent microscopy and histological analysis. Efficacy of heparin linkage was demonstrated with factor Xa antithrombogenic assay and platelet adhesion studies. The results suggest that oriented heparin immobilization to decellularized aortas may improve the in vivo blood compatibility of decellularized aortas and vessels. PMID:25463496

  3. Synthesis and structural study of two new heparin-like hexasaccharides.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Ricardo; Angulo, Jesús; Nieto, Pedro M; Martín-Lomas, Manuel

    2003-07-01

    Two new heparin-like hexasaccharides, 5 and 6, have been synthesised using a convergent block strategy and their solution conformations have been determined by NMR spectroscopy and molecular modelling. Both hexasaccharides contain the basic structural motif of the regular region of heparin but with negative charge distributions which have been designed to get insight into the mechanism of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) activation. PMID:12945695

  4. Measuring Anti–Factor Xa Activity to Monitor Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin in Obesity: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Gregory; Ensom, Mary H H

    2015-01-01

    Background: The choice of whether to monitor anti–factor Xa (anti-Xa) activity in patients who are obese and who are receiving low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) therapy is controversial. To the authors’ knowledge, no systematic review of monitoring of anti-Xa activity in such patients has been published to date. Objective: To systematically ascertain the utility of monitoring anti-Xa concentrations for LMWH therapy in obese patients. Data Sources: MEDLINE (1946 to September 2014), the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Embase (1974 to September 2014), PubMed (1947 to September 2014), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to September 2014), and Scopus were searched using the terms obesity, morbid obesity, thrombosis, venous thrombosis, embolism, venous thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism, low-molecular weight heparin, enoxaparin, dalteparin, tinzaparin, anti-factor Xa, anti-factor Xa monitoring, anti-factor Xa activity, and anti-factor Xa assay. The reference lists of retrieved articles were also reviewed. Study Selection and Data Extraction: English-language studies describing obese patients treated with LMWH or reporting anti-Xa activity were reviewed using a 9-step decision-making algorithm to determine whether monitoring of LMWH therapy by means of anti-Xa activity in obesity is warranted. Studies published in abstract form were excluded. Data Synthesis: The analysis showed that anti-Xa concentrations are not strongly associated with thrombosis or hemorrhage. In clinical studies of LMWH for thromboprophylaxis in bariatric surgery, orthopedic surgery, general surgery, and medical patients, and for treatment of venous thrombo embolism and acute coronary syndrome, anti-Xa activity can be predicted from dose of LMWH and total body weight; no difference in clinical outcome was found between obese and non-obese participants. Conclusions: Routinely determining anti-Xa concentrations in obese patients to monitor the clinical effectiveness of LMWH is

  5. Identification of a novel variant hepatocyte growth factor secreted by spleen-derived stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Miau, L H; Jan, Y W; Shen, B J; Tsai, W H; Lee, H S; Lee, S C

    1996-06-25

    Stromal cells can interact with parenchymal cells by secreting various cytokines to affect the growth, differentiation or movement of the latter. Here we report the identification and characterization of a novel variant hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) from the conditioned medium of stromal cells derived from mouse spleen. Compared to human HGF, it has much lower heparin-binding activity and lacks the beta-chain. Its molecular weight, 70 kDa, is very close to that of the alpha-chain of HGF. Human HGF homologue was not found in the conditioned medium. The conditioned medium of stromal cells, like recombinant HGF, could inhibit the growth of rat hepatoma cells. The inhibitory activity was presumably attributed to this novel HGF because the inhibitory activity, as the existence of this novel HGF, was confined to the identical fractions after heparin-column chromatography. Furthermore, this activity could be specifically abrogated by neutralizing anti-HGF antibodies.

  6. Current management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Cosmi, Benilde

    2015-12-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune adverse reaction to heparin (both unfractionated and low-molecular-weight), which is mediated by the formation of IgG antibodies against platelet factor 4-heparin complexes. The IgG/platelet factor 4 immunocomplexes activate platelets with resulting thrombocytopenia, which is not associated with bleeding, but with paradoxical life-threatening thrombotic complications, for coagulation activation. HIT diagnosis requires the assessment of pre-test clinical probability in combination with the measurement of platelet activating antibodies against platelet factor 4-heparin complexes with immunological and functional assays. When HIT is diagnosed, any form of heparin should be stopped and a non-heparin alternative anticoagulant should be started. Argatroban and danaparoid are currently the only drugs licensed for HIT, with different country availability. Bivalirudin is an option in cardiac surgery and procedures in HIT patients. PMID:26368591

  7. Current management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Cosmi, Benilde

    2015-12-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune adverse reaction to heparin (both unfractionated and low-molecular-weight), which is mediated by the formation of IgG antibodies against platelet factor 4-heparin complexes. The IgG/platelet factor 4 immunocomplexes activate platelets with resulting thrombocytopenia, which is not associated with bleeding, but with paradoxical life-threatening thrombotic complications, for coagulation activation. HIT diagnosis requires the assessment of pre-test clinical probability in combination with the measurement of platelet activating antibodies against platelet factor 4-heparin complexes with immunological and functional assays. When HIT is diagnosed, any form of heparin should be stopped and a non-heparin alternative anticoagulant should be started. Argatroban and danaparoid are currently the only drugs licensed for HIT, with different country availability. Bivalirudin is an option in cardiac surgery and procedures in HIT patients.

  8. Deep vein thrombosis, ecythyma gangrenosum and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia occurring in a man with a heterozygous Factor V Leiden mutation

    PubMed Central

    Apostolova, Mariya; Weng, Baoying; Pote, Harry H.; Ashcraft, Harold; Goldblatt, Curtis; Woolley, Paul V.

    2012-01-01

    Skin necrosis and limb gangrene are occasional thrombotic manifestations of anticoagulation therapy. We report a man heterozygous for the Factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation, and with a history of recurrent deep venous thrombosis, who initially presented with a necrotic skin lesion of the right flank while on warfarin therapy with a therapeutic international normalized ratio. Warfarin was discontinued and he received intravenous heparin. Thereafter he developed thrombocytopenia and pedal erythema and was diagnosed with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Heparin was replaced with argatroban. He ultimately underwent bilateral below-knee amputations for the thrombotic complications of the HIT. The initial necrotic lesion healed with antibiotics and wound care. Pathologic examination of multiple biopsy specimens revealed two separate lesions. One was necrotic tissue infiltrated with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus having features of ecthyma gangrenosum. The second showed thrombotic changes consistent with HIT. The case illustrates the differential diagnosis of skin necrosis and limb gangrene in patients on warfarin and heparin, and also the clinical complexities that can occur in a FVL heterozygote. PMID:23355938

  9. Injectable gelatin derivative hydrogels with sustained vascular endothelial growth factor release for induced angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhe; Qu, Tiejun; Ding, Chen; Ma, Chi; Sun, Hongchen; Li, Shirong; Liu, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    Injectable biomaterials are attractive for soft tissue regeneration because they are handled in a minimally invasive manner and can easily adapt to complex defects. However, inadequate vascularization of the injectable constructs has long been a barrier, leading to necrosis or volume reduction after implantation. In this work, we developed a three-step process to synthesize injectable gelatin-derived hydrogels that are capable of controlling growth factor delivery to induce angiogenesis. In our approach, tyramine was first introduced into gelatin chains to provide enzymatical crosslinking points for gel formation after injection. Next, heparin, a polysaccharide with binding domains to many growth factors, was covalently linked to the tyramine-modified gelatin. Finally, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was incorporated into the gelatin derivative by binding with the heparin in the gelatin derivative, and an injectable gel with controlled VEGF release was formed by an enzymatic catalytic reaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The gelation time, mechanical properties and degradation of the gel was readily tailored by the gelatin concentration and the ratio of H2O2/HRP. Binding VEGF to heparin stabilizes this growth factor, protects it from denaturation and proteolytic degradation, and subsequently prolongs the sustained release. An in vitro release study and bioactivity assay indicated that the VEGF was released in a sustained manner with high bioactivity for over 3 weeks. Furthermore, a chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and animal experiments were performed to evaluate in vivo bioactivity of the VEGF released from the hydrogels. After 5 days of incubation on CAM, the number of blood vessels surrounding the heparin-modified hydrogels was 2.4-fold increase than that of the control group. Deeper and denser cell infiltration and angiogenesis in the heparin-modified gelatin/VEGF gels were observed than in the controls

  10. Injectable gelatin derivative hydrogels with sustained vascular endothelial growth factor release for induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe; Qu, Tiejun; Ding, Chen; Ma, Chi; Sun, Hongchen; Li, Shirong; Liu, Xiaohua

    2015-02-01

    Injectable biomaterials are attractive for soft tissue regeneration because they are handled in a minimally invasive manner and can easily adapt to complex defects. However, inadequate vascularization of the injectable constructs has long been a barrier, leading to necrosis or volume reduction after implantation. In this work, we developed a three-step process to synthesize injectable gelatin-derived hydrogels that are capable of controlling growth factor delivery to induce angiogenesis. In our approach, tyramine was first introduced into gelatin chains to provide enzymatic crosslinking points for gel formation after injection. Next, heparin, a polysaccharide with binding domains to many growth factors, was covalently linked to the tyramine-modified gelatin. Finally, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was incorporated into the gelatin derivative by binding with the heparin in the gelatin derivative, and an injectable gel with controlled VEGF release was formed by an enzymatic catalytic reaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The gelation time, mechanical properties and degradation of the gel was readily tailored by the gelatin concentration and the ratio of H2O2/HRP. Binding VEGF to heparin stabilizes this growth factor, protects it from denaturation and proteolytic degradation and subsequently prolongs the sustained release. An in vitro release study and bioactivity assay indicated that the VEGF was released in a sustained manner with high bioactivity for over 3 weeks. Furthermore, a chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and animal experiments were performed to evaluate in vivo bioactivity of the VEGF released from the hydrogels. After 5 days of incubation on CAM, the number of blood vessels surrounding the heparin-modified hydrogels was increased by 2.4-fold compared with that of the control group. Deeper and denser cell infiltration and angiogenesis in the heparin-modified gelatin/VEGF gels were observed compared to

  11. Injectable gelatin derivative hydrogels with sustained vascular endothelial growth factor release for induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe; Qu, Tiejun; Ding, Chen; Ma, Chi; Sun, Hongchen; Li, Shirong; Liu, Xiaohua

    2015-02-01

    Injectable biomaterials are attractive for soft tissue regeneration because they are handled in a minimally invasive manner and can easily adapt to complex defects. However, inadequate vascularization of the injectable constructs has long been a barrier, leading to necrosis or volume reduction after implantation. In this work, we developed a three-step process to synthesize injectable gelatin-derived hydrogels that are capable of controlling growth factor delivery to induce angiogenesis. In our approach, tyramine was first introduced into gelatin chains to provide enzymatic crosslinking points for gel formation after injection. Next, heparin, a polysaccharide with binding domains to many growth factors, was covalently linked to the tyramine-modified gelatin. Finally, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was incorporated into the gelatin derivative by binding with the heparin in the gelatin derivative, and an injectable gel with controlled VEGF release was formed by an enzymatic catalytic reaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The gelation time, mechanical properties and degradation of the gel was readily tailored by the gelatin concentration and the ratio of H2O2/HRP. Binding VEGF to heparin stabilizes this growth factor, protects it from denaturation and proteolytic degradation and subsequently prolongs the sustained release. An in vitro release study and bioactivity assay indicated that the VEGF was released in a sustained manner with high bioactivity for over 3 weeks. Furthermore, a chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and animal experiments were performed to evaluate in vivo bioactivity of the VEGF released from the hydrogels. After 5 days of incubation on CAM, the number of blood vessels surrounding the heparin-modified hydrogels was increased by 2.4-fold compared with that of the control group. Deeper and denser cell infiltration and angiogenesis in the heparin-modified gelatin/VEGF gels were observed compared to

  12. Mapping the heparin-binding site of the osteoinductive protein NELL1 by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kaneyoshi; Imai, Arisa; Iijima, Masumi; Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Maturana, Andrés D; Kuroda, Shun'ichi; Niimi, Tomoaki

    2015-12-21

    Neural epidermal growth factor-like (NEL)-like 1 (NELL1) is a secretory osteogenic protein comprising an N-terminal thrombospondin-1-like (TSPN) domain, four von Willebrand factor type C domains, and six epidermal growth factor-like repeats. NELL1 shows heparin-binding activity; however, the biological significance remains to be explored. In this report, we demonstrate that NELL1 binds to cell surface proteoglycans through its TSPN domain. Major heparin-binding sites were identified on the three-dimensional structural model of the TSPN domain of NELL1. Mutant analysis of the heparin-binding sites indicated that the heparin-binding activity of the TSPN domain is involved in interaction of NELL1 with cell surface proteoglycans.

  13. Interstitial fibrosis and growth factors.

    PubMed Central

    Lasky, J A; Brody, A R

    2000-01-01

    Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is scarring of the lung caused by a variety of inhaled agents including mineral particles, organic dusts, and oxidant gases. The disease afflicts millions of individuals worldwide, and there are no effective therapeutic approaches. A major reason for this lack of useful treatments is that few of the molecular mechanisms of disease have been defined sufficiently to design appropriate targets for therapy. Our laboratory has focused on the molecular mechanisms through which three selected peptide growth factors could play a role in the development of IPF. Hundreds of growth factors and cytokines could be involved in the complex disease process. We are studying platelet-derived growth factor because it is the most potent mesenchymal cell mitogen yet described, transforming growth factor beta because it is a powerful inducer of extracellular matrix (scar tissue) components by mesenchymal cells, and tumor necrosis factor alpha because it is a pleiotropic cytokine that we and others have shown is essential for the development of IPF in animal models. This review describes some of the evidence from studies in humans, in animal models, and in vitro, that supports the growth factor hypothesis. The use of modern molecular and transgenic technologies could elucidate those targets that will allow effective therapeutic approaches. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10931794

  14. The binding of pentapeptides to biological and synthetic high affinity heparin.

    PubMed

    Flengsrud, Ragnar; Antonsen, Simen Gjelseth

    2015-11-01

    Pentapeptides have been shown to bind the synthetic heparin fondaparinux (Arixtra) as well the biological heparins dalteparin (Fragmin) and salmon heparin. In contrast to heparin binding consensus sequences, the pentapeptides are acidic or neutral, with no arginine or histidine residue. The peptides showed an effect on in vitro heparin anti-factor X activity with a reduction of fondaparinux activity by 65-95%. Heparin binding was further studied by using peptide solid phase chromatography and NMR analysis.

  15. Heparin inhibits the inflammation and proliferation of human rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast‑like synoviocytes through the NF‑κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Qi, Li; Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Xiaofei

    2016-10-01

    Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) lead to cartilage destruction, and the activation of NF‑κB is important in the proliferation of FLSs. Heparin is a glycosaminoglycan, which is widely used as an anticoagulant. In the present study, the effect of heparin on the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α induced proliferation of FLSs was investigated. Western blot and polymerase chain reaction analyses were used to assess the expression levels of cytokines. The results revealed that TNF‑α induced the expression of interleukin (IL)‑6, IL‑8, TNF‑α and cyclin D1. Heparin inhibited the growth rate of the FLSs induced by TNF‑α. Heparin also decreased the TNF‑α‑induced mRNA and protein expression levels of IL‑6, IL‑8, TNF‑α and cyclin D1 in a dose‑dependent manner. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the expression of cytoplasmic TNF‑α was significantly reduced by heparin treatment. Furthermore, the levels of p65 and inhibitor of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB phosphorylation were inhibited by heparin treatment, suggesting that heparin induced the inhibition of NF‑κB. In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed that heparin inhibited the TNF‑α‑induced proliferation, cytokine production, expression of cyclin D1 and activation of NF‑κB signaling in FLSs, indicating the therapeutic potential of heparin in the treatment of RA. PMID:27599556

  16. Local Effect of Heparin Binding Neurotrophic Factor Combined With Chitosan Entubulization on Sciatic Nerve Repair in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mehrshad, Ali; Seddighnia, Ashkan; Shadabi, Mohammadreza; Najafpour, Alireza; Mohammadi, Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of on sciatic nerve regeneration in animal model of rat. Methods: Seventy-five male Wistar rats were divided into five experimental groups randomly (each group containing 15 animals): Sham operation group (SHAM), autograft group (AUTO), transected control (TC), chitosan conduit (CHIT) and heparin binding neurotrophic factor treated group (CHIT/HBNF). In AUTO group a segment of sciatic nerve was transected and reimplanted reversely. In SHAM group sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated. In transected group left sciatic nerve was transected and stumps were fixed in adjacent muscle (TC). In treatment group defect was bridged using a chitosan conduit (CHIT) filled with 10 µL HBNF (CHIT/HBNF). Each group was subdivided into four subgroups of five animals each and nerve fibers were studied in a 12-week period. Results: Behavioral, functional, biomechanical, electrophysiological and gastrocnemius muscle mass findings and morphometric indices confirmed faster recovery of regenerated axons in treatment group than in CHIT group (P=0.001). Immunohistochemical reactions to S-100 in treatment group were more positive than that in CHIT group. Conclusion: Local administration of improved functional recovery and morphometric indices of sciatic nerve. It could be considered as an effective treatment for peripheral nerve repair in practice. PMID:27331064

  17. Structural Basis for Antagonism by Suramin of Heparin Binding to Vaccinia Complement Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Ganesh, Vannakambadi K.; Muthuvel, Suresh Kumar; Smith, Scott A.; Kotwal, Girish J.; Murthy, Krishna H.M.

    2010-07-19

    Suramin is a competitive inhibitor of heparin binding to many proteins, including viral envelope proteins, protein tyrosine phosphatases, and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). It has been clinically evaluated as a potential therapeutic in treatment of cancers caused by unregulated angiogenesis, triggered by FGFs. Although it has shown clinical promise in treatment of several cancers, suramin has many undesirable side effects. There is currently no experimental structure that reveals the molecular interactions responsible for suramin inhibition of heparin binding, which could be of potential use in structure-assisted design of improved analogues of suramin. We report the structure of suramin, in complex with the heparin-binding site of vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP), which interacts with heparin in a geometrically similar manner to many FGFs. The larger than anticipated flexibility of suramin manifested in this structure, and other details of VCP-suramin interactions, might provide useful structural information for interpreting interactions of suramin with many proteins.

  18. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma contain an angiogenic growth factor: basic FGF.

    PubMed

    Schiff, M; Gonzalez, A M; Ong, M; Baird, A

    1992-08-01

    The presence of an angiogenic protein basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF) was established in juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNF). Extracts of these tumors have the capacity to stimulate endothelial cell proliferation. This activity is indistinguishable from basic FGF. The biological activity contained in the extracts binds to heparin-Sepharose columns and is eluted with a characteristic 2 mol sodium chloride. The exact fraction of the biological activity corresponds to the location where an immunoreactive basic FGF can be detected by radioimmunoassay. These same fractions contain an 18,000-d molecule which is identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting with an antibody to basic FGF. Indeed, immunohistochemical studies localize the growth factor to the endothelium of JNF. Although these findings do not establish that basic FGF mediates the development of this angiofibroma, they do support the possibility that the pathogenesis of JNF is associated with the presence of angiogenic factors like basic FGF. If this is the case, a comprehensive study of the etiology of JNF may lead to a better understanding of how locally produced growth factors mediate proliferative disease and how its modification might lead to better treatment on a biological basis.

  19. A fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from echinoderm modulates in vitro fibroblast growth factor 2-dependent angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tapon-Bretaudière, Jacqueline; Chabut, Delphine; Zierer, Maximiliano; Matou, Sabine; Helley, Dominique; Bros, Andrée; Mourão, Paulo A S; Fischer, Anne-Marie

    2002-12-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS), a glycosaminoglycan obtained from sea cucumber, has the same structure as mammalian chondroitin sulfate, but some of the glucuronic acid residues display sulfated fucose branches. This new polysaccharide has a more favorable effect than heparin on vascular cell growth. It inhibits smooth muscle cell proliferation as heparin, and it has a potent enhancing effect on endothelial cell proliferation and migration in the presence of heparin-binding growth factors. We now extend our studies to the effect of this glycosaminoglycan on endothelial cells to an in vitro angiogenesis model on Matrigel. FucCS, in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), strongly increases the capacity of endothelial cells to form vascular tubes on Matrigel with a well-organized capillary-like network and typical closed structures. Comparison between the activity of native and chemically modified chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumber reveals that the sulfated fucose branches are the structural motif for the proangiogenic activity. Heparin does not induce angiogenesis in this experimental model. We also have evidence for the proposition that endothelial cell proliferation is not the sole event involved in the in vitro FGF-2-induced angiogenesis. It implies a variety of other modifications of the endothelial cells and of their interaction with the extracellular matrix, such as integrin expression and actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Finally, the proangiogenic effect of FucCS, concomitant with its capacity to prevent venous and arterial thrombosis, in animal models makes this new glycosaminoglycan a promising molecule with possible beneficial effects in pathological conditions affecting blood vessels such as the neovascularization of ischemic areas.

  20. Effect of heparin on bovine epithelial lens cell proliferation induced by heparin affin regulatory peptide.

    PubMed

    Delbé, J; Vacherot, F; Laaroubi, K; Barritault, D; Courty, J

    1995-07-01

    HARP (heparin affin regulatory peptide) is an 18 kDa heparin binding protein, also known as HB-GAM or pleiotrophin (PTN) which has been primarily isolated from brain and uterus, and displays neurite outgrowth, angiogenic and mitogenic activities. Previously, we have expressed the human cDNA encoding human HARP in NIH 3T3 cells. Purified recombinant HARP displayed mitogenic activity for endothelial cells. Its NH2-terminal sequence indicates that the HARP molecule possesses a three amino acid extension from the signal peptide more than the NH2-terminal described. For HB-GAM or PTN, these three amino acids may be essential for the stability and the mitogenic activity of this growth factor. In an attempt to further study the mode of action of this growth factor, we have investigated the mitogenic effect of HARP on various cell types. In contrast to FGF-2, HARP failed to induce stimulation of DNA synthesis on a CCL39 cell line. However, we found that in quiescent bovine epithelial lens (BEL) cells, the stimulation of DNA synthesis induced by HARP is dose-dependent (EC50: 2.5 ng/ml) and maximal stimulation is as potent as that induced by FGF-2 (EC50: 25 pg/ml). Interestingly, when BEL cells were allowed to quiesce in the presence of serum, the stimulation induced by HARP is considerably less potent. In this highly responsive cell system, heparin could potentiate the mitogenic activity of HARP at very low doses (0.1-1 microgram/ml) and inhibit this activity at concentrations of 10 micrograms/ml. In contrast to its protective effect on FGF-1 and -2, heparin was unable to preserve HARP from tryptic and chymotryptic degradations.

  1. Structural and Functional Basis of CXCL12 (stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha) Binding to Heparin

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy,J.; Cho, Y.; Sachpatzidis, A.; Fan, C.; Hodsdon, M.; Lolis, E.

    2007-01-01

    CXCL12 (SDF-1a) and CXCR4 are critical for embryonic development and cellular migration in adults. These proteins are involved in HIV-1 infection, cancer metastasis, and WHIM disease. Sequestration and presentation of CXCL12 to CXCR4 by glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is proposed to be important for receptor activation. Mutagenesis has identified CXCL12 residues that bind to heparin. However, the molecular details of this interaction have not yet been determined. Here we demonstrate that soluble heparin and heparan sulfate negatively affect CXCL12-mediated in vitro chemotaxis. We also show that a cluster of basic residues in the dimer interface is required for chemotaxis and is a target for inhibition by heparin. We present structural evidence for binding of an unsaturated heparin disaccharide to CXCL12 attained through solution NMR spectroscopy and x-ray crystallography. Increasing concentrations of the disaccharide altered the two-dimensional 1H-15N-HSQC spectra of CXCL12, which identified two clusters of residues. One cluster corresponds to {beta}-strands in the dimer interface. The second includes the amino-terminal loop and the a-helix. In the x-ray structure two unsaturated disaccharides are present. One is in the dimer interface with direct contacts between residues His25, Lys27, and Arg41 of CXCL12 and the heparin disaccharide. The second disaccharide contacts Ala20, Arg21, Asn30, and Lys64. This is the first x-ray structure of a CXC class chemokine in complex with glycosaminoglycans. Based on the observation of two heparin binding sites, we propose a mechanism in which GAGs bind around CXCL12 dimers as they sequester and present CXCL12 to CXCR4.

  2. Regulation of smooth muscle cell growth by endothelium-derived factors.

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Burden, T; Vanhoutte, P M

    1994-01-01

    The endothelium is a source of molecules that either stimulate or inhibit the proliferation of the underlying smooth muscle cells. In the normal, healthy vessel wall the smooth muscle cells are quiescent, but they proliferate when damage to the endothelium occurs. The implication of such observations is that although the endothelium provides a source of growth factors, their stimulatory activity on smooth muscle cells is countered by endothelium-derived growth inhibitors. The inhibitors appear to comprise at least 3 distinct types of molecules: heparin/heparan sulfate; transforming growth factor beta; and nitric oxide. Each molecule inhibits growth of cultured smooth muscle cells by mechanisms that remain to be elucidated and are discussed in this communication. Heparin/heparan sulfate is the most thoroughly characterized of the 3, and has been used for clinical intervention to prevent restenosis. Transforming growth factor beta exhibits bimodal activity on growth, acting as a stimulant at low levels and as an inhibitor at elevated concentrations. Nitric oxide mediated vasorelaxation is dependent upon activation of soluble guanylate cyclase. Because elevation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate in smooth muscle cells depresses their proliferation, nitric oxide would appear to possess the properties necessary to inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. PMID:8180516

  3. Purification of autocrine growth factor from conditioned medium of rat sarcoma (XC) cells.

    PubMed

    Checiówna, D; Klein, A

    1996-01-01

    Transformation of rat cells by Rous sarcoma virus(es) induced the release of growth factors into serum-free conditioned media. An PR-RSV-transformed rat cell line, XC, produced and released polypeptide factors which promote anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent growth of XC cells. One of the autocrine factors of XC cells was purified to homogeneity by four-step procedure: ultrafiltration, ion-exchange chromatography on MonoS, reverse-phase chromatography on Spherisorb ODS2 and gel filtration on Superose 12. The factor gave a single band on SDS-electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel and was assumed to have a molecular weight of 16 kDa. The factor is a potent mitogen for XC cells; half-maximal stimulation of DNA synthesis was achieved at a concentration of 0.8 ng/ml. The peptide is probably one of the family of EGF-like heparin-binding growth factors.

  4. Molecular basis of factor IXa recognition by heparin-activated antithrombin revealed by a 1.7-A structure of the ternary complex.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Daniel J D; Langdown, Jonathan; Huntington, James A

    2010-01-12

    Factor (f) IXa is a critical enzyme for the formation of stable blood clots, and its deficiency results in hemophilia. The enzyme functions at the confluence of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways by binding to fVIIIa and rapidly generating fXa. In spite of its importance, little is known about how fIXa recognizes its cofactor, its substrate, or its only known inhibitor, antithrombin (AT). However, it is clear that fIXa requires extensive exosite interactions to present substrates for efficient cleavage. Here we describe the 1.7-A crystal structure of fIXa in its recognition (Michaelis) complex with heparin-activated AT. It represents the highest resolution structure of both proteins and allows us to address several outstanding issues. The structure reveals why the heparin-induced conformational change in AT is required to permit simultaneous active-site and exosite interactions with fIXa and the nature of these interactions. The reactive center loop of AT has evolved to specifically inhibit fIXa, with a P2 Gly so as not to clash with Tyr99 on fIXa, a P4 Ile to fit snugly into the S4 pocket, and a C-terminal extension to exploit a unique wall-like feature of the active-site cleft. Arg150 is at the center of the exosite interface, interacting with AT residues on beta-sheet C. A surprising crystal contact is observed between the heparin pentasaccharide and fIXa, revealing a plausible mode of binding that would allow longer heparin chains to bridge the complex. PMID:20080729

  5. Oligodeoxynucleotides enhance lipopolysaccharide-stimulated synthesis of tumor necrosis factor: dependence on phosphorothioate modification and reversal by heparin.

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, G.; Krug, A.; Waller-Fontaine, K.; Endres, S.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Specific inhibition of target proteins by antisense oligodeoxynucleotides is an extensively studied experimental approach. This technique is currently being tested in clinical trials applying phosphorothioate-modified oligonucleotides as therapeutic agents. These polyanionic molecules, however, may also exert non-antisense-mediated effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the influence of oligonucleotides on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) synthesis in freshly isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Oligonucleotides (18 mer) with different degrees of phosphorothioate modification were studied. RESULTS: The addition of phosphorothioate oligonucleotides (5 microM) caused amplification of TNF synthesis of up to 410% compared with the control with LPS alone. Without LPS stimulation, phosphorothioate oligonucleotides did not induce TNF production. We demonstrate that the enhancement of LPS-stimulated TNF production by phosphorothioate oligonucleotides does not rely on the intracellular presence of oligonucleotides and is not mediated by LPS contamination. Partially phosphorothioate-modified oligonucleotides and unmodified oligonucleotides did not increase TNF synthesis. High concentrations of the polyanion heparin reversed the oligonucleotide-induced enhancement of TNF synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that amplification of TNF synthesis may be caused by binding of the polyanionic phosphorothioate oligonucleotide to cationic sites on the cell surface. Such binding sites have been proposed for polyanionic glycoaminoglycans of the extracellular matrix, which have also been described to augment LPS-stimulated TNF synthesis. The present results are relevant to all in vitro studies attempting to influence protein synthesis in monocytes by using phosphorothioate oligonucleotides. The significance of our findings for in vivo applications of phosphorothioates in situations where there is a stimulus for

  6. Growth factor identity is encoded by discrete coiled coil rotamers in the EGFR juxtamembrane region

    PubMed Central

    Doerner, Amy; Scheck, Rebecca; Schepartz, Alanna

    2015-01-01

    Summary Binding of the growth factor TGF-α to the EGFR extracellular domain is encoded through the formation of a unique anti-parallel coiled coil within the juxtamembrane segment. This new coiled coil is an ‘inside-out’ version of the coiled coil formed in the presence of EGF. A third, intermediary coiled coil interface is formed in the juxtamembrane segment when EGFR is stimulated with betacellulin. The seven growth factors that activate EGFR in mammalian systems (EGF, TGF-α, epigen, epiregulin, betacellulin, heparin-binding EGF, and amphiregulin) fall into distinct categories in which the structure of the coiled coil induced within the juxtamembrane segment correlates with cell state. The observation that coiled coil state tracks with the downstream signaling profiles for each ligand provides evidence for growth factor functional selectivity by EGFR. Encoding growth factor identity in alternative coiled coil rotamers provides a simple and elegant method for communicating chemical information across the plasma membrane. PMID:26091170

  7. Hypoxia-mediated induction of acidic/basic fibroblast growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor in mononuclear phagocytes stimulates growth of hypoxic endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kuwabara, K; Ogawa, S; Matsumoto, M; Koga, S; Clauss, M; Pinsky, D J; Lyn, P; Leavy, J; Witte, L; Joseph-Silverstein, J

    1995-01-01

    Wound repair and tumor vascularization depend upon blood vessel growth into hypoxic tissue. Although hypoxia slows endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and suppresses EC basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) expression, we report that macrophages (MPs) exposed to PO2 approximately 12-14 torr (1 torr = 133.3 Pa) synthesize and release in a time-dependent manner platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and acidic/basic FGFs (a/bFGFs), which stimulate the growth of hypoxic ECs. Chromatography of hypoxic MP-conditioned medium on immobilized heparin with an ascending NaCl gradient resolved three peaks of mitogenic activity: activity of the first peak was neutralized by antibody to PDGF; activity of the second peak was neutralized by antibody to aFGF; and activity of the third peak was neutralized by antibody to bFGF. Metabolically labeled lysates and supernatants from MPs exposed to hypoxia showed increased synthesis and release of immunoprecipitable PDGF and a/bFGF in the absence of changes in cell viability. Possible involvement of a heme-containing oxygen sensor in MP elaboration of growth factors was suggested by the induction of bFGF and PDGF by normoxic MPs exposed to nickel or cobalt, although metabolic inhibitors such as sodium azide were without effect. These results suggest a paracrine model in which hypoxia stimulates MP release of PDGF and a/bFGF, inducing EC proliferation and potentially promoting angiogenesis in hypoxic environments. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7538678

  8. Growth factors in orthopedic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zaharia, C; Despa, N; Simionescu, M; Jinga, V; Fleseriu, I

    2010-01-01

    Growth factors have represented an essential issue of interest for the researchers and clinicians in orthopedics and trauma over the last 40 years. In the last 10 to 15 years, the advances registered in this field have permitted the identification of the most active cellular and humoral factors as well as the improvement of their use in the orthopedic and trauma surgery. Their domain of application has been continuously enlarged and the results have been visible from the beginning. The authors present their appreciation on the actual state of this subject as well as their experience with results and related conclusions. PMID:20302195

  9. Dynamic properties of biologically active synthetic heparin-like hexasaccharides.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Jesús; Hricovíni, Milos; Gairi, Margarida; Guerrini, Marco; de Paz, José Luis; Ojeda, Rafael; Martín-Lomas, Manuel; Nieto, Pedro M

    2005-10-01

    A complete study of the dynamics of two synthetic heparin-like hexasaccharides, D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-1-->iPr (1) and -->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHAc-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-1-->iPr (2), has been performed using 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation parameters, T1, T2, and heteronuclear nuclear Overhauser effect (NOEs). Compound 1 is constituted from sequences corresponding to the major polysaccharide heparin region, while compound 2 contains a sequence never found in natural heparin. They differ from each other only in sulphation patterns, and are capable of stimulating fibroblast growth factors (FGFs)-1 induced mitogenesis. Both oligosaccharides exhibit a remarkable anisotropic overall motion in solution as revealed by their anisotropic ratios (tau /tau||), 4.0 and 3.0 respectively. This is a characteristic behaviour of natural glycosaminoglycans (GAG) which has also been observed for the antithrombin (AT) binding pentasaccharide D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcA-beta-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-(3,6-SO4)-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-1-->Me (3) (Hricovíni, M., Guerrini, M., Torri, G., Piani, S., and Ungarelli, F. (1995) Conformational analysis of heparin epoxide in aqueous solution. An NMR relaxation study. Carbohydr. Res., 277, 11-23). The motional properties observed for 1 and 2 provide additional support to the suitability of these compounds as heparin models in agreement with previous structural (de Paz, J.L., Angulo, J., Lassaletta, J.M., Nieto, P.M., Redondo-Horcajo, M., Lozano, R.M., Jiménez-Gallego, G., and Martín-Lomas, M. (2001) The activation of fibroblast growth factors by heparin: synthesis, structure and biological activity of heparin-like oligosaccharides. Chembiochem, 2, 673-685; Ojeda, R

  10. Dynamic properties of biologically active synthetic heparin-like hexasaccharides.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Jesús; Hricovíni, Milos; Gairi, Margarida; Guerrini, Marco; de Paz, José Luis; Ojeda, Rafael; Martín-Lomas, Manuel; Nieto, Pedro M

    2005-10-01

    A complete study of the dynamics of two synthetic heparin-like hexasaccharides, D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-1-->iPr (1) and -->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHAc-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-1-->iPr (2), has been performed using 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation parameters, T1, T2, and heteronuclear nuclear Overhauser effect (NOEs). Compound 1 is constituted from sequences corresponding to the major polysaccharide heparin region, while compound 2 contains a sequence never found in natural heparin. They differ from each other only in sulphation patterns, and are capable of stimulating fibroblast growth factors (FGFs)-1 induced mitogenesis. Both oligosaccharides exhibit a remarkable anisotropic overall motion in solution as revealed by their anisotropic ratios (tau /tau||), 4.0 and 3.0 respectively. This is a characteristic behaviour of natural glycosaminoglycans (GAG) which has also been observed for the antithrombin (AT) binding pentasaccharide D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcA-beta-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-(3,6-SO4)-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-1-->Me (3) (Hricovíni, M., Guerrini, M., Torri, G., Piani, S., and Ungarelli, F. (1995) Conformational analysis of heparin epoxide in aqueous solution. An NMR relaxation study. Carbohydr. Res., 277, 11-23). The motional properties observed for 1 and 2 provide additional support to the suitability of these compounds as heparin models in agreement with previous structural (de Paz, J.L., Angulo, J., Lassaletta, J.M., Nieto, P.M., Redondo-Horcajo, M., Lozano, R.M., Jiménez-Gallego, G., and Martín-Lomas, M. (2001) The activation of fibroblast growth factors by heparin: synthesis, structure and biological activity of heparin-like oligosaccharides. Chembiochem, 2, 673-685; Ojeda, R

  11. Acidic fibroblast growth factor and keratinocyte growth factor stimulate fetal rat pulmonary epithelial growth.

    PubMed

    Deterding, R R; Jacoby, C R; Shannon, J M

    1996-10-01

    We have shown that pulmonary epithelial growth and differentiation can occur if pulmonary mesenchyme is replaced with a mixture of growth factors [total growth medium (TGM)] that consists of adult rat bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, insulin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), cholera toxin (CT), acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF), and fetal bovine serum. In the present study, we have defined the importance of specific components of TGM. Day 14 fetal rat distal lung epithelium, devoid of mesenchyme, was enrobed in growth factor-depleted Matrigel and cultured for 5 days in various soluble factors. We found that deleting aFGF or CT from TGM significantly reduced DNA synthesis. Epithelial proliferation was not significantly different when keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) replaced aFGF in TGM. KGF, however, required the presence of a basal medium containing CT, insulin, and serum for optimal proliferation. We then added specific growth factors to the basal medium and showed that aFGF and KGF were more potent mitogens than EGF, transforming growth factor-alpha, and hepatocyte growth factor. Additionally, basal medium + KGF also allowed progression to a distal alveolar phenotype. We conclude that aFGF and KGF may be important mediators in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. PMID:8897895

  12. [Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia].

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Veneri, Dino

    2005-09-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is a serious and underestimated adverse drug effect. We briefly discuss the main features of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, particularly analyzing the most recent advances in the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome.

  13. Heparin functionalized polyaspartamide/polyester scaffold for potential blood vessel regeneration.

    PubMed

    Pitarresi, Giovanna; Fiorica, Calogero; Palumbo, Fabio Salvatore; Rigogliuso, Salvatrice; Ghersi, Giulio; Giammona, Gaetano

    2014-05-01

    An interesting issue in tissue engineering is the development of a biodegradable vascular graft able to substitute a blood vessel and to allow its complete regeneration. Here, we report a new scaffold potentially useful as a synthetic vascular graft, produced through the electrospinning of α,β-poly(N-2-hydroxyethyl) (2-aminoethylcarbamate)-D,L-aspartamide-graft-polylactic acid (PHEA-EDA-g-PLA) in the presence of polycaprolactone (PCL). The scaffold degradation profile has been evaluated as well as the possibility to bind heparin to electrospun fibers, being it a known anticoagulant molecule able to bind growth factors. In vitro cell compatibility has been investigated using human vascular endothelial cells (ECV 304) and the ability of heparinized PHEA-EDA-g-PLA/PCL scaffold to retain basic fibroblast growth factor has been evaluated in comparison with not heparinized sample.

  14. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 and fibroblast growth factors in rat growth plate.

    PubMed

    Jingushi, S; Scully, S P; Joyce, M E; Sugioka, Y; Bolander, M E

    1995-09-01

    Chondrocytes in the growth plate progress in an orderly fashion from resting through proliferating to hypertrophic cells. In the region of hypertrophic chondrocytes, the cartilage is invaded by capillary loops and endochondral ossification is initiated. It is currently believed that growth factors may regulate the proliferation and maturation of chondrocytes and the synthesis of extracellular matrix in the growth plate. The ordered sequence of proliferation and differentiation observed in the growth plate provides a unique opportunity to study the role of acidic fibroblast growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 in the regulation of these processes. In this study, expression of the mRNA of these growth factors was examined using total RNA extracted from the physis and epiphysis of rat tibias. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 mRNA was detected by Northern hybridization. Expression of the genes encoding acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors was demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction amplification. In addition, using polyclonal antibodies against these growth factors, we localized them by immunohistochemical analysis. Strong intracellular staining with a predominantly nuclear pattern was observed in chondrocytes from the proliferating and upper hypertrophic zones. In contrast, chondrocytes in the resting zone stained only faintly for the presence of these growth factors. Some chondrocytes in the resting zone adjacent to the proliferating zone stained with these antibodies, and the antibodies also stained cells in the zone of Ranvier, which regulates latitudinal bone growth. Lastly, the location of transforming growth factor-beta 1 was examined further with use of a polyclonal antipeptide antibody specific for its extracellular epitope.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7472755

  15. Heparin Decreases in Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα)-induced Endothelial Stress Responses Require Transmembrane Protein 184A and Induction of Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1.

    PubMed

    Farwell, Sara Lynn N; Kanyi, Daniela; Hamel, Marianne; Slee, Joshua B; Miller, Elizabeth A; Cipolle, Mark D; Lowe-Krentz, Linda J

    2016-03-01

    Despite the large number of heparin and heparan sulfate binding proteins, the molecular mechanism(s) by which heparin alters vascular cell physiology is not well understood. Studies with vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) indicate a role for induction of dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) that decreases ERK activity and results in decreased cell proliferation, which depends on specific heparin binding. The hypothesis that unfractionated heparin functions to decrease inflammatory signal transduction in endothelial cells (ECs) through heparin-induced expression of DUSP1 was tested. In addition, the expectation that the heparin response includes a decrease in cytokine-induced cytoskeletal changes was examined. Heparin pretreatment of ECs resulted in decreased TNFα-induced JNK and p38 activity and downstream target phosphorylation, as identified through Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Through knockdown strategies, the importance of heparin-induced DUSP1 expression in these effects was confirmed. Quantitative fluorescence microscopy indicated that heparin treatment of ECs reduced TNFα-induced increases in stress fibers. Monoclonal antibodies that mimic heparin-induced changes in VSMCs were employed to support the hypothesis that heparin was functioning through interactions with a receptor. Knockdown of transmembrane protein 184A (TMEM184A) confirmed its involvement in heparin-induced signaling as seen in VSMCs. Therefore, TMEM184A functions as a heparin receptor and mediates anti-inflammatory responses of ECs involving decreased JNK and p38 activity.

  16. Effects of the binding of a dextran derivative on fibroblast growth factor 2: secondary structure and receptor-binding studies.

    PubMed

    Bittoun, P; Bagheri-Yarmand, R; Chaubet, F; Crépin, M; Jozefonvicz, J; Fermandjian, S

    1999-06-15

    CMDB (carboxymethyldextran-benzylamide) are dextrans statistically substituted with carboxymethyl and benzylamide groups which can mimick some of the biological properties of heparin. It has previously been shown that CMDB inhibit autocrine growth of breast tumor cells (Bagheri-Yarmand et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 239: 424-428, 1997) and selectively displace fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) from its receptor. Here, we used circular dichroism and fluorescence anisotropy measurements to show that the conformation of FGF-2 was significantly altered upon its binding to CMDB and to short CMDB fragments prepared within this study. CMDB and fragments formed a stable 1:1 complex with FGF-2, with affinities being estimated as 20+/-10 nM from fluorescence anisotropy analysis. No such a complex was formed with insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) or epidermal growth factor (EGF). CMDB competed with the FGF-2 receptor for binding to FGF-2 but did not disturb the binding of IGF-1 and EGF to their receptors. Thus, our results highlight the selectivity of CMDB and their fragments towards FGF-2. Heparin, however, competes with CMDB and their fragments for binding to FGF-2. The carboxymethyl and benzylamide groups of these molecules likely interact directly with a heparin-binding region of FGF-2. The resulting change in conformation disturbs the binding of FGF-2 to its receptor and consecutively its mitogenic activity.

  17. Epidermal growth factor and growth in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) causes a dose-dependent thickening of the epidermis in suckling mice. The cellular mechanisms underlying this thickening were analyzed by measuring the effect of EGF on the cell-cycle. Neonatal mice were given daily injections of either 2ug EGF/g body weight/day or an equivalent volume of saline, and on the seventh day received a single injection of /sup 3/H-thymidine. At various times the mice were perfused with fixative; 1um sections of skin were stained with a modification of Harris' hematoxylin and were autoradiographed. The sections were analyzed using three methods based on the dependence on time after injection of /sup 3/H-thymidine of: frequency of labelled mitoses, labelling index, and reciprocal grains/nucleus. It was found that EGF caused a two-fold increase in the cell production rate. The effect of exogenous EGF on the morphology of gastric mucosa and incisors of suckling mice was also studied. The gastric mucosa appeared thicker in EGF-treated animals, but the effect was not statistically significant. In contrast to its effect on epidermis and gastric mucosa, EGF caused a significant, dose-dependent decrease in the size of the incisors. Because the mouse submandibular salivary gland is the major source of EGF the effect of sialoadenectomy on female reproductive functions was examined. Ablation of the submandibular gland had no effect on: length of estrus cycle, ability of the female to produce litters, length of the gestation period, litter size, and weight of the litter at birth. There was also no effect on survival of the offspring or on age at which the eyelids separated.

  18. Enhanced Survival and Engraftment of Transplanted Stem Cells using Growth Factor Sequestering Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Amit K.; Tharp, Kevin M.; Ye, Jianqin; Santiago-Ortiz, Jorge L.; Jackson, Wesley M.; Stahl, Andreas; Schaffer, David V.; Yeghiazarians, Yerem; Healy, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    We have generated a bioinspired tunable system of hyaluronic acid (HyA)-based hydrogels for Matrix-Assisted Cell Transplantation (MACT). With this material, we have independently evaluated matrix parameters such as adhesion peptide density, mechanical properties, and growth factor sequestering capacity, to engineer an environment that imbues donor cells with a milieu that promotes survival and engraftment with host tissues after transplantation. Using a versatile population of Sca-1+/CD45− cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), we demonstrated that the addition of heparin in the HyA hydrogels was necessary to coordinate the presentation of TGFβ1 and to support the trophic functions of the CPCs via endothelial cell differentiation and vascular like tubular network formation. Presentation of exogenous TGFβ1 by binding with heparin improved differentiated CPC function by sequestering additional endogenously-produced angiogenic factors. Finally, we demonstrated that TGFβ1 and heparin-containing HyA hydrogels can promote CPC survival when implanted subcutaneously into murine hind-limbs and encouraged their participation in the ensuing neovascular response, including blood vessels that had anastomosed with the host’s blood vessels. PMID:25682155

  19. Biodegradable photo-crosslinked alginate nanofibre scaffolds with tuneable physical properties, cell adhesivity and growth factor release.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sung In; Jeon, Oju; Krebs, Melissa D; Hill, Michael C; Alsberg, Eben

    2012-01-01

    Nanofibrous scaffolds are of interest in tissue engineering due to their high surface area to volume ratio, interconnected pores, and architectural similarity to the native extracellular matrix. Our laboratory recently developed a biodegradable, photo-crosslinkable alginate biopolymer. Here, we show the capacity of the material to be electrospun into a nanofibrous matrix, and the ability to enhance cell adhesion and proliferation on these matrices by covalent modification with cell adhesion peptides. Additionally, the potential of covalently incorporating heparin into the hydrogels during the photopolymerisation process to sustain the release of a heparin binding growth factor via affinity interactions was demonstrated. Electrospun photo-crosslinkable alginate nanofibrous scaffolds endowed with cell adhesion ligands and controlled delivery of growth factors may allow for improved regulation of cell behaviour for regenerative medicine. PMID:23070945

  20. BIODEGRADABLE PHOTO-CROSSLINKED ALGINATE NANOFIBRE SCAFFOLDS WITH TUNEABLE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, CELL ADHESIVITY AND GROWTH FACTOR RELEASE

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Sung In; Jeon, Oju; Krebs, Melissa D.; Hill, Michael C.; Alsberg, Eben

    2012-01-01

    Nanofibrous scaffolds are of interest in tissue engineering due to their high surface area to volume ratio, interconnected pores, and architectural similarity to the native extracellular matrix. Our laboratory recently developed a biodegradable, photo-crosslinkable alginate biopolymer. Here, we show the capacity of the material to be electrospun into a nanofibrous matrix, and the ability to enhance cell adhesion and proliferation on these matrices by covalent modification with cell adhesion peptides. Additionally, the potential of covalently incorporating heparin into the hydrogels during the photopolymerisation process to sustain the release of a heparin binding growth factor via affinity interactions was demonstrated. Electrospun photo-crosslinkable alginate nanofibrous scaffolds endowed with cell adhesion ligands and controlled delivery of growth factors may allow for improved regulation of cell behaviour for regenerative medicine. PMID:23070945

  1. A role for the perlecan protein core in the activation of the keratinocyte growth factor receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Ghiselli, G; Eichstetter, I; Iozzo, R V

    2001-01-01

    Perlecan, a widespread heparan sulphate (HS) proteoglycan, is directly involved in the storing of angiogenic growth factors, mostly members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) gene family. We have previously shown that antisense targeting of the perlecan gene causes a reduced growth and responsiveness to FGF7 [also known as keratinocyte growth factor (KGF)] in human cancer cells, and that the perlecan protein core interacts specifically with FGF7. In the present paper, we have investigated human colon carcinoma cells in which the perlecan gene was disrupted by targeted homologous recombination. After screening over 1000 clones, we obtained two clones heterozygous for the null mutation with no detectable perlecan, indicating that the other allele was non-functioning. The perlecan-deficient cells grew more slowly, did not respond to FGF7 with or without the addition of heparin, and were less tumorigenic than control cells. Paradoxically, the perlecan-deficient cells displayed increased FGF7 surface binding. However, the perlecan protein core was required for functional activation of the KGF receptor and downstream signalling. Because heparin could not substitute for perlecan, the HS chains are not critical for FGF7-mediated signalling in this cell system. These results provide the first genetic evidence that the perlecan protein core is a molecular entity implicated in FGF7 binding and activation of its receptor. PMID:11563979

  2. Hierarchical Nanofibrous Microspheres with Controlled Growth Factor Delivery for Bone Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chi; Jing, Yan; Sun, Hongchen; Liu, Xiaohua

    2015-12-01

    The integration of controlled growth factor delivery and biomimetic architecture into a microsphere is a challenging but attractive strategy for developing new injectable biomaterials. In this work, a unique hierarchical nanosphere-encapsulated-in-microsphere scaffolding system is developed. First, heparin-conjugated gelatin (HG) is synthesized, which provides binding domains for bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) to stabilize this growth factor, protect it from denaturation and proteolytic degradation, and subsequently prolong its sustained release. Next, a unique approach is developed which includes a water-in-oil-in-oil double emulsion process and a thermally induced phase separation to encapsulate BMP2-binding HG nanospheres into nanofibrous microspheres. The nanofibrous microsphere is self-assembled from synthetic nanofibers, and has superior surface area, high porosity, low density, and is an excellent carrier to support cell adhesion and tissue in-growth. BMP2 in the hierarchical microsphere is released in a multiple-controlled manner by the binding with heparin and encapsulation of the nanosphere and microsphere. An in vivo calvarial defect model confirms that this microsphere is an excellent osteoinductive scaffold for enhanced bone regeneration. By choosing different growth factors, this hierarchical microsphere system can easily be applied to other types of tissue regeneration. The work expands the ability to develop new injectable biomaterials for advanced regenerative therapies.

  3. Heparin-derived heparan sulfate mimics that modulate inflammation and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Casu, Benito; Naggi, Annamaria; Torri, Giangiacomo

    2011-01-01

    The heparan sulfate (HS) chains of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) are “ubiquitous” components of the cell surface and the extracellular matrix (EC) and play important roles in the physiopathology of developmental and homeostatic processes. Most biological properties of HS are mediated by interactions with “heparin-binding proteins” and can be modulated by exogenous heparin species (unmodified heparin, low molecular weight heparins, shorter heparin oligosaccharides and various non-anticoagulant derivatives of different sizes). Heparin species can promote or inhibit HS activities to different extents depending, among other factors, on how closely their structure mimics the biologically active HS sequences. Heparin shares structural similarities with HS, but is richer in “fully sulfated” sequences (S domains) that are usually the strongest binders to heparin/HS-binding proteins. On the other hand, HS is usually richer in less sulfated, N-acetylated sequences (NA domains). Some of the functions of HS chains, such as that of activating proteins by favoring their dimerization, often require short S sequences separated by rather long NA sequences. The biological activities of these species cannot be simulated by heparin, unless this polysaccharide is appropriately chemically/enzymatically modified or biotechnologically engineered. This mini review covers some information and concepts concerning the interactions of HS chains with heparin-binding proteins and some of the approaches for modulating HS interactions relevant to inflammation and cancer. This is approached through a few illustrative examples, including the interaction of HS and heparin-derived species with the chemokine IL-8, the growth factors FGF1 and FGF2, and the modulation of the activity of the enzyme heparanase by these species. Progresses in sequencing HS chains and reproducing them either by chemical synthesis or semi-synthesis, and in the elucidation of the 3D structure of

  4. Injectable fibroblast growth factor-2 coacervate for persistent angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hunghao; Gao, Jin; Chen, Chien-Wen; Huard, Johnny; Wang, Yadong

    2011-08-16

    Enhancing the maturity of the newly formed blood vessels is critical for the success of therapeutic angiogenesis. The maturation of vasculature relies on active participation of mural cells to stabilize endothelium and a basal level of relevant growth factors. We set out to design and successfully achieved robust angiogenesis using an injectable polyvalent coacervate of a polycation, heparin, and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2). FGF2 was loaded into the coacervate at nearly 100% efficiency. In vitro assays demonstrated that the matrix protected FGF2 from proteolytic degradations. FGF2 released from the coacervate was more effective in the differentiation of endothelial cells and chemotaxis of pericytes than free FGF2. One injection of 500 ng of FGF2 in the coacervate elicited comprehensive angiogenesis in vivo. The number of endothelial and mural cells increased significantly, and the local tissue contained more and larger blood vessels with increased circulation. Mural cells actively participated during the whole angiogenic process: Within 7 d of the injection, pericytes were recruited to close proximity of the endothelial cells. Mature vasculature stabilized by vascular smooth muscle cells persisted till at least 4 wk. On the other hand, bolus injection of an identical amount of free FGF2 induced weak angiogenic responses. These results demonstrate the potential of polyvalent coacervate as a new controlled delivery platform.

  5. Processing, secretion, and biological properties of a novel growth factor of the fibroblast growth factor family with oncogenic potential.

    PubMed Central

    Delli-Bovi, P; Curatola, A M; Newman, K M; Sato, Y; Moscatelli, D; Hewick, R M; Rifkin, D B; Basilico, C

    1988-01-01

    We recently reported that the protein encoded in a novel human oncogene isolated from Kaposi sarcoma DNA was a growth factor with significant homology to basic and acidic fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). To study the properties of this growth factor (referred to as K-FGF) and the mechanism by which the K-fgf oncogene transforms cells, we have studied the production and processing of K-FGF in COS-1 cells transfected with a plasmid encoding the K-fgf cDNA. The results show that, unlike basic and acidic FGFs, the K-FGF protein is cleaved after a signal peptide, glycosylated, and efficiently secreted as a mature protein of 176 or 175 amino acids. Inhibition of glycosylation impaired secretion, and the stability of the secreted K-FGF was greatly enhanced by the presence of heparin in the cultured medium. We have used the conditioned medium from transfected COS-1 cells to test K-FGF biological activity. Similar to basic FGF, the K-FGF protein was mitogenic for fibroblasts and endothelial cells and induced the growth of NIH 3T3 mouse cells in serum-free medium. Accordingly, K-fgf-transformed NIH 3T3 cells grew in serum-free medium, consistent with an autocrine mechanism of growth. We have also expressed the protein encoded in the K-fgf protooncogene in COS-1 cells, and it was indistinguishable in its molecular weight, glycosylation, secretion, and biological activity from K-FGF. Taken together, these results suggest that the mechanism of activation of this oncogene is due to overexpression rather than to mutations in the coding sequences. Images PMID:3043199

  6. Analyses of Interactions Between Heparin and the Apical Surface Proteins of Plasmodium falciparum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kyousuke; Takano, Ryo; Takemae, Hitoshi; Sugi, Tatsuki; Ishiwa, Akiko; Gong, Haiyan; Recuenco, Frances C.; Iwanaga, Tatsuya; Horimoto, Taisuke; Akashi, Hiroomi; Kato, Kentaro

    2013-11-01

    Heparin, a sulfated glycoconjugate, reportedly inhibits the blood-stage growth of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Elucidation of the inhibitory mechanism is valuable for developing novel invasion-blocking treatments based on heparin. Merozoite surface protein 1 has been reported as a candidate target of heparin; however, to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved, we characterized the molecules that bind to heparin during merozoite invasion. Here, we show that heparin binds only at the apical tip of the merozoite surface and that multiple heparin-binding proteins localize preferentially in the apical organelles. To identify heparin-binding proteins, parasite proteins were fractionated by means of heparin affinity chromatography and subjected to immunoblot analysis with ligand-specific antibodies. All tested members of the Duffy and reticulocyte binding-like families bound to heparin with diverse affinities. These findings suggest that heparin masks the apical surface of merozoites and blocks interaction with the erythrocyte membrane after initial attachment.

  7. Effect of sustained heparin release from PCL/chitosan hybrid small-diameter vascular grafts on anti-thrombogenic property and endothelialization.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yao; Wang, Jianing; Cui, Yun; Xu, Rong; Wang, Zhihong; Zhang, Ju; Wang, Kai; Li, Yuejie; Zhao, Qiang; Kong, Deling

    2014-06-01

    Thrombus formation and subsequent occlusion are the main reasons for the failure of small-diameter vascular grafts. In this study, a hybrid small-diameter vascular graft was developed from synthetic polymer poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and natural polymer chitosan (CS) by the co-electrospinning technique. Heparin was immobilized on the grafts through ionic bonding between heparin and CS fibers. The immobilization was relatively stable, and heparin could continuously release from the grafts for more than 1month. Heparin functionalization evidently improved the hemocompatibility of the PCL/CS vascular grafts, which was illustrated by the reduced platelet adhesion and prolonged coagulation time (activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time and thromboplastin time) as shown in the human plasma assay, and was further confirmed by the ex vivo arteriovenous shunt experiment. In vitro cell proliferation assay showed that heparin can promote the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, while moderately inhibiting the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, a main factor for neointimal hyperplasia. Implantation in rat abdominal aorta was performed for 1month. Results indicate that sustained release of heparin provided optimal anti-thrombogenic effect by reducing thrombus formation and maintaining the patency. Furthermore, heparin functionalization also enhanced in situ endothelialization, thereby preventing the occurrence of restenosis. In conclusion, it provides a facile and useful technique for the development of heparinized medical devices, including vascular grafts. PMID:24602806

  8. Lack of acidic fibroblast growth factor activation by heparan sulfate species from diabetic rat skin.

    PubMed

    Bourin, M C

    1997-06-01

    The glucosaminoglycans isolated from the skin of control and streptozotocin-diabetic rats were fractionated on ion-exchange chromatography into a heparan sulfate (HS)-like and a heparin-like species. In addition, a low sulfated fraction was isolated from the diabetics. The HS and heparin-like fractions isolated from the diabetics (in contrast to the low sulfated fractions) retained high affinity for the acidic (FGF-1) and basic (FGF-2) fibroblast growth factors. In culture, the fractions purified from the control rats and the heparin-like material isolated from the diabetics mediated the biological activity of both FGFs in a dose-dependent manner. By contrast, the diabetic HS-like fractions promoted the biological activity of FGF-2 but not of FGF-1. The results support the idea that the structural motives in HS required for FGF-1 and FGF-2 mediated receptor signalling are different. They may be relevant to the impaired wound healing observed in the disease.

  9. Fibroblast growth factor-10 is a mitogen for urothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bagai, Shelly; Rubio, Eric; Cheng, Jang-Fang; Sweet, Robert; Thomas, Regi; Fuchs, Elaine; Grady, Richard; Mitchell, Michael; Bassuk, James A.

    2002-02-01

    Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF)-10 plays an important role in regulating growth, differentiation, and repair of the urothelium. This process occurs through a paracrine cascade originating in the mesenchyme (lamina propria) and targeting the epithelium (urothelium). In situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that (i) fibroblasts of the human lamina propria were the cell type that synthesized FGF-10 RNA and (ii) the FGF-10 gene is located at the 5p12-p13 locus of chromosome 5. Recombinant (r) preparations of human FGF-10 were found to induce proliferation of human urothelial cells in vitro and of transitional epithelium of wild-type and FGF7-null mice in vivo. Mechanistic studies with human cells indicated two modes of FGF-10 action: (i) translocation of rFGF-10 into urothelial cell nuclei and (ii) a signaling cascade that begins with the heparin-dependent phosphorylation of tyrosine residues of surface transmembrane receptors. The normal urothelial phenotype, that of quiescence, is proposed to be typified by negligible levels of FGF-10. During proliferative phases, levels of FGF-10 rise at the urothelial cell surface and/or within urothelial cell nuclei. An understanding of how FGF-10 works in conjunction with these other processes will lead to better management of many diseases of the bladder and urinary tract.

  10. Heparin-binding peptide amphiphile supramolecular architectures as platforms for angiogenesis and drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Lesleyann W.

    A fascinating phenomenon in nature is the self-assembly of molecules into a functional, hierarchical structure. In the past decade, the Stupp Laboratory has developed several classes of self-assembling biomaterials, one of which is the synthetic peptide amphiphile (PA). Self-assembling PAs are attractive and versatile biomolecules that can be customized for specific applications in regenerative medicine. In particular, a heparin-binding peptide amphiphile (HBPA) containing a specific heparin-binding peptide sequence was used here to induce angiogenesis and serve as a delivery vehicle for growth factors and small hydrophobic molecules. Throughout this dissertation, the HBPA/heparin system is used in different architectures for a variety of regenerative medicine applications. In one aspect of this work, hybrid scaffolds made from HBPA/heparin gelled on a poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) fiber mesh were used to promote angiogenesis to facilitate pancreatic islet transplantation for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. Delivery of growth factors with HBPA/PLLA scafflolds increased vessel density in vivo and correlated with improved transplant outcomes in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse model. Soluble HBPA nanofiber architectures were also useful for islet transplantation applications. These nanofibers were used at concentrations below gelation to deliver growth factors into the dense islet cell aggregate, promoting cell survival and angiogenesis in vitro. The nanostructures infiltrated the islets and promoted the retention of heparin and growth factors within the islet. Another interesting growth factor release system discussed here is the HBPA membrane structure. HBPA was found to self-assemble with hyaluronic acid, a large biopolymer found in the body, into macroscopic, hierarchically-ordered membranes. Heparin was incorporated into these membranes and affected the membrane's mechanical properties and growth factor release. Human mesenchymal stem cells were also shown

  11. Structure of rat acidic fibroblast growth factor at 1.4 Å resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kulahin, Nikolaj; Kochoyan, Arthur; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth; Gajhede, Michael

    2007-02-01

    The structure of rat acidic fibroblast growth factor was determined and compared with those of human, bovine and newt origin. The rat and human structures were found to be very similar. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) constitute a family of 22 structurally related heparin-binding polypeptides that are involved in the regulation of cell growth, survival, differentiation and migration. Here, a 1.4 Å resolution X-ray structure of rat FGF1 is presented. Two molecules are present in the asymmetric unit of the crystal and they coordinate a total of five sulfate ions. The structures of human, bovine and newt FGF1 have been published previously. Human and rat FGF1 are found to have very similar structures.

  12. [Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: recent data].

    PubMed

    Gruel, Y; Rollin, J; Leroux, D; Pouplard, C

    2014-03-01

    Despite less frequent, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) remains a severe complication of treatment with heparin, and is important to diagnose and manage appropriately. HIT results from an atypical immune response to heparin, with the synthesis of IgG antibodies specific to heparin-modified platelet factor 4 (PF4) which activate platelets, leukocytes and the endothelium. This activation explains that low platelet count is associated with thrombotic events in 50% of patients. The diagnosis of HIT is sometimes evoked because of atypical manifestations (i.e. cutaneous necrosis, amnesia, hypotension or dyspnea following intravenous injection of heparin). Biological assays are always necessary to confirm HIT in case of clinical suspicion, and specific rapid tests are now available for detecting anti-PF4 antibodies. However, their specificity is poor and functional assays such as serotonin release assay or platelet aggregation test are often necessary. Argatroban that is a direct antithrombin drug can be used in patients with severe renal failure and will be preferred to danaparoid sodium in this situation. Fondaparinux is not licensed for treating confirmed HIT and can only be used in case of suspicion. The early detection of HIT is based on the monitoring of platelet count recommended in surgical patients receiving a low molecular weight heparin and in all patients treated with unfractionated heparin. PMID:24074968

  13. Effect of Heparin Oligomer Chain Length on the Activation of Valvular Interstitial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pedron, Sara; Kasko, Andrea M.; Peinado, Carmen; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2010-01-01

    A key event in connective tissue remodeling involves the transformation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, also revealed by expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). However, misregulation of this transition can lead to fibrosis, an overgrowth and hardening of tissue due to excess extracellular matrix deposition, a process that is linked to heart valve disease and many others. Both disease treatment and regenerative strategies would benefit from strategies for the controlled delivery and presentation of bioactive factors that can promote or suppress this transformation. In this regard, the ability of heparin to complex a plethora of growth factors offers a broad range of possibilities for this purpose. Here, the effects of heparin chain length and structure on valvular interstitial cell (VIC) phenotypic expression were explored. Heparin from porcine intestinal mucosa was depolymerized with heparinase and fractionated to obtain oligosaccharides of different sizes. VICs cultured with octasaccharides and decasaccharides exhibited higher expression of a-SMA when compared to other saccharides and full-length heparin. No activation of VICs was observed in response to full-length heparin presence in media. PMID:20446725

  14. Growth Factors in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zia Ali

    2003-01-01

    Many growth factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Alteration of growth factors and their receptors in diabetes has been shown in both experimental and clinical studies. Sustained hyperglycemia resulting from long-standing diabetes leads to several biochemical abnormalities that consequently result in retinal hypoxia. Retinal oxygenation state regulates various growth factors that promote angiogenesis in order to meet the oxygen demands of the tissue. However, unregulated expression of these growth factors and induction of complex cascades leading to augmentation of other proangiogenic factors, which may not be regulated by tissue oxygenation, leads to uncontrolled retinal neovascularization and blindness in diabetic patients. PMID:14668050

  15. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia after ICD-lead flushing.

    PubMed

    de Bree, L Charlotte J; Alings, A Marco W; van Wijngaarden, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a potentially life-threatening prothrombotic complication following heparin administration. We describe a patient, known with idiopathic dilating cardiomyopathy, presenting nine days after a biventricular ICD implantation with dyspnoea and thrombocytopenia. Thirteen days after administration of a single heparin flush during ICD implantation, the patient developed venous thrombosis in two extremities and pulmonary embolism caused by HIT. HIT is the development of thrombocytopenia, caused by IgG antibodies against complexes of platelet factor 4 and heparin, leading to platelet aggregation. HIT may be accompanied by thrombosis in 20-50% of patients and untreated mortality rates are high. Once HIT is suspected, heparin should be replaced by an alternative anti-factor Xa or anti-factor II therapy. Regardless of the low incidence of HIT, because of the widespread use of heparin and the potentially life-threatening course of HIT, all physicians should be aware of it. PMID:24783473

  16. Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor-2, HIV-Tat, and Vascular Endothelial Cell Growth Factor-A in HIV-Infected Children with Renal Disease Activate Rho-A and Src in Cultured Renal Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Das, Jharna R; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Ray, Patricio E

    2016-01-01

    Renal endothelial cells (REc) are the first target of HIV-1 in the kidney. The integrity of REc is maintained at least partially by heparin binding growth factors that bind to heparan sulfate proteoglycans located on their cell surface. However, previous studies showed that the accumulation of two heparin-binding growth factors, Vascular Endothelial Cell Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A) and Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (FGF-2), in combination with the viral protein Tat, can precipitate the progression of HIV-renal diseases. Nonetheless, very little is known about how these factors affect the behavior of REc in HIV+ children. We carried out this study to determine how VEGF-A, FGF-2, and HIV-Tat, modulate the cytoskeletal structure and permeability of cultured REc, identify key signaling pathways involved in this process, and develop a functional REc assay to detect HIV+ children affected by these changes. We found that VEGF-A and FGF-2, acting in synergy with HIV-Tat and heparin, affected the cytoskeletal structure and permeability of REc through changes in Rho-A, Src, and Rac-1 activity. Furthermore, urine samples from HIV+ children with renal diseases, showed high levels of VEGF-A and FGF-2, and induced similar changes in cultured REc and podocytes. These findings suggest that FGF-2, VEGF-A, and HIV-Tat, may affect the glomerular filtration barrier in HIV+ children through the induction of synergistic changes in Rho-A and Src activity. Further studies are needed to define the clinical value of the REc assay described in this study to identify HIV+ children exposed to circulating factors that may induce glomerular injury through similar mechanisms. PMID:27097314

  17. Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor-2, HIV-Tat, and Vascular Endothelial Cell Growth Factor-A in HIV-Infected Children with Renal Disease Activate Rho-A and Src in Cultured Renal Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Das, Jharna R; Gutkind, J Silvio; Ray, Patricio E

    2016-01-01

    Renal endothelial cells (REc) are the first target of HIV-1 in the kidney. The integrity of REc is maintained at least partially by heparin binding growth factors that bind to heparan sulfate proteoglycans located on their cell surface. However, previous studies showed that the accumulation of two heparin-binding growth factors, Vascular Endothelial Cell Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A) and Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (FGF-2), in combination with the viral protein Tat, can precipitate the progression of HIV-renal diseases. Nonetheless, very little is known about how these factors affect the behavior of REc in HIV+ children. We carried out this study to determine how VEGF-A, FGF-2, and HIV-Tat, modulate the cytoskeletal structure and permeability of cultured REc, identify key signaling pathways involved in this process, and develop a functional REc assay to detect HIV+ children affected by these changes. We found that VEGF-A and FGF-2, acting in synergy with HIV-Tat and heparin, affected the cytoskeletal structure and permeability of REc through changes in Rho-A, Src, and Rac-1 activity. Furthermore, urine samples from HIV+ children with renal diseases, showed high levels of VEGF-A and FGF-2, and induced similar changes in cultured REc and podocytes. These findings suggest that FGF-2, VEGF-A, and HIV-Tat, may affect the glomerular filtration barrier in HIV+ children through the induction of synergistic changes in Rho-A and Src activity. Further studies are needed to define the clinical value of the REc assay described in this study to identify HIV+ children exposed to circulating factors that may induce glomerular injury through similar mechanisms.

  18. Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor-2, HIV-Tat, and Vascular Endothelial Cell Growth Factor-A in HIV-Infected Children with Renal Disease Activate Rho-A and Src in Cultured Renal Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Das, Jharna R; Gutkind, J Silvio; Ray, Patricio E

    2016-01-01

    Renal endothelial cells (REc) are the first target of HIV-1 in the kidney. The integrity of REc is maintained at least partially by heparin binding growth factors that bind to heparan sulfate proteoglycans located on their cell surface. However, previous studies showed that the accumulation of two heparin-binding growth factors, Vascular Endothelial Cell Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A) and Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (FGF-2), in combination with the viral protein Tat, can precipitate the progression of HIV-renal diseases. Nonetheless, very little is known about how these factors affect the behavior of REc in HIV+ children. We carried out this study to determine how VEGF-A, FGF-2, and HIV-Tat, modulate the cytoskeletal structure and permeability of cultured REc, identify key signaling pathways involved in this process, and develop a functional REc assay to detect HIV+ children affected by these changes. We found that VEGF-A and FGF-2, acting in synergy with HIV-Tat and heparin, affected the cytoskeletal structure and permeability of REc through changes in Rho-A, Src, and Rac-1 activity. Furthermore, urine samples from HIV+ children with renal diseases, showed high levels of VEGF-A and FGF-2, and induced similar changes in cultured REc and podocytes. These findings suggest that FGF-2, VEGF-A, and HIV-Tat, may affect the glomerular filtration barrier in HIV+ children through the induction of synergistic changes in Rho-A and Src activity. Further studies are needed to define the clinical value of the REc assay described in this study to identify HIV+ children exposed to circulating factors that may induce glomerular injury through similar mechanisms. PMID:27097314

  19. Epidermal growth factor receptor not equal to nerve growth factor.

    PubMed

    Williams, L R

    1989-01-01

    I am perplexed by the authors' complete lack of definition of neurotrophic factors. The agents Butcher and Woolf want to blame are neurite promoting factors, not neurotrophic factors. Treatment of Alzheimer's disease with NGF antagonists might instead exacerbate the death of both basal forebrain neurons and their cortical target neurons, accelerating the progress of dementia.

  20. [Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. New therapeutical options].

    PubMed

    Seculini Patiño, Carina E; Tabares, Aldo H

    2016-01-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune-mediated adverse reaction due to antibodies to a multimolecular complex of heparin and platelet factor 4 (PF4) characterized by moderate thrombocytopenia and paradoxical arterial or venous thrombosis. It is a relatively infrequent complication related to the administration of any type of heparin. In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary revascularization or coronary artery by-pass graft the prevalence of HIT is higher than in other clinical settings. Recognizing clinical and laboratory features of HIT allow immediate discontinuation of heparin and the use of alternative anticoagulants to avoid serious thrombotic complications. In this review, we summarize different therapeutic options for the treatment of HIT with special emphasis on direct oral anticoagulants (DOACS) such as dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban. DOACS might represent a therapeutic alternative for HIT treatment. PMID:27576282

  1. [Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. New therapeutical options].

    PubMed

    Seculini Patiño, Carina E; Tabares, Aldo H

    2016-01-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune-mediated adverse reaction due to antibodies to a multimolecular complex of heparin and platelet factor 4 (PF4) characterized by moderate thrombocytopenia and paradoxical arterial or venous thrombosis. It is a relatively infrequent complication related to the administration of any type of heparin. In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary revascularization or coronary artery by-pass graft the prevalence of HIT is higher than in other clinical settings. Recognizing clinical and laboratory features of HIT allow immediate discontinuation of heparin and the use of alternative anticoagulants to avoid serious thrombotic complications. In this review, we summarize different therapeutic options for the treatment of HIT with special emphasis on direct oral anticoagulants (DOACS) such as dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban. DOACS might represent a therapeutic alternative for HIT treatment.

  2. Intranasal epidermal growth factor treatment rescues neonatal brain injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scafidi, Joseph; Hammond, Timothy R.; Scafidi, Susanna; Ritter, Jonathan; Jablonska, Beata; Roncal, Maria; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; Coman, Daniel; Huang, Yuegao; McCarter, Robert J.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Horvath, Tamas L.; Gallo, Vittorio

    2014-02-01

    There are no clinically relevant treatments available that improve function in the growing population of very preterm infants (less than 32 weeks' gestation) with neonatal brain injury. Diffuse white matter injury (DWMI) is a common finding in these children and results in chronic neurodevelopmental impairments. As shown recently, failure in oligodendrocyte progenitor cell maturation contributes to DWMI. We demonstrated previously that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has an important role in oligodendrocyte development. Here we examine whether enhanced EGFR signalling stimulates the endogenous response of EGFR-expressing progenitor cells during a critical period after brain injury, and promotes cellular and behavioural recovery in the developing brain. Using an established mouse model of very preterm brain injury, we demonstrate that selective overexpression of human EGFR in oligodendrocyte lineage cells or the administration of intranasal heparin-binding EGF immediately after injury decreases oligodendroglia death, enhances generation of new oligodendrocytes from progenitor cells and promotes functional recovery. Furthermore, these interventions diminish ultrastructural abnormalities and alleviate behavioural deficits on white-matter-specific paradigms. Inhibition of EGFR signalling with a molecularly targeted agent used for cancer therapy demonstrates that EGFR activation is an important contributor to oligodendrocyte regeneration and functional recovery after DWMI. Thus, our study provides direct evidence that targeting EGFR in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells at a specific time after injury is clinically feasible and potentially applicable to the treatment of premature children with white matter injury.

  3. Autocrine growth factors and solid tumor malignancy.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, J. H.; Karnes, W. E.; Cuttitta, F.; Walker, A.

    1991-01-01

    The ability of malignant cells to escape the constraint that normally regulate cell growth and differentiation has been a primary focus of attention for investigators of cancer cell biology. An outcome of this attention has been the discovery that the protein products of oncogenes play a role in the activation of growth signal pathways. A second outcome, possibly related to abnormal oncogene expression, has been the discovery that malignant cells frequently show an ability to regulate their own growth by the release of autocrine growth modulatory substances. Most important, the growth of certain malignant cell types has been shown to depend on autocrine growth circuits. A malignant tumor whose continued growth depends on the release of an autocrine growth factor may be vulnerable to treatment with specific receptor antagonists or immunoneutralizing antibodies designed to break the autocrine circuit. Information is rapidly emerging concerning autocrine growth factors in selected human solid tissue malignancy. Images PMID:1926844

  4. Human Endothelial Cells: Use of Heparin in Cloning and Long-Term Serial Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Susan C.; Mueller, Stephen N.; Levine, Elliot M.

    1983-11-01

    Endothelial cells from human blood vessels were cultured in vitro, with doubling times of 17 to 21 hours for 42 to 79 population doublings. Cloned human endothelial cell strains were established for the first time and had similar proliferative capacities. This vigorous cell growth was achieved by addition of heparin to culture medium containing reduced concentrations of endothelial cell growth factor. The routine cloning and long-term culture of human endothelial cells will facilitate studying the human endothelium in vitro.

  5. Capture of endothelial cells under flow using immobilized vascular endothelial growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Randall J.; Koobatian, Maxwell T.; Shahini, Aref; Swartz, Daniel D.; Andreadis, Stelios T.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the ability of immobilized vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to capture endothelial cells (EC) with high specificity under fluid flow. To this end, we engineered a surface consisting of heparin bound to poly-L-lysine to permit immobilization of VEGF through the C-terminal heparin-binding domain. The immobilized growth factor retained its biological activity as shown by proliferation of EC and prolonged activation of KDR signaling. Using a microfluidic device we assessed the ability to capture EC under a range of shear stresses from low (0.5 dyne/cm2) to physiological (15 dyne/cm2). Capture was significant for all shear stresses tested. Immobilized VEGF was highly selective for EC as evidenced by significant capture of human umbilical vein and ovine pulmonary artery EC but no capture of human dermal fibroblasts, human hair follicle derived mesenchymal stem cells, or mouse fibroblasts. Further, VEGF could capture EC from mixtures with non-EC under low and high shear conditions as well as from complex fluids like whole human blood under high shear. Our findings may have far reaching implications, as they suggest that VEGF could be used to promote endothelialization of vascular grafts or neovascularization of implanted tissues by rare but continuously circulating EC. PMID:25771020

  6. Stability and biological activity evaluations of PEGylated human basic fibroblast growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Hadadian, Shahin; Shamassebi, Dariush Norouzian; Mirzahoseini, Hasan; Shokrgozar, Mohamad Ali; Bouzari, Saeid; Sepahi, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human basic fibroblast growth factor (hBFGF) is a heparin-binding growth factor and stimulates the proliferation of a wide variety of cells and tissues causing survival properties and its stability and biological activity improvements have received much attention. Materials and Methods: In the present work, hBFGF produced by engineered Escherichia coli and purified by cation exchange and heparin affinity chromatography, was PEGylated under appropriate condition employing 10 kD polyethylene glycol. The PEGylated form was separated by size exclusion chromatography. Structural, biological activity, and stability evaluations were performed using Fourier transform infrared (FITR) spectroscopy, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and effect denaturing agent, respectively. Results: FITR spectroscopy revealed that both PEGylated and native forms had the same structures. MTT assay showed that PEGyalated form had a 30% reduced biological activity. Fluorescence spectrophotometry indicated that the PEGylated form denatured at higher concentrations of guanidine HCl (1.2 M) compared with native, which denatured at 0.8 M guanidine HCl. Conclusions: PEGylation of hBFGF makes it more stable against denaturing agent but reduces its bioactivity up to 30%. PMID:26605215

  7. Noncovalent PEGylation by polyanion complexation as a means to stabilize keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2).

    PubMed

    Khondee, Supang; Olsen, Christopher M; Zeng, Yuhong; Middaugh, C Russell; Berkland, Cory

    2011-11-14

    Repifermin, a truncated form of fibroblast growth factor-10 (FGF-10) also known as keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2), is a heparin-binding protein with potent regenerative properties. The protein unfolds and aggregates at relatively low temperature (~37 °C). Electrostatic interactions between polyanions and several FGFs have been reported to enhance the thermal stability of these proteins. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was grafted to the polyanions pentosan polysulfate (PPS) and dextran sulfate (DS) as an alternative means to stabilize and noncovalently PEGylate KGF-2. Physical characteristics of KGF-2:polyanion-PEG complexes were examined using a variety of methods including circular dichroism (CD), intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic light scattering. When compared to KGF-2 alone, subtle changes in CD spectra and fluorescence emission maxima were found when KGF-2 was formulated with the synthetic PEG-polyanions. Highly PEGylated polyanions (DS-PEG5) did not bind KGF-2 as well as conjugates with fewer PEG chains. The molecular weight of PEG did not have a noticeable effect on KGF-2 binding to the various PEG-polyanion conjugates. At optimal molar ratios, PPS-PEG and DS-PEG conjugates were able to stabilize KGF-2 by increasing the melting temperature by approximately 9-17 °C. Thus, polyanion-PEG conjugates improved the stability of KGF-2 and also offered a new electrostatic PEGylation scheme that may be extrapolated to other heparin-binding proteins.

  8. Growth factor transgenes interactively regulate articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuiliang; Mercer, Scott; Eckert, George J; Trippel, Stephen B

    2013-04-01

    Adult articular chondrocytes lack an effective repair response to correct damage from injury or osteoarthritis. Polypeptide growth factors that stimulate articular chondrocyte proliferation and cartilage matrix synthesis may augment this response. Gene transfer is a promising approach to delivering such factors. Multiple growth factor genes regulate these cell functions, but multiple growth factor gene transfer remains unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that multiple growth factor gene transfer selectively modulates articular chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis. We tested the hypothesis by delivering combinations of the transgenes encoding insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), and bone morphogenetic protien-7 (BMP-7) to articular chondrocytes and measured changes in the production of DNA, glycosaminoglycan, and collagen. The transgenes differentially regulated all these chondrocyte activities. In concert, the transgenes interacted to generate widely divergent responses from the cells. These interactions ranged from inhibitory to synergistic. The transgene pair encoding IGF-I and FGF-2 maximized cell proliferation. The three-transgene group encoding IGF-I, BMP-2, and BMP-7 maximized matrix production and also optimized the balance between cell proliferation and matrix production. These data demonstrate an approach to articular chondrocyte regulation that may be tailored to stimulate specific cell functions, and suggest that certain growth factor gene combinations have potential value for cell-based articular cartilage repair.

  9. Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1993-01-01

    Long-term manned space travel will require a better understanding of skeletal muscle atrophy which results from microgravity. Astronaut strength and dexterity must be maintained for normal mission operations and for emergency situations. Although exercise in space slows the rate of muscle loss, it does not prevent it. A biochemical understanding of how gravity/tension/exercise help to maintain muscle size by altering protein synthesis and/or degradation rate should ultimately allow pharmacological intervention to prevent muscle atrophy in microgravity. The overall objective is to examine some of the basic biochemical processes involved in tension-induced muscle growth. With an experimental in vitro system, the role of exogenous and endogenous muscle growth factors in mechanically stimulated muscle growth are examined. Differentiated avian skeletal myofibers can be 'exercised' in tissue culture using a newly developed dynamic mechanical cell stimulator device which simulates different muscle activity patterns. Patterns of mechanical activity which significantly affect muscle growth and metabolic characteristics were found. Both exogenous and endogenous growth factors are essential for tension-induced muscle growth. Exogenous growth factors found in serum, such as insulin, insulin-like growth factors, and steroids, are important regulators of muscle protein turnover rates and mechanically-induced muscle growth. Endogenous growth factors are synthesized and released into the culture medium when muscle cells are mechanically stimulated. At least one family of mechanically induced endogenous factors, the prostaglandins, help to regulate the rates of protein turnover in muscle cells. Endogenously synthesized IGF-1 is another. The interaction of muscle mechanical activity and these growth factors in the regulation of muscle protein turnover rates with our in vitro model system is studied.

  10. Low risk of symptomatic venous thromboembolic events during growth factor administration for PBSC mobilization.

    PubMed

    Naina, H V; Pruthi, R K; Inwards, D J; Dingli, D; Litzow, M R; Ansell, S M; William, H J; Dispenzieri, A; Buadi, F K; Elliott, M A; Gastineau, D A; Gertz, M A; Hayman, S R; Johnston, P B; Lacy, M Q; Micallef, I N; Porrata, L F; Kumar, S

    2011-02-01

    The use of erythropoietic agents has been associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTEs), especially in patients with underlying malignancies. However, it is not known whether there is an increased risk of VTE associated with granulocyte growth factors. We reviewed 621 patients undergoing PBSC mobilization using granulocyte growth factors, alone or in combination with CY. Patients with a diagnosis of AL amyloidosis (AL: 114; 18%), multiple myeloma (MM: 278; 44%) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL: 20; 3%) or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL: 209; 33%) were included. Symptomatic VTE occurred in six (0.97%) patients: two AL, two MM and two NHL. Of the six patients, two had pulmonary embolism, one developed deep vein thrombosis and three developed symptomatic catheter related thrombosis. Two patients with AL had heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. We found a low incidence of VTE among patients undergoing PBSC mobilization.

  11. The combination of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta induces novel phenotypic changes in mouse liver stem cell lines.

    PubMed

    Isfort, R J; Cody, D B; Stuard, S B; Randall, C J; Miller, C; Ridder, G M; Doersen, C J; Richards, W G; Yoder, B K; Wilkinson, J E; Woychik, R P

    1997-12-01

    Mouse liver stem cell (oval cell) lines were investigated in order to determine the role which two families of growth and differentiation factors (GDFs), epidermal growth factor (EGF) family and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family, play in liver regeneration. EGF family members, including EGF, amphiregulin, betacellulin, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor, and TGF-alpha, were mitogenic for oval cell lines while TGF-beta family members, including TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3, inhibited mitogenesis and induced apoptosis in oval cell lines. Surprisingly, the combination of EGF family members and TGF-ss family members resulted in neither proliferation nor apoptosis but instead in a novel cellular response, cellular scattering in tissue culture and morphological differentiation in Matrigel. Analysis of the signal transduction pathways activated by exposure of oval cell lines to either EGF, EGF+TGF-beta, or TGF-beta indicated that novel combinations of intracellular signals result following stimulation of the cells with the combination of EGF+TGF-beta. These data reveal that the dynamics of synergistic GDF action following tissue injury and regeneration results in a new level of complexity not obvious from the study of individual GDFs.

  12. [Growth factors in proliferative diabetic retinopathy].

    PubMed

    Ioniţă, M

    1997-01-01

    This work presents the possible implications of the angiogenic growth factors and some cell mediators in the initiation and development of the neovascular proliferation in diabetic retinopathy. According to the physiopathologic theories stated above, that are implied in the generation of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, here are some therapeutic experiments based on the action of the angiogenic growth factors. PMID:9409959

  13. Mussel-inspired one-step adherent coating rich in amine groups for covalent immobilization of heparin: hemocompatibility, growth behaviors of vascular cells, and tissue response.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Qi, Pengkai; Wen, Feng; Li, Xiangyang; Xia, Qin; Maitz, Manfred F; Yang, Zhilu; Shen, Ru; Tu, Qiufen; Huang, Nan

    2014-08-27

    Heparin, an important polysaccharide, has been widely used for coatings of cardiovascular devices because of its multiple biological functions including anticoagulation and inhibition of intimal hyperplasia. In this study, surface heparinization of a commonly used 316L stainless steel (SS) was explored for preparation of a multifunctional vascular stent. Dip-coating of the stents in an aqueous solution of dopamine and hexamethylendiamine (HD) (PDAM/HD) was presented as a facile method to form an adhesive coating rich in primary amine groups, which was used for covalent heparin immobilization via active ester chemistry. A heparin grafting density of about 900 ng/cm(2) was achieved with this method. The retained bioactivity of the immobilized heparin was confirmed by a remarkable prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) for about 15 s, suppression of platelet adhesion, and prevention of the denaturation of adsorbed fibrinogen. The Hep-PDAM/HD also presented a favorable microenvironment for selectively enhancing endothelial cell (EC) adhesion, proliferation, migration and release of nitric oxide (NO), and at the same time inhibiting smooth muscle cell (SMC) adhesion and proliferation. Upon subcutaneous implantation, the Hep-PDAM/HD exhibited mitigated tissue response, with thinner fibrous capsule and less granulation formation compared to the control 316L SS. This number of unique functions qualifies the heparinized coating as an attractive alternative for the design of a new generation of stents. PMID:25105346

  14. Mussel-inspired one-step adherent coating rich in amine groups for covalent immobilization of heparin: hemocompatibility, growth behaviors of vascular cells, and tissue response.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Qi, Pengkai; Wen, Feng; Li, Xiangyang; Xia, Qin; Maitz, Manfred F; Yang, Zhilu; Shen, Ru; Tu, Qiufen; Huang, Nan

    2014-08-27

    Heparin, an important polysaccharide, has been widely used for coatings of cardiovascular devices because of its multiple biological functions including anticoagulation and inhibition of intimal hyperplasia. In this study, surface heparinization of a commonly used 316L stainless steel (SS) was explored for preparation of a multifunctional vascular stent. Dip-coating of the stents in an aqueous solution of dopamine and hexamethylendiamine (HD) (PDAM/HD) was presented as a facile method to form an adhesive coating rich in primary amine groups, which was used for covalent heparin immobilization via active ester chemistry. A heparin grafting density of about 900 ng/cm(2) was achieved with this method. The retained bioactivity of the immobilized heparin was confirmed by a remarkable prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) for about 15 s, suppression of platelet adhesion, and prevention of the denaturation of adsorbed fibrinogen. The Hep-PDAM/HD also presented a favorable microenvironment for selectively enhancing endothelial cell (EC) adhesion, proliferation, migration and release of nitric oxide (NO), and at the same time inhibiting smooth muscle cell (SMC) adhesion and proliferation. Upon subcutaneous implantation, the Hep-PDAM/HD exhibited mitigated tissue response, with thinner fibrous capsule and less granulation formation compared to the control 316L SS. This number of unique functions qualifies the heparinized coating as an attractive alternative for the design of a new generation of stents.

  15. Platelet deposition on von Willebrand factor-deficient vessels. Extracorporeal perfusion studies in swine with von Willebrand's disease using native and heparinized blood.

    PubMed

    Badimon, L; Badimon, J J; Rand, J; Turitto, V T; Fuster, V

    1987-11-01

    Native (nonanticoagulated) and heparinized blood from both normal swine and swine with von Willebrand's disease was exposed to de-endothelialized thoracic aorta from normal pigs under controlled flow conditions. We have shown that these normal de-endothelialized vessel segments do not contain von Willebrand factor (vWF) in the subendothelial surface; thus, the vascular model that we are using here is representative of the conditions in severe von Willebrand's disease. The blood was recirculated for selected periods of time through an extracorporeal circuit (carotid-jugular shunt), containing a tubular perfusion chamber that held the vessel segment. Flow rates and chamber diameters were selected such that the wall shear rates at the vascular segment were 212 to 3380 sec-1. Platelets were labeled with indium 111 and their total deposition determined by a gamma counter; selected areas were also observed by electron microscopy. When native blood was perfused, the deposition of platelets depended on platelet-plasma vWF only at high wall shear rates (1690 sec-1 or greater) typical of the microcirculation, but not at the lower shear rates (212 and 424 sec-1), more characteristic of the larger arteries and veins. In contrast, when heparinized blood was perfused, platelet deposition on the vascular segments depended on the presence of vWF over the entire range of shear conditions studied. These findings demonstrate in an extracorporeal perfusion system that the defect in platelet-vessel wall interaction in swine with von Willebrand's disease is influenced by both the local flow conditions and the level of activation of the coagulation system. In the presence of an intact coagulation system a synergistic interaction between procoagulant moieties and vWF was observed at high shear rates.

  16. Pharmacology of Heparin and Related Drugs.

    PubMed

    Mulloy, Barbara; Hogwood, John; Gray, Elaine; Lever, Rebecca; Page, Clive P

    2016-01-01

    Heparin has been recognized as a valuable anticoagulant and antithrombotic for several decades and is still widely used in clinical practice for a variety of indications. The anticoagulant activity of heparin is mainly attributable to the action of a specific pentasaccharide sequence that acts in concert with antithrombin, a plasma coagulation factor inhibitor. This observation has led to the development of synthetic heparin mimetics for clinical use. However, it is increasingly recognized that heparin has many other pharmacological properties, including but not limited to antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antimetastatic actions. Many of these activities are independent of its anticoagulant activity, although the mechanisms of these other activities are currently less well defined. Nonetheless, heparin is being exploited for clinical uses beyond anticoagulation and developed for a wide range of clinical disorders. This article provides a "state of the art" review of our current understanding of the pharmacology of heparin and related drugs and an overview of the status of development of such drugs.

  17. Zn2+ Mediates High Affinity Binding of Heparin to the αC Domain of Fibrinogen*

    PubMed Central

    Fredenburgh, James C.; Leslie, Beverly A.; Stafford, Alan R.; Lim, Teresa; Chan, Howard H.; Weitz, Jeffrey I.

    2013-01-01

    The nonspecific binding of heparin to plasma proteins compromises its anticoagulant activity by reducing the amount of heparin available to bind antithrombin. In addition, interaction of heparin with fibrin promotes formation of a ternary heparin-thrombin-fibrin complex that protects fibrin-bound thrombin from inhibition by the heparin-antithrombin complex. Previous studies have shown that heparin binds the E domain of fibrinogen. The current investigation examines the role of Zn2+ in this interaction because Zn2+ is released locally by platelets and both heparin and fibrinogen bind the cation, resulting in greater protection from inhibition by antithrombin. Zn2+ promotes heparin binding to fibrinogen, as determined by chromatography, fluorescence, and surface plasmon resonance. Compared with intact fibrinogen, there is reduced heparin binding to fragment X, a clottable plasmin degradation product of fibrinogen. A monoclonal antibody directed against a portion of the fibrinogen αC domain removed by plasmin attenuates binding of heparin to fibrinogen and a peptide analog of this region binds heparin in a Zn2+-dependent fashion. These results indicate that the αC domain of fibrinogen harbors a Zn2+-dependent heparin binding site. As a consequence, heparin-catalyzed inhibition of factor Xa by antithrombin is compromised by fibrinogen to a greater extent when Zn2+ is present. These results reveal the mechanism by which Zn2+ augments the capacity of fibrinogen to impair the anticoagulant activity of heparin. PMID:23990470

  18. Growth factors from genes to clinical application

    SciTech Connect

    Sara, V.R. ); Hall, K.; Low, H. )

    1990-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an explosion in the identification of growth factors and their receptors. This has been greatly facilitated by recombinant DNA technology, which has provided the tools not only to identify these proteins at the gene level but also to produce recombinant proteins for evaluating their biological activities. With the help of such techniques, we are moving toward an understanding of the biosynthesis of growth factors and their receptors, structure-function relationships, as well as mechanisms for intracellular signal transmission. The possibility of modifying these factors has opened new fields of clinical application. In this paper, four major areas of growth factor research are presented: the characterization of growth factor genes and their protein products, growth factor receptors and signal transduction by the receptors to mediate biological action, the biological actions of the various growth factors, and the role of growth factors in health and disease and their possible clinical application. Some of the topics covered include: structure of the IGFs and their variants; isoforms of PDGF receptor types; tyrosine kinase activation; structure of G-proteins in biological membranes; possible therapeutic application of NGF in the treatment of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases; PDGF's possible role in the development of several fibroproliferative diseases and its therapeutic application in wound healing; and the possible use of angiogenic inhibitors in tumor treatment.

  19. growl: Growth factor and growth rate of expanding universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Andrew J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Growl calculates the linear growth factor Da and its logarithmic derivative dln D/dln a in expanding Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes with arbitrary matter and vacuum densities. It permits rapid and stable numerical evaluation.

  20. The Phosphorylation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) by Engineered Surfaces with Electrostatically or Covalently Immobilized VEGF

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Sean M.; Chen, Tom T.; Iruela-Arispe, M. Luisa; Segura, Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    Growth factors are a class of signaling proteins that direct cell fate through interaction with cell surface receptors. Although a myriad of possible cell fates stem from a growth factor binding to its receptor, the signaling cascades that result in one fate over another are still being elucidated. One possible mechanism by which nature modulates growth factor signaling is through the method of presentation of the growth factor – soluble or immobilized (matrix bound). Here we present the methodology to study signaling of soluble versus immobilized VEGF through VEGFR-2. We have designed a strategy to covalently immobilize VEGF using its heparin-binding domain to orient the molecule (bind) and a secondary functional group to mediate covalent binding (lock). This bind-and-lock approach aims to allow VEGF to assume a bioactive orientation before covalent immobilization. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) demonstrated heparin and VEGF binding with surface densities of 60 ng/cm2 and 100 pg/cm2, respectively. ELISA experiments confirmed VEGF surface density and showed that electrostatically bound VEGF releases in cell medium and heparin solutions while covalently bound VEGF remains immobilized. Electrostatically bound VEGF and covalently bound VEGF phosphorylate VEGFR-2 in both VEGFR-2 transfected cells and VEGFR-2 endogenously producing cells. HUVECs plated on VEGF functionalized surfaces showed different morphologies between surface-bound VEGF and soluble VEGF. The surfaces synthesized in these studies allow for the study of VEGF/VEGFR-2 signaling induced by covalently bound, electrostatically bound, and soluble VEGF and may provide further insight into the design of materials for the generation of a mature and stable vasculature. PMID:19540581

  1. Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia: A Comprehensive Clinical Review.

    PubMed

    Salter, Benjamin S; Weiner, Menachem M; Trinh, Muoi A; Heller, Joshua; Evans, Adam S; Adams, David H; Fischer, Gregory W

    2016-05-31

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is a profoundly dangerous, potentially lethal, immunologically mediated adverse drug reaction to unfractionated heparin or, less commonly, to low-molecular weight heparin. In this comprehensive review, the authors highlight heparin-induced thrombocytopenia's risk factors, clinical presentation, pathophysiology, diagnostic principles, and treatment. The authors place special emphasis on the management of patients requiring procedures using cardiopulmonary bypass or interventions in the catheterization laboratory. Clinical vigilance of this disease process is important to ensure its recognition, diagnosis, and treatment. Misdiagnosis of the syndrome, as well as misunderstanding of the disease process, continues to contribute to its morbidity and mortality.

  2. Heparin desulfation modulates VEGF release and angiogenesis in diabetic wounds.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Uwe; Zieris, Andrea; Chwalek, Karolina; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Maitz, Manfred F; Atallah, Passant; Levental, Kandice R; Eming, Sabine A; Werner, Carsten

    2015-12-28

    While vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to be one of the key players in wound healing by promoting angiogenesis current clinical applications of this growth factor to the wound environment are poorly controlled and not sustainable. Hydrogels made of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG) allow for the sustained release of growth factors since GAGs engage in electrostatic complexation of biomolecules. In here, we explore a set of hydrogels formed of selectively desulfated heparin derivatives and star-shaped poly(ethylene glycol) with respect to VEGF binding and release and anticoagulant activity. As a proof of concept, supportive effects on migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells were studied in vitro and the promotion of wound healing was followed in genetically diabetic (db/db) mice. Our data demonstrate that the release of VEGF from the hydrogels is modulated in dependence on the GAG sulfation pattern. Hydrogels with low sulfate content (11% of initial heparin) were found to be superior in efficacy of VEGF administration, low anticoagulant activity and promotion of angiogenesis.

  3. Heparin desulfation modulates VEGF release and angiogenesis in diabetic wounds.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Uwe; Zieris, Andrea; Chwalek, Karolina; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Maitz, Manfred F; Atallah, Passant; Levental, Kandice R; Eming, Sabine A; Werner, Carsten

    2015-12-28

    While vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to be one of the key players in wound healing by promoting angiogenesis current clinical applications of this growth factor to the wound environment are poorly controlled and not sustainable. Hydrogels made of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG) allow for the sustained release of growth factors since GAGs engage in electrostatic complexation of biomolecules. In here, we explore a set of hydrogels formed of selectively desulfated heparin derivatives and star-shaped poly(ethylene glycol) with respect to VEGF binding and release and anticoagulant activity. As a proof of concept, supportive effects on migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells were studied in vitro and the promotion of wound healing was followed in genetically diabetic (db/db) mice. Our data demonstrate that the release of VEGF from the hydrogels is modulated in dependence on the GAG sulfation pattern. Hydrogels with low sulfate content (11% of initial heparin) were found to be superior in efficacy of VEGF administration, low anticoagulant activity and promotion of angiogenesis. PMID:26478015

  4. Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1987-01-01

    Muscle tissue culture techniques were developed to grow skeletal myofibers which differentiate into more adult-like myofibers. Mechanical simulation studies of these muscle cells in a newly developed mechanical cell simulator can now be performed to study growth processes in skeletal muscle. Conditions in the mechanical cell simulator were defined where mechanical activity can either prevent muscle wasting or stimulate muscle growth. The role of endogenous and exogenous growth factors in tension-induced muscle growth is being investigated under the defined conditions of tissue culture.

  5. Environmental factors influencing growth and pubertal development.

    PubMed Central

    Delemarre-van de Waal, H A

    1993-01-01

    Postnatal growth is based on hereditary signals and environmental factors in a complex regulatory network. Each factor must be in an optimal state for normal growth of the child. Fetal conditions may also have consequences on postnatal height. Intrauterine growth retardation can be recovered postnatally, although postnatal growth remains depressed in about one-third of cases. After birth, the environment may exert either a positive or negative effect on growth. In underdeveloped countries, malnutrition plays a major role in inhibiting the growth process. Children from families of higher socioeconomic classes are taller than their coevals in the lower socioeconomic groups. Urbanization also has a positive effect on growth. Better child care is supported by sufficient food supply, appropriate health and sanitation services, and a higher level of education. Over the last century, these factors have induced a taller stature and a more rapid maturity in Europe, North America, and Australia; a phenomenon which has been referred to as "the secular trend" in growth. Recently, a secular trend has also been reported in some developing countries. Although urbanization in general appears to be associated with better conditions of living, this is not the case in the slums of South America or in Africa where rural children are better off than children living in the poor cities. This paper describes in more detail the different hereditary and environmental factors that act during the fetal period and postnatally, and which play a role in human growth and pubertal development. PMID:8243404

  6. Predictive factors for thrombosis and major bleeding in an observational study in 181 patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia treated with lepirudin.

    PubMed

    Tardy, Bernard; Lecompte, Thomas; Boelhen, Françoise; Tardy-Poncet, Brigitte; Elalamy, Ismaïl; Morange, Pierre; Gruel, Yves; Wolf, Martine; François, Dominique; Racadot, Evelyne; Camarasa, Philippe; Blouch, Marie Thérèse; Nguyen, Françoise; Doubine, Sylvie; Dutrillaux, Fabienne; Alhenc-Gelas, Martine; Martin-Toutain, Isabelle; Bauters, Anne; Ffrench, Patrick; de Maistre, Emmanuel; Grunebaum, Lélia; Mouton, Christine; Huisse, Marie G; Gouault-Heilmann, Michèle; Lucke, Veronique

    2006-09-01

    The antithrombotic efficacy of lepirudin in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is compromised by an increased risk for bleeding. A retrospective observational analysis in 181 patients (median age, 67 years) with confirmed HIT treated in routine practice with lepirudin was performed to identify predictive factors for thrombotic and bleeding complications. Lepirudin was administered at a mean (+/- SD) dose of 0.06 +/- 0.04 mg/kg/h (compared with a recommended initial dose of 0.15 mg/kg/h). Mean activated partial thromboplastin time was greater than 1.5 times baseline value in 99.4% of patients. Median treatment duration was 7.7 days. Until discharge from the hospital, 13.8% and 20.4% of patients experienced a thrombotic or a major bleeding event, respectively. On multivariate analysis, mean lepirudin dose was not a significant predictive factor for thrombosis. In contrast, mean lepirudin dose greater than 0.07 mg/kg/h, long duration of lepirudin treatment, and moderate to severe renal impairment were significant positive factors for major bleeding. Overall, these results suggest that the recommended dose of lepirudin in patients with HIT is too high; the use of reduced doses may be safer with regard to bleeding risk and does not compromise antithrombotic efficacy.

  7. Vascular growth factors in neuropsychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Samuel S.; Fournier, Neil M.; Duman, Ronald S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding the cellular and molecular basis of psychiatric illnesses have shed light on the important role played by trophic factors in modulating functional parameters associated with disease causality and drug action. Disease mechanisms are now thought to involve multiple cell types, including neurons and endothelial cells. These functionally distinct but interactively coupled cell types engage in cellular cross talk via shared and common signaling molecules. Dysregulation in their cellular signaling pathways influences brain function and alters behavioral performance. Multifunctional trophic factors such as VEGF and EPO that possess both neurotrophic and angiogenic actions are of particular interest due to their ability to rescue structural and plasticity deficits in neurons and vasculature. Obtaining insight into the behavioral, cellular and molecular actions of multi-functional trophic factors has the potential to open new and transformative therapeutic approaches. PMID:23475069

  8. New Clue Found to Growth Factor Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Michelle

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the discovery which may help to explain epidermal growth factor effects on the cell skeleton. The role of a protein called profilin in the regulation of the microfilament system is described. (CW)

  9. 78 FR 36786 - Linking Marketplace Heparin Product Attributes and Manufacturing Processes to Bioactivity and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... antibodies to complexes formed between platelet factor 4 (PF4) and heparin which can occur in patients who...-heparin antibodies are observed in all patients with HIT. In addition, low molecular weight heparins or the synthetic pentasaccharide (fondaparinux) have also been shown to cause HIT antibody...

  10. Regulation of peri-attachment embryo development in the golden hamster: role of growth factors.

    PubMed

    Seshagiri, P B; Mishra, A; Ramesh, G; Rao, R P

    2002-01-01

    The molecular regulation of mammalian peri-implantation development is complex and difficult to study in vivo. We successfully cultured hamster blastocysts through hatching and peri-attachment stages, using a chemically defined medium, HECM-2h. Using this system, we showed that a species-specific, embryonic cysteine-like protease is involved in blastocyst hatching and that the process is modulated by growth factors. In particular, heparin binding-epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) or leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) enhance blastocyst hatching, and the former also improves attachment and trophoblast outgrowth. We observed interesting changing patterns of expression of mRNA and/or immunoreactive protein for EGF, HB-EGF, LIF and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in the embryo and/or endometrial tissue, during peri-implantation development. Together, it appears that hamster blastocyst hatching, attachment and trophoblast outgrowth are regulated by autocrine and/or paracrine growth factors, produced by the embryo-endometrial tissues. PMID:11730917

  11. Heparin use in a rat hemorrhagic shock model induces biologic activity in mesenteric lymph separate from shock.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yong; Prescott, Lauriston M; Deitch, Edwin A; Kaiser, Vicki L

    2011-04-01

    Experimental data have shown that mesenteric lymph from rats subjected to trauma-hemorrhagic shock (THS) but not trauma-sham shock induces neutrophil activation, cytotoxicity, decreased red blood cell (RBC) deformability, and bone marrow colony growth suppression. These data have led to the hypothesis that gut factors produced from THS enter the systemic circulation via the mesenteric lymphatics and contribute to the progression of multiple organ failure after THS. Ongoing studies designed to identify bioactive lymph agents implicated factors associated with the heparin use in the THS procedure. We investigated if heparin itself was responsible for reported toxicity to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Human umbilical vein endothelial cell toxicity was not induced by lymph when alternate anticoagulants (citrate and EDTA) were used in THS. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell toxicity was induced by lymph after heparin but not saline or citrate injection into trauma-sham shock and naive animals and was dose dependent. Activities of both heparin-releasable lipases (lipoprotein and hepatic) were detected in the plasma and lymph from THS and naive animals receiving heparin but not citrate or saline. Lymph-induced HUVEC toxicity correlated with lymph lipase activities. Finally, incubation of HUVECs with purified lipoprotein lipase added to naive lymph-induced toxicity in vitro. These data show that heparin, not THS, is responsible for the reported lymph-mediated HUVEC toxicity through its release of lipases into the lymph. These findings can provide alternative explanations for several of the THS effects reported in the literature using heparin models, thus necessitating a review of previous work in this field.

  12. Autocrine ligands of the epithelial growth factor receptor mediate inflammatory responses to diesel exhaust particles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diesel exhaust is associated with cardiovascular and respiratory mortality and morbidity. Acute exposure leads to increased IL-8 expression and airway neutrophilia, however the mechanism of this response is unknown. Objectives: As cigarette smoke-induced IL-8 expression by epithelial cells involves transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), we studied the effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on IL-8 release and the role of the EGFR. Methods Primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) were exposed to DEPs or carbon black. IL-8 and EGFR ligand expression (transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα), heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, and amphiregulin (AR)) were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA. Results DEP, but not carbon black, caused a dose-dependent increase in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and IL-8 expression, however above 50 μg/ml there was an increase in cytotoxicity. At 50 μg/ml, DEPs stimulated transcription and release of IL-8 and EGFR ligands. IL-8 release was blocked by EGFR neutralizing antibodies, an EGFR-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor and by the metalloprotease inhibitor, GM6001, which blocks EGFR ligand shedding. Neutralizing antibodies to AR, TGFα and heparin-binding (HB)-EGF reduced DEP-induced IL-8 by >50%. Conclusion Expression of IL-8 in response to DEPs is dependent on EGFR activation and that autocrine production of EGFR ligands makes a substantial contribution to this response. Capsule Summary: This study identifies a mechanism whereby diesel particles stimulates IL-8 release from bronchial epithelial cells. This mechanism may help to explain the recruitment of neutrophils into the airways of people exposed to particulate air pollution. PMID:24555532

  13. Predictive factors for intrauterine growth restriction

    PubMed Central

    Albu, AR; Anca, AF; Horhoianu, VV; Horhoianu, IA

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Reduced fetal growth is seen in about 10% of the pregnancies but only a minority has a pathological background and is known as intrauterine growth restriction or fetal growth restriction (IUGR / FGR). Increased fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity as well as adult pathologic conditions are often associated to IUGR. Risk factors for IUGR are easy to assess but have poor predictive value. For the diagnostic purpose, biochemical serum markers, ultrasound and Doppler study of uterine and spiral arteries, placental volume and vascularization, first trimester growth pattern are object of assessment today. Modern evaluations propose combined algorithms using these strategies, all with the goal of a better prediction of risk pregnancies. Abbreviations: SGA = small for gestational age; IUGR = intrauterine growth restriction; FGR = fetal growth restriction; IUFD = intrauterine fetal demise; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus; PAPP-A = pregnancy associated plasmatic protein A; β-hCG = beta human chorionic gonadotropin; MoM = multiple of median; ADAM-12 = A-disintegrin and metalloprotease 12; PP-13 = placental protein 13; VEGF = vascular endothelial growth factor; PlGF = placental growth factor; sFlt-1 = soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1; UAD = uterine arteries Doppler ultrasound; RI = resistence index; PI = pulsatility index; VOCAL = Virtual Organ Computer–Aided Analysis software; VI = vascularization index; FI = flow index; VFI = vascularization flow index; PQ = placental quotient PMID:25408721

  14. Insulin-like growth factor 1 and hair growth.

    PubMed

    Su, H Y; Hickford, J G; Bickerstaffe, R; Palmer, B R

    1999-11-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been identified as an important growth factor in many biological systems.[1] It shares considerable structural homology with insulin and exerts insulin-like effects on food intake and glucose metabolism. Recently it has been suggested to play a role in regulating cellular proliferation and migration during the development of hair follicles. [2,3] To exert its biological effects, the IGF-1 is required to activate cells by binding to specific cell-surface receptors. The type I IGF receptor (IGF-1R) is the only IGF receptor to have IGF-mediated signaling functions.[1] In circulation, this growth factor mediates endocrine action of growth hormone (GH) on somatic growth and is bound to specific binding proteins (BPs). The latter control IGF transport, efflux from vascular compartments and association with cell surface receptors.[4] In tissues, IGF-1 is produced by mesenchymal type cells and acts in a paracrine and autocrine fashion by binding to the IGF-1R. This binding activates the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that triggers the downstream responses and finally stimulates cell division.[5] IGF-1 may therefore be able to stimulate the proliferation of hair follicle cells through cellular signaling pathways of its receptors. Local infusion of IGF-1 into sheep has been reported to be capable of stimulating protein synthesis in the skin.[6] It may also increase the production of wool keratin. Recently, transgenic mice overexpressing IGF-1 in the skin have been shown to have earlier hair follicle development than controls.[7] In addition, this growth factor plays an important role in many cell types as a survival factor to prevent cell death.[8] This anti-apoptotic function of IGF-1 may be important to the development of follicle cells as follicles undergo a growth cycle where the regressive, catagen phase is apoptosis driven. In this review, the effects of IGF-1 on follicle cell proliferation and differentiation are discussed. In

  15. Organic growth factor requirements of some yeasts.

    PubMed

    Madan, M; Gulati, N

    1980-01-01

    Some sporogenous yeasts (Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Debaryomyces hansenii, Hansenula ciferrii, Hansenula polymorpha, Pichia polymorpha, Saccharomycopsis guttulata, and Saccharomyces chevalieri), isolated from various fruits have been examined for their organic growth factor requisites. H. ciferrii was completely deficient in thiamine, biotin, inositol, riboflavin, niacin, and partially deficient in pantothenic acid. It required an external supply of 0.1-1.0 ppm thiamine, 0.01-0.1 ppm biotin, 10.0 ppm inositol, 0.10 ppm niacin and riboflavin for its optimum growth. H. polymorpha showed partial deficiency only in xanthine. P. polymorpha gave indications of partial deficiencies in thiamine and biotin. S. guttulata was completely deficient in biotin, and partially deficient in adenine sulphate. It required 0.01 ppm biotin for optimum growth. S chevalieri was completely deficient in pyridoxine and partially deficient in thiamine. It required 0.1 ppm pyridoxine for maximum growth. D. hansenii and B bruxellensis were auxoautotrophic for the various growth factors studied. PMID:7242379

  16. Accelerated tissue integration into porous materials by immobilizing basic fibroblast growth factor using a biologically safe three-step reaction.

    PubMed

    Kakinoki, Sachiro; Sakai, Yusuke; Fujisato, Toshia; Yamaoka, Tetsuji

    2015-12-01

    Soft tissue integration into a porous structure is important to prevent bacterial infection of percutaneous devices and improve tissue regeneration using porous scaffolds. Here, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was immobilized on porous polymer materials using a mild and biologically safe three-step reaction: (1) modification with a novel surface-modification peptide (penta-lysine-mussel adhesive sequence, which reacts with various matrices), (2) electrostatic binding of heparin with introduced penta-lysine, and (3) biologically specific binding of bFGF to heparin. Porous polyethylene specimens (PPSs) (D = 6.0 mm, H = 2.0 mm) with a good size for tissue integration were selected as a base material, immobilized with bFGF, and subcutaneously implanted into mice. Half of the unmodified PPSs extruded out of the body on day 112 postimplantation; however, the three-step reaction completely prevented sample rejection. Tissue integration was greatly accelerated by immobilizing bFGF. Direct physical coating of bFGF on PPS resulted in greater immobilization but lesser tissue integration than that after the three-step bFGF immobilization, indicating that heparin binds and enhances bFGF efficacy. This three-step bFGF immobilization reaction will be applicable to various polymeric, metallic, and ceramic materials and is a simple strategy to integrate tissue on porous medical devices or scaffolds for tissue regeneration. PMID:26034014

  17. Intracellular protein delivery activity of peptides derived from insulin-like growth factor binding proteins 3 and 5

    SciTech Connect

    Goda, Natsuko; Tenno, Takeshi; Inomata, Kosuke; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Tanaka, Toshiki; Hiroaki, Hidekazu

    2008-08-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) have various IGF-independent cellular activities, including receptor-independent cellular uptake followed by transcriptional regulation, although mechanisms of cellular entry remain unclear. Herein, we focused on their receptor-independent cellular entry mechanism in terms of protein transduction domain (PTD) activity, which is an emerging technique useful for clinical applications. The peptides of 18 amino acid residues derived from IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5, which involve heparin-binding regions, mediated cellular delivery of an exogenous protein into NIH3T3 and HeLa cells. Relative protein delivery activities of IGFBP-3/5-derived peptides were approximately 20-150% compared to that of the HIV-Tat peptide, a potent PTD. Heparin inhibited the uptake of the fusion proteins with IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5, indicating that the delivery pathway is heparin-dependent endocytosis, similar to that of HIV-Tat. The delivery of GST fused to HIV-Tat was competed by either IGFBP-3 or IGFBP-5-derived synthetic peptides. Therefore, the entry pathways of the three PTDs are shared. Our data has shown a new approach for designing protein delivery systems using IGFBP-3/5 derived peptides based on the molecular mechanisms of IGF-independent activities of IGFBPs.

  18. Accelerated tissue integration into porous materials by immobilizing basic fibroblast growth factor using a biologically safe three-step reaction.

    PubMed

    Kakinoki, Sachiro; Sakai, Yusuke; Fujisato, Toshia; Yamaoka, Tetsuji

    2015-12-01

    Soft tissue integration into a porous structure is important to prevent bacterial infection of percutaneous devices and improve tissue regeneration using porous scaffolds. Here, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was immobilized on porous polymer materials using a mild and biologically safe three-step reaction: (1) modification with a novel surface-modification peptide (penta-lysine-mussel adhesive sequence, which reacts with various matrices), (2) electrostatic binding of heparin with introduced penta-lysine, and (3) biologically specific binding of bFGF to heparin. Porous polyethylene specimens (PPSs) (D = 6.0 mm, H = 2.0 mm) with a good size for tissue integration were selected as a base material, immobilized with bFGF, and subcutaneously implanted into mice. Half of the unmodified PPSs extruded out of the body on day 112 postimplantation; however, the three-step reaction completely prevented sample rejection. Tissue integration was greatly accelerated by immobilizing bFGF. Direct physical coating of bFGF on PPS resulted in greater immobilization but lesser tissue integration than that after the three-step bFGF immobilization, indicating that heparin binds and enhances bFGF efficacy. This three-step bFGF immobilization reaction will be applicable to various polymeric, metallic, and ceramic materials and is a simple strategy to integrate tissue on porous medical devices or scaffolds for tissue regeneration.

  19. A supersulfated low-molecular-weight heparin (IK-SSH) increases plasma levels of free and total tissue factor pathway inhibitor after intravenous and subcutaneous administration in humans.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, B; Glusa, E; Hoppensteadt, D A; Breddin, H K; Amiral, J; Fareed, J

    1998-09-01

    Unfractionated as well as low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) are known to cause an increase in blood levels of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). To study the effect of a newly developed supersulfated LMWH (IK-SSH, Iketon Farmaceutici) on TFPI concentrations in human plasma, the compound was injected into volunteers at doses of 0.14, 0.33 and 0.66 mg/kg intravenously or 0.33, 0.66 and 1.0 mg/kg subcutaneously. At certain known times blood was drawn and plasma levels of both total and free TFPI were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methodology. Baseline plasma concentrations of TFPI were 72.2+/-3.1 ng/ml for total and 10.8+/-0.8 ng/ml for free TFPI. Intravenous or subcutaneous injection of IK-SSH led to a strong and long-lasting rise in TFPI levels which were increased more than 5-fold for total TFPI and more than 30-fold for free TFPI. Maximum TFPI levels were reached 5-10 min after intravenous and 60 min after subcutaneous administration. IK-SSH caused prolongation of ex-vivo clotting times in the APTT and Heptest assay, whereas thrombin time was not affected. Anticoagulant actions of IK-SSH showed a significant correlation to plasma concentrations of TFPI and they are thought to be based at least partially on the release of TFPI from vascular sites.

  20. Placenta Growth Factor in Diabetic Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Cianfarani, Francesca; Zambruno, Giovanna; Brogelli, Laura; Sera, Francesco; Lacal, Pedro Miguel; Pesce, Maurizio; Capogrossi, Maurizio C.; Failla, Cristina Maria; Napolitano, Monica; Odorisio, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Reduced microcirculation and diminished expression of growth factors contribute to wound healing impairment in diabetes. Placenta growth factor (PlGF), an angiogenic mediator promoting pathophysiological neovascularization, is expressed during cutaneous wound healing and improves wound closure by enhancing angiogenesis. By using streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, we here demonstrate that PlGF induction is strongly reduced in diabetic wounds. Diabetic transgenic mice overexpressing PlGF in the skin displayed accelerated wound closure compared with diabetic wild-type littermates. Moreover, diabetic wound treatment with an adenovirus vector expressing the human PlGF gene (AdCMV.PlGF) significantly accelerated the healing process compared with wounds treated with a control vector. The analysis of treated wounds showed that PlGF gene transfer improved granulation tissue formation, maturation, and vascularization, as well as monocytes/macrophages local recruitment. Platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels were increased in AdCMV.PlGF-treated wounds, possibly enhancing PlGF-mediated effects. Finally, PlGF treatment stimulated cultured dermal fibroblast migration, pointing to a direct role of PlGF in accelerating granulation tissue maturation. In conclusion, our data indicate that reduced PlGF expression contributes to impaired wound healing in diabetes and that PlGF gene transfer to diabetic wounds exerts therapeutic activity by promoting different aspects of the repair process. PMID:17003476

  1. Agents for the treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Warkentin, Theodore E

    2010-08-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune-mediated adverse drug effect characterized by platelet activation, hypercoagulability, and increased risk of thrombosis, both venous and arterial. A diagnosis of HIT usually signifies that heparin products, including unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparin, are contraindicated. Although it is uncertain whether heparin continuation really worsens clinical outcomes, it is clear that vitamin K antagonists such as warfarin do worsen outcomes, as they promote microvascular thrombosis, with the potential for limb amputation (venous limb gangrene). Thus, alternative nonheparin anticoagulants are at the forefront of HIT therapy. This review proposes that alternative anticoagulants (danaparoid, fondaparinux) that share certain properties of heparin-namely its irreversible antithrombin-mediated inhibition of factor Xa-and that have relatively long half-lives, have several advantages in the therapy for HIT over short-acting agents that inhibit thrombin directly (recombinant hirudin, argatroban, and bivalirudin). PMID:20659659

  2. Epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent stimulation of amphiregulin expression in androgen-stimulated human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, I; Bailey, J; Hitzemann, K; Pittelkow, M R; Maihle, N J

    1994-01-01

    Amphiregulin is a heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF)-related peptide that binds to the EGF receptor (EGF-R) with high affinity. In this study, we report a role for amphiregulin in androgen-stimulated regulation of prostate cancer cell growth. Androgen is known to enhance EGF-R expression in the androgen-sensitive LNCaP human prostate carcinoma cell line, and it has been suggested that androgenic stimuli may regulate proliferation, in part, through autocrine mechanisms involving the EGF-R. In this study, we demonstrate that LNCaP cells express amphiregulin mRNA and peptide and that this expression is elevated by androgenic stimulation. We also show that ligand-dependent EGF-R stimulation induces amphiregulin expression and that androgenic effects on amphiregulin synthesis are mediated through this EGF-R pathway. Parallel studies using the estrogen-responsive breast carcinoma cell line, MCF-7, suggest that regulation of amphiregulin by estrogen may also be mediated via an EGF-R pathway. In addition, heparin treatment of LNCaP cells inhibits androgen-stimulated cell growth further suggesting that amphiregulin can mediate androgen-stimulated LNCaP proliferation. Together, these results implicate an androgen-regulated autocrine loop composed of amphiregulin and its receptor in prostate cancer cell growth and suggest that the mechanism of steroid hormone regulation of amphiregulin synthesis may occur through androgen upregulation of the EGF-R and subsequent receptor-dependent pathways. Images PMID:8049525

  3. Immobilization of heparin oligosaccharides onto radiofrequency plasma modified pyrolytic carbon-coated graphite.

    PubMed

    Yuan, S; Cai, W; Szakalas-Gratzl, G; Kottke-Marchant, K; Tweden, K; Marchant, R E

    1995-01-01

    Heparin oligosaccharides with different anticoagulant activities were prepared and immobilized onto pyrolytic carbon coated graphite (PC) heart valve materials commonly used in mechanical heart valve prostheses. Prior to immobilization, PC surfaces were modified by radiofrequency plasma polymerized N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (PPNVP) thin films (approximately 100 nm) and derivatized to provide surface hydroxyl groups. Cleaved, low affinity heparin (C-heparin) with factor Xa inhibition activity of 107 to 130 IU/mg, was prepared by partial deaminative cleavage of commercial crude heparin, and high-affinity heparin (HA-heparin) with factor Xa inhibition activity of 550 to 1000 IU/mg was prepared by fractionation of C-heparin using agarose-ATIII affinity chromatography. C-heparin and HA-heparin were immobilized to surface modified PC by reductive amination. Anticoagulant activity of the heparin immobilized surfaces was determined by chromogenic assay for the inhibition of factor Xa. Highest surface anticoagulant activity was measured on C-heparin immobilized surfaces (64.0 +/- 7.3 mIU/cm2) compared with HA-heparin immobilized surfaces (27.2 +/- 12.2 mIU/cm2), suggesting higher binding of C-heparin than HA-heparin on the modified PC surfaces. Immobilized surfaces were evaluated under dynamic flow conditions, by subjecting samples to shear stress of up to 206 dyn/cm2 in the presence of 5% albumin solution or human plasma. Anticoagulant activity of the immobilized heparin was retained, although reduced, and the modified surfaces showed evidence for protein resistance. PMID:8589511

  4. Intraoperative management of patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Kappa, J R; Fisher, C A; Todd, B; Stenach, N; Bell, P; Campbell, F; Ellison, N; Addonizio, V P

    1990-05-01

    For 11 patients with confirmed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, we used reversible platelet inhibition with iloprost, a stable prostacyclin analogue, to permit safe heparin administration for cardiac (n = 9) or vascular (n = 2) operations. In vitro, iloprost (0.01 mumol/L) prevented both heparin-induced platelet aggregation and 14C-serotonin release in all patients. Therefore, intraoperatively, a continuous infusion of iloprost was started before administration of heparin and was continued until 15 minutes after administration of protamine. For cardiac patients, after heparin administration, the whole blood platelet count did not change (171,000 +/- 29,000/microL versus 174,000 +/- 29,000/microL, mean +/- standard error of the mean); no spontaneous platelet aggregation was observed, and plasma levels of the alpha-granule constituents platelet factor 4 and beta-thromboglobulin increased from 38 +/- 14 and 140 +/- 18 ng/mL to 591 +/- 135 and 235 +/- 48 ng/mL, respectively. Fibrinopeptide A levels actually decreased from 287 +/- 150 to 27 +/- 6 ng/mL. Furthermore, adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet activation was preserved, postoperative bleeding times were unchanged, and no heparin-related deaths occurred. Similar results were obtained in both vascular patients. We conclude that temporary platelet inhibition with iloprost now permits safe heparin administration in all patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia who require a cardiac or vascular operation. PMID:1692679

  5. Serum growth factors in asbestosis patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongliang; Karjalainen, Antti; Koskinen, Heikki; Vainio, Harri; Pukkala, Eero; Hemminki, Kari; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W

    2009-02-01

    Various growth factors, including platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of asbestos-induced disease. PDGF and TGF-beta levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in the banked serum samples of a cohort of workers with asbestosis, and the relationships of the growth factor levels to the subsequent development of cancer and to the radiographic severity and progression of asbestosis in the cohort were examined. Serum levels of PDGF and TGF-beta were found to be unrelated to the development of cancer, and serum levels of PDGF were found to be unrelated to the severity and progression of asbestosis. However, serum levels of TGF-beta were found to be statistically significantly related to disease severity (p = 0.01), increasing approximately 2.4-fold from ILO radiographic category 0 to category 3, and they were marginally related to disease progression (p = 0.07), in multivariate analysis controlling for other contributory factors including cumulative asbestos exposure. This suggests that serum TGF-beta may be a useful biomarker for asbestos-induced fibrotic disease. PMID:19283526

  6. Quantitative Characterization of Heparin Binding to Tau Protein

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hai-Li; Fernández, Cristina; Fan, Jun-Bao; Shewmaker, Frank; Chen, Jie; Minton, Allen P.; Liang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles, principally composed of bundles of filaments formed by the microtubule-associated protein Tau, are a hallmark of a group of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease. Polyanionic cofactors such as heparin can induce Tau filament formation in vitro. Here we quantitatively characterize the interaction between recombinant human Tau fragment Tau244–372 and heparin (average molecular mass = 7 kDa) as well as heparin-induced fibril formation by using static light scattering, isothermal titration calorimetry, turbidity assays, and transmission electron microscopy. Our data clearly show that at physiological pH, heparin 7K, and human Tau244–372 form a tight 1:1 complex with an equilibrium association constant exceeding 106 m−1 under reducing conditions, triggering Tau fibrillization. In the absence of dithiothreitol, heparin shows a moderate binding affinity (105 m−1) to Tau244–372, similarly triggering Tau fibrillization. Further fibrillization kinetics analyses show that the lag time appears to be approximately invariant up to a molar ratio of 2:1 and then increases at larger ratios of heparin/Tau. The maximum slope representing the apparent rate constant for fibril growth increases sharply with substoichiometric ratios of heparin/Tau and then decreases to some extent with ratios of >1:1. The retarding effect of heparin in excess is attributed to the large increase in ionic strength of the medium arising from free heparin. Together, these results suggest that the formation of the 1:1 complex of Tau monomer and heparin plays an important role in the inducer-mediated Tau filament formation, providing clues to understanding the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19959468

  7. Synthesis and detection of N-sulfonated oversulfated chondroitin sulfate in marketplace heparin.

    PubMed

    Mans, Daniel J; Ye, Hongping; Dunn, Jamie D; Kolinski, Richard E; Long, Dianna S; Phatak, Nisarga L; Ghasriani, Houman; Buhse, Lucinda F; Kauffman, John F; Keire, David A

    2015-12-01

    N-sulfonated oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (NS-OSCS), recently reported as a potential threat to the heparin supply, was prepared along with its intermediate derivatives. All compounds were spiked into marketplace heparin and subjected to United States Pharmacopeia (USP) identification assays for heparin (proton nuclear magnetic resonance [(1)H NMR], chromatographic identity, % galactosamine [%GalN], anti-factor IIa potency, and anti-factor Xa/IIa ratio). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) strong-anionic exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (SAX-HPLC) method resolved NS-OSCS from heparin and OSCS and had a limit of detection of 0.26% (w/w) NS-OSCS. The %GalN test was sensitive to the presence of NS-OSCS in heparin. Therefore, current USP heparin monograph tests (i.e., SAX-HPLC and %GalN) detect the presence of NS-OSCS in heparin.

  8. Epidermal Growth Factor and Intestinal Barrier Function.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaopeng; Liu, Hu; Yang, Shufen; Li, Zuohua; Zhong, Jinfeng; Fang, Rejun

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a 53-amino acid peptide that plays an important role in regulating cell growth, survival, migration, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, EGF has been established to be an effective intestinal regulator helping to protect intestinal barrier integrity, which was essential for the absorption of nutrients and health in humans and animals. Several researches have demonstrated that EGF via binding to the EGF receptor and subsequent activation of Ras/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, PLC-γ/PKC, and STATS signal pathways regulates intestinal barrier function. In this review, the relationship between epidermal growth factor and intestinal development and intestinal barrier is described, to provide a better understanding of the effects of EGF on intestine development and health. PMID:27524860

  9. Epidermal Growth Factor and Intestinal Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hu; Yang, Shufen; Li, Zuohua; Zhong, Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a 53-amino acid peptide that plays an important role in regulating cell growth, survival, migration, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, EGF has been established to be an effective intestinal regulator helping to protect intestinal barrier integrity, which was essential for the absorption of nutrients and health in humans and animals. Several researches have demonstrated that EGF via binding to the EGF receptor and subsequent activation of Ras/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, PLC-γ/PKC, and STATS signal pathways regulates intestinal barrier function. In this review, the relationship between epidermal growth factor and intestinal development and intestinal barrier is described, to provide a better understanding of the effects of EGF on intestine development and health. PMID:27524860

  10. Nerve growth factor promotes human hemopoietic colony growth and differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, H.; Coughlin, M.D.; Bienenstock, J.; Denburg, J.A. )

    1988-09-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotropic polypeptide necessary for the survival and growth of some central neurons, as well as sensory afferent and sympathetic neurons. Much is now known of the structural and functional characteristics of NGF, whose gene has recently been clones. Since it is synthesized in largest amounts by the male mouse submandibular gland, its role exclusively in nerve growth is questionable. These experiments indicate that NGF causes a significant stimulation of granulocyte colonies grown from human peripheral blood in standard hemopoietic methylcellulose assays. Further, NGF appears to act in a relatively selective fashion to induce the differentiation of eosinophils and basophils/mast cells. Depletion experiments show that the NGF effect may be T-cell dependent and that NGF augments the colony-stimulating effect of supernatants from the leukemic T-cell (Mo) line. The hemopoietic activity of NGF is blocked by {sup 125}I-polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to NGF. The authors conclude that NGF may indirectly act as a local growth factor in tissues other than those of the nervous system by causing T cells to synthesize or secrete molecules with colony-stimulating activity. In view of the synthesis of NGF in tissue injury, the involvement of basophils/mast cells and eosinophils in allergic and other inflammatory processes, and the association of mast cells with fibrosis and tissue repair, they postulate that NGF plays an important biological role in a variety of repair processes.

  11. A novel role of fibroblast growth factor-2 and pentosan polysulfate in the pathogenesis of intestinal bleeding in mice.

    PubMed

    Jerebtsova, Marina; Wong, Edward; Przygodzki, Ronald; Tang, Pingtao; Ray, Patricio E

    2007-02-01

    Pentosan polysulfate (PPS) is a heparin-like polysaccharide that can affect the binding interactions of fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) with its high-affinity receptors. Patients with angiogenic tumors frequently show high levels of FGF-2 in the circulation. Since FGF-2 is a heparin-binding angiogenic growth factor, PPS has been used successfully to block its activity in patients with angiogenic tumors. However, because of its heparin-like activity, the major toxic effect of PPS is the development of bleeding disorders. The role that circulating FGF-2 plays in the pathogenesis of bleeding disorders in patients treated with PPS is currently unknown. Here we hypothesized that FGF-2 might play a physiological role in the pathogenesis of intestinal bleeding induced by PPS. This hypothesis is supported by previous studies showing that PPS is accumulated in the intestine and that circulating FGF-2 specifically binds to and modulates the angiogenic activity of intestinal submucosal endothelial cells. We used recombinant adenoviral vectors carrying a secreted form of FGF-2 and LacZ control vectors to determine whether high levels of circulating FGF-2 facilitate the development of intestinal bleeding disorders in FVB/N and C57BL/6J mice treated with PPS. We found that PPS, acting together with FGF-2, induced structural changes in intestinal vessels leading to the development of lethal intestinal hemorrhages. These findings might have wider clinical implications for the systemic use of PPS and other heparinoids in the treatment of patients with angiogenic diseases associated with high levels of circulating FGF-2.

  12. Vascular endothelial growth factor B, a novel growth factor for endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Olofsson, B; Pajusola, K; Kaipainen, A; von Euler, G; Joukov, V; Saksela, O; Orpana, A; Pettersson, R F; Alitalo, K; Eriksson, U

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated and characterized a novel growth factor for endothelial cells, vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B), with structural similarities to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placenta growth factor. VEGF-B was particularly abundant in heart and skeletal muscle and was coexpressed with VEGF in these and other tissues. VEGF-B formed cell-surface-associated disulfide-linked homodimers and heterodimerized with VEGF when coexpressed. Conditioned medium from transfected 293EBNA cells expressing VEGF-B stimulated DNA synthesis in endothelial cells. Our results suggest that VEGF-B has a role in angiogenesis and endothelial cell growth, particularly in muscle. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8637916

  13. Post Treatment With an FGF Chimeric Growth Factor Enhances Epithelial Cell Proliferation to Improve Recovery From Radiation-Induced Intestinal Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Fumiaki; Hagiwara, Akiko; Umeda, Sachiko; Asada, Masahiro; Goto, Megumi; Oki, Junko; Suzuki, Masashi; Imamura, Toru; Akashi, Makoto

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: A fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 1-FGF2 chimera (FGFC) was created previously and showed greater structural stability than FGF1. This chimera was capable of stimulating epithelial cell proliferation much more strongly than FGF1 or FGF2 even without heparin. Therefore FGFC was expected to have greater biologic activity in vivo. This study evaluated and compared the protective activity of FGFC and FGF1 against radiation-induced intestinal injuries. Methods and Materials: We administered FGFC and FGF1 intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice 24 h before or after total-body irradiation (TBI). The numbers of surviving crypts were determined 3.5 days after TBI with gamma rays at doses ranging from 8 to 12 Gy. Results: The effect of FGFC was equal to or slightly superior to FGF1 with heparin. However, FGFC was significantly more effective in promoting crypt survival than FGF1 (p < 0.01) when 10 {mu}g of each FGF was administered without heparin before irradiation. In addition, FGFC was significantly more effective at promoting crypt survival (p < 0.05) than FGF1 even when administered without heparin at 24 h after TBI at 10, 11, or 12 Gy. We found that FGFC post treatment significantly promoted 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation into crypts and increased crypt depth, resulting in more epithelial differentiation. However, the number of apoptotic cells in FGFC-treated mice decreased to almost the same level as that in FGF1-treated mice. Conclusions: These findings suggest that FGFC strongly enhanced radioprotection with the induction of epithelial proliferation without exogenous heparin after irradiation and is useful in clinical applications for both the prevention and post treatment of radiation injuries.

  14. Binding, internalization, and degradation of basic fibroblast growth factor in human microvascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bikfalvi, A.; Dupuy, E.; Inyang, A.L.; Tobelem, G. ); Fayein, N.; Courtois, Y. ); Leseche, G. )

    1989-03-01

    The binding, internalization, and degradation of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in human omental microvascular endothelial cells (HOME cells) were investigated. Binding studies of bFGF in human endothelial cells have not yet been reported. Basic FGF bound to HOME cells. The number of low-affinity binding sites was found to be variable. Washing the cells with 2 M phosphate-buffered saline removed completely {sup 125}I-bFGF bound to low-affinity binding sites but decreased also the high-affinity binding. The majority of the surface-bound {sup 125}I-bFGF was removed by washing the cells with acetic acid buffer at pH 3. At this temperature, degradation of the internalized ligand was followed after 1 hour by the appearance of three major bands of 15,000 10,000, and 8,000 Da and was inhibited by chloroquine. These results demonstrated two classes of binding sites for bFGF in HOME cells; the number of high-affinity binding sites being larger than the number reported for bovine capillary endothelial cells. The intracellular processing of bFGF in HOME cells seems to be different from that of heparin binding growth factor-1 in murine lung capillary endothelial cells and of eye-derived growth factor-1 in Chinese hamster fibroblasts.

  15. Nerve Growth Factor and Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Vinik, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    Neuropathy is one of the most debilitating complications of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, with estimates of prevalence between 50–90% depending on the means of detection. Diabetic neuropathies are heterogeneous and there is variable involvement of large myelinated fibers and small, thinly myelinated fibers. Many of the neuronal abnormalities in diabetes can be duplicated by experimental depletion of specific neurotrophic factors, their receptors or their binding proteins. In experimental models of diabetes there is a reduction in the availability of these growth factors, which may be a consequence of metabolic abnormalities, or may be independent of glycemic control. These neurotrophic factors are required for the maintenance of the neurons, the ability to resist apoptosis and regenerative capacity. The best studied of the neurotrophic factors is nerve growth factor (NGF) and the related members of the neurotrophin family of peptides. There is increasing evidence that there is a deficiency of NGF in diabetes, as well as the dependent neuropeptides substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) that may also contribute to the clinical symptoms resulting from small fiber dysfunction. Similarly, NT3 appears to be important for large fiber and IGFs for autonomic neuropathy. Whether the observed growth factor deficiencies are due to decreased synthesis, or functional, e.g. an inability to bind to their receptor, and/or abnormalities in nerve transport and processing, remains to be established. Although early studies in humans on the role of neurotrophic factors as a therapy for diabetic neuropathy have been unsuccessful, newer agents and the possibilities uncovered by further studies should fuel clinical trials for several generations. It seems reasonable to anticipate that neurotrophic factor therapy, specifically targeted at different nerve fiber populations, might enter the therapeutic armamentarium. PMID:14668049

  16. Multifunctional silk-heparin biomaterials for vascular tissue engineering applications

    PubMed Central

    Seib, F. Philipp; Herklotz, Manuela; Burke, Kelly A.; Maitz, Manfred F.; Werner, Carsten; Kaplan, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, silk has been proposed for numerous biomedical applications that go beyond its traditional use as a suture material. Silk sutures are well tolerated in humans, but the use of silk for vascular engineering applications still requires extensive biocompatibility testing. Some studies have indicated a need to modify silk to yield a hemocompatible surface. This study examined the potential of low molecular weight heparin as a material for refining silk properties by acting as a carrier for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and improving silk hemocompatibility. Heparinized silk showed a controlled VEGF release over 6 days; the released VEGF was bioactive and supported the growth of human endothelial cells. Silk samples were then assessed using a humanized hemocompatibility system that employs whole blood and endothelial cells. The overall thrombogenic response for silk was very low and similar to the clinical reference material polytetrafluoroethylene. Despite an initial inflammatory response to silk, apparent as complement and leukocyte activation, the endothelium was maintained in a resting, anticoagulant state. The low thrombogenic response and the ability to control VEGF release support the further development of silk for vascular applications. PMID:24099708

  17. Growth Factors and Tension-Induced Skeletal Muscle Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1994-01-01

    The project investigated biochemical mechanisms to enhance skeletal muscle growth, and developed a computer based mechanical cell stimulator system. The biochemicals investigated in this study were insulin/(Insulin like Growth Factor) IGF-1 and Steroids. In order to analyze which growth factors are essential for stretch-induced muscle growth in vitro, we developed a defined, serum-free medium in which the differentiated, cultured avian muscle fibers could be maintained for extended periods of time. The defined medium (muscle maintenance medium, MM medium) maintains the nitrogen balance of the myofibers for 3 to 7 days, based on myofiber diameter measurements and myosin heavy chain content. Insulin and IGF-1, but not IGF-2, induced pronounced myofiber hypertrophy when added to this medium. In 5 to 7 days, muscle fiber diameters increase by 71 % to 98% compared to untreated controls. Mechanical stimulation of the avian muscle fibers in MM medium increased the sensitivity of the cells to insulin and IGF-1, based on a leftward shift of the insulin dose/response curve for protein synthesis rates. (54). We developed a ligand binding assay for IGF-1 binding proteins and found that the avian skeletal muscle cultures produced three major species of 31, 36 and 43 kD molecular weight (54) Stretch of the myofibers was found to have no significant effect on the efflux of IGF-1 binding proteins, but addition of exogenous collagen stimulated IGF-1 binding protein production 1.5 to 5 fold. Steroid hormones have a profound effect on muscle protein turnover rates in vivo, with the stress-related glucocorticoids inducing rapid skeletal muscle atrophy while androgenic steroids induce skeletal muscle growth. Exercise in humans and animals reduces the catabolic effects of glucocorticoids and may enhance the anabolic effects of androgenic steroids on skeletal muscle. In our continuing work on the involvement of exogenrus growth factors in stretch-induced avian skeletal muscle growth, we

  18. New detection methods of growth hormone and growth factors.

    PubMed

    Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Human growth hormone (GH), but also GH related growth factors like the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are known to be abused in sports. Although the scientific evidence supporting a distinct effect of GH on performance in healthy trained subjects is limited, it has been repeatedly found with athletes or trainers, and the recent introduction of a first test to detect GH doping has led to a number of positive cases. Currently, there is no test for the detection of IGF-1 introduced worldwide, but confiscation of the drug from sports teams can be taken as indirect evidence for its abuse. The major biochemical difficulty for the detection of GH is that the recombinant form is identical in physicochemical properties to the endogenous GH secreted by the pituitary gland. Furthermore, the very short half-life of GH in circulation inherently shortens the window of opportunity where the drug can be detected. Two strategies have been followed for more than a decade to develop a test to detect the application of recombinant GH: the marker approach, which is based on the elevation of GH-dependent markers above the level seen under physiological conditions evoked by administration of recombinant GH, and the isoform approach, which is based on a change in the pattern of GH isoforms in circulation following the injection of recombinant GH.

  19. Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor system and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Boguszewski, Cesar Luiz; Boguszewski, Margaret Cristina da Silva; Kopchick, John J

    2016-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. In terms of cell cycle regulation, the GH-IGF system induces signalling pathways for cell growth that compete with other signalling systems that result in cell death; thus the final effect of these opposed forces is critical for normal and abnormal cell growth. The association of the GH-IGF system with carcinogenesis has long been hypothesised, mainly based on in vitro studies and the use of a variety of animal models of human cancer, and also on epidemiological and clinical evidence in humans. While ample experimental evidence supports a role of the GH-IGF system in tumour promotion and progression, with several of its components being currently tested as central targets for cancer therapy, the strength of evidence from patients with acromegaly, GH deficiency, or treated with GH is much weaker. In this review, we will attempt to consolidate this data. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (4): 414-426). PMID:27387246

  20. Controlled delivery of mesenchymal stem cells and growth factors using a nanofiber scaffold for tendon repair

    PubMed Central

    Manning, CN; Schwartz, AG; Liu, W; Xie, J; Havlioglu, N; Sakiyama-Elbert, SE; Silva, MJ; Xia, Y; Gelberman, RH; Thomopoulos, S

    2013-01-01

    Outcomes after tendon repair are often unsatisfactory, despite improvements in surgical techniques and rehabilitation methods. Recent studies aimed at enhancing repair have targeted the paucicellular nature of tendon for enhancing repair; however, most approaches for delivering growth factors and cells have not been designed for dense connective tissues such as tendon. Therefore, we developed a scaffold capable of delivering growth factors and cells in a surgically manageable form for tendon repair. The growth factor PDGF-BB along with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) was incorporated into a heparin/fibrin-based delivery system (HBDS). This hydrogel was then layered with an electrospun nanofiber poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) backbone. The HBDS allowed for the concurrent delivery of PDGF-BB and ASCs in a controlled manner, while the PLGA backbone provided structural integrity for surgical handling and tendon implantation. In vitro studies verified that the cells remained viable, and that sustained growth factor release was achieved. In vivo studies in a large animal tendon model verified that the approach was clinically relevant, and that the cells remained viable in the tendon repair environment. Only a mild immunoresponse was seen at dissection, histologically, and at the mRNA level; fluorescently-labeled ASCs and the scaffold were found at the repair site 9 days postoperatively; and increased total DNA was observed in ASC-treated tendons. The novel layered scaffold has the potential for improving tendon healing due to its ability to deliver both cells and growth factors simultaneously in a surgically convenient manner. PMID:23416576

  1. Monitoring Low Molecular Weight Heparins at Therapeutic Levels: Dose-Responses of, and Correlations and Differences between aPTT, Anti-Factor Xa and Thrombin Generation Assays

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Owain; Lybeck, Emanuel; Strandberg, Karin; Tynngård, Nahreen; Schött, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Background Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH’s) are used to prevent and treat thrombosis. Tests for monitoring LMWH’s include anti-factor Xa (anti-FXa), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and thrombin generation. Anti-FXa is the current gold standard despite LMWH’s varying affinities for FXa and thrombin. Aim To examine the effects of two different LMWH’s on the results of 4 different aPTT-tests, anti-FXa activity and thrombin generation and to assess the tests’ concordance. Method Enoxaparin and tinzaparin were added ex-vivo in concentrations of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 anti-FXa international units (IU)/mL, to blood from 10 volunteers. aPTT was measured using two whole blood methods (Free oscillation rheometry (FOR) and Hemochron Jr (HCJ)) and an optical plasma method using two different reagents (ActinFSL and PTT-Automat). Anti-FXa activity was quantified using a chromogenic assay. Thrombin generation (Endogenous Thrombin Potential, ETP) was measured on a Ceveron Alpha instrument using the TGA RB and more tissue-factor rich TGA RC reagents. Results Methods’ mean aPTT at 1.0 IU/mL LMWH varied between 54s (SD 11) and 69s (SD 14) for enoxaparin and between 101s (SD 21) and 140s (SD 28) for tinzaparin. ActinFSL gave significantly shorter aPTT results. aPTT and anti-FXa generally correlated well. ETP as measured with the TGA RC reagent but not the TGA RB reagent showed an inverse exponential relationship to the concentration of LMWH. The HCJ-aPTT results had the weakest correlation to anti-FXa and thrombin generation (Rs0.62–0.87), whereas the other aPTT methods had similar correlation coefficients (Rs0.80–0.92). Conclusions aPTT displays a linear dose-respone to LMWH. There is variation between aPTT assays. Tinzaparin increases aPTT and decreases thrombin generation more than enoxaparin at any given level of anti-FXa activity, casting doubt on anti-FXa’s present gold standard status. Thrombin generation with tissue factor-rich activator is

  2. Heparin cofactor II is degraded by heparan sulfate and dextran sulfate.

    PubMed

    Saito, Akio

    2015-02-20

    Heparan sulfate normally binds to heparin cofactor II and modulates the coagulation pathway by inhibiting thrombin. However, when human heparin cofactor II was incubated with heparan sulfate, heparin cofactor II became degraded. Other glycosaminoglycans were tested, including hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfates, dermatan sulfate, and heparin, but only dextran sulfate also degraded heparin cofactor II. Pretreatment of heparan sulfate with heparinase reduced its heparin cofactor II-degrading activity. Heparan sulfate and dextran sulfate diminished the thrombin inhibitory activity of heparin cofactor II. Other serpins, including antithrombin III and pigment epithelium-derived factor, were also degraded by heparan sulfate. This is the first evidence of acidic polysaccharides exhibiting protein-degrading activity without the aid of other proteins.

  3. Brittlestars contain highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates/dermatan sulfates that promote fibroblast growth factor 2-induced cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; Shi, Xiaofeng; Zaia, Joseph; Dupont, Sam T; Thorndyke, Michael C; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

    2014-02-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) isolated from brittlestars, Echinodermata class Ophiuroidea, were characterized, as part of attempts to understand the evolutionary development of these polysaccharides. A population of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) chains with a high overall degree of sulfation and hexuronate epimerization was the major GAG found, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) was below detection level. Enzymatic digestion with different chondroitin lyases revealed exceptionally high proportions of di- and trisulfated CS/DS disaccharides. The latter unit appears much more abundant in one of four individual species of brittlestars, Amphiura filiformis, than reported earlier in other marine invertebrates. The brittlestar CS/DS was further shown to bind to growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor 2 and to promote FGF-stimulated cell signaling in GAG-deficient cell lines in a manner similar to that of heparin. These findings point to a potential biological role for the highly sulfated invertebrate GAGs, similar to those ascribed to HS in vertebrates.

  4. Heparin-Based Coacervate of FGF2 Improves Dermal Regeneration by Asserting a Synergistic Role with Cell Proliferation and Endogenous Facilitated VEGF for Cutaneous Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang; Ye, Jingjing; Zhu, Jingjing; Xiao, Zecong; He, Chaochao; Shi, Hongxue; Wang, Yadong; Lin, Cai; Zhang, Hongyu; Zhao, Yingzheng; Fu, Xiaobing; Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaokun; Li, Lin; Zheng, Jie; Xiao, Jian

    2016-06-13

    Effective wound healing requires complicated, coordinated interactions and responses at protein, cellular, and tissue levels involving growth factor expression, cell proliferation, wound closure, granulation tissue formation, and vascularization. In this study, we develop a heparin-based coacervate consisting of poly(ethylene argininylaspartate digylceride) (PEAD) as a storage matrix, heparin as a bridge, and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) as a cargo (namely heparin-FGF2@PEAD) for wound healing. First, in vitro characterization demonstrates the loading efficiency and control release of FGF2 from the heparin-FGF2@PEAD coacervate. The following in vivo studies examine the wound healing efficiency of the heparin-FGF2@PEAD coacervate upon delivering FGF2 to full-thickness excisional skin wounds in vivo, in comparison with the other three control groups with saline, heparin@PEAD as vehicle, and free FGF2. Collective in vivo data show that controlled release of FGF2 to the wounds by the coacervate significantly accelerates the wound healing by promoting cell proliferation, stimulating the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) for re-epithelization, collagen deposition, and granulation tissue formation, and enhancing the expression of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (CD31) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) for blood vessel maturation. In parallel, no obvious wound healing effect is found for the control, vehicle, and free FGF2 groups, indicating the important role of the coavervate in the wound healing process. This work designs a suitable delivery system that can protect and release FGF2 in a sustained and controlled manner, which provides a promising therapeutic potential for topical treatment of wounds.

  5. Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Shvartsman, Stanislav; Wiley, H. S.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2004-08-01

    Abstract: A peptide purified from the salivary gland of a mouse was shown few years ago to accelerate incisor eruption and eyelid opening in newborn mice, and was named epidermal growth factor (EGF). The members of this family of peptide growth factors had been identified in numerous physiological and pathological contexts. EGF binds to a cell surface EGF receptor, which induces a biochemical modification (phosphorylation) of the receptor's cytoplasmic tail. There is a growing consensus in the research community that, in addition to cellular and molecular studies, the dynamics of the EGFR network and its operation must be examined in tissues. A key challenge is to integrate the existing molecular and cellular information into a system-level description of the EGFR network at the tissue and organism level. In this paper, the two examples of EGFR signaling in tissues are described, and the recent efforts to model EGFR autocrine loops, which is a predominant mode of EGFR activation in vivo, are summarized.

  6. Heparin: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Oduah, Eziafa I; Linhardt, Robert J; Sharfstein, Susan T

    2016-01-01

    Heparin, the most widely used anticoagulant drug in the world today, remains an animal-derived product with the attendant risks of adulteration and contamination. A contamination crisis in 2007-2008 increased the impetus to provide non-animal-derived sources of heparin, produced under cGMP conditions. In addition, recent studies suggest that heparin may have significant antineoplastic activity, separate and distinct from its anticoagulant activity, while other studies indicate a role for heparin in treating inflammation, infertility, and infectious disease. A variety of strategies have been proposed to produce a bioengineered heparin. In this review, we discuss several of these strategies including microbial production, mammalian cell production, and chemoenzymatic modification. We also propose strategies for creating "designer" heparins and heparan-sulfates with various biochemical and physiological properties. PMID:27384570

  7. Heparin: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Oduah, Eziafa I.; Linhardt, Robert J.; Sharfstein, Susan T.

    2016-01-01

    Heparin, the most widely used anticoagulant drug in the world today, remains an animal-derived product with the attendant risks of adulteration and contamination. A contamination crisis in 2007–2008 increased the impetus to provide non-animal-derived sources of heparin, produced under cGMP conditions. In addition, recent studies suggest that heparin may have significant antineoplastic activity, separate and distinct from its anticoagulant activity, while other studies indicate a role for heparin in treating inflammation, infertility, and infectious disease. A variety of strategies have been proposed to produce a bioengineered heparin. In this review, we discuss several of these strategies including microbial production, mammalian cell production, and chemoenzymatic modification. We also propose strategies for creating “designer” heparins and heparan-sulfates with various biochemical and physiological properties. PMID:27384570

  8. Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Adam R; Holt, Richard I G

    2016-01-01

    Human growth hormone (GH) was first isolated from the human pituitary gland in 1945 and found to promote the growth of children with hypopituitarism. Since the formation of the World Anti-Doping Association, human GH has appeared on the list of forbidden substances. There is a significant amount of anecdotal evidence that human GH is misused by athletes to enhance performance, and there have been a number of high-profile cases of GH use in professional sport. GH secretagogues (GH-Ss), which increase GH secretion, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), which mediates many of the effects of GH, are also misused, although there is less evidence for this. The effectiveness of GH, IGF-1, and GH-Ss as performance-enhancing drugs remains unclear. Evidence from studies of GH use in people with hypopituitarism show several desirable outcomes, including increased lean body mass, increased strength, and increased exercise capacity. These anabolic and metabolic properties, coupled with the difficulty in detecting them, make them attractive as agents of misuse. Studies in healthy young adults have also demonstrated a performance benefit with GH and IGF-1. PMID:27347885

  9. Transforming growth factor type beta specifically stimulates synthesis of proteoglycan in human adult arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J K; Hoshi, H; McKeehan, W L

    1987-01-01

    Myo-intimal proteoglycan metabolism is thought to be important in blood vessel homeostasis, blood clotting, atherogenesis, and atherosclerosis. Human platelet-derived transforming growth factor type beta (TGF-beta) specifically stimulated synthesis of at least two types of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in nonproliferating human adult arterial smooth muscle cells in culture. Stimulation of smooth muscle cell proteoglycan synthesis by smooth muscle cell growth promoters (epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and heparin-binding growth factors) was less than 20% of that elicited by TGF-beta. TGF-beta neither significantly stimulated proliferation of quiescent smooth muscle cells nor inhibited proliferating cells. The extent of TGF-beta stimulation of smooth muscle cell proteoglycan synthesis was similar in both nonproliferating and growth-stimulated cells. TGF-beta, which is a reversible inhibitor of endothelial cell proliferation, had no comparable effect on endothelial cell proteoglycan synthesis. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that TGF-beta is a cell-type-specific regulator of proteoglycan synthesis in human blood vessels and may contribute to the myo-intimal accumulation of proteoglycan in atherosclerotic lesions. Images PMID:3474655

  10. The midkine family of growth factors: diverse roles in nervous system formation and maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, C; Yao, S

    2014-01-01

    Midkines are heparin-binding growth factors involved in a wide range of biological processes. Originally identified as retinoic acid inducible genes, midkines are widely expressed during embryogenesis with particularly high levels in the developing nervous system. During postnatal stages, midkine expression generally ceases but is often up-regulated under disease conditions, most notably those affecting the nervous system. Midkines are known as neurotrophic factors, as they promote neurite outgrowth and neuron survival in cell culture. Surprisingly, however, mouse embryos deficient for midkine (knockout mice) are phenotypically normal, which suggests functional redundancy by related growth factors. During adult stages, on the other hand, midkine knockout mice develop striking deficits in neuroprotection and regeneration after drug-induced neurotoxicity and injury. The detailed mechanisms by which midkine controls neuron formation, differentiation and maintenance remain unclear. Recent studies in zebrafish and chick have provided important insight into the role of midkine and its putative receptor, anaplastic lymphoma kinase, in cell cycle control in the central and peripheral nervous systems. A recent structural analysis of zebrafish midkine furthermore revealed essential protein domains required for biological activity that serve as promising novel targets for future drug designs. This review will summarize latest findings in the field that help to better understand the diverse roles of midkine in nervous system formation and maintenance. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Midkine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-4 PMID:24125182

  11. Mapping the heparin-binding site of the BMP antagonist gremlin by site-directed mutagenesis based on predictive modelling.

    PubMed

    Tatsinkam, Arnold Junior; Mulloy, Barbara; Rider, Christopher C

    2015-08-15

    Gremlin is a member of the CAN (cerberus and DAN) family of secreted BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) antagonists and also an agonist of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) receptor-2. It is critical in limb skeleton and kidney development and is re-expressed during tissue fibrosis. Gremlin binds strongly to heparin and heparan sulfate and, in the present study, we sought to investigate its heparin-binding site. In order to explore a putative non-contiguous binding site predicted by computational molecular modelling, we substituted a total of 11 key arginines and lysines located in three basic residue sequence clusters with homologous sequences from cerberus and DAN (differential screening selected gene abberative in neuroblastoma), CAN proteins which lack basic residues in these positions. A panel of six Myc-tagged gremlin mutants, MGR-1-MGR-6 (MGR, mutant gremlin), each containing different combinations of targeted substitutions, all showed markedly reduced affinity for heparin as demonstrated by their NaCl elution on heparin affinity chromatography, thus verifying our predictions. Both MGR-5 and MGR-6 retained BMP-4-binding activity comparable to that of wild-type gremlin. Low-molecular-mass heparin neither promoted nor inhibited BMP-4 binding. Finally, glutaraldehyde cross-linking demonstrated that gremlin forms non-covalent dimers, similar behaviour to that of DAN and also PRDC (protein related to cerberus and DAN), another CAN protein. The resulting dimer would possess two heparin-binding sites, each running along an exposed surface on the second β-strand finger loop of one of the monomers.

  12. Molecular basis for the Kallmann syndrome-linked fibroblast growth factor receptor mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, Ryan D.; Kathir, Karuppanan Muthusamy; Rajalingam, Dakshinamurthy; Kumar, Thallapuranam K. Suresh

    2012-08-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structural basis of the Kallmann syndrome is elucidated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kallmann syndrome mutation (A168S) induces a subtle conformational change(s). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural interactions mediated by beta-sheet G are most perturbed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ligand (FGF)-receptor interaction(s) is completely abolished by Kallmann mutation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kallmann mutation directly affects the FGF signaling process. -- Abstract: Kallmann syndrome (KS) is a developmental disease that expresses in patients as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia. KS is commonly associated with mutations in the extracellular D2 domain of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). In this study, for the first time, the molecular basis for the FGFR associated KS mutation (A168S) is elucidated using a variety of biophysical experiments, including multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. Secondary and tertiary structural analysis using far UV circular dichroism, fluorescence and limited trypsin digestion assays suggest that the KS mutation induces subtle tertiary structure change in the D2 domain of FGFR. Results of isothermal titration calorimetry experiments show the KS mutation causes a 10-fold decrease in heparin binding affinity and also a complete loss in ligand (FGF-1) binding. {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N chemical perturbation data suggest that complete loss in the ligand (FGF) binding affinity is triggered by a subtle conformational change that disrupts crucial structural interactions in both the heparin and the FGF binding sites in the D2 domain of FGFR. The novel findings reported in this study are expected to provide valuable clues toward a complete understanding of the other genetic diseases linked to mutations in the FGFR.

  13. Fluid flow releases fibroblast growth factor-2 from human aortic smooth muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoads, D. N.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.

    2000-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that fluid shear stress regulates the release of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 from human aortic smooth muscle cells. FGF-2 is a potent mitogen that is involved in the response to vascular injury and is expressed in a wide variety of cell types. FGF-2 is found in the cytoplasm of cells and outside cells, where it associates with extracellular proteoglycans. To test the hypothesis that shear stress regulates FGF-2 release, cells were exposed to flow, and FGF-2 amounts were measured from the conditioned medium, pericellular fraction (extracted by heparin treatment), and cell lysate. Results from the present study show that after 15 minutes of shear stress at 25 dyne/cm(2) in a parallel-plate flow system, a small but significant fraction (17%) of the total FGF-2 was released from human aortic smooth muscle cells. FGF-2 levels in the circulating medium increased 10-fold over medium from static controls (P<0.01). A 50% increase in FGF-2 content versus control (P<0.01) was found in the pericellular fraction (extracted by heparin treatment). Furthermore, a significant decrease in FGF-2 was detected in the cell lysate, indicating that FGF-2 was released from inside the cell. Cell permeability studies with fluorescent dextran were performed to examine whether transient membrane disruption caused FGF-2 release. Flow cytometry detected a 50% increase in mean fluorescence of cells exposed to 25 dyne/cm(2) versus control cells. This indicates that the observed FGF-2 release from human aortic smooth muscle cells is likely due to transient membrane disruption on initiation of flow.

  14. Decorin: A Growth Factor Antagonist for Tumor Growth Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, Tero A. H.; Prince, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Decorin (DCN) is the best characterized member of the extracellular small leucine-rich proteoglycan family present in connective tissues, typically in association with or “decorating” collagen fibrils. It has substantial interest to clinical medicine owing to its antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. Studies on DCN knockout mice have established that a lack of DCN is permissive for tumor development and it is regarded as a tumor suppressor gene. A reduced expression or a total disappearance of DCN has been reported to take place in various forms of human cancers during tumor progression. Furthermore, when used as a therapeutic molecule, DCN has been shown to inhibit tumor progression and metastases in experimental cancer models. DCN affects the biology of various types of cancer by targeting a number of crucial signaling molecules involved in cell growth, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. The active sites for the neutralization of different growth factors all reside in different parts of the DCN molecule. An emerging concept that multiple proteases, especially those produced by inflammatory cells, are capable of cleaving DCN suggests that native DCN could be inactivated in a number of pathological inflammatory conditions. In this paper, we review the role of DCN in cancer. PMID:26697491

  15. Heparin in malignant glioma: review of preclinical studies and clinical results.

    PubMed

    Schnoor, Rosalie; Maas, Sybren L N; Broekman, Marike L D

    2015-09-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor that is invariably lethal. Novel treatments are desperately needed. In various cancers, heparin and its low molecular weight derivatives (LMWHs), commonly used for the prevention and treatment of thrombosis, have shown therapeutic potential. Here we systematically review preclinical and clinical studies of heparin and LMWHs as anti-tumor agents in GBM. Even though the number of studies is limited, there is suggestive evidence that heparin may have various effects on GBM. These effects include the inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, and the blocking of uptake of extracellular vesicles. However, heparin can also block the uptake of (potential) anti-tumor agents. Clinical studies suggest a non-significant trend of prolonged survival of LMWH treated GBM patients, with some evidence of increased major bleedings. Heparin mimetics lacking anticoagulant effect are therefore a potential alternative to heparin/LMWH and are discussed as well.

  16. Autologous Growth Factor Injections in Chronic Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sandrey, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Reference: de Vos RJ, van Veldhoven PLJ, Moen MH, Weir A, Tol JL. Autologous growth factor injections in chronic tendinopathy: a systematic review. Br Med Bull. 2010;95:63–77. Clinical Question: The authors of this systematic review evaluated the literature to critically consider the effects of growth factors delivered through autologous whole-blood and platelet-rich–plasma (PRP) injections in managing wrist-flexor and -extensor tendinopathies, plantar fasciopathy, and patellar tendinopathy. The primary question was, according to the published literature, is there sufficient evidence to support the use of growth factors delivered through autologous whole-blood and PRP injections for chronic tendinopathy? Data Sources: The authors performed a comprehensive, systematic literature search in October 2009 using PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane library without time limits. The following key words were used in different combinations: tendinopathy, tendinosis, tendinitis, tendons, tennis elbow, plantar fasciitis, platelet rich plasma, platelet transfusion, and autologous blood or injection. The search was limited to human studies in English. All bibliographies from the initial literature search were also viewed to identify additional relevant studies. Study Selection: Studies were eligible based on the following criteria: (1) Articles were suitable (inclusion criteria) if the participants had been clinically diagnosed as having chronic tendinopathy; (2) the design had to be a prospective clinical study, randomized controlled trial, nonrandomized clinical trial, or prospective case series; (3) a well-described intervention in the form of a growth factor injection with either PRP or autologous whole blood was used; and (4) the outcome was reported in terms of pain or function (or both). Data Extraction: All titles and abstracts were assessed by 2 researchers, and all relevant articles were obtained. Two researchers independently read the full text of

  17. Effect of heparin on the biological properties and molecular signature of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ling, Ling; Camilleri, Emily T; Helledie, Torben; Samsonraj, Rebekah M; Titmarsh, Drew M; Chua, Ren Jie; Dreesen, Oliver; Dombrowski, Christian; Rider, David A; Galindo, Mario; Lee, Ian; Hong, Wanjin; Hui, James H; Nurcombe, Victor; van Wijnen, Andre J; Cool, Simon M

    2016-01-15

    Chronic use of heparin as an anti-coagulant for the treatment of thrombosis or embolism invokes many adverse systemic events including thrombocytopenia, vascular reactions and osteoporosis. Here, we addressed whether adverse effects might also be directed to mesenchymal stem cells that reside in the bone marrow compartment. Harvested human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were exposed to varying doses of heparin and their responses profiled. At low doses (<200 ng/ml), serial passaging with heparin exerted a variable effect on hMSC proliferation and multipotentiality across multiple donors, while at higher doses (≥ 100 μg/ml), heparin supplementation inhibited cell growth and increased both senescence and cell size. Gene expression profiling using cDNA arrays and RNA-seq analysis revealed pleiotropic effects of low-dose heparin on signaling pathways essential to hMSC growth and differentiation (including the TGFβ/BMP superfamily, FGFs, and Wnts). Cells serially passaged in low-dose heparin possess a donor-dependent gene signature that reflects their altered phenotype. Our data indicate that heparin supplementation during the culturing of hMSCs can alter their biological properties, even at low doses. This warrants caution in the application of heparin as a culture supplement for the ex vivo expansion of hMSCs. It also highlights the need for careful evaluation of the bone marrow compartment in patients receiving chronic heparin treatment. PMID:26484394

  18. Effect of heparin on the biological properties and molecular signature of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ling, Ling; Camilleri, Emily T; Helledie, Torben; Samsonraj, Rebekah M; Titmarsh, Drew M; Chua, Ren Jie; Dreesen, Oliver; Dombrowski, Christian; Rider, David A; Galindo, Mario; Lee, Ian; Hong, Wanjin; Hui, James H; Nurcombe, Victor; van Wijnen, Andre J; Cool, Simon M

    2016-01-15

    Chronic use of heparin as an anti-coagulant for the treatment of thrombosis or embolism invokes many adverse systemic events including thrombocytopenia, vascular reactions and osteoporosis. Here, we addressed whether adverse effects might also be directed to mesenchymal stem cells that reside in the bone marrow compartment. Harvested human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were exposed to varying doses of heparin and their responses profiled. At low doses (<200 ng/ml), serial passaging with heparin exerted a variable effect on hMSC proliferation and multipotentiality across multiple donors, while at higher doses (≥ 100 μg/ml), heparin supplementation inhibited cell growth and increased both senescence and cell size. Gene expression profiling using cDNA arrays and RNA-seq analysis revealed pleiotropic effects of low-dose heparin on signaling pathways essential to hMSC growth and differentiation (including the TGFβ/BMP superfamily, FGFs, and Wnts). Cells serially passaged in low-dose heparin possess a donor-dependent gene signature that reflects their altered phenotype. Our data indicate that heparin supplementation during the culturing of hMSCs can alter their biological properties, even at low doses. This warrants caution in the application of heparin as a culture supplement for the ex vivo expansion of hMSCs. It also highlights the need for careful evaluation of the bone marrow compartment in patients receiving chronic heparin treatment.

  19. Hemorrhagic bullous dermatosis: a rare heparin-induced cutaneous manifestation.

    PubMed

    Govind, Bhuvanesh; Gnass, Esteban; Merli, Geno; Eraso, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Heparin is one of the most widely prescribed medications. Cutaneous reactions distant to the injection site are rare and under-reported in the literature. We present an elderly man with history of CNS lymphoma who underwent treatment of a deep venous thrombosis with enoxaparin and subsequently developed well demarcated bullous lesions within days of heparin initiation. The exact pathophysiology is not well understood. Hemorrhagic bullous dermatosis is a rare cutaneous reaction that is temporally associated with the initiation of heparin products. The handful of cases thus far suggest that regression of these seemingly benign lesions may or may not be associated with dose reduction or discontinuation of heparin products and typically occur within a few weeks. Elderly age appears to be one potential risk factor for development of these rare asymptomatic lesions. Malignancy may have some contributing factor and differentiation between this rare cutaneous manifestation from heparin products and other dermatological findings in patients with malignancy is key. Because of the asymptomatic and self-limiting nature of hemorrhagic bullous dermatoses in the setting of heparin product use, we presume that the reported incidence does not reflect true clinical practice.

  20. Enhanced regenerative healing efficacy of a highly skin-permeable growth factor nanocomplex in a full-thickness excisional mouse wound model

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Il-Hong; Park, Jin Woo; Kim, Dae-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Exogenous administration of growth factors has potential benefits in wound healing; however, limited percutaneous absorption, inconsistent efficacy, and the need for high doses have hampered successful clinical use. To overcome these restrictions, we focused on the development of a topical formulation composed of highly skin-permeable multimeric nanocomplex of growth factors. In the present study, we fused low-molecular-weight protamine (LMWP) with epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), and platelet-derived growth factor A ligand (PDGF-A) (producing recombinant [r]LMWP-EGF, rLMWP-IGF-I, and rLMWP-PDGF-A, respectively) via genetic modification. Then, we used in vitro cell proliferation studies to assess the biological activity and the benefits of the combination. The LMWP-conjugated growth factors were complexed with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and formulated with Poloxamer 188 as a delivery vehicle. After confirming the enhanced skin permeability, in vivo studies were performed to assess whether the LMWP-conjugated growth factor nanocomplex formulations accelerated the healing of full-thickness wounds in mice. The LMWP-conjugated growth factors were biologically equivalent to their native forms, and their combination induced greater fibroblast proliferation. rLMWP-EGF showed significantly enhanced permeability and cumulative permeation, and the rates for rLMWP-IGF-I and rLMWP-PDGF-A, across excised mouse skin, were 124% and 164% higher, respectively, than for the native forms. The LMWP-fused growth factors resulted in formation of nanocomplexes (23.51±1.12 nm in diameter) in combination with LMWH. Topical delivery of growth factors fused with LMWP accelerated wound re-epithelialization significantly, accompanied by the formation of healthy granulation tissue within 9 days compared with a free–growth factor complex or vehicle. Thus, the LMWP-conjugated growth factor nanocomplex can induce rapid, comprehensive healing and may

  1. Platelet-activating factor induces ovine fetal pulmonary venous smooth muscle cell proliferation: role of epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weilin; Ibe, Basil O; Raj, J Usha

    2007-06-01

    We have previously reported that platelet-activating factor (PAF) is present in very high levels in the ovine fetal lung and circulation and that PAF serves as an important physiological vasoconstrictor of the pulmonary circulation in utero. However, it is not known whether PAF stimulates pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation. In this study, we used ovine fetal pulmonary venous SMCs as our model system to study the effects and mechanisms of action of PAF on SMC proliferation. We found that PAF induced SMC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. PAF also stimulated activation of both ERK and p38 but not c-Jun NH(2) terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways. PAF (10 nM) induced phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Specific inhibition of EGFR by AG-1478 and by the expression of a dominant-negative EGFR mutant in SMCs attenuated PAF-stimulated cell proliferation. Inhibition of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) release by CRM-197 and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) by GM-6001 abolished PAF-induced MAP kinase activation and cell proliferation. Increased alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity after PAF treatment in AP-HB-EGF fusion construct-transfected SMCs indicated that PAF induced the release of HB-EGF within 1 min. Gelatin zymography data showed that PAF stimulated MMP-2 activity and MMP-9 activity within 1 min. These results suggest that PAF promotes pulmonary vascular SMC proliferation via transactivation of EGFR through MMP activation and HB-EGF, resulting in p38 and ERK activation and that EGFR transactivation is essential for the mitogenic effect of PAF in pulmonary venous SMC. PMID:17322418

  2. Customized Ca–P/PHBV nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: design, fabrication, surface modification and sustained release of growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Bin; Wang, Min

    2010-01-01

    Integrating an advanced manufacturing technique, nanocomposite material and controlled delivery of growth factor to form multifunctional tissue engineering scaffolds was investigated in this study. Based on calcium phosphate (Ca–P)/poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) nanocomposite microspheres, three-dimensional Ca–P/PHBV nanocomposite scaffolds with customized architecture, controlled porosity and totally interconnected porous structure were successfully fabricated using selective laser sintering (SLS), one of the rapid prototyping technologies. The cytocompatibility of sintered Ca–P/PHBV nanocomposite scaffolds, as well as PHBV polymer scaffolds, was studied. For surface modification of nanocomposite scaffolds, gelatin was firstly physically entrapped onto the scaffold surface and heparin was subsequently immobilized on entrapped gelatin. The surface-modification improved the wettability of scaffolds and provided specific binding site between conjugated heparin and the growth factor recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). The surface-modified Ca–P/PHBV nanocomposite scaffolds loaded with rhBMP-2 significantly enhanced the alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic differentiation markers in gene expression of C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells. Together with osteoconductive nanocomposite material and controlled growth factor delivery strategies, the use of SLS technique to form complex scaffolds will provide a promising route towards individualized bone tissue regeneration. PMID:20504805

  3. Systems Biology of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mac Gabhann, Feilim; Popel, Aleksander S.

    2009-01-01

    Several cytokine families have roles in development, maintenance and remodeling of the microcirculation. Of these, the VEGF family is one of the best studied and one of the most complex. Five VEGF ligand genes and five cell surface receptor genes are known in the human, and each of these may be transcribed as multiple splice isoforms to generate an extensive family of proteins, many of which are subject to further proteolytic processing. Using the VEGF family as an example, we describe the current knowledge of growth factor expression, processing and transport in vivo. Experimental studies and computational simulations are being used to measure and predict the activity of these molecules, and we describe avenues of research that seek to fill the remaining gaps in our understanding of VEGF family behavior. PMID:18608994

  4. Epidermal growth factor (urogastrone) in human tissues.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Y; Orth, D N

    1979-04-01

    Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF), which stimulates the growth of a variety of tissues, was first isolated from mouse submandibular glands, but is also excreted in large amounts (about 50 micrograms/day) in human urine and is probably identical to human beta-urogastrone (hUG), a potent inhibitor of stimulated gastric acid secretion. However, the primary tissue source of hEGF/hUG is as yet unknown. The hEGF/hUG in homogenates of human salivary glands and a wide variety of other endocrine and nonendocrine tissues was extracted by Amberlite CG-50 cation exchange chromatography and immune affinity chromatography using the immunoglobulin fraction of rabbit anti-hEGF serum covalently bound to agarose. The extracts were subjected to homologous hEGF RIA. Immunoreactive hEGF was found in extracts of adult submandibular gland, thyroid gland, duodenum, jejunum, and kidney, but not in several fetal tissues. The tissue immunoreactive hEGF was similar to standard hEGF in terms of immunoreactivity and elution from Sephadex G-50 Fine resin, but its concentrations were very low (1.3-5.5 ng/g wet tissue). Thus, it is not certain that these tissues represent the only source of the large amounts of hEGF/hUG that appear to be filtered by the kidneys each day.

  5. The Fibroblast Growth Factor signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ornitz, David M; Itoh, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The signaling component of the mammalian Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) family is comprised of eighteen secreted proteins that interact with four signaling tyrosine kinase FGF receptors (FGFRs). Interaction of FGF ligands with their signaling receptors is regulated by protein or proteoglycan cofactors and by extracellular binding proteins. Activated FGFRs phosphorylate specific tyrosine residues that mediate interaction with cytosolic adaptor proteins and the RAS-MAPK, PI3K-AKT, PLCγ, and STAT intracellular signaling pathways. Four structurally related intracellular non-signaling FGFs interact with and regulate the family of voltage gated sodium channels. Members of the FGF family function in the earliest stages of embryonic development and during organogenesis to maintain progenitor cells and mediate their growth, differentiation, survival, and patterning. FGFs also have roles in adult tissues where they mediate metabolic functions, tissue repair, and regeneration, often by reactivating developmental signaling pathways. Consistent with the presence of FGFs in almost all tissues and organs, aberrant activity of the pathway is associated with developmental defects that disrupt organogenesis, impair the response to injury, and result in metabolic disorders, and cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25772309

  6. Antiproliferative effects of novel, nonanticoagulant heparin derivatives on vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Pukac, L. A.; Hirsch, G. M.; Lormeau, J. C.; Petitou, M.; Choay, J.; Karnovsky, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is strongly inhibited by whole heparin both in vitro and in vivo. To identify and characterize antiproliferative, but nonanticoagulant heparin derivatives, heparin fragments made by periodate treatment were produced and acylated with 2-, 4-, or 6-carbon chain lengths. In culture, the 4- and 6-carbon acylated compounds were more effective than whole heparin in inhibiting serum stimulated VSMC growth at equal mass or approximately equal mean molar concentrations. Further testing was performed in the rat carotid balloon injury model. Myointimal VSMC proliferation produced by balloon catheterization of rat carotid arteries was inhibited by the 4-carbon acylated compound as effectively as heparin at the same mass dose. Importantly, unlike heparin, the 4-carbon acylated compound had no anticoagulant effect in vivo. These experiments suggest nonanticoagulant, acylated heparin derivatives may have a pharmacologic role in preventing myointimal proliferative lesions that are responsible for failures of vascular surgeries and angioplasties. Images Figure 3 PMID:1750515

  7. Entrapment of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in a succinylated chitosan nanoparticle delivery system and release profile.

    PubMed

    Butko, Alison; Bonat Celli, Giovana; Paulson, Allan; Ghanem, Amyl

    2016-07-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) helps to regulate the proliferation and migration of fibroblasts, the proliferation of endothelial cells, and aids the development of angiogenesis. Its in vivo half-life is on the order of minutes due to extensive degradation and inactivation, which could be potentially reduced by controlled release vehicles. In this study, bFGF was entrapped into chitosan (CS) and N-succinyl-chitosan (SC) nanoparticles, with and without heparin, at two levels of initial loading, followed by further characterization of the particles. Release studies were conducted using radiolabeled bFGF-loaded nanoparticles. Both types of nanoparticles loaded similar amounts of bFGF (60.2 and 68.6% for CS and SC, respectively). The release profile varied greatly among the samples, and a burst release was observed in most cases, with the release amount approaching its final value in the first 6 h. The final amount released varied from 1.5 to 18% of the amount of bFGF-entrapped. The concomitant encapsulation of heparin and the use of SC as a nanoparticle matrix contributed to the largest amount of bFGF release (18%) over the time investigated.

  8. A sulfated glycosaminoglycan array for molecular interactions between glycosaminoglycans and growth factors or anti-glycosaminoglycan antibodies.

    PubMed

    Takada, Wataru; Fukushima, Masao; Pothacharoen, Peraphan; Kongtawelert, Prachya; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

    2013-04-15

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) take part in numerous biological processes by binding to protein molecules and functionally regulating protein-ligand interactions; therefore, molecular interactions of GAGs have been studied by several methods, including surface plasmon resonance, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and GAG microarrays. To achieve rapid, sensitive, and high-throughput screening of GAG interactions, we have developed a novel microarray in which GAGs, including chondroitin sulfate, heparan sulfate, and heparin, were immobilized. The microarray is made from cyclic polyolefin substrate coated with metacrylate polymers, which have phospholipid groups as side chains. The polymer also has aminooxy groups that react specifically with aldehyde groups at the reducing termini of GAG chains, whereas the phospholipid groups prevent nonspecific adsorption of proteins. Thus, minute amounts of GAGs can be chemically immobilized on the surface with low nonspecific binding of proteins. Using this array, interactions between GAGs and antibodies against chondroitin or heparan sulfate and heparin-binding growth factors were examined. The results were in agreement with previously reported specificities, suggesting that the GAG array is useful for high-throughput interaction analyses between GAGs and functional proteins in miniscule amounts and can be applied to both basic studies of GAGs and the development of diagnostic methods for metabolic diseases involving GAGs.

  9. Heparin induced thrombocytopenia: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Alaraj, Ali; Wallace, Adam; Tesoro, Eljim; Ruland, Sean; Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Charbel, Fady T; Aletich, Victor

    2010-12-01

    The incidence of heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) in neurological patients continues to increase with expansion of indication for neurointerventional procedures. The pathophysiology of HIT is related to a hypersensitivity reaction against complex platelet factor 4. The diagnosis is mostly clinical and is often confirmed by laboratory testing. Patients with HIT have a higher rate of thromboembolic complications, both arterial and venous, and with worse neurological outcomes at the time of discharge. Early diagnosis and heparin cessation are essential in the management of those patients. Both immediate and prolonged alternative anticoagulation are necessary. Understanding of the mechanism of action, indication and drug interaction of the alternative anticoagulants (direct thrombin inhibitors, fondaparinux and danaparoid) and warfarin is essential during management of these patients. PMID:21990651

  10. [Growth Hormone-Insulin Growth Factor I (GH-IGF-I) axis and growth].

    PubMed

    Castell, A-L; Sadoul, J-L; Bouvattier, C

    2013-10-01

    Normal human linear growth results from an evolutionary process expressing the sum effect of multiple genes. The growth hormone (GH) - insulin like growth factor (IGF)-I axis is one of the main actors in the growth process. Defects in this axis can be responsible for short or tall stature. Short stature is defined as smaller than - 2 standard deviations (SD). It is a very common reason for consultation in pediatrics; indeed, 2.5 % of children are concerned. Multiple causes make diagnosis difficult. In this article, we detail the most common constitutional causes of small size, including those related to a defect in the GH-IGF-I axis. Then, we report, the first results of the clinical and genetic study conducted on 213 patients with gigantism. Tall stature is defined by a height superior to 2 SD. Finally, recent work linking epigenetics and growth - via signaling pathways of GH-IGF-I axis - will be presented. PMID:24356290

  11. [Growth Hormone-Insulin Growth Factor I (GH-IGF-I) axis and growth].

    PubMed

    Castell, A-L; Sadoul, J-L; Bouvattier, C

    2013-10-01

    Normal human linear growth results from an evolutionary process expressing the sum effect of multiple genes. The growth hormone (GH) - insulin like growth factor (IGF)-I axis is one of the main actors in the growth process. Defects in this axis can be responsible for short or tall stature. Short stature is defined as smaller than - 2 standard deviations (SD). It is a very common reason for consultation in pediatrics; indeed, 2.5 % of children are concerned. Multiple causes make diagnosis difficult. In this article, we detail the most common constitutional causes of small size, including those related to a defect in the GH-IGF-I axis. Then, we report, the first results of the clinical and genetic study conducted on 213 patients with gigantism. Tall stature is defined by a height superior to 2 SD. Finally, recent work linking epigenetics and growth - via signaling pathways of GH-IGF-I axis - will be presented.

  12. Immobilization of Heparin: Approaches and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Murugesan, Saravanababu; Xie, Jin; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Heparin, an anticoagulant, has been used in many forms to treat various diseases. These forms include soluble heparin and heparin immobilized to supporting matrices by physical adsorption, by covalent chemical methods and by photochemical attachment. These immobilization methods often require the use of spacers or linkers. This review examines and compares various techniques that have been used for the immobilization of heparin as well as applications of these immobilized heparins. In the applications reviewed, immobilized heparin is compared with soluble heparin for efficient and versatile use in each of the various applications. PMID:18289079

  13. Fluid shear stress differentially modulates expression of genes encoding basic fibroblast growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor B chain in vascular endothelium.

    PubMed Central

    Malek, A M; Gibbons, G H; Dzau, V J; Izumo, S

    1993-01-01

    Fluid shear stress has been shown to be an important regulator of vascular structure and function through its effect on the endothelial cell. We have explored the effect of shear stress on the expression of the heparin-binding growth factors platelet-derived growth factor B chain (PDGF-B) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in bovine aortic endothelial cells using a purpose-built cone-plate viscometer. Using morphometric analysis, we have mimicked the endothelial cell shape changes encountered in vivo in response to shear stress and correlated these with changes in gene expression. Steady laminar shear stress of 15 and 36 dyn/cm2 both resulted in endothelial cell shape change, but the higher shear stress induced greater and more uniform alignment in the direction of flow and nuclear protrusion after 24 h. Steady laminar shear stress of both 15 and 36 dyn/cm2 induced a significant 3.9- and 4.2-fold decrease, respectively, in PDGF-B mRNA at 9 h. In contrast, steady laminar shear of 15 dyn/cm2 induced a mild and transient 1.5-fold increase in bFGF mRNA while shear of 36 dyn/cm2 induced a significant 4.8-fold increase at 6 h of shear which remained at 2.9-fold at 9 h. Pulsatile and turbulent shear stress showed the same effect as steady laminar shear stress (all at 15 dyn/cm2 time-average magnitude) on PDGF-B and bFGF mRNA content. Cyclic stretch (20% strain, 20/min) of cells grown on silicone substrate did not significantly affect either PDGF-B or bFGF mRNA levels. These results suggest that expression of each peptide growth factor gene is differentially regulated by fluid shear stress in the vascular endothelial cell. These results may have implications on vascular structure and function in response to hemodynamic forces and present a model for the study of transduction of mechanical stimuli into altered gene expression. Images PMID:8408655

  14. Transforming growth factor-β and fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Verrecchia, Franck; Mauviel, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), a prototype of multifunctional cytokine, is a key regulator of extracellular matrix (ECM) assembly and remodeling. Specifically, TGF-β isoforms have the ability to induce the expression of ECM proteins in mesenchymal cells, and to stimulate the production of protease inhibitors that prevent enzymatic breakdown of the ECM. Elevated TGF-β expression in affected organs, and subsequent deregulation of TGF-β functions, correlates with the abnormal connective tissue deposition observed during the onset of fibrotic diseases. During the last few years, tremendous progress has been made in the understanding of the molecular aspects of intracellular signaling downstream of the TGF-β receptors. In particular, Smad proteins, TGF-β receptor kinase substrates that translocate into the cell nucleus to act as transcription factors, have been studied extensively. The role of Smad3 in the transcriptional regulation of typeIcollagen gene expression and in the development of fibrosis, demonstrated both in vitro and in animal models with a targeted deletion of Smad3, is of critical importance because it may lead to novel therapeutic strategies against these diseases. This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying Smad modulation of fibrillar collagen expression and how it relates to fibrotic processes. PMID:17589920

  15. Design of Growth Factor Sequestering Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Belair, David G.; Le, Ngoc Nhi; Murphy, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Growth factors (GFs) are major regulatory proteins that can govern cell fate, migration, and organization. Numerous aspects of the cell milieu can modulate cell responses to GFs, and GF regulation is often achieved by the native extracellular matrix (ECM). For example, the ECM can sequester GFs and thereby control GF bioavailability. In addition, GFs can exert distinct effects depending on whether they are sequestered in solution, at two-dimensional interfaces, or within three-dimensional matrices. Understanding how the context of GF sequestering impacts cell function in the native ECM can instruct the design of soluble or insoluble GF sequestering moieties, which can then be used in a variety of bioengineering applications. This Feature Article provides an overview of the natural mechanisms of GF sequestering in the cell milieu, and reviews the recent bioengineering approaches that have sequestered GFs to modulate cell function. Results to date demonstrate that the cell response to GF sequestering depends on the affinity of the sequestering interaction, the spatial proximity of sequestering in relation to cells, the source of the GF (supplemented or endogenous), and the phase of the sequestering moiety (soluble or insoluble). We highlight the importance of context for the future design of biomaterials that can leverage endogenous molecules in the cell milieu and mitigate the need for supplemented factors. PMID:25182455

  16. [Thrombopenia increased by heparin and danaparoid].

    PubMed

    Godet, G; Bertrand, M; Van de Steen, E; Boccara, G; Koskas, F

    2001-01-01

    Pathogenesis, frequency, and management of heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia are well-known. They may be related with both unfractioned heparin and low-molecular weight heparin. Suspected heparin must be discontinued as soon as the diagnosis is established. Orgaran (danaparoid sodium) may be used for management of patients with heparin-associated thrombocytopaenia but can itself be associated with a thrombocytopaenia. Our case report allows us to catch in mind such a crossed complication. PMID:11234580

  17. Disruption of cell-matrix interactions by heparin enhances mesenchymal progenitor adipocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Weijun; Shitaye, Hailu; Friedman, Michael; Bennett, Christina N.; Miller, Joshua; MacDougald, Ormond A.; Hankenson, Kurt D.

    2008-11-01

    Differentiation of marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitors to either the osteoblast or adipocyte lineage is reciprocally regulated. Factors that promote osteoblastogenesis inhibit adipogenesis, while adipogenic factors are inhibitory to osteoblast differentiation. Heparin, a soluble glycosaminoglycan, inhibits bone formation in vivo and osteoblast cell differentiation and function in vitro, and has been shown to promote adipocyte differentiation. To elucidate the role that heparin plays in the adipogenic induction of murine mesenchymal progenitors, we studied immortalized marrow stromal cells (IM-MSC), the MSC cell line, ST2, and 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes. Heparin alone was not sufficient to induce adipogenesis, but enhanced the induction under a variety of adipogenic cocktails. This effect was both dose- and time-dependent. Heparin showed a positive effect at concentrations > 0. 1 {mu}g/ml when applied before day 3 during the induction course. Heparin's effect on adipogenesis was independent of cell proliferation, cell density, and extracellular lipid. This effect is likely related to the unique structure of heparin because another polyanionic glycosaminoglycan, dextran sulfate, did not promote adipogenic differentiation. Heparin treatment altered morphology and adhesion characteristics of progenitor cells, resulting in cell rounding and aggregation. As well, heparin counteracted the known inhibitory effect of fibronectin on adipogenesis and decreased basal focal adhesion kinase and paxillin phosphorylation. We conclude that heparin-mediated disruption of cell-matrix adhesion enhances adipogenic potential.

  18. Effects of unfractionated heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin, and heparinoid on thromboelastographic assay of blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Zmuda, K; Neofotistos, D; Ts'ao, C H

    2000-05-01

    Thromboelastography (TEG) has been used increasingly as an intraoperative hemostasis monitoring device. Low-molecular-weight heparins are given increasingly to reduce the development of antibodies against the heparin-platelet factor 4 complex, and heparinoids are given to patients who have developed the antibody. We studied the effect of unfractionated heparin, a low-molecular-weight heparin (enoxaparin sodium [Lovenox]), and a heparinoid (danaparoid sodium [Orgaran]) on blood clotting assayed with TEG (TEG clotting) in vitro and the efficacy of protamine sulfate and heparinase for reversing the effect. Heparin, enoxaparin, and danaparoid all caused a dose-dependent inhibition of TEG clotting of normal blood. Concentrations of enoxaparin and danaparoid that totally inhibited TEG clotting only minimally prolonged the activated partial thromboplastin time. While inhibition of TEG clotting by heparin and enoxaparin was reversed by protamine sulfate and heparinase, inhibition by danaparoid was reversed only by heparinase. Abnormal TEG clotting was observed in patients receiving enoxaparin whose plasma level of the drug was more than 0.1 antiXa U/mL. However, the degree of TEG abnormality did not always coincide with plasma levels of the drug.

  19. Growth factors and cardiovascular structure. Implications for calcium antagonist therapy.

    PubMed

    Re, R N; Chen, L

    1991-07-01

    Abnormalities of cellular growth regulation are integral to the development of cardiovascular disorders such as atherogenesis, ventricular hypertrophy, and diabetic glomerulopathy. Moreover, cellular growth is in large measure controlled by peptide and nonpeptide growth factors that mediate their actions, in part, through the transcriptional regulation of normal cellular genes called protooncogenes. Because angiotensin II is one such growth regulatory factor and because changes in intracellular calcium are intimately involved in the action of angiotensin and other growth factors, it is likely that inhibitors of angiotensin action and calcium-channel-blocking agents will be found to have useful growth regulatory properties. PMID:1910639

  20. The isolation and characterization of growth regulatory factors produced by a herpes simplex virus Type 2 transformed mouse tumor cell line, H238

    SciTech Connect

    Stagg, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    This study was performed in an attempt to associate HSV-2-transformation with specific growth factors in order to develop a testable model for HSV-2-transformation. We report here the isolation and characterization of four growth regulatory factors produced by H238, an HSV-2-transformed mouse tumor cell line. These factors were separated from the H238-CM by heparin-sepharose affinity chromatography into three peaks of mitogenic activity and a fourth containing inhibitory activity for splenocytes. The three peaks of mitogenic activity have been identified based on physiochemical characteristics: the first supported the anchorage-independent growth of EGF treated NRK-c-49 cells and resembles transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}); the second bound to lectin-coated sepharose beads and was sensitive to trypsin, neuroaminidase, and the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) and, resembled a platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-like factor; and the third displaced ({sup 125}I)-labeled basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in a dose-dependent fashion when tested with a radioimmune assay. The fourth peak was inhibitory for a variety of splenocyte function assays. A model for the interaction of these factors in vivo is presented with an emphasis on testability.

  1. Transcriptional down-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptors by nerve growth factor treatment of PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Shibutani, M; Lazarovici, P; Johnson, A C; Katagiri, Y; Guroff, G

    1998-03-20

    Treatment of PC12 cells with nerve growth factor leads to a decrease in the number of epidermal growth factor receptors on the cell membrane. The mRNA for the epidermal growth factor receptor decreases in a comparable fashion. This decrease appears due to a decrease in the transcription of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene because first, there is no difference in the stability of the epidermal growth factor receptor mRNA, second, newly transcribed epidermal growth factor receptor mRNA is decreased in nerve growth factor-differentiated cells, and third, constructs containing the promoter region of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene are transcribed much less readily in nerve growth factor-differentiated cells than in untreated cells. The decreases in mRNA are not seen in the p140(trk)-deficient variant PC12nnr5 cells nor in cells containing either dominant-negative Ras or dominant-negative Src. Treatment with nerve growth factor also increases the cellular content of GCF2, a putative transcription factor inhibitory for the transcription of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene. The increase in GCF2, like the decrease in the epidermal growth factor receptor mRNA, is not seen in PC12nnr5 cells nor in cells expressing either dominant-negative Ras or dominant-negative Src. The results suggest that nerve growth factor-induced down-regulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor is under transcriptional control, is p140(trk)-, Ras-, and Src-dependent, and may involve transcriptional repression by GCF2.

  2. Endorsement of Growth Factors in Experiential Training Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiweewa, John; Gilbride, Dennis; Luke, Melissa; Seward, Derek

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify student growth factors during a semester long Master's level group counseling class. Results indicated that 12 growth factors accounted for 86% of the total number of critical incidents that participants reported as influencing their personal growth and awareness during the group experience. Two other…

  3. Gene Expression of Growth Factors and Growth Factor Receptors for Potential Targeted Therapy of Canine Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    IIDA, Gentoku; ASANO, Kazushi; SEKI, Mamiko; SAKAI, Manabu; KUTARA, Kenji; ISHIGAKI, Kumiko; KAGAWA, Yumiko; YOSHIDA, Orie; TESHIMA, Kenji; EDAMURA, Kazuya; WATARI, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gene expression of growth factors and growth factor receptors of primary hepatic masses, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and nodular hyperplasia (NH), in dogs. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure the expression of 18 genes in 18 HCCs, 10 NHs, 11 surrounding non-cancerous liver tissues and 4 healthy control liver tissues. Platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B), transforming growth factor-α, epidermal growth factor receptor, epidermal growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor were found to be differentially expressed in HCC compared with NH and the surrounding non-cancerous and healthy control liver tissues. PDGF-B is suggested to have the potential to become a valuable ancillary target for the treatment of canine HCC. PMID:24189579

  4. Recurrent exposure to nicotine differentiates human bronchial epithelial cells via epidermal growth factor receptor activation

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Garcia, Eva; Irigoyen, Marta; Anso, Elena; Martinez-Irujo, Juan Jose; Rouzaut, Ana

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is the major preventable cause of lung cancer in developed countries. Nicotine (3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridine) is one of the major alkaloids present in tobacco. Besides its addictive properties, its effects have been described in panoply of cell types. In fact, recent studies have shown that nicotine behaves as a tumor promoter in transformed epithelial cells. This research focuses on the effects of acute repetitive nicotine exposure on normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE cells). Here we show that treatment of NHBE cells with recurrent doses of nicotine up to 500 {mu}M triggered cell differentiation towards a neuronal-like phenotype: cells emitted filopodia and expressed neuronal markers such as neuronal cell adhesion molecule, neurofilament-M and the transcription factors neuronal N and Pax-3. We also demonstrate that nicotine treatment induced NF-kB translocation to the nucleus, phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and accumulation of heparin binding-EGF in the extracellular medium. Moreover, addition of AG1478, an inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, or cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that precludes ligand binding to the same receptor, prevented cell differentiation by nicotine. Lastly, we show that differentiated cells increased their adhesion to the extracellular matrix and their protease activity. Given that several lung pathologies are strongly related to tobacco consumption, these results may help to better understand the damaging consequences of nicotine exposure.

  5. Pleiotrophin, an angiogenic and mitogenic growth factor, is expressed in human gliomas.

    PubMed

    Mentlein, Rolf; Held-Feindt, Janka

    2002-11-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a mitogenic/angiogenic, 15.3 kDa heparin-binding peptide that is found in embryonic or early postnatal, but rarely in adult, tissues. Since developmentally regulated factors often re-appear in malignant cells, we examined PTN expression in human glioma cell lines, cell cultures derived from solid gliomas and glioma sections. PTN mRNA or protein was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, western blot or enzyme-linked immunoassay in all WHO III and IV grade gliomas and cells analyzed in vitro or in situ. One WHO II grade glioma investigated was PTN negative. In vitro, PTN was synthesized in perinuclear regions of glioma cells, secreted into the cultivation medium, but its production varied considerably between glioma cells cultivated from different solid gliomas or glioma cell lines. In situ, PTN expression was restricted to distinct parts/cells of the tumour. PTN did not influence the proliferation of glioma cells themselves, but stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA of microglial cells. Furthermore, in Boyden chamber assays, PTN showed a strong chemotactic effect on murine BV-2 microglial cells. PTN is supposed to be a paracrine growth/angiogenic factor that is produced by gliomas and contributes to their malignancy by targeting endothelial and microglial cells.

  6. Synthesis of multilayered alginate microcapsules for the sustained release of fibroblast growth factor-1

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Omaditya; Moya, Monica L; Opara, Emmanuel C; Brey, Eric M

    2010-01-01

    Alginate microcapsules coated with a permselective poly-L-ornithine (PLO) membrane have been investigated for the encapsulation and transplantation of islets as a treatment for type 1 diabetes. The therapeutic potential of this approach could be improved through local stimulation of microvascular networks in order to meet mass transport demands of the encapsulated cells. Fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1) is a potent angiogenic factor with optimal effect occurring when it is delivered in a sustained manner. In this paper, a technique is described for the generation of multilayered alginate microcapsules with an outer alginate layer that can be used for the delivery of FGF-1. The influence of alginate concentration and composition (high mannuronic acid (M) or guluronic acid (G) content) on outer layer size and stability, protein encapsulation efficiency, and release kinetics was investigated. The technique results in a stable outer layer of alginate with a mean thickness between 113–164 µm, increasing with alginate concentration and G-content. The outer layer was able to encapsulate and release FGF-1 for up to thirty days, with 1.25% of high G alginate displaying the most sustained release. The released FGF-1 retained its biologic activity in the presence of heparin, and the addition of the outer layer did not alter the permselectivity of the PLO coat. This technique could be used to generate encapsulation systems that deliver proteins to stimulate local neovascularization around encapsulated islets. PMID:20725969

  7. Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman W.

    1987-01-01

    New muscle tissue culture techniques were developed to grow embryonic skeletal myofibers which are able to differentiate into more adultlike myofibers. Studies on mechanical simulation of cultured muscle cell growth will now be more directly applicable to mechanically-induced growth in adult muscle, and lead to better models for understanding muscle tissue atrophy caused by disuse in the microgravity of space.

  8. [Stem cells and growth factors in wound healing].

    PubMed

    Pikuła, Michał; Langa, Paulina; Kosikowska, Paulina; Trzonkowski, Piotr

    2015-01-02

    Wound healing is a complex process which depends on the presence of various types of cells, growth factors, cytokines and the elements of extracellular matrix. A wound is a portal of entry for numerous pathogens, therefore during the evolution wound healing process has formed very early, being critical for the survival of every individual. Stem cells, which give rise to their early descendants progenitor cells and subsequently differentiated cells, play a specific role in the process of wound healing. Among the most important cells which take part in wound healing the following cells need to be distinguished: epidermal stem cells, dermal precursor of fibroblasts, adipose-derived stem cells as well as bone marrow cells. The activity of these cells is strictly regulated by various growth factors, inter alia epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor (TGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Any disorders in functioning of stem cells and biological activity of growth factors may lead to the defects in wound healing, for instance delayed wound healing or creation of hypertrophic scars. Therefore, knowledge concerning the mechanisms of wound healing is extremely essential from clinical point of view. In this review the current state of the knowledge of the role of stem cells and growth factors in the process of wound healing has been presented. Moreover, some clinical aspects of wound healing as well as the possibility of the therapy based on stem cells and growth factors have included.

  9. Epidermal growth factor receptor distribution in burn wounds. Implications for growth factor-mediated repair.

    PubMed Central

    Wenczak, B A; Lynch, J B; Nanney, L B

    1992-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) along with several related peptide growth factors has been shown both in vivo and in vitro to accelerate events associated with epidermal wound repair. EGF and transforming growth factor alpha act by binding to a common EGF receptor tyrosine kinase thereby initiating a series of events which ultimately regulate cell proliferation. This study examined the immunohistochemical localization of EGF receptor (EGF-R) in burn wound margins, adjacent proliferating epithelium, and closely associated sweat ducts, sebaceous glands, and hair follicles. Tissue specimens removed during surgical debridement were obtained from full and partial thickness burn wounds in 32 patients with total body surface area burns ranging from 2 to 88%. In the early postburn period (days 2-4), prominent staining for EGF-R was found in undifferentiated, marginal keratinocytes, adjacent proliferating, hypertrophic epithelium, and both marginal and nonmarginal hair follicles, sweat ducts, and sebaceous glands. During the late postburn period (days 5-16), EGF-R was depleted along leading epithelial margins; however, immunoreactive EGF-R remained intensely positive in the hypertrophic epithelium and all skin appendages. Increased detection of immunoreactive EGF-R and the presence of [125I]EGF binding in the hypertrophic epithelium correlated positively with proliferating cell nuclear antigen distributions. Thus, the presence of EGF-R in the appropriate keratinocyte populations suggests a functional role for this receptor during wound repair. Dynamic modulation in EGF receptor distribution during the temporal sequence of repair provides further evidence that an EGF/transforming growth factor alpha/EGF-R-mediated pathway is activated during human wound repair. Images PMID:1361495

  10. Encapsulation of basic fibroblast growth factor by polyelectrolyte multilayer microcapsules and its controlled release for enhancing cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    She, Zhen; Wang, Chunxia; Li, Jun; Sukhorukov, Gleb B; Antipina, Maria N

    2012-07-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) is an important protein for cellular activity and highly vulnerable to environmental conditions. FGF2 protected by heparin and bovine serum albumin was loaded into the microcapsules by a coprecipitation-based layer-by-layer encapsulation method. Low cytotoxic and biodegradable polyelectrolytes dextran sulfate and poly-L-arginine were used for capsule shell assembly. The shell thickness-dependent encapsulation efficiency was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A maximum encapsulation efficiency of 42% could be achieved by microcapsules with a shell thickness of 14 layers. The effects of microcapsule concentration and shell thickness on cytotoxicity, FGF2 release kinetics, and L929 cell proliferation were evaluated in vitro. The advantage of using microcapsules as the carrier for FGF2 controlled release for enhancing L929 cell proliferation was analyzed. PMID:22657385

  11. Heparin Characterization: Challenges and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Christopher J.; Beni, Szabolcs; Limtiaco, John F. K.; Langeslay, Derek J.; Larive, Cynthia K.

    2011-07-01

    Although heparin is an important and widely prescribed pharmaceutical anticoagulant, its high degree of sequence microheterogeneity and size polydispersity make molecular-level characterization challenging. Unlike nucleic acids and proteins that are biosynthesized through template-driven assembly processes, heparin and the related glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate are actively remodeled during biosynthesis through a series of enzymatic reactions that lead to variable levels of O- and N-sulfonation and uronic acid epimers. As summarized in this review, heparin sequence information is determined through a bottom-up approach that relies on depolymerization reactions, size- and charge-based separations, and sensitive mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments to determine the structural identity of component oligosaccharides. The structure-elucidation process, along with its challenges and opportunities for future analytical improvements, is reviewed and illustrated for a heparin-derived hexasaccharide.

  12. Transcriptional modulation of transin gene expression by epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor beta

    SciTech Connect

    Machida, C.M.; Muldoon, L.L.; Rodland, K.D.; Magun, B.E.

    1988-06-01

    Transin is a transformation-associated gene which is expressed constitutively in rat fibroblasts transformed by a variety of oncogenes and in malignant mouse skin carcinomas but not benign papillomas or normal skin. It has been demonstrated that, in nontransformed Rat-1 cells, transin RNA expression is modulated positively by epidermal growth factor (EGF) and negatively by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-BETA); other peptide growth factors were found to have no effect on transin expression. Results presented here indicate that both protein synthesis and continuous occupancy of the EGF receptor by EGF were required for sustained induction of transin RNA. Treatment with TGF-BETA inhibited the ability of EGF to induce transin, whether assayed at the transcriptional level by nuclear run-on analysis or at the level of transin RNA accumulation by Northern (RNA) blot analysis of cellular RNA. TGF-BETA both blocked initial production of transin transcription by EGF and halted established production of transin transcripts during prolonged treatment. These results suggest that TGF-BETA acts at the transcriptional level to antagonize EGF-mediated induction of transin gene expression.

  13. Direct binding of hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor to CD44v6

    PubMed Central

    Volz, Yvonne; Koschut, David; Matzke-Ogi, Alexandra; Dietz, Marina S.; Karathanasis, Christos; Richert, Ludovic; Wagner, Moritz G.; Mély, Yves; Heilemann, Mike; Niemann, Hartmut H.; Orian-Rousseau, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    CD44v6, a member of the CD44 family of transmembrane glycoproteins is a co-receptor for two receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), Met and VEGFR-2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2). CD44v6 is not only required for the activation of these RTKs but also for signalling. In order to understand the role of CD44v6 in Met and VEGFR-2 activation and signalling we tested whether CD44v6 binds to their ligands, HGF (hepatocyte growth factor) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), respectively. FACS analysis and cellular ELISA showed binding of HGF and VEGF only to cells expressing CD44v6. Direct binding of CD44v6 to HGF and VEGF was demonstrated in pull-down assays and the binding affinities were determined using MicroScale Thermophoresis, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence anisotropy. The binding affinity of CD44v6 to HGF is in the micromolar range in contrast with the high-affinity binding measured in the case of VEGF and CD44v6, which is in the nanomolar range. These data reveal a heparan sulfate-independent direct binding of CD44v6 to the ligands of Met and VEGFR-2 and suggest different roles of CD44v6 for these RTKs. PMID:26181364

  14. Epidermal growth factor receptors in the oesophagus.

    PubMed Central

    Jankowski, J; Murphy, S; Coghill, G; Grant, A; Wormsley, K G; Sanders, D S; Kerr, M; Hopwood, D

    1992-01-01

    The quantity and distribution of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-R) in oesophageal mucosa was studied in the oesophagus in order to determine its role in oesophageal disease. Fifty five biopsies were taken from different levels of the oesophagus in 25 consecutive patients undergoing endoscopy. Another group of eight patients with histologically proven Barrett's oesophagitis had a biopsy taken from the area of columnar lined oesophagus. A peripheral, membranous pattern was seen predominantly confined to the basal and immediately suprabasal cells in all of the first group of patients. In the superficial cells a few granular cytoplasmic structures were positive. All patients with Barrett's oesophagitis showed EGF-R staining of the surface epithelium. A computerised planimeter was used to determine the proportion of stained areas of squamous cells which were expressed as a percentage of the total area of squamous cells. The difference in the area of cells stained for EGF-R between normal and inflamed oesophageal mucosa (29.5% and 43.1% respectively) was significant (p less than 0.001). Images Figure 1 PMID:1582583

  15. Nerve growth factor actions on the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    We examined the effect of the trophic protein, nerve growth factor (NGF), on cultures of fetal rat neostriatum and basal forebrain-medial septal area (BF-MS) to define its role in brain development. Treatment of cultures with NGF resulted in an increase in the specific activity of the cholinergic enzyme choline acetyltransferase (CAT) in both brain areas. CAT was immunocytochemically localized to neurons. In the BF-MS, NGF treatment elicited a marked increase in staining intensity and an apparent increase in the number of CAT-positive neurons. Moreover, treatment of BF-MS cultures with NGF increased the activity of acetylcholinesterase, suggesting that the cholinergic neuron as a whole was affected. To begin defining mechanisms of action of NGF in the BF-MS, we detected NGF receptors by two independent methods. Receptors were localized to two different cellular populations: neuron-like cells, and non-neuron-like cells. Dissociation studies with ({sup 125}I)NGF suggested that high affinity receptors were localized to the neuron-like population. Only low-affinity receptors were localized to the non-neuron-like cells. Moreover, employing combined immunocytochemistry and ({sup 125}I)NGF autoradiography, we detected a subpopulation of CAT-containing neutrons that exhibited high-affinity binding. Unexpectedly, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-containing cell group also expressed high affinity binding. However, only subsets of cholinergic or GABA neurons expressed high-affinity biding, suggesting that these transmitter populations are composed of differentially response subpopulations.

  16. [Epidermal growth factor, innovation and safety].

    PubMed

    Esquirol Caussa, Jordi; Herrero Vila, Elisabeth

    2015-10-01

    Bioidentical recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) is available in concentrations and purity suitable for therapeutic use in long time stable formulations. Beneficial effects in several skin pathologies and lesions have been reported (traumatic and surgical wound healing, laser induced wounds, abnormal scars, keloids, radiation or chemotherapy induced dermatitis, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation or for skin aging damage repairing) and also may be considered for the treatment of several oropharingeal and high gastroesophageal tract mucosa diseases (mouth sores, pharyngeal fistulas, ulcers), and several corneal or conjunctive mucosa lesions. rhEGF has not shown any important side or collateral effects in humans or in laboratory experimentation animals, showing optimal tolerability and safety with continuous use for months. Compounding gives advantages of versatility, individualization, personalization, molecular stability, safety and effectiveness in ideal conditions, showing good tissue penetration, both on intact skin and skin lesions that expose the lower planes to the surface. rhEGF compounds can be considered for prevention or as a treatment of diverse skin and mucosa diseases and conditions through compounding preparations.

  17. Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling in Metabolic Regulation.

    PubMed

    Nies, Vera J M; Sancar, Gencer; Liu, Weilin; van Zutphen, Tim; Struik, Dicky; Yu, Ruth T; Atkins, Annette R; Evans, Ronald M; Jonker, Johan W; Downes, Michael Robert

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is a growing health problem. Obesity is strongly associated with several comorbidities, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, certain cancers, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, which all reduce life expectancy and life quality. Several drugs have been put forward in order to treat these diseases, but many of them have detrimental side effects. The unexpected role of the family of fibroblast growth factors in the regulation of energy metabolism provides new approaches to the treatment of metabolic diseases and offers a valuable tool to gain more insight into metabolic regulation. The known beneficial effects of FGF19 and FGF21 on metabolism, together with recently discovered similar effects of FGF1 suggest that FGFs and their derivatives carry great potential as novel therapeutics to treat metabolic conditions. To facilitate the development of new therapies with improved targeting and minimal side effects, a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of FGFs is needed. In this review, we will discuss what is currently known about the physiological roles of FGF signaling in tissues important for metabolic homeostasis. In addition, we will discuss current concepts regarding their pharmacological properties and effector tissues in the context of metabolic disease. Also, the recent progress in the development of FGF variants will be reviewed. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current concepts and consensuses regarding FGF signaling in metabolic health and disease and to provide starting points for the development of FGF-based therapies against metabolic conditions.

  18. [Growth factors in human tooth development].

    PubMed

    Bellone, C; Barni, T; Pagni, L; Balboni, G C; Vannelli, G B

    1990-03-01

    Our research concerns the immunohistochemical localization of EGF and IGF-I receptors in the tooth germ, using monoclonal antibodies. The results show that in the early phases of human tooth development EGF and IGF-I receptors are present. At bud stage both receptors are localized at dental laminae level, in some epithelial cells of the tooth bud and in some mesenchymal cells. At cap stage the receptors are present in the outer and inner enamel epithelium, and in some cells of stellate reticulum. As far as concerns the mesenchymal cells, some cells of dental papilla in contact with enamel organ, are intensely positive. The immunopositivity is present also in some mesenchymal cells at follicular level. At late cap stage and at early bell stage receptors are not present at inner enamel epithelium level but they can be detectable in the mesenchyma of dental papilla and in some cells of the follicle. On the basis of these results it may be hypothesized that EGF and IGF-I can act as growth factors in the modulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation during the human tooth morphogenesis. Moreover, it is possible that these substances can play a role in the mesenchymal-epithelial interaction in the developing human tooth.

  19. Transforming growth factor beta1 and aldosterone

    PubMed Central

    Matsuki, Kota; Hathaway, Catherine K.; Chang, Albert S.; Smithies, Oliver; Kakoki, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review It is well established that blocking renin-angiotensin II-aldosterone system (RAAS) is effective for the treatment of cardiovascular and renal complications in hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Although the induction of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) by components of RAAS mediates the hypertrophic and fibrogenic changes in cardiovascular-renal complications, it is still controversial as to whether TGFbeta1 can be a target to prevent such complications. Here we review recent findings on the role of TGFbeta1 in fluid homeostasis, focusing on the relationship with aldosterone. Recent findings TGFbeta1 suppresses adrenal production of aldosterone and renal tubular sodium reabsorption. We have generated mice with TGFbeta1 mRNA expression graded in five steps from 10% to 300% normal, and found that blood pressure and plasma volume are negatively regulated by TGFbeta1. Notably, the 10 % hypomorph exhibits primary aldosteronism and sodium and water retention due to markedly impaired urinary excretion of water and electrolytes. Summary These results identify TGFbeta signaling as an important counterregulatory system against aldosterone. Understanding the molecular mechanisms for the suppressive effects of TGFbeta1 on adrenocortical and renal function may further our understanding of primary aldosteronism as well as assist in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for hypertension. PMID:25587902

  20. Semisynthesis and analysis of lipophilically modified unfractionated and low molecular mass heparins.

    PubMed

    Malsch, R; Harenberg, J; Guerrini, M; Torri, G; Casu, B; Heene, D L

    1994-01-01

    Unfractionated heparin and LMMH were substituted with different lipophilic organic compounds. Specifically endpoint attached (LMMH-tyramine and LMMH-tyramine-FITC) and nonspecifically substituted heparins (acylated heparins, and LMMH-biotin and LMMH-cholesterol hemisuccinate) were obtained. The lipophilically substituted heparins were analysed by HPSEC and showed different retention times, high peak purity, different UV/VIS absorbances, and areas under the absorbance time curve. The determination of the average molecular mass Mn, Mm, and Mz and the polydispersity P was performed by PAGE. The substituted heparins showed an increase in their molecular mass Mm, ranging from 2.9 to 129.7% unfractionated heparin and 3.9 to 224.0% (LMMH) compared with the parent compounds (unfractionated heparin and LMMH). The anticoagulant activity was measured by anti-Factor Xa. Lipophilically modified heparin had an aXa activity ranging from 52 to 168 U/mg (unfractionated) and 60 to 108 U/mg (LMMH) and antithrombin activity ranging from 31 to 270 U/mg (unfractionated) and 5 to 15 U/mg (LMMH). The thrombin generation inhibition assay demonstrated an effective anticoagulant potency of the modified compounds. They were neutralized by different amounts (1.1 to 4.1, w/w) of protamin. 1H NMR spectroscopy revealed the specific endpoint attachment of tyramine to LMMH and FITC to LMMH-tyramine. The lipophilically modified heparins showed intact anticoagulant properties and are now used for pharmacokinetic investigations. PMID:7997890

  1. Fibroblast Growth Factor Homologous Factors Modulate Cardiac Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Hennessey, Jessica A.; Wei, Eric Q.; Pitt, Geoffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) homologous factors (FHFs, FGF11-14) are intracellular modulators of voltage-gated Na+ channels, but their cellular distribution in cardiomyocytes indicated that they performed other functions. Objective We aimed to uncover novel roles for FHFs in cardiomyocytes starting with a proteomic approach to identify novel interacting proteins. Methods and Results Affinity purification of FGF13 from rodent ventricular lysates followed by mass spectroscopy revealed an interaction with Junctophilin-2, a protein that organizes the close apposition of the L-type Ca2+ channel, CaV1.2, and the ryanodine receptor, RyR2, in the dyad. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed overall T-tubule structure and localization RyR2 were unaffected by FGF13 knockdown in adult ventricular cardiomyocytes, but localization of CaV1.2 was affected. FGF13 knockdown decreased CaV1.2 current density, and reduced the amount of CaV1.2 at the surface due to aberrant localization of the channels. CaV1.2 current density and channel localization were rescued by expression of an shRNA-insensitive FGF13, indicating a specific role for FGF13. Consistent with these newly discovered effects on CaV1.2, we demonstrated that FGF13 also regulated Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, indicated by a smaller Ca2+ transient after FGF13 knockdown. Further, FGF13 knockdown caused a profound decrease in the cardiac action potential half width. Conclusions This study demonstrates that FHFs are not only potent modulators voltage-gated Na+ channels, but also affect Ca2+ channels and their function. We predict that FHF loss-of-function mutations would adversely affect currents through both Na+ and Ca2+ channels, suggesting that FHFs may be arrhythmogenic loci, leading to arrhythmias through a novel, dual-ion channel mechanism. PMID:23804213

  2. Vascular endothelial growth factor in central nervous system injuries - a vascular growth factor getting nervous?

    PubMed

    Sköld, Mattias K; Kanje, Martin

    2008-11-01

    Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is recognized as a central factor in growth, survival and permeability of blood vessels in both physiological and pathological conditions. It is as such of importance for vascular responses in various central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Accumulating evidence suggest that VEGF may also act as a neuroprotective and neurotrophic factor supporting neuronal survival and neuronal regeneration. Findings of neuropilins as shared co-receptors between molecules with such seemingly different functions as the axon guidance molecules semaphorins and VEGF has further boosted the interest in the role of VEGF in neural tissue injury and repair mechanisms. Thus, VEGF most likely act in parallel or concurrent on cells in both the vascular and nervous system. The present review gives a summary of known or potential aspects of the VEGF system in the healthy and diseased nervous system. The potential benefits but also problems and pitfalls in intervening in the actions of such a multifunctional factor as VEGF in the disordered CNS are also covered.

  3. Interactions of signaling proteins, growth factors and other proteins with heparan sulfate: mechanisms and mysteries.

    PubMed

    Billings, Paul C; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a component of cell surface and matrix-associated proteoglycans (HSPGs) that, collectively, play crucial roles in many physiologic processes including cell differentiation, organ morphogenesis and cancer. A key function of HS is to bind and interact with signaling proteins, growth factors, plasma proteins, immune-modulators and other factors. In doing so, the HS chains and HSPGs are able to regulate protein distribution, bio-availability and action on target cells and can also serve as cell surface co-receptors, facilitating ligand-receptor interactions. These proteins contain an HS/heparin-binding domain (HBD) that mediates their association and contacts with HS. HBDs are highly diverse in sequence and predicted structure, contain clusters of basic amino acids (Lys and Arg) and possess an overall net positive charge, most often within a consensus Cardin-Weintraub (CW) motif. Interestingly, other domains and residues are now known to influence protein-HS interactions, as well as interactions with other glycosaminoglycans, such as chondroitin sulfate. In this review, we provide a description and analysis of HBDs in proteins including amphiregulin, fibroblast growth factor family members, heparanase, sclerostin and hedgehog protein family members. We discuss HBD structural and functional features and important roles carried out by other protein domains, and also provide novel conformational insights into the diversity of CW motifs present in Sonic, Indian and Desert hedgehogs. Finally, we review progress in understanding the pathogenesis of a rare pediatric skeletal disorder, Hereditary Multiple Exostoses (HME), characterized by HS deficiency and cartilage tumor formation. Advances in understanding protein-HS interactions will have broad implications for basic biology and translational medicine as well as for the development of HS-based therapeutics.

  4. Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling in Metabolic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Nies, Vera J. M.; Sancar, Gencer; Liu, Weilin; van Zutphen, Tim; Struik, Dicky; Yu, Ruth T.; Atkins, Annette R.; Evans, Ronald M.; Jonker, Johan W.; Downes, Michael Robert

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is a growing health problem. Obesity is strongly associated with several comorbidities, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, certain cancers, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, which all reduce life expectancy and life quality. Several drugs have been put forward in order to treat these diseases, but many of them have detrimental side effects. The unexpected role of the family of fibroblast growth factors in the regulation of energy metabolism provides new approaches to the treatment of metabolic diseases and offers a valuable tool to gain more insight into metabolic regulation. The known beneficial effects of FGF19 and FGF21 on metabolism, together with recently discovered similar effects of FGF1 suggest that FGFs and their derivatives carry great potential as novel therapeutics to treat metabolic conditions. To facilitate the development of new therapies with improved targeting and minimal side effects, a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of FGFs is needed. In this review, we will discuss what is currently known about the physiological roles of FGF signaling in tissues important for metabolic homeostasis. In addition, we will discuss current concepts regarding their pharmacological properties and effector tissues in the context of metabolic disease. Also, the recent progress in the development of FGF variants will be reviewed. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current concepts and consensuses regarding FGF signaling in metabolic health and disease and to provide starting points for the development of FGF-based therapies against metabolic conditions. PMID:26834701

  5. Novel Drosophila receptor that binds multiple growth factors

    SciTech Connect

    Rosner, M.R.; Thompson, K.L.; Garcia, V.; Decker, S.J.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have recently reported the identification of a novel growth factor receptor from Drosophila cell cultures that has dual binding specificity for both insulin and epidermal growth factor (EGF). This 100 kDa protein is also antigenically related to the cytoplasmic region of the mammalian EGF receptor-tyrosine kinase. They now report that this protein binds to mammalian nerve growth factor and human transforming growth factor alpha as well as insulin and EGF with apparent dissociation constants ranging from 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -8/ M. The 100 kDa protein can be affinity-labeled with these /sup 125/I-labeled growth factors after immunoprecipitation with anti-EGF receptor antiserum. These four growth factors appear to share a common binding site, as evidenced by their ability to block affinity labelling by /sup 125/I-insulin. No significant binding to the 100 kDa protein was observed with platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor beta, or glucagon. The 100 kDa Drosophila protein has a unique ligand-binding spectrum with no direct counterpart in mammalian cells and may represent an evolutionary precursor of the mammalian receptors for these growth factors.

  6. Growth factor array fabrication using a color ink jet printer.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kohei; Miyazaki, Takeshi; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2003-04-01

    We have developed a novel method for growth factor analysis using a commercial color ink jet printer to fabricate substrata patterned with growth factors. We prepared substrata with insulin printed in a simple pattern or containing multiple areas of varying quantities of printed insulin. When we cultured the mouse myoblast cell line, C2C12, on the insulin-patterned substrata, the cells were grown in the same pattern with the insulin-printed pattern. Cell culture with the latter substrata demonstrated that quantity control of insulin deposition by a color ink jet printer is possible. For further applications, we developed substrata with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) spotted in 16 different areas in varying combinations and concentrations (growth factor array). With this growth factor array, C2C12 cells were cultured, and the onset of muscle cell differentiation was monitored for the expression of the myogenic regulator myogenin. The ratio of cells expressing myogenin varied with the doses of IGF-I and bFGF in the sections, demonstrating a feasibility of growth factor array fabrication by a color ink jet printer. Since a printer manipulates several colors, this method can be easily applied to multivariate analyses of growth factors and attachment factors affecting cell growth and differentiation. This method may provide a powerful tool for cell biology and tissue engineering, especially for stem cell research in investigating unknown conditions for differentiation.

  7. Refractory hyperkalemia related to heparin abuse

    PubMed Central

    Sodhi, Kanwalpreet; Garg, Sidhartha; Singh, Bakhshish; Shrivastava, Anupam; Singla, Manender Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening condition, which may occur in many clinical settings. Heparin-induced hyperkalemia is less well-recognized than other side effects of heparin therapy. Even lesser known is heparin abuse amongst drug addicts. We report a case of fatal hyperkalemia related to long-term heparin abuse, which was refractory to anti-hyperkalemia therapy including hemodialysis. The objective is to alert the clinicians to possible abuse of heparin in drug addicts, which can be a cause for refractory hyperkalemia. We also briefly review the available literature on heparin-induced hyperkalemia. PMID:24501495

  8. Sequential delivery of angiogenic growth factors improves revascularization and heart function after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Awada, Hassan K.; Johnson, Noah R.; Wang, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of ischemia through therapeutic angiogenesis faces significant challenges. Growth factor (GF)-based therapies can be more effective when concerns such as GF spatiotemporal presentation, bioactivity, bioavailability, and localization are addressed. During angiogenesis, vascular endothelial GF (VEGF) is required early to initiate neovessel formation while platelet-derived GF (PDGF-BB) is needed later to stabilize the neovessels. The spatiotemporal delivery of multiple bioactive GFs involved in angiogenesis, in a close mimic to physiological cues, holds great potential to treat ischemic diseases. To achieve sequential release of VEGF and PDGF, we embed VEGF in fibrin gel and PDGF in a heparin-based coacervate that is distributed in the same fibrin gel. In vitro, we show the benefits of this controlled delivery approach on cell proliferation, chemotaxis, and capillary formation. A rat myocardial infarction (MI) model demonstrated the effectiveness of this delivery system in improving cardiac function, ventricular wall thickness, angiogenesis, cardiac muscle survival, and reducing fibrosis and inflammation in the infarct zone compared to saline, empty vehicle, and free GFs. Collectively, our results show that this delivery approach mitigated the injury caused by MI and may serve as a new therapy to treat ischemic hearts pending further examination. PMID:25836592

  9. [Snake venom proteins related to "vascular endothelial growth factor": new tools for therapeutic angiogenesis].

    PubMed

    Aloui, Z; Essafi-Benkhadir, K; Karoui, H; Gasmi, A

    2013-01-01

    The Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor "VEGF" plays a pivotal role in the stimulation of angiogenesis. The VEGF isoforms (A-D) and PlGF act in a coordinate fashion to develop the vascular network. Numerous proteins closely related in structure and function to VEGF-A have been reported and were grouped in the VEGF family. Some predators make use of VEGF-like molecules with devastating results for their prey. VEGF-E, investigated in 1994, is encoded by the parapoxvirus (Orf virus). VEGF-F is a common term designating molecules which were isolated from snake venom (also known as svVEGF). These proteins are disulphide-linked homodimers of 110 amino acids each and have a molecular weight of approximately 25 kDa. Their primary structures show approximately 50% identity to VEGF-A. However, unlike VEGF-A, they do not contain any N-linked glycosylation sites. They interact with heparin but have a different binding domain from that of VEGF-A. Among species, these svVEGFs vary extensively in amino acid sequences and in receptor-binding specificities towards endogenous VEGF receptors. Understanding the properties that determine the specificity of these interactions could improve our knowledge of the VEGF-receptor interactions. This knowledge is essential to the development of new drugs in angiogenesis. This knowledge is essential to the development of new drugs in angiogenesis.

  10. Presence of growth factors in palmar and plantar fibromatoses.

    PubMed

    Zamora, R L; Heights, R; Kraemer, B A; Erlich, H P; Groner, J P

    1994-05-01

    Palmar and plantar fibromatoses are disease processes in which the presence of certain growth factors has not been defined. Monoclonal antibodies against transforming growth factor-beta, epidermal growth factor, procollagen type 1, fibronectin, phosphotyrosine residues, and CD41 platelet antigen were used in standard immunoperoxidase staining to study 36 nodules and 24 cords obtained from patients with fibromatoses. The specimens were studied via light microscopy, and staining intensity was quantitated using a computer-enhanced video system. Transforming growth factor-beta staining paralleled procollagen I, fibronectin, and phosphotyrosine staining within the nodule (early stages) but not the cord (late stages) tissue. These factors showed significant increased staining in the early stage of fibromatosis when compared to the late stage. This study is a preliminary demonstration of the presence of transforming growth factor-beta in palmar and plantar fibromatoses.

  11. Clinical application of growth factors and cytokines in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Stephan; Brem, Harold; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2014-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex and dynamic biological process that involves the coordinated efforts of multiple cell types and is executed and regulated by numerous growth factors and cytokines. There has been a drive in the past two decades to study the therapeutic effects of various growth factors in the clinical management of nonhealing wounds (e.g., pressure ulcers, chronic venous ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers). For this review, we conducted an online search of Medline/PubMed and critically analyzed the literature regarding the role of growth factors and cytokines in the management of these wounds. We focused on currently approved therapies, emerging therapies, and future research possibilities. In this review, we discuss four growth factors and cytokines currently being used on and off label for the healing of wounds. These include granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, platelet-derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor. While the clinical results of using growth factors and cytokines are encouraging, many studies involved a small sample size and are disparate in measured endpoints. Therefore, further research is required to provide definitive evidence of efficacy.

  12. Unfractionated Heparin Promotes Osteoclast Formation in Vitro by Inhibiting Osteoprotegerin Activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Binghan; Lu, Dan; Chen, Yuqing; Zhao, Minghui; Zuo, Li

    2016-01-01

    Heparin has been proven to enhance bone resorption and induce bone loss. Since osteoclasts play a pivotal role in bone resorption, the effect of heparin on osteoclastogenesis needs to be clarified. Since osteocytes are the key modulator during osteoclastogenesis, we evaluated heparin's effect on osteoclastogenesis in vitro by co-culturing an osteocyte cell line (MLO-Y4) and pre-osteoclasts (RAW264.7). In this co-culture system, heparin enhanced osteoclastogenesis and osteoclastic bone resorption while having no influence on the production of RANKL (receptor activator of NFκB ligand), M-CSF (macrophage colony-stimulating factor), and OPG (osteoprotegerin), which are three main regulatory factors derived from osteocytes. According to previous studies, heparin could bind specifically to OPG and inhibit its activity, so we hypothesized that this might be a possible mechanism of heparin activity. To test this hypothesis, osteoclastogenesis was induced using recombinant RANKL or MLO-Y4 supernatant. We found that heparin has no effect on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis (contains no OPG). However, after incubation with OPG, the capacity of MLO-Y4 supernatant for supporting osteoclast formation was increased. This effect disappeared after OPG was neutralized and reappeared after OPG was replenished. These results strongly suggest that heparin promotes osteocyte-modulated osteoclastogenesis in vitro, at least partially, through inhibiting OPG activity. PMID:27110777

  13. Connective tissue growth factor is secreted through the Golgi and is degraded in the endosome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Segarini, P; Raoufi, F; Bradham, D; Leask, A

    2001-11-15

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a cysteine-rich heparin-binding polypeptide that promotes proliferation, collagen synthesis, and chemotaxis in mesanchymal cells. When coinjected subcutaneously with transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta), CTGF promotes sustained fibrosis in rats. However, little is known about the cell biology and structure/functional relationship of CTGF. In particular, no detailed characterization of the subcellular localization of CTGF has occurred, nor have sequences been identified within this protein required for this localization. In this report, using immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis, we show that CTGF is localized to the Golgi apparatus both in dermal fibroblasts and activated hepatic stellate cells. Using these methods, no CTGF was detected in endosomal, plasma membrane, cytosolic or nuclear fractions. Addition of brefeldin A, a drug that disrupts the Golgi, blocks the secretion of CTGF. We further show that the amino-terminal 37 amino acids of CTGF are sufficient to localize a heterologous protein (red fluorescent protein, RFP) to the Golgi. Although within this region of human CTGF is a N-glycosylation site, tunicamycin, which blocks N-linked glycosylation, has no significant effect on CTGF secretion. Surprisingly, mutation of a single amino acid residue, CYS-34, to alanine prevents localization of a CTGF-RFP fusion protein to the Golgi. These results are the first proof that endogenous CTGF is localized to the Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, using exogenously added (125)I-labeled CTGF, we show that CTGF is internalized and rapidly degraded in the endosome. That is, CTGF is quantitatively secreted through the golgi and is degraded in the endosome.

  14. Correlation between the 1.6 A crystal structure and mutational analysis of keratinocyte growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Osslund, T. D.; Syed, R.; Singer, E.; Hsu, E. W.; Nybo, R.; Chen, B. L.; Harvey, T.; Arakawa, T.; Narhi, L. O.; Chirino, A.; Morris, C. F.

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive deletion, mutational, and structural analysis of the native recombinant keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) polypeptide has resulted in the identification of the amino acids responsible for its biological activity. One of these KGF mutants (delta23KGF-R144Q) has biological activity comparable to the native protein, and its crystal structure was determined by the multiple isomorphous replacement plus anomalous scattering method (MIRAS). The structure of KGF reveals that it folds into a beta-trefoil motif similar to other members of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family whose structures have been resolved. This fold consists of 12 anti-parallel beta-strands in which three pairs of the strands form a six-stranded beta-barrel structure and the other three pairs of beta-strands cap the barrel with hairpin triplets forming a triangular array. KGF has 10 well-defined beta strands, which form five double-stranded anti-parallel beta-sheets. A sixth poorly defined beta-strand pair is in the loop between residues 133 and 144, and is defined by only a single hydrogen bond between the two strands. The KGF mutant has 10 additional ordered amino terminus residues (24-33) compared to the other FGF structures, which are important for biological activity. Based on mutagenesis, thermal stability, and structural data we postulate that residues TRP125, THR126, and His127 predominantly confer receptor binding specificity to KGF. Additionally, residues GLN152, GLN138, and THR42 are implicated in heparin binding. The increased thermal stability of delta23KGF-R144Q can structurally be explained by the additional formation of hydrogen bonds between the GLN side chain and a main-chain carbonyl on an adjoining loop. The correlation of the structure and biochemistry of KGF provides a framework for a rational design of this potentially important human therapeutic. PMID:10082365

  15. INSULIN INDUCED EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR ACTIVATION IN VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS IS ADAM-DEPENDENT

    PubMed Central

    Roztocil, Elisa; Nicholl, Suzanne M.; Davies, Mark G.

    2008-01-01

    Background With the rise in metabolic syndrome, understanding the role of insulin signaling within the cells of vasculature has become more important but yet remains poorly defined. The study examines the role of insulin actions on a pivotal cross-talk receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR). EGFR is transactivated by both G-protein-coupled receptors and receptor linked tyrosine kinases and is key to many of their responses. Objective To determine the pathway of EGFR transactivation by insulin in human coronary smooth muscle cells (VSMC) Methods VSMC were cultured in vitro. Assays of EGFR phosphorylation were examined in response to insulin in the presence and absence of the plasmin inhibitors (e-aminocaproic acid and aprotinin) matrix metalloprotease (MMP) inhibitor GM6001, the ADAM (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase Domain) inhibitors TAPI-0 and TAPI-1, Heparin binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) inhibitor, CRM197, HB-EGF inhibitory antibodies, EGF inhibitory antibodies and the EGFR inhibitor AG1478. Results Insulin induced time-dependent EGFR phosphorylation, which was inhibited by AG1478 in a concentration dependent manner. Application of the plasmin inhibitors did not block the response. EGFR phosphorylation by insulin was blocked by inhibition of MMP activity and the ligand HB-EGF. The presence of the ADAM inhibitors, TAPI-0 and TAPI-1 significantly decreased EGFR activation. EGFR phosphorylation by EGF was not interrupted by inhibition of plasmin, MMPs TAPIs, or HB-EGF. Direct blockade of the EGFR prevented activation by both insulin and EGF. Conclusion Insulin can induce transactivation of EGFR by an ADAM-mediated, HB-EGF dependent process. This is the first description of crosstalk via ADAM between insulin and EGFR in vascular SMC. Targeting a pivotal cross-talk receptor such as EGFR, which can be transactivated by both G-protein-coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases is an attractive molecular target. PMID:18656632

  16. Growth factor effects on costal chondrocytes for tissue engineering fibrocartilage.

    PubMed

    Johns, D E; Athanasiou, K A

    2008-09-01

    Tissue-engineered fibrocartilage could become a feasible option for replacing tissues such as the knee meniscus or temporomandibular joint disc. This study employed five growth factors (insulin-like growth factor-I, transforming growth factor-beta1, epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-BB, and basic fibroblast growth factor) in a scaffoldless approach with costal chondrocytes, attempting to improve biochemical and mechanical properties of engineered constructs. Samples were quantitatively assessed for total collagen, glycosaminoglycans, collagen type I, collagen type II, cells, compressive properties, and tensile properties at two time points. Most treated constructs had lower biomechanical and biochemical properties than the controls with no growth factors, suggesting a detrimental effect, but the treatment with insulin-like growth factor-I tended to improve the constructs. Additionally, the 6-week time point was consistently better than that at 3 weeks, with total collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and aggregate modulus doubling during this time. Further optimization of the time in culture and exogenous stimuli will be important in making a more functional replacement tissue. PMID:18597118

  17. Delivery of growth factors for tissue regeneration and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Koria, Piyush

    2012-06-01

    Growth factors are soluble secreted proteins capable of affecting a variety of cellular processes important for tissue regeneration. Consequently, the self-healing capacity of patients can be augmented by artificially enhancing one or more processes important for healing through the application of growth factors. However, their application in clinics remains limited due to lack of robust delivery systems and biomaterial carriers. Interestingly, all clinically approved therapies involving growth factors utilize some sort of a biomaterial carrier for growth factor delivery. This suggests that biomaterial delivery systems are extremely important for successful usage of growth factors in regenerative medicine. This review outlines the role of growth factors in tissue regeneration, and their application in both pre-clinical animal models of regeneration and clinical trials is discussed. Additionally, current status of biomaterial substrates and sophisticated delivery systems such as nanoparticles for delivery of exogenous growth factors and peptides in humans are reviewed. Finally, issues and possible future research directions for growth factor therapy in regenerative medicine are discussed.

  18. Photo induced surface heparin immobilization.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Y; Matsuda, T

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method providing durable layering of heparin immobilized hydrogels on fabricated devices. The preparation method is based on photochemistry of a dithiocarbamate group that is dissociated into a highly reactive radical pair upon ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. By taking advantage of characteristics of the photo generated radicals, hydrogel formation and its fixation onto a substrate surface were attained. The immobilization of heparin onto poly(ethylene terephtalate) was demonstrated. First, a mixed aqueous solution containing a photoreactive water soluble poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-covinylbenzyl N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate) and heparin was coated on the substrate. Subsequent UV irradiation resulted in the simultaneous formation of a heparin immobilized hydrogel and its chemical fixation onto the substrate. No delamination was found after vigorous washing with water. Significant inhibition of platelet adhesion and markedly prolonged blood coagulation times were observed, which are apparently derived from the surface hydrogel, and from released and chemically fixed surface heparin. Thus, it is expected that the photochemical method developed here provides potent antithrombogenicity to artificial organs. PMID:8268639

  19. Hepatocyte growth factor is a potent angiogenic factor which stimulates endothelial cell motility and growth

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF, also known as Scatter Factor) is a powerful mitogen or motility factor in different cells, acting through the tyrosine kinase receptor encoded by the MET protooncogene. Endothelial cells express the MET gene and expose at the cell surface the mature protein (p190MET) made of a 50 kD (alpha) subunit disulfide linked to a 145-kD (beta) subunit. HGF binding to endothelial cells identifies two sites with different affinities. The higher affinity binding site (Kd = 0.35 nM) corresponds to the p190MET receptor. Sub- nanomolar concentrations of HGF, but not of a recombinant inactive precursor, stimulate the receptor kinase activity, cell proliferation and motility. HGF induces repairs of a wound in endothelial cell monolayer. HGF stimulates the scatter of endothelial cells grown on three-dimensional collagen gels, inducing an elongated phenotype. In the rabbit cornea, highly purified HGF promotes neovascularization at sub-nanomolar concentrations. HGF lacks activities related to hemostasis-thrombosis, inflammation and endothelial cells accessory functions. These data show that HGF is an in vivo potent angiogenic factor and in vitro induces endothelial cells to proliferate and migrate. PMID:1383237

  20. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor in extramammary Paget disease

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Shao, Ning; Qiao, Di; Wang, Zengjun; Song, Ningjing; Song, Ninghong

    2015-01-01

    Extramammary Paget’s disease (EMPD) is a special type of cancers. The etiology of the disease is still unclear. We aimed to study the expression differences of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in EMPD tissues and corresponding adjacent normal tissues. The mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR and the protein expression was explored by immunohistochemistry. Higher immunostaining signal scores of bFGF and VEGF in EMPD tissues had been found (z = -3.827, P < 0.001, z = -3.729, P < 0.001, respectively). In addition, the mRNA expression of bFGF and VEGF was higher in EMPD tissues, which had been validated by RT-PCR (t = 5.771, P < 0.001, t = 3.304, P = 0.004, respectively). The VEGF and bFGF might be the key signaling proteins in angiogenesis of EMPD. How to block the VEGF and bFGF in EMPD and to destroy the blood supply of the tumor cells becomes the focus of our future research. PMID:26045818

  1. Functional roles and clinical values of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 in different types of cancers

    PubMed Central

    Güllü, Gökçe; Karabulut, Sevgi; Akkiprik, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) are critical regulators of the mitogenic activity of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). IGFBP5, one of these IGFBPs, has special structural features, including a nuclear transport domain, heparin-binding motif, and IGF/extracellular matrix/acid-labile subunit-binding sites. Furthermore, IGFBP5 has several functional effects on carcinogenesis and even normal cell processes, such as cell growth, death, motility, and tissue remodeling. These biological effects are sometimes related with IGF (IGF-dependent effects) and sometimes not (IGF-independent effects). The functional role of IGFBP5 is most likely determined in a cell-type and tissue-type specific manner but also depends on cell context, especially in terms of the diversity of interacting proteins and the potential for nuclear localization. Clinical findings show that IGFBP5 has the potential to be a useful clinical biomarker for predicting response to therapy and clinical outcome of cancer patients. In this review, we summarize the functional diversity and clinical importance of IGFBP5 in different types of cancers. PMID:22313597

  2. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Oral Heparin Solid Dosage Form in Healthy Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Shaker A.; Zhang, Fuming; Aljada, Ahmad; Chaturvedi, Seema; Takieddin, Majde; Zhang, Haifeng; Chi, Lianli; Castelli, M. Cristina; Friedman, Kristen; Goldberg, Michael M.; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation determined the molecular structure and the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of oral unfractionated heparin containing oral absorption enhancer sodium N-[8-(2-hydroxybenzoyl) amino]caprylate, salcaprozate sodium (SNAC) and assessed the safety and tolerability of the orally dosed heparin solid dosage form versus other routes. Sixteen healthy men were included in this single-dose, 3-way crossover, randomized, open-label study. Disaccharide compositional analysis was performed using capillary high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry detection. The pharmacodynamics of heparin were obtained from analysis of plasma anti–factor Xa, anti–factor IIa, activated partial thromboplastin time, and total tissue factor pathway inhibitor data. The molecular weight properties and the disaccharide composition of orally administered unfractionated heparin/SNAC and parenterally administered unfractionated heparin are identical and consistent with the starting pharmaceutical standard heparin. Furthermore, the anti–factor Xa/anti–factor IIa ratio achieved is of approximately 1:1. This is the first true pharmacokinetic study to measure the chemical compositions of heparin administered by different routes. PMID:18048572

  3. Material factors influencing metallic whisker growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodekohr, Chad L.

    Whiskering refers to the formation of slender, long, metallic filaments, much thinner than a human hair, that grow on a metallic thin film surface. They are readily observed for pure and alloyed zinc (Zn), silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), indium (In), and tin (Sn) surfaces. The longest reported whisker length is 4.5 mm long but most high-aspect ratio whiskers range from 1-500 mum. The focus of this research is upon Sn whiskers. Sn whiskers pose serious reliability problems for the electronics industry and are known to be the source of failure in a wide range of electronic devices, such as nuclear power facilities, heart pacemakers, commercial satellites, aviation radar, telecommunication equipment, and desktop computers. The problem with whiskering has been recently exacerbated by the worldwide shift to lead (Pb) free electronics and the continuing reduction in electrical contact pitches. A thorough understanding of the growth mechanism of Sn whiskers is urgently needed. Currently, there is no universally accepted model that explains the broad range of observations on whiskering. The goals of this research are: (1) to develop a more detailed understanding of the physical mechanisms leading to the initiation and growth of Sn whiskers and (2) to outline reasonable mitigation strategies that could be followed to reduce or eliminate the problem of Sn whiskers. The major contributions of this work are: (1) A reliable method for growing Sn whiskers with predictable incubation times has been developed and tested. (2) A surface oxide is not necessary for whisker growth. (3) Intermetallic compounds (IMC) are not necessary for whisker growth. (4) Smoother, not rougher, substrate surfaces promote whisker growth. (5) Whiskers grow under both compressive and tensile thin film stress states. (6) Whisker growth increases with externally applied compression and tension forces. (7) Sn whiskers are composed of pure Sn except for the expected thin, native Sn oxide on their surface. (8) For

  4. TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    TITLE:
    TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF). AUTHORS (ALL): Abbott, Barbara D.1; Best, Deborah S.1; Narotsky, Michael G.1. SPONSOR NAME: None INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Repro Tox ...

  5. The discovery of basic fibroblast growth factor/fibroblast growth factor-2 and its role in haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico; Vacca, Angelo; Rusnati, Marco; Presta, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor/fibroblast growth factor-2 is one of the best characterized of the pro-angiogenic cytokines. This review describes its history, as well as its role in tumor angiogenesis associated with haematological malignancies, as traced by the main contributions to the international medical literature.

  6. Time-dependent release of growth factors from implant surfaces treated with plasma rich in growth factors.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ilárduya, María Belén; Trouche, Elodie; Tejero, Ricardo; Orive, Gorka; Reviakine, Ilya; Anitua, Eduardo

    2013-05-01

    Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGFs) technology is an autologous platelet-rich plasma approach that provides a pool of growth factors and cytokines that have been shown to increase tissue regeneration and accelerate dental implant osseointegration. In this framework, the spatiotemporal release of growth factors and the establishment of a provisional fibrin matrix are likely to be key aspects governing the stimulation of the early phases of tissue regeneration around implants. We investigated the kinetics of growth factor release at implant surfaces functionalized either with PRGFs or platelet-poor plasma and correlated the results obtained with the morphology of the resulting interfaces. Our main finding is that activation and clot formation favors longer residence times of the growth factors at the interfaces studied, probably due to their retention in the adsorbed fibrin matrix. The concentration of the platelet-derived growth factors above the interfaces becomes negligible after 2-4 days and is significantly higher in the case of activated interfaces than in the case of nonactivated ones, whereas that of the plasmatic hepatocyte growth factor is independent of platelet concentration and activation, and remains significant for up to 9 days. Platelet-rich plasma preparations should be activated to permit growth factor release and thereby facilitate implant surface osseointegration.

  7. EDUCATION AS A FACTOR IN ECONOMIC GROWTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MACKERTICH, ALEX

    THE VALUE OF AN EDUCATION IN THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF AN UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRY (INDIA) WAS INVESTIGATED USING THE CASE STUDY APPROACH. DATA WERE GATHERED AT BOTH THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT AND VILLAGE LEVELS THROUGH INTERVIEWS WITH INDIAN GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS AND FROM OFFICIAL GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS CONCERNING THE NATION'S EDUCATIONAL EFFORTS, AS…

  8. Plumbagin Ameliorates CCl4-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Rats via the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Si; Chen, Yi; Chen, Bi; Cai, Yi-jing; Zou, Zhuo-lin; Wang, Jin-guo; Lin, Zhuo; Wang, Xiao-dong; Fu, Li-yun; Hu, Yao-ren; Chen, Yong-ping; Chen, Da-zhi

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its signaling molecules, EGFreceptor (EGFR) and signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3), have been considered to play a role in liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Plumbagin (PL) is an extracted component from the plant and has been used to treat different kinds of cancer. However, its role in regulation of EGFR and STAT3 during liver fibrosis has not been investigated. In this study, the effects of PL on the regulation of EGFR and STAT3 were investigated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver fibrosis and hepatic stellate cells (HSC-T6). PL significantly attenuated liver injury and fibrosis in CCl4 treated rats. At concentrations of 2 to 6 μM, PL did not induce significant cytotoxicity of HSC-T6 cells. Moreover, PL reduced phosphorylation of EGFR and STAT3 in both fibrotic liver and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) treated HSC-T6 cells. Furthermore, PL reduced the expression of α-SMA, EGFR, and STAT3 in both fibrotic liver and HB-EGF treated HSC-T6 cells. In conclusion, plumbagin could ameliorate the development of hepatic fibrosis through its downregulation of EGFR and STAT3 in the liver, especially in hepatic stellate cells. PMID:26550019

  9. Reduced growth factor requirement of keloid-derived fibroblasts may account for tumor growth

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, S.B.; Trupin, K.M.; Rodriguez-Eaton, S.; Russell, J.D.; Trupin, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Keloids are benign dermal tumors that form during an abnormal wound-healing process is genetically susceptible individuals. Although growth of normal and keloid cells did not differ in medium containing 10% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum, keloid culture grew to significantly higher densities than normal cells in medium containing 5% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum, keloid cultures grew to significantly higher densities than normal cells in medium containing 5% (vol/vol) plasma or 1% fetal bovine serum. Conditioned medium from keloid cultures did not stimulate growth of normal cells in plasma nor did it contain detectable platelet-derived growth factor or epidermal growth factor. Keloid fibroblasts responded differently than normal adult fibroblasts to transforming growth factor ..beta... Whereas transforming growth factor ..beta.. reduced growth stimulation by epidermal growth factor in cells from normal adult skin or scars, it enhanced the activity of epidermal growth factor in cells from normal adult skin or scars, it enhanced the activity of epidermal growth factor in cells from keloids. Normal and keloid fibroblasts also responded differently to hydrocortisone: growth was stimulated in normal adult cells and unaffected or inhibited in keloid cells. Fetal fibroblasts resembled keloid cells in their ability to grow in plasma and in their response to hydrocortisone. The ability of keloid fibroblasts to grow to higher cell densities in low-serum medium than cells from normal adult skin or from normal early or mature scars suggests that a reduced dependence on serum growth factors may account for their prolonged growth in vivo. Similarities between keloid and fetal cells suggest that keloids may result from the untimely expression of growth-control mechanism that is developmentally regulated.

  10. Growth Factors Regulate Expression of Mineral Associated Genes in Cementoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Saygin, N. Esra; Tokiyasu, Yoshihiko; Giannobile, William V.; Somerman, Martha J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the responsiveness of cells within the periodontal region to specific bioactive agents is important for improving regenerative therapies. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of specific growth factors, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) on cementoblasts in vitro and ex vivo. Methods Osteocalcin (OC) promoter driven SV40 transgenic mice were used to obtain immortalized cementoblasts. Growth factor effects on DNA synthesis were assayed by [3H]-thymidine incorporation. Northern analysis was used to determine the effects of growth factors on gene expression profile. Effects of growth factors on cementoblast induced biomineralization were determined in vitro (von Kossa stain) and ex vivo (re-implantation of cells in immunodeficient (SCID) mice). Results All growth factors stimulated DNA synthesis compared to control. Twenty-four hour exposure of cells to PDGF-BB or TGF-β resulted in a decrease in bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNAs while PDGF-BB also increased osteopontin (OPN) mRNA. Cells exposed to IGF-I for 24 hours exhibited decreased transcripts for OCN and OPN with an upregulation of BSP mRNA noted at 72 hours. In vitro mineralization was inhibited by continuous application of PDGF-BB or TGF-β, while cells exposed to these factors prior to implantation into SCID mice still promoted biomineralization. Conclusions These data indicate IGF-I, PDGF-BB, and TGF-β influence mitogenesis, phenotypic gene expression profile, and biomineralization potential of cementoblasts suggesting that such factors alone or in combination with other agents may provide trigger factors required for regenerating periodontal tissues. PMID:11063392

  11. High-growth-factor implosions (HEP4)

    SciTech Connect

    Landen, O.L.; Keane, C.J.; Hammel, B.A.

    1996-06-01

    In inertial confinement fusion (ICF), the kinetic energy of an ablating, inward-driven, solid spherical shell is used to compressionally heat the low-density fuel inside. For a given drive, the maximum achievable compressed fuel density and temperature - and hence the maximum neutron production rate depend on the degree of shell isentropy and integrity maintained during the compression. Shell integrity will be degraded by hydrodynamic instability growth of areal density imperfections in the capsule. Surface imperfections on the shell grow as a result of the Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities when the shell is accelerated by the ablating lower-density plasma. Perturbations at the outer capsule surface are transferred hydrodynamically to the inner surface, where deceleration of the shell by the lower-density fuel gives rise to further RT growth at the pusher-fuel interface.

  12. Targeting the Insulin Growth Factor and the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Pathways in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Minghai; Hollar, Stacy; Chambliss, Daphne; Schmitt, Jordan; Emerson, Robert; Chelladurai, Bhadrani; Perkins, Susan; Ivan, Mircea; Matei, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Antiangiogenic therapy is emerging as a highly promising strategy for the treatment of ovarian cancer, but the clinical benefits are usually transitory. The purpose of this study was to identify and target alternative angiogenic pathways that are upregulated in ovarian xenografts during treatment with bevacizumab. For this, angiogenesis-focused gene expression arrays were used to measure gene expression levels in SKOV3 and A2780 serous ovarian xenografts treated with bevacizumab or control. Reverse transcription-PCR was used for results validation. The insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1) was found upregulated in tumor and stromal cells in the two ovarian xenograft models treated with bevacizumab. Cixutumumab was used to block IGF-1 signaling in vivo. Dual anti-VEGF and IGF blockade with bevacizumab and cixutumumab resulted in increased inhibition of tumor growth. Immunohistochemistry measured multivessel density, Akt activation, and cell proliferation, whereas terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay measured apoptosis in ovarian cancer xenografts. Bevacizumab and cixutumumab combination increased tumor cell apoptosis in vivo compared with therapy targeting either individual pathway. The combination blocked angiogenesis and cell proliferation but not more significantly than each antibody alone. In summary, IGF-1 activation represents an important mechanism of adaptive escape during anti-VEGF therapy in ovarian cancer. This study provides the rationale for designing bevacizumab-based combination regimens to enhance antitumor activity. PMID:22700681

  13. Latent transforming growth factor binding protein 4 regulates transforming growth factor beta receptor stability.

    PubMed

    Su, Chi-Ting; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Lawrence, Elizabeth C; Levine, Kara L; Dabovic, Branka; Jung, Christine; Davis, Elaine C; Madan-Khetarpal, Suneeta; Urban, Zsolt

    2015-07-15

    Mutations in the gene for the latent transforming growth factor beta binding protein 4 (LTBP4) cause autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 1C. To understand the molecular disease mechanisms of this disease, we investigated the impact of LTBP4 loss on transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling. Despite elevated extracellular TGFβ activity, downstream signaling molecules of the TGFβ pathway, including pSMAD2 and pERK, were down-regulated in LTBP4 mutant human dermal fibroblasts. In addition, TGFβ receptors 1 and 2 (TGFBR1 and TGFBR2) were reduced at the protein but not at the ribonucleic acid level. Treatment with exogenous TGFβ1 led to an initially rapid increase in SMAD2 phosphorylation followed by a sustained depression of phosphorylation and receptor abundance. In mutant cells TGFBR1 was co-localized with lysosomes. Treatment with a TGFBR1 kinase inhibitor, endocytosis inhibitors or a lysosome inhibitor, normalized the levels of TGFBR1 and TGFBR2. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated a molecular interaction between LTBP4 and TGFBR2. Knockdown of LTBP4 reduced TGFβ receptor abundance and signaling in normal cells and supplementation of recombinant LTBP4 enhanced these measures in mutant cells. In a mouse model of Ltbp4 deficiency, reduced TGFβ signaling and receptor levels were normalized upon TGFBR1 kinase inhibitor treatment. Our results show that LTBP4 interacts with TGFBR2 and stabilizes TGFβ receptors by preventing their endocytosis and lysosomal degradation in a ligand-dependent and receptor kinase activity-dependent manner. These findings identify LTBP4 as a key molecule required for the stability of the TGFβ receptor complex, and a new mechanism by which the extracellular matrix regulates cytokine receptor signaling.

  14. Latent transforming growth factor binding protein 4 regulates transforming growth factor beta receptor stability

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chi-Ting; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Lawrence, Elizabeth C.; Levine, Kara L.; Dabovic, Branka; Jung, Christine; Davis, Elaine C.; Madan-Khetarpal, Suneeta; Urban, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the gene for the latent transforming growth factor beta binding protein 4 (LTBP4) cause autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 1C. To understand the molecular disease mechanisms of this disease, we investigated the impact of LTBP4 loss on transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling. Despite elevated extracellular TGFβ activity, downstream signaling molecules of the TGFβ pathway, including pSMAD2 and pERK, were down-regulated in LTBP4 mutant human dermal fibroblasts. In addition, TGFβ receptors 1 and 2 (TGFBR1 and TGFBR2) were reduced at the protein but not at the ribonucleic acid level. Treatment with exogenous TGFβ1 led to an initially rapid increase in SMAD2 phosphorylation followed by a sustained depression of phosphorylation and receptor abundance. In mutant cells TGFBR1 was co-localized with lysosomes. Treatment with a TGFBR1 kinase inhibitor, endocytosis inhibitors or a lysosome inhibitor, normalized the levels of TGFBR1 and TGFBR2. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated a molecular interaction between LTBP4 and TGFBR2. Knockdown of LTBP4 reduced TGFβ receptor abundance and signaling in normal cells and supplementation of recombinant LTBP4 enhanced these measures in mutant cells. In a mouse model of Ltbp4 deficiency, reduced TGFβ signaling and receptor levels were normalized upon TGFBR1 kinase inhibitor treatment. Our results show that LTBP4 interacts with TGFBR2 and stabilizes TGFβ receptors by preventing their endocytosis and lysosomal degradation in a ligand-dependent and receptor kinase activity-dependent manner. These findings identify LTBP4 as a key molecule required for the stability of the TGFβ receptor complex, and a new mechanism by which the extracellular matrix regulates cytokine receptor signaling. PMID:25882708

  15. Quantitative characterization of heparin binding to Tau protein: implication for inducer-mediated Tau filament formation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hai-Li; Fernández, Cristina; Fan, Jun-Bao; Shewmaker, Frank; Chen, Jie; Minton, Allen P; Liang, Yi

    2010-02-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles, principally composed of bundles of filaments formed by the microtubule-associated protein Tau, are a hallmark of a group of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease. Polyanionic cofactors such as heparin can induce Tau filament formation in vitro. Here we quantitatively characterize the interaction between recombinant human Tau fragment Tau(244-372) and heparin (average molecular mass = 7 kDa) as well as heparin-induced fibril formation by using static light scattering, isothermal titration calorimetry, turbidity assays, and transmission electron microscopy. Our data clearly show that at physiological pH, heparin 7K, and human Tau(244-372) form a tight 1:1 complex with an equilibrium association constant exceeding 10(6) m(-1) under reducing conditions, triggering Tau fibrillization. In the absence of dithiothreitol, heparin shows a moderate binding affinity (10(5) m(-1)) to Tau(244-372), similarly triggering Tau fibrillization. Further fibrillization kinetics analyses show that the lag time appears to be approximately invariant up to a molar ratio of 2:1 and then increases at larger ratios of heparin/Tau. The maximum slope representing the apparent rate constant for fibril growth increases sharply with substoichiometric ratios of heparin/Tau and then decreases to some extent with ratios of >1:1. The retarding effect of heparin in excess is attributed to the large increase in ionic strength of the medium arising from free heparin. Together, these results suggest that the formation of the 1:1 complex of Tau monomer and heparin plays an important role in the inducer-mediated Tau filament formation, providing clues to understanding the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. Heparinization during percutaneous cardiac catheterization in children.

    PubMed

    Netz, H; Madu, B; Röhner, G

    1987-01-01

    The effect of heparin on blood clotting was studied by measuring the activated clotting time (ACT) in 120 infants and children with congenital heart disease after a single intravenous bolus of 100 IU heparin/kg body weight. Before heparinization, infants and children with cyanotic heart disease showed signs of hypocoagulation. Heparin bolus led to a threefold increase of ACT after 15 min. After 1 h, the ACT was still two times the normal value. Any further administration of heparin may be based on ACT monitoring.

  17. Platelet-rich growth factor in oral and maxillofacial surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Uma Shanker; Mohammad, Shadab; Singh, Rakesh K.; Das, Somdipto; Singh, Nimisha; Singh, Mayank

    2012-01-01

    Platelet-rich growth factor is an innovative regenerative therapy used to promote hard and soft tissue healing. It involves the application of autologous platelet-leukocyte-rich plasma containing growth factors and thrombin directly to the site of treatment. It is the intrinsic growth factors released by activated platelets which are concentrated in a topical gel formula. Clinically, it is an affordable treatment with potentially broad spectrum of applications in maxillofacial surgery especially in the treatment of complex or refractory wounds. The present article reviews its various applications not only in the specialization of oral and maxillofacial surgery but also in regenerative medicine. PMID:23833484

  18. Novel biodegradable polymers for local growth factor delivery.

    PubMed

    Amsden, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Growth factors represent an important therapeutic protein drug class, and would benefit significantly from formulations that provide sustained, local release to realize their full clinical potential. Biodegradable polymer-based delivery platforms have been examined to achieve this end; however, formulations based on conventional polymers have yet to yield a clinical product. This review examines new polymer biomaterials that have been developed for growth factor delivery. The dosage forms are discussed in terms of their mechanism of release, the stability of the released growth factor, their method of preparation, and their potential for clinical translation. PMID:26614555

  19. Structural Stability of Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 Is Essential for Protective Effects Against Radiation-Induced Intestinal Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Fumiaki; Umeda, Sachiko; Yasuda, Takeshi; Asada, Masahiro; Motomura, Kaori; Suzuki, Masashi; Zakrzewska, Malgorzata; Imamura, Toru; Imai, Takashi

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Human fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1) has radioprotective effects on the intestine, although its structural instability limits its potential for practical use. Several stable FGF1 mutants were created increasing stability in the order, wild-type FGF1, single mutants (Q40P, S47I, and H93G), Q40P/S47I, and Q40P/S47I/H93G. This study evaluated the contribution of the structural stability of FGF1 to its radioprotective effect. Methods and Materials: Each FGF1 mutant was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 h before or after total body irradiation (TBI) with {gamma}-rays at 8-12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. Results: Q40P/S47I/H93G could activate all subtypes of FGF receptors in vitro much more strongly than the wild-type without endogenous or exogenous heparin. Preirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G significantly increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1 after TBI at 10 or 12 Gy, and postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G was effective in promoting crypt survival after TBI at 10, 11, or 12 Gy. In addition, crypt cell proliferation, crypt depth, and epithelial differentiation were significantly promoted by postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G. The level of stability of FGF1 mutants correlated with their mitogenic activities in vitro in the absence of heparin; however, preirradiation treatment with the mutants increased the crypt number to almost the same level as Q40P/S47I/H93G. When given 24 h after TBI at 10 Gy, all FGF1 mutants increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1, and Q40P/S47I/H93G had the strongest mitogenic effects in intestinal epithelial cells after radiation damage. Moreover, Q40P/S47I/H93G prolonged mouse survival after TBI because of the repair of intestinal damage. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the structural stability of FGF1 can contribute to the enhancement of protective effects against radiation-induced intestinal

  20. Co-stimulation of gastrointestinal tumour cell growth by gastrin, transforming growth factor alpha and insulin like growth factor-I.

    PubMed Central

    Durrant, L. G.; Watson, S. A.; Hall, A.; Morris, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors and insulin like growth factor-I receptors were co-expressed on two gastric and three colorectal tumour cell lines. Previous studies have shown that gastrin receptors were also expressed at a low level or two of these cell lines. Both TGF alpha and IGF-I promoted cell growth in all of the cell lines tested. The cell doubling time of a colorectal cell line was reduced from 48 to 30-34 h. Furthermore the effects of the growth factors were additive. Each growth factor also increased the response of the cells to gastrin, but a combination of both growth factors and gastrin did not further increase growth. PMID:1846553

  1. Therapeutic modulation of growth factors and cytokines in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Ioannidou, Effie

    2006-01-01

    Regeneration that takes place in the human body is limited throughout life. Therefore, when organs are irreparably damaged, they are usually replaced with an artificial device or donor organ. The term "regenerative medicine" covers the restoration or replacement of cells, tissues, and organs. Stem cells play a major role in regenerative medicine by providing the way to repopulate organs damaged by disease. Stem cells have the ability to self renew and to regenerate cells of diverse lineages within the tissue in which they reside. Stem cells could originate from embryos or adult tissues. Growth factors are proteins that may act locally or systemically to affect the growth of cells in several ways. Various cell activities, including division, are influenced by growth factors. Cytokines are a family of low-molecular-weight proteins that are produced by numerous cell types and are responsible for regulating the immune response, inflammation, tissue remodeling and cellular differentiation. Target cells of growth factors and cytokines are mesenchymal, epithelial and endothelial cells. These molecules frequently have overlapping activities and can act in an autocrine or paracrine fashion. A complex network of growth factors and cytokines guides cellular differentiation and regeneration in all organs and tissues. The aim of this paper is to review the role of growth factors and cytokines in different organs or systems and explore their therapeutic application in regenerative medicine. The role of stem cells combined with growth factors and cytokines in the regeneration of vascular and hematopoietic, neural, skeletal, pancreatic, periodontal, and mucosal tissue is reviewed. There is evidence that supports the use of growth factors and cytokines in the treatment of neurological diseases, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, periodontal disease, cancer and its complication, oral mucositis. After solving the ethical issues and establishing clear and reasonable regulations

  2. Chemical microdetermination of heparin in plasma.

    PubMed

    Toida, T; Huang, Y; Washio, Y; Maruyama, T; Toyoda, H; Imanari, T; Linhardt, R J

    1997-09-01

    A new, simple, and highly sensitive method for the determination of heparin has been established. Heparin was first converted into unsaturated disaccharides through the action of heparin lyases I, II, and III. A major trisulfated unsaturated disaccharide product results, consistent with structural analysis of a number of pharmaceutical heparins using one- and two-dimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy. This disaccharide was analyzed by HPLC using fluorometric postcolumn derivatization. The correlation between the amount of this trisulfated unsaturated disaccharide and anticoagulant activity of heparin as measured by anti-IIa was determined. The analysis of these pharmaceutical heparins showed a linear correlation between both HPLC and bioassay. This HPLC method was then applied to a pharmacokinetic study of heparin intravenously administered to rabbits. PMID:9299019

  3. A cyclic peptide derived from alpha-fetoprotein inhibits the proliferative effects of the epidermal growth factor and estradiol in MCF7 cells.

    PubMed

    Torres, Cristian; Antileo, Elmer; Epuñán, Maráa José; Pino, Ana María; Valladares, Luis Emilio; Sierralta, Walter Daniel

    2008-06-01

    A cyclic peptide derived from the active domain of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) significantly inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 cells stimulated with the epidermal growth factor (EGF) or estradiol (E2). The action of these three agents on cell growth was independent of the presence of calf serum in the culture medium. Our results demonstrated that the cyclic peptide interfered markedly with the regulation of MAPK by activated c-erbB2. The cyclic peptide showed no effect on the E2-stimulated release of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 nor on the shedding of heparin-binding EGF into the culture medium. We propose that the AFP-derived cyclic peptide represents a valuable novel antiproliferative agent for treating breast cancer. PMID:18497971

  4. A cyclic peptide derived from alpha-fetoprotein inhibits the proliferative effects of the epidermal growth factor and estradiol in MCF7 cells.

    PubMed

    Torres, Cristian; Antileo, Elmer; Epuñán, Maráa José; Pino, Ana María; Valladares, Luis Emilio; Sierralta, Walter Daniel

    2008-06-01

    A cyclic peptide derived from the active domain of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) significantly inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 cells stimulated with the epidermal growth factor (EGF) or estradiol (E2). The action of these three agents on cell growth was independent of the presence of calf serum in the culture medium. Our results demonstrated that the cyclic peptide interfered markedly with the regulation of MAPK by activated c-erbB2. The cyclic peptide showed no effect on the E2-stimulated release of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 nor on the shedding of heparin-binding EGF into the culture medium. We propose that the AFP-derived cyclic peptide represents a valuable novel antiproliferative agent for treating breast cancer.

  5. Release kinetics of platelet-derived and plasma-derived growth factors from autologous plasma rich in growth factors.

    PubMed

    Anitua, Eduardo; Zalduendo, Mari Mar; Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Orive, Gorka

    2013-10-01

    Many studies have evaluated the biological effects of platelet rich plasma reporting the final outcomes on cell and tissues. However, few studies have dealt with the kinetics of growth factor delivery by plasma rich in growth factors. Venous blood was obtained from three healthy volunteers and processed with PRGF-Endoret technology to prepare autologous plasma rich in growth factors. The gel-like fibrin scaffolds were then incubated in triplicate, in a cell culture medium to monitor the release of PDGF-AB, VEGF, HGF and IGF-I during 8 days of incubation. A leukocyte-platelet rich plasma was prepared employing the same technology and the concentrations of growth factors and interleukin-1β were determined after 24h of incubation. After each period, the medium was collected, fibrin clot was destroyed and the supernatants were stored at -80°C until analysis. The growth factor delivery is diffusion controlled with a rapid initial release by 30% of the bioactive content after 1h of incubation and a steady state release when almost 70% of the growth factor content has been delivered. Autologous fibrin matrix retained almost 30% of the amount of the growth factors after 8 days of incubation. The addition of leukocytes to the formula of platelet rich plasma did not increase the concentration of the growth factors, while it drastically increased the presence of pro-inflammatory IL-1β. Further studies employing an in vitro inflammatory model would be interesting to study the difference in growth factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines between leukocyte-free and leukocyte-rich platelet rich plasma.

  6. Brittlestars contain highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates/dermatan sulfates that promote fibroblast growth factor 2-induced cell signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; Shi, Xiaofeng; Zaia, Joseph; Dupont, Sam T; Thorndyke, Michael C; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

    2014-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) isolated from brittlestars, Echinodermata class Ophiuroidea, were characterized, as part of attempts to understand the evolutionary development of these polysaccharides. A population of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) chains with a high overall degree of sulfation and hexuronate epimerization was the major GAG found, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) was below detection level. Enzymatic digestion with different chondroitin lyases revealed exceptionally high proportions of di- and trisulfated CS/DS disaccharides. The latter unit appears much more abundant in one of four individual species of brittlestars, Amphiura filiformis, than reported earlier in other marine invertebrates. The brittlestar CS/DS was further shown to bind to growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor 2 and to promote FGF-stimulated cell signaling in GAG-deficient cell lines in a manner similar to that of heparin. These findings point to a potential biological role for the highly sulfated invertebrate GAGs, similar to those ascribed to HS in vertebrates. PMID:24253764

  7. Visualization of growth factor receptor sites in rat forebrain

    SciTech Connect

    Quirion, R.; Araujo, D.; Nair, N.P.; Chabot, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    It is now known that various growth factors may also act in the central nervous system. Among them, it has recently been shown that epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) may possess trophic effects in the mammalian brain. We report here on the respective autoradiographic distribution of (/sup 125/I)EGF and (/sup 125/I)IGF-I receptor binding sites in the rat brain, both during ontogeny and in adulthood. It appears that (/sup 125/I)EGF sites are mostly found in the rat forebrain during brain development. On the other hand, (/sup 125/I)IGF-I sites are more widely distributed both during ontogeny and in adulthood. These results reveal the plasticity of the expression of EGF and IGF-I receptor sites in the mammalian brain. This could be relevant for the respective role of these two growth factors in the development and maintenance of neuronal function.

  8. Abnormal Growth Factor/Cytokine Network in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Gastric cancer cells express a broad spectrum of the growth factor/cytokine receptor systems that organize the complex interaction between cancer cells and stromal cells in tumor microenvironment, which confers cell growth, apoptosis, morphogenesis, angiogenesis, progression and metastasis. However, these abnormal growth factor/cytokine networks differ in the two histological types of gastric cancer. Importantly, activation of nuclear factor-kB pathway by Helicobacter pylori infection may act as a key player for induction of growth factor/cytokine networks in gastritis and pathogenesis of gastric cancer. Better understanding of these events will no doubt provide new approaches for biomarkers of diagnosis and effective therapeutic targeting of gastric cancer. PMID:19308687

  9. Cardiac Regeneration using Growth Factors: Advances and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Rebouças, Juliana de Souza; Santos-Magalhães, Nereide Stela; Formiga, Fabio Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction is the most significant manifestation of ischemic heart disease and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Novel strategies targeting at regenerating the injured myocardium have been investigated, including gene therapy, cell therapy, and the use of growth factors. Growth factor therapy has aroused interest in cardiovascular medicine because of the regeneration mechanisms induced by these biomolecules, including angiogenesis, extracellular matrix remodeling, cardiomyocyte proliferation, stem-cell recruitment, and others. Together, these mechanisms promote myocardial repair and improvement of the cardiac function. This review aims to address the strategic role of growth factor therapy in cardiac regeneration, considering its innovative and multifactorial character in myocardial repair after ischemic injury. Different issues will be discussed, with emphasis on the regeneration mechanisms as a potential therapeutic resource mediated by growth factors, and the challenges to make these proteins therapeutically viable in the field of cardiology and regenerative medicine. PMID:27355588

  10. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: when a low platelet count is a mandate for anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Ortel, Thomas L

    2009-01-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune-mediated disorder caused by the development of antibodies to platelet factor 4 (PF4) and heparin. The thrombocytopenia is typically moderate, with a median platelet count nadir of approximately 50 to 60 x 10(9) platelets/L. Severe thrombocytopenia has been described in patients with HIT, and in these patients antibody levels are high and severe clinical outcomes have been reported (eg, disseminated intravascular coagulation with microvascular thrombosis). The timing of the thrombocytopenia in relation to the initiation of heparin therapy is critically important, with the platelet count beginning to drop within 5 to 10 days of starting heparin. A more rapid drop in the platelet count can occur in patients who have been recently exposed to heparin (within the preceding 3 months), due to preformed anti-heparin/PF4 antibodies. A delayed form of HIT has also been described that develops within days or weeks after the heparin has been discontinued. In contrast to other drug-induced thrombocytopenias, HIT is characterized by an increased risk for thromboembolic complications, primarily venous thromboembolism. Heparin and all heparin-containing products should be discontinued and an alternative, non-heparin anticoagulant initiated. Alternative agents that have been used effectively in patients with HIT include lepirudin, argatroban, bivalirudin, and danaparoid, although the last agent is not available in North America. Fondaparinux has been used in a small number of patients with HIT and generally appears to be safe. Warfarin therapy should not be initiated until the platelet count has recovered and the patient is systemically anticoagulated, and vitamin K should be administered to patients receiving warfarin at the time of diagnosis of HIT. PMID:20008202

  11. Stimulation of Superficial Zone Protein/Lubricin/PRG4 by Transforming Growth Factor-β in Superficial Zone Articular Chondrocytes and Modulation by Glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Araceli; Reddi, A Hari

    2015-07-01

    Superficial zone protein (SZP), also known as lubricin and proteoglycan 4 (PRG4), plays an important role in the boundary lubrication of articular cartilage and is regulated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. Here, we evaluate the role of cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) during TGF-β1 stimulation of SZP/lubricin/PRG4 in superficial zone articular chondrocytes. We utilized primary monolayer superficial zone articular chondrocyte cultures and treated them with various concentrations of TGF-β1, in the presence or absence of heparan sulfate (HS), heparin, and chondroitin sulfate (CS). The cell surface GAGs were removed by pretreatment with either heparinase I or chondroitinase-ABC before TGF-β1 stimulation. Accumulation of SZP/lubricin/PRG4 in the culture medium in response to stimulation with TGF-β1 and various exogenous GAGs was demonstrated by immunoblotting and quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We show that TGF-β1 and exogenous HS enhanced SZP accumulation of superficial zone chondrocytes in the presence of surface GAGs. At the dose of 1 ng/mL of TGF-β1, the presence of exogenous heparin inhibited SZP accumulation whereas the presence of exogenous CS stimulated SZP accumulation in the culture medium. Enzymatic depletion of GAGs on the surface of superficial zone chondrocytes enhanced the ability of TGF-β1 to stimulate SZP accumulation in the presence of both exogenous heparin and CS. Collectively, these results suggest that GAGs at the surface of superficial zone articular chondrocytes influence the response to TGF-β1 and exogenous GAGs to stimulate SZP accumulation. Cell surface GAGs modulate superficial zone chondrocytes' response to TGF-β1 and exogenous HS.

  12. Stimulation of Superficial Zone Protein/Lubricin/PRG4 by Transforming Growth Factor-β in Superficial Zone Articular Chondrocytes and Modulation by Glycosaminoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Cuellar, Araceli

    2015-01-01

    Superficial zone protein (SZP), also known as lubricin and proteoglycan 4 (PRG4), plays an important role in the boundary lubrication of articular cartilage and is regulated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. Here, we evaluate the role of cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) during TGF-β1 stimulation of SZP/lubricin/PRG4 in superficial zone articular chondrocytes. We utilized primary monolayer superficial zone articular chondrocyte cultures and treated them with various concentrations of TGF-β1, in the presence or absence of heparan sulfate (HS), heparin, and chondroitin sulfate (CS). The cell surface GAGs were removed by pretreatment with either heparinase I or chondroitinase-ABC before TGF-β1 stimulation. Accumulation of SZP/lubricin/PRG4 in the culture medium in response to stimulation with TGF-β1 and various exogenous GAGs was demonstrated by immunoblotting and quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We show that TGF-β1 and exogenous HS enhanced SZP accumulation of superficial zone chondrocytes in the presence of surface GAGs. At the dose of 1 ng/mL of TGF-β1, the presence of exogenous heparin inhibited SZP accumulation whereas the presence of exogenous CS stimulated SZP accumulation in the culture medium. Enzymatic depletion of GAGs on the surface of superficial zone chondrocytes enhanced the ability of TGF-β1 to stimulate SZP accumulation in the presence of both exogenous heparin and CS. Collectively, these results suggest that GAGs at the surface of superficial zone articular chondrocytes influence the response to TGF-β1 and exogenous GAGs to stimulate SZP accumulation. Cell surface GAGs modulate superficial zone chondrocytes' response to TGF-β1 and exogenous HS. PMID:25398329

  13. Regulation of connective tissue growth factor activity in cultured rat mesangial cells and its expression in experimental diabetic glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Riser, B L; Denichilo, M; Cortes, P; Baker, C; Grondin, J M; Yee, J; Narins, R G

    2000-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a peptide secreted by cultured endothelial cells and fibroblasts when stimulated by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and is overexpressed during fibrotic processes in coronary arteries and in skin. To determine whether CTGF is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic glomerulosclerosis, cultured rat mesangial cells (MC) as well as kidney cortex and microdissected glomeruli were examined from obese, diabetic db/db mice and their normal counterparts. Exposure of MC to recombinant human CTGF significantly increased fibronectin and collagen type I production. Furthermore, unstimulated MC expressed low levels of CTGF message and secreted minimal amounts of CTGF protein (36 to 38 kD) into the media. However, sodium heparin treatment resulted in a greater than fourfold increase in media-associated CTGF, suggesting that the majority of CTGF produced was cell- or matrix-bound. Exposure of MC to TGF-beta, increased glucose concentrations, or cyclic mechanical strain, all causal factors in diabetic glomerulosclerosis, markedly induced the expression of CTGF transcripts, while recombinant human CTGF was able to autoinduce its own expression. TGF-, and high glucose, but not mechanical strain, stimulated the concomitant secretion of CTGF protein, the former also inducing abundant quantities of a small molecular weight form of CTGF (18 kD) containing the heparin-binding domain. The induction of CTGF protein by a high glucose concentration was mediated by TGF-beta, since a TGF-beta-neutralizing antibody blocked this stimulation. In vivo studies using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that although CTGF transcripts were low in the glomeruli of control mice, expression was increased 28-fold after approximately 3.5 mo of diabetes. This change occurred early in the course of diabetic nephropathy when mesangial expansion was mild, and interstitial disease and proteinuria were absent. A substantially reduced

  14. Synthetic oligosaccharides as heparin-mimetics displaying anticoagulant properties.

    PubMed

    Avci, Fikri Y; Karst, Nathalie A; Linhardt, Robert J

    2003-01-01

    Heparin and low molecular weight heparins are major clinical anticoagulants and the drugs of choice for the treatment of deep venous thrombosis. The discovery of an antithrombin binding domain in heparin focused interest on understanding the mechanism of heparin's antithrombotic/ anticoagulant activity. Various heparin-mimetic oligosaccharides have been prepared in an effort to replace polydisperse heparin and low molecular weight heparins with a structurally-defined anticoagulant. The goal of attaining a heparin-mimetic with no unwanted side-effects has also provided motivation for these efforts. This article reviews structure-activity relationship (SAR) of structurally-defined heparin-mimetic oligosaccharides. PMID:14529394

  15. Regulation of human amnion cell growth and morphology by sera, plasma, and growth factors.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, E V; Grimaldi, M A

    1981-01-01

    The requirements of human epithelial cells derived from the amnion membrane for serum factors were investigated. The growth promoting effects of human whole blood serum (WBS), platelet-poor defibrinogenated plasma, and plasma-derived serum (PDS) were examined in primary cultures of these ectodermal cells. The numbers of population doublings recorded after 10 days in the presence of 10% WBS, defibrinogenated plasma, or PDS were 2.3, 2.0 or 1.5, respectively. Although dialysis of sera or plasma had little effect on growth promotion, it markedly decreased the capacity of plasma to maintain cells in culture beyond 10 days. The differences in growth activities could not be attributed to the presence of anticoagulant in plasma and PDS or to the presence of excess calcium in PDS. Platelet lysates and purified platelet-derived growth factor had no effect on growth. Amnion cell growth was enhanced by epidermal growth factor (EGF) or hydrocortisone, but the glucocorticoid did not condition cells to respond to growth factors. Insulin and fibroblast growth factor singly or in combination had no effect on cell replication. Giant cell formation accompanied maintenance in hydrocortisone with defibrinogenated plasma and PDS. Discrete regions of dense population appeared in the presence of hydrocortisone, EGF, and undialyzed supplements.

  16. Lifetime growth in wild meerkats: incorporating life history and environmental factors into a standard growth model.

    PubMed

    English, Sinéad; Bateman, Andrew W; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2012-05-01

    Lifetime records of changes in individual size or mass in wild animals are scarce and, as such, few studies have attempted to model variation in these traits across the lifespan or to assess the factors that affect them. However, quantifying lifetime growth is essential for understanding trade-offs between growth and other life history parameters, such as reproductive performance or survival. Here, we used model selection based on information theory to measure changes in body mass over the lifespan of wild meerkats, and compared the relative fits of several standard growth models (monomolecular, von Bertalanffy, Gompertz, logistic and Richards). We found that meerkats exhibit monomolecular growth, with the best model incorporating separate growth rates before and after nutritional independence, as well as effects of season and total rainfall in the previous nine months. Our study demonstrates how simple growth curves may be improved by considering life history and environmental factors, which may be particularly relevant when quantifying growth patterns in wild populations.

  17. Unfractionated Heparin Promotes Osteoclast Formation in Vitro by Inhibiting Osteoprotegerin Activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Binghan; Lu, Dan; Chen, Yuqing; Zhao, Minghui; Zuo, Li

    2016-01-01

    Heparin has been proven to enhance bone resorption and induce bone loss. Since osteoclasts play a pivotal role in bone resorption, the effect of heparin on osteoclastogenesis needs to be clarified. Since osteocytes are the key modulator during osteoclastogenesis, we evaluated heparin’s effect on osteoclastogenesis in vitro by co-culturing an osteocyte cell line (MLO-Y4) and pre-osteoclasts (RAW264.7). In this co-culture system, heparin enhanced osteoclastogenesis and osteoclastic bone resorption while having no influence on the production of RANKL (receptor activator of NFκB ligand), M-CSF (macrophage colony-stimulating factor), and OPG (osteoprotegerin), which are three main regulatory factors derived from osteocytes. According to previous studies, heparin could bind specifically to OPG and inhibit its activity, so we hypothesized that this might be a possible mechanism of heparin activity. To test this hypothesis, osteoclastogenesis was induced using recombinant RANKL or MLO-Y4 supernatant. We found that heparin has no effect on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis (contains no OPG). However, after incubation with OPG, the capacity of MLO-Y4 supernatant for supporting osteoclast formation was increased. This effect disappeared after OPG was neutralized and reappeared after OPG was replenished. These results strongly suggest that heparin promotes osteocyte-modulated osteoclastogenesis in vitro, at least partially, through inhibiting OPG activity. PMID:27110777

  18. Heparin inhibits mesangial cell proliferation in habu-venom-induced glomerular injury.

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, A. K.; Karnovsky, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have investigated the ability of anticoagulant heparin and nonanticoagulant heparin to inhibit mesangial-cell proliferation after the administration of habu (Trimeresurus flavorivids) snake venom to rats. Rats given injected habu venom exhibited glomerular capillary cystic lesions 6 to 24 hours later, and marked mesangial proliferation was noted within the cyst after 3 days. At 7 days 87% of these lesions (nodules) contained primarily mesangial cells embedded in a dense matrix and fibrin. A decrease in the frequency of nodules and the persistence of cysts indicate effective antiproliferative treatment. When anticoagulant heparin treatment extended from 18 hours after venom administration until sacrifice at 7 days, the percentage of nodules was reduced to 40%. Nonanticoagulant heparins resulted in some, but inconsistent, inhibition of mesangial-cell proliferation. The mechanism of the antiproliferative action of heparin on mesangial cells is not known but may be similar to that for vascular smooth muscle growth regulation. The authors suggest that endogenous heparin in the glomerular basement membrane and mesangial matrix may exert an antiproliferative effect under normal conditions. Loss of this inhibition due to glomerular damage might be reversed by the addition of exogenous heparin. Images Figure 1 PMID:3875292

  19. Distribution of insulin-like growth factors in condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Götz, Werner; Lehmann, Tim Sebastian; Appel, Thorsten Robin; Rath-Deschner, Birgit; Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Luder, Hans-Ulrich; Reich, Rudolf H; Jäger, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a local overgrowth of the condylar process of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of unknown etiology. Probably, growth factors like the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are involved in its pathogenesis. Specimens from 12 patients were investigated histologically and immunohistochemically to obtain the distribution of the IGFs-I and -II and the IGF1 receptor. The results revealed juvenile and adult subtypes. While generally IGF-II could only be detected weakly, in the juvenile cases strong immunostaining for IGF-I in cartilage and bone supposes an influence on pathological growth processes. PMID:17695990

  20. Nerve growth factor binding domain of the nerve growth factor receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Welcher, A.A.; Bitler, C.M.; Radeke, M.J.; Shooter, E.M. )

    1991-01-01

    A structural analysis of the rat low-affinity nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor was undertaken to define the NGF binding domain. Mutant NGF receptor DNA constructs were expressed in mouse fibroblasts or COS cells, and the ability of the mutant receptors to bind NGF was assayed. In the first mutant, all but 16 amino acid residues of the intracellular domain of the receptor were removed. This receptor bound NGF with a K{sub d} comparable to that of the wild-type receptor. A second mutant contained only the four cysteine-rich sequences from the extracellular portion of the protein. This mutant was expressed in COS cells and the resultant protein was a secreted soluble form of the receptor that was able to bind NGF. Two N-terminal deletions, in which either the first cystein-rich sequence or the first and part of the second cystein-rich sequences were removed, bound NGF. However, a mutant lacking all four cysteine-rich sequences was unable to bind NGF. These results show that the four cysteine-rich sequences of the NGF receptor contain the NGF binding domain.

  1. Analysis of Heparins Derived From Bovine Tissues and Comparison to Porcine Intestinal Heparins.

    PubMed

    St Ange, Kalib; Onishi, Akihiro; Fu, Li; Sun, Xiaojun; Lin, Lei; Mori, Daisuke; Zhang, Fuming; Dordick, Jonathan S; Fareed, Jawed; Hoppensteadt, Debra; Jeske, Walter; Linhardt, Robert J

    2016-09-01

    Heparin is a widely used clinical anticoagulant. It is also a linear glycosaminoglycan with an average mass between 10 and 20 kDa and is primarily made up of trisulfated disaccharides comprised of 1,4-linked iduronic acid and glucosamine residues containing some glucuronic acid residues. Heparin is biosynthesized in the Golgi of mast cells commonly found in the liver, intestines, and lungs. Pharmaceutical heparin currently used in the United States is primarily extracted from porcine intestines. Other sources of heparin including bovine intestine and bovine lung are being examined as potential substitutes for porcine intestinal heparin. These additional sources are intended to serve to diversify the heparin supply, making this lifesaving drug more secure. The current study examines bovine heparins prepared from both intestines and lung and compares these to porcine intestinal heparin. The structural properties of these heparins are examined using nuclear magnetic resonance, gel permeation chromatography, and disaccharide analysis of heparinase-catalyzed depolymerized heparin. The in vitro functional activities of these heparins have also been determined. The goal of this study is to establish the structural and functional similarities and potential differences between bovine and porcine heparins. Porcine and bovine heparins have structural and compositional similarities and differences. PMID:27084870

  2. [Novel role of growth factors in ovary function].

    PubMed

    Amsterdam, Abraham

    2010-12-01

    The development of the DNA microarray technique facilitated systematic studies of the modulation of gene function. Considerable attention has been focused on members of the growth factor family to elucidate the main regulators of oocyte maturation and ovarian follicle rupture. Among these growth factors, it was found, both in rodents and in humans, that amphiregulin (Ar) and epiregulin (Ep) of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family were dramatically up-regulated by gonadotrophins in the intact ovary and in primary granulosa cells, respectively. Their role in cumulus expansion and oocyte maturation was established in rodents, and their synthesis under LH stimulation in granulosa cells was demonstrated in humans. To be activated, Ar and Ep must be cleaved by a disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) family. However, the precise processing of Ar and Ep by the cumulus cells is still obscure. Future investigations using DNA microarray technique may reveal the repertoire of genes activated in Ar- and Ep-stimulated cumulus cells and may help elucidate the molecular basis of ovulation. EFG-like factors are also involved in triggering ovarian cancer The author hypothesized that the normal ovary maintains cyclicity in the formation of these growth factors preventing the ovary from developing ovarian cancer In ovarian cancer these growth factors are continuously formed in an autocrine manner, leading to transformation and subsequently to ovarian cancer. These growth factors are essential for both normal and neoplastic transformation of the ovary. Taking into consideration these growth factors in the treatment of ovarian malfunction may be one way of curing ovarian cancer. PMID:21916103

  3. Alternative diagnosis to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in two critically ill patients despite a positive PF4/heparin-antibody test

    PubMed Central

    Hron, Gregor; Knutson, Folke; Thiele, Thomas; Althaus, Karina; Busemann, Christoph; Friesecke, Sigrun; Greinacher, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia can cause diagnostic challenges in patients who have received heparin. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is often considered in the differential diagnosis, and a positive screening can be mistaken as confirmation of the disorder. We present two patients who both received low-molecular-weight heparin for several days. In the first patient, clinical judgment rejected the suspicion of HIT despite a positive screening assay, and treatment for the alternative diagnosis of post-transfusion purpura was correctly initiated. In the second patient, the inaccurate diagnosis HIT was pursued due to a positive screening assay, while the alternative diagnosis of drug-dependent thrombocytopenia caused by piperacillin/tazobactam was rejected. This resulted in re-exposure to piperacillin/tazobactam which caused a second episode of severe thrombocytopenia. A positive screening assay for platelet factor 4/heparin-antibody should be verified by a functional assay, especially in patients with low pretest probability for HIT. PMID:24102149

  4. The structure of heparin oligosaccharide fragments with high anti-(factor Xa) activity containing the minimal antithrombin III-binding sequence. Chemical and 13C nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies.

    PubMed Central

    Casu, B; Oreste, P; Torri, G; Zoppetti, G; Choay, J; Lormeau, J C; Petitou, M; Sinäy, P

    1981-01-01

    The chemical composition and the 13C n.m.r. spectra of heparin oligosaccharides (essentially octasaccharides), having high affinity for antithrombin III and high anti-(Factor Xa) activity, prepared by three independent approaches (extraction, partial deaminative cleavage with HNO2 and partial depolymerization with bacterial heparinase), leading to different terminal residues, have been studied and compared with those of the corresponding inactive species. Combined wit chemical data, the spectra of the active oligosaccharides and of their fragmentation products afforded information on composition and sequence. The three types of active oligosaccharides were shown to have the common hexasaccharide core I-Aa-G-As*-Is-As, where I and alpha-L-idopyranosyl-uronic acid, Aa = 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranose, G = beta-D-glucopyranosyl-uronic acid, Is = alpha-L-idopyranosyluronic acid 2-O-sulphate, As = 2-deoxy-2-sulphamino-alpha-D-glucopyranose 6-O-sulphate. The fourth residue (As*) is an unusually substituted amino sugar resistant to mild deamination. The 13C spectra of the active species are characterized by signals from the above atypical amino sugar, the most evident of which is at 57.7 p.p.m. These signals, compared with those of appropriate synthetic model compounds, are compatible with the recently proposed 3-O-sulphation of the residue As* [Lindahl, Bäckström, Thunberg & Leder (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 6551-6555]. PMID:7325974

  5. Investigation of the structural stability of the human acidic fibroblast growth factor by hydrogen-deuterium exchange.

    PubMed

    Chi, Ya-Hui; Kumar, Thallampuranam Krishnaswamy S; Kathir, Karuppanan Muthusamy; Lin, Dong-Hai; Zhu, Guang; Chiu, Ing-Ming; Yu, Chin

    2002-12-24

    The conformational stability of the human acidic fibroblast growth factor (hFGF-1) is investigated using amide proton exchange and temperature-dependent chemical shifts, monitored by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. The change in free energy of unfolding (DeltaG(u)) of hFGF-1 is estimated to be 5.00 +/- 0.09 kcal.mol(-)(1). Amide proton-exchange rates of 74 residues (in hFGF-1) have been unambiguously measured, and the exchange process occurs predominately according to the conditions of the EX2 limit. The exchange rates of the fast-exchanging amide protons exposed to the solvent have been measured using the clean SEA-HSQC technique. The amide proton protection factor and temperature coefficient estimates show reasonably good correlation. Residues in beta-strands II and VI appear to constitute the stability core of the protein. Among the 12 beta-strands constituting the beta-barrel architecture of hFGF-1, beta-strand XI, located in the heparin binding domain, exhibits the lowest average protection factor value. Amide protons involved in the putative folding nucleation site in hFGF-1, identified by quench-flow NMR studies, do not represent the slow-exchanging core. Residues in portions of hFGF-1 experiencing high conformational flexibility mostly correspond to those involved in receptor recognition and binding.

  6. Insulin-like 3-induced rat preantral follicular growth is mediated by growth differentiation factor 9.

    PubMed

    Xue, Kai; Kim, Ji Young; Liu, Jia-yin; Tsang, Benjamin K

    2014-01-01

    The communication of somatic cells and oocytes by intrafollicular paracrine factors is essential for follicular growth in the ovary. Insulin-like 3 (INSL3) is a theca cell-secreted paracrine factor. Androgens and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), an oocyte-derived growth factor, are essential for follicular development. Using a rat preantral follicle culture model, we examined in the present study the influence of INSL3 on preantral follicular growth and the molecular mechanisms involved. We have observed that the receptor for INSL3, relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 2 (RXFP2), was exclusively expressed in oocytes. Recombinant INSL3 stimulated Gdf9 expression, preantral follicular growth, and testosterone synthesis in vitro. Inhibition of the cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway (with cAMP antagonist, 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer) attenuated INSL3-induced Gdf9 expression and preantral follicular growth. Moreover, knocking down Gdf9 expression (with small interfering RNA) or inhibiting GDF9 signaling (with SB431542, an activin receptor-like kinase receptor 5 inhibitor, or specific inhibitor of mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3) or androgen action (with flutamide, an androgen receptor antagonist) suppressed INSL3-induced preantral follicular growth. In addition, LH and DHT regulated the expression of Insl3 mRNA in preantral follicles. These observations suggest that INSL3 is a key theca cell-derived growth factor for preantral follicle and that its action is mediated by GDF9.

  7. Cutaneous adverse reactions specific to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lupu, I; Voiculescu, VM; Bacalbasa, N; Prie, BE; Cojocaru, I; Giurcaneanu, C

    2015-01-01

    Classical antineoplastic therapy is encumbered by extensively studied adverse reactions, most often of systemic nature. The emergence of new generations of anticancer treatments, including epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, besides improving the response to treatment and the survival rate, is accompanied by the occurrence of new specific side effects, incompletely studied. These side effects are most often cutaneous (hand foot syndrome, acneiform reactions), and in some cases are extremely severe, requiring dose reduction or drug discontinuation. The prevention of the cutaneous adverse effects and their treatment require a close collaboration between the oncologist and the dermatologist. The occurrence of some of these skin adverse effects may be a favorable prognostic factor for the response to the cancer treatment and the overall survival. Abbreviations: EGFR = epidermal growth factor receptors; EGFRI = epidermal growth factor receptors inhibitors PMID:26361513

  8. The activation of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) by glycosaminoglycans: influence of the sulfation pattern on the biological activity of FGF-1.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Jesús; Ojeda, Rafael; de Paz, José-Luis; Lucas, Ricardo; Nieto, Pedro M; Lozano, Rosa M; Redondo-Horcajo, Mariano; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo; Martín-Lomas, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Six synthetic heparin-like oligosaccharides have been used to investigate the effect of the oligosaccharide sulfation pattern on the stimulation of acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1) induced mitogenesis signaling and the biological significance of FGF-1 trans dimerization in the FGF-1 activation process. It has been found that some molecules with a sulfation pattern that does not contain the internal trisaccharide motif, which has been proposed for high affinity for FGF-1, stimulate FGF-1 more efficiently than those with the structure of the regular region of heparin. In contrast to regular region oligosaccharides, in which the sulfate groups are distributed on both sides of their helical three-dimensional structures, the molecules containing this particular sulfation pattern display the sulfate groups only on one side of the helix. These results and the fact that these oligosaccharides do not promote FGF-1 dimerization according to sedimentation-equilibrium analysis, confirm the importance of negative-charge distribution in the activation process and strongly suggest that FGF dimerization is not a general and absolute requirement for biological activity. PMID:14695513

  9. The activation of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) by glycosaminoglycans: influence of the sulfation pattern on the biological activity of FGF-1.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Jesús; Ojeda, Rafael; de Paz, José-Luis; Lucas, Ricardo; Nieto, Pedro M; Lozano, Rosa M; Redondo-Horcajo, Mariano; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo; Martín-Lomas, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Six synthetic heparin-like oligosaccharides have been used to investigate the effect of the oligosaccharide sulfation pattern on the stimulation of acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1) induced mitogenesis signaling and the biological significance of FGF-1 trans dimerization in the FGF-1 activation process. It has been found that some molecules with a sulfation pattern that does not contain the internal trisaccharide motif, which has been proposed for high affinity for FGF-1, stimulate FGF-1 more efficiently than those with the structure of the regular region of heparin. In contrast to regular region oligosaccharides, in which the sulfate groups are distributed on both sides of their helical three-dimensional structures, the molecules containing this particular sulfation pattern display the sulfate groups only on one side of the helix. These results and the fact that these oligosaccharides do not promote FGF-1 dimerization according to sedimentation-equilibrium analysis, confirm the importance of negative-charge distribution in the activation process and strongly suggest that FGF dimerization is not a general and absolute requirement for biological activity.

  10. Evaluation of Heparin Anticoagulation Protocols in Post–Renal Transplant Recipients (EHAP-PoRT Study)

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Joan Chung Yan; Leung, Marianna; Landsberg, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: Disturbances in hemostasis are common among renal transplant recipients. Because of the risk of thromboembolism and graft loss after transplant, a prophylactic heparin protocol was implemented at St Paul’s Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia, in 2011. Therapeutic heparin is sometimes prescribed perioperatively for patients with preexisting prothrombotic conditions. There is currently limited literature on the safety and efficacy of heparin use in the early postoperative period. Objectives: The primary objectives were to document, for patients who underwent renal transplant, the incidence of major bleeding and of thrombosis in those receiving therapeutic heparin, prophylactic heparin, and no heparin anticoagulation in the early postoperative period and to compare these rates for the latter 2 groups. The secondary objectives included a comparison of the risk factors associated with major bleeding and thrombosis. Methods: Adult patients who received a renal transplant at St Paul’s Hospital between January 2008 and July 2013 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Electronic health records and databases were used to divide patients into the 3 heparin-use cohorts, to identify cases of major bleeding and thrombosis, and to characterize patients and events. The Fisher exact test was used for the primary outcome analysis, and descriptive statistics were used for all other outcomes. Results: A total of 547 patients were included in the analysis. Major bleeding was observed in 6 (46%) of the 13 patients who received therapeutic heparin; no cases of thrombosis occurred in these patients. Major bleeding occurred in 8 (3.0%) of the 266 patients who received prophylactic heparin and 9 (3.4%) of the 268 who received no heparin (p > 0.99). Thrombosis occurred in 1 (0.4%) and 3 (1.1%) of these patients, respectively (p = 0.62). Major bleeding occurred more frequently among patients with a low-target heparin protocol, but 61% of values for partial

  11. Hepatocyte growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor activator and arginine in a rat fulminant colitis model

    PubMed Central

    Zwintscher, Nathan P.; Shah, Puja M.; Salgar, Shashikumar K.; Newton, Christopher R.; Maykel, Justin A.; Samy, Ahmed; Jabir, Murad; Steele, Scott R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) is commonly used to induce a murine fulminant colitis model. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been shown to decrease the symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but the effect of its activator, HGFA, is not well characterized. Arginine reduces effects of oxidative stress but its effect on IBD is not well known. The primary aim is to determine whether HGF and HGFA, or arginine will decrease IBD symptoms such as pain and diarrhea in a DSS-induced fulminant colitis murine model. Methods A severe colitis was induced in young, male Fischer 344 rats with 4% (w/v) DSS oral solution for seven days; rats were sacrificed on day 10. Rats were divided into five groups of 8 animals: control, HGF (700 mcg/kg/dose), HGF and HGFA (10 mcg/dose), HGF and arginine, and high dose HGF (2800 mcg/kg/dose). Main clinical outcomes were pain, diarrhea and weight loss. Blinded pathologists scored the terminal ileum and distal colon. Results DSS reliably induced severe active colitis in 90% of animals (n = 36/40). There were no differences in injury scores between control and treatment animals. HGF led to 1.38 fewer days in pain (p = 0.036), while arginine led to 1.88 fewer days of diarrhea (P = 0.017) compared to controls. 88% of HGFA-treated rats started regaining weight (P < 0.001). Discussion/Conclusion Although treatment was unable to reverse fulminant disease, HGF and arginine were associated with decreased days of pain and diarrhea. These clinical interventions may reduce associated symptoms for severe IBD patients, even when urgent surgical intervention remains the only viable option. PMID:27144006

  12. Heparin induced thrombocytopenia in critically ill: Diagnostic dilemmas and management conundrums

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sachin; Tiruvoipati, Ravindranath; Green, Cameron; Botha, John; Tran, Huy

    2015-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is often noted in critically ill patients. While there are many reasons for thrombocytopenia, the use of heparin and its derivatives is increasingly noted to be associated with thrombocytopenia. Heparin induced thrombocytopenia syndrome (HITS) is a distinct entity that is characterised by the occurrence of thrombocytopenia in conjunction with thrombotic manifestations after exposure to unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin. HITS is an immunologic disorder mediated by antibodies to heparin-platelet factor 4 (PF4) complex. HITS is an uncommon cause of thrombocytopenia. Reported incidence of HITS in patients exposed to heparin varies from 0.2% to up to 5%. HITS is rare in ICU populations, with estimates varying from 0.39%-0.48%. It is a complex problem which may cause diagnostic dilemmas and management conundrum. The diagnosis of HITS centers around detection of antibodies against PF4-heparin complexes. Immunoassays performed by most pathology laboratories detect the presence of antibodies, but do not reveal whether the antibodies are pathological. Platelet activation assays demonstrate the presence of clinically relevant antibodies, but only a minority of laboratories conduct them. Several anticoagulants are used in management of HITS. In this review we discuss the incidence, pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of HITS. PMID:26261772

  13. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II on hemodialysis: switch to danaparoid.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, T J; Goetschel, P; Schmugge, M; Leumann, E

    2000-08-01

    We report two pediatric patients with end-stage renal failure who developed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II (HIT II) on hemodialysis (HD). Both developed acute respiratory distress and chest pain within 30 min of initiating the 5th HD session. The platelets dropped during HD from 168 to 38x10(9)/l and from 248 to 109x10(9)/l, respectively. Marked clots were observed in the dialyzers. Substitution of heparin with the low molecular weight heparin dalteparin had no effect. Switching from anticoagulation to the heparinoid danaparoid resulted in immediate disappearance of all adverse effects, and further long-term HD was uneventful. HIT II was diagnosed clinically; heparin-induced platelet activation test (HIPA) and serum IgG, IgA, and IgM to heparin-platelet factor 4 complexes (HPF4) were both negative. We conclude that HIT II may occur in children on HD. HIT II is essentially a clinical diagnosis, as HIPA and antibodies to HPF4 are not always positive. Once HIT II is suspected, heparin (and low-molecular-weight heparins) should be stopped immediately. Long-term anticoagulation with danaparoid is a valuable option for patients on HD. PMID:10955913

  14. Bivalirudin as an Alternative to Heparin for Anticoagulation in Infants and Children

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Bivalirudin, a direct thrombin inhibitor, is a useful alternative to heparin for anticoagulation in infants and children. It has been found to be effective in patients requiring treatment of thrombosis, as well as those needing anticoagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass, extracorporeal life support, or with a ventricular assist device. While it has traditionally been used in patients who were unresponsive to heparin or who developed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, it has recently been studied as a first-line agent. Bivalirudin, unlike heparin, does not require antithrombin to be effective, and as a result, has the potential to provide a more consistent anticoagulation. The case reports and clinical studies currently available suggest that bivalirudin is as effective as heparin at reaching target activated clotting times or activated partial thromboplastin times, with equivalent or the lower rates of bleeding or thromboembolic complications. It is more expensive than heparin, but the cost may be offset by reductions in the costs associated with heparin use, including anti-factor Xa testing and the need for administration of antithrombin. The most significant disadvantage of bivalirudin remains the lack of larger prospective studies demonstrating its efficacy and safety in the pediatric population. PMID:26766931

  15. Insulin and heparin co-immobilized 3D polyester fabrics for the cultivation of fibroblasts in low-serum media.

    PubMed

    Türkoğlu Saşmazel, Hilal; Aday, Sezin; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe

    2007-08-01

    Insulin and/or heparin immobilized/co-immobilized non-woven polyester fabric (NWPF) discs were developed for the cultivation of L929 mouse fibroblasts in low-serum media. At first, NWPF discs were hydrolyzed to obtain a carboxylic acid group-introduced matrix (NWPF-hydrolyzed). Insulin and heparin co-immobilized NWPF (NWPF-insulin-heparin) was prepared by the grafting of PEO onto NWPF-hydrolyzed disc (NWPF-PEO), followed by the reaction first with insulin and then heparin. In the presence of spacer arm, PEO, the amount of immobilized insulin molecules significantly increased from 6.96 to 84.45 microg/cm(2). The amount of heparin bound to the NWPF-PEO (5.93 microg/cm(2)) was higher than that of the insulin immobilized surface (4.59 microg/cm(2)). Insulin and heparin immobilized NWPF discs were observed with fluorescence microscopy by labeling the insulin and heparin with 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid (ANS) or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), respectively. L929 fibroblasts were used to check the cell adhesion and cell growth capabilities of modified NWPF discs in low-serum media (containing 5% fetal bovine serum). Optical photographs showed that after 2nd day of the culture, fibroblastic cells spread along the length of modified fibers, eventually filling the interfiber space. At the end of 6-day growth period, cell yield in the presence of immobilized heparin was a little bit higher than that of the immobilized insulin. Co-immobilized (insulin/heparin) NWPF discs did not accelerate the cell growth as well as insulin or heparin immobilized discs. PMID:17576003

  16. Beclin 1 regulates growth factor receptor signaling in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rohatgi, R A; Janusis, J; Leonard, D; Bellvé, K D; Fogarty, K E; Baehrecke, E H; Corvera, S; Shaw, L M

    2015-10-16

    Beclin 1 is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor that is decreased in many human tumors. The function of beclin 1 in cancer has been attributed primarily to its role in the degradative process of macroautophagy. However, beclin 1 is a core component of the vacuolar protein sorting 34 (Vps34)/class III phosphatidylinositoI-3 kinase (PI3KC3) and Vps15/p150 complex that regulates multiple membrane-trafficking events. In the current study, we describe an alternative mechanism of action for beclin 1 in breast cancer involving its control of growth factor receptor signaling. We identify a specific stage of early endosome maturation that is regulated by beclin 1, the transition of APPL1-containing phosphatidyIinositol 3-phosphate-negative (PI3P(-)) endosomes to PI3P(+) endosomes. Beclin 1 regulates PI3P production in response to growth factor stimulation to control the residency time of growth factor receptors in the PI3P(-)/APPL(+)-signaling-competent compartment. As a result, suppression of BECN1 sustains growth factor-stimulated AKT and ERK activation resulting in increased breast carcinoma cell invasion. In human breast tumors, beclin 1 expression is inversely correlated with AKT and ERK phosphorylation. Our data identify a novel role for beclin 1 in regulating growth factor signaling and reveal a mechanism by which loss of beclin 1 expression would enhance breast cancer progression.

  17. Cytokine and Growth Factor Responses After Radiotherapy for Localized Ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Thomas E. Li Chenghong; Xiong Xiaoping; Gaber, M. Waleed

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the time course and clinical significance of cytokines and peptide growth factors in pediatric patients with ependymoma treated with postoperative radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: We measured 15 cytokines and growth factors (fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], interleukin [IL]-1{beta}, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-{gamma}, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-{alpha}) from 30 patients before RT and 2 and 24 h, weekly for 6 weeks, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the initiation of RT. Two longitudinal models for the trend of log-transformed measurements were fitted, one during treatment and one through 12 months. Results: During RT, log IL-8 declined at a rate of -0.10389/wk (p = 0.0068). The rate of decline was greater (p = 0.028) for patients with an infratentorial tumor location. The decline in IL-8 after RT was significant when stratified by infratentorial tumor location (p = 0.0345) and more than one surgical procedure (p = 0.0272). During RT, the decline in log VEGF was significant when stratified by the presence of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. After RT, the log VEGF declined significantly at a rate of -0.06207/mo. The decline was significant for males (p = 0.0222), supratentorial tumors (p = 0.0158), one surgical procedure (p = 0.0222), no ventriculoperitoneal shunt (p = 0.0005), and the absence of treatment failure (p = 0.0028). Conclusion: The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 declined significantly during RT and the decline differed according to tumor location. The angiogenesis factor VEGF declined significantly during the 12 months after RT. The decline was greater in males, those without a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, and in those with favorable disease factors, including one surgical procedure, supratentorial tumor location, and

  18. Growth factors in porcine full and partial thickness burn repair. Differing targets and effects of keratinocyte growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-BB, epidermal growth factor, and neu differentiation factor.

    PubMed Central

    Danilenko, D. M.; Ring, B. D.; Tarpley, J. E.; Morris, B.; Van, G. Y.; Morawiecki, A.; Callahan, W.; Goldenberg, M.; Hershenson, S.; Pierce, G. F.

    1995-01-01

    The topical application of recombinant growth factors such as epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-BB homodimer (rPDGF-BB), keratinocyte growth factor (rKGF), and neu differentiation factor has resulted in significant acceleration of healing in several animal models of wound repair. In this study, we established highly reproducible and quantifiable full and deep partial thickness porcine burn models in which burns were escharectomized 4 or 5 days postburn and covered with an occlusive dressing to replicate the standard treatment in human burn patients. We then applied these growth factors to assess their efficacy on several parameters of wound repair: extracellular matrix and granulation tissue production, percent reepithelialization, and new epithelial area. In full thickness burns, only rPDGF-BB and the combination of rPDGF-BB and rKGF induced significant changes in burn repair. rPDGF-BB induced marked extracellular matrix and granulation tissue production (P = 0.013) such that the burn defect was filled within several days of escharectomy, but had no effect on new epithelial area or reepithelialization. The combination of rPDGF-BB and rKGF in full thickness burns resulted in a highly significant increase in extracellular matrix and granulation tissue area (P = 0.0009) and a significant increase in new epithelial area (P = 0.007), but had no effect on reepithelialization. In deep partial thickness burns, rKGF induced the most consistent changes. Daily application of rKGF induced a highly significant increase in new epithelial area (P < 0.0001) but induced only a modest increase in reepithelialization (83.7% rKGF-treated versus 70.2% control; P = 0.016) 12 days postburn. rKGF also doubled the number of fully reepithelialized burns (P = 0.02) at 13 days postburn, at least partially because of marked stimulation of both epidermal and follicular proliferation as assessed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression. In situ hybridization for

  19. Autocrine growth factors for human tumor clonogenic cells.

    PubMed

    Hamburger, A W; White, C P

    1985-11-01

    A human epithelial-derived cell line, SW-13, releases a soluble substance that functions as an autocrine growth factor. SW-13 cells, derived from a human adenocarcinoma of the adrenal cortex, form a few small colonies when suspended in soft agar at low densities. The number of colonies increased significantly when either viable SW-13 cells or serum-free medium conditioned by SW-13 cells (CM) was added to agar underlayers. CM increased colony formation in a dose-dependent fashion. Clonal growth at low cell densities was dependent on the presence of both horse serum and SW-13 CM. Neither activity alone was capable of sustaining growth. Even when cells were plated at high densities CM could not substitute for serum, but could reduce the threshold serum concentration. The results suggest that autocrine and serum-derived factors act in concert to maintain clonal growth of epithelial tumor cells in soft agar.

  20. Addressing endotoxin issues in bioengineered heparin.

    PubMed

    Suwan, Jiraporn; Torelli, Amanda; Onishi, Akihiro; Dordick, Jonathan S; Linhardt, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Heparin is a widely used clinical anticoagulant that is prepared from pig intestine. A contamination of heparin in 2008 has led to a reexamination of animal-derived pharmaceuticals. A bioengineered heparin prepared by bacterial fermentation and chemical and enzymatic processing is currently under development. This study examines the challenges of reducing or removing endotoxins associated with this process that are necessary to proceed with preclinical in vivo evaluation of bioengineered heparin. The current process is assessed for endotoxin levels, and strategies are examined for endotoxin removal from polysaccharides and enzymes involved in this process. PMID:23586950

  1. Hammerhead Ribozyme-Mediated Knockdown of mRNA for Fibrotic Growth Factors: Transforming Growth Factor-Beta 1 and Connective Tissue Growth Factor

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Paulette M.; Blalock, Timothy D.; Yuan, Rong; Lewin, Alfred S.; Schultz, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    Excessive scarring (fibrosis) is a major cause of pathologies in multiple tissues, including lung, liver, kidney, heart, cornea, and skin. The transforming growth factor- β (TGF- β) system has been shown to play a key role in regulating the formation of scar tissue throughout the body. Furthermore, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been shown to mediate most of the fibrotic actions of TGF- β, including stimulation of synthesis of extracellular matrix and differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. Currently, no approved drugs selectively and specifically regulate scar formation. Thus, there is a need for a drug that selectively targets the TGF- β cascade at the molecular level and has minimal off-target side effects. This chapter focuses on the design of hammerhead ribozymes, measurement of kinetic activity, and assessment of knockdown mRNAs of TGF- β and CTGF in cell cultures. PMID:22131029

  2. Carotid endarterectomy in patients with heparin-induced platelet activation: comparative efficacy of aspirin and iloprost (ZK36374).

    PubMed

    Kappa, J R; Cottrell, E D; Berkowitz, H D; Fisher, C A; Sobel, M; Ellison, N; Addonizio, V P

    1987-05-01

    Patients with heparin-induced platelet activation who are reexposed to heparin may have recurrent thrombocytopenia, intravascular thrombosis, arterial emboli, or sudden death. To permit carotid endarterectomy in two patients with confirmed heparin-induced platelet activation, we compared the efficacies of aspirin and iloprost, a stable analogue of prostacyclin, in preventing heparin-induced platelet activation. In the first patient, although aspirin prevented both in vitro heparin-induced platelet aggregation (70% without and 7.5% with aspirin) and 14C serotonin release (48% without and 0% with aspirin), intraoperative administration of heparin resulted in an increase in plasma levels of platelet factor 4 from 8 to 260 ng/ml and beta-thromboglobulin levels from 29 to 39 ng/ml. In addition, the circulating platelet count decreased from 221,000 to 174,000 microliters, and 15% spontaneous platelet aggregation was observed. Fortunately, fibrinopeptide A levels remained less than 10 ng/ml intraoperatively, and no thrombotic complications occurred. In the second patient, aspirin did not prevent heparin-induced platelet aggregation in vitro (65% without and 41% with aspirin); however, iloprost (0.01 mumol/L) prevented both in vitro heparin-induced platelet aggregation (59.5% without and 0.0% with iloprost) and 14C serotonin release (56.7% without and 0.0% with iloprost). Therefore, a continuous infusion of iloprost was begun before administration of heparin and was continued until 20 minutes after reversal of heparin with protamine. After intraoperative administration of heparin, plasma levels of platelet factor 4 increased from 19 to 200 ng/ml, and beta-thromboglobulin levels increased from 56 to 76 ng/ml.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2437338

  3. Stimulatory effect of luteinizing hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and epidermal growth factor on vascular endothelial growth factor production in cultured bubaline luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, V S; Dangi, S S; Babitha, V; Verma, M R; Bag, S; Singh, G; Sarkar, M

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temporal (24, 48, and 72 hours) and dose-dependent (0, 5, 10, and 100 ng/mL of LH, insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1], and EGF) in vitro expression and secretion patterns of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in luteal cell culture during different stages of estrous cycle in water buffaloes. Corpus luteum samples from ovaries of early luteal phase (ELP; Days 1-4), midluteal phase (Days 5-10), and late luteal phase (Days 11-16) were collected from a local slaughterhouse. The samples were then processed and cultured in (serum containing) appropriate cell culture medium and incubated separately with three factors (LH, IGF-1, or EGF) at the previously mentioned three dose-duration combinations. At the end of the respective incubation periods, VEGF was assayed in the spent culture medium by ELISA, whereas the cultured cells were used for VEGF mRNA expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results of the present study disclosed dose- and time-dependent stimulatory effects of LH, IGF-1, and EGF on VEGF production in bubaline luteal cells. The VEGF expression and secretion from the cultured luteal cells were highest during the ELP, intermediate in the midluteal phase, and lowest in the late luteal phase of the estrous cycle for all the three tested factors. Comparison of the results of the three treatments depicted EGF as the most potent stimulating factor followed by IGF-1 and LH. Immunocytochemistry findings in luteal cell culture of ELP agreed with the VEGF expression and secretion. In conclusion, mRNA expression, protein secretion, and immunolocalization of VEGF data clearly indicated for the first time that LH, IGF-1, and EGF play an important role in stimulating luteal angiogenesis in buffalo CL. The highest expression and secretion of VEGF in the ELP might be associated with the development of blood vessels in early growth of CL, which in turn gets augmented by the aforementioned

  4. Stimulatory effect of luteinizing hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and epidermal growth factor on vascular endothelial growth factor production in cultured bubaline luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, V S; Dangi, S S; Babitha, V; Verma, M R; Bag, S; Singh, G; Sarkar, M

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temporal (24, 48, and 72 hours) and dose-dependent (0, 5, 10, and 100 ng/mL of LH, insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1], and EGF) in vitro expression and secretion patterns of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in luteal cell culture during different stages of estrous cycle in water buffaloes. Corpus luteum samples from ovaries of early luteal phase (ELP; Days 1-4), midluteal phase (Days 5-10), and late luteal phase (Days 11-16) were collected from a local slaughterhouse. The samples were then processed and cultured in (serum containing) appropriate cell culture medium and incubated separately with three factors (LH, IGF-1, or EGF) at the previously mentioned three dose-duration combinations. At the end of the respective incubation periods, VEGF was assayed in the spent culture medium by ELISA, whereas the cultured cells were used for VEGF mRNA expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results of the present study disclosed dose- and time-dependent stimulatory effects of LH, IGF-1, and EGF on VEGF production in bubaline luteal cells. The VEGF expression and secretion from the cultured luteal cells were highest during the ELP, intermediate in the midluteal phase, and lowest in the late luteal phase of the estrous cycle for all the three tested factors. Comparison of the results of the three treatments depicted EGF as the most potent stimulating factor followed by IGF-1 and LH. Immunocytochemistry findings in luteal cell culture of ELP agreed with the VEGF expression and secretion. In conclusion, mRNA expression, protein secretion, and immunolocalization of VEGF data clearly indicated for the first time that LH, IGF-1, and EGF play an important role in stimulating luteal angiogenesis in buffalo CL. The highest expression and secretion of VEGF in the ELP might be associated with the development of blood vessels in early growth of CL, which in turn gets augmented by the aforementioned

  5. Epidermal growth factor, from gene organization to bedside

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fenghua; Harris, Raymond C.

    2014-01-01

    In 1962, epidermal growth factor (EGF) was discovered by Dr. Stanley Cohen while studying nerve growth factor (NGF). It was soon recognized that EGF is the prototypical member of a family of peptide growth factors that activate the EGF receptors, and that the EGF/EGF receptor signaling pathway plays important roles in proliferation, differentiation and migration of a variety of cell types, especially in epithelial cells. After the basic characterization of EGF function in the first decade or so after its discovery, the studies related to EGF and its signaling pathway have extended to a broad range of investigations concerning its biological and pathophysiological roles in development and in human diseases. In this review, we briefly describe the gene organization and tissue distribution of EGF, with emphasis on its biological and pathological roles in human diseases. PMID:24513230

  6. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia following coronary artery bypass grafting: a diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Raju; Karmacharya, Paras; Forman, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a challenge in post-cardiac surgery patients because of the high incidence of non-immune thrombocytopenia and heparin–platelet factor 4 antibodies in these groups. We present a case of HIT in a post coronary artery bypass surgery patient, which was successfully treated with prompt recognition and discontinuation of heparin products. PMID:26486110

  7. Induction of a heparin-stimulated serine proteinase in sex accessory gland tumors of the Lobund-Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael J; Lind, Jeremy; Sinha, Akhouri A

    2015-08-01

    Induction of new proteinase activities that may process growth factors, modify cell surface receptors, cleave extracellular matrix proteins, etc. is considered fundamental in carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to characterize a novel proteinase activity induced in sex accessory gland cancers (about 70% in seminal vesicles) of adult male Lobund-Wistar rats by a single injection of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU; 25mg/kg) followed by implanted testosterone propionate (45mg in silastic tubing every 2months) treatment for 10-14months. A 28kDa proteinase activity was detected in tumor extracts using SDS-gelatin gel zymography with incubations done without CaCl2. Its activity was stimulated 15 fold by heparin (optimal activity 1.5-3.0μg/lane) added to the tissue extract-SDS sample buffer prior to electrophoresis. No 28kDa heparin-stimulated proteinase (H-SP) was found in the dorsal, lateral and anterior (coagulating gland) prostate lobes or seminal vesicles of untreated adult rats, but there was a 26-30kDa Ca(2+)-independent proteinase activity in the ventral prostate that showed limited heparin stimulation. The 28kDa H-SP was completely inhibited by 1.0mM 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonylfluoride (AESBF) indicating that it was a serine-type proteinase. Other types of proteinase inhibitors were without effect, including serine proteinase inhibitors benzamidine, tranexamic acid and ε-aminocaproic acid. Proteinase activities of about 28kDa were found with casein, fibrinogen or carboxymethylated transferrin as substrate, however, these activities were not stimulated by heparin. Similar levels of activities of the 28kDa H-SP were found in primary tumors and their metastases, but little/no activity was detected in serum, even from rats with large tumor volume and metastases. These data demonstrate overexpression of a heparin-stimulated 28kDa serine proteinase in the primary tumors of sex accessory gland cancers and their metastases. This proteinase either does not

  8. Expression and localization of epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-α and epidermal growth factor receptor in the canine testis

    PubMed Central

    TAMADA, Hiromichi; TAKEMOTO, Kohei; TOMINAGA, Masato; KAWATE, Noritoshi; TAKAHASHI, Masahiro; HATOYA, Shingo; MATSUYAMA, Satoshi; INABA, Toshio; SAWADA, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) and EGF receptor (EGF-R) and the localization of the corresponding proteins in the canine testis were studied. Levels of mRNA expressions were determined by semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in the testes of the peripubertal (4–6 months), young adult (3–4 years), advanced adult (7–8 years) and senescent (11–16 years) groups. The EGF-R mRNA level in the testes of the peripubertal group was significantly higher than those in the other groups, whereas there was no difference in EGF and TGF-α mRNA levels among groups. Immunohistochemical stainings for EGF, TGF-α and EGF-R in the testis revealed that immunoreactivity in the seminiferous epithelium and Sertoli cell was weak and nonspecific for the stage of spermatogenesis, and distinct staining was found in Leydig cells. These results suggest that the EGF family of growth factors may be involved in testicular maturation and function in the dog. PMID:26498203

  9. Differential binding of fibroblast growth factor-2 and -7 to basement membrane heparan sulfate: comparison of normal and abnormal human tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Friedl, A.; Chang, Z.; Tierney, A.; Rapraeger, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) play multiple roles during development and in adult tissues as paracrine regulators of growth and differentiation. FGFs signal through transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases, but heparan sulfate is also required for signaling by members of the FGF family. In addition, heparan sulfate may be involved in determining tissue distribution of FGFs. Using biotinylated FGF-2 and FGF-7 (KGF) as probes, we have identified specific interactions between FGFs and heparan sulfates in human tissues. Both FGF species bind to tissue mast cells and to epithelial cell membranes. Binding to basement membrane heparan sulfate is tissue source dependent and specific. Although FGF-2 strongly binds to basement membrane heparan sulfate in skin and most other tissue sites examined, FGF-7 fails to bind to basement membrane heparan sulfate in most locations. However, in subendothelial matrix in blood vessels and in the basement membrane of a papillary renal cell carcinoma, strong FGF-7 binding is seen. In summary, distinct and specific affinities of heparan sulfates for different FGFs were identified that may affect growth factor activation and local distribution. Heparan sulfate may have a gatekeeper function to either restrict or permit diffusion of heparin-binding growth factors across the basement membrane. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9094999

  10. [Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Importance for anesthesia and intensive care].

    PubMed

    Kleinschmidt, S; Seyfert, U T

    1999-11-01

    For many decades, heparins have been used successfully for prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolic complications world-wide. Although heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT Type II) is a well-known adverse effect of heparin therapy, thromboembolic complications during heparin therapy are rarely diagnosed exactly to be related to HIT. At present an immunologic etiology of HIT by generation of multimodal immune complexes against a neo antigen of heparin and platelet factor 4 is equivocally accepted. The incidence of HIT seems to be related to the type of heparin (unfractioned/low molecular weight) or other underlying risks such as peripheral occlusive vessel disease. Mortality and complications resulting from HIT is reported to be about 20-30% each. For diagnosis of HIT Type II, clinical observation and simultaneous laboratory testing are essential. Discontinuation of heparin is a simple and essential manoeuvre, and anticoagulation has to be continued by alternative drugs. The heparinoid danaparoid-sodium and the thrombin inhibitor recombinant hirudin have been used successfully world-wide for treatment in many patients with HIT Type II including cardiopulmonary bypass surgery or renal replacement procedures. Furthermore, other therapeutical alternatives (e.g. immunoglobulins, prostaglandines) exist. Randomised controlled studies have to evaluate which drug has to be preferred in the future including risk/benefit ratio. The need of supplementary surgical procedures (e.g. embolectomy) depends on the individual clinical status. The patients have to be informed in detail about their underlying disease and further deleterious consequences of re-exposition with heparin. HIT should be recorded in an emergency certificate and the national Committee on Drugs should be informed about this severe side effect of heparin therapy.

  11. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in solid organ transplant recipients: The current scientific knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Assfalg, Volker; Hüser, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to heparin is associated with a high incidence of immunization against platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin complexes. A subgroup of immunized patients is at risk of developing heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), an immune mediated prothrombotic adverse drug effect. Transplant recipients are frequently exposed to heparin either due to the underlying end-stage disease, which leads to listing and transplantation or during the transplant procedure and the perioperative period. To review the current scientific knowledge on anti-heparin/PF4 antibodies and HIT in transplant recipients a systematic PubMed literature search on articles in English language was performed. The definition of HIT is inconsistent amongst the publications. Overall, six studies and 15 case reports have been published on HIT before or after heart, liver, kidney, and lung transplantation, respectively. The frequency of seroconversion for anti-PF4/heparin antibodies ranged between 1.9% and 57.9%. However, different methods to detect anti-PF4/heparin antibodies were applied. In none of the studies HIT-associated thromboembolic events or fatalities were observed. More importantly, in patients with a history of HIT, reexposure to heparin during transplantation was not associated with thrombotic complications. Taken together, the overall incidence of HIT after solid organ transplantation seems to be very low. However, according to the current knowledge, cardiac transplant recipients may have the highest risk to develop HIT. Different alternative suggestions for heparin-free anticoagulation have been reported for recipients with suspected HIT albeit no official recommendations on management have been published for this special collective so far. PMID:27011914

  12. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in solid organ transplant recipients: The current scientific knowledge.

    PubMed

    Assfalg, Volker; Hüser, Norbert

    2016-03-24

    Exposure to heparin is associated with a high incidence of immunization against platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin complexes. A subgroup of immunized patients is at risk of developing heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), an immune mediated prothrombotic adverse drug effect. Transplant recipients are frequently exposed to heparin either due to the underlying end-stage disease, which leads to listing and transplantation or during the transplant procedure and the perioperative period. To review the current scientific knowledge on anti-heparin/PF4 antibodies and HIT in transplant recipients a systematic PubMed literature search on articles in English language was performed. The definition of HIT is inconsistent amongst the publications. Overall, six studies and 15 case reports have been published on HIT before or after heart, liver, kidney, and lung transplantation, respectively. The frequency of seroconversion for anti-PF4/heparin antibodies ranged between 1.9% and 57.9%. However, different methods to detect anti-PF4/heparin antibodies were applied. In none of the studies HIT-associated thromboembolic events or fatalities were observed. More importantly, in patients with a history of HIT, reexposure to heparin during transplantation was not associated with thrombotic complications. Taken together, the overall incidence of HIT after solid organ transplantation seems to be very low. However, according to the current knowledge, cardiac transplant recipients may have the highest risk to develop HIT. Different alternative suggestions for heparin-free anticoagulation have been reported for recipients with suspected HIT albeit no official recommendations on management have been published for this special collective so far. PMID:27011914

  13. The blood and vascular cell compatibility of heparin-modified ePTFE vascular grafts

    PubMed Central

    Hoshi, Ryan A.; Van Lith, Robert; Jen, Michele C.; Allen, Josephine B.; Lapidos, Karen A.; Ameer, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Prosthetic vascular grafts do not mimic the antithrombogenic properties of native blood vessels and therefore have higher rates of complications that involve thrombosis and restenosis. We developed an approach for grafting bioactive heparin, a potent anticoagulant glycosaminoglycan, to the lumen of ePTFE vascular grafts to improve their interactions with blood and vascular cells. Heparin was bound to aminated poly(1,8-octanediol-co-citrate) (POC) via its carboxyl functional groups onto POC-modified ePTFE grafts. The bioactivity and stability of the POC-immobilized heparin (POC–Heparin) were characterized via platelet adhesion and clotting assays. The effects of POC–Heparin on the adhesion, viability and phenotype of primary endothelial cells (EC), blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) obtained from endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) isolated from human peripheral blood, and smooth muscle cells were also investigated. POC–Heparin grafts maintained bioactivity under physiologically relevant conditions in vitro for at least one month. Specifically, POC–Heparin-coated ePTFE grafts significantly reduced platelet adhesion and inhibited whole blood clotting kinetics. POC–Heparin supported EC and BOEC adhesion, viability, proliferation, NO production, and expression of endothelial cell-specific markers von Willebrand factor (vWF) and vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin). Smooth muscle cells cultured on POC–Heparin showed increased expression of α-actin and decreased cell proliferation. This approach can be easily adapted to modify other blood contacting devices such as stents where antithrombogenicity and improved endothelialization are desirable properties. PMID:23069711

  14. Effects of growth factors on temporomandibular joint disc cells.

    PubMed

    Detamore, Michael S; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2004-07-01

    The effects of growth factors on cartilaginous tissues are well documented. An exception is the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc, where data for growth factor effects on proliferation and biosynthesis are very limited. The purpose of this study was to quantify proliferation of and synthesis by TMJ disc cells cultured in monolayer with either platelet derived growth factor-AB (PDGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF), at either a low (10 ng/ml) or high (100 ng/ml) concentration. Proliferation was assessed with a DNA quantitation technique, collagen synthesis was measured via a hydroxyproline assay, and GAG synthesis was determined with a dimethylmethylene blue dye binding assay at 14 days. Overall, the most beneficial growth factor was bFGF, which was most potent in increasing proliferation and GAG synthesis, and also effective in promoting collagen synthesis. At the high concentration, bFGF resulted in 96% more cells than the control and 30 to 45% more cells than PDGF and IGF. PDGF and bFGF were the most potent upregulators of GAG synthesis, producing 2-3 times more GAG than the control. IGF had no significant effect on GAG production, although at its higher concentration it increased collagen production by 4.5 times over the control. Collagen synthesis was promoted by bFGF at its lower concentration, with levels 4.2 times higher than the control, whereas PDGF had no significant effect on collagen production. In general, higher concentrations increased proliferation, whereas lower concentrations favoured biosynthesis. PMID:15126139

  15. Epidermal Growth Factor-Like Growth Factors in the Follicular Fluid: Role in Oocyte Development and Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Minnie; Zamah, A. Musa; Conti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The growth and maturation of the ovarian follicle requires the coordinate function of somatic cells and the oocyte. Over the past three decades, numerous growth factors involved in the bidirectional signals between the somatic and germ cells have been identified. A possible function of epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling at selected stages of follicle maturation had been proposed early on and is supported by many observations of in vitro effects of this growth factor on steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation, and cumulus expansion. However, attempts to link EGF levels in the follicular fluid with the state of follicle and oocyte maturation have been inconclusive. More recently, data generated using mouse genetic models perturbing ovulation and fertility indicate that EGF-like growth factors, rather than EGF itself, accumulate in the follicle at the time of ovulation. EGF-like growth factor mRNA is regulated by the luteinizing hormone surge, and corresponding proteins are detected in the follicle. The EGF-like growth factors amphiregulin, epiregulin, and betacellulin are potent stimulators of oocyte maturation and cumulus expansion, and perturbation of this EGF network in vivo impairs ovulation. Similar findings in species other than the mouse confirm an important physiological role for this network at the time of ovulation. Whether this network also plays a critical role in humans and whether it can be used as a biological marker of follicle development or for the improvement of fertility remains to be determined. This review summarizes the most recent findings on the EGF network during ovulation and the potential clinical applications of manipulating this intercellular communication pathway in the control of fertility. PMID:19197805

  16. Placental Growth Factor Administration Abolishes Placental Ischemia-Induced Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Spradley, Frank T; Tan, Adelene Y; Joo, Woo S; Daniels, Garrett; Kussie, Paul; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Granger, Joey P

    2016-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder of new-onset hypertension. Unfortunately, the most effective treatment is early delivery of the fetus and placenta. Placental ischemia appears central to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia because placental ischemia/hypoxia induced in animals by reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) or in humans stimulates release of hypertensive placental factors into the maternal circulation. The anti-angiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), which antagonizes and reduces bioavailable vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor (PlGF), is elevated in RUPP rats and preeclampsia. Although PlGF and vascular endothelial growth factor are both natural ligands for sFlt-1, vascular endothelial growth factor also has high affinity to VEGFR2 (Flk-1) causing side effects like edema. PlGF is specific for sFlt-1. We tested the hypothesis that PlGF treatment reduces placental ischemia-induced hypertension by antagonizing sFlt-1 without adverse consequences to the mother or fetus. On gestational day 14, rats were randomized to 4 groups: normal pregnant or RUPP±infusion of recombinant human PlGF (180 μg/kg per day; AG31, a purified, recombinant human form of PlGF) for 5 days via intraperitoneal osmotic minipumps. On day 19, mean arterial blood pressure and plasma sFlt-1 were higher and glomerular filtration rate lower in RUPP than normal pregnant rats. Infusion of recombinant human PlGF abolished these changes seen with RUPP along with reducing oxidative stress. These data indicate that the increased sFlt-1 and reduced PlGF resulting from placental ischemia contribute to maternal hypertension. Our novel finding that recombinant human PlGF abolishes placental ischemia-induced hypertension, without major adverse consequences, suggests a strong therapeutic potential for this growth factor in preeclampsia. PMID:26831193

  17. Cytokines and growth factors which regulate bone cell function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seino, Yoshiki

    Everybody knows that growth factors are most important in making bone. Hormones enhance bone formation from a long distance. Growth factors promote bone formation as an autocrine or paracrine factor in nearby bone. BMP-2 through BMP-8 are in the TGF-β family. BMP makes bone by enchondral ossification. In bone, IGF-II is most abundant, second, TGF-β, and third IGF-I. TGF-β enhances bone formation mainly by intramembranous ossification in vivo. TGF-β affects both cell proliferation and differentiation, however, TGF-β mainly enhances bone formation by intramembranous ossification. Interestingly, TGF-β is increased by estrogen(E 2), androgen, vitamin D, TGF-β and FGF. IGF-I and IGF-II also enhance bone formation. At present it remains unclear why IGF-I is more active in bone formation than IGF-II, although IGF-II is more abundant in bone compared to IGF-I. However, if only type I receptor signal transduction promotes bone formation, the strong activity of IGF-I in bone formation is understandable. GH, PTH and E 2 promotes IGF-I production. Recent data suggest that hormones containing vitamin D or E 2 enhance bone formation through growth factors. Therefore, growth factors are the key to clarifying the mechanism of bone formation.

  18. Heparin induced thrombosis: an important complication of heparin prophylaxis for thromboembolic disease in surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, J B; Lonsdale, R J; Wenham, P W; Frostick, S P

    1993-01-01

    Heparin induced thrombocytopenia with thrombosis, or the "white clot syndrome," is a rare but recognised complication of heparin therapy. The syndrome is idiosyncratic, immune mediated, and not dose dependent and therefore is equally likely to occur with prophylactic and therapeutic heparin dosage regimens. Despite published reports on the subject we were alarmed that many surgeons who regularly use heparin to prevent or treat thrombosis were unaware that heparin can induce thrombotic complications in susceptible patients. We present three typical case histories, a brief discussion of the condition, and some guidelines on its prevention and treatment. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 PMID:8280214

  19. Tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline activates fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling in glial cells: involvement in glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor production.

    PubMed

    Hisaoka, Kazue; Tsuchioka, Mami; Yano, Ryoya; Maeda, Natsuko; Kajitani, Naoto; Morioka, Norimitsu; Nakata, Yoshihiro; Takebayashi, Minoru

    2011-06-17

    Recently, both clinical and animal studies demonstrated neuronal and glial plasticity to be important for the therapeutic action of antidepressants. Antidepressants increase glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) production through monoamine-independent protein-tyrosine kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) activation in glial cells (Hisaoka, K., Takebayashi, M., Tsuchioka, M., Maeda, N., Nakata, Y., and Yamawaki, S. (2007) J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 321, 148-157; Hisaoka, K., Maeda, N., Tsuchioka, M., and Takebayashi, M. (2008) Brain Res. 1196, 53-58). This study clarifies the type of tyrosine kinase and mechanism of antidepressant-induced GDNF production in C6 glioma cells and normal human astrocytes. The amitriptyline (a tricyclic antidepressant)-induced ERK activation was specifically and completely inhibited by fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors and siRNA for FGFR1 and -2. Treatment with amitriptyline or several different classes of antidepressants, but not non-antidepressants, acutely increased the phosphorylation of FGFRs and FGFR substrate 2α (FRS2α). Amitriptyline-induced CREB phosphorylation and GDNF production were blocked by FGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Therefore, antidepressants activate the FGFR/FRS2α/ERK/CREB signaling cascade, thus resulting in GDNF production. Furthermore, we attempted to elucidate how antidepressants activate FGFR signaling. The effect of amitriptyline was inhibited by heparin, non-permeant FGF-2 neutralizing antibodies, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors. Serotonin (5-HT) also increased GDNF production through FGFR2 (Tsuchioka, M., Takebayashi, M., Hisaoka, K., Maeda, N., and Nakata, Y. (2008) J. Neurochem. 106, 244-257); however, the effect of 5-HT was not inhibited by heparin and MMP inhibitors. These results suggest that amitriptyline-induced FGFR activation might occur through an extracellular pathway

  20. The Responses of Hyperglycemic Dividing Mesangial Cells to Heparin Are Mediated by the Non-reducing Terminal Trisaccharide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Christina P; Hascall, Vincent C; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J; Abbadi, Amina; Wang, Aimin

    2015-11-27

    Our previous studies showed: (i) that growth-arrested G0/G1 rat mesangial cells stimulated to divide in hyperglycemic medium initiate intracellular hyaluronan synthesis that induces autophagy and the cyclin D3-induced formation of a monocyte-adhesive extracellular hyaluronan matrix after completing cell division; and (ii) that heparin inhibits the intracellular hyaluronan and autophagy responses, but after completing division, induces hyaluronan synthesis at the plasma membrane with the formation of a larger monocyte-adhesive hyaluronan matrix. This study shows: (i) that the non-terminal trisaccharide of heparin is sufficient to initiate the same responses as intact heparin, (ii) that a fully sulfated tetrasaccharide isolated from bacterial heparin lyase 1 digests of heparin that contains a Δ-2S-iduronate on the non-reducing end does not initiate the same responses as intact heparin, and (iii) that removal of the Δ-2S-iduronate to expose the fully sulfated trisaccharide (GlcNS(6S)-IdoUA(2S)-GlcNS(6S)) does initiate the same responses as intact heparin. These results provide evidence that mammalian heparanase digestion of heparin and heparan sulfate exposes a cryptic motif on the non-reducing termini that is recognized by a receptor on dividing cells.

  1. Tumor vascular permeability factor stimulates endothelial cell growth and angiogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, D T; Heuvelman, D M; Nelson, R; Olander, J V; Eppley, B L; Delfino, J J; Siegel, N R; Leimgruber, R M; Feder, J

    1989-01-01

    Vascular permeability factor (VPF) is an Mr 40-kD protein that has been purified from the conditioned medium of guinea pig line 10 tumor cells grown in vitro, and increases fluid permeability from blood vessels when injected intradermally. Addition of VPF to cultures of vascular endothelial cells in vitro unexpectedly stimulated cellular proliferation. VPF promoted the growth of new blood vessels when administered into healing rabbit bone grafts or rat corneas. The identity of the growth factor activity with VPF was established in four ways: (a) the molecular weight of the activity in preparative SDS-PAGE was the same as VPF (Mr approximately 40 kD); (b) multiple isoforms (pI greater than or equal to 8) for both VPF and the growth-promoting activity were observed; (c) a single, unique NH2-terminal amino acid sequence was obtained; (d) both growth factor and permeability-enhancing activities were immunoadsorbed using antipeptide IgG that recognized the amino terminus of VPF. Furthermore, 125I-VPF was shown to bind specifically and with high affinity to endothelial cells in vitro and could be chemically cross-linked to a high-molecular weight cell surface receptor, thus demonstrating a mechanism whereby VPF can interact directly with endothelial cells. Unlike other endothelial cell growth factors, VPF did not stimulate [3H]thymidine incorporation or promote growth of other cell types including mouse 3T3 fibroblasts or bovine smooth muscle cells. VPF, therefore, appears to be unique in its ability to specifically promote increased vascular permeability, endothelial cell growth, and angio-genesis. Images PMID:2478587

  2. Vascular endothelial growth factors: A comparison between invertebrates and vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kipryushina, Yulia O; Yakovlev, Konstantin V; Odintsova, Nelly A

    2015-12-01

    This review aims to summarize recent data concerning the structure and role of the members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) families in the context of early development, organogenesis and regeneration, with a particular emphasis on the role of these factors in the development of invertebrates. Homologs of VEGF and/or VEGFR have been found in all Eumetazoa, in both Radiata and Bilateria, where they are expressed in the descendants of different germ layers and play a pivotal role in the development of animals with and without a vascular system. VEGF is a well-known angiogenesis regulator, but this factor also control cell migration during neurogenesis and the development of branching organs (the trachea) in invertebrate and vertebrate species. A possible explanation for the origin of Vegf/Vegfr in the animal kingdom and a pathway of Vegf/Vegfr evolution are discussed.

  3. Growth factors in the treatment of early osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Civinini, Roberto; Nistri, Lorenzo; Martini, Caterina; Redl, Birgit; Ristori, Gabriele; Innocenti, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Regenerative medicine is the science that studies the regeneration of biological tissues obtained through use of cells, with the aid of support structures and with biomolecules such as growth factors. As regards the growth factors the PRP, or the platelet-rich plasma, obtained from a withdrawal of autologous blood, concentrating the platelets, represents a safe, economical, easy to prepare and easy to apply source of growth factors. Numerous growth factors are in fact within the platelets and in particular a large number of them have a specific activity on neo-proliferation, on cartilage regeneration and in particular also an antiapoptotic effect on chondroblasts: - The PDGF which regulates the secretion and synthesis of collagen;- The EGF that causes cellular proliferation, endothelial chemotaxis and angiogenesis;- The VEGF that increases angiogenesis and vascular permeability;- The TGF-beta that stimulates the proliferation of undifferentiated MSC, stimulates chemotaxis of endothelial cells and angiogenesis;- The bFGF that promotes the growth and differentiation of chondrocytes and osteoblasts stimulates mitogenesis of mesenchymal cells, chondrocytes and osteoblasts. These properties have led to the development of studies that evaluated the efficacy of treatment of infiltrations in the knee and hip with platelet-derived growth factors. Regarding the knee it was demonstrated that in patients with moderate degree of gonarthrosis, the PRP is able to significantly reduce the pain and improve joint function, both on placebo and towards infiltrations with hyaluronic acid. The success of the treatment was proportional to the age of and inversely proportional to the severity of osteoarthritis according to Kellgren and Lawrence classification. The possibility of infiltrations guided with ultrasound into the hip led us to extend the indications also to hip arthrosis, as already showed by Sanchez. Even in coxarthrosis preliminary results at 6 and 12 months show that

  4. Factors affecting Staphylococcus epidermidis growth in peritoneal dialysis solutions.

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, W A; Watts, J; Bowmer, M I

    1986-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most frequent cause of peritonitis complicating continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. We studied factors that might influence the growth of S. epidermidis in commercially available peritoneal dialysis solution (PDS). Test strains were inoculated into PDS and incubated overnight at 37 degrees C. Samples were removed at appropriate intervals, bacterial counts were performed, and growth curves were constructed. We studied the effects of various osmolarities, the neutralization and acidification of fresh and spent PDS, and the effect of intraperitoneal dwell time on the ability PDS to support growth of S. epidermidis. In fresh PDS, numbers of bacteria remained constant after 24 h. No significant differences in growth were observed among PDS with 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, and 4.25% glucose. Neutralizing acidic fresh PDS had no effect on bacterial growth. However, growth did occur in spent PDS. PDS which was recovered after only 2 h in the peritoneal cavity supported growth to the same extent as did PDS recovered after 4 to 6 h. Mean log10 changes after 24 h of incubation were as follows: for fresh PDS, -1.3; after 2 h dwell time, 2.9; after 4 h dwell time, 1.9; and after 6 h dwell time, 1.3. Acidification of spent PDS to less than pH 6.35 produced less rapid growth; mean log10 increases after 24 h of incubation were 1.9 for pH 7.75, 1.6 for pH 6.35, 0.6 for pH 5.75, and 0.7 for pH 4.95. Fresh PDS of all available osmolarities neither supported the growth of S. epidermidis nor was bactericidal. Spent PDS supported bacterial growth, and this growth was partly independent of the neutralization which occurred during the dialysis. PMID:3722356

  5. Binding, sequestration, and processing of epidermal growth factor and nerve growth factor by PC12 cells. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, C.E.; Herschman, H.R.

    1983-03-01

    Th rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cell line exhibits biological responses to both nerve growth factor (NGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The existence of receptors and biological responses on a common cell for these two well-characterized polypeptide growth factors makes this an attractive system for comparison of ligand binding and processing. Both NGF and EGF are bound to PC12 cells in a competable form at 4/sup 0/C. At 37/sup 0/C both ligands are ''sequestered,'' but at different rates and to different extents. While sequestration happens rapidly and nearly quantitatively for bound EGF, the dissociation reaction appears to compete favorably with NFG sequestration. Both EGF and NGF are degraded by PC12 cells. Sequestered EGF, however, is degraded to a greater extent than sequestered NGF.

  6. Prodomains of transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily members specify different functions: extracellular matrix interactions and growth factor bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Sengle, Gerhard; Ono, Robert N; Sasaki, Takako; Sakai, Lynn Y

    2011-02-18

    The specific functions of the prodomains of TGFβ superfamily members are largely unknown. Interactions are known between prodomains of TGFβ-1-3 and latent TGFβ-binding proteins and between prodomains of BMP-2, -4, -7, and -10 and GDF-5 and fibrillins, raising the possibility that latent TGFβ-binding proteins and fibrillins may mediate interactions with all other prodomains of this superfamily. This possibility is tested in this study. Results show that the prodomain of BMP-5 interacts with the N-terminal regions of fibrillin-1 and -2 in a site similar to the binding sites for other bone morphogenetic proteins. However, in contrast, the prodomain of GDF-8 (myostatin) interacts with the glycosaminoglycan side chains of perlecan. The binding site for the GDF-8 prodomain is likely the heparan sulfate chain present on perlecan domain V. These results support and extend the emerging concept that TGFβ superfamily prodomains target their growth factor dimers to extracellular matrix macromolecules. In addition, biochemical studies of prodomain·growth factor complexes were performed to identify inactive complexes. For some members of the superfamily, the prodomain is noncovalently associated with its growth factor dimer in an inactive complex; for others, the prodomain·growth factor complex is active, even though the prodomain is noncovalently associated with its growth factor dimer. Results show that the BMP-10 prodomain, in contrast to BMP-4, -5, and -7 prodomains, can inhibit the bioactivity of the BMP-10 growth factor and suggest that the BMP-10 complex is like TGFβ and GDF-8 complexes, which can be activated by cleavage of the associated prodomain.

  7. An ideal preparation for dermal regeneration: skin renewal growth factors, the growth factor composites from porcine platelets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kuo-Hsien; Wu, Yo-Ping Greg; Lo, Wen-Cheng

    2012-12-01

    The use of growth factor composites from platelets has been introduced to many areas of clinical applications and studies. With the richest source of growth factors (GFs), beneficial effects have been shown on tissue regeneration and wound healing. However, animal and clinical studies have revealed inconsistent outcomes with the use of platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs), which were likely due to variations in the presence and concentrations of GFs between various sources. Autologous PDGFs are considered to be safer, but they are limited by the feasibility of large-scale production to be used extensively in the acute phase, greater surface area, or general cosmetic applications. This study employed a simple process to obtain growth factor composites from activated platelets of porcine origin, namely skin renewal growth factors (SRGF). The functions of SRGF were subsequently evaluated on cultured human fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and melanocytes. Our data revealed that SRGF significantly promoted the proliferation of fibroblasts, accompanied by increased expression of collagens (types I, III, IV, and VIII) and proteoglycans. Diminished proliferation and arrested differentiation of keratinocytes were evidenced by the attenuated expression of laminin V and keratin 10. In addition, SRGF also suppressed the growth of melanocytes and reduced the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, and paired box 3 (PAX3), which mediates melanogensis. Our results suggest that SRGF possesses beneficial properties and is a promising and cost-effective composition for the development of a safe cosmetic agent or topical products for skin regeneration. The development of SRGF may also provide an alternative strategy for tissue engineering.

  8. Functional upregulation of system xc- by fibroblast growth factor-2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqian; Resch, Jon; Rush, Travis; Lobner, Doug

    2012-02-01

    The cystine/glutamate antiporter (system xc-) is a Na(+)-independent amino acid transport system. Disruption of this system may lead to multiple effects in the CNS including decreased cellular glutathione. Since multiple neurological diseases involve glutathione depletion, and disruption of growth factor signaling has also been implicated in these diseases, it is possible that some growth factors effects are mediated by regulation of system xc-. We tested the growth factors fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), neuregulin-1 (NRG), neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on system xc- mediated 14C-cystine uptake in mixed neuronal and glial cortical cultures. Only FGF-2 significantly increased cystine uptake. The effect was observed in astrocyte-enriched cultures, but not in cultures of neurons or microglia. The increase was blocked by the system xc- inhibitor (s)-4-carboxyphenylglycine, required at least 12 h FGF-2 treatment, and was prevented by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Kinetic analysis indicated FGF-2 treatment increased the V(max) for cystine uptake while the K(m) remained the same. Quantitative PCR showed an increase in mRNA for xCT, the functional subunit of system xc-, beginning at 3 h of FGF-2 treatment, with a dramatic increase after 12 h. Blocking FGFR1 with PD 166866 blocked the FGF-2 effect. Treatment with a PI3-kinase inhibitor (LY-294002) or a MEK/ERK inhibitor (U0126) for 1 h prior to and during the FGF-2 treatment, each partially blocked the increased cystine uptake. The upregulation of system xc- by FGF-2 may be responsible for some of the known physiological actions of FGF-2. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'.

  9. Priming Dental Pulp Stem Cells With Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Increases Angiogenesis of Implanted Tissue-Engineered Constructs Through Hepatocyte Growth Factor and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Secretion.

    PubMed

    Gorin, Caroline; Rochefort, Gael Y; Bascetin, Rumeyza; Ying, Hanru; Lesieur, Julie; Sadoine, Jérémy; Beckouche, Nathan; Berndt, Sarah; Novais, Anita; Lesage, Matthieu; Hosten, Benoit; Vercellino, Laetitia; Merlet, Pascal; Le-Denmat, Dominique; Marchiol, Carmen; Letourneur, Didier; Nicoletti, Antonino; Vital, Sibylle Opsahl; Poliard, Anne; Salmon, Benjamin; Muller, Laurent; Chaussain, Catherine; Germain, Stéphane

    2016-03-01

    Tissue engineering strategies based on implanting cellularized biomaterials are promising therapeutic approaches for the reconstruction of large tissue defects. A major hurdle for the reliable establishment of such therapeutic approaches is the lack of rapid blood perfusion of the tissue construct to provide oxygen and nutrients. Numerous sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) displaying angiogenic potential have been characterized in the past years, including the adult dental pulp. Establishment of efficient strategies for improving angiogenesis in tissue constructs is nevertheless still an important challenge. Hypoxia was proposed as a priming treatment owing to its capacity to enhance the angiogenic potential of stem cells through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release. The present study aimed to characterize additional key factors regulating the angiogenic capacity of such MSCs, namely, dental pulp stem cells derived from deciduous teeth (SHED). We identified fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) as a potent inducer of the release of VEGF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) by SHED. We found that FGF-2 limited hypoxia-induced downregulation of HGF release. Using three-dimensional culture models of angiogenesis, we demonstrated that VEGF and HGF were both responsible for the high angiogenic potential of SHED through direct targeting of endothelial cells. In addition, FGF-2 treatment increased the fraction of Stro-1+/CD146+ progenitor cells. We then applied in vitro FGF-2 priming to SHED before encapsulation in hydrogels and in vivo subcutaneous implantation. Our results showed that FGF-2 priming is more efficient than hypoxia at increasing SHED-induced vascularization compared with nonprimed controls. Altogether, these data demonstrate that FGF-2 priming enhances the angiogenic potential of SHED through the secretion of both HGF and VEGF.

  10. Therapeutic potential of growth factors and their antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    Garner, A.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes studies with four peptides, epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha), gastrin-releasing peptide/bombesin (GRP), and gastrin. The mitogenic and anti-secretory activities of EGF/TGF alpha appear to be mediated by a single class of high-affinity membrane receptors but may involve different signal transducing mechanisms. Biological activity of EGF resides in the N-terminal 42 amino acid fragment with the C-terminal undecapeptide determining binding affinity. A parenteral depot formulation of an EGF-related peptide or a small molecule agonist of the EGF receptor could have utility in treating various ulcerative disorders of the gut. Although antagonism of EGF (and thus TGF alpha) receptors and/or transducing mechanisms is frequently cited as a potential therapeutic approach to hyperproliferative diseases, blocking the action of TGF alpha, GRP, or gastrin with neutralizing antib