Science.gov

Sample records for growth factor vegf

  1. Detection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptors Flt-1 and KDR in canine mastocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Rebuzzi, Laura; Willmann, Michael; Sonneck, Karoline; Gleixner, Karoline V; Florian, Stefan; Kondo, Rudin; Mayerhofer, Matthias; Vales, Anja; Gruze, Alexander; Pickl, Winfried F; Thalhammer, Johann G; Valent, Peter

    2007-02-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major regulator of angiogenesis and a potential autocrine growth factor for neoplastic cells in various malignancies. In the present study, we have investigated expression of VEGF and VEGF receptors in canine mastocytomas and the canine mastocytoma cell line C2. As assessed by immunostaining of tissue sections and cytospin slides, primary neoplastic mast cells (MC) and C2 cells were found to express the VEGF protein. In Northern blot and RT-PCR experiments, C2 cells expressed VEGF mRNA in a constitutive manner. VEGF mRNA expression in C2 cells was counteracted by LY294002 and rapamycin, suggesting involvement of the PI3-kinase/mTOR pathway. Moreover, C2 cells were found to express VEGF receptor-1 (Flt-1) and VEGF receptor-2 (KDR). However, recombinant VEGF failed to promote (3)H-thymidine uptake in C2 cells, and a neutralizing anti-VEGF antibody (bevacizumab) failed to downregulate spontaneous proliferation in these cells. In addition, rapamycin decreased the expression of VEGF in C2 cells at the mRNA and protein level without suppressing their proliferation. Together, canine mastocytoma cells express VEGF as well as VEGF receptors. However, despite co-expression of VEGF and its receptors, VEGF is not utilized as an autocrine growth regulator by canine mastocytoma cells. PMID:17196258

  2. An Antagonistic Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Variant Inhibits VEGF-Stimulated Receptor Autophosphorylation and Proliferation of Human Endothelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemeister, Gerhard; Schirner, Michael; Reusch, Petra; Barleon, Bernhard; Marme, Dieter; Martiny-Baron, Georg

    1998-04-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent mitogen with a unique specificity for endothelial cells and a key mediator of aberrant endothelial cell proliferation and vascular permeability in a variety of human pathological situations, such as tumor angiogenesis, diabetic retinopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, or psoriasis. VEGF is a symmetric homodimeric molecule with two receptor binding interfaces lying on each pole of the molecule. Herein we report on the construction and recombinant expression of an asymmetric heterodimeric VEGF variant with an intact receptor binding interface at one pole and a mutant receptor binding interface at the second pole of the dimer. This VEGF variant binds to VEGF receptors but fails to induce receptor activation. In competition experiments, the heterodimeric VEGF variant antagonizes VEGF-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation and proliferation of endothelial cells. A 15-fold excess of the heterodimer was sufficient to inhibit VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell proliferation by 50%, and a 100-fold excess resulted in an almost complete inhibition. By using a rational approach that is based on the structure of VEGF, we have shown the feasibility to construct a VEGF variant that acts as an VEGF antagonist.

  3. PTEN mutation and epidermal growth factor receptor activation regulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA expression in human glioblastoma cells by transactivating the proximal VEGF promoter.

    PubMed

    Pore, Nabendu; Liu, Shuang; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A; O'Rourke, Donald M; Maity, Amit

    2003-01-01

    Our previous work showed that, compared with parental U87MG human glioblastoma cells, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA levels are decreased in U87/T691, a derivative line in which epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is inhibited by introduction of a truncated p185(Neu) protein (A. Maity et al., Cancer Res., 60: 5879-5886, 2000). The effect of EGFR activation on VEGF was mediated at the level of transcription via a phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)-dependent pathway. In the current study we investigated the effect of PTEN, a negative regulator of PI3K signaling commonly mutated in glioblastoma cells, on VEGF expression. Several glioblastoma cell lines containing mutant PTEN, including U87MG, U87/T691, and U251MG, were infected with adenovirus expressing wild-type PTEN. This led to a decrease in the levels of both VEGF mRNA and phosphorylated Akt, a marker for PI3K activation. Treatment of U87MG cells with LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, or cotransfection with a vector expressing wild-type PTEN decreased VEGF promoter activity using reporters containing either 1.5 kb of the promoter or a fragment extending from -88 to +54 bp. Activity of the -88/+54 VEGF promoter was down-regulated by dominant negative Akt and up-regulated by constitutively active myristoylated Akt. Introduction of wild-type PTEN and pharmacological inhibition of EGFR decreased VEGF mRNA expression and VEGF promoter activity in U87MG cells to a greater extent that did either manipulation by itself. Therefore, in human glioblastoma cells, PTEN mutation can cooperate with EGFR activation to increase VEGF mRNA levels by transcriptionally up-regulating the proximal VEGF promoter via the PI3K/Akt pathway.

  4. Prognostic value of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Mineta, H; Miura, K; Ogino, T; Takebayashi, S; Misawa, K; Ueda, Y; Suzuki, I; Dictor, M; Borg, Å; Wennerberg, J

    2000-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been identified as the substance that increases the permeability and proliferation of vascular endothelial cells. We examined the clinical significance of VEGF expression in 60 head and neck squamous cell carcinomas using the methods of Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), comparatively, and analysed the relationship between VEGF status in Western blot and tumour size, lymph-node status, histologic grade and disease-free survival (DFS) rate. Western blot analysis revealed high VEGF expressors (tumour/normal tissue density ≥ 3-fold) in 26 patients (43%) and low VEGF expressors (< 3-fold) in 34 patients (57%). The results of the Western blot analysis correlated significantly with those of the RT-PCR (P= 0.00007) or immunohistochemistry (P= 0.00006). High VEGF expressors are associated with the progression of lymph-node spread (P= 0.0009), which are correlated with poor DFS. The 2-year DFS rate of high VEGF expressors (30%) was significantly lower than that of low VEGF expressors (78%) (P= 0.0008). Multivariate analysis showed VEGF expression and stage were independent predictors for the DFS (P= 0.045 and 0.041, respectively). VEGF expression may play an important role in progression of HNSCC. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10952783

  5. Single chain precursor prohaptoglobin promotes angiogenesis by upregulating expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor2.

    PubMed

    Oh, Mi-Kyung; Park, Hyo-Jung; Lee, Joo-Hyun; Bae, Hyun-Mi; Kim, In-Sook

    2015-04-13

    Prohaptoglobin (proHp) is processed into mature haptoglobin via site-specific cleavage. Although haptoglobin has been well studied, the functions of proHp remain unclear. We investigated the angiogenic action of proHp in endothelial cells, demonstrating that proHp upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) expression and endothelial sprouting and branching. ProHp-induced sprouting was attenuated by a VEGFR2 inhibitor. Moreover, proHp was detected in sera of cancer patients by immunoprecipitation and Western blot. These findings indicate that proHp promotes angiogenesis via VEGF/VEGFR2 signalling, and serum proHp level may be a useful biomarker for diseases associated with angiogenesis. PMID:25775978

  6. Two Novel Heparin-binding Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Splices, L-VEGF144 and L-VEGF138, are Expressed in Human Glioblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chiung-Chyi; Cheng, Wen-Yu; Chiao, Ming-Tsang; Liang, Yea-Jiuan; Mao, Tsuo-Fei; Liu, Bai-Shuan

    2016-01-01

    The expression levels of different vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) isoforms are associated with the angiogenesis and the patient's prognoses in human cancers. Ribosomes specifically scan from 5' to 3' CUG initiation codon in the long 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the VEGF mRNA, resulting in the generation of high mol wt VEGF isoform [call large VEGF (L-VEGF)]. Alternative splicing of VEGF mRNA transcripts results in several isoforms with distinct properties that are dependent up their exon compositions. In this study, we observed two novel kinds of splicing VEGF isoforms that transcripted at the first upstream CUG codon, and which we have named large-VEGF144 (LVEGF144), and large-VEGF138 (L-VEGF138). The expression levels of messenger RNA for the different VEGF splice forms were analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After DNA sequencing, the genetic structure of L-VEGF144 involved not only a partial exon 1, exon 6a, and exons 7-8, but also an unique 108- nucleotides insertion of VEGF intron 5 interposed between exon 1 and exon 6. At the same time, L-VEGF144 lacked most of the Nterminal fragments (exons 1-5). We further found that a specific detection model could easily and rapidly confirm the presence of L-VEGF144 mRNA fragments in the biopsies or cell lines via RT-PCR assay. In addition, we used visible fluorescent fusion proteins to prove that both L-VEGF144 and L-VEGF138 have nuclear localization ability. Taken together, the findings of this study indicate that, unlike previously identified isoforms, these novel VEGF isoforms are likely to suggest a further level of complexity in the angiogenic process. PMID:27220431

  7. Guided bone regeneration (GBR) utilizing injectable Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) delivery gel

    PubMed Central

    Kaigler, Darnell; Silva, Eduardo A.; Mooney, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Vascularization underlies the success of guided bone regeneration (GBR) procedures. This study evaluated the regenerative potential of GBR in combination with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) delivery, via an injectable hydrogel system. Methods Critical-sized defects were created in rat calvariae and GBR procedures were performed with a collagen membrane either alone (control), plus bolus delivery of VEGF, or plus application of VEGF releasing hydrogels (VEGF - Alg). Four and eight weeks following treatment, defect sites were evaluated with microcomputed tomographic and histomorphometric analyses for blood vessel and bone formation. Results At four weeks, relative to the control condition, the bolus addition of VEGF did not affect blood vessel density within the defect site; yet, the application of the VEGF+ Alg significantly (p< 0.05) increased blood vessel density. Though there was no difference in bone regeneration at four weeks, at eight weeks, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in bone regeneration in the VEGF + Alg treated defects. Conclusions These data demonstrated that the application of VEGF + Alg enhanced early angiogenesis while at a later timepoint, it enhanced bone regeneration. Controlled delivery approaches of angiogenic growth factors used adjunctively with GBR may be a promising strategy for enhancing outcomes of GBR. PMID:22668339

  8. Association of Chemerin and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) with Diabetic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuhua; Teng, Jian; Li, Jixia; Sun, Fang; Yuan, Dong; Chang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common complication of diabetes, caused by diabetic microvascular lesions. The pathogenesis of DN is complicated, involving genetics, physics, chemistry, and environmental factors. Chemerin is a fat cell factor that participates in regulating inflammation. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promotes vascular endothelial cell proliferation, differentiation, and angiogenesis. The relationship role of Chemerin and VEGF in DN is not fully understood. MATERIAL AND METHODS SD rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: the control group and the DN group. Streptozotocin was used to construct the DN model. Serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and urine microalbumin (UAlb) were detected. Real-time PCR and Western blot were used to test Chemerin and VEGF mRNA and protein expression in kidney tissue. ELISA was performed to test TGF-β1, TNF-α, and INF-γ levels. The correlation of Chemerin and VEGF with renal function and inflammatory factors was analyzed. RESULTS DN group rats showed obviously increased Scr and BUN levels, and elevated TGF-β1, TNF-α, and INF-γ secretion (P<0.05). Compared with controls, Chemerin and VEGF were clearly overexpressed in the DN group (P<0.05). Chemerin and VEGF expression were positively correlated with inflammatory factors and renal function. CONCLUSIONS Chemerin and VEGF play important roles in DN by regulating inflammatory factors and renal function. They may be treated as indicators of DN. PMID:27612613

  9. Association of Chemerin and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) with Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shuhua; Teng, Jian; Li, Jixia; Sun, Fang; Yuan, Dong; Chang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common complication of diabetes, caused by diabetic microvascular lesions. The pathogenesis of DN is complicated, involving genetics, physics, chemistry, and environmental factors. Chemerin is a fat cell factor that participates in regulating inflammation. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promotes vascular endothelial cell proliferation, differentiation, and angiogenesis. The relationship role of Chemerin and VEGF in DN is not fully understood. Material/Methods SD rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: the control group and the DN group. Streptozotocin was used to construct the DN model. Serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and urine microalbumin (UAlb) were detected. Real-time PCR and Western blot were used to test Chemerin and VEGF mRNA and protein expression in kidney tissue. ELISA was performed to test TGF-β1, TNF-α, and INF-γ levels. The correlation of Chemerin and VEGF with renal function and inflammatory factors was analyzed. Results DN group rats showed obviously increased Scr and BUN levels, and elevated TGF-β1, TNF-α, and INF-γ secretion (P<0.05). Compared with controls, Chemerin and VEGF were clearly overexpressed in the DN group (P<0.05). Chemerin and VEGF expression were positively correlated with inflammatory factors and renal function. Conclusions Chemerin and VEGF play important roles in DN by regulating inflammatory factors and renal function. They may be treated as indicators of DN. PMID:27612613

  10. Wnt3a upregulates transforming growth factor-β-stimulated VEGF synthesis in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Natsume, Hideo; Tokuda, Haruhiko; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Kato, Kenji; Yamakawa, Kengo; Otsuka, Takanobu; Kozawa, Osamu

    2011-07-01

    It is recognized that Wnt3a affects bone metabolism via the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway. We have previously shown that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) stimulates the synthesis of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) via p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAP kinase in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Wnt3a on TGF-β-stimulated VEGF synthesis in these cells. Wnt3a, which alone had little effect on the VEGF levels, significantly enhanced the TGF-β-stimulated VEGF release. Lithium chloride and SB216763, inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase 3β, markedly amplified the TGF-β-stimulated VEGF release. Wnt3a failed to affect the TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of Smad2, p44/p42 MAP kinase, p38 MAP kinase or SAPK/JNK. Wnt3a and lithium chloride strengthened the VEGF mRNA expression induced by TGF-β. These results strongly suggest that Wnt3a upregulates VEGF synthesis stimulated by TGF-β via activation of the canonical pathway in osteoblasts.

  11. Factors regulating circulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF): association with bone mineral density (BMD) in post-menopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Nikola; Paramanathan, Sophia; Mac Donald, Dorothy; Wierzbicki, Anthony S; Hampson, Geeta

    2009-06-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in bone health. We investigated the factors which influence circulating VEGF and their association with bone mineral density (BMD). Two hundred and fifty two post-menopausal women aged 64.5 [9.2] years were studied. BMD was determined at the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH). Serum oestradiol and VEGF were measured. Subjects were genotyped for two polymorphic variants in the 5' untranslated region of the VEGF gene; G(634)C and C(936)T. Positive correlations were seen between circulating VEGF and BMI (r=0.2, p<0.02) and oestradiol (r=0.25, p<0.001). Following multi-linear regression analysis, serum VEGF was associated with the G(634) polymorphism (p=0.08) and dietary calcium intake (p=0.02). The association with calcium intake may be mediated by PTH as suggested by the in vitro studies. Following correction for confounders, there was no association between circulating VEGF and BMD at any site. Both VEGF polymorphisms were significant predictors of LS BMD G(634)C: p=0.017 and C(936)T: p=0.05. Circulating VEGF may be influenced by genetic, environmental and endocrine factors. Polymorphic variants in the VEGF gene are associated with spine BMD. Further larger studies are needed. PMID:19394248

  12. Mussel-inspired immobilization of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) for enhanced endothelialization of vascular grafts.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young Min; Lee, Yu Bin; Kim, Seok Joo; Kang, Jae Kyeong; Park, Jong-Chul; Jang, Wonhee; Shin, Heungsoo

    2012-07-01

    Most polymeric vascular prosthetic materials have low patency rate for replacement of small diameter vessels (<5 mm), mainly due to failure to generate healthy endothelium. In this study, we present polydopamine-mediated immobilization of growth factors on the surface of polymeric materials as a versatile tool to modify surface characteristics of vascular grafts potentially for accelerated endothelialization. Polydopamine was deposited on the surface of biocompatible poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) elastomer, on which vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was subsequently immobilized by simple dipping. Surface characteristics and composition were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Immobilization of VEGF on the polydopamine-deposited PLCL films was effective (19.8 ± 0.4 and 197.4 ± 19.7 ng/cm(2) for DPv20 and DPv200 films, respectively), and biotin-mediated labeling of immobilized VEGF revealed that the fluorescence intensity increased as a function of the concentration of VEGF solution. The effect of VEGF on adhesion of HUVECs was marginal, which may have been masked by polydopamine layer that also enhanced cell adhesion. However, VEGF-immobilized substrate significantly enhanced proliferation of HUVECs for over 7 days of in vitro culture and also improved their migration. In addition, immobilized VEGF supported robust cell to cell interactions with strong expression of CD 31 marker. The same process was effective for immobilization of basic fibroblast growth factor, demonstrating the robustness of polydopamine layer for secondary ligation of growth factors as a simple and novel surface modification strategy for vascular graft materials. PMID:22617001

  13. Constructing Tumor Vaccines Targeting for Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) by DNA Shuffling.

    PubMed

    Bie, Nana; Zhao, Xiuyun; Li, Zhitao; Qi, Gaofu

    2016-09-01

    Most of tumor antigens are self-proteins with poor antigenicity because of immune tolerance. Here, we describe DNA shuffling for overcoming the tolerance of tumor antigens such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a growth factor associated with tumor angiogenesis. VEGF genes from mouse, rat, human, and chicken were randomly assembled to chimeric genes by DNA shuffling for constructing an expression library, then screened by PCR, SDS-PAGE, and immunization. A chimeric protein named as No. 46 was selected from the library with the strongest immunotherapy effects on mouse H22 hepatocellular carcinoma, which could induce long-lasted and high level of antibodies recognizing VEGF in mice. Immunization with this chimeric protein could significantly inhibit tumor angiogenesis, slow down tumor growth, increase the survival rate of tumor-bearing mice, and inhibit the lung metastases of tumor in mouse. Treatment with the anti-VEGF IgG induced by this chimeric protein also significantly inhibited tumor growth and improved the survival rate of tumor-bearing mice, by blocking the tyrosine phosphorylation of ERK1/2 pathway of VEGF-VEGFR interaction. Our study provides an efficient approach to overcome the immune tolerance of self-antigens for developing novel tumor vaccines. PMID:27428264

  14. Intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor injection in unrecognised early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kianersi, Farzan; Ghanbari, Heshmatollah; Naderi Beni, Zahra; Naderi Beni, Afsaneh

    2016-10-01

    The use of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor medications has widened considerably to include indications affecting females of reproductive age. Our patient was inadvertently exposed to bevacizumab within the first trimester when placental growth and fetal organogenesis take place and patient suffered pregnancy loss. There is insufficient information to suggest that such use is safe, nor is there definitive evidence to suggest that it causes harm. We advise that ophthalmologists discuss pregnancy with women of childbearing age undergoing intraocular anti-VEGF injections and in pregnant woman counselling is needed to explain the potential risks and benefits. PMID:27251054

  15. Sequestration of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Induces Late Restrictive Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wieck, Minna M.; Spurrier, Ryan G.; Levin, Daniel E.; Mojica, Salvador Garcia; Hiatt, Michael J.; Reddy, Raghava; Hou, Xiaogang; Navarro, Sonia; Lee, Jooeun; Lundin, Amber; Driscoll, Barbara; Grikscheit, Tracy C.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome is a restrictive lung disease characterized by surfactant deficiency. Decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which demonstrates important roles in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of restrictive lung diseases. Current animal models investigating VEGF in the etiology and outcomes of RDS require premature delivery, hypoxia, anatomically or temporally limited inhibition, or other supplemental interventions. Consequently, little is known about the isolated effects of chronic VEGF inhibition, started at birth, on subsequent developing lung structure and function. Objectives To determine whether inducible, mesenchyme-specific VEGF inhibition in the neonatal mouse lung results in long-term modulation of AECII and whole lung function. Methods Triple transgenic mice expressing the soluble VEGF receptor sFlt-1 specifically in the mesenchyme (Dermo-1/rtTA/sFlt-1) were generated and compared to littermate controls at 3 months to determine the impact of neonatal downregulation of mesenchymal VEGF expression on lung structure, cell composition and function. Reduced tissue VEGF bioavailability has previously been demonstrated with this model. Measurements and Main Results Triple transgenic mice demonstrated restrictive lung pathology. No differences in gross vascular development or protein levels of vascular endothelial markers was noted, but there was a significant decrease in perivascular smooth muscle and type I collagen. Mutants had decreased expression levels of surfactant protein C and hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha without a difference in number of type II pneumocytes. Conclusions These data show that mesenchyme-specific inhibition of VEGF in neonatal mice results in late restrictive disease, making this transgenic mouse a novel model for future investigations on the consequences of neonatal RDS and potential interventions. PMID:26863115

  16. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) decreases expression and secretion of pleiotrophin in a VEGF receptor-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Poimenidi, Evangelia; Theodoropoulou, Christina; Koutsioumpa, Marina; Skondra, Lamprini; Droggiti, Eirini; van den Broek, Marloes; Koolwijk, Pieter; Papadimitriou, Evangelia

    2016-05-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is a key molecule in angiogenesis acting through VEGF receptors (VEGFRs), ανβ3 integrin, receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta (RPTPβ/ζ) and cell surface nucleolin (NCL). Pleiotrophin (PTN) stimulates endothelial cell migration and limits the angiogenic effects of VEGF-A165 to the levels of its own effect, possibly acting as a VEGF-A165 modifier. Since PTN and VEGF-A165 share receptors and actions on endothelial cells, in the present work we studied whether and how VEGF-A165 affects PTN expression or secretion. VEGF-A165 decreased PTN mRNA and protein levels acting at the transcriptional level. Bevacizumab, a selective VEGFR2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor and down-regulation of VEGFR2 expression by siRNA did not affect this decrease, suggesting that it is VEGFR-independent. VEGF-A121 also decreased PTN mRNA and protein levels, suggesting that heparin binding of VEGF-A165 is not involved. Blockage of cell surface NCL, lack of expression or mutation of β3 integrin and down-regulation of RPTPβ/ζ abolished the inhibitory effect of VEGF-A165 on PTN expression and secretion. Down-regulation of endogenous PTN in endothelial cells enhanced VEGF-A165-induced increase in migration and tube formation on matrigel. Collectively, these data suggest that VEGF-A down-regulates PTN expression and secretion through the RPTPβ/ζ-ανβ3-NCL axis to enhance its own effect on cell migration and further highlight the role of RPTPβ/ζ in VEGF-A actions. PMID:26924457

  17. KRIT1 Protein Depletion Modifies Endothelial Cell Behavior via Increased Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    DiStefano, Peter V.; Kuebel, Julia M.; Sarelius, Ingrid H.; Glading, Angela J.

    2014-01-01

    Disruption of endothelial cell-cell contact is a key event in many cardiovascular diseases and a characteristic of pathologically activated vascular endothelium. The CCM (cerebral cavernous malformation) family of proteins (KRIT1 (Krev-interaction trapped 1), PDCD10, and CCM2) are critical regulators of endothelial cell-cell contact and vascular homeostasis. Here we show novel regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling in KRIT1-depleted endothelial cells. Loss of KRIT1 and PDCD10, but not CCM2, increases nuclear β-catenin signaling and up-regulates VEGF-A protein expression. In KRIT1-depleted cells, increased VEGF-A levels led to increased VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) activation and subsequent alteration of cytoskeletal organization, migration, and barrier function and to in vivo endothelial permeability in KRIT1-deficient animals. VEGFR2 activation also increases β-catenin phosphorylation but is only partially responsible for KRIT1 depletion-dependent disruption of cell-cell contacts. Thus, VEGF signaling contributes to modifying endothelial function in KRIT1-deficient cells and microvessel permeability in Krit1+/− mice; however, VEGF signaling is likely not the only contributor to disrupted endothelial cell-cell contacts in the absence of KRIT1. PMID:25320085

  18. Patterns of expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptors in mice suggest a role in hormonally regulated angiogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Shweiki, D; Itin, A; Neufeld, G; Gitay-Goren, H; Keshet, E

    1993-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a secreted endothelial cell-specific mitogen. To evaluate whether VEGF may play a role in angiogenesis, we have determined the spatial and temporal patterns of expression of VEGF and VEGF receptors during natural angiogenic processes taking place within the female reproductive system. Four angiogenic processes were analyzed: neovascularization of ovarian follicles, neovascularization of the corpus luteum, repair of endometrial vessels, and angiogenesis in embryonic implantation sites. During all processes, VEGF mRNA was found to be expressed in cells surrounding the expanding vasculature. VEGF was predominantly produced in tissues that acquire new capillary networks (theca layers, lutein cells, endometrial stroma, and the maternal decidua, respectively). VEGF-binding activity, on the other hand, was found on endothelial cells of both quiescent and proliferating blood vessels. These findings are consistent with a role for VEGF in the targeting of angiogenic responses to specific areas. Using in situ hybridization, we show that VEGF is expressed in 10 different steroidogenic and/or steroid-responsive cell types (theca, cumulus, granulosa, lutein, oviductal epithelium, endometrial stroma, decidua, giant trophoblast cells, adrenal cortex, and Leydig cells). Furthermore, in some cells upregulation of VEGF expression is concurrent with the acquisition of steroidogenic activity, and expression in other cell types is restricted to a particular stage of the ovarian cycle. These findings suggest that expression of VEGF is hormonally regulated. We propose that excessive expression of VEGF during gonadotropin-induced ovulation may contribute to the development of ovarian hyperstimulation syndromes by virtue of the vascular permeabilization activity of this factor. Images PMID:7683699

  19. The Phosphorylation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) by Engineered Surfaces with Electrostatically or Covalently Immobilized VEGF

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Sean M.; Chen, Tom T.; Iruela-Arispe, M. Luisa; Segura, Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    Growth factors are a class of signaling proteins that direct cell fate through interaction with cell surface receptors. Although a myriad of possible cell fates stem from a growth factor binding to its receptor, the signaling cascades that result in one fate over another are still being elucidated. One possible mechanism by which nature modulates growth factor signaling is through the method of presentation of the growth factor – soluble or immobilized (matrix bound). Here we present the methodology to study signaling of soluble versus immobilized VEGF through VEGFR-2. We have designed a strategy to covalently immobilize VEGF using its heparin-binding domain to orient the molecule (bind) and a secondary functional group to mediate covalent binding (lock). This bind-and-lock approach aims to allow VEGF to assume a bioactive orientation before covalent immobilization. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) demonstrated heparin and VEGF binding with surface densities of 60 ng/cm2 and 100 pg/cm2, respectively. ELISA experiments confirmed VEGF surface density and showed that electrostatically bound VEGF releases in cell medium and heparin solutions while covalently bound VEGF remains immobilized. Electrostatically bound VEGF and covalently bound VEGF phosphorylate VEGFR-2 in both VEGFR-2 transfected cells and VEGFR-2 endogenously producing cells. HUVECs plated on VEGF functionalized surfaces showed different morphologies between surface-bound VEGF and soluble VEGF. The surfaces synthesized in these studies allow for the study of VEGF/VEGFR-2 signaling induced by covalently bound, electrostatically bound, and soluble VEGF and may provide further insight into the design of materials for the generation of a mature and stable vasculature. PMID:19540581

  20. The role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Arastéh, K; Hannah, A

    2000-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most common neoplasm associated with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. KS involves the skin and mucous membranes as well as other organs and can lead to tumor-associated edema and ulcerations. Despite therapy with highly active antiviral agents, most patients with HIV-1-related KS eventually develop disseminated disease. In the treatment of KS, a strong rationale exists for the use of agents that inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Angiogenesis appears to be an important feature of this disease, and recent experimental studies have demonstrated the role of VEGF and its receptors in the pathogenesis of KS. Thus, therapeutic agents that target the VEGF pathway may be an effective strategy in reducing the tumor growth and edema associated with KS. Phase I study results with SU5416, a synthetic low molecular-weight inhibitor of the VEGF-Flk-1/KDR receptor tyrosine kinase, demonstrate that this agent is well tolerated. Preliminary results show that in a majority of patients with autoimmune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related disease, SU5416 clearly has biological activity (it flattens, shrinks, or dissolves lesions and reduces or resolves edema) or stabilizes the disease. Angiogenesis inhibition with SU5416 is a promising therapeutic approach in treating patients with KS, and further clinical evaluation is currently under way.

  1. The association between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) +405G>C genetic polymorphism and endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lili; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most important candidate genes for the development of endometriosis, and VEGF genetic polymorphisms might be potentially associated with endometriosis risk. However, the results still remain controversial. The objective of this study aimed to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis to explore a better understanding of the effects of VEGF +405G>C genetic polymorphism on the risk of endometriosis. A total of eleven eligible studies were eventually identified in this meta-analysis, including 2829 endometriosis cases and 2947 controls. In the overall analysis, no significant association between the VEGF +405G>C genetic polymorphism and the risk of endometriosis was detected in all genetic models (for homozygote comparison [CC versus vs. GG]: OR = 1.21, 95% CI 0.67–2.19, P = 0.537; for heterozygote comparison [CG vs. GG]: OR = 1.16, 95% CI 0.86–1.56, P = 0.348; for dominant comparison CC/CG vs. GG: OR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.93–1.30, P = 0.263; for recessive comparison [CC vs. CG/GG]: OR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.73–1.47, P = 0.857; allele comparison [C vs. G]: OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.70–1.40, P = 0.962). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicities, there was no significant association between VEGF +405G>C genetic polymorphism and endometriosis risk in Asians and/or Caucasians under all genetic models (all P-values >0.05). No publication bias was observed in this study. This meta-analysis supports that the VEGF +405G>C genetic polymorphism is not significant associated with the risk of endometriosis. PMID:25573961

  2. The association between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) +405G>C genetic polymorphism and endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Gong, Lili; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Ling

    2015-09-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most important candidate genes for the development of endometriosis, and VEGF genetic polymorphisms might be potentially associated with endometriosis risk. However, the results still remain controversial. The objective of this study aimed to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis to explore a better understanding of the effects of VEGF +405G>C genetic polymorphism on the risk of endometriosis. A total of eleven eligible studies were eventually identified in this meta-analysis, including 2829 endometriosis cases and 2947 controls. In the overall analysis, no significant association between the VEGF +405G>C genetic polymorphism and the risk of endometriosis was detected in all genetic models (for homozygote comparison [CC versus vs. GG]: OR = 1.21, 95% CI 0.67-2.19, P = 0.537; for heterozygote comparison [CG vs. GG]: OR = 1.16, 95% CI 0.86-1.56, P = 0.348; for dominant comparison CC/CG vs. GG: OR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.93-1.30, P = 0.263; for recessive comparison [CC vs. CG/GG]: OR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.73-1.47, P = 0.857; allele comparison [C vs. G]: OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.70-1.40, P = 0.962). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicities, there was no significant association between VEGF +405G>C genetic polymorphism and endometriosis risk in Asians and/or Caucasians under all genetic models (all P-values >0.05). No publication bias was observed in this study. This meta-analysis supports that the VEGF +405G>C genetic polymorphism is not significant associated with the risk of endometriosis.

  3. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in noise-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Picciotti, P M; Fetoni, A R; Paludetti, G; Wolf, F I; Torsello, A; Troiani, D; Ferraresi, A; Pola, R; Sergi, B

    2006-04-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss has been associated with alterations in cochlear blood flow. Our study analyzed the expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and its functional receptors, Flt-1 and Flk-1, in the cochlear structures of noise-exposed and unexposed guinea pigs. VEGF is a prototypical angiogenic agent, with multiple functions on vascular biology, ranging from vascular permeability to endothelial cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Acoustic trauma was induced by a continuous pure tone of 6 kHz, at 120 dB SPL for 30 min. Auditory function was evaluated by electrocochleographic recordings at 2-20 kHz for 7 days. Noise-induced cochlear morphological changes were studied by immunohistochemistry and scanning electron microscopy. The expression of VEGF and its receptors was examined by immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis. The hearing threshold shift reached a level of 60 dB SPL on day 1 after trauma and underwent a partial recovery over time, reaching a value of about 20 dB SPL on day 7. Outer hair cell loss was more prominent in the area located 14-16 mm from the apex. Increased cochlear VEGF expression was observed in noise-exposed animals, in particular at the level of stria vascularis, spiral ligament, and spiral ganglion cells. No changes were observed in the expression of VEGF-receptors. Our data suggest a role for VEGF in the regulation of the vascular network in the inner ear after acoustic trauma and during auditory recovery, with potentially important clinical and therapeutic implications.

  4. Multiple Growth Factors, But Not VEGF, Stimulate Glycosaminoglycan Hyperelongation in Retinal Choroidal Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Al Gwairi, Othman; Osman, Narin; Getachew, Robel; Zheng, Wenhua; Liang, X-L; Kamato, Danielle; Thach, Lyna; Little, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    A major feature of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the thickening of Bruch's membrane in the retina and an alteration in its composition with increased lipid deposition. In certain pathological conditions proteoglycans are responsible for lipid retention in tissues. Growth factors are known to increase the length of glycosaminoglycan chains and this can lead to a large increase in the interaction between proteoglycans and lipids. Using choroidal endothelial cells, we investigated the effects of a number of AMD relevant growth factors TGFβ, thrombin, PDGF, IGF and VEGF on proteoglycan synthesis. Cells were characterized as of endothelial origin using the specific cell markers endothelial nitric oxide synthesis and von Willebrand factor and imaged using confocal microscopy. Cells were treated with growth factors in the presence and absence of the appropriate inhibitors and were radiolabeled with [35S]-SO4. Proteoglycans were isolated by ion exchange chromatography and sized using SDS-PAGE. Radiosulfate incorporation was determined by the cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) precipitation technique. To measure cellular glycosaminoglycan synthesizing capacity we added xyloside and assessed the xyloside-GAGs by SDS-PAGE. TGFβ, thrombin, PDGF & IGF dose-dependently stimulated radiosulfate incorporation and GAG elongation as well as xyloside-GAG synthesis, however VEGF treatment did not stimulate any changes in proteoglycan synthesis. VEGF did not increase pAKT but caused a large increase in pERK relative to the response to PDGF. Thus, AMD relevant agonists cause glycosaminoglycan hyperelongation of proteoglycans synthesised and secreted by retinal choroidal endothelial cells. The absence of a response to VEGF is intriguing and identifies proteoglycans as a novel potential target in AMD. Future studies will examine the relevance of these changes to enhanced lipid binding and the development of AMD. PMID:27570478

  5. Multiple Growth Factors, But Not VEGF, Stimulate Glycosaminoglycan Hyperelongation in Retinal Choroidal Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Al Gwairi, Othman; Osman, Narin; Getachew, Robel; Zheng, Wenhua; Liang, X-L.; Kamato, Danielle; Thach, Lyna; Little, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    A major feature of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the thickening of Bruch's membrane in the retina and an alteration in its composition with increased lipid deposition. In certain pathological conditions proteoglycans are responsible for lipid retention in tissues. Growth factors are known to increase the length of glycosaminoglycan chains and this can lead to a large increase in the interaction between proteoglycans and lipids. Using choroidal endothelial cells, we investigated the effects of a number of AMD relevant growth factors TGFβ, thrombin, PDGF, IGF and VEGF on proteoglycan synthesis. Cells were characterized as of endothelial origin using the specific cell markers endothelial nitric oxide synthesis and von Willebrand factor and imaged using confocal microscopy. Cells were treated with growth factors in the presence and absence of the appropriate inhibitors and were radiolabeled with [35S]-SO4. Proteoglycans were isolated by ion exchange chromatography and sized using SDS-PAGE. Radiosulfate incorporation was determined by the cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) precipitation technique. To measure cellular glycosaminoglycan synthesizing capacity we added xyloside and assessed the xyloside-GAGs by SDS-PAGE. TGFβ, thrombin, PDGF & IGF dose-dependently stimulated radiosulfate incorporation and GAG elongation as well as xyloside-GAG synthesis, however VEGF treatment did not stimulate any changes in proteoglycan synthesis. VEGF did not increase pAKT but caused a large increase in pERK relative to the response to PDGF. Thus, AMD relevant agonists cause glycosaminoglycan hyperelongation of proteoglycans synthesised and secreted by retinal choroidal endothelial cells. The absence of a response to VEGF is intriguing and identifies proteoglycans as a novel potential target in AMD. Future studies will examine the relevance of these changes to enhanced lipid binding and the development of AMD. PMID:27570478

  6. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Bioavailability Regulates Angiogenesis and Intestinal Stem and Progenitor Cell Proliferation during Postnatal Small Intestinal Development

    PubMed Central

    Holoyda, Kathleen A.; Hou, Xiaogang; Fowler, Kathryn L.; Grikscheit, Tracy C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a highly conserved, master regulatory molecule required for endothelial cell proliferation, organization, migration and branching morphogenesis. Podocoryne carnea and drosophila, which lack endothelial cells and a vascular system, express VEGF homologs, indicating potential roles beyond angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. The role of VEGF in the development and homeostasis of the postnatal small intestine is unknown. We hypothesized regulating VEGF bioavailability in the postnatal small intestine would exhibit effects beyond the vasculature and influence epithelial cell stem/progenitor populations. Methods VEGF mutant mice were created that overexpressed VEGF in the brush border of epithelium via the villin promotor following doxycycline treatment. To decrease VEGF bioavailability, sFlt-1 mutant mice were generated that overexpressed the soluble VEGF receptor sFlt-1 upon doxycycline administration in the intestinal epithelium. Mice were analyzed after 21 days of doxycycline administration. Results Increased VEGF expression was confirmed by RT-qPCR and ELISA in the intestine of the VEGF mutants compared to littermates. The VEGF mutant duodenum demonstrated increased angiogenesis and vascular leak as compared to littermate controls. The VEGF mutant duodenum revealed taller villi and increased Ki-67-positive cells in the transit-amplifying zone with reduced Lgr5 expression. The duodenum of sFlt-1 mutants revealed shorter villi and longer crypts with reduced proliferation in the transit-amplifying zone, reduced expression of Dll1, Bmp4 and VE-cadherin, and increased expression of Sox9 and EphB2. Conclusions Manipulating VEGF bioavailability leads to profound effects on not only the intestinal vasculature, but epithelial stem and progenitor cells in the intestinal crypt. Elucidation of the crosstalk between VEGF signaling in the vasculature, mesenchyme and epithelial stem/progenitor cell populations may direct future

  7. The constitutive level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is more important than hypoxia-induced VEGF up-regulation in the angiogenesis of human melanoma xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Danielsen, T; Rofstad, E K

    2000-01-01

    Angiogenesis of tumours might develop as a result of environmental conditions, such as hypoxia, and/or as a result of genetic alterations specific for tumour cells. The relative contributions of these mechanisms were investigated by comparing the in vivo expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) to the hypoxic fraction, the angiogenic potential and the vascular density of four human melanoma lines (A-07, D-12, R-18, U-25) grown intradermally in Balb/c nu/nu mice. VEGF expression, bFGF expression and expression of pimonidazole, a marker of hypoxic cells, were investigated by immunohistochemistry. An association between high VEGF and bFGF expression and high angiogenic potential was detected, suggesting an important role for VEGF/bFGF in the angiogenesis of melanomas. High VEGF/bFGF expression was also related to low hypoxic fraction and high vascular density. Thus, the constitutive, genetically determined level of VEGF was probably more important than hypoxia-induced upregulation in the angiogenesis of the melanoma xenografts. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10789719

  8. Characterization and optimization of vascular endothelial growth factor(165) (rhVEGF(165)) expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kang, W; Kim, S; Lee, S; Jeon, E; Lee, Y; Yun, Y R; Suh, C K; Kim, H W; Jang, J H

    2013-02-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factors(165) (VEGF(165)) is the most potent and widely used pro-angiogenic factor. Here we determined optimal culture condition of recombinant human VEGF(165) (rhVEGF(165)) in Escherichia coli (E. coli). rhVEGF(165) expression was the highest in 0.25% of L-arabinose induction concentration, at 20 °C induction temperature, and for 5 h induction time under the control of araBAD promoter using pBADHisA vector. In biological activity test, rhVEGF(165) significantly increased the proliferative activity of CPAE cells (p<0.001) and upregulated the expressions of endothelial cell growth-related genes, such as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1), endothelial-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (TEK), kinase insert domain protein receptor (KDR), and tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 1 (TIE1) in calf pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells. PMID:23108225

  9. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) - part 1: in physiology and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Kajdaniuk, Dariusz; Marek, Bogdan; Borgiel-Marek, Halina; Kos-Kudła, Beata

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an important component of many physiological processes, such as the female sexual cycle, placenta formation, the processes of growth and differentiation of tissues, and reparative processes including wound healing, fracture repair, and liver regeneration. The formation of new blood vessels during angiogenesis and vasculogenesis allows the growth and functioning of multicellular organisms. Pathological angiogenesis most commonly occurs in ischaemic, inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. Conditions in the pathogenesis of which angiogenesis plays an important role are sometimes labelled angiogenic diseases. To date, a number of pro-and anti-angiogenic factors have been defined. VEGF is the only specific mitogen for endothelial cells. It stimulates their growth and inhibits apoptosis, increases vascular permeability in many tissues, promotes vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. VEGF signalling activity in relation to the cell is dependent on having its specific membrane receptors (Flt-1, KDR, Flt-4). Angiogenesis plays a protective role in ischaemic heart disease and myocardial infarction. Angiogenesis extends life for patients after a stroke. Most of the facts about physiological angiogenesis are derived from studies into liver regeneration as a result of an acute injury or partial hepatectomy. Pathological hepatic angiogenesis occurs in the course of inflammation, fibrosis, hypoxia, and during tumourogenesis. There is interesting data relating to liver steatosis and obesity. PMID:22069106

  10. Kidney Diseases Associated With Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)

    PubMed Central

    Izzedine, Hassan; Escudier, Bernard; Lhomme, Catherine; Pautier, Patricia; Rouvier, Philippe; Gueutin, Victor; Baumelou, Alain; Derosa, Lisa; Bahleda, Rastilav; Hollebecque, Antoine; Sahali, Djillali; Soria, Jean Charles

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Expanded clinical experience with patients taking antiangiogenic compounds has come with increasing recognition of the renal adverse effects. Because renal histology is rarely sought in those patients, the renal consequences are underestimated. Antiangiogenic-treated-cancer patients, who had a renal biopsy for renal adverse effects from 2006 to 2013, were included in the current study. Clinical features and renal histologic findings were reviewed. Our cohort was 100 patients (58 women) with biopsy-proven kidney disease using anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy with a mean age of 59.8 years (range, 20–85 yr). Patients were referred for proteinuria, hypertension, and/or renal insufficiency. Kidney biopsy was performed 6.87 ± 7.18 months after the beginning of treatment. Seventy-three patients experienced renal thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and 27 patients had variable glomerulopathies, mainly minimal change disease and/or collapsing-like focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (MCN/cFSGS). MCN/cFSGS-like lesions developed mainly with tyrosine-kinase inhibitors, whereas TMA complicated anti-VEGF ligand. Thirty-one percent of TMA patients had proteinuria up to 1 g/24 h. Half of TMA cases are exclusively renal localized. Pathologic TMA features are intraglomerular exclusively. MCN/cFSGS glomeruli displayed a high abundance of KI-67, but synaptopodin was not detected. Conversely, TMA glomeruli exhibited a normal abundance of synaptopodin-like control, whereas KI-67 was absent. Median follow-up was 12 months (range, 1–80 mo). Fifty-four patients died due to cancer progression. Hypertension and proteinuria resolved following drug discontinuation and antihypertensive agents. No patient developed severe renal failure requiring dialysis. Drug continuation or reintroduction resulted in a more severe recurrence of TMA in 3 out of 4 patients requiring maintenance of anti-VEGF agents despite renal TMA. In conclusion, TMA and MCN/cFSGS are

  11. Nemo-like kinase regulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ke, Hengning; Masoumi, Katarzyna Chmielarska; Ahlqvist, Kristofer; Seckl, Michael J; Rydell-Törmänen, Kristina; Massoumi, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    The canonical Wnt signaling can be silenced either through β-catenin-mediated ubiquitination and degradation or through phosphorylation of Tcf and Lef by nemo-like kinase (NLK). In the present study, we generated NLK deficient animals and found that these mice become cyanotic shortly before death because of lung maturation defects. NLK-/- lungs exhibited smaller and compressed alveoli and the mesenchyme remained thick and hyperplastic. This phenotype was caused by epithelial activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) via recruitment of Lef1 to the promoter of VEGF. Elevated expression of VEGF and activation of the VEGF receptor through phosphorylation promoted an increase in the proliferation rate of epithelial and endothelial cells. In summary, our study identifies NLK as a novel signaling molecule for proper lung development through the interconnection between epithelial and endothelial cells during lung morphogenesis. PMID:27035511

  12. Does vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) predict local relapse and survival in radiotherapy-treated node-negative breast cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Linderholm, B; Tavelin, B; Grankvist, K; Henriksson, R

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) content in 302 consecutive node-negative breast cancer (NNBC) patients treated with only locoregional radiotherapy to relapse free- (RFS) and overall survival (OS). VEGF content in tumour cytosols was measured by an enzymatic immunoassay for the major isoform VEGF165. The median age was 56 years, the median follow-up time 56 months. A wide range (0.01–144.79 pg μg−1 DNA) of VEGF content was found (median 1.92). Significant associations were found between VEGF and oestrogen receptor (ER) content, progesterone receptor (PR) and tumour size (P = 0.005). Univariate analysis displayed significant reduced RFS and OS for patients with higher VEGF content (P = 0.0113 and P = 0.0075 respectively). A total of 43 recurrences have been found (ten local relapses within the breast, five in the axillary or supraclavicular lymph nodes and 28 distant metastasis). There was no significant correlation between the localization of the relapse and the VEGF content. Multivariate analysis suggested VEGF as the only predictor of OS (relative risk (RR) = 3.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.97–13.37), and in patients with T1 tumours (n = 236) the multivariate analysis clearly displayed VEGF as the only independent predictor of both RFS and OS (RR = 5.1, CI = 1.07–24.59). In the sub-group with ER-positive tumours (n = 229), multivariate analysis showed VEGF as the only significant predictor of RFS and OS (RR = 10.44, CI = 1.26–86.38). The results suggest VEGF165 as a predictor of RFS and OS in NNBC patients treated with locoregional radiotherapy, comprising especially patients with favourable prognosis of T1 tumours, or ER-positive tumours. The high VEGF expression might define a radioresistant phenotype, or indicate an early distant spread which might require adjuvant systemic treatment. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10574263

  13. Geraniol Suppresses Angiogenesis by Downregulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)/VEGFR-2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wittig, Christine; Scheuer, Claudia; Parakenings, Julia; Menger, Michael D.; Laschke, Matthias W.

    2015-01-01

    Geraniol exerts several direct pharmacological effects on tumor cells and, thus, has been suggested as a promising anti-cancer compound. Because vascularization is a major precondition for tumor growth, we analyzed in this study the anti-angiogenic action of geraniol. In vitro, geraniol reduced the migratory activity of endothelial-like eEND2 cells. Western blot analyses further revealed that geraniol downregulates proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and upregulates cleaved caspase-3 (Casp-3) expression in eEND2 cells. Moreover, geraniol blocked vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGFR-2 signal transduction, resulting in a suppression of downstream AKT and ERK signaling pathways. In addition, geraniol significantly reduced vascular sprout formation in a rat aortic ring assay. In vivo, geraniol inhibited the vascularization of CT26 tumors in dorsal skinfold chambers of BALB/c mice, which was associated with a smaller tumor size when compared to vehicle-treated controls. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed a decreased number of Ki67-positive cells and CD31-positive microvessels with reduced VEGFR-2 expression within geraniol-treated tumors. Taken together, these findings indicate that geraniol targets multiple angiogenic mechanisms and, therefore, is an attractive candidate for the anti-angiogenic treatment of tumors. PMID:26154255

  14. Transforming growth factor-alpha-induced transcriptional activation of the vascular permeability factor (VPF/VEGF) gene requires AP-2-dependent DNA binding and transactivation.

    PubMed Central

    Gille, J; Swerlick, R A; Caughman, S W

    1997-01-01

    The endothelial cell-specific mitogen vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF) represents a central regulator of cutaneous angiogenesis. Increased VPF/VEGF expression has recently been reported in psoriatic skin and healing wounds, both conditions in which transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF alpha) and its ligand, the epidermal growth factor receptor, are markedly up-regulated. Since TGF alpha strongly induces VPF/VEGF synthesis in keratinocytes, TGF alpha-mediated VPF/VEGF expression is likely to play a significant role in the initiation and maintenance of increased vascular hyperpermeability and hyperproliferation in skin biology. The objectives of the present studies were to determine the molecular mechanisms responsible for TGF alpha-induced transcriptional activation of the VPF/VEGF gene. We have identified a GC-rich TGF alpha-responsive region between -88 bp and -65 bp of the VPF/VEGF promoter that is necessary for constitutive and TGF alpha-inducible transcriptional activation. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, this region binds Sp1-dependent protein complexes constitutively and an additional TGF alpha-inducible protein complex that is distinct from Sp1 protein. Both AP-2 and Egr-1 transcription factors were detected as components of the TGF alpha-inducible protein complex in supershift EMSA studies. In co-transfection studies, an AP-2 but not an Egr-1 expression vector activated VPF/VEGF transcription, thus indicating that AP-2 protein is functionally important in TGF alpha-induced VPF/VEGF gene expression. By clarifying regulatory mechanisms that are critical for angiogenic processes in the skin, these studies may form the basis for new therapeutic strategies to modulate VPF/VEGF expression in cutaneous inflammation and wound healing. PMID:9049304

  15. Targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway in iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC): from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Omar

    2015-04-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, representing 1% of all human malignancies; its incidence has been escalating worldwide during the last decades. In recent years important molecular pathways contributing to tumor progression and worse survival rates have been identified in iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) with the consequent development of molecular therapeutics to target these specific oncogenic pathways. For example, a positive correlation has been found between expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and a more aggressive phenotype of DTC. This has led to the widespread adoption of VEGF-targeted therapeutics in the preclinical and clinical settings. In this review we will provide an overview of the different aspects of the use of VEGF-pathway-oriented treatments in iodine-refractory DTC with particular focus on future prospects.

  16. Effect of simvastatin on the expression of nephrin, podocin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in podocytes of diabetic rat

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shujun; Chen, Haiping; Liu, Qi; Ma, Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects and mechanisms of simvastatin on podocyte injuries in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes in a rat model. Three groups were tested: normal control (NC) group, diabetes mellitus control (DM) group, and simvastatin (SVT) group. The serum creatinine, cholesterol, and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) were measured 4 to 8 weeks after administering either saline or the drug. Renal pathological changes were observed, and immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the expression of nephrin, podocin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Real-time PCR was performed to detect the mRNA expression levels of nephrin, podocin, and VEGF. Serum creatinine levels and the UAER were higher in the DM group than in the NC group (P < 0.01). The protein and mRNA expression levels of nephrin and podocin were lower in the DM group than in the NC group (P < 0.01); whereas, the expression of VEGF protein and mRNA was higher in the DM group than in the NC group (P < 0.01). Simvastatin (SVT) could reduce serum creatinine levels and the UAER, maintain the expression of nephrin and podocin, reduce the expression of VEGF, and improve the pathological changes of podocytes, which were much more pronounced at 8 weeks (P < 0.01). Simvastatin could maintain the distribution of nephrin and podocin in podocytes, inhibit VEGF expression, and thus improve podocyte injuries and protect kidney functions in diabetic rats. PMID:26770424

  17. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression is a prognostic factor for radiotherapy outcome in advanced carcinoma of the cervix

    PubMed Central

    Loncaster, J A; Cooper, R A; Logue, J P; Davidson, S E; Hunter, R D; West, C M L

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate VEGF expression in tumour biopsies as a prognostic factor for radiotherapy outcome in advanced carcinoma of the cervix. A retrospective study was carried out on 100 patients. Pre-treatment tumour VEGF expression was examined immunohistochemically in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsies using a widely available commercial antibody. A semi-quantitative analysis was made using a scoring system of 0, 1, 2, and 3, for increasing intensity of staining. High VEGF expression was associated with a poor prognosis. A univariate log rank analysis found a significant relationship with overall survival (P = 0.0008) and metastasis-free survival (P = 0.0062), but not local control (P = 0.23). There was no correlation between VEGF expression and disease stage, tumour differentiation, patient age, or tumour radiosensitivity (SF2). In a Cox multivariate analysis of survival VEGF expression was the most significant independent prognostic factor (P = 0.001). After allowing for VEGF only SF2 was a significant prognostic factor (P = 0.003). In conclusion, immunohistochemical analysis of VEGF expression is a highly significant and independent prognostic indicator of overall and metastasis-free survival for patients treated with radiotherapy for advanced carcinoma of the cervix. It is also a rapid and easy method that could be used in the clinical setting, to identify patients at high risk of failure with conventional radiotherapy who may benefit from novel approaches or chemoradiotherapy. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10944602

  18. Effects of hyperthyroidism on expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and apoptosis in fetal adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Karaca, T; Hulya Uz, Y; Karabacak, R; Karaboga, I; Demirtas, S; Cagatay Cicek, A

    2015-11-26

    This study investigated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vascular density, and apoptosis in fetal rat adrenal glands with hyperthyroidism in late gestation. Twelve mature female Wistar albino rats with the same biological and physiological features were used for this study. Rats were divided into two groups: control and hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism was induced by daily subcutaneous injections of L-thyroxine (250 μg/kg) before pregnancy for 21 days and during pregnancy. Rats in the control and hyperthyroidism groups were caged according to the number of male rats. Zero day of pregnancy (Day 0) was indicated when the animals were observed to have microscopic sperm in vaginal smears. Pregnant rats were sacrificed on the 20th day of pregnancy; blood from each animal was collected to determine the concentrations of maternal adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroxine. Rat fetuses were then quickly removed from the uterus, and the adrenal glands of the fetuses were dissected. VEGF expression, vascular density, and apoptosis were analyzed in fetal rat adrenal glands. Maternal serum levels of the adrenocorticotropic hormone and free thyroxine were significantly higher in the hyperthyroidism group than in the control group. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of VEGF positive cells and vessel density significantly increased in the hyperthyroidism rat fetal adrenal group compared with the control group. Hyperthyroidism did not change the fetal and placental weights and the number of fetuses. This study demonstrates that hyperthyroidism may have an effect on the development of rat adrenal glands mediated by VEGF expression, angiogenesis, and apoptosis.

  19. Effects of Hyperthyroidism on Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Apoptosis in Fetal Adrenal Glands

    PubMed Central

    Hulya Uz, Y.; Karabacak, R.; Karaboga, I.; Demirtas, S.; Cagatay Cicek, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vascular density, and apoptosis in fetal rat adrenal glands with hyperthyroidism in late gestation. Twelve mature female Wistar albino rats with the same biological and physiological features were used for this study. Rats were divided into two groups: control and hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism was induced by daily subcutaneous injections of L-thyroxine (250 µg/kg) before pregnancy for 21 days and during pregnancy. Rats in the control and hyperthyroidism groups were caged according to the number of male rats. Zero day of pregnancy (Day 0) was indicated when the animals were observed to have microscopic sperm in vaginal smears. Pregnant rats were sacrificed on the 20th day of pregnancy; blood from each animal was collected to determine the concentrations of maternal adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroxine. Rat fetuses were then quickly removed from the uterus, and the adrenal glands of the fetuses were dissected. VEGF expression, vascular density, and apoptosis were analyzed in fetal rat adrenal glands. Maternal serum levels of the ACTH and free thyroxine were significantly higher in the hyperthyroidism group than in the control group. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of VEGF positive cells and vessel density significantly increased in the hyperthyroidism rat fetal adrenal group compared with the control group. Hyperthyroidism did not change the fetal and placental weights and the number of fetuses. This study demonstrates that hyperthyroidism may have an effect on the development of rat adrenal glands mediated by VEGF expression, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. PMID:26708182

  20. Basic fibroblast growth factor induces VEGF expression in chondrosarcoma cells and subsequently promotes endothelial progenitor cell-primed angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Huey-En; Chen, Po-Chun; Lin, Kai-Wei; Lin, Chih-Yang; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Han, Shao-Min; Teng, Chieh-Lin; Hwang, Wen-Li; Wang, Shih-Wei; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2015-07-01

    Chondrosarcoma, a common malignant tumour, develops in bone. Effective adjuvant therapy remains inadequate for treatment, meaning poor prognosis. It is imperative to explore novel remedies. Angiogenesis is a rate-limiting step in progression that explains neovessel formation for blood supply in the tumour microenvironment. Numerous studies indicate that EPCs (endothelial progenitor cells) promote angiogenesis and contribute to tumour growth. bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor), a secreted cytokine, regulates biological activity, including angiogenesis, and correlates with tumorigenesis. However, the role of bFGF in angiogenesis-related tumour progression by recruiting EPCs in human chondrosarcoma is rarely discussed. In the present study, we found that bFGF induced VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) expression via the FGFR1 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 1)/c-Src/p38/NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) signalling pathway in chondrosarcoma cells, thereby triggering angiogenesis of endothelial progenitor cells. Our in vivo data revealed that tumour-secreted bFGF promotes angiogenesis in both mouse plug and chick CAM (chorioallantoic membrane) assays. Xenograft mouse model data, due to bFGF-regulated angiogenesis, showed the bFGF regulates angiogenesis-linked tumour growth. Finally, bFGF was highly expressed in chondrosarcoma patients compared with normal cartilage, positively correlating with VEGF expression and tumour stage. The present study reveals a novel therapeutic target for chondrosarcoma progression.

  1. The transcription factor GATA1 and the histone methyltransferase SET7 interact to promote VEGF-mediated angiogenesis and tumor growth and predict clinical outcome of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanan; Liu, Jie; Lin, Jing; Zhou, Lei; Song, Yuhua; Wei, Bo; Luo, Xiaoli; Chen, Zhida; Chen, Yingjie; Xiong, Jiaxiu; Xu, Xiaojie; Ding, Lihua; Ye, Qinong

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most important regulator of tumor angiogenesis. However, how transcription factors interact with histone-modifying enzymes to regulate VEGF transcription and tumor angiogenesis remains unclear. Here, we show that transcription factor GATA1 associates with the histone methyltransferase SET7 to promote VEGF transcription and breast tumor angiogenesis. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we found that GATA1 was required for recruitment of SET7, RNA polymerase II and transcription factor II B to VEGF core promoter. GATA1 enhanced breast cancer cell (MCF7, ZR75-1 and MDA-MB-231)-secreted VEGF via SET7, which promoted vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, migration and tube formation. SET7 was required for GATA1-induced breast tumor angiogenesis and growth in nude mice. Immunohistochemical staining showed that expression of GATA1 and SET7 was upregulated and positively correlated with VEGF expression and microvessel number in 80 breast cancer patients. GATA1 and SET7 are independent poor prognostic factors in breast cancer. Our data provide novel insights into VEGF transcriptional regulation and suggest GATA1/SET7 as cancer therapeutic targets. PMID:26848522

  2. Binding of ATP to vascular endothelial growth factor isoform VEGF-A165 is essential for inducing proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background ATP binding is essential for the bioactivity of several growth factors including nerve growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Vascular endothelial growth factor isoform 165 (VEGF-A165) induces the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, however a dependence on ATP-binding is currently unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine if ATP binding is essential for the bioactivity of VEGF-A165. Results We found evidence that ATP binding toVEGF-A165 induced a conformational change in the secondary structure of the growth factor. This binding appears to be significant at the biological level, as we found evidence that nanomolar levels of ATP (4-8 nm) are required for the VEGF-A165-induced proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. At these levels, purinergic signaling by ATP via P2 receptors can be excluded. Addition of alkaline phosphate to cell culture lowered the ATP concentration in the cell culture medium to 1.8 nM and inhibited cell proliferation. Conclusions We propose that proliferation of endothelial cells is induced by a VEGF-A165-ATP complex, rather than VEGF-A165 alone. PMID:21619628

  3. Serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-C) as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in patients with ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Daye; Liang, Bin; Li, Yunhui

    2013-01-01

    VEGF-C is regarded as one of the most efficient factors in regulating lymphangiogenesis. The aim of this study was to better understand the role of VEGF-C in the progression of ovarian cancer and to assess its diagnostic and prognostic significance. A total of 109 patients with ovarian cancer, 76 patients with benign ovarian diseases, and 50 healthy controls were recruited in this study. Serum levels of VEGF-C were determined by ELISA method. The results showed that serum levels of VEGF-C were significantly higher in the patients with ovarian cancer than those with benign ovarian diseases and healthy controls (P<0.01). Serum level of VEGF-C was correlated with FIGO stage, lymph node metastasis, tumor resectability, and survival of the patients (P<0.05). The areas of receiver operating curves of VEGF-C were higher than those of CA125 in different screening groups. Analysis using the Kaplan-meier method indicated that patients with high VEGF-C had significantly shorter overall survival time than those with low VEGF-C (P<0.0001). In a multivariate analysis along with clinical prognostic parameters, serum VEGF-C was identified as an independent adverse prognostic variable for overall survival. These results indicated that serum VEGF-C may be a clinically useful indicator for diagnostic and prognostic evaluation in ovarian cancer patients.

  4. Effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) on blood vessels area and expression of the angiogenic factors VEGF and TGFbeta1 in the rat ovary

    PubMed Central

    Julio-Pieper, Marcela; Lara, Hernán E; Bravo, Javier A; Romero, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis is a crucial process in follicular development and luteogenesis. The nerve growth factor (NGF) promotes angiogenesis in various tissues. An impaired production of this neurotrophin has been associated with delayed wound healing. A variety of ovarian functions are regulated by NGF, but its effects on ovarian angiogenesis remain unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate if NGF modulates 1) the amount of follicular blood vessels and 2) ovarian expression of two angiogenic factors: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFbeta1), in the rat ovary. Results In cultured neonatal rat ovaries, NGF increased VEGF mRNA and protein levels, whereas TGFbeta1 expression did not change. Sectioning of the superior ovarian nerve, which increases ovarian NGF protein content, augmented VEGF immunoreactivity and the area of capillary vessels in ovaries of prepubertal rats compared to control ovaries. Conclusion Results indicate that NGF may be important in the maintenance of the follicular and luteal vasculature in adult rodents, either indirectly, by increasing the expression of VEGF in the ovary, or directly via promoting the proliferation of vascular cells. This data suggests that a disruption on NGF regulation could be a component in ovarian disorders related with impaired angiogenesis. PMID:17096853

  5. Assignment of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placenta growth factor (PIGF) genes to human chromosome 6p12-p21 and 14q24-q31 regions, respectively

    SciTech Connect

    Mattei, M.G.; Borg, J.P.; Rosnet, O.

    1996-02-15

    This article reports on the localization of two growth factor genes: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to human chromosome 6p12-p21 and placenta growth factor (PlGF) to human chromosome 14q24-q31. Such genetic mapping may aid in the identification of genes and mutations responsible for hereditary disorders. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Growth factor restriction impedes progression of wound healing following cataract surgery: identification of VEGF as a putative therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Eldred, Julie A.; McDonald, Matthew; Wilkes, Helen S.; Spalton, David J.; Wormstone, I. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Secondary visual loss occurs in millions of patients due to a wound-healing response, known as posterior capsule opacification (PCO), following cataract surgery. An intraocular lens (IOL) is implanted into residual lens tissue, known as the capsular bag, following cataract removal. Standard IOLs allow the anterior and posterior capsules to become physically connected. This places pressure on the IOL and improves contact with the underlying posterior capsule. New open bag IOL designs separate the anterior capsule and posterior capsules and further reduce PCO incidence. It is hypothesised that this results from reduced cytokine availability due to greater irrigation of the bag. We therefore explored the role of growth factor restriction on PCO using human lens cell and tissue culture models. We demonstrate that cytokine dilution, by increasing medium volume, significantly reduced cell coverage in both closed and open capsular bag models. This coincided with reduced cell density and myofibroblast formation. A screen of 27 cytokines identified nine candidates whose expression profile correlated with growth. In particular, VEGF was found to regulate cell survival, growth and myofibroblast formation. VEGF provides a therapeutic target to further manage PCO development and will yield best results when used in conjunction with open bag IOL designs. PMID:27076230

  7. An Increase in Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and VEGF Soluble Receptor-1 (sFlt-1) Are Associated with Early Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Lihong; Wei, Zhouling; Li, Ouyang; Huang, Rudian; Qin, Junzhen; Chen, Hongyan; Fan, Xiaojing; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is a health problem that affects approximately 1% to 5% reproductive age woman. Yet, in around half of these patients, the mechanism for RSA is unexplained. Recent studies have indicated that placental ischemia/hypoxia and endothelial dysfunction are important factors in miscarriage. Other studies have indicated that the level and expression of soluble FMS-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt1) is increased under a hypoxic environment. However, decreased sFlt-1 in the maternal circulation during the first trimester has recently been proposed as a potential marker for identifying risk of pregnancy loss. In this prospective study clinical samples were obtained within a short time after the fetal death, protein expression and maternal serum levels of sFlt1 were assessed and compared to samples taken from those with normal pregnancies. Our results indicate that levels of VEGF and sFlt-1 are both increased in women during early pregnancy compared women that are not pregnant (p<0.05) indicating that VEGF and sFlt-1 are both associated with pregnancy. More importantly, we detected a significant (p<0.05) increase in sFlt1 and VEGF levels and expression in the RSA patients who suffered subsequent miscarriages compare to controls. These results demonstrate that there is likely a relationship between VEGF, sFlt-1 and RSA suggesting that the high levels and over expression of sFlt-1 and VEGF might be associated with the pathogenesis of RSA. PMID:24098721

  8. Lung tumorigenesis induced by human vascular endothelial growth factor (hVEGF)-A165 overexpression in transgenic mice and amelioration of tumor formation by miR-16

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Yu-Ching; Lai, Cheng-Wei; Wang, Hsiu-Po; Ho, Heng-Chien; Yen, Chih-Ching; Tu, Chih-Yen; Tsai, Tung-Chou; Yeh, Dah-Cherng; Wang, Jiun-Long; Chong, Kowit-Yu; Chen, Chuan-Mu

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have shown that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), especially the human VEGF-A165 (hVEGF-A165) isoform, is a key proangiogenic factor that is overexpressed in lung cancer. We generated transgenic mice that overexpresses hVEGF-A165 in lung-specific Clara cells to investigate the development of pulmonary adenocarcinoma. In this study, three transgenic mouse strains were produced by pronuclear microinjection, and Southern blot analysis indicated similar patterns of the foreign gene within the genomes of the transgenic founder mice and their offspring. Accordingly, hVegf-A165 mRNA was expressed specifically in the lung tissue of the transgenic mice. Histopathological examination of the lung tissues of the transgenic mice showed that hVEGF-A165 overexpression induced bronchial inflammation, fibrosis, cysts, and adenoma. Pathological section and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analyses demonstrated a positive correlation between the development of pulmonary cancer and hVEGF expression levels, which were determined by immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, and western blot analyses. Gene expression profiling by cDNA microarray revealed a set of up-regulated genes (hvegf-A165, cyclin b1, cdc2, egfr, mmp9, nrp-1, and kdr) in VEGF tumors compared with wild-type lung tissues. In addition, overexpressing hVEGF-A165 in Clara cells increases CD105, fibrogenic genes (collagen α1, α-SMA, TGF-β1, and TIMP1), and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α) in the lungs of hVEGF-A165-overexpressing transgenic mice as compared to wild-type mice. We further demonstrated that the intranasal administration of microRNA-16 (miR-16) inhibited lung tumor growth by suppressing VEGF expression via the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. In conclusion, hVEGF-A165 transgenic mice exhibited complex alterations in gene expression and tumorigenesis and may be a relevant model for studying VEGF-targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:25912305

  9. Positron emission tomography imaging of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor expression with (61)Cu-labeled lysine-tagged VEGF121.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Hong, Hao; Niu, Gang; Valdovinos, Hector F; Orbay, Hakan; Nayak, Tapas R; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Barnhart, Todd E; Cai, Weibo

    2012-12-01

    Overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) indicates poor prognosis for cancer patients in a variety of clinical studies. Our goal is to develop a tracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of VEGFR expression using recombinant human VEGF121 with three lysine residues fused to the N-terminus (denoted as K3-VEGF121), which can facilitate radiolabeling without affecting its VEGFR binding affinity. K3-VEGF121 was conjugated with 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) and labeled with (61)Cu (t1/2: 3.3 h; 62% β(+)). The IC50 value of NOTA-K3-VEGF121 for VEGFR-2 was comparable to that of K3-VEGF121 (1.50 and 0.65 nM, respectively) based on a cell binding assay. (61)Cu labeling was achieved with good yield (55 ± 10%) and specific activity (4.2 GBq/mg). Serial PET imaging showed that the 4T1 tumor uptake of (61)Cu-NOTA-K3-VEGF121 was 3.4 ± 0.5, 4.9 ± 1.0, 5.2 ± 1.0, and 4.8 ± 0.8%ID/g (n = 4) at 0.5, 2, 4, and 8 h postinjection, respectively, which was consistent with biodistribution data measured by γ counting. Blocking experiments and ex vivo histology confirmed the VEGFR specificity of (61)Cu-NOTA-K3-VEGF121. Extrapolated human dosimetry calculation showed that liver was the organ with the highest radiation dose. The use of (61)Cu as the radiolabel is desirable for small proteins such as K3-VEGF121, which has a much higher β(+) branching ratio than the commonly used (64)Cu (62% vs 17%), thereby offering stronger signal intensity and lower tracer dose for PET imaging.

  10. Enhanced Mitogenic Activity of Recombinant Human Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor VEGF121 Expressed in E. coli Origami B (DE3) with Molecular Chaperones

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Ondřej; Zárubová, Jana; Mikulová, Barbora; Filová, Elena; Bártová, Jiřina; Bačáková, Lucie; Brynda, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    We describe the production of a highly-active mutant VEGF variant, α2-PI1-8-VEGF121, which contains a substrate sequence for factor XIIIa at the aminoterminus designed for incorporation into a fibrin gel. The α2-PI1-8-VEGF121 gene was synthesized, cloned into a pET-32a(+) vector and expressed in Escherichia coli Origami B (DE3) host cells. To increase the protein folding and the solubility, the resulting thioredoxin-α2-PI1-8-VEGF121 fusion protein was co-expressed with recombinant molecular chaperones GroES/EL encoded by independent plasmid pGro7. The fusion protein was purified from the soluble fraction of cytoplasmic proteins using affinity chromatography. After cleavage of the thioredoxin fusion part with thrombin, the target protein was purified by a second round of affinity chromatography. The yield of purified α2-PI1-8-VEGF121 was 1.4 mg per liter of the cell culture. The α2-PI1-8-VEGF121 expressed in this work increased the proliferation of endothelial cells 3.9–8.7 times in comparison with commercially-available recombinant VEGF121. This very high mitogenic activity may be caused by co-expression of the growth factor with molecular chaperones not previously used in VEGF production. At the same time, α2-PI1-8-VEGF121 did not elicit considerable inflammatory activation of human endothelial HUVEC cells and human monocyte-like THP-1 cells. PMID:27716773

  11. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and microvascular density in salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Faur, Alexandra Corina; Lazar, Elena; Cornianu, Marioara

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates whether salivary tumours with different morphology and evolution also differ in terms of neovascularization and VEGF expression and the prognostic value of the results. Surgical specimens from 45 patients - 8 pleomorphic adenomas (PA), 7 Warthin tumours (WT), 5 basal cell adenomas (BA), 6 carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenoma (CEPA), 6 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC), 5 acinic cell carcinomas (AC), 4 adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) and 4 adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified (ADK NOS) - were immunostained. In malignant salivary tumours, the following mean microvascular density (MVD) values were recorded (± SD = Standard Deviation): 27.61 (SD ± 2.27) in cases with CEPA, 27.08 (DS ± 7.81) in AC and 32.93 (SD ± 7.76) in ADK NOS, with lower values for MEC 24.31(SD ± 2.88) and for ACC 22.13 (SD ± 5.44). For benign tumours, an MVD of 35.71 (SD ± 2.09) was recorded in WT and lower average values in PA (MVD = 14.84; SD ± 4.86) and in BA (MVD = 23.96; SD ± 9.13). MVD did not correlate with the investigated clinicopathological parameters. The VEGF expression is significantly more important (p = 0.001) in malignant salivary tumours as compared with benign ones. The VEGF expression and the microvascularization in salivary gland tumours are important elements to be considered when formulating a diagnosis and assessing case evolutions in patients with such tumours.

  12. Elevated SP-1 transcription factor expression and activity drives basal and hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Karl; Onion, David; Kumari, Rajendra; Watson, Susan A; Knox, Alan J

    2012-11-16

    VEGF plays a central role in angiogenesis in cancer. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors have increased microvascular density, localized hypoxia, and high VEGF expression levels; however, there is a lack of understanding of how oncogenic and tumor microenvironment changes such as hypoxia lead to greater VEGF expression in lung and other cancers. We show that NSCLC cells secreted higher levels of VEGF than normal airway epithelial cells. Actinomycin D inhibited all NSCLC VEGF secretion, and VEGF minimal promoter-luciferase reporter constructs were constitutively active until the last 85 base pairs before the transcription start site containing three SP-1 transcription factor-binding sites; mutation of these VEGF promoter SP-1-binding sites eliminated VEGF promoter activity. Furthermore, dominant negative SP-1, mithramycin A, and SP-1 shRNA decreased VEGF promoter activity, whereas overexpression of SP-1 increased VEGF promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated SP-1, p300, and PCA/F histone acetyltransferase binding and histone H4 hyperacetylation at the VEGF promoter in NSCLC cells. Cultured NSCLC cells expressed higher levels of SP-1 protein than normal airway epithelial cells, and double-fluorescence immunohistochemistry showed a strong correlation between SP-1 and VEGF in human NSCLC tumors. In addition, hypoxia-driven VEGF expression in NSCLC cells was SP-1-dependent, with hypoxia increasing SP-1 activity and binding to the VEGF promoter. These studies are the first to demonstrate that overexpression of SP-1 plays a central role in hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion. PMID:22992725

  13. Bcl2 and p53 regulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated angiogenesis in non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fontanini, G; Boldrini, L; Vignati, S; Chinè, S; Basolo, F; Silvestri, V; Lucchi, M; Mussi, A; Angeletti, C A; Bevilacqua, G

    1998-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of p53 and bcl2 proteins in a series of 107 non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), and to relate such protein expression to neovascularisation and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Moreover, we analysed the prognostic impact of these biological parameters on overall survival, both in univariate and multivariate analyses. An inverse association was found between bcl2 expression and microvessel count (MVC; P = 0.0004) and bcl2 and VEGF (P = 0.007). In contrast, a significant association was found between p53 expression and MVC (P = 0.03) and p53 and VEGF expression (P = 0.04). In univariate analysis, nodal status (P < 0.000001), MVC (P < 0.000001), bcl2 (P = 0.002), p53 (P = 0.03) and VEGF expression (P < 0.000001) significantly affected overall survival, but in multivariate analysis only MVC and VEGF expression retained their prognostic influence. Our results suggest that bcl2 and p53 possibly control the development of tumour angiogenesis in NSCLC, with putative mediation by VEGF. Moreover, the important influence of angiogenesis in the progression of NSCLC is further highlighted.

  14. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A) Mediates Activin A-Induced Human Trophoblast Endothelial-Like Tube Formation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zhu, Hua; Klausen, Christian; Peng, Bo; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-11-01

    Remodeling of maternal spiral arteries during pregnancy requires a subpopulation of extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVTs) to differentiate into endovascular EVTs. Activin A, which is abundantly expressed at the maternal-fetal interface, has been shown to promote trophoblast invasion, but its role in endovascular differentiation remains unknown. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is well recognized as a key regulator in trophoblast endovascular differentiation. Whether and how activin A might regulate VEGF-A production in human trophoblasts and its relationship to endovascular differentiation have yet to be determined. In the present study, we found that activin A increased VEGF-A production in primary and immortalized (HTR8/SVneo) human EVT cells. In addition, activin A enhanced HTR8/SVneo endothelial-like tube formation, and these effects were attenuated by pretreatment with small interfering RNA targeting VEGF-A or the VEGF receptor 1/2 inhibitor SU4312. Pretreatment with the activin/TGF-β type 1 receptor (ALK4/5/7) inhibitor SB431542 abolished the stimulatory effects of activin A on phosphorylated mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD)-2/3 phosphorylation, VEGF-A production, and endothelial-like tube formation. Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated down-regulation of SMAD2, SMAD3, or common SMAD4 abolished the effects of activin A on VEGF-A production and endothelial-like tube formation. In conclusion, activin A may promote human trophoblast cell endothelial-like tube formation by up-regulating VEGF-A production in an SMAD2/3-SMAD4-dependent manner. These findings provide insight into the cellular and molecular events regulated by activin A during human implantation. PMID:26327470

  15. Shifts in the Vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf) isoforms result in transcriptome changes correlated with early neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation in mouse forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Jacob T.; Berosik, Matthew A.; Snyder, Stephanie D.; Crawford, Natalie F.; Nour, Shirin I.; Schaubhut, Geoffrey J.; Darland, Diane C.

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) fate decisions is critical during the transition from a multicellular mammalian forebrain neuroepithelium to the multi-layered neocortex. Forebrain development requires coordinated vascular investment alongside NSC differentiation. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegf) has proven to be a pleiotrophic gene whose multiple protein isoforms regulate a broad range of effects in neurovascular systems. To test the hypothesis that the Vegf isoforms (120, 164, and 188) are required for normal forebrain development, we analyzed the forebrain transcriptome of mice expressing specific Vegf isoforms, Vegf120, VegfF188, or a combination of Vegf120/188. Transcriptome analysis identified differentially expressed genes in embryonic day (E) 9.5 forebrain, a time point preceding dramatic neuroepithelial expansion and vascular investment in the telencephalon. Meta-analysis identified gene pathways linked to chromosome-level modifications, cell fate regulation, and neurogenesis that were altered in Vegf isoform mice. Based on these gene network shifts, we predicted that NSC populations would be affected in later stages of forebrain development. In the E11.5 telencephalon, we quantified mitotic cells [Phospho-Histone H3 (pHH3)-positive] and intermediate progenitor cells (Tbr2/Eomes-positive), observing quantitative and qualitative shifts in these populations. We observed qualitative shifts in cortical layering at P0, particularly with Ctip2-positive cells in layer V. The results identify a suite of genes and functional gene networks that can be used to further dissect the role of Vegf in regulating NSC differentiation and downstream consequences for NSC fate decisions. PMID:24124161

  16. Allicin inhibits lymphangiogenesis through suppressing activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weicang; Du, Zheyuan; Nimiya, Yoshiki; Sukamtoh, Elvira; Kim, Daeyoung; Zhang, Guodong

    2016-03-01

    Allicin, the most abundant organosulfur compound in freshly crushed garlic tissues, has been shown to have various health-promoting effects, including anticancer actions. A better understanding of the effects and mechanisms of allicin on tumorigenesis could facilitate development of allicin or garlic products for cancer prevention. Here we found that allicin inhibited lymphangiogenesis, which is a critical cellular process implicated in tumor metastasis. In primary human lymphatic endothelial cells, allicin at 10 μM inhibited capillary-like tube formation and cell migration, and it suppressed phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and focal adhesion kinase. Using a Matrigel plug assay in mice, addition of 10 μg allicin in Matrigel plug inhibited 40-50% of vascular endothelial growth factor-C-induced infiltration of lymphatic endothelial cells and leukocytes. S-Allylmercaptoglutathione, a major cellular metabolite of allicin, had no effect on lymphangiogenic responses in lymphatic endothelial cells. Together, these results demonstrate the antilymphangiogenic effect of allicin in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a novel mechanism for the health-promoting effects of garlic compounds. PMID:26895668

  17. Resistive-Pulse Measurements with Nanopipettes: Detection of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C (VEGF-C) Using Antibody-Decorated Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Huijing; Wang, Yixian; Yu, Yun; Mirkin, Michael V.; Bhakta, Snehasis; Bishop, Gregory W.; Joshi, Amit A.; Rusling, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Quartz nanopipettes have recently been employed for resistive-pulse sensing of Au nanoparticles (AuNP) and nanoparticles with bound antibodies. The analytical signal in such experiments is the change in ionic current caused by the nanoparticle translocation through the pipette orifice. This paper describes resistive-pulse detection of cancer biomarker (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C, VEGF-C) through the use of antibody-modified AuNPs and nanopipettes. The main challenge was to differentiate between AuNPs with attached antibodies for VEGF-C and antigen-conjugated particles. The zeta-potentials of these types of particles are not very different, and, therefore, carefully chosen pipettes with well-characterized geometry were necessary for selective detection of VEGF-C. PMID:26040997

  18. Promoting inflammatory lymphangiogenesis by vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) aggravated intestinal inflammation in mice with experimental acute colitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X.L.; Zhao, J.; Qin, L.; Qiao, M.

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, it is not understood if inflammatory lymphangiogenesis is a pathological consequence or a productive attempt to resolve the inflammation. This study investigated the effect of lymphangiogenesis on intestinal inflammation by overexpressing a lymphangiogenesis factor, vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), in a mouse model of acute colitis. Forty eight-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were treated with recombinant adenovirus overexpressing VEGF-C or with recombinant VEGF-C156S protein. Acute colitis was then established by exposing the mice to 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) for 7 days. Mice were evaluated for disease activity index (DAI), colonic inflammatory changes, colon edema, microvessel density, lymphatic vessel density (LVD), and VEGFR-3mRNA expression in colon tissue. When acute colitis was induced in mice overexpressing VEGF-C, there was a significant increase in colonic epithelial damage, inflammatory edema, microvessel density, and neutrophil infiltration compared to control mice. These mice also exhibited increased lymphatic vessel density (73.0±3.9 vs 38.2±1.9, P<0.001) and lymphatic vessel size (1974.6±104.3 vs 1639.0±91.5, P<0.001) compared to control mice. Additionally, the expression of VEGFR-3 mRNA was significantly upregulated in VEGF-C156S mice compared to DSS-treated mice after induction of colitis (42.0±1.4 vs 3.5±0.4, P<0.001). Stimulation of lymphangiogenesis by VEGF-C during acute colitis promoted inflammatory lymphangiogenesis in the colon and aggravated intestinal inflammation. Inflammatory lymphangiogenesis may have pleiotropic effects at different stages of IBD. PMID:27074165

  19. Blockade of GpIIb/IIIa inhibits the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from tumor cell-activated platelets and experimental metastasis.

    PubMed

    Amirkhosravi, A; Amaya, M; Siddiqui, F; Biggerstaff, J P; Meyer, T V; Francis, J L

    1999-01-01

    Evidence that platelets play a role in tumor metastasis includes the observation of circulating tumor cell-platelet aggregates and the anti-metastatic effect of thrombocytopenia and anti-platelet drugs. Platelets have recently been shown to contain vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) which is released during clotting. We therefore studied the effects of (1) tumor cell-platelet adherence and tumor cell TF activity on platelet VEGF release; and (2) the effects of GpIIb/IIIa blockade on tumor cell-induced platelet VEGF release, tumor cell-induced thrombocytopenia and experimental metastasis. Adherent A375 human melanoma cells (TF+) and KG1 myeloid leukemia (TF-) cells were cultured in RPMI containing 10% fetal bovine serum. Platelet-rich plasma was obtained from normal citrated whole blood and the presence of VEGF (34 and 44 kDa isoforms) confirmed by immunoblotting. Platelet-rich plasma with or without anti-GpIIb/IIIa (Abciximab) was added to A375 monolayers and supernatant VEGF measured by ELISA. Tumor cell-induced platelet activation and release were determined by CD62P expression and serotonin release respectively. In vitro, tumor cell-platelet adherence was evaluated by flow cytometry. In vivo, thrombocytopenia and lung seeding were assessed 30 min and 18 days, respectively, after i.v. injection of Lewis Lung carcinoma (LL2) cells into control or murine 7E3 F(ab')(2) (6 mg/ kg) athymic rats. Maximal in vitro platelet activation (72% serotonin release) occurred 30 min after adding platelets to tumor cells. At this time, 87% of the A375 cells had adhered to platelets. Abciximab significantly (P<0.05) reduced platelet adherence to tumor cells as evidenced by flow cytometry. Incubation of A375 cells with platelets induced VEGF release in a time-dependent manner. This release was significantly inhibited by Abciximab (81% at 30 min; P<0.05). In the presence of fibrinogen and FII, VEGF release induced by A375 (TF+) cells was significantly higher than that induced

  20. Blockade of GpIIb/IIIa inhibits the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from tumor cell-activated platelets and experimental metastasis.

    PubMed

    Amirkhosravi, A; Amaya, M; Siddiqui, F; Biggerstaff, J P; Meyer, T V; Francis, J L

    1999-01-01

    Evidence that platelets play a role in tumor metastasis includes the observation of circulating tumor cell-platelet aggregates and the anti-metastatic effect of thrombocytopenia and anti-platelet drugs. Platelets have recently been shown to contain vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) which is released during clotting. We therefore studied the effects of (1) tumor cell-platelet adherence and tumor cell TF activity on platelet VEGF release; and (2) the effects of GpIIb/IIIa blockade on tumor cell-induced platelet VEGF release, tumor cell-induced thrombocytopenia and experimental metastasis. Adherent A375 human melanoma cells (TF+) and KG1 myeloid leukemia (TF-) cells were cultured in RPMI containing 10% fetal bovine serum. Platelet-rich plasma was obtained from normal citrated whole blood and the presence of VEGF (34 and 44 kDa isoforms) confirmed by immunoblotting. Platelet-rich plasma with or without anti-GpIIb/IIIa (Abciximab) was added to A375 monolayers and supernatant VEGF measured by ELISA. Tumor cell-induced platelet activation and release were determined by CD62P expression and serotonin release respectively. In vitro, tumor cell-platelet adherence was evaluated by flow cytometry. In vivo, thrombocytopenia and lung seeding were assessed 30 min and 18 days, respectively, after i.v. injection of Lewis Lung carcinoma (LL2) cells into control or murine 7E3 F(ab')(2) (6 mg/ kg) athymic rats. Maximal in vitro platelet activation (72% serotonin release) occurred 30 min after adding platelets to tumor cells. At this time, 87% of the A375 cells had adhered to platelets. Abciximab significantly (P<0.05) reduced platelet adherence to tumor cells as evidenced by flow cytometry. Incubation of A375 cells with platelets induced VEGF release in a time-dependent manner. This release was significantly inhibited by Abciximab (81% at 30 min; P<0.05). In the presence of fibrinogen and FII, VEGF release induced by A375 (TF+) cells was significantly higher than that induced

  1. Ectodomain Shedding of Lymphatic Vessel Endothelial Hyaluronan Receptor 1 (LYVE-1) Is Induced by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGF-A).

    PubMed

    Nishida-Fukuda, Hisayo; Araki, Ryoichi; Shudou, Masachika; Okazaki, Hidenori; Tomono, Yasuko; Nakayama, Hironao; Fukuda, Shinji; Sakaue, Tomohisa; Shirakata, Yuji; Sayama, Koji; Hashimoto, Koji; Detmar, Michael; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Hirakawa, Satoshi

    2016-05-13

    Lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1), a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, is known as one of the most specific lymphatic vessel markers in the skin. In this study, we found that the ectodomain of LYVE-1 undergoes proteolytic cleavage, and this process produces soluble LYVE-1. We further identified the cleavage site for ectodomain shedding and generated an uncleavable mutant of LYVE-1. In lymphatic endothelial cells, ectodomain shedding of LYVE-1 was induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, an important factor for angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis under pathological conditions. VEGF-A-induced LYVE-1 ectodomain shedding was mediated via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 17. Wild-type LYVE-1, but not uncleavable LYVE-1, promoted migration of lymphatic endothelial cells in response to VEGF-A. Immunostaining analyses in human psoriasis skin lesions and VEGF-A transgenic mouse skin suggested that the ectodomain shedding of LYVE-1 occurred in lymphatic vessels undergoing chronic inflammation. These results indicate that the ectodomain shedding of LYVE-1 might be involved in promoting pathological lymphangiogenesis.

  2. Ectodomain Shedding of Lymphatic Vessel Endothelial Hyaluronan Receptor 1 (LYVE-1) Is Induced by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGF-A).

    PubMed

    Nishida-Fukuda, Hisayo; Araki, Ryoichi; Shudou, Masachika; Okazaki, Hidenori; Tomono, Yasuko; Nakayama, Hironao; Fukuda, Shinji; Sakaue, Tomohisa; Shirakata, Yuji; Sayama, Koji; Hashimoto, Koji; Detmar, Michael; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Hirakawa, Satoshi

    2016-05-13

    Lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1), a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, is known as one of the most specific lymphatic vessel markers in the skin. In this study, we found that the ectodomain of LYVE-1 undergoes proteolytic cleavage, and this process produces soluble LYVE-1. We further identified the cleavage site for ectodomain shedding and generated an uncleavable mutant of LYVE-1. In lymphatic endothelial cells, ectodomain shedding of LYVE-1 was induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, an important factor for angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis under pathological conditions. VEGF-A-induced LYVE-1 ectodomain shedding was mediated via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 17. Wild-type LYVE-1, but not uncleavable LYVE-1, promoted migration of lymphatic endothelial cells in response to VEGF-A. Immunostaining analyses in human psoriasis skin lesions and VEGF-A transgenic mouse skin suggested that the ectodomain shedding of LYVE-1 occurred in lymphatic vessels undergoing chronic inflammation. These results indicate that the ectodomain shedding of LYVE-1 might be involved in promoting pathological lymphangiogenesis. PMID:26966180

  3. Association of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Gene Polymorphisms with the Risk and Prognosis of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Xiao-juan; Liu, Wen-min; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Background Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common type of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) globally. The aims of this study were to further systematically clarify the potential association of rs833061 (-460 C>T) and rs1570360 (-1154 G>A), two SNPs of VEGF, with the risk of cSCC and the prognostic impacts on cSCC patients. Material/Methods This hospital-based case-control study analyzed peripheral venous blood collected from 100 cSCC patients and 124 healthy controls, and gathered personal information on patients. Genotypes of the VEGF gene -460C>T and -1154G>A polymorphism were detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. Different distributions of allele frequencies and genotype in the case and control group were measured, comparing different genotype differences in the survival of patients with cSCC. Results Distributions of allele frequencies and genotype of -460 C>T in the case and control group were statistically different; the TT + CT genotype was significantly correlated with a decrease risk of cSCC (OR=0.36, 95% CI=0.21–0.63, P<0.001). There was no difference in the distribution of allele frequencies and genotype of -1154 G>A between control and case groups. For -1154460C>T, the CC genotype was an adverse factor, associated with a significant decrease in the survival status of cSCC patients (P<0.001). For VEGF-1154 G>A, the AA genotype was significantly correlated with the reduced overall survival in cSCC patients, with the mean survival time of 23.88 months (P=0.009). Conclusions The VEGF gene -460 C>T polymorphism and -1154 G>A polymorphism may serve as potential genetic markers for the risk and prognosis of cSCC. PMID:27729640

  4. Aberrant, ectopic expression of VEGF and VEGF receptors 1 and 2 in malignant colonic epithelial cells. Implications for these cells growth via an autocrine mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, Amrita; Jones, Michael K.; Szabo, Sandor; Tarnawski, Andrzej S.

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •Malignant colonic epithelial cells express VEGF and its receptors. •Cultured colon cancer cells secrete VEGF into the medium. •Inhibition of VEGF receptor significantly decreases colon cancer cell proliferation. •VEGF is critical for colon cancer cell growth. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor A (referred to as VEGF) is implicated in colon cancer growth. Currently, the main accepted mechanism by which VEGF promotes colon cancer growth is via the stimulation of angiogenesis, which was originally postulated by late Judah Folkman. However, the cellular source of VEGF in colon cancer tissue; and, the expression of VEGF and its receptors VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 in colon cancer cells are not fully known and are subjects of controversy. Material and methods: We examined and quantified expression of VEGF, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 in three different human colonic tissue arrays containing sections of adenocarcinoma (n = 43) and normal mucosa (n = 41). In human colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and HT29 and normal colon cell lines NCM356 and NCM460, we examined expression of VEGF, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 mRNA and protein, VEGF production and secretion into the culture medium; and, the effect of a potent, selective inhibitor of VEGF receptors, AL-993, on cell proliferation. Results: Human colorectal cancer specimens had strong expression of VEGF in cancer cells and also expressed VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2.In vitro studies showed that human colon cancer cell lines, HCT116 and HT29, but not normal colonic cell lines, express VEGF, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 and secrete VEGF into the medium up to a concentration 2000 pg/ml within 48 h. Furthermore, we showed that inhibition of VEGF receptors using a specific VEGF-R inhibitor significantly reduced proliferation (by >50%) of cultured colon cancer cell lines. Conclusions: Our findings support the contention that VEGF generated by colon cancer cells stimulates their growth directly through an autocrine mechanism that is

  5. Cellular distribution of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and B (VEGFB) and VEGF receptors 1 and 2 in focal cortical dysplasia type IIB

    PubMed Central

    Boer, Karin; Troost, Dirk; Spliet, Wim G. M.; van Rijen, Peter C.; Gorter, Jan A.

    2008-01-01

    Members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family are key signaling proteins in the induction and regulation of angiogenesis, both during development and in pathological conditions. However, signaling mediated through VEGF family proteins and their receptors has recently been shown to have direct effects on neurons and glial cells. In the present study, we immunocytochemically investigated the expression and cellular distribution of VEGFA, VEGFB, and their associated receptors (VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2) in focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type IIB from patients with medically intractable epilepsy. Histologically normal temporal cortex and perilesional regions displayed neuronal immunoreactivity (IR) for VEGFA, VEGFB, and VEGF receptors (VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2), mainly in pyramidal neurons. Weak IR was observed in blood vessels and there was no notable glial IR within the grey and white matter. In all FCD specimens, VEGFA, VEGFB, and both VEGF receptors were highly expressed in dysplastic neurons. IR in astroglial and balloon cells was observed for VEGFA and its receptors. VEGFR-1 displayed strong endothelial staining in FCD. Double-labeling also showed expression of VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFR-1 in cells of the microglia/macrophage lineage. The neuronal expression of both VEGFA and VEGFB, together with their specific receptors in FCD, suggests autocrine/paracrine effects on dysplastic neurons. These autocrine/paracrine effects could play a role in the development of FCD, preventing the death of abnormal neuronal cells. In addition, the expression of VEGFA and its receptors in glial cells within the dysplastic cortex indicates that VEGF-mediated signaling could contribute to astroglial activation and associated inflammatory reactions. PMID:18317782

  6. Pre-B cell colony enhancing factor (PBEF/NAMPT/Visfatin) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) cooperate to increase the permeability of the human placental amnion.

    PubMed

    Astern, J M; Collier, A C; Kendal-Wright, C E

    2013-01-01

    Fluid efflux across the region of the amnion overlying the placenta is an essential component of the intramembranous absorption pathway that maintains amniotic fluid volume homeostasis. Dysregulation of this pathway may result in adverse pregnancy outcomes, however the factors controlling amnion permeability are unknown. Here, we report a novel mechanism that increases placental amnion permeability. Pre-B Cell Colony Enhancing Factor (PBEF) is a stress-responsive cytokine expressed by the human amnion, and is known to induce Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) production by other cell types. Interestingly, VEGF is up-regulated in the ovine amnion when intramembranous absorption is augmented. In this study, we show that PBEF induced VEGF secretion by primary human amniotic epithelial cells (AEC) derived from the placental amnion, as well as from the reflected amnion that lines the remainder of the gestational sac. Further, PBEF treatment led to the increased expression of VEGFR2 in placental AEC, but not reflected AEC. To test the hypothesis that PBEF and VEGF increase placental amnion permeability, we monitored the transfer of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) from the fetal to the maternal side of human amnion explants. A treatment regimen including both PBEF and VEGF increased the rate of DCF transfer across the placental amnion, but not the reflected amnion. In summary, our results suggest that by augmenting VEGFR2 expression in the placental amnion, PBEF primes the tissue for a VEGF-mediated increase in permeability. This mechanism may have important implications in amniotic fluid volume control throughout gestation.

  7. Inhibitory effects of artesunate on angiogenesis and on expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor and VEGF receptor KDR/flk-1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan-Huan; Zhou, Hui-Jun; Wu, Guo-Dong; Lou, Xiao-E

    2004-05-01

    Artesunate (ART) is a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin extracted from the plant Artemisia annua is a safe and effective antimalarial drug. In the present investigation, ART was found also to inhibit angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro. The anti-angiogenic effect in vivo was evaluated in nude mice by means of human ovarian cancer HO-8910 implantation and immunohistochemical stainings for microvessel (CD(31)), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor KDR/flk-1. Tumor growth was decreased and microvessel density was reduced following drug treatment with no apparent toxicity to the animals. ART also remarkably lowered VEGF expression on tumor cells and KDR/flk-1 expression on endothelial cells as well as tumor cells. The in vitro effect of ART was tested on models of angiogenesis, namely, proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The results showed that ART significantly inhibited angiogenesis in a dose-dependent form in the range of 0.5 approximately 50 micromol/l. Additionally, the inhibitory effect of ART on HVUEC proliferation was stronger than that on Hela, JAR, HO-8910 cancer cells, NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells and human endometrial cells, indicating that ART was selectively against HUVEC. These findings and the known low toxicity of ART are clues that ART may be a promising angiogenesis inhibitor. PMID:15051917

  8. Preparation and in vitro characterization of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-loaded poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres using a double emulsion/solvent evaporation technique.

    PubMed

    Karal-Yılmaz, Okşan; Serhatlı, Müge; Baysal, Kemal; Baysal, Bahattin M

    2011-01-01

    Biodegradable Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid; PLGA), microspheres encapsulating the angiogenic protein recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) were formed to achieve VEGF release in a sustained manner. These microspheres are a promising delivery system which can be used for therapeutic angiogenesis. The PLGA microspheres incorporating two different initial loading amounts of rhVEGF have been prepared by a modified water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. The microspheres have been characterized by particle size distribution, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), light microscopy, encapsulation efficiency and their degradation was studied in vitro. The rhVEGF released from microspheres was quantified by the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation assay was used to assess biological activity of the released VEGF. The microspheres were spherical with diameters of 10-60 µm and the encapsulation efficiency was between 46% and 60%. The release kinetics of rhVEGF was studied for two different amounts: 5 µg VEGF (V5) and 50 µg VEGF (V50) per 500 mg starting polymer. The total protein (VEGF:BSA) release increased up to 4 weeks for two rhVEGF concentrations. The ELISA results showed that the burst release for V5 and V50 microspheres were 4 and 27 ng/mL, respectively. For V5, the microspheres showed an initial burst release, followed by a higher steady-state release until 14 days. VEGF release increased up to 2 weeks for V50 microsphere. HUVEC proliferation assay showed that endothelial cells responded to bioactive VEGF by proliferating and migrating.

  9. Neutrophil Elastase Differentially Regulates Interleukin 8 (IL-8) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Production by Cigarette Smoke Extract.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Jeong, Jiyeong; Jang, An-Hee; Yoo, Chul-Gyu

    2015-11-20

    Inflammation by IL-8-induced neutrophil recruitment and apoptosis of epithelial cells by decreased expression of VEGF have been suggested as one of the complicated pathogenic mechanisms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The role of neutrophil elastase (NE) in the development of COPD is also well known. However, little is known about how they interact. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effect of NE on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced IL-8 and VEGF production and its molecular mechanism in bronchial epithelial cells. CSE increased both IL-8 and VEGF production in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Although NE significantly enhanced CSE-induced IL-8 production, it suppressed VEGF production. This differential regulation was not CSE-specific. The effect of NE on IL-8 production, but not VEGF, was ERK-dependent. Interestingly, in contrast to decreased VEGF protein expression, NE accelerated VEGF transcription by CSE, suggesting post-translational modification. When cells were incubated with purified NE, it was detected in the cytoplasm, suggesting the intracellular translocation of NE. Furthermore, NE fragmented recombinant human VEGF in vitro but not recombinant human IL-8. These results indicate that VEGF down-regulation is due to direct degradation by NE, which is translocated into cells. Similar to in vitro cell experiments, elastase treatment increased CSE-induced IL-8; however, it suppressed VEGF production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of CSE-treated mice. Moreover, elastase treatment enhanced CSE-induced emphysema in mice. Considering the actions of IL-8 and VEGF, our results suggest that NE contributes to the pathogenesis of COPD by enhancing inflammation and apoptosis.

  10. Neoangiogenesis and p53 protein in lung cancer: their prognostic role and their relation with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression.

    PubMed

    Fontanini, G; Vignati, S; Lucchi, M; Mussi, A; Calcinai, A; Boldrini, L; Chiné, S; Silvestri, V; Angeletti, C A; Basolo, F; Bevilacqua, G

    1997-01-01

    Following up-regulation of an angiogenesis inhibitor by the wild-type p53 protein proven recently, we have analysed on the one hand the prognostic impact of microvessel count (MC) and p53 protein overexpression in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) progression and, on the other hand, the inter-relation between the microvascular pattern and the p53 protein expression. Moreover, we assessed the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the pivotal mediators of tumour angiogenesis, in order to investigate its relation to p53 protein expression and MC. Tumours from 73 patients resected for NSCLC between March 1991 and April 1992 (median follow-up 47 months, range 32-51 months) were analysed using an immunohistochemical method. In univariate analysis, MC and p53 accumulation were shown to affect metastatic nodal involvement, recurrence and death significantly. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed an important prognostic influence of MC and nodal status on overall (P = 0.0009; P = 0.01) and disease-free survival (P = 0.0001; P = 0.03). Interestingly, a strong statistical association was observed between p53 nuclear accumulation and MC (P = 0.0003). The same inter-relationship was found in non-squamous histotype (P = 0.002). When we analysed the concomitant influence of MC and p53 expression on overall survival, we were able to confirm a real predominant role of MC in comparison with p53. With regard to VEGF expression, p53-negative and lowly vascularized tumours showed a mean VEGF expression significantly lower than p53-positive and highly vascularized cancers (P = 0.02). These results underline the prognostic impact of MC and p53 protein accumulation in NSCLC and their reciprocal inter-relationship, supporting the hypothesis of a wild-type p53 regulation on the angiogenetic process through a VEGF up-regulation.

  11. The effect of astaxanthin on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels and peroxidation reactions in the aqueous humor.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Hirotaka; Arai, Kiyomi; Hayashi, Shimmin; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Jiro; Chikuda, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    We explored the effect of astaxanthin on vascular endothelial growth factor in the aqueous humor, by measuring vascular endothelial growth factor levels and oxidation-related parameters, including O2 (•-) scavenging activity, H2O2 level, and total hydroperoxide level in the aqueous humor, obtained from 35 patients before and after astaxanthin administration. We evaluated the relationship between vascular endothelial growth factor and the oxidation-related parameters as well as the patient's diabetic status, age, and sex. Vascular endothelial growth factor levels did not change significantly but O2 (•-) scavenging activity and total hydroperoxide level significantly (p<0.05) increased and decreased, respectively. Both pre- and post- astaxanthin intake, vascular endothelial growth factor and total hydroperoxide levels were positively correlated (Pearson: r = 0.42, p<0.05; r = 0.55, p<0.01, respectively). Analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor levels and O2 (•-) scavenging activities gave a negative correlation but only pre-astaxanthin intake (r = -0.37, p<0.05). Differences in levels pre- and post-astaxanthin only showed association between vascular endothelial growth factor and total hydroperoxide (r = 0.49, p<0.01) analyzed by multiple linear regression. Using multivariate analysis, pre-astaxanthin vascular endothelial growth factor level was associated with two factors of total hydroperoxide and O2 (•-) scavenging activity (r = 0.49, p<0.05), and post-astaxanthin vascular endothelial growth factor level with two factors of total hydroperoxide and sex (r = 0.60, p<0.01). Astaxanthin intake may have affected vascular endothelial growth factor level through its antioxidant effects by increasing O2 (•-) scavenging activity and suppressing peroxide production. PMID:27499573

  12. The effect of astaxanthin on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels and peroxidation reactions in the aqueous humor.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Hirotaka; Arai, Kiyomi; Hayashi, Shimmin; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Jiro; Chikuda, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    We explored the effect of astaxanthin on vascular endothelial growth factor in the aqueous humor, by measuring vascular endothelial growth factor levels and oxidation-related parameters, including O2 (•-) scavenging activity, H2O2 level, and total hydroperoxide level in the aqueous humor, obtained from 35 patients before and after astaxanthin administration. We evaluated the relationship between vascular endothelial growth factor and the oxidation-related parameters as well as the patient's diabetic status, age, and sex. Vascular endothelial growth factor levels did not change significantly but O2 (•-) scavenging activity and total hydroperoxide level significantly (p<0.05) increased and decreased, respectively. Both pre- and post- astaxanthin intake, vascular endothelial growth factor and total hydroperoxide levels were positively correlated (Pearson: r = 0.42, p<0.05; r = 0.55, p<0.01, respectively). Analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor levels and O2 (•-) scavenging activities gave a negative correlation but only pre-astaxanthin intake (r = -0.37, p<0.05). Differences in levels pre- and post-astaxanthin only showed association between vascular endothelial growth factor and total hydroperoxide (r = 0.49, p<0.01) analyzed by multiple linear regression. Using multivariate analysis, pre-astaxanthin vascular endothelial growth factor level was associated with two factors of total hydroperoxide and O2 (•-) scavenging activity (r = 0.49, p<0.05), and post-astaxanthin vascular endothelial growth factor level with two factors of total hydroperoxide and sex (r = 0.60, p<0.01). Astaxanthin intake may have affected vascular endothelial growth factor level through its antioxidant effects by increasing O2 (•-) scavenging activity and suppressing peroxide production.

  13. The single nucleotide polymorphism +936 C/T VEGF is associated with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression in Moroccan breast cancer women.

    PubMed

    Rahoui, Jalila; Sbitti, Yassir; Touil, Nadia; Laraqui, Abdelilah; Ibrahimi, Azeddine; Rhrab, Brahim; Al Bouzidi, Abderrahman; Moussaoui Rahali, Driss; Dehayni, Mohamed; Ichou, Mohamed; Zaoui, Fatima; Mrani, Saad

    2014-12-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent regulator of angiogenesis, is involved in the development and progression of breast cancer (BC). The functional +936 C/T polymorphism of the VEGF-A gene has been implicated in BC susceptibility; however, published data are conflicting. In the current case-control study, we analyzed the association of the +936 C/T polymorphism with BC risk and tumor markers expression, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) and caner antigen 15.3 (CA 15.3) in Moroccan women. We genotyped the DNA of 70 BC patients and 70 healthy women by TaqMan SNP assays. The χ(2) test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analyses. The overall results revealed that there is no association between the +936 C/T polymorphism and BC risk [p = 0.8; OR 0.87, 95 % CI (0.32-2.42)]. However, when we stratified the group of patients according to the status of tumor markers, a statistical significant association of +936 C/T SNP and HER2/neu expression was observed (p = 0.009). In contrast, no association with the other tumor marker, CA 15.3, was found (p = 0.090). Thus, the +936 C/T polymorphism seems to have a correlation with HER/neu expression in BC disease.

  14. Prophylactic Administration of Fucoidan Represses Cancer Metastasis by Inhibiting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) in Lewis Tumor-Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tse-Hung; Chiu, Yi-Han; Chan, Yi-Lin; Chiu, Ya-Huang; Wang, Hang; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Li, Tsung-Lin; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Wu, Chang-Jer

    2015-01-01

    Fucoidan, a heparin-like sulfated polysaccharide, is rich in brown algae. It has a wide assortment of protective activities against cancer, for example, induction of hepatocellular carcinoma senescence, induction of human breast and colon carcinoma apoptosis, and impediment of lung cancer cells migration and invasion. However, the anti-metastatic mechanism that fucoidan exploits remains elusive. In this report, we explored the effects of fucoidan on cachectic symptoms, tumor development, lung carcinoma cell spreading and proliferation, as well as expression of metastasis-associated proteins in the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells-inoculated mice model. We discovered that administration of fucoidan has prophylactic effects on mitigation of cachectic body weight loss and improvement of lung masses in tumor-inoculated mice. These desired effects are attributed to inhibition of LLC spreading and proliferation in lung tissues. Fucoidan also down-regulates expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Moreover, the tumor-bearing mice supplemented with fucoidan indeed benefit from an ensemble of the chemo-phylacticity. The fact is that fucoidan significantly decreases viability, migration, invasion, and MMPs activities of LLC cells. In summary, fucoidan is suitable to act as a chemo-preventative agent for minimizing cachectic symptoms as well as inhibiting lung carcinoma metastasis through down-regulating metastatic factors VEGF and MMPs. PMID:25854641

  15. Prophylactic administration of fucoidan represses cancer metastasis by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in Lewis tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tse-Hung; Chiu, Yi-Han; Chan, Yi-Lin; Chiu, Ya-Huang; Wang, Hang; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Li, Tsung-Lin; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Wu, Chang-Jer

    2015-04-01

    Fucoidan, a heparin-like sulfated polysaccharide, is rich in brown algae. It has a wide assortment of protective activities against cancer, for example, induction of hepatocellular carcinoma senescence, induction of human breast and colon carcinoma apoptosis, and impediment of lung cancer cells migration and invasion. However, the anti-metastatic mechanism that fucoidan exploits remains elusive. In this report, we explored the effects of fucoidan on cachectic symptoms, tumor development, lung carcinoma cell spreading and proliferation, as well as expression of metastasis-associated proteins in the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells-inoculated mice model. We discovered that administration of fucoidan has prophylactic effects on mitigation of cachectic body weight loss and improvement of lung masses in tumor-inoculated mice. These desired effects are attributed to inhibition of LLC spreading and proliferation in lung tissues. Fucoidan also down-regulates expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Moreover, the tumor-bearing mice supplemented with fucoidan indeed benefit from an ensemble of the chemo-phylacticity. The fact is that fucoidan significantly decreases viability, migration, invasion, and MMPs activities of LLC cells. In summary, fucoidan is suitable to act as a chemo-preventative agent for minimizing cachectic symptoms as well as inhibiting lung carcinoma metastasis through down-regulating metastatic factors VEGF and MMPs.

  16. Enhanced angiogenesis and osteogenesis in critical bone defects by the controlled release of BMP-2 and VEGF: implantation of electron beam melting-fabricated porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds incorporating growth factor-doped fibrin glue.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jia; Xiu, Peng; Tan, Jie; Jia, Zhaojun; Cai, Hong; Liu, Zhongjun

    2015-06-24

    Electron beam melting (EBM)-fabricated porous titanium implants possessing low elastic moduli and tailored structures are promising biomaterials for orthopedic applications. However, the bio-inert nature of porous titanium makes reinforcement with growth factors (GFs) a promising method to enhance implant in vivo performance. Bone-morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are key factors of angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Therefore, the present study is aimed at evaluating EBM-fabricated porous titanium implants incorporating GF-doped fibrin glue (FG) as composite scaffolds providing GFs for improvement of angiogenesis and osteogenesis in rabbit femoral condyle defects. BMP-2 and VEGF were added into the constituent compounds of FG, and then this GF-doped FG was subsequently injected into the porous scaffolds. In five groups of implants, angiogenesis and osteogenesis were evaluated at 4 weeks post-implantation using Microfil perfusion and histological analysis: eTi (empty scaffolds), cTi (containing undoped FG), BMP/cTi (containing 50 μg rhBMP-2), VEGF/cTi (containing 0.5 μg VEGF) and Dual/cTi (containing 50 μg rhBMP-2 and 0.5 μg VEGF). The results demonstrate that these composite implants are biocompatible and provide the desired gradual release of the bioactive growth factors. Incorporation of GF delivery, whether a single factor or dual factors, significantly enhanced both angiogenesis and osteogenesis inside the porous scaffolds. However, the synergistic effect of the dual factors combination was observable on angiogenesis but absent on osteogenesis. In conclusion, fibrin glue is a biocompatible material that could be employed as a delivery vehicle in EBM-fabricated porous titanium for controlled release of BMP-2 and VEGF. Application of this method for loading a porous titanium scaffold to incorporate growth factors is a convenient and promising strategy for improving osteogenesis of critical-sized bone defects.

  17. Identification of Candidate Angiogenic Inhibitors Processed by Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) in Cell-Based Proteomic Screens: Disruption of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)/Heparin Affin Regulatory Peptide (Pleiotrophin) and VEGF/Connective Tissue Growth Factor Angiogenic Inhibitory Complexes by MMP-2 Proteolysis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Richard A.; Butler, Georgina S.; Hamma-Kourbali, Yamina; Delbé, Jean; Brigstock, David R.; Courty, José; Overall, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) exert both pro- and antiangiogenic functions by the release of cytokines or proteolytically generated angiogenic inhibitors from extracellular matrix and basement membrane remodeling. In the Mmp2−/− mouse neovascularization is greatly reduced, but the mechanistic aspects of this remain unclear. Using isotope-coded affinity tag labeling of proteins analyzed by multidimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry we explored proteome differences between Mmp2−/− cells and those rescued by MMP-2 transfection. Proteome signatures that are hallmarks of proteolysis revealed cleavage of many known MMP-2 substrates in the cellular context. Proteomic evidence of MMP-2 processing of novel substrates was found. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6, follistatin-like 1, and cystatin C protein cleavage by MMP-2 was biochemically confirmed, and the cleavage sites in heparin affin regulatory peptide (HARP; pleiotrophin) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were sequenced by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. MMP-2 processing of HARP and CTGF released vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from angiogenic inhibitory complexes. The cleaved HARP N-terminal domain increased HARP-induced cell proliferation, whereas the HARP C-terminal domain was antagonistic and decreased cell proliferation and migration. Hence the unmasking of cytokines, such as VEGF, by metalloproteinase processing of their binding proteins is a new mechanism in the control of cytokine activation and angiogenesis. PMID:17908800

  18. E2F1 Hinders Skin Wound Healing by Repressing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Expression, Neovascularization, and Macrophage Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ning; Wang, Haiping; Deng, Pei; Xu, Yi; Feng, Youping; Zeng, Hong; Yang, Hongxia; Hou, Kai; Wang, Andrew; Parthasarathy, Keshav; Goyal, Samaksh; Qin, Gangjian; Wu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Refractory surface of wound and dermal chronic ulcer are largely attributed to poor neovascularization. We have previously shown that E2F1 suppresses VEGF expression in the ischemic heart, and that genetic deletion of E2F1 leads to better cardiac recovery. However, whether E2F1 has a role in dermal wound healing is currently not known. Methods and Results Skin wounds were surgically induced in E2F1-null (E2F1–/–) mice and WT littermates. E2F1–/– displayed an accelerated wound healing including wound closure, dermal thickening and collagen deposition, which was associated with an increased endothelial cell proliferation and greater vessel density in the border zone of the wound. Furthermore, more macrophages were recruited to the skin lesions and the level of VEGF expression was markedly higher in E2F1–/– than in WT mice. Conclusions E2F1 hinders skin wound healing by suppressing VEGF expression, neovascularization, and macrophage recruitment. Strategies that target E2F1 may enhance wound healing. PMID:27490344

  19. Increased plasma levels of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (sFlt-1) in women by moderate exercise and increased plasma levels of VEGF in overweight/obese women

    PubMed Central

    Makey, Kristina L.; Patterson, Sharla G.; Robinson, James; Loftin, Mark; Waddell, Dwight E.; Miele, Lucio; Chinchar, Edmund; Huang, Min; Smith, Andrew D.; Weber, Mark; Gu, Jian-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide, and this seems to be related to an increase in lifestyle risk factors, including physical inactivity, and overweight/obesity. We previously reported that exercise induced a circulating angiostatic phenotype characterized by increased sFlt-1 and endostatin and decreased unbound-VEGF in men. However, there is no data on women. The present study determines the following: 1) whether moderate exercise increased sFlt-1 and endostatin and decreased unbound-VEGF in the circulation of adult female volunteers; 2) whether overweight/obese women have a higher plasma level of unbound-VEGF than lean women. 72 African American and Caucasian adult women volunteers aged from 18–44 were enrolled into the exercise study. All the participants walked on a treadmill for 30 minutes at a moderate intensity (55–59% heart rate reserve), and oxygen consumption (VO2) was quantified by utilizing a metabolic cart. We had the blood samples before and immediately after exercise from 63 participants. ELISA assays (R&D Systems) showed that plasma levels of sFlt-1 were 67.8±3.7 pg/ml immediately after exercise (30 minutes), significantly higher than basal levels, 54.5±3.3 pg/ml, before exercise (P < 0.01; n=63). There was no significant difference in the % increase of sFlt-1 levels after exercise between African American and Caucasian (P=0.533) or between lean and overweight/obese women (P=0.892). There was no significant difference in plasma levels of unbound VEGF (35.28±5.47 vs. 35.23±4.96 pg/ml; P=0.99) or endostatin (111.12±5.48 vs. 115.45±7.15 ng/ml; P=0.63) before and after exercise. Basal plasma levels of unbound-VEGF in overweight/obese women were 52.26±9.6 pg/ml, significantly higher than basal levels of unbound-VEGF in lean women, 27.34±4.99 pg/ml (P < 0.05). The results support our hypothesis that exercise-induced plasma levels of sFlt-1 could be an important clinical biomarker to explore the mechanisms of exercise

  20. Polymorphisms in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) predict sunitinib-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Eechoute, K; van der Veldt, A A M; Oosting, S; Kappers, M H W; Wessels, J A M; Gelderblom, H; Guchelaar, H-J; Reyners, A K L; van Herpen, C M L; Haanen, J B; Mathijssen, R H J; Boven, E

    2012-10-01

    Hypertension is an important side effect of sunitinib treatment. In a retrospective study in 255 patients, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2, endothelin-1 (ET-1), and endothelium-derived nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were multivariately tested against hypertension grades and changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and mean arterial BP (MAP). Next, the association between hypertension and survival in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) was studied. Greater elevations in SBP and MAP were associated with the presence of a haplotype in VEGFA (P = 0.014 and P = 0.036, respectively). The tendency to develop grade 3 hypertension was associated with this haplotype and also with a SNP in eNOS (P = 0.031 and P = 0.045, respectively). In mRCC patients, sunitinib-induced hypertension was found to confer a survival benefit, with the mean overall survival being prolonged by 7.2 months (P = 0.035 and P = 0.026 for SBP and DBP elevations, respectively). Genetic polymorphisms in VEGFA and eNOS independently predict rise in BP and/or development of severe hypertension in sunitinib-treated patients. Grade 3 hypertension was found to be an independent factor for overall survival in patients with mRCC. PMID:22948895

  1. Overexpression of the chimeric plasmin-resistant VEGF165/VEGF183 (132-158) protein in murine breast cancer induces distinct vascular patterning adjacent to tumors and retarded tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui-Yong; Fan, Bing-Lin; Wu, Xin-Sheng; Mu, Ling-Min; Wang, Wen-Feng; Zhu, Wu-Ling

    2015-02-01

    A chimeric plasmin‑resistant vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)165/VEGF183 (132-158) protein, named as VEGF183 (according to the nomenclature of VEGF), designed by a previous study, was demonstrated to have an enhanced affinity for the extracellular matrix (ECM) amongst other bioactivities. However, it is now accepted that mutant VEGFs frequently demonstrate different angiogenic activities and produce different vascular patterning from the parental molecule. The present study hypothesized that VEGF183, due to its enhanced binding affinity to the ECM, would exhibit a different angiogenic activity and produce a different vascular patterning compared to those of VEGF165. Murine breast cancer EMT‑6 cells were manipulated to stably overexpress VEGF165 or VEGF183. These cells were then inoculated intradermally into BALB/c mice in order to monitor the formation of vascular patterning in skin proximal to tumors. In vivo angiogenesis experiments revealed that overexpression of VEGF183 in murine breast cancer cells resulted in irregular, disorganized and dense vascular patterning as well as induced a significant inhibition of tumor growth compared with that of VEGF165. In addition, allograft tumor immunochemical assays of VEGF183‑overexpressing tumors demonstrated significantly lower vascular densities than those of VEGF165‑overexpressing tumors; however, VEGF183 tumors had a significantly enlarged vascular caliber. Conversely, cell wound healing experiments revealed that VEGF183‑overexpressing EMT‑6 cells had significantly decreased migration rates compared with those of VEGF165‑overexpressing EMT‑6 cells. In conclusion, the results of the present study supported the hypothesis that the altered ECM affinity of VEGF induced structural alterations to vasculature. In addition, these results provided a novel insight into VEGF design and indirect evidence for the function of exon 8 in VEGF. [Corrected] PMID:25373557

  2. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Platelet (PF-4) Factor 4 Inputs Modulate Human Microvascular Endothelial Signaling in a Three-Dimensional Matrix Migration Context*

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Ta-Chun; Tedford, Nathan C.; Reddy, Raven J.; Rimchala, Tharathorn; Wells, Alan; White, Forest M.; Kamm, Roger D.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    The process of angiogenesis is under complex regulation in adult organisms, particularly as it often occurs in an inflammatory post-wound environment. As such, there are many impacting factors that will regulate the generation of new blood vessels which include not only pro-angiogenic growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor, but also angiostatic factors. During initial postwound hemostasis, a large initial bolus of platelet factor 4 is released into localized areas of damage before progression of wound healing toward tissue homeostasis. Because of its early presence and high concentration, the angiostatic chemokine platelet factor 4, which can induce endothelial anoikis, can strongly affect angiogenesis. In our work, we explored signaling crosstalk interactions between vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet factor 4 using phosphotyrosine-enriched mass spectrometry methods on human dermal microvascular endothelial cells cultured under conditions facilitating migratory sprouting into collagen gel matrices. We developed new methods to enable mass spectrometry-based phosphorylation analysis of primary cells cultured on collagen gels, and quantified signaling pathways over the first 48 h of treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor in the presence or absence of platelet factor 4. By observing early and late signaling dynamics in tandem with correlation network modeling, we found that platelet factor 4 has significant crosstalk with vascular endothelial growth factor by modulating cell migration and polarization pathways, centered around P38α MAPK, Src family kinases Fyn and Lyn, along with FAK. Interestingly, we found EphA2 correlational topology to strongly involve key migration-related signaling nodes after introduction of platelet factor 4, indicating an influence of the angiostatic factor on this ambiguous but generally angiogenic signal in this complex environment. PMID:24023389

  3. The GG genotype of the -152 G/A vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) polymorphism predisposes to hypertension-related chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Małkiewicz, Anna; Skrzypkowska, Maria; Słomiński, Bartosz; Siebert, Janusz; Gutknecht, Piotr; Myśliwska, Jolanta

    2016-09-01

    Our purpose was to determine whether the VEGF -152 G/A polymorphism could be associated with chronic kidney disease and endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive patients. There were 100 healthy volunteers enrolled into the control group. The group of patients was constituted by 99 consecutively admitted hypertensive patients referred to our Institution by their general practitioner. All patients were treated with anti-hypertensive polytherapy. Presented study revealed that the hypertensive patients bearing the GG genotype were characterized by the highest values of diastolic blood pressure and markers of endothelial damage such as Angiogenin, Endostatin, CRP as well as von Willebrandt factor. In addition, higher number of immature endothelial progenitor cells with CD34(+)CD133(+), CD34(+)CD133(-) markers was observed in GG hypertensive carriers while in normotensive individuals no differences were found. Such phenomenon may indicate an increased mobilization of bone-marrow derived endothelial progenitors. It may testify to the preserved compensatory mechanism in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients until the G3a stage of the disease. Moreover, patients with higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) level had lower of vWf and Endostatin values, and higher level of VEGF. Taken together our findings clearly indicate the -152 GG hypertensive carriers as more prone to develop CKD. We can suspect that the VEGF -152 GG genotype is strongly associated with hypertension-dependent CKD.

  4. Vascular endothelial growth factor B, a novel growth factor for endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Olofsson, B; Pajusola, K; Kaipainen, A; von Euler, G; Joukov, V; Saksela, O; Orpana, A; Pettersson, R F; Alitalo, K; Eriksson, U

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated and characterized a novel growth factor for endothelial cells, vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B), with structural similarities to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placenta growth factor. VEGF-B was particularly abundant in heart and skeletal muscle and was coexpressed with VEGF in these and other tissues. VEGF-B formed cell-surface-associated disulfide-linked homodimers and heterodimerized with VEGF when coexpressed. Conditioned medium from transfected 293EBNA cells expressing VEGF-B stimulated DNA synthesis in endothelial cells. Our results suggest that VEGF-B has a role in angiogenesis and endothelial cell growth, particularly in muscle. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8637916

  5. A quantitative analysis of the reduction in oxygen levels required to induce up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA in cervical cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Chiarotto, J A; Hill, R P

    1999-01-01

    The presence of hypoxia (low oxygen concentrations) in solid tumours correlates with poor prognosis, increased metastasis, and resistance to radiotherapy and some forms of chemotherapy. Malignant cells produce an angiogenesis factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which may increase metastatic ability and is up-regulated in the presence of hypoxia. Clinical data for cancers of the cervix and head and neck relate oxygen levels in the tumour to treatment outcome. This suggests the possibility that the presence of VEGF mRNA might be used as a marker for relevant levels of hypoxia. Suspension cultures of three human cervical cancer cell lines, SiHa, ME-180 and HeLa, were used to investigate up-regulation of VEGF mRNA levels following exposure to precisely defined oxygen concentrations for 2 or 4 h. An oxygen sensor was used to confirm the actual levels of dissolved oxygen present. The oxygen concentrations which caused half-maximal upregulation (the Km value) of VEGF mRNA level in the three cell lines were similar except for one instance (Km at 4 h: SiHa 27.0 ± 5.7 μM, ME-180 16.8 ± 3.3 μM, HeLa 13.0 ± 1.8 μM, SiHa and HeLa P = 0.01). The Km values for the HeLa cell line as measured at 2 h (24.9 ± 0.8 μM) and 4 h (13.0 ± 1.8 μM) were significantly different (P < 0.0001). VEGF mRNA half-lives measured in air were consistent with values in the literature (SiHa 59.8 ± 5.8 min, ME-180 44.4 ± 7.2 min, HeLa 44.5 ± 6.3 min). Differences in oxygen consumption at low oxygen concentrations were noted between the different cell lines. Stirring in suspension culture was found to induce VEGF mRNA in SiHa cells. The presence of VEGF mRNA may be a marker for radiobiologic hypoxia. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10408392

  6. Involvement of phosphoinositide 3-kinase class IA (PI3K 110α) and NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) in regulation of vascular differentiation induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bekhite, Mohamed M; Müller, Veronika; Tröger, Sebastian H; Müller, Jörg P; Figulla, Hans-Reiner; Sauer, Heinrich; Wartenberg, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The impact of reactive oxygen species and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in differentiating embryonic stem (ES) cells is largely unknown. Here, we show that the silencing of the PI3K catalytic subunit p110α and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 1 (NOX1) by short hairpin RNA or pharmacological inhibition of NOX and ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) abolishes superoxide production by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in mouse ES cells and in ES-cell-derived fetal liver kinase-1(+) (Flk-1(+)) vascular progenitor cells, whereas the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone does not have an effect. Silencing p110α or inhibiting Rac1 arrests vasculogenesis at initial stages in embryoid bodies, even under VEGF treatment, as indicated by platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1)-positive areas and branching points. In the absence of p110α, tube-like structure formation on matrigel and cell migration of Flk-1(+) cells in scratch migration assays are totally impaired. Silencing NOX1 causes a reduction in PECAM-1-positive areas, branching points, cell migration and tube length upon VEGF treatment, despite the expression of vascular differentiation markers. Interestingly, silencing p110α but not NOX1 inhibits the activation of Rac1, Ras homologue gene family member A (RhoA) and Akt leading to the abrogation of VEGF-induced lamellipodia structure formation. Thus, our data demonstrate that the PI3K p110α-Akt/Rac1 and NOX1 signalling pathways play a pivotal role in VEGF-induced vascular differentiation and cell migration. Rac1, RhoA and Akt phosphorylation occur downstream of PI3K and upstream of NOX1 underscoring a role of PI3K p110α in the regulation of cell polarity and migration. PMID:26553657

  7. Endothelial epsin deficiency decreases tumor growth by enhancing VEGF signaling.

    PubMed

    Pasula, Satish; Cai, Xiaofeng; Dong, Yunzhou; Messa, Mirko; McManus, John; Chang, Baojun; Liu, Xiaolei; Zhu, Hua; Mansat, Robert Silasi; Yoon, Seon-Joo; Hahn, Scott; Keeling, Jacob; Saunders, Debra; Ko, Genevieve; Knight, John; Newton, Gail; Luscinskas, Francis; Sun, Xiaohong; Towner, Rheal; Lupu, Florea; Xia, Lijun; Cremona, Ottavio; De Camilli, Pietro; Min, Wang; Chen, Hong

    2012-12-01

    Epsins are a family of ubiquitin-binding, endocytic clathrin adaptors. Mice lacking both epsins 1 and 2 (Epn1/2) die at embryonic day 10 and exhibit an abnormal vascular phenotype. To examine the angiogenic role of endothelial epsins, we generated mice with constitutive or inducible deletion of Epn1/2 in vascular endothelium. These mice exhibited no abnormal phenotypes under normal conditions, suggesting that lack of endothelial epsins 1 and 2 did not affect normal blood vessels. In tumors, however, loss of epsins 1 and 2 resulted in disorganized vasculature, significantly increased vascular permeability, and markedly retarded tumor growth. Mechanistically, we show that VEGF promoted binding of epsin to ubiquitinated VEGFR2. Loss of epsins 1 and 2 specifically impaired endocytosis and degradation of VEGFR2, which resulted in excessive VEGF signaling that compromised tumor vascular function by exacerbating nonproductive leaky angiogenesis. This suggests that tumor vasculature requires a balance in VEGF signaling to provide sufficient productive angiogenesis for tumor development and that endothelial epsins 1 and 2 negatively regulate the output of VEGF signaling. Promotion of excessive VEGF signaling within tumors via a block of epsin 1 and 2 function may represent a strategy to prevent normal angiogenesis in cancer patients who are resistant to anti-VEGF therapies.

  8. Rapid decrease in tumor perfusion following VEGF blockade predicts long-term tumor growth inhibition in preclinical tumor models.

    PubMed

    Eichten, Alexandra; Adler, Alexander P; Cooper, Blerta; Griffith, Jennifer; Wei, Yi; Yancopoulos, George D; Lin, Hsin Chieh; Thurston, Gavin

    2013-04-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key upstream mediator of tumor angiogenesis, and blockade of VEGF can inhibit tumor angiogenesis and decrease tumor growth. However, not all tumors respond well to anti-VEGF therapy. Despite much effort, identification of early response biomarkers that correlate with long-term efficacy of anti-VEGF therapy has been difficult. These difficulties arise in part because the functional effects of VEGF inhibition on tumor vessels are still unclear. We therefore assessed rapid molecular, morphologic and functional vascular responses following treatment with aflibercept (also known as VEGF Trap or ziv-aflibercept in the United States) in preclinical tumor models with a range of responses to anti-VEGF therapy, including Colo205 human colorectal carcinoma (highly sensitive), C6 rat glioblastoma (moderately sensitive), and HT1080 human fibrosarcoma (resistant), and correlated these changes to long-term tumor growth inhibition. We found that an overall decrease in tumor vessel perfusion, assessed by dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US), and increases in tumor hypoxia correlated well with long-term tumor growth inhibition, whereas changes in vascular gene expression and microvessel density did not. Our findings support previous clinical studies showing that decreased tumor perfusion after anti-VEGF therapy (measured by DCE-US) correlated with response. Thus, measuring tumor perfusion changes shortly after treatment with VEGF inhibitors, or possibly other anti-angiogenic therapies, may be useful to predict treatment efficacy. PMID:23238831

  9. The Growth and Aggressive Behavior of Human Osteosarcoma Is Regulated by a CaMKII-Controlled Autocrine VEGF Signaling Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Daft, Paul G.; Yang, Yang; Napierala, Dobrawa; Zayzafoon, Majd

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is a hyperproliferative malignant tumor that requires a high vascular density to maintain its large volume. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) plays a crucial role in angiogenesis and acts as a paracrine and autocrine agent affecting both endothelial and tumor cells. The alpha-Ca2+/Calmodulin kinase two (α-CaMKII) protein is an important regulator of OS growth. Here, we investigate the role of α-CaMKII-induced VEGF in the growth and tumorigenicity of OS. We show that the pharmacologic and genetic inhibition of α-CaMKII results in decreases in VEGF gene expression (50%) and protein secretion (55%), while α- CaMKII overexpression increases VEGF gene expression (250%) and protein secretion (1,200%). We show that aggressive OS cells (143B) express high levels of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) and respond to exogenous VEGF (100nm) by increasing intracellular calcium (30%). This response is ameliorated by the VEGFR inhibitor CBO-P11, suggesting that secreted VEGF results in autocrine stimulated α-CaMKII activation. Furthermore, we show that VEGF and α-CaMKII inhibition decreases the transactivation of the HIF-1α and AP-1 reporter constructs. Additionally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay shows significantly decreased binding of HIF-1α and AP-1 to their responsive elements in the VEGF promoter. These data suggest that α-CaMKII regulates VEGF transcription by controlling HIF-1α and AP-1 transcriptional activities. Finally, CBO-P11, KN-93 (CaMKII inhibitor) and combination therapy significantly reduced tumor burden in vivo. Our results suggest that VEGF-induced OS tumor growth is controlled by CaMKII and dual therapy by CaMKII and VEGF inhibitors could be a promising therapy against this devastating adolescent disease. PMID:25860662

  10. Local delivery of chitosan/VEGF siRNA nanoplexes reduces angiogenesis and growth of breast cancer in vivo.

    PubMed

    Salva, Emine; Kabasakal, Levent; Eren, Fatih; Ozkan, Naziye; Cakalağaoğlu, Fulya; Akbuğa, Jülide

    2012-02-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the important angiogenic factor associated with tumor growth and metastasis in a wide variety of solid tumors. The aim of this study is to investigate the tumor suppressive effect of chitosan/small interfering RNA (siRNA)-VEGF nanoplexes in the rat breast cancer model. Chitosan/siRNA nanoplexes (siVEGF-A, siVEGFR-1, siVEGFR-2) and NRP-1 were prepared in a 15 to1 ratio and injected (intratumorally) into the breast-tumor-bearing Sprague-Dawley rats. Tumor volumes were measured during 21 days. To investigate the effect of chitosan/siRNA nanoplexes on VEGF expression in tumors, VEGF was analyzed with immunohistochemistry and western blotting. The mRNA levels of VEGF in tumor samples were determined with real-time PCR (RT-PCR). After siRNA treatment, a marked reduction in tumor volumes was measured in complex-injected rats (97%). Free siRNA injection showed lower tumor inhibition. Reduction of VEGF protein was also shown with western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Similar results were obtained with RT-PCR also. These results indicate that the chitosan/siRNA targeting to VEGF nanoplexes have a remarkably suppressive effect on VEGF expression and tumor volume in breast cancer model of rats.

  11. Elevated VEGF-D Modulates Tumor Inflammation and Reduces the Growth of Carcinogen-Induced Skin Tumors.

    PubMed

    Honkanen, Hanne-Kaisa; Izzi, Valerio; Petäistö, Tiina; Holopainen, Tanja; Harjunen, Vanessa; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Alitalo, Kari; Heljasvaara, Ritva

    2016-07-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) promotes the lymph node metastasis of cancer by inducing the growth of lymphatic vasculature, but its specific roles in tumorigenesis have not been elucidated. We monitored the effects of VEGF-D in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) by subjecting transgenic mice overexpressing VEGF-D in the skin (K14-mVEGF-D) and VEGF-D knockout mice to a chemical skin carcinogenesis protocol involving 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatments. In K14-mVEGF-D mice, tumor lymphangiogenesis was significantly increased and the frequency of lymph node metastasis was elevated in comparison with controls. Most notably, the papillomas regressed more often in K14-mVEGF-D mice than in littermate controls, resulting in a delay in tumor incidence and a remarkable reduction in the total tumor number. Skin tumor growth and metastasis were not obviously affected in the absence of VEGF-D; however, the knockout mice showed a trend for reduced lymphangiogenesis in skin tumors and in the untreated skin. Interestingly, K14-mVEGF-D mice showed an altered immune response in skin tumors. This consisted of the reduced accumulation of macrophages, mast cells, and CD4(+) T-cells and an increase of cytotoxic CD8(+) T-cells. Cytokine profiling by flow cytometry and quantitative real time PCR revealed that elevated VEGF-D expression results in an attenuated Th2 response and promotes M1/Th1 and Th17 polarization in the early stage of skin carcinogenesis, leading to an anti-tumoral immune environment and the regression of primary tumors. Our data suggest that VEGF-D may be beneficial in early-stage tumors since it suppresses the pro-tumorigenic inflammation, while at later stages VEGF-D-induced tumor lymphatics provide a route for metastasis. PMID:27435926

  12. Genome-wide approaches reveal functional vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-inducible nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) c1 binding to angiogenesis-related genes in the endothelium.

    PubMed

    Suehiro, Jun-ichi; Kanki, Yasuharu; Makihara, Chihiro; Schadler, Keri; Miura, Mai; Manabe, Yuuka; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Minami, Takashi

    2014-10-17

    VEGF is a key regulator of endothelial cell migration, proliferation, and inflammation, which leads to activation of several signaling cascades, including the calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) pathway. NFAT is not only important for immune responses but also for cardiovascular development and the pathogenesis of Down syndrome. By using Down syndrome model mice and clinical patient samples, we showed recently that the VEGF-calcineurin-NFAT signaling axis regulates tumor angiogenesis and tumor metastasis. However, the connection between genome-wide views of NFAT-mediated gene regulation and downstream gene function in the endothelium has not been studied extensively. Here we performed comprehensive mapping of genome-wide NFATc1 binding in VEGF-stimulated primary cultured endothelial cells and elucidated the functional consequences of VEGF-NFATc1-mediated phenotypic changes. A comparison of the NFATc1 ChIP sequence profile and epigenetic histone marks revealed that predominant NFATc1-occupied peaks overlapped with promoter-associated histone marks. Moreover, we identified two novel NFATc1 regulated genes, CXCR7 and RND1. CXCR7 knockdown abrogated SDF-1- and VEGF-mediated cell migration and tube formation. siRNA treatment of RND1 impaired vascular barrier function, caused RhoA hyperactivation, and further stimulated VEGF-mediated vascular outgrowth from aortic rings. Taken together, these findings suggest that dynamic NFATc1 binding to target genes is critical for VEGF-mediated endothelial cell activation. CXCR7 and RND1 are NFATc1 target genes with multiple functions, including regulation of cell migration, tube formation, and barrier formation in endothelial cells.

  13. Effect of high ovarian response on the expression of endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) in peri-implantation endometrium in IVF women

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li-Zhen; Gao, Min-Zhi; Yao, Li-Hua; Liang, A-Juan; Zhao, Xiao-Ming; Sun, Zhao-Gui

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of ovarian stimulation on the expression of EG-VEGF mRNA and protein in peri-implantation endometrium in women undergoing IVF and its relation with endometrial receptivity (ER). Design: Prospective laboratory study. Setting: University hospital. Patients: Eighteen women in stimulated cycles (SC) as study subjects and 18 women in natural cycles (NC) as controls. Women in SC group were classified with two subgroups, high ovarian response (SC1, n=9) with peak serum E2>5,000 pg/mL and moderate ovarian response (SC2, n=9) with peak serum E2 1,000-5,000 pg/mL. Intervention(s): Endometrial biopsies were collected 6 days after ovulation in NC or after oocyte retrieval in SC. Main outcome measure(s): Endometrium histological dating was observed with HE staining. EG-VEGF mRNA expression levels determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, and protein levels by immunohistochemistry. Results: All endometrial samples were in the secretory phase. The endometrial development in SC1 was 1 to 2 days advanced to NC, and with dyssynchrony between glandular and stromal tissue. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that EG-VEGF protein was predominantly expressed in the glandular epithelial cells and endothelial cells of vessels, and also presented in the stroma. The image analysis confirmed that both the gland and stroma of endometrium in SC1 had a significantly lower EG-VEGF protein expression than that in SC2 and NC endometrium. Moreover, EG-VEGF mRNA levels were significantly lower in SC1 than in NC. Both EG-VEGF protein and mRNA levels had no significant difference between SC2 and NC. Conclusion: Decreased expression of EG-VEGF in the peri-implantation is associated with high ovarian response, which may account for the impaired ER and lower implantation rate in IVF cycles. PMID:26464631

  14. Effects of Rosuvastatin and MiR-126 on Myocardial Injury Induced by Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGF-A)

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Ling; Zhang, Jun; Niu, Heping; Yuan, Chen; Ma, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Background The present study investigated the effects of VEGF-A targeted by miR-126 on myocardial injury after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in rats, along with the contributions of rosuvastatin to the synergic effect. Material/Methods SD rats were obtained to construct AMI models by ligating their left anterior descending coronary arteries (LAD). We conducted echocardiography to check the 6 involved indexes: left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEF), fractional shortening (FS), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVV), left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVVd), cardiac output (CO), and heart rate (HR). Moreover, antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was carried out to determine MI markers: creatine kinase (CK), CK Isoenzyme (CK-MB), and Troponin I (cTn I). Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay was performed to confirm the targeting of miR-126 and VEGF-A. MTT assay provided insight into the proliferation of myocardial fibroblasts. Finally, RT-RCR and Western blot were used for the detection of miR-126 and VEGF-A expressions in vivo and in vitro. Results Luciferase activity assay showed that miR-126 transfection significantly decreased the relative luciferase activity in HEK293T cells when it was bound to normal 3′ UTR of VEGF-A (P<0.05). In comparison to the control group, rats in the AMI model group had significantly lower LVEF, FS, and CO, and substantially higher LVVs, LVVd, HR, CK/U, CK-MB/U, and cTn-1/U (all P<0.05). Down-regulated miR-126 and up-regulated VEGF-A were also observed in MI models (P<0.05). Conclusions miR-126 and rosuvastatin have protective effects on AMI risk, and VEGF-A antagonizes effects on AMI is imposed by. PMID:27376405

  15. Peri- and Postnatal Effects of Prenatal Adenoviral VEGF Gene Therapy in Growth-Restricted Sheep.

    PubMed

    Carr, David J; Wallace, Jacqueline M; Aitken, Raymond P; Milne, John S; Martin, John F; Zachary, Ian C; Peebles, Donald M; David, Anna L

    2016-06-01

    Uterine artery (UtA) adenovirus (Ad) vector-mediated overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) enhances uterine blood flow in normal sheep pregnancy and increases fetal growth in the overnourished adolescent sheep model of fetal growth restriction (FGR). Herein, we examined its impact on gestation length, neonatal survival, early postnatal growth and metabolism. Singleton-bearing ewes were evenly allocated to receive Ad.VEGF-A165 (5 × 10(10) particles/ml, 10 ml, n = 17) or saline (10 ml, n = 16) injected into each UtA at laparotomy (0.6 gestation). Fetal growth was serially monitored (blind) by ultrasound until delivery. Lambs were weighed and blood was sampled weekly and a glucose tolerance test performed (68-day postnatal age). Hepatic DNA/RNA was extracted at necropsy (83-day postnatal age) to examine methylation status of eight somatotropic axis genes. IGF1 mRNA and protein expression were measured by RT-PCR and radioimmunoassay, respectively. All pregnancies remained viable following Ad.VEGF-A165 treatment. Fetal abdominal circumference and renal volume were greater in the Ad.VEGF-A165 group compared with the saline group at 21/28 days (P ≤ 0.04) postinjection. At delivery, gestation length (P = 0.07), lamb birthweight (P = 0.08), umbilical girth (P = 0.06), and plasma glucose (P = 0.09) tended to be greater in Ad.VEGF-A165-treated lambs. Levels of neonatal intervention required to ensure survival was equivalent between groups. Absolute postnatal growth rate (P = 0.02), insulin area under the curve (P = 0.04) and carcass weight at necropsy (P = 0.04) were increased by Ad.VEGF-A165 treatment. There was no impact on markers of insulin sensitivity or methylation/expression of key genes involved in somatic growth. Ad.VEGF-A165 gene therapy increased fetal growth in a sheep FGR model, and lambs continued to thrive during the neonatal and early postnatal period. PMID:27103444

  16. Peri- and Postnatal Effects of Prenatal Adenoviral VEGF Gene Therapy in Growth-Restricted Sheep.

    PubMed

    Carr, David J; Wallace, Jacqueline M; Aitken, Raymond P; Milne, John S; Martin, John F; Zachary, Ian C; Peebles, Donald M; David, Anna L

    2016-06-01

    Uterine artery (UtA) adenovirus (Ad) vector-mediated overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) enhances uterine blood flow in normal sheep pregnancy and increases fetal growth in the overnourished adolescent sheep model of fetal growth restriction (FGR). Herein, we examined its impact on gestation length, neonatal survival, early postnatal growth and metabolism. Singleton-bearing ewes were evenly allocated to receive Ad.VEGF-A165 (5 × 10(10) particles/ml, 10 ml, n = 17) or saline (10 ml, n = 16) injected into each UtA at laparotomy (0.6 gestation). Fetal growth was serially monitored (blind) by ultrasound until delivery. Lambs were weighed and blood was sampled weekly and a glucose tolerance test performed (68-day postnatal age). Hepatic DNA/RNA was extracted at necropsy (83-day postnatal age) to examine methylation status of eight somatotropic axis genes. IGF1 mRNA and protein expression were measured by RT-PCR and radioimmunoassay, respectively. All pregnancies remained viable following Ad.VEGF-A165 treatment. Fetal abdominal circumference and renal volume were greater in the Ad.VEGF-A165 group compared with the saline group at 21/28 days (P ≤ 0.04) postinjection. At delivery, gestation length (P = 0.07), lamb birthweight (P = 0.08), umbilical girth (P = 0.06), and plasma glucose (P = 0.09) tended to be greater in Ad.VEGF-A165-treated lambs. Levels of neonatal intervention required to ensure survival was equivalent between groups. Absolute postnatal growth rate (P = 0.02), insulin area under the curve (P = 0.04) and carcass weight at necropsy (P = 0.04) were increased by Ad.VEGF-A165 treatment. There was no impact on markers of insulin sensitivity or methylation/expression of key genes involved in somatic growth. Ad.VEGF-A165 gene therapy increased fetal growth in a sheep FGR model, and lambs continued to thrive during the neonatal and early postnatal period.

  17. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor is a Secreted Angiogenic Mitogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, David W.; Cachianes, George; Kuang, Wun-Jing; Goeddel, David V.; Ferrara, Napoleone

    1989-12-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was purified from media conditioned by bovine pituitary folliculostellate cells (FC). VEGF is a heparin-binding growth factor specific for vascular endothelial cells that is able to induce angiogenesis in vivo. Complementary DNA clones for bovine and human VEGF were isolated from cDNA libraries prepared from FC and HL60 leukemia cells, respectively. These cDNAs encode hydrophilic proteins with sequences related to those of the A and B chains of platelet-derived growth factor. DNA sequencing suggests the existence of several molecular species of VEGF. VEGFs are secreted proteins, in contrast to other endothelial cell mitogens such as acidic or basic fibroblast growth factors and platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor. Human 293 cells transfected with an expression vector containing a bovine or human VEGF cDNA insert secrete an endothelial cell mitogen that behaves like native VEGF.

  18. Conserved signaling through vascular endothelial growth (VEGF) receptor family members in murine lymphatic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Coso, Sanja; Zeng, Yiping; Sooraj, Dhanya; Williams, Elizabeth D

    2011-10-15

    Lymphatic vessels guide interstitial fluid, modulate immune responses by regulating leukocyte and antigen trafficking to lymph nodes, and in a cancer setting enable tumor cells to track to regional lymph nodes. The aim of the study was to determine whether primary murine lymphatic endothelial cells (mLECs) show conserved vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathways with human LECs (hLECs). LECs were successfully isolated from murine dermis and prostate. Similar to hLECs, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family ligands activated MAPK and pAkt intracellular signaling pathways in mLECs. We describe a robust protocol for isolation of mLECs which, by harnessing the power of transgenic and knockout mouse models, will be a useful tool to study how LEC phenotype contributes to alterations in lymphatic vessel formation and function.

  19. The DEK oncogene activates VEGF expression and promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in HIF-1α-dependent and -independent manners

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Lv, Zhaohui; Zhu, Jie; Lin, Jing; Ding, Lihua; Ye, Qinong

    2016-01-01

    The DEK oncogene is overexpressed in various cancers and overexpression of DEK correlates with poor clinical outcome. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most important regulator of tumor angiogenesis, a process essential for tumor growth and metastasis. However, whether DEK enhances tumor angiogenesis remains unclear. Here, we show that DEK is a key regulator of VEGF expression and tumor angiogenesis. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we found that DEK promoted VEGF transcription in breast cancer cells (MCF7, ZR75-1 and MDA-MB-231) by directly binding to putative DEK-responsive element (DRE) of the VEGF promoter and indirectly binding to hypoxia response element (HRE) upstream of the DRE through its interaction with the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), a master regulator of tumor angiogenesis and growth. DEK is responsible for recruitment of HIF-1α and the histone acetyltransferase p300 to the VEGF promoter. DEK-enhanced VEGF increases vascular endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation as well as angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane. DEK promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in nude mice in HIF-1α-dependent and -independent manners. Immunohistochemical staining showed that DEK expression positively correlates with the expression of VEGF and microvessel number in 58 breast cancer patients. Our data establish DEK as a sequence-specific binding transcription factor, a novel coactivator for HIF-1α in regulation of VEGF transcription and a novel promoter of angiogenesis. PMID:26988756

  20. Palmitoylethanolamide Modulates Inflammation-Associated Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Signaling via the Akt/mTOR Pathway in a Selective Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha (PPAR-α)-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Sarnelli, Giovanni; D’Alessandro, Alessandra; Iuvone, Teresa; Capoccia, Elena; Gigli, Stefano; Pesce, Marcella; Seguella, Luisa; Nobile, Nicola; Aprea, Giovanni; Maione, Francesco; de Palma, Giovanni Domenico; Cuomo, Rosario; Steardo, Luca; Esposito, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Angiogenesis is emerging as a pivotal process in chronic inflammatory pathologies, promoting immune infiltration and prompting carcinogenesis. Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and Crohn’s Disease (CD) represent paradigmatic examples of intestinal chronic inflammatory conditions in which the process of neovascularization correlates with the severity and progression of the diseases. Molecules able to target the angiogenesis have thus the potential to synergistically affect the disease course. Beyond its anti-inflammatory effect, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is able to reduce angiogenesis in several chronic inflammatory conditions, but no data about its anti-angiogenic activity in colitis have been produced, yet. Methods The effects of PEA on inflammation-associated angiogenesis in mice with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and in patients with UC were assessed. The release of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), the hemoglobin tissue content, the expression of CD31 and of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian-target-of-rapamycin (mTOR) signaling axis were all evaluated in the presence of different concentrations of PEA and concomitant administration of PPAR-α and -γ antagonists. Results Our results demonstrated that PEA, in a selective peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α dependent mechanism, inhibits colitis-associated angiogenesis, decreasing VEGF release and new vessels formation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the mTOR/Akt axis regulates, at least partly, the angiogenic process in IBD and that PEA directly affects this pathway. Conclusions Our results suggest that PEA may improve inflammation-driven angiogenesis in colonic mucosa, thus reducing the mucosal damage and potentially affecting disease progression and the shift towards the carcinogenesis. PMID:27219328

  1. hTERT promotes tumor angiogenesis by activating VEGF via interactions with the Sp1 transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ning; Ding, Deqiang; Hao, Wanyu; Yang, Fan; Wu, Xiaoying; Wang, Miao; Xu, Xiaoling; Ju, Zhenyu; Liu, Jun-Ping; Song, Zhangfa; Shay, Jerry W.; Guo, Yunliang; Cong, Yu-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is recognized as an important hallmark of cancer. Although telomerase is thought to be involved in tumor angiogenesis, the evidence and underlying mechanism remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) activates vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF) gene expression through interactions with the VEGF promoter and the transcription factor Sp1. hTERT binds to Sp1 in vitro and in vivo and stimulates angiogenesis in a manner dependent on Sp1. Deletion of the mTert gene in the first generation of Tert null mice compromised tumor growth, with reduced VEGF expression. In addition, we show that hTERT expression levels are positively correlated with those of VEGF in human gastric tumor samples. Together, our results demonstrate that hTERT facilitates tumor angiogenesis by up-regulating VEGF expression through direct interactions with the VEGF gene and the Sp1 transcription factor. These results provide novel insights into hTERT function in tumor progression in addition to its role in telomere maintenance. PMID:27325744

  2. Acacia ferruginea inhibits tumor progression by regulating inflammatory mediators-(TNF-a, iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-2, GM-CSF) and pro-angiogenic growth factor- VEGF.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, Kunnathur Murugesan; Guruvayoorappan, Chandrasekaran

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of A ferruginea extract on Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) induced tumours in BALB/c mice. Experimental animals received A ferruginea extract (10 mg/ kg.b.wt) intraperitoneally for 14 consecutive days after DLA tumor challenge. Treatment with extract significantly increased the life span, total white blood cell (WBC) count and haemoglobin (Hb) content and decreased the level of serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) and nitric oxide (NO) in DLA bearing ascites tumor models. In addition, administration of extract significantly decreased the tumour volume and body weight in a DLA bearing solid tumor model. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and granulocyte monocyte-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), as well as pro-angiogenic growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were elevated in solid tumour controls, but significantly reduced by A ferruginea administration. On the other hand, the extract stimulated the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in animals with DLA induced solid tumours. Increase in CD4+ T-cell population suggested strong immunostimulant activity for this extract. GC/MS and LC/MS analysis showed quinone, quinoline, imidazolidine, pyrrolidine, cyclopentenone, thiazole, pyrazole, catechin and coumarin derivatives as major compounds present in the A ferruginea methanolic extract. Thus, the outcome of the present study suggests that A ferruginea extract has immunomodulatory and tumor inhibitory activities and has the potential to be developed as a natural anticancer agent. PMID:23886206

  3. 1-o-acetylbritannilactone (ABL) inhibits angiogenesis and lung cancer cell growth through regulating VEGF-Src-FAK signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhengfu, He; Hu, Zhang; Huiwen, Miao; Zhijun, Li; Jiaojie, Zhou; Xiaoyi, Yan; Xiujun, Cai

    2015-08-21

    The search for safe, effective and affordable therapeutics against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other lung cancers is important. Here we explored the potential effect of 1-o-acetylbritannilactone (ABL), a novel extract from Inula britannica-F, on angiogenesis and lung cancer cell growth. We demonstrated that ABL dose-dependently inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced proliferation, migration, and capillary structure formation of cultured human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). In vivo, ABL administration suppressed VEGF-induced new vasculature formation in Matrigel plugs. For the mechanism investigations, we found that ABL largely inhibited VEGF-mediated activation of Src kinase and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in HUVECs. Furthermore, treatment of A549 NSCLC cells with ABL resulted in cell growth inhibition and Src-FAK in-activation. Significantly, administration of a single dose of ABL (12 mg/kg/day) remarkably suppressed growth of A549 xenografts in nude mice. In vivo microvessels formation and Src activation were also significantly inhibited in ABL-treated xenograft tumors. Taken together, our findings suggest that ABL suppresses angiogenesis and lung cancer cell growth possibly via regulating the VEGFR-Src-FAK signaling. - Highlights: • 1-o-acetylbritannilactone (ABL) inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vivo. • ABL inhibits VEGF-induced HUVEC migration, proliferation, capillary tube formation. • ABL inhibits VEGF-mediated activation of Src and FAK in HUVECs. • ABL inhibits growth and Src-FAK activation in A549 cells. • ABL administration inhibits A549 tumor angiogenesis and growth in nude mice.

  4. AAVrh.10-mediated genetic delivery of bevacizumab to the pleura to provide local anti-VEGF to suppress growth of metastatic lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, M; Boyer, J L; Crystal, R G

    2010-08-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) produced by tumor cells has a central role in stimulating angiogenesis required for tumor growth. Humanized monoclonal anti-VEGF antibody (bevacizumab, Avastin), approved as a treatment for non-squamous, non-small cell lung cancer, requires administration every 3 weeks. We hypothesized that an intrapleural administration of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector expressing an anti-VEGF-A antibody equivalent of bevacizumab would result in sustained anti-VEGF-A localized expression within the lung and suppress metastatic tumor growth. The AAV vector AAVrh.10alphaVEGF encodes the light chain and heavy chain complementary DNAs of monoclonal antibody A.4.6.1, a murine antibody that specifically recognizes human VEGF-A with the same antigen-binding site as bevacizumab. A metastatic lung tumor model was established in severe combined immunodeficient mice by intravenous administration of human DU145 prostate carcinoma cells. Intrapleural administration of AAVrh.10alphaVEGF directed long-term expression of the anti-human VEGF-A antibody in lung, as shown by sustained, high-level anti-human VEGF titers in lung epithelial lining fluid for 40 weeks, which was the duration of the study. In the AAVrh.10alphaVEGF-treated animals, tumor growth was significantly suppressed (P<0.05), the numbers of blood vessels and mitotic nuclei in the tumor was decreased (P<0.05) and there was increased survival (P<0.05). Thus, intrapleural administration of an AAVrh.10 vector, encoding the murine monoclonal antibody equivalent of bevacizumab, effectively suppresses the growth of metastatic lung tumors, suggesting AAV-mediated gene transfer to the pleura to deliver bevacizumab locally to the lung as a novel alternative platform to conventional monoclonal antibody therapy.

  5. VEGF targets the tumour cell.

    PubMed

    Goel, Hira Lal; Mercurio, Arthur M

    2013-12-01

    The function of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cancer is not limited to angiogenesis and vascular permeability. VEGF-mediated signalling occurs in tumour cells, and this signalling contributes to key aspects of tumorigenesis, including the function of cancer stem cells and tumour initiation. In addition to VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases, the neuropilins are crucial for mediating the effects of VEGF on tumour cells, primarily because of their ability to regulate the function and the trafficking of growth factor receptors and integrins. This has important implications for our understanding of tumour biology and for the development of more effective therapeutic approaches.

  6. Vascular endothelial growth factor-expressing neural stem cell for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Lan; Oh, Jinsoo; Yun, Yeomin; Lee, Hye Yeong; You, Youngsang; Che, Lihua; Lee, Minhyung; Kim, Keung Nyun; Ha, Yoon

    2015-05-01

    Previously, we determined that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) improves the survival of neural stem cells (NSCs) transplanted into an ischemic environment and effectively enhances angiogenesis. Here, we applied NSCs expressing VEGF (SV-VEGF-NSCs) to treat neuropathic pain. In this study, our goal was to verify the therapeutic effect of SV-VEGF-NSCs by transplanting the cells in a sciatic nerve injury model. We compared the amount of VEGF secreted from DsRed-NSCs (control) or SV-VEGF-NSCs and observed that SV-VEGF-NSCs have a much higher expression level of VEGF. We next investigated whether transplantation with SV-VEGF-NSCs aids functional recovery and pain reduction. We confirmed that transplantation with SV-VEGF-NSCs enhances functional recovery, pain reduction, and remyelination as well as the number of blood vessels compared with the control groups. Our results show that VEGF aids functional recovery and pain reduction in a sciatic nerve injury model. PMID:25793634

  7. Growth factors

    SciTech Connect

    Golde, D.W.; Herschman, H.R.; Lusis, A.J.; Groopman, J.E.

    1980-05-01

    Humoral regulation of somatic and hematopoietic cell growth has been intensely investigated during the past decade. Growth hormone is unique because it regulates the size of the person within the constraints of the genetic program. The somatomedins and insulin growth factors are low molecular weight polypeptides believed to mediate some functions of growth hormone. Epithelial growth factor and nerve growth factor are well-characterized polypeptides that influence the growth and differentiation of epithelial and neural tissues and interact with specific cell surface receptors. The hematopoietins are a family of polypeptide hormones that specifically regulate the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells giving rise to erythrocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, megakaryocytes, and B and T lymphocytes. Platelet-derived growth factor modulates the proliferation of fibroblasts in vitro and may have a role in the development of atherosclerosis and myelofibrosis. New knowledge on the biochemistry and physiology of growth factors will probably have a substantial impact on our understanding of human diseases involving abnormal cell growth.

  8. Effect of VEGF receptor inhibitor PTK787/ZK222548 combined with ionizing radiation on endothelial cells and tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    Hess, C; Vuong, V; Hegyi, I; Riesterer, O; Wood, J; Fabbro, D; Glanzmann, C; Bodis, S; Pruschy, M

    2001-01-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor is a major target for anti-angiogenesis-based cancer treatment. Here we report the treatment effect of ionizing radiation in combination with the novel orally bioavailable VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor PTK787/ZK222584 on endothelial cell proliferation in vitro and with tumour xenografts in vivo. Combined treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells with increasing doses of PTK787/ZK222584 and ionizing radiation abrogated VEGF-dependent proliferation in a dose-dependent way, but inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation was not due to apoptosis induction. In vivo, a combined treatment regimen of PTK787/ZK222584 (4 × 100 mg/kg) during 4 consecutive days in combination with ionizing radiation (4 × 3 Gy) exerted a substantial tumour growth delay for radiation-resistant p53-disfunctional tumour xenografts derived from SW480 colon adenocarcinoma cells while each treatment modality alone had only a minimal effect on tumour size and neovascularization. SW480 tumours from animals that received a combined treatment regimen, displayed not only an extended tumour growth delay but also a significant decrease in the number of microvessels in the tumour xenograft. These results support the model of a cooperative antitumoural effect of angiogenesis inhibitor and irradiation and show that the orally bioavailable VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor PTK787/ZK222584 is suitable for combination therapy with irradiation. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11747347

  9. The spatial and temporal expression of VEGF and its receptors 1 and 2 in post-traumatic bone bridge formation of the growth plate.

    PubMed

    Fischerauer, Eva; Heidari, Nima; Neumayer, Bernhard; Deutsch, Alexander; Weinberg, Annelie M

    2011-12-01

    Injuries to growth plates may initiate the formation of reversible or irreversible bone-bridges, may leading to bone length discrepancy or axis deviation. As vascular invasion is essential for the formation of bone tissue, the aim of our study was to investigate the kinetic expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and its receptors R1 and R2 and the ingrowth of vessels in the formation of bone bridges in a rat physeal injury model. Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction was performed for VEGF and its receptors. Samples from the proximal physis of the tibial bone were immunohistochemically evaluated for the expression of VEGF and its R1 and R2 receptors and Laminin. Morphologically, physeal bone bridge formation was validated by means of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Kinetic expression of VEGF and VEGF-R1 mRNA documented a tendency towards an increase in expression on day 7. Histological analyses showed a hematoma containing bone debris on day 1 which was replaced with bony trabeculae by day 14, forming a bone bridge by day 28 which was preceded and accompanied by angiogenesis and consistent with MRI data. VEGF and VEGF-R2 was expressed on the debris within the hematoma and bone trabeculae from days 1 to 28. VEGF-R1 expression was only noted until day 14. The findings of our study suggest that physeal bone bridge formation is in part triggered by VEGF expression and associated with angiogenesis, which was shown to precede bone bridge formation and may be further stimulated through VEGF-positive bone debris.

  10. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Acts Primarily via Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor α to Promote Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Pennock, Steven; Haddock, Luis J.; Mukai, Shizuo; Kazlauskas, Andrius

    2015-01-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a nonneovascular blinding disease and the leading cause for failure in surgical repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments. Once formed, PVR is difficult to treat. Hence, there is an acute interest in developing approaches to prevent PVR. Of the many growth factors and cytokines that accumulate in vitreous as PVR develops, neutralizing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A has recently been found to prevent PVR in at least one animal model. The goal of this study was to test if Food and Drug Administration–approved agents could protect the eye from PVR in multiple animal models and to further investigate the underlying mechanisms. Neutralizing VEGF with aflibercept (VEGF Trap-Eye) safely and effectively protected rabbits from PVR in multiple models of disease. Furthermore, aflibercept reduced the bioactivity of both experimental and clinical PVR vitreous. Finally, although VEGF could promote some PVR-associated cellular responses via VEGF receptors expressed on the retinal pigment epithelial cells that drive this disease, VEGF's major contribution to vitreal bioactivity occurred via platelet-derived growth factor receptor α. Thus, VEGF promotes PVR by a noncanonical ability to engage platelet-derived growth factor receptor α. These findings indicate that VEGF contributes to nonangiogenic diseases and that anti–VEGF-based therapies may be effective on a wider spectrum of diseases than previously appreciated. PMID:25261788

  11. Genetic variations in the VEGF pathway as prognostic factors in metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Paré-Brunet, L; Sebio, A; Salazar, J; Berenguer-Llergo, A; Río, E; Barnadas, A; Baiget, M; Páez, D

    2015-10-01

    Angiogenesis is a significant biological mechanism in the progression and metastasis of solid tumors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), its receptors and signaling effectors have a central role in tumor-induced angiogenesis. Genetic variation in the VEGF pathway may impact on tumor angiogenesis and, hence, on clinical cancer outcomes. This study evaluates the influence of common genetic variations within the VEGF pathway in the clinical outcomes of 172 metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients treated with first-line oxaliplatin/5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. A total of 27 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 16 genes in the VEGF-dependent angionenesis process were genotyped using a dynamic array on the BioMark™ system. After assessing the KRAS mutational status, we found that four SNPs located in three genes (KISS1, KRAS and VEGFR2) were associated with progression-free survival. Five SNPs in three genes (ITGAV, KRAS and VEGFR2) correlated with overall survival. The gene-gene interactions identified in the survival tree analysis support the importance of VEGFR2 rs2071559 and KISS1 rs71745629 in modulating these outcomes. This study provides evidence that functional germline polymorphisms in the VEGF pathway may help to predict outcome in mCRC patients who undergo oxaliplatin/5-fluorouracil chemotherapy.

  12. Vascular endothelial growth factor in central nervous system injuries - a vascular growth factor getting nervous?

    PubMed

    Sköld, Mattias K; Kanje, Martin

    2008-11-01

    Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is recognized as a central factor in growth, survival and permeability of blood vessels in both physiological and pathological conditions. It is as such of importance for vascular responses in various central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Accumulating evidence suggest that VEGF may also act as a neuroprotective and neurotrophic factor supporting neuronal survival and neuronal regeneration. Findings of neuropilins as shared co-receptors between molecules with such seemingly different functions as the axon guidance molecules semaphorins and VEGF has further boosted the interest in the role of VEGF in neural tissue injury and repair mechanisms. Thus, VEGF most likely act in parallel or concurrent on cells in both the vascular and nervous system. The present review gives a summary of known or potential aspects of the VEGF system in the healthy and diseased nervous system. The potential benefits but also problems and pitfalls in intervening in the actions of such a multifunctional factor as VEGF in the disordered CNS are also covered.

  13. PlGF and VEGF-A Regulate Growth of High-Risk MYCN-Single Copy Neuroblastoma Xenografts via Different Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zins, Karin; Kovatchki, Daniel; Lucas, Trevor; Abraham, Dietmar

    2016-09-23

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood and is a rapidly growing, highly-vascularized cancer. NBs frequently express angiogenic factors and high tumor angiogenesis has been associated with poor outcomes. Placental growth factor (PlGF) is an angiogenic protein belonging to the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family and is up-regulated mainly in pathologic conditions. Recently, PlGF was identified as a member of a gene expression signature characterizing highly malignant NB stem cells drawing attention as a potential therapeutic target in NB. In the present study, we sought to investigate the expression of PlGF in NB patients and the effect of PlGF inhibition on high-risk MYCN-non-amplified SK-N-AS NB xenografts. Human SK-N-AS cells, which are poorly differentiated and express PlGF and VEGF-A, were implanted subcutaneously in athymic nude mice. Treatment was done by intratumoral injection of replication-incompetent adenoviruses (Ad) expressing PlGF- or VEGF-specific short hairpin (sh)RNA, or soluble (s)VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). The effect on tumor growth and angiogenesis was analyzed. High PlGF expression levels were observed in human advanced-stage NBs. Down-regulating PlGF significantly reduced NB growth in established NB xenografts by reducing cancer cell proliferation but did not suppress angiogenesis. In contrast, blocking VEGF by administration of Ad(sh)VEGF and Ad(s)VEGFR2 reduced tumor growth associated with decreased tumor vasculature. These findings suggest that PlGF and VEGF-A modulate MYCN-non-amplified NB tumors by different mechanisms and support a role for PlGF in NB biology.

  14. PlGF and VEGF-A Regulate Growth of High-Risk MYCN-Single Copy Neuroblastoma Xenografts via Different Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zins, Karin; Kovatchki, Daniel; Lucas, Trevor; Abraham, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood and is a rapidly growing, highly-vascularized cancer. NBs frequently express angiogenic factors and high tumor angiogenesis has been associated with poor outcomes. Placental growth factor (PlGF) is an angiogenic protein belonging to the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family and is up-regulated mainly in pathologic conditions. Recently, PlGF was identified as a member of a gene expression signature characterizing highly malignant NB stem cells drawing attention as a potential therapeutic target in NB. In the present study, we sought to investigate the expression of PlGF in NB patients and the effect of PlGF inhibition on high-risk MYCN-non-amplified SK-N-AS NB xenografts. Human SK-N-AS cells, which are poorly differentiated and express PlGF and VEGF-A, were implanted subcutaneously in athymic nude mice. Treatment was done by intratumoral injection of replication-incompetent adenoviruses (Ad) expressing PlGF- or VEGF-specific short hairpin (sh)RNA, or soluble (s)VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). The effect on tumor growth and angiogenesis was analyzed. High PlGF expression levels were observed in human advanced-stage NBs. Down-regulating PlGF significantly reduced NB growth in established NB xenografts by reducing cancer cell proliferation but did not suppress angiogenesis. In contrast, blocking VEGF by administration of Ad(sh)VEGF and Ad(s)VEGFR2 reduced tumor growth associated with decreased tumor vasculature. These findings suggest that PlGF and VEGF-A modulate MYCN-non-amplified NB tumors by different mechanisms and support a role for PlGF in NB biology. PMID:27669225

  15. PlGF and VEGF-A Regulate Growth of High-Risk MYCN-Single Copy Neuroblastoma Xenografts via Different Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zins, Karin; Kovatchki, Daniel; Lucas, Trevor; Abraham, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood and is a rapidly growing, highly-vascularized cancer. NBs frequently express angiogenic factors and high tumor angiogenesis has been associated with poor outcomes. Placental growth factor (PlGF) is an angiogenic protein belonging to the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family and is up-regulated mainly in pathologic conditions. Recently, PlGF was identified as a member of a gene expression signature characterizing highly malignant NB stem cells drawing attention as a potential therapeutic target in NB. In the present study, we sought to investigate the expression of PlGF in NB patients and the effect of PlGF inhibition on high-risk MYCN-non-amplified SK-N-AS NB xenografts. Human SK-N-AS cells, which are poorly differentiated and express PlGF and VEGF-A, were implanted subcutaneously in athymic nude mice. Treatment was done by intratumoral injection of replication-incompetent adenoviruses (Ad) expressing PlGF- or VEGF-specific short hairpin (sh)RNA, or soluble (s)VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). The effect on tumor growth and angiogenesis was analyzed. High PlGF expression levels were observed in human advanced-stage NBs. Down-regulating PlGF significantly reduced NB growth in established NB xenografts by reducing cancer cell proliferation but did not suppress angiogenesis. In contrast, blocking VEGF by administration of Ad(sh)VEGF and Ad(s)VEGFR2 reduced tumor growth associated with decreased tumor vasculature. These findings suggest that PlGF and VEGF-A modulate MYCN-non-amplified NB tumors by different mechanisms and support a role for PlGF in NB biology. PMID:27669225

  16. VEGF-A/VEGFR Inhibition Restores Hematopoietic Homeostasis in the Bone Marrow and Attenuates Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Rebekah K; Falcon, Beverly; Hanson, Jeff; Goldstein, Whitney E; Perruzzi, Carole; Rafii, Shahin; Aird, William C; Benjamin, Laura E

    2016-02-01

    Antiangiogenesis-based cancer therapies, specifically those targeting the VEGF-A/VEGFR2 pathway, have been approved for subsets of solid tumors. However, these therapies result in an increase in hematologic adverse events. We surmised that both the bone marrow vasculature and VEGF receptor-positive hematopoietic cells could be impacted by VEGF pathway-targeted therapies. We used a mouse model of spontaneous breast cancer to decipher the mechanism by which VEGF pathway inhibition alters hematopoiesis. Tumor-bearing animals, while exhibiting increased angiogenesis at the primary tumor site, showed signs of shrinkage in the sinusoidal bone marrow vasculature accompanied by an increase in the hematopoietic stem cell-containing Lin-cKit(+)Sca1(+) (LKS) progenitor population. Therapeutic intervention by targeting VEGF-A, VEGFR2, and VEGFR3 inhibited tumor growth, consistent with observed alterations in the primary tumor vascular bed. These treatments also displayed systemic effects, including reversal of the tumor-induced shrinkage of sinusoidal vessels and altered population balance of hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, manifested by the restoration of sinusoidal vessel morphology and hematopoietic homeostasis. These data indicate that tumor cells exert an aberrant systemic effect on the bone marrow microenvironment and VEGF-A/VEGFR targeting restores bone marrow function.

  17. Inhibition of breast cancer growth in vivo by antiangiogenesis gene therapy with adenovirus-mediated antisense-VEGF

    PubMed Central

    Im, S-A; Kim, J-S; Gomez-Manzano, C; Fueyo, J; Liu, T-J; Cho, M-S; Seong, C-M; Lee, S N; Hong, Y-K; Yung, W K A

    2001-01-01

    Increased expression of VEGF in several types of tumours has been shown to correlate with poor prognosis. We used a replication-deficient adenoviral vector containing antisense VEGF cDNA (Ad5CMV-αVEGF) to down-regulate VEGF expression and increase the efficiency of delivery of the antisense sequence in the human breast cancer cell line MDA231-MB. Transfection of these cells with Ad5CMV-αVEGF in vitro reduced secreted levels of VEGF protein without affecting cell growth. Moreover, injection of the Ad5CMV-αVEGF vector into intramammary xenografts of these cells established in nude mice inhibited tumour growth and reduced the amount of VEGF protein and the density of microvessels in those tumours relative to tumours treated with the control vector Ad5(dl312). Our results showed that antisense VEGF 165 cDNA was efficiently delivered in vivo via an adenoviral vector and that this treatment significantly inhibited the growth of established experimental breast tumours. The Ad5CMV-αVEGF vector may be useful in targeting the tumour vasculature in the treatment of breast cancer. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11336478

  18. Total Chemical Synthesis of Biologically Active Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Kent, Stephen B.H.

    2011-09-15

    The 204-residue covalent-dimer vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, see picture) with full mitogenic activity was prepared from three unprotected peptide segments by one-pot native chemical ligations. The covalent structure of the synthetic VEGF was confirmed by precise mass measurement, and the three-dimensional structure of the synthetic protein was determined by high-resolution X-ray crystallography.

  19. Vascular endothelial growth factors: A comparison between invertebrates and vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kipryushina, Yulia O; Yakovlev, Konstantin V; Odintsova, Nelly A

    2015-12-01

    This review aims to summarize recent data concerning the structure and role of the members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) families in the context of early development, organogenesis and regeneration, with a particular emphasis on the role of these factors in the development of invertebrates. Homologs of VEGF and/or VEGFR have been found in all Eumetazoa, in both Radiata and Bilateria, where they are expressed in the descendants of different germ layers and play a pivotal role in the development of animals with and without a vascular system. VEGF is a well-known angiogenesis regulator, but this factor also control cell migration during neurogenesis and the development of branching organs (the trachea) in invertebrate and vertebrate species. A possible explanation for the origin of Vegf/Vegfr in the animal kingdom and a pathway of Vegf/Vegfr evolution are discussed.

  20. Systems Biology of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mac Gabhann, Feilim; Popel, Aleksander S.

    2009-01-01

    Several cytokine families have roles in development, maintenance and remodeling of the microcirculation. Of these, the VEGF family is one of the best studied and one of the most complex. Five VEGF ligand genes and five cell surface receptor genes are known in the human, and each of these may be transcribed as multiple splice isoforms to generate an extensive family of proteins, many of which are subject to further proteolytic processing. Using the VEGF family as an example, we describe the current knowledge of growth factor expression, processing and transport in vivo. Experimental studies and computational simulations are being used to measure and predict the activity of these molecules, and we describe avenues of research that seek to fill the remaining gaps in our understanding of VEGF family behavior. PMID:18608994

  1. Effects of vascular endothelial growth factor on survival of surgical flaps: a review of experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Fang, Taolin; Lineaweaver, William C; Chen, Michael B; Kisner, Carson; Zhang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Partial or complete necrosis of skin flaps remains a significant problem in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Growth factors have shown promise in improving flap survival through increased angiogenesis and blood supply to the flap. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most widely investigated and successful one. But the mechanisms of the effects are still not very clear. In the course of a series of experiments, we indicated that tissue survival of surgical flaps could be improved by both preoperative (sustained phase effect) and intraoperative (acute phase effect) application of VEGF. We reviewed both experimental and clinical investigations on the use of VEGF with surgical flaps to summarize the evidence of both phases of VEGF activity in promotion of flaps survival in detail. With the combinations of acute and sustained phases of effects, VEGF protein and gene, VEGF morphologic actions, and VEGF histochemical modulations suggest a pattern of VEGF activity that can be superimposed on classic descriptive mechanisms of tissue survival of flaps.

  2. [Snake venom proteins related to "vascular endothelial growth factor": new tools for therapeutic angiogenesis].

    PubMed

    Aloui, Z; Essafi-Benkhadir, K; Karoui, H; Gasmi, A

    2013-01-01

    The Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor "VEGF" plays a pivotal role in the stimulation of angiogenesis. The VEGF isoforms (A-D) and PlGF act in a coordinate fashion to develop the vascular network. Numerous proteins closely related in structure and function to VEGF-A have been reported and were grouped in the VEGF family. Some predators make use of VEGF-like molecules with devastating results for their prey. VEGF-E, investigated in 1994, is encoded by the parapoxvirus (Orf virus). VEGF-F is a common term designating molecules which were isolated from snake venom (also known as svVEGF). These proteins are disulphide-linked homodimers of 110 amino acids each and have a molecular weight of approximately 25 kDa. Their primary structures show approximately 50% identity to VEGF-A. However, unlike VEGF-A, they do not contain any N-linked glycosylation sites. They interact with heparin but have a different binding domain from that of VEGF-A. Among species, these svVEGFs vary extensively in amino acid sequences and in receptor-binding specificities towards endogenous VEGF receptors. Understanding the properties that determine the specificity of these interactions could improve our knowledge of the VEGF-receptor interactions. This knowledge is essential to the development of new drugs in angiogenesis. This knowledge is essential to the development of new drugs in angiogenesis.

  3. DSGOST inhibits tumor growth by blocking VEGF/VEGFR2-activated angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyeong Sim; Lee, Kangwook; Kim, Min Kyoung; Lee, Kang Min; Shin, Yong Cheol; Cho, Sung-Gook; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Tumor growth requires a process called angiogenesis, a new blood vessel formation from pre-existing vessels, as newly formed vessels provide tumor cells with oxygen and nutrition. Danggui-Sayuk-Ga-Osuyu-Saenggang-Tang (DSGOST), one of traditional Chinese medicines, has been widely used in treatment of vessel diseases including Raynaud's syndrome in Northeast Asian countries including China, Japan and Korea. Therefore, we hypothesized that DSGOST might inhibit tumor growth by targeting newly formed vessels on the basis of its historical prescription. Here, we demonstrate that DSGOST inhibits tumor growth by inhibiting VEGF-induced angiogenesis. DSGOST inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenic abilities of endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo, which resulted from its inhibition of VEGF/VEGFR2 interaction. Furthermore, DSGOST attenuated pancreatic tumor growth in vivo by reducing angiogenic vessel numbers, while not affecting pancreatic tumor cell viability. Thus, our data conclude that DSGOST inhibits VEGF-induced tumor angiogenesis, suggesting a new indication for DSGOST in treatment of cancer. PMID:26967562

  4. Tissue factor induces VEGF expression via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in ARPE-19 cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Sang, Aimin; Zhu, Manhui; Zhang, Guowei; Guan, Huaijin; Ji, Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential signal mechanism of tissue factor (TF) in the regulation of the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells. Methods An in vitro RPE cell chemical hypoxia model was established by adding cobalt chloride (CoCl2) in the culture medium. The irritative concentration of CoCl2 was determined with a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay kit. VEGF production in ARPE-19 cells was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blotting. The Wnt signaling pathway–associated molecules, including phospho-glycogen synthase kinase 3β (p-GSK3β), GSK3β, p-β-catenin and β-catenin, were detected with western blotting. pEGFP-N3-hTF was constructed and verified with digestion of the restriction enzyme and sequencing analysis. Human TF overexpression and silencing plasmids were transfected into the ARPE-19 cells to clarify the causal relationship between TF and VEGF expression. The Transwell coculture system of ARPE-19 cells and RF/6A rhesus macaque choroid–retinal endothelial cells was performed to evaluate cell invasion and tube formation ability. Results Our anoxic model of ARPE-19 cells showed that TF expression was upregulated in accordance with variations in hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) and VEGF levels. Silencing and overexpression of TF decreased and increased VEGF expression, respectively. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway played an important role in this effect. Results from the ARPE-19 cell and RF/6A cell coculture system showed that the enhancement of TF expression in the ARPE-19 cells led to significantly faster invasion and stronger tube-forming ability of the RF/6A cells, while siRNA-mediated TF silencing caused the opposite effects. Pharmacological disruption of Wnt signaling IWR-1-endo inhibited the effects compared to the TF-overexpressing group

  5. EMMPRIN regulates tumor growth and metastasis by recruiting bone marrow-derived cells through paracrine signaling of SDF-1 and VEGF.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanke; Gou, Xingchun; Kong, Derek Kai; Wang, Xiaofei; Wang, Jianhui; Chen, Zeming; Huang, Chen; Zhou, Jiangbing

    2015-10-20

    EMMPRIN, a cell adhesion molecule highly expressed in a variety of tumors, is associated with poor prognosis in cancer patients. Mechanistically, EMMPRIN has been characterized to contribute to tumor development and progression by controlling the expression of MMPs and VEGF. In the present study, by using fluorescently labeled bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs), we found that the down-regulation of EMMPRIN expression in cancer cells reduces tumor growth and metastasis, and is associated with the reduced recruitment of BMDCs. Further protein profiling studies suggest that EMMPRIN controls BMDC recruitment through regulating the secretion of soluble factors, notably, VEGF and SDF-1. We demonstrate that the expression and secretion of SDF-1 in tumor cells are regulated by EMMPRIN. This study reveals a novel mechanism by which EMMPRIN promotes tumor growth and metastasis by recruitment of BMDCs through controlling secretion and paracrine signaling of SDF-1 and VEGF.

  6. Effects of mir-21 on Cardiac Microvascular Endothelial Cells After Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Role of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN)/Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Feng; Liu, Wenwei; Yan, Xiaojuan; Zhou, Hanyun; Zhang, Hongshen; Liu, Jianfei; Yu, Ming; Zhu, Xiaoshan; Ma, Kezhong

    2016-01-01

    Background This study investigated how miR-21 expression is reflected in acute myocardial infarction and explored the role of miR-21 and the PTEN/VEGF signaling pathway in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells. Material/Methods We used an in vivo LAD rat model to simulate acute myocardial infarction. MiR-21 mimics and miR-21 inhibitors were injected and transfected into model rats in order to alter miR-21 expression. Cardiac functions were evaluated using echocardiographic measurement, ELISA, and Masson staining. In addition, lenti-PTEN and VEGF siRNA were transfected into CMEC cells using standard procedures for assessing the effect of PTEN and VEGE on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. MiR-21, PTEN, and VEGF expressions were examined by RT-PCR and Western blot. The relationship between miR-21 and PTEN was determined by the luciferase activity assay. Results We demonstrated that miR-21 bonded with the 3′-UTR of PTEN and suppressed PTEN expressions. Established models significantly induced cardiac infarct volume and endothelial injury marker expressions as well as miR-21 and PTEN expressions (P<0.05). MiR-21 mimics exhibited significantly protective effects since they down-regulated both infarction size and injury marker expressions by increasing VEGF expression and inhibiting PTEN expression (P<0.05). In addition, results from in vitro research show that lenti-PTEN and VEGF siRNA can notably antagonize the effect of miR-21 on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis (P<0.05). Conclusions MiR-21 exerts protective effects on endothelial injury through the PTEN/VEGF pathway after acute myocardial infarction. PMID:27708252

  7. Effects of Pazopanib, Sunitinib, and Sorafenib, Anti-VEGF Agents, on the Growth of Experimental Endometriosis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Caglar; Kacan, Turgut; Akkar, Ozlem Bozoklu; Karakus, Savas; Kacan, Selen Baloglu; Ozer, Hatice; Cetin, Ali

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to compare the effects of pazopanib, sunitinib, and sorafenib on endometriotic tissue morphology and histological characteristics as well as ovarian reserve in a rat model. Experimental endometriosis was established in 32 rats. They were randomly divided into 4 groups (8 rats for each group) to administer study drugs: pazopanib, sunitinib, sorafenib, and normal saline. Histological examination with hematoxylin and eosin staining to determine endometriosis score and immunostaining with primary vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CD117, and Bax antibodies were performed. Bilateral ovaries excised to determine the ovarian follicle number. The endometriosis score was significantly reduced by pazopanib compared to other study drugs and by sunitinib compared to sorafenib and normal saline (P < .05). Sorafenib did not affect endometriosis score (P > .05). The VEGF score was significantly decreased similarly by pazopanib, sunitinib, and sorafenib compared to normal saline (P < .05). The CD117 score was reduced by pazopanib and sunitinib similarly compared to both sorafenib and normal saline that provided similar effect on the score (P < .05). The Bax scores of all the groups were found similar (P > .05). No study drugs caused meaningful change in the ovarian follicle number (P > .05). Pazopanib reduces the growth of endometriotic implants. This effect may be related to the suppressive effect of pazopanib on the endometriotic tissue expressions of VEGF and CD117 but not Bax. The study drugs do not affect ovarian reserve. The inconsistent effects of study drugs regarding study parameters require further studies to elucidate the molecular bases of their effects on the growth of endometriotic implants.

  8. 1′-Acetoxychavicol acetate suppresses angiogenesis-mediated human prostate tumor growth by targeting VEGF-mediated Src-FAK-Rho GTPase-signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Xiufeng; Zhang, Li; Lai, Li; Chen, Jing; Wu, Yuanyuan; Yi, Zhengfang; Zhang, Jian; Qu, Weijing; Aggarwal, Bharat B.; Liu, Mingyao

    2011-01-01

    Cancer therapeutic agents that are safe, effective and affordable are urgently needed. We describe that 1′-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), a component of Siamese ginger (Languas galanga), can suppress prostate tumor growth by largely abrogating angiogenesis. ACA suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced proliferation, migration, adhesion and tubulogenesis of primary cultured human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a dose-dependent manner. ACA also inhibited VEGF-induced microvessel sprouting from aortic rings ex vivo and suppressed new vasculature formation in Matrigel plugs in vivo. We further demonstrated that the mechanisms of this chavicol were to block the activation of VEGF-mediated Src kinase, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Rho family of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) (Rac1 and Cdc42 but not RhoA) in HUVECs. Furthermore, treatment of human prostate cancer cells (PC-3) with ACA resulted in decreased cell viability and suppression of angiogenic factor production by interference with dual Src/FAK kinases. After subcutaneous administration to mice bearing human prostate cancer PC-3 xenografts, ACA (6 mg/kg/day) remarkably inhibited tumor volume and tumor weight and decreased levels of Src, CD31, VEGF and Ki-67. As indicated by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL analysis, microvessel density and cell proliferation were also dramatically suppressed in tumors from ACA-treated mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that ACA targets the Src-FAK-Rho GTPase pathway, leading to the suppression of prostate tumor angiogenesis and growth. PMID:21427164

  9. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate suppresses angiogenesis-mediated human prostate tumor growth by targeting VEGF-mediated Src-FAK-Rho GTPase-signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiufeng; Zhang, Li; Lai, Li; Chen, Jing; Wu, Yuanyuan; Yi, Zhengfang; Zhang, Jian; Qu, Weijing; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Liu, Mingyao

    2011-06-01

    Cancer therapeutic agents that are safe, effective and affordable are urgently needed. We describe that 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), a component of Siamese ginger (Languas galanga), can suppress prostate tumor growth by largely abrogating angiogenesis. ACA suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced proliferation, migration, adhesion and tubulogenesis of primary cultured human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a dose-dependent manner. ACA also inhibited VEGF-induced microvessel sprouting from aortic rings ex vivo and suppressed new vasculature formation in Matrigel plugs in vivo. We further demonstrated that the mechanisms of this chavicol were to block the activation of VEGF-mediated Src kinase, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Rho family of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) (Rac1 and Cdc42 but not RhoA) in HUVECs. Furthermore, treatment of human prostate cancer cells (PC-3) with ACA resulted in decreased cell viability and suppression of angiogenic factor production by interference with dual Src/FAK kinases. After subcutaneous administration to mice bearing human prostate cancer PC-3 xenografts, ACA (6 mg/kg/day) remarkably inhibited tumor volume and tumor weight and decreased levels of Src, CD31, VEGF and Ki-67. As indicated by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL analysis, microvessel density and cell proliferation were also dramatically suppressed in tumors from ACA-treated mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that ACA targets the Src-FAK-Rho GTPase pathway, leading to the suppression of prostate tumor angiogenesis and growth.

  10. Vascular endothelial growth factor in human preterm lung.

    PubMed

    Lassus, P; Ristimäki, A; Ylikorkala, O; Viinikka, L; Andersson, S

    1999-05-01

    Endothelial cell damage is characteristic for respiratory distress syndrome and development of chronic lung disease. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial mitogen that takes part in the growth and repair of vascular endothelial cells. We measured VEGF in 189 tracheal aspirate samples (TAF), and in 24 plasma samples from 44 intubated preterm infants (gestational age, 27.3 +/- 2.0 wk; birth weight, 962 +/- 319 g) during their first postnatal week. VEGF in TAF increased from 25 +/- 12 pg/ml (mean +/- SEM) on Day 1 to 526 +/- 120 pg/ml on Day 7 (mean concentrations, 106 +/- 25 pg/ml on Days 1 to 3 and 342 +/- 36 pg/ml on Days 4 to 7). In plasma, mean concentration of VEGF during the first week was 48 +/- 6 pg/ml, with no increase observed. In TAF, higher VEGF was found in patients born to mothers with premature rupture of the membranes, or chorionamnionitis, whereas preeclampsia of the mother was associated with lower VEGF (all p < 0.05). In TAF, no correlations existed between VEGF and gestational age or birth weight, but a correlation existed between lecithin/sphengomyelin ratio and VEGF (p < 0.05). During Days 4 to 7 patients developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) had lower VEGF in TAF than did those surviving without BPD (235 +/- 31 versus 383 +/- 50; p < 0.05). VEGF increased rapidly in the lungs of the preterm infant during the first days of life. VEGF may be indicative of pulmonary maturity and may participate in pulmonary repair after acute lung injury.

  11. Biomarkers for assessment of pharmacologic activity for a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor inhibitor, PTK787/ZK 222584 (PTK/ZK): translation of biological activity in a mouse melanoma metastasis model to phase I studies in patients with advanced colorectal cancer with liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lucy; Sharma, Sunil; Morgan, Bruno; Allegrini, Peter; Schnell, Christian; Brueggen, Josef; Cozens, Robert; Horsfield, Mark; Guenther, Clemens; Steward, Will P; Drevs, Joachim; Lebwohl, David; Wood, Jeanette; McSheehy, Paul M J

    2006-06-01

    PTK/ZK is a novel, oral angiogenesis inhibitor that specifically targets all 3 vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor tyrosine kinases and is currently in phase III clinical trials. In early clinical trials, PTK/ZK demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction in tumor vascular parameters as measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and an acute increase in plasma VEGF levels. The reduction in tumor vascularity was significantly correlated with improved clinical outcome in patients with advanced colorectal cancer and liver metastases. To assess the predictive value of a mouse model of tumor metastases, comparisons were performed for the biological activity of PTK/ZK in the mouse model and in patients with liver metastases in the clinical phase I trials. An orthotopic, syngeneic mouse model was used: C57BL/6 mice injected in the ear with murine B16/BL6 melanoma cells which metastases to the cervical lymph-nodes. The primary tumor and spontaneous metastases express VEGF and VEGF receptors and respond to treatment with VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. PTK/ZK was administered orally, with assessments by DCE-MRI of the metastases and plasma VEGF taken predose and at 3 days posttreatment and efficacy determined at 7 days posttreatment. Dose-ranging studies in naive mice provided preclinical pharmacokinetic data, while two dose-escalation phase I studies provided clinical pharmacokinetic data. An exposure-response relationship was observed both for mouse metastases (measured as % tumor weight treated/control) and for human liver metastases (measured as % regression). In the B16/BL6 model, the active dose of 50 mg/kg PTK/ZK yielded 62.4 (+/- 16.0) h microM plasma exposure, which is comparable to the plasma area under the concentration time curve (AUC) achieved by the 1000 mg dose of PTK/ZK used in clinical trials. At this exposure level in clinical trials, DCE-MRI showed a reduction in the area under the enhancement curve (IAUC) to

  12. Regulation of alternative VEGF-A mRNA splicing is a therapeutic target for analgesia☆

    PubMed Central

    Hulse, R.P.; Beazley-Long, N.; Hua, J.; Kennedy, H.; Prager, J.; Bevan, H.; Qiu, Y.; Fernandes, E.S.; Gammons, M.V.; Ballmer-Hofer, K.; Gittenberger de Groot, A.C.; Churchill, A.J.; Harper, S.J.; Brain, S.D.; Bates, D.O.; Donaldson, L.F.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is best known as a key regulator of the formation of new blood vessels. Neutralization of VEGF-A with anti-VEGF therapy e.g. bevacizumab, can be painful, and this is hypothesized to result from a loss of VEGF-A-mediated neuroprotection. The multiple vegf-a gene products consist of two alternatively spliced families, typified by VEGF-A165a and VEGF-A165b (both contain 165 amino acids), both of which are neuroprotective. Under pathological conditions, such as in inflammation and cancer, the pro-angiogenic VEGF-A165a is upregulated and predominates over the VEGF-A165b isoform. We show here that in rats and mice VEGF-A165a and VEGF-A165b have opposing effects on pain, and that blocking the proximal splicing event – leading to the preferential expression of VEGF-A165b over VEGF165a – prevents pain in vivo. VEGF-A165a sensitizes peripheral nociceptive neurons through actions on VEGFR2 and a TRPV1-dependent mechanism, thus enhancing nociceptive signaling. VEGF-A165b blocks the effect of VEGF-A165a. After nerve injury, the endogenous balance of VEGF-A isoforms switches to greater expression of VEGF-Axxxa compared to VEGF-Axxxb, through an SRPK1-dependent pre-mRNA splicing mechanism. Pharmacological inhibition of SRPK1 after traumatic nerve injury selectively reduced VEGF-Axxxa expression and reversed associated neuropathic pain. Exogenous VEGF-A165b also ameliorated neuropathic pain. We conclude that the relative levels of alternatively spliced VEGF-A isoforms are critical for pain modulation under both normal conditions and in sensory neuropathy. Altering VEGF-Axxxa/VEGF-Axxxb balance by targeting alternative RNA splicing may be a new analgesic strategy. PMID:25151644

  13. Molecular expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, prokineticin receptor-1 and other biomarkers in infiltrating canalicular carcinoma of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Angélica; Morimoto, Sumiko; Vilchis, Felipe; Taniyama, Natsuko; Bautista, Claudia J.; Robles, Carlos; Bargalló, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is important in the growth and metastasis of cancer cells. In 2001, another angiogenic factor, endocrine gland-derived VEGF (EG-VEGF), was characterized and sequenced. EG-VEGF activity appears to be restricted to endothelial cells derived from endocrine glands. At the molecular level, its expression is regulated by hypoxia and steroid hormones. Although VEGF and EG-VEGF are structurally different, they function in a coordinated fashion. Since the majority of mammary tumors are hormone-dependent, it was hypothesized that EG-VEGF would be expressed in these tumors, and therefore, represent a potential target for anti-angiogenic therapy. The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of VEGF, EG-VEGF and its receptor (prokineticin receptor-1), as well as that of breast cancer resistant protein, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, in 50 breast samples of infiltrating canalicular carcinoma (ICC) and their correlation with tumor staging. The samples were analyzed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Both angiogenic growth factors were identified in all samples. However, in 90% of the samples, the expression level of VEGF was significantly higher than that of EG-VEGF (P=0.024). There was no association between the expression of VEGF, EG-VEGF or its receptor with tumor stage. In ICC, the predominant angiogenic factor expressed was VEGF. The expression level of either factor was not correlated with the tumor-node-metastasis stage. Although ICC is derived from endothelial cells, EG-VEGF expression was not the predominant angiogenic/growth factor in ICC. PMID:27703528

  14. Quantification of vascular endothelial growth factor and neuropilins mRNAs during rat brain maturation by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Adris, Soraya; Ojeda, Elizabeth; Genero, Mario; Argibay, Pablo

    2005-09-01

    1. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been related with several brain functions such as angiogenesis, neuroprotection, and neurogenesis. 2. We studied the mRNA expression of the two most important isoforms of VEGF (VEGF120 and VEGF164) as well as one type of VEGF receptors, neuropilins (NRP), during maturation in the rat brain using real-time PCR. 3. Today, real-time PCR is the method of choice for rapid and reliable quantification of mRNA transcription. 4. VEGF120 has little changes in its expression between P5 and P30. 5. However, VEGF164 increased its expression 2-folds at P15 in comparison to P5, remaining at this level in the adult brain (P30). 6. Both types of NRP, NRP-1 and NRP-2, which only bind VEGF164, increased their expression about 2-folds only at P30, at levels similar to those observed for VEGF164.

  15. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression in ovarian serous carcinomas and its effect on tumor proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Ravikumar, Gayatri; Crasta, Julian A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an endothelial mitogen, acts through VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) on the endothelial cells. During neoplastic transformation, it is hypothesized that the tumor expresses VEGF and also acquire VEGF receptor, enabling VEGF action in an autocrine and paracrine manner with varied effects on the tumor growth and progression. This study on ovarian serous carcinomas (OSCs) was done to determine the expression of VEGF and to correlate it with tumor proliferation. Material and Methods: Forty cases of OSCs were included. Immunohistochemistry was performed for VEGF and Ki-67. The VEGF slides were assigned an immunohistochemical score based on the staining intensity (a) and the percentage of tumor cells staining (b). The sum of both (a) and (b) ranged from 0-6. VEGF was considered positive when the score was more than 2. For Ki-67, maximally immunostained areas were selected; 500 cells counted and positive fraction determined. Mann Whitney test was used to determine the difference in the median value of Ki-67 between VEGF positive tumors and VEGF negative tumors. Results: Of the 40 cases, 32 cases had a VEGF score of >2 (positive) and 8 cases had VEGF score <2 (negative). The Ki-67 score ranged from 2-98%, with mean of 51%. The median Ki-67 index was much higher in VEGF positive cases as compared to VEGF negative tumors (57.5% vs. 40%). However, the difference in the two categories did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.45, Mann Whitney test). Conclusion: Ovarian serous carcinomas express VEGF in a significant number of cases (80% in the present study) although its potential mitogenic effect on tumor cells was not confirmed. PMID:24455566

  16. Correlation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression with fibroblast growth factor-8 expression and clinico-pathologic parameters in human prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    West, A F; O'Donnell, M; Charlton, R G; Neal, D E; Leung, H Y

    2001-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mediates neo-angiogenesis during tumour progression and is known to cooperate with the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) system to facilitate angiogenesis in a synergistic manner. In view of this, we have investigated VEGF expression in 67 cases of prostate cancer previously characterized for fibroblast growth factor-8 (FGF-8) expression. Cytoplasmic VEGF staining was detected in malignant cells in 45 out of 67 cases. Cytoplasmic staining was found in adjacent stromal cells in 32 cases, being particularly strong around nests of invasive tumour. Positive VEGF immunoreactivity in benign glands was restricted to basal epithelium. A significant association was observed between tumour VEGF and FGF-8 expression (P = 0.004). We identified increased VEGF immunoreactivity in both malignant epithelium and adjacent stroma and both were found to be significantly associated with high tumour stage (P = 0.0047 and P = 0.0002, respectively). VEGF expression also correlated with increased serum PSA levels (P = 0.01). Among positively stained tumours, VEGF expression showed a significant association with Gleason score (P = 0.04). Cases showing positive VEGF immunoreactivity in the stroma had a significantly reduced survival rate compared to those with negative staining (P = 0.037). Cases with tumours expressing both FGF-8 in the malignant epithelium and VEGF in the adjacent stroma had a significantly worse survival rate than those with tumours negative for both, or only expressing one of the two growth factors (P = 0.029). Cox multivariate regression analysis of survival demonstrated that stromal VEGF and tumour stage were the most significant independent predictors of survival. In conclusion, we report for the first time a correlation of both tumour and stromal VEGF expression in prostate cancer with clinical parameters as well as its correlation to FGF-8 expression. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11506499

  17. Dual delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor coacervate displays strong angiogenic effects.

    PubMed

    Awada, Hassan K; Johnson, Noah R; Wang, Yadong

    2014-05-01

    Controlled delivery of multiple growth factors (GFs) holds great potential for the clinical treatment of ischemic diseases and might be more therapeutically effective to reestablish vasculature than the provision of a single GF. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are two potent angiogenic factors. However, due to rapid degradation and dilution in the body, their clinical potential will rely on an effective mode of delivery. A coacervate, composed of heparin and a biodegradable polycation, which protects GFs from proteolysis and potentiates their bioactivities, is developed. Here, the coacervate incorporates VEGF and HGF and sustains their release for at least three weeks. Their strong angiogenic effects on endothelial cell proliferation and tube formation in vitro are confirmed. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that coacervate-based delivery of these factors has stronger effects than free application of both factors and to coacervate delivery of each GF separately.

  18. Sustained (rh)VEGF(165) release from a sprayed fibrin biomatrix induces angiogenesis, up-regulation of endogenous VEGF-R2, and reduces ischemic flap necrosis.

    PubMed

    Mittermayr, Rainer; Morton, Tatjana; Hofmann, Martina; Helgerson, Sam; van Griensven, Martijn; Redl, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated (1) the release of recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor ([rh]VEGF(165)) from an in vitro fibrin matrix, (2) the effects of (rh)VEGF(165) released from an in vivo fibrin matrix on ischemic flap necrosis in the rat dorsal skin flap model, and (3) the effects of (rh)VEGF(165) released from an in vivo fibrin matrix on VEGF-R2 expression in transgenic VEGF-R2/luc mice. In vitro fibrin matrices were spiked with (rh)VEGF(165) and demonstrated (rh)VEGF(165) release over 88 hours with 66% recovery. Ischemic dorsal flaps were treated with a fibrin sealant (FS), FS spiked with (rh)VEGF(165), or left untreated. Flaps treated with FS spiked with (rh)VEGF(165) showed greater viability than controls as measured by planimetric analysis. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed stronger neovascularization than that exhibited by controls. Transgenic mice implanted with FS spiked with (rh)VEGF(165) had significant increases in VEGF-R2 expression relative to controls at days 5-13 after implantation. Conclusions drawn from this work are that (1) (rh)VEGF(165) is released from an in vitro fibrin matrix at clinically appropriate times, (2) (rh)VEGF(165) increases the viability of tissue flaps in vivo, and (3) (rh)VEGF(165) induces the expression of VEGF-R2 expression. This work demonstrates the clinical ability of sprayed FS to locally deliver growth factors to ischemic tissue of patients.

  19. Identification of VEGF-regulated genes associated with increased lung metastatic potential: functional involvement of tenascin-C in tumor growth and lung metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, A; Catena, R; Noble, MS; Carbott, D; Gil-Bazo, I; Gonzalez-Moreno, O; Huh, J-I; Sharp, R; Qiu, T-H; Anver, MR; Merlino, G; Dickson, RB; Johnson, MD; Green, JE

    2009-01-01

    Metastasis is the primary cause of death in patients with breast cancer. Overexpression of c-myc in humans correlates with metastases, but transgenic mice only show low rates of micrometastases. We have generated transgenic mice that overexpress both c-myc and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (Myc/VEGF) in the mammary gland, which develop high rates of pulmonary macrometastases. Gene expression profiling revealed a set of deregulated genes in Myc/VEGF tumors compared to Myc tumors associated with the increased metastatic phenotype. Cross-comparisons between this set of genes with a human breast cancer lung metastasis gene signature identified five common targets: tenascin-C (TNC), matrix metalloprotease-2, collagen-6-A1, mannosidase-α-1A and HLA-DPA1. Signaling blockade or knockdown of TNC in MDA-MB-435 cells resulted in a significant impairment of cell migration and anchorage-independent cell proliferation. Mice injected with clonal MDA-MB-435 cells with reduced expression of TNC demonstrated a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in (1) primary tumor growth; (2) tumor relapse after surgical removal of the primary tumor and (3) incidence of lung metastasis. Our results demonstrate that VEGF induces complex alterations in tissue architecture and gene expression. The TNC signaling pathway plays an important role in mammary tumor growth and metastases, suggesting that TNC may be a relevant target for therapy against metastatic breast cancer. PMID:18504437

  20. The antihypertension drug doxazosin inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis by decreasing VEGFR-2/Akt/mTOR signaling and VEGF and HIF-1α expression.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi Sun; Kim, Boh-Ram; Dong, Seung Myung; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Dae-Yong; Rho, Seung Bae

    2014-07-15

    Doxazosin is an α1 adrenergic receptor blocker that also exerts antitumor effects. However, the underlying mechanisms by which it modulates PI3K/Akt intracellular signaling are poorly understood. In this study, we reveal that doxazosin functions as a novel antiangiogenic agent by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced cell migration and proliferation. It also inhibited VEGF-induced capillary-like structure tube formation in vitro. Doxazosin inhibited the phosphorylation of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and downstream signaling, including PI3K, Akt, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α). However, it had no effect on VEGF-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. Furthermore, doxazosin reduced tumor growth and suppressed tumor vascularization in a xenograft human ovarian cancer model. These results provide evidence that doxazosin functions in the endothelial cell system to modulate angiogenesis by inhibiting Akt and mTOR phosphorylation and interacting with VEGFR-2.

  1. The Inorganic Perspective of VEGF: Interactions of Cu(2+) with Peptides Encompassing a Recognition Domain of the VEGF Receptor.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Giulia; Santoro, Anna Maria; Magrì, Antonio; La Mendola, Diego; Tomasello, Marianna Flora; Zimbone, Stefania; Rizzarelli, Enrico

    2016-06-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is a potent angiogenic factor, its activity may be influenced by the presence of copper(II) ions. To mimic the interaction between copper(II) and VEGF (Vascular Endotelial Growth Factor), the N- and C-terminally blocked peptide fragments VEGF73-101 and VEGF84-101, owing to VEGF165 protein, have been synthesized. These protein domains represent a specific recognition site with the VEGF receptor (VEGFR). Copper(II) complexes with VEGF73-101 and VEGF84-101 were investigated by means of potentiometry and UV-Vis, ESI-MS, CD, EPR spectroscopic methods. Both peptides have three histidine residues and display a binding high affinity for copper(II) ions. The proliferative activity of the peptides in the absence and presence of copper(II) ions as well as of VEGF-165 protein was also tested on HUVEC cells (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells). The VEGF73-101 showed a dose-dependent anti-proliferative activity, while the shorter peptide VEGF84-101 did not affect HUVEC proliferation, both in the presence and in the absence of VEGF. PMID:27015654

  2. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor in extramammary Paget disease

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Shao, Ning; Qiao, Di; Wang, Zengjun; Song, Ningjing; Song, Ninghong

    2015-01-01

    Extramammary Paget’s disease (EMPD) is a special type of cancers. The etiology of the disease is still unclear. We aimed to study the expression differences of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in EMPD tissues and corresponding adjacent normal tissues. The mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR and the protein expression was explored by immunohistochemistry. Higher immunostaining signal scores of bFGF and VEGF in EMPD tissues had been found (z = -3.827, P < 0.001, z = -3.729, P < 0.001, respectively). In addition, the mRNA expression of bFGF and VEGF was higher in EMPD tissues, which had been validated by RT-PCR (t = 5.771, P < 0.001, t = 3.304, P = 0.004, respectively). The VEGF and bFGF might be the key signaling proteins in angiogenesis of EMPD. How to block the VEGF and bFGF in EMPD and to destroy the blood supply of the tumor cells becomes the focus of our future research. PMID:26045818

  3. Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in human colon cancer by interleukin-1β

    PubMed Central

    Akagi, Y; Liu, W; Xie, K; Zebrowski, B; Shaheen, R M; Ellis, L M

    1999-01-01

    Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an important angiogenic factor in colon cancer, is tightly regulated by factors in the microenvironment. However, specific factors indigenous to the organ microenvironment of colon cancer growth that regulate VEGF expression in human colon cancer are not well defined. We investigated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) induction of VEGF expression in colon cancer cells and the mechanism by which this occurs. HT29 human colon cancer cells were treated with IL-1β for various periods. Induction of VEGF mRNA by IL-1β peaked at 24 h (> fivefold) and returned to baseline by 48 h. SW620 human colon cancer cells also reached a peak induction of VEGF mRNA 24 h after treatment with IL-1β. VEGF was induced at a dose range between 1 and 20 ng ml−1 of IL-1β. IL-1β induction of VEGF was also confirmed at the protein level. To examine the mechanism for VEGF induction by IL-1β, we transiently transfected VEGF promoter-reporter constructs into HT29 cells. IL-1β increased the activity of the VEGF promoter-reporter construct. Pretreatment of HT29 cells with dactinomycin abrogated the induction of VEGF mRNA by IL-1β. The half-life of VEGF mRNA was not prolonged by treatment with IL-1β. These findings suggest that IL-1β regulates VEGF expression in human colon cancer cells by increasing transcription of the VEGF gene. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10408390

  4. Live Staphylococcus aureus Induces Expression and Release of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Terminally Differentiated Mouse Mast Cells.

    PubMed

    Johnzon, Carl-Fredrik; Rönnberg, Elin; Guss, Bengt; Pejler, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells have been shown to express vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), thereby implicating mast cells in pro-angiogenic processes. However, the mechanism of VEGF induction in mast cells and the possible expression of VEGF in fully mature mast cells have not been extensively studied. Here, we report that terminally differentiated peritoneal cell-derived mast cells can be induced to express VEGF in response to challenge with Staphylococcus aureus, thus identifying a mast cell-bacteria axis as a novel mechanism leading to VEGF release. Whereas live bacteria produced a robust upregulation of VEGF in mast cells, heat-inactivated bacteria failed to do so, and bacteria-conditioned media did not induce VEGF expression. The induction of VEGF was not critically dependent on direct cell-cell contact between bacteria and mast cells. Hence, these findings suggest that VEGF can be induced by soluble factors released during the co-culture conditions. Neither of a panel of bacterial cell-wall products known to activate toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling promoted VEGF expression in mast cells. In agreement with the latter, VEGF induction occurred independently of Myd88, an adaptor molecule that mediates the downstream events following TLR engagement. The VEGF induction was insensitive to nuclear factor of activated T-cells inhibition but was partly dependent on the nuclear factor kappa light-chain enhancer of activated B cells signaling pathway. Together, these findings identify bacterial challenge as a novel mechanism by which VEGF is induced in mast cells. PMID:27446077

  5. Relationship of VEGF/VEGFR with immune and cancer cells: staggering or forward?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Ling; Zhao, Hua; Ren, Xiu-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is primarily known as a proangiogenic factor and is one of the most important growth and survival factors affecting the vascular endothelium. However, recent studies have shown that VEGF also plays a vital role in the immune environment. In addition to the traditional growth factor role of VEGF and VEGF receptors (VEGFRs), they have a complicated relationship with various immune cells. VEGF also reportedly inhibits the differentiation and function of immune cells during hematopoiesis. Dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, and lymphocytes further express certain types of VEGF receptors. VEGF can be secreted as well by tumor cells through the autocrine pathway and can stimulate the function of cancer stemness. This review will provide a paradigm shift in our understanding of the role of VEGF/VEGFR signaling in the immune and cancer environment. PMID:27458528

  6. Vascular endothelial growth factor is important for brown adipose tissue development and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Mandrita; Kim, Leo A; Boucher, Jeremie; Walshe, Tony E; Kahn, C Ronald; D'Amore, Patricia A

    2013-08-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is critical for angiogenesis, but also has pleiotropic effects on several nonvascular cells. Our aim was to investigate the role of VEGF in brown adipose tissue (BAT). We show that VEGF expression increases 2.5-fold during differentiation of cultured murine brown adipocytes and that VEGF receptor-2 is phosphorylated, indicating VEGF signaling. VEGF increased proliferation in brown preadipocytes in vitro by 70%, and blockade of VEGF signaling using anti-VEGFR2 antibody DC101 increased brown adipocyte apoptosis, as determined by cell number and activation of caspase 3. Systemic VEGF neutralization in mice, accomplished by adenoviral expression of soluble Flt1, resulted in 7-fold increase in brown adipocyte apoptosis, mitochondrial degeneration, and increased mitophagy compared to control mice expressing a null adenovirus. Absence of the heparan sulfate-binding VEGF isoforms, VEGF164 and VEGF188, resulted in abnormal BAT development in mice at E15.5, with fewer brown adipocytes and lower mitochondrial protein compared to wild-type littermates. These results suggest a role for VEGF in brown adipocytes and preadipocytes to promote survival, proliferation, and normal mitochondria and development.

  7. Vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor and angiogenesis in non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    O'Byrne, K J; Koukourakis, M I; Giatromanolaki, A; Cox, G; Turley, H; Steward, W P; Gatter, K; Harris, A L

    2000-01-01

    High microvessel density, an indirect measure of angiogenesis, has been shown to correlate with increased tumour size, lymph node involvement and poor prognosis in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Tumour cell vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF) expression correlate with angiogenesis and a poor outcome in this disease. In a retrospective study VEGF and PD-ECGF expression and microvessel density were evaluated immunohistochemically in surgically resected specimens (T1–3, N0–2) from 223 patients with operable NSCLC using the VG1, P-GF.44C and JC70 monoclonal antibodies respectively. High VEGF immunoreactivity was seen in 104 (46.6%) and PD-ECGF in 72 (32.3%) cases and both were associated with high vascular grade tumours (P = 0.009 and P = 0.05 respectively). Linear regression analysis revealed a weak positive correlation between VEGF and PD-ECGF expression in cancer cells (r = 0.21;P = 0.002). Co-expression of VEGF and PD-ECGF was not associated with a higher microvessel density than VEGF or PD-ECGF only expressing tumours. Furthermore a proportion of high vascular grade tumours expressed neither growth factor. Univariate analysis revealed tumour size, nodal status, microvessel density and VEGF and PD-ECGF expression as significant prognostic factors. Tumour size (P< 0.02) and microvessel density (P< 0.04) remained significant on multivariate analysis. In conclusion, VEGF and PD-ECGF are important angiogenic growth factors and have prognostic significance in NSCLC. Furthermore the study underlines the prognostic significance of microvessel density in operable NSCLC. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10780522

  8. Hantaviruses direct endothelial cell permeability by sensitizing cells to the vascular permeability factor VEGF, while angiopoietin 1 and sphingosine 1-phosphate inhibit hantavirus-directed permeability.

    PubMed

    Gavrilovskaya, Irina N; Gorbunova, Elena E; Mackow, Natalie A; Mackow, Erich R

    2008-06-01

    Hantaviruses infect human endothelial cells and cause two vascular permeability-based diseases: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Hantavirus infection alone does not permeabilize endothelial cell monolayers. However, pathogenic hantaviruses inhibit the function of alphav beta3 integrins on endothelial cells, and hemorrhagic disease and vascular permeability deficits are consequences of dysfunctional beta3 integrins that normally regulate permeabilizing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) responses. Here we show that pathogenic Hantaan, Andes, and New York-1 hantaviruses dramatically enhance the permeability of endothelial cells in response to VEGF, while the nonpathogenic hantaviruses Prospect Hill and Tula have no effect on endothelial cell permeability. Pathogenic hantaviruses directed endothelial cell permeability 2 to 3 days postinfection, coincident with pathogenic hantavirus inhibition of alphav beta3 integrin functions, and hantavirus-directed permeability was inhibited by antibodies to VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). These studies demonstrate that pathogenic hantaviruses, similar to alphav beta3 integrin-deficient cells, specifically enhance VEGF-directed permeabilizing responses. Using the hantavirus permeability assay we further demonstrate that the endothelial-cell-specific growth factor angiopoietin 1 (Ang-1) and the platelet-derived lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) inhibit hantavirus directed endothelial cell permeability at physiologic concentrations. These results demonstrate the utility of a hantavirus permeability assay and rationalize the testing of Ang-1, S1P, and antibodies to VEGFR2 as potential hantavirus therapeutics. The central importance of beta3 integrins and VEGF responses in vascular leak and hemorrhagic disease further suggest that altering beta3 or VEGF responses may be a common feature of additional viral hemorrhagic diseases. As a result, our findings provide a potential mechanism

  9. Vascular endothelial growth factor C complements the ability of positron emission tomography to predict nodal disease in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Farjah, Farhood; Madtes, David K.; Wood, Douglas E.; Flum, David R.; Zadworny, Megan E.; Waworuntu, Rachel; Hwang, Billanna; Mulligan, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) C and D are biologically rational markers of nodal disease that could improve the accuracy of lung cancer staging. We hypothesized that these biomarkers would improve the ability of positron emission tomography (PET) to predict nodal disease among patients with suspected or confirmed non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods A cross-sectional study (2010–2013) was performed of patients prospectively enrolled in a lung nodule biorepository, staged by computed tomography (CT) and PET, and who underwent pathologic nodal evaluation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure biomarker levels in plasma from blood drawn before anesthesia. Likelihood ratio testing was used to compare the following logistic regression prediction models: ModelPET, ModelPET/VEGF-C, ModelPET/VEGF-D, and ModelPET/VEGF-C/VEGF-D. To account for 5 planned pairwise comparisons, P values<.01 were considered significant. Results Among 62 patients (median age, 67 years; 48% men; 87% white; and 84% NSCLC), 58% had fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in hilar and/or mediastinal lymph nodes. The prevalence of pathologically confirmed lymph node metastases was 40%. Comparisons of prediction models revealed the following: ModelPET/VEGF-C versus ModelPET (P = .0069), ModelPET/VEGF-D versus ModelPET (P = .1886), ModelPET/VEGF-C/VEGF-D versus ModelPET (P = .0146), ModelPET/VEGF-C/VEGF-D versus ModelPET/VEGF-C (P = .2818), and ModelPET/VEGF-C/VEGF-D versus ModelPET/VEGF-D (P = .0095). In ModelPET/VEGF-C, higher VEGF-C levels were associated with an increased risk of nodal disease (odds ratio, 2.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.26–6.90). Conclusions Plasma levels of VEGF-C complemented the ability of PET to predict nodal disease among patients with suspected or confirmed NSCLC. VEGF-D did not improve prediction. PMID:26320776

  10. Systemic Hypoxia Changes the Organ-Specific Distribution of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Its Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, Hugo H.; Risau, Werner

    1998-12-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in physiological blood vessel formation and pathological angiogenesis such as tumor growth and ischemic diseases. Hypoxia is a potent inducer of VEGF in vitro. Here we demonstrate that VEGF is induced in vivo by exposing mice to systemic hypoxia. VEGF induction was highest in brain, but also occurred in kidney, testis, lung, heart, and liver. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that a distinct subset of cells within a given organ, such as glial cells and neurons in brain, tubular cells in kidney, and Sertoli cells in testis, responded to the hypoxic stimulus with an increase in VEGF expression. Surprisingly, however, other cells at sites of constitutive VEGF expression in normal adult tissues, such as epithelial cells in the choroid plexus and kidney glomeruli, decreased VEGF expression in response to the hypoxic stimulus. Furthermore, in addition to VEGF itself, expression of VEGF receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), but not VEGFR-2, was induced by hypoxia in endothelial cells of lung, heart, brain, kidney, and liver. VEGF itself was never found to be up-regulated in endothelial cells under hypoxic conditions, consistent with its paracrine action during normoxia. Our results show that the response to hypoxia in vivo is differentially regulated at the level of specific cell types or layers in certain organs. In these tissues, up- or down-regulation of VEGF and VEGFR-1 during hypoxia may influence their oxygenation after angiogenesis or modulate vascular permeability.

  11. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor D Is Dispensable for Development of the Lymphatic System

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Megan E.; Halford, Michael M.; Roufail, Sally; Williams, Richard A.; Hibbs, Margaret L.; Grail, Dianne; Kubo, Hajime; Stacker, Steven A.; Achen, Marc G.

    2005-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (Vegfr-3) is a tyrosine kinase that is expressed on the lymphatic endothelium and that signals for the growth of the lymphatic vessels (lymphangiogenesis). Vegf-d, a secreted glycoprotein, is one of two known activating ligands for Vegfr-3, the other being Vegf-c. Vegf-d stimulates lymphangiogenesis in tissues and tumors; however, its role in embryonic development was previously unknown. Here we report the generation and analysis of mutant mice deficient for Vegf-d. Vegf-d-deficient mice were healthy and fertile, had normal body mass, and displayed no pathologic changes consistent with a defect in lymphatic function. The lungs, sites of strong Vegf-d gene expression during embryogenesis in wild-type mice, were normal in Vegf-d-deficient mice with respect to tissue mass and morphology, except that the abundance of the lymphatics adjacent to bronchioles was slightly reduced. Dye uptake experiments indicated that large lymphatics under the skin were present in normal locations and were functional. Smaller dermal lymphatics were similar in number, location, and function to those in wild-type controls. The lack of a profound lymphatic phenotype in Vegf-d-deficient mice suggests that Vegf-d does not play a major role in lymphatic development or that Vegf-c or another, as-yet-unknown activating Vegfr-3 ligand can compensate for Vegf-d during development. PMID:15743836

  12. Neutrophil Elastase-Generated Fragment of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A Stimulates Macrophage and Endothelial Progenitor Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Kurtagic, Elma; Rich, Celeste B.; Buczek-Thomas, Jo Ann; Nugent, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Elastase released from neutrophils as part of the innate immune system has been implicated in chronic diseases such as emphysema and cardiovascular disease. We have previously shown that neutrophil elastase targets vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) for partial degradation to generate a fragment of VEGF (VEGFf) that has distinct activities. Namely, VEGFf binds to VEGF receptor 1 but not to VEGF receptor 2 and shows altered signaling compared to intact VEGF. In the present study we investigated the chemotactic function of VEGF and VEGFf released from cells by neutrophil elastase. We found that endothelial cells migrated in response to intact VEGF but not VEGFf whereas RAW 264.7 macrophages/monocytes and embryonic endothelial progenitor cells were stimulated to migrate by either VEGF or VEGFf. To investigate the role of elastase-mediated release of VEGF from cells/extracellular matrices, a co-culture system was established. High or low VEGF producing cells were co-cultured with macrophages, endothelial or endothelial progenitor cells and treated with neutrophil elastase. Elastase treatment stimulated macrophage and endothelial progenitor cell migration with the response being greater with the high VEGF expressing cells. However, elastase treatment led to decreased endothelial cell migration due to VEGF cleavage to VEGF fragment. These findings suggest that the tissue response to NE-mediated injury might involve the generation of diffusible VEGF fragments that stimulate inflammatory cell recruitment. PMID:26672607

  13. The non-canonical role of vascular endothelial growth factor-C axis in cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chu-An

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown in many clinical studies that the level of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) positively correlates with lymph node metastasis. Nevertheless, beyond the canonical role of VEGF-C in stimulating lymphangiogenesis and thus promoting lymph node/distant metastasis, emerging evidence indicates that expression of VEGF-C contributes to various aspects of carcinogenicity via autocrine regulation. The newly identified functions of VEGF-C include but are not limited to proliferation, migration, invasion, and chemo-resistance. Besides tumor cell autocrine regulation, VEGF-C can also modulate the immune system such that tumor cells more easily escape immune surveillance. Therefore, understanding the functional roles and regulatory mechanisms related to the VEGF-C axis may lead to alternative strategies for cancer treatment. This mini-review will focus on summarizing recent discoveries regarding the unconventional functions of VEGF-C in cancer progression. PMID:25888649

  14. Vascular endothelial growth factors: multitasking functionality in metabolism, health and disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gina A; Fearnley, Gareth W; Harrison, Michael A; Tomlinson, Darren C; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2015-07-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) bind to VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases (VEGFRs). The VEGF and VEGFR gene products regulate diverse regulatory pathways in mammalian development, health and disease. The interaction between a particular VEGF and its cognate VEGFR activates multiple signal transduction pathways which regulate different cellular responses including metabolism, gene expression, proliferation, migration, and survival. The family of VEGF isoforms regulate vascular physiology and promote tissue homeostasis. VEGF dysfunction is implicated in major chronic disease states including atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. More recent studies implicate a strong link between response to VEGF and regulation of vascular metabolism. Understanding how this family of multitasking cytokines regulates cell and animal function has implications for treating many different diseases.

  15. Vascular endothelial growth factors: multitasking functionality in metabolism, health and disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gina A; Fearnley, Gareth W; Harrison, Michael A; Tomlinson, Darren C; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2015-07-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) bind to VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases (VEGFRs). The VEGF and VEGFR gene products regulate diverse regulatory pathways in mammalian development, health and disease. The interaction between a particular VEGF and its cognate VEGFR activates multiple signal transduction pathways which regulate different cellular responses including metabolism, gene expression, proliferation, migration, and survival. The family of VEGF isoforms regulate vascular physiology and promote tissue homeostasis. VEGF dysfunction is implicated in major chronic disease states including atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. More recent studies implicate a strong link between response to VEGF and regulation of vascular metabolism. Understanding how this family of multitasking cytokines regulates cell and animal function has implications for treating many different diseases. PMID:25868665

  16. Computational Modeling of Interacting VEGF and Soluble VEGF Receptor Concentration Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Hashambhoy, Yasmin L.; Chappell, John C.; Peirce, Shayn M.; Bautch, Victoria L.; Mac Gabhann, Feilim

    2011-01-01

    Experimental data indicates that soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (sFlt-1) modulates the guidance cues provided to sprouting blood vessels by VEGF-A. To better delineate the role of sFlt-1 in VEGF signaling, we have developed an experimentally based computational model. This model describes dynamic spatial transport of VEGF, and its binding to receptors Flt-1 and Flk-1, in a mouse embryonic stem cell model of vessel morphogenesis. The model represents the local environment of a single blood vessel. Our simulations predict that blood vessel secretion of sFlt-1 and increased local sFlt-1 sequestration of VEGF results in decreased VEGF–Flk-1 levels on the sprout surface. In addition, the model predicts that sFlt-1 secretion increases the relative gradient of VEGF–Flk-1 along the sprout surface, which could alter endothelial cell perception of directionality cues. We also show that the proximity of neighboring sprouts may alter VEGF gradients, VEGF receptor binding, and the directionality of sprout growth. As sprout distances decrease, the probability that the sprouts will move in divergent directions increases. This model is a useful tool for determining how local sFlt-1 and VEGF gradients contribute to the spatial distribution of VEGF receptor binding, and can be used in conjunction with experimental data to explore how multi-cellular interactions and relationships between local growth factor gradients drive angiogenesis. PMID:22007175

  17. Direct binding of hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor to CD44v6

    PubMed Central

    Volz, Yvonne; Koschut, David; Matzke-Ogi, Alexandra; Dietz, Marina S.; Karathanasis, Christos; Richert, Ludovic; Wagner, Moritz G.; Mély, Yves; Heilemann, Mike; Niemann, Hartmut H.; Orian-Rousseau, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    CD44v6, a member of the CD44 family of transmembrane glycoproteins is a co-receptor for two receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), Met and VEGFR-2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2). CD44v6 is not only required for the activation of these RTKs but also for signalling. In order to understand the role of CD44v6 in Met and VEGFR-2 activation and signalling we tested whether CD44v6 binds to their ligands, HGF (hepatocyte growth factor) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), respectively. FACS analysis and cellular ELISA showed binding of HGF and VEGF only to cells expressing CD44v6. Direct binding of CD44v6 to HGF and VEGF was demonstrated in pull-down assays and the binding affinities were determined using MicroScale Thermophoresis, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence anisotropy. The binding affinity of CD44v6 to HGF is in the micromolar range in contrast with the high-affinity binding measured in the case of VEGF and CD44v6, which is in the nanomolar range. These data reveal a heparan sulfate-independent direct binding of CD44v6 to the ligands of Met and VEGFR-2 and suggest different roles of CD44v6 for these RTKs. PMID:26181364

  18. Stimulatory effect of luteinizing hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and epidermal growth factor on vascular endothelial growth factor production in cultured bubaline luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, V S; Dangi, S S; Babitha, V; Verma, M R; Bag, S; Singh, G; Sarkar, M

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temporal (24, 48, and 72 hours) and dose-dependent (0, 5, 10, and 100 ng/mL of LH, insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1], and EGF) in vitro expression and secretion patterns of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in luteal cell culture during different stages of estrous cycle in water buffaloes. Corpus luteum samples from ovaries of early luteal phase (ELP; Days 1-4), midluteal phase (Days 5-10), and late luteal phase (Days 11-16) were collected from a local slaughterhouse. The samples were then processed and cultured in (serum containing) appropriate cell culture medium and incubated separately with three factors (LH, IGF-1, or EGF) at the previously mentioned three dose-duration combinations. At the end of the respective incubation periods, VEGF was assayed in the spent culture medium by ELISA, whereas the cultured cells were used for VEGF mRNA expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results of the present study disclosed dose- and time-dependent stimulatory effects of LH, IGF-1, and EGF on VEGF production in bubaline luteal cells. The VEGF expression and secretion from the cultured luteal cells were highest during the ELP, intermediate in the midluteal phase, and lowest in the late luteal phase of the estrous cycle for all the three tested factors. Comparison of the results of the three treatments depicted EGF as the most potent stimulating factor followed by IGF-1 and LH. Immunocytochemistry findings in luteal cell culture of ELP agreed with the VEGF expression and secretion. In conclusion, mRNA expression, protein secretion, and immunolocalization of VEGF data clearly indicated for the first time that LH, IGF-1, and EGF play an important role in stimulating luteal angiogenesis in buffalo CL. The highest expression and secretion of VEGF in the ELP might be associated with the development of blood vessels in early growth of CL, which in turn gets augmented by the aforementioned

  19. Stimulatory effect of luteinizing hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and epidermal growth factor on vascular endothelial growth factor production in cultured bubaline luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, V S; Dangi, S S; Babitha, V; Verma, M R; Bag, S; Singh, G; Sarkar, M

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temporal (24, 48, and 72 hours) and dose-dependent (0, 5, 10, and 100 ng/mL of LH, insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1], and EGF) in vitro expression and secretion patterns of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in luteal cell culture during different stages of estrous cycle in water buffaloes. Corpus luteum samples from ovaries of early luteal phase (ELP; Days 1-4), midluteal phase (Days 5-10), and late luteal phase (Days 11-16) were collected from a local slaughterhouse. The samples were then processed and cultured in (serum containing) appropriate cell culture medium and incubated separately with three factors (LH, IGF-1, or EGF) at the previously mentioned three dose-duration combinations. At the end of the respective incubation periods, VEGF was assayed in the spent culture medium by ELISA, whereas the cultured cells were used for VEGF mRNA expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results of the present study disclosed dose- and time-dependent stimulatory effects of LH, IGF-1, and EGF on VEGF production in bubaline luteal cells. The VEGF expression and secretion from the cultured luteal cells were highest during the ELP, intermediate in the midluteal phase, and lowest in the late luteal phase of the estrous cycle for all the three tested factors. Comparison of the results of the three treatments depicted EGF as the most potent stimulating factor followed by IGF-1 and LH. Immunocytochemistry findings in luteal cell culture of ELP agreed with the VEGF expression and secretion. In conclusion, mRNA expression, protein secretion, and immunolocalization of VEGF data clearly indicated for the first time that LH, IGF-1, and EGF play an important role in stimulating luteal angiogenesis in buffalo CL. The highest expression and secretion of VEGF in the ELP might be associated with the development of blood vessels in early growth of CL, which in turn gets augmented by the aforementioned

  20. MiR-145 inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth by N-RAS and VEGF

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Chao; Xu, Qing; Mao, Feng; Li, Dan; Bian, Chuanxiu; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Jiang, Yue; Chen, Xiaona; Qi, Yanting; Zhang, Xiaolong; Wang, Xuejing; Sun, Qiang; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Lin, Marie C.; Dress, Andreas; Wardle, Fiona; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Lai, Lihui

    2012-01-01

    MiR-145 is known as a tumor suppressor in numerous human cancers. However, its role in tumor angiogenesis remains poorly defined. In this study, we found that miR-145 was significantly downregulated in breast cancer tissues by using 106 cases of normal and cancer tissues as well as in breast cancer cells. MiR-145 exhibited inhibitory role in tumor angiogenesis, cell growth and invasion and tumor growth through the post-transcriptional regulation of the novel targets N-RAS and VEGF-A. In addition, we provide evidence that the expression levels of miR-145 correlate inversely with malignancy stages of breast tumors, although there is no association between miR-145 levels and hormone receptor levels in breast cancer. Taken together, these results demonstrate that miR-145 plays important inhibitory role in breast cancer malignancy by targeting N-RAS and VEGF-A, which may be potential therapeutic and diagnostic targets. PMID:22592534

  1. Vascular endothelial growth factor regulates angiogenesis and vascular permeability in Kaposi's sarcoma.

    PubMed Central

    Cornali, E.; Zietz, C.; Benelli, R.; Weninger, W.; Masiello, L.; Breier, G.; Tschachler, E.; Albini, A.; Stürzl, M.

    1996-01-01

    Abundant vasculature with increased permeability is a prominent histological feature of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a multifocal, cytokine-regulated tumor. Here we report on the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in AIDS-KS angiogenesis and vascular permeability. We demonstrate that different cytokines, which were previously shown to be active in KS development, modulate VEGF expression in KS spindle cells and cooperate with VEGF on the functional level. Northern blot analysis as well as studies on single cells using in situ hybridization revealed that VEGF expression in cultivated AIDS-KS spindle cells is up-regulated by platelet-derived growth factor-B and interleukin-1 beta. Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis of cell culture supernatants demonstrated that the VEGF protein is secreted by stimulated AIDS-KS spindle cells in sufficiently high amounts to activate proliferation of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Basic fibroblast growth factor did not increase VEGF expression but acted synergistically with VEGF in the induction of angiogenic KS-like lesions in a mouse model in vivo. Angiogenesis and cellularity of KS-like lesions were clearly increased when both factors were injected simultaneously into the flanks of mice, compared with separate injection of each factor. A comparable angiogenic reaction as obtained by simultaneous injection of basic fibroblast growth factor and VEGF was observed when cell culture supernatants of AIDS-KS spindle cells were used for these experiments. Finally, analysis of primary human AIDS-KS lesions revealed that high amounts of VEGF mRNA and protein were present in KS spindle cells in vivo. These data provide evidence that VEGF, in concert with platelet-derived growth factor-B, interleukin-1 beta, and basic fibroblast growth factor, is a key mediator of angiogenesis and vascular permeability in KS lesions in vivo. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8

  2. VEGF111b, a new member of VEGFxxxb isoforms and induced by mitomycin C, inhibits angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Fang; Li, Xiuli; Kong, Jian; Pan, Bing; Sun, Min; Zheng, Lemin; Yao, Yuanqing

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •We discovered a new member of VEGFxxxb family-VEGF111b. •We found VEGF111b mRNA and protein can be induced by mitomycin C. •We confirmed VEGF111b over-expression inhibits angiogenesis. •VEGF111b inhibits angiogenesis through inhibiting VEGF-R2/PI3K/Akt and VEGF-R2/ERK1/2 phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) stimulating angiogenesis is required for tumor growth and progression. The conventional VEGF-A isoforms have been considered as pro-angiogenic factors. Another family of VEGF-A isoforms generated by alternative splicing, termed VEGFxxxb isoforms, has anti-angiogenic property, exemplified by VEGF165b. Here, we identify a new number of VEGFxxx family-VEGF111b induced by mitomycin C, although not detected in mitomycin C-unexposed ovarian cancer cells. SKOV3 cells were transfected with pcDNA{sub 3.1} empty vector, pcDNA{sub 3.1}-VEGF111b or pcDNA{sub 3.1}-VEGF165b to collect conditioned mediums respectively. VEGF111b overexpression inhibits proliferation, migration and tube formation of endothelial cell by inhibiting VEGF-R2 phosphorylation and its downstream signaling, similar to VEGF165b but slightly lower than VEGF165b. The anti-angiogenic property depends on the six amino acids of exon 8b of the VEGFxxxb isoforms. Our results show that VEGF111b is a novel potent anti-angiogenic agent that can target the VEGF-R2 and its signaling pathway to inhibit ovarian tumor growth.

  3. Local delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor via nanofiber matrix improves liver regeneration after extensive hepatectomy in rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuan-Quan; Jiang, Xue-Song; Gao, Song; Ma, Rui; Jin, Yun; Jin, Xing; Peng, Shu-You; Mao, Hai-Quan; Li, Jiang-Tao

    2014-11-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent regulator for liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy. However, intravenous delivery of VEGF has yielded limited success in promoting the regeneration of remnant liver. Here we report a new approach to locally deliver recombinant VEGF from an electrospun poly-ε-caprolactone nanofiber mesh and its effect on improving rat liver regeneration after 70% hepatectomy. After applying the VEGF-releasing nanofiber mesh to the remnant liver lobes following hepatectomy in rats, the fractions of proliferating hepatocytes increased markedly at 48 h and 72 h in comparison with the control group receiving nanofiber meshes without VEGF. The expression of endogenous VEGF in liver tissue was also higher in the VEGF-nanofiber group than those in the control group. These results demonstrate that biodegradable nanofiber meshes offer a convenient and effective approach for local and sustained delivery of VEGF to the remnant liver following partial hepatectomy.

  4. VEGF signaling in cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Sia, Daniela; Alsinet, Clara; Newell, Pippa; Villanueva, Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Induction of angiogenesis represents one of the major hallmarks of cancer. The growth of new vessels is crucial to provide malignant cells with an adequate supply of oxygen and nutrients. It is generally accepted that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major driver of the angiogenic process in physiological and pathological processes in both embryo and adult. VEGF is often found overexpressed in tumors, as well as its receptors VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. Hence, several different strategies have been designed to target VEGF signal transduction. In the last decades, multiple inhibitors have been therapeutically validated in preclinical models and several clinical trials. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against VEGF and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting VEGFRs have been shown to block its angiogenic activity, resulting in tumor vascular regression, anti-tumor effects and improvements in patient survival. However, side effects and lack of efficacy in some instances challenge the potential clinical impact of these therapies. This review examines the role of VEGF signaling in cancer and outlines the current status of anti-angiogenic therapies against VEGF pathway.

  5. Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Nasal Polyp and Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Azizzadeh Delshad, Alireza; Jalali Nadoushan, Mohammadreza; Davati, Ali; Rostami, Aida

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nasal inflammatory disorders such as chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyp are among the most prevalent complications with high socioeconomic costs. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) plays a key role in angiogenesis and cell proliferation. In the present study the effect of VEGF on the development and prognosis of chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyp was investigated. Methods: This cross sectional study was performed on the nasal histological specimens of two groups of patients suffering from nasal polyp or chronic rhinosinusitis, and the expression of VEGF in the two groups was compared immunohistochemically. Based on the percentage of VEGF-positive cells the specimens were classified into four scores. Furthermore, the relations between the VEGF expression and some demographic characteristics were evaluated. Results: The VEGF immunohistochemistry findings indicated a significantly higher expression of VEGF in nasal polyp group compared to chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyp group. In terms of VEGF-expression scoring, in both groups most of the specimens were classified as score-2, namely indicating 10-50% of VEGF-positive epithelial cells. In both groups no significant relation between VEGF expression and age or sex of the patients could be seen. Conclusion: Local modulation of VEGF expression might be taken as a putative therapeutic strategy in management of sinunasal inflammatory disorders, especially nasal polyps. PMID:27781069

  6. VEGF: a potential target for hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Shim, Joon W; Sandlund, Johanna; Madsen, Joseph R

    2014-12-01

    Growth factors are primarily responsible for the genesis, differentiation and proliferation of cells and maintenance of tissues. Given the central role of growth factors in signaling between cells in health and in disease, it is understandable that disruption of growth factor-mediated molecular signaling can cause diverse phenotypic consequences including cancer and neurological conditions. This review will focus on the specific questions of enlarged cerebral ventricles and hydrocephalus. It is also well known that angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), affect tissue permeability through activation of receptors and adhesion molecules; hence, recent studies showing elevations of this factor in pediatric hydrocephalus led to the demonstration that VEGF can induce ventriculomegaly and altered ependyma when infused in animals. In this review, we discuss recent findings implicating the involvement of biochemical and biophysical factors that can induce a VEGF-mimicking effect in communicating hydrocephalus and pay particular attention to the role of the VEGF system as a potential pharmacological target in the treatment of some cases of hydrocephalus. The source of VEGF secretion in the cerebral ventricles, in periventricular regions and during pathologic events including hydrocephalus following hypoxia and hemorrhage is sought. The review is concluded with a summary of potential non-surgical treatments in preclinical studies suggesting several molecular targets including VEGF for hydrocephalus and related neurological disorders.

  7. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor as an Anti-angiogenic Target for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2012-01-01

    New blood vessel formation (angiogenesis) is fundamental to tumor growth, invasion, and metastatic dissemination. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway plays pivotal roles in regulating tumor angiogenesis. VEGF as a therapeutic target has been validated in various types of human cancers. Different agents including antibodies, aptamers, peptides, and small molecules have been extensively investigated to block VEGF and its pro-angiogenic functions. Some of these agents have been approved by FDA and some are currently in clinical trials. Combination therapies are also being pursued for better tumor control. By providing comprehensive real-time information, molecular imaging of VEGF pathway may accelerate the drug development process. Moreover, the imaging will be of great help for patient stratification and therapeutic effect monitoring, which will promote effective personalized molecular cancer therapy. This review summarizes the current status of tumor therapeutic agents targeting to VEGF and the applications of VEGF related molecular imaging. PMID:20426765

  8. VEGF-B promotes cancer metastasis through a VEGF-A–independent mechanism and serves as a marker of poor prognosis for cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Yin; Hosaka, Kayoko; Andersson, Patrik; Wang, Jian; Tholander, Fredrik; Cao, Ziquan; Morikawa, Hiromasa; Tegnér, Jesper; Yang, Yunlong; Iwamoto, Hideki; Lim, Sharon; Cao, Yihai

    2015-01-01

    The biological functions of VEGF-B in cancer progression remain poorly understood. Here, we report that VEGF-B promotes cancer metastasis through the remodeling of tumor microvasculature. Knockdown of VEGF-B in tumors resulted in increased perivascular cell coverage and impaired pulmonary metastasis of human melanomas. In contrast, the gain of VEGF-B function in tumors led to pseudonormalized tumor vasculatures that were highly leaky and poorly perfused. Tumors expressing high levels of VEGF-B were more metastatic, although primary tumor growth was largely impaired. Similarly, VEGF-B in a VEGF-A–null tumor resulted in attenuated primary tumor growth but substantial pulmonary metastases. VEGF-B also led to highly metastatic phenotypes in Vegfr1 tk−/− mice and mice treated with anti–VEGF-A. These data indicate that VEGF-B promotes cancer metastasis through a VEGF-A–independent mechanism. High expression levels of VEGF-B in two large-cohort studies of human patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma correlated with poor survival. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that VEGF-B is a vascular remodeling factor promoting cancer metastasis and that targeting VEGF-B may be an important therapeutic approach for cancer metastasis. PMID:25991856

  9. Vascular endothelial growth factor A protein level and gene expression in intracranial meningiomas with brain edema.

    PubMed

    Nassehi, Damoun; Dyrbye, Henrik; Andresen, Morten; Thomsen, Carsten; Juhler, Marianne; Laursen, Henning; Broholm, Helle

    2011-12-01

    Meningiomas are the second most common primary intracranial tumors in adults. Although meningiomas are mostly benign, more than 50% of patients with meningioma develop peritumoral brain edema (PTBE), which may be fatal because of increased intracranial pressure. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell-specific mitogen and angiogen. VEGF-A protein, which is identical to vascular permeability factor, is a regulator of angiogenesis. In this study, 101 patients with meningiomas, and possible co-factors to PTBE, such as meningioma subtypes and tumor location, were examined. Forty-three patients had primary, solitary, supratentorial meningiomas with PTBE. In these, correlations in PTBE, edema index, VEGF-A protein, VEGF gene expression, capillary length, and tumor water content were investigated. DNA-branched hybridization was used for measuring VEGF gene expression in tissue homogenates prepared from frozen tissue samples. The method for VEGF-A analysis resembled an ELISA assay, but was based on chemiluminescence. The edema index was positively correlated to VEGF-A protein (p = 0.014) and VEGF gene expression (p < 0.05). The capillary length in the meningiomas was positively correlated to the PTBE (p = 0.038). If VEGF is responsible for the formation of PTBE, the edema may be treated with the anti-VEGF drug Bevacizumab (Avastin), which has been shown to reduce PTBE in patients with glioblastoma multiforme. PMID:22085359

  10. Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Downregulates Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-D Expression in Human Lung Fibroblasts via the Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ye; Osorio, Juan C; Risquez, Cristobal; Wang, Hao; Shi, Ying; Gochuico, Bernadette R; Morse, Danielle; Rosas, Ivan O; El-Chemaly, Souheil

    2014-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D, a member of the VEGF family, induces both angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis by activating VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and VEGFR-3 on the surface of endothelial cells. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 has been shown to stimulate VEGF-A expression in human lung fibroblast via the Smad3 signaling pathway and to induce VEGF-C in human proximal tubular epithelial cells. However, the effects of TGF-β1 on VEGF-D regulation are unknown. To investigate the regulation of VEGF-D, human lung fibroblasts were studied under pro-fibrotic conditions in vitro and in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) lung tissue. We demonstrate that TGF-β1 downregulates VEGF-D expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in human lung fibroblasts. This TGF-β1 effect can be abolished by inhibitors of TGF-β type I receptor kinase and Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), but not by Smad3 knockdown. In addition, VEGF-D knockdown in human lung fibroblasts induces G1/S transition and promotes cell proliferation. Importantly, VEGF-D protein expression is decreased in lung homogenates from IPF patients compared with control lung. In IPF lung sections, fibroblastic foci show very weak VEGF-D immunoreactivity, whereas VEGF-D is abundantly expressed within alveolar interstitial cells in control lung. Taken together, our data identify a novel mechanism for downstream signal transduction induced by TGF-β1 in lung fibroblasts, through which they may mediate tissue remodeling in IPF. PMID:24515257

  11. Paracrine expression of a native soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibits tumor growth, metastasis, and mortality rate

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Corey K.; Kendall, Richard L.; Cabrera, Gustavo; Soroceanu, Liliana; Heike, Yuji; Gillespie, G. Yancey; Siegal, Gene P.; Mao, Xianzhi; Bett, Andrew J.; Huckle, William R.; Thomas, Kenneth A.; Curiel, David T.

    1998-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent and selective vascular endothelial cell mitogen and angiogenic factor. VEGF expression is elevated in a wide variety of solid tumors and is thought to support their growth by enhancing tumor neovascularization. To block VEGF-dependent angiogenesis, tumor cells were transfected with cDNA encoding the native soluble FLT-1 (sFLT-1) truncated VEGF receptor which can function both by sequestering VEGF and, in a dominant negative fashion, by forming inactive heterodimers with membrane-spanning VEGF receptors. Transient transfection of HT-1080 human fibrosarcoma cells with a gene encoding sFLT-1 significantly inhibited their implantation and growth in the lungs of nude mice following i.v. injection and their growth as nodules from cells injected s.c. High sFLT-1 expressing stably transfected HT-1080 clones grew even slower as s.c. tumors. Finally, survival was significantly prolonged in mice injected intracranially with human glioblastoma cells stably transfected with the sflt-1 gene. The ability of sFLT-1 protein to inhibit tumor growth is presumably attributable to its paracrine inhibition of tumor angiogenesis in vivo, since it did not affect tumor cell mitogenesis in vitro. These results not only support VEGF receptors as antiangiogenic targets but also demonstrate that sflt-1 gene therapy might be a feasible approach for inhibiting tumor angiogenesis and growth. PMID:9671758

  12. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A: a multifunctional molecular player in diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyuan; Bao, Shisan; Hambly, Brett D; Gillies, Mark C

    2009-12-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), first described as "vascular permeability factor", is a critical molecule in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy at several levels. Previous studies have outlined the importance of VEGF-A in mediating vascular pathology in both experimental models and clinical diabetic retinopathy, which are characterized by retinal vascular leakage, preretinal neovascularisation and neuronal degeneration. Paradoxically, recent reports have emphasized the potential neurotrophic effects of VEGF-A on the quiescent vasculature, as well as its direct and indirect protective effects on retinal neurons. VEGF-A has also been identified as an important signalling regulator in the normal central nervous system. Consequently, anti-VEGF therapy for diabetic retinopathy has become a controversal issue. This review outlines recently developed concepts relating to the role of VEGF-A in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, with particular emphasis on its implications for clinical practice. PMID:19646547

  13. Activation of adenosine A2A receptors by polydeoxyribonucleotide increases vascular endothelial growth factor and protects against testicular damage induced by experimental varicocele in rats.

    PubMed

    Minutoli, Letteria; Arena, Salvatore; Bonvissuto, Giulio; Bitto, Alessandra; Polito, Francesca; Irrera, Natasha; Arena, Francesco; Fragalà, Eugenia; Romeo, Carmelo; Nicotina, Piero Antonio; Fazzari, Carmine; Marini, Herbert; Implatini, Alessandra; Grimaldi, Silvia; Cantone, Noemi; Di Benedetto, Vincenzo; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica; Morgia, Giuseppe

    2011-03-15

    In rat experimental varicocele, polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) induces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production, thereby enhancing testicular function. This may point to a new therapeutic approach in human varicocele.

  14. Dual mechanism of vascular endothelial growth factor upregulation by hypoxia in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    von Marschall, Z; Cramer, T; Hocker, M; Finkenzeller, G; Wiedenmann, B; Rosewicz, S

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in regulation of tumour associated angiogenesis. In the current study we analysed expression of VEGF and its receptors in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and investigated the molecular mechanisms of VEGF regulation by hypoxia.
METHODS—VEGF, kinase domain region (KDR)/fetal liver kinase 1 (flk-1), and flt-1 expression were examined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation in 15 human HCC tissues. Expression of VEGF and regulation by hypoxia were assessed in three human HCC cell lines using a quantitative competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, ELISA, and a series of 5' deletion reporter gene constructs of the human VEGF promoter in transient transfection assays.
RESULTS—We observed over expression of VEGF mRNA and protein in HCC compared with cirrhosis or normal liver. Expression of VEGF in tumour cells was strongly increased in areas directly adjacent to necrotic/hypoxic regions. Both VEGF receptors were detected in vascular endothelia of HCC while only KDR/flk-1 receptors were detected in endothelial cells of cirrhotic livers. Expression of VEGF was observed in all human HCC cell lines examined. Hypoxia (1% oxygen) resulted in profound upregulation of VEGF mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, hypoxia treatment resulted in a doubling of VEGF mRNA stability. Deletion analysis of the human VEGF 5' flanking region −2018 and +50 demonstrated induction of VEGF promoter activity under hypoxic conditions which was significantly decreased following deletion of the region −1286 and −789 suggesting a substantial contribution of the −975 putative hypoxia inducible factor 1 binding site to hypoxia mediated transcriptional activation of the VEGF gene.
CONCLUSION—These data suggest hypoxia as a central stimulus of angiogenesis in human HCC through upregulation of VEGF gene expression by at least two distinct molecular mechanisms: activation of

  15. Phosphatase and tensin homolog reconstruction and vascular endothelial growth factor knockdown synergistically inhibit the growth of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongbo; Shen, Xiaomeng; Guo, Caiping; Zhu, Huijun; Zhou, Lanzhen; Zhu, Yongqiang; Wang, Huixia; Zheng, Yi; Huang, Laiqiang

    2010-12-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly malignant tumor with poor prognosis. Two hallmarks of this disease are a high expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and a depletion of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). In the present study, combined gene therapy using wild-type PTEN reconstruction and VEGF siRNA was examined for its effectiveness in inhibiting tumor growth and tumorigenicity of PTEN-null GBM cells. In U251 GBM cells, PTEN restoration reduced proliferation, arrested the cell cycle at G0/G1 stage, and promoted apoptosis via inhibition of PIK/AKT signaling pathway. Unexpectedly, anchorage-dependent and -independent colony formation ability and the capacity for wound-healing migration of U251 cells with stable expression of VEGF siRNA were significantly inhibited, suggesting that VEGF also appeared to function as an autocrine growth factor in addition to its well-known pro-angiogenic paracrine function. Further, a combined treatment of PTEN restoration and VEGF siRNA had the best tumor suppression effect. In a xenograft study in null mice, both the restoration of PTEN and the expression of VEGF siRNA could significantly inhibit the growth of U251 GBMs, whereas tumor growth was entirely suppressed by a combination of the two treatments. Therefore, the combination of PTEN expression and VEGF knockdown represents an effective gene therapy strategy for malignant gliomas.

  16. Reversal of ApoE4-Driven Brain Pathology by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Treatment.

    PubMed

    Salomon-Zimri, Shiran; Glat, Micaela Johanna; Barhum, Yael; Luz, Ishai; Boehm-Cagan, Anat; Liraz, Ori; Ben-Zur, Tali; Offen, Daniel; Michaelson, Daniel M

    2016-06-30

    Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4), the most prevalent genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), is associated with increased neurodegeneration and vascular impairments. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), originally described as a key angiogenic factor, has recently been shown to play a crucial role in the nervous system. The objective of this research is to examine the role of VEGF in mediating the apoE4-driven pathologies. We show that hippocampal VEGF levels are lower in apoE4 targeted replacement mice compared to the corresponding apoE3 mice. This effect was accompanied by a specific decrease in both VEGF receptor-2 and HIF1-α. We next set to examine whether upregulation of VEGF can reverse apoE4-driven pathologies, namely the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau (AT8) and Aβ42, and reduced levels of the pre-synaptic marker, VGluT1, and of the ApoE receptor, ApoER2. This was first performed utilizing intra-hippocampal injection of VEGF-expressing-lentivirus (LV-VEGF). This revealed that LV-VEGF treatment reversed the apoE4-driven cognitive deficits and synaptic pathologies. The levels of Aβ42 and AT8, however, were increased in apoE3 mice, masking any potential effects of this treatment on the apoE4 mice. Follow-up experiments utilizing VEGF-expressing adeno-associated-virus (AAV-VEGF), which expresses VEGF specifically under the GFAP astrocytic promoter, prevented this effects on apoE3 mice, and reversed the apoE4-related increase in Aβ42 and AT8. Taken together, these results suggest that apoE4-driven pathologies are mediated by a VEGF-dependent pathway, resulting in cognitive impairments and brain pathology. These animal model findings suggest that the VEGF system is a promising target for the treatment of apoE4 carriers in AD.

  17. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor in acute rejection reaction following rat orthotopic liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changsong; Yang, Guangshun; Lu, Dewen; Ling, Yang; Chen, Guihua; Zhou, Tianbao

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in acute rejection reaction (ARR) following orthotopic liver transplantation in a rat model. Serum VEGF and bFGF levels were detected using ELISA, and their expression levels in liver and spleen tissues were determined using immunohistochemistry. The mRNA expression levels of VEGF and bFGF were detected by conducting a quantitative polymerase chain reaction during the ARR following orthotopic liver transplantation. The expression levels of VEGF and bFGF in the serum 3 days following liver transplantation were significantly higher compared with those in the other groups (1 and 7 days following transplantation; P<0.01). In addition, the numbers of cells in the liver tissue that were shown to be positive for the expression VEGF and bFGF using immunohistochemistry were significantly higher 3 days following transplantation than at the other time points (P<0.0001). Furthermore, the numbers of cells positive for VEGF and bFGF expression in the spleen detected 3 days following the transplantation surgery were also significantly higher compared with those at the other time points (P<0.01). VEGF and bFGF mRNA expression levels were also increased from 1 day following the surgery and reached a peak at day 3, prior to declining gradually and remaining at a relatively high level. VEGF and bFGF mRNA expression levels changed dynamically, by peaking and then declining, in ARR following orthotopic liver transplantation. These changes may have an important impact on angiogenesis and the inflammatory reaction, and the identification of these changes increases the current understanding of ARR following orthotopic liver transplantation.

  18. Astragalosides promote angiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor in a rat model of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Hui-Dong; Zhang, Yi-Na

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of astragalosides (ASTs) on angiogenesis, as well as the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) following myocardial infarction (MI). MI was induced in rats by ligation of the left coronary artery. Twenty‑four hours after surgery, the rats were divided into low‑dose, high‑dose, control and sham surgery groups (n=8 per group). The low‑ and high‑dose groups were treated with ASTs (2.5 and 10 mg/kg/day, respectively, via intraperitoneal injection), while, the control and sham surgery group rats received saline. Serum levels, and mRNA and protein expression levels of VEGF and bFGF, as well as the microvessel density (MVD) were determined four weeks post‑treatment. Twenty‑four hours post‑surgery, VEGF and bFGF serum levels were observed to be comparable between the groups; while at four weeks, the VEGF and bFGF levels were higher in the AST‑treated rats (P<0.01). Similarly, VEGF and bFGF mRNA and protein expression levels were higher following AST treatment (P<0.05). No difference in VEGF mRNA expression between the low‑ and high‑dose groups was noted, however, an increase in the bFGF expression levels was detected in the high‑dose group. Newly generated blood vessels were observed following MI, with a significant increase in MVD observed in the AST‑treated groups (P<0.05). AST promotes angiogenesis of the heart and increases VEGF and bFGF expression levels. Thus, it is hypothesized that increased VEGF and bFGF levels may contribute to the AST‑induced increase in angiogenesis in rat models of MI.

  19. Reexpression of ARHI inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis and impairs the mTOR/VEGF pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xiaohai; Li, Jinfeng; Zhuo, Jianxin; Cai, Liuxin

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Reconstitution of ARHI suppresses the growth of HCC xenografts. {yields} ARHI reexpression impairs tumor angiogenesis in vivo. {yields} Inhibition of the mTOR/VEGF signaling by forced expression of ARHI. {yields} Manipulating ARHI may be of therapeutic benefit in treatment of ARHI-negative HCCs. -- Abstract: The Ras-related tumor suppressor gene aplasia Ras homolog member I (ARHI) is frequently downregulated in many types of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we sought to explore the therapeutic implications of ARHI reconstitution in the treatment of HCC. We generated stable cell lines overexpressing ARHI in Hep3B and SK-Hep1 cells, both of which lack endogenous ARHI. The effects of ARHI reexpression on tumor growth and angiogenesis were assessed. Given the key role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in HCC progression, we also tested whether ARHI overexpression affected the mTOR pathway. Forced expression of ARHI resulted in a significant inhibition of the proliferation of both Hep3B and SK-Hep1 cells compared to control cells (P < 0.01). Cell cycle analysis revealed a G0-G1 arrest induced by ARHI reexpression. Moreover, ARHI reexpression significantly retarded Hep3B xenograft growth in vivo, and caused a marked reduction in tumor angiogenesis assessed by CD31-stained microvessel count. Western blot analysis of the xenografts showed that ARHI overexpression substantially reduced the phosphorylation of two mTOR substrates, S6K1 and 4E-BP1, indicative of an inactivation of the mTOR pathway. Accompanying with the mTOR inactivation, the angiogenic factors, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor, were significantly downregulated. These data highlighted an important role for ARHI in controlling HCC growth and angiogenesis, therefore offering a possible therapeutic strategy against this malignancy.

  20. Prognostic Significance of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Serum Determination in Women with Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bandiera, Elisabetta; Franceschini, Roberta; Specchia, Claudia; Bignotti, Eliana; Trevisiol, Chiara; Gion, Massimo; Pecorelli, Sergio; Santin, Alessandro Davide; Ravaggi, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. We performed a review of the literature to elucidate the potential prognostic significance of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (sVEGF) levels in ovarian cancer. Methods. Eligible studies in English and Italian were identified in MEDLINE/PubMed from VEGF discovery to October 2011. All studies evaluating: (i) sVEGF levels before any surgical and chemotherapeutic treatment; (ii) the association between sVEGF levels and the established prognostic variables; (iii) the value of sVEGF levels in predicting patients' outcomes, were selected for this review. Results. The search resulted in 758 titles. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. A statistically significant association between the level of sVEGF and FIGO stage, tumour grade, residual tumour size, lymph node involvement, and presence of ascites was found in at least one study. sVEGF, in comparison with the established prognostic factors, appears to be the best prognostic marker for overall survival, since it stands out as an independent prognostic factor in most of the studies considered. Moreover, sVEGF levels were shown to be independent prognostic factors by 2 out of the 3 studies that considered DFS as an end point. Conclusion. High levels of sVEGF identify a subgroup of patients with higher risk of death and/or recurrence. These patients should be eligible for individually tailored therapeutic interventions. PMID:22792477

  1. Vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2 delivery from spinal cord bridges to enhance angiogenesis following injury.

    PubMed

    De Laporte, Laura; des Rieux, Anne; Tuinstra, Hannah M; Zelivyanskaya, Marina L; De Clerck, Nora M; Postnov, Andrei A; Préat, Véronique; Shea, Lonnie D

    2011-09-01

    The host response to spinal cord injury can lead to an ischemic environment that can induce cell death and limits cell transplantation approaches to promote spinal cord regeneration. Spinal cord bridges that provide a localized and sustained release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) were investigated for their ability to promote angiogenesis and nerve growth within the injury. Bridges were fabricated by fusion of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres using a gas foaming/particulate leaching technique, and proteins were incorporated by encapsulation into the microspheres and/or mixing with the microspheres before foaming. Compared to the mixing method, encapsulation reduced the losses during leaching and had a slower protein release, while VEGF was released more rapidly than FGF-2. In vivo implantation of bridges loaded with VEGF enhanced the levels of VEGF within the injury at 1 week, and bridges releasing VEGF and FGF-2 increased the infiltration of endothelial cells and the formation of blood vessel at 6 weeks postimplantation. Additionally, substantial neurofilament staining was observed within the bridge; however, no significant difference was observed between bridges with or without protein. Bridges releasing angiogenic factors may provide an approach to overcome an ischemic environment that limits regeneration and cell transplantation-based approaches.

  2. Genetic delivery of the murine equivalent of bevacizumab (avastin), an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody, to suppress growth of human tumors in immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masaki; Boyer, Julie L; Hackett, Neil R; Qiu, Jianping; Crystal, Ronald G

    2008-03-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) produced by tumor cells plays a central role in stimulating angiogenesis required for solid tumor growth. VEGF-specific antibodies inhibit tumor cell line growth in animal models and a humanized monoclonal anti-VEGF antibody (bevacizumab [Avastin]) is approved as a treatment for metastatic cancer. We hypothesized that administration of an adenoviral (Ad) vector expressing the murine monoclonal antibody equivalent of bevacizumab would suppress human tumor growth in vivo. The Ad vector (AdalphaVEGF) encodes the light chain and heavy chain cDNAs of monoclonal antibody A.4.6.1, a murine antibody that specifically recognizes human VEGF with the same antigen-binding site as bevacizumab. AdalphaVEGF efficacy in vivo was evaluated with A-673 rhabdomyosarcoma and DU 145 prostate carcinoma cells in human tumor cell xenografts in SCID mice. For both tumor models, AdalphaVEGF directed the expression of high anti-human VEGF IgG antibody titers in vivo, the numbers of mitotic nuclei and blood vessels in the tumor were significantly decreased (p < 0.05), tumor growth was suppressed (p < 0.05), and there was increased survival (p < 0.005). Thus, AdalphaVEGF, encoding a murine monoclonal antibody that is the equivalent of bevacizumab, effectively suppresses the growth of human tumors, suggesting gene therapy as an alternative to bevacizumab monoclonal antibody therapy.

  3. Cidan inhibits liver cancer cell growth by reducing COX-2 and VEGF expression and cell cycle arrest

    PubMed Central

    LI, NAN; ZHENG, DONGHAI; XUE, JIE; GUO, WEIXING; SHI, JIE; SUN, JUXIAN; LU, CHONGDE; ZHENG, WEIDA; WU, MENGCHAO; CHENG, SHUQUN

    2015-01-01

    Cidan is a traditional Chinese medicine formula that has been used for >10 years as an antitumor drug. In the present study, the antitumor effect of cidan on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated. A total of 372 patients with primary HCC, as confirmed by pathological examination in the Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital and Beijing Oncology Hospital of Weida TCM, were prospectively enrolled in the study. In total, 92 patients were treated with cidan capsules for three months postoperatively, while 280 patients served as controls. The efficacy of cidan was analyzed by monitoring associated symptoms and liver function tests, including measuring the levels of α-1-fetoprotein, α-L-fucosidase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase. In addition, in vivo analysis was performed using mice Hepa1-6 xenograft models, while in vitro studies were performed with SMMC-7721 and CSQT-1 cells; this included cidan-dependent cell viability and migration assays, cell cycle analyses and the evaluation of cidan effects on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA transcription rates using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The postoperative two-year overall survival (77 and 58% for the cidan and control groups, respectively; P<0.01) and disease-free survival (36 and 24% for the cidan and control groups, respectively; P<0.01) rates were superior in the cidan-treated group when compared with the control. In addition, the size and weight of the tumor xenografts in the C57BL/6 mice were significantly reduced in a time- and dose-dependent manner following cidan treatment (P<0.01). Cidan significantly reduced the cell viability of SMMC-7721 and CSQT-1 cells after four and five days when compared with the control (P<0.01). Furthermore, COX-2 and VEGF mRNA expression levels decreased following cidan treatment (P<0.01), and cidan

  4. Clinical prognostic values of vascular endothelial growth factor, microvessel density,and p53 expression in esophageal carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Myung-Ju; Jang, Se-Jin; Park, Yong-Wook; Choi, Jung-Hye; Oh, Ho-Suk; Lee, Chul-Burm; Paik, Hong-Kyu; Park, Chan-Kum

    2002-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to play a key role in tumor angiogenesis. The tumor-suppressor gene p53 has been thought to regulate VEGF. We investigated the effect of VEGF on esophageal carcinoma and the correlation between VEGF and p53. Tissue samples were taken from 81 patients with esophageal carcinoma after surgery. VEGF and p53 expressions were examined by immunohistochemical staining. Microvessels in the tumor stained for CD34 antigen were also counted. VEGF and p53 expressions were observed in 51.3% (41/80) and 51.9% (41/79), respectively. The microvessel density was 70.9+/-6.7 (mean+/-SE) in VEGF-positive group and 68.7+/-5.1 in VEGF-negative group. However, no correlation was noted between VEGF and p53 expression. Whereas the tumor size, nodal status, depth of invasions, and tumor stage were associated with poor overall survival, VEGF expression or p53 expression was not. These results indicate that VEGF and p53 are highly expressed in esophageal carcinomas. Since the VEGF expression is not correlated with the p53 expression, microvessel density or clinicopathological findings, further studies with other angiogenic molecules are needed to determine the role in esophageal carcinomas. PMID:11961303

  5. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A165b Is Protective and Restores Endothelial Glycocalyx in Diabetic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Oltean, Sebastian; Qiu, Yan; Ferguson, Joanne K; Stevens, Megan; Neal, Chris; Russell, Amy; Kaura, Amit; Arkill, Kenton P; Harris, Kirstie; Symonds, Clare; Lacey, Katja; Wijeyaratne, Lihini; Gammons, Melissa; Wylie, Emma; Hulse, Richard P; Alsop, Chloe; Cope, George; Damodaran, Gopinath; Betteridge, Kai B; Ramnath, Raina; Satchell, Simon C; Foster, Rebecca R; Ballmer-Hofer, Kurt; Donaldson, Lucy F; Barratt, Jonathan; Baelde, Hans J; Harper, Steven J; Bates, David O; Salmon, Andrew H J

    2015-08-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of ESRD in high-income countries and a growing problem across the world. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is thought to be a critical mediator of vascular dysfunction in diabetic nephropathy, yet VEGF-A knockout and overexpression of angiogenic VEGF-A isoforms each worsen diabetic nephropathy. We examined the vasculoprotective effects of the VEGF-A isoform VEGF-A165b in diabetic nephropathy. Renal expression of VEGF-A165b mRNA was upregulated in diabetic individuals with well preserved kidney function, but not in those with progressive disease. Reproducing this VEGF-A165b upregulation in mouse podocytes in vivo prevented functional and histologic abnormalities in diabetic nephropathy. Biweekly systemic injections of recombinant human VEGF-A165b reduced features of diabetic nephropathy when initiated during early or advanced nephropathy in a model of type 1 diabetes and when initiated during early nephropathy in a model of type 2 diabetes. VEGF-A165b normalized glomerular permeability through phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 in glomerular endothelial cells, and reversed diabetes-induced damage to the glomerular endothelial glycocalyx. VEGF-A165b also improved the permeability function of isolated diabetic human glomeruli. These results show that VEGF-A165b acts via the endothelium to protect blood vessels and ameliorate diabetic nephropathy.

  6. The type 2 vascular endothelial growth factor receptor recruits insulin receptor substrate-1 in its signalling pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Senthil, Duraisamy; Ghosh Choudhury, Goutam; Bhandari, Basant K; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S

    2002-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isoforms exert their biological effects through receptors that possess intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. Whether VEGF binding to its receptors recruits insulin receptor substrate (IRS) family of docking proteins to the receptor is not known. Following incubation of mouse kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells with VEGF, we observed an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins, including one of approximately 200 kDa, suggesting possible regulation of phosphorylation of IRS proteins. VEGF augmented tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 in kidney epithelial cells and rat heart endothelial cells in a time-dependent manner. In the epithelial cells, association of IRS-1 with type 2 VEGF receptor was promoted by VEGF. VEGF also increased association of IRS-1 with the p85 regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), and PI 3-kinase activity in IRS-1 immunoprecipitates was increased in VEGF-treated cells. Incubation of epithelial cells with antisense IRS-1 oligonucleotide, but not sense oligonucleotide, reduced expression of the protein and VEGF-induced PI 3-kinase activity in IRS-1 immunoprecipitates. Additionally, VEGF-induced protein synthesis was also impaired by antisense but not sense IRS-1 oligonucleotide. These data provide the first evidence that binding of VEGF to its type 2 receptor promotes association of IRS-1 with the receptor complex. This association may account for some of the increase in VEGF-induced PI 3-kinase activity, and the increase in de novo protein synthesis seen in renal epithelial cells. PMID:12153400

  7. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A165b Is Protective and Restores Endothelial Glycocalyx in Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Oltean, Sebastian; Qiu, Yan; Ferguson, Joanne K.; Stevens, Megan; Neal, Chris; Russell, Amy; Kaura, Amit; Arkill, Kenton P.; Harris, Kirstie; Symonds, Clare; Lacey, Katja; Wijeyaratne, Lihini; Gammons, Melissa; Wylie, Emma; Hulse, Richard P.; Alsop, Chloe; Cope, George; Damodaran, Gopinath; Betteridge, Kai B.; Ramnath, Raina; Satchell, Simon C.; Foster, Rebecca R.; Ballmer-Hofer, Kurt; Donaldson, Lucy F.; Barratt, Jonathan; Baelde, Hans J.; Harper, Steven J.; Bates, David O.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of ESRD in high-income countries and a growing problem across the world. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is thought to be a critical mediator of vascular dysfunction in diabetic nephropathy, yet VEGF-A knockout and overexpression of angiogenic VEGF-A isoforms each worsen diabetic nephropathy. We examined the vasculoprotective effects of the VEGF-A isoform VEGF-A165b in diabetic nephropathy. Renal expression of VEGF-A165b mRNA was upregulated in diabetic individuals with well preserved kidney function, but not in those with progressive disease. Reproducing this VEGF-A165b upregulation in mouse podocytes in vivo prevented functional and histologic abnormalities in diabetic nephropathy. Biweekly systemic injections of recombinant human VEGF-A165b reduced features of diabetic nephropathy when initiated during early or advanced nephropathy in a model of type 1 diabetes and when initiated during early nephropathy in a model of type 2 diabetes. VEGF-A165b normalized glomerular permeability through phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 in glomerular endothelial cells, and reversed diabetes-induced damage to the glomerular endothelial glycocalyx. VEGF-A165b also improved the permeability function of isolated diabetic human glomeruli. These results show that VEGF-A165b acts via the endothelium to protect blood vessels and ameliorate diabetic nephropathy. PMID:25542969

  8. Intracellular autocrine VEGF signaling promotes EBDC cell proliferation, which can be inhibited by Apatinib.

    PubMed

    Peng, Sui; Zhang, Yanyan; Peng, Hong; Ke, Zunfu; Xu, Lixia; Su, Tianhong; Tsung, Allan; Tohme, Samer; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Qiuyang; Lencioni, Riccardo; Zeng, Zhirong; Peng, Baogang; Chen, Minhu; Kuang, Ming

    2016-04-10

    Tumor cells produce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) which can interact with membrane or cytoplasmic VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) to promote cell growth. We aimed to investigate the role of extracellular/intracellular autocrine VEGF signaling and Apatinib, a highly selective VEGFR2 inhibitor, in extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EBDC). We found conditioned medium or recombinant human VEGF treatment promoted EBDC cell proliferation through a phospholipase C-γ1-dependent pathway. This pro-proliferative effect was diminished by VEGF, VEGFR1 or VEGFR2 neutralizing antibodies, but more significantly suppressed by intracellular VEGFR inhibitor. The rhVEGF induced intracellular VEGF signaling by promoting nuclear accumulation of pVEGFR1/2 and enhancing VEGF promoter activity, mRNA and protein expression. Internal VEGFR2 inhibitor Apatinib significantly inhibited intracellular VEGF signaling, suppressed cell proliferation in vitro and delayed xenograft tumor growth in vivo, while anti-VEGF antibody Bevacizumab showed no effect. Clinically, overexpression of pVEGFR1 and pVEGFR2 was significantly correlated with poorer overall survival (P = .007 and P = .020, respectively). In conclusion, the intracellular autocrine VEGF loop plays a predominant role in VEGF-induced cell proliferation. Apatinib is an effective intracellular VEGF pathway blocker that presents a great therapeutic potential in EBDC. PMID:26805764

  9. VEGF mRNA and Protein Concentrations in the Developing Human Eye

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Irene T.; McConaghy, Suzanne; Namachivayam, Kopperuncholan; Halloran, Brian A.; Kurundkar, Ashish R.; MohanKumar, Krishnan; Maheshwari, Akhil; Ohls, Robin K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a well-characterized regulator of angiogenesis, has been mechanistically implicated in retinal neovascularization and in the pathogenesis of ROP. However, the ontogeny of VEGF expression in the human fetal retina is not well known. Because retinal vasculature grows with gestational maturation, we hypothesized that VEGF expression also increases in the midgestation human fetal eye as a function of gestational age. Methods To identify changes in VEGF gene expression during normal human development, we measured VEGF mRNA by quantitative PCR and measured VEGF protein by ELISA and western blots in 10-24 week gestation fetal vitreous, retina, and serum. Results VEGF mRNA expression in the retina increased with gestational age. VEGF isoform A, particularly its VEGF121 splice variant, contributed to this positive correlation. Consistent with these findings, we detected increasing VEGF121 protein concentrations in vitreous humor from fetuses of 10-24 weeks gestation, while VEGF concentrations decreased in fetal serum. Conclusions VEGF121 mRNA and protein concentrations increase with increasing gestational age in the developing human retina. We speculate that VEGF plays an important role in normal retinal vascular development, and that preterm delivery affects production of this vascular growth factor. PMID:25588190

  10. Where is VEGF in the body? A meta-analysis of VEGF distribution in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kut, C; Mac Gabhann, F; Popel, A S

    2007-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major target for the inhibition of tumour vascularisation and the treatment of human cancer. Many tumours produce large quantities of VEGF, and as a result, diagnosis and prognosis of cancer may be predicted by measuring changes in VEGF concentrations in blood. In blood, the VEGF may be located in the plasma, or in the blood-borne cells and formed elements, in particular, platelets and leukocytes. In this study, we collate the measurements of VEGF in platelets, leukocytes, plasma and serum for breast, prostate, colorectal and other cancers. In addition, we analysed the concentration of VEGF in tumour tissue itself, as well as for other tissues in the human body. Although the concentration of VEGF in tumours is high, the size of tumours is small compared to other tissues, in particular, skeletal muscle. Thus, the total quantity of VEGF in tumours and in blood is small compared to the quantity in muscles. This large reservoir of VEGF may have important implications for the treatment of cancer. PMID:17912242

  11. Chitosan/short hairpin RNA complexes for vascular endothelial growth factor suppression invasive breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Salva, Emine; Kabasakal, Levent; Eren, Fatih; Cakalağaoğlu, Fulya; Ozkan, Naziye; Akbuğa, Jülide

    2010-08-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a critical role in angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to use chitosan/short hairpin VEGF (shVEGF) [short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-expressing pDNA targeting VEGF-A] complexes in the treatment of rat breast cancer model. Therefore, chitosan/shVEGF complexes were prepared in (2/1) ratio and injected to the breast-tumor bearing Sprague-Dawley rats. Intratumoral and intraperitoneal injections were applied and compared. Tumor volumes were measured during the 36 days. To investigate the effect of complexes on the VEGF expression, VEGF were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. The mRNA levels of VEGF were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Tumor volume decreased at the end of experiments after shRNA treatment. The highest suppression in the tumor volume was observed after intratumoral complex injection to rats (96%). Compared with intratumoral and intraperitoneal injection, higher tumor inhibition was obtained with intratumoral injection. Free shRNA injection indicated lower tumor suppression. The immunohistochemistry and western blotting results correlated with the real-time polymerase chain reaction and tumor volume measurements. The data suggest that chitosan/shVEGF complexes can be used to inhibit tumor growth in breast carcinoma model of rats.

  12. VEGF in the muscular layer of placental blood vessels: immuno-expression in preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction and its association with the antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Bosco, C; Buffet, C; Díaz, E; Rodrigo, R; Morales, P; Barja, P; Terra, R; Parra-Cordero, M

    2010-04-01

    The pathophysiology of preeclampsia (PE), a disorder occurring in 5% of all pregnancies, remains largely unknown, but early placental hypoxia and oxidative stress are known to be involved in the mechanism of the syndrome. Maternal plasma and placental tissue samples were collected from PE, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and normotensive pregnant patients. The immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), malondialdehyde (MDA) production and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase GSH-Px) were determined in the placental tissue. F2-isoprostane concentration and the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) were determined in maternal plasma. We found that the PE and IUGR groups showed a higher expression of VEGF in the muscular layer of fetal chorionic vessels. In addition, increased plasma F2 isoprostane levels and a significant reduction of FRAP in the plasma of PE women, as well as a lower activity of SOD in PE placentas and a higher activity of GSH-Px in IUGR placentas were found. Additionally, lower PlGF and higher sFlt1 levels were observed in the maternal plasma of PE and IUGR than control. We concluded that in a hypoxic environment, the placenta expresses VEGF in the muscular layer of fetal vessels. The development of PE could be related to the increased expression of VEGF, with decreased placental SOD activity and a decrease of both plasma F2-isoprostane and FRAP levels. In turn, the development of IUGR could be related to the association of decreased plasma FRAP levels and increased placental GSH-Px activity.

  13. Angiogenic Type I Collagen Extracellular Matrix Integrated with Recombinant Bacteriophages Displaying Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Junghyo; Korkmaz Zirpel, Nuriye; Park, Hyun-Ji; Han, Sewoon; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Shin, Jisoo; Cho, Seung-Woo; Nam, Chang-Hoon; Chung, Seok

    2016-01-21

    Here, a growth-factor-integrated natural extracellular matrix of type I collagen is presented that induces angiogenesis. The developed matrix adapts type I collagen nanofibers integrated with synthetic colloidal particles of recombinant bacteriophages that display vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The integration is achieved during or after gelation of the type I collagen and the matrix enables spatial delivery of VEGF into a desired region. Endothelial cells that contact the VEGF are found to invade into the matrix to form tube-like structures both in vitro and in vivo, proving the angiogenic potential of the matrix.

  14. Nuclear localization of vascular endothelial growth factor-D and regulation of c-Myc-dependent transcripts in human lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    El-Chemaly, Souheil; Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Malide, Daniela; Meza-Carmen, Victor; Kato, Jiro; Cui, Ye; Padilla, Philip I; Samidurai, Arun; Gochuico, Bernadette R; Moss, Joel

    2014-07-01

    Lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis are processes that are, in part, regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D. The formation of lymphatic structures has been implicated in multiple lung diseases, including pulmonary fibrosis. VEGF-D is a secreted protein produced by fibroblasts and macrophages, which induces lymphangiogenesis by signaling via VEGF receptor-3, and angiogenesis through VEGF receptor-2. VEGF-D contains a central VEGF homology domain, which is the biologically active domain, with flanking N- and C-terminal propeptides. Full-length VEGF-D (∼ 50 kD) is proteolytically processed in the extracellular space, to generate VEGF homology domain that contains the VEGF-D receptor-binding sites. Here, we report that, independent of its cell surface receptors, full-length VEGF-D accumulated in nuclei of fibroblasts, and that this process appears to increase with cell density. In nuclei, full-length VEGF-D associated with RNA polymerase II and c-Myc. In cells depleted of VEGF-D, the transcriptionally regulated genes appear to be modulated by c-Myc. These findings have potential clinical implications, as VEGF-D was found in fibroblast nuclei in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a disease characterized by fibroblast proliferation. These findings are consistent with actions of full-length VEGF-D in cellular homeostasis in health and disease, independent of its receptors.

  15. The expression of VEGF and its receptors in the human ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Weber, Sven C; Rheinlaender, Cornelia; Sarioglu, Nanette; Peiser, Christian; Rüdiger, Mario; Obladen, Michael; Koehne, Petra S

    2008-10-01

    Programmed proliferative degeneration of the human fetal ductus arteriosus (DA) preceding definite postnatal closure has a large developmental variability and is controlled by several signaling pathways. Among these vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (VEGF-Rs) play an important role. Until now, gestational age dependent expression of VEGF and its receptors has not been investigated in a large number of human DA tissue specimens. We examined protein expression of VEGF and the three VEGF-Rs immunohistochemically in 63 human fetal autopsy DA specimens of 11-38 wk gestation. Specimens were classified into different maturity stages according to their histologic appearance. VEGF and VEGF-Rs-staining was detected in all maturity stages. VEGF-staining was localized perinuclearly in all vascular layers and did not change during development. VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R3 expression was marked in the endothelium in early maturity stages and decreased during development. In contrast, -R2 predominated in the media in later developmental stages. Our results emphasize the importance of VEGF as a mediator during programmed proliferative degeneration of fetal DA and support the hypothesis that VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R3 are required for normal blood vessel development during embryogenesis. In contrast, VEGF-R2 is the predominant receptor in later angiogenic signaling.

  16. Injecting vascular endothelial growth factor into the temporomandibular joint induces osteoarthritis in mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Pei; Jiao, ZiXian; Zheng, Ji Si; Xu, Wei Feng; Zhang, Shang Yong; Qin, An; Yang, Chi

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can initiate osteoarthritis (OA) in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). In this study we evaluated the effects of intra-articular injection of exogenous VEGF in the TMJ in mice on the early stage. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley mice were equally divided into 3 groups. In the vegf group, the mice received an injection of VEGF solution (50 μL) in the TMJ once a week over a period of 4 weeks. In the sham group, the mice received an injection of saline (50 μL). The control group did not receive any injection. Four mice from each group were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Gradual prominent cartilage degeneration was observed in the vegf group. Additionally, this group showed higher expressions of metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, MMP-13, receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa-B ligand (RANKL), and a higher number of apoptotic chondrocytes and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2)-positive chondrocytes. Micro-computed tomography (CT) revealed prominent subchondral bone resorption in the vegf group, with a high number of osteoclasts in the subchondral bone. In vitro study demonstrated that VEGF can promote osteoclast differentiation. In conclusion, our study found that VEGF can initiate TMJ OA by destroying cartilage and subchondral bone. PMID:26531672

  17. Injecting vascular endothelial growth factor into the temporomandibular joint induces osteoarthritis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Pei; Jiao, ZiXian; Zheng, Ji Si; Xu, Wei Feng; Zhang, Shang Yong; Qin, An; Yang, Chi

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can initiate osteoarthritis (OA) in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). In this study we evaluated the effects of intra-articular injection of exogenous VEGF in the TMJ in mice on the early stage. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley mice were equally divided into 3 groups. In the vegf group, the mice received an injection of VEGF solution (50 μL) in the TMJ once a week over a period of 4 weeks. In the sham group, the mice received an injection of saline (50 μL). The control group did not receive any injection. Four mice from each group were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Gradual prominent cartilage degeneration was observed in the vegf group. Additionally, this group showed higher expressions of metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, MMP-13, receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa-B ligand (RANKL), and a higher number of apoptotic chondrocytes and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2)-positive chondrocytes. Micro-computed tomography (CT) revealed prominent subchondral bone resorption in the vegf group, with a high number of osteoclasts in the subchondral bone. In vitro study demonstrated that VEGF can promote osteoclast differentiation. In conclusion, our study found that VEGF can initiate TMJ OA by destroying cartilage and subchondral bone. PMID:26531672

  18. Effects of human vascular endothelial growth factor on reparative dentin formation

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JUAN; LIU, XIA; YU, WEIXIAN; ZHANG, YINGLI; SHI, CE; NI, SHILEI; LIU, QILIN; LI, XIANGWEI; SUN, YINGJIAN; ZHENG, CHANGYU; SUN, HONGCHEN

    2016-01-01

    It is a challenge for dentists to save dental pulp in patients with pulp disease without resorting to root canal therapy. Formation of tertiary dentin to maintain pulp vitality is a key odontoblast response to dental pulp injury. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most potent angiogenic and vasculogenic factor involved in tertiary dentin formation. It was hypothesized that VEGF may be used to treat pulp diseases such as pulpitis. To explore this hypothesis, the first step was to assess whether VEGF affects dental pulp cells to promote reparative dentin formation. In the current study, an AdCMV-hVEGF vector was constructed to deliver hVEGF into dental pulp cells of exfoliated deciduous teeth (hDPCs) in vitro and dental pulp cells in a rat model in vivo. The collected data clearly demonstrated that hVEGF increased alkaline phosphatase and mineralization by enzymatic activity. RT-qPCR data demonstrated that hVEGF significantly increased the expression levels of genes commonly involved in osteogenesis/odontogenesis. Data from the in vivo assays indicated that hVEGF enhanced pulp cell proliferation and neovascularization, and markedly increased formation of reparative dentin in dental pulp. The in vitro and in vivo data suggest that hVEGF may have potential clinical applications, thus may aid in the development of novel treatment strategies for dental pulpitis. PMID:26647730

  19. Chemical allergens stimulate human epidermal keratinocytes to produce lymphangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Ok-Nam; Ahn, Seyeon; Jin, Sun Hee; Hong, Soo Hyun; Lee, Jinyoung; Kim, Eun-Sun; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Chun, Young-Jin; Lee, Ai-Young; Noh, Minsoo

    2015-03-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a cell-mediated immune response that involves skin sensitization in response to contact with various allergens. Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis both play roles in the allergic sensitization process. Epidermal keratinocytes can produce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in response to UV irradiation and during wound healing. However, the effect of haptenic chemical allergens on the VEGF production of human keratinocytes, which is the primary contact site of toxic allergens, has not been thoroughly researched. We systematically investigated whether immune-regulatory cytokines and chemical allergens would lead to the production of VEGF in normal human keratinocytes (NHKs) in culture. VEGF production significantly increased when NHKs were treated with IFNγ, IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22 or TNFα. Among the human sensitizers listed in the OECD Test Guideline (TG) 429, we found that CMI/MI, DNCB, 4-phenylenediamine, cobalt chloride, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, citral, HCA, cinnamic alcohol, imidazolidinyl urea and nickel chloride all significantly upregulated VEGF production in NHKs. In addition, common human haptenic allergens such as avobenzone, formaldehyde and urushiol, also induced the keratinocyte-derived VEGF production. VEGF upregulation by pro-inflammatory stimuli, IFNγ, DNCB or formaldehyde is preceded by the production of IL-8, an acute inflammatory phase cytokine. Lymphangiogenic VEGF-C gene transcription was significantly increased when NHKs were treated with formaldehyde, DNCB or urushiol, while transcription of VEGF-A and VEGF-B did not change. Therefore, the chemical allergen-induced VEGF upregulation is mainly due to the increase in lymphangiogenic VEGF-C transcription in NHKs. These results suggest that keratinocyte-derived VEGF may regulate the lymphangiogenic process during the skin sensitization process of ACD. - Highlights: • Pro-inflammatory cytokines induced VEGF production in normal human

  20. A potential therapeutic strategy for inhibition of corneal neovascularization with new anti-VEGF agents.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Hamid; Nejabat, Mahmood

    2007-01-01

    The factors triggering corneal neovascularization involve various growth factors. The data supporting a causal role for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in corneal neovascularization are extensive. One possible strategy for treating corneal neovascularization is to inhibit VEGF activity by competitively binding VEGF with a specific neutralizing anti-VEGF antibody. The vireo-retinal service in the recent years enjoyed a high level of success in managing choroidal neovascularization using anti-VEGF strategies. Efficacy and tolerability have been demonstrated for drugs targeting VEGF. We herein hypothesize that topical application of new anti-VEGF agents such as pegaptanib, ranibizumab and bevacizumab are potentially useful for inhibiting corneal neovascularization and restoration of corneal clarity. Further investigations are needed to place these medical treatments alongside corneal neovascularization therapeutics. PMID:17107753

  1. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 directly regulates murine neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Charles-Félix; Fontaine, Romain H.; Soueid, Jihane; Tammela, Tuomas; Makinen, Taija; Alfaro-Cervello, Clara; Bonnaud, Fabien; Miguez, Andres; Benhaim, Lucile; Xu, Yunling; Barallobre, Maria-José; Moutkine, Imane; Lyytikkä, Johannes; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Pytowski, Bronislaw; Zalc, Bernard; Richardson, William; Kessaris, Nicoletta; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Alitalo, Kari; Eichmann, Anne; Thomas, Jean-Léon

    2011-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are slowly dividing astrocytes that are intimately associated with capillary endothelial cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the brain. Functionally, members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family can stimulate neurogenesis as well as angiogenesis, but it has been unclear whether they act directly via VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) expressed by neural cells, or indirectly via the release of growth factors from angiogenic capillaries. Here, we show that VEGFR-3, a receptor required for lymphangiogenesis, is expressed by NSCs and is directly required for neurogenesis. Vegfr3:YFP reporter mice show VEGFR-3 expression in multipotent NSCs, which are capable of self-renewal and are activated by the VEGFR-3 ligand VEGF-C in vitro. Overexpression of VEGF-C stimulates VEGFR-3-expressing NSCs and neurogenesis in the SVZ without affecting angiogenesis. Conversely, conditional deletion of Vegfr3 in neural cells, inducible deletion in subventricular astrocytes, and blocking of VEGFR-3 signaling with antibodies reduce SVZ neurogenesis. Therefore, VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 signaling acts directly on NSCs and regulates adult neurogenesis, opening potential approaches for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21498572

  2. Transcriptional activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in myeloid cells promotes angiogenesis through VEGF and S100A8.

    PubMed

    Ahn, G-One; Seita, Jun; Hong, Beom-Ju; Kim, Young-Eun; Bok, Seoyeon; Lee, Chan-Ju; Kim, Kwang Soon; Lee, Jerry C; Leeper, Nicholas J; Cooke, John P; Kim, Hak Jae; Kim, Il Han; Weissman, Irving L; Brown, J Martin

    2014-02-18

    Emerging evidence indicates that myeloid cells are essential for promoting new blood vessel formation by secreting various angiogenic factors. Given that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a critical regulator for angiogenesis, we questioned whether HIF in myeloid cells also plays a role in promoting angiogenesis. To address this question, we generated a unique strain of myeloid-specific knockout mice targeting HIF pathways using human S100A8 as a myeloid-specific promoter. We observed that mutant mice where HIF-1 is transcriptionally activated in myeloid cells (by deletion of the von Hippel-Lindau gene) resulted in erythema, enhanced neovascularization in matrigel plugs, and increased production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the bone marrow, all of which were completely abrogated by either genetic or pharmacological inactivation of HIF-1. We further found that monocytes were the major effector producing VEGF and S100A8 proteins driving neovascularization in matrigel. Moreover, by using a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia we observed significantly improved blood flow in mice intramuscularly injected with HIF-1-activated monocytes. This study therefore demonstrates that HIF-1 activation in myeloid cells promotes angiogenesis through VEGF and S100A8 and that this may become an attractive therapeutic strategy to treat diseases with vascular defects.

  3. Transcriptional activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in myeloid cells promotes angiogenesis through VEGF and S100A8.

    PubMed

    Ahn, G-One; Seita, Jun; Hong, Beom-Ju; Kim, Young-Eun; Bok, Seoyeon; Lee, Chan-Ju; Kim, Kwang Soon; Lee, Jerry C; Leeper, Nicholas J; Cooke, John P; Kim, Hak Jae; Kim, Il Han; Weissman, Irving L; Brown, J Martin

    2014-02-18

    Emerging evidence indicates that myeloid cells are essential for promoting new blood vessel formation by secreting various angiogenic factors. Given that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a critical regulator for angiogenesis, we questioned whether HIF in myeloid cells also plays a role in promoting angiogenesis. To address this question, we generated a unique strain of myeloid-specific knockout mice targeting HIF pathways using human S100A8 as a myeloid-specific promoter. We observed that mutant mice where HIF-1 is transcriptionally activated in myeloid cells (by deletion of the von Hippel-Lindau gene) resulted in erythema, enhanced neovascularization in matrigel plugs, and increased production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the bone marrow, all of which were completely abrogated by either genetic or pharmacological inactivation of HIF-1. We further found that monocytes were the major effector producing VEGF and S100A8 proteins driving neovascularization in matrigel. Moreover, by using a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia we observed significantly improved blood flow in mice intramuscularly injected with HIF-1-activated monocytes. This study therefore demonstrates that HIF-1 activation in myeloid cells promotes angiogenesis through VEGF and S100A8 and that this may become an attractive therapeutic strategy to treat diseases with vascular defects. PMID:24497508

  4. Deregulation of Flk-1/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 in fibroblast growth factor receptor-1-deficient vascular stem cell development.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Peetra; Rolny, Charlotte; Jakobsson, Lars; Wikner, Charlotte; Wu, Yan; Hicklin, Daniel J; Claesson-Welsh, Lena

    2004-03-15

    We have employed embryoid bodies derived from murine embryonal stem cells to study effects on vascular development induced by fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 and FGF receptor-1, in comparison to the established angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and its receptor VEGF receptor-2. Exogenous FGF-2 promoted formation of morphologically distinct, long slender vessels in the embryoid bodies, whereas VEGF-A-treated bodies displayed a compact plexus of capillaries. FGF-2 stimulation of embryonal stem cells under conditions where VEGF-A/VEGFR-2 function was blocked, led to formation of endothelial cell clusters, which failed to develop into vessels. FGFR-1(-/-) embryoid bodies responded to VEGF-A by establishment of the characteristic vascular plexus, but FGF-2 had no effect on vascular development in the absence of FGFR-1. The FGFR-1(-/-) embryoid bodies displayed considerably increased basal level of vessel formation, detected by immunohistochemical staining for platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)/CD31. This basal vascularization was blocked by neutralizing antibodies against VEGFR-2 or VEGF-A and biochemical analyses indicated changes in regulation of VEGFR-2 in the absence of FGFR-1 expression. We conclude that VEGF-A/VEGFR-2-dependent vessel formation occurs in the absence of FGF-2/FGFR-1, which, however, serve to modulate vascular development. PMID:15020678

  5. The effect of vascular endothelial growth factor in the progression of bladder cancer and diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Aldebasi, Yousef H; Rahmani, Arshad H; Khan, Amjad A; Aly, Salah Mesalhy

    2013-01-01

    Bladder cancer and diabetic retinopathy is a major public health and economical burden worldwide. Despite its high prevalence, the molecular mechanisms that induce or develop bladder carcinomas and diabetic retinopathy progression are poorly understood but it might be due to the disturbance in balance between angiogenic factors such as VEGF and antiangiogenic factors such as pigment epithelium derived growth factor. VEGF is one of the important survival factors for endothelial cells in the process of normal physiological and abnormal angiogenesis and induce the expression of antiapoptotic proteins in the endothelial cells. It is also the major initiator of angiogenesis in cancer and diabetic retinopathy, where it is up-regulated by oncogenic expression and different type of growth factors. The alteration in VEGF and VEGF receptors gene and overexpression, determines a diseases phenotype and ultimately the patient’s clinical outcome. However, expressional and molecular studies were made on VEGF to understand the exact mechanism of action in the genesis and progression of bladder carcinoma and diabetic retinopathy , but still how VEGF mechanism involve in such type of disease progression are not well defined. Some other factors also play a significant role in the process of activation of VEGF pathways. Therefore, further detailed analysis via molecular and therapeutic is needed to know the exact mechanisms of VEGF in the angiogenesis pathway. The detection of these types of diseases at an early stage, predict how it will behave and act in response to treatment through regulation of VEGF pathways. The present review aimed to summarize the mechanism of alteration of VEGF gene pathways, which play a vital role in the development and progression of bladder cancer and diabetic retinopathy. PMID:23641300

  6. Connective tissue growth factor is a substrate of ADAM28

    SciTech Connect

    Mochizuki, Satsuki; Tanaka, Rena; Shimoda, Masayuki; Onuma, Junko; Fujii, Yutaka; Jinno, Hiromitsu; Okada, Yasunori

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} The hyper-variable region in the cysteine-rich domain of ADAM28 binds to C-terminal domain of CTGF. {yields} ADAM28 cleaves CTGF alone and CTGF in the CTGF/VEGF{sub 165} complex. {yields} CTGF digestion by ADAM28 releases biologically active VEGF{sub 165} from the complex. {yields} ADAM28, CTGF and VEGF{sub 165} are commonly co-expressed by carcinoma cells in human breast carcinoma tissues. {yields} These suggest that ADAM28 promotes VEGF{sub 165}-induced angiogenesis in the breast carcinomas by selective CTGF digestion in the CTGF/VEGF{sub 165} complex. -- Abstract: ADAM28, a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) gene family, is over-expressed by carcinoma cells and the expression correlates with carcinoma cell proliferation and progression in human lung and breast carcinomas. However, information about substrates of ADAM28 is limited. We screened interacting molecules of ADAM28 in human lung cDNA library by yeast two-hybrid system and identified connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Binding of CTGF to proADAM28 was demonstrated by yeast two-hybrid assay and protein binding assay. ADAM28 cleaved CTGF in dose- and time-dependent manners at the Ala{sup 181}-Tyr{sup 182} and Asp{sup 191}-Pro{sup 192} bonds in the hinge region of the molecule. ADAM28 selectively digested CTGF in the complex of CTGF and vascular endothelial growth factor{sub 165} (VEGF{sub 165}), releasing biologically active VEGF{sub 165} from the complex. RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that ADAM28, CTGF and VEGF are commonly co-expressed in the breast carcinoma tissues. These data provide the first evidence that CTGF is a novel substrate of ADAM28 and suggest that ADAM28 may promote VEGF{sub 165}-induced angiogenesis in the breast carcinomas by the CTGF digestion in the CTGF/VEGF{sub 165} complex.

  7. Autocrine VEGF Isoforms Differentially Regulate Endothelial Cell Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Hideki; Rundqvist, Helene; Branco, Cristina; Johnson, Randall S.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) is involved in all the essential biology of endothelial cells, from proliferation to vessel function, by mediating intercellular interactions and monolayer integrity. It is expressed as three major alternative spliced variants. In mice, these are VEGF120, VEGF164, and VEGF188, each with different affinities for extracellular matrices and cell surfaces, depending on the inclusion of heparin-binding sites, encoded by exons 6 and 7. To determine the role of each VEGF isoform in endothelial homeostasis, we compared phenotypes of primary endothelial cells isolated from lungs of mice expressing single VEGF isoforms in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The differential expression and distribution of VEGF isoforms affect endothelial cell functions, such as proliferation, adhesion, migration, and integrity, which are dependent on the stability of and affinity to VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). We found a correlation between autocrine VEGF164 and VEGFR2 stability, which is also associated with increased expression of proteins involved in cell adhesion. Endothelial cells expressing only VEGF188, which localizes to extracellular matrices or cell surfaces, presented a mesenchymal morphology and weakened monolayer integrity. Cells expressing only VEGF120 lacked stable VEGFR2 and dysfunctional downstream processes, rendering the cells unviable. Endothelial cells expressing these different isoforms in isolation also had differing rates of apoptosis, proliferation, and signaling via nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. These data indicate that autocrine signaling of each VEGF isoform has unique functions on endothelial homeostasis and response to hypoxia, due to both distinct VEGF distribution and VEGFR2 stability, which appears to be, at least partly, affected by differential NO production. This study demonstrates that each autocrine VEGF isoform has a distinct effect on downstream functions, namely VEGFR2-regulated endothelial cell homeostasis in

  8. [Role of VEGF in diseases of the retina].

    PubMed

    Barquet, Luis Arias

    2015-03-01

    Angiogenesis is the process through which new blood vessels are formed, based on preexisting vessels, and is the paradigm of diseases such as cancer and exudative ageassociated macular degeneration (ARMD). Several proangiogenic factors have been identified, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), especially VEGF-A, which activates endothelial cells and promotes cell proliferation, migration, and an increase in vascular permeability. VEGF is also involved in the etiopathogenesis of other retinal diseases, such as diabetic macular edema and macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion. Likewise, there is increasing evidence that placental growth factor (PIGF) acts recepsynergetically with VEGF in promoting these diseases. Currently, the main treatment for these diseases are the anti-VEGF drugs, aflibercept, ranibizumab and bevacizumab. These agents differ in their molecular structure and mechanism of action.

  9. Tissue factor, osteopontin, αvβ3 integrin expression in microvasculature of gliomas associated with vascular endothelial growth factor expression

    PubMed Central

    Takano, S; Tsuboi, K; Tomono, Y; Mitsui, Y; Nose, T

    2000-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic factor in human gliomas. VEGF-induced proteins in endothelial cells, tissue factor (TF), osteopontin (OPN) and αvβ3 integrin have been implicated as important molecules by which VEGF promotes angiogenesis in vivo. Sixty-eight gliomas were immunohistochemically stained with TF, VEGF, OPN and αvβ3 integrin antibody. Twenty-three tumours, six normal brains and nine glioma cell lines were evaluated for their mRNA expression of VEGF and TF by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. The data indicated that TF as well as VEGF was a strong regulator of human glioma angiogenesis. First, TF expression in endothelial cells which was observed in 74% of glioblastomas, 54% of anaplastic astrocytomas and none of low-grade astrocytomas, correlated with the microvascular density of the tumours. Double staining for VEGF and TF demonstrated co-localization of these two proteins in the glioblastoma tissues. Second, there was a correlation between TF and VEGF mRNA expression in the glioma tissues. Third, glioma cell conditioned medium containing a large amount of VEGF up-regulated the TF mRNA expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. OPN and αvβ3 integrin, were also predominantly observed in the microvasculature of glioblastomas associated with VEGF expression. Microvascular expression of these molecules could be an effective antiangiogenesis target for human gliomas. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10864205

  10. Hyperpolarized (13)C-lactate to (13)C-bicarbonate ratio as a biomarker for monitoring the acute response of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Mo; Spielman, Daniel M; Josan, Sonal; Jang, Taichang; Merchant, Milton; Hurd, Ralph E; Mayer, Dirk; Recht, Lawrence D

    2016-05-01

    Hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate MRS provides a unique imaging opportunity to study the reaction kinetics and enzyme activities of in vivo metabolism because of its favorable imaging characteristics and critical position in the cellular metabolic pathway, where it can either be reduced to lactate (reflecting glycolysis) or converted to acetyl-coenzyme A and bicarbonate (reflecting oxidative phosphorylation). Cancer tissue metabolism is altered in such a way as to result in a relative preponderance of glycolysis relative to oxidative phosphorylation (i.e. Warburg effect). Although there is a strong theoretical basis for presuming that readjustment of the metabolic balance towards normal could alter tumor growth, a robust noninvasive in vivo tool with which to measure the balance between these two metabolic processes has yet to be developed. Until recently, hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate imaging studies had focused solely on [1-(13)C]lactate production because of its strong signal. However, without a concomitant measure of pyruvate entry into the mitochondria, the lactate signal provides no information on the balance between the glycolytic and oxidative metabolic pathways. Consistent measurement of (13)C-bicarbonate in cancer tissue, which does provide such information, has proven difficult, however. In this study, we report the reliable measurement of (13)C-bicarbonate production in both the healthy brain and a highly glycolytic experimental glioblastoma model using an optimized (13)C MRS imaging protocol. With the capacity to obtain signal in all tumors, we also confirm for the first time that the ratio of (13)C-lactate to (13)C-bicarbonate provides a more robust metric relative to (13)C-lactate for the assessment of the metabolic effects of anti-angiogenic therapy. Our data suggest a potential application of this ratio as an early biomarker to assess therapeutic effectiveness. Furthermore, although further study is needed, the results suggest that anti

  11. Vascular endothelial growth factor promotes macrophage apoptosis through stimulation of tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 14 (TNFSF14/LIGHT).

    PubMed

    Petreaca, Melissa L; Yao, Min; Ware, Carl; Martins-Green, Manuela M

    2008-01-01

    Resolution of inflammation is critical for normal wound healing. Inflammation is prolonged and fails to resolve properly in chronic wounds. We used in vivo and in vitro approaches to show that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induces macrophage apoptosis and to delineate mechanisms involved in this process. VEGF inhibition during wound healing leads to an increased number of macrophages remaining in wounds, suggesting the involvement of VEGF in removal of these cells from the wound. If this effect has physiological relevance, it likely occurs via apoptosis. We show that VEGF increases apoptosis of macrophages in vitro using Annexin V-FITC staining and caspase activation. Microarray analysis, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblotting showed that VEGF increases the expression of tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 14 (TNFSF14/LIGHT) in macrophages. We also show that in macrophages LIGHT promotes apoptosis through the lymphotoxin beta receptor. Moreover, inhibition of LIGHT prevents VEGF-induced death, suggesting that LIGHT mediates VEGF-induced macrophage apoptosis. Taken together, our results identify a novel role for VEGF and for LIGHT in macrophage apoptosis during wound healing, an event critical in the resolution of inflammation. This finding may lead to the development of new strategies to improve resolution of inflammation in problematic wounds. PMID:19128255

  12. High glucose activates ChREBP-mediated HIF-1a and VEGF expression in human RPE cells under normoxia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because retina-damaging angiogenesis is controlled by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and people with higher glucose intakes are more susceptible to retinal complications that may be due to increased VEGF, it is crucial to elucidate relations between glucose exposure and VEGF expression. W...

  13. Recombinant Human VEGF165b Inhibits Experimental Choroidal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Jing; Spee, Christine; Kase, Satoru; Rennel, Emma S.; Magnussen, Anette L.; Qiu, Yan; Varey, Alex; Dhayade, Sandeep; Churchill, Amanda J.; Harper, Steven J.; Hinton, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) is the principal stimulator of angiogenesis in wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, VEGF-A is generated by alternate splicing into two families, the proangiogenic VEGF-Axxx family and the antiangiogenic VEGF-Axxxb family. It is the proangiogenic family that is responsible for the blood vessel growth seen in AMD. Methods. To determine the role of antiangiogenic isoforms of VEGF-A as inhibitors of choroidal neovascularization, the authors used a model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in the mouse eye and investigated VEGF-A165b effects on endothelial cells and VEGFRs in vitro. Results. VEGF-A165b inhibited VEGF-A165–mediated endothelial cell migration with a dose effect similar to that of ranibizumab and bevacizumab and 200-fold more potent than that of pegaptanib. VEGF-A165b bound both VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 with affinity similar to that of VEGF-A165. After laser injury, mice were injected either intraocularly or subcutaneously with recombinant human VEGF-A165b. Intraocular injection of rhVEGF-A165b gave a pronounced dose-dependent inhibition of fluorescein leakage, with an IC50 of 16 pg/eye, neovascularization (IC50, 0.8 pg/eye), and lesion as assessed by histologic staining (IC50, 8 pg/eye). Subcutaneous administration of 100 μg twice a week also inhibited fluorescein leakage and neovascularization and reduced lesion size. Conclusions. These results show that VEGF-A165b is a potent antiangiogenic agent in a mouse model of age-related macular degeneration and suggest that increasing the ratio of antiangiogenic-to-proangiogenic isoforms may be therapeutically effective in this condition. PMID:20237252

  14. Overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor accelerates early vascularization and improves healing of genetically modified cultured skin substitutes.

    PubMed

    Supp, Dorothy M; Boyce, Steven T

    2002-01-01

    Cultured skin substitutes (CSS) lack a vascular plexus, leading to slower vascularization after grafting than split-thickness skin autograft. CSS containing keratinocytes genetically modified to overexpress vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were previously shown to exhibit enhanced vascularization up to 2 weeks after grafting to athymic mice. The present study examines whether enhanced vascularization compared with controls persists after stable engraftment is achieved and analyzes VEGF expression, wound contraction, and engraftment. Control and VEGF-modified (VEGF+) CSS were grafted onto full-thickness wounds in athymic mice. VEGF expression was detected in VEGF+ CSS 14 weeks after grafting. Graft contraction was significantly lower in VEGF+ CSS compared with controls, suggesting more stable engraftment and better tissue development. Positive HLA-ABC staining, indicating persistence of human cells, was seen in 86.7% (13/15) of grafted VEGF+ CSS, compared with 58.3% (7/12) of controls. Differences in dermal vascularization between control and VEGF+ grafts were significant 1 week after surgery, but not at later times. However, the distribution of vessels was different, with more vessels in the upper dermis of VEGF+ grafts. These results suggest that VEGF overexpression in genetically modified CSS acts to accelerate early graft vascularization and can contribute to improved healing of full-thickness skin wounds.

  15. Loss of phospholipase D2 impairs VEGF-induced angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Sup; Ghim, Jaewang; Song, Parkyong; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key mediator of angiogenesis and critical for normal embryonic development and repair of pathophysiological conditions in adults. Although phospholipase D (PLD) activity has been implicated in angiogenic processes, its role in VEGF signaling during angiogenesis in mammals is unclear. Here, we found that silencing of PLD2 by siRNA blocked VEGF-mediated signaling in immortalized human umbilical vein endothelial cells (iHUVECs). Also, VEGF-induced endothelial cell survival, proliferation, migration, and tube formation were inhibited by PLD2 silencing. Furthermore, while Pld2-knockout mice exhibited normal development, loss of PLD2 inhibited VEGF-mediated ex vivo angiogenesis. These findings suggest that PLD2 functions as a key mediator in the VEGF-mediated angiogenic functions of endothelial cells. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(3): 191-196] PMID:26818087

  16. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A Increases the Aqueous Humor Outflow Facility

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Tomokazu; Inoue, Toshihiro; Maki, Kei; Inoue-Mochita, Miyuki; Tanihara, Hidenobu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody therapy is an effective treatment for ocular angiogenesis. Although the intraocular pressure of some patients increases after anti-VEGF therapy, the effects of VEGF-A on the aqueous humor outflow pathway remain unknown. This study investigated the effects of VEGF-A on the aqueous humor outflow pathway. Methods We used human recombinant VEGF121 and VEGF165. Trabecular meshwork (TM) and Schlemm’s canal endothelial (SCE) cells were isolated from the eyes of cynomolgus monkeys. Expression of mRNA coding four VEGF receptors, VEGFR1 (FLT1), VEGFR2 (KDR), neuropilin-1, and neuropilin-2, was examined by RT-PCR. To evaluate the permeability of cell monolayers, we measured transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER). The outflow facility was measured in perfused porcine anterior segment organ cultures treated with 30 ng/mL VEGF121 for 48 h. Results Four VEGF-A-related receptor mRNAs were expressed in TM and SCE cells. The TEER of TM cells was not significantly affected by VEGF121 or VEGF165 treatment. In contrast, the TEER of SCE cells was significantly lower 48 h after treatment with 30 ng/mL VEGF121 to 69.4 ± 12.2% of baseline (n = 10), which was a significant difference compared with the control (P = 0.0001). VEGF165 (30 ng/mL) decreased the TEER of SCE cells at 48 h after treatment to 72.3 ± 14.1% compared with the baseline (n = 10), which was not a significant difference compared with the control (P = 0.0935). Ki8751, a selective VEGFR2 inhibitor, completely suppressed the effect of VEGF121 on SCE cell permeability, although ZM306416, a selective VEGFR1 inhibitor, did not affect the VEGF121-induced decrease in TEER. Perfusion with 30 ng/mL of VEGF121 for 48 h significantly increased the outflow facility compared with the control (47.8 ± 28.5%, n = 5, P = 0.013). Conclusions These results suggest that VEGF-A may regulate the conventional aqueous outflow of SCE cells through VEGFR2. PMID:27584577

  17. Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Treatment Suppresses Early Brain Injury After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Fujimoto, Masashi; Kawakita, Fumihiro; Nakano, Fumi; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2016-09-01

    The role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of anti-VEGF therapy on EBI after SAH. C57BL/6 male mice underwent sham or filament perforation SAH modeling, and vehicle or two dosages (0.2 and 1 μg) of anti-VEGF antibody were randomly administrated by an intracerebroventricular injection. Neuroscore, brain water content, immunoglobulin G staining, and Western blotting were performed to evaluate EBI at 24-48 h. To confirm the role of VEGF, anti-VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2 (a major receptor of VEGF) antibody was intracerebroventricularly administered and the effects on EBI were evaluated at 24 h. A higher dose, but not a lower dose, of anti-VEGF antibody significantly ameliorated post-SAH neurological impairments and brain edema at 24-48 h post-SAH. Post-SAH blood-brain barrier disruption was also inhibited by anti-VEGF antibody. The protective effects of anti-VEGF antibody were associated with the inhibition of post-SAH induction of VEGF, VEGFR-2, phosphorylated VEGFR-2, interleukin-1β and a matricellular protein tenascin-C (TNC). Anti-VEGFR-2 antibody also suppressed post-SAH neurological impairments and brain edema associated with VEGFR-2 inactivation and TNC downregulation. These findings demonstrated that VEGF causes post-SAH EBI via VEGFR-2 and TNC and that anti-VEGF therapy is effective for post-SAH EBI.

  18. The novel hypoxic cytotoxin, TX-2098 has antitumor effect in pancreatic cancer; possible mechanism through inhibiting VEGF and hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} targeted gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, Kotaro; Nishioka, Masanori; Imura, Satoru; Batmunkh, Erdenebulgan; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nagasawa, Hideko; Hori, Hitoshi; Shimada, Mitsuo

    2012-08-01

    Tumor hypoxia has been considered to be a potential therapeutic target, because hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors and is associated with their malignant phenotype. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of a novel hypoxic cytotoxin, 3-[2-hydroxyethyl(methyl)amino]-2-quinoxalinecarbonitrile 1,4-dioxide (TX-2098) in inhibiting the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}), and consequently vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) expression in pancreatic cancer. The antitumor effects of TX-2098 under hypoxia were tested against various human pancreatic cancer cell lines using WST-8 assay. VEGF protein induced pancreatic cancer was determined on cell-free supernatant by ELISA. Moreover, nude mice bearing subcutaneously (s.c.) or orthotopically implanted human SUIT-2 were treated with TX-2098. Tumor volume, survival and expression of HIF-1 and associated molecules were evaluated in treatment versus control groups. In vitro, TX-2098 inhibited the proliferation of various pancreatic cancer cell lines. In s.c model, tumors from nude mice injected with pancreatic cancer cells and treated with TX-2098 showed significant reductions in volume (P < 0.01 versus control). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that TX-2098 significantly inhibited mRNA expression of the HIF-1 associated molecules, VEGF, glucose transporter 1 and Aldolase A (P < 0.01 versus control). These treatments also prolong the survival in orthotopic models. These results suggest that the effect of TX-2098 in pancreatic cancer might be correlated with the expression of VEGF and HIF-1 targeted molecules. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We designed and synthesized novel hypoxic cytoxin, TX-2098. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098 inhibited the proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells than TPZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098 reduced VEGF protein level than TPZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098

  19. [The role of vascular endothelial growth factor in angiogenesis and diabetic retinopathy].

    PubMed

    Valiatti, Fabiana Borba; Crispim, Daisy; Benfica, Camila; Valiatti, Bruna Borba; Kramer, Caroline K; Canani, Luís Henrique

    2011-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a DM microvascular complication, is the leading cause of blindness. Angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are involved in the pathogenesis of DR. VEGF-A is a potent, multifunctional cytokine that acts through the receptors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 expressed in the vascular endothelium and causing increased vascular permeability and neovascularization stimulation in both physiological and pathological processes. The expression of VEGFR-1 is upregulated by hypoxia and is less responsive to VEGF compared to VEGFR-2 which is the main mediator mitogenic, angiogenic, and increased vascular permeability. VEGF polymorphisms have been studied in DR susceptibility and progression. Significant association between the polymorphism 634C / G and the presence of RD is reported mainly in relation to allele C. The homozygous CC is associated to proliferative RD and to increased vitreous and serum levels of VEGF suggesting that the presence of the C allele is an independent risk factor for RD. The knowledge of VEGF lead to the development of anti-VEGF drugs (pegaptanib, ranibizumab and bevacizumab) aiming to prevent pathological neovascularization. The anti-VEGF therapy is a reality in practice medical treatment of DR. PMID:21584427

  20. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA in non-small-cell lung carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Fontanini, G; Boldrini, L; Chinè, S; Pisaturo, F; Basolo, F; Calcinai, A; Lucchi, M; Mussi, A; Angeletti, C A; Bevilacqua, G

    1999-01-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to be strictly related to vascular permeability and endothelial cell growth under physiological and pathological conditions. In tumour development and progression, VEGF plays a pivotal role in the development of the tumoral vascular network, and useful information in the progression of human cancer can be obtained by analysing the vascular endothelial growth factor expression of the tumours. In this study, we investigated the vascular endothelial growth factor transcript expression in non-small-cell lung carcinomas to evaluate the significance of this factor in a group of cancers in which the vascular pattern has been shown to significantly affect progression. Surgical samples of 42 patients with NSCLC were studied using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and in situ hybridization. Thirty-three out of 42 cases (78.6%) showed VEGF transcript expression predominantly as transcripts for the secretory forms of VEGF (isoforms 121 and 165). In situ hybridization, performed on 24 out of 42 samples, showed that the VEGF transcript expression was in several cases present in the cytoplasm both of neoplastic and normal cells, even if the VEGF mRNA was less expressed in the corresponding non-tumoral part. The VEGF 121 expression was associated with hilar and/or mediastinal nodal involvement (P = 0.02), and, taken together, the VEGF isoforms were shown to significantly influence overall (P = 0.02) and disease-free survival (P = 0.03). As a regulator of tumour angiogenesis, VEGF may represent a useful indicator of progression and poor prognosis in non-small-cell lung carcinomas.

  1. Roles of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Pronto-Laborinho, Ana Catarina; Pinto, Susana; de Carvalho, Mamede

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal devastating neurodegenerative disorder, involving progressive degeneration of motor neurons in spinal cord, brainstem, and motor cortex. Riluzole is the only drug approved in ALS but it only confers a modest improvement in survival. In spite of a high number of clinical trials no other drug has proved effectiveness. Recent studies support that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), originally described as a key angiogenic factor, also plays a key role in the nervous system, including neurogenesis, neuronal survival, neuronal migration, and axon guidance. VEGF has been used in exploratory clinical studies with promising results in ALS and other neurological disorders. Although VEGF is a very promising compound, translating the basic science breakthroughs into clinical practice is the major challenge ahead. VEGF-B, presenting a single safety profile, protects motor neurons from degeneration in ALS animal models and, therefore, it will be particularly interesting to test its effects in ALS patients. In the present paper the authors make a brief description of the molecular properties of VEGF and its receptors and review its different features and therapeutic potential in the nervous system/neurodegenerative disease, particularly in ALS. PMID:24987705

  2. Roles of vascular endothelial growth factor in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pronto-Laborinho, Ana Catarina; Pinto, Susana; de Carvalho, Mamede

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal devastating neurodegenerative disorder, involving progressive degeneration of motor neurons in spinal cord, brainstem, and motor cortex. Riluzole is the only drug approved in ALS but it only confers a modest improvement in survival. In spite of a high number of clinical trials no other drug has proved effectiveness. Recent studies support that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), originally described as a key angiogenic factor, also plays a key role in the nervous system, including neurogenesis, neuronal survival, neuronal migration, and axon guidance. VEGF has been used in exploratory clinical studies with promising results in ALS and other neurological disorders. Although VEGF is a very promising compound, translating the basic science breakthroughs into clinical practice is the major challenge ahead. VEGF-B, presenting a single safety profile, protects motor neurons from degeneration in ALS animal models and, therefore, it will be particularly interesting to test its effects in ALS patients. In the present paper the authors make a brief description of the molecular properties of VEGF and its receptors and review its different features and therapeutic potential in the nervous system/neurodegenerative disease, particularly in ALS. PMID:24987705

  3. Cytokine and Growth Factor Responses After Radiotherapy for Localized Ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Thomas E. Li Chenghong; Xiong Xiaoping; Gaber, M. Waleed

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the time course and clinical significance of cytokines and peptide growth factors in pediatric patients with ependymoma treated with postoperative radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: We measured 15 cytokines and growth factors (fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], interleukin [IL]-1{beta}, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-{gamma}, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-{alpha}) from 30 patients before RT and 2 and 24 h, weekly for 6 weeks, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the initiation of RT. Two longitudinal models for the trend of log-transformed measurements were fitted, one during treatment and one through 12 months. Results: During RT, log IL-8 declined at a rate of -0.10389/wk (p = 0.0068). The rate of decline was greater (p = 0.028) for patients with an infratentorial tumor location. The decline in IL-8 after RT was significant when stratified by infratentorial tumor location (p = 0.0345) and more than one surgical procedure (p = 0.0272). During RT, the decline in log VEGF was significant when stratified by the presence of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. After RT, the log VEGF declined significantly at a rate of -0.06207/mo. The decline was significant for males (p = 0.0222), supratentorial tumors (p = 0.0158), one surgical procedure (p = 0.0222), no ventriculoperitoneal shunt (p = 0.0005), and the absence of treatment failure (p = 0.0028). Conclusion: The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 declined significantly during RT and the decline differed according to tumor location. The angiogenesis factor VEGF declined significantly during the 12 months after RT. The decline was greater in males, those without a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, and in those with favorable disease factors, including one surgical procedure, supratentorial tumor location, and

  4. Role of vascular endothelial growth factor in the stimulation of cellular invasion and signaling of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Price, D J; Miralem, T; Jiang, S; Steinberg, R; Avraham, H

    2001-03-01

    The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by breast tumors has been previously correlated with a poor prognosis in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Furthermore, VEGF secretion is a prerequisite for tumor development. Although most of the effects of VEGF have been shown to be attributable to the stimulation of endothelial cells, we present evidence here that breast tumor cells are capable of responding to VEGF. We show that VEGF stimulation of T-47D breast cancer cells leads to changes in cellular signaling and invasion. VEGF increases the cellular invasion of T-47D breast cancer cells on Matrigel/ fibronectin-coated transwell membranes by a factor of two. Northern analysis for the expression of the known VEGF receptors shows the presence of moderate levels of Flt-1 and low levels of Flk-1/KDR mRNAs in a variety of breast cancer cell lines. T-47D breast cancer cells bind 125I-labeled VEGF with a Kd of 13 x 10(-9) M. VEGF induces the activation of the extracellular regulated kinases 1,2 as well as activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase, Akt, and Forkhead receptor L1. These findings in T-47D breast cancer cells strongly suggest an autocrine role for VEGF contributing to the tumorigenic phenotype.

  5. Detection of aqueous VEGF concentrations before and after intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF antibody using low-volume sampling paper-based ELISA

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Min-Yen; Hung, Yu-Chien; Hwang, De-Kuang; Lin, Shang-Chi; Lin, Keng-Hung; Wang, Chun-Yuan; Choi, Hin-Yeung; Wang, Yu-Ping; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels play an important role in the pathogenesis of blindness-related diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Here, we aimed to develop a paper-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (P-ELISA) to analyze the suppression of aqueous VEGF concentrations following intravitreal injection (IVI) of anti-VEGF antibody (bevacizumab or ranibizumab). A total of 25 eyes with wet AMD, one with myopic neovascularization, and one with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy were enrolled in this study. The limit of detection using P-ELISA was 0.03 pg/mL. Forty-six consecutive samples of aqueous humor were acquired. From all samples, 66.67% (10/15) achieved complete VEGF suppression (below the detection limit) within 5 weeks of receiving IVI of anti-VEGF antibody. Only 13.33% of samples (2/15) achieved complete VEGF suppression 5 weeks after receiving treatment. In some patients, elevated VEGF was still detected 5 weeks after receipt of anti-VEGF antibody, and all samples (10/10) were found to have elevated VEGF levels 49 days after treatment. Thus, we suggest that monthly IVI of anti-VEGF antibody may be required to ensure durable VEGF inhibition. Ultrasensitive P-ELISA can detect elevated VEGF at an earlier time point and may facilitate decision-making regarding appropriate treatment strategies. PMID:27725716

  6. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-b in human astrocytoma.

    PubMed Central

    Gollmer, J. C.; Ladoux, A.; Gioanni, J.; Paquis, P.; Dubreuil, A.; Chatel, M.; Frelin, C.

    2000-01-01

    Growth of human malignant gliomas is stringently dependent on an angiogenic process that probably involves vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Expressions of mRNA coding for the different forms of VEGF were analyzed in surgical specimens from human astrocytomas. Low levels of placental growth factor (PGF) and VEGFC mRNA were observed in polymerase chain reaction, but not in Northern blot experiments. VEGF mRNA was found in some but not all grade and grade IV astrocytomas. VEGFB mRNA was observed in all tissue samples analyzed irrespective of the tumor grade. A new splice variant of VEGFB (VEGFB155) that lacks exons 5 and 6 is described. Expressions of VEGF mRNA in cultured glioblastomas cells were upregulated by hypoxia, but the sensitivity of the cells to hypoxia was reduced as compared with normal rat astrocytes. VEGF expression was depressed by dexamethasone. Expressions of VEGFB mRNA were affected neither by hypoxia nor by dexamethasone. The results indicate a coexpression of VEGF mRNA and VEGFB mRNA in human astrocytomas. Expression of VEGFB is markedly different from that of VEGF. Possible roles of VEGFB as a cofactor for hypoxia-induced angiogenesis in human astrocytomas are discussed. PMID:11303624

  7. Prognostic significance of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in human ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shen, G H; Ghazizadeh, M; Kawanami, O; Shimizu, H; Jin, E; Araki, T; Sugisaki, Y

    2000-01-01

    The influence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and microvessel density (MVD) on prognosis and the relationship between VEGF expression and MVD in ovarian carcinoma are not well defined. We studied VEGF expression in parallel with MVD by immunohistochemistry in 94 ovarian tumours (64 malignant, 13 borderline, and 17 benign) and correlated the results with the clinicopathologic prognostic factors of the disease to clarify their significance in this disease. Assessment of VEGF mRNA isoforms by RT-PCR was also performed. Of the malignant, borderline, and benign ovarian tumours respectively, two (3%), four (31%) and 16 (94%) were negative, 31 (48%), seven (54%) and one (6%) had low expressions, and 31 (48%), two (15%) and none (0%) had high expressions of VEGF. There were significant associations between the VEGF expression and disease stage (P = 0.002), histologic grade (P = 0.0004), and patient outcome (P = 0.0002). MVD did not correlate significantly with the clinicopathologic parameters. Likewise, no correlation was found between MVD and VEGF expression. The survival of patients with high VEGF expression was significantly worse than that of patients with low and negative VEGF expression (P = 0.0004). Multivariate analysis revealed that disease stage and VEGF expression were significant and independent prognostic indicators of overall survival time (P = 0.008 and P = 0.006 respectively). These findings suggest that in conjunction with the established clinicopathologic prognostic parameters of ovarian carcinoma, VEGF expression may enhance the predictability of patients at high risk for tumour progression who are potential candidates for further aggressive therapy. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10901370

  8. Soluble Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Decoy Receptor FP3 Exerts Potent Antiangiogenic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Yu, De-Chao; Lee, Jung-Sun; Yoo, Ji Young; Shin, Hyewon; Deng, Hongxin; Wei, Yuquan; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2012-01-01

    The binding of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to its receptors stimulates tumor growth; therefore, modulation of VEGF would be a viable approach for antiangiogenic therapy. We constructed a series of soluble decoy receptors containing different VEGF receptor 1 (FLT1) and VEGF receptor 2 (KDR) extracellular domains fused with the Fc region of human immunoglobulin (Ig) and evaluated their antiangiogenic effects and antitumor effects. Results of in vitro binding and cell proliferation assays revealed that decoy receptor FP3 had the highest affinity to VEGF-A and -B. Compared with bevacizumab, FP3 more effectively inhibited human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) migration and vessel sprouting from rat aortic rings. FP3 significantly reduced phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2, critical proteins in the VEGF-mediated survival pathway in endothelial cells. Moreover, FP3 inhibited tumor growth in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), breast cancer (MCF-7), and colorectal cancer (LoVo) tumor models, and reduced microvessel density in tumor tissues. The FP3-mediated inhibition of tumor growth was significantly higher than that of bevacizumab at the same dose. FP3 also demonstrated synergistic antitumor effects when combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Taken together, FP3 shows a high affinity for VEGF and produced antiangiogenic effects, suggesting its potential for treating angiogenesis-related diseases such as cancer. PMID:22273580

  9. Growth factor signalling.

    PubMed

    de Laat, S W; Boonstra, J; Defize, L H; Kruijer, W; van der Saag, P T; Tertoolen, L G; van Zoelen, E J; den Hertog, J

    1999-01-01

    Signalling between cells in the developing vertebrate embryo is essential for normal embryonic development. In the mid 1970's, signal transduction research started at the Hubrecht Laboratory with special emphasis on analysis of the signalling mechanisms that direct cell proliferation and differentiation. The introduction of in vitro model systems contributed tremendously to the success of the signal transduction research at the Hubrecht Laboratory. Initially neuroblastoma cell lines, and later embryonal carcinoma and embryonal stem cells played an important role in identification of the molecular key players in developmental signalling. For instance, embryonal carcinoma cells were used to identify and characterise polypeptide growth factors. Growth factor signalling research was extended to analysis of growth factor receptor activation. Moreover, the second messenger systems that are linked to growth factor receptors were studied, as well as the nuclear responses to growth factor receptor activation. Finally, the role of growth factor signalling in differentiation was established using embryonal carcinoma cells. Here, we will review work that was characteristic for the growth factor receptor signalling research that was done at the Hubrecht Laboratory between 1980 and the early 1990's.

  10. PTEN modulates vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated signaling and angiogenic effects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianhua; Kontos, Christopher D

    2002-03-29

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is activated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and many of the angiogenic cellular responses of VEGF are regulated by the lipid products of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. The tumor suppressor PTEN has been shown to down-regulate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling, yet the effects of PTEN on VEGF-mediated signaling and angiogenesis are unknown. Inhibition of endogenous PTEN in cultured endothelial cells by adenovirus-mediated overexpression of a dominant negative PTEN mutant (PTEN-C/S) enhanced VEGF-mediated Akt phosphorylation, and this effect correlated with decreases in caspase-3 cleavage, caspase-3 activity, and DNA degradation after induction of apoptosis with tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Overexpression of PTEN-C/S also enhanced VEGF-mediated endothelial cell proliferation and migration. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type PTEN inhibited the anti-apoptotic, proliferative, and chemotactic effects of VEGF. Moreover, PTEN-C/S increased the length of vascular sprouts in the rat aortic ring assay and modulated VEGF-mediated tube formation in an in vitro angiogenesis assay, whereas PTEN-wild type inhibited these effects. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that PTEN potently modulates VEGF-mediated signaling and function and that PTEN is a viable target in therapeutic approaches to promote or inhibit angiogenesis.

  11. Upregulation of serum vascular endothelial growth factor in patients with salivary gland tumor.

    PubMed

    Andisheh Tadbir, Azadeh; Khademi, Bijan; Malekzadeh, Mahyar; Mardani, Maryam; Khademi, Bahar

    2013-01-01

    Neoangiogenesis is essential for tumor development, invasion, and dissemination. The most potent of the cytokines associated with angiogenesis is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The aim of the present study was to determine VEGF serum level in patients with salivary gland tumor. Using an ELISA kit, the circulating levels of VEGF in sera from 58 patients with salivary gland tumor and 30 healthy controls were assessed. Mean VEGF levels in sera of patients with salivary gland tumors (574.9 ± 414.3) were significantly higher than those in controls (263.9 ± 310.0) (P = 0.009). Within the salivary gland tumor group, mean serum VEGF concentration in malignant tumors (n = 27) was 727.3 ± 441.8 pg/mL, and that in benign tumors (n = 31) was 442.2 ± 343.3 pg/mL. Mean serum VEGF concentration was significantly higher in malignant tumors than in benign tumors (P = 0.008) and was higher in benign tumors than in controls (P = 0.03). The data in the present study clearly show that VEGF level was consistently upregulated in benign and malignant tumors in comparison to healthy controls. However, the role of VEGF as a prognostic factor in salivary gland tumor and its application in antiangiogenic therapy require further clinical research.

  12. Predictive factors for intrauterine growth restriction

    PubMed Central

    Albu, AR; Anca, AF; Horhoianu, VV; Horhoianu, IA

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Reduced fetal growth is seen in about 10% of the pregnancies but only a minority has a pathological background and is known as intrauterine growth restriction or fetal growth restriction (IUGR / FGR). Increased fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity as well as adult pathologic conditions are often associated to IUGR. Risk factors for IUGR are easy to assess but have poor predictive value. For the diagnostic purpose, biochemical serum markers, ultrasound and Doppler study of uterine and spiral arteries, placental volume and vascularization, first trimester growth pattern are object of assessment today. Modern evaluations propose combined algorithms using these strategies, all with the goal of a better prediction of risk pregnancies. Abbreviations: SGA = small for gestational age; IUGR = intrauterine growth restriction; FGR = fetal growth restriction; IUFD = intrauterine fetal demise; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus; PAPP-A = pregnancy associated plasmatic protein A; β-hCG = beta human chorionic gonadotropin; MoM = multiple of median; ADAM-12 = A-disintegrin and metalloprotease 12; PP-13 = placental protein 13; VEGF = vascular endothelial growth factor; PlGF = placental growth factor; sFlt-1 = soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1; UAD = uterine arteries Doppler ultrasound; RI = resistence index; PI = pulsatility index; VOCAL = Virtual Organ Computer–Aided Analysis software; VI = vascularization index; FI = flow index; VFI = vascularization flow index; PQ = placental quotient PMID:25408721

  13. Rac regulates vascular endothelial growth factor stimulated motility.

    PubMed

    Soga, N; Connolly, J O; Chellaiah, M; Kawamura, J; Hruska, K A

    2001-01-01

    During angiogenesis endothelial cells migrate towards a chemotactic stimulus. Understanding the mechanism of endothelial cell migration is critical to the therapeutic manipulation of angiogenesis and ultimately cancer prevention. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent chemotactic stimulus of endothelial cells during angiogenesis. The endothelial cell signal transduction pathway of VEGF represents a potential target for cancer therapy, but the mechanisms of post-receptor signal transduction including the roles of rho family GTPases in regulating the cytoskeletal effects of VEGF in endothelial cells are not understood. Here we analyze the mechanisms of cell migration in the mouse brain endothelial cell line (bEND3). Stable transfectants containing a tetracycline repressible expression vector were used to induce expression of Rac mutants. Endothelial cell haptotaxis was stimulated by constitutively active V12Rac on collagen and vitronectin coated supports, and chemotaxis was further stimulated by VEGF. Osteopontin coated supports were the most stimulatory to bEND3 haptotaxis, but VEGF was not effective in further increasing migration on osteopontin coated supports. Haptotaxis on support coated with collagen, vitronectin, and to a lesser degree osteopontin was inhibited by N17 Rac. N17 Rac expression blocked stimulation of endothelial cell chemotaxis by VEGF. As part of the chemotactic stimulation, VEGF caused a loss of actin organization at areas of cell-cell contact and increased stress fiber expression in endothelial cells which were directed towards pores in the transwell membrane. N17 Rac prevented the stimulation of cell-cell contact disruption and the stress fiber stimulation by VEGF. These data demonstrate two pathways of regulating endothelial cell motility, one in which Rac is activated by matrix/integrin stimulation and is a crucial modulator of endothelial cell haptotaxis. The other pathway, in the presence of osteopontin, is Rac independent

  14. Rac regulates vascular endothelial growth factor stimulated motility.

    PubMed

    Soga, N; Connolly, J O; Chellaiah, M; Kawamura, J; Hruska, K A

    2001-01-01

    During angiogenesis endothelial cells migrate towards a chemotactic stimulus. Understanding the mechanism of endothelial cell migration is critical to the therapeutic manipulation of angiogenesis and ultimately cancer prevention. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent chemotactic stimulus of endothelial cells during angiogenesis. The endothelial cell signal transduction pathway of VEGF represents a potential target for cancer therapy, but the mechanisms of post-receptor signal transduction including the roles of rho family GTPases in regulating the cytoskeletal effects of VEGF in endothelial cells are not understood. Here we analyze the mechanisms of cell migration in the mouse brain endothelial cell line (bEND3). Stable transfectants containing a tetracycline repressible expression vector were used to induce expression of Rac mutants. Endothelial cell haptotaxis was stimulated by constitutively active V12Rac on collagen and vitronectin coated supports, and chemotaxis was further stimulated by VEGF. Osteopontin coated supports were the most stimulatory to bEND3 haptotaxis, but VEGF was not effective in further increasing migration on osteopontin coated supports. Haptotaxis on support coated with collagen, vitronectin, and to a lesser degree osteopontin was inhibited by N17 Rac. N17 Rac expression blocked stimulation of endothelial cell chemotaxis by VEGF. As part of the chemotactic stimulation, VEGF caused a loss of actin organization at areas of cell-cell contact and increased stress fiber expression in endothelial cells which were directed towards pores in the transwell membrane. N17 Rac prevented the stimulation of cell-cell contact disruption and the stress fiber stimulation by VEGF. These data demonstrate two pathways of regulating endothelial cell motility, one in which Rac is activated by matrix/integrin stimulation and is a crucial modulator of endothelial cell haptotaxis. The other pathway, in the presence of osteopontin, is Rac independent

  15. Purinergic regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling in angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rumjahn, S M; Yokdang, N; Baldwin, K A; Thai, J; Buxton, I L O

    2009-01-01

    P2Y purine nucleotide receptors (P2YRs) promote endothelial cell tubulogenesis through breast cancer cell-secreted nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK). We tested the hypothesis that activated P2Y1 receptors transactivate vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR-2) in angiogenic signaling. P2Y1R stimulation (10 μM 2-methyl-thio-ATP (2MS-ATP)) of angiogenesis is suppressed by the VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, SU1498 (1 μM). Phosphorylation of VEGFR-2 by 0.0262 or 2.62 nM VEGF was comparable with 0.01 or 10 μM 2MS-ATP stimulation of the P2Y1R. 2MS-ATP, and VEGF stimulation increased tyrosine phosphorylation at tyr1175. 2MS-ATP (0.1–10 μM) also stimulated EC tubulogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. The addition of sub-maximal VEGF (70 pM) in the presence of increasing concentrations of 2MS-ATP yielded additive effects at 2MS-ATP concentrations <3 μM, whereas producing saturated and less than additive effects at ⩾3 μM. We propose that the VEGF receptor can be activated in the absence of VEGF, and that the P2YR–VEGFR2 interaction and resulting signal transduction is a critical determinant of vascular homoeostasis and tumour-mediated angiogenesis. PMID:19367276

  16. Vascular endothelial growth factor coordinates islet innervation via vascular scaffolding

    PubMed Central

    Reinert, Rachel B.; Cai, Qing; Hong, Ji-Young; Plank, Jennifer L.; Aamodt, Kristie; Prasad, Nripesh; Aramandla, Radhika; Dai, Chunhua; Levy, Shawn E.; Pozzi, Ambra; Labosky, Patricia A.; Wright, Christopher V. E.; Brissova, Marcela; Powers, Alvin C.

    2014-01-01

    Neurovascular alignment is a common anatomical feature of organs, but the mechanisms leading to this arrangement are incompletely understood. Here, we show that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling profoundly affects both vascularization and innervation of the pancreatic islet. In mature islets, nerves are closely associated with capillaries, but the islet vascularization process during embryonic organogenesis significantly precedes islet innervation. Although a simple neuronal meshwork interconnects the developing islet clusters as they begin to form at E14.5, the substantial ingrowth of nerve fibers into islets occurs postnatally, when islet vascularization is already complete. Using genetic mouse models, we demonstrate that VEGF regulates islet innervation indirectly through its effects on intra-islet endothelial cells. Our data indicate that formation of a VEGF-directed, intra-islet vascular plexus is required for development of islet innervation, and that VEGF-induced islet hypervascularization leads to increased nerve fiber ingrowth. Transcriptome analysis of hypervascularized islets revealed an increased expression of extracellular matrix components and axon guidance molecules, with these transcripts being enriched in the islet-derived endothelial cell population. We propose a mechanism for coordinated neurovascular development within pancreatic islets, in which endocrine cell-derived VEGF directs the patterning of intra-islet capillaries during embryogenesis, forming a scaffold for the postnatal ingrowth of essential autonomic nerve fibers. PMID:24574008

  17. Intratumoral hemorrhage-related differences in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor and thioredoxin reductase 1 in human glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Bulent; Çiçek, Onur; Erdi, Fatih; Findik, Siddika; Karatas, Yasar; Esen, Hasan; Keskin, Fatih; Kalkan, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with and without intratumoral hemorrhage. Surgically resected human GBM samples from 20 patients who underwent surgery at our institute were extracted from the histopathological specimens and divided into two groups. A total of 10 samples from each type of GBM (World Health Organization grade IV, intratumoral hemorrhage-positive or -negative) were included in each group. VEGF, bFGF and TrxR1 expression was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and the results were compared between groups. VEGF and bFGF immunoreactivity was significantly higher in GBMs containing intratumoral hemorrhage. Furthermore, VEGF, bFGF and TrxR1 immunointensity was significantly higher in GBMs containing intratumoral hemorrhage. Thus, the present study demonstrated a higher VEGF, bFGF and TrxR1 expression in GBMs contain intratumoral hemorrhage, indicatiogn a role of VEGF, bFGF and TrxR1 expression in the promotion of tumoral angiogenesis and tumoral growth by complex mechanisms that require further elucidation.

  18. FGF growth factor analogs

    DOEpatents

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua; Takahashi, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  19. Angiogenic Effects of Collagen/Mesoporous Nanoparticle Composite Scaffold Delivering VEGF165

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Min Sil

    2016-01-01

    Vascularization is a key issue for the success of tissue engineering to repair damaged tissue. In this study, we report a composite scaffold delivering angiogenic factor for this purpose. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was loaded on mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN), which was then incorporated within a type I collagen sponge, to produce collagen/MSN/VEGF (CMV) scaffold. The CMV composite scaffold could release VEGF sustainably over the test period of 28 days. The release of VEGF improved the cell proliferation. Moreover, the in vivo angiogenesis of the scaffold, as studied by the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model, showed that the VEGF-releasing scaffold induced significantly increased number of blood vessel complexes when compared with VEGF-free scaffold. The composite scaffold showed good biocompatibility, as examined in rat subcutaneous tissue. These results demonstrate that the CMV scaffold with VEGF-releasing capacity can be potentially used to stimulate angiogenesis and tissue repair. PMID:27689093

  20. Angiogenic Effects of Collagen/Mesoporous Nanoparticle Composite Scaffold Delivering VEGF165

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Min Sil

    2016-01-01

    Vascularization is a key issue for the success of tissue engineering to repair damaged tissue. In this study, we report a composite scaffold delivering angiogenic factor for this purpose. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was loaded on mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN), which was then incorporated within a type I collagen sponge, to produce collagen/MSN/VEGF (CMV) scaffold. The CMV composite scaffold could release VEGF sustainably over the test period of 28 days. The release of VEGF improved the cell proliferation. Moreover, the in vivo angiogenesis of the scaffold, as studied by the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model, showed that the VEGF-releasing scaffold induced significantly increased number of blood vessel complexes when compared with VEGF-free scaffold. The composite scaffold showed good biocompatibility, as examined in rat subcutaneous tissue. These results demonstrate that the CMV scaffold with VEGF-releasing capacity can be potentially used to stimulate angiogenesis and tissue repair.

  1. Novel vascular endothelial growth factor blocker improves cellular viability and reduces hypobaric hypoxia-induced vascular leakage and oedema in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Saraswat, Deepika; Nehra, Sarita; Chaudhary, Kamal; CVS, Siva Prasad

    2015-05-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important cerebral angiogenic and permeability factor under hypoxia. There is a need to find effective molecules that may ameliorate hypoxia-induced cerebral oedema. In silico identification of novel candidate molecules that block VEGF-A site were identified and validated with a Ramachandran plot. The active site residues of VEGF-A were detected by Pocketfinder, CASTp, and DogSiteScorer. Based on in silico data, three VEGF-A blocker (VAB) candidate molecules (VAB1, VAB2, and VAB3) were checked for improvement in cellular viability and regulation of VEGF levels in N2a cells under hypoxia (0.5% O2 ). Additionally, the best candidate molecule's efficacy was assessed in male Sprague-Dawley rats for its ameliorative effect on cerebral oedema and vascular leakage under hypobaric hypoxia 7260 m. All experimental results were compared with the commercially available VEGF blocker sunitinib. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A blocker 1 was found most effective in increasing cellular viability and maintaining normal VEGF levels under hypoxia (0.5% oxygen) in N2a cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A blocker 1 effectively restored VEGF levels, decreased cerebral oedema, and reduced vascular leakage under hypobaric hypoxia when compared to sunitinib-treated rats. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A blocker 1 may be a promising candidate molecule for ameliorating hypobaric hypoxia-induced vasogenic oedema by regulating VEGF levels.

  2. Vascular endothelial growth factor as a predictive marker for POEMS syndrome treatment response: retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Misawa, S; Sato, Y; Katayama, K; Hanaoka, H; Sawai, S; Beppu, M; Nomura, F; Shibuya, K; Sekiguchi, Y; Iwai, Y; Watanabe, K; Amino, H; Ohwada, C; Takeuchi, M; Sakaida, E; Nakaseko, C; Kuwabara, S

    2015-01-01

    Objective POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein and skin changes) syndrome is a rare multisystem disease characterised by plasma cell dyscrasia and overproduction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF is assumed to be useful in monitoring disease activity, because VEGF levels usually decrease after treatment. However, there is no study to investigate whether the extent of decrease in VEGF correlates with clinical outcome. We tested the predictive efficacy of serum VEGF levels in POEMS syndrome. Method This was an institutional review board approved retrospective observational cohort study of 20 patients with POEMS monitored regularly for more than 12 months (median follow-up, 87 months) after treatment onset using our prospectively accumulated database of POEMS from 1999 to 2015. Patients were treated by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation or thalidomide administration. Serum VEGF was measured by ELISA. Outcome measures included clinical and laboratory findings and relapse-free survival. Results Serum VEGF levels decreased rapidly after treatment, and stabilised by 6 months post treatment. Patients with normalised serum VEGF levels (<1040 pg/mL) at 6 months showed prolonged relapse-free survival (HR=12.81, 95% CI 2.691 to 90.96; p=0.0001) and greater later clinical improvement. The rate of serum VEGF reduction over the first 6 months post treatment correlated with increased grip strength, serum albumin levels, and compound muscle action potential amplitudes at 12 months. Conclusions Serum VEGF level at 6 months post treatment is a predicative biomarker for disease activity and prognosis in POEMS syndrome. Serum VEGF could be used as a surrogate endpoint for relapse-free survival or clinical or laboratory improvement of POEMS syndrome for clinical trials. PMID:26560063

  3. Novel role of lactosylceramide in vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated angiogenesis in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, Mohanraj; Kolmakova, Antonina; Chatterjee, Subroto

    2005-10-14

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in angiogenesis associated with coronary heart disease, vascular complications in diabetes, inflammatory vascular diseases, and tumor metastasis. The mechanism of VEGF-driven angiogenesis involving glycosphingolipids such as lactosylceramide (LacCer), however, is not known. To demonstrate the involvement of LacCer in VEGF-induced angiogenesis, we used small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of LacCer synthase expression (GalT-V) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. This gene silencing markedly inhibited VEGF-induced platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) expression and angiogenesis. Second, we used D-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (D-PDMP), an inhibitor of LacCer synthase and glucosylceramide synthase, that significantly mitigated VEGF-induced PECAM-1 expression and angiogenesis. Interestingly, these phenotypic changes were reversed by LacCer but not by structurally related compounds such as glucosylceramide, digalactosylceramide, and ceramide. In a human mesothelioma cell line (REN) that lacks the endogenous expression of PECAM-1, VEGF/LacCer failed to stimulate PECAM-1 expression and tube formation/angiogenesis. In REN cells expressing human PECAM-1 gene/protein, however, both VEGF and LacCer-induced PECAM-1 protein expression and tube formation/angiogenesis. In fact, VEGF-induced but not LacCer-induced angiogenesis was mitigated by SU-1498, a VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also, VEGF/LacCer-induced PECAM-1 expression and angiogenesis was mitigated by protein kinase C and phospholipase A2 inhibitors. These results indicate that LacCer generated in VEGF-treated endothelial cells may serve as an important signaling molecule for PECAM-1 expression and in angiogenesis. This finding and the reagents developed in our report may be useful as anti-angiogenic drugs for further studies in vitro and in vivo. PMID:16151023

  4. Is the vascular endothelial growth factor messenger RNA expression in resectable hepatocellular carcinoma of prognostic value after resection ?

    PubMed Central

    Jeng, Kuo-Shyang; Sheen, I-Shyan; Wang, Yi-Ching; Gu, Shu-Ling; Chu, Chien-Ming; Shih, Shou-Chuan; Wang, Po-Chuan; Chang, Wen-Hsing; Wang, Horng-Yuan

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study whether vascular endothelial growth factor messenger RNA (VEGF mRNA) in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues obtained after curative resection has a prognostic value. METHODS: Using a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based assay, VEGF mRNA was determined prospectively in liver tissues of 50 controls and in HCC tissues of 50 consecutive patients undergoing curative resection for HCC. RESULTS: Among the isoforms of VEGF mRNA, VEGF165 and VEGF121 were expressed. By multivariate analysis, a higher level of VEGF165 in HCC tissue correlated with a significant risk of HCC recurrence (P = 0.038) and significantly with recurrence-related mortality (P = 0.045); while VEGF121 did not. Other significant predictors of HCC recurrence included cellular dedifferentiation (P = 0.033), an absent or incomplete capsule (P = 0.020), vascular permeation (P = 0.018), and daughter nodules (P = 0.006). The other significant variables of recurrence related mortality consisted of vascular permeation (P = 0.045), and cellular dedifferentiation (P = 0.053). The level of VEGF mRNA in HCC tissues, however, did not significantly correlate with tumor size, cellular differentiation, capsule, daughter nodules, vascular permeation, necrosis and hemorrhage of tumors. CONCLUSION: The expression of VEGF mRNA, especially isoform VEGF165, in HCC tissues, may play a significant and independant role in the prediction of postoperative recurrence of HCC. PMID:14991937

  5. NOVEL ATYPICAL PKC INHIBITORS PREVENT VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR-INDUCED BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER DYSFUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Titchenell, Paul M.; Lin, Cheng-Mao; Keil, Jason M.; Sundstrom, Jeffrey M.; Smith, Charles D.; Antonetti, David A.

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) contribute to the loss of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) and subsequent macular edema in various retinal pathologies. VEGF signaling requires conventional PKC (PKCβ) activity; however, PKCβ inhibition only partially prevents VEGF-induced endothelial permeability and does not affect pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced permeability suggesting the involvement of alternative signaling pathways. Here, we provide evidence for the involvement of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) signaling in VEGF-induced endothelial permeability and identify a novel class of inhibitors of aPKC that prevent BRB breakdown in vivo. Genetic and pharmacological manipulations of aPKC isoforms were used to assess their contribution to endothelial permeability in culture. A chemical library was screened using an in vitro kinase assay to identify novel small molecule inhibitors and further medicinal chemistry was performed to delineate a novel pharmacophore. We demonstrate that aPKC isoforms are both sufficient and required for VEGF-induced endothelial permeability. Furthermore, these specific, potent, non-competitive, small molecule inhibitors prevented VEGF-induced tight junction internalization and retinal endothelial permeability in response to VEGF in both primary culture and in rodent retina. These data suggest that aPKC inhibition with 2-amino-4-phenyl-thiophene derivatives may be developed to preserve the BRB in retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy or uveitis and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the presence of brain tumors. PMID:22721706

  6. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-dependent tumor growth inhibition by a vascular endothelial growth factor-superantigen conjugate

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Qingwen; Jiang, Songmin; Han, Baohui; Sun, Tongwen; Li, Zhengnan; Zhao, Lina; Gao, Qiang; Sun, Jialin

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We construct and purify a fusion protein VEGF-SEA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VEGF-SEA strongly repressed the growth of murine solid sarcoma 180 (S180) tumors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T cells driven by VEGF-SEA were accumulated around tumor cells bearing VEGFR by mice image model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VEGF-SEA can serve as a tumor targeting agent and sequester CTLs into the tumor site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The induced CTLs could release the cytokines, perforins and granzyme B to kill the tumor cells. -- Abstract: T cells are major lymphocytes in the blood and passengers across the tumor vasculature. If these T cells are retained in the tumor site, a therapeutic potential will be gained by turning them into tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). A fusion protein composed of human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) with a D227A mutation strongly repressed the growth of murine solid sarcoma 180 (S180) tumors (control versus VEGF-SEA treated with 15 {mu}g, mean tumor weight: 1.128 g versus 0.252 g, difference = 0.876 g). CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells driven by VEGF-SEA were accumulated around VEGFR expressing tumor cells and the induced CTLs could release the tumoricidal cytokines, such as interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Meanwhile, intratumoral CTLs secreted cytolytic pore-forming perforin and granzyme B proteins around tumor cells, leading to the death of tumor cells. The labeled fusion proteins were gradually targeted to the tumor site in an imaging mice model. These results show that VEGF-SEA can serve as a tumor targeting agent and sequester active infiltrating CTLs into the tumor site to kill tumor cells, and could therefore be a potential therapeutical drug for a variety of cancers.

  7. Muscle-specific vascular endothelial growth factor deletion induces muscle capillary rarefaction creating muscle insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Bonner, Jeffrey S; Lantier, Louise; Hasenour, Clinton M; James, Freyja D; Bracy, Deanna P; Wasserman, David H

    2013-02-01

    Muscle insulin resistance is associated with a reduction in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) action and muscle capillary density. We tested the hypothesis that muscle capillary rarefaction critically contributes to the etiology of muscle insulin resistance in chow-fed mice with skeletal and cardiac muscle VEGF deletion (mVEGF(-/-)) and wild-type littermates (mVEGF(+/+)) on a C57BL/6 background. The mVEGF(-/-) mice had an ~60% and ~50% decrease in capillaries in skeletal and cardiac muscle, respectively. The mVEGF(-/-) mice had augmented fasting glucose turnover. Insulin-stimulated whole-body glucose disappearance was blunted in mVEGF(-/-) mice. The reduced peripheral glucose utilization during insulin stimulation was due to diminished in vivo cardiac and skeletal muscle insulin action and signaling. The decreased insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake was independent of defects in insulin action at the myocyte, suggesting that the impairment in insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake was due to poor muscle perfusion. The deletion of VEGF in cardiac muscle did not affect cardiac output. These studies emphasize the importance for novel therapeutic approaches that target the vasculature in the treatment of insulin-resistant muscle. PMID:23002035

  8. Induction of vascular endothelial growth factor by nitric oxide in cultured human articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Turpaev, K; Litvinov, D; Dubovaya, V; Panasyuk, A; Ivanov, D; Prassolov, V

    2001-06-01

    We investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the control of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) gene expression in cultured human articular chondrocytes. Cell treatment with the NO-generating compound nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) caused a significant accumulation of 4.4 kb VEGF mRNA, a major VEGF mRNA isoform expressing in chondrocytes. This is the first demonstration that NO can induce VEGF mRNA expression in chondrocytes. VEGF mRNA level was not affected in cells exposed to dibutyryl cGMP, a non-hydrolyzable analog of cGMP, suggesting that the cGMP system is not involved in NO-dependent transcriptional activation of VEGF gene. The GSNO-stimulated induction of VEGF mRNA was slightly attenuated by MAP protein kinase inhibitors PD98058 and SB203580, but was completely blocked in cells incubated with GSNO in the presence of catalase and superoxide dismutase, enzymes scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), or in the presence of thiol-containing antioxidants, N-acetyl cysteine and reduced glutathione. These results suggest that in articular chondrocytes the GSNO-induced VEGF gene transcriptional activation is dependent on endogenous ROS production and oxidative thiol modifications.

  9. Involvement of interleukin-8, vascular endothelial growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor in tumor necrosis factor alpha-dependent angiogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, S; Ono, M; Shono, T; Izumi, H; Ishibashi, T; Suzuki, H; Kuwano, M

    1997-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a macrophage/monocyte-derived polypeptide which modulates the expression of various genes in vascular endothelial cells and induces angiogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism by which TNF-alpha mediates angiogenesis is not completely understood. In this study, we assessed whether TNF-alpha-induced angiogenesis is mediated through TNF-alpha itself or indirectly through other TNF-alpha-induced angiogenesis-promoting factors. Cellular mRNA levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and their receptors were increased after the treatment of human microvascular endothelial cells with TNF-alpha (100 U/ml). TNF-alpha-dependent tubular morphogenesis in vascular endothelial cells was inhibited by the administration of anti-IL-8, anti-VEGF, and anti-bFGF antibodies, and coadministration of all three antibodies almost completely abrogated tubular formation. Moreover, treatment with Sp1, NF-kappaB, and c-Jun antisense oligonucleotides inhibited TNF-alpha-dependent tubular morphogenesis by microvascular endothelial cells. Administration of a NF-kappaB antisense oligonucleotide almost completely inhibited TNF-alpha-dependent IL-8 production and partially abrogated TNF-alpha-dependent VEGF production, and an Sp1 antisense sequence partially inhibited TNF-alpha-dependent production of VEGF. A c-Jun antisense oligonucleotide significantly inhibited TNF-alpha-dependent bFGF production but did not affect the production of IL-8 and VEGF. Administration of an anti-IL-8 or anti-VEGF antibody also blocked TNF-alpha-induced neovascularization in the rabbit cornea in vivo. Thus, angiogenesis by TNF-alpha appears to be modulated through various angiogenic factors, both in vitro and in vivo, and this pathway is controlled through paracrine and/or autocrine mechanisms. PMID:9199336

  10. Growth factors for nanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Kajander, E. Olavi

    1999-12-01

    Nanobacteria are novel microorganisms recently isolated from fetal bovine serum and blood of cows and humans. These coccoid, gram negative bacteria in alpha-2 subgroup of Proteobacteria grow slowly under mammalian cell culture conditions but not in common media for microbes. Now we have found two different kinds of culture supplement preparations that improve their growth and make them culturable in the classical sense. These are supernatant fractions of conditioned media obtained from 1 - 3 months old nanobacteria cultures and from about a 2 weeks old Bacillus species culture. Both improved multiplication and particle yields and the latter increased their resistance to gentamicin. Nanobacteria cultured with any of the methods shared similar immunological property, structure and protein pattern. The growth supporting factors were heat-stabile and nondialyzable, and dialysis improved the growth promoting action. Nanobacteria formed stony colonies in a bacteriological medium supplemented with the growth factors. This is an implication that nanobacterial growth is influenced by pre-existing bacterial flora.

  11. Vascular endothelial growth factor is constitutively expressed in normal human salivary glands and is secreted in the saliva of healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Pammer, J; Weninger, W; Mildner, M; Burian, M; Wojta, J; Tschachler, E

    1998-10-01

    The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a specific mitogen for endothelial cells, was examined in salivary glands and in normal saliva. In normal salivary glands, VEGF mRNA and protein were strongly present in acinar cells, whereas little or no VEGF was found in ductal cells. In chronically inflamed glands, VEGF protein was in addition present in ductal elements and in infiltrating mononuclear cells. No difference of VEGF expression was observed between benign and malignant salivary gland tumours. By ELISA, whole saliva of 24 healthy individuals contained up to 2.5 ng/ml (mean 1.4 ng/ml; SD 0.77 ng/ml) of VEGF, confirming the constitutive secretion of this cytokine by human salivary glands. Western blot analysis of normal saliva under non-reducing conditions detected anti-VEGF reactive protein moieties of approximately 46 kD, corresponding to VEGF secreted by cells in tissue culture. Additional anti-VEGF reactive proteins of approximately 60 and 90 kD were detected in the saliva of some individuals. The presence of considerable quantities of VEGF in normal human saliva suggests an important role for this cytokine in the maintenance of the homeostasis of mucous membranes, with rapid induction of neoangiogenesis by salivary VEGF helping to accelerate wound healing within the oral cavity. Moreover, salivary VEGF may permeabilize intraglandular capillaries and thus participate in the regulation of saliva production itself.

  12. Relationship between VEGF Gene Polymorphisms and Serum VEGF Protein Levels in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Paradowska-Gorycka, Agnieszka; Pawlik, Andrzej; Romanowska-Prochnicka, Katarzyna; Haladyj, Ewa; Malinowski, Damian; Stypinska, Barbara; Manczak, Malgorzata; Olesinska, Marzena

    2016-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the chronic autoimmune diseases, with genetic and environmental predisposition, and synovial angiogenesis is considered to be a notable stage in its pathogenesis. Angiogenesis or vascular proliferation has been suggested to be a pivotal mechanism involved in both inflammation/immune activation and joint invasion and destruction. RA may be considered an “angiogenic disease” because it is associated with active tissue neovascularization. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promotes vascular permeability, regulates angiogenesis, endothelial cell proliferation and migration, chemotaxis, and capillary hyper permeability and therefore is involved in the development of inflammation. VEGF is the most potent proangiogenic molecule promoting the angiogenic phenotype of RA and is upregulated in RA. Objectives The aim of the study was to identify functional VEGF variants and their possible association with VEGF expression, susceptibility to and severity of RA. Methods 581 RA patients and of 341 healthy individuals were examined for -1154 A/G, -2578 A/C VEGF gene polymorphisms by PCR-RFLP method and for -634 G/C VEGF gene polymorphisms by TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. Serum VEGF levels in RA patients and controls were measured by ELISA. Results The -1154 A/G VEGF gene polymorphism under the codominant, recessive (AA+AG vs. GG) and dominant (AA vs. AG+GG) models were associated with RA (p = 0.0009; p = 0.004; p = 0.017, respectively). VEGF -2578 A/C revealed differences in the case-control distribution in codominant, recessive, dominant and overdominant models (all p<0.0001). Furthermore, the -634 G/C VEGF gene SNP was not correlated with susceptibility to RA in Polish population. The genotype-phenotype analysis showed significant association between the VEGF -1154 A/G and -634 G/C and mean value of the hemoglobin (all p = 0.05), additionally they relevated that the number of women with the polymorphic allele -2578 C was

  13. VEGF improves survival of mesenchymal stem cells in infarcted hearts

    SciTech Connect

    Pons, Jennifer; Huang Yu; Arakawa-Hoyt, Janice; Washko, Daniel; Takagawa, Junya; Ye, Jianqin; Grossman, William; Su Hua

    2008-11-14

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a promising source for cell-based treatment of myocardial infarction (MI), but existing strategies are restricted by low cell survival and engraftment. We examined whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) improve MSC viability in infracted hearts. We found long-term culture increased MSC-cellular stress: expressing more cell cycle inhibitors, p16{sup INK}, p21 and p19{sup ARF}. VEGF treatment reduced cellular stress, increased pro-survival factors, phosphorylated-Akt and Bcl-xL expression and cell proliferation. Co-injection of MSCs with VEGF to MI hearts increased cell engraftment and resulted in better improvement of cardiac function than that injected with MSCs or VEGF alone. In conclusion, VEGF protects MSCs from culture-induce cellular stress and improves their viability in ischemic myocardium, which results in improvements of their therapeutic effect for the treatment of MI.

  14. Inhibited growth of colon cancer carcinomatosis by antibodies to vascular endothelial and epidermal growth factor receptors

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, R M; Ahmad, S A; Liu, W; Reinmuth, N; Jung, Y D; Tseng, W W; Drazan, K E; Bucana, C D; Hicklin, D J; Ellis, L M

    2001-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) regulate colon cancer growth and metastasis. Previous studies utilizing antibodies against the VEGF receptor (DC101) or EGF receptor (C225) have demonstrated independently that these agents can inhibit tumour growth and induce apoptosis in colon cancer in in vivo and in vitro systems. We hypothesized that simultaneous blockade of the VEGF and EGF receptors would enhance the therapy of colon cancer in a mouse model of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Nude mice were given intraperitoneal injection of KM12L4 human colon cancer cells to generate peritoneal metastases. Mice were then randomized into one of four treatment groups: control, anti-VEGFR (DC101), anti-EGFR (C225), or DC101 and C225. Relative to the control group, treatment with DC101 or with DC101+C225 decreased tumour vascularity, growth, proliferation, formation of ascites and increased apoptosis of both tumour cells and endothelial cells. Although C225 therapy did not change any of the above parameters, C225 combined with DC101 led to a significant decrease in tumour vascularity and increases in tumour cell and endothelial cell apoptosis (vs the DC101 group). These findings suggest that DC101 inhibits angiogenesis, endothelial cell survival, and VEGF-mediated ascites formation in a murine model of colon cancer carcinomatosis. The addition of C225 to DC101 appears to lead to a further decrease in angiogenesis and ascites formation. Combination anti-VEGF and anti-EGFR therapy may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the management of colon peritoneal carcinomatosis. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11506500

  15. Peptide growth factors, part A

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, D.; Sirbasku, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains information on the following topics: Epidermal Growth Factor;Transforming Growth Factors;Bone and Cartilage Growth Factors;Somatomedin/Insulin-Like Growth Factors;Techniques for the Study of Growth Factor Activity;Assays, Phosphorylation, and Surface Membrane Effects.

  16. Sphingosine-1-phosphate induces human endothelial VEGF and MMP-2 production via transcription factor ZNF580: Novel insights into angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Hui-Yan; Wei, Shu-Ping; Xu, Rui-Cheng; Xu, Peng-Xiao; Zhang, Wen-Cheng

    2010-05-07

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-induced migration and proliferation of endothelial cells are critical for angiogenesis. C2H2-zinc finger (ZNF) proteins usually play an essential role in altering gene expression and regulating the angiogenesis. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a novel human C2H2-zinc finger gene ZNF580 (Gene ID: 51157) is involved in the migration and proliferation of endothelial cells stimulated by S1P. Our study shows that EAhy926 endothelial cells express S1P1, S1P3 and S1P5 receptors. Furthermore, S1P upregulates both ZNF580 mRNA and protein levels in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. SB203580, the specific inhibitor of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathway, blocks the S1P-induced upregulation of ZNF580. Moreover, overexpression/downexpression of ZNF580 in EAhy926 cells leads to the enhancement/decrease of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression as well as the migration and proliferation of EAhy926 endothelial cells. These results elucidate the important role that ZNF580 plays in the process of migration and proliferation of endothelial cells, which provides a foundation for a novel approach to regulate angiogenesis.

  17. Uteroplacental adenovirus vascular endothelial growth factor gene therapy increases fetal growth velocity in growth-restricted sheep pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Carr, David J; Wallace, Jacqueline M; Aitken, Raymond P; Milne, John S; Mehta, Vedanta; Martin, John F; Zachary, Ian C; Peebles, Donald M; David, Anna L

    2014-04-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) occurs in ∼8% of pregnancies and is a major cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity. There is no effective treatment. FGR is characterized by reduced uterine blood flow (UBF). In normal sheep pregnancies, local uterine artery (UtA) adenovirus (Ad)-mediated overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) increases UBF. Herein we evaluated Ad.VEGF therapy in the overnourished adolescent ewe, an experimental paradigm in which reduced UBF from midgestation correlates with reduced lamb birthweight near term. Singleton pregnancies were established using embryo transfer in adolescent ewes subsequently offered a high intake (n=45) or control intake (n=12) of a complete diet to generate FGR or normal fetoplacental growth, respectively. High-intake ewes were randomized midgestation to receive bilateral UtA injections of 5×10¹¹ particles Ad.VEGF-A165 (n=18), control vector Ad.LacZ (n=14), or control saline (n=13). Fetal growth/well-being were evaluated using serial ultrasound. UBF was monitored using indwelling flowprobes until necropsy at 0.9 gestation. Vasorelaxation, neovascularization within the perivascular adventitia, and placental mRNA expression of angiogenic factors/receptors were examined using organ bath analysis, anti-vWF immunohistochemistry, and qRT-PCR, respectively. Ad.VEGF significantly increased ultrasonographic fetal growth velocity at 3-4 weeks postinjection (p=0.016-0.047). At 0.9 gestation fewer fetuses were markedly growth-restricted (birthweight >2SD below contemporaneous control-intake mean) after Ad.VEGF therapy. There was also evidence of mitigated fetal brain sparing (lower biparietal diameter-to-abdominal circumference and brain-to-liver weight ratios). No effects were observed on UBF or neovascularization; however, Ad.VEGF-transduced vessels demonstrated strikingly enhanced vasorelaxation. Placental efficiency (fetal-to-placental weight ratio) and FLT1/KDR mRNA expression were increased in the

  18. New microbial growth factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bok, S. H.; Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A screening procedure was used to isolate from soil a Penicillium sp., two bacterial isolates, and a Streptomyces sp. that produced a previously unknown microbial growth factor. This factor was an absolute growth requirement for three soil bacteria. The Penicillium sp. and one of the bacteria requiring the factor, an Arthrobacter sp., were selected for more extensive study concerning the production and characteristics of the growth factor. It did not seem to be related to the siderochromes. It was not present in soil extract, rumen fluid, or any other medium component tested. It appears to be a glycoprotein of high molecular weight and has high specific activity. When added to the diets for a meadow-vole mammalian test system, it caused an increased consumption of diet without a concurrent increase in rate of weight gain.

  19. VEGF Trap in Combination With Radiotherapy Improves Tumor Control in U87 Glioblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wachsberger, Phyllis R. . E-mail: Phyllis.Wachsberger@mail.tju.edu; Burd, Randy; Cardi, Chris; Thakur, Mathew; Daskalakis, Constantine; Holash, Jocelyn; Yancopoulos, George D.; Dicker, Adam P.

    2007-04-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF Trap (Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY), a humanized soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor protein, and radiation (RT) on tumor growth in U87 glioblastoma xenografts in nude mice. Methods and Materials: U87 cell suspensions were implanted subcutaneously into hind limbs of nude mice. VEGF Trap (2.5-25 mg/kg) was administered every 3 days for 3 weeks alone or in combination with a single dose of 10 Gy or fractionated RT (3 x 5 Gy). In addition, three scheduling protocols for VEGF Trap plus fractionated RT were examined. Results: Improved tumor control was seen when RT (either single dose or fractionated doses) was combined with the lowest dose of VEGF Trap (2.5 mg/kg). Scheduling did not significantly affect the efficacy of combined therapy. Although high-dose VEGF Trap (10 mg/kg or 25 mg/kg) significantly reduced tumor growth over that of RT alone, there was no additional benefit to combining high-dose VEGF Trap with RT. Conclusions: Vascular endothelial growth factor Trap plus radiation is clearly better than radiation alone in a U87 subcutaneous xenograft model. Although high doses of VEGF Trap alone are highly efficacious, it is unclear whether such high doses can be used clinically without incurring normal tissue toxicities. Thus, information on lower doses of VEGF Trap and ionizing radiation is of clinical relevance.

  20. Promotion Effect of Apo-9'-fucoxanthinone from Sargassum muticum on Hair Growth via the Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin and VEGF-R2.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Il; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Hyun, Jin-Won; Koh, Young-Sang; Lee, Nam Ho; Ko, Mi-Hee; Ko, Chang-Sik; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Sargassum muticum extract and apo-9'-fucoxanthinone, a principal component of S. muticum, on hair growth. When rat vibrissa follicles were treated with S. muticum extract for 21 d, the hair-fiber lengths for the vibrissa follicles increased significantly. Treatment with the S. muticum extract and the EtOAc fraction of the S. muticum extract markedly increased the proliferation of dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and decreased the 5α-reductase activity. In addition, the EtOAc fraction of the S. muticum extract significantly promoted anagen initiation in C57BL/6 mice. Especially, apo-9'-fucoxanthinone, an active constituent from the S. muticum extract, caused an increase in DPC proliferation and a decrease in 5α-reductase activity. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of apo-9'-fucoxanthinone on the proliferation of DPCs, we examined the level of various signaling proteins. Apo-9'-fucoxanthinone increased the level of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGF-R2), Wnt/β-catenin signaling proteins such as phospho(ser9)-glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and phospho(ser552)-β-catenin, whereas apo-9'-fucoxanthinone did not affect the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling proteins such as Smad2/3. These results suggest that apo-9'-fucoxanthinone from S. muticum could have the potential for hair growth with DPC proliferation via the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and the VEGF-R2 pathway. PMID:27476937

  1. Priming Dental Pulp Stem Cells With Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Increases Angiogenesis of Implanted Tissue-Engineered Constructs Through Hepatocyte Growth Factor and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Secretion.

    PubMed

    Gorin, Caroline; Rochefort, Gael Y; Bascetin, Rumeyza; Ying, Hanru; Lesieur, Julie; Sadoine, Jérémy; Beckouche, Nathan; Berndt, Sarah; Novais, Anita; Lesage, Matthieu; Hosten, Benoit; Vercellino, Laetitia; Merlet, Pascal; Le-Denmat, Dominique; Marchiol, Carmen; Letourneur, Didier; Nicoletti, Antonino; Vital, Sibylle Opsahl; Poliard, Anne; Salmon, Benjamin; Muller, Laurent; Chaussain, Catherine; Germain, Stéphane

    2016-03-01

    Tissue engineering strategies based on implanting cellularized biomaterials are promising therapeutic approaches for the reconstruction of large tissue defects. A major hurdle for the reliable establishment of such therapeutic approaches is the lack of rapid blood perfusion of the tissue construct to provide oxygen and nutrients. Numerous sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) displaying angiogenic potential have been characterized in the past years, including the adult dental pulp. Establishment of efficient strategies for improving angiogenesis in tissue constructs is nevertheless still an important challenge. Hypoxia was proposed as a priming treatment owing to its capacity to enhance the angiogenic potential of stem cells through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release. The present study aimed to characterize additional key factors regulating the angiogenic capacity of such MSCs, namely, dental pulp stem cells derived from deciduous teeth (SHED). We identified fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) as a potent inducer of the release of VEGF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) by SHED. We found that FGF-2 limited hypoxia-induced downregulation of HGF release. Using three-dimensional culture models of angiogenesis, we demonstrated that VEGF and HGF were both responsible for the high angiogenic potential of SHED through direct targeting of endothelial cells. In addition, FGF-2 treatment increased the fraction of Stro-1+/CD146+ progenitor cells. We then applied in vitro FGF-2 priming to SHED before encapsulation in hydrogels and in vivo subcutaneous implantation. Our results showed that FGF-2 priming is more efficient than hypoxia at increasing SHED-induced vascularization compared with nonprimed controls. Altogether, these data demonstrate that FGF-2 priming enhances the angiogenic potential of SHED through the secretion of both HGF and VEGF.

  2. Pigment epithelium derived factor upregulates expression of vascular endothelial growth factor by human mesenchymal stem cells: Possible role in PEDF regulated matrix mineralization.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Armstrong, Gillian B; Tombran-Tink, Joyce; Niyibizi, Christopher

    2016-09-23

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) encoded by serpinf1 is a potent antiangiogenic factor found in a wide variety of fetal and adult tissues. Several reports have shown that lack of PEDF leads to osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type VI whose hallmark is a defect in mineralization that leads to excessive osteoid build up that fails to mineralize. Because PEDF is antiangiogenic factor it would pose serious consequences on bone development and healing of fractures. To understand possible mechanisms by which PEDF plays a role in bone development and regulation of matrix mineralization, we determined the effects of exogenous PEDF on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression by human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and mechanisms of its regulation by PEDF. Human MSCs incubated in normal medium supplemented with exogenous PEDF increased VEGF expression; this increase was also seen when PEDF was added to hMSCs undergoing osteogenic differentiation. MSCs maintained in osteogenic medium increased synthesis of both VEGF and PEDF but both factors were maintained relatively in balance during differentiation. To understand mechanisms by which exogenous PEDF regulated VEGF expression, hMSCs exposed to PEDF activated Erk signaling pathway in MSCs; inhibition of Erk signaling reduced VEGF mRNA expression as well as protein production suggesting that PEDF regulates VEGF expression in MSCs via Erk signaling pathway. In conclusion, PEDF increases VEGF expression by MSCs suggesting that regulation of VEGF by PEDF may be part of the mechanisms by which PEDF regulates osteoblastic mineralization. PMID:27530920

  3. The angiogenic peptide vascular endothelial growth factor-basic fibroblast growth factor signaling is up-regulated in a rat pressure ulcer model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing-Jin; Wang, Xue-Ling; Shi, Bo-Wen; Huang, Fang

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the mRNA and protein expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in pressure ulcers, and to elucidate the molecular mechanism by which VEGF and bFGF are involved in pressure ulcer formation. A rat model of ischemia-reperfusion pressure ulcer was established by magnetic disk circulating compression method. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blot assays were conducted to detect the mRNA and protein expression of VEGF and bFGF in the tissues of rat I-, II-, and III-degree pressure ulcers, the surrounding tissues, and normal skin. Our study confirmed that the mRNA and protein expression levels of VEGF and bFGF in the tissues of rat I-degree pressure ulcer were significantly higher than that in the II- and III-degree pressure ulcer tissues (P < 0.05). The expression of VEGF and bFGF in the tissues surrounding I- and II-degree pressure ulcers were higher than the rats with normal skin. The expression of VEGF and bFGF in the tissues of rat III-degree pressure ulcer was lower than that in the surrounding tissues and normal skin (P < 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between change in the VEGF and bFGF. The results showed that with an increase in the degree of pressure ulcers, the expression of VEGF and bFGF in pressure ulcers tissue are decreased. This leads to a reduction in angiogenesis and may be a crucial factor in the formation of pressure ulcers.

  4. Prognostic value of vascularity and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baillie, R; Carlile, J; Pendleton, N; Schor, A

    2001-01-01

    Aims—High expression of the angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in tumours has been found to be associated with poor prognosis in some studies, but not in others. The aims of this study were to determine the prognostic value of VEGF in operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its possible association with vascularity. Methods—Sections from 81 NSCLC archival specimens were stained with antibodies to von Willebrand factor (vWF) and VEGF. Vascularity was measured by the average density of vWF positive vessels. VEGF expression in tumour cells was assessed by consensus of two independent observers according to three indices, namely: (1) percentage of area stained, (2) intensity of staining, and (3) final score (product of area and intensity). Results—VEGF immunoreactivity was present in all tumours and adjacent normal lung tissue. None of the three VEGF indices was associated with vascularity or the clinical parameters examined. Mean survival times were shorter in patients with high VEGF expression, but the difference was not significant. This applied to the full cohort of patients, or when analysed separately according to tumour type or stage. However, high VEGF expression was associated with poor survival in patients with high vascularity (p = 0.02). VEGF had no discriminant value among patients with low vascularity. Vascularity had no prognostic value, except for late stage patients (UICC stages II and IIIa combined; n = 36), where high vascularity was associated with longer survival (p = 0.01). Conclusions—VEGF on its own has no prognostic value in NSCLC, but may become a useful indicator when combined with vascularity. VEGF may play a physiological role in the normal lung. Key Words: non-small cell lung cancer • vascular endothelial growth factor • vascularity • prognosis PMID:11215279

  5. Extracellular Matrix Stiffness Controls VEGF Signaling and Processing in Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sack, Kelsey D; Teran, Madelane; Nugent, Matthew A

    2016-09-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) drives endothelial cell maintenance and angiogenesis. Endothelial cell behavior is altered by the stiffness of the substrate the cells are attached to suggesting that VEGF activity might be influenced by the mechanical cellular environment. We hypothesized that extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness modifies VEGF-cell-matrix tethering leading to altered VEGF processing and signaling. We analyzed VEGF binding, internalization, and signaling as a function of substrate stiffness in endothelial cells cultured on fibronectin (Fn) linked polyacrylamide gels. Cell produced extracellular matrices on the softest substrates were least capable of binding VEGF, but the cells exhibited enhanced VEGF internalization and signaling compared to cells on all other substrates. Inhibiting VEGF-matrix binding with sucrose octasulfate decreased cell-internalization of VEGF and, inversely, heparin pre-treatment to enhance Fn-matrix binding of VEGF increased cell-internalization of VEGF regardless of matrix stiffness. β1 integrins, which connect cells to Fn, modulated VEGF uptake in a stiffness dependent fashion. Cells on hard surfaces showed decreased levels of activated β1 and inhibition of β1 integrin resulted in a greater proportional decrease in VEGF internalization than in cells on softer matrices. Extracellular matrix binding is necessary for VEGF internalization. Stiffness modifies the coordinated actions of VEGF-matrix binding and β1 integrin binding/activation, which together are critical for VEGF internalization. This study provides insight into how the microenvironment may influence tissue regeneration and response to injury and disease. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2026-2039, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Human recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor reduces necrosis and enhances hepatocyte regeneration in a mouse model of acetaminophen toxicity.

    PubMed

    Donahower, Brian C; McCullough, Sandra S; Hennings, Leah; Simpson, Pippa M; Stowe, Cindy D; Saad, Ali G; Kurten, Richard C; Hinson, Jack A; James, Laura P

    2010-07-01

    We reported previously that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was increased in acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in mice and treatment with a VEGF receptor inhibitor reduced hepatocyte regeneration. The effect of human recombinant VEGF (hrVEGF) on APAP toxicity in the mouse was examined. In early toxicity studies, B6C3F1 mice received hrVEGF (50 microg s.c.) or vehicle 30 min before receiving APAP (200 mg/kg i.p.) and were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 8 h. Toxicity was comparable at 2 and 4 h, but reduced in the APAP/hrVEGF mice at 8 h (p < 0.05) compared with the APAP/vehicle mice. Hepatic glutathione (GSH) and APAP protein adduct levels were comparable between the two groups of mice, with the exception that GSH was higher at 8 h in the hrVEGF-treated mice. Subsequently, mice received two doses (before and 10 h) or three doses (before and 10 and 24 h) of hrVEGF; alanine aminotransferase values and necrosis were reduced at 24 and 36 h, respectively, in the APAP/hrVEGF mice (p < 0.05) compared with the APAP/vehicle mice. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression was enhanced, and interleukin-6 expression was reduced in the mice that received hrVEGF (p < 0.05) compared with the APAP/vehicle mice. In addition, treatment with hrVEGF lowered plasma hyaluronic acid levels and neutrophil counts at 36 h. Cumulatively, the data show that treatment with hrVEGF reduced toxicity and increased hepatocyte regeneration in APAP toxicity in the mouse. Attenuation of sinusoidal cell endothelial dysfunction and changes in neutrophil dynamics may be operant mechanisms in the hepatoprotection mediated by hrVEGF in APAP toxicity.

  7. Peptide growth factors, part B

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, D.; Sirbasku, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the following topics: Platelet-Derived Growth Factor;Nerve and Glial Growth Factors;PC12 Pheochromocytoma Cells;Techniques for the Study of Growth Factor Activity;Genetic Approaches and Biological Effects.

  8. Vascular growth factors and receptors in capillary hemangioblastomas and hemangiopericytomas.

    PubMed Central

    Hatva, E.; Böhling, T.; Jääskeläinen, J.; Persico, M. G.; Haltia, M.; Alitalo, K.

    1996-01-01

    Capillary hemangioblastomas and hemangiopericytomas are highly vascular central nervous system tumors of controversial origin. Of interest in their pathogenesis are mechanisms regulating endothelial cell growth. The endothelial cell mitogen vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates angiogenesis, and together with its two receptor tyrosine kinases VEGFR-1(FLT1) and VEGFR-2(KDR), is up-regulated during the malignant progression of gliomas. We have analyzed the expression of VEGF and its receptors, the related placental growth factor (PlGF) and the endothelial receptors FLT4 and Tie by in situ hybridization in capillary hemangioblastomas and hemangiopericytomas. VEGF mRNA was up-regulated in all of the hemangiopericytomas studied and highly expressed in the stromal cells of hemangioblastomas. In addition, some hemangioblastoma tumor cells expressed high levels of PlGF. Significantly elevated levels of Tie mRNA, Tie protein, VEGFR-1, and VEGFR-2 but not FLT4 mRNAs were observed in the endothelia of both tumor types. In hemangioblastomas, however, the receptors were also highly expressed by a subpopulation of stromal cells. Consistent results were obtained for a human hemangioblastoma cell line in culture. Up-regulation of the endothelial growth factors and receptors may result in autocrine or paracrine stimulation of endothelial cells and their precursors involved in the genesis of these two vascular tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8774132

  9. KMUP-1 inhibits H441 lung epithelial cell growth, migration and proinflammation via increased NO/CGMP and inhibited RHO kinase/VEGF signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Wu, B N; Chen, H Y; Liu, C P; Hsu, L Y; Chen, I J

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates whether KMUP-1 protects soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in lung epithelial cells in hypoxia, therapeutically targeting epithelial proinflammation. H441 cells were used as a representative epithelial cell line to examine the role of sGC and VEGF in hypoxia and the anti-proinflammatory activity of KMUP-1 in normoxia. Human H441 cells were grown in hypoxia for 24-72 h. KMUP-1 (1, 10, 100 microM) arrested cells at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, reduced cell survival and migration, increased p21/p27, restored eNOS, increased soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and PKG and inhibited Rho kinase II (ROCK-II). KMUP-1 (0.001-0.1 microM) concentration dependently increased eNOS in normoxia and did not inhibit phosphodiesterase-5A (PDE-5A) in hypoxic cells. Hypoxia-induced factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and VEGF were suppressed by KMUP-1 but not by L-NAME (100 microM). The PKG inhibitor Rp-8-CPT-cGMPS (10 microM) blunted the inhibition of ROCK-II by KMUP-1. KMUP-1 inhibited thromboxane A2-mimetic agonist U46619-induced PDE-5A, TNF-alpha (100 ng/ml)-induced iNOS, and ROCK-II and associated phospho-p38 MAPK, suggesting multiple anti-proinflammatory activities. In addition, increased p21/p27 by KMUP-1 at higher concentrations might contribute to an increased Bax/Bcl-2 and active caspase-3/procaspase-3 ratio, concomitantly causing apoptosis. KMUP-1 inhibited ROCK-II/VEGF in hypoxia, indicating its anti-neoplastic and anti-inflammatory properties. KMUP-1 inhibited TNF-alpha-induced iNOS and U46619-induced PDE-5A and phospho-p38 MAPK in normoxia, confirming its anti-proinflammatory action. KMUP-1 could be used as an anti-proinflammatory to reduce epithelial inflammation.

  10. Seeing through VEGF: innate and adaptive immunity in pathological angiogenesis in the eye.

    PubMed

    Sene, Abdoulaye; Chin-Yee, David; Apte, Rajendra S

    2015-01-01

    The central role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling in regulating normal vascular development and pathological angiogenesis has been documented in multiple studies. Ocular anti-VEGF therapy is highly effective for treating a subset of patients with blinding eye disorders such as diabetic retinopathy and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, chronic VEGF suppression can lead to adverse effects associated with poor visual outcomes due to the loss of prosurvival and neurotrophic capacities of VEGF. In this review, we discuss emerging evidence for immune-related mechanisms that regulate ocular angiogenesis in a VEGF-independent manner. These novel molecular and cellular pathways may provide potential therapeutic avenues for a multitarget strategy, preserving the neuroprotective functions of VEGF in those patients whose disease is unresponsive to VEGF neutralization.

  11. VEGF blockade inhibits angiogenesis and reepithelialization of endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiujun; Krieg, Sacha; Kuo, Calvin J.; Wiegand, Stanley J.; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Druzin, Maurice L.; Brenner, Robert M.; Giudice, Linda C.; Nayak, Nihar R.

    2008-01-01

    Despite extensive literature on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and regulation by steroid hormones, the lack of clear understanding of the mechanisms of angiogenesis in the endometrium is a major limitation for use of antiangiogenic therapy targeting endometrial vessels. In the current work, we used the rhesus macaque as a primate model and the decidualized mouse uterus as a murine model to examine angiogenesis during endometrial breakdown and regeneration. We found that blockade of VEGF action with VEGF Trap, a potent VEGF blocker, completely inhibited neovascularization during endometrial regeneration in both models but had no marked effect on preexisting or newly formed vessels, suggesting that VEGF is essential for neoangiogenesis but not survival of mature vessels in this vascular bed. Blockade of VEGF also blocked reepithelialization in both the postmenstrual endometrium and the mouse uterus after decidual breakdown, evidence that VEGF has pleiotropic effects in the endometrium. In vitro studies with a scratch wound assay showed that the migration of luminal epithelial cells during repair involved signaling through VEGF receptor 2–neuropilin 1 (VEGFR2-NP1) receptors on endometrial stromal cells. The leading front of tissue growth during endometrial repair was strongly hypoxic, and this hypoxia was the local stimulus for VEGF expression and angiogenesis in this tissue. In summary, we provide novel experimental data indicating that VEGF is essential for endometrial neoangiogenesis during postmenstrual/postpartum repair.—Fan, X., Krieg, S., Kuo, C. J., Wiegand, S. J., Rabinovitch, M., Druzin, M. L., Brenner, R. M., Giudice, L. C., Nayak, N. R. VEGF blockade inhibits angiogenesis and reepithelialization of endometrium. PMID:18606863

  12. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Cluster of Differentiation 34 for Assessment of Perioperative Bleeding Risk in Gastric Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    He, Mu-Qing; He, Mu-Qun; Wang, Jian-Feng; Zhu, Bao-Ling; Sun, Ni; Zhou, Xiao-Hai; Yao, Rong-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels to supply nutrients to tumors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34) are important signaling proteins involved in angiogenesis. Many studies have demonstrated that VEGF and CD34 are related to tumor progression. This study focused on the relationship between VEGF, CD34, and perioperative hemorrhage in patients with gastric cancer. Methods: To observe the relationship between VEGF and CD34, we tracked 112 patients with advanced gastric cancer for 5 years to assess factors related to hemorrhage, using immunohistochemistry. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using a 2 × 2 contingency table, logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) test. Results: The concentrations of VEGF and CD34 were critically correlated with perioperative hemorrhage and neural invasion in patients with gastric cancer (P < 0.05). Expression of VEGF and CD34 was related (P < 0.05, χ2 = 6.834). VEGF and CD34 co-expression strongly increased the risk of preoperative bleeding (area under the ROC curve >0.7, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Expression of VEGF and CD34 was critically correlated with perioperative hemorrhage in gastric cancer patients. Co-expression of VEGF and CD34 could be an effective indicator for evaluating the risk of perioperative bleeding in gastric cancer patients. PMID:27503021

  13. Vascular endothelial growth factor as a key inducer of angiogenesis in the asthmatic airways.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Norbert; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2013-02-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by structural airway changes, which are known as airway remodeling, including smooth muscle hypertrophy, goblet cell hyperplasia, subepithelial fibrosis, and angiogenesis. Vascular remodeling in asthmatic lungs results from increased angiogenesis, which is mainly mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF is a key regulator of blood vessel growth in the airways of asthma patients by promoting proliferation and differentiation of endothelial cells and inducing vascular leakage and permeability. In addition, VEGF induces allergic inflammation, enhances allergic sensitization, and has a role in Th2 type inflammatory responses. Specific inhibitors of VEGF and blockers of its receptors might be useful to control chronic airway inflammation and vascular remodeling, and might be a new therapeutic approach for chronic inflammatory airway disease like asthma.

  14. VEGF189 stimulates endothelial cells proliferation and migration in vitro and up-regulates the expression of Flk-1/KDR mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Herve, Marie-Astrid . E-mail: applanat@chu-stlouis.fr

    2005-09-10

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a critical factor for development of the vascular system in physiological and pathological angiogenesis. This growth factor exists under at least three isoforms, VEGF120/121, VEGF164/165 and VEGF188/189 which are generated by alternative splicing. VEGF isoforms have different affinities for heparan sulphate as well as for VEGF receptors, and may play distinct roles in vascular development. The role of VEGF189 as an endothelial mitogen, however, remains controversial. VEGF189 is almost entirely bound to the cell surface or extracellular matrix, and is considered active after its cleavage and release from its extracellular binding site. In the present study, we demonstrate that VEGF189 induces endothelial cell proliferation and migration in vitro. The 30-60% increase observed with VEGF189 (10 ng/ml) in HUVEC proliferation was similar to that observed with VEGF165. However, the proliferative effect observed with VEGF189 appeared dependent on the origin of the endothelial cell, since the proliferation was clearly observed with HUVEC but not with BAEC or capillary endothelial cells from dermis (HMEC). The effect of VEGF189 on endothelial cell migration was also analyzed using the wound healing and the Boyden chamber assays. The migration effect was observed with BAEC which do not proliferate with VEGF189, suggesting that different mechanisms are involved in proliferation and migration. In addition, VEGF189 as well as VEGF165 induced a 2-fold increase of Flk-1/KDR expression in HUVEC, the receptor involved in proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. In the Matrigel plug assay in vivo, both VEGF189 and 165 (100 ng/ml) increased the infiltration of endothelial cells. These data suggest that VEGF189 induced endothelial cell migration and proliferation under certain circumstances.

  15. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A165b prevents diabetic neuropathic pain and sensory neuronal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Hulse, Richard P; Beazley-Long, Nicholas; Ved, Nikita; Bestall, Samuel M; Riaz, Hamza; Singhal, Priya; Ballmer Hofer, Kurt; Harper, Steve J; Bates, David O; Donaldson, Lucy F

    2015-10-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy affects up to half of diabetic patients. This neuronal damage leads to sensory disturbances, including allodynia and hyperalgesia. Many growth factors have been suggested as useful treatments for prevention of neurodegeneration, including the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family. VEGF-A is generated as two alternative splice variant families. The most widely studied isoform, VEGF-A165a is both pro-angiogenic and neuroprotective, but pro-nociceptive and increases vascular permeability in animal models. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats develop both hyperglycaemia and many of the resulting diabetic complications seen in patients, including peripheral neuropathy. In the present study, we show that the anti-angiogenic VEGF-A splice variant, VEGF-A165b, is also a potential therapeutic for diabetic neuropathy. Seven weeks of VEGF-A165b treatment in diabetic rats reversed enhanced pain behaviour in multiple behavioural paradigms and was neuroprotective, reducing hyperglycaemia-induced activated caspase 3 (AC3) levels in sensory neuronal subsets, epidermal sensory nerve fibre loss and aberrant sciatic nerve morphology. Furthermore, VEGF-A165b inhibited a STZ-induced increase in Evans Blue extravasation in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), saphenous nerve and plantar skin of the hind paw. Increased transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel activity is associated with the onset of diabetic neuropathy. VEGF-A165b also prevented hyperglycaemia-enhanced TRPA1 activity in an in vitro sensory neuronal cell line indicating a novel direct neuronal mechanism that could underlie the anti-nociceptive effect observed in vivo. These results demonstrate that in a model of Type I diabetes VEGF-A165b attenuates altered pain behaviour and prevents neuronal stress, possibly through an effect on TRPA1 activity. PMID:26201024

  16. Over-expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in pituitary adenomas is associated with extrasellar growth and recurrence.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ortiga, Ruth; Sánchez-Tejada, Laura; Moreno-Perez, Oscar; Riesgo, Pedro; Niveiro, Maria; Picó Alfonso, Antonio M

    2013-09-01

    Some pituitary adenomas (PA) demonstrate aggressive behavior with local invasion and recurrences. Angiogenesis is regarded as an essential step in the formation of solid tumors. The aim of this study is to find out whether angiogenic factors may have information about the aggressiveness of PA that could be useful in determining the frequency of follow-up and whether adjuvant therapy is necessary. In this retrospective descriptive study, we evaluated vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and VEGF receptor (KDR) mRNA expression by RT-PCR analysis on 46 human PA samples. Clinical data, histological subtype and radiologic characteristics were studied to determine the associations between the variables and the pre-operative behavior of the tumor. In addition, we monitored 12 patients without adjuvant post-operative therapies over 46 months after surgery, determining progression of tumor remnants and its association with these markers. VEGF expression correlates with KDR expression (r = 0.40, p = 0.006). VEGF demonstrates different expression between histological subtypes (p = 0.036). The extension at magnetic resonance imaging showed that VEGF expression was related to suprasellar extension (p = 0.007), being expressed more on tumors with extrasellar growth than intrasellar ones (p = 0.008). Our results demonstrate a 27.5 times increased risk of extrasellar growth when VEGF expression exceeds 0.222 normalized copy number (NCN) (p = 0.002). Likewise, tumors with KDR greater than 0.750 NCN had less recurrence-free survival time (p = 0.032). Our results suggest that the expression of VEGF and its receptor could be a marker for poor outcome after partial tumor resection. These data should be considered in future studies evaluating angiogenic factors as therapeutic targets in patients with PA.

  17. Suppression of Glioblastoma Angiogenicity and Tumorigenicity by Inhibition of Endogenous Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shi-Yuan; Huang, H.-J. Su; Nagane, Motoo; Ji, Xiang-Dong; Wang, Degui; Shih, Charles C.-Y.; Arap, Wadih; Huang, Chun-Ming; Cavenee, Webster K.

    1996-08-01

    The development of new capillary networks from the normal microvasculature of the host appears to be required for growth of solid tumors. Tumor cells influence this process by producing both inhibitors and positive effectors of angiogenesis. Among the latter, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has assumed prime candidacy as a major positive physiological effector. Here, we have directly tested this hypothesis in the brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme, one of the most highly vascularized human cancers. We introduced an antisense VEGF expression construct into glioblastoma cells and found that (i) VEGF mRNA and protein levels were markedly reduced, (ii) the modified cells did not secrete sufficient factors so as to be chemoattractive for primary human microvascular endothelial cells, (iii) the modified cells were not able to sustain tumor growth in immunodeficient animals, and (iv) the density of in vivo blood vessel formation was reduced in direct relation to the reduction of VEGF secretion and tumor formation. Moreover, revertant cells that recovered the ability to secrete VEGF regained each of these tumorigenic properties. These results suggest that VEGF plays a major angiogenic role in glioblastoma.

  18. VEGF: From Discovery to Therapy: The Champalimaud Award Lecture

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Joan W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Intraocular vascular diseases are leading causes of adult vision loss, and in the mid-1900s, I. C. Michaelson postulated that the retina releases a soluble, diffusible factor that causes abnormal vascular growth and leakage. What became known as “Factor X” eluded investigators for decades. Methods The field of cancer research, where Judah Folkman pioneered the concept of angiogenesis, provided the inspiration for the work honored by the 2014 Champalimaud Vision Award. Recognizing that tumors recruit their own blood supply to achieve critical mass, Dr Folkman proposed that angiogenic factors could be therapeutic targets in cancer. Napoleone Ferrara identified vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as such an angiogenic agent: stimulated by hypoxic tumor tissue, secreted, and able to induce neovascularization. VEGF also was a candidate for Factor X, and the 2014 Champalimaud Laureates and colleagues worked individually and collaboratively to identify the role of VEGF in ocular disease. Results The Champalimaud Laureates correlated VEGF with ocular neovascularization in animal models and in patients. Moreover, they showed that VEGF not only was sufficient, but it also was required to induce neovascularization in normal animal eyes, as VEGF inhibition abolished ocular neovascularization in key animal models. Conclusions The identification of VEGF as Factor X altered the therapeutic paradigms for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, and other retinal disorders. Translational Relevance The translation of VEGF from discovery to therapy resulted in the most successful applications of antiangiogenic therapy to date. Annually, over one million patients with eye disease are treated with anti-VEGF agents. PMID:26981331

  19. Targeted Disruption of Heparan Sulfate Interaction with Hepatocyte and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors Blocks Normal and Oncogenic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cecchi, Fabiola; Pajalunga, Deborah; Fowler, C. Andrew; Uren, Aykut; Rabe, Daniel C.; Peruzzi, Benedetta; MacDonald, Nicholas J.; Blackman, Davida K.; Stahl, Stephen J.; Byrd, R. Andrew; Bottaro, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) regulate normal development and homeostasis, and drive disease progression in many forms of cancer. Both proteins signal by binding to receptor tyrosine kinases and heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans on target cell surfaces. Basic residues comprising the primary HS binding sites on HGF and VEGF provide similar surface charge distributions without underlying structural similarity. Combining three acidic amino acid substitutions in these sites in the HGF isoform NK1 or the VEGF isoform VEGF165 transformed each into potent, selective competitive antagonists of their respective normal and oncogenic signaling pathways. Our findings illustrate the importance of HS in growth factor driven cancer progression and reveal an efficient strategy for therapeutic antagonist development. PMID:22897854

  20. Intrachoroidal Neovascularization in Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Schwesinger, Catherine; Yee, Charles; Rohan, Richard M.; Joussen, Antonia M.; Fernandez, Antonio; Meyer, Tobias N.; Poulaki, Vassiliki; Ma, Joseph J. K.; Redmond, T. Michael; Liu, Suyan; Adamis, Anthony P.; D’Amato, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration is a frequent and poorly treatable cause of vision loss in elderly Caucasians. This choroidal neovascularization has been associated with the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In current animal models choroidal neovascularization is induced by subretinal injection of growth factors or vectors encoding growth factors such as VEGF, or by disruption of the Bruch’s membrane/retinal pigment epithelium complex with laser treatment. We wished to establish a transgenic murine model of age-related macular degeneration, in which the overexpression of VEGF by the retinal pigment epithelium induces choroidal neovascularization. A construct consisting of a tissue-specific murine retinal pigment epithelium promoter (RPE65 promoter) coupled to murine VEGF164 cDNA with a rabbit β-globin-3′ UTR was introduced into the genome of albino mice. Transgene mRNA was expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium at all ages peaking at 4 months. The expression of VEGF protein was increased in both the retinal pigment epithelium and choroid. An increase of intravascular adherent leukocytes and vessel leakage was observed. Histopathology revealed intrachoroidal neovascularization that did not penetrate through an intact Bruch’s membrane. These results support the hypothesis that additional insults to the integrity of Bruch’s membrane are required to induce growth of choroidal vessels into the subretinal space as seen in age-related macular degeneration. This model may be useful to screen for inhibitors of choroidal vessel growth. PMID:11238064

  1. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors KDR and Flt-1 in gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Wu, Jian; Meng, Lin; Shou, Cheng-Chao

    2002-01-01

    AIM: The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors KDR and Flt-1 by gastric carcinoma tissues and different gastric carcinoma cell lines was detected to elucidate the molecular mechanism of this growth factor in promoting tumor growth. METHODS: The expression of VEGF, Flt-1 and KDR was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in gastric cancer cell lines RF-1, RF-48, AGS-1, NCI-N87, NCI-SNU-1, NCI-SNU-5, NCI-SNU-16 and KATO-III. The expression of Flt-1 and KDR in paraffin-embedded specimens of gastric cancer was determined by immunohistochemistry. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to assess the role of VEGF in tumor cell proliferation. RESULTS: All 8 gastric cancer cell lines analyzed expressed VEGF121 and VEGF165 and six of them expressed both Flt-1 and KDR, while cell line NCI-SNU-5 expressed Flt-1 only and cell line KATOIII expressed neither Flt-1 nor KDR. The gastric carcinoma tissues expressed Flt-1 and KDR widely, with the positive rate of expression of Flt-1 and KDR being 84.6% and 70% respectively. The exogenous VEGF stimulated the growth of KDR-positive cell lines NCI-N87 and AGS-1 in a dose-dependent manner but exhibited no effect on the growth of KDR-negative cell line NCI-N87. CONCLUSION: VEGF and its receptors KDR and Flt-1 were expressed widely in gastric carcinoma cells and the VEGF stimulated KDR-positive tumor cell growth directly. These results suggest that VEGF may play a role in promoting tumor growth and metastasis by participating in both paracrine and autocrine pathways. PMID:12439912

  2. MMAC/PTEN tumor suppressor gene regulates vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated angiogenesis in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Koul, Dimpy; Shen, Ruijun; Garyali, Anil; Ke, L D; Liu, Ta-Jen; Yung, W K Alfred

    2002-09-01

    Prostate cancer presents with a broad spectrum of biologic behavior, ranging from being an indolent, incidental finding to an aggressively invasive and metastatic disease. An improved understanding of the events involved in prostate cancer progression is critically important to its diagnosis and staging, as well as to the development of new therapies. Tumor progression, particularly in aggressive and malignant tumors, is associated with the induction of an angiogenic, gene-driven switch. In prostate cancer, one of the most powerful stimulators of angiogenesis is the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF transcription can be induced by hypoxia through activation of the PI3 kinase pathway and hypoxia-inducible factor alpha. MMAC/PTEN (henceforth referred to as PTEN) is a recently identified tumor suppressor gene residing on chromosome 10q23, which is frequently inactivated in a wide range of human tumors, including advanced prostate cancer. The goal of this study was to determine whether PTEN inhibits angiogenesis by modulating VEGF activity. Our results showed that reintroduction of the PTEN gene into human prostate PC-3 and LNCaP cells decreased VEGF secretion, which was accompanied by various biologic activities, including inhibited endothelial cell growth and migration. PTEN expression also down-regulated VEGF mRNA levels, as detected by RT-PCR analysis. Concomitant with lessened VEGF expression was the reduction of VEGF promoter activity in PTEN-expressing cells. Our findings suggest that PTEN modulates angiogenesis by regulating VEGF expression.

  3. The cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factors requires co-ordinated signal transduction, trafficking and proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gina A.; Fearnley, Gareth W.; Tomlinson, Darren C.; Harrison, Michael A.; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2015-01-01

    VEGFs (vascular endothelial growth factors) are a family of conserved disulfide-linked soluble secretory glycoproteins found in higher eukaryotes. VEGFs mediate a wide range of responses in different tissues including metabolic homoeostasis, cell proliferation, migration and tubulogenesis. Such responses are initiated by VEGF binding to soluble and membrane-bound VEGFRs (VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases) and co-receptors. VEGF and receptor splice isoform diversity further enhances complexity of membrane protein assembly and function in signal transduction pathways that control multiple cellular responses. Different signal transduction pathways are simultaneously activated by VEGFR–VEGF complexes with membrane trafficking along the endosome–lysosome network further modulating signal output from multiple enzymatic events associated with such pathways. Balancing VEGFR–VEGF signal transduction with trafficking and proteolysis is essential in controlling the intensity and duration of different intracellular signalling events. Dysfunction in VEGF-regulated signal transduction is important in chronic disease states including cancer, atherosclerosis and blindness. This family of growth factors and receptors is an important model system for understanding human disease pathology and developing new therapeutics for treating such ailments. PMID:26285805

  4. Regulation by vascular endothelial growth factor of human colon cancer tumorigenesis in a mouse model of experimental liver metastasis.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, R S; Yuan, H; Matli, M R; Gillett, N A; Ferrara, N

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between angiogenesis and hepatic tumorigenesis, we examined the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in 8 human colon carcinoma cell lines and in 30 human colorectal cancer liver metastases. Abundant message for VEGF was found in all tumors, localized to the malignant cells within each neoplasm. Two receptors for VEGF, KDR and flt1, were also demonstrated in most of the tumors examined. KDR and flt1 mRNA were limited to tumor endothelial cells and were more strongly expressed in the hepatic metastases than in the sinusoidal endothelium of the surrounding liver parenchyma. VEGF monoclonal antibody administration in tumor-bearing athymic mice led to a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of growth of subcutaneous xenografts and to a marked reduction in the number and size of experimental liver metastases. In hepatic metastases of VEGF antibody-treated mice, neither blood vessels nor expression of the mouse KDR homologue flk-1 could be demonstrated. These data indicate that VEGF is a commonly expressed angiogenic factor in human colorectal cancer metastases, that VEGF receptors are up-regulated as a concomitant of hepatic tumorigenesis, and that modulation of VEGF gene expression or activity may represent a potentially effective antineoplastic therapy in colorectal cancer. Images PMID:7535799

  5. VEGF-B inhibits hyperglycemia- and Macugen-induced retinal apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Delong; Zhao, Chen; Ju, Rong; Kumar, Anil; Tian, Geng; Huang, Lijuan; Zheng, Lei; Li, Xianglin; Liu, Lixian; Wang, Shasha; Ren, Xiangrong; Ye, Zhimin; Chen, Wei; Xing, Liying; Chen, Qishan; Gao, Zhiqin; Mi, Jia; Tang, Zhongshu; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Shuping; Lee, Chunsik; Li, Xuri

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) was discovered a long time ago. However, its role in hyperglycemia- and VEGF-A inhibition-induced retinal apoptosis remains unknown thus far. Yet, drugs that can block VEGF-B are being used to treat patients with diabetic retinopathy and other ocular neovascular diseases. It is therefore urgent to have a better understanding of the function of VEGF-B in these pathologies. Here, we report that both streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats and Macugen intravitreal injection in mice leads to retinal apoptosis in retinal ganglion cell and outer nuclear layers respectively. Importantly, VEGF-B treatment by intravitreal injection markedly reduced retinal apoptosis in both models. We further reveal that VEGF-B and its receptors, vascular endothelial growth factor 1 (VEGFR1) and neuropilin 1 (NP1), are abundantly expressed in rat retinae and choroids and are upregulated by high glucose with concomitant activation of Akt and Erk. These data highlight an important function of VEGF-B in protecting retinal cells from apoptosis induced by hyperglycemia and VEGF-A inhibition. VEGF-B may therefore have a therapeutic potential in treating various retinal degenerative diseases, and modulation of VEGF-B activity in the eye needs careful consideration. PMID:27189805

  6. VEGF/VEGFR-2 changes in frontal cortex, choroid plexus, and CSF after chronic obstructive hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Dombrowski, Stephen M; Deshpande, Abhishek; Krajcir, Natalie; Luciano, Mark G

    2010-01-01

    Chronic Hydrocephalus (CH) is often associated with decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen levels. While the exact pathophysiology is not clear, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) may be involved. Because the choroid plexus (CP) is involved in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production and secretes numerous growth factors including VEGF, it is important to understand VEGF/VEGFR-2 levels in the CP–CSF circulatory system. Our results showed significant decreases in CBF and VEGFR-2 levels in frontal cortex (FC) in CH compared with SC; there were no significant changes in VEGF levels. CBF change in FC was positively correlated with VEGFR-2 levels (P=0.024). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed robust expression of VEGF/VEGFR-2 in CP. After CH induction, ventricular CSF volume and VEGF levels significantly increased. These results suggest that the decreased VEGFR-2 levels in FC may be contributed to decreased CBF and increased ventricular CSF-VEGF levels possibly reflected a hypoxic response and/or accumulation of VEGF from CP secretion after blockage of CSF outlet. Further investigation into CSF-VEGF levels in different sites may provide a better understanding of VEGF/VEGFR-2 modulation in the normal and hydrocephalic brain, and may represent a feasible approach to potential therapeutic options for hydrocephalus. PMID:20619858

  7. Angiogenin and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in lungs of lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Rozman, Ales; Silar, Mira; Kosnik, Mitja

    2012-01-01

    Background. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Angiogenesis is crucial process in cancer growth and progression. This prospective study evaluated expression of two central regulatory molecules: angiogenin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with lung cancer. Patients and methods. Clinical data, blood samples and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) from 23 patients with primary lung carcinoma were collected. BAL fluid was taken from part of the lung with malignancy, and from corresponding healthy side of the lung. VEGF and angiogenin concentrations were analysed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Dilution of bronchial secretions in the BAL fluid was calculated from urea concentration ratio between serum and BAL fluid. Results. We found no statistical correlation between angiogenin concentrations in serum and in bronchial secretions from both parts of the lung. VEGF concentrations were greater in bronchial secretions in the affected side of the lung than on healthy side. Both concentrations were greater than serum VEGF concentration. VEGF concentration in serum was in positive correlation with tumour size (p = 0,003) and with metastatic stage of disease (p = 0,041). There was correlation between VEGF and angiogenin concentrations in bronchial secretions from healthy side of the lung and between VEGF and angiogenin concentrations in bronchial secretions from part of the lung with malignancy. Conclusion. Angiogenin and VEGF concentrations in systemic, background and local samples of patients with lung cancer are affected by different mechanisms. Pro-angiogenic activity of lung cancer has an important influence on the levels of angiogenin and VEGF. PMID:23412843

  8. Detection of VEGF-Axxxb Isoforms in Human Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Bates, David O.; Mavrou, Athina; Qiu, Yan; Carter, James G.; Hamdollah-Zadeh, Maryam; Barratt, Shaney; Gammons, Melissa V.; Millar, Ann B.; Salmon, Andrew H. J.; Oltean, Sebastian; Harper, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A) can be generated as multiple isoforms by alternative splicing. Two families of isoforms have been described in humans, pro-angiogenic isoforms typified by VEGF-A165a, and anti-angiogenic isoforms typified by VEGF-A165b. The practical determination of expression levels of alternative isoforms of the same gene may be complicated by experimental protocols that favour one isoform over another, and the use of specific positive and negative controls is essential for the interpretation of findings on expression of the isoforms. Here we address some of the difficulties in experimental design when investigating alternative splicing of VEGF isoforms, and discuss the use of appropriate control paradigms. We demonstrate why use of specific control experiments can prevent assumptions that VEGF-A165b is not present, when in fact it is. We reiterate, and confirm previously published experimental design protocols that demonstrate the importance of using positive controls. These include using known target sequences to show that the experimental conditions are suitable for PCR amplification of VEGF-A165b mRNA for both q-PCR and RT-PCR and to ensure that mispriming does not occur. We also provide evidence that demonstrates that detection of VEGF-A165b protein in mice needs to be tightly controlled to prevent detection of mouse IgG by a secondary antibody. We also show that human VEGF165b protein can be immunoprecipitated from cultured human cells and that immunoprecipitating VEGF-A results in protein that is detected by VEGF-A165b antibody. These findings support the conclusion that more information on the biology of VEGF-A165b isoforms is required, and confirm the importance of the experimental design in such investigations, including the use of specific positive and negative controls. PMID:23935865

  9. VEGF-A isoforms program differential VEGFR2 signal transduction, trafficking and proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Fearnley, Gareth W.; Smith, Gina A.; Abdul-Zani, Izma; Yuldasheva, Nadira; Mughal, Nadeem A.; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Kearney, Mark T.; Zachary, Ian C.; Tomlinson, Darren C.; Harrison, Michael A.; Wheatcroft, Stephen B.; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) binding to the receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR2 triggers multiple signal transduction pathways, which regulate endothelial cell responses that control vascular development. Multiple isoforms of VEGF-A can elicit differential signal transduction and endothelial responses. However, it is unclear how such cellular responses are controlled by isoform-specific VEGF-A–VEGFR2 complexes. Increasingly, there is the realization that the membrane trafficking of receptor–ligand complexes influences signal transduction and protein turnover. By building on these concepts, our study shows for the first time that three different VEGF-A isoforms (VEGF-A165, VEGF-A121 and VEGF-A145) promote distinct patterns of VEGFR2 endocytosis for delivery into early endosomes. This differential VEGFR2 endocytosis and trafficking is linked to VEGF-A isoform-specific signal transduction events. Disruption of clathrin-dependent endocytosis blocked VEGF-A isoform-specific VEGFR2 activation, signal transduction and caused substantial depletion in membrane-bound VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 levels. Furthermore, such VEGF-A isoforms promoted differential patterns of VEGFR2 ubiquitylation, proteolysis and terminal degradation. Our study now provides novel insights into how different VEGF-A isoforms can bind the same receptor tyrosine kinase and elicit diverse cellular outcomes. PMID:27044325

  10. Quantification of the vascular endothelial growth factor with a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) based single molecule biosensor.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, T; Lorenz, B; Stieger, K

    2016-12-15

    Neovascular pathologies in the eye like age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the diabetic retinopathie (DR), retinopathie of prematurity (ROP) or the retinal vein occlusion (RVO) are caused through a hypoxia induced upregulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). So far a correlation of intraocular VEGF concentrations to the impact of the pathologies is limited because of invasive sampling. Therefore, a minimally invasive, repeatable quantification of VEGF levels in the eye is needed to correlate the stage of VEGF induced pathologies as well as the efficacy of anti-VEGF treatment. Here we describe the development of three variants of enhanced BRET2 (eBRET2) based, single molecule biosensors by fusing a Renilla luciferase mutant with enhanced light output (RLuc8) to the N-terminus and a suitable eBRET2 acceptor fluorophore (GFP2) to the C-terminus of a VEGF binding domain, directly fused or separated with two different peptide linkers for the quantification of VEGF in vitro. The VEGF binding domain consists of a single chain variable fragment (scFv) based on ranibizumab in which the light- and the heavy- F(ab) chains were connected with a peptide linker to generate one open reading frame (orf). All three variants generate measureable eBRET2 ratios by transferring energy from the luciferase donor to the GFP2 acceptor, whereas only the directly fused and the proline variant permit VEGF quantification. The directly fused biosensor variant allows the quantification of VEGF with higher sensitivity, compared to the widely used ELISA systems and a wide dynamic quantification range in vitro. Our system demonstrates not only an additional in vitro application on VEGF quantification but also a promising step towards an applicable biosensor in an implantable device able to quantify VEGF reliably after implantation in vivo. PMID:27459244

  11. Quantification of the vascular endothelial growth factor with a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) based single molecule biosensor.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, T; Lorenz, B; Stieger, K

    2016-12-15

    Neovascular pathologies in the eye like age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the diabetic retinopathie (DR), retinopathie of prematurity (ROP) or the retinal vein occlusion (RVO) are caused through a hypoxia induced upregulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). So far a correlation of intraocular VEGF concentrations to the impact of the pathologies is limited because of invasive sampling. Therefore, a minimally invasive, repeatable quantification of VEGF levels in the eye is needed to correlate the stage of VEGF induced pathologies as well as the efficacy of anti-VEGF treatment. Here we describe the development of three variants of enhanced BRET2 (eBRET2) based, single molecule biosensors by fusing a Renilla luciferase mutant with enhanced light output (RLuc8) to the N-terminus and a suitable eBRET2 acceptor fluorophore (GFP2) to the C-terminus of a VEGF binding domain, directly fused or separated with two different peptide linkers for the quantification of VEGF in vitro. The VEGF binding domain consists of a single chain variable fragment (scFv) based on ranibizumab in which the light- and the heavy- F(ab) chains were connected with a peptide linker to generate one open reading frame (orf). All three variants generate measureable eBRET2 ratios by transferring energy from the luciferase donor to the GFP2 acceptor, whereas only the directly fused and the proline variant permit VEGF quantification. The directly fused biosensor variant allows the quantification of VEGF with higher sensitivity, compared to the widely used ELISA systems and a wide dynamic quantification range in vitro. Our system demonstrates not only an additional in vitro application on VEGF quantification but also a promising step towards an applicable biosensor in an implantable device able to quantify VEGF reliably after implantation in vivo.

  12. The effect of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor on inner retinal oxygen delivery and metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Blair, Norman P; Wanek, Justin; Teng, Pang-yu; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2016-02-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is stimulated by hypoxia and plays an important role in pathologic vascular leakage and neovascularization. Increased VEGF may affect inner retinal oxygen delivery (DO2) and oxygen metabolism (MO2), however, quantitative information is lacking. We tested the hypotheses that VEGF increases DO2, but does not alter MO2. In 10 rats, VEGF was injected intravitreally into one eye, whereas balanced salt solution (BSS) was injected into the fellow eye, 24 h prior to imaging. Vessel diameters and blood velocities were determined by red-free and fluorescent microsphere imaging, respectively. Vascular PO2 values were derived by phosphorescence lifetime imaging of an intravascular oxyphor. Retinal blood flow, vascular oxygen content, DO2 and MO2 were calculated. Retinal arterial and venous diameters were larger in VEGF-injected eyes compared to control eyes (P < 0.03), however no significant difference was observed in blood velocity (P = 0.21). Thus, retinal blood flow was greater in VEGF-injected eyes (P = 0.007). Retinal vascular PO2 and oxygen content were similar between control and VEGF-injected eyes (P > 0.11), while the arteriovenous oxygen content difference was marginally lower in VEGF-injected eyes (P = 0.05). DO2 was 950 ± 340 and 1380 ± 650 nL O2/min in control and VEGF-injected eyes, respectively (P = 0.005). MO2 was 440 ± 150 and 490 ± 190 nL O2/min in control and VEGF-injected eyes, respectively (P = 0.31). Intravitreally administered VEGF did not alter MO2 but increased DO2, suggesting VEGF may play an offsetting role in conditions characterized by retinal hypoxia.

  13. Clinical significance of vascular endothelial growth factor in hepatitis C related hepatocellular carcinoma in Egyptian patients

    PubMed Central

    Atta, Mohamed Magdi El-Sadek Ali; Atta, Hazem Mahmoud; Gad, Magdy Abdel-Mawgoud; Rashed, Laila Ahmad; Said, Ebada M; Hassanien, Sharaf El-Sayed Ali; Kaseb, Ahmed O

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Several angiogenic factors are involved in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a hypervascular tumor. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a primary driving force for angiogenesis, and its overexpression has been reported in HCC. However, the significance of plasma and tissue VEGF levels in HCC in Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection is understudied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of VEGF (measured in plasma and liver tissue) in patients with hepatitis C virus-related HCC and to assess its significance in the diagnosis and prognosis of HCC. Materials and methods A total of 90 subjects were studied. Among 90 subjects, 60 with CHC were examined and were subdivided into two groups: 30 patients with CHC-related HCC (HCC group) and 30 patients with CHC without HCC (non-HCC group). Thirty apparently healthy subjects served as the control group. VEGF was estimated in plasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and its expression in liver tissue was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. VEGF expression level and its relationship to tumor parameters, patients’ liver function profile, and patients’ clinical parameters were also investigated. Results Plasma VEGF levels in the HCC group were significantly higher than those of the non-HCC group, and both groups had significantly higher plasma VEGF levels than did the control group. Liver tissue VEGF expression was significantly higher in the HCC group than in the non-HCC group and positively correlated with plasma VEGF in the HCC group. The plasma VEGF levels were positively correlated with patients’ age, aspartate aminotransferase levels, serum alpha-fetoprotein levels, the presence of portal vein thrombosis, and the number of hepatic focal lesions in the HCC group. However, plasma VEGF levels were not significantly correlated with the Child-Pugh score, alanine aminotransferase levels, the size of focal lesions

  14. Functions of Müller cell-derived vascular endothelial growth factor in diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan-Juan; Zhu, Meili; Le, Yun-Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Müller cells are macroglia and play many essential roles as supporting cells in the retina. To respond to pathological changes in diabetic retinopathy (DR), a major complication in the eye of diabetic patients, retinal Müller glia produce a high level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF or VEGF-A). As VEGF is expressed by multiple retinal cell-types and Müller glia comprise only a small portion of cells in the retina, it has been a great challenge to reveal the function of VEGF or other globally expressed proteins produced by Müller cells. With the development of conditional gene targeting tools, it is now possible to dissect the function of Müller cell-derived VEGF in vivo. By using conditional gene targeting approach, we demonstrate that Müller glia are a major source of retinal VEGF in diabetic mice and Müller cell-derived VEGF plays a significant role in the alteration of protein expression and peroxynitration, which leads to retinal inflammation, neovascularization, vascular leakage, and vascular lesion, key pathological changes in DR. Therefore, Müller glia are a potential cellular target for the treatment of DR, a leading cause of blindness. PMID:26069721

  15. Effects of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor 165 on Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lin; Wu, Hao; E, Lingling; Wang, Dongsheng; Feng, Fukui; Dong, Yuwan; Liu, Hongchen; Wang, Lili

    2013-01-01

    To study the relationship between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and formation and repair of engineering bone, second-generation bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) of New Zealand white rabbits that were separated in vitro were transfected with VEGF 165 gene vectors by adenovirus to detect gene expressions. Transfected BMSCs and β-tricalcium phosphate material were complexed and implanted at the femoral injury sites of the study group (n = 12), and the control group (n = 12) were implanted with engineering bones that were not transfected with VEGF. Femoral recoveries of the two groups were observed on the 15th, 30th, 45th and 60th days, and their vascularization and ossification statuses were observed by immunohistochemical methods. The BMSCs transfected with VEGF highly expressed VEGF genes and excreted VEGF. The two groups both experienced increased vascularization and bone volume after implantation (t = 7.92, P<0.05), and the increases of the study group were significantly higher than those of the control group (t = 6.92, P<0.05). VEGF is clinically applicable because it can accelerate the formation and repair of engineering bone by promoting vascularization and ossification. PMID:24376611

  16. Vascular endothelial growth factor is associated with neovascularization and influences progression of non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fontanini, G; Vignati, S; Boldrini, L; Chinè, S; Silvestri, V; Lucchi, M; Mussi, A; Angeletti, C A; Bevilacqua, G

    1997-06-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a pivotal role in the development of neovascularization in both physiological and pathological processes, e.g., developmental and reproductive angiogenesis, proliferative retinopathies, and cancers. Several solid tumors produce ample amounts of VEGF, which stimulates proliferation and migration of endothelial cells, thereby inducing neovascularization by a paracrine mechanism. Recently, VEGF expression has been shown to significantly affect the prognosis of different kinds of human cancer. Because neoangiogenesis represents an important prognostic indicator of poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we investigated the influence of VEGF during progression of this type of cancer and its relationship to tumoral neovascularization. VEGF expression was significantly associated with new vessel formation (r = 0.44; P < 0.0001). Moreover, in univariate analysis, VEGF expression significantly affected overall and disease-free survival (P = 0.00003 and P = 0. 0004, respectively). Backward stepwise regression analysis indicated that VEGF expression was an independent prognostic factor in patients with NSCLC. These findings support the hypothesis that VEGF is an important angiogenic factor in primary NSCLC and may help in predicting the outcome of this group of cancers.

  17. Dynamics of VEGF matrix-retention in vascular network patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhn-Luque, A.; de Back, W.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yoshimura, K.; Herrero, M. A.; Miura, T.

    2013-12-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a central regulator of blood vessel morphogenesis, although its role in patterning of endothelial cells into vascular networks is not fully understood. It has been suggested that binding of soluble VEGF to extracellular matrix components causes spatially restricted cues that guide endothelial cells into network patterns. Yet, current evidence for such a mechanism remains indirect. In this study, we quantitatively analyse the dynamics of VEGF retention in a controlled in vitro situation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) in Matrigel. We show that fluorescent VEGF accumulates in pericellular areas and colocalizes with VEGF binding molecules. Analysis of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching reveals that binding/unbinding to matrix molecules dominates VEGF dynamics in the pericellular region. Computational simulations using our experimental measurements of kinetic parameters show that matrix retention of chemotactic signals can lead to the formation of reticular cellular networks on a realistic timescale. Taken together, these results show that VEGF binds to matrix molecules in proximity of HUVECs in Matrigel, and suggest that bound VEGF drives vascular network patterning.

  18. Adding to the Mix: Fibroblast Growth Factor and Platelet-derived Growth Factor Receptor Pathways as Targets in Non–small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Scott A.; Heasley, Lynn E.; Doebele, Robert C.; Camidge, D. Ross

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) increasingly involves the use of molecularly targeted therapy with activity against either the tumor directly, or indirectly, through activity against host-derived mechanisms of tumor support such as angiogenesis. The most well studied signaling pathway associated with angiogenesis is the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway, and the only antiangiogenic agent currently approved for the treatment of NSCLC is bevacizumab, an antibody targeted against VEGF. More recently, preclinical data supporting the role of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) signaling in angiogenesis have been reported. The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) pathways may also stimulate tumor growth directly through activation of downstream mitogenic signaling cascades. In addition, 1 or both of these pathways have been associated with resistance to agents targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and VEGF. A number of agents that target FGF and/or PDGF signaling are now in development for the treatment of NSCLC. This review will summarize the potential molecular roles of PDGFR and FGFR in tumor growth and angiogenesis, as well as discuss the current clinical status of PDGFR and FGFR inhibitors in clinical development. PMID:22165970

  19. Impacts of N-Butylphthalide on expression of growth factors in rats with focal cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yan; Sun, Leyu; Xuan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impacts of n-butylphthalide (NBP) on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in rats with focal cerebral ischemia. The thread embolization method was used to prepare the rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CIR). The animals were divided into a sham operation group, a model control group and NBP treatment group. The NBP group was orally administered 25 mg/kg NBP twice a day after the surgery. The immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were performed to observe the protein and mRNA expressions of VEGF and TGF-β 16 hours, 1 day and 2 days after inducing CIR. The mRNA and protein expressions of VEGF and TGF-β1 in the model control group and the NBP treatment group were all increased after CIR, and those of the NBP treatment group at each post-CIR time point were higher than the model control group (p < 0.01). After CIR, the expressions of VEGF and TGF-β1 increased, suggesting that VEGF and TGF-β1 exhibited protective effects towards the ischemic brain injuries, and that NBP could upregulate the expressions of VEGF and TGF-β1 in the peri-infarcted area, thus possibly protecting the ischemic brain tissues through this mechanism. PMID:26773175

  20. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody and nimustine as combined therapy: effects on tumour growth and angiogenesis in human glioblastoma xenografts.

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Shingo; Tsuboi, Koji; Matsumura, Akira; Nose, Tadao

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) blockade alone and in combination with 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea (ACNU, nimustine), a cytotoxic agent commonly used in the treatment of malignant gliomas, to eradicate tumors of human glioblastoma cell lines implanted in SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency) mice. ACNU, but not cisplatin and etoposide, elevated VEGF expression in a glioma cell line in vitro. VEGF antibody alone inhibited glioma growth in vivo as a result of angiogenesis inhibition. The combination with ACNU resulted in an additive effect for inhibition of glioma growth. ACNU also induced VEGF up-regulation in glioma tissues, which was decreased with VEGF antibody treatment. One of the mechanisms of the additive effect of the VEGF antibody and ACNU combination is the blockade of VEGF up-regulation induced by ACNU. As such, the combination of antiangiogenic therapy with conventional therapy is promising for glioma treatment in the future. PMID:12626127

  1. CTGF increases vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent angiogenesis in human synovial fibroblasts by increasing miR-210 expression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, S-C; Chuang, S-M; Hsu, C-J; Tsai, C-H; Wang, S-W; Tang, C-H

    2014-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, a.k.a. CCN2) is inflammatory mediator and abundantly expressed in osteoarthritis (OA). Angiogenesis is essential for OA progression. Here, we investigated the role of CTGF in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production and angiogenesis in OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs). We showed that expression of CTGF and VEGF in synovial fluid were higher in OA patients than in controls. Directly applying CTGF to OASFs increased VEGF production then promoted endothelial progenitor cells tube formation and migration. CTGF induced VEGF by raising miR-210 expression via PI3K, AKT, ERK, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)/ELK1 pathways. CTGF-mediating miR-210 upregulation repressed glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1-like (GPD1L) expression and PHD activity and subsequently promoted hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α-dependent VEGF expression. Knockdown of CTGF decreased VEGF expression and abolished OASF-conditional medium-mediated angiogenesis in vitro as well as angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane and Matrigel-plug nude mice model in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest CTGF activates PI3K, AKT, ERK, and NF-κB/ELK1 pathway, leading to the upregulation of miR-210, contributing to inhibit GPD1L expression and prolyl hydroxylases 2 activity, promoting HIF-1α-dependent VEGF expression and angiogenesis in human synovial fibroblasts. PMID:25341039

  2. Synergism of matrix stiffness and vascular endothelial growth factor on mesenchymal stem cells for vascular endothelial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wingate, Kathryn; Floren, Michael; Tan, Yan; Tseng, Pi Ou Nancy; Tan, Wei

    2014-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold tremendous potential for vascular tissue regeneration. Research has demonstrated that individual factors in the cell microenvironment such as matrix elasticity and growth factors regulate MSC differentiation to vascular lineage. However, it is not well understood how matrix elasticity and growth factors combine to direct the MSC fate. This study examines the combined effects of matrix elasticity and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on both MSC differentiation into endothelial lineage and MSC paracrine signaling. MSCs were seeded in soft nanofibrous matrices with or without VEGF, and in Petri dishes with or without VEGF. Only MSCs seeded in three-dimensional soft matrices with VEGF showed significant increases in the expression of endothelial markers (vWF, eNOS, Flt-1, and Flk-1), while eliminating the expression of smooth muscle marker (SM-α-actin). MSCs cultured in VEGF alone on two-dimensional dishes showed increased expression of both early-stage endothelial and smooth muscle markers, indicating immature vascular differentiation. Furthermore, MSCs cultured in soft matrices with VEGF showed faster upregulation of endothelial markers compared with MSCs cultured in VEGF alone. Paracrine signaling studies found that endothelial cells cultured in the conditioned media from MSCs differentiated in the soft matrix and VEGF condition exhibited increased migration and formation of capillary-like structures. These results demonstrate that VEGF and soft matrix elasticity act synergistically to guide MSC differentiation into mature endothelial phenotype while enhancing paracrine signaling. Therefore, it is critical to control both mechanical and biochemical factors to safely regenerate vascular tissues with MSCs.

  3. Synergism of Matrix Stiffness and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor on Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Vascular Endothelial Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wingate, Kathryn; Floren, Michael; Tan, Yan; Tseng, Pi Ou Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold tremendous potential for vascular tissue regeneration. Research has demonstrated that individual factors in the cell microenvironment such as matrix elasticity and growth factors regulate MSC differentiation to vascular lineage. However, it is not well understood how matrix elasticity and growth factors combine to direct the MSC fate. This study examines the combined effects of matrix elasticity and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on both MSC differentiation into endothelial lineage and MSC paracrine signaling. MSCs were seeded in soft nanofibrous matrices with or without VEGF, and in Petri dishes with or without VEGF. Only MSCs seeded in three-dimensional soft matrices with VEGF showed significant increases in the expression of endothelial markers (vWF, eNOS, Flt-1, and Flk-1), while eliminating the expression of smooth muscle marker (SM-α-actin). MSCs cultured in VEGF alone on two-dimensional dishes showed increased expression of both early-stage endothelial and smooth muscle markers, indicating immature vascular differentiation. Furthermore, MSCs cultured in soft matrices with VEGF showed faster upregulation of endothelial markers compared with MSCs cultured in VEGF alone. Paracrine signaling studies found that endothelial cells cultured in the conditioned media from MSCs differentiated in the soft matrix and VEGF condition exhibited increased migration and formation of capillary-like structures. These results demonstrate that VEGF and soft matrix elasticity act synergistically to guide MSC differentiation into mature endothelial phenotype while enhancing paracrine signaling. Therefore, it is critical to control both mechanical and biochemical factors to safely regenerate vascular tissues with MSCs. PMID:24702044

  4. [Stem cells and growth factors in wound healing].

    PubMed

    Pikuła, Michał; Langa, Paulina; Kosikowska, Paulina; Trzonkowski, Piotr

    2015-01-02

    Wound healing is a complex process which depends on the presence of various types of cells, growth factors, cytokines and the elements of extracellular matrix. A wound is a portal of entry for numerous pathogens, therefore during the evolution wound healing process has formed very early, being critical for the survival of every individual. Stem cells, which give rise to their early descendants progenitor cells and subsequently differentiated cells, play a specific role in the process of wound healing. Among the most important cells which take part in wound healing the following cells need to be distinguished: epidermal stem cells, dermal precursor of fibroblasts, adipose-derived stem cells as well as bone marrow cells. The activity of these cells is strictly regulated by various growth factors, inter alia epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor (TGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Any disorders in functioning of stem cells and biological activity of growth factors may lead to the defects in wound healing, for instance delayed wound healing or creation of hypertrophic scars. Therefore, knowledge concerning the mechanisms of wound healing is extremely essential from clinical point of view. In this review the current state of the knowledge of the role of stem cells and growth factors in the process of wound healing has been presented. Moreover, some clinical aspects of wound healing as well as the possibility of the therapy based on stem cells and growth factors have included.

  5. Sanguinarine Inhibits Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Release by Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species in MCF-7 Human Mammary Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xian-zhe; Zhang, Miao; Wang, Kun; Liu, Ping; Guo, Dai-hong; Zheng, Xiao-li; Ge, Xiao-yue

    2013-01-01

    The inhibitory action and the possible mechanism of anticancer compound Sanguinarine (SAN) on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human mammary adenocarcinoma cells MCF-7 were evaluated in this study. We exposed MCF-7 to SAN for 24 h, then cell viability was assessed by using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay. Human VEGF was measured using a paired antibody quantitative ELISA kit, relative expression of VEGF mRNA was calculated using the real-time PCR studies, and the effect of SAN on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was detected by the flow cytometer. Treatment with SAN remarkably inhibited growth of MCF-7 cells and induced cell apoptosis. We found that VEGF release was stimulated by subtoxic concentrations of SAN and inhibited by high dose of SAN, SAN-evoked VEGF release was mimicked by low concentration of H2O2, and SAN-regulated VEGF inhibition was accompanied by increasing of ROS; these changes were abolished by antioxidant. High concentration of SAN inhibited VEGF mRNA expression in MCF-7 cultures, suggesting an effect at transcriptional level, and was also abolished by antioxidant. The present findings indicated that the regulation of VEGF expression and release from MCF-7 cells were possibly through reactive oxygen species evoked by SAN. PMID:23762849

  6. Serum level of vascular endothelial growth factor decreased in chronic ketamine abusers

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ni; Zhang, Minling; Xu, Ke; Ke, Xiaoyin; Ding, Yi; Wang, Daping; Liu, Yuping; Ning, Yuping; Deng, Xuefeng; He, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the serum level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a group of chronic ketamine abusers in comparison to healthy controls. Methods Eighty-one ketamine abusers who were hospitalized for the treatment of ketamine dependence and 39 healthy controls were recruited. Serum VEGF level was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Psychopathological symptoms were assessed using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Results Serum level of VEGF was significantly lower in chronic ketamine abusers compared to healthy controls (64.6 ± 42.1 vs. 92.4 ± 59.4 pg/ml, F = 7.243, p = 0.008). Conclusions Serum level of VEGF decreased in chronic ketamine abusers compared to healthy controls. PMID:26003336

  7. Sanguinarine is a novel VEGF inhibitor involved in the suppression of angiogenesis and cell migration

    PubMed Central

    XU, JIA-YING; MENG, QING-HUI; CHONG, YU; JIAO, YANG; ZHAO, LIN; ROSEN, ELIOT M.; FAN, SAIJUN

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a main angiogenic factor which is known to be upregulated in lung cancer. In the present study, it was demonstrated that sanguinarine, an alkaloid obtained from the bloodroot plant, markedly repressed the VEGF-induced tube formation of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) and the migration of human A549 lung cancer cells. Furthermore, sanguinarine decreased VEGF secretion and expression in HMVECs and A549 lung cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Additionally, sanguinarine inhibited the activation of serum starvation- and hypoxia-induced VEGF promoter activity. Sanguinarine also inhibited the VEGF-mediated Akt and p38 activation, as well as VE-cadherin protein phosphorylation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that VEGF inhibition appears to be an important mechanism involved in the antiangiogenic and anti-invasive activities of sanguinarine in lung cancer treatment. PMID:24649171

  8. Normoxic wound fluid contains high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Howdieshell, T R; Riegner, C; Gupta, V; Callaway, D; Grembowicz, K; Sathyanarayana; McNeil, P L

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the temporal integration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which has been shown to be present in wound fluid, with the putatively related processes of wound fluid oxygen content, wound angiogenesis, and granulation tissue formation. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: During cutaneous wound repair, new tissue formation starts with reepithelialization and is followed by granulation tissue formation, including neutrophil and macrophage accumulation, fibroblast ingrowth, matrix deposition, and angiogenesis. Because angiogenesis and increased vascular permeability are characteristic features of wound healing, VEGF may play an important role in tissue repair. METHODS: A ventral hernia, surgically created in the abdominal wall of female swine, was repaired using silicone sheeting and skin closure. Over time, a fluid-filled wound compartment formed, bounded by subcutaneous tissue and omentum. Ultrasonography was performed serially to examine the anatomy and dimensions of the subcutaneous tissue and wound compartment. Serial wound fluid samples, obtained by percutaneous aspiration, were analyzed for PO2, PCO2, pH, and growth factor concentrations. RESULTS: Three independent assays demonstrate that VEGF protein is present at substantially elevated levels in a wound fluid associated with the formation of abdominal granulation tissue. However, the wound fluid is not hypoxic at any time. Serial sampling reveals that transforming growth factor beta-1 protein appears in the wound fluid before VEGF. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that VEGF is a prominent regulator of wound angiogenesis and vessel permeability. A factor other than hypoxia, perhaps the earlier appearance of another growth factor, transforming growth factor beta-1, may positively regulate VEGF appearance in the wound fluid. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 5. Figure 7. PMID:9833810

  9. Ganoderma tsugae extract inhibits expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and angiogenesis in human epidermoid carcinoma cells: In vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shih-Chung; Ou, Chien-Chih; Chuang, Tzu-Chao; Li, Jhy-Wei; Lee, Yi-Jen; Wang, Vinchi; Liu, Jah-Yao; Chen, Chin-Shiang; Lin, Song-Chow; Kao, Ming-Ching

    2009-08-18

    We examined the anti-angiogenic effects of Ganoderma tsugae methanol extract (GTME) on human epidermoid carcinoma A-431 cells. Our data indicate that GTME inhibits the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in vitro and in vivo, and also inhibits the capillary tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We also show that the suppression of VEGF expression by GTME can be restored by treatment with EGF. These results suggest that GTME inhibits VEGF expression via the suppression of EGFR expression, resulting in the downregulation of VEGF secretion from epidermoid carcinoma A-431 cells. These findings reveal a novel role for G. tsugae in inhibiting EGFR and VEGF expression, which are important for tumor angiogenesis and growth. Thus, GTME may provide a potential therapeutic approach for anti-tumor treatment. PMID:19332363

  10. Generation of Potent Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Neutralizing Antibodies from Mouse Phage Display Library for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yan-Da; Wu, Yen-Yu; Tsai, Yi-Jiue; Tsai, Yi-San; Lin, Yu-Ying; Lai, Szu-Liang; Huang, Chao-Yang; Lok, Ying-Yung; Hu, Chih-Yung; Lai, Jiann-Shiun

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important stimulator for angiogenesis in solid tumors. Blocking VEGF activity is an effective therapeutic strategy to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. Avastin, a humanized monoclonal antibody recognizes VEGF, has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. To generate potential VEGF-recognizing antibodies with better tumor regression ability than that of Avastin, we have designed a systematic antibody selection plan. From mice immunized with recombinant human VEGF, we generated three phage display libraries, scFv-M13KO7, Fab-M13KO7, and scFv-Hyperphage, in single-chain Fv (scFv) or Fab format, displayed using either M13KO7 helper phage or Hyperphage. Solid-phase and solution-phase selection strategies were then applied to each library, generating six panning combinations. A total of sixty-four antibodies recognizing VEGF were obtained. Based on the results of epitope mapping, binding affinity, and biological functions in tumor inhibition, eight antibodies were chosen to examine their abilities in tumor regression in a mouse xenograft model using human COLO 205 cancer cells. Three of them showed improvement in the inhibition of tumor growth (328%–347% tumor growth ratio (% of Day 0 tumor volume) on Day 21 vs. 435% with Avastin). This finding suggests a potential use of these three antibodies for VEGF-targeted therapy. PMID:26861297

  11. Intermittent Hypoxia Influences Alveolar Bone Proper Microstructure via Hypoxia-Inducible Factor and VEGF Expression in Periodontal Ligaments of Growing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, Shuji; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Hosomichi, Jun; Kuma, Yoichiro; Maeda, Hideyuki; Nagai, Hisashi; Usumi-Fujita, Risa; Kaneko, Sawa; Shibutani, Naoki; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Ono, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) recapitulates morphological changes in the maxillofacial bones in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Recently, we found that IH increased bone mineral density (BMD) in the inter-radicular alveolar bone (reflecting enhanced osteogenesis) in the mandibular first molar (M1) region in the growing rats, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we focused on the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway to assess the effect of IH by testing the null hypothesis of no significant differences in the mRNA-expression levels of relevant factors associated with the HIF pathway, between control rats and growing rats with IH. To test the null hypothesis, we investigated how IH enhances mandibular osteogenesis in the alveolar bone proper with respect to HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in periodontal ligament (PDL) tissues. Seven-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to IH for 3 weeks. The microstructure and BMD in the alveolar bone proper of the distal root of the mandibular M1 were evaluated using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Expression of HIF-1α and VEGF mRNA in PDL tissues were measured, whereas osteogenesis was evaluated by measuring mRNA levels for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). The null hypothesis was rejected: we found an increase in the expression of all of these markers after IH exposure. The results provided the first indication that IH enhanced osteogenesis of the mandibular M1 region in association with PDL angiogenesis during growth via HIF-1α in an animal model. PMID:27695422

  12. Intermittent Hypoxia Influences Alveolar Bone Proper Microstructure via Hypoxia-Inducible Factor and VEGF Expression in Periodontal Ligaments of Growing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, Shuji; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Hosomichi, Jun; Kuma, Yoichiro; Maeda, Hideyuki; Nagai, Hisashi; Usumi-Fujita, Risa; Kaneko, Sawa; Shibutani, Naoki; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Ono, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) recapitulates morphological changes in the maxillofacial bones in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Recently, we found that IH increased bone mineral density (BMD) in the inter-radicular alveolar bone (reflecting enhanced osteogenesis) in the mandibular first molar (M1) region in the growing rats, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we focused on the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway to assess the effect of IH by testing the null hypothesis of no significant differences in the mRNA-expression levels of relevant factors associated with the HIF pathway, between control rats and growing rats with IH. To test the null hypothesis, we investigated how IH enhances mandibular osteogenesis in the alveolar bone proper with respect to HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in periodontal ligament (PDL) tissues. Seven-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to IH for 3 weeks. The microstructure and BMD in the alveolar bone proper of the distal root of the mandibular M1 were evaluated using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Expression of HIF-1α and VEGF mRNA in PDL tissues were measured, whereas osteogenesis was evaluated by measuring mRNA levels for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). The null hypothesis was rejected: we found an increase in the expression of all of these markers after IH exposure. The results provided the first indication that IH enhanced osteogenesis of the mandibular M1 region in association with PDL angiogenesis during growth via HIF-1α in an animal model.

  13. Echinomycin decreases induction of vascular endothelial growth factor and hepatocyte regeneration in acetaminophen toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Milesi-Hallé, Alessandra; McCullough, Sandra; Hinson, Jack A; Kurten, Richard C; Lamps, Laura W; Brown, Aliza; James, Laura P

    2012-04-01

    Up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is important to hepatocyte regeneration in the late stages of acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in the mouse. This study was conducted to examine the relationship of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) to VEGF and hepatocyte regeneration in APAP toxicity using an inhibitor of HIF-1α DNA-binding activity, echinomycin (EC). B6C3F1 male mice were treated with APAP (200 mg/kg IP), followed by EC (0.15 mg IP) and killed at 4 hr. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), necrosis, hepatic glutathione (GSH) and APAP protein adducts were comparable in the APAP/EC and the APAP/veh mice at 4 hr. Additional studies showed that high dose EC (0.3 mg) reduced hepatic VEGF but also lowered hepatic GSH. Subsequent studies were performed using the 0.15-mg dose of EC. Although EC 0.15 mg had no effect on hepatic VEGF levels at 8 hr, by 24 hr VEGF levels were decreased by 40%. Toxicity (ALT and histopathology) was comparable in the APAP and APAP/EC groups at 24 and 48 hr. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression was reduced by both Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining in the APAP/EC mice at 48 hr. The data support the hypothesis that induction of HIF-1α, its binding to DNA and subsequent expression of VEGF are important factors in hepatocyte regeneration in APAP toxicity in the mouse.

  14. The role of vascular endothelial growth factor in pulmonary arterial hypertension. The angiogenesis paradox.

    PubMed

    Voelkel, Norbert F; Gomez-Arroyo, Jose

    2014-10-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by dysfunctional angiogenesis leading to lung vessel obliteration. PAH is widely considered a proangiogenic disease; however, the role of angiogenic factors, such as the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors, in the pathobiology of PAH remains incompletely understood. This Review attempts to untangle some of the complex multilayered actions of VEGF to provide a VEGF-centered perspective of PAH. Furthermore, we provide a cogent explanation for the paradox of VEGF receptor blockade-induced pulmonary hypertension that characterizes the SU5416-hypoxia rat model of PAH, and attempt to translate the knowledge gained from the experimental model to the human disease by postulating the potential role of endogenous (SU5416-like) VEGF inhibitors. The main objective of this Review is to promote discussion and investigation of the opposing and complementary actions of VEGF in PAH. Understanding the balance between angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors and their role in the pathogenesis of PAH will be necessary before antiangiogenic drugs can be considered for the treatment of PAH.

  15. Targeting the Insulin Growth Factor and the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Pathways in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Minghai; Hollar, Stacy; Chambliss, Daphne; Schmitt, Jordan; Emerson, Robert; Chelladurai, Bhadrani; Perkins, Susan; Ivan, Mircea; Matei, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Antiangiogenic therapy is emerging as a highly promising strategy for the treatment of ovarian cancer, but the clinical benefits are usually transitory. The purpose of this study was to identify and target alternative angiogenic pathways that are upregulated in ovarian xenografts during treatment with bevacizumab. For this, angiogenesis-focused gene expression arrays were used to measure gene expression levels in SKOV3 and A2780 serous ovarian xenografts treated with bevacizumab or control. Reverse transcription-PCR was used for results validation. The insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1) was found upregulated in tumor and stromal cells in the two ovarian xenograft models treated with bevacizumab. Cixutumumab was used to block IGF-1 signaling in vivo. Dual anti-VEGF and IGF blockade with bevacizumab and cixutumumab resulted in increased inhibition of tumor growth. Immunohistochemistry measured multivessel density, Akt activation, and cell proliferation, whereas terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay measured apoptosis in ovarian cancer xenografts. Bevacizumab and cixutumumab combination increased tumor cell apoptosis in vivo compared with therapy targeting either individual pathway. The combination blocked angiogenesis and cell proliferation but not more significantly than each antibody alone. In summary, IGF-1 activation represents an important mechanism of adaptive escape during anti-VEGF therapy in ovarian cancer. This study provides the rationale for designing bevacizumab-based combination regimens to enhance antitumor activity. PMID:22700681

  16. The Association between Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-related Factors with Severity of Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kouchaki, Ebrahim; Otroshi Shahreza, Bentolhoda; Faraji, Saiedeh; Nikoueinejad, Hassan; Sehat, Mojtaba

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can trigger angiogenesis as well as inflammation through binding to its membranous receptor-1 on endothelial and inflammatory cells. We aimed to correlate the circulatory number of cells expressing such receptor as well as the serum level of VEGF and the soluble form of its receptor-1 (sVEGFR1) to the severity of multiple sclerosis (MS). This case-control study was done on 102 cases of MS lacking any other inflammatory or pathologic conditions and 75 healthy volunteer subjects. The severity of MS was examined by expanded disability status scale (EDSS). The serum levels of VEGF and sVEGFR1 were measured by ELISA, and the circulatory frequency of VEGFR1 expressing cells was counted by flowcytometry. Then, the correlation of these variables was evaluated by pearson's correlation coefficient and spearman's test. We also investigated the influence of sex, age, treatment duration, and the number of recurrences on such association through linear multivariate regression method. We found an increase in circulatory level of VEGFR1 expressing cells and the serum level of VEGF as well as sVEGFR1 in MS patients compared to healthy controls (p<0.001). The greater severity of MS, the higher VEGFR1 expressing cells (ρ=0.47; p<0.001), serum level of VEGF (ρ=0.44; p<0.001), and sVEGFR1 (ρ=0.76; p<0.001). Having adjusted the effects of VEGF on sVEGFR1, we found a significant association between the EDSS score and sVEGFR1 (β=0.007; p<0.001). Our findings revealed that circulatory membranous as well as soluble expression of VEGFR1 increases during angiogenic and inflammatory phenomena of MS. Such increase may exacerbate the symptoms and cause more disability. PMID:27424135

  17. Crosstalk between VEGF-A/VEGFR2 and GDNF/RET signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Tufro, Alda . E-mail: atufro@aecom.yu.edu; Teichman, Jason; Banu, Nazifa; Villegas, Guillermo

    2007-06-29

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) plays multiple roles in kidney development: stimulates cell proliferation, survival, tubulogenesis, and branching morphogenesis. However, the mechanism that mediates VEGF-A induced ureteric bud branching is unclear. Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) signaling through tyrosine kinase c-RET is the major regulator of ureteric bud branching. Here we examined whether VEGF-A regulates RET signaling. We determined that ureteric bud-derived cells express the main VEGF-A signaling receptor, VEGFR2 and RET, by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunocytochemistry. We show that the VEGF-A isoform VEGF{sub 165} induces RET-tyr{sup 1062} phosphorylation in addition to VEGFR2 autophosphorylation, that VEGF{sub 165} and GDNF have additive effects on RET-tyr{sup 1062} phosphorylation, and that VEGFR2 and RET co-immunoprecipitate. Functionally, VEGF{sub 165} induces ureteric bud cell proliferation and branching morphogenesis. Similarly, in embryonic kidney explants VEGF{sub 165} induces RET-tyr{sup 1062} phosphorylation and upregulates GDNF. These findings provide evidence for a novel cooperative interaction between VEGFR2 and RET that mediates VEGF-A functions in ureteric bud cells.

  18. Hypoxia-induced paracrine regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor expression.

    PubMed Central

    Brogi, E; Schatteman, G; Wu, T; Kim, E A; Varticovski, L; Keyt, B; Isner, J M

    1996-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/vascular permeability factor (VPF), an endothelial cell (EC)-specific mitogen, stimulates angiogenesis in vivo, particularly in ischemic regions. VEGF/VPF expression by cells of hypoxic tissues coincides with expression of its two receptors, KDR and flt-1, by ECs in the same tissues. We investigated whether hypoxia or hypoxia-dependent conditions operate in coordinating this phenomenon. Human umbilical vein and microvascular ECs were exposed to direct hypoxia or to medium conditioned (CM) by myoblasts maintained in hypoxia for 4 d. Control ECs were maintained in normoxia or normoxia-CM. Binding of 125I-VEGF to ECs was then evaluated. Hypoxic treatment of ECs had no effect on 125I-VEGF binding. However, treatment of ECs with hypoxia-CM produced a threefold increase in 125I-VEGF binding, with peak at 24 h (P < 0.001, ANOVA). Scatchard analysis disclosed that increased binding was due to a 13-fold increase in KDR receptors/cell, with no change in KDR affinity (Kd = 260 +/- 51 pM, normoxia-CM versus Kd = 281 +/- 94 pM, hypoxia-CM) and no change in EC number (35.6 +/- 5.9 x 10(3) ECs/cm2, normoxia-CM versus 33.5 +/- 5.5 x 10(3) ECs/cm2, hypoxia-CM). Similar results were obtained using CM from hypoxic smooth muscle cells. KDR upregulation was not prevented by addition to the hypoxia-CM of neutralizing antibodies against VEGF, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor beta 1 or basic fibroblast growth factor. Similarly, addition of VEGF or lactic acid to the normoxia-CM had no effect on VEGF binding. We conclude that mechanism(s) initiated by hypoxia can induce KDR receptor upregulation in ECs. Hypoxic cells, normal or neoplastic, not only can produce VEGF/VPF, but can also modulate its effects via paracrine induction of VEGF/VPF receptors in ECs. PMID:8567969

  19. Production of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors from Human Lung Macrophages Induced by Group IIA and Group X Secreted Phospholipases A2

    PubMed Central

    Granata, Francescopaolo; Frattini, Annunziata; Loffredo, Stefania; Staiano, Rosaria I.; Petraroli, Angelica; Ribatti, Domenico; Oslund, Rob; Gelb, Michael H.; Lambeau, Gerard; Marone, Gianni; Triggiani, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis mediated by vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are main features of chronic inflammation and tumors. Secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) are overexpressed in inflammatory lung diseases and cancer and they activate inflammatory cells by enzymatic and receptor-mediated mechanisms. We investigated the effect of sPLA2s on the production of VEGFs from human macrophages purified from the lung tissue of patients undergoing thoracic surgery. Primary macrophages express VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D at both mRNA and protein level. Two human sPLA2s (group IIA and group X) induced the expression and release of VEGF-A and VEGF-C from macrophages. Enzymatically-inactive sPLA2s were as effective as the active enzymes in inducing VEGF production. Me-Indoxam and RO092906A, two compounds that block receptor-mediated effects of sPLA2s, inhibited group X-induced release of VEGF-A. Inhibition of the MAPK p38 by SB203580 also reduced sPLA2-induced release of VEGF-A. Supernatants of group X-activated macrophages induced an angiogenic response in chorioallantoic membranes that was inhibited by Me-Indoxam. Stimulation of macrophages with group X sPLA2 in the presence of adenosine analogs induced a synergistic increase of VEGF-A release and inhibited TNF-α production through a cooperation between A2A and A3 receptors. These results demonstrate that sPLA2s induce production of VEGF-A and VEGF-C in human macrophages by a receptor-mediated mechanism independent from sPLA2 catalytic activity. Thus, sPLA2s may play an important role in inflammatory and/or neoplastic angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. PMID:20357262

  20. Vascular growth factors in neuropsychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Samuel S.; Fournier, Neil M.; Duman, Ronald S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding the cellular and molecular basis of psychiatric illnesses have shed light on the important role played by trophic factors in modulating functional parameters associated with disease causality and drug action. Disease mechanisms are now thought to involve multiple cell types, including neurons and endothelial cells. These functionally distinct but interactively coupled cell types engage in cellular cross talk via shared and common signaling molecules. Dysregulation in their cellular signaling pathways influences brain function and alters behavioral performance. Multifunctional trophic factors such as VEGF and EPO that possess both neurotrophic and angiogenic actions are of particular interest due to their ability to rescue structural and plasticity deficits in neurons and vasculature. Obtaining insight into the behavioral, cellular and molecular actions of multi-functional trophic factors has the potential to open new and transformative therapeutic approaches. PMID:23475069

  1. Overexpression of VEGF165b in Podocytes Reduces Glomerular Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yan; Ferguson, Joanne; Oltean, Sebastian; Neal, Chris R.; Kaura, Amit; Bevan, Heather; Wood, Emma; Sage, Leslie M.; Lanati, Silvia; Nowak, Dawid G.; Salmon, Andy H.J.; Bates, David

    2010-01-01

    The observation that therapeutic agents targeting vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) associate with renal toxicity suggests that VEGF plays a role in the maintenance of the glomerular filtration barrier. Alternative mRNA splicing produces the VEGFxxxb family, which consists of antiangiogenic peptides that reduce permeability and inhibit tumor growth; the contribution of these peptides to normal glomerular function is unknown. Here, we established and characterized heterozygous and homozygous transgenic mice that overexpress VEGF165b specifically in podocytes. We confirmed excess production of glomerular VEGF165b by reverse transcriptase–PCR, immunohistochemistry, and ELISA in both heterozygous and homozygous animals. Macroscopically, the mice seemed normal up to 18 months of age, unlike the phenotype of transgenic podocyte-specific VEGF164-overexpressing mice. Animals overexpressing VEGF165b, however, had a significantly reduced normalized glomerular ultrafiltration fraction with accompanying changes in ultrastructure of the glomerular filtration barrier on the vascular side of the glomerular basement membrane. These data highlight the contrasting properties of VEGF splice variants and their impact on glomerular function and phenotype. PMID:20688932

  2. VEGF111: new insights in tissue invasion

    PubMed Central

    Danastas, Kevin; Combes, Valery; Lindsay, Laura A.; Grau, Georges E. R.; Thompson, Michael B.; Murphy, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor is a secreted glycoprotein that acts on endothelial cells to induce developmental and physiological angiogenesis. It has also been implicated in angiogenesis occurring in several pathologies, most notably, cancer. Alternative splicing of VEGF mRNA transcripts results in several isoforms with distinct properties depending on their exon composition. Recently, a new isoform has been identified, VEGF111 with a unique exon composition responsible for its high angiogenic potential. In humans, the only known inducer of VEGF111 is DNA damage but its natural presence in the uterus of the viviparous lizard, Saiphos equalis, suggests other mechanisms of regulation. Most interestingly, the possible relationship between the evolution of viviparity and the associated increased risk in developing cancer may be important in understanding the mechanisms underlying tumor development. PMID:25657624

  3. Clinical implications for vascular endothelial growth factor in the lung: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Andriana I; Kostikas, Konstantinos; Kollia, Panagoula; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I

    2006-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent mediator of angiogenesis which has multiple effects in lung development and physiology. VEGF is expressed in several parts of the lung and the pleura while it has been shown that changes in its expression play a significant role in the pathophysiology of some of the most common respiratory disorders, such as acute lung injury, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obstructive sleep apnea, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, pleural disease, and lung cancer. However, the exact role of VEGF in the lung is not clear yet, as there is contradictory evidence that suggests either a protective or a harmful role. VEGF seems to interfere in a different manner, depending on its amount, the location, and the underlying pathologic process in lung tissue. The lack of VEGF in some disease entities may provide implications for its substitution, whereas its overexpression in other lung disorders has led to interventions for the attenuation of its action. Many efforts have been made in order to regulate the expression of VEGF and anti-VEGF antibodies are already in use for the management of lung cancer. Further research is still needed for the complete understanding of the exact role of VEGF in health and disease, in order to take advantage of its benefits and avoid its adverse effects. The scope of the present review is to summarize from a clinical point of view the changes in VEGF expression in several disorders of the respiratory system and focus on its diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:17044926

  4. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3 Directly Interacts with Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase to Regulate Lymphangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Coso, Sanja; Zeng, Yiping; Opeskin, Kenneth; Williams, Elizabeth D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dysfunctional lymphatic vessel formation has been implicated in a number of pathological conditions including cancer metastasis, lymphedema, and impaired wound healing. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family is a major regulator of lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) function and lymphangiogenesis. Indeed, dissemination of malignant cells into the regional lymph nodes, a common occurrence in many cancers, is stimulated by VEGF family members. This effect is generally considered to be mediated via VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3. However, the role of specific receptors and their downstream signaling pathways is not well understood. Methods and Results Here we delineate the VEGF-C/VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-3 signaling pathway in LECs and show that VEGF-C induces activation of PI3K/Akt and MEK/Erk. Furthermore, activation of PI3K/Akt by VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 resulted in phosphorylation of P70S6K, eNOS, PLCγ1, and Erk1/2. Importantly, a direct interaction between PI3K and VEGFR-3 in LECs was demonstrated both in vitro and in clinical cancer specimens. This interaction was strongly associated with the presence of lymph node metastases in primary small cell carcinoma of the lung in clinical specimens. Blocking PI3K activity abolished VEGF-C-stimulated LEC tube formation and migration. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that specific VEGFR-3 signaling pathways are activated in LECs by VEGF-C. The importance of PI3K in VEGF-C/VEGFR-3-mediated lymphangiogenesis provides a potential therapeutic target for the inhibition of lymphatic metastasis. PMID:22745786

  5. Induction of Podocyte VEGF164 Overexpression at Different Stages of Development Causes Congenital Nephrosis or Steroid-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Veron, Delma; Reidy, Kimberly; Marlier, Arnaud; Bertuccio, Claudia; Villegas, Guillermo; Jimenez, Juan; Kashgarian, Michael; Tufro, Alda

    2010-01-01

    The tight regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) signaling is required for both the development and maintenance of the glomerular filtration barrier, but the pathogenic role of excessive amounts of VEGF-A detected in multiple renal diseases remains poorly defined. We generated inducible transgenic mice that overexpress podocyte VEGF164 at any chosen stage of development. In this study, we report the phenotypes that result from podocyte VEGF164 excess during organogenesis and after birth. On doxycycline induction, podocin-rtTA:tet-O-VEGF164 mice express twofold higher kidney VEGF164 levels than single transgenic mice, localized to podocytes. Podocyte VEGF164 overexpression during organogenesis resulted in albuminuria at birth and was associated with glomerulomegaly, uniform podocyte effacement, very few and wide foot processes joined by occluding junctions, almost complete absence of slit diaphragms, and swollen endothelial cells with few fenestrae as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Podocyte VEGF164 overexpression after birth caused massive albuminuria in 70% of 2-week-old mice, glomerulomegaly, and minimal changes on light microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy showed podocyte effacement and fusion and morphologically normal endothelial cells. Podocyte VEGF164 overexpression induced nephrin down-regulation without podocyte loss. VEGF164-induced abnormalities were reversible on removal of doxycycline and were unresponsive to methylprednisolone. Collectively, the data suggest that moderate podocyte VEGF164 overexpression during organogenesis results in congenital nephrotic syndrome, whereas VEGF164 overexpression after birth induces a steroid-resistant minimal change like-disease in mice. PMID:20829436

  6. Vascular endothelial growth factor stimulates endothelial differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells via Rho/myocardin-related transcription factor--a signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Shui-Jing; Zhang, Chun-Ling; Mao, Li-Bin; Zhuang, Chun-Yu; Tang, Yan-Yang; Luo, Xue-Gang; Zhou, Hao; Zhang, Tong-Cun

    2013-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are pluripotent progenitors that can differentiate into a variety of cell types. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the major factors of initiating and regulating angiogenesis. It has been reported that VEGF can induce MSCs differentiated into endothelial cells (ECs). However, the mechanism that VEGF-induced MSC differentiation is not completely understood. Here, we showed that VEGF induced human and rat bone marrow-derived MSCs differentiation to ECs. Rho family plays an important role in VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. Our results indicated that in MSCs, VEGF activated Rho/ROCK signaling pathway and promoted nuclear translocation of myocardin-related transcription factor-A (MRTF-A), which is controlled by Rho/ROCK signaling. In addition, Rho inhibitor C3 transferase, ROCK inhibitor Y27632 or depletion of endogenous MRTF-A abolished the VEGF-induced differentiation of MSCs into ECs. Furthermore, VEGF also enhanced the expression levels of CYR61/CCN1, as a regulator of vascular development and angiogenesis, and knockdown of endogenous MRTF-A reduced VEGF-induced the upregulation of CYR61/CCN1. Report assays with site-direct mutation analysis of CYR61/CCN1 promoter demonstrated that MRTF-A transactivated CYR61/CCN1 promoter mainly depending on CArG box. In this study, we identify the Rho/MRTF-A signaling pathway as a main actor in controlling VEGF-induced differentiation of human and rat bone marrow-derived MSCs into endothelial cells.

  7. Controlled angiogenesis in the heart by cell-based expression of specific vascular endothelial growth factor levels.

    PubMed

    Melly, Ludovic F; Marsano, Anna; Frobert, Aurelien; Boccardo, Stefano; Helmrich, Uta; Heberer, Michael; Eckstein, Friedrich S; Carrel, Thierry P; Giraud, Marie-Noëlle; Tevaearai, Hendrik T; Banfi, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can induce normal angiogenesis or the growth of angioma-like vascular tumors depending on the amount secreted by each producing cell because it remains localized in the microenvironment. In order to control the distribution of VEGF expression levels in vivo, we recently developed a high-throughput fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-based technique to rapidly purify transduced progenitors that homogeneously express a specific VEGF dose from a heterogeneous primary population. Here we tested the hypothesis that cell-based delivery of a controlled VEGF level could induce normal angiogenesis in the heart, while preventing the development of angiomas. Freshly isolated human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC) were transduced with retroviral vectors expressing either rat VEGF linked to a FACS-quantifiable cell-surface marker (a truncated form of CD8) or CD8 alone as control (CTR). VEGF-expressing cells were FACS-purified to generate populations producing either a specific VEGF level (SPEC) or uncontrolled heterogeneous levels (ALL). Fifteen nude rats underwent intramyocardial injection of 10(7) cells. Histology was performed after 4 weeks. Both the SPEC and ALL cells produced a similar total amount of VEGF, and both cell types induced a 50%-60% increase in both total and perfused vessel density compared to CTR cells, despite very limited stable engraftment. However, homogeneous VEGF expression by SPEC cells induced only normal and stable angiogenesis. Conversely, heterogeneous expression of a similar total amount by the ALL cells caused the growth of numerous angioma-like structures. These results suggest that controlled VEGF delivery by FACS-purified ASC may be a promising strategy to achieve safe therapeutic angiogenesis in the heart.

  8. Acetylbritannilactone Modulates Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling and Regulates Angiogenesis in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jingshan; Niu, Honglin; Li, Aiying; Nie, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of 1-O-acetylbritannilactone (ABL), a compound extracted from Inula britannica L., on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling and angiogenesis in endothelial cells (ECs). We showed that ABL promotes VEGF-induced cell proliferation, growth, migration, and tube formation in cultured human ECs. Furthermore, the modulatory effect of ABL on VEGF-induced Akt, MAPK p42/44, and p38 phosphorylation, as well as on upstream VEGFR-2 phosphorylation, were associated with VEGF-dependent Matrigel angiogenesis in vivo. In addition, animals treated with ABL (26 mg/kg/day) recovered blood flow significantly earlier than control animals, suggesting that ABL affects ischemia-mediated angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in vivo. Finally, we demonstrated that ABL strongly reduced the levels of VEGFR-2 on the cell surface, enhanced VEGFR-2 endocytosis, which consistent with inhibited VE-cadherin, a negative regulator of VEGF signaling associated with VEGFR-2 complex formation, but did not alter VE-cadherin or VEGFR-2 expression in ECs. Our results suggest that ABL may serve as a novel therapeutic intervention for various cardiovascular diseases, including chronic ischemia, by regulating VEGF signaling and modulating angiogenesis. PMID:26863518

  9. VEGF-Production by CCR2-Dependent Macrophages Contributes to Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Torsten A.; Alex, Anne F.; Engel, Daniel R.; Kurts, Christian; Eter, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most prevalent cause of blindness in the elderly, and its exsudative subtype critically depends on local production of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF). Mononuclear phagocytes, such as macrophages and microglia cells, can produce VEGF. Their precursors, for example monocytes, can be recruited to sites of inflammation by the chemokine receptor CCR2, and this has been proposed to be important in AMD. To investigate the role of macrophages and CCR2 in AMD, we studied intracellular VEGF content in a laser-induced murine model of choroidal neovascularisation. To this end, we established a technique to quantify the VEGF content in cell subsets from the laser-treated retina and choroid separately. 3 days after laser, macrophage numbers and their VEGF content were substantially elevated in the choroid. Macrophage accumulation was CCR2-dependent, indicating recruitment from the circulation. In the retina, microglia cells were the main VEGF+ phagocyte type. A greater proportion of microglia cells contained VEGF after laser, and this was CCR2-independent. On day 6, VEGF-expressing macrophage numbers had already declined, whereas numbers of VEGF+ microglia cells remained increased. Other sources of VEGF detectable by flow cytometry included in dendritic cells and endothelial cells in both retina and choroid, and Müller cells/astrocytes in the retina. However, their VEGF content was not increased after laser. When we analyzed flatmounts of laser-treated eyes, CCR2-deficient mice showed reduced neovascular areas after 2 weeks, but this difference was not evident 3 weeks after laser. In summary, CCR2-dependent influx of macrophages causes a transient VEGF increase in the choroid. However, macrophages augmented choroidal neovascularization only initially, presumably because VEGF production by CCR2-independent eye cells prevailed at later time points. These findings identify macrophages as a relevant source of VEGF in laser

  10. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Properties of Anti-VEGF Drugs After Intravitreal Injection.

    PubMed

    Semeraro, Francesco; Morescalchi, Francesco; Duse, Sarah; Gambicorti, Elena; Cancarini, Anna; Costagliola, Ciro

    2015-01-01

    Subretinal neovascularization and pathologic ocular angiogenesis are common causes of progressive, irreversible impairment of central vision, and dramatically affect quality of life. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy has improved the quality of life for many patients with age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other ocular diseases involving neovascularization and edema. In these pathologies, the inhibition of intraocular VEGF is the only therapy that can preserve vision. Four anti-VEGF drugs are currently used to treat ocular neovascularization; pegaptanib, ranibizumab, and aflibercept have been approved for this condition, while bevacizumab can be used off-label. Anti-VEGF therapy is administered regularly for many months or years because its suspension or discontinuation may cause recurrence of neovascularization. On the other hand, VEGF is necessary for the survival of retinal and choroidal endothelial cells. Experimental studies in animal models have shown that local inhibition of VEGF causes thinning and atrophy of the choriocapillaris and degeneration of photoreceptors, primarily cones. These studies combined with clinical experience indicated that prolonged VEGF inhibition could impair retinal function. Moreover, anti-VEGF compounds can cross the blood-retina barrier, enter the systemic circulation, and inhibit serum VEGF. Since circulating VEGF protects blood vessel integrity, prolonged anti-VEGF treatment could induce thromboembolic adverse events from vascular causes such as heart attack and stroke, and even death. The ocular dosing regimen and systemic toxicity of anti-VEGF compounds are therefore central concerns. A better understanding of this topic requires knowledge of the metabolism, tissue distribution, and clearance of anti-VEGF compounds. This manuscript reviews the properties of anti-VEGF compounds following intravitreal administration. PMID:26424177

  11. Expression and regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor ligands and receptors during menstruation and post-menstrual repair of human endometrium.

    PubMed

    Punyadeera, C; Thijssen, V L; Tchaikovski, S; Kamps, R; Delvoux, B; Dunselman, G A J; de Goeij, A F P M; Griffioen, A W; Groothuis, P G

    2006-06-01

    Regeneration and growth of the human endometrium after shedding of the functional layer during menstruation depends on an adequate angiogenic response. We analysed the mRNA expression levels of all known vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ligands and receptors in human endometrium collected in the menstrual and proliferative phases of the menstrual cycle. In addition, we evaluated the expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-R2 and NRP-1 at the protein level. Two periods of elevated mRNA expression of ligands and receptors were observed, separated by a distinct drop at cycle days (CDs) 9 and 10. Immunohistochemical staining showed that VEGF and VEGF-R2 were expressed in epithelial, stromal and endothelial cells. NRP-1 was mainly confined to stroma and blood vessels; only in late-proliferative endometrium, epithelial staining was also observed. Except for endothelial VEGF-R2 expression in CDs 6-8, there were no significant differences in the expression of VEGF, VEGF-R2 or NRP-1 in any of the cell compartments. In contrast, VEGF release by cultured human endometrium explants decreased during the proliferative phase. This output was significantly reduced in menstrual and early-proliferative endometrium by estradiol (E2) treatment. Western blot analysis indicated that part of the VEGF-A was trapped in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Changes in VEGF ligands and receptors were associated with elevated expression of the hypoxia markers HIF1alpha and CA-IX in the menstrual and early proliferative phases. HIF1alpha was also detected in late-proliferative phase endometrium. Our findings indicate that VEGF-A exerts its actions mostly during the first half of the proliferative phase. Furthermore, VEGF-A production appears to be triggered by hypoxia in the menstrual phase and subsequently suppressed by estrogen during the late proliferative phase.

  12. Expression of VEGF in Neonatal Urinary Obstruction: Does Expression of VEGF Predict Hydronephrosis?

    PubMed Central

    Magyar, Zsófia; Schönleber, Julianna; Romics, Miklós; Hruby, Ervin; Nagy, Bálint; Sulya, Bálint; Beke, Artúr; Harmath, Ágnes; Jeager, Judit; Rigó, János; Görbe, Éva

    2015-01-01

    Background In animal studies, the inhibition of VEGF activity results in high mortality and impaired renal and glomerular development. Mechanical stimuli, like mechanical stretch in respiratory and circulatory systems, results in an elevated expression of VEGF. In animal models, the experimental urinary obstruction is associated with stretching of tubular cells and activations of the renin-angiotensin system. This results in the upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and TNF-alfa. Material/Methods Tissue samples from urinary tract obstruction were collected and immunohistochemistry was performed in 14 patients (average age: 7.1±4.1 years). The control histology group consisted of ureteropelvic junction tissue from 10 fetuses after midtrimester artificial abortion. The fetuses did not have any failure at ultrasound screening and pathological examination. The mean gestational age was 20.6 weeks of gestation (±2.2SD). Expression of VEGF was detected with immunohistochemistry method. Results Expression of VEGF was found in varying intensity in the submucosa and subserosa layers, but only in the test tissue (placental tissue). The tissue of the patients with urinary obstruction and the tissue of the fetal ureteropelvic junction without urinary obstruction were negative for expression of VEGF. The repeated examination showed negative cells and no color staining. Conclusions The pressure due to congenital urogenital obstruction resulting in mechanical stress in cells did not increase the expression of VEGF in young children in our study. To find a correlation between urogenital tract obstruction and increased expression of VEGF, we need to perform more examinations because the connection may be of therapeutic significance. PMID:25951999

  13. Combined Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Blockade Inhibits Tumor Growth in Xenograft Models of EGFR Inhibitor Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Naumov, George N.; Nilsson, Monique B.; Cascone, Tina; Briggs, Alexandra; Straume, Oddbjorn; Akslen, Lars A.; Lifshits, Eugene; Byers, Lauren Averett; Xu, Li; Wu, Hua-kang; Jänne, Pasi; Kobayashi, Susumu; Halmos, Balazs; Tenen, Daniel; Tang, Xi M.; Engelman, Jeffrey; Yeap, Beow; Folkman, Judah; Johnson, Bruce E.; Heymach, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) gefitinib and erlotinib benefit some non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, but most do not respond (primary resistance) and those who initially respond eventually progress (acquired resistance). EGFR TKI resistance is not completely understood and has been associated with certain EGFR and K-RAS mutations and MET amplification. Experimental Design We hypothesized that dual inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and EGFR pathways may overcome primary and acquired resistance. We investigated the VEGF receptor/EGFR TKI vandetanib, and the combination of bevacizumab and erlotinib in vivo using xenograft models of EGFR TKI sensitivity, primary resistance, and three models of acquired resistance, including models with mutated K-RAS and secondary EGFR T790M mutation. Results Vandetanib, gefitinib, and erlotinib had similar profiles of in vitro activity and caused sustained tumor regressions in vivo in the sensitive HCC827 model. In all four resistant models, vandetanib and bevacizumab/erlotinib were significantly more effective than erlotinib or gefitinib alone. Erlotinib resistance was associated with a rise in both host and tumor-derived VEGF but not EGFR secondary mutations in the KRAS mutant-bearing A549 xenografts. Dual inhibition reduced tumor endothelial proliferation compared with VEGF or EGFR blockade alone, suggesting that the enhanced activity of dual inhibition is due at least in part to antiendothelial effects. Conclusion These studies suggest that erlotinib resistance may be associated with a rise in both tumor cell and host stromal VEGF and that combined blockade of the VEGFR and EGFR pathways can abrogate primary or acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs. This approach merits further evaluation in NSCLC patients. PMID:19447865

  14. VEGF modulates synaptic activity in the developing spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Guérit, Sylvaine; Allain, Anne-Emilie; Léon, Céline; Cazenave, William; Ferrara, Napoleone; Branchereau, Pascal; Bikfalvi, Andréas

    2014-11-01

    Although it has been documented that the nervous and the vascular systems share numerous analogies and are closely intermingled during development and pathological processes, interactions between the two systems are still poorly described. In this study, we investigated whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is a key regulator of vascular development, also modulates neuronal developmental processes. We report that VEGF enhances the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)/glycinergic but not glutamatergic synaptic activity in embryonic spinal motoneurons (MNs), without affecting MNs excitability. In response to VEGF, the frequency of these synaptic events but not their amplitude was increased. Blocking endogenous VEGF led to an opposite effect by decreasing frequency of synaptic events. We found that this effect occurred specifically at early developmental stages (E13.5 and E15.5) and vanished at the prenatal stage E17.5. Furthermore, VEGF was able to increase vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter density at the MN membrane. Inhibition of single VEGF receptors did not modify electrophysiological parameters indicating receptor combinations or an alternative pathway. Altogether, our findings identify VEGF as a modulator of the neuronal activity during synapse formation and highlight a new ontogenic role for this angiogenic factor in the nervous system.

  15. VEGF and CD31 association in pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Cristina, Carolina; Perez-Millan, María Inés; Luque, Guillermina; Dulce, Raúl Ariel; Sevlever, Gustavo; Berner, Silvia Inés; Becu-Villalobos, Damasia

    2010-09-01

    Pituitary tumors are usually less vascularized than the normal pituitary, and the role of angiogenesis in these adenomas is contentious. Appraisal of microvascular density and expression of the potent angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by immunohistochemistry has yielded controversial results, as a broad spectrum of immunostaining can be found. We determined the protein expression of VEGF and CD31, an endothelial marker, in a series of 56 surgically removed pituitary adenomas using Western blot assay. Prolactinomas had higher VEGF protein expression compared to nonfunctioning or ACTH- and GH-secreting adenomas, while CD31 was similar in the different adenoma histotypes. VEGF and CD31 were not affected by sex, age, years of adenoma evolution, or proliferation rate (Ki67 and PCNA) for all adenoma types. Only in nonfunctioning adenomas CD31 concentration increased significantly with age. There was a positive correlation between CD31 and VEGF expression when all adenoma histotypes were considered, or when prolactinomas and nonfunctioning adenomas were evaluated separately. The positive association of VEGF and CD31 expression suggests the participation of angiogenesis in adenoma development, while epithelial cell proliferation in pituitary tumors is not directly related to VEGF or CD31 expression, and other factors, such as primary genetic alterations may be involved. PMID:20473646

  16. Silencing of VEGF inhibits human osteosarcoma angiogenesis and promotes cell apoptosis via VEGF/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Ningning; Gao, Shuming; Guo, Xu; Wang, Guangya; Cheng, Cai; Li, Min; Liu, Kehun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteosarcoma is a kind of highly malignant tumor and the growth and metastasis is closely related to angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important angiogenesis-promoting factor. In the current study, we investigated the effects of suppressed VEGF on osteosarcoma and its molecular mechanism provided for a basis by targeting angiogenesis. Material/Methods: We established bearing human osteosarcoma Wistar rats model by subcutaneous inoculation of human SaOS-2 cells and the adenovirus vector Ad-VEGF-siRNA was constructed for further study. We assessed the efficiency of VEGF silencing and its influence on SaOS-2 cells. The expression of mRNA and protein were detected by RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Intratumoral microvessel density (MVD), VEGF and CD31 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. We detected the cell apoptotic rates by flow cytometry. Results: Our results indicated that Ad-VEGF-siRNA could effectively suppressed the expression of VEGF expression, inhibited the proliferation capability and promoted apoptosis of SaOS-2 cells in vitro. Silencing of VEGF expression also suppress osteosarcoma tumor growth and reduce osteosarcoma angiogenesis in the Wistar rats model in vivo. Furthermore, We found that phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (AKT) activation were considerably reduced while inhibition VEGF expression in SaOS-2 cells. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that VEGF silencing could suppress cells proliferation, promote cells apoptosis and reduce osteosarcoma angiogenesis through inactivation of VEGF/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. PMID:27158386

  17. An in vitro cord formation assay identifies unique vascular phenotypes associated with angiogenic growth factors.

    PubMed

    Falcon, Beverly L; Swearingen, Michelle; Gough, Wendy H; Lee, Linda; Foreman, Robert; Uhlik, Mark; Hanson, Jeff C; Lee, Jonathan A; McClure, Don B; Chintharlapalli, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a dominant role in angiogenesis. While inhibitors of the VEGF pathway are approved for the treatment of a number of tumor types, the effectiveness is limited and evasive resistance is common. One mechanism of evasive resistance to inhibition of the VEGF pathway is upregulation of other pro-angiogenic factors such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Numerous in vitro assays examine angiogenesis, but many of these assays are performed in media or matrix with multiple growth factors or are driven by VEGF. In order to study angiogenesis driven by other growth factors, we developed a basal medium to use on a co-culture cord formation system of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) and endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs). We found that cord formation driven by different angiogenic factors led to unique phenotypes that could be differentiated and combination studies indicate dominant phenotypes elicited by some growth factors. VEGF-driven cords were highly covered by smooth muscle actin, and bFGF-driven cords had thicker nodes, while EGF-driven cords were highly branched. Multiparametric analysis indicated that when combined EGF has a dominant phenotype. In addition, because this assay system is run in minimal medium, potential proangiogenic molecules can be screened. Using this assay we identified an inhibitor that promoted cord formation, which was translated into in vivo tumor models. Together this study illustrates the unique roles of multiple anti-angiogenic agents, which may lead to improvements in therapeutic angiogenesis efforts and better rational for anti-angiogenic therapy. PMID:25210890

  18. Alternatively Spliced Tissue Factor Promotes Plaque Angiogenesis Through the Activation of HIF-1α and VEGF Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Giannarelli, Chiara; Alique, Matilde; Rodriguez, David T.; Yang, Dong Kwon; Jeong, Dongtak; Calcagno, Claudia; Hutter, Randolph; Millon, Antoine; Kovacic, Jason C.; Weber, Thomas; Faries, Peter L.; Soff, Gerald A.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Hajjar, Roger J.; Fuster, Valentin; Badimon, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alternatively Spliced Tissue Factor (asTF) is a novel isoform of full-length Tissue Factor (fl-TF) that exhibits angiogenic activity. Although asTF has been detected in human plaques, it is unknown whether its expression in atherosclerosis causes increased neovascularization and an advanced plaque phenotype. Methods and Results Carotid (n=10) and coronary specimens (n=8), from patients with stable or unstable angina, were classified as complicated or uncomplicated based on plaque morphology. Analysis of asTF expression and cell type –specific expression revealed a strong expression and co-localization of asTF with macrophages and neovessels within complicated, but not un-complicated, human plaques. Our results showed that the angiogenic activity of asTF is mediated via HIF-1α up-regulation through integrins and activation of phosphatidylinositol-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. HIF-1α up-regulation by asTF also was associated with increased VEGF expression in primary human endothelial cells, and VEGF-Trap significantly reduced the angiogenic effect of asTF in vivo. Furthermore, asTF gene transfer significantly increased neointima formation and neovascularization following carotid wire injury in ApoE−/− mice. Conclusions The results of this study provide strong evidence that asTF promotes neointima formation and angiogenesis in an experimental model of accelerated atherosclerosis. Herein, we demonstrate that the angiogenic effect of asTF is mediated via the activation of the HIF-1/VEGF signaling. This mechanism may be relevant to neovascularization, progression and associated complications of human atherosclerosis as suggested by the increased expression of asTF in complicated vs. uncomplicated human carotid and coronary plaques. PMID:25116956

  19. Immunoexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor and Ki-67 in human gingival samples: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Kranti, K.; Mani, R.; Elizabeth, Anjana

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate immunohistochemically vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Ki-67 in human gingival samples and to compare these factors between healthy and diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 subjects were included in the study. They were categorized into three groups: Periodontally healthy group, periodontally diseased gingiva without any systemic disease group and periodontally diseased gingiva with controlled type II diabetes mellitus (DM) group. Gingival biopsies were performed and immunohistochemical analysis were done for VEGF and Ki-67 staining in gingival samples. Results: The present study found moderate intensity staining for VEGF in periodontitis group and periodontitis with controlled type II DM group and mild intensity staining for VEGF in periodontally healthy group. With regard to Ki-67, negative staining was observed in periodontally healthy group and mild staining in periodontitis group and periodontitis with controlled type II DM group. Conclusion: Further investigation needs to be conducted to identify how VEGF and Ki-67 are involved in the tissue inflammation associated processes and the relationship between VEGF and Ki-67 in progression of periodontitis. PMID:26097335

  20. Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in human keratinocytes by retinoids.

    PubMed

    Diaz, B V; Lenoir, M C; Ladoux, A; Frelin, C; Démarchez, M; Michel, S

    2000-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is overexpressed in hyperproliferative diseases, such as psoriasis and cancers, which are characterized by increased angiogenesis. Experimentally, VEGF overexpression can be induced by the treatment of cell cultures and biological tissues with phorbol esters, such as 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Using normal human keratinocytes in conventional cultures and skin grafted onto nude mice in vivo, we show that retinoids can inhibit TPA-mediated VEGF gene induction at the transcriptional level. Because retinoids are biologically active either by interacting with the nuclear retinoic acid receptors or by interfering with the activator protein 1 (AP1) transcription factor, we studied the effect of the retinoic acid derivative CD 2409, which exhibits strong anti-AP1 activity but does not bind to the known retinoic acid receptors in vitro. The results demonstrate that the inhibition of VEGF expression by retinoids only depends on their anti-AP1 activity and does not require gene transactivation via retinoic acid response elements. Because the VEGF promoter contains four potential AP1 binding sites, we used different promoter constructs to identify the functional site responsible for TPA induction and retinoid inhibition. This site turned out to be localized at position -621 of the 5' flanking region of the VEGF gene.

  1. Functional interaction between CTGF and FPRL1 regulates VEGF-A-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Sook; Ghim, Jaewang; Kim, Sun-Jin; Yun, Young Sung; Yoo, Seung-Ah; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Kim, Wan-Uk; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2015-07-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is a master regulator of angiogenesis that controls several angiogenic processes in endothelial cells. However, the detailed mechanisms of VEGF-A responsible for pleiotropic functions and crosstalk with other signaling pathways have not been fully understood. Here, we found that VEGF-A utilizes the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)/formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1) axis as one of its mediators in angiogenesis. Using a proteomic approach, we found increased secretion of a matricellular protein, CTGF, from VEGF-A-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Then, we studied the effect of CTGF binding to FPRL1 in VEGF-A-induced angiogenesis. CTGF directly binds to FPRL1 through a linker region and activates the downstream signals of FPRL1, such as increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. We found that linker region-induced FPRL1 activation promotes the migration and network formation of HUVECs, while disruption of FPRL1 inhibits VEGF-A-induced HUVEC migration and network formation. In addition, similar results were observed by the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay based evaluation of angiogenesis in vivo. To summarize, our data reveal a novel working model for VEGF-A-induced angiogenesis via the VEGF-A/CTGF/FPRL1 axis that might prolong and enhance the signals initiated from VEGF-A.

  2. Corneal Neovascularization: An Anti-VEGF Therapy Review

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jin-Hong; Garg, Nitin K.; Lunde, Elisa; Han, Kyu-Yeon; Jain, Sandeep; Azar, Dimitri T.

    2013-01-01

    Corneal neovascularization is a serious condition that can lead to a profound decline in vision. The abnormal vessels block light, cause corneal scarring, compromise visual acuity, and may lead to inflammation and edema. Corneal neovascularization occurs when the balance between angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors is tipped toward angiogenic molecules. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the most important mediators of angiogenesis, is upregulated during neovascularization. In fact, anti-VEGF agents have efficacy in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, macular edema, neovascular glaucoma, and other neovascular diseases. These same agents have great potential for the treatment of corneal neovascularization. We review some of the most promising anti-VEGF therapies, including bevacizumab, VEGF trap, siRNA, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:22898649

  3. Vascular endothelial growth factor-D is a key molecule that enhances lymphatic metastasis of soft tissue sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagawa, Takashi; Shinozaki, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Hideomi; Saito, Kenichi; Raz, Avraham; Takagishi, Kenji

    2012-04-15

    Studies on lymph node metastasis of soft tissue sarcomas are insufficient because of its rarity. In this study, we examined the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and VEGF-D in soft tissue sarcomas metastasized to lymph nodes. In addition, the effects of the two molecules on the barrier function of a lymphatic endothelial cell monolayer against sarcoma cells were analyzed. We examined 7 patients who had soft tissue sarcomas with lymph node metastases and who had undergone neither chemotherapy nor radiotherapy before lymphadenectomy. Immunohistochemistry revealed that 2 of 7 sarcomas that metastasized to lymph nodes expressed VEGF-C both in primary and metastatic lesions. On the other hand, VEGF-D expression was detected in 4 of 7 primary and 7 of 7 metastatic lesions, respectively. Interestingly, 3 cases that showed no VEGF-D expression at primary sites expressed VEGF-D in metastatic lesions. Recombinant VEGF-C at 10{sup -8} and VEGF-D at 10{sup -7}and 10{sup -8} g/ml significantly increased the random motility of lymphatic endothelial cells compared with controls. VEGF-D significantly increased the migration of sarcoma cells through lymphatic endothelial monolayers. The fact that VEGF-D induced the migration of fibrosarcomas through the lymphatic endothelial monolayer is the probable reason for the strong relationship between VEGF-D expression and lymph node metastasis in soft tissue sarcomas. The important propensities of this molecule for the increase of lymph node metastases are not only lymphangiogenesis but also down-regulation of the barrier function of lymphatic endothelial monolayers, which facilitates sarcoma cells entering the lymphatic circulation.

  4. Downregulation of Fes inhibits VEGF-A-induced chemotaxis and capillary-like morphogenesis by cultured endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Shigeru; Kanetake, Hiroshi; Miyata, Yasuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine whether the downregulation of endogenous Fes by siRNA in cultured endothelial cells affects vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A)-induced chemotaxis and capillary-like morphogenesis, which are considered as angiogenic cellular responses in vitro. VEGF-A-treatment induced autophosphorylation of Fes in cultured endothelial cells.LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor, significantly inhibited VEGF-A-induced chemotaxis and capillary-like morphogenesis.Downregulation of Fes attenuated these VEGF-A-induced cellular responses but LY294002 did not produce further inhibition of these responses. Downregulation of Fes neither affected VEGF-A-induced autophosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 nor mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, but markedly decreased Akt activation.Taken together, our novel results indicate the involvement of Fes in VEGF-A-induced cellular responses by cultured endothelial cells. PMID:17521372

  5. TFAP2B overexpression contributes to tumor growth and a poor prognosis of human lung adenocarcinoma through modulation of ERK and VEGF/PEDF signaling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background TFAP2B is a member of the AP2 transcription factor family, which orchestrates a variety of cell processes. However, the roles of TFAP2B in regulating carcinogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the regulatory effects of TFAP2B on lung adenocarcinomas growth and identified the underlying mechanisms of actions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Methods We first examined the expression of TFAP2B in lung cancer cell lines and tumor tissues. We also analyzed the prognostic predicting value of TFAP2B in lung adenocarcinomas. Then we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which TFAP2B knockdown or overexpression regulated lung cancer cell growth, angiogenesis and apoptosis, and further confirmed the role of TFAP2B in tumor growth in a lung cancer xenograft mouse model. Results TFAP2B was highly expressed in NSCLC cell lines and tumor tissues. Strong TFAP2B expression showed a positive correlation with the poor prognoses of patients with lung adenocarcinomas (P < 0.001). TFAP2B knockdown by siRNA significantly inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in NSCLC cells in vitro and in a lung cancer subcutaneous xenograft model, whereas TFAP2B overexpression promoted cell growth. The observed regulation of cell growth was accompanied by the TFAP2B-mediated modulation of the ERK/p38, caspase/cytochrome-c and VEGF/PEDF-dependent signaling pathways in NSCLC cells. Conclusions These results indicate that TFAP2B plays a critical role in regulating lung adenocarcinomas growth and could serve as a promising therapeutic target for lung cancer treatment. PMID:24766673

  6. Discontinuation of anti-VEGF cancer therapy promotes metastasis through a liver revascularization mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunlong; Zhang, Yin; Iwamoto, Hideki; Hosaka, Kayoko; Seki, Takahiro; Andersson, Patrik; Lim, Sharon; Fischer, Carina; Nakamura, Masaki; Abe, Mitsuhiko; Cao, Renhai; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Chen, Fang; Chen, Xiaoyun; Lu, Yongtian; Nie, Guohui; Cao, Yihai

    2016-01-01

    The impact of discontinuation of anti-VEGF cancer therapy in promoting cancer metastasis is unknown. Here we show discontinuation of anti-VEGF treatment creates a time-window of profound structural changes of liver sinusoidal vasculatures, exhibiting hyper-permeability and enlarged open-pore sizes of the fenestrated endothelium and loss of VE-cadherin. The drug cessation caused highly leaky hepatic vasculatures permit tumour cell intravasation and extravasation. Discontinuation of an anti-VEGF antibody-based drug and sunitinib markedly promotes liver metastasis. Mechanistically, host hepatocyte, but not tumour cell-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is responsible for cancer metastasis. Deletion of hepatocyte VEGF markedly ablates the ‘off-drug'-induced metastasis. These findings provide mechanistic insights on anti-VEGF cessation-induced metastasis and raise a new challenge for uninterrupted and sustained antiangiogenic therapy for treatment of human cancers. PMID:27580750

  7. Sustained release of vascular endothelial growth factor from calcium-induced alginate hydrogels reinforced by heparin and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Yoon, J J; Lee, J H; Kim, S Y; Jung, H J; Kim, S J; Joh, J W; Lee, H H; Lee, D S; Lee, S K

    2004-10-01

    A possible alternative for immunosuppression is a microencapsulation technique using hydrogels, which have been utilized for cell immobilization and drug delivery systems. Angiogenesis is crucial for delivery of the metabolic products to the host tissues as well as to supply oxygen and nutrients to cells. The local delivery of angiogenic growth factors, such as VEGF and basic FGF, has been recently studied to enhance angiogenesis on peripheral tissue of graft. In this study, we evaluated sustained VEGF release with a model using hydrogels coated with chitosan and heparin in vitro. We fabricated calcium alginate gels and chitosan-coated calcium alginate gels. Heparinized chitosan-coated calcium-induced alginate hydrogel beads were prepared by soaking chitosan-coated calcium alginate gels in heparin solution. We compared the stability and VEGF release manner between three kinds of hydrogels. To compare the stability, 5 mL of each hydrogel was incubated with 20 mL PBS under the rotational culture. Compression forces were measured using a rheometer. The amount of VEGF released from the gels was measured by ELISA. The heparin-coated chitosan alginate hydrogels showed the highest surface stability among the three hydrogels. VEGF from the heparinized gel was released in sustained manner up to 10 days in vitro. Chitosan-coated alginate gels released 90% of loaded VEGF within 5 days. These results suggest that local delivery of VEGF using a heparinized hydrogel may provide a long-term supply of angiogenic growth factor that might induce new vessel formation in vivo.

  8. Therapeutic angiogenesis. A single intraarterial bolus of vascular endothelial growth factor augments revascularization in a rabbit ischemic hind limb model.

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, S; Zheng, L P; Brogi, E; Kearney, M; Pu, L Q; Bunting, S; Ferrara, N; Symes, J F; Isner, J M

    1994-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a heparin-binding, endothelial cell-specific mitogen. Previous studies have suggested that VEGF is a regulator of naturally occurring physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis. In this study we investigated the hypothesis that the angiogenic potential of VEGF is sufficient to constitute a therapeutic effect. The soluble 165-amino acid isoform of VEGF was administered as a single intra-arterial bolus to the internal iliac artery of rabbits in which the ipsilateral femoral artery was excised to induce severe, unilateral hind limb ischemia. Doses of 500-1,000 micrograms of VEGF produced statistically significant augmentation of collateral vessel development by angiography as well as the number of capillaries by histology; consequent amelioration of the hemodynamic deficit in the ischemic limb was significantly greater in animals receiving VEGF than in nontreated controls (calf blood pressure ratio, 0.75 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.48 +/- 0.19, P < 0.05). Serial angiograms disclosed progressive linear extension of the collateral artery of origin (stem artery) to the distal point of parent vessel (reentry artery) reconstitution in seven of nine VEGF-treated animals. These findings establish proof of principle for the concept that the angiogenic activity of VEGF is sufficiently potent to achieve therapeutic benefit. Such a strategy might ultimately be applicable to patients with severe limb ischemia secondary to arterial occlusive disease. Images PMID:7509344

  9. Myeloid-Derived Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Are Dispensable for Ocular Neovascularization—Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Liyanage, Sidath E.; Fantin, Alessandro; Villacampa, Pilar; Lange, Clemens A.; Denti, Laura; Cristante, Enrico; Smith, Alexander J.; Ali, Robin R.; Luhmann, Ulrich F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective— Ocular neovascularization (ONV) is a pathological feature of sight-threatening human diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. Macrophage depletion in mouse models of ONV reduces the formation of pathological blood vessels, and myeloid cells are widely considered an important source of the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF). However, the importance of VEGF or its upstream regulators hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α) and hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF2α) as myeloid-derived regulators of ONV remains to be determined. Approach and Results— We used 2 mouse models of ONV, choroidal neovascularization and oxygen-induced retinopathy, to show that Vegfa is highly expressed by several cell types, but not myeloid cells during ONV. Moreover, myeloid-specific VEGF ablation did not reduce total ocular VEGF during choroidal neovascularization or oxygen-induced retinopathy. In agreement, the conditional inactivation of Vegfa, Hif1a, or Epas1 in recruited and resident myeloid cells that accumulated at sites of neovascularization did not significantly reduce choroidal neovascularization or oxygen-induced retinopathy. Conclusions— The finding that myeloid cells are not a significant local source of VEGF in these rodent models of ONV suggests that myeloid function in neovascular eye disease differs from skin wound healing and other neovascular pathologies. PMID:26603154

  10. Increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in small hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Iavarone, M; Lampertico, P; Iannuzzi, F; Manenti, E; Donato, M F; Arosio, E; Bertolini, F; Primignani, M; Sangiovanni, A; Colombo, M

    2007-02-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in both development and progression of several epithelial tumours, but its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear. Assessment of liver and blood levels of VEGF may provide further insights on angiogenesis in HCC. Tissue mRNA of VEGF-165, VEGF-189 and their receptor KDR was assessed by a semi-quantitative retro-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and expressed as target transcript/beta-actin ratio, in 29 patients with HCC, 26 with cirrhosis and 15 with chronic hepatitis. VEGF-165 was also measured by ELISA in plasma samples obtained from both hepatic and femoral veins in additional 58 patients, including 15 with HCC. The liver expression of mRNA of VEGF-165, VEGF-189 and KDR was higher in HCC than in chronic liver diseases (1.54 +/- 0.89 vs 0.62 +/- 0.47, P < 0.0001; 1.09 +/- 0.65 vs 0.64 +/- 0.54, P = 0.003; 1.30 +/- 1.09 vs 0.69 +/- 0.72, P = 0.014). VEGF-165 was higher in HCC tissue than in extra-tumoural tissues (1.44 +/- 0.31 vs 1.03 +/- 0.21, P = 0.0009) and in the cirrhotic tissue of HCC patients than in HCC-free cirrhosis (1.03 +/- 0.23 vs 0.45 +/- 0.45, P = 0.0002). Tissue VEGF-189 mRNA inversely correlated with tumour size and degree of tumour cell proliferation. The hepatic and femoral vein levels of VEGF-165 protein were significantly higher in HCC patients than in cirrhotic patients (66.7 +/- 57.1 vs 24.2 +/- 16.4 pg/mL, P = 0.0001 and 37.1 +/- 42.2 vs 13.5 +/- 9.6 pg/mL, P = 0.001). There was a gradient of VEGF-165 between hepatic and femoral veins in both HCC and cirrhosis. In conclusion, VEGF appears to be involved in the development of HCC and it could be a predictor of HCC development in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:17244253

  11. Autoantibodies in dilated cardiomyopathy induce vascular endothelial growth factor expression in cardiomyocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Saygili, Erol; Noor-Ebad, Fawad; Schröder, Jörg W.; Mischke, Karl; Saygili, Esra; Rackauskas, Gediminas; Marx, Nikolaus; Kelm, Malte; Rana, Obaida R.

    2015-09-11

    Background: Autoantibodies have been identified as major predisposing factors for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Patients with DCM show elevated serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) whose source is unknown. Besides its well-investigated effects on angiogenesis, evidence is present that VEGF signaling is additionally involved in fibroblast proliferation and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, hence in cardiac remodeling. Whether autoimmune effects in DCM impact cardiac VEGF signaling needs to be elucidated. Methods: Five DCM patients were treated by the immunoadsorption (IA) therapy on five consecutive days. The eluents from the IA columns were collected and prepared for cell culture. Cardiomyocytes from neonatal rats (NRCM) were incubated with increasing DCM-immunoglobulin-G (IgG) concentrations for 48 h. Polyclonal IgG (Venimmun N), which was used to restore IgG plasma levels in DCM patients after the IA therapy was additionally used for control cell culture purposes. Results: Elevated serum levels of VEGF decreased significantly after IA (Serum VEGF (ng/ml); DCM pre-IA: 45 ± 9.1 vs. DCM post–IA: 29 ± 6.7; P < 0.05). In cell culture, pretreatment of NRCM by DCM-IgG induced VEGF expression in a time and dose dependent manner. Biologically active VEGF that was secreted by NRCM significantly increased BNP mRNA levels in control cardiomyocytes and induced cell-proliferation of cultured cardiac fibroblast (Fibroblast proliferation; NRCM medium/HC-IgG: 1 ± 0.0 vs. NRCM medium/DCM-IgG 100 ng/ml: 5.6 ± 0.9; P < 0.05). Conclusion: The present study extends the knowledge about the possible link between autoimmune signaling in DCM and VEGF induction. Whether this observation plays a considerable role in cardiac remodeling during DCM development needs to be further elucidated. - Highlights: • Mechanisms of remodeling in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are not fully understood. • Autoantibodies have been identified as major predisposing factors

  12. Aromatic hydrocarbon receptor inhibits lysophosphatidic acid-induced vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression in PC-3 prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Pei-Yi; Lin, Yueh-Chien; Lan, Shun-Yan; Huang, Yuan-Li; Lee, Hsinyu

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •LPA-induced VEGF-A expression was regulated by HIF-1α and ARNT. •PI3K mediated LPA-induced VEGF-A expression. •AHR signaling inhibited LPA-induced VEGF-A expression in PC-3 cells. -- Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid growth factor with multiple biological functions and has been shown to stimulate cancer cell secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and trigger angiogenesis. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a heterodimer consisting of HIF-1α and HIF-1β (also known as aromatic hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)) subunits, is an important regulator of angiogenesis in prostate cancer (PC) through the enhancement of VEGF-A expression. In this study, we first confirmed the ability of LPA to induce VEGF-A expression in PC-3 cells and then validated that LPA-induced VEGF-A expression was regulated by HIF-1α and ARNT through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation. Aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a receptor for dioxin-like compounds, functions as a transcription factor through dimerization with ARNT and was found to inhibit prostate carcinogenesis and vanadate-induced VEGF-A production. Since ARNT is a common dimerization partner of AHR and HIF-1α, we hypothesized that AHR might suppress LPA-induced VEGF-A expression in PC-3 cells by competing with HIF-1α for ARNT. Here we demonstrated that overexpression and ligand activation of AHR inhibited HIF-1-mediated VEGF-A induction by LPA treatment of PC-3 cells. In conclusion, our results suggested that AHR activation may inhibit LPA-induced VEGF-A expression in PC-3 cells by attenuating HIF-1α signaling, and subsequently, suppressing angiogenesis and metastasis of PC. These results suggested that AHR presents a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of PC metastasis.

  13. Immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in radicular and residual radicular cysts

    PubMed Central

    RUIZ, Patrícia Alvarez; de TOLEDO, Orlando Ayrton; NONAKA, Cassiano Francisco Weege; PINTO, Leão Pereira; de SOUZA, Lélia Batista

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study assessed and compared the immunoexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in radicular cysts (RCs) and residual radicular cysts (RRCs), relating them to the angiogenic index and the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate. Material and Methods Twenty RCs and 10 RRCs were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using anti-VEGF and anti-MMP-9 antibodies. The angiogenic index was determined by microvessel count (MVC) using anti-von Willebrand factor antibody. Results The expression of both VEGF and MMP-9 was higher in RCs than in RRCs. RCs and RRCs presented strong epithelial expression of VEGF, irrespective of the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate. Lesions with strong expression of MMP-9 showed significantly higher number of immunopositive cells for VEGF (p<0.05) and higher MVC (p<0.05). Lesions with dense inflammatory infiltrate exhibited significantly higher MVC (p<0.05) and higher number of immunopositive cells for VEGF (p<0.05). There was a positive correlation between both MVC (p<0.05) and the quantity of immunopositive cells for VEGF (p<0.05), with intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate. In addition, it was observed a positive correlation between the number of immunopositive cells for VEGF and MVC (p<0.05). Conclusions VEGF and MMP-9 might play important roles in the angiogenesis in RCs and RRCs. In these lesions, the expression of these molecules and the MVC is closely related to the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate. The expression of VEGF in the epithelial lining of RCs and RRCs might be important for the enlargement of these lesions. PMID:21308293

  14. Yeast-Derived β-Glucan Augments the Therapeutic Efficacy Mediated by Anti–Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Monoclonal Antibody in Human Carcinoma Xenograft Models

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, Carolina; Li, Bing; Hansen, Richard; Cramer, Daniel E.; Kong, Maiying; Jun, Yan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Bevacizumab is a recombinant IgG1humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Its proposed mechanism of action is independent of immune effector functions. Many human carcinomas not only secrete VEGF but also express membrane-bound VEGF. In addition, VEGF receptors are expressed on tumor cells. It is hypothesized that bevacizumab could bind membrane-bound VEGF or VEGF-VEGF receptor complexes on tumors, thereby initiating potential immunologic consequences. We previously showed that yeast-derived β-glucan functions with antitumor antibodies that activate complement to recruit complement receptor 3– expressing leukocytes capable of mediating complement receptor 3– dependent cellular cytotoxicity of tumors opsonized with iC3b. In the current study, the therapeutic efficacy mediated by combining bevacizumab with yeast-derived β-glucan was studied in human carcinoma xenograft models. Experimental Design Human tumor cell lines were screened for membrane-bound VEGF expression both in vitro and in vivo. Complement activation mediated by bevacizumab was examined. Tumor cell lines positive or negative for membrane-bound VEGF expression were implanted in severe combined immunodeficient mice to establish xenograft models. Tumor-bearing mice were treated with different regimens. Tumor regression and long-term survival were recorded. Results Human ovarian carcinoma SKOV-3 cells expressed membrane-bound VEGF both in vitro and in vivo. Bevacizumab was bound to membrane-bound VEGF, activated complement, and synergized with β-glucan to elicit cellular cytotoxicity in vitro. In vivo study showed that β-glucan could significantly augment the therapeutic efficacy mediated by bevacizumab. Conclusions Yeast-derived β-glucan can synergize with anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody bevacizumab for the treatment of cancer with membrane-bound VEGF expression. PMID:18281559

  15. Expression of VEGFR-2 on HaCaT cells is regulated by VEGF and plays an active role in mediating VEGF induced effects

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Xiaohong; Man Xiaoyong; Cai Suiqing; Yao Yonggang; Bu Zhangyu; Zheng Min . E-mail: minz@zju.edu.cn

    2006-10-13

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor VEGFR-2 play important roles in mitogenesis and chemotaxis of endothelial cells. In normal human skin, VEGF is expressed and secreted by epidermal keratinocytes. Emerging data suggest that keratinocyte-derived VEGF targets other cell types besides the dermal endothelial cells. We have recently showed that keratinocytes from human normal skin expressed all five known VEGF receptors and co-receptors (neuropilin 1 and 2). To define the functional significance of VEGFR-2 in epidermis, we examined its role in a keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT cells, in response to VEGF treatment. Expression of VEGFR-2 on HaCaT cells was confirmed at both RNA and protein levels and was regulated by VEGF{sub 165} treatment. Treatment of HaCaT cells with VEGF{sub 165} induced tyrosine-autophosphorylation of VEGFR-2 and phosphorylation of PLC-{gamma} and p44/42 MAPK in a time-dependent manner. Preincubation with a neutralizing antibody for VEGFR-2 (MAB3571) completely abrogated these phosphorylation effects. Furthermore, VEGF{sub 165} stimulated proliferation and migration of HaCaT cells, and this effect was significantly blocked by a pretreatment with MAB3571. Neutralizing VEGFR-2 in HaCaT cells increased cell adhesion during culture. Our results suggest that VEGFR-2 expressed on HaCaT cells plays a crucial role in VEGF-mediated regulation of cell activity.

  16. Differential expression and selective localization of vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor in the rat uterus during the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Karuri, A R; Kumar, A M; Mukhopadhyay, D

    1998-12-01

    This study examines the expression of the multi-functional cytokine, vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF) in the rat uterus during early proestrus, proestrus, estrus and diestrus. Groups of ovariectomized or hypophysectomized rats served as endocrine controls. Expression of VPF/VEGF mRNA was 2-fold greater in uteri during proestrus and estrus than in other phases of the estrous cycle. In situ hybridization techniques indicated that VPF/VEGF mRNA expression was confined to the luminal epithelium during proestrus, but shifted to the stromal compartment during estrus. Ovariectomized, hypophysectomized or diestrus rats exhibited scattered localization of VPF/VEGF mRNA among glandular epithelium and endometrial stromal compartments. Although VPF/VEGF mRNA was expressed throughout the estrous cycle, but in different compartments of the endometrium depending on the stage of the estrous cycle, VPF/VEGF protein expression appears to be restricted to the epithelial compartment during proestrus and estrus. Results indicate that circulating levels of gonadal steroids and LH may be associated with the differential expression of VPF/VEGF mRNA and its translation activity in the endometrium during different stages of the estrous cycle.

  17. Expression of vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor by human granulosa and theca lutein cells. Role in corpus luteum development.

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, B. R.; Brown, L. F.; Manseau, E. J.; Senger, D. R.; Dvorak, H. F.

    1995-01-01

    Vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF) is a cytokine that is overexpressed in many tumors, in healing wounds, and in rheumatoid arthritis. VPF/VEGF is thought to induce angiogenesis and accompanying connective tissue stroma in two ways: 1), by increasing microvascular permeability, thereby modifying the extracellular matrix and 2), as an endothelial cell mitogen. VPF/VEGF has been reported in animal corpora lutea and we investigated the possibility that it might be present in human ovaries and have a role in corpus luteum formation. We here report that VPF/VEGF mRNA and protein are expressed by human ovarian granulosa and theca cells late in follicle development and, subsequent to ovulation, by granulosa and theca lutein cells. Therefore, VPF/VEGF is ideally positioned to provoke the increased permeability of thecal blood vessels that occurs shortly before ovulation. VPF/VEGF likely also contributes to the angiogenesis and connective tissue stroma generation that accompany corpus luteum/corpus albicans formation. Finally, VPF/VEGF was overexpressed in the hyperthecotic ovarian stroma of Stein-Leventhal syndrome in which it may also have a pathophysiological role. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7531945

  18. Nuclear translocation of phosphorylated STAT3 regulates VEGF-A-induced lymphatic endothelial cell migration and tube formation

    SciTech Connect

    Okazaki, Hideki; Tokumaru, Sho; Hanakawa, Yasushi; Shiraishi, Ken; Shirakata, Yuji; Dai, Xiuju; Yang, Lijun; Tohyama, Mikiko; Hashimoto, Koji; Sayama, Koji

    2011-09-02

    Highlights: {yields} VEGF-A enhanced lymphatic endothelial cell migration and increased tube formation. {yields} VEGF-A treated lymphatic endothelial cell showed activation of STAT3. {yields} Dominant-negative STAT3 inhibited VEGF-A-induced lymphatic endothelial cell migration and tube formation. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell-specific growth factor that regulates endothelial functions, and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are known to be important during VEGF receptor signaling. The aim of this study was to determine whether STAT3 regulates VEGF-induced lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) migration and tube formation. VEGF-A (33 ng/ml) enhanced LEC migration by 2-fold and increased tube length by 25% compared with the control, as analyzed using a Boyden chamber and Matrigel assay, respectively. Western blot analysis and immunostaining revealed that VEGF-A induced the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated STAT3 in LECs, and this translocation was blocked by the transfection of LECs with an adenovirus vector expressing a dominant-negative mutant of STAT3 (Ax-STAT3F). Transfection with Ax-STAT3F also almost completely inhibited VEGF-A-induced LEC migration and tube formation. These results indicate that STAT3 is essential for VEGF-A-induced LEC migration and tube formation and that STAT3 regulates LEC functions.

  19. Exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor induces malformed and hyperfused vessels during embryonic neovascularization.

    PubMed Central

    Drake, C J; Little, C D

    1995-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent and specific endothelial mitogen that is able to induce angiogenesis in vivo [Leung, D. W., Cachianes, G., Kuang, W.-J., Goeddel, D. V. & Ferrara, N. (1989) Science 246 1306-1309]. To determine if VEGF also influences the behavior of primordial endothelial cells, we used an in vivo vascular assay based on the de novo formation of vessels. Japanese quail embryos injected with nanomolar quantities of the 165-residue form of VEGF at the onset of vasculogenesis exhibited profoundly altered vessel development. In fact, the overall patterning of the vascular network was abnormal in all VEGF-injected embryos. The malformations were attributable to two specific endothelial cell activities: (i) inappropriate neovascularization in normally avascular areas and (ii) the unregulated, excessive fusion of vessels. In the first instance, supernumerary vessels directly linked the inflow channel of the heart to the aortic outflow channel. The second aberrant activity led to the formation of vessels with abnormally large lumens. Ultimately, unregulated vessel fusion generated massive vascular sacs that obliterated the identity of individual vessels. These observations show that exogenous VEGF has an impact on the behavior of primordial endothelial cells engaged in vasculogenesis, and they strongly suggest that endogenous VEGF is important in vascular patterning and regulation of vessel size (lumen formation). Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7543999

  20. No association between polymorphisms/haplotypes of the vascular endothelial growth factor gene and preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia (PE) is the first worldwide cause of death in pregnant women, intra-uterine growth retardation, and fetal prematurity. Some vascular endothelial grown factor gene (VEGF) polymorphisms have been associated to PE and other pregnancy disturbances. We evaluated the associations between VEGF genotypes/haplotypes and PE in Mexican women. Methods 164 pregnant women were enrolled in a case-control study (78 cases and 86 normotensive pregnant controls). The rs699947 (-2578C/A), rs1570360 (-1154G/A), rs2010963 (+405G/C), and rs25648 (-7C/T), VEGF variants were discriminated using Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods or Taqman single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays. Results The proportions of the minor allele for rs699947, rs1570360, rs2010963, and rs25648 VEGF SNPs were 0.33, 0.2, 0.39, and 0.17 in controls, and 0.39, 0.23, 0.41, and 0.15 in cases, respectively (P values > 0.05). The most frequent haplotypes of rs699947, rs1570360, rs2010963, and rs25648 VEGF SNPs, were C-G-C-C and C-G-G-C with frequencies of 0.39, 0.21 in cases and 0.37, 0.25 in controls, respectively (P values > 0.05) Conclusion There was no evidence of an association between VEGF alleles, genotypes, or haplotypes frequencies and PE in our study. PMID:21575227

  1. Vascular endothelial growth factor and dexamethasone release from nonfouling sensor coatings affect the foreign body response

    PubMed Central

    Norton, L.W.; Koschwanez, H.E.; Wisniewski, N.A.; Klitzman, B.; Reichert, W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and dexamethasone (DX) release from hydrogel coatings were examined as a means to modify tissue inflammation and induce angiogenesis. Antibiofouling hydrogels for implantable glucose sensor coatings were prepared from 2-hydro-xyethyl methacrylate, N-vinyl pyrrolidinone, and polyethylene glycol. Microdialysis sampling was used to test the effect of the hydrogel coating on glucose recovery. VEGF-releasing hydrogel-coated fibers increased vascularity and inflammation in the surrounding tissue after 2 weeks of implantation compared to hydrogel-coated fibers. DX-releasing hydrogel-coated fibers reduced inflammation compared to hydrogel-coated fibers and had reduced capsule vascularity compared to VEGF-releasing hydrogel-coated fibers. Hydrogels that released both VEGF and DX simultaneously also showed reduced inflammation at 2 weeks implantation; however, no enhanced vessel formation was observed indicating that the DX diminished the VEGF effect. At 6 weeks, there were no detectable differences between drug-releasing hydrogel-coated fibers and control fibers. From this study, hydrogel drug release affected initial events of the foreign body response with DX inhibiting VEGF, but once the drug depot was exhausted these effects disappeared. PMID:17236219

  2. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor expression change in experimental retinal neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Di, Yu; Nie, Qing-Zhu; Chen, Xiao-Long

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the signal transduction mechanism of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) mediated- vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and retinal neovascularization (RNV) in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model. METHODS C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups: control group, OIR group, OIR control group (phosphate-buffered saline by intravitreal injection) and treated group [tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) by intravitreal injection]. OIR model was established in C57BL/6J mice exposed to 75%±2% oxygen for 5d. mRNA level and protein expression of MMP-9, TIMP-1 and VEGF were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, and located by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS Levels of MMP-9 and VEGF in retina were significantly increased in animals with OIR and OIR control group. Levels of TIMP-1 in retina was significantly reduced in animals with OIR and OIR control group. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between MMP-9 and VEGF. Intravitreal injection of TIMP-1 significantly reduced MMP-9 and VEGF expression of the OIR mouse model (all P<0.05). CONCLUSION These results demonstrate that MMP-9-mediated up-regulation of VEGF promotes RNV in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). TIMP-1 may be a potential target for the prevention and treatment of ROP. PMID:27366678

  3. Identification of cyclins A1, E1 and vimentin as downstream targets of heme oxygenase-1 in vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Andrea; Mylroie, Hayley; Thornton, C. Clare; Calay, Damien; Birdsey, Graeme M.; Kiprianos, Allan P.; Wilson, Garrick K.; Soares, Miguel P.; Yin, Xiaoke; Mayr, Manuel; Randi, Anna M.; Mason, Justin C.

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential physiological process and an important factor in disease pathogenesis. However, its exploitation as a clinical target has achieved limited success and novel molecular targets are required. Although heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) acts downstream of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to modulate angiogenesis, knowledge of the mechanisms involved remains limited. We set out identify novel HO-1 targets involved in angiogenesis. HO-1 depletion attenuated VEGF-induced human endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and tube formation. The latter response suggested a role for HO-1 in EC migration, and indeed HO-1 siRNA negatively affected directional migration of EC towards VEGF; a phenotype reversed by HO-1 over-expression. EC from Hmox1−/− mice behaved similarly. Microarray analysis of HO-1-depleted and control EC exposed to VEGF identified cyclins A1 and E1 as HO-1 targets. Migrating HO-1-deficient EC showed increased p27, reduced cyclin A1 and attenuated cyclin-dependent kinase 2 activity. In vivo, cyclin A1 siRNA inhibited VEGF-driven angiogenesis, a response reversed by Ad-HO-1. Proteomics identified structural protein vimentin as an additional VEGF-HO-1 target. HO-1 depletion inhibited VEGF-induced calpain activity and vimentin cleavage, while vimentin silencing attenuated HO-1-driven proliferation. Thus, vimentin and cyclins A1 and E1 represent VEGF-activated HO-1-dependent targets important for VEGF-driven angiogenesis. PMID:27388959

  4. VEGF binding to NRP1 is essential for VEGF stimulation of endothelial cell migration, complex formation between NRP1 and VEGFR2, and signaling via FAK Tyr407 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Birger; Pellet-Many, Caroline; Britton, Gary; Hartzoulakis, Basil; Zachary, Ian C

    2011-08-01

    In endothelial cells, neuropilin-1 (NRP1) binds vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and is thought to act as a coreceptor for kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR) by associating with KDR and enhancing VEGF signaling. Here we report mutations in the NRP1 b1 domain (Y297A and D320A), which result in complete loss of VEGF binding. Overexpression of Y297A and D320A NRP1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells reduced high-affinity VEGF binding and migration toward a VEGF gradient, and markedly inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis in a coculture cell model. The Y297A NRP1 mutant also disrupted complexation between NRP1 and KDR and decreased VEGF-dependent phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase at Tyr407, but had little effect on other signaling pathways. Y297A NRP1, however, heterodimerized with wild-type NRP1 and NRP2 indicating that nonbinding NRP1 mutants can act in a dominant-negative manner through formation of NRP1 dimers with reduced binding affinity for VEGF. These findings indicate that VEGF binding to NRP1 has specific effects on endothelial cell signaling and is important for endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis mediated via complex formation between NRP1 and KDR and increased signaling to focal adhesions. Identification of key residues essential for VEGF binding and biological functions provides the basis for a rational design of antagonists of VEGF binding to NRP1.

  5. Vascular endothelial growth factor in premenopausal women--indicator of the best time for breast cancer surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Heer, K.; Kumar, H.; Speirs, V.; Greenman, J.; Drew, P. J.; Fox, J. N.; Carleton, P. J.; Monson, J. R.; Kerin, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    Timing of surgery in premenopausal patients with breast cancer remains controversial. Angiogenesis is essential for tumour growth and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most potent angiogenic cytokines. We aimed to determine whether the study of VEGF in relation to the menstrual cycle could help further the understanding of this issue of surgical intervention. Fourteen premenopausal women were recruited, along with three post-menopausal women, a woman on an oral contraceptive pill and a single male subject. Between eight and 11 samples were taken per person, over one menstrual cycle (over 1 month in the five controls) and analysed for sex hormones and VEGF165. Serum VEGF was significantly lower in the luteal phase and showed a significant negative correlation with progesterone in all 14 premenopausal women. No inter-sample variations of VEGF were noted in the controls. Serum from both phases of the cycle from one subject was added to MCF-7 breast cancer cells; VEGF expression in the supernatant was lower in the cells to which the luteal phase serum was added. The lowering of a potent angiogenic cytokine in the luteal phase suggests a possible decreased potential for micrometastasis establishment in that phase. This fall in VEGF may be an effect of progesterone and should be the focus of future studies. PMID:9820181

  6. Integrin-specific hydrogels functionalized with VEGF for vascularization and bone regeneration of critical-size bone defects.

    PubMed

    García, José R; Clark, Amy Y; García, Andrés J

    2016-04-01

    Vascularization of bone defects is considered a crucial component to the successful regeneration of large bone defects. Although vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been delivered to critical-size bone defect models to augment blood vessel infiltration into the defect area, its potential to increase bone repair remains ambiguous. In this study, we investigated whether integrin-specific biomaterials modulate the effects of VEGF on bone regeneration. We engineered protease-degradable, VEGF-loaded poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels functionalized with either a triple-helical, α2 β1 integrin-specific peptide GGYGGGP(GPP)5 GFOGER(GPP)5 GPC (GFOGER) or an αv β3 integrin-targeting peptide GRGDSPC (RGD). Covalent incorporation of VEGF into the PEG hydrogel allowed for protease degradation-dependent release of the protein while maintaining VEGF bioactivity. When applied to critical-size segmental defects in the murine radius, GFOGER-functionalized VEGF-free hydrogels exhibited significantly increased vascular volume and density and resulted in a larger number of thicker blood vessels compared to RGD-functionalized VEGF-free hydrogels. VEGF-loaded RGD hydrogels increased vascularization compared to VEGF-free RGD hydrogels, but the levels of vascularization for these VEGF-containing RGD hydrogels were similar to those of VEGF-free GFOGER hydrogels. VEGF transiently increased bone regeneration in RGD hydrogels but had no effect at later time points. In GFOGER hydrogels, VEGF did not show an effect on bone regeneration. However, VEGF-free GFOGER hydrogels resulted in increased bone regeneration compared to VEGF-free RGD hydrogels. These findings demonstrate the importance of integrin-specificity in engineering constructs for vascularization and associated bone regeneration.

  7. Capture of endothelial cells under flow using immobilized vascular endothelial growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Randall J.; Koobatian, Maxwell T.; Shahini, Aref; Swartz, Daniel D.; Andreadis, Stelios T.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the ability of immobilized vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to capture endothelial cells (EC) with high specificity under fluid flow. To this end, we engineered a surface consisting of heparin bound to poly-L-lysine to permit immobilization of VEGF through the C-terminal heparin-binding domain. The immobilized growth factor retained its biological activity as shown by proliferation of EC and prolonged activation of KDR signaling. Using a microfluidic device we assessed the ability to capture EC under a range of shear stresses from low (0.5 dyne/cm2) to physiological (15 dyne/cm2). Capture was significant for all shear stresses tested. Immobilized VEGF was highly selective for EC as evidenced by significant capture of human umbilical vein and ovine pulmonary artery EC but no capture of human dermal fibroblasts, human hair follicle derived mesenchymal stem cells, or mouse fibroblasts. Further, VEGF could capture EC from mixtures with non-EC under low and high shear conditions as well as from complex fluids like whole human blood under high shear. Our findings may have far reaching implications, as they suggest that VEGF could be used to promote endothelialization of vascular grafts or neovascularization of implanted tissues by rare but continuously circulating EC. PMID:25771020

  8. Vascular endothelial growth factor trap-eye (Aflibercept) for the management of diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Ahmadreza; Sepah, Yasir Jamal; Sadiq, Mohammad Ali; Nasir, Humzah; Kherani, Salima; Sophie, Raafay; Do, Diana V; Nguyen, Quan Dong

    2013-12-15

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common cause of visual loss among working age individuals. Diabetic macular edema (DME) is an important complication of DR that affects around one third of the patients with DR. Several treatments have been approved for DME ranging from blood pressure and glycemic control to photocoagulation and more recently the use of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antagonists. The index review discusses aflibercept (EYLEA(®)-Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Tarrytown, New York, NY, and Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin, Germany) in the context of other VEGF antagonists currently available for the treatment of DME. A systematic search of literature was conducted on PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar with no limitation on language or year of publication. Pre-clinical studies of aflibercept have shown a higher affinity of this molecule for vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) along with a longer duration of action as compared to other VEGF antagonists. Recent clinical trials have shown visual outcome results for aflibercept to be similarly favorable as compared to other available agents with the added benefit of fewer required injections and less frequent monitoring. Aflibercept presents a potential exciting new addition to the armamentarium of current VEGF antagonists available for the treatment of DME and other retinal vascular diseases. However, further studies are indicated to confirm the role, safety, and efficacy of aflibercept for DME.

  9. Vascular endothelial growth factor trap-eye (Aflibercept) for the management of diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Ahmadreza; Sepah, Yasir Jamal; Sadiq, Mohammad Ali; Nasir, Humzah; Kherani, Salima; Sophie, Raafay; Do, Diana V; Nguyen, Quan Dong

    2013-12-15

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common cause of visual loss among working age individuals. Diabetic macular edema (DME) is an important complication of DR that affects around one third of the patients with DR. Several treatments have been approved for DME ranging from blood pressure and glycemic control to photocoagulation and more recently the use of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antagonists. The index review discusses aflibercept (EYLEA(®)-Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Tarrytown, New York, NY, and Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin, Germany) in the context of other VEGF antagonists currently available for the treatment of DME. A systematic search of literature was conducted on PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar with no limitation on language or year of publication. Pre-clinical studies of aflibercept have shown a higher affinity of this molecule for vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) along with a longer duration of action as compared to other VEGF antagonists. Recent clinical trials have shown visual outcome results for aflibercept to be similarly favorable as compared to other available agents with the added benefit of fewer required injections and less frequent monitoring. Aflibercept presents a potential exciting new addition to the armamentarium of current VEGF antagonists available for the treatment of DME and other retinal vascular diseases. However, further studies are indicated to confirm the role, safety, and efficacy of aflibercept for DME. PMID:24379921

  10. Strong expression of kinase insert domain-containing receptor, a vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma and cutaneous angiosarcoma.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, L. F.; Tognazzi, K.; Dvorak, H. F.; Harrist, T. J.

    1996-01-01

    Vascular permeability factor (VPF), also known as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), plays an important role in the angiogenesis associated with the growth of many human and animal tumors. VPF/VEGF stimulates endothelial cell growth and increases microvascular permeability by interacting with two endothelial cell tyrosine kinase receptors, KDR and flt-1. We studied 16 cases of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), 2 cases of cutaneous angiosarcoma, and 6 cases of capillary hemangioma by in situ hybridization for expression of VPF/VEGF, KDR, and flt-1 mRNAs. We also performed immunohistochemical staining for VPF/VEGF protein in 15 cases. Tumor cells in KS and angiosarcoma strongly expressed KDR but not flt-1 mRNA. Endothelial cells in small stromal vessels in and around these tumors strongly expressed both KDR and flt-1 mRNAs. Tumor cells expressed VPF/VEGF mRNA strongly in only one case of KS, adjacent to an area of necrosis. This was also the only case in which the tumor cells stained substantially for VPF/VEGF protein. VPF/VEGF mRNA and protein were, however, strongly expressed by squamous epithelium in areas of hyperplasia and near areas of ulceration overlying tumors. VPF/VEGF mRNA was also expressed focally at lower levels by infiltrating inflammatory cells, probably macrophages. The strong expression of both KDR and flt-1 in small stromal vessels in and around tumors suggests that VPF/VEGF may be an important regulator of the edema and angiogenesis seen in these tumors. The strong expression of KDR by tumor cells in KS and angiosarcoma implies that VPF/VEGF may also have a direct effect on tumor cells. Tumor cells in four of six capillary hemangiomas strongly expressed both KDR and flt-1 mRNAs in contrast to the high level expression of only KDR observed in the malignant vascular tumors studied. Neither VPF/VEGF mRNA or protein were strongly expressed in capillary hemangiomas. VPF/VEGF and its receptors may play an important but as yet incompletely

  11. Vascular endothelial growth factor gene polymorphisms and psoriasis susceptibility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y H; Song, G G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) polymorphisms confer susceptibility to psoriasis. Meta-analyses were conducted to examine the associations between the +405 C/G, -460 C/T, -1154 A/G, and -2578 A/C polymorphisms of VEGF and psoriasis using allele contrast and recessive, dominant, and additive models. Seven studies on VEGF polymorphisms and psoriasis involving 1956 subjects (psoriasis patients 665, controls 1291) were included in this meta-analysis. We observed no association between psoriasis and the VEGF +405 C allele in all study subjects (odds ratio = 0.984, 95% confidence interval = 0.754-1.285, P = 0.906), but stratification by ethnicity indicated a significant association between the VEGF +405 C allele and psoriasis in Asians (odds ratio = 0.762, 95% confidence interval = 0.628-0.923, P = 0.005). In addition, we observed a significant association between the VEGF -460 C allele and psoriasis in Europeans (odds ratio = 0.807, 95% confidence interval = 0.672-0.968, P = 0.021). Meta-analyses of the -1154 A/G polymorphism also revealed a significant association with psoriasis in Europeans. However, the VEGF -2578 A/C polymorphism showed no association in all subjects or in Europeans or Asians. This meta-analysis suggests the VEGF +405 C/G polymorphism confers susceptibility to psoriasis in Asians, and that the -460 C/T and -1154 A/G polymorphisms confer susceptibility to psoriasis in Europeans. PMID:26600499

  12. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Promotes Fibrosis Resolution and Repair in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu; Kwon, Junghee; Popov, Yury; Gajdos, Gabriella B.; Ordog, Tamas; Brekken, Rolf A.; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Schuppan, Detlef; Bi, Yan; Simonetto, Douglas; Shah, Vijay H.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)—induced angiogenesis is implicated in fibrogenesis and portal hypertension. However, the function of VEGF in fibrosis resolution has not been explored. Methods We developed a cholecystojejunostomy procedure to reconstruct biliary flow after bile duct ligation in C57BL/6 mice to generate a model of fibrosis resolution. These mice were then given injections of VEGF-neutralizing (mcr84) or control antibodies, and other mice received an adenovirus that expressed mouse VEGF or a control vector. The procedure was also performed on macro-phage fas-induced apoptosis mice, in which macrophages can be selectively depleted. Liver and blood samples were collected and analyzed in immunohistochemical, morphometric, vascular permeability, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and flow cytometry assays. Results VEGF-neutralizing antibodies prevented development of fibrosis but also disrupted hepatic tissue repair and fibrosis resolution. During fibrosis resolution, VEGF inhibition impaired liver sinusoidal permeability, which was associated with reduced monocyte migration, adhesion, and infiltration of fibrotic liver. Scar-associated macrophages contributed to this process by producing the chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 and matrix metalloproteinase 13. Resolution of fibrosis was impaired in macrophage fas-induced apoptosis mice but increased after overexpression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9. Conclusions In a mouse model of liver fibrosis resolution, VEGF promoted fibrogenesis, but was also required for hepatic tissue repair and fibrosis resolution. We observed that VEGF regulates vascular permeability, monocyte infiltration, and scar-associated macrophages function. PMID:24503129

  13. Expression of endothelial cell-specific receptor tyrosine kinases and growth factors in human brain tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Hatva, E.; Kaipainen, A.; Mentula, P.; Jääskeläinen, J.; Paetau, A.; Haltia, M.; Alitalo, K.

    1995-01-01

    Key growth factor-receptor interactions involved in angiogenesis are possible targets for therapy of CNS tumors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a highly specific endothelial cell mitogen that has been shown to stimulate angiogenesis, a requirement for solid tumor growth. The expression of VEGF, the closely related placental growth factor (PIGF), the newly cloned endothelial high affinity VEGF receptors KDR and FLT1, and the endothelial orphan receptors FLT4 and Tie were analyzed by in situ hybridization in normal human brain tissue and in the following CNS tumors: gliomas, grades II, III, IV; meningiomas, grades I and II; and melanoma metastases to the cerebrum. VEGF mRNA was up-regulated in the majority of low grade tumors studied and was highly expressed in cells of malignant gliomas. Significantly elevated levels of Tie, KDR, and FLT1 mRNAs, but not FLT4 mRNA, were observed in malignant tumor endothelia, as well as in endothelia of tissues directly adjacent to the tumor margin. In comparison, there was little or no receptor expression in normal brain vasculature. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that these endothelial receptors are induced during tumor progression and may play a role in tumor angiogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7856749

  14. Designer Leptin Receptor Antagonist Allo-aca Inhibits VEGF Effects in Ophthalmic Neoangiogenesis Models

    PubMed Central

    Coroniti, Roberta; Fario, Rafal; Nuno, Didier J.; Otvos, Laszlo; Scolaro, Laura; Surmacz, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and clinical data suggest that pro-angiogenic, pro-inflammatory and mitogenic cytokine leptin can be implicated in ocular neovascularization and other eye pathologies. At least in part, leptin action appears to be mediated through functional interplay with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF is a potent regulator of neoangiogenesis and vascular leakage with a proven role in conditions such as proliferative diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema. Accordingly, drugs targeting VEGF are becoming mainstream treatments for these diseases. The crosstalk between leptin and VEGF has been noted in different tissues, but its involvement in the development of eye pathologies is unclear. Leptin is coexpressed with VEGF during ocular neovascularization and can potentiate VEGF synthesis and angiogenic function. However, whether or not VEGF regulates leptin expression or signaling has never been studied. Consequently, we addressed this aspect of leptin/VEGF crosstalk in ocular models, focusing on therapeutic exploration of underlying mechanisms. Here we show, for the first time, that in retinal (RF/6A) and corneal (BCE) endothelial cells, VEGF (100 ng/mL, 24 h) stimulated leptin mRNA synthesis by 70 and 30%, respectively, and protein expression by 56 and 28%, respectively. In parallel, VEGF induced RF/6A and BCE cell growth by 33 and 20%, respectively. In addition, VEGF upregulated chemotaxis and chemokinesis in retinal cells by ~40%. VEGF-dependent proliferation and migration were significantly reduced in the presence of the leptin receptor antagonist, Allo-aca, at 100–250 nmol/L concentrations. Furthermore, Allo-aca suppressed VEGF-dependent long-term (24 h), but not acute (15 min) stimulation of the Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. The efficacy of Allo-aca was validated in the rat laser-induced choroidal neovascularization model where the compound (5 μg/eye) significantly reduced pathological

  15. Id-1: Regulator of EGFR and VEGF and potential target for colorectal cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Meteoglu, Ibrahim; Meydan, Nezih; Erkus, Muhan

    2008-01-01

    Background The helix-loop-helix transcription factor Id-1 (an inhibitor of differentiation and DNA binding) plays a role in development and progression of many tumours. Id-1 is known to exert its effects on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The aim of this study was to reveal whether there was a relationship between Id-1 and EGFR and VEGF in colorectal carcinoma. Methods Tumour and non-tumour tissue specimens from 46 cases of colorectal carcinoma were exposed to immunohistochemical staining for Id-1, EGFR and VEGF. The relationship between the degree of staining and tumour grade, tumour stage and all tumour markers was investigated. Results Tumour cells showed positive staining for Id-1 in 43 cases (93.5%), for EGFR in 41 cases (89%) and for VEGF in 42 cases (91%). There was a significant relation between the tumour grade and the degree of staining for Id-1, EGFR and VEGF. The relation between the tumour stage and the degree of staining for Id-1, EGFR and VEGF was also significant. There was a significant relation between Id-1 expression and EGFR and VEGF expressions. Non-tumoural tissue specimens were not stained with Id-1 and EGFR antibodies in any of the cases, but stained with VEGF antibody in 3 cases. Conclusion This study revealed that Id-1, EGFR and VEGF took part in development and progression of colorectal carcinomas and that Id-1 was associated with regulations of EGFR and VEGF. The results of this study support the idea that not only EGFR and VEGF but also Id-1 could be new targets in cancer treatment. PMID:19014499

  16. Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-D Prospectively Distinguishes Lymphangioleiomyomatosis From Other Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Young, Lisa R.; VanDyke, Rhonda; Gulleman, Peter M.; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Brown, Kevin K.; Schmidt, Laura S.; Linehan, W. Marston; Hajjar, Fuad; Kinder, Brent W.; Trapnell, Bruce C.; Bissler, John J.; Franz, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The majority of women with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) present with cystic lung disease, and most require lung biopsy for definitive diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the prospective diagnostic usefulness of a serologic test for vascular endothelial growth factor-D (VEGF-D), a lymphangiogenic growth factor. Methods: We prospectively measured serum VEGF-D levels by enzyme-linked immunoassay in 48 women presenting with cystic lung disease. Diagnostic test performance was determined from a cohort of 195 women, with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), TSC-LAM, sporadic LAM (S-LAM), and other cystic lung diseases in the differential diagnosis, including biopsy-proven or genetically proven pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, emphysema, Sjögren syndrome, or Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome. Results: Serum VEGF-D levels were significantly greater in S-LAM (median 1,175 [interquartile range (IQR): 780-2,013] pg/mL; n = 56) than in other cystic lung diseases (median 281 [IQR 203-351] pg/mL; n = 44, P < .001). In the cohort evaluated prospectively, 12 of the 15 individuals ultimately diagnosed with LAM by biopsy had VEGF-D levels of > 800 pg/mL, whereas levels were < 600 pg/mL in all 18 subjects later diagnosed with other causes of cystic lung disease. Receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated that VEGF-D effectively identified LAM, with an area under the curve of 0.961(95% CI, 0.923-0.992). A VEGF-D level of > 600 pg/mL was highly associated with a diagnosis of LAM (specificity 97.6%, likelihood ratio 35.2) and values > 800 pg/mL were diagnostically specific. Serum VEGF-D levels were significantly elevated in women with TSC-LAM (median 3,465 [IQR 1,970-7,195] pg/mL) compared with women with TSC only (median 370 [IQR 291-520] pg/mL), P < .001). Conclusions: A serum VEGF-D level of > 800 pg/mL in a woman with typical cystic changes on high-resolution CT (HRCT) scan is diagnostically specific for S-LAM and identifies LAM in women with

  17. Targeting Angiogenesis in Cancer Therapy: Moving Beyond Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yujie

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis, or the formation of new capillary blood vessels, occurs primarily during human development and reproduction; however, aberrant regulation of angiogenesis is also a fundamental process found in several pathologic conditions, including cancer. As a process required for invasion and metastasis, tumor angiogenesis constitutes an important point of control of cancer progression. Although not yet completely understood, the complex process of tumor angiogenesis involves highly regulated orchestration of multiple signaling pathways. The proangiogenic signaling molecule vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its cognate receptor (VEGF receptor 2 [VEGFR-2]) play a central role in angiogenesis and often are highly expressed in human cancers, and initial clinical efforts to develop antiangiogenic treatments focused largely on inhibiting VEGF/VEGFR signaling. Such approaches, however, often lead to transient responses and further disease progression because angiogenesis is regulated by multiple pathways that are able to compensate for each other when single pathways are inhibited. The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and PDGF receptor (PDGFR) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and FGF receptor (FGFR) pathways, for example, provide potential escape mechanisms from anti-VEGF/VEGFR therapy that could facilitate resumption of tumor growth. Accordingly, more recent treatments have focused on inhibiting multiple signaling pathways simultaneously. This comprehensive review discusses the limitations of inhibiting VEGF signaling alone as an antiangiogenic strategy, the importance of other angiogenic pathways including PDGF/PDGFR and FGF/FGFR, and the novel current and emerging agents that target multiple angiogenic pathways for the treatment of advanced solid tumors. Implications for Practice: Significant advances in cancer treatment have been achieved with the development of antiangiogenic agents, the majority of which have focused on inhibition of the

  18. Ten-fold augmentation of endothelial uptake of vascular endothelial growth factor with ultrasound after systemic administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukherjee, D.; Wong, J.; Griffin, B.; Ellis, S. G.; Porter, T.; Sen, S.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, the feasibility of delivering and enhancing the uptake of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) into the intact endothelium by using ultrasound (US) facilitation was determined. BACKGROUND: A limitation of tissue-targeted drug delivery is the need for direct arterial cannulation. We postulate a mechanism by which agents injected intravenously may be targeted to a tissue using US and ultrasonic contrast agents. METHODS: We used a rat model to test the ability of US and an ultrasonic contrast agent perflurocarbon exposed sonicated dextrose albumin (PESDA) to increase uptake of VEGF in the myocardium. Continuous wave Doppler US (0.6 W/cm2 at 1 MHz for 15 min) was applied to the chest wall overlying the myocardium during intravenous injection with either VEGF (100 microg/kg) alone or a combination of VEGF and PESDA (0.1%). Control rats had VEGF infused without US or PESDA. The VEGF uptake was measured quantitatively in the heart, lung, liver and kidneys by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ng/g of tissue) and morphologically by fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: There was an eight-fold increase in VEGF uptake in the heart by US alone (16.86 +/- 1.56 vs. 2.11 +/- 0.953 ng/g of tissue, p < 0.0001) and a 13-fold increase with US + PESDA (26.78 +/- 2.88 vs. 2.11 +/- 0.953 ng/g of tissue, p < 0.0001) compared with control rats. Fluorescence microscopy revealed deposition of VEGF in the endothelium of small intramyocardial arterioles. CONCLUSIONS: These results show a marked increase in endothelial VEGF uptake with US and US + PESDA. Thus, US may be used to augment endothelial VEGF uptake 10-fold to 13-fold.

  19. Arsenite induces endothelial cell permeability increase through a reactive oxygen species-vascular endothelial growth factor pathway.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lingzhi; Shi, Honglian

    2010-11-15

    As a potent environmental oxidative stressor, arsenic exposure has been reported to exacerbate cardiovascular diseases and increase vascular endothelial cell monolayer permeability. However, the underlying mechanism of this effect is not well understood. In this paper, we test our hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression may play an important role in an arsenic-caused increase of endothelial cell monolayer permeability. The mouse brain vascular endothelial cell bEnd3 monolayer was exposed to arsenite for 1, 3, and 6 days. The monolayer permeability, VEGF protein release, and ROS generation were determined. In addition, VE-cadherin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), two membrane structure proteins, were immunostained to elucidate the effects of arsenite on the cell-cell junction. The roles of ROS and VEGF in arsenite-induced permeability was determined by inhibiting ROS with antioxidants and immuno-depleting VEGF with a VEGF antibody. We observed that arsenite increased bEnd3 monolayer permeability, elevated the production of cellular ROS, and increased VEGF release. VE-cadherin and ZO-1 disruptions were also found in cells treated with arsenite. Furthermore, both antioxidant (N-acetyl cysteine and tempol) and the VEGF antibody treatments significantly lowered the arsenite-induced permeability of the bEnd3 monolayer as well as VEGF expression. VE-cadherin and ZO-1 disruptions were also diminished by N-acetyl cysteine and the VEGF antibody. Our data suggest that the increase in VEGF expression caused by ROS may play an important role in the arsenite-induced increase in endothelial cell permeability.

  20. Genetic delivery of bevacizumab to suppress vascular endothelial growth factor-induced high-permeability pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masaki; Boyer, Julie L; Crystal, Ronald G

    2009-06-01

    High-permeability pulmonary edema causing acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with high mortality. Using a model of intratracheal adenovirus (Ad)-mediated overexpression of human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A(165) in mouse lung to induce alveolar permeability and consequent pulmonary edema, we hypothesized that systemic administration of a second adenoviral vector expressing an anti-VEGF antibody (AdalphaVEGFAb) would protect the lung from pulmonary edema. Pulmonary edema was induced in mice by intratracheal administration of AdVEGFA165. To evaluate anti-VEGF antibody therapy, the mice were treated intravenously with AdalphaVEGFAb, an adenoviral vector encoding the light and heavy chains of an anti-human VEGF antibody with the bevacizumab (Avastin) antigen-binding site. Lung VEGF-A(165) and phosphorylated VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2 levels, histology, lung wet-to-dry weight ratios, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) levels of total protein were assessed. Administration of AdalphaVEGFAb to mice decreased AdVEGFA165-induced levels of human VEGF-A(165) and phosphorylated VEGFR-2 in the lung. Histological analysis of AdalphaVEGFAb-treated mice demonstrated a reduction of edema fluid in the lung tissue that correlated with a reduction of lung wet-to-dry ratios and BALF total protein levels. Importantly, administration of AdalphaVEGFAb 48 hr after induction of pulmonary edema with AdVEGFA165 was effective in suppressing pulmonary edema. Administration of an adenoviral vector encoding an anti-VEGF antibody that is the equivalent of bevacizumab effectively suppresses VEGF-A(165)-induced high-permeability pulmonary edema, suggesting that anti-VEGF antibody therapy may represent a novel therapy for high-permeability pulmonary edema.

  1. Arsenite induces endothelial cell permeability increase through a reactive oxygen species-vascular endothelial growth factor pathway.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lingzhi; Shi, Honglian

    2010-11-15

    As a potent environmental oxidative stressor, arsenic exposure has been reported to exacerbate cardiovascular diseases and increase vascular endothelial cell monolayer permeability. However, the underlying mechanism of this effect is not well understood. In this paper, we test our hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression may play an important role in an arsenic-caused increase of endothelial cell monolayer permeability. The mouse brain vascular endothelial cell bEnd3 monolayer was exposed to arsenite for 1, 3, and 6 days. The monolayer permeability, VEGF protein release, and ROS generation were determined. In addition, VE-cadherin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), two membrane structure proteins, were immunostained to elucidate the effects of arsenite on the cell-cell junction. The roles of ROS and VEGF in arsenite-induced permeability was determined by inhibiting ROS with antioxidants and immuno-depleting VEGF with a VEGF antibody. We observed that arsenite increased bEnd3 monolayer permeability, elevated the production of cellular ROS, and increased VEGF release. VE-cadherin and ZO-1 disruptions were also found in cells treated with arsenite. Furthermore, both antioxidant (N-acetyl cysteine and tempol) and the VEGF antibody treatments significantly lowered the arsenite-induced permeability of the bEnd3 monolayer as well as VEGF expression. VE-cadherin and ZO-1 disruptions were also diminished by N-acetyl cysteine and the VEGF antibody. Our data suggest that the increase in VEGF expression caused by ROS may play an important role in the arsenite-induced increase in endothelial cell permeability. PMID:20954712

  2. Release of angiogenic growth factors from cells encapsulated in alginate beads with bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Keshaw, Hussila; Forbes, Alastair; Day, Richard M

    2005-07-01

    Attempts to stimulate therapeutic angiogenesis using gene therapy or delivery of recombinant growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), have failed to demonstrate unequivocal efficacy in human trials. Bioactive glass stimulates fibroblasts to secrete significantly increased amounts of angiogenic growth factors and therefore has a number of potential applications in therapeutic angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to assess whether it is possible to encapsulate specific quantities of bioactive glass and fibroblasts into alginate beads, which will secrete growth factors capable of stimulating angiogenesis. Human fibroblasts (CCD-18Co) were encapsulated in alginate beads with specific quantities of 45S5 bioactive glass and incubated in culture medium (0-17 days). The conditioned medium was collected and assayed for VEGF or used to assess its ability to stimulate angiogenesis by measuring the proliferation of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells. At 17 days the beads were lysed and the amount of VEGF retained by the beads measured. Fibroblasts encapsulated in alginate beads containing 0.01% and 0.1% (w/v) 45S5 bioactive glass particles secreted increased quantities of VEGF compared with cells encapsulated with 0% or 1% (w/v) 45S5 bioactive glass particles. Lysed alginate beads containing 0.01% and 0.1% (w/v) 45S5 bioactive glass contained significantly more VEGF (p<0.01) compared with beads containing no glass particles. Endothelial cell proliferation was significantly increased (p<0.01) by conditioned medium collected from alginate beads containing 0.1% (w/v) 45S5 bioactive glass particles. The results of this study demonstrate that bioactive glass and fibroblasts can be successfully incorporated into alginate beads for use in delivering angiogenic growth factors. With further optimization, this technique offers a novel delivery device for stimulating therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:15664644

  3. VEGF Polymorphisms Related to Higher Serum Levels of Protein Identify Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rafael Fernandes; Pinhel, Marcela Augusta de Souza; da Silva, Renato Ferreira; Fucuta, Patrícia da Silva; Souza, Dorotéia Rossi Silva

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary neoplasia of the liver. Major risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma include chronic liver diseases, carcinogenic agents, and genetic alterations as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) involved in angiogenesis process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of VEGF-A (C936T and A1154G) with HCC and cirrhosis, in addition to serum levels of VEGF, clinical profile, lifestyle habits, and comorbidities. A total of 346 individuals were studied: 102 with HCC (G1), 117 with cirrhosis (G2), and 127 controls (G3). Polymorphisms were analysed by PCR/RFLP and serum levels of VEGF by ELISA. Alpha error was set at 5%. The wild-type genotype of both polymorphisms prevailed (P > 0.05). In G1, 23% of the patients died, with no relation to genetic profile (P > 0.05). Increased VEGF level was observed in G1 and G3, related to the mutant allele of VEGF-C936T and VEGF-A1154G, respectively, and compared with the wild-type genotype (P = 0.0285; P = 0.0284, resp.) as well as G1 versus G2 and G3 for VEGF-C936T and G1 versus G2 for VEGF-A1154G (P < 0.05 for both). In conclusion, there is a relationship between mutant alleles of VEGF-C936T and VEGF-A1154G polymorphisms and higher VEGF level, making them potential markers for HCC.

  4. VEGF secretion during hypoxia depends on free radicals-induced Fyn kinase activity in mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Roman, Jonathan; Ibarra-Sanchez, Alfredo; Lamas, Monica; Gonzalez Espinosa, Claudia

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) secrete functional VEGF but do not degranulate after Cobalt chloride-induced hypoxia. {yields} CoCl{sub 2}-induced VEGF secretion in mast cells occurs by a Ca{sup 2+}-insensitive but brefeldin A and Tetanus toxin-sensitive mechanism. {yields} Trolox and N-acetylcysteine inhibit hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion but only Trolox inhibits Fc{epsilon}RI-dependent anaphylactic degranulation in mast cells. {yields} Src family kinase Fyn activation after free radical production is necessary for hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion in mast cells. -- Abstract: Mast cells (MC) have an important role in pathologic conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), where hypoxia conduce to deleterious inflammatory response. MC contribute to hypoxia-induced angiogenesis producing factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), but the mechanisms behind the control of hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion in this cell type is poorly understood. We used the hypoxia-mimicking agent cobalt chloride (CoCl{sub 2}) to analyze VEGF secretion in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). We found that CoCl{sub 2} promotes a sustained production of functional VEGF, able to induce proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro. CoCl{sub 2}-induced VEGF secretion was independent of calcium rise but dependent on tetanus toxin-sensitive vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMPs). VEGF exocytosis required free radicals formation and the activation of Src family kinases. Interestingly, an important deficiency on CoCl{sub 2}-induced VEGF secretion was observed in Fyn kinase-deficient BMMCs. Moreover, Fyn kinase was activated by CoCl{sub 2} in WT cells and this activation was prevented by treatment with antioxidants such as Trolox and N-acetylcysteine. Our results show that BMMCs are able to release VEGF under hypoxic conditions through a tetanus toxin-sensitive mechanism, promoted by free radicals

  5. VEGF Polymorphisms Related to Higher Serum Levels of Protein Identify Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rafael Fernandes; Pinhel, Marcela Augusta de Souza; da Silva, Renato Ferreira; Fucuta, Patrícia da Silva; Souza, Dorotéia Rossi Silva

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary neoplasia of the liver. Major risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma include chronic liver diseases, carcinogenic agents, and genetic alterations as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) involved in angiogenesis process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of VEGF-A (C936T and A1154G) with HCC and cirrhosis, in addition to serum levels of VEGF, clinical profile, lifestyle habits, and comorbidities. A total of 346 individuals were studied: 102 with HCC (G1), 117 with cirrhosis (G2), and 127 controls (G3). Polymorphisms were analysed by PCR/RFLP and serum levels of VEGF by ELISA. Alpha error was set at 5%. The wild-type genotype of both polymorphisms prevailed (P > 0.05). In G1, 23% of the patients died, with no relation to genetic profile (P > 0.05). Increased VEGF level was observed in G1 and G3, related to the mutant allele of VEGF-C936T and VEGF-A1154G, respectively, and compared with the wild-type genotype (P = 0.0285; P = 0.0284, resp.) as well as G1 versus G2 and G3 for VEGF-C936T and G1 versus G2 for VEGF-A1154G (P < 0.05 for both). In conclusion, there is a relationship between mutant alleles of VEGF-C936T and VEGF-A1154G polymorphisms and higher VEGF level, making them potential markers for HCC. PMID:27660750

  6. Split for the cure: VEGF, PDGF-BB and intussusception in therapeutic angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gianni-Barrera, Roberto; Bartolomeo, Mariateresa; Vollmar, Brigitte; Djonov, Valentin; Banfi, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Therapeutic angiogenesis is an attractive strategy to treat patients suffering from ischaemic conditions and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) is the master regulator of blood vessel growth. However, VEGF can induce either normal or aberrant angiogenesis depending on its dose localized in the microenvironment around each producing cell in vivo and on the balanced stimulation of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) signalling, responsible for pericyte recruitment. At the doses required to induce therapeutic benefit, VEGF causes new vascular growth essentially without sprouting, but rather through the alternative process of intussusception, or vascular splitting. In the present article, we briefly review the therapeutic implications of controlling VEGF dose on one hand and pericyte recruitment on the other, as well as the key features of intussusceptive angiogenesis and its regulation.

  7. The hypoxia-inducible factor-responsive proteins semaphorin 4D and vascular endothelial growth factor promote tumor growth and angiogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Hua; Yang, Ying-Hua; Binmadi, Nada O.; Proia, Patrizia; Basile, John R.

    2012-08-15

    Growth and metastasis of solid tumors requires induction of angiogenesis to ensure the delivery of oxygen, nutrients and growth factors to rapidly dividing transformed cells. Through either mutations, hypoxia generated by cytoreductive therapies, or when a malignancy outgrows its blood supply, tumor cells undergo a change from an avascular to a neovascular phenotype, a transition mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) family of transcriptional regulators. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one example of a gene whose transcription is stimulated by HIF. VEGF plays a crucial role in promoting tumor growth and survival by stimulating new blood vessel growth in response to such stresses as chemotherapy or radiotherapy-induced hypoxia, and it therefore has become a tempting target for neutralizing antibodies in the treatment of advanced neoplasms. Emerging evidence has shown that the semaphorins, proteins originally associated with control of axonal growth and immunity, are regulated by changes in oxygen tension as well and may play a role in tumor-induced angiogenesis. Through the use of RNA interference, in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays and tumor xenograft experiments, we demonstrate that expression of semaphorin 4D (SEMA4D), which is under the control of the HIF-family of transcription factors, cooperates with VEGF to promote tumor growth and vascularity in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We use blocking antibodies to show that targeting SEMA4D function along with VEGF could represent a novel anti-angiogenic therapeutic strategy for the treatment of OSCC and other solid tumors. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Similar to VEGF, SEMA4D promotes angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both VEGF and SEMA4D are produced by OSCC cells in a HIF-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These factors combine to elicit a robust pro-angiogenic phenotype in OSCC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-SEMA4D

  8. Controllable mineral coatings on scaffolds as carriers for growth factor release for bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saurez-Gonzalez, Darilis

    The work presented in this document, focused on the development and characterization of mineral coatings on scaffold materials to serve as templates for growth factor binding and release. Mineral coatings were formed using a biomimetic approach that consisted in the incubation of scaffolds in modified simulated body fluids (mSBF). To modulate the properties of the mineral coating, which we hypothesized would dictate growth factor release, we used carbonate (HCO3) concentration in mSBF of 4.2 mM, 25mM, and 100mM. Analysis of the mineral coatings formed using scanning electron microscopy indicated growth of a continuous layer of mineral with different morphologies. X-ray diffraction analysis showed peaks associated with hydroxyapatite. FTIR data confirmed the substitution of HCO3 in the mineral. As the extent of HCO3 substitution increased, the coating exhibited more rapid dissolution kinetics in an environment deficient in calcium and phosphate. The mineral coatings provided an effective mechanism for bioactive growth factor binding and release. Peptide versions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) were bound with efficiencies up to 90% to mineral-coated PCL scaffolds. Recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) also bound to mineral coated scaffolds with lower efficiency (20%) and released with faster release kinetics compared to peptides growth factor. Released rhVEGF induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation in vitro and enhanced blood vessel formation in vivo in an intramuscular sheep model. In addition to the use the mineral coatings for single growth factor release, we expanded the concept and bound both an angiogenic (rhVEGF) and osteogenic (mBMP2) growth factor by a simple double dipping process. Sustained release of both growth factors was demonstrated for over 60 days. Released rhVEGF enhanced blood vessel formation in vivo in sheep and its biological activity was

  9. P2y receptor-mediated angiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Rumjahn, Sharif M; Baldwin, Karla A; Buxton, Iain L O

    2007-01-01

    Pathological as well as physiological angiogenesis is known to be regulated by such factors as nucleotides and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). Activated P2Y nucleotide receptors have been observed to associate and transactivate VEGF Receptor 2 (VEGFR2), suggesting a cooperation between nucleotide and VEGF signaling in angiogenesis. P2YR mediated VEGFR2 signaling therefore may be important in describing the angiogenic signaling of nucleotides such as ATP. Here, we provide evidence that supports the notion of P2YR-VEGFR2 signaling. The significant angiogenic effect of P2Y1/2 receptor agonists (100 microM ATP and 10 microM 2MS-ATP) on endothelial cell tubulogenesis was suppressed back to near control levels upon addition of 1 microM SU1498 (specific VEGFR2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor). We believe that this P2YR-VEFGR2 signaling is an important component of pathological, as well as physiological angiogenesis.

  10. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Delivery Systems for Cardiac Repair: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Simón-Yarza, Teresa; Formiga, Fabio R.; Tamayo, Esther; Pelacho, Beatriz; Prosper, Felipe; Blanco-Prieto, María J.

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and its leading role in the angiogenic process, this has been seen as a promising molecule for promoting neovascularization in the infarcted heart. However, even though several clinical trials were initiated, no therapeutic effects were observed, due in part to the short half life of this factor when administered directly to the tissue. In this context, drug delivery systems appear to offer a promising strategy to overcome limitations in clinical trials of VEGF. The aim of this paper is to review the principal drug delivery systems that have been developed to administer VEGF in cardiovascular disease. Studies published in the last 5 years are reviewed and the main features of these systems are explained. The tissue engineering concept is introduced as a therapeutic alternative that holds promise for the near future. PMID:22737191

  11. Maternal diabetes: effects on embryonic vascular development--a vascular endothelial growth factor-A-mediated process.

    PubMed

    Madri, Joseph A; Enciso, Josephine; Pinter, Emese

    2003-01-01

    Major congenital malformations, many of which result from abnormal cardiovascular patterning, remain the leading cause in infant mortality and morbidity. Targeted mutations of several genes (including VEGF and VEGF receptors) and certain teratogenic agents (including excess alpha-D-glucose) give rise to embryonic lethal phenotypes associated with failure in the formation of a functional vitelline circulation and aberrant organogenesis. Our work to date has demonstrated that yolk sac vasculopathy and failure of endocardial cushion epithelial-mesenchymal transformation occurs in hyperglycemic conditions in murine whole conceptus culture and in embryos from streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. These cardiovascular abnormalities are associated with changes in expression and phosphorylation state of adhesion molecules such as platelet endothelial growth factor-1 and expression of growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A). Further understanding of the effects of maternal diabetes on yolk sac and embryonic vasculogenesis/angiogenesis and organogenesis may lead to novel approaches in treating and preventing major birth defects.

  12. Correlation between vascular endothelial growth factor and long-term prognosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    NIU, JIAMIN; HAN, XIA; QI, HUAXIN; YIN, JIE; ZHANG, ZHIQIANG; ZHANG, ZENGTANG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between plasma the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A total of 124 patients with AMI undergoing emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were selected, and plasma VEGF levels were measured 7 days after the onset of AMI using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The patients were divided into the L (≤190 pg/ml VEGF) and H (>190 pg/ml VEGF) groups, and were followed up every 2 months for an average of 12 months. MACE were recorded during follow-up. On the basis of these results, the patients were further divided into the MACE and non-MACE (N-MACE) groups, and the serum VEGF concentration was compared between the two groups. At the 6-month follow-up, the incidence of MACE in the H group was found to be significantly reduced compared with the L group. The serum VEGF concentration in the N-MACE group was significantly higher compared with the MACE group. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that reduced VEGF levels (β=1.243; 95% CI, 1.018–1.326; P=0.026) were independent risk factors for MACE. In conclusion, high plasma VEGF levels at 7 days after AMI onset facilitate the long-term prognosis in the same infarct zone in patients with AMI, while low plasma VEGF levels are independent risk factors for MACE. PMID:27347081

  13. Functional Modification of Fibrous PCL Scaffolds with Fusion Protein VEGF-HGFI Enhanced Cellularization and Vascularization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liqiang; Ma, Shaoyang; Pan, Yiwa; Zhang, Qiuying; Wang, Kai; Song, Dongmin; Wang, Xiangxiang; Feng, Guowei; Liu, Ruming; Xu, Haijin; Zhang, Jun; Qiao, Mingqiang; Kong, Deling

    2016-09-01

    The lack of efficient vascularization within frequently used poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds has hindered their application in tissue engineering. Hydrophobin HGFI, an amphiphilic protein, can form a self-assembly layer on the surface of PCL scaffolds and convert their wettability. In this study, a fusion protein consisting of HGFI and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is prepared by Pichia pastoris expression system. Sodium dodecyl sulface-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blotting confirm that the VEGF-HGFI is successfully isolated and purified. Transmission electron microscope and water contact angle measurement demonstrate that VEGF-HGFI can form a self-assembly layer with about 25 nm in thickness on electrospun PCL fibers and increase their hydrophilicity. VEGF-HGFI modification can effectively enhance the adhesion, migration, and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging shows that the VEGF-HGFI modification on PCL scaffolds can exist at least 21 d in vitro and at least 14 d in vivo. Bioluminescence imaging shows that VEGF-HGFI can effectively activate vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 receptors. Subcutaneous implantation in mice and rats reveal that cellularization and vascularization are significantly improved in VEGF-HGFI modified PCL scaffolds. These results suggest that VEGF-HGFI is a useful molecule for functional modification of scaffolds to enhance cellularization and vascularization in tissue engineering. PMID:27391702

  14. Stimulatory Effect of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor on Proliferation and Migration of Porcine Trophectoderm Cells and Their Regulation by the Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase-AKT and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cell Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Wooyoung; Kim, Jinyoung; Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa

    2014-03-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent stimulator for angiogenesis, is likely to regulate implantation by stimulating endometrial angiogenesis and vascular permeability. In addition to known angiogenetic effects, VEGF has been suggested to participate in development of the early embryo as a mediator of fetal-maternal dialogue. Current studies have determined VEGF in terms of its role in endometrial vascular events, but VEGF-induced effects on the peri-implantation conceptus (embryo and extraembryonic membranes) remains unknown. In the present study, endometrial VEGF, VEGF receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) mRNAs increased significantly during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy as compared to the estrous cycle. Expression of VEGF, VEGFR-1, and VEGFR-2 mRNAs was abundant in endometrial luminal and glandular epithelia, endothelial blood vessels, and scattered cells in the stroma and conceptus trophectoderm. In addition, porcine trophectoderm (pTr) cells treated with VEGF exhibited increased abundance of phosphorylated (p)-AKT1, p-ERK1/2, p-p70RSK, p-RPS6, and p-4EBP1 in a time-dependent manner. The addition of U0126, an inhibitor of ERK1/2, inhibited VEGF-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but AKT1 phosphorylation was not affected. The addition of LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, decreased VEGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT1. Furthermore, VEGF significantly stimulated proliferation and migration of pTr cells, but these effects were blocked by SB203580, U0126, rapamycin, and LY294002, which inhibit p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, mTOR, and PI3K, respectively. These results suggest that VEGF is critical to successful growth and development of pTr during early pregnancy and that VEGF-induced stimulatory effect is coordinately regulated by multiple cell signaling pathways, including PI3K-AKT1 and MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:24451985

  15. Injectable gelatin derivative hydrogels with sustained vascular endothelial growth factor release for induced angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhe; Qu, Tiejun; Ding, Chen; Ma, Chi; Sun, Hongchen; Li, Shirong; Liu, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    Injectable biomaterials are attractive for soft tissue regeneration because they are handled in a minimally invasive manner and can easily adapt to complex defects. However, inadequate vascularization of the injectable constructs has long been a barrier, leading to necrosis or volume reduction after implantation. In this work, we developed a three-step process to synthesize injectable gelatin-derived hydrogels that are capable of controlling growth factor delivery to induce angiogenesis. In our approach, tyramine was first introduced into gelatin chains to provide enzymatical crosslinking points for gel formation after injection. Next, heparin, a polysaccharide with binding domains to many growth factors, was covalently linked to the tyramine-modified gelatin. Finally, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was incorporated into the gelatin derivative by binding with the heparin in the gelatin derivative, and an injectable gel with controlled VEGF release was formed by an enzymatic catalytic reaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The gelation time, mechanical properties and degradation of the gel was readily tailored by the gelatin concentration and the ratio of H2O2/HRP. Binding VEGF to heparin stabilizes this growth factor, protects it from denaturation and proteolytic degradation, and subsequently prolongs the sustained release. An in vitro release study and bioactivity assay indicated that the VEGF was released in a sustained manner with high bioactivity for over 3 weeks. Furthermore, a chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and animal experiments were performed to evaluate in vivo bioactivity of the VEGF released from the hydrogels. After 5 days of incubation on CAM, the number of blood vessels surrounding the heparin-modified hydrogels was 2.4-fold increase than that of the control group. Deeper and denser cell infiltration and angiogenesis in the heparin-modified gelatin/VEGF gels were observed than in the controls

  16. Injectable gelatin derivative hydrogels with sustained vascular endothelial growth factor release for induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe; Qu, Tiejun; Ding, Chen; Ma, Chi; Sun, Hongchen; Li, Shirong; Liu, Xiaohua

    2015-02-01

    Injectable biomaterials are attractive for soft tissue regeneration because they are handled in a minimally invasive manner and can easily adapt to complex defects. However, inadequate vascularization of the injectable constructs has long been a barrier, leading to necrosis or volume reduction after implantation. In this work, we developed a three-step process to synthesize injectable gelatin-derived hydrogels that are capable of controlling growth factor delivery to induce angiogenesis. In our approach, tyramine was first introduced into gelatin chains to provide enzymatic crosslinking points for gel formation after injection. Next, heparin, a polysaccharide with binding domains to many growth factors, was covalently linked to the tyramine-modified gelatin. Finally, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was incorporated into the gelatin derivative by binding with the heparin in the gelatin derivative, and an injectable gel with controlled VEGF release was formed by an enzymatic catalytic reaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The gelation time, mechanical properties and degradation of the gel was readily tailored by the gelatin concentration and the ratio of H2O2/HRP. Binding VEGF to heparin stabilizes this growth factor, protects it from denaturation and proteolytic degradation and subsequently prolongs the sustained release. An in vitro release study and bioactivity assay indicated that the VEGF was released in a sustained manner with high bioactivity for over 3 weeks. Furthermore, a chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and animal experiments were performed to evaluate in vivo bioactivity of the VEGF released from the hydrogels. After 5 days of incubation on CAM, the number of blood vessels surrounding the heparin-modified hydrogels was increased by 2.4-fold compared with that of the control group. Deeper and denser cell infiltration and angiogenesis in the heparin-modified gelatin/VEGF gels were observed compared to

  17. Injectable gelatin derivative hydrogels with sustained vascular endothelial growth factor release for induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe; Qu, Tiejun; Ding, Chen; Ma, Chi; Sun, Hongchen; Li, Shirong; Liu, Xiaohua

    2015-02-01

    Injectable biomaterials are attractive for soft tissue regeneration because they are handled in a minimally invasive manner and can easily adapt to complex defects. However, inadequate vascularization of the injectable constructs has long been a barrier, leading to necrosis or volume reduction after implantation. In this work, we developed a three-step process to synthesize injectable gelatin-derived hydrogels that are capable of controlling growth factor delivery to induce angiogenesis. In our approach, tyramine was first introduced into gelatin chains to provide enzymatic crosslinking points for gel formation after injection. Next, heparin, a polysaccharide with binding domains to many growth factors, was covalently linked to the tyramine-modified gelatin. Finally, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was incorporated into the gelatin derivative by binding with the heparin in the gelatin derivative, and an injectable gel with controlled VEGF release was formed by an enzymatic catalytic reaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The gelation time, mechanical properties and degradation of the gel was readily tailored by the gelatin concentration and the ratio of H2O2/HRP. Binding VEGF to heparin stabilizes this growth factor, protects it from denaturation and proteolytic degradation and subsequently prolongs the sustained release. An in vitro release study and bioactivity assay indicated that the VEGF was released in a sustained manner with high bioactivity for over 3 weeks. Furthermore, a chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and animal experiments were performed to evaluate in vivo bioactivity of the VEGF released from the hydrogels. After 5 days of incubation on CAM, the number of blood vessels surrounding the heparin-modified hydrogels was increased by 2.4-fold compared with that of the control group. Deeper and denser cell infiltration and angiogenesis in the heparin-modified gelatin/VEGF gels were observed compared to

  18. Vascular endothelial growth factor signalling in endothelial cell survival: A role for NF{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, Jennifer . E-mail: Jennifer.grosjean@imperial.ac.uk; Kiriakidis, Serafim; Reilly, Kerri; Feldmann, Marc; Paleolog, Ewa

    2006-02-17

    Angiogenesis is the development of blood capillaries from pre-existing vessels. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of vessel growth and regression, and acts as an endothelial survival factor by protecting endothelial cells from apoptosis. Many genes involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis are regulated by the nuclear factor kappa B (NF{kappa}B) transcription factor family. This study aimed to address the hypothesis that VEGF-mediated survival effects on endothelium involve NF{kappa}B. Using an NF{kappa}B-luciferase reporter adenovirus, we observed activation of NF{kappa}B following VEGF treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. This was confirmed using electrophoretic mobility shift assay and found to involve nuclear translocation of NF{kappa}B sub-unit p65. However, NF{kappa}B activation occurred without degradation of inhibitory I{kappa}B proteins (I{kappa}B{alpha}, I{kappa}B{beta}, and I{kappa}B{epsilon}). Instead, tyrosine phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} was observed following VEGF treatment, suggesting NF{kappa}B activation was mediated by degradation-independent dissociation of I{kappa}B{alpha} from NF{kappa}B. Adenovirus-mediated over-expression of either native I{kappa}B{alpha}, or of I{kappa}B{alpha} in which tyrosine residue 42 was mutated to phenylalanine, inhibited induction of NF{kappa}B-dependent luciferase activity in response to VEGF. Furthermore, VEGF-induced upregulation of mRNA for the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and cell survival following serum withdrawal was reduced following I{kappa}B{alpha} over-expression. This study highlights that different molecular mechanisms of NF{kappa}B activation may be involved downstream of stimuli which activate the endothelial lining of blood vessels.

  19. Imiquimod Increases Cutaneous VEGF Expression in Imiquimod-induced Psoriatic Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui-Hui; Xie, Wen-Lin; Zhao, Yu-Kun; Liu, Juan-Hua; Luo, Di-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease of unknown aetiology but increasing evidence suggests that cutaneous angiogenesis plays an important role. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the pro-angiogenic cytokines which is related to the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Our study evaluated the influence of imiquimod (IMQ) on VEGF in IMQ-induced mouse model. Balb/c female mice (n=16) 8-12 weeks of age were randomly divided into an experimental group (5% IMQ cream) and the control group (Vaseline cream). Serum levels of circulating VEGF-A were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. VEGF protein expression in tested skin was measured by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. The tested skin in the experimental group expressed higher levels of VEGF protein than in the control group (p=0.012); immunohistochemical staining revealed that the cells over-expressing VEGF localized predominantly in the epidermis and vascular endothelium. Circulating VEGF-A levels showed no significant difference between the experimental and control groups (p=0.445). The IMQ-induced mouse psoriatic model showed an upregulation of VEGF in the skin lesions mimicking human psoriasis but the circulating VEGF-A levels showed no difference. This model may be useful to investigate the role of angiogenesis in psoriasis. PMID:26733387

  20. Heterochronic activation of VEGF signaling and the evolution of the skeleton in echinoderm pluteus larvae.

    PubMed

    Morino, Yoshiaki; Koga, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Kazunori; Shoguchi, Eiichi; Kiyomoto, Masato; Wada, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the echinoderm larval skeleton was examined from the aspect of interactions between skeletogenic mesenchyme cells and surrounding epithelium. We focused on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling, which was reported to be essential for skeletogenesis in sea urchin larvae. Here, we examined the expression patterns of vegf and vegfr in starfish and brittle stars. During starfish embryogenesis, no expression of either vegfr or vegf was detected, which contrast with previous reports on the expression of starfish homologs of sea urchin skeletogenic genes, including Ets, Tbr, and Dri. In later stages, when adult skeletogenesis commenced, vegfr and vegf expression were upregulated in skeletogenic cells and in the adjacent epidermis, respectively. These expression patterns suggest that heterochronic activation of VEGF signaling is one of the key molecular evolutionary steps in the evolution of the larval skeleton. The absence of vegf or vegfr expression during early embryogenesis in starfish suggests that the evolution of the larval skeleton requires distinct evolutionary changes, both in mesoderm cells (activation of vegfr expression) and in epidermal cells (activation of vegf expression). In brittle stars, which have well-organized skeletons like the sea urchin, vegfr and vegf were expressed in the skeletogenic mesenchyme and the overlying epidermis, respectively, in the same manner as in sea urchins. Therefore, the distinct activation of vegfr and vegf may have occurred in two lineages, sea urchins and brittle stars.

  1. Stability and Species Specificity of Renal VEGF-A Splicing Patterns in Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Turner, R J; Eikmans, M; Bajema, I M; Bruijn, J A; Baelde, H J

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is essential for maintaining the glomerular filtration barrier. Absolute renal levels of VEGF-A change in patients with diabetic nephropathy and inflammatory kidney diseases, but whether changes in the renal splicing patterns of VEGF-A play a role remains unclear. In this study, we investigated mRNA splicing patterns of pro-angiogenic isoforms of VEGF-A in glomeruli and whole kidney samples from human patients with kidney disease and from mouse models of kidney disease. Kidney biopsies were obtained from patients with acute rejection following kidney transplantation, patients with diabetic nephropathy, and control subjects. In addition, kidney samples were obtained from mice with lupus nephritis, mice with diabetes mellitus, and control mice. The relative expression of each VEGF-A splice variant was measured using RT-PCR followed by quantitative fra