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  1. Effect of High Dietary Carbohydrate on the Growth Performance, Blood Chemistry, Hepatic Enzyme Activities and Growth Hormone Gene Expression of Wuchang Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) at Two Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuanpeng; Ge, Xianping; Liu, Bo; Xie, Jun; Chen, Ruli; Ren, Mingchun

    2015-02-01

    The effects of high carbohydrate diet on growth, serum physiological response, and hepatic heat shock protein 70 expression in Wuchang bream were determined at 25°C and 30°C. At each temperature, the fish fed the control diet (31% CHO) had significantly higher weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activities, lower feed conversion ratio and hepatosomatic index (HSI), whole crude lipid, serum glucose, hepatic glucokinase (GK) activity than those fed the high-carbohydrate diet (47% CHO) (p<0.05). The fish reared at 25°C had significantly higher whole body crude protein and ash, serum cholesterol and triglyceride, hepatic G-6-Pase activity, lower glycogen content and relative levels of hepatic growth hormone (GH) gene expression than those reared at 30°C (p<0.05). Significant interaction between temperature and diet was found for HSI, condition factor, hepatic GK activity and the relative levels of hepatic GH gene expression (p<0.05).

  2. Effects of dietary gossypol concentration on growth performance, blood profiles, and hepatic histopathology in meat ducks.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Q F; Yang, G L; Liu, G N; Wang, J P; Bai, S P; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Zhang, K Y

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of gossypol from cottonseed meal (CSM) on growth performance, blood biochemical profiles, and liver histopathology of ducks. A total of 900 1-d-old ducks were randomly allocated to 5 treatments with 12 pens/treatment and 15 ducks/pen. The 5 experimental diets were formulated in such a way that 0% (a corn-soybean meal basal diet, diet 1), 25% (diet 2), 50% (diet 3), 75% (diet 4), and 100% (diet 5) of protein from soybean meal were replaced with that from CSM. All diets were formulated on a digestible amino acid basis. The experiment included 2 phases, the starter phase (1 to 3 wk) where the test diets contained graded levels of CSM and the growth phase (4 to 5 wk) where birds were fed a corn-soybean basal diet to examine the recovery of ducks after CSM withdrawal. Dietary CSM and gossypol linearly (P < 0.01) and quadratically (P < 0.01) decreased ADG and ADFI during d 1 to 14. The threshold of daily total gossypol (TG) and free gossypol (FG) intake based on ADG on d 1 to 7 and d 7 to 14 were 32.20 and 2.64 mg/d, and 92.12 and 9.62 mg/d, respectively. Serum alanine aminotransferase increased (P < 0.05) linearly with increasing level of gossypol in the diets (d 7), whereas aspartate aminotransferase increased (P < 0.05) linearly and quadratically (d 14). Serum albumin concentration decreased (P < 0.05) quadratically with increasing dietary CSM concentrations on d 21. The degree of damage to the liver increased markedly with increasing dietary CSM and gossypol content and the length of CSM and gossypol intake. On d 35, there was no difference on BW and blood profiles of ducks among all treatments. These results suggest that meat ducks' dietary TG and FG concentration should be lower than 928.9 and 77.2 mg/kg, respectively, during d 1 to 21 of age and that a 2-wk withdrawal of diets containing gossypol should be considered.

  3. Effects of dietary gossypol concentration on growth performance, blood profiles, and hepatic histopathology in meat ducks1

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Q. F.; Yang, G. L.; Liu, G. N.; Wang, J. P.; Bai, S. P.; Ding, X. M.; Luo, Y. H.; Zhang, K. Y.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of gossypol from cottonseed meal (CSM) on growth performance, blood biochemical profiles, and liver histopathology of ducks. A total of 900 1-d-old ducks were randomly allocated to 5 treatments with 12 pens/treatment and 15 ducks/pen. The 5 experimental diets were formulated in such a way that 0% (a corn-soybean meal basal diet, diet 1), 25% (diet 2), 50% (diet 3), 75% (diet 4), and 100% (diet 5) of protein from soybean meal were replaced with that from CSM. All diets were formulated on a digestible amino acid basis. The experiment included 2 phases, the starter phase (1 to 3 wk) where the test diets contained graded levels of CSM and the growth phase (4 to 5 wk) where birds were fed a corn-soybean basal diet to examine the recovery of ducks after CSM withdrawal. Dietary CSM and gossypol linearly (P < 0.01) and quadratically (P < 0.01) decreased ADG and ADFI during d 1 to 14. The threshold of daily total gossypol (TG) and free gossypol (FG) intake based on ADG on d 1 to 7 and d 7 to 14 were 32.20 and 2.64 mg/d, and 92.12 and 9.62 mg/d, respectively. Serum alanine aminotransferase increased (P < 0.05) linearly with increasing level of gossypol in the diets (d 7), whereas aspartate aminotransferase increased (P < 0.05) linearly and quadratically (d 14). Serum albumin concentration decreased (P < 0.05) quadratically with increasing dietary CSM concentrations on d 21. The degree of damage to the liver increased markedly with increasing dietary CSM and gossypol content and the length of CSM and gossypol intake. On d 35, there was no difference on BW and blood profiles of ducks among all treatments. These results suggest that meat ducks’ dietary TG and FG concentration should be lower than 928.9 and 77.2 mg/kg, respectively, during d 1 to 21 of age and that a 2-wk withdrawal of diets containing gossypol should be considered. PMID:24902707

  4. Effects of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) and rearing temperature on growth performance and hepatic intermediary metabolism in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Inês; Enes, Paula; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2015-10-01

    The effect of dietary short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) incorporation on growth, feed utilization, body composition, plasmatic metabolites and liver activity of key enzymes of lipogenic and amino acid catabolic pathways was evaluated in gilthead sea bream reared at 18 and 25 °C. Four practical diets containing plant ingredients and fish meal (50:50) as protein sources and supplemented with 0, 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 % scFOS were fed to triplicate groups of fish for 8 weeks. Growth performance, feed efficiency and nitrogen retention were higher at 25 °C. In fish reared at 18 °C, there was a positive correlation between dietary scFOS concentration and growth. At 18 °C, liver glycogen was higher in fish fed the control diet, while at 25 °C it was higher in fish fed the 0.5 % scFOS diet. Plasma cholesterol LDL was lower in fish fed 0.25 % scFOS diet, and in fish reared at 18 °C plasma glucose was higher in fish fed the 0.1 % scFOS diet. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, fatty acid synthetase and aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) activities were higher in fish reared at 18 °C, whereas alanine aminotransferase activity was higher in fish reared at 25 °C. scFOS affected ASAT activity, which was lower in fish fed 0.25 % scFOS diet. Although, scFOS seemed to have no major effects on gilthead sea bream metabolism, the positive correlation between dietary prebiotic incorporation and growth at 18 °C indicates a beneficial effect of scFOS in fish reared at low temperatures.

  5. Growth Hormone Inhibits Hepatic De Novo Lipogenesis in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Cordoba-Chacon, Jose; Majumdar, Neena; List, Edward O; Diaz-Ruiz, Alberto; Frank, Stuart J; Manzano, Anna; Bartrons, Ramon; Puchowicz, Michelle; Kopchick, John J; Kineman, Rhonda D

    2015-09-01

    Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are reported to have low growth hormone (GH) production and/or hepatic GH resistance. GH replacement can resolve the fatty liver condition in diet-induced obese rodents and in GH-deficient patients. However, it remains to be determined whether this inhibitory action of GH is due to direct regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism. Therefore, an adult-onset, hepatocyte-specific, GH receptor (GHR) knockdown (aLivGHRkd) mouse was developed to model hepatic GH resistance in humans that may occur after sexual maturation. Just 7 days after aLivGHRkd, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) was increased in male and female chow-fed mice, compared with GHR-intact littermate controls. However, hepatosteatosis developed only in male and ovariectomized female aLivGHRkd mice. The increase in DNL observed in aLivGHRkd mice was not associated with hyperactivation of the pathway by which insulin is classically considered to regulate DNL. However, glucokinase mRNA and protein levels as well as fructose-2,6-bisphosphate levels were increased in aLivGHRkd mice, suggesting that enhanced glycolysis drives DNL in the GH-resistant liver. These results demonstrate that hepatic GH actions normally serve to inhibit DNL, where loss of this inhibitory signal may explain, in part, the inappropriate increase in hepatic DNL observed in NAFLD patients. PMID:26015548

  6. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Hepatitis KidsHealth > For Kids > Hepatitis Print A A A ... an important digestive liquid called bile . What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation (say: in-fluh-MAY- ...

  7. Hepatic Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Attenuates Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Expression.

    PubMed

    Girer, Nathaniel G; Murray, Iain A; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Perdew, Gary H

    2016-07-15

    The Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in many physiological processes. Several studies indicate that AHR is also involved in energy homeostasis. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an important regulator of the fasting and feeding responses. When administered to various genetic and diet-induced mouse models of obesity, FGF21 can attenuate obesity-associated morbidities. Here, we explore the role of AHR in hepatic Fgf21 expression through the use of a conditional, hepatocyte-targeted AHR knock-out mouse model (Cre(Alb)Ahr(Fx/Fx)). Compared with the congenic parental strain (Ahr(Fx/Fx)), non-fasted Cre(Alb)Ahr(Fx/Fx) mice exhibit a 4-fold increase in hepatic Fgf21 expression, as well as elevated expression of the FGF21-target gene Igfbp1 Furthermore, in vivo agonist activation of AHR reduces hepatic Fgf21 expression during a fast. The Fgf21 promoter contains several putative dioxin response elements (DREs). Using EMSA, we demonstrate that the AHR-ARNT heterodimer binds to a specific DRE that overlaps binding sequences for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP), and cAMP response element-binding protein, hepatocyte specific (CREBH). In addition, we reveal that agonist-activated AHR impairs PPARα-, ChREBP-, and CREBH-mediated promoter activity in Hepa-1 cells. Accordingly, agonist treatment in Hepa-1 cells ablates potent ER stress-driven Fgf21 expression, and pre-treatment with AHR antagonist blocks this effect. Finally, we show that pre-treatment of primary human hepatocytes with AHR agonist diminishes PPARα-, glucose-, and ER stress-driven induction of FGF21 expression, indicating the effect is not mouse-specific. Together, our data show that AHR contributes to hepatic energy homeostasis, partly through the regulation of FGF21 expression and signaling. PMID:27226639

  8. Exogenous recombinant bovine growth hormone stimulates growth and hepatic IGF expression in shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorhynchus.

    PubMed

    Fenn, Carlin M; Small, Brian C

    2015-02-01

    Sturgeon are a unique fish for physiological research as they are long-lived, slow-growing, and late-maturing. Furthermore, sturgeon growth hormones appear to share greater structural and molecular similarity with mammalian somatotropins than teleostean somatotropins. In this study, changes in insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II mRNA expression and corresponding whole-body growth and composition following 6 weeks of bi-weekly recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbGH) administration in shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorhynchus were evaluated. Fish were injected intraperitoneally with 240 μg rbGH/g body weight or a sesame oil sham. Hepatic IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA abundance was significantly higher (P≤0.02) in rbGH-treated fish, as were length (P<0.001) and weight gain (P<0.001). In addition, proximate whole-body analysis demonstrated a significant (P<0.05) increase in protein composition of rbGH-treated fish versus sham-treated fish. There were no significant differences in whole-body moisture, lipid, or ash between the two treatments. These results demonstrate functional roles for GH and IGFs in the promotion of lean growth within this ancient fish species and support the view that the functional effects of GH on hepatic IGF-I expression and somatic growth are conserved from chondostrean to teleostean fishes.

  9. Hepatic growth hormone and glucocorticoid receptor signaling in body growth, steatosis and metabolic liver cancer development.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Kristina M; Themanns, Madeleine; Friedbichler, Katrin; Kornfeld, Jan-Wilhelm; Esterbauer, Harald; Tuckermann, Jan P; Moriggl, Richard

    2012-09-25

    Growth hormone (GH) and glucocorticoids (GCs) are involved in the control of processes that are essential for the maintenance of vital body functions including energy supply and growth control. GH and GCs have been well characterized to regulate systemic energy homeostasis, particular during certain conditions of physical stress. However, dysfunctional signaling in both pathways is linked to various metabolic disorders associated with aberrant carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In liver, GH-dependent activation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5 controls a variety of physiologic functions within hepatocytes. Similarly, GCs, through activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), influence many important liver functions such as gluconeogenesis. Studies in hepatic Stat5 or GR knockout mice have revealed that they similarly control liver function on their target gene level and indeed, the GR functions often as a cofactor of STAT5 for GH-induced genes. Gene sets, which require physical STAT5-GR interaction, include those controlling body growth and maturation. More recently, it has become evident that impairment of GH-STAT5 signaling in different experimental models correlates with metabolic liver disease, ranging from hepatic steatosis to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While GH-activated STAT5 has a protective role in chronic liver disease, experimental disruption of GC-GR signaling rather seems to ameliorate metabolic disorders under metabolic challenge. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge about hepatic GH-STAT5 and GC-GR signaling in body growth, metabolism, and protection from fatty liver disease and HCC development.

  10. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been associated with drinking contaminated water. Hepatitis Viruses Type Transmission Prognosis A Fecal-oral (stool to ... risk for severe disease. Others A variety of viruses can affect the liver Signs and Symptoms Hepatitis ...

  11. The lure of zebrafish in liver research: regulation of hepatic growth in development and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Cox, Andrew G; Goessling, Wolfram

    2015-06-01

    The liver is an essential organ that plays a pivotal role in metabolism, digestion and nutrient storage. Major efforts have been made to develop zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model system to study the pathways regulating hepatic growth during liver development and regeneration. Zebrafish offer unique advantages over other vertebrates including in vivo imaging at cellular resolution and the capacity for large-scale chemical and genetic screens. Here, we review the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate hepatic growth during liver development in zebrafish. We also highlight emerging evidence that developmental pathways are reactivated following liver injury to facilitate regeneration. Finally, we discuss how zebrafish have transformed drug discovery efforts and enabled the identification of drugs that stimulate hepatic growth and provide hepatoprotection in pre-clinical models of liver injury, with the ultimate goal of identifying novel therapeutic approaches to treat liver disease.

  12. Leptin stimulates hepatic activation of thyroid hormones and promotes early posthatch growth in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Li, Rongjie; Hu, Yan; Ni, Yingdong; Xia, Dong; Grossmann, Roland; Zhao, Ruqian

    2011-10-01

    Hepatic iodothyronine deiodinases (Ds) are involved in the conversion of thyroid hormones (THs) which interacts with growth hormone (GH) to regulate posthatch growth in the chicken. Previous studies suggest that leptin-like immunoreactive substance deposited in the egg may serve as a maternal signal to program posthatch growth. To test the hypothesis that maternal leptin may affect early posthatch growth through modifying hepatic activation of THs, we injected 5.0μg of recombinant murine leptin into the albumen of breeder eggs before incubation. Furthermore, chicken embryo hepatocytes (CEHs) were treated with leptin in vitro to reveal the direct effect of leptin on expression and activity of Ds. In ovo leptin administration markedly accelerated early posthatch growth, elevated serum levels of total and free triiodothyronine (tT3 and fT3), while that of total thyroxin (tT4) remained unchanged. Hepatic mRNA expression and activity of D1 which converts T4 to T3 or rT3 to T2, were significantly increased in leptin-treated chickens, while those of D3 which converts T3 to T2 or T4 to rT3, were significantly decreased. Moreover, hepatic expression of GHR and IGF-I mRNA was all up-regulated in leptin-treated chickens. Males demonstrated more pronounced responses. A direct effect of leptin on Ds was shown in CEHs cultured in vitro. Expression and activity of D1 were increased, whereas those of D3 were decreased, in leptin-treated cells. These data suggest that in ovo leptin administration improves early posthatch growth, in a gender-specific fashion, probably through improving hepatic activation of THs and up-regulating hepatic expression of GHR and IGF-I.

  13. Performance of some growth variables.

    PubMed

    Billen, N; Schätzle, H; Seufert, G; Arndt, U

    1990-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) were exposed to low concentrations of ozone (O(3)) and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), alone and combined, and simulated acid rain (pH 4.0) in sheltered open-top chambers in Hohenheim (Southwest Germany) for almost five years. The concentrations of O(3) and SO(2) used were related to annual ambient average found in southern West Germany. Two control chambers were ventilated with charcoal filtered air and rainfall was simulated at pH 4.0 and 5.0. Because of large dense plant growth in the chambers it was only possible to measure uncompleted growth of shoots in the upper canopy. Therefore, growth analysis was restricted to this area. The treatment with acidic precipitation decreased the annual shoot growth of beech and reduced leaf surface area of those trees. Exposure to SO(2), O(3) alone and in combination resulted in further reduction of shoot length and leaf surface area. Fumigation with SO(2) and O(3) + SO(2) caused insignificant decreases of shoot length, total dry weight and needle surface area of spruce. The lateral leader shoot growth of spruce exposed to O(3) was significantly reduced only in the last year of the experiment. Growth rates of the spruce exposed to charcoal filtered air and non-acidic precipitation were reduced more than those of beech and fir. Growth variables determined for fir reflected different rates of incremental change. Exposure to O(3) resulted in the largest dry matter production of all fir groups but those exposed to charcoal filtered air and non-acidic precipitation responded with the best lateral leader shoot growth, lowest specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf area ratio (LAR) respectively indicating best metabolic efficiency. At the conclusion of this study a classification of sensitivity was developed for the tree species.

  14. Dietary nucleotides affect hepatic growth and composition in the weanling mouse.

    PubMed

    Novak, D A; Carver, J D; Barness, L A

    1994-01-01

    The effect of dietary nucleotides upon hepatic growth and composition was examined in weanling mice. For 5 weeks, mice were fed either Purina Rat Chow, a nucleotide-free diet (NT-), a nucleotide-free diet supplemented with a mixture of five nucleotides (0.21% w/w), (NT+) or a nucleotide-free diet supplemented with adenosine 5'-monophosphate (0.0425% w/w) (NTA). Hepatic cholesterol and lipid phosphorous were significantly higher, whereas liver weight (expressed as a percentage of body weight), and glycogen were lower in animals fed NT- vs all other groups. NTA-fed animals presented a greater contrast to the NT- group than did animals fed the mixture of nucleotides. Liver fatty acid composition and distribution of phospholipid subclasses were not affected by dietary nucleotide supplementation. Dietary nucleotide supplementation in weanling mice affects hepatic growth and composition; adenosine 5'-monophosphate may play a unique role in these effects.

  15. Fibroblast growth factor 21 deficiency exacerbates chronic alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis and injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanlong; Zhao, Cuiqing; Xiao, Jian; Liu, Liming; Zhang, Min; Wang, Cuiling; Wu, Guicheng; Zheng, Ming-Hua; Xu, Lan-Man; Chen, Yong-Ping; Mohammadi, Moosa; Chen, Shao-Yu; Cave, Matthew; McClain, Craig; Li, Xiaokun; Feng, Wenke

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hepatokine that regulates glucose and lipid metabolism in the liver. We sought to determine the role of FGF21 in hepatic steatosis in mice exposed to chronic alcohol treatment and to discern underlying mechanisms. Male FGF21 knockout (FGF21 KO) and control (WT) mice were divided into groups that were fed either the Lieber DeCarli diet containing 5% alcohol or an isocaloric (control) diet for 4 weeks. One group of WT mice exposed to alcohol received recombinant human FGF21 (rhFGF21) in the last 5 days. Liver steatosis and inflammation were assessed. Primary mouse hepatocytes and AML-12 cells were incubated with metformin or rhFGF21. Hepatic genes and the products involved in in situ lipogenesis and fatty acid β-oxidation were analyzed. Alcohol exposure increased circulating levels and hepatic expression of FGF21. FGF21 depletion exacerbated alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis and liver injury, which was associated with increased activation of genes involved in lipogenesis mediated by SREBP1c and decreased expression of genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation mediated by PGC1α. rhFGF21 administration reduced alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation in WT mice. These results reveal that alcohol-induced FGF21 expression is a hepatic adaptive response to lipid dysregulation. Targeting FGF21 signaling could be a novel treatment approach for alcoholic steatohepatitis. PMID:27498701

  16. Fibroblast growth factor 21 deficiency exacerbates chronic alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis and injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanlong; Zhao, Cuiqing; Xiao, Jian; Liu, Liming; Zhang, Min; Wang, Cuiling; Wu, Guicheng; Zheng, Ming-Hua; Xu, Lan-Man; Chen, Yong-Ping; Mohammadi, Moosa; Chen, Shao-Yu; Cave, Matthew; McClain, Craig; Li, Xiaokun; Feng, Wenke

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hepatokine that regulates glucose and lipid metabolism in the liver. We sought to determine the role of FGF21 in hepatic steatosis in mice exposed to chronic alcohol treatment and to discern underlying mechanisms. Male FGF21 knockout (FGF21 KO) and control (WT) mice were divided into groups that were fed either the Lieber DeCarli diet containing 5% alcohol or an isocaloric (control) diet for 4 weeks. One group of WT mice exposed to alcohol received recombinant human FGF21 (rhFGF21) in the last 5 days. Liver steatosis and inflammation were assessed. Primary mouse hepatocytes and AML-12 cells were incubated with metformin or rhFGF21. Hepatic genes and the products involved in in situ lipogenesis and fatty acid β-oxidation were analyzed. Alcohol exposure increased circulating levels and hepatic expression of FGF21. FGF21 depletion exacerbated alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis and liver injury, which was associated with increased activation of genes involved in lipogenesis mediated by SREBP1c and decreased expression of genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation mediated by PGC1α. rhFGF21 administration reduced alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation in WT mice. These results reveal that alcohol-induced FGF21 expression is a hepatic adaptive response to lipid dysregulation. Targeting FGF21 signaling could be a novel treatment approach for alcoholic steatohepatitis. PMID:27498701

  17. Regulation of Hepatic Stellate Cells and Fibrogenesis by Fibroblast Growth Factors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a family of growth factors critically involved in developmental, physiological, and pathological processes, including embryogenesis, angiogenesis, wound healing, and endocrine functions. In the liver, several FGFs are produced basally by hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Upon insult to the liver, expression of FGFs in HSCs is greatly upregulated, stimulating hepatocyte regeneration and growth. Various FGF isoforms have also been shown to directly induce HSC proliferation and activation thereby enabling autocrine and paracrine regulation of HSC function. Regulation of HSCs by the endocrine FGFs, namely, FGF15/19 and FGF21, has also recently been identified. With the ability to modulate HSC proliferation and transdifferentiation, targeting FGF signaling pathways constitutes a promising new therapeutic strategy to treat hepatic fibrosis. PMID:27699175

  18. Regulation of Hepatic Stellate Cells and Fibrogenesis by Fibroblast Growth Factors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a family of growth factors critically involved in developmental, physiological, and pathological processes, including embryogenesis, angiogenesis, wound healing, and endocrine functions. In the liver, several FGFs are produced basally by hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Upon insult to the liver, expression of FGFs in HSCs is greatly upregulated, stimulating hepatocyte regeneration and growth. Various FGF isoforms have also been shown to directly induce HSC proliferation and activation thereby enabling autocrine and paracrine regulation of HSC function. Regulation of HSCs by the endocrine FGFs, namely, FGF15/19 and FGF21, has also recently been identified. With the ability to modulate HSC proliferation and transdifferentiation, targeting FGF signaling pathways constitutes a promising new therapeutic strategy to treat hepatic fibrosis.

  19. Evolution of Hepatic Steatosis to Fibrosis and Adenoma Formation in Liver-Specific Growth Hormone Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yong; Fang, Xin; Tajima, Asako; Geng, Xuehui; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan; Dong, Henry; Trucco, Massimo; Sperling, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common forms of chronic liver diseases closely associated with obesity and insulin resistance; deficient growth hormone (GH) action in liver has been implicated as a mechanism. Here, we investigated the evolution of NAFLD in aged mice with liver-specific GHR deletion. Methods: We examined glucose tolerance, insulin responsiveness, and lipid profiles in aged male mice (44–50 weeks) with GHRLD. We performed proteomics analysis, pathway-based Superarray assay, as well as quantitative RT-PCR to gain molecular insight into the mechanism(s) of GHR-deficiency-mediated NAFLD. In addition, we examined the pathological changes of livers of aged GHRLD male mice. Results: The biochemical profile was consistent with that of the metabolic syndrome: abnormal glucose tolerance, impaired insulin secretion, and hyperlipidemia. RT-qPCR analysis of key markers of inflammation revealed a three- to fivefold increase in TNFα and CCL3, confirming the presence of inflammation. Expression of fibrotic markers (e.g., Col1A2 and Col3A1) was significantly increased, together with a two- to threefold increase in TGFβ transcripts. Proteomics analyses showed a marked decrease of Mup1 and Selenbp2. In addition, pathway-analysis showed that the expression of cell cycle and growth relevant genes (i.e., Ccnd1, Socs2, Socs3, and Egfr) were markedly affected in GHRLD liver. Microscopic analyses (H&E) of GHRLD livers revealed the presence of hepatic adenomas of different stages of malignancy. Conclusion: Abrogation of GH signaling in male liver leads to metabolic syndrome, hepatic steatosis, increased inflammation and fibrosis, and development of hepatic tumor. Since obesity, a common precursor of NAFLD, is a state of deficient GH secretion and action, the GHRLD model could be used to unravel the contribution of compromised hepatic GH signaling in these pathological processes, and help to identify potential targets for

  20. Hepatic IGF1 DNA methylation is influenced by gender but not by intrauterine growth restriction in the young lamb.

    PubMed

    Carr, D J; Milne, J S; Aitken, R P; Adam, C L; Wallace, J M

    2015-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and postnatal catch-up growth confer an increased risk of adult-onset disease. Overnourishment of adolescent ewes generates IUGR in ∼ 50% of lambs, which subsequently exhibit increased fractional growth rates. We investigated putative epigenetic changes underlying this early postnatal phenotype by quantifying gene-specific methylation at cytosine:guanine (CpG) dinucleotides. Hepatic DNA/RNA was extracted from IUGR [eight male (M)/nine female (F)] and normal birth weight (12 M/9 F) lambs. Polymerase chain reaction was performed using primers targeting CpG islands in 10 genes: insulin, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)1, IGF2, H19, insulin receptor, growth hormone receptor, IGF receptors 1 and 2, and the glucocorticoid receptor. Using pyrosequencing, methylation status was determined by quantifying cytosine:thymine ratios at 57 CpG sites. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of IGF system genes and plasma IGF1/insulin were determined. DNA methylation was independent of IUGR status but sexual dimorphism in IGF1 methylation was evident (MF (both P<0.001). IGF1 mRNA expression correlated negatively with IGF1 methylation (r=-0.507, P=0.002) and positively with plasma IGF1 (r=0.884, P<0.001). Carcass and empty body weights were greater in males (P=0.002-0.014) and this gender difference in early body conformation was mirrored by sexual dimorphism in hepatic IGF1 DNA methylation, mRNA expression and plasma IGF1 concentrations. PMID:26310177

  1. Effects of extracellular matrixes and growth factors on the hepatic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Takamichi; Fukumitsu, Ken; Yasuchika, Kentaro; Adachi, Keiko; Kawase, Eihachiro; Suemori, Hirofumi; Nakatsuji, Norio; Ikai, Iwao; Uemoto, Shinji

    2008-08-01

    Hepatocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are a potential cell source for regenerative medicine. However, the definitive factors that are responsible for hepatic differentiation of hESCs remain unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effects of various extracellular matrixes and growth factors on endodermal differentiation and to optimize the culture conditions to induce hepatic differentiation of hESCs. The transgene vector that contained enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of human alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) enhancer/promoter was transfected into hESC lines. The transgenic hESCs were cultured on extracellular matrixes (collagen type I, laminin, and Matrigel) in the presence or absence of growth factors including hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), bone morphogenetic protein 4, fibroblast growth factor 4, all-trans-retinoic acid, and activin A. The expression of AFP-EGFP was measured by flow cytometry. The culture on Matrigel-coated dishes with 100 ng/ml activin A showed 19.5% of EGFP-positive proportions. Moreover, the sequential addition of 100 ng/ml activin A and 20 ng/ml HGF resulted in 21.7% and produced a higher yield of EGFP-positive cells than the group stimulated by activin A alone. RT-PCR and immunocytochemical staining revealed these EGFP-positive cells to differentiate into mesendoderm-like cells by use of activin A and then into hepatic endoderm cells by use of HGF. Two other hESC lines also differentiated into endoderm on the hepatic lineage by our method. In conclusion, we therefore found this protocol to effectively differentiate multiple hESC lines to early hepatocytes using activin A and HGF on Matrigel.

  2. Adaptation of hepatitis A virus to high titre growth in diploid and permanent cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, J P; Mehdi, S; Mauler, R

    1988-01-01

    A hepatitis A virus isolate originally obtained from the feces of a clinically ill patient and passaged in diploid human embryonic kidney and lung cells was adapted to grow in MRC-5, Cercopithecus aethiops muscle and in Vero cells. Three different adaptation methods were applied. Either method proved to be suitable to finally give high virus titres of cell-bound as well as cell-free virus in the supernatant of infected cultures during 10 to 15 passages. An easily performable immunoperoxidase staining method was used for the titration of hepatitis A virus in microtitre plates. Cytopathogenic changes in MRC-5 cell cultures infected with fully adapted virus are described.

  3. Estrogens regulate the hepatic effects of growth hormone, a hormonal interplay with multiple fates.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; Guerra, Borja; Díaz-Chico, Juan C; Flores-Morales, A

    2013-01-01

    The liver responds to estrogens and growth hormone (GH) which are critical regulators of body growth, gender-related hepatic functions, and intermediate metabolism. The effects of estrogens on liver can be direct, through the direct actions of hepatic ER, or indirect, which include the crosstalk with endocrine, metabolic, and sex-differentiated functions of GH. Most previous studies have been focused on the influence of estrogens on pituitary GH secretion, which has a great impact on hepatic transcriptional regulation. However, there is strong evidence that estrogens can influence the GH-regulated endocrine and metabolic functions in the human liver by acting at the level of GHR-STAT5 signaling pathway. This crosstalk is relevant because the widespread exposition of estrogen or estrogen-related compounds in human. Therefore, GH or estrogen signaling deficiency as well as the influence of estrogens on GH biology can cause a dramatic impact in liver physiology during mammalian development and in adulthood. In this review, we will summarize the current status of the influence of estrogen on GH actions in liver. A better understanding of estrogen-GH interplay in liver will lead to improved therapy of children with growth disorders and of adults with GH deficiency.

  4. LEPROT and LEPROTL1 cooperatively decrease hepatic growth hormone action in mice

    PubMed Central

    Touvier, Thierry; Conte-Auriol, Françoise; Briand, Olivier; Cudejko, Céline; Paumelle, Réjane; Caron, Sandrine; Baugé, Eric; Rouillé, Yves; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Staels, Bart; Bailleul, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a major metabolic regulator that functions by stimulating lipolysis, preventing protein catabolism, and decreasing insulin-dependent glucose disposal. Modulation of hepatic sensitivity to GH and the downstream effects on the GH/IGF1 axis are important events in the regulation of metabolism in response to variations in food availability. For example, during periods of reduced nutrient availability, the liver becomes resistant to GH actions. However, the mechanisms controlling hepatic GH resistance are currently unknown. Here, we investigated the role of 2 tetraspanning membrane proteins, leptin receptor overlapping transcript (LEPROT; also known as OB-RGRP) and LEPROT-like 1 (LEPROTL1), in controlling GH sensitivity. Transgenic mice expressing either human LEPROT or human LEPROTL1 displayed growth retardation, reduced plasma IGF1 levels, and impaired hepatic sensitivity to GH, as measured by STAT5 phosphorylation and Socs2 mRNA expression. These phenotypes were accentuated in transgenic mice expressing both proteins. Moreover, gene silencing of either endogenous Leprot or Leprotl1 in H4IIE hepatocytes increased GH signaling and enhanced cell-surface GH receptor. Importantly, we found that both LEPROT and LEPROTL1 expression were regulated in the mouse liver by physiologic and pathologic changes in glucose homeostasis. Together, these data provide evidence that LEPROT and LEPROTL1 influence liver GH signaling and that regulation of the genes encoding these proteins may constitute a molecular link between nutritional signals and GH actions on body growth and metabolism. PMID:19907080

  5. LEPROT and LEPROTL1 cooperatively decrease hepatic growth hormone action in mice.

    PubMed

    Touvier, Thierry; Conte-Auriol, Françoise; Briand, Olivier; Cudejko, Céline; Paumelle, Réjane; Caron, Sandrine; Baugé, Eric; Rouillé, Yves; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Staels, Bart; Bailleul, Bernard

    2009-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a major metabolic regulator that functions by stimulating lipolysis, preventing protein catabolism, and decreasing insulin-dependent glucose disposal. Modulation of hepatic sensitivity to GH and the downstream effects on the GH/IGF1 axis are important events in the regulation of metabolism in response to variations in food availability. For example, during periods of reduced nutrient availability, the liver becomes resistant to GH actions. However, the mechanisms controlling hepatic GH resistance are currently unknown. Here, we investigated the role of 2 tetraspanning membrane proteins, leptin receptor overlapping transcript (LEPROT; also known as OB-RGRP) and LEPROT-like 1 (LEPROTL1), in controlling GH sensitivity. Transgenic mice expressing either human LEPROT or human LEPROTL1 displayed growth retardation, reduced plasma IGF1 levels, and impaired hepatic sensitivity to GH, as measured by STAT5 phosphorylation and Socs2 mRNA expression. These phenotypes were accentuated in transgenic mice expressing both proteins. Moreover, gene silencing of either endogenous Leprot or Leprotl1 in H4IIE hepatocytes increased GH signaling and enhanced cell-surface GH receptor. Importantly, we found that both LEPROT and LEPROTL1 expression were regulated in the mouse liver by physiologic and pathologic changes in glucose homeostasis. Together, these data provide evidence that LEPROT and LEPROTL1 influence liver GH signaling and that regulation of the genes encoding these proteins may constitute a molecular link between nutritional signals and GH actions on body growth and metabolism. PMID:19907080

  6. p53 signaling is involved in leptin-induced growth of hepatic and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Mohan; Park, Pil-Hoon

    2016-09-01

    Leptin, an adipokine predominantly produced from adipose tissue, is well known to induce tumor growth. However, underlying molecular mechanisms are not established yet. While p53 has long been well recognized as a potent tumor suppressor gene, accumulating evidence has also indicated its potential role in growth and survival of cancer cells depending on experimental environments. In the present study, we examined if p53 signaling is implicated in leptin-induced growth of cancer cells. Herein, we demonstrated that leptin treatment significantly increased p53 protein expression in both hepatic (HepG2) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells without significant effect on mRNA expression. Enhanced p53 expression by leptin was mediated via modulation of ubiquitination, in particular ubiquitin specific protease 2 (USP2)-dependent manner. Furthermore, gene silencing of p53 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) suppressed leptin-induced growth of hepatic and breast cancer cells, indicating the role of p53 signaling in tumor growth by leptin. In addition, we also showed that knockdown of p53 restored suppression of caspase-3 activity by leptin through modulating Bax expression and prevented leptin-induced cell cycle progression, implying the involvement of p53 signaling in the regulation of both apoptosis and cell cycle progression in cancer cells treated with leptin. Taken together, the results in the present study demonstrated the potential role of p53 signaling in leptin-induced tumor growth.

  7. p53 signaling is involved in leptin-induced growth of hepatic and breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Leptin, an adipokine predominantly produced from adipose tissue, is well known to induce tumor growth. However, underlying molecular mechanisms are not established yet. While p53 has long been well recognized as a potent tumor suppressor gene, accumulating evidence has also indicated its potential role in growth and survival of cancer cells depending on experimental environments. In the present study, we examined if p53 signaling is implicated in leptin-induced growth of cancer cells. Herein, we demonstrated that leptin treatment significantly increased p53 protein expression in both hepatic (HepG2) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells without significant effect on mRNA expression. Enhanced p53 expression by leptin was mediated via modulation of ubiquitination, in particular ubiquitin specific protease 2 (USP2)-dependent manner. Furthermore, gene silencing of p53 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) suppressed leptin-induced growth of hepatic and breast cancer cells, indicating the role of p53 signaling in tumor growth by leptin. In addition, we also showed that knockdown of p53 restored suppression of caspase-3 activity by leptin through modulating Bax expression and prevented leptin-induced cell cycle progression, implying the involvement of p53 signaling in the regulation of both apoptosis and cell cycle progression in cancer cells treated with leptin. Taken together, the results in the present study demonstrated the potential role of p53 signaling in leptin-induced tumor growth. PMID:27610035

  8. p53 signaling is involved in leptin-induced growth of hepatic and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Mohan; Park, Pil-Hoon

    2016-09-01

    Leptin, an adipokine predominantly produced from adipose tissue, is well known to induce tumor growth. However, underlying molecular mechanisms are not established yet. While p53 has long been well recognized as a potent tumor suppressor gene, accumulating evidence has also indicated its potential role in growth and survival of cancer cells depending on experimental environments. In the present study, we examined if p53 signaling is implicated in leptin-induced growth of cancer cells. Herein, we demonstrated that leptin treatment significantly increased p53 protein expression in both hepatic (HepG2) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells without significant effect on mRNA expression. Enhanced p53 expression by leptin was mediated via modulation of ubiquitination, in particular ubiquitin specific protease 2 (USP2)-dependent manner. Furthermore, gene silencing of p53 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) suppressed leptin-induced growth of hepatic and breast cancer cells, indicating the role of p53 signaling in tumor growth by leptin. In addition, we also showed that knockdown of p53 restored suppression of caspase-3 activity by leptin through modulating Bax expression and prevented leptin-induced cell cycle progression, implying the involvement of p53 signaling in the regulation of both apoptosis and cell cycle progression in cancer cells treated with leptin. Taken together, the results in the present study demonstrated the potential role of p53 signaling in leptin-induced tumor growth. PMID:27610035

  9. p53 signaling is involved in leptin-induced growth of hepatic and breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Leptin, an adipokine predominantly produced from adipose tissue, is well known to induce tumor growth. However, underlying molecular mechanisms are not established yet. While p53 has long been well recognized as a potent tumor suppressor gene, accumulating evidence has also indicated its potential role in growth and survival of cancer cells depending on experimental environments. In the present study, we examined if p53 signaling is implicated in leptin-induced growth of cancer cells. Herein, we demonstrated that leptin treatment significantly increased p53 protein expression in both hepatic (HepG2) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells without significant effect on mRNA expression. Enhanced p53 expression by leptin was mediated via modulation of ubiquitination, in particular ubiquitin specific protease 2 (USP2)-dependent manner. Furthermore, gene silencing of p53 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) suppressed leptin-induced growth of hepatic and breast cancer cells, indicating the role of p53 signaling in tumor growth by leptin. In addition, we also showed that knockdown of p53 restored suppression of caspase-3 activity by leptin through modulating Bax expression and prevented leptin-induced cell cycle progression, implying the involvement of p53 signaling in the regulation of both apoptosis and cell cycle progression in cancer cells treated with leptin. Taken together, the results in the present study demonstrated the potential role of p53 signaling in leptin-induced tumor growth.

  10. Growth and hepatic composition in the guinea pig after long-term parenteral hyperalimentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, C.J.H.; Redmond, D.; Baggs, R.B.; Schecter, A.; Gasiewicz, T.A.

    1986-08-01

    This study examined the feasibility of maintaining male Hartley guinea pigs on long-term hyperalimentation. Data from animals fed ad libitum, but infused with 0.9% saline, indicated that there was minimal effect from catheter implantation, sepsis, or the infusion of large volumes of fluid. This group compared with animals fed and watered ad libitum demonstrated a nearly identical growth rate serum chemistry, tissue weights, and hepatic composition and morphology. Animals infused with a total parenteral diet demonstrated growth rates of 4.06 +/- 1.46 g/day for up to 25 days. Loss of infused animals was due in varying degrees to sepsis, mechanical failure, improper placement of the cannula, loss of patency, and death from unknown causes. Morphological analysis of animals fed by total parenteral nutrition revealed an altered distribution and increased size of lipid droplets in hepatic parenchymal and Kupffer cells and glycogen accumulation by the parenchymal cells. Decreased hepatic content of total protein and lipid, as well as cytochrome P450, was also observed. Similarly, serum values of triglyceride were decreased in animals fed by the total parenteral diet. This study indicated that the guinea pig fed by hyperalimentation may be a useful animal model for a number of clinical and basic research applications.

  11. Determinants in 3Dpol modulate the rate of growth of hepatitis A virus.

    PubMed

    Konduru, Krishnamurthy; Kaplan, Gerardo G

    2010-08-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV), an atypical member of the Picornaviridae, grows poorly in cell culture. To define determinants of HAV growth, we introduced a blasticidin (Bsd) resistance gene into the virus genome and selected variants that grew at high concentrations of Bsd. The mutants grew fast and had increased rates of RNA replication and translation but did not produce significantly higher virus yields. Nucleotide sequence analysis and reverse genetic studies revealed that a T6069G change resulting in a F42L amino acid substitution in the viral polymerase (3D(pol)) was required for growth at high Bsd concentrations whereas a silent C7027T mutation enhanced the growth rate. Here, we identified a novel determinant(s) in 3D(pol) that controls the kinetics of HAV growth. PMID:20534860

  12. Hepatic receptors for homologous growth hormone in the eel

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, T. )

    1991-03-01

    The specific binding of 125I-labeled eel growth hormone (eGH) to liver membranes of the eel was examined. The specific binding to the 10,000g pellet was greater than that to the 600g pellet. The specific binding was linear up to about 100 mg fresh tissue, and was saturable with increasing amounts of membrane. The specific binding was pH-, temperature-, and time-dependent, with the optimum pH at 7.4, and greater specific binding was obtained at 15 and 25 degrees than at 35 degrees. Scatchard analysis of liver binding gave an association constant of 1.1 x 10(9) M-1 and a capacity of 105 fmol/mg protein. The receptor preparation was highly specific for GHs. Natural and recombinant eel GHs as well as recombinant salmon GH competed equally with 125I-eGH for the receptor sites of the 10,000g liver membrane. Ovine GH was more potent in displacing the labeled eGH than the homologous eel hormone. Tilapia GH and ovine prolactin (PRL) were needed in greater amounts (40 times) than eGH to displace the labeled eGH. Salmon and tilapia PRLs were still less potent (500 times) than eGH. There was no displacement with eel PRL. No significant change in the specific binding was seen 1 week after hypophysectomy, whereas injection of eGH into the hypophysectomized eel caused a significant reduction after 24 hr. The binding to the membrane fractions from gills, kidney, muscle, intestine, and brain was low and exclusively nonspecific, indicating the presence of specific GH receptors predominantly in the liver.

  13. Colostrum yield and piglet growth during lactation are related to gilt metabolic and hepatic status prepartum.

    PubMed

    Loisel, F; Farmer, C; Ramaekers, P; Quesnel, H

    2014-07-01

    It was hypothesized that colostrum production could be influenced by sow peripartum endocrine, metabolic, and hepatic status. The plant extract silymarin was shown to influence endocrine and hepatic status in several species. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of silymarin intake during late pregnancy on sow hormonal and hepatic status and to determine whether relations exist between sow hepatic and metabolic status during the peripartum period and colostrum yield and piglet performances during lactation. From d 107 of pregnancy until farrowing, nulliparous sows were either fed 12 g/d of silymarin (SIL; n = 15) or no treatment (Control; n = 12). Piglet BW was recorded directly after birth, 24 h after birth of the first piglet, and at 7, 14, and 21 d of lactation. Blood samples were collected from sows on d 107 and 109 of pregnancy, daily from d 111 of pregnancy until d 2 of lactation, and on d 7 and 21 of lactation. They were assayed for endocrine, metabolic, and hepatic variables. Colostrum yield was estimated during 24 h starting at the onset of farrowing. Silymarin did not influence colostrum yield (3.7 ± 0.3 kg) or gross composition (P > 0.10), nor did it affect serum prolactin concentrations or plasma concentrations of progesterone, estradiol-17β, or cortisol (P > 0.10). Mean litter BW gain was lower (P < 0.05) during the first week and tended (P < 0.10) to be lower during the second week of lactation in litters from SIL sows. Silymarin had no effect on plasma concentrations of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), alkaline phosphatase, or total cholesterol (P > 0.10). Colostrum yield was positively correlated with urea (r = 0.50; P = 0.01) and creatinine (r = 0.43; P = 0.03) concentrations in sows on the day before farrowing. Mean litter BW gain over 2 wk was negatively correlated with concentrations of β-hydroxybutyric acid (r = -0.50; P = 0.01) and γ-GT (r = -0.42; P = 0.03) on the day

  14. Assessment of Growth and Development in Children With Hepatitis B Positivity

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Tugba; Eren, Erdal; Koruk, Suda Tekin

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic infections and liver diseases may influence the growth and development of children by leading to malnutrition. In this study, demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements and laboratory findings for children with hepatitis B positivity were analyzed. Methods A total of 43 cases were admitted to our clinic between January 2012 and February 2013 and detected to have HBsAg positivity. Results Malnutrition was detected in 11 cases (25.6%) and obesity in three cases (6.9%). Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were significantly higher in malnourished patients compared to those without malnutrition. The weight to height was significantly higher in patients with positive HBeAg compared to children with negative HBeAg. We found that the weight standard deviation scores (SDS) ratios dropped as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and AST levels increased and height SDS ratios decreased. In addition, body mass index (BMI) decreased as AST and alpha feto protein (AFP) values increased. While a significant relationship was not detected between insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and ALT, a significantly negative correlation was detected between IGFBP-3 and IGF-1 and AST. We found a malnutrition rate of 25.6% in children with HBsAg positivity. We also found that weight and height SDS rates decreased as ALT and AST levels increased. In addition, we detected that BMI decreased as AST and AFP values increased. Conclusion We consider that hepatic inflammation is the factor that affects growth. Monitoring of growth and development during follow-up of children who are detected to have HBsAg positivity would be beneficial to determine the mechanism and causes of growth retardation.

  15. Diosgenin attenuates hepatic stellate cell activation through transforming growth factor-β/Smad signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wei-Lin; Jiang, Rong; Shen, Xiao-Lu; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Deng, Xiao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) plays a pivotal role in the development of hepatic fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is considered to be the main stimuli factor responsible for the activation of HSC. Diosgenin is a steroidal saponin found in several plants including Solanum and Dioscorea species, and it inhibited high glucose-induced renal tubular fibrosis. However, the effects of diosgenin against hepatic fibrosis remain elusive. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of diosgenin on TGF-β1-induced HSCs and elucidate the possible mechanism of its anti-fibrotic effect. Our results demonstrated that diosgenin inhibited TGF-β1-induced HSC proliferation, reduced the expression of collagen I and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), as well as the expression of TGF-β receptor I (TGF-β RI) and II. Moreover, diosgenin suppressed TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad3 in HSCs. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that diosgenin inhibited HSC-T6 cell proliferation and activation, at least in part, via the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway. These results provide that diosgenin may have potential to treat liver fibrosis. PMID:26884947

  16. Diosgenin attenuates hepatic stellate cell activation through transforming growth factor-β/Smad signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei-Lin; Jiang, Rong; Shen, Xiao-Lu; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Deng, Xiao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) plays a pivotal role in the development of hepatic fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is considered to be the main stimuli factor responsible for the activation of HSC. Diosgenin is a steroidal saponin found in several plants including Solanum and Dioscorea species, and it inhibited high glucose-induced renal tubular fibrosis. However, the effects of diosgenin against hepatic fibrosis remain elusive. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of diosgenin on TGF-β1-induced HSCs and elucidate the possible mechanism of its anti-fibrotic effect. Our results demonstrated that diosgenin inhibited TGF-β1-induced HSC proliferation, reduced the expression of collagen I and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), as well as the expression of TGF-β receptor I (TGF-β RI) and II. Moreover, diosgenin suppressed TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad3 in HSCs. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that diosgenin inhibited HSC-T6 cell proliferation and activation, at least in part, via the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway. These results provide that diosgenin may have potential to treat liver fibrosis. PMID:26884947

  17. Performance of diagnostic biomarkers in predicting liver fibrosis among hepatitis C virus-infected Egyptian children

    PubMed Central

    Nassef, Yasser E; Shady, Mones M Abu; Galal, Essam M; Hamed, Manal A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify specific markers that mirror liver fibrosis progression as an alternative to biopsy when biopsy is contraindicated, especially in children. After liver biopsies were performed, serum samples from 30 hepatitis C virus (HCV) paediatric patients (8-14 years) were analysed and compared with samples from 30 healthy subjects. All subjects were tested for the presence of serum anti-HCV antibodies. Direct biomarkers for liver fibrosis, including transforming growth factor-β1, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), hyaluronic acid (HA), procollagen type III amino-terminal peptide (PIIINP) and osteopontin (OPN), were measured. The indirect biomarkers aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin and bilirubin were also tested. The results revealed a significant increase in the serum marker levels in HCV-infected children compared with the healthy group, whereas albumin levels exhibited a significant decrease. Significantly higher levels of PIIINP, TIMP-1, OPN and HA were detected in HCV-infected children with moderate to severe fibrosis compared with children with mild fibrosis (p < 0.05). The diagnostic accuracy of these direct biomarkers, represented by sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value, emphasises the utility of PIIINP, TIMP-1, OPN and HA as indicators of liver fibrosis among HCV-infected children. PMID:24141960

  18. Interleukin-18 binding protein reduces b16 melanoma hepatic metastasis by neutralizing adhesiveness and growth factors of sinusoidal endothelium.

    PubMed

    Carrascal, Maria Teresa; Mendoza, Lorea; Valcárcel, Maria; Salado, Clarisa; Egilegor, Eider; Tellería, Naiara; Vidal-Vanaclocha, Fernando; Dinarello, Charles A

    2003-01-15

    We studied the role of endogenous interleukin (IL)-18 in hepatic metastasis by blocking this cytokine using the naturally occurring IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP). A single i.p. dose of IL-18BP given 30 min before intrasplenic injection of murine B16 melanoma (B16M) cells reduced the number of hepatic metastatic foci by 75% and metastatic volume by 80%. Same treatment reduced the intrahepatic retention of luciferase-transfected B16M by 50% and abolished VCAM-1 up-regulation in the hepatic microvasculature, as assessed by reverse transcription-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Twelve hours after IL-18BP, hepatic sinusoidal endothelium (HSE) cells were isolated, and adhesion of B16M cells to these cultured HSE cells was reduced to the level of vehicle-treated mice. IL-18BP treatment of mice with established micrometastases resulted in a 25% decrease in metastasis number and 40% decrease in metastasis volume, suggesting inhibition of endogenous growth factors. Indeed, the addition of IL-18BP to normal HSE abolished the release of melanoma cell growth factor(s) induced by B16M. IL-18 promoted the in vitro growth of B16M and human melanoma cells, which was IL-1 dependent. These data demonstrate a significant role of endogenous IL-18 on hepatic metastasis by up-regulating melanoma cell adhesion to HSE cells and tumor growth, implicating a possible antimetastatic benefit of neutralizing IL-18. PMID:12543807

  19. Impact of epidermal growth factor receptor and transforming growth factor-α on hepatitis C virus-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Afkar Abdel-Ghany; El-Hindawi, Ali; Hammam, Olfat; Moussa, Mona; Gabal, Samia; Said, Noha

    2015-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor system plays a central hepato-protective and pro-regenerative role in liver. Transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) is an important autocrine growth regulator of hepatocytes that plays a role in development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). This study was done on 40 core liver biopsies from patients with CHC, 20 liver specimens from HCC cases on top of CHC as well as five normal controls. All were immunohistochemically stained with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and TGF-α antibodies. Some selected HCC cases were submitted for FISH technique to detect EGFR gene alteration. By immunohistochemistry EGFR and TGF-α were overexpressed in HCC and cirrhotic cases compared to CHC cases without cirrhosis. Also, their expression was stronger in CHC cases with higher grades of activity and stages of fibrosis compared to lower ones. FISH positive results for EGFR were detected in 33.3% of the examined HCC cases. EGFR and TGF-α can be used as predictive markers for activity, fibrosis, and carcinogenesis in CHC patients. Overexpression of EGFR in HCC patients can be promising in selecting those who can get benefit from anti-EGFR target therapy. PMID:26279457

  20. Family-specific differences in growth rate and hepatic gene expression in juvenile triploid growth hormone (GH) transgenic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingheng; Feng, Charles Y; Hori, Tiago S; Plouffe, Debbie A; Buchanan, John T; Rise, Matthew L

    2013-12-01

    level with fast-growing 3NGHTg salmon juveniles (including APOA1, APOA4, B2M, FADSD6, FTM, and GAPDH) are involved in metabolism, iron homeostasis and oxygen transport, and immune- or stress-related responses. The results of this study increase our knowledge of family-specific impacts on growth rate and hepatic gene expression in juvenile 3NGHTg Atlantic salmon. In addition, this study provides a suite of putative rapid growth rate-associated transcripts that may contribute to the development of molecular markers [e.g. intronic, exonic or regulatory region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)] for the selection of GHTg Atlantic salmon broodstock that can be utilized to produce sterile triploids of desired growth performance for future commercial applications.

  1. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Dependent Mutual Amplification between Netrin-1 and the Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Plissonnier, Marie-Laure; Lahlali, Thomas; Michelet, Maud; Lebossé, Fanny; Cottarel, Jessica; Beer, Melanie; Neveu, Grégory; Durantel, David; Bartosch, Birke; Accardi, Rosita; Clément, Sophie; Paradisi, Andrea; Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Mojgan; Einav, Shirit; Mehlen, Patrick; Zoulim, Fabien; Parent, Romain

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an oncogenic virus associated with the onset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The present study investigated the possible link between HCV infection and Netrin-1, a ligand for dependence receptors that sustains tumorigenesis, in particular in inflammation-associated tumors. We show that Netrin-1 expression is significantly elevated in HCV+ liver biopsies compared to hepatitis B virus (HBV+) and uninfected samples. Furthermore, Netrin-1 was upregulated in all histological stages of HCV+ hepatic lesions, from minimal liver fibrosis to cirrhosis and HCC, compared to histologically matched HCV- tissues. Both cirrhosis and HCV contributed to the induction of Netrin-1 expression, whereas anti-HCV treatment resulted in a reduction of Netrin-1 expression. In vitro, HCV increased the level and translation of Netrin-1 in a NS5A-La-related protein 1 (LARP1)-dependent fashion. Knockdown and forced expression experiments identified the receptor uncoordinated receptor-5 (UNC5A) as an antagonist of the Netrin-1 signal, though it did not affect the death of HCV-infected cells. Netrin-1 enhanced infectivity of HCV particles and promoted viral entry by increasing the activation and decreasing the recycling of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a protein that is dysregulated in HCC. Netrin-1 and HCV are, therefore, reciprocal inducers in vitro and in patients, as seen from the increase in viral morphogenesis and viral entry, both phenomena converging toward an increase in the level of infectivity of HCV virions. This functional association involving a cancer-related virus and Netrin-1 argues for evaluating the implication of UNC5 receptor ligands in other oncogenic microbial species. PMID:27031829

  2. Intracellular calcium signals regulate growth of hepatic stellate cells via specific effects on cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Elwy M.; Rodrigues, Michele Angela; Gomes, Dawidson Assis; Sheung, Nina; Yu, Jin; Amaya, Maria Jimina; Nathanson, Michael H.; Dranoff, Jonathan A.

    2010-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are important mediators of liver fibrosis. Hormones linked to downstream intracellular Ca2+ signals upregulate HSC proliferation, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are unknown. Nuclear and cytosolic Ca2+ signals may have distinct effects on cell proliferation, so we expressed plasmid and adenoviral constructs containing the Ca2+ chelator parvalbumin (PV) linked to either a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) or a nuclear export sequence (NES) to block Ca2+ signals in distinct compartments within LX-2 immortalized human HSC and primary rat HSC. PV-NLS and PV-NES constructs each targeted to the appropriate intracellular compartment and blocked Ca2+ signals only within that compartment. PV-NLS and PV-NES constructs inhibited HSC growth. Furthermore, blockade of nuclear or cytosolic Ca2+ signals arrested growth at the G2/mitosis (G2/M) cell-cycle interface and prevented the onset of mitosis. Blockade of nuclear or cytosolic Ca2+ signals downregulated phosphorylation of the G2/M checkpoint phosphatase Cdc25C. Inhibition of calmodulin kinase II (CaMK II) had identical effects on LX-2 growth and Cdc25C phosphorylation. We propose that nuclear and cytosolic Ca2+ are critical signals that regulate HSC growth at the G2/M checkpoint via CaMK II-mediated regulation of Cdc25C phosphorylation. These data provide a new logical target for pharmacological therapy directed against progression of liver fibrosis. PMID:19131107

  3. The effects of dietary soybean isoflavones on growth, innate immune responses, hepatic antioxidant abilities and disease resistance of juvenile golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuanpeng; Lin, Heizhao; Ge, Xianping; Niu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yun; Chen, Lixiong; Huang, Zhong; Yu, Wei; Tan, Xiaohong

    2015-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary soybean isoflavones (SI) supplementation on growth performance, innate immune responses, hepatic antioxidant abilities, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene expression and resistance to the pathogen Vibrio harveyi in Trachinotus ovatus. A basal diet was supplemented with SI at 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 mg kg(-1) feed for 8 weeks. Significantly maximum weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) were observed in treatment with 40 mg kg(-1) SI supplement (P < 0.05). Feed conversion ratio (FCR), feeding rate (FR) and survival rate were not significantly different among treatments. Fish fed a diet with 40 mg kg(-1) SI showed significant increase in plasma total protein content, complement 3 content, lysozyme activity as well as respiratory burst activity, but decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities (P < 0.05). Increased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity, hepatic total antioxidative capacity, catalase activity and superoxide dismutase activity were also noticed in fish fed SI at 40 or 60 mg kg(-1) (P < 0.05). On the contrary, the lowest hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content was observed in fish fed SI at 40 mg kg(-1) (P < 0.05). Compared with the control, the relative level of HSP70 mRNA in fish fed SI at 40-80 mg kg(-1) were significantly increased, respectively (P < 0.05). After challenge with V. harveyi, significant higher post-challenge survival was observed in fish fed diets with 40-80 mg kg(-1) SI supplement than that in control group (P < 0.05). These results indicated that dietary intake containing SI could enhance the immune ability of fish and improve its resistance to infection by V. harveyi. Especially supplementation with 40 mg kg(-1) SI to the fish for 8 weeks showed remarkable improvement in the growth, non-specific immune responses, hepatic antioxidant abilities and HSP70 gene expression. PMID:25541076

  4. The effects of dietary soybean isoflavones on growth, innate immune responses, hepatic antioxidant abilities and disease resistance of juvenile golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuanpeng; Lin, Heizhao; Ge, Xianping; Niu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yun; Chen, Lixiong; Huang, Zhong; Yu, Wei; Tan, Xiaohong

    2015-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary soybean isoflavones (SI) supplementation on growth performance, innate immune responses, hepatic antioxidant abilities, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene expression and resistance to the pathogen Vibrio harveyi in Trachinotus ovatus. A basal diet was supplemented with SI at 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 mg kg(-1) feed for 8 weeks. Significantly maximum weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) were observed in treatment with 40 mg kg(-1) SI supplement (P < 0.05). Feed conversion ratio (FCR), feeding rate (FR) and survival rate were not significantly different among treatments. Fish fed a diet with 40 mg kg(-1) SI showed significant increase in plasma total protein content, complement 3 content, lysozyme activity as well as respiratory burst activity, but decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities (P < 0.05). Increased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity, hepatic total antioxidative capacity, catalase activity and superoxide dismutase activity were also noticed in fish fed SI at 40 or 60 mg kg(-1) (P < 0.05). On the contrary, the lowest hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content was observed in fish fed SI at 40 mg kg(-1) (P < 0.05). Compared with the control, the relative level of HSP70 mRNA in fish fed SI at 40-80 mg kg(-1) were significantly increased, respectively (P < 0.05). After challenge with V. harveyi, significant higher post-challenge survival was observed in fish fed diets with 40-80 mg kg(-1) SI supplement than that in control group (P < 0.05). These results indicated that dietary intake containing SI could enhance the immune ability of fish and improve its resistance to infection by V. harveyi. Especially supplementation with 40 mg kg(-1) SI to the fish for 8 weeks showed remarkable improvement in the growth, non-specific immune responses, hepatic antioxidant abilities and HSP70 gene expression.

  5. Hepatitis A complicated with acute renal failure and high hepatocyte growth factor: A case report.

    PubMed

    Oe, Shinji; Shibata, Michihiko; Miyagawa, Koichiro; Honma, Yuichi; Hiura, Masaaki; Abe, Shintaro; Harada, Masaru

    2015-08-28

    A 58-year-old man was admitted to our hospital. Laboratory data showed severe liver injury and that the patient was positive for immunoglobulin M anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibodies. He was also complicated with severe renal dysfunction and had an extremely high level of serum hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Therefore, he was diagnosed with severe acute liver failure with acute renal failure (ARF) caused by HAV infection. Prognosis was expected to be poor because of complications by ARF and high serum HGF. However, liver and renal functions both improved rapidly without intensive treatment, and he was subsequently discharged from our hospital on the 21(st) hospital day. Although complication with ARF and high levels of serum HGF are both important factors predicting poor prognosis in acute liver failure patients, the present case achieved a favorable outcome. Endogenous HGF might play an important role as a regenerative effector in injured livers and kidneys.

  6. Clinical significance of vascular endothelial growth factor in hepatitis C related hepatocellular carcinoma in Egyptian patients

    PubMed Central

    Atta, Mohamed Magdi El-Sadek Ali; Atta, Hazem Mahmoud; Gad, Magdy Abdel-Mawgoud; Rashed, Laila Ahmad; Said, Ebada M; Hassanien, Sharaf El-Sayed Ali; Kaseb, Ahmed O

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Several angiogenic factors are involved in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a hypervascular tumor. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a primary driving force for angiogenesis, and its overexpression has been reported in HCC. However, the significance of plasma and tissue VEGF levels in HCC in Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection is understudied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of VEGF (measured in plasma and liver tissue) in patients with hepatitis C virus-related HCC and to assess its significance in the diagnosis and prognosis of HCC. Materials and methods A total of 90 subjects were studied. Among 90 subjects, 60 with CHC were examined and were subdivided into two groups: 30 patients with CHC-related HCC (HCC group) and 30 patients with CHC without HCC (non-HCC group). Thirty apparently healthy subjects served as the control group. VEGF was estimated in plasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and its expression in liver tissue was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. VEGF expression level and its relationship to tumor parameters, patients’ liver function profile, and patients’ clinical parameters were also investigated. Results Plasma VEGF levels in the HCC group were significantly higher than those of the non-HCC group, and both groups had significantly higher plasma VEGF levels than did the control group. Liver tissue VEGF expression was significantly higher in the HCC group than in the non-HCC group and positively correlated with plasma VEGF in the HCC group. The plasma VEGF levels were positively correlated with patients’ age, aspartate aminotransferase levels, serum alpha-fetoprotein levels, the presence of portal vein thrombosis, and the number of hepatic focal lesions in the HCC group. However, plasma VEGF levels were not significantly correlated with the Child-Pugh score, alanine aminotransferase levels, the size of focal lesions

  7. Lack of dietary carbohydrates induces hepatic growth hormone (GH) resistance in rats.

    PubMed

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Sawitzky, Mandy; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Stock, Peggy; Menhofer, Dominik; Ebensing, Sabine; Bjerre, Mette; Frystyk, Jan; Binder, Gerhard; Strasburger, Christian; Wu, Zida; Christ, Bruno; Hoeflich, Andreas; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2011-05-01

    GH is a well established regulator of growth, lipid, and glucose metabolism and therefore important for fuel utilization. However, little is known about the effects of macronutrients on the GH/IGF system. We used low-carbohydrate/high-fat diets (LC-HFD) as a model to study the impact of fat, protein, and carbohydrates on the GH/IGF-axis; 12-wk-old Wistar rats were fed either regular chow, a moderate, protein-matched LC-HFD, or a ketogenic LC-HFD (percentage of fat/protein/carbohydrates: chow, 16.7/19/64.3; LC-HF-1, 78.7/19.1/2.2; LC-HF-2, 92.8/5.5/1.7). After 4 wk, body and tibia length, lean body mass, and fat pad weights were measured. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of LC-HFD on 1) secretion of GH and GH-dependent factors, 2) expression and signaling of components of the GH/IGF system in liver and muscle, and 3) hypothalamic and pituitary regulation of GH release. Serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGF binding protein-1, and IGF binding protein-3 were lower with LC-HF-1 and LC-HF-2 (P < 0.01). Both LC-HFD-reduced hepatic GH receptor mRNA and protein expression, decreased basal levels of total and phosphorylated Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription signaling proteins and reduced hepatic IGF-I gene expression. Hypothalamic somatostatin expression was reduced only with LC-HF-1, leading to increased pituitary GH secretion, higher IGF-I gene expression, and activation of IGF-dependent signaling pathways in skeletal muscle. In contrast, despite severely reduced IGF-I concentrations, GH secretion did not increase with LC-HF-2 diet. In conclusion, lack of carbohydrates in LC-HFD induces hepatic GH resistance. Furthermore, central feedback mechanisms of the GH/IGF system are impaired with extreme, ketogenic LC-HFD.

  8. Interleukin-6 inhibits hepatic growth hormone signaling via upregulation of Cis and Socs-3.

    PubMed

    Denson, Lee A; Held, Matthew A; Menon, Ram K; Frank, Stuart J; Parlow, Albert F; Arnold, Dodie L

    2003-04-01

    Cytokines may cause an acquired growth hormone (GH) resistance in patients with inflammatory diseases. Anabolic effects of GH are mediated through activation of STAT5 transcription factors. We have reported that TNF-alpha suppresses hepatic GH receptor (GHR) gene expression, whereas the cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein 1 (Cis)/suppressors of cytokine signaling (Socs) genes are upregulated by TNF-alpha and IL-6 and inhibit GH activation of STAT5. However, the relative importance of these mechanisms in inflammatory GH resistance was not known. We hypothesized that IL-6 would prevent GH activation of STAT5 and that this would involve Cis/Socs protein upregulation. GH +/- LPS was administered to TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) or IL-6 null mice and wild-type (WT) controls. STAT5, STAT3, GHR, Socs 1-3, and Cis phosphorylation and abundance were assessed by using immunoblots, EMSA, and/or real time RT-PCR. TNF-alpha and IL-6 abundance were assessed by using ELISA. GH activated STAT5 in WT and TNFR1 or IL-6 null mice. LPS pretreatment prevented STAT5 activation in WT and TNFR1 null mice; however, STAT5 activation was preserved in IL-6 null mice. GHR abundance did not change with LPS administration. Inhibition of STAT5 activation by LPS was temporally associated with phosphorylation of STAT3 and upregulation of Cis and Socs-3 protein in WT and TNFR1 null mice; STAT3, Cis, and Socs-3 were not induced in IL-6 null mice. IL-6 inhibits hepatic GH signaling by upregulating Cis and Socs-3, which may involve activation of STAT3. Therapies that block IL-6 may enhance GH signaling in inflammatory diseases.

  9. Sugar supplementation stimulates growth performance in calves with growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tomohiro; Hidaka, Yuichi; Kamimura, Shunichi

    2010-01-01

    The growth effect of sugar supplementation was determined in 49 retarded growth calves. Calves were supplemented with sugar at 1 g/kg BW 2 times weekly for 8 weeks. Glucose tolerance tests prior to the experiment showed no difference between the retarded growth calves and normal growth controls. After sugar supplementation, the calves were classified into 4 groups characterized by high (H) or low (L) periodic changes in daily weight gain (DG) with a breakpoint of 0.8 kg/d in three periods, birth to sugar supplementation (Birth-Pre), the 8 weeks during supplementation (Pre-Post) and after feeding to delivery to market (Post-Market). The periodic DG showed a marked increase after supplementation in Pre-Post and Post-Market compared with before supplementation during Birth-Pre in 2 groups (0.93 and 1.11 vs. 0.51 kg/day for L-H-H [n=19], 0.66 and 1.19 vs. 0.42 kg/day for L-L-H [n=24]), but no difference was observed in L-H-L (n=3) and L-L-L (n=3). Peripheral blood was collected on the day before supplementation (Pre), 8 weeks after supplementation (Post) and eight weeks after cease of supplementation. The blood concentrations of both insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose showed significant increases in L-H-H and L-L-H, but decreases in non-esterified fatty acid were observed in L-H-H and L-L-L on day Post compared with day Pre, respectively (p<0.05). At delivery to market, the sugar-supplemented calves had body weights similar to the market average. The growth effect of sugar supplementation could be stimulated through rumen papillae development induce by sucrose, the main component of table sugar.

  10. 99mTc-HEPIDA hepatic clearance as a diagnostic tool: usefulness of plasma and hepatic clearance for assessment of hepatic parenchyma performance.

    PubMed

    Frieske, Izabela; Surma, Marian J; Bieńkiewicz, Małgorzata; Białkowska-Warzecha, Jolanta; Liniecki, Julian; Kuydowicz, Jan; Kuśmierek, Jacek

    2003-01-01

    Plasma clearance of (99m)Tc-HEPIDA (Cl(Pl)) has been used for two decades for assessment of liver function in patients with diseases of this organ. A specific determination of (99m)Tc-HEPIDA liver clearance (Cl(Hp)) has been developed that provides more direct possibility to evaluate performance of liver parenchyma. Both tests have been studied in healthy volunteers of varying age (48 individuals) and in 83 patients with varying degree of liver damage. The liver damage has been evaluated on the basis of 5 biochemical tests (AspAT, ALAT, GGTP, bilirubine serum concentration, proteinogram) and a score system used for total impairment, which was calculated for each patient. Normal range of Cl(Pl) and Cl(Hp) was determined from a study on healthy individuals (volunteers). The results seem independent of age, but show sex differences. The following values (mean +/- SD) of Cl(Hp) were found in males and females of: (181 +/- 31) ml//min/1.73 m(2) and (158 +/- 22) ml/min/1.73m(2), and of Cl(Pl) were (224 +/- 33) ml/min/1.73 m(2) and (202 +/- 25) ml/min/1.73 m(2) respectively. Accepted lower boundaries of both quantities (mean -2SD) are 115 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and 150 ml/min/1.73 m(2) correspondingly. Negative correlation of individual values of both clearances in all patients with individual score of liver damage were highly significant and correlation coefficients obtained were higher for Cl(Hp) (r = -0.63) than those for Cl(Pl) (r= -0.56). Factorial analysis was performed with the intention of seeing which of the studied factors had the highest factor loading for parenchyma performance that was assumed as the common factor responsible for correlations. The highest value was obtained for hepatic clearance (Cl(Hp)) of (99m)Tc-HEPIDA. In conclusion this quantity seems highly promising as a clinically useful test for assessment of liver performance, both in screening for liver damage and for monitoring of organ conditions during therapy and follow-up of patients.

  11. Connective tissue growth factor hammerhead ribozyme attenuates human hepatic stellate cell function

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Run-Ping; Brigstock, David R

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of hammerhead ribozyme targeting connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) on human hepatic stellate cell (HSC) function. METHODS: CCN2 hammerhead ribozyme cDNA plus two self-cleaving sequences were inserted into pTriEx2 to produce pTriCCN2-Rz. Each vector was individually transfected into cultured LX-2 human HSCs, which were then stimulated by addition of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 to the culture medium. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine mRNA levels for CCN2 or collagen I, while protein levels of each molecule in cell lysates and conditioned medium were measured by ELISA. Cell-cycle progression of the transfected cells was assessed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: In pTriEx2-transfected LX-2 cells, TGF-β1 treatment caused an increase in the mRNA level for CCN2 or collagen I, and an increase in produced and secreted CCN2 or extracellular collagen I protein levels. pTriCCN2-Rz-transfected LX-2 cells showed decreased basal CCN2 or collagen mRNA levels, as well as produced and secreted CCN2 or collagen I protein. Furthermore, the TGF-β1-induced increase in mRNA or protein for CCN2 or collagen I was inhibited partially in pTriCCN2-Rz-transfected LX-2 cells. Inhibition of CCN2 using hammerhead ribozyme cDNA resulted in fewer of the cells transitioning into S phase. CONCLUSION: Endogenous CCN2 is a mediator of basal or TGF-β1-induced collagen I production in human HSCs and regulates entry of the cells into S phase. PMID:19673024

  12. The Orphan Nuclear Receptor ERRγ Regulates Hepatic CB1 Receptor-Mediated Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yoon Seok; Lee, Ji-Min; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Yong-Soo; Kim, Ki-Sun; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Jina; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, In-Kyu; Kim, Seong Heon; Cho, Sung Jin; Jeong, Won-Il; Lee, Chul-Ho; Harris, Robert A.; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a stress inducible hepatokine, is synthesized in the liver and plays important roles in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the mechanism of hepatic cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor-mediated induction of FGF21 gene expression is largely unknown. Results Activation of the hepatic CB1 receptor by arachidonyl-2’-chloroethylamide (ACEA), a CB1 receptor selective agonist, significantly increased FGF21 gene expression. Overexpression of estrogen-related receptor (ERR) γ increased FGF21 gene expression and secretion both in hepatocytes and mice, whereas knockdown of ERRγ decreased ACEA-mediated FGF21 gene expression and secretion. Moreover, ERRγ, but not ERRα and ERRβ, induced FGF21 gene promoter activity. In addition, deletion and mutation analysis of the FGF21 promoter identified a putative ERRγ-binding motif (AGGTGC, a near-consensus response element). A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed direct binding of ERRγ to the FGF21 gene promoter. Finally, GSK5182, an ERRγ inverse agonist, significantly inhibited hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated FGF21 gene expression and secretion. Conclusion Based on our data, we conclude that ERRγ plays a key role in hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated induction of FGF21 gene expression and secretion. PMID:27455076

  13. [Plant growth with limited water]. Performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    When water is in short supply, soybean stem growth is inhibited by a physical limitation followed in a few hours by metabolic changes that reduce the extensibility of the cell walls. The extensibility then becomes the main limitation. With time, there is a modest recovery in extensibility along with an accumulation of a 28kD protein in the walls of the growth-affected cells. A 3lkD protein that was 80% similar in amino acid sequence also was present but did not accumulate in the walls of the stem cells. In the stem, growth was inhibited and the mRNA for the 28kD protein increased in response to water deprivation but the mRNA for the 3 1 kD protein did not. The roots continued to grow and the mRNA for the 28kD protein did not accumulate but the mRNA for the 3lkD protein did. Thus, there was a tissuespecific response of gene expression that correlated with the contrasting growth response to low water potential in the same seedlings. Further work using immunogold labeling, fluorescence labeling, and western blotting gave evidence that the 28kD protein is located in the cell wall as well as several compartments in the cytoplasm. Preliminary experiments indicate that the 28kD protein is a phosphatase.

  14. Effect of exogenous growth hormone on somatic growth, gonadal development, and hepatic CYP2C11 and CYP2C12 expression in prepubertal intact male rats.

    PubMed

    Kawai, M; Bandiera, S M; Chang, T K; Bellward, G D

    2001-04-01

    The influence of exogenous growth hormone (GH) on pubertal maturation, as assessed by growth, age of preputial separation, testicular development, and hepatic expression of sexually dimorphic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, was investigated. Treatment of 22-day old prepubertal intact male rats with twice daily subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of rat recombinant GH (0.12 microg/g body weight) for 12 or 21 days did not affect body weight, skeletal growth, or testicular weight. By comparison, GH suppressed hepatic CYP2C1 enzyme activity, protein, and mRNA levels but induced CYP2C12 expression. GH suppressed CYP2C11 expression by approximately 60% in prepubertal rats as compared with 30% in adult rats, whereas it increased CYP2C12 levels to 80% of the normal female levels but had no effect in adult male rats. Twice daily intravenous injections of GH suppressed CYP2C11 only. Increasing the s.c. dose of GH 30-fold produced little or no additional change in CYP2C11 or CYP2C12 expression, whereas it modestly in creased body weight and skeletal growth and reduced testicular weight. Overall, the present study provides the first demonstration that prepubertal administration (22-33 days of age) of GH at a pharmacologically relevant dose (0.12 microg/g twice daily) suppressed hepatic expression of CYP2C11 in 34-day-old intact male rats, suggesting that in this age group the liver is intrinsically responsive to transcription factors involved in the regulation of GH-dependent, sex-specific CYP gene expression. A higher dose (3.6 microg/g) of GH administered during the prepubertal period was required to elicit a modest effect on somatic growth and gonadal development.

  15. Plumbagin Ameliorates CCl4-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Rats via the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Si; Chen, Yi; Chen, Bi; Cai, Yi-jing; Zou, Zhuo-lin; Wang, Jin-guo; Lin, Zhuo; Wang, Xiao-dong; Fu, Li-yun; Hu, Yao-ren; Chen, Yong-ping; Chen, Da-zhi

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its signaling molecules, EGFreceptor (EGFR) and signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3), have been considered to play a role in liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Plumbagin (PL) is an extracted component from the plant and has been used to treat different kinds of cancer. However, its role in regulation of EGFR and STAT3 during liver fibrosis has not been investigated. In this study, the effects of PL on the regulation of EGFR and STAT3 were investigated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver fibrosis and hepatic stellate cells (HSC-T6). PL significantly attenuated liver injury and fibrosis in CCl4 treated rats. At concentrations of 2 to 6 μM, PL did not induce significant cytotoxicity of HSC-T6 cells. Moreover, PL reduced phosphorylation of EGFR and STAT3 in both fibrotic liver and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) treated HSC-T6 cells. Furthermore, PL reduced the expression of α-SMA, EGFR, and STAT3 in both fibrotic liver and HB-EGF treated HSC-T6 cells. In conclusion, plumbagin could ameliorate the development of hepatic fibrosis through its downregulation of EGFR and STAT3 in the liver, especially in hepatic stellate cells. PMID:26550019

  16. A Fibroblast Growth Factor 21-Pregnane X Receptor Pathway Downregulates Hepatic CYP3A4 in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Woolsey, Sarah J; Beaton, Melanie D; Mansell, Sara E; Leon-Ponte, Matilde; Yu, Janice; Pin, Christopher L; Adams, Paul C; Kim, Richard B; Tirona, Rommel G

    2016-10-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) alters drug response. We previously reported that NAFLD is associated with reduced in vivo CYP3A drug-metabolism activity and hepatic CYP3A4 expression in humans as well as mouse and human hepatoma models of the disease. Here, we investigated the role of the lipid- and glucose-modulating hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in the molecular mechanism regulating CYP3A4 expression in NAFLD. In human subjects, mouse and cellular NAFLD models with lower CYP3A4 expression, circulating FGF21, or hepatic FGF21 mRNA levels were elevated. Administration of recombinant FGF21 or transient hepatic overexpression of FGF21 resulted in reduced liver CYP3A4 luciferase reporter activity in mice and decreased CYP3A4 mRNA expression and activity in cultured Huh7 hepatoma cells. Blocking canonical FGF21 signaling by pharmacological inhibition of MEK1 kinase in Huh7 cells caused de-repression of CYP3A4 mRNA expression with FGF21 treatment. Mice with high-fat diet-induced simple hepatic steatosis and lipid-loaded Huh7 cells had reduced nuclear localization of the pregnane X receptor (PXR), a key transcriptional regulator of CYP3A4 Furthermore, decreased nuclear PXR was observed in mouse liver and Huh7 cells after FGF21 treatment or FGF21 overexpression. Decreased PXR binding to the CYP3A4 proximal promoter was found in FGF21-treated Huh7 cells. An FGF21-PXR signaling pathway may be involved in decreased hepatic CYP3A4 metabolic activity in NAFLD. PMID:27482056

  17. A Fibroblast Growth Factor 21-Pregnane X Receptor Pathway Downregulates Hepatic CYP3A4 in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Woolsey, Sarah J; Beaton, Melanie D; Mansell, Sara E; Leon-Ponte, Matilde; Yu, Janice; Pin, Christopher L; Adams, Paul C; Kim, Richard B; Tirona, Rommel G

    2016-10-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) alters drug response. We previously reported that NAFLD is associated with reduced in vivo CYP3A drug-metabolism activity and hepatic CYP3A4 expression in humans as well as mouse and human hepatoma models of the disease. Here, we investigated the role of the lipid- and glucose-modulating hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in the molecular mechanism regulating CYP3A4 expression in NAFLD. In human subjects, mouse and cellular NAFLD models with lower CYP3A4 expression, circulating FGF21, or hepatic FGF21 mRNA levels were elevated. Administration of recombinant FGF21 or transient hepatic overexpression of FGF21 resulted in reduced liver CYP3A4 luciferase reporter activity in mice and decreased CYP3A4 mRNA expression and activity in cultured Huh7 hepatoma cells. Blocking canonical FGF21 signaling by pharmacological inhibition of MEK1 kinase in Huh7 cells caused de-repression of CYP3A4 mRNA expression with FGF21 treatment. Mice with high-fat diet-induced simple hepatic steatosis and lipid-loaded Huh7 cells had reduced nuclear localization of the pregnane X receptor (PXR), a key transcriptional regulator of CYP3A4 Furthermore, decreased nuclear PXR was observed in mouse liver and Huh7 cells after FGF21 treatment or FGF21 overexpression. Decreased PXR binding to the CYP3A4 proximal promoter was found in FGF21-treated Huh7 cells. An FGF21-PXR signaling pathway may be involved in decreased hepatic CYP3A4 metabolic activity in NAFLD.

  18. A virus-like particle-based connective tissue growth factor vaccine suppresses carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang; Lv, Yi-Fei; Su, Hou-Qiang; Zhang, Qian-Nan; Wang, Li-Rong; Hao, Zhi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been recognized as a central mediator and promising therapeutic target in hepatic fibrosis. In this study, we generated a novel virus-like particle (VLP) CTGF vaccine by inserting the 138-159 amino acid (aa) fragment of CTGF into the central c/e1 epitope of C-terminus truncated hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBc, aa 1-149) using a prokaryotic expression system. Immunization of BALB/c mice with the VLP vaccine efficiently elicited the production of anti-CTGF neutralizing antibodies. Vaccination with this CTGF vaccine significantly protected BALB/c mice from carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis, as indicated by decreased hepatic hydroxyproline content and lower fibrotic score. CCl4 intoxication-induced hepatic stellate cell activation was inhibited by the vaccination, as indicated by decreased α-smooth muscle actin expression and Smad2 phosphorylation. Vaccination against CTGF also attenuated the over-expression of some profibrogenic factors, such as CTGF, transforming growth factor-β1, platelet-derived growth factor-B and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in the fibrotic mouse livers, decreased hepatocyte apoptosis and accelerated hepatocyte proliferation in the fibrotic mouse livers. Our results clearly indicate that vaccination against CTGF inhibits fibrogenesis, alleviates hepatocyte apoptosis and facilitate hepatic regeneration. We suggest that the vaccine should be developed into an effective therapeutic measure for hepatic fibrosis. PMID:27562139

  19. A virus-like particle-based connective tissue growth factor vaccine suppresses carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuang; Lv, Yi-Fei; Su, Hou-Qiang; Zhang, Qian-Nan; Wang, Li-Rong; Hao, Zhi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been recognized as a central mediator and promising therapeutic target in hepatic fibrosis. In this study, we generated a novel virus-like particle (VLP) CTGF vaccine by inserting the 138–159 amino acid (aa) fragment of CTGF into the central c/e1 epitope of C-terminus truncated hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBc, aa 1–149) using a prokaryotic expression system. Immunization of BALB/c mice with the VLP vaccine efficiently elicited the production of anti-CTGF neutralizing antibodies. Vaccination with this CTGF vaccine significantly protected BALB/c mice from carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis, as indicated by decreased hepatic hydroxyproline content and lower fibrotic score. CCl4 intoxication-induced hepatic stellate cell activation was inhibited by the vaccination, as indicated by decreased α-smooth muscle actin expression and Smad2 phosphorylation. Vaccination against CTGF also attenuated the over-expression of some profibrogenic factors, such as CTGF, transforming growth factor-β1, platelet-derived growth factor-B and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in the fibrotic mouse livers, decreased hepatocyte apoptosis and accelerated hepatocyte proliferation in the fibrotic mouse livers. Our results clearly indicate that vaccination against CTGF inhibits fibrogenesis, alleviates hepatocyte apoptosis and facilitate hepatic regeneration. We suggest that the vaccine should be developed into an effective therapeutic measure for hepatic fibrosis. PMID:27562139

  20. Differential cloning of growth hormone-regulated hepatic transcripts in the aged rat.

    PubMed

    Tollet-Egnell, P; Flores-Morales, A; Odeberg, J; Lundeberg, J; Norstedt, G

    2000-03-01

    It has been suggested that aging or at least some of its symptoms are related to a physiological decline in GH levels with age. This study was performed to elucidate age-related changes in GH-dependent effects at the level of gene expression. Through the application of complementary DNA representational difference analysis (RDA) we have identified gene products that are reduced during aging in rat liver. The expression of these genes was restored upon GH treatment. Results from reverse Northern and ribonuclease protection analysis confirmed that the RDA products were truly differentially expressed. In addition to well characterized GH-regulated genes, including CYP2C12, CYP2C13, and alpha2u-globulin, we demonstrate the differential expression of at least 11 genes previously not known to be under GH control. Several hepatic transcripts encoding enzymes and receptors involved in the metabolism of protein, carbohydrates, and lipids were identified. Other RDA products consisted of transcripts encoding proteins involved in ATP synthesis, detoxification of reactive oxygen species, or immune responses. This list of GH-regulated genes in the old rat may shed further light on the action and mechanism behind the positive effects of GH on, for example, body composition and the immune system that have been observed in different animal and human studies. PMID:10698165

  1. Hepatic insulin-like growth-factor binding protein (igfbp) responses tofood restriction in Atlantic salmon smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breves, Jason P.; Phipps-Costin, Silas K.; Fujimoto, Chelsea K.; Einarsdottir, Ingibjörg E.; Regish, Amy M.; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; McCormick, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The growth hormone (Gh)/insulin-like growth-factor (Igf) system plays a central role in the regulation of growth in fishes. However, the roles of Igf binding proteins (Igfbps) in coordinating responses to food availability are unresolved, especially in anadromous fishes preparing for seaward migration. We assayed plasma Gh, Igf1, thyroid hormones and cortisol along with igfbp mRNA levels in fasted and fed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ). Fish were fasted for 3 or 10 days near the peak of smoltification (late April to early May). Fasting reduced plasma glucose by 3 days and condition factor by 10 days. Plasma Gh, cortisol, and thyroxine (T 4 ) were not altered in response to fasting, whereas Igf1 and 3,5,3′-triiodo- l -thyronine (T 3 ) were slightly higher and lower than controls, respectively. Hepatic igfbp1b1 , - 1b2 , - 2a , - 2b1 and - 2b2 mRNA levels were not responsive to fasting, but there were marked increases in igfbp1a1 following 3 and 10 days of fasting. Fasting did not alter hepatic igf1or igf2 ; however, muscle igf1 was diminished by 10 days of fasting. There were no signs that fasting compromised branchial ionoregulatory functions, as indicated by unchanged Na + /K + -ATPase activity and ion pump/transporter mRNA levels. We conclude that dynamic hepatic igfbp1a1 and muscle igf1 expression participate in the modulation of Gh/Igf signaling in smolts undergoing catabolism.

  2. Effects of intrauterine growth retardation and maternal folic acid supplementation on hepatic mitochondrial function and gene expression in piglets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingbo; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Chen, Daiwen

    2012-10-01

    Piglets with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) or with normal birth weight (NBW) were selected to evaluate the effects of maternal folic acid supplementation on hepatic mitochondrial function and expression levels of genes involved in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) biogenesis and mitochondrial function. During gestation, primiparous Yorkshire sows were fed a Control diet (folic acid 1.3 mg/kg) or a folic acid-supplemented diet (folic acid 30 mg/kg) with 16 replicates per diet. During the 28-d lactation period, sows were fed a common diet. Compared with NBW piglets, hepatic ATP concentrations and mtDNA contents were decreased in IUGR piglets. Furthermore, IUGR piglets exhibited lower membrane potential and decreased oxygen consumption in liver mitochondria, but these parameters were not affected by maternal folic acid supplementation. Intrauterine growth retardation decreased mRNA expression abundance of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, mitochondrial transcription factor A, uncoupling protein 3, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and IV. Impaired antioxidant capacity characterised by increased malondialdehyde content and decreased manganese-superoxide dismutase activity was also observed in IUGR pigs. In IUGR piglets, however, nearly all of these parameters were normalised to the level of NBW piglets when the maternal diet was supplemented with folic acid during pregnancy. Hence, maternal folic acid supplementation was proved to be an effective way to reverse the changes in gene expressions in IUGR pigs, which provided a possible nutritional strategy to improve growth development of IUGR individuals.

  3. Performance evaluation of new automated hepatitis B viral markers in the clinical laboratory: two quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen assays and an HBV core-related antigen assay.

    PubMed

    Park, Yongjung; Hong, Duck Jin; Shin, Saeam; Cho, Yonggeun; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (qHBsAg) assays and a hepatitis B virus (HBV) core-related antigen (HBcrAg) assay. A total of 529 serum samples from patients with hepatitis B were tested. HBsAg levels were determined by using the Elecsys (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN) and Architect (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL) qHBsAg assays. HBcrAg was measured by using Lumipulse HBcrAg assay (Fujirebio, Tokyo, Japan). Serum aminotransferases and HBV DNA were respectively quantified by using the Hitachi 7600 analyzer (Hitachi High-Technologies, Tokyo, Japan) and the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan test (Roche). Precision of the qHBsAg and HBcrAg assays was assessed, and linearity of the qHBsAg assays was verified. All assays showed good precision performance with coefficients of variation between 4.5% and 5.3% except for some levels. Both qHBsAg assays showed linearity from 0.1 to 12,000.0 IU/mL and correlated well (r = 0.9934). HBsAg levels correlated with HBV DNA (r = 0.3373) and with HBcrAg (r = 0.5164), and HBcrAg also correlated with HBV DNA (r = 0.5198; P < .0001). This observation could provide impetus for further research to elucidate the clinical usefulness of the qHBsAg and HBcrAg assays.

  4. Transient Hepatic Overexpression of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 Induces Free Cholesterol and Lipid Droplet Formation

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Sonja M.; Laggai, Stephan; Van Wonterghem, Elien; Gemperlein, Katja; Müller, Rolf; Haybaeck, Johannes; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E.; Ogris, Manfred; Libert, Claude; Kiemer, Alexandra K.

    2016-01-01

    Although insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) has been reported to be overexpressed in steatosis and steatohepatitis, a causal role of IGF2 in steatosis development remains elusive. Aim of our study was to decipher the role of IGF2 in steatosis development. Hydrodynamic gene delivery of an Igf2 plasmid used for transient Igf2 overexpression employing codon-optimized plasmid DNA resulted in a strong induction of hepatic Igf2 expression. The exogenously delivered Igf2 had no influence on endogenous Igf2 expression. The downstream kinase AKT was activated in Igf2 animals. Decreased ALT levels mirrored the cytoprotective effect of IGF2. Serum cholesterol was increased and sulfo-phospho-vanillin colorimetric assay confirmed lipid accumulation in Igf2-livers while no signs of inflammation were observed. Interestingly, hepatic cholesterol and phospholipids, determined by thin layer chromatography, and free cholesterol by filipin staining, were specifically increased. Lipid droplet (LD) size was not changed, but their number was significantly elevated. Furthermore, free cholesterol, which can be stored in LDs and has been reported to be critical for steatosis progression, was elevated in Igf2 overexpressing mice. Accordingly, Hmgcr/HmgCoAR was upregulated. To have a closer look at de novo lipid synthesis we investigated expression of the lipogenic transcription factor SREBF1 and its target genes. SREBF1 was induced and also SREBF1 target genes were slightly upregulated. Interestingly, the expression of Cpt1a, which is responsible for mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, was induced. Hepatic IGF2 expression induces a fatty liver, characterized by increased cholesterol and phospholipids leading to accumulation of LDs. We therefore suggest a causal role for IGF2 in hepatic lipid accumulation. PMID:27199763

  5. Transient Hepatic Overexpression of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 Induces Free Cholesterol and Lipid Droplet Formation.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Sonja M; Laggai, Stephan; Van Wonterg, Elien; Gemperlein, Katja; Müller, Rolf; Haybaeck, Johannes; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E; Ogris, Manfred; Libert, Claude; Kiemer, Alexandra K

    2016-01-01

    Although insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) has been reported to be overexpressed in steatosis and steatohepatitis, a causal role of IGF2 in steatosis development remains elusive. Aim of our study was to decipher the role of IGF2 in steatosis development. Hydrodynamic gene delivery of an Igf2 plasmid used for transient Igf2 overexpression employing codon-optimized plasmid DNA resulted in a strong induction of hepatic Igf2 expression. The exogenously delivered Igf2 had no influence on endogenous Igf2 expression. The downstream kinase AKT was activated in Igf2 animals. Decreased ALT levels mirrored the cytoprotective effect of IGF2. Serum cholesterol was increased and sulfo-phospho-vanillin colorimetric assay confirmed lipid accumulation in Igf2-livers while no signs of inflammation were observed. Interestingly, hepatic cholesterol and phospholipids, determined by thin layer chromatography, and free cholesterol by filipin staining, were specifically increased. Lipid droplet (LD) size was not changed, but their number was significantly elevated. Furthermore, free cholesterol, which can be stored in LDs and has been reported to be critical for steatosis progression, was elevated in Igf2 overexpressing mice. Accordingly, Hmgcr/HmgCoAR was upregulated. To have a closer look at de novo lipid synthesis we investigated expression of the lipogenic transcription factor SREBF1 and its target genes. SREBF1 was induced and also SREBF1 target genes were slightly upregulated. Interestingly, the expression of Cpt1a, which is responsible for mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, was induced. Hepatic IGF2 expression induces a fatty liver, characterized by increased cholesterol and phospholipids leading to accumulation of LDs. We therefore suggest a causal role for IGF2 in hepatic lipid accumulation. PMID:27199763

  6. Changes in serum transforming growth factor-β1 levels in chronic hepatitis C patients under antiviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kotsiri, Ioanna; Hadziyannis, Emilia; Georgiou, Anastasia; Papageorgiou, Maria-Vasiliki; Vlachogiannakos, Ioannis; Papatheodoridis, George

    2016-01-01

    Background Several cytokines including transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. We examined the changes of TGF-β1 serum levels and their predictive value in patients with chronic hepatitis C under antiviral therapy. Methods We included 84 patients with chronic hepatitis C who were treated with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin between 2008 and 2009. Treatment was given for 24-48 weeks depending on HCV genotype. Serum TGF-β1 levels were measured by an ELISA assay at baseline, at the end of therapy (EOT), and at 6 months after the EOT. Liver fibrosis was evaluated by transient elastography. Results Of the 84 patients, 76.2% achieved sustained virological response (SVR), 8.3% responded at the EOT but relapsed during post-therapy follow up (RR) and 15.5% had no response (NR). In all patients, mean TGF-β1 levels were 16,980 pg/mL at baseline and decreased significantly at EOT (12,041 pg/mL) and at 6 months of post-treatment follow up (13,254 pg/mL) (P≤0.001). In particular, mean TGF-β1 levels decreased significantly from baseline to EOT and to six months of post-treatment follow up in patients with SVR and numerically but not significantly in patients with RR or NR. TGF-β1 levels were not associated with the severity of liver stiffness estimated by transient elastography. Conclusion Our data show that TGF-β1 serum levels decrease significantly at the EOT and remain decreased 6 months after the EOT mostly in chronic hepatitis C patients who achieve SVR after pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin combination treatment. PMID:26752952

  7. Hepatic transcriptome profiling identifies differences in expression of genes associated with changes in metabolism and postnatal growth between Hereford and Holstein-Friesian bulls.

    PubMed

    Lisowski, Pawel; Kościuczuk, Ewa M; Gościk, Joanna; Pierzchała, Mariusz; Rowińska, Barbara; Zwierzchowski, Lech

    2014-04-01

    This study examined liver transcriptomic profiles of cattle distinctly different in meat and milk production capacity. It was performed on bulls of two different genetic backgrounds: Herefords (H), a meat breed, and Holstein-Friesians (HF), a dairy breed. Using bovine long oligo-microarrays and qPCR, we identified 128 genes that are differentially expressed between the two breeds. In H bulls, we observed up-regulation of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and lipid metabolism (CD36, CAT, HSD3B1, FABP1, ACAA1) and involved in insulin signaling (INSR, INSIG2, NR4A1) and down-regulation of genes involved in somatotropic axis signaling (IGF1, GHR, IGFBP3) as compared to HF. Transcriptome profiling of these two breeds allowed us to pinpoint the transcriptional differences between Holstein and Hereford bulls at hepatic level associated with changes in metabolism and postnatal growth. PMID:24304134

  8. Peginterferon for Chronic Hepatitis C in Children affects Growth and Body Composition: Results from the Pediatric Study of Hepatitis C (PEDS-C) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Maureen M.; Balistreri, William; Gonzalez-Peralta, Regino P.; Haber, Barbara; Lobritto, Steven; Mohan, Parvathi; Molleston, Jean P.; Murray, Karen F.; Narkewicz, Michael R.; Rosenthal, Philip; Schwarz, Kathleen B.; Barton, Bruce A.; Shepherd, John A.; Mitchell, Paul D.; Duggan, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Background Weight loss and changes in growth are noted in children treated with interferonα Objectives To prospectively determine changes in weight, height, body mass index and body composition during and after treatment of children with hepatitis C. Methods Children treated with PEG-IFNα2a +/− ribavirin in the PEDS-C trial underwent anthropometric measurements, DXA scan, dietary and activity assessments during and after treatment. Results 114 (55% male) children mean age 11±3 years were randomized, and 107 received treatment for at least 24 weeks. Subjects were divided into 3 groups according to duration of treatment: 24 (N=14), 48 (N=82), or 72 (N=11) weeks. Decrements of up to 0.50 z score were observed for weight, height and BMI while on therapy among all groups (P≤0.01 compared to baseline). In the group treated for 48 weeks, 29 (33%) subjects had greater than 0.5 unit decrement in height-for-age Z score. While weight-for-age and BMI z scores returned to baseline after cessation of therapy, mean HAZ score was slower to rebound, still lower than baseline at 96 weeks post-therapy for the long treatment duration group (P=0.03) and lower than baseline in most children treated for 48 weeks. Percent body fat, fat-free mass z scores and triceps skinfold z scores decreased with therapy. Dietary energy intake and levels of physical activity did not change during treatment. Conclusions PEG-IFNα2a was associated with significant changes in body weight, linear growth, body mass index and body composition in children. These effects were generally reversible with cessation of therapy, although height-for-age z scores had not returned to baseline after 2 years of observation in many. Longer term growth data are needed among children treated for chronic HCV. PMID:22383118

  9. GENDER-SPECIFIC GROWTH AND HEPATIC NEOPLASIA IN MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES). (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brief exposure of hatchling medaka (Oryzias latipes), to diethylnitrosamine (DEN), resulted in hepatic tumor formation in female medaka at an incidence of 2–3-fold higher than that of their male cohorts. Spontaneous liver tumor incidence was reported in unexposed...

  10. Performance of the OraQuick HCV Rapid Antibody Test for Screening Exposed Patients in a Hepatitis C Outbreak Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fengxiang; Talbot, Elizabeth A.; Loring, Carol H.; Power, Jill J.; Dionne-Odom, Jodie; Alroy-Preis, Sharon; Jackson, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    During a nosocomial hepatitis C outbreak, emergency public clinics employed the OraQuick HCV rapid antibody test on site, and all results were verified by a standard enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Of 1,157 persons, 1,149 (99.3%) exhibited concordant results between the two tests (16 positive, 1,133 negative). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 94.1%, 99.5%, 72.7%, and 99.9%, respectively. OraQuick performed well as a screening test during an outbreak investigation and could be integrated into future hepatitis C virus (HCV) outbreak testing algorithms. PMID:24789176

  11. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Hepatic Arteriography in Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Performance Depicting Tumors and Tumor Feeders

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, In Joon; Chung, Jin Wook Yin, Yong Hu; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Kim, Young Il; Jae, Hwan Jun; Park, Jae Hyung

    2015-10-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to analyze retrospectively the performance of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) hepatic arteriography in depicting tumors and their feeders and to investigate the related determining factors in chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).MethodsEighty-six patients with 142 tumors satisfying the imaging diagnosis criteria of HCC were included in this study. The performance of CBCT hepatic arteriography for chemoembolization per tumor and per patient was evaluated using maximum intensity projection images alone (MIP analysis) or MIP combined with multiplanar reformation images (MIP + MPR analysis) regarding the following three aspects: tumor depiction, confidence of tumor feeder detection, and trackability of tumor feeders. Tumor size, tumor enhancement, tumor location, number of feeders, diaphragmatic motion, portal vein enhancement, and hepatic artery to parenchyma enhancement ratio were regarded as potential determining factors.ResultsTumors were depicted in 125 (88.0 %) and 142 tumors (100 %) on MIP and MIP + MPR analysis, respectively. Imaging performances on MIP and MIP + MPR analysis were good enough to perform subsegmental chemoembolization without additional angiographic investigation in 88 (62.0 %) and 128 tumors (90.1 %) on per-tumor basis and in 43 (50 %) and 73 (84.9 %) on per-patient basis, respectively. Significant determining factors for performance in MIP + MPR analysis on per tumor basis were tumor size (p = 0.030), tumor enhancement (0.005), tumor location (p = 0.001), and diaphragmatic motion (p < 0.001).ConclusionsCBCT hepatic arteriography provided sufficient information for subsegmental chemoembolization by depicting tumors and their feeders in the vast majority of patients. Combined analysis of MIP and MPR images was essential to enhance the performance of CBCT hepatic arteriography.

  12. The effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on growth hormone secretion and hepatic sexual dimorphism in male rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lechner, P.S.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on the activities of several sexually dimorphic hepatic proteins was investigated in male rats by feeding a nutritionally adequate liquid diet supplemented with either ethanol or dextrimaltose. Two androgen-responsive proteins served as markers of masculine hepatic function. A high capacity, moderate affinity male estrogen-binding protein (MEB) is found only in male rat liver cytosol and this activity was significantly reduced in all animals consuming ethanol at a dose of 5% by volume. The estrogen metabolizing enzyme estrogen 2-hydroxylase was also significantly reduced in male rats fed ethanol. Two proteins having higher activity in female compared to male liver were chosen as indicators of feminization: ceruloplasmin and 5[alpha]-reductase. Ceruloplasmin activity was increased after long term feeding of ethanol, but not after shorter durations of alcohol consumption. The 5a-reductase activity was not significantly affected by any of the alcohol feeding studies. Serum testosterone levels were not significantly decreased after ethanol consumption. After 30 or 60 days of ethanol ingestion, serum estradiol was elevated 34% and 40%. The reversibility of ethanol effects was determined by a gradual withdrawal of alcohol from the diet. The effect of ethanol consumption on sex-specific patterns of growth hormone secretion was examined. The secretory pattern of alcohol-fed rats was not feminized; after ethanol ingestion, the frequency of growth hormone pulses was unchanged. An increase in pulse height and mean growth hormone concentration was observed after 60 days of ethanol consumption. This results constitutes a change away from rather than toward the characteristics of a female secretory pattern. The feminization of activities of the male estrogen binding protein and of estrogen 2-hydroxylase in male rat liver after chronic ethanol consumption are not apparently related to a feminization of growth hormone secretion pattern.

  13. Rifaximin Improves Driving Simulator Performance in a Randomized Trial of Patients with Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Jasmohan S; Heuman, Douglas M; Wade, James B; Gibson, Douglas P; Saeian, Kia; Wegelin, Jacob A; Hafeezullah, Muhammad; Bell, Debulon E; Sterling, Richard K; Stravitz, R. Todd; Fuchs, Michael; Luketic, Velimir; Sanyal, Arun J

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Patients with cirrhosis and minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) have driving difficulties but the effects of therapy on driving performance have not been assessed. We evaluated whether performance on a driving simulator improves in patients with MHE following treatment with rifaximin. Methods Patients with MHE who were current drivers were randomly assigned to placebo or rifaximin groups and followed for 8 weeks (n=42). Patients underwent driving simulation (driving and navigation tasks) at the start (baseline) and end of the study. We evaluated patients’ cognitive abilities, quality-of-life (using the Sickness Impact Profile [SIP]), serum levels of ammonia, levels of inflammatory cytokines, and MELD scores. The primary outcome was percent who improved in driving performance, calculated by: total driving errors=speeding + illegal turns + collisions. Results Over the 8-week study period, patients given rifaximin made significantly greater improvements than those given placebo in avoiding total driving errors (76% vs. 31%, P=0.013), speeding (81% vs. 33%, P=0.005), and illegal turns (62% vs. 19%, P=0.01). Of patients given rifaximin, 91% improved their cognitive performance, compared with 61% of patients given placebo (P=0.01); they also made improvements in the psycho-social dimension of the SIP, compared with the placebo group (P=0.04). Adherence to the assigned drug averaged 92%. Neither group had changes in ammonia levels or MELD scores, but patients in the rifaximin group had increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10. Conclusions Patients with MHE significantly improve driving simulator performance following treatment with rifaximin, compared with placebo. PMID:20849805

  14. A naturally occurring human/hepatitis E recombinant virus predominates in serum but not in faeces of a chronic hepatitis E patient and has a growth advantage in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H T; Torian, U; Faulk, K; Mather, K; Engle, R E; Thompson, E; Bonkovsky, H L; Emerson, S U

    2012-03-01

    Hepatitis E virus is the aetiological agent of acute hepatitis E, a self-limiting disease prevalent in developing countries. Molecular analysis of viral genomic RNA from a chronically infected patient confirmed the recent discovery that chronic infection correlated with extensive diversification of the virus quasispecies: the hypervariable region of some virus genomes in this USA patient contained large continuous deletions and a minor proportion of genomes in faeces and serum had acquired a mammalian sequence that encoded 39 aa of S19 ribosomal protein fused to the virus non-structural protein. Genomes with this insert were selected during virus passage in cultured cells to become the predominant species, suggesting that the inserted sequence promoted virus growth. The results demonstrated that hepatitis E virus can mutate dramatically during a prolonged infection and suggests it may be important to prevent or cure chronic infections before new variants with unpredictable properties arise.

  15. Effect of the combined probiotics with aflatoxin B₁-degrading enzyme on aflatoxin detoxification, broiler production performance and hepatic enzyme gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Rui-yu; Chang, Juan; Yin, Qing-qiang; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yu-rong; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Guo-qiang; Zheng, Qiu-hong

    2013-09-01

    In order to degrade aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁), AFB₁-degrading microbes (probiotics) such as Lactobacillus casei, Bacillus subtilis and Pichia anomala, and the AFB₁-degrading enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae were selected and combined to make feed additive. Seventy-five 43-day-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly divided into 5 groups, 15 broilers for each group. The broilers were given with 5 kinds of diets such as the basal diet, 400 μg/kg AFB₁ supplement without feed additive, and 200, 400, 800 μg/kg AFB₁ supplement with 0.15% feed additive. The feeding experimental period was 30 d, which was used to determine production performance of broilers. In addition, serum, liver and chest muscle were selected for measuring AFB₁ residues, gene expressions, microscopic and antioxidant analyses. The results showed that adding 0.15% feed additive in broiler diets could significantly relieve the negative effect of AFB₁ on chicken's production performance and nutrient metabolic rates (P<0.05). It could also improve AFB₁ metabolism, hepatic cell structure, antioxidant activity, and many hepatic enzyme gene expressions involved in oxidoreductase, apoptosis, cell growth, immune system and metabolic process (P<0.05). It could be concluded that the feed additive was able to degrade AFB₁ and improve animal production.

  16. Effect of the combined probiotics with aflatoxin B₁-degrading enzyme on aflatoxin detoxification, broiler production performance and hepatic enzyme gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Rui-yu; Chang, Juan; Yin, Qing-qiang; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yu-rong; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Guo-qiang; Zheng, Qiu-hong

    2013-09-01

    In order to degrade aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁), AFB₁-degrading microbes (probiotics) such as Lactobacillus casei, Bacillus subtilis and Pichia anomala, and the AFB₁-degrading enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae were selected and combined to make feed additive. Seventy-five 43-day-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly divided into 5 groups, 15 broilers for each group. The broilers were given with 5 kinds of diets such as the basal diet, 400 μg/kg AFB₁ supplement without feed additive, and 200, 400, 800 μg/kg AFB₁ supplement with 0.15% feed additive. The feeding experimental period was 30 d, which was used to determine production performance of broilers. In addition, serum, liver and chest muscle were selected for measuring AFB₁ residues, gene expressions, microscopic and antioxidant analyses. The results showed that adding 0.15% feed additive in broiler diets could significantly relieve the negative effect of AFB₁ on chicken's production performance and nutrient metabolic rates (P<0.05). It could also improve AFB₁ metabolism, hepatic cell structure, antioxidant activity, and many hepatic enzyme gene expressions involved in oxidoreductase, apoptosis, cell growth, immune system and metabolic process (P<0.05). It could be concluded that the feed additive was able to degrade AFB₁ and improve animal production. PMID:23831311

  17. Absence of mTOR Inhibitor Effect on Hepatic Cyst Growth: A Case Report of a Kidney Transplant Recipient with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, L.; Barbey, F.; Pascual, M.; Venetz, J.-P.

    2012-01-01

    Some experimental studies have suggested a beneficial effect of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor use on hepatic and renal cyst growth in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). However, the results of clinical studies are conflicting and the role of mTOR inhibitors is still uncertain. We report the case of a patient with ADPKD who underwent deceased kidney transplantation because of an end-stage renal disease. The evolution was uneventful with an excellent graft function under cyclosporine (CsA) monotherapy. Some years later, the patient developed a symptomatic hepatomegaly due to growth of cysts. CsA was replaced by sirolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, in order to reduce or control the increase in the cyst and liver volume. Despite the switch, the hepatic volume increased by 25% in two years. Finally sirolimus was stopped because of the lack of effect on hepatic cyst growth and the presence of sirolimus side effects. The interest of our case resides in the followup by MRI imaging during the mTOR inhibitor treatment and 15 months after the restart of the initial immunosuppressive therapy. This observation indicates that mTOR inhibitors did not have significant effect on cyst-associated hepatic growth in our patient, which is consistent with some results of recent large clinical studies. PMID:23304619

  18. A recombinant antibody-interleukin 2 fusion protein suppresses growth of hepatic human neuroblastoma metastases in severe combined immunodeficiency mice.

    PubMed

    Sabzevari, H; Gillies, S D; Mueller, B M; Pancook, J D; Reisfeld, R A

    1994-09-27

    A genetically engineered fusion protein consisting of a human/mouse chimeric anti-ganglioside GD2 antibody (ch14.18) and recombinant human interleukin 2 (rhIL-2) was tested for its ability to target rhIL-2 to tumor sites and stimulate immune effector cells sufficiently to achieve effective tumor cell lysis in vivo. The ch14.18-IL-2 fusion protein proved more effective than equivalent doses of rhIL-2 in suppressing dissemination and growth of human neuroblastoma in an experimental hepatic metastases model of scid (severe combined immunodeficiency) mice reconstituted with human lymphokine-activated killer cells. The ch14.18-IL-2 fusion protein was also more proficient than equivalent doses of rhIL-2 in prolonging the life-span of these animals. This recombinant antibody-cytokine fusion protein may prove useful for future treatment of GD2-expressing human tumors in an adjuvant setting.

  19. Growth in body size affects rotational performance in women's gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Ackland, Timothy; Elliott, Bruce; Richards, Joanne

    2003-07-01

    National and state representative female gymnasts (n = 37), aged initially between 10 and 12 years, completed a mixed longitudinal study over 3.3 years, to investigate the effect of body size on gymnastic performance. Subjects were tested at four-monthly intervals on a battery of measures including structural growth, strength and gymnastic performance. The group were divided into 'high growers' and 'low growers' based on height (> 18 cm or < 14 cm/37 months, respectively) and body mass (> 15 kg or < 12 kg/37 months, respectively) for comparative purposes. Development of gymnastic performance was assessed through generic skills (front and back rotations, a twisting jump and a V-sit action) and a vertical jump for maximum height. The results show that the smaller gymnast, with a high strength to mass ratio, has greater potential for performing skills involving whole-body rotations. Larger gymnasts, while able to produce more power and greater angular momentum, could not match the performance of the smaller ones. The magnitude of growth experienced by the gymnast over this period has a varying effect on performance. While some activities were greatly influenced by rapid increases in whole-body moment of inertia (e.g. back rotation), performance on others like the front rotation and vertical jump, appeared partly immune to the physical and mechanical changes associated with growth. PMID:14737925

  20. Morbidity and growth performance of infants in Madura, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kolsteren, P W; Kusin, J A; Kardjati, S

    1997-09-01

    Between January 1987 and July 1988, all children born in two villages on the island of Madura, Indonesia were visited weekly by a field worker trained to interview mothers on disease symptoms. The maximum recall period was 1 week. All infants were measured (weight and height) at monthly intervals. Information on growth and morbidity is analysed for infants from birth until the age of 11 months. Morbidity, defined as acute respiratory tract infection (ARI), diarrhoea, fever and other diseases, is analysed over 4-week periods and related to growth performance. In total, there are 1373 4-week reporting periods with morbidity information from birth to the age of 12 months. Of all the diseases recorded (1021), 47% were ARI, 13% diarrhoea, 14% fever and 26% other diseases. The average (SD) duration of diarrhoea was 7 (11) days, ARI 14 (9) days, fever 6 (4) days and 16 (10) days for other diseases. The most striking results in this analysis are: (i) the lack of a relationship between morbidity and growth (either linear or weight) during the 1st 6 months of life; (ii) the existence of a relationship between illness and weight increment for which only ARI showed significant influence for infants of 6 months and more; (iii) the lack of a relationship between morbidity and linear growth performance at all ages; and (iv) the fact that no cumulative effect of disease on growth performance was found to explain the observations.

  1. Performance of two real-time PCR assays for hepatitis B virus DNA detection and quantitation.

    PubMed

    Kania, Dramane; Ottomani, Laure; Meda, Nicolas; Peries, Marianne; Dujols, Pierre; Bolloré, Karine; Rénier, Wendy; Viljoen, Johannes; Ducos, Jacques; Van de Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2014-06-01

    In-house developed real-time PCR (qPCR) techniques could be useful conjunctives to the management of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in resource-limited settings with high prevalence. Two qPCR assays (qPCR1 and qPCR2), based on primers/probes targeting conserved regions of the X and S genes of HBV respectively, were evaluated using clinical samples of varying HBV genotypes, and compared to the commercial Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HBV Test v2.0. The lower detection limit (LDL) was established at 104 IU/ml for qPCR1, and 91 IU/ml for qPCR2. Good agreement and correlation were obtained between the Roche assay and both qPCR assays (r = 0.834 for qPCR1; and r = 0.870 for qPCR2). Differences in HBV DNA load of > 0.5 Log10 IU/ml between the Roche and the qPCR assays were found in 49/122 samples of qPCR1, and 35/122 samples of qPCR2. qPCR1 tended to underestimate HBV DNA quantity in samples with a low viral load and overestimate HBV DNA concentration in samples with a high viral load when compared to the Roche test. Both molecular tools that were developed, used on an open real-time PCR system, were reliable for HBV DNA detection and quantitation. The qPCR2 performed better than the qPCR1 and had the additional advantage of various HBV genotype detection and quantitation. This low cost quantitative HBV DNA PCR assay may be an alternative solution when implementing national programmes to diagnose, monitor and treat HBV infection in low- to middle-income countries where testing for HBV DNA is not available in governmental health programmes.

  2. Prolactin promotes normal liver growth, survival, and regeneration in rodents: effects on hepatic IL-6, suppressor of cytokine signaling-3, and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Carranza, Bibiana; Goya-Arce, Maite; Vega, Claudia; Adán, Norma; Triebel, Jakob; López-Barrera, Fernando; Quintanar-Stéphano, Andrés; Binart, Nadine; Martínez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Clapp, Carmen

    2013-10-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a potent liver mitogen and proangiogenic hormone. Here, we used hyperprolactinemic rats and PRL receptor-null mice (PRLR(-/-)) to study the effect of PRL on liver growth and angiogenesis before and after partial hepatectomy (PH). Liver-to-body weight ratio (LBW), hepatocyte and sinusoidal endothelial cell (SEC) proliferation, and hepatic expression of VEGF were measured before and after PH in hyperprolactinemic rats, generated by placing two anterior pituitary glands (AP) under the kidney capsule. Also, LBW and hepatic expression of IL-6, as well as suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3), were evaluated in wild-type and PRLR(-/-) mice before and after PH. Hyperprolactinemia increased the LBW, the proliferation of hepatocytes and SECs, and VEGF hepatic expression. Also, liver regeneration was increased in AP-grafted rats and was accompanied by elevated hepatocyte and SEC proliferation, and VEGF expression compared with nongrafted controls. Lowering circulating PRL levels with CB-154, an inhibitor of AP PRL secretion, prevented AP-induced stimulation of liver growth. Relative to wild-type animals, PRLR(-/-) mice had smaller livers, and soon after PH, they displayed an approximately twofold increased mortality and elevated and reduced hepatic IL-6 and SOCS-3 expression, respectively. However, liver regeneration was improved in surviving PRLR(-/-) mice. PRL stimulates normal liver growth, promotes survival, and regulates liver regeneration by mechanisms that may include hepatic downregulation of IL-6 and upregulation of SOCS-3, increased hepatocyte proliferation, and angiogenesis. PRL contributes to physiological liver growth and has potential clinical utility for ensuring survival and regulating liver mass in diseases, injuries, or surgery of the liver.

  3. Activated hepatic stellate cells are dependent on self-collagen, cleaved by membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase for their growth.

    PubMed

    Birukawa, Naoko Kubo; Murase, Kazuyuki; Sato, Yasushi; Kosaka, Akemi; Yoneda, Akihiro; Nishita, Hiroki; Fujita, Ryosuke; Nishimura, Miyuki; Ninomiya, Takafumi; Kajiwara, Keiko; Miyazaki, Miyono; Nakashima, Yusuke; Ota, Sigenori; Murakami, Yuya; Tanaka, Yasunobu; Minomi, Kenjiro; Tamura, Yasuaki; Niitsu, Yoshiro

    2014-07-18

    Stellate cells are distributed throughout organs, where, upon chronic damage, they become activated and proliferate to secrete collagen, which results in organ fibrosis. An intriguing property of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is that they undergo apoptosis when collagen is resolved by stopping tissue damage or by treatment, even though the mechanisms are unknown. Here we disclose the fact that HSCs, normal diploid cells, acquired dependence on collagen for their growth during the transition from quiescent to active states. The intramolecular RGD motifs of collagen were exposed by cleavage with their own membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP). The following evidence supports this conclusion. When rat activated HSCs (aHSCs) were transduced with siRNA against the collagen-specific chaperone gp46 to inhibit collagen secretion, the cells underwent autophagy followed by apoptosis. Concomitantly, the growth of aHSCs was suppressed, whereas that of quiescent HSCs was not. These in vitro results are compatible with the in vivo observation that apoptosis of aHSCs was induced in cirrhotic livers of rats treated with siRNAgp46. siRNA against MT1-MMP and addition of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2), which mainly inhibits MT1-MMP, also significantly suppressed the growth of aHSCs in vitro. The RGD inhibitors echistatin and GRGDS peptide and siRNA against the RGD receptor αVβ1 resulted in the inhibition of aHSCs growth. Transduction of siRNAs against gp46, αVβ1, and MT1-MMP to aHSCs inhibited the survival signal of PI3K/AKT/IκB. These results could provide novel antifibrosis strategies.

  4. Inhibition of microRNA-214 ameliorates hepatic fibrosis and tumor incidence in platelet-derived growth factor C transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Hikari; Honda, Masao; Campbell, Jean S; Takegoshi, Kai; Sakai, Yoshio; Yamashita, Taro; Shirasaki, Takayoshi; Takabatake, Riuta; Nakamura, Mikiko; Tanaka, Takuji; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    Differentially regulated microRNA (miRNA) are associated with hepatic fibrosis; however, their potential usefulness for blocking hepatic fibrosis has not been exploited fully. We examined the expression of miRNA in the liver of a transgenic mouse model in which platelet-derived growth factor C (PDGF-C) is overexpressed (Pdgf-c Tg), resulting in hepatic fibrosis and steatosis and the eventual development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Robust induction of miR-214 correlated with fibrogenesis in the liver of Pdgf-c Tg mice, atherogenic high-fat diet-induced NASH mice, and patients with chronic hepatitis B or C. Pdgf-c Tg mice were injected with locked nucleic acid (LNA)-antimiR-214 via the tail vein using Invivofectamine 2.0 and the degree of hepatic fibrosis and tumor incidence were evaluated. Pdgf-c Tg mice treated with LNA-antimiR-214 showed a marked reduction in fibrosis and tumor incidence compared with saline or LNA-miR-control-injected control mice. In vitro, LNA-antimiR-214 significantly ameliorated TGF-β1-induced pro-fibrotic gene expression in Lx-2 cells. MiR-214 targets a negative regulator of EGFR signaling, Mig-6. Mimic-miR-214 decreased the expression of Mig-6 and increased the levels of EGF-mediated p-EGFR (Y1173 and Y845) and p-Met (Tyr1234/1235) in Huh-7 cells. Conversely, LNA-antimiR-214 repressed the expression of these genes. In conclusion, miR-214 appears to participate in the development of hepatic fibrosis by modulating the EGFR and TGF-β signaling pathways. LNA-antimiR-214 is a potential therapy for the prevention of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:26122702

  5. Does Pay-For-Performance Program Increase Providers Adherence to Guidelines for Managing Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Taiwan?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Long-Sheng; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Li, Chung-Pin; Wu, Chen-Yi; Chang, Yu-Chia

    2016-01-01

    Background Many people are concerned about that the quality of preventive care for patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is suboptimal. Taiwan, a hyperendemic area of chronic HBV and HCV infection, implemented a nationwide pay-for-performance (P4P) program in 2010, which aimed to improve the preventive care provided to HBV and HCV patients by increasing physicians’ adherence to guidelines through financial incentives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the early effects of the P4P program on utilization of preventive services by HBV and HCV patients. Methods Using a quasi-experimental design with propensity score matching method, we matched the HBV and HCV patients enrolled in the P4P program with non-enrollees in 2010, resulting in 21,643 patients in each group. Generalized estimating equations was applied to examine the difference-in-difference effects of P4P program enrollment on the utilization of three guideline-recommended preventive services (regular outpatient follow-up visits, abdominal ultrasonography (US) examinations, and aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) tests by HBV and HCV patients. Results The P4P program enrollees were significantly more likely to attend twice-annual follow-up visits, to receive recommended US examinations and AST/ALT tests, than non-enrollees. Conclusions The results of our preliminary assessment indicate that financial incentives offered by the P4P program was associated with a modest improvement in adherence to guidelines for better chronic HBV and HBC management. PMID:27517172

  6. Expression of hepatic Fibroblast Growth Factor 19 is enhanced in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis and correlates with severity of the disease

    PubMed Central

    Wunsch, Ewa; Milkiewicz, Małgorzata; Wasik, Urszula; Trottier, Jocelyn; Kempińska-Podhorodecka, Agnieszka; Elias, Elwyn; Barbier, Olivier; Milkiewicz, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Cholestasis induces adaptive mechanisms protecting the liver against bile acids (BA) toxicity including modulation of BA synthesis. Whether fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) or farnesoid X receptor (FXR) dependent signaling are involved in the regulation of BA homeostasis in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) remains unknown. Here we analyzed hepatic expression of FGF19 and other genes relevant to the adaptive response to cholestasis in tissues from non-cirrhotic (n = 24) and cirrhotic (n = 21) patients along with control tissues (n = 21). Moreover we searched for relationships between serum FGF19 and laboratory/clinical findings in 51 patients. Hepatic FGF19 mRNA expression was increased in non-cirrhotic and cirrhotic tissues (9-fold,p = 0.01; 69-fold,p < 0.0001, respectively). Protein levels of FGF19, FGF receptor 4, FXR and short heterodimer partner were increased in cirrhotic livers (9-fold, p < 0.001; 3.5-fold,p = 0.007; 2.4-fold,p < 0.0001; 2.8-fold,p < 0.0001 vs controls, respectively) which was accompanied by down-regulation of CYP7A1 (50% reduction, p = 0.006). Serum and liver levels of FGF19 correlated with worse liver biochemistry, BAs, quality of life and Mayo Risk Score. Serum FGF19 was elevated in UDCA non-responders. We conclude that PBC induces characteristic changes in liver expression of BAs synthesis regulatory molecules. FGF19 correlates with severity of liver disease and can potentially serve as an indicator of chronic cholestatic liver injury. PMID:26293907

  7. Dietary Aflatoxin-Induced Stunting in a Novel Rat Model: Evidence for Toxin-Induced Liver Injury and Hepatic Growth Hormone Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Knipstein, Brittany; Huang, Jiansheng; Barr, Emily; Sossenheimer, Philip; Dietzen, Dennis; Egner, Patricia A.; Groopman, John D.; Rudnick, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a strong statistical correlation between dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-exposure and childhood stunting, the causal mechanism remains speculative. This issue is important because of emerging interest in reduction of human aflatoxin exposure to diminish the prevalence and complications of stunting. Pediatric liver diseases cause growth impairment, and AFB1 is hepatotoxic. Thus, liver injury might mediate AFB1-associated growth impairment. We have developed a rat model of dietary AFB1-induced stunting to investigate these questions. Methods Newly-weaned rats were given AFB1-supplemented- or control-diets from age 3-9 weeks, and then euthanized for serum- and tissue-collection. Food intake and weight were serially assessed, with tibial-length determined at the experimental endpoint. Serum AFB1-adducts, hepatic gene and protein expression, and liver injury markers were quantified using established methodologies. Results AFB1-albumin adducts correlated with dietary toxin contamination, but such contamination did not affect food consumption. AFB1-exposed animals exhibited dose-dependent wasting and stunting, liver pathology, and suppression of hepatic targets of growth hormone (GH) signaling, but did not display increased mortality. Conclusion These data establish toxin-dependent liver injury and hepatic GH-resistance as candidate mechanisms by which AFB1-exposure causes growth impairment in this mammalian model. Interrogation of modifiers of stunting using this model could guide interventions in at-risk and affected children. PMID:25938735

  8. Responses to betaine and inorganic sulphur of sheep in growth performance and fibre growth.

    PubMed

    Nezamidoust, M; Alikhani, M; Ghorbani, G R; Edriss, M A

    2014-12-01

    Sulphur-containing amino acids (SAA) are essential and usually the first limiting amino acids for growth, milk and wool production. The keratin fibre that grows from epidermal tissue is rich in SAA. The rate of fibre growth and its S content are influenced by the availability of SAA. Betaine is a dietary source for a labile methyl group and actively participates in methionine metabolism by donating methyl groups for the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Ruminants are capable of synthesizing SAA from inorganic S sources, and most bacteria in the rumen can use inorganic S to meet their requirements for growth. The objective of this study was to examine whether betaine and an inorganic sulphur supplement could provide methyl groups and sulphur amino acids in a way that growth performance and wool production of ewes and lambs are improved. Treatments performed included betaine supplementation, sulphate supplementation and betaine plus sulphate supplementation with five replications for each treatment. The dry matter intake of the ewes was affected by betaine plus sulphate supplementation (p < 0.05). In the ewes, betaine plus sulphate supplementation increased (p < 0.05) the wool growth rate, wool yield, staple length and wool sulphur concentration, while decreasing wool wax and wool yellowness (p < 0.05). In the lambs, wool growth rate, wool yield, fibre diameter, staple length, staple strength, wool sulphur concentration, wool wax and fibre percentage did not differ (p > 0.05) between treatments. In the ewes, plasma methionine concentration increased (p < 0.05) with betaine plus sulphate treatment. No corresponding difference (p > 0.05) was observed in plasma methionine concentration in the lambs. It can be concluded that betaine plus sulphate supplementation has the potential to change wool characteristics in the ewes, while these compounds were without any effect on growth and wool production of the lambs. Combining the two supplements was advantageous.

  9. Hepatic Long Intergenic Noncoding RNAs: High Promoter Conservation and Dynamic, Sex-Dependent Transcriptional Regulation by Growth Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Melia, Tisha; Hao, Pengying; Yilmaz, Feyza

    2015-01-01

    Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) are increasingly recognized as key chromatin regulators, yet few studies have characterized lincRNAs in a single tissue under diverse conditions. Here, we analyzed 45 mouse liver RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data sets collected under diverse conditions to systematically characterize 4,961 liver lincRNAs, 59% of them novel, with regard to gene structures, species conservation, chromatin accessibility, transcription factor binding, and epigenetic states. To investigate the potential for functionality, we focused on the responses of the liver lincRNAs to growth hormone stimulation, which imparts clinically relevant sex differences to hepatic metabolism and liver disease susceptibility. Sex-biased expression characterized 247 liver lincRNAs, with many being nuclear RNA enriched and regulated by growth hormone. The sex-biased lincRNA genes are enriched for nearby and correspondingly sex-biased accessible chromatin regions, as well as sex-biased binding sites for growth hormone-regulated transcriptional activators (STAT5, hepatocyte nuclear factor 6 [HNF6], FOXA1, and FOXA2) and transcriptional repressors (CUX2 and BCL6). Repression of female-specific lincRNAs in male liver, but not that of male-specific lincRNAs in female liver, was associated with enrichment of H3K27me3-associated inactive states and poised (bivalent) enhancer states. Strikingly, we found that liver-specific lincRNA gene promoters are more highly species conserved and have a significantly higher frequency of proximal binding by liver transcription factors than liver-specific protein-coding gene promoters. Orthologs for many liver lincRNAs were identified in one or more supraprimates, including two rat lincRNAs showing the same growth hormone-regulated, sex-biased expression as their mouse counterparts. This integrative analysis of liver lincRNA chromatin states, transcription factor occupancy, and growth hormone regulation provides novel insights into the

  10. Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Home » For Veterans and the Public Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... the Public Veterans and Public Home How is Hepatitis C Treated? Find the facts about the newest ...

  11. Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Gene Polymorphism (T29C) in Egyptian Patients with Hepatitis B Virus Infection: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Talaat, Roba M.; Dondeti, Mahmoud F.; El-Shenawy, Soha Z.; Khamiss, Omaima A.

    2013-01-01

    The interindividual variations in the capacity of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) production have been ascribed to genetic polymorphisms in TGF-β1 gene. As pathogenesis of HBV has a genetic background, this preliminary study was designed to assess the impact of TGF-β1 (T29C) on the susceptibility of Egyptians to HBV infection. Genotyping was performed using single stranded polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR) in 65 Egyptian hepatitis B patients and 50 healthy controls. TGF-β1 plasma levels were measured using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The frequency of CC genotype was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in HBV patients compared to controls. On the contrary, TC genotype did not show significant difference in both groups. TT genotype was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in controls than HBV patients. Our current preliminary data revealed that the frequency of the genotypes in the controls were within Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) while the patients group was out of HWE (P < 0.01). TGF-β1 was significantly (r = −0.684; P < 0.001) deceased in the sera of patients as compared to normal subjects. Depending on our preliminary work, CC genotype may act as a host genetic factor in the susceptibility to HBV infection in Egyptians. Taken together, the current data pointed to the importance of polymorphism of TGF-β1 gene (T29C) in HBV infection. PMID:24455227

  12. Hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Córdoba, Juan; Mínguez, Beatriz

    2008-02-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a severe complication of cirrhosis that is related to the effects of ammonia. Analysis of interorgan ammonia trafficking has identified an important role of skeletal muscle in ammonia removal and has highlighted the importance of the nutritional status. Ammonia causes neurotransmitter abnormalities and induces injury to astrocytes that is partially mediated by oxidative stress. These disturbances lead to astrocyte swelling and brain edema, which appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of neurological manifestations. Inflammatory mediators worsen brain disturbances. New methods for assessing hepatic encephalopathy include clinical scales, neuropsychological tests, imaging of portal-systemic circulation, and magnetic resonance of the brain. Reappraisal of current therapy indicates the need for performing placebo-controlled trials and the lack of evidence for administering diets with restricted protein content. Liver transplant should be considered in selected patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Future prospects include new drugs that decrease plasma ammonia, measures to reduce brain edema, and liver-support devices. PMID:18293278

  13. The role of growth factors on hepatic damage in rats with obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Turk, Ozgur; Badak, Bartu; Ates, Ersin; Dundar, Emine; Sutken, Emine

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the affect and the role of growth factors on liver damage. 110 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 11 groups: a sham group, a control group, HGF, EGF, IGF, TGF groups of irreversible jaundiced rats and a control group and HGF, EGF, IGF, and TGF groups of reversible jaundiced rats (n = 10). In the irreversible jaundiced groups, the common bile duct was explorated, double ligated, and cut. 150 μg/kg/day HGF, 5 μg/kg/day EGF, 5 μg/kg/day IGF, and 5 μg/kg/day TGF β-1 were injected intraperitoneally after the seventh post-operative day. In the reversible jaundiced group, the common bile duct was ligated and the ligation was resolved on the seventh post-operative day. For 5 days, growth factors were injected at the same dose. Ductal proliferation scores significantly decreased after growth factor administration in the EGF-A and TGF-A groups. Furthermore, ductal proliferation was decreased in the TGF-B group. As a result of this study, HGF was effective in the irreversible jaundiced groups and ineffective in the reversible jaundice groups. EGF was effective in the reversible jaundiced groups and ineffective in the irreversible jaundiced groups. In both the irreversible jaundiced and reversible jaundiced groups, IGF was ineffective, although TGF β-1 was effective. We believe that these results arise from the positive effects of effective doses of growth factor on liver damage. PMID:27540507

  14. Growth hormone mediates pubertal skeletal development independent of hepatic IGF-1 production.

    PubMed

    Courtland, Hayden-William; Sun, Hui; Beth-On, Mordechay; Wu, Yingjie; Elis, Sebastien; Rosen, Clifford J; Yakar, Shoshana

    2011-04-01

    Deficiencies in either growth hormone (GH) or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are associated with reductions in bone size during growth in humans and animal models. Liver-specific IGF-1-deficient (LID) mice, which have 75% reductions in serum IGF-1, were created previously to separate the effects of endocrine (serum) IGF-1 from autocrine/paracrine IGF-1. However, LID mice also have two- to threefold increases in GH, and this may contribute to the observed pubertal skeletal phenotype. To clarify the role of GH in skeletal development under conditions of significantly reduced serum IGF-1 levels (but normal tissue IGF-1 levels), we studied the skeletal response of male LID and control mice to GH inhibition by pegvisomant from 4 to 8 weeks of age. Treatment of LID mice with pegvisomant resulted in significant reductions in body weight, femur length (Le), and femur total area (Tt.Ar), as well as further reductions in serum IGF-1 levels by 8 weeks of age, compared with the mean values of vehicle-treated LID mice. Reductions in both Tt.Ar and Le were proportional after treatment with pegvisomant. On the other hand, the relative amount of cortical tissue formed (RCA) in LID mice treated with pegvisomant was significantly less than that in both vehicle-treated LID and control mice, indicating that antagonizing GH action, either directly (through GH receptor signaling inhibition) or indirectly (through further reductions in serum/tissue IGF-1 levels), results in disproportionate reductions in the amount of cortical bone formed. This resulted in bones with significantly reduced mechanical properties (femoral whole-bone stiffness and work to failure were markedly decreased), suggesting that compensatory increases of GH in states of IGF-1 deficiency (LID mice) act to protect against a severe inhibition of bone modeling during growth, which otherwise would result in bones that are too weak for normal and/or extreme loading conditions.

  15. Cell non-autonomous regulation of hepatic IGF-1 and neonatal growth by Kinase Suppressor of Ras 2 (KSR2)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lili; Costanzo-Garvey, Diane L.; Smith, Deandra R.; Zavorka, Megan E.; Venable-Kang, Megan; MacDonald, Richard G.; Lewis, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with poor postnatal growth are at risk for cardiovascular and metabolic problems as adults. Here we show that disruption of the molecular scaffold Kinase Suppressor of Ras 2 (KSR2) causes selective inhibition of hepatic GH signaling in neonatal mice with impaired expression of IGF-1 and IGFBP3. ksr2−/− mice are normal size at birth but show a marked increase in FGF21 accompanied by reduced body mass, shortened body length, and reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) first evident during postnatal development. However, disrupting FGF21 in ksr2−/− mice does not normalize mass, length, or bone density and content in fgf21−/−ksr2−/− mice. Body length, BMC and BMD, but not body mass, are rescued by infection of two-day-old ksr2−/− mice with a recombinant adenovirus encoding human IGF-1. Relative to wild-type mice, GH injections reveal a significant reduction in JAK2 and STAT5 phosphorylation in liver, but not in skeletal muscle, of ksr2−/− mice. However, primary hepatocytes isolated from ksr2−/− mice show no reduction in GH-stimulated STAT5 phosphorylation. These data indicate that KSR2 functions in a cell non-autonomous fashion to regulate GH-stimulated IGF-1 expression in the liver of neonatal mice, which plays a key role in the development of body length. PMID:27561547

  16. Cell non-autonomous regulation of hepatic IGF-1 and neonatal growth by Kinase Suppressor of Ras 2 (KSR2).

    PubMed

    Guo, Lili; Costanzo-Garvey, Diane L; Smith, Deandra R; Zavorka, Megan E; Venable-Kang, Megan; MacDonald, Richard G; Lewis, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with poor postnatal growth are at risk for cardiovascular and metabolic problems as adults. Here we show that disruption of the molecular scaffold Kinase Suppressor of Ras 2 (KSR2) causes selective inhibition of hepatic GH signaling in neonatal mice with impaired expression of IGF-1 and IGFBP3. ksr2(-/-) mice are normal size at birth but show a marked increase in FGF21 accompanied by reduced body mass, shortened body length, and reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) first evident during postnatal development. However, disrupting FGF21 in ksr2(-/-) mice does not normalize mass, length, or bone density and content in fgf21(-/-)ksr2(-/-) mice. Body length, BMC and BMD, but not body mass, are rescued by infection of two-day-old ksr2(-/-) mice with a recombinant adenovirus encoding human IGF-1. Relative to wild-type mice, GH injections reveal a significant reduction in JAK2 and STAT5 phosphorylation in liver, but not in skeletal muscle, of ksr2(-/-) mice. However, primary hepatocytes isolated from ksr2(-/-) mice show no reduction in GH-stimulated STAT5 phosphorylation. These data indicate that KSR2 functions in a cell non-autonomous fashion to regulate GH-stimulated IGF-1 expression in the liver of neonatal mice, which plays a key role in the development of body length. PMID:27561547

  17. Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... with hepatitis? How does a pregnant woman pass hepatitis B virus to her baby? If I have hepatitis B, what does my baby need so that she ... Can I breastfeed my baby if I have hepatitis B? More information on viral hepatitis What is hepatitis? ...

  18. The herbal compound Songyou Yin (SYY) inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma growth and improves survival in models of chronic fibrosis via paracrine inhibition of activated hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Tong-Chun; Zhang, Quan-Bao; Zhang, Ke-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang-Bo; You, Yang; Tian, Hui; Qin, Lun-Xiu; Tang, Zhao-You

    2015-01-01

    Chronic fibrosis is a major risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The pathological progression of hepatic fibrosis has been linked to cellular processes that promote tumor growth and metastasis. Several recent studies have highlighted the cross-talk between tumor cells and activated hepatic stellate cells (aHSCs) in HCC. The herbal compound Songyou Yin (SYY) is known to attenuate hepatoma cell invasion and metastasis via down-regulation of cytokine secretion by aHSCs. However the underlying mechanism of SYY treatment in reversal of hepatic fibrosis and metastasis of liver cancers is not known. In the current study, a nude mouse model with liver fibrosis bearing orthotopic xenograft was established and we found that SYY could reduce associated fibrosis, inhibit tumor growth and improve survival. In the subcutaneous tumor model with fibrosis, we found that SYY could inhibit liver cancer. In vitro, hepatoma cells incubated with conditioned media (CM) from SYY treated aHSCs showed reduced proliferation, decrease in colony formation and invasive potential. SYY treated group showed altered gene expression, with 1205 genes up-regulated and 1323 genes down-regulated. Gene cluster analysis indicated that phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) was one of the key genes altered in the expression profiles. PI3K related markers were all significantly down-regulated. ELISA also indicated decreased secretion of cytokines which were regulated by PI3K/AKT signaling after SYY treatment in the hepatic stellate cell line, LX2. These data clearly demonstrate that SYY therapy inhibits HCC invasive and metastatic potential and improves survival in nude mice models with chronic fibrosis background via inhibition of cytokine secretion by activated hepatic stellate cells. PMID:26517671

  19. Effects of different formulations of α-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E) on growth performance, meat quality and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z P; Wang, T; Ahmad, H; Zhang, J F; Zhang, L L; Zhong, X

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of α-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E (VE)) and microencapsulated VE (MVE) on growth performance, meat quality and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens. A total of 360 d-old broiler chicks were procured and randomly allocated into three groups with 6 replicates. Each replicate had 20 chickens. Chickens were fed with basal diets (CON group) or experimental diets supplemented with 20 mg/kg VE (VE group) or 20 mg/kg MVE (MVE group) for 42 d. The results showed that the MVE group had higher body weight gain (BWG) than the CON and VE groups, and higher gain/feed ratio (G/F ratio) than the CON group during the period of 22-42 d. During the whole experiment, a higher increase in BWG was found in the MVE group than the CON group. Chickens fed on diets supplemented with the VE or MVE had lower abdominal fat percentage, higher pH and antioxidant enzyme activity than the CON group in the breast meat. There was an increased tendency in the hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activity of the VE and MVE groups than the CON group. The hepatic mitochondrial total antioxidant capacity and GSH-Px enzyme activity in the MVE group were higher than the CON group. Hepatic 2,2-dipheny-ʟ-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity of the MVE group was higher than the CON group. These results suggested that the dietary addition of VE or MVE could improve breast meat quality in broilers. MVE supplementation may improve growth performance, hepatic mitochondrial antioxidant capacity and free radical scavenging capacity in chickens. In addition, dietary supplementation of MVE gave better broiler growth performance than VE.

  20. Maximal anaerobic performance of the knee extensor muscles during growth.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, C; Lagassé, P; Bouchard, C; Simoneau, J A

    1991-09-01

    The extent of the growth changes in maximal work output during 10 s (MWO10), 30 s (MWO30), and 90 s (MWO90) of maximal repetitive knee flexions and extensions assessed on a modified Hydra-Gym machine was investigated in 84 boys and 83 girls, 9-19 yr of age. Body weight, fat mass and fat free mass by underwater weighing, and thigh volume and cross-sectional area were also determined. No difference was observed in the absolute MWO10, MWO30, and MWO90 between girls and boys at 9 and 11 yr of age. However, significant differences appeared between genders from 13 yr of age onward, anaerobic performances of the knee extensor muscles of girls representing about 75% or even less of those of boys. The analysis of variance revealed that maximal work ouput during the three knee extension tests was significantly greater in males as well as in females from 9 to 18 yr, regardless how performance was related to morphological characteristics. Performance in absolute values or expressed per unit of body weight, fat free mass, and thigh cross-sectional area for the MWO10, MWO30, and MWO90 tests were almost always significantly lower in both genders when performances of the 9-yr-old group were compared with those of the 13-yr-old group or older groups. Improvement in maximal work output during the 10-s, 30-s, or 90-s knee extension tests with age occurred mainly between 9 and 15 yr in both genders. The results of the present study show that there are gender differences in predominantly anaerobic performances during growth and reveal that increase in muscle mass does not appear to be the only factor responsible for the age-related increment in the anaerobic working capacity of the knee extensor muscles.

  1. Leptin stimulates hepatic growth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor gene expression in a teleost fish, the hybrid striped bass.

    PubMed

    Won, Eugene T; Douros, Jonathan D; Hurt, David A; Borski, Russell J

    2016-04-01

    effect on GHRs may be limited to enhancing transcription or mRNA stability rather than inducing full translation of functional receptors, at least within a 24-h time frame. Finally, leptin was injected IP (100ng/g and 1μg/gBW) to test the in vivo regulation of hepatic IGF-1 and GHR1 gene expression. The 100ng/g BW leptin dose significantly upregulated in vivo IGF-1 mRNA levels relative to controls after 24h of fasting, but neither dosage was effective at regulating GHR1 gene expression. These studies suggest that stimulation of growth axis component transcripts by leptin may be an important mechanism for coordinating somatic growth with nutritional state in these and perhaps other fish or vertebrates, and represent the first evidence of leptin regulating GHRs in vertebrates. PMID:26853487

  2. Leptin stimulates hepatic growth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor gene expression in a teleost fish, the hybrid striped bass.

    PubMed

    Won, Eugene T; Douros, Jonathan D; Hurt, David A; Borski, Russell J

    2016-04-01

    effect on GHRs may be limited to enhancing transcription or mRNA stability rather than inducing full translation of functional receptors, at least within a 24-h time frame. Finally, leptin was injected IP (100ng/g and 1μg/gBW) to test the in vivo regulation of hepatic IGF-1 and GHR1 gene expression. The 100ng/g BW leptin dose significantly upregulated in vivo IGF-1 mRNA levels relative to controls after 24h of fasting, but neither dosage was effective at regulating GHR1 gene expression. These studies suggest that stimulation of growth axis component transcripts by leptin may be an important mechanism for coordinating somatic growth with nutritional state in these and perhaps other fish or vertebrates, and represent the first evidence of leptin regulating GHRs in vertebrates.

  3. Intrauterine growth restriction combined with a maternal high-fat diet increases hepatic cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein receptor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Zinkhan, Erin K; Zalla, Jennifer M; Carpenter, Jeanette R; Yu, Baifeng; Yu, Xing; Chan, Gary; Joss-Moore, Lisa; Lane, Robert H

    2016-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and maternal consumption of a high-saturated-fat diet (HFD) increase the risk of hypercholesterolemia, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Many pregnant women eat a HFD, thus exposing the fetus to a HFD in utero. The cumulative effect of in utero exposure to IUGR and a HFD on offspring cholesterol levels remains unknown. Furthermore, little is known about the mechanism through which IUGR and maternal HFD consumption increase cholesterol. We hypothesize that IUGR combined with a maternal HFD would increase offspring serum and hepatic cholesterol accumulation via alteration in levels of key proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism. To test our hypothesis we used a rat model of surgically induced IUGR and fed the dams a regular diet or a HFD HFD-fed dams consumed the same kilocalories as regular diet-fed dams, with no difference between surgical intervention groups. In the offspring, IUGR combined with a maternal HFD increased hepatic cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor protein levels, and Ldlr activity in female rat offspring at birth and both sexes at postnatal day 14 relative to non-IUGR offspring both from regular diet- and HFD-fed dams. These findings suggest that IUGR combined with a maternal HFD increases hepatic cholesterol accumulation via increased LDL cholesterol uptake into the liver with resulting persistent increases in hepatic cholesterol accumulation.

  4. Coenzyme Q10 prevents hepatic fibrosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress in a male rat model of poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth1

    PubMed Central

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Hargreaves, Iain P; Neergheen, Viruna; Aiken, Catherine E; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; McConnell, Josie M; Ozanne, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is well established that low birth weight and accelerated postnatal growth increase the risk of liver dysfunction in later life. However, molecular mechanisms underlying such developmental programming are not well characterized, and potential intervention strategies are poorly defined. Objectives: We tested the hypotheses that poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth would lead to increased hepatic fibrosis (a pathological marker of liver dysfunction) and that postnatal supplementation with the antioxidant coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) would prevent this programmed phenotype. Design: A rat model of maternal protein restriction was used to generate low-birth-weight offspring that underwent accelerated postnatal growth (termed “recuperated”). These were compared with control rats. Offspring were weaned onto standard feed pellets with or without dietary CoQ10 (1 mg/kg body weight per day) supplementation. At 12 mo, hepatic fibrosis, indexes of inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin signaling were measured by histology, Western blot, ELISA, and reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. Results: Hepatic collagen deposition (diameter of deposit) was greater in recuperated offspring (mean ± SEM: 12 ± 2 μm) than in controls (5 ± 0.5 μm) (P < 0.001). This was associated with greater inflammation (interleukin 6: 38% ± 24% increase; P < 0.05; tumor necrosis factor α: 64% ± 24% increase; P < 0.05), lipid peroxidation (4-hydroxynonenal, measured by ELISA: 0.30 ± 0.02 compared with 0.19 ± 0.05 μg/mL per μg protein; P < 0.05), and hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.05). CoQ10 supplementation increased (P < 0.01) hepatic CoQ10 concentrations and ameliorated liver fibrosis (P < 0.001), inflammation (P < 0.001), some measures of oxidative stress (P < 0.001), and hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Suboptimal in utero nutrition combined with accelerated postnatal catch-up growth caused more hepatic fibrosis in adulthood, which was

  5. Role of LncRNA-activated by transforming growth factor beta in the progression of hepatitis C virus-related liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Na; Niu, Xuemin; Wang, Yang; Du, Huijuan; Wang, Baoyu; Du, Jinghua; Li, Ya; Wang, Rongqi; Zhang, Yuguo; Zhao, Suxian; Sun, Dianxing; Qiao, Liang; Nan, Yuemin

    2016-08-01

    Long non-coding RNA (LncRNA)-activated by transforming growth factor-beta (LncRNA-ATB) is a key regulator of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway, and is positively correlated with the development of liver cirrhosis and vascular invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of LncRNA-ATB in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver fibrosis remains largely unknown. In the present study, we confirmed a high expression level of LncRNA-ATB in the liver tissues and plasma samples of patients with HCV-related hepatic fibrosis, and the plasma level of LncRNA-ATB was significantly correlated with liver fibrosis stages. Furthermore, increased expression level of LncRNA-ATB was also present in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), and knockdown of LncRNA-ATB inhibited the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and alpha-1 type I collagen (Col1A1). LncRNA-ATB was found to share the common miRNA responsive element of miR-425-5p with TGF-β type II receptor (TGF-βRII) and SMAD2. Ectopic expression of LncRNA-ATB in HSCs could upregulate the protein expression of TGF-βRII and SMAD2 by inhibiting the endogenous miR-425-5p. Moreover, overexpression of miR-425-5p could partly abrogate the expression of TGF-βRII and SMAD2 induced by LncRNA-ATB. Hence, we conclude that LncRNA-ATB promotes HCV-induced liver fibrogenesis by activating HSCs and increasing collagen I production through competitively binding to miR-425-5p. LncRNA-ATB may be a novel diagnostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for HCV-related hepatic fibrosis. PMID:27585228

  6. Ablation of PGC-1beta results in defective mitochondrial activity, thermogenesis, hepatic function, and cardiac performance.

    PubMed

    Lelliott, Christopher J; Medina-Gomez, Gema; Petrovic, Natasa; Kis, Adrienn; Feldmann, Helena M; Bjursell, Mikael; Parker, Nadeene; Curtis, Keira; Campbell, Mark; Hu, Ping; Zhang, Dongfang; Litwin, Sheldon E; Zaha, Vlad G; Fountain, Kimberly T; Boudina, Sihem; Jimenez-Linan, Mercedes; Blount, Margaret; Lopez, Miguel; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Storlien, Leonard; Strömstedt, Maria; Snaith, Michael; Oresic, Matej; Abel, E Dale; Cannon, Barbara; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2006-11-01

    The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1beta (PGC-1beta) has been implicated in important metabolic processes. A mouse lacking PGC-1beta (PGC1betaKO) was generated and phenotyped using physiological, molecular, and bioinformatic approaches. PGC1betaKO mice are generally viable and metabolically healthy. Using systems biology, we identified a general defect in the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial function and, specifically, the electron transport chain. This defect correlated with reduced mitochondrial volume fraction in soleus muscle and heart, but not brown adipose tissue (BAT). Under ambient temperature conditions, PGC-1beta ablation was partially compensated by up-regulation of PGC-1alpha in BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT) that lead to increased thermogenesis, reduced body weight, and reduced fat mass. Despite their decreased fat mass, PGC1betaKO mice had hypertrophic adipocytes in WAT. The thermogenic role of PGC-1beta was identified in thermoneutral and cold-adapted conditions by inadequate responses to norepinephrine injection. Furthermore, PGC1betaKO hearts showed a blunted chronotropic response to dobutamine stimulation, and isolated soleus muscle fibres from PGC1betaKO mice have impaired mitochondrial function. Lack of PGC-1beta also impaired hepatic lipid metabolism in response to acute high fat dietary loads, resulting in hepatic steatosis and reduced lipoprotein-associated triglyceride and cholesterol content. Altogether, our data suggest that PGC-1beta plays a general role in controlling basal mitochondrial function and also participates in tissue-specific adaptive responses during metabolic stress. PMID:17090215

  7. Ablation of PGC-1β Results in Defective Mitochondrial Activity, Thermogenesis, Hepatic Function, and Cardiac Performance

    PubMed Central

    Petrovic, Natasa; Kis, Adrienn; Feldmann, Helena M; Bjursell, Mikael; Parker, Nadeene; Curtis, Keira; Campbell, Mark; Hu, Ping; Zhang, Dongfang; Litwin, Sheldon E; Zaha, Vlad G; Fountain, Kimberly T; Boudina, Sihem; Jimenez-Linan, Mercedes; Blount, Margaret; Lopez, Miguel; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Storlien, Leonard; Strömstedt, Maria; Snaith, Michael; Orešič, Matej; Abel, E. Dale; Cannon, Barbara; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1β (PGC-1β) has been implicated in important metabolic processes. A mouse lacking PGC-1β (PGC1βKO) was generated and phenotyped using physiological, molecular, and bioinformatic approaches. PGC1βKO mice are generally viable and metabolically healthy. Using systems biology, we identified a general defect in the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial function and, specifically, the electron transport chain. This defect correlated with reduced mitochondrial volume fraction in soleus muscle and heart, but not brown adipose tissue (BAT). Under ambient temperature conditions, PGC-1β ablation was partially compensated by up-regulation of PGC-1α in BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT) that lead to increased thermogenesis, reduced body weight, and reduced fat mass. Despite their decreased fat mass, PGC1βKO mice had hypertrophic adipocytes in WAT. The thermogenic role of PGC-1β was identified in thermoneutral and cold-adapted conditions by inadequate responses to norepinephrine injection. Furthermore, PGC1βKO hearts showed a blunted chronotropic response to dobutamine stimulation, and isolated soleus muscle fibres from PGC1βKO mice have impaired mitochondrial function. Lack of PGC-1β also impaired hepatic lipid metabolism in response to acute high fat dietary loads, resulting in hepatic steatosis and reduced lipoprotein-associated triglyceride and cholesterol content. Altogether, our data suggest that PGC-1β plays a general role in controlling basal mitochondrial function and also participates in tissue-specific adaptive responses during metabolic stress. PMID:17090215

  8. Occult hepatitis B virus infection in hemodialysis patients in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saijo, Tomokatsu; Joki, Nobuhiko; Inishi, Yoji; Muto, Mikako; Saijo, Motohiko; Hase, Hiroki

    2015-04-01

    Hepatitis B surface antigen is widely used in hepatitis B virus surveillance; patients who test negative for the antigen are judged to be uninfected. However, occult hepatitis B virus infection has been confirmed with hepatitis B virus DNA at low levels in the liver and peripheral blood in patients positive for hepatitis B core antibody or hepatitis B surface antibody, even if they test negative for hepatitis B surface antigen. To investigate the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus in hemodialysis patients, we performed cross-sectional analysis of 161 hemodialysis patients in two related institutions for hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B core antibody, and hepatitis B surface antibody. Hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B core antibody, or hepatitis B surface antibody was present in 45 patients (28.0%). Hepatitis B virus DNA was present in six patients (3.7%), all of whom also tested positive for hepatitis B core antibody. Hepatitis B surface antibody positivity was unrelated in only one of the six patients. Four of the six patients were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen; however, two (1.3%) of these with occult hepatitis B virus infection were found to be hepatitis B surface antigen negative. Occult hepatitis B virus infection may be missed in hepatitis B virus surveillance using hepatitis B surface antigen alone; therefore, routine hepatitis B core antibody screening is necessary. Patients who test positive for hepatitis B core antibody should undergo further hepatitis B virus DNA testing to enable accurate hepatitis B virus screening.

  9. c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor favors transforming growth factor-β to antagonize hepatitis B virus X protein-induced cell growth promotion in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    WU, YAN-HUI; AI, XI; LIU, FU-YAO; LIANG, HUI-FANG; ZHANG, BI-XIANG; CHEN, XIAO-PING

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β induces cell growth arrest in well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) while hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) minimizes the tumor suppression of TGF-β signaling in early chronic hepatitis B. However, how to reverse the oncogenic effect of HBx and sustain the tumor-suppressive action of TGF-β has yet to be investigated. The present study examined the effect of TGF-β and a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor on cell growth in HCC cells with forced expression of HBx. It was found that HBx promoted cell growth via activation of the JNK/pSMAD3L pathway and inhibition of the transforming growth factor-beta type I receptor (TβRI)/pSMAD3C pathway. pSMAD3L/SMAD4 and pSMAD3C/SMAD4 complexes antagonized each other to regulate c-Myc expression. In the absence of HBx, TGF-β induced cell growth arrest through activation of the TβRI/pSMAD3C pathway in well-differentiated HCC cells. In the presence of HBx, TGF-β had no effect on cell growth. JNK inhibitor SP600125 significantly reversed the oncogenic action of HBx and favored TGF-β to regain the ability to inhibit the cell growth in HBx-expressing well-differentiated HCC cells. In conclusion, targeting JNK signaling favors TGF-β to block HBx-induced cell growth promotion in well-differentiated HCC cells. As an adjunct to anti-viral therapy, the combination of TGF-β and inhibition of JNK signaling is a potential therapy for HBV-infected HCC. PMID:26648552

  10. c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor favors transforming growth factor-β to antagonize hepatitis B virus X protein-induced cell growth promotion in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-Hui; Ai, Xi; Liu, Fu-Yao; Liang, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Bi-Xiang; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2016-02-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β induces cell growth arrest in well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) while hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) minimizes the tumor suppression of TGF-β signaling in early chronic hepatitis B. However, how to reverse the oncogenic effect of HBx and sustain the tumor-suppressive action of TGF-β has yet to be investigated. The present study examined the effect of TGF-β and a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor on cell growth in HCC cells with forced expression of HBx. It was found that HBx promoted cell growth via activation of the JNK/pSMAD3L pathway and inhibition of the transforming growth factor-beta type I receptor (TβRI)/pSMAD3C pathway. pSMAD3L/SMAD4 and pSMAD3C/SMAD4 complexes antagonized each other to regulate c-Myc expression. In the absence of HBx, TGF-β induced cell growth arrest through activation of the TβRI/pSMAD3C pathway in well-differentiated HCC cells. In the presence of HBx, TGF-β had no effect on cell growth. JNK inhibitor SP600125 significantly reversed the oncogenic action of HBx and favored TGF-β to regain the ability to inhibit the cell growth in HBx-expressing well-differentiated HCC cells. In conclusion, targeting JNK signaling favors TGF-β to block HBx-induced cell growth promotion in well-differentiated HCC cells. As an adjunct to anti-viral therapy, the combination of TGF-β and inhibition of JNK signaling is a potential therapy for HBV-infected HCC.

  11. Effects of HCFC-123 exposure to maternal and infant rhesus monkeys on hepatic biochemistry, lactational parameters and postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Cappon, G D; Keller, D A; Brock, W J; Slauter, R W; Hurtt, M E

    2002-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferators are a class of nongenotoxic rodent hepatocarcinogens that cause peroxisome proliferation and liver tumors when administered to rats and mice; but other species, including guinea pigs, dogs, and primates are less sensitive or refractory to the induction of peroxisome proliferation. Therefore, rodent peroxisome proliferators are not believed to pose a hepatocarcinogenic hazard to humans. Some peroxisome proliferators produce developmental toxicity in rats that is expressed as suppressed postnatal growth. To evaluate the relevance of the rat developmental effect to primates, groups of 4 lactating female Rhesus monkeys and their infants were exposed for 6 h/day, 7 days/week for 3 weeks to air or 1000 ppm HCFC-123. Animals were evaluated for clinical signs, body weights, clinical pathology parameters, and biochemical and pathological evaluations of liver biopsy samples. The effect of HCFC-123 exposure on milk quality (protein and fat concentration) was evaluated. The concentrations of HCFC-123 and the major metabolite, trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), were measured in the blood of the mothers and infants and in the milk. Exposure of monkeys to 1000 ppm HCFC-123 did not result in exposure-related clinical observations, or changes in body weight, appetence and behavior. There were no exposure-related effects on serum triglycerides, cholesterol, or glucose levels. HCFC-123 and TFA were present in milk, although maternal HCFC-123 exposure did not affect milk protein and fat content. In general, HCFC-123 was not detected in maternal or infant blood. TFA was detected in the majority of the mothers and TFA levels in infants ranged from 2 to 6 times higher than levels in the corresponding maternal blood. A pharmacokinetic analysis in a maternal animal indicated a peak concentration of TFA at approximately 1 h post-exposure, with a half-life of approximately 20 h. Liver microsomal P450 and peroxisome oxidase activities showed exposure-related decreases in CYP

  12. Virosomes of hepatitis B virus envelope L proteins containing doxorubicin: synergistic enhancement of human liver-specific antitumor growth activity by radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiushi; Jung, Joohee; Somiya, Masaharu; Iijima, Masumi; Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Niimi, Tomoaki; Maturana, Andrés D; Shin, Seol Hwa; Jeong, Seong-Yun; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kuroda, Shun’ichi

    2015-01-01

    Bionanocapsules (BNCs) are hollow nanoparticles consisting of hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope L proteins and have been shown to deliver drugs and genes specifically to human hepatic tissues by utilizing HBV-derived infection machinery. The complex of BNCs with liposomes (LPs), the BNC–LP complexes (a LP surrounded by BNCs in a rugged spherical form), could also become active targeting nanocarriers by the BNC function. In this study, under acidic conditions and high temperature, BNCs were found to fully fuse with LPs (smooth-surfaced spherical form), deploying L proteins with a membrane topology similar to that of BNCs (ie, virosomes displaying L proteins). Doxorubicin (DOX) was efficiently encapsulated via the remote loading method at 14.2%±1.0% of total lipid weight (mean ± SD, n=3), with a capsule size of 118.2±4.7 nm and a ζ-potential of −51.1±1.0 mV (mean ± SD, n=5). When mammalian cells were exposed to the virosomes, the virosomes showed strong cytotoxicity in human hepatic cells (target cells of BNCs), but not in human colon cancer cells (nontarget cells of BNCs), whereas LPs containing DOX and DOXOVES (structurally stabilized PEGylated LPs containing DOX) did not show strong cytotoxicity in either cell type. Furthermore, the virosomes preferentially delivered DOX to the nuclei of human hepatic cells. Xenograft mice harboring either target or nontarget cell-derived tumors were injected twice intravenously with the virosomes containing DOX at a low dose (2.3 mg/kg as DOX, 5 days interval). The growth of target cell-derived tumors was retarded effectively and specifically. Next, the combination of high dose (10.0 mg/kg as DOX, once) with tumor-specific radiotherapy (3 Gy, once after 2 hours) exhibited the most effective antitumor growth activity in mice harboring target cell-derived tumors. These results demonstrated that the HBV-based virosomes containing DOX could be an effective antitumor nanomedicine specific to human hepatic tissues, especially

  13. Transforming growth factor-beta1 induces activation of Ras, Raf-1, MEK and MAPK in rat hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Reimann, T; Hempel, U; Krautwald, S; Axmann, A; Scheibe, R; Seidel, D; Wenzel, K W

    1997-02-10

    The transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells into myofibroblast-like cells and the proliferation of the transdifferentiated cells are controlled by TGF-beta1. Little is known about the intracellular signal transducers of TGF-beta1. In this paper we show that in cultured hepatic stellate cells TGF-beta1 induces activation of Ras, Raf-1, MEK and MAPK p42 and p44. The activation of MAPK depends on the activation of MEK. Our data exclude that the observed effects are mediated by a bFGF or PDGF autocrine loop. PMID:9038360

  14. Effect of roxarsone inclusion in the diet on the performance and hepatic lipid metabolism of laying Tsaiya duck.

    PubMed

    Chen, K L; Wu, C P; Chiou, P W

    2000-07-01

    1. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid) inclusion in the diet on the performance, liver function and lipid metabolism in the liver of laying Brown Tsaiya ducks. 2. Sixty 36-week-old laying ducks were selected and allocated at random into 4 dietary treatments with 3 replications for each treatment. Feeding was for 7 weeks with 3 weeks of experimental diets followed by a 4 week withdrawal period. The experimental diets were supplemented with 0, 50, 100 and 300 mg/kg roxarsone, respectively 3. Dietary inclusion of 50 or 100 mg/kg roxarsone did not significantly promote performance. Inclusion of 300 mg/kg significantly depressed (P<0.05) performance, liver weight and content, serum triacylglycerol (TG), serum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and increased (P<0.05) cholesterol, creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the serum at the end of 3 weeks on the experimental diet. 4. Laying characteristics returned to normal 4 weeks after withdrawal of roxarsone. The liver weight, fat and TG in the liver and serum concentrations of TG, NEFA, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and AST increased significantly (P<0.05), while the level of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) decreased (P<0.05) at the end of the withdrawal period. More prominent vacuolised hepatic fatty cells were observed in laying ducks treated with 300 mg/kg of roxarsone. PMID:11081432

  15. Effect of roxarsone inclusion in the diet on the performance and hepatic lipid metabolism of laying Tsaiya duck.

    PubMed

    Chen, K L; Wu, C P; Chiou, P W

    2000-07-01

    1. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid) inclusion in the diet on the performance, liver function and lipid metabolism in the liver of laying Brown Tsaiya ducks. 2. Sixty 36-week-old laying ducks were selected and allocated at random into 4 dietary treatments with 3 replications for each treatment. Feeding was for 7 weeks with 3 weeks of experimental diets followed by a 4 week withdrawal period. The experimental diets were supplemented with 0, 50, 100 and 300 mg/kg roxarsone, respectively 3. Dietary inclusion of 50 or 100 mg/kg roxarsone did not significantly promote performance. Inclusion of 300 mg/kg significantly depressed (P<0.05) performance, liver weight and content, serum triacylglycerol (TG), serum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and increased (P<0.05) cholesterol, creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the serum at the end of 3 weeks on the experimental diet. 4. Laying characteristics returned to normal 4 weeks after withdrawal of roxarsone. The liver weight, fat and TG in the liver and serum concentrations of TG, NEFA, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and AST increased significantly (P<0.05), while the level of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) decreased (P<0.05) at the end of the withdrawal period. More prominent vacuolised hepatic fatty cells were observed in laying ducks treated with 300 mg/kg of roxarsone.

  16. Hepatitis virus panel

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis A antibody test; Hepatitis B antibody test; Hepatitis C antibody test; Hepatitis D antibody test ... or past infection, or immunity to hepatitis A Hepatitis B tests: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), you have ...

  17. Hepatitis C and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Problems : Hepatitis C Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Hepatitis C What is Hepatitis? Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. This condition ... our related pages, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B . Hepatitis C and HIV About 25% of people living ...

  18. Hepatitis B and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Problems : Hepatitis B Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Hepatitis B What is Hepatitis? Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. This condition ... our related pages, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis C . Hepatitis B and HIV About 10% of people living ...

  19. Impaired liver regeneration in Ldlr−/− mice is associated with an altered hepatic profile of cytokines, growth factors and lipids

    PubMed Central

    Pauta, Montse; Rotllan, Noemi; Vales, Frances; Allen, Ryan M.; Ford, David A.; Marí, Montserrat; Jiménez, Wladimiro; Baldán, Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims It is widely recognized that in the early stages of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy the hepatocytes accumulate a significant amount of lipids. The functional meaning of this transient steatosis and its effect on hepatocellular proliferation are not well defined. In addition, the basic mechanisms of this lipid accumulation are not well understood although some studies suggest the participation of the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor (Ldlr). Methods To address these questions we studied the process of liver regeneration in Ldlr null mice and wild-type mice following 75% partial hepatectomy. Results Ldlr deficiency was associated with a significant decrease in serum albumin concentration, during early stages of liver regeneration, and a delayed hepatic regeneration. Remnant livers of Ldlr−/− showed a time-shifted expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and a defective activation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) expression in early phases of liver regeneration. Unexpectedly, Ldlr−/− showed no significant differences in the content of lipid droplets after partial hepatectomy compared to wild-type mice. However, lipidomic analysis of the regenerating liver from Ldlr−/− revealed a lipid profile compatible with liver quiescence: high content of cholesterol esters and ceramide, and low levels of phosphatidylcholine. Conclusion Ldlr deficiency is associated with significant changes in the hepatic lipidome that affect cytokine-growth factor signaling and impair liver regeneration. These results suggest that the analysis of the hepatic lipidome may help to predict the success of liver regeneration in the clinical environment, specifically in the context of pre-existing liver steatosis. PMID:23712050

  20. Adenoviral delivery of an antisense RNA complementary to the 3' coding sequence of transforming growth factor-beta1 inhibits fibrogenic activities of hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Arias, Monica; Lahme, Birgit; Van de Leur, Eddy; Gressner, Axel M; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2002-06-01

    Liver fibrosis occurs as a consequence of the transdifferentiationof hepatic stellate cells into myofibroblasts and is associated with an increased expression and activation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1. This pluripotent, profibrogenic cytokine stimulates matrix synthesis and decreases matrix degradation, resulting in fibrosis. Thus, blockade of synthesis or sequestering of mature TGF-beta1 is a primary target for the development of antifibrotic approaches. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the administration of adenoviruses constitutively expressing an antisense mRNA complementary to the 3' coding sequence of TGF-beta1 is able to suppress the synthesis of TGF-beta1 in culture-activated hepatic stellate cells. We demonstrate that the adenoviral vehicle directs high-level expression of the transgene and proved that the transduced antisense is biologically active by immunoprecipitation, Western blot, quantitative TGF-beta1 ELISA, and cell proliferation assays. Additionally, the biological function of the transgene was confirmed by analysis of differential activity of TGF-beta1-responsive genes using cell ELISA, Northern blotting, and by microarray technology, respectively. Furthermore, we examined the effects of that transgene on the expression of TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3, collagen type alpha1(I), latent transforming growth factor binding protein 1, types I and II TGF-beta receptors, and alpha-smooth muscle actin. Our results indicate that the administration of antisense mRNA offers a feasible approach to block autocrine TGF-beta1 signaling in hepatic stellate cells and may be useful and applicable in future to the treatment of fibrosis in chronic liver diseases.

  1. How Well Does Growth Mixture Modeling Identify Heterogeneous Growth Trajectories? A Simulation Study Examining GMM's Performance Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peugh, James; Fan, Xitao

    2012-01-01

    Growth mixture modeling (GMM) has become a more popular statistical method for modeling population heterogeneity in longitudinal data, but the performance characteristics of GMM enumeration indexes in correctly identifying heterogeneous growth trajectories are largely unknown. Few empirical studies have addressed this issue. This study considered…

  2. Effects of anticoccidial and antibiotic growth promoter programs on broiler performance and immune status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effects of various coccidiosis control programs in combination with antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) on growth performance and host immune responses in broiler chickens. The coccidiosis programs that were investigated include in ovo coccidiosis vaccination (CVAC) with ...

  3. Versazyme supplementation of broiler diets improves market growth performance.

    PubMed

    Odetallah, N H; Wang, J J; Garlich, J D; Shih, J C H

    2005-06-01

    Day-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 32 floor pens in a completely randomized block design and grown to 6 wk of age. Birds in experiment 1 were fed 1 of 2 basal diets supplemented with or without a protease containing feed additive, Versazyme (VZ). The 4 treatments were 1) control (C), a corn-soybean meal diet that contained 95% of amino acids recommended by NRC except for threonine and isoleucine; 2) C + 0.1% VZ (wt/wt) (C+) in the starter diet only; 3) high (HP) amino acid diet, a corn-soybean meal diet with 100 to 105% of amino acid recommended by NRC except for threonine and isoleucine; and 4) HP + 0.1% VZ (wt/wt) (HP+) in starter diet only. Supplementing both diets with VZ improved BW and feed conversion ratio (FCR) at 21 d of age and BW at 42 d of age. Cumulative 42-d FCR was only improved in birds fed the HP+ diet. Birds in experiment 2 received the following treatments: 1) HP, 2) HP + 0.1% VZ batch A (wt/wt) (A) in starter diet only, and 3) HP + 0.1% VZ batch B (wt/wt) (B) in starter diet only. Enzyme supplementation improved 22-d BW and FCR. There was no significant difference in BW at 43 d of age. Both A and B improved overall FCR (1.758 and 1.751 vs. 1.79 for A and B vs. HP, respectively). In conclusion, supplementation of starter broiler diets with VZ resulted in improved market growth performance.

  4. Effects of dietary tannic acid on the growth, hepatic gene expression, and antioxidant enzyme activity in Brandt's voles (Microtus brandti).

    PubMed

    Ye, Man-Hong; Nan, Yan-Lei; Ding, Meng-Meng; Hu, Jun-Bang; Liu, Qian; Wei, Wan-Hong; Yang, Sheng-Mei

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the physiological and biochemical responses of Brandt's voles to the persistent presence of dietary tannic acid. The diet for animals in the experimental group was supplemented with 3% dietary tannic acid for 5weeks. The control group received a commercial lab chow. No significant differences were detected in body weight, organ (heart, kidney, and liver) weights, and organ parameters between animals from two groups. However, voles in the experimental group had significantly higher daily food intake, increased contents of proline and histidine in saliva and feces after protein hydrolysis, and elevated hepatic expression of transferrin than the control. Our results suggested the existence of adaptive strategies developed in Brandt's voles to overcome the adverse effects of dietary tannic acid. (1) Food consumption was increased to satisfy their nutritional demands. (2) The secretion of tannic-acid-binding salivary proteins was promoted. (3) The absorption of iron was enhanced. These alterations contributed to neutralize the negative effects of tannic acid and maintain body mass in animals supplemented with tannic acid. As the result of the consumption of tannic acid, hepatic expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase was significantly decreased, while the overall potential of the antioxidant system, characterized by increased hepatic enzymatic activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase, was enhanced. Our results also implied the involvement of tannic acid in the regulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in voles. PMID:26850644

  5. Impact of epidermal growth factor single-nucleotide polymorphism on recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatectomy in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Yoshiya, Shohei; Fujimoto, Yukiko; Bekki, Yuki; Konishi, Hideyuki; Yamashita, Yo-Ichi; Ikegami, Toru; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Shirabe, Ken; Oda, Yoshinao; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2014-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) gene single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is associated with an increased risk of hepatic tumors. The study aimed to elucidate the impact of EGF SNP and EGF receptor (EGFR) expression on the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after hepatectomy. To examine the impact of EGF SNP and EGFR on recurrent HCC, we retrospectively analyzed 141 HCC patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection who underwent curative hepatectomy. The EGF *61 GG allele was present in 69 patients (48.9%), AG in 56 (39.7%) and AA in 16 (11.4%). The AA group had a significantly lower rate of intrahepatic metastasis (0% vs 16.5%, P = 0.02), lower serum EGF concentration (26.3 ± 15.9 pg/mL vs 43.4 ± 30.5 pg/mL, P = 0.02) and lower proportion of early recurrence (≤2 years; 28.6% vs 71.2%, P = 0.03) than the AG/GG group. The AA group had significantly higher recurrence-free survival than the AG/GG group (P = 0.04), but there was no significant difference in overall survival between these two groups (P = 0.97). High versus low EGFR expression analyzed by immunohistochemical staining in cancer cells was not significantly associated with overall survival (P = 0.37) or recurrence-free survival (P = 0.39). Therefore, EGF *61 AA was associated with a lower risk of recurrence after curative hepatectomy for HCC in patients with hepatitis C virus infection than other genotypes, but EGFR expression in cancer cells was not significantly associated with prognosis.

  6. Preoperative segmental embolization of the proper hepatic artery prior to pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Masanobu; Sata, Naohiro; Kaneda, Yuji; Koizumi, Masaru; Hyodo, Masanobu; Lefor, Alan Kawarai; Kawata, Hirotoshi; Yasuda, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Radical resection of bile duct carcinoma may require resection of hepatic arteries. Preoperative segmental embolization of the hepatic artery for resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma has been reported. We report a patient with bile duct carcinoma infiltrating the proper hepatic artery. Presentation of case A 66-year old male with jaundice was diagnosed with mid-distal bile duct carcinoma. A replaced left hepatic artery originated from the left gastric artery. Pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) with combined resection of hepatic artery was planned. To promote the development of collateral blood flow after excision of the hepatic artery, preoperative segmental embolization of the proper hepatic artery was performed. The patient underwent PPPD with concurrent resection of the common hepatic, right hepatic, and middle hepatic arteries without arterial reconstruction. He received adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine for six months and is alive three years after surgery without tumor recurrence. Discussion The growth of collateral vessels after selective embolization of the proper hepatic artery has been used for hilar lesions and bile duct lesions. Resection of the hepatic artery without the need for complex arterial reconstruction, allowing a radical resection, may have contributed to this patient's relatively unremarkable recovery and long-term survival. Retroperitoneal mobilization of the pancreatic head and duodenum must be limited as important collaterals may originate in that area. Conclusion Preoperative segmental embolization of the hepatic artery before PPPD for a patient with a replaced left hepatic artery encouraged the growth of collateral blood supply, allowing radical resection including the vessels and obviated the need for arterial reconstruction. PMID:25625493

  7. The role of rumen-protected choline in hepatic function and performance of transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Shahsavari, Arash; D'Occhio, Michael J; Al Jassim, Rafat

    2016-07-01

    High-producing dairy cows enter a period of negative energy balance during the first weeks of lactation. Energy intake is usually sufficient to cover the increase in energy requirements for fetal growth during the period before calving, but meeting the demand for energy is often difficult during the early stages of lactation. A catabolic state predominates during the transition period, leading to the mobilisation of energy reserves (NEFA and amino acids) that are utilised mainly by the liver and muscle. Increased uptake of mobilised NEFA by the liver, combined with the limited capacity of hepatocytes to either oxidise fatty acids for energy or to incorporate esterified fatty acids into VLDL results in fatty liver syndrome and ketosis. This metabolic disturbance can affect the general health, and it causes economic losses. Different nutritional strategies have been used to restrict negative effects associated with the energy challenge in transition cows. The provision of choline in the form of rumen-protected choline (RPC) can potentially improve liver function by increasing VLDL exportation from the liver. RPC increases gene expression of microsomal TAG transfer protein and APOB100 that are required for VLDL synthesis and secretion. Studies with RPC have looked at gene expression, metabolic hormones, metabolite profiles, milk production and postpartum reproduction. A reduction in liver fat and enhanced milk production has been observed with RPC supplementation. However, the effects of RPC on health and reproduction are equivocal, which could reflect the lack of sufficient dose-response studies. PMID:27138530

  8. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  9. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    MedlinePlus

    HEPATITIS C & INCARCERATION What is hepatitis? “Hepatitis” means inflammation or swelling of the liver. The liver is an important ... viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. They are all different from each other and ...

  10. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... washed in untreated water Putting into your mouth a finger or object that came into contact with ...

  11. Autoimmune hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Lupoid hepatitis; Chronic acute liver disease ... This form of hepatitis is an autoimmune disease . The body's immune system cannot tell the difference between healthy body tissue and harmful, outside ...

  12. Hepatitis D

    MedlinePlus

    ... if the hepatitis B virus is also present. Transmission Hepatitis D can be found in the blood, ... other body fluids of people who are infected. Transmission happens when infected body fluid enters another person’s ...

  13. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 507 Hepatitis C WHAT IS HEPATITIS C? HOW IS IT DIAGNOSED? ... treatment may be less likely to work. Hep C treatment is less effective for coinfected people. Cure ...

  14. Growth arrest and decrease of alpha-SMA and type I collagen expression by palmitic acid in the rat hepatic stellate cell line PAV-1.

    PubMed

    Abergel, Armand; Sapin, Vincent; Dif, Nicolas; Chassard, Christophe; Darcha, Claude; Marcand-Sauvant, Julie; Gaillard-Martinie, Brigitte; Rock, Edmond; Dechelotte, Pierre; Sauvant, Patrick

    2006-05-01

    Liver fibrosis is characterized by an activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC). During primary culture HSC evolve from a quiescent into an activated phenotype which is characterized by alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) up-regulation, increase in cell growth, and extracellular matrix secretion. HSC culture with trans-resveratrol can lead to deactivation of myofibroblast-like HSC. We used an HSC line, PAV-1, to check the role of retinol and palmitic acid in the deactivation process of HSC. Using mass and metabolic-based methods, Western blot and immunocytochemistry assays, we demonstrated that treatment with palmitic acid (75 muM) alone or in combination with retinol (2 muM) significantly decreased cell proliferation and alpha-SMA expression. We also established that the association of both compounds strongly decreased collagen type I expression. Our results suggest the potential use of palmitic acid alone or in combination with retinol to induce HSC deactivation.

  15. Discordant regulation of hepatic IGF-I mRNA and circulating IGF-I during compensatory growth in a teleost, the hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysopsxMorone saxatilis).

    PubMed

    Picha, Matthew E; Silverstein, Jeffrey T; Borski, Russell J

    2006-06-01

    Compensatory growth (CG) is a period of growth that exceeds normal rates after animals are alleviated of certain growth-stunting conditions. Little is known, however, about the endocrine control of CG in teleosts. So, our aim was to induce CG in juvenile hybrid striped bass (HSB, Morone chrysopsxMorone saxatilis) through manipulations in feeding regimen, and then determine whether changes in circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and hepatic IGF-I gene expression accompany the CG response. A considerable catabolic state was induced in HSB fed a total of two times over 4 weeks (once each in the 2nd and 3rd week). Negative energy balance was evidenced through weight loss (-3.4% BW) and a significant drop in hepatosomatic index (HSI) from a value of 3.71 to 1.46. Upon realimentation, in which HSB were fed ad libitum 2x/day, a significant CG response was observed over a 4-week period. The CG response was characterized by an elevated specific growth rate, hyperphagia, restoration of the HSI and an improvement in feed conversion, all relative to controls that were fed ad libitum 2x/day throughout the experiment. Moreover, the CG response and catabolic state preceding it were marked by a discordant regulation in the expression of hepatic IGF-I mRNA and plasma IGF-I levels, the latter parameter paralleling changes in growth (r(2)=0.56, P<001). The catabolic state was accompanied by an 82% increase in hepatic IGF-I mRNA while levels of plasma IGF-I were significantly depressed relative to controls. During the subsequent CG response, however, hepatic IGF-I mRNA decreased by 61% while plasma IGF-I increased by 86%. The underlying mechanisms for this inverse regulation of hepatic IGF-I mRNA and circulating IGF-I are uncertain, but may reflect alterations in hepatic IGF-I mRNA production, stability, and translation such that hepatic IGF-I mRNA is accumulated during periods of catabolism and then rapidly translated and released into circulation when conditions improve

  16. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations ​​ (PDF, 341 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Español Hepatitis A Page Content On this page: What is ... Nutrition Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is hepatitis A? Hepatitis * A is a virus , or infection, ...

  17. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations ​​ (PDF, 341 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Autoimmune Hepatitis Page Content On this page: What is autoimmune ... Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is autoimmune hepatitis? Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic—or long lasting— ...

  18. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  19. Butyrylcholinesterase Deficiency Promotes Adipose Tissue Growth and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Male Mice on High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Chen, Vicky Ping; Gao, Yang; Geng, Liyi; Stout, Michael B; Jensen, Michael D; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Despite numerous reports of relationships between weight gain and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), this enzyme's role in the genesis of obesity remains unclear, but recent research points to strong links with ghrelin, the "hunger hormone." The availability of BChE knockout (KO) mice provides an opportunity to clarify the causal relationship between BChE and obesity onset. We now find that young KO mice have abnormally high plasma ghrelin levels that slowly decline during long-term high-fat feeding and ultimately drop below those in wild-type mice. On such a diet, the KO mice gained notably more weight, more white fat, and more hepatic fat than wild-type animals. In addition to a greater burden of hepatic triglycerides, the livers of these KO mice show distinctly higher levels of inflammatory markers. Finally, their energy expenditure proved to be lower than in wild-type mice despite similar activity levels and increased caloric intake. A gene transfer of mouse BChE with adeno-associated virus vector restored nearly all aspects of the normal phenotype. Our results indicate that BChE strongly affects fat metabolism, has an important impact on fat accumulation, and may be a promising tool for combating obesity. PMID:27300766

  20. Correlations of Gut Microbial Community Shift with Hepatic Damage and Growth Inhibition of Carassius auratus Induced by Pentachlorophenol Exposure.

    PubMed

    Kan, Haifeng; Zhao, Fuzheng; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Ren, Hongqiang; Gao, Shixiang

    2015-10-01

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus) were exposed to 0-100 μg/L pentachlorophenol (PCP) for 28 days to investigate the correlations of fish gut microbial community shift with the induced toxicological effects. PCP exposure caused accumulation of PCP in the fish intestinal tract in a time- and dose-dependent manner, while hepatic PCP reached the maximal level after a 21 day exposure. Under the relatively higher PCP stress, the fish body weight and liver weight were reduced and hepatic CAT and SOD activities were inhibited, demonstrating negative correlations with the PCP levels in liver and gut content (R < -0.5 and P < 0.05 each). Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that PCP exposure increased the abundance of Bacteroidetes in the fish gut. Within the Bacteroidetes phylum, the Bacteroides genus had the highest abundance, which was significantly correlated with PCP exposure dosage and duration (R > 0.5 and P < 0.05 each). Bioinformatic analysis revealed that Bacteroides showed quantitatively negative correlations with Chryseobacterium, Microbacterium, Arthrobacter, and Legionella in the fish gut, and the Bacteroidetes abundance, Bacteroides abundance, and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio played crucial roles in the reduction of body weight and liver weight under PCP stress. The results may extend our knowledge regarding the roles of gut microbiota in ecotoxicology. PMID:26378342

  1. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid and lutein on the growth performance and immune response of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Moraes, M L; Ribeiro, A M L; Santin, E; Klasing, K C

    2016-02-01

    The effects of lutein and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on growth performance and immune response of broiler chickens were evaluated in the presence and absence of Salmonella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) immune challenge. Cobb chicks (360; 1 to 22 d of age) were used in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of CLA (0, 1, and 2%) and lutein (0 and 50 mg/kg) dietary levels. At d 8 and 15, birds were injected with BSA to assess IgY production. At d 20, birds were injected with LPS. Samples of liver, spleen, and duodenum were collected at 3 and 16 h post-LPS challenge for RT-qPCR analysis of RXRα, RXRγ, PPARα, PPARγ, TLR-4, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, and IL-12 gene expression. CLA decreased BW, BW gain (BWG), and G:F from d 1 to 20, but these effects were reversed when lutein was included in the 1% CLA diet (P < 0.001). The production of IgY anti-BSA increased following a 2% CLA supplementation (P < 0.01). LPS increased the liver:BW ratio at 3 h post-injection (P < 0.001) and decreased BWG at 3, 16, and 40 h (P < 0.001). Lutein decreased plasmatic nitric oxide levels (P < 0.01). LPS downregulated PPARα mRNA in the duodenum (P = 0.02) and liver (P = 0.04), and PPARγ (P = 0.01) and RXRα (P = 0.08) in the spleen; these effects were not reversed by CLA or lutein as initially hypothesized. Although LPS upregulated IL-1β (P = 0.02) and IL-12 (P = 0.07) expression, lutein downregulated these pro-inflammatory cytokines in the liver (P = 0.03 and P = 0.07, respectively). Lutein decreased splenic (P = 0.09) but increased hepatic (P = 0.06) TLR-4 mRNA. A dietary CLA supplementation of 2% increased hepatic RXRα (P = 0.10). In conclusion, CLA decreased broiler chicken growth performance, but lutein could prevent this negative effect (depending on CLA dose). Lutein had an anti-inflammatory effect, and a 2% CLA supplementation improved the humoral immune response. PMID:26527712

  2. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid and lutein on the growth performance and immune response of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Moraes, M L; Ribeiro, A M L; Santin, E; Klasing, K C

    2016-02-01

    The effects of lutein and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on growth performance and immune response of broiler chickens were evaluated in the presence and absence of Salmonella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) immune challenge. Cobb chicks (360; 1 to 22 d of age) were used in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of CLA (0, 1, and 2%) and lutein (0 and 50 mg/kg) dietary levels. At d 8 and 15, birds were injected with BSA to assess IgY production. At d 20, birds were injected with LPS. Samples of liver, spleen, and duodenum were collected at 3 and 16 h post-LPS challenge for RT-qPCR analysis of RXRα, RXRγ, PPARα, PPARγ, TLR-4, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, and IL-12 gene expression. CLA decreased BW, BW gain (BWG), and G:F from d 1 to 20, but these effects were reversed when lutein was included in the 1% CLA diet (P < 0.001). The production of IgY anti-BSA increased following a 2% CLA supplementation (P < 0.01). LPS increased the liver:BW ratio at 3 h post-injection (P < 0.001) and decreased BWG at 3, 16, and 40 h (P < 0.001). Lutein decreased plasmatic nitric oxide levels (P < 0.01). LPS downregulated PPARα mRNA in the duodenum (P = 0.02) and liver (P = 0.04), and PPARγ (P = 0.01) and RXRα (P = 0.08) in the spleen; these effects were not reversed by CLA or lutein as initially hypothesized. Although LPS upregulated IL-1β (P = 0.02) and IL-12 (P = 0.07) expression, lutein downregulated these pro-inflammatory cytokines in the liver (P = 0.03 and P = 0.07, respectively). Lutein decreased splenic (P = 0.09) but increased hepatic (P = 0.06) TLR-4 mRNA. A dietary CLA supplementation of 2% increased hepatic RXRα (P = 0.10). In conclusion, CLA decreased broiler chicken growth performance, but lutein could prevent this negative effect (depending on CLA dose). Lutein had an anti-inflammatory effect, and a 2% CLA supplementation improved the humoral immune response.

  3. Aqueous Date Flesh or Pits Extract Attenuates Liver Fibrosis via Suppression of Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation and Reduction of Inflammatory Cytokines, Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and Angiogenic Markers in Carbon Tetrachloride-Intoxicated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rasheed, Nouf M.; Attia, Hala A.; Mohamad, Raeesa A.; Al-Rasheed, Nawal M.; Al-Amin, Maha A.; AL-Onazi, Asma

    2015-01-01

    Previous data indicated the protective effect of date fruit extract on oxidative damage in rat liver. However, the hepatoprotective effects via other mechanisms have not been investigated. This study was performed to evaluate the antifibrotic effect of date flesh extract (DFE) or date pits extract (DPE) via inactivation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), reducing the levels of inflammatory, fibrotic and angiogenic markers. Coffee was used as reference hepatoprotective agent. Liver fibrosis was induced by injection of CCl4 (0.4 mL/kg) three times weekly for 8 weeks. DFE, DPE (6 mL/kg), coffee (300 mg/kg), and combination of coffee + DFE and coffee + DPE were given to CCl4-intoxicated rats daily for 8 weeks. DFE, DPE, and their combination with coffee attenuated the elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β. The increased levels of transforming growth factor-β1 and collagen deposition in injured liver were alleviated by both extracts. CCl4-induced expression of α-smooth muscle actin was suppressed indicating HSCs inactivation. Increased angiogenesis was ameliorated as revealed by reduced levels and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and CD31. We concluded that DFE or DPE could protect liver via different mechanisms. The combination of coffee with DFE or DPE may enhance its antifibrotic effects. PMID:25945106

  4. Improvement of Nannochloropsis oceanica growth performance through chemical mutation and characterization of fast growth physiology by transcriptome profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Sijie; Guo, Li; Lin, Genmei; Zhang, Zhongyi; Ding, Haiyan; Wang, Yamei; Yang, Guanpin

    2016-09-01

    Nannochloropsis oceanica promises to be an industrial-level producer of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this study, the fastest and slowest growing N. oceanica mutants were selected through N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine mutation, and two mutant strains and the wild type (WT) subjected to transcriptome profiling. It was found that the OD680 reads at stationary growth phase of both WT and its mutants were proportional to their cell density, thus indicating their division rate and growth speed during culture. This chemical mutation was effective for improving growth performance, and the fast strain divided faster by upregulating the expression of genes functioning in the cell cycle and downregulating genes involved in synthesis of amino acids, fatty acids, and sugars as well as the construction of ribosome and photosynthetic machinery. However, the relationship among the effected genes responsible for cell cycle, metabolism of fatty and amino acids, and construction of ribosome and photosynthetic machinery remained unclear. Further genetic studies are required for clarifying the genetic/metabolic networks underpinning the growth performance of N. oceanica. These findings demonstrated that this mutation strategy was effective for improving the growth performance of this species and explored a means of microalgal genetic improvement, particularly in species possessing a monoploid nucleus and asexual reproduction.

  5. [Hepatic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Festi, Davide; Marasco, Giovanni; Ravaioli, Federico; Colecchia, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common complication of liver cirrhosis and it can manifest with a broad spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities of varying severity, acuity and time course with important clinical implications. According to recent guidelines, HE has been classified into different types, depending on the severity of hepatic dysfunction, the presence of porto-systemic shunts and the number of previous episodes or persistent manifestations. From a clinical point of view, HE can be recognized as unimpaired, covert (that deals with minimal and grade 1 according to the grading of mental state), and overt (that is categorized from grade 2 to grade 4). Different and only partially known pathogenic mechanisms have been identified, comprising ammonia, inflammatory cytokines, benzodiazepine-like compounds and manganese deposition. Different therapeutic strategies are available for treating HE, in particular the overt HE, since covert HE needs to be managed case by case. Recognition and treatment of precipitating factors represent fundamental part of the management. The more effective treatments, which can be performed separately or combined, are represented by non-absorbable disaccharides (lactulose and lactitol) and the topic antibiotic rifaximin; other possible therapies, mainly used in patients non responders to previous treatments, are represented by branched chain amino acids and metabolic ammonia scavengers. PMID:27571468

  6. Effect of sodium butyrate on growth performance and response to lipopolysaccharide in weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Weber, T E; Kerr, B J

    2008-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary sodium butyrate on growth performance and response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in weanling pigs. In a 28-d experiment, 180 pigs (initial BW 6.3 kg) were fed 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4% sodium butyrate, or 110 mg/kg of dietary tylosin. There was no effect of dietary sodium butyrate or tylosin on overall G:F, but there was a linear trend (P < 0.07) toward decreased ADFI and ADG as levels of sodium butyrate increased. In a second 28-d experiment, 108 pigs (initial BW 6.3 kg) were assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments: 1) no antibiotics, 2) 0.2% sodium butyrate, or 3) 55 mg/kg of carbadox. On d 14, a subset of pigs from the no-antibiotic and butyrate treatment groups was challenged with E. coli LPS or injected with sterile saline in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (+/-LPS challenge; +/-dietary butyrate; n = 6 pigs/treatment group). Four hours after LPS challenge, blood samples were obtained, and samples of LM, liver, and ileum were collected for gene expression analysis. Serum samples were analyzed for IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein, cortisol, IGF-I, insulin, and metabolites. The relative abundance of tissue cytokine and IGF-I mRNA was measured by real-time PCR. Feeding diets containing sodium butyrate or carbadox did not alter ADG or ADFI compared with pigs fed the control diet. From d 0 to 14, pigs fed diets containing 0.2% sodium butyrate had decreased (P < 0.05) ADG and tended (P < 0.06) to have decreased G:F compared with animals fed diets containing carbadox. Challenge with LPS increased (P < 0.05) serum cytokines and cortisol and decreased (P < 0.05) serum glucose and triglycerides. Injection with LPS increased (P < 0.05) the relative abundance of hepatic IL-6 and TNFalpha mRNA, increased (P < 0.05) LM TNFalpha mRNA content, and decreased (P < 0.05) IGF-I mRNA in LM. For serum cortisol, there was an interaction (P < 0.05) between dietary

  7. Documenting Teacher Candidates' Professional Growth through Performance Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Suh, Jennifer; Parsons, Seth A.; Parker, Audra K.; Ramirez, Erin M.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, colleges of education are responding to demands for increased accountability. The purpose of this article is to describe one teacher education program's implementation of a performance evaluation tool during final internship that measures teacher candidates' development across four domains: Planning and Preparation,…

  8. Direct hepatic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells induced by valproic acid and cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Guo-Rong; Zhou, Qing-Jun; Pan, Ruo-Lang; Chen, Ye; Xiang, Li-Xin; Shao, Jian-Zhong

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To develop a protocol for direct hepatic lineage differentiation from early developmental progenitors to a population of mature hepatocytes. METHODS: Hepatic progenitor cells and then mature hepatocytes from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were obtained in a sequential manner, induced by valproic acid (VPA) and cytokines (hepatocyte growth factor, epidermal growth factor and insulin). Morphological changes of the differentiated cells were examined by phase-contrast microscopy and electron microscopy. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemical analyses were used to evaluate the gene expression profiles of the VPA-induced hepatic progenitors and the hepatic progenitor-derived hepatocytes. Glycogen storage, cytochrome P450 activity, transplantation assay, differentiation of bile duct-like structures and tumorigenic analyses were performed for the functional identification of the differentiated cells. Furthermore, FACS and electron microscopy were used for the analyses of cell cycle profile and apoptosis in VPA-induced hepatic differentiated cells. RESULTS: Based on the combination of VPA and cytokines, mouse ES cells differentiated into a uniform and homogeneous cell population of hepatic progenitor cells and then matured into functional hepatocytes. The progenitor population shared several characteristics with ES cells and hepatic stem/progenitor cells, and represented a novel progenitor cell between ES and hepatic oval cells in embryonic development. The differentiated hepatocytes from progenitor cells shared typical characteristics with mature hepatocytes, including the patterns of gene expression, immunological markers, in vitro hepatocyte functions and in vivo capacity to restore acute-damaged liver function. In addition, the differentiation of hepatic progenitor cells from ES cells was accompanied by significant cell cycle arrest and selective survival of differentiating cells towards hepatic lineages. CONCLUSION: Hepatic cells

  9. Performance and applications of quench melt-growth bulk magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nariki, S.; Teshima, H.; Morita, M.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the progress in quench melt-growth (QMG) bulk magnets, developed by the Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation, which consist of single crystalline RE123 phase and finely dispersed RE211 particles. QMG bulks can trap high magnetic fields. The field-trapping ability of QMG bulks is largely increased with an improvement in its J c and size, promising the realization of various applications such as flywheel energy-storage systems, ship motors, NMR/MRI spectrometers, wind-power generators and so on. Intensive research has revealed that the optimal RE element is different depending on application requirements. Gd-QMG bulk is the most promising material for several high-field engineering applications. The trapped magnetic field of Gd-QMG bulk 60 mm in diameter at 77 K is twice as large as that of Y-QMG bulk with a similar size due to its excellent J c properties. The large Gd-based QMG bulks up to 150 mm in diameter are fabricated by incorporating the RE compositional gradient method. Compact NMR/MRI spectrometers are one of the promising applications of bulk superconductors. Eu-QMG bulks are suitable for NMR magnets. NMR applications require extremely homogeneous magnetic fields. In the Eu-system, the small paramagnetic moment of a Eu ion compared to a Gd ion improves the field homogeneity in the bulk. For the application of current leads, Dy-based QMG is available by utilizing a low thermal conductivity.

  10. Unique effects on hepatic function, lipid metabolism, bone and growth endocrine parameters of estetrol in combined oral contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Mawet, Marie; Maillard, Catherine; Klipping, Christine; Zimmerman, Yvette; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Coelingh Bennink, Herjan J.T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen produced by the human fetal liver. In combination with drospirenone (DRSP) or levonorgestrel (LNG), E4 blocks ovulation and has less effect on haemostatic biomarkers in comparison with ethinylestradiol (EE) combined with DRSP. This study evaluates the impact of several doses of E4/DRSP and E4/LNG on safety parameters such as liver function, lipid metabolism, bone markers and growth endocrine parameters. Methods This was a dose-finding, single-centre, controlled study performed in healthy women aged 18 to 35 years with a documented pretreatment ovulatory cycle. Participants received 5 mg or 10 mg E4/3 mg DRSP; 5 mg, 10 mg or 20 mg E4/150 μg LNG; or 20 μg EE/3 mg DRSP as a comparator for three consecutive cycles in a 24/4-day regimen. Changes from baseline to end of treatment in liver parameters, lipid metabolism, bone markers and growth endocrinology were evaluated. Results A total of 109 women were included in the study. Carrier proteins were minimally affected in the E4/DRSP and E4/LNG groups, in comparison with the EE/DRSP group, where a significant increase in sex hormone-binding globulin was observed. Similarly, minor effects on lipoproteins were observed in the E4 groups, and the effects on triglycerides elicited by the E4 groups were significantly lower than those in the EE/DRSP group. No imbalances in bone markers were observed in any groups. No alterations in insulin-like growth factor were observed in the E4 groups. Conclusions E4-containing combinations have a limited effect on liver function, lipid metabolism, and bone and growth endocrine parameters. Chinese Abstract 摘要 目的 雌四醇(E4)是来源于人胎儿肝脏的天然雌激素。雌四醇与屈螺酮(DRSP)或左炔诺孕酮(LNG)配伍的复方口服避孕药制剂,能够抑制排卵,同时相较于炔雌醇(EE)与屈螺酮配伍制剂,它对凝血功能的各项指标影响较小。本研究的目的是为了评估不同

  11. Hepatitis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  12. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Rajko

    2003-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is an unresolving, hepatocellular inflammation of unknown cause that is characterized by the presence of periportal hepatitis on histologic examination, tissue autoantibodies in serum, and hypergammaglobulinemia. By international consensus, the designation autoimmune hepatitis has replaced alternative terms for the condition. Three types of autoimmune hepatitis have been proposed based on immunoserologic findings. Type 1 autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) or smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) (or both) in serum. Seventy percent of patients with type 1 of autoimmune hepatitis are women. This type is the most common form and accounts for at least 80% of cases. Type 2 is characterized by the presence of antibodies to liver-kidney microsome type 1 (anti-LKM1) in serum. Patients with this type of autoimmune hepatitis are predominantly children. Type 3 autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by the presence of antibodies to soluble liver antigen (anti-SLA) in serum. There are no individual features that are pathognomonic of autoimmune hepatitis, and its diagnosis requires the confident exclusion of other conditions. The large majority of patients show satisfactory response to corticosteroid (usually prednisone or prednisolone) therapy. For the past 30 years it has been customary to add azathioprine as a "steroid sparing" agent to allow lower doses of steroids to be used and remission, once achieved, can be sustained in many patients with azathioprine alone after steroid withdrawal. Patients with autoimmune hepatitis who have decompensated during or after corticosteroid therapy are candidates for liver transplantation.

  13. Paternal B Vitamin Intake Is a Determinant of Growth, Hepatic Lipid Metabolism and Intestinal Tumor Volume in Female Apc1638N Mouse Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Sabet, Julia A.; Park, Lara K.; Iyer, Lakshmanan K.; Tai, Albert K.; Koh, Gar Yee; Pfalzer, Anna C.; Parnell, Laurence D.; Mason, Joel B.; Liu, Zhenhua; Byun, Alexander J.; Crott, Jimmy W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The importance of maternal nutrition to offspring health and risk of disease is well established. Emerging evidence suggests paternal diet may affect offspring health as well. Objective In the current study we sought to determine whether modulating pre-conception paternal B vitamin intake alters intestinal tumor formation in offspring. Additionally, we sought to identify potential mechanisms for the observed weight differential among offspring by profiling hepatic gene expression and lipid content. Methods Male Apc1638N mice (prone to intestinal tumor formation) were fed diets containing replete (control, CTRL), mildly deficient (DEF), or supplemental (SUPP) quantities of vitamins B2, B6, B12, and folate for 8 weeks before mating with control-fed wild type females. Wild type offspring were euthanized at weaning and hepatic gene expression profiled. Apc1638N offspring were fed a replete diet and euthanized at 28 weeks of age to assess tumor burden. Results No differences in intestinal tumor incidence or burden were found between male Apc1638N offspring of different paternal diet groups. Although in female Apc1638N offspring there were no differences in tumor incidence or multiplicity, a stepwise increase in tumor volume with increasing paternal B vitamin intake was observed. Interestingly, female offspring of SUPP and DEF fathers had a significantly lower body weight than those of CTRL fed fathers. Moreover, hepatic trigylcerides and cholesterol were elevated 3-fold in adult female offspring of SUPP fathers. Weanling offspring of the same fathers displayed altered expression of several key lipid-metabolism genes. Hundreds of differentially methylated regions were identified in the paternal sperm in response to DEF and SUPP diets. Aside from a few genes including Igf2, there was a striking lack of overlap between these genes differentially methylated in sperm and differentially expressed in offspring. Conclusions In this animal model, modulation of

  14. Ligustrazine attenuates oxidative stress-induced activation of hepatic stellate cells by interrupting platelet-derived growth factor-β receptor-mediated ERK and p38 pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Feng; Ni, Chunyan; Kong, Desong; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhu, Xiaojing; Chen, Li; Lu, Yin; Zheng, Shizhong

    2012-11-15

    Hepatic fibrosis represents a frequent event following chronic insult to trigger wound healing reactions with accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the liver. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the pivotal event during liver fibrogenesis. Compelling evidence indicates that oxidative stress is concomitant with liver fibrosis irrespective of the underlying etiology. Natural antioxidant ligustrazine exhibits potent antifibrotic activities, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Our studies were to investigate the ligustrazine effects on HSC activation stimulated by hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), an in vitro model mimicking the oxidative stress in liver fibrogenesis, and to elucidate the possible mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at 5 μM significantly stimulated HSC proliferation and expression of marker genes of HSC activation; whereas ligustrazine dose-dependently suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-activated HSCs, and attenuated expression of fibrotic marker genes. Mechanistic investigations revealed that ligustrazine reduced platelet-derived growth factor-β receptor (PDGF-βR) expression and blocked the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) and p38 kinase, two downstream effectors of PDGF-βR. Further molecular evidence suggested that ligustrazine interruption of ERK and p38 pathways was dependent on the blockade of PDGF-βR and might be involved in ligustrazine reduction of fibrotic marker gene expression under H{sub 2}O{sub 2} stimulation. Furthermore, ligustrazine modulated some proteins critical for HSC activation and ECM homeostasis in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-stimulated HSCs. These data collectively indicated that ligustrazine could attenuate HSC activation caused by oxidative stress, providing novel insights into ligustrazine as a therapeutic option for hepatic fibrosis. Highlights: ► Ligustrazine inhibits oxidative stress-induced HSC activation.

  15. Viral hepatitis*

    PubMed Central

    Deinhardt, F.; Gust, I. D.

    1982-01-01

    Three forms of viral hepatitis can be recognized: hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis non-A, non-B. Hepatitis A is caused by a picornavirus, is transmitted by the faceal—oral route, does not become chronic, and no chronic virus carriers exist. The virus can be grown in cell cultures, and killed as well as live attenuated virus vaccines are under development. Hepatitis B is caused by an enveloped virus containing a circular, double-stranded form of DNA. The disease is transmitted parenterally through inoculation of blood or blood products containing virus or through close personal contact with a virus-positive person. Hepatitis B becomes chronic in a certain number of cases and can lead to cirrhosis and primary liver cell carcinoma. The blood and certain body secretions of individuals with a persistent or chronic infection may remain infectious for many years. The hepatitis B virus cannot be grown in cell cultures but the entire genome has been sequenced and cloned in bacterial and eukaryotic cells. An inactivated virus vaccine has been prepared from hepatitis B surface antigen present in the plasma of hepatitis B virus carriers and further vaccines are under development. The agents of hepatitis non-A, non-B have not been identified. It is possible to distinguish between a predominantly parenterally transmitted and an orally transmitted form of hepatitis non-A, non-B. The latter is reported to be caused by a picornavirus that does not, however, have any antigenic relationship with hepatitis A virus. PMID:6817933

  16. Differentiated embryo chondrocyte 1 (DEC1) is a novel negative regulator of hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yu; Makishima, Makoto; Bhawal, Ujjal K

    2016-01-15

    Human differentiated embryo chondrocyte expressed gene 1 (DEC1) is frequently used as a marker of senescence in vivo. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a novel endocrine-like member of the FGF superfamily, is highly expressed in the liver, and FGF21-transgenic mice have extended lifespans. Thus, we hypothesized that FGF21 may play a role in the DEC1-mediated aging process. In this study, DEC1 knockout (KO) mice were used to characterize the mechanism by which FGF21 protects mice from aging. Aging is strongly diminished in DEC1 KO mice, which is reflected by decreased lipid levels and oxidative stress, leading to an amelioration of liver function and structure. The expression of FGF21 decreased with aging in wild-type (WT) mice, whereas ATF4, Phospho-ERK and Phospho-p38 expression was maintained and was accompanied by a compensatory rise of FGF21 mRNA and protein expression in DEC1 KO mice. Over-expression of DEC1 markedly abolished the hepatic expression of FGF21, and siRNA-mediated inhibition of endogenous DEC1 increased the expression of FGF21. DEC1 further diminished the expression of ATF4 in HepG2 cells over-expressing DEC1. The induction of FGF21 and ATF4 at the mRNA and protein levels during the course of aging supports the view that DEC1 KO mice are able to restore the age-related imbalance of metabolism. Collectively, the data obtained in this study suggest that DEC1 is a novel negative regulator of hepatic FGF21 expression.

  17. Canine Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Ameliorates Hyperglycemia Associated with Inhibiting Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Improving Pancreatic Beta-Cell Survival in Diabetic Mice and Dogs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Yingjie; Jiang, Xinghao; Li, Junyan; Song, Liying; Khoso, Mir Hasson; Liu, Yunye; Wu, Qiang; Ren, Guiping; Li, Deshan

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy in dog. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) is a secreted protein, which is involved in glucose homeostasis. We speculate that the recombinant canine FGF-21 (cFGF-21) has the potential to become a powerful therapeutics to treat canine diabetes. The cFGF-21 gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli Rosetta (DE3). After purification, a cFGF-21 protein with the purity exceeding 95% was obtained. Mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes and type 1 diabetic mice/dogs induced by STZ were used to examine the biological activity of cFGF-21 in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Results showed that cFGF-21 stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes significantly in a dose-dependent manner, and reduced plasma glucose significantly in diabetic mice/dogs. After treatment with cFGF-21, the serum insulin level, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level and the expressions of the hepatic gluconeogenesis genes (glucose-6-phosphatase, G6Pase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, PCK) of the diabetic mice/dogs were attenuated significantly. In the mouse experiment, we also found that the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) were up-regulated significantly in the livers after treatment. Histopathological and immunohistochemical results showed that treatment with cFGF-21 promoted recovery of pancreatic islets from STZ-induced apoptosis. Besides, we also found that treatment with cFGF-21 protected liver against STZ or hyperglycemia induced damage and the mechanism of this action associated with inhibiting oxidative stress. In conclusion, cFGF-21 represents a promising candidate for canine diabetes therapeutics. The mechanism of cFGF-21 ameliorates hyperglycemia associated with inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis by regulation of STAT3 signal pathway and improving pancreatic beta-cell survival. PMID:27203422

  18. Canine Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Ameliorates Hyperglycemia Associated with Inhibiting Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Improving Pancreatic Beta-Cell Survival in Diabetic Mice and Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Yingjie; Jiang, Xinghao; Li, Junyan; Song, Liying; Khoso, Mir Hasson; Liu, Yunye; Wu, Qiang; Ren, Guiping; Li, Deshan

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy in dog. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) is a secreted protein, which is involved in glucose homeostasis. We speculate that the recombinant canine FGF-21 (cFGF-21) has the potential to become a powerful therapeutics to treat canine diabetes. The cFGF-21 gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli Rosetta (DE3). After purification, a cFGF-21 protein with the purity exceeding 95% was obtained. Mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes and type 1 diabetic mice/dogs induced by STZ were used to examine the biological activity of cFGF-21 in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Results showed that cFGF-21 stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes significantly in a dose-dependent manner, and reduced plasma glucose significantly in diabetic mice/dogs. After treatment with cFGF-21, the serum insulin level, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level and the expressions of the hepatic gluconeogenesis genes (glucose-6-phosphatase, G6Pase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, PCK) of the diabetic mice/dogs were attenuated significantly. In the mouse experiment, we also found that the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) were up-regulated significantly in the livers after treatment. Histopathological and immunohistochemical results showed that treatment with cFGF-21 promoted recovery of pancreatic islets from STZ-induced apoptosis. Besides, we also found that treatment with cFGF-21 protected liver against STZ or hyperglycemia induced damage and the mechanism of this action associated with inhibiting oxidative stress. In conclusion, cFGF-21 represents a promising candidate for canine diabetes therapeutics. The mechanism of cFGF-21 ameliorates hyperglycemia associated with inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis by regulation of STAT3 signal pathway and improving pancreatic beta-cell survival. PMID:27203422

  19. Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response and represses transplanted H22 hepatic ascitic tumor cell growth: Involvement of NF-κB signaling activation in CD4 + T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, Guangwen; Yang, Tianming; Wang, Chaoyuan; Su, Hanwen; Xiang, Meixian

    2013-06-15

    Gastrodia elata Blume (G. elata) is a famous restorative food in East Asia. It can be used as an auxiliary reagent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. Previous studies unveiled that G. elata exhibited immunomodulatory activities. To explore the active ingredients contributing to its immunomodulatory activities, gastrodin, vanillin, and parishin B were purified from G. elata and their anti-HCC effects were assessed in vivo. Among these compounds, only gastrodin was capable of repressing transplanted H22 ascitic hepatic tumor cell growth in vivo with low toxicity. Further investigations were designed to explore the effects of gastrodin on the immune system of tumor-bearing mice and potential molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. Our data showed that gastrodin ameliorated tumor cell transplantation-induced activation of endogenous pro-apoptotic pathway in CD4 + T cells and abnormalities in serum cytokine profiles in host animals. These events enhanced cytotoxic activities of natural killer and CD8 + T cells against H22 hepatic cancer cells. Gastrodin administration specifically upregulated mRNA levels of several nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) responsive genes in CD4 + T cells but not in CD8 + T cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that gastrodin increased the association of NF-κB p65 subunit to the promoter regions of IL-2 and Bcl-2 encoding genes in CD4 + T cells. Our investigations demonstrated that gastrodin is the main active ingredient contributing to the anticancer immunomodulatory properties of G. elata. Promoting NF-κB-mediated gene transcription in CD4 + T cells is implicated in its immunomodulatory activity. - Highlights: • Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response. • Gastrodin represses tumor transplantation-induced CD4 + T cell apoptosis. • Gastrodin activates NF-κB activity in CD4 + T cells.

  20. Gender differences in peak muscle performance during growth.

    PubMed

    Doré, E; Martin, R; Ratel, S; Duché, P; Bedu, M; Van Praagh, E

    2005-05-01

    Gender-related differences in maximal leg muscle power were examined in 496 females and 426 males aged 8 to 20 years. Cycling peak power (CPP, including the force required to accelerate the flywheel of the cycle ergometer) was measured during three sprints. Optimal velocity (Vopt, velocity at CPP) was also determined. No gender-differences were observed in anthropometric characteristics and cycling performance between 8- and 14-year-old. From age 14, however, males showed a higher CPP than females, but also a higher lean leg volume (LLV, assessed by anthropometry). Allometric relationship between CPP and LLV (CPP = a . LLV ( b)) showed a clear gender-differentiation between 14- and 16-year-old: LLV exponent (b) was 1.05 in males vs. 0.74 in females. From 16 years onwards, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that the slopes of the CPP-LLV relationship were similar in both genders, but the intercepts differed. In other words, for a similar LLV, males showed greater CPP than females. It was suggested that this sex-related difference was due to total body fat increase, and more specifically lower-limb fat increase during puberty in girls, whilst the boys experienced increased lean body mass. Considering that the same gender-related difference was observed for optimal velocity adjusted for leg length, other factors such as fibre type variability or (and) neuromuscular activation might also be partly responsible for the higher peak muscle performance observed in males. PMID:15795811

  1. Correlation of the MBE growth temperature, material quality, and performance of quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monastyrskyi, G.; Aleksandrova, A.; Elagin, M.; Semtsiv, M. P.; Masselink, W. T.; Bryksa, V.

    2013-09-01

    The influence of substrate temperature during the growth of quantum-cascade lasers using gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy on performance and crystal quality of quantum-cascade laser is investigated. Lower substrate temperature is consistently resulting in narrower X-ray diffraction satellites, and lower laser threshold current. This correlation is attributed to increased interface roughness at higher growth temperature.

  2. Genetic Parameter Estimation in Seedstock Swine Population for Growth Performances

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Gwan; Cho, Chung Il; Choi, Im Soo; Lee, Seung Soo; Choi, Tae Jeong; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Park, Byoung Ho; Choy, Yun Ho

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters that are to be used for across-herd genetic evaluations of seed stock pigs at GGP level. Performance data with pedigree information collected from swine breeder farms in Korea were provided by Korea Animal Improvement Association (AIAK). Performance data were composed of final body weights at test days and ultrasound measures of back fat thickness (BF), rib eye area (EMA) and retail cut percentage (RCP). Breeds of swine tested were Landrace, Yorkshire and Duroc. Days to 90 kg body weight (DAYS90) were estimated with linear function of age and ADG calculated from body weights at test days. Ultrasound measures were taken with A-mode ultrasound scanners by trained technicians. Number of performance records after censoring outliers and keeping records pigs only born from year 2000 were of 78,068 Duroc pigs, 101,821 Landrace pigs and 281,421 Yorkshire pigs. Models included contemporary groups defined by the same herd and the same seasons of births of the same year, which was regarded as fixed along with the effect of sex for all traits and body weight at test day as a linear covariate for ultrasound measures. REML estimation was processed with REMLF90 program. Heritability estimates were 0.40, 0.32, 0.21 0.39 for DAYS90, ADG, BF, EMA, RCP, respectively for Duroc population. Respective heritability estimates for Landrace population were 0.43, 0.41, 0.22, and 0.43 and for Yorkshire population were 0.36, 0.38, 0.22, and 0.42. Genetic correlation coefficients of DAYS90 with BF, EMA, or RCP were estimated to be 0.00 to 0.09, −0.15 to −0.25, 0.22 to 0.28, respectively for three breeds populations. Genetic correlation coefficients estimated between BF and EMA was −0.33 to −0.39. Genetic correlation coefficient estimated between BF and RCP was high and negative (−0.78 to −0.85) but the environmental correlation coefficients between these two traits was medium and negative (near −0.35), which describes

  3. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, E A

    1995-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis can present as either acute or chronic disease in children. Clinical and laboratory features, including association with extrahepatic autoimmune syndromes and prompt response to immunosuppressive treatment, circulating autoantibodies and hypergammaglobulinemia, suggest an immune etiology. However, the disease mechanism remains uncertain. Different types of autoimmune hepatitis are defined on the basis of which autoantibodies are present: anti-smooth muscle (type 1), anti-liver/kidney microsomal (type 2), or anti-soluble liver antigen (type 3). Diseases which may be clinically similar to autoimmune hepatitis must be excluded before the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis is established: Wilson's disease, primary sclerosing cholangitis, chronic hepatitis B or C, and drug-induced liver disease are among the most important entities. Corticosteroids alone or with azathioprine constitute the usual treatment for autoimmune hepatitis. Although some children achieve a complete remission, or even recovery, and can stop immunosuppressive treatment, others required low-dose prednisone treatment indefinitely.

  4. Severe dietary lysine restriction affects growth and body composition and hepatic gene expression for nitrogen metabolism in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Lee, K S; Kwon, D-H; Bong, J J; Jeong, J Y; Nam, Y S; Lee, M S; Liu, X; Baik, M

    2014-02-01

    Dietary lysine restriction may differentially affect body growth and lipid and nitrogen metabolism, depending on the degree of lysine restriction. This study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary lysine restriction on growth and lipid and nitrogen metabolism with two different degree of lysine restriction. Isocaloric amino acid-defined diets containing 1.4% lysine (adequate), 0.70% lysine (50% moderate lysine restriction) and 0.35% lysine (75% severe lysine restriction) were fed from the age of 52 to 77 days for 25 days in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The 75% severe lysine restriction increased (p < 0.05) food intake, but retarded (p < 0.05) growth, increased (p < 0.05) liver and muscle lipid contents and abdominal fat accumulation, increased (p < 0.05) blood urea nitrogen levels and mRNA levels of the serine-synthesizing 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase gene, but decreased (p < 0.05) urea cycle arginase gene mRNA levels. In contrast, the 50% lysine restriction did not significantly (p > 0.05) affect body growth and lipid and nitrogen metabolism. Our results demonstrate that severe 75% lysine restriction has detrimental effects on body growth and deregulate lipid and nitrogen metabolism. PMID:23441935

  5. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... What is hepatitis B?Hepatitis B is a serious infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus. ...

  6. Hepatitis C: Clinical Trials

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Public Home » Hepatitis C » Treatment Decisions Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... can I find out about participating in a hepatitis C clinical trial? Many trials are being conducted ...

  7. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Hepatitis B HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Influenza (Flu) Measles Meningococcal Disease Mumps Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Pneumococcal Disease Rubella (German Measles) Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Tetanus (Lockjaw) Professional Resources Adult ...

  8. Growth performance of early-weaned pigs is enhanced by feeding epidermal growth factor-expressing Lactococcus lactis fermentation product.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Andrea; Huynh, Evanna; Fu, Molei; Zhu, Cuilan; Wey, Doug; de Lange, Cornelis; Li, Julang

    2014-03-10

    We have previously generated epidermal growth factor expressing Lactococcus lactis (EGF-LL) using bioengineering approach, and shown that feeding newly-weaned piglets EGF-LL improves digestive function. To address concerns over the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO), the objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of feeding the EGF-LL fermentation product, after removal of the genetically modified EGF-LL, on growth performance and intestine development of newly-weaned piglets. One hundred and twenty newly-weaned piglets were fed ad libitum according to a 2-phase feeding program. Four pens were assigned to each of three treatments: (1) complete EGF-LL fermentation product (Ferm), (2) supernatant of EGF-LL fermentation product, after removal of EGF-LL (Supern), or (3) blank M17GE media (Control). EGF-LL or its fermented supernatant was administrated to piglets in the first 3 weeks post-weaning; their growth performance was monitored throughout treatment, and for the following week. Daily body weight gain (254.8g vs. 200.5g) and Gain:Feed (0.541kg/kg vs. 0.454kg/kg) of pigs on the Supern group were significantly improved compared to that of Control, although no difference was observed between the Ferm and Control pigs. Intestinal sucrase activity was increased in Supern- compared to Control group (166.3±62.1 vs. 81.4±56.5nmol glucose released/mg protein; P<0.05). The lack of growth response with Ferm pigs may be attributed to an overload of bacteria (daily dose included 4.56×10(10)CFU/kg BW/day EGF-LL). These results suggest that GMO-free EGF-LL fermentation product is effective in increasing growth performance of early-weaned piglets.

  9. Effects of dietary inulin on bacterial growth, short-chain fatty acid production and hepatic lipid metabolism in gnotobiotic mice.

    PubMed

    Weitkunat, Karolin; Schumann, Sara; Petzke, Klaus Jürgen; Blaut, Michael; Loh, Gunnar; Klaus, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    In literature, contradictory effects of dietary fibers and their fermentation products, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), are described: On one hand, they increase satiety, but on the other hand, they provide additional energy and promote obesity development. We aimed to answer this paradox by investigating the effects of fermentable and non-fermentable fibers on obesity induced by high-fat diet in gnotobiotic C3H/HeOuJ mice colonized with a simplified human microbiota. Mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented either with 10% cellulose (non-fermentable) or inulin (fermentable) for 6 weeks. Feeding the inulin diet resulted in an increased diet digestibility and reduced feces energy, compared to the cellulose diet with no differences in food intake, suggesting an increased intestinal energy extraction from inulin. However, we observed no increase in body fat/weight. The additional energy provided by the inulin diet led to an increased bacterial proliferation in this group. Supplementation of inulin resulted further in significantly elevated concentrations of total SCFA in cecum and portal vein plasma, with a reduced cecal acetate:propionate ratio. Hepatic expression of genes involved in lipogenesis (Fasn, Gpam) and fatty acid elongation/desaturation (Scd1, Elovl3, Elovl6, Elovl5, Fads1 and Fads2) were decreased in inulin-fed animals. Accordingly, plasma and liver phospholipid composition were changed between the different feeding groups. Concentrations of omega-3 and odd-chain fatty acids were increased in inulin-fed mice, whereas omega-6 fatty acids were reduced. Taken together, these data indicate that, during this short-term feeding, inulin has mainly positive effects on the lipid metabolism, which could cause beneficial effects during obesity development in long-term studies.

  10. Effects of dietary inulin on bacterial growth, short-chain fatty acid production and hepatic lipid metabolism in gnotobiotic mice.

    PubMed

    Weitkunat, Karolin; Schumann, Sara; Petzke, Klaus Jürgen; Blaut, Michael; Loh, Gunnar; Klaus, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    In literature, contradictory effects of dietary fibers and their fermentation products, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), are described: On one hand, they increase satiety, but on the other hand, they provide additional energy and promote obesity development. We aimed to answer this paradox by investigating the effects of fermentable and non-fermentable fibers on obesity induced by high-fat diet in gnotobiotic C3H/HeOuJ mice colonized with a simplified human microbiota. Mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented either with 10% cellulose (non-fermentable) or inulin (fermentable) for 6 weeks. Feeding the inulin diet resulted in an increased diet digestibility and reduced feces energy, compared to the cellulose diet with no differences in food intake, suggesting an increased intestinal energy extraction from inulin. However, we observed no increase in body fat/weight. The additional energy provided by the inulin diet led to an increased bacterial proliferation in this group. Supplementation of inulin resulted further in significantly elevated concentrations of total SCFA in cecum and portal vein plasma, with a reduced cecal acetate:propionate ratio. Hepatic expression of genes involved in lipogenesis (Fasn, Gpam) and fatty acid elongation/desaturation (Scd1, Elovl3, Elovl6, Elovl5, Fads1 and Fads2) were decreased in inulin-fed animals. Accordingly, plasma and liver phospholipid composition were changed between the different feeding groups. Concentrations of omega-3 and odd-chain fatty acids were increased in inulin-fed mice, whereas omega-6 fatty acids were reduced. Taken together, these data indicate that, during this short-term feeding, inulin has mainly positive effects on the lipid metabolism, which could cause beneficial effects during obesity development in long-term studies. PMID:26033744

  11. Europium nanoparticle-based simple to perform dry-reagent immunoassay for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen.

    PubMed

    Talha, Sheikh M; Salminen, Teppo; Juntunen, Etvi; Spangar, Anni; Gurramkonda, Chandrasekhar; Vuorinen, Tytti; Khanna, Navin; Pettersson, Kim

    2016-03-01

    Hepatitis B infection, caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV), presents a huge global health burden. Serological diagnosis of HBV mainly relies on the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Although there are high sensitivity commercial HBsAg enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) available, many low-resource laboratories lacking trained technicians continue to use rapid point-of-care assays with low sensitivities for HBsAg detection, due to their simplicity to operate. We developed a time-resolved fluorometric dry-reagent HBsAg immunoassay which meets the detection limit of high sensitivity EIAs but is simple to operate. To develop the assay, anti-HBsAg monoclonal antibody coated on europium nanoparticles was dried atop of biotinylated anti-HBsAg polyclonal antibody immobilized on streptavidin-coated microtiter wells. To test a sample in dry-reagent assay, serum sample and assay buffer were added to the wells, incubated, washed and europium signals were measured. The assay showed a detection limit of 0.25 ng/ml using HBsAg spiked in serum sample. When evaluated with 24 HBV positive and 37 negative serum samples, assay showed 100% sensitivity and specificity. Assay wells are stable for at least 26 weeks when stored at 4°C, and can tolerate elevated temperatures of up to 35°C for two weeks. The developed assay has high potential to be used in low-resource laboratories.

  12. Pre-growth mortality of Abies cilicica trees and mortality models performance.

    PubMed

    Carus, Serdar

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we compared tree-growth rates (basal area increment) from recently dead and living Taurus fir (Abies cilicica Carr.) trees in the Kovada lake Forest of Isparta, Turkey. For each dead tree, tree-growth rates were analyzed for the presence of pre-death growth depressions in the study area (number of sample plots = 11) in 2006. However, we compared both the magnitude and rate of growth prior to death to a control (living) group of trees. Basal area increment (BAI) averaged substantially less during the last 10 years before death than for control trees. Trees that died started diverging in growth, on average, 50-60 years before death. About 18% of trees that died had chronically slow growth, 46% had pronounced declines in growth, whereas 36% had good growth up to death. However, tree-ring-based growth patterns of dead and living Taurus fir trees were compared and used 12 mortality models that were derived using logistic regression from growth patterns of tree-ring series as predictor variables. The four models with the highest overall performance correctly classified 43.8-56.3% of all dead trees and 75.0-87.5% of all living trees, and they predicted 25.0-43.8% of all dead trees to die within 0-15 years prior to the actual year of death.

  13. Chronic Mild Cold Conditioning Modulates the Expression of Hypothalamic Neuropeptide and Intermediary Metabolic-Related Genes and Improves Growth Performances in Young Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phuong; Greene, Elizabeth; Ishola, Peter; Huff, Geraldine; Donoghue, Annie; Bottje, Walter; Dridi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene in chick brain compared to the control. Although their roles are still unknown in avian species, adiponectin (Adpn) and its related receptors (AdipoR1 and 2) were down regulated in the brain of CMCC compared to control chicks (P<0.05). In the liver, CMCC significantly down regulated the expression of lipogenic genes namely FAS, acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (ACCα) and malic enzyme (ME) and their related transcription factors sterol regulatory element binding protein 1/2 (SREBP-1 and 2). Hepatic mTOR mRNA levels and phosphorylated mTOR at Ser2448 were down regulated (P<0.05), however phosphorylated ACCαSer79 (inactivation) was up regulated (P<0.05) in CMCC compared to control chicks, indicating that CMCC switch hepatic catabolism on and inhibits hepatic lipogenesis. In the muscle however, CMCC significantly up regulated the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT-1) gene and the mRNA and phosphorylated protein levels of mTOR compared to the control chicks, indicating that CMCC enhanced muscle fatty acid β-oxidation. Conclusions In conclusion, this is the first report indicating that CMCC may regulate AMPK-mTOR expression in a tissue specific manner and identifying AMPK-mTOR as a potential molecular signature that controls cellular fatty acid utilization (inhibition of hepatic lipogenesis and induction of muscle fatty acid β-oxidation) to enhance growth performance during mild cold acclimation. PMID:26569484

  14. Co-induction of hepatic IGF-I and progranulin mRNA by growth hormone in tilapia, Oreochromis mossambiccus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mark Hung-Chih; Li, Yen-Hsing; Chang, Yvonne; Hu, Shao-Yang; Gong, Hong-Yi; Lin, Gen-Hwa; Chen, Thomas T; Wu, Jen-Leih

    2007-01-15

    Like IGF-I, progranulin (pgrn) is a growth factor involved in tumorigenesis and wound healing. We report here the identification and characterization of pgrn cDNA in tilapia and the regulation of its expression by growth hormone (GH). The tilapia pgrn cDNA was cloned by RT-PCR amplification, using gene specific oligonucleotides as amplification primers. The cDNA contains an open reading frame encoding a peptide of 206 amino acid residues (aa) that contains a presumptive signal peptide (23 aa) and two repeat units of granulin (grn, 51 and 52 aa, respectively) franked by a GAP of 49 aa and the carboxyl terminus with 31 aa. The two predicted grn peptides are arranged in tandem repeats interrupted by a GAP peptide. RT-PCR analysis revealed that high levels of prgn mRNA were present in several tissues such as spleen, gastric cecum, intestine, fat tissue, gill, kidney, eye and pancreas, and lower levels in liver, muscle, heart, brain, skin and stomach. Administration of a single dose (500 ng/g body weight) of recombinant seabream growth hormone (rbGH) by intraperitoneal (ip) injection into one-month-old tilapia resulted in an obvious increase of IGF-I and pgrn mRNA (2.7-fold and 2.5-fold, respectively) in the liver at three hours post-GH treatment. The peptide levels of pgrn in the liver of GH-treated fish also were substantially induced over controls at 12h post-GH treatment as detected by western immuno-blot analysis. The co-induction of IGF-I and pgrn following GH treatment may suggest the involvement of pgrn in GH regulated growth in tilapia.

  15. Beyond Thermal Performance Curves: Modeling Time-Dependent Effects of Thermal Stress on Ectotherm Growth Rates.

    PubMed

    Kingsolver, Joel G; Woods, H Arthur

    2016-03-01

    Thermal performance curves have been widely used to model the ecological responses of ectotherms to variable thermal environments and climate change. Such models ignore the effects of time dependence-the temporal pattern and duration of temperature exposure-on performance. We developed and solved a simple mathematical model for growth rate of ectotherms, combining thermal performance curves for ingestion rate with the temporal dynamics of gene expression and protein production in response to high temperatures to predict temporal patterns of growth rate in constant and diurnally fluctuating temperatures. We used the model to explore the effects of heat shock proteins on larval growth rates of Manduca sexta. The model correctly captures two empirical patterns for larval growth rate: first, maximal growth rate and optimal temperature decline with increasing duration of temperature exposure; second, mean growth rates decline with time in diurnally fluctuating temperatures at higher mean temperatures. These qualitative results apply broadly to cases where proteins or other molecules produced in response to high temperatures reduce growth rates. We discuss some of the critical assumptions and predictions of the model and suggest potential extensions and alternatives. Incorporating time-dependent effects will be essential for making more realistic predictions about the physiological and ecological consequences of temperature fluctuations and climate change. PMID:26913942

  16. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Marcais, O; Larrey, D

    1994-01-01

    Acute and chronic autoimmune hepatitis are uncommon inflammatory liver diseases, mainly occurring in young women, in association with hypergammaglobulinemia and serum autoantibodies. Different types have been described: type 1 characterized by anti-smooth muscle and anti-nuclear antibodies; type 2 characterized by anti-LKM1 antibodies; type 3 characterized by anti-SLA antibodies. Other types, still not clearly defined, may exist. Autoimmune hepatitis are associated with HLA A1 B8 DR3 and HLA DR4. Without any treatment, the disease leads to cirrhosis and, uncommonly, to fulminant hepatitis. Large doses of corticosteroids usually allow to control the disease. Relapse of hepatitis is frequent after corticosteroid withdrawal. Concomitant administration of immunosuppressive agents such as azathioprine allows to reduce corticosteroid dosage and contributes to maintain the remission of the disease. Liver transplantation may be indicated in cases of severe cirrhosis or fulminant hepatitis.

  17. Short Hairpin RNA Causes the Methylation of Transforming Growth Factor-β Receptor II Promoter and Silencing of the Target Gene in Rat Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Wook; Zhang, Yan-Hong; Zern, Mark A; Rossi, John J.; Wu, Jian

    2008-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) induces transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) in plant and animal cells. RNA dependent DNA methylation (RdDM) accounts for TGS in plants, but it is unclear whether siRNA induces RdDM in mammalian cells. To determine whether stable expression of short hairpin siRNA (shRNA) induces DNA methylation in mammalian cells, we transduced rat hepatic stellate SBC10 cells with lentiviral vectors which encode an U6 promoter-driven shRNA expression cassette homologous to the transforming growth factor-β receptor (TGFβRII) promoter region. Sequencing analysis of bisulfite-modified genomic DNA showed the methylation of cytosine residues both in CpG dinucleotides and non-CpG sites around the target region of the TGFβRII promoter in SBC10 cells transduced with the promoter-targeting lentiviral vector. In these cells, real-time RT-PCR showed a decrease in TGFβRII mRNA levels which were reversed by treatment with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine. Our results demonstrate that recombinant lentivirus-mediated shRNA delivery resulted in the methylation of the homologous promoter area in mammalian cells, and this approach may be used as a tool for transcriptional gene silencing by epigenetic modification of mammalian cell promoters. PMID:17533113

  18. Transforming growth factor-beta-induced stimulation of formation of collagen fiber network and anti-fibrotic effect of taurine in an in vitro model of hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Junya; Ido, Akio; Hasuike, Satoru; Uto, Hirofumi; Hori, Takeshi; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Murakami, Shigeru; Terano, Akira; Tsubouchi, Hirohito

    2004-09-01

    The cell strain M, which was established from normal rat liver cells, is characterized by the active formation of a collagen fiber network. In this study, we investigated the characterization of M cells and evaluated the anti-fibrogenic effects of taurine using this culture system. M cells expressed cytokeratin (CK)8, CK18, vimentin, and alpha-smooth muscle actin, whereas expression of CK-19 or desmin was not detected. Also, M cells expressed transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, -beta2, and TGF-beta type I and II receptors, and treatment with TGF-beta1 (1ng/ml) for 6 days markedly stimulated the formation of a collagen fiber network and expression of procollagen alpha1(I) mRNA. When M cells were treated with various concentrations of taurine (10-50mM), network formation and procollagen alpha1(I) expression were significantly suppressed in a dose dependent manner. Additionally, even in the presence of TGF-beta1, taurine treatment effectively reduced the formation of a collagen fiber network. These results suggest that M cells exhibit features of not only hepatocytes but also myofibroblasts, and TGF-beta1 plays an important role in the formation of collagen fiber networks in this culture system. Additionally, this M cell culture system is appropriate for use as an in vitro model of hepatic fibrosis in the evaluation of the anti-fibrogenic effects of various agents.

  19. Does academic performance or personal growth share a stronger association with learning environment perception?

    PubMed Central

    Tackett, Sean; Wright, Scott M.; Shochet, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to characterize the relative strength of associations of learning environment perception with academic performance and with personal growth. Methods In 2012-2014 second and third year students at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine completed a learning environment survey and personal growth scale. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was employed to determine if the proportion of variance in learning environment scores accounted for by personal growth was significantly larger than the proportion accounted for by academic performance (course/clerkship grades). Results The proportion of variance in learning environment scores accounted for by personal growth was larger than the proportion accounted for by academic performance in year 2 [R2Δ of 0.09, F(1,175) = 14.99,  p < .001] and year 3 [R2Δ of 0.28, F(1,169) = 76.80, p < .001]. Learning environment scores shared a small amount of variance with academic performance in years 2 and 3.  The amount of variance between learning environment scores and personal growth was small in year 2 and large in year 3. Conclusions Since supportive learning environments are essential for medical education, future work must determine if enhancing personal growth prior to and during the clerkship year will increase learning environment perception. PMID:27570912

  20. The MBE growth and optimization of high performance terahertz frequency quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Li, L H; Zhu, J X; Chen, L; Davies, A G; Linfield, E H

    2015-02-01

    The technique of molecular beam epitaxy has recently been used to demonstrate the growth of terahertz frequency GaAs/AlGaAs quantum cascade lasers (QCL) with Watt-level optical output powers. In this paper, we discuss the critical importance of achieving accurate layer thicknesses and alloy compositions during growth, and demonstrate that precise growth control as well as run-to-run growth reproducibility is possible. We also discuss the importance of minimizing background doping level in maximizing QCL performance. By selecting high-performance active region designs, and optimizing the injection doping level and device fabrication, we demonstrate total optical (two-facet) output powers as high as 1.56 W.

  1. Hepatic angiomyolipoma: what management?

    PubMed

    Barbier, L; Torrents, J; Hardwigsen, J

    2014-01-01

    An 80-year-old woman was referred for the surgical treatment of a 110-mm right hepatic tumor. The biopsy revealed an adenoma, and a right hepatectomy was performed. Histopathology indicated a major fat component with epitheliod cells, immunoreactivity for HMB45, Melan A, and smooth muscle actin, describing a hepatic epithelioid angiomyolipoma (AML). The AML belongs to the group of tumors with a Perivascular Epithelioid Cell differentiation. Its diagnosis is based on imaging and biopsy, and therefore might be difficult. Hepatic AML are mainly benign tumors; however, some tend to behave in a malignant manner. In case of histological proof, close clinical and radiological monitoring can be proposed if its size is less than 5 cm and no pejorative histological features are found. Nevertheless, follow-up is still required if resection is performed in search of recurrence or metastatic spread. PMID:25073214

  2. Monolayer-Mediated Growth of Organic Semiconductor Films with Improved Device Performance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lizhen; Hu, Xiaorong; Chi, Lifeng

    2015-09-15

    Increased interest in wearable and smart electronics is driving numerous research works on organic electronics. The control of film growth and patterning is of great importance when targeting high-performance organic semiconductor devices. In this Feature Article, we summarize our recent work focusing on the growth, crystallization, and device operation of organic semiconductors intermediated by ultrathin organic films (in most cases, only a monolayer). The site-selective growth, modified crystallization and morphology, and improved device performance of organic semiconductor films are demonstrated with the help of the inducing layers, including patterned and uniform Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers, crystalline ultrathin organic films, and self-assembled polymer brush films. The introduction of the inducing layers could dramatically change the diffusion of the organic semiconductors on the surface and the interactions between the active layer with the inducing layer, leading to improved aggregation/crystallization behavior and device performance. PMID:25992464

  3. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Simitzis, P E; Bronis, M; Charismiadou, M A; Mountzouris, K C; Deligeorgis, S G

    2014-09-01

    A trial was conducted to examine the effect of cinnamon essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality. Sixteen male lambs were randomly assigned to two groups. The first group served as control and was given a basal diet, and the second group was given the same diet supplemented with cinnamon oil (1 ml/kg of concentrated feed) for 35 days. Incorporation of cinnamon oil did not affect growth performance (P>0.05). Meat pH, colour, water-holding capacity, shear force, intramuscular fat and lipid oxidation values of longissimus thoracis muscle were not significantly influenced by cinnamon oil supplementation (P>0.05). The post-inoculation counts of Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes on raw meat during refrigerated storage for 6 days did not differ (P>0.05) between the two groups. The results show that cinnamon oil supplementation may not have the potential to improve lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics.

  4. Functional compatibility in cucumber mycorrhizas in terms of plant growth performance and foliar nutrient composition.

    PubMed

    Ravnskov, S; Larsen, J

    2016-09-01

    Functional compatibility in cucumber mycorrhizas in terms of plant and fungal growth, and foliar nutrient composition from all possible combinations of six cucumber varieties and three species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi was evaluated. Measurements of foliar nutrient composition included N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu. Growth of AM fungi was measured in terms of root colonisation, as examined with microscopy and the AM fungus biomarker fatty acid 16:1ω5 from both phospholipids and neutral lipids. Different responses of plant growth and foliar nutrient profiles were observed for the different AM symbioses examined. The AM fungus Claroideoglomus claroideum caused growth depression in association with four out of six cucumber varieties; Rhizophagus irregularis caused growth promotion in one of six cucumber varieties; whereas Funneliformis mosseae had no effect on the growth performance of any of the cucumber varieties examined. All three AM fungi markedly altered host plant shoot nutrient composition, with the strongest contrast observed between cucumber-R. irregularis symbioses and non-mycorrhizal cucumber plants, independent of cucumber variety. On the other hand, AM fungal growth in roots differed between the three AM fungi, but was unaffected by host genotype. Strong build-up of storage lipids was observed for R. irregularis, which was more moderate in the two other AM fungi. In conclusion, strong differential responses of cucumber varieties to inoculation with different AM fungi in terms of growth and shoot nutrient composition revealed high functional diversity in AM symbioses in cucumber plants.

  5. Asparagus polysaccharide and gum with hepatic artery embolization induces tumor growth and inhibits angiogenesis in an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Weng, Ling-Ling; Xiang, Jian-Feng; Lin, Jin-Bo; Yi, Shang-Hui; Yang, Li-Tao; Li, Yi-Sheng; Zeng, Hao-Tao; Lin, Sheng-Ming; Xin, Dong-Wei; Zhao, Hai-Liang; Qiu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Min-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Liver cancer is one of leading digestive malignancies with high morbidity and mortality. There is an urgent need for the development of novel therapies for this deadly disease. It has been proven that asparagus polysaccharide, one of the most active derivates from the traditional medicine asparagus, possesses notable antitumor properties. However, little is known about the efficacy of asparagus polysaccharide as an adjuvant for liver cancer chemotherapy. Herein, we reported that asparagus polysaccharide and its embolic agent form, asparagus gum, significantly inhibited liver tumor growth with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) therapy in an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor model, while significantly inhibiting angiogenesis and promoting tumor cell apoptosis. Moreover, asparagine gelatinous possessed immunomodulatory functions and showed little toxicity to the host. These results highlight the chemotherapeutic potential of asparagus polysaccharide and warrant a future focus on development as novel chemotherapeutic agent for liver cancer TACE therapy. PMID:25605207

  6. Asparagus polysaccharide and gum with hepatic artery embolization induces tumor growth and inhibits angiogenesis in an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Weng, Ling-Ling; Xiang, Jian-Feng; Lin, Jin-Bo; Yi, Shang-Hui; Yang, Li-Tao; Li, Yi-Sheng; Zeng, Hao-Tao; Lin, Sheng-Ming; Xin, Dong-Wei; Zhao, Hai-Liang; Qiu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Min-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Liver cancer is one of leading digestive malignancies with high morbidity and mortality. There is an urgent need for the development of novel therapies for this deadly disease. It has been proven that asparagus polysaccharide, one of the most active derivates from the traditional medicine asparagus, possesses notable antitumor properties. However, little is known about the efficacy of asparagus polysaccharide as an adjuvant for liver cancer chemotherapy. Herein, we reported that asparagus polysaccharide and its embolic agent form, asparagus gum, significantly inhibited liver tumor growth with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) therapy in an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor model, while significantly inhibiting angiogenesis and promoting tumor cell apoptosis. Moreover, asparagine gelatinous possessed immunomodulatory functions and showed little toxicity to the host. These results highlight the chemotherapeutic potential of asparagus polysaccharide and warrant a future focus on development as novel chemotherapeutic agent for liver cancer TACE therapy.

  7. Bile acids are "homeotrophic" sensors of the functional hepatic capacity and regulate adaptive growth during liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Geier, Andreas; Trautwein, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Liver mass depends on one or more unidentified humoral signals that drive regeneration when liver functional capacity is diminished. Bile acids are important liver products, and their levels are tightly regulated. Here, we identify a role for nuclear receptor-dependent bile acid signaling in normal liver regeneration. Elevated bile acid levels accelerate regeneration, and decreased levels inhibit liver regrowth, as does the absence of the primary nuclear bile acid receptor FXR. We propose that FXR activation by increased bile acid flux is a signal of decreased functional capacity of the liver. FXR, and possibly other nuclear receptors, may promote homeostasis not only by regulating expression of appropriate metabolic target genes but also by driving homeotrophic liver growth.

  8. Astragalus polysaccharides affect insulin resistance by regulating the hepatic SIRT1-PGC-1α/PPARα-FGF21 signaling pathway in male Sprague Dawley rats undergoing catch-up growth.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chengying; Zeng, Yipeng; Tang, Zhaosheng; Wang, Chaoxun; He, Yanju; Feng, Xinge; Zhou, Ligang

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated the effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on insulin resistance by modulation of hepatic sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)‑peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor (PPAR)‑γ coactivator (PGC)‑1α/PPARα‑fibroblast growth factor (FGF)21, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: A normal control group, a catch‑up growth group and an APS‑treated (APS-G) group. The latter two groups underwent food restriction for 4 weeks, prior to being provided with a high fat diet, which was available ad libitum. The APS‑G group was orally treated with APS for 8 weeks, whereas the other groups were administered saline. Body weight was measured and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted after 8 weeks. The plasma glucose and insulin levels obtained from the OGTT were assayed, and hepatic morphology was observed by light and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of PGC‑1α/PPARα, and the protein expression levels of SIRT1, FGF21 and nuclear factor‑κB were quantified in the liver and serum. APS treatment suppressed abnormal glycolipid metabolism and insulin resistance following 8 weeks of catch‑up growth by improving hepatic SIRT1‑PPARα‑FGF21 intracellular signaling and reducing chronic inflammation, and by partially attenuating hepatic steatosis. The suppressive effects of APS on liver acetylation and glycolipid metabolism‑associated molecules contributed to the observed suppression of insulin resistance. However, the mechanism underlying the effects of APS on insulin resistance requires further research in order to be elucidated. Rapid and long‑term treatment with APS may provide a novel, safe and effective therapeutic strategy for type 2 diabetes. PMID:26323321

  9. Exogenous bone morphogenetic protein-7 reduces hepatic fibrosis in Schistosoma japonicum-infected mice via transforming growth factor-β/Smad signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo-Lin; Peng, Jie; Li, Qing-Fu; Yang, Min; Wang, Yuan; Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the antifibrotic effects of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) on Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum)-induced hepatic fibrosis in BALB/C mice. METHODS: Sixty BALB/C mice were randomly divided into three groups, including a control group (group A, n = 20), model group (group B, n = 20) and BMP-7 treated group (group C, n = 20). The mice in group B and group C were abdominally infected with S. japonicum cercariae to induce a schistosomal hepatic fibrosis model. The mice in group C were administered human recombinant BMP-7. Liver samples were extracted from mice sacrificed at 9 and 15 wk after modeling. Hepatic histopathological changes were assessed using Masson’s staining. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2/3) and Smad7 protein levels and localization were measured by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively, and their mRNA expressions were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: The schistosomal hepatic fibrosis mouse model was successfully established, as the livers of mice in group B and group C showed varying degrees of typical schistosomal hepatopathologic changes such as egg granuloma and collagen deposition. The degree of collagen deposition in group C was higher than that in group A (week 9: 22.95 ± 6.66 vs 2.02 ± 0.76; week 15: 12.84 ± 4.36 vs 1.74 ± 0.80; P < 0.05), but significantly lower than that in group B (week 9: 22.95 ± 6.66 vs 34.43 ± 6.96; week 15: 12.84 ± 4.36 vs 18.90 ± 5.07; P < 0.05) at both time points. According to immunohistochemistry data, the expressions of α-SMA, TGF-β1 and pSmad2/3 protein in group C were higher than those in group A (α-SMA: week 9: 21.24 ± 5.73 vs 0.33 ± 0.20; week 15: 12.42 ± 4.88 vs 0.34 ± 0.27; TGF-β1: week 9: 37.00 ± 13.74 vs 3.73 ± 2.14; week 15: 16.71 ± 9.80 vs 3.08 ± 2.35; pSmad2/3: week 9: 12.92 ± 4.81 vs 0.83 ± 0.48; week 15: 7.87 ± 4

  10. Effects of mushroom and herb polysaccharides, as alternatives for an antibiotic, on growth performance of broilers.

    PubMed

    Guo, F C; Kwakkel, R P; Williams, B A; Li, W K; Li, H S; Luo, J Y; Li, X P; Wei, Y X; Yan, Z T; Verstegen, M W A

    2004-10-01

    (1) This in vivo trial was conducted to study the effects of polysaccharide extracts of two mushrooms, Lentinus edodes (LenE) and Tremella fuciformis (TreE), and a herb, Astragalus membranaceus (AstE) on growth performance, and the weights of organs and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of broiler chickens. (2) Three extracts (LenE, TreE and AstE) were supplemented at inclusion rates of 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/kg from 7 to 14 d of age and compared with an antibiotic treatment group (20 mg/kg, virginiamycin (VRG) as well as a group of non-supplemented birds. (3) Body weight (BW) gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the extract-supplemented groups were not significantly different from those of the antibiotic group. Significant effects of type of extract and concentration on growth performance were found from 7 to 28 d of age. Generally, birds fed with LenE showed higher BW gain and lower FCR from 7 to 28 d of age than those fed with TreE and AstE and 2 g/kg LenE was considered the optimal inclusion rate for enhanced broiler growth. However, the extracts had no significant effect on the relative weights of organs and GIT compared with the antibiotic group. (4) The birds fed the extracts showed better growth performance than the non-supplemented birds, but were not significantly different from those fed VRG. Of the three extracts, LenE appeared to be a potential growth promoter. Future studies are needed to investigate whether the extracts can be used as alternatives for antibiotic growth promoters in challenged birds, and to elucidate the mechanisms for potentially enhanced growth performance in poultry. PMID:15623224

  11. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med . 2014;161(1):58-66. PMID 24863637 ... Development Conference Statement: Management of hepatitis B. Ann Intern Med . 2009;150:104-10. PMID: 19124811 www. ...

  12. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Change Plan Wallet card for patients to record their alcohol use over a 4-week period as a way to monitor and reduce their drinking behavior. Glossary Definitions of terms commonly used with viral hepatitis and ...

  13. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... All babies should get the vaccine, but older children and adults can get it too. If you travel to countries where Hepatitis B is common, you should get the vaccine. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  14. Hepatic Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Tadros, Micheal; Forouhar, Faripour; Wu, George Y

    2013-12-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease characterized by the presence of non-caseating granulomas in affected organs. Pulmonary involvement is the most common site of disease activity. However, hepatic involvement is also common in sarcoidosis, occurring in up to 70% of patients. Most patients with liver involvement are asymptomatic. Therefore, the majority of cases are discovered incidentally, frequently by the finding of elevated liver enzymes. Pain in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, fatigue, pruritus, and jaundice may be associated with liver involvement. Portal hypertension and cirrhosis are complications linked to long-standing hepatic sarcoidosis. Liver biopsy is usually required to confirm the diagnosis. It is important to differentiate hepatic sarcoidosis from other autoimmune and granulomatous liver diseases. Not all cases of hepatic sarcoidosis require treatment. For symptomatic patients, the first line treatment includes corticosteroids or ursodeoxycholic acid. Various immunosuppressant agents can be used as second line agents. Rarely, severe cases require liver transplantation.

  15. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Heneghan, Michael A; Yeoman, Andrew D; Verma, Sumita; Smith, Alastair D; Longhi, Maria Serena

    2013-10-26

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a disease of the hepatic parenchyma that can present in acute or chronic forms. In common with many autoimmune diseases, autoimmune hepatitis is associated with non-organ-specific antibodies in the context of hepatic autoimmunity. This dichotomy has made definition of a unifying hypothesis in the pathophysiology of the disease difficult, although data from the past 8 years have drawn attention to the role of regulatory T cells. Several triggers have been identified, and the disease arises in genetically susceptible individuals. Clinical and biochemical remission is achievable in up to 85% of cases. For the remaining patients, alternative immunosuppression strategies are an option. Liver transplantation provides an excellent outcome for patients with acute liver failure or complications of end-stage liver disease, including hepatocellular carcinoma. Variant or overlapping syndromes are worthy of consideration when unexpected disease features arise.

  16. Store manager performance and satisfaction: effects on store employee performance and satisfaction, store customer satisfaction, and store customer spending growth.

    PubMed

    Netemeyer, Richard G; Maxham, James G; Lichtenstein, Donald R

    2010-05-01

    Based on emotional contagion theory and the value-profit chain literatures, the present study posits a number of hypotheses that show how managers in the small store, small number of employees retail context may affect store employees, customers, and potentially store performance. With data from 306 store managers, 1,615 store customer-contact employees, and 57,656 customers of a single retail chain, the authors examined relationships among store manager job satisfaction and job performance, store customer-contact employee job satisfaction and job performance, customer satisfaction with the retailer, and a customer-spending-based store performance metric (customer spending growth over a 2-year period). Via path analysis, several hypothesized direct and interaction relations among these constructs are supported. The results suggest implications for academic researchers and retail managers. PMID:20476831

  17. Store manager performance and satisfaction: effects on store employee performance and satisfaction, store customer satisfaction, and store customer spending growth.

    PubMed

    Netemeyer, Richard G; Maxham, James G; Lichtenstein, Donald R

    2010-05-01

    Based on emotional contagion theory and the value-profit chain literatures, the present study posits a number of hypotheses that show how managers in the small store, small number of employees retail context may affect store employees, customers, and potentially store performance. With data from 306 store managers, 1,615 store customer-contact employees, and 57,656 customers of a single retail chain, the authors examined relationships among store manager job satisfaction and job performance, store customer-contact employee job satisfaction and job performance, customer satisfaction with the retailer, and a customer-spending-based store performance metric (customer spending growth over a 2-year period). Via path analysis, several hypothesized direct and interaction relations among these constructs are supported. The results suggest implications for academic researchers and retail managers.

  18. Effects of small peptides, probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on growth performance, digestive enzymes, and oxidative stress in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, juveniles reared in artificial seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Cheng, Yongzhou; Chen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Zhaopu; Long, Xiaohua

    2016-04-01

    Aquaculture production efficiency may increase by using feed additives. This study investigated the effects of diff erent dietary additives [w/w: 2% small peptides, 0.01% probiotics (Bacillus licheniformis) and 0.2% prebiotics (inulin)] on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, and oxidative stress in juvenile Epinephelus coioides reared in artificial seawater of two salt concentrations (13.5 vs. 28.5). Weight gain rate was significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with small peptides, B. licheniformis, inulin, or synbiotics than that in fish fed the basal diet; the greatest weight gain rate was found in fish fed the small peptide treatment [56.0% higher than basal diet]. Higher feed efficiency was detected in fish fed the diet supplemented with small peptides than that of fish in the other dietary treatments. Total protease activity in the stomach and intestines was highest in fish fed the small peptide-treated diet, whereas lipase activity was highest in those fed synbiotics (combination of Bacillus licheniformis and inulin) than that in fish fed the other treatments. Antioxidant enzyme (total superoxide dismutase and catalase) activities and hepatic malondialdehyde content were higher in fish receiving the dietary supplements and maintained in artificial seawater containing 13.5 salinity compared with those in the control (28.5). Hepatic catalase activity in grouper fed the diets with small peptides or synbiotics decreased significantly compared with that in control fish. Overall, the three types of additives improved growth rate of juvenile grouper and digestive enzymes activities to varying degrees but did not effectively improve antioxidant capacity under low-salinity stress conditions.

  19. Hepatitis C in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Marinaki, Smaragdi; Boletis, John N; Sakellariou, Stratigoula; Delladetsima, Ioanna K

    2015-01-01

    Despite reduction of hepatitis C prevalence after recognition of the virus and testing of blood products, hemodialysis (HD) patients still comprise a high risk group. The natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in dialysis is not fully understood while the clinical outcome differs from that of the general population. HD patients show a milder liver disease with lower aminotransferase and viral levels depicted by milder histological features on liver biopsy. Furthermore, the “silent” clinical course is consistent with a slower disease progression and a lower frequency of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Potential explanations for the “beneficial” impact of uremia and hemodialysis on chronic HCV infection are impaired immunosurveillance leading to a less aggressive host response to the virus and intradialytic release of “hepatoprotective” cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-α and hepatocyte growth factor. However, chronic hepatitis C is associated with a higher liver disease related cardiovascular and all-cause mortality of HD patients. Therapy is indicated in selected patients groups including younger patients with low comorbidity burden and especially renal transplant candidates, preferably after performance of a liver biopsy. According to current recommendations, choice of treatment is IFN or pegylated interferon with a reported sustained viral response at 30%-40% and a withdrawal rate ranging from 17% to 30%. New data regarding combination therapy with low doses of ribavirin which provide higher standard variable rates and good safety results, offer another therapeutic option. The new protease inhibitors may be the future for HCV infected HD patients, though data are still lacking. PMID:25848478

  20. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on survival rate and growth performance of Convict Cichlid (Amatitlania nigrofasciata)

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, F; Mousavi, S. M.; Ahmadmoradi, E.; Zakeri, M.; Jahedi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Using probiotics can control pathogens by a variety of mechanisms. Probiotics can promote growth performance and have, therefore, become increasingly important in the aquaculture industry. Convict Cichlid belongs to the family of Cichlidae and is known for its rapid development in laboratory conditions and is suitable for behavioral examinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on growth performance, survival rate and body composition of Convict Cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata). One hundred sixty eight Convict Cichlids (mean weight: 2.1 ± 0.12 g and mean length: 2.2 ± 0.05 cm) were fed by commercial diets with different concentrations of S. cerevisiae (0, 0.5%, 1%, 2%). At the end of the experiment, survival rate and growth indices were measured. Based on the results, growth performance significantly increased with probiotic, S. cerevisiae, specially, at the 2% probiotic level of concentration. In the present study, the best FCR (feed conversion rate), SGR (specific growth rate), CF (condition factor) and BWG (body weight gain) values were observed in a 2% concentration of S. cerevisiae. The results suggest that this yeast could improve feed utilization in this fish species. PMID:27175152

  1. Growth performances of F1 Angus Plus calves grazing on pasture in Hawaii's tropical climate.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Ferreira, R; Duponte, M W; Fukumoto, G K; Zhao, B

    2009-04-01

    Angus Plus cattle offer advantages for heat tolerance and forage utilization by introduction of Brangus and Brahman to Angus. To evaluate its adaptability in Hawaii Islands, we reported the growth performances of 213 F1 Angus Plus calve grazing on pasture. Least-square means of pre-weaning ADG ranged from 1,087 to 1,167 g in bull calves and from 1,030 to 1,048 g in heifer calves. The 205 d-adjusted weaning weight were 226 to 285 kg in bulls and 214 to 252 kg in heifers. The birth weight and hip height at birth were significantly correlated with weaning weight, 205 d-adjusted weaning weight, hip height at weaning and pre-weaning ADG (P < 0.01). Sire group significantly influenced pre-weaning growth performances through interaction with sex of calf. Bull calves from sire group of high growth were 1.0-3.8 kg heavier in birth weight than the bull calves from other sires (P < 0.001). Sire group x sex interaction was significant (P < 0.05) for calf birth weight, 205-d adjusted weaning weight and pre-weaning ADG. Sire group also played a significant role in hip height at birth (P < 0.05). Selections of the sires preferable for growth significantly improved calf pre-weaning growth performances. PMID:18759132

  2. Effects of maternal nutrition on conceptus growth and offspring performance: implications for beef cattle production.

    PubMed

    Funston, R N; Larson, D M; Vonnahme, K A

    2010-04-01

    Developmental programming is the concept that a maternal stimulus or insult at a critical period in fetal development has long-term effects on the offspring. Historically, considerable effort has been made to understand how nutrition influences health and productivity during the postnatal period. Whereas maternal nutrition during pregnancy plays an essential role in proper fetal and placental development, less is known about how maternal nutrition affects the health and productivity of the offspring. Conceptus growth is sensitive to direct and indirect effects of maternal dietary intake. Even from the earliest stages of embryonic life, when nutrient requirements for conceptus growth are negligible, alterations in tissue composition can occur, influencing future growth of the compromised organ system. Not only is neonatal health compromised, but subsequent health may also be programmed because offspring from undernourished dams have exhibited poor growth and productivity and have developed significant diseases later in life. Although the literature is now evolving, with increasing evidence of how maternal nutrient restriction impairs several prenatal physiological variables, few studies have evaluated postnatal growth and development in livestock species, and fewer have evaluated it in beef cattle. In addition, very few studies have evaluated restriction of specific components of the diet during pregnancy (such as protein) on offspring growth and performance. This review focuses on how maternal nutrition affects conceptus growth and postnatal responses in beef cattle.

  3. Angiogenesis and experimental hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Queli Teixeira; Andrade, Zilton A

    2010-08-01

    Angiogenesis is a basic change occurring during repair by granulation tissue. This process seems to precede fibrosis formation in most types of chronic liver disease. To examine its presence and significance in different types of hepatic insults, this paper sought to identify the presence, evolution and peculiarities of angiogenesis in the most common experimental models of hepatic fibrosis. The characterization of cells, vessels and extracellular matrix and the identification of factors associated with endothelium (factor VIII RA), vascular basement membrane, other components of the vascular walls (actin, elastin) and the presence of the vascular-endothelial growth factor were investigated. The models examined included Capillaria hepatica septal fibrosis, whole pig serum injections, carbon tetrachloride administration, main bile duct ligation and Schistosoma mansoni infection. The first four models were performed in rats, while the last used mice. All models studied exhibited prominent angiogenesis. The most evident relationship between angiogenesis and fibrosis occurred with the C. hepatica model due to circumstances to be discussed. Special attention was paid to the presence of pericytes and to their tendency to become detached from the vascular wall and be transformed into myofibroblasts, which is a sequence of events that explains the decisive role angiogenesis plays in fibrosis.

  4. Expression of platelet-derived growth factor and its receptors in normal human liver and during active hepatic fibrogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Pinzani, M.; Milani, S.; Herbst, H.; DeFranco, R.; Grappone, C.; Gentilini, A.; Caligiuri, A.; Pellegrini, G.; Ngo, D. V.; Romanelli, R. G.; Gentilini, P.

    1996-01-01

    Expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptor (R) subunits was evaluated in normal human liver and in cirrhotic liver tissue by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. In normal liver, PDGF and PDGF-R subunit expression was limited to a few mesenchymal cells of the portal tract stroma and vessels. In cirrhotic liver, PDGF-A and -B chain mRNA expression was markedly increased and was co-distributed with immunoreactivity for PDGF-AA and -BB in infiltrating inflammatory cells and along vascular structures within fibrous septa. These aspects were paralleled by a marked overexpression of PDGF-R alpha- and beta-subunit mRNAs and of the relative immunoreactivities in a wide range of mesenchymal cells in fibrous septa and in perisinusoidal alpha-smooth-muscle-actin-positive cells. In general expression and distribution of PDGF-R subunits appeared to be related to the activation of different mesenchymal cell types involved in the fibroproliferative process. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of PDGF-R subunits in liver tissue specimens with increasing degrees of necroinflammatory activity. The results of this additional study confirmed that expression of PDGF-R subunits is highly correlated with the severity of histological lesions and collagen deposition. Our results, providing evidence for a functional involvement of PDGF/PDGF-R in liver fibrogenesis, greatly support the results of previous in vitro studies and direct attention toward pharmacological strategies able to affect the series of signaling events arising from the autophosphorylation of PDGF-R subunits. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8774134

  5. Glutathione levels discriminate between oxidative stress and transforming growth factor-beta signaling in activated rat hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    De Bleser, P J; Xu, G; Rombouts, K; Rogiers, V; Geerts, A

    1999-11-26

    Reactive oxygen species are implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, human immunodeficiency virus, and liver fibrosis. With respect to liver fibrosis, we have investigated differences in antioxidant enzymes expression in stellate cells (SCs) and parenchymal cells from normal and CCl(4)-treated rat livers. We observed an increase in the expression of catalase in activated SCs. Treatment with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) increased the production of H(2)O(2). Treatment with catalase decreased TGF-beta expression. Addition of H(2)O(2) resulted in increased TGF-beta production. 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole abolished the capacity of SCs to remove H(2)O(2). A paradoxical increase in capacity was observed when the cells were pretreated with diethyl maleate. Treatment with 3-amino-1, 2,4-triazole increased TGF-beta production. A paradoxical decrease of TGF-beta production was observed with diethyl maleate. Treatment of the cells with N-acetylcysteine resulted in increased TGF-beta production. TGF-beta decreased the capacity of the SCs to remove H(2)O(2.) An increase in the capacity to remove H(2)O(2) was observed when TGF-beta was removed by neutralizing antibodies. In conclusion, our results suggest: 1) a link between cellular GSH levels and TGF-beta production and 2) that cellular GSH levels discriminate whether H(2)O(2) is the result of oxidative stress or acts as second messenger in the TGF-beta signal transduction pathway.

  6. Regulation of growth hormone induced JAK2 and mTOR signalling by hepatic protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.

    PubMed

    Owen, C; Lees, E K; Mody, N; Delibegović, M

    2015-02-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) regulates various signalling pathways including insulin, leptin, IGF-1 and growth hormone (GH) signalling. Transmission of the GH signal depends on Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), which is how PTP1B is thought to modulate GH signalling in the liver, based on studies utilising global PTP1B knockout mice (Ptp1b(-/-)). Here, we investigated the liver-specific role of PTP1B in GH signalling, using liver-specific Ptp1b(-/-) mice (alb-crePtp1b(-/-)), under physiological (chow) or insulin resistant (high-fat diet [HFD]) feeding conditions. Body weight and adiposity were comparable between female alb-crePtp1b(-/-) and Ptp1b(fl/fl) control mice. On chow diet, under 48-hour fasting GH-resistant conditions, GH stimulation in vivo led to a robust stimulation of the JAK-STAT signalling pathway. Alb-crePtp1b(-/-) mice exhibited significantly higher GH-induced JAK2 phosphorylation and SOCS3 gene expression post-GH stimulation. However, STAT3, STAT5 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and SOCS2 gene expression were similar between groups. Interestingly, GH-induced mTOR phosphorylation was significantly higher in alb-crePtp1b(-/-) mice 5-min post-GH stimulation compared to controls, revealing this part of the pathway under direct control of PTP1B. Under ad lib HFD-fed conditions, GH-induced STAT5 phosphorylation significantly increased in alb-crePtp1b(-/-) mice only, with no alterations in the controls. Overall, our data demonstrate that liver-specific PTP1B deletion leads to significant alterations in GH signalling with increased JAK2, STAT5 and mTOR phosphorylation and SOCS3 gene expression.

  7. Essential Roles of RNA-binding Protein HuR in Activation of Hepatic Stellate Cells Induced by Transforming Growth Factor-β1

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jingjing; Chang, Na; Zhao, Zhongxin; Tian, Lei; Duan, Xianghui; Yang, Lin; Li, Liying

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding protein HuR mediates transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced profibrogenic actions. Up-regulation of Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) is involved in TGF-β1-induced activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in liver fibrogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism of TGF-β1 regulates SphK1 remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the role of HuR in TGF-β1-induced SphK1 expression and identify a new molecular mechanism in liver fibrogenensis. In vivo, HuR expression was increased, translocated to cytoplasm, and bound to SphK1 mRNA in carbon tetrachloride- and bile duct ligation-induced mouse fibrotic liver. HuR mRNA expression had a positive correlation with mRNA expressions of SphK1 and fibrotic markers, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and Collagen α1(I), respectively. In vitro, up-regulation of SphK1 and activation of HSCs stimulated by TGF-β1 depended on HuR cytoplasmic accumulation. The effects of TGF-β1 were diminished when HuR was silenced or HuR cytoplasmic translocation was blocked. Meanwhile, overexpression of HuR mimicked the effects of TGF-β1. Furthermore, TGF-β1 prolonged half-life of SphK1 mRNA by promoting its binding to HuR. Pharmacological or siRNA-induced SphK1 inhibition abrogated HuR-mediated HSC activation. In conclusion, our data suggested that HuR bound to SphK1 mRNA and played a crucial role in TGF-β1-induced HSC activation. PMID:26912347

  8. Essential Roles of RNA-binding Protein HuR in Activation of Hepatic Stellate Cells Induced by Transforming Growth Factor-β1.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jingjing; Chang, Na; Zhao, Zhongxin; Tian, Lei; Duan, Xianghui; Yang, Lin; Li, Liying

    2016-02-25

    RNA-binding protein HuR mediates transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced profibrogenic actions. Up-regulation of Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) is involved in TGF-β1-induced activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in liver fibrogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism of TGF-β1 regulates SphK1 remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the role of HuR in TGF-β1-induced SphK1 expression and identify a new molecular mechanism in liver fibrogenensis. In vivo, HuR expression was increased, translocated to cytoplasm, and bound to SphK1 mRNA in carbon tetrachloride- and bile duct ligation-induced mouse fibrotic liver. HuR mRNA expression had a positive correlation with mRNA expressions of SphK1 and fibrotic markers, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and Collagen α1(I), respectively. In vitro, up-regulation of SphK1 and activation of HSCs stimulated by TGF-β1 depended on HuR cytoplasmic accumulation. The effects of TGF-β1 were diminished when HuR was silenced or HuR cytoplasmic translocation was blocked. Meanwhile, overexpression of HuR mimicked the effects of TGF-β1. Furthermore, TGF-β1 prolonged half-life of SphK1 mRNA by promoting its binding to HuR. Pharmacological or siRNA-induced SphK1 inhibition abrogated HuR-mediated HSC activation. In conclusion, our data suggested that HuR bound to SphK1 mRNA and played a crucial role in TGF-β1-induced HSC activation.

  9. (Latent) transforming growth factor beta in liver parenchymal cells, its injury-dependent release, and paracrine effects on rat hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Roth, S; Michel, K; Gressner, A M

    1998-04-01

    Cultured parenchymal liver cells (PC) were recently recognized to contain (latent) transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) while the expression of TGF-beta mRNA remains controversial. This study was designed to analyze PC in different microenvironments (liver in situ, highly purified, isolated, and cultured PC) regarding the qualitative and quantitative content of mature and latent TGF-beta protein (immunostainings, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], and enzyme-labeled fluorescence [ELF] technique). The results were compared with its gene expression (reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR]). In all microenvironments, PC contained latent TGF-beta, which was partially activated after cell isolation and culture. The amount of total TGF-beta (mature plus latent) of latency-associated peptide (LAP) and of latent TGF-beta binding protein (LTBP) were shown to decrease during culture. In contrast, TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 mRNA and LTBP-1 and -3 mRNA expression were first detectable after culture. Permeabilization of cell membranes in whole liver and of isolated PC with streptolysin O or carbon tetrachloride, respectively, released TGF-beta, a part of which was integrated in the large latent complex as estimated by analytical gel filtration chromatography. The TGF-beta released by damaged PC induces paracrine effects on hepatic stellate cell cultures. It stimulates hyaluronan synthesis and antagonizes the effect of mitogenic factor(s) of PC on [3H]thymidine incorporation. The results strongly suggest that the main part of hepatocellular TGF-beta is not generated by de novo synthesis but from uptake into the liver in vivo. The immunodetection of preexisting mature TGF-beta after isolation of the cells is probably caused by intracellular activation of latent TGF-beta. The injury-dependent discharge of TGF-beta from PC might be an important mechanism for initiation and perpetuation of various forms of chronic human liver diseases.

  10. Effects of in ovo 2,3,7,8-TCDD exposure on hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction and growth-related parameters in avian species

    SciTech Connect

    Janz, D.M.; Bellward, G.D.

    1994-12-31

    The effects of early in ovo TCDD exposure on CYP1A1 induction and indices of growth were determined in domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) and pigeon (Columba livia) hatchlings. TCDD (in corn oil) was injected into the air sac of eggs on embryonic day 4 (E4) (chickens, 0.1 {mu}g/kg egg; pigeons, 1.0 {mu}g/kg egg), and on E14 (pigeons, 3.0 {mu}g/kg egg). In chickens, hepatic EROD was induced 13, 15, 34, and 43-fold above control activities on E19, day of hatch (DO), day 2 after hatch (D2), and D4, respectively. Plasma thyroid hormone (T{sub 3} T{sub 4}) concentrations, which are known to peak during the perinatal period in chickens, were not affected by TCDD treatment when measured on E17, E19, D0, D2, and D4. In pigeons injected on E4, EROD was induced 15 and 6-fold on D0 and D7, respectively. There were significant decreases in yolk-free body weight, crown-rump, tibia, culmen, and wing lengths, and an elevated liver to body weight ratio (LSI) in TCDD-treated pigeons raised to D7 (p < 0.01). In pigeons injected on E14 (3{mu}g/kg), EROD was induced 14 and 10-fold on D0 and D7, respectively. Crown-rump and culmen lengths were decreased (p < 0.05) and LSI was increased (p < 0.01) on D0. There were significant decreases in all morphological parameters, and an increased LSI on D7 (p < 0.01) in TCDD-treated birds. These techniques will be used in further studies to investigate possible mechanisms of TCDD embryotoxicity in wild avian species, such as the great blue heron (Ardea herodias).

  11. Effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on bovine uterine endometrial and hepatic gene expression of the insulin-like growth factor system.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Gerard S; Kenny, David A; Waters, Sinéad M

    2011-02-01

    Supplementation of cattle diets with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been suggested to have positive effects on fertility. In addition, the actions of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system both systemically and locally have been shown to influence reproductive processes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation on hepatic and endometrial expression of IGF signalling genes in cattle. Beef heifers were supplemented with a rumen protected source of either a saturated fatty acid (palmitic acid; CON) or high n-3 PUFA diet (n-3 PUFA) for 45 days before slaughter and tissue recovery. Transcription level of candidate IGF signalling genes was measured by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) in total RNA isolated from uterine endometrial and liver tissue from seven CON and seven n-3 PUFA supplemented animals. Compared to controls, mRNA abundance in n-3 PUFA liver tissues was higher for IGF-2R, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-5 (P < 0.05); lower for GHR-1A (P < 0.05); and unchanged for IGF-1, IGF-2, IGF-1R, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-4, IGFBP-6, ALS and GHR(total) (P > 0.05). Compared to controls, mRNA abundance in n-3 PUFA endometrial tissues was higher for IGF-2, IGF-1R, IGF-2R and IGFBP-2 (P < 0.05); lower for IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-6 (P < 0.05); and unchanged for IGFBP-1, IGFBP-4, IGFBP-5 and GHR(total) (P > 0.05). Thus, dietary supplementation of cattle with n-3 PUFA affects transcription of genes involved in IGF signalling, in a tissue dependent fashion.

  12. Hepatitis C FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  13. Hepatitis B FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  14. Hepatitis A Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Hepatitis A Testing Share this page: Was this page ... HAV-Ab total; Anti-HAV Formal name: Viral Hepatitis A Antibody Related tests: Hepatitis B Testing ; Hepatitis ...

  15. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis D virus ... Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is found only in people who carry the hepatitis B virus. HDV may make liver ... B virus but who never had symptoms. Hepatitis D infects about 15 million people worldwide. It occurs ...

  16. Arginine: New Insights into Growth Performance and Urinary Metabolomic Profiles of Rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangmang; Wu, Xianjian; Jia, Gang; Chen, Xiaoling; Zhao, Hua; Wang, Jing; Wu, Caimei; Cai, Jingyi

    2016-01-01

    Arginine regulates growth performance, nutrient metabolism and health effects, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. This study aims to investigate the effect of dietary arginine supplementation on rat growth performance and urinary metabolome through ¹H-NMR spectroscopy. Twenty rats were randomly assigned to two groups supplemented with 0% or 1.0% l-arginine for 4 weeks. Urine samples were analyzed through NMR-based metabolomics. Arginine supplementation significantly increased the urine levels of 4-aminohippurate, acetate, creatine, creatinine, ethanolamine, formate, hippurate, homogentisate, indoxyl sulfate, and phenylacetyglycine. Conversely, arginine decreased the urine levels of acetamide, β-glucose, cirtulline, ethanol, glycine, isobutyrate, lactate, malonate, methymalonate, N-acetylglutamate, N-methylnicotinamide, and propionate. Results suggested that arginine can alter common systemic metabolic processes, including energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and gut microbiota metabolism. Moreover, the results also imply a possible physiological role of the metabolism in mediating the arginine supplementation-supported growth of rats. PMID:27589702

  17. Performance evaluation of the HepB Typer-Entecavir kit for detection of entecavir resistance mutations in chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sang Hoon; Chun, Ji-Yong; Shin, Soo-Kyung; Park, Jun Yong; Yoo, Wangdon; Hong, Sun Pyo; Han, Kwang-Hyub

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Molecular diagnostic methods have enabled the rapid diagnosis of drug-resistant mutations in hepatitis B virus (HBV) and have reduced both unnecessary therapeutic interventions and medical costs. In this study we evaluated the analytical and clinical performances of the HepB Typer-Entecavir kit (GeneMatrix, Korea) in detecting entecavir-resistance-associated mutations. Methods The HepB Typer-Entecavir kit was evaluated for its limit of detection, interference, cross-reactivity, and precision using HBV reference standards made by diluting high-titer viral stocks in HBV-negative human serum. The performance of the HepB Typer-Entecavir kit for detecting mutations related to entecavir resistance was compared with direct sequencing for 396 clinical samples from 108 patients. Results Using the reference standards, the detection limit of the HepB Typer-Entecavir kit was found to be as low as 500 copies/mL. No cross-reactivity was observed, and elevated levels of various interfering substances did not adversely affect its analytical performance. The precision test conducted by repetitive analysis of 2,400 replicates with reference standards at various concentrations showed 99.9% agreement (2398/2400). The overall concordance rate between the HepB Typer-Entecavir kit and direct sequencing assays in 396 clinical samples was 99.5%. Conclusions The HepB Typer-Entecavir kit showed high reliability and precision, and comparable sensitivity and specificity for detecting mutant virus populations in reference and clinical samples in comparison with direct sequencing. Therefore, this assay would be clinically useful in the diagnosis of entecavir-resistance-associated mutations in chronic hepatitis B. PMID:24459645

  18. Hepatic hemangioma -review-.

    PubMed

    Bajenaru, N; Balaban, V; Săvulescu, F; Campeanu, I; Patrascu, T

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic hemangiomas are benign tumors of the liver consisting of clusters of blood-filled cavities, lined by endothelial cells, fed by the hepatic artery. The vast majority of HH are asymptomatic, most often being discovered incidentally during imaging investigations for various unrelated pathologies. Typical hemangiomas, the so-called capillary hemangiomas, range from a few mm to 3 cm, do not increase in size over time and therefore are unlikely to generate future symptomatology. Small (mm-3 cm) and medium (3 cm-10 cm) hemangiomas are well-defined lesions, requiring no active treatment beside regular follow-ups. However, the so-called giant liver hemangiomas, of up to 10 cm (most commonly) and even 20+ cm in size (according to occasional reports) can, and usually will develop symptoms and complications that require prompt surgical intervention or other kind of therapy. HH belong to the class of hepatic "incidentalomas", so-called because they are diagnosed incidentally, on imaging studies performed as routine examinations or for other reasons than the evaluation of a possible liver mass. Less than half of HH present with overt clinical symptoms, consisting, most often, of upper abdominal pain (this is usually the case for large lesions, which cause the distension of Glisson's capsule). Hepatic hemangiomas require a careful diagnosis to differentiate from other focal hepatic lesions, co-occurring diagnoses are also possible.

  19. Longitudinal Changes in Physical Fitness Performance in Youth: A Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chee Keng John; Pyun, Do Young; Liu, Woon Chia; Lim, Boon San Coral; Li, Fuzhong

    2013-01-01

    Using a multilevel latent growth curve modeling (LGCM) approach, this study examined longitudinal change in levels of physical fitness performance over time (i.e. four years) in young adolescents aged from 12-13 years. The sample consisted of 6622 students from 138 secondary schools in Singapore. Initial analyses found between-school variation on…

  20. Lysozyme as an alternative to antibiotics improves growth performance and small intestinal morphology in nursery pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lysozyme is a 1,4-ß-N-acetylmuramidase that has antimicrobial properties. The objective of this experiment was to determine if lysozyme in nursery diets improved growth performance and gastrointestinal health of pigs weaned from the sow at 24 d of age. Two replicates of 96 pigs (192 total 96 males,...

  1. The Effect of Firm Strategy and Corporate Performance on Software Market Growth in Emerging Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Sharon A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact of firm strategies and corporate performance on enterprise software market growth in emerging regions. The emerging regions of Asia Pacific, Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Africa, and Latin America, currently represent smaller overall markets for software vendors, but exhibit high growth…

  2. Response to five generations of selection for growth performance traits in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A pedigreed rainbow trout population (~100 families per generation) was selected for five generations to improve growth performance to the standard ~500-gram US market weight and beyond (greater than 1 kg). Body weights (BW) were recorded each generation at 5, 8, 10, and 13 months post-hatch. Selec...

  3. The exposure to lipopolysaccharide in utero alters growth performance of calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure on the postnatal growth performance of calves. Pregnant crossbred cows (n=50) were separated into prenatal stress (PNS; n=25; administered 0.1 microgram per kilogram body weight LPS subcutaneously) and sali...

  4. [Growth and motor performance of schoolchildren from the city of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Guedes, D P; Guedes, J E

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an analysis concerning the behavior of variables aimed at characterizing growth and motor performance in relation to chronological age and gender, attempting to establish the level of importance of morphological aspects in modification of functional-motor activity in schoolchildren from the city of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. The sample was composed of 1,180 randomly-selected subjects, from 7 to 17 years of age. Growth characteristics were determined by height and body weight. As for motor performance, tests for handgrip strength, sit-and-reach, sit-up, standing long jump, and 50- and 1000-meter races were applied. Analysis of results indicated that growth variables only begin to present important gender-based differences after 15 years of age, while for motor performance differences were found favoring boys in almost all motor tests from seven years on, with an increasing sexual dimorphism index as the children and adolescents grew. The low (albeit statistically significant) correlation between height/body weight and results of motor tests indicated that high growth patterns do not necessarily ensure a satisfactory motor performance index.

  5. Effect of Sodium Butyrate on Growth Performance and Response to Lipopolysaccharide in Weanling Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary sodium butyrate on growth performance and response to E. coli. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in weanling pigs. In the first 28 d experiment, 180 pigs (initial BW 6.3 kg) were fed 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4% sodium butyrate, or 110 mg/kg d...

  6. Evaluation of Moringa oleifera as a dietary supplement on growth and reproductive performance in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Latoya T.; Fowler, Lauren A.; Barry, Robert J.; Watts, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    The leaves of the Moringa oleifera (Moringa) tree contain a significant source of protein, vitamins and minerals, and are considered as an important dietary supplement in countries where chronic malnourishment is linked to poor fetal development. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Moringa leaf as a supplemental replacement for vitamins, minerals, and protein in a formulated zebrafish diet and the impact that it may have on growth and reproductive outcome. Diets included a formulated control (FC) containing an array of vitamins and mineral supplements (pre-mixes), dried ground Moringa only (M), formulated control minus vitamin and mineral pre-mixes (Fvm), and formulated control minus vitamin and mineral pre-mixes and supplemented with Moringa (FM). Juvenile zebrafish were fed experimental diets ad libitum. After a 12 week feeding period, each treatment group was evaluated based on growth and reproductive performance. The M treatment showed the least growth performance (length and weight gain) and no reproductive success (no egg production). Although small, M fish appeared otherwise healthy, with survivorship at ca. 70%, suggesting, Moringa can serve as a single ingredient source for a short period of time. FC showed the highest growth performance, and had the highest reproductive success. Growth performance and reproduction in the Fvm diet was greatly reduced. However, inclusion of Moringa (FM) promoted significant, but not total, recovery of growth and reproductive metrics. These data suggest that Moringa leaves can serve as an acceptable supplement for macro and micronutrients in the diet and could, in part, reduce problems associated with nutrient deficiencies. PMID:27570785

  7. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  8. Detection of infections with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus by analyses of dried blood spots - performance characteristics of the ARCHITECT system and two commercial assays for nucleic acid amplification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nowadays, dried blood spots (DBS) are primarily used to obtain diagnostic access to risk collectives such as intravenous drug users, who are prone to infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Before DBS analyses can be used in this diagnostic context, however, a comprehensive evaluation of its performance characteristics must be conducted. To the best of our knowledge, the current study presents for the first time such essential data for the Abbott ARCHITECT system, which is currently the worldwide leading platform in this field of infection diagnostics. Methods The investigation comprised 1,762 paired serum/DBS samples and a total of 3,524 determinations with the Abbott ARCHITECT HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HCV and HIV-1-p24-antigen/anti-HIV 1/2 assays as well as with the artus HBV LC PCR and VERSANT HCV RNA qualitative (TMA) tests. Results In the context of DBS testing, a specificity of 100% was recorded for the seven serological and molecular biological assays. The analytical sensitivity of HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HCV, HIV-1-p24-antigen/anti-HIV 1/2, HBV DNA, and HCV RNA detections in DBS eluates was 98.6%, 97.1%, 97.5%, 97.8%, 100%, 93%, and 100%, respectively. Discussion/conclusions The results obtained indicate that it is today possible to reliably detect HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HCV and HIV-1-p24 antigen/anti-HIV 1/2 with state-of-the-art analytical systems such as the Abbott ARCHITECT in DBS eluates even when a comparatively high elution volume of 1,000 μl is used. They also provide evidence for the inherent analytical limits of DBS testing, which primarily concern the anti-HBc/anti-HBs system for individuals with HIV infections and nucleic acid tests with relatively low analytical sensitivity. PMID:23497102

  9. In situ growth of monolayer porous gold nanoparticles film as high-performance SERS substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chunyuan; Wei, Yuhan; Da, Bingtao; Zhang, Haiting; Cong, Xing; Yang, Boyue; Yang, Yanjun; Wang, Lianhui

    2016-07-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has recently received considerable attention as an ultrasensitive analytic technique. However, its wide application is limited by lack of excellent SERS-active substrates. In this work a SERS substrate with arrayed monolayer films of porous gold nanoparticles is prepared on a solid substrate by a facile, in situ and one-step growth approach. Specifically, the solid substrate was coated with a layer of dense positive charges first by layer-by-layer assembly, followed by patterned a PDMS film with arrayed wells on the substrate. Then the growth solution including chlorauric acid, cetyltrimethylammonium chloride, and ascorbic acid in a certain proportion was transferred into the wells for in situ and one-step growth of porous gold nanoparticles on the substrate. The growth time, feed ratio of the reagents, and repeat times of the in situ growth were studied systematically to obtain optimal parameters for preparing an optimal SERS substrate. The as-prepared optimal SERS substrate not only has good SERS performance with the enhancement factor up to ∼1.10 × 106, but also shows good uniformity and stability. The SERS substrate was further utilized to be ultrasensitive SERS-based chemical sensors for ppb-level detection of highly toxic dyfonate. The preliminary result indicates that the as-prepared SERS substrate has good SERS performance and shows a number of great potential applications in SERS-based sensors.

  10. Larval and juvenile growth performance of Manila clam hybrids of two full-sib families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Zhongming; Yan, Xiwu; Zhao, Liqiang; Liang, Jian; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Guofan

    2015-06-01

    In order to determine whether growth performance could be improved by hybridizing full-sib families of Manila clam ( Ruditapes philippinarum), crosses between two full-sib families including self and reciprocal crosses were carried out. The effects of heterosis, combining ability and interaction on the growth of shell length were estimated. The results showed that the growth of hybrid larvae was intermediate between parents on days 6 and 9. Heterosis on shell length was observed, which varied at juvenile stage. The cross of ♂A × ♀B ( Hp varied between 10.41% and 68.27%) displayed larger heterosis than ♂B × ♀A ( Hp varied between 1.89% and 32.33%) did, suggesting that ♂A × ♀B was an ideal hatchery method of improving the growth performance of Manila clam. The variances of general combining ability (GCA), special combining ability (SCA) and interaction (I) were significant in shell length (P < 0.05), indicating that both additive and non-additive genetic factors were important contributors to the growth of larvae and juveniles. The GCA for shell length of ♂A × ♀B was higher than that of ♂B × ♀A at both larval and juvenile stages. This confirmed that the cross between ♂A and ♀B showed great growth in shell length. In summary, the growth of Manila clam seeds could be improved by hybridizing selected parents from large numbers of full-sib families.

  11. Hepatitis C: Sex and Sexuality

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Hepatitis » Sex and Sexuality: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... hepatitis C virus through sex. Can you pass hepatitis C to a sex partner? Yes, but it ...

  12. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation in different stages on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Guo, Z Y; Li, J L; Zhang, L; Jiang, Y; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of basal dietary supplementation with 500 mg/kg alpha-lipoic acid (LA) on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in different stages in broiler chickens. A total of 240 Arbor Acre chickens were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups, each treatment containing 6 replicates of 10 chickens each. Group 1 was the control group without LA supplementation; Group 2 was supplied with LA in the starter period; Group 3 was supplied with LA in the grower period; and Group 4 was supplied with LA in the whole period. The results showed that LA supplementation improved average feed intake and body weight gain in all three experimental groups, especially in Group 2. LA supplementation significantly decreased abdominal fat yield in Groups 3 and 4. LA supplementation all improved hepatic total antioxidant capacity, the level of glutathione, the activities of total superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase, in particular in Group 4. LA supplementation decreased the activity of liver xanthine oxidase (XO) in all experimental groups, and that of liver monoamine oxidase in Group 3. The activities of liver CAT and XO in Group 2 were higher than that in Group 3. LA supplementation elevated the pH24 h and decreased drip loss in breast meat in Groups 3 and 4. In conclusion, LA supplementation can improve growth performance, antioxidant properties and meat quality in broiler chicken. LA supplementation in the starter period can improve growth performance and supplementation in the grower - and in the whole period can improve carcass characteristics. There was no significant difference in meat quality of broiler chickens fed on LA-supplemented diet in different stages. PMID:25162760

  13. Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Bharti; Kumar Dharma, Vijay; Chawla, Sumit; Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Following acute infection, 20% of people eliminate the virus over weeks or months and are often asymptomatic. The remaining 80% of people will develop chronic disease, of which approximately 20% will eventually develop liver cirrhosis and 1–5% will develop liver cancer. About 150 million people are chronically infected with HCV, and more than 350 000 people die every year from hepatitis C related liver diseases. The economic cost of hepatitis C is significant both to the individual and to the society. In the United States the average lifetime cost of the disease was estimated at $33 407 USD with the cost of a liver transplant approximately $200 000 USD. PEG-IFN and ribavirin treatment is also expensive and, at an average cost of approximately GB £7000 in the UK for a treatment course, is unaffordable in developing countries. Hepatitis C, not only brings down the quality of the life of individuals but also affect progress of the nation by adding financial burden. If we prevent the disease from occurring or find a perfect cure of the disease, in form of a prophylactic or therapeutic vaccine, it will be a boon to not only to the individual but to the nation as a whole. PMID:24165512

  14. Functional compatibility in cucumber mycorrhizas in terms of plant growth performance and foliar nutrient composition.

    PubMed

    Ravnskov, S; Larsen, J

    2016-09-01

    Functional compatibility in cucumber mycorrhizas in terms of plant and fungal growth, and foliar nutrient composition from all possible combinations of six cucumber varieties and three species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi was evaluated. Measurements of foliar nutrient composition included N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu. Growth of AM fungi was measured in terms of root colonisation, as examined with microscopy and the AM fungus biomarker fatty acid 16:1ω5 from both phospholipids and neutral lipids. Different responses of plant growth and foliar nutrient profiles were observed for the different AM symbioses examined. The AM fungus Claroideoglomus claroideum caused growth depression in association with four out of six cucumber varieties; Rhizophagus irregularis caused growth promotion in one of six cucumber varieties; whereas Funneliformis mosseae had no effect on the growth performance of any of the cucumber varieties examined. All three AM fungi markedly altered host plant shoot nutrient composition, with the strongest contrast observed between cucumber-R. irregularis symbioses and non-mycorrhizal cucumber plants, independent of cucumber variety. On the other hand, AM fungal growth in roots differed between the three AM fungi, but was unaffected by host genotype. Strong build-up of storage lipids was observed for R. irregularis, which was more moderate in the two other AM fungi. In conclusion, strong differential responses of cucumber varieties to inoculation with different AM fungi in terms of growth and shoot nutrient composition revealed high functional diversity in AM symbioses in cucumber plants. PMID:27094118

  15. Association of Chicken Growth Hormones and Insulin-like Growth Factor Gene Polymorphisms with Growth Performance and Carcass Traits in Thai Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Anh, Nguyen Thi Lan; Kunhareang, Sajee; Duangjinda, Monchai

    2015-01-01

    Molecular marker selection has been an acceptable tool in the acceleration of the genetic response of desired traits to improve production performance in chickens. The crossbreds from commercial parent stock (PS) broilers with four Thai synthetic breeds; Kaen Thong (KT), Khai Mook Esarn (KM), Soi Nin (SN), and Soi Pet (SP) were used to study the association among chicken growth hormones (cGH) and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) genes for growth and carcass traits; for the purpose of developing a suitable terminal breeding program for Thai broilers. A total of 408 chickens of four Thai broiler lines were genotyped, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. The cGH gene was significantly associated with body weight at hatching; at 4, 6, 8, 10 weeks of age and with average daily gain (ADG); during 2 to 4, 4 to 6, 0 to 6, 0 to 8, and 0 to 10 weeks of age in PS×KM chickens. For PS×KT populations, cGH gene showed significant association with body weight at hatching, and ADG; during 8 to 10 weeks of age. The single nucleotide polymorphism variant confirmed that allele G has positive effects for body weight and ADG. Within carcass traits, cGH revealed a tentative association within the dressing percentage. For the IGF-I gene polymorphism, there were significant associations with body weight at hatching; at 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age and ADG; during 0 to 2, 4 to 6, and 0 to 6 weeks of age; in all of four Thai broiler populations. There were tentative associations of the IGF-I gene within the percentages of breast muscles and wings. Thus, cGH gene may be used as a candidate gene, to improve growth traits of Thai broilers. PMID:26580435

  16. Parenteral versus enteral nutrition: effect on serum cytokines and the hepatic expression of mRNA of suppressor of cytokine signaling proteins, insulin-like growth factor-1 and the growth hormone receptor in rodent sepsis

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary, Michael J; Xue, Aiqun; Scarlett, Christopher J; Sevette, Andre; Kee, Anthony J; Smith, Ross C

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Early nutrition is recommended for patients with sepsis, but data are conflicting regarding the optimum route of delivery. Enteral nutrition (EN), compared with parenteral nutrition (PN), results in poorer achievement of nutritional goals but may be associated with fewer infections. Mechanisms underlying differential effects of the feeding route on patient outcomes are not understood, but probably involve the immune system and the anabolic response to nutrients. We studied the effect of nutrition and the route of delivery of nutrition on cytokine profiles, the growth hormone–insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) axis and a potential mechanism for immune and anabolic system interaction, the suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS), in rodents with and without sepsis. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomized to laparotomy (Sham) or to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), with postoperative saline infusion (Starve), with EN or with PN for 72 hours. Serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were measured by immunoassay, and hepatic expressions of cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein, SOCS-2, SOCS-3, IGF-I and the growth hormone receptor (GHR) were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Results IL-6 was detectable in all groups, but was only present in all animals receiving CLP-PN. IL-10 was detectable in all but one CLP-PN rat, one CLP-EN rat, approximately 50% of the CLP-Starve rats and no sham-operated rats. Cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein mRNA was increased in the CLP-EN group compared with the Sham-EN group and the other CLP groups (P < 0.05). SOCS-2 mRNA was decreased in CLP-PN rats compared with Sham-PN rats (P = 0.07). SOCS-3 mRNA was increased with CLP compared with sham operation (P < 0.03). IGF-I mRNA (P < 0.05) and GHR mRNA (P < 0.03) were greater in the fed CLP animals and in the Sham-PN group compared with the starved rats. Conclusion In established sepsis, nutrition and the route of administration of nutrition influences the

  17. Influence of growth conditions on the performance of InP nanowire solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalli, Alessandro; Cui, Yingchao; Kölling, Sebastian; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Plissard, Sebastien R.; Wang, Jia; Koenraad, Paul M.; Haverkort, Jos E. M.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Nanowire based solar cells have attracted great attention due to their potential for high efficiency and low device cost. Photovoltaic devices based on InP nanowires now have characteristics comparable to InP bulk solar cells. A detailed and direct correlation of the influence of growth conditions on performance is necessary to improve efficiency further. We explored the effects of the growth temperature, and of the addition of HCl during growth, on the efficiency of nanowire array based solar cell devices. By increasing HCl, the saturation dark current was reduced, and thereby the nanowire solar cell efficiency was enhanced from less than 1% to 7.6% under AM 1.5 illumination at 1 sun. At the same time, we observed that the solar cell efficiency decreased by increasing the tri-methyl-indium content, strongly suggesting that these effects are carbon related.

  18. Circadian rhythms of hydraulic conductance and growth are enhanced by drought and improve plant performance.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Cecilio F; Jeanguenin, Linda; Chaumont, François; Tardieu, François

    2014-11-05

    Circadian rhythms enable plants to anticipate daily environmental variations, resulting in growth oscillations under continuous light. Because plants daily transpire up to 200% of their water content, their water status oscillates from favourable during the night to unfavourable during the day. We show that rhythmic leaf growth under continuous light is observed in plants that experience large alternations of water status during an entrainment period, but is considerably buffered otherwise. Measurements and computer simulations show that this is due to oscillations of plant hydraulic conductance and plasma membrane aquaporin messenger RNA abundance in roots during continuous light. A simulation model suggests that circadian oscillations of root hydraulic conductance contribute to acclimation to water stress by increasing root water uptake, thereby favouring growth and photosynthesis. They have a negative effect in favourable hydraulic conditions. Climate-driven control of root hydraulic conductance therefore improves plant performances in both stressed and non-stressed conditions.

  19. Defects in silicon effect on device performance and relationship to crystal growth conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jastrzebski, L.

    1985-01-01

    A relationship between material defects in silicon and the performance of electronic devices will be described. A role which oxygen and carbon in silicon play during the defects generation process will be discussed. The electronic properties of silicon are a strong function of the oxygen state in the silicon. This state controls mechanical properties of silicon efficiency for internal gettering and formation of defects in the device's active area. In addition, to temperature, time, ambience, and the cooling/heating rates of high temperature treatments, the oxygen state is a function of the crystal growth process. The incorporation of carbon and oxygen into silicon crystal is controlled by geometry and rotation rates applied to crystal and crucible during crystal growths. Also, formation of nucleation centers for oxygen precipitation is influenced by the growth process, although there is still a controversy which parameters play a major role. All these factors will be reviewed with special emphasis on areas which are still ambiguous and controversial.

  20. Circadian rhythms of hydraulic conductance and growth are enhanced by drought and improve plant performance

    PubMed Central

    Caldeira, Cecilio F.; Jeanguenin, Linda; Chaumont, François; Tardieu, François

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms enable plants to anticipate daily environmental variations, resulting in growth oscillations under continuous light. Because plants daily transpire up to 200% of their water content, their water status oscillates from favourable during the night to unfavourable during the day. We show that rhythmic leaf growth under continuous light is observed in plants that experience large alternations of water status during an entrainment period, but is considerably buffered otherwise. Measurements and computer simulations show that this is due to oscillations of plant hydraulic conductance and plasma membrane aquaporin messenger RNA abundance in roots during continuous light. A simulation model suggests that circadian oscillations of root hydraulic conductance contribute to acclimation to water stress by increasing root water uptake, thereby favouring growth and photosynthesis. They have a negative effect in favourable hydraulic conditions. Climate-driven control of root hydraulic conductance therefore improves plant performances in both stressed and non-stressed conditions. PMID:25370944

  1. Observer Performance in the Detection and Classification of Malignant Hepatic Nodules and Masses with CT Image-Space Denoising and Iterative Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lifeng; Li, Zhoubo; Manduca, Armando; Blezek, Daniel J.; Hough, David M.; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K.; Brickner, Gregory C.; Cernigliaro, Joseph C.; Hara, Amy K.; Fidler, Jeff L.; Lake, David S.; Shiung, Maria; Lewis, David; Leng, Shuai; Augustine, Kurt E.; Carter, Rickey E.; Holmes, David R.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine if lower-dose computed tomographic (CT) scans obtained with adaptive image-based noise reduction (adaptive nonlocal means [ANLM]) or iterative reconstruction (sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction [SAFIRE]) result in reduced observer performance in the detection of malignant hepatic nodules and masses compared with routine-dose scans obtained with filtered back projection (FBP). Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board and was compliant with HIPAA. Informed consent was obtained from patients for the retrospective use of medical records for research purposes. CT projection data from 33 abdominal and 27 liver or pancreas CT examinations were collected (median volume CT dose index, 13.8 and 24.0 mGy, respectively). Hepatic malignancy was defined by progression or regression or with histopathologic findings. Lower-dose data were created by using a validated noise insertion method (10.4 mGy for abdominal CT and 14.6 mGy for liver or pancreas CT) and images reconstructed with FBP, ANLM, and SAFIRE. Four readers evaluated routine-dose FBP images and all lower-dose images, circumscribing liver lesions and selecting diagnosis. The jackknife free-response receiver operating characteristic figure of merit (FOM) was calculated on a per–malignant nodule or per-mass basis. Noninferiority was defined by the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the difference between lower-dose and routine-dose FOMs being less than −0.10. Results Twenty-nine patients had 62 malignant hepatic nodules and masses. Estimated FOM differences between lower-dose FBP and lower-dose ANLM versus routine-dose FBP were noninferior (difference: −0.041 [95% CI: −0.090, 0.009] and −0.003 [95% CI: −0.052, 0.047], respectively). In patients with dedicated liver scans, lower-dose ANLM images were noninferior (difference: +0.015 [95% CI: −0.077, 0.106]), whereas lower-dose FBP images were not (difference −0.049 [95% CI:

  2. Hepatic sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Karagiannidis, Alexandros; Karavalaki, Maria; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios

    2006-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease of unknown aetiology. Histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas represents the main finding. It affects mostly young people, targeting primary the lung and hilar lymph nodes although liver involvement is often encountered. Hepatic sarcoidosis covers a broad spectrum from asymptomatic hepatic granulomas formation and slightly deranged liver function tests to clinically evident disease with cholestasis or, in advanced cases, cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Other granulomatous diseases (mainly systemic infections like tuberculosis) should be excluded prior to treatment, as longstanding corticosteroid administration is the main stem of therapy. In advanced cases, liver transplantation represents the ultimate therapeutic option.

  3. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    PubMed

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth.

  4. Performance of the COBAS AMPLICOR HCV MONITOR Test, Version 2.0, an Automated Reverse Transcription-PCR Quantitative System for Hepatitis C Virus Load Determination

    PubMed Central

    Gerken, G.; Rothaar, T.; Rumi, M. G.; Soffredini, R.; Trippler, M.; Blunk, M. J.; Butcher, A.; Soviero, S.; Colucci, G.

    2000-01-01

    A clinical evaluation of an automated quantitative PCR assay, the COBAS AMPLICOR HCV MONITOR test, version 2.0 (v2.0), was carried out to assess the performance of this test in comparison with that of the previous, manual version, the AMPLICOR HCV MONITOR test, and with that of nested PCR. Serial dilutions of serum samples infected with genotype 1b, 2a, or 3, as well as synthetic RNA transcripts and serum samples derived from 87 patients with chronic hepatitis C and infected with genotype 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4, or 5, were analyzed to determine the ability of the system to efficiently quantify various hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes. These experiments showed that the COBAS AMPLICOR HCV MONITOR test, v2.0, has mean intra-assay, interassay, and interoperator coefficients of variation that range from 22 to 34.5% and a 3-logarithm dynamic range, which spans from 103 to 106 copies/ml. Compared to the previous, manual version of the test, the COBAS AMPLICOR HCV MONITOR test, v2.0, showed an improved efficacy for all genotypes, especially genotypes 2, 3, and 4, whose estimated concentrations were on average 1 logarithm higher. When used to monitor patients under treatment, however, both versions showed the same patterns of viremia, indicating that the COBAS AMPLICOR HCV MONITOR test, v2.0, and the AMPLICOR HCV MONITOR test were equally effective at detecting relative viremia changes in serial samples. As expected, the automated test was less sensitive than nested PCR; among specimens from a cohort of patients treated with interferon, nested PCR identified three more viremic specimens, which probably contained very low concentrations of HCV RNA. PMID:10834978

  5. Effect of rumen-protected choline on performance, blood metabolites, and hepatic triacylglycerols of periparturient dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Zom, R L G; van Baal, J; Goselink, R M A; Bakker, J A; de Veth, M J; van Vuuren, A M

    2011-08-01

    The effects of a dietary supplement of rumen-protected choline on feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, blood metabolites, and hepatic triacylglycerol were evaluated in periparturient dairy cows. Thirty-eight multiparous cows were blocked into 19 pairs and then randomly allocated to either one of 2 treatments. The treatments were supplementation either with or without (control) rumen-protected choline. Treatments were applied from 3 wk before until 6 wk after calving. Both groups received the same basal diet, being a mixed feed of grass silage, corn silage, straw, and soybean meal, and a concentrate mixture delivered through transponder-controlled feed dispensers. For all cows, the concentrate mixture was gradually increased from 0 kg/day (wk -3) to 0.9 kg of dry matter (DM)/d (day of calving) and up to 8.1 kg of DM/d on d 17 postcalving until the end of the experiment. Additionally, a mixture of 60 g of a rumen-protected choline supplement (providing 14.4 g of choline) and of 540 g of soybean meal or a (isoenergetic) mixture of 18 g of palm oil and 582 g of soybean meal (control) was offered individually in feed dispensers. Individual feed intake, milk yield, and body weight were recorded daily. Milk samples were analyzed weekly for fat, protein, and lactose content. Blood was sampled at wk -3, d 1, d 4, d 7, d 10, wk 2, wk 3, and wk 6 and analyzed for glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyric acid. Liver biopsies were taken from 8 randomly selected pairs of cows at wk -3, wk 1, wk 4, and wk 6 and analyzed for triacylglycerol concentration. We found that choline supplementation increased DM intake from 14.4 to 16.0 kg/d and, hence, net energy intake from 98.2 to 109.1 MJ/d at the intercept of the lactation curve at 1 day in milk (DIM), but the effect of choline on milk protein yield gradually decreased during the course of the study. Choline supplementation had no effect on milk yield, milk fat yield, or lactose yield. Milk protein yield was

  6. Skin Tags and Acanthosis Nigricans in Patients with Hepatitis C Infection in Relation to Insulin Resistance and Insulin Like Growth Factor-1 Levels

    PubMed Central

    El Safoury, Omar Soliman; Shaker, Olfat G; Fawzy, May Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Skin tags (ST) are papillomas commonly found in the neck, axillae of middle-aged and elderly people Aim: Insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) levels are affected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and both of them may be implicated in the etiopathogenesis of ST and acanthosis nigricans (AN) through their proliferative and differentiating properties. So, the aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of HCV infection on ST and AN through the estimation of insulin resistance and IGF-1. Materials and Methods: Participants were arranged into four groups: (ST +ve / HCV +ve) 23 subjects, (ST+ / HCV -ve) 19 subjects, (HCV -ve / ST-ve) 20 subjects and (ST-ve /HCV +ve) 22 subjects. Age, ST size, color, number, AN, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance, IGF-1, HCV-antibodies (Ab) were recorded. Results: The mean number of ST in Group 1 was half the number of ST in Group 2 (11.0±9.3 / 22.3±14.0) (P=0.005). The difference in insulin resistance between the same groups was non-significant (13.1±10.6 / 9.0±5.5) (P=0.441) while the difference in IGF-1 was statistically significant (218.6±46.2 /285.4±32.8) (P=0.002). The multivariate logistic regression for the variables revealed that insulin resistance is the only factor affecting the occurrence of ST (OR=1.096, P=0.023). Multivariate regression analysis for the variables showed that HCV was borderline but not a significant factor affecting the number of ST (Beta=-0.409, P=0.053). The number of patients with AN was doubled in Group 2 in comparison to Group 1 but this was non significant 3(13%) / 6(32%) (P=0.2800). Conclusion: HCV is associated with a significant decrease in the ST number and in the serum level of IGF-1 together with an obvious decrease in the occurrence of AN. Our results may point to the entrant effect of insulin resistance and IGF-1 in ST and AN development. The current study suggests the evaluation of IGF-1-lowering agents in the control of ST and AN especially in

  7. Epigenetic regulation of connective tissue growth factor by microRNA-214 delivery in exosomes from mouse or human hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Charrier, Alyssa; Zhou, Yu; Chen, Ruju; Yu, Bo; Agarwal, Kitty; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Lee, L. James; Paulaitis, Michael E; Brigstock, David R

    2013-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) drives fibrogenesis in hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Here we show that CCN2 up-regulation in fibrotic or steatotic livers, or in culture-activated or ethanol-treated primary mouse HSC is associated with a reciprocal down-regulation of microRNA-214 (miR-214). By using protector or reporter assays to investigate the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of CCN2 mRNA, we found that induction of CCN2 expression in HSC by fibrosis-inducing stimuli was due to reduced expression of miR-214 which otherwise inhibited CCN2 expression by directly binding to the CCN2 3′-UTR. Additionally, miR-214 was present in HSC exosomes, which were bi-membrane vesicles, 50–150nm in diameter, negatively charged (−26mV), and positive for CD9. MiR-214 levels in exosomes but not in cell lysates were reduced by pre-treatment of the cells with the exosome inhibitor, GW4869. Co-culture of miR-214-transfected donor HSC with CCN2 3′-UTR luciferase reporter-transfected recipient HSC resulted in miR-214- and exosome-dependent regulation of a wild type CCN2 3′-UTR reporter but not of a mutant CCN2 3′-UTR reporter lacking the miR-214 binding site. Exosomes from HSC were a conduit for uptake of miR-214 by primary mouse hepatocytes. Down-regulation of CCN2 expression by miR-214 also occurred in human LX-2 HSC, consistent with a conserved miR-214 binding site in the human CCN2 3′-UTR. MiR-214 in LX-2 cells was shuttled via exosomes to recipient LX-2 cells or human HepG2 hepatocytes, resulting in suppression of CCN2 3′-UTR activity or expression of CCN2 downstream targets, including αSMA or collagen. Experimental fibrosis in mice was associated with reduced circulating miR-214 levels. Conclusion Exosomal transfer of miR-214 is a paradigm for the regulation of CCN2-dependent fibrogenesis and identifies fibrotic pathways as targets of epigenetic regulation by exosomal miRs. PMID:24122827

  8. Effects of salinomycin and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance and immune responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Lee, Sung-Hyen

    2014-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the effect of salinomycin and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, serum antibody levels against Clostridium spp. and Eimeria spp., and cytokine mRNA expression levels in broiler chickens raised in the used litter. Broiler chickens fed a diet containing salinomycin showed lower (P < 0.05) body weights compared with the control diet-fed counterparts. Serum nitric oxide levels were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in chickens fed the B. subtilis-enriched diet compared with those on either the salinomycin-fed or control diet-fed chickens. None of the dietary treatments affected (P > 0.05) serum antibody levels against Clostridium perfringens toxins. Both salinomycin and B.subtilis significantly lowered (P < 0.05) the serum levels of Eimeria-specific antibodies compared with the control group. Salinomycin, but not B. subtilis, significantly modulated (P < 0.05) the expression of cytokines encoding interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor superfamily 15 (TNFSF15) compared with the control group. In conclusion, dietary salinomycin and B. subtilis affected serum anticoccidial antibody and intestinal cytokine expression, but failed to improve growth performance in broiler chickens. Further study is warranted to investigate the mode of action of salinomycin on host immune response and growth performance in broiler chickens. PMID:25135491

  9. Hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Liddle, C

    1996-04-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome was isolated during the late 1980s using molecular cloning techniques. It is recognized as the cause of most cases of percutaneously transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis. Prevalence of antibodies to HCV(anti-HCV) in the general Australian population is 0.3%. However, among regular intravenous drug users the prevalence exceeds 90%. The predominant risk factors for HCV are intravenous drug use, tattoos, exposure to blood products, occupational risk and ethnicity. In contrast to hepatitis B, sexual spread and vertical transmission of HCV from mother to neonate are relatively uncommon. The risk of acquiring HCV from a single HCV-contaminated needlestick accident is about 5%. Most cases of acute HCV infection are asymptomatic, but 50 to 80% progress to chronic disease. The percentage of those with chronic HCV progressing to cirrhosis is not accurately known, but is probably 20%. Treatment strategies for HCV, utilizing recombinant interferons, are proving useful in patients with mild to moderate liver disease, but fare less well in patients with cirrhosis. Currently, there is no vaccine for hepatitis C, so pre-exposure prophylaxis is not possible. Equally, no post-exposure intervention, for example with gamma globulin, has been shown to be beneficial, though there may be a role for early interferon therapy.

  10. Recombinant porcine epidermal growth factor-secreting Lactococcus lactis promotes the growth performance of early-weaned piglets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an important growth factor in regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis. Studies showed that food-grade Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) and NICE expression system have superior performance in exogenous protein expression. This study aimed to construct and express porcine EGF (pEGF), and use L. lactis as vehicle for producing and delivering pEGF. Furthermore, investigating biological activity of pEGF and exploring applications feasibility of combination effects of L. lactis and pEGF on early weaned piglets’ production. Results A recombinant Lactococcus lactis which produced and secreted pEGF at 1000 ng/ml in culture supernatant was generated. Secreted pEGF was a fully biologically active protein, as demonstrated by its capacity to stimulate L929 mouse fibroblast cell line proliferation in vitro. For in vivo study, forty piglets were randomly allocated to control, antibiotic control, empty vector-expressing L. lactis (LL-EV) and pEGF-secreting L. lactis (LL-pEGF). After 14 d of rearing, final body weight and average daily gain in LL-pEGF were greater (P < 0.05, 8.95 vs. 8.37 kg, 206.1 vs. 157.7 g/day, respectively) than those in control, but no significant differences between LL-pEGF, LL-EV and antibiotic control. Overall period average daily feed intake was higher in LL-pEGF, LL-EV and antibiotic control than in control (P < 0.05, 252.9, 255.6, 250.0, 207.3 g/day, respectively). No significant difference was observed on ADFI/ADG. LL-pEGF increased villous height in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum than in control and LL-EV (P < 0.05). Sucrase in the 3 intestinal segments, aminopeptidase A in the duodenum and Jejunum, aminopeptidase N and dipeptidase IV in the duodenum in LL-pEGF were higher than those in control (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus counts decreased in the ileum and Lactobacillus increased in the ileum and cecum digesta in LL-pEGF compare with the

  11. Evaluation of growth performance of abergele goats under traditional management systems in Sekota District, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Deribe, Belay; Taye, Mengistie

    2013-07-15

    The study was conducted at Abergele in the semi arid parts of Sekota district to evaluate growth performance of Abergele goats managed under traditional management systems. Data on growth and growth rates were collected from 724 kids for two years. The least squares mean birth, three months, six months and yearling weight of kids obtained were 1.91 +/- 0.04, 6.84 +/- 0.19, 9.13 +/- 0.31 and 16.42 +/- 1.20 kg, respectively. Parity of doe and birth type of kid significantly affected birth weight and three months weight while sex of kid and season of birth of kid affected birth, three months, six months and yearling weight consistently. Kids from first parity does were lighter at birth, three months and six months of age than kids from higher parity does. Twin born kids were lower in weight at birth and three months of ages than their single born counterparts. Female kids and kids born during the dry season had lower weight at all ages considered. The least squares mean pre-weaning and post-weaning growth rates obtained were 53.4 +/- 2.30 and 29.3 +/- 4.32 g day(-1), respectively. Parity of doe, type of birth and season birth of kid affected pre-weaning growth rate. Kids from first parity does, twin born kids and kids born during the dry season had lower growth rate. The significant effect of fixed factors needs to be considered in an effort to improve productivity of goats in the study areas.

  12. c-Myc and Transforming Growth Factor α Enhance the Development of Hepatic Lesions Due to Mutant β-Catenin in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jochem, Adam S; Holmes, Katie E; Stein, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the Wnt signaling pathway are associated with diverse cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The development of HCC is thought to be a multistage process in which multiple genetic alterations are necessary. Few studies have assessed the effect of aberrant Wnt signaling activity in association with other molecular alterations in HCC. Here we sought to determine whether co-overexpression of c-Myc or TGFα, 2 signaling molecules known to contribute to HCC development, enhanced the development of hepatic lesions associated with a stabilized β-catenin. The coexpression of mutant β-catenin with either c-Myc or TGFα within hepatocytes increased the severity of hepatic lesions compared with that associated with any of the transgenes expressed individually. The coexpression of mutant β-catenin with c-Myc or TGFα resulted in severe hepatomegaly necessitating the euthanasia of mice by an average of 156 and 128 d, respectively, after the cessation of doxycycline. The expression of mutant β-catenin alone resulted in mild to moderate hepatomegaly that prompted the euthanasia of mice by an average of 75 d after the cessation of doxycycline. Collectively, these findings indicate that coexpression of c-Myc or TGFα delays the onset of endstage hepatic disease yet enhances the severity of hepatic lesions due to mutant β-catenin. PMID:25402175

  13. Acclimation temperature alters the relationship between growth and swimming performance among juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Pang, Xu; Fu, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2016-09-01

    Individual variation in growth, metabolism and swimming performance, their possible interrelationships, and the effects of temperature were investigated in 30 juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at two acclimation temperatures (15 and 25°C). We measured body mass, critical swimming speed (Ucrit), resting metabolic rate (RMR), active metabolic rate (AMR) and metabolic scope (MS) twice (28days apart) in both temperature groups. Fish acclimated to 25°C showed a 204% higher specific growth rate (SGR) than those acclimated to 15°C due to a 97% higher feeding rate (FR) and a 46% higher feed efficiency (FE). Among individuals, SGR was positively correlated with the FR and FE at both low and high temperatures. All measured variables (Ucrit, RMR and AMR) related to swimming except MS showed a high repeatability after adjusting for body mass (mass-independent). Fish acclimated to 25°C had a 40% higher Ucrit compared with 15°C acclimated fish, which was at least partially due to an improved metabolic capacity. AMR showed a 97% increase, and MS showed a 104% parallel increase with the higher acclimation temperature. Residual (mass-independent) Ucrit was positively correlated with residual RMR, AMR and MS, except for the residual RMR at high temperature. When acclimated to the lower temperature, both the residual and absolute Ucrit were negatively correlated with FR and FE and, hence, with SGR, suggesting a functional trade-off between growth and locomotion in fish acclimated to low temperatures. However, when acclimated to the higher temperature, this trade-off no longer existed; absolute Ucrit was positively correlated with SGR because individuals with rapid growth exhibited greatly increased body mass. The higher metabolic capacity at 25°C showed a positive effect on both swimming performance and growth rate (because of improved digestive efficiency) under the high-temperature condition, which we did not anticipate. Overall, these results indicate that temperature

  14. Effects of probiotics on the growth performance and intestinal micro flora of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Yin-bo; Xu, Qian-qian; Yang, Cun-jin; Yang, Xin; Lv, Le; Yin, Chun-hua; Liu, Xiao-lu; Yan, Hai

    2014-05-01

    Antibiotics have been used in poultry industry for decades to promote growth and protect animals from diseases, followed by various side effects. In efforts of searching for a better alternative, probiotic is of extensive attention. We investigated the effects of Bacillus subtitles, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Candida utilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus as 0.1% (W/W) feed additives on broiler growth performance and intestinal microflora. The results showed the probiotics treatments significantly improved growth of broilers. Broilers supplemented with B. subtilis and L. acidophilus weighed 18.4% and 10.1% more than birds in control group at 42 days of age. Furthermore the feed conversion ratios of the birds in the two groups were also improved, decreasing 9.1% and 12.9%, respectively. Further study indicated a significant increase of cecal Lactobacilli concentration in briolers supplemented with probiotics, expecially in L. acidophilus treatment group. Meanwhile, the count of cecal Actinomyces in birds treated with probiotics was significantly lower compared with the control group. In conclusion, probiotics such as B. subtitles and L. acidophilus are good alternatives to antibiotics in promoting growth resulting from a beneficial modulation of the intestinal micro flora, which leads to increased efficiency of intestinal digestion in the host animal. PMID:24816710

  15. Effects of Replacing of Inorganic Trace Minerals by Organically Bound Trace Minerals on Growth Performance, Tissue Mineral Status, and Fecal Mineral Excretion in Commercial Grower-Finisher Pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Xiong, Pingwen; Chen, Nana; He, Junna; Lin, Gang; Xue, Yan; Li, Weifen; Yu, Dongyou

    2016-10-01

    A total of 180 crossbred pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Large White; BW = 47.1 ± 4.8 kg) were used to investigate the effects of totally replacing inorganic trace minerals (ITMs) by organically bound trace minerals (OTMs) on growth performance, tissue mineral status, liver antioxidant enzyme activities, and fecal mineral excretion in grower-finisher pigs. A randomized complete block design with three treatments and six replicates (n = 10 pigs per pen) was used in this 69-day, 2-phase feeding trial. Experimental treatments were as follows: (1) a basal diet without trace mineral supplementation, (2) basal + ITMs (Fe, Mn, and Zn from sulfates, Cu oxychloride, and sodium selenite providing commercially recommended levels in China at 125, 22.5, 117.5, 30, and 0.3 mg/kg, respectively), and 3) basal + OTMs (Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu from Bioplex and Se as Sel-Plex (Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) providing levels identical to ITMs). No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among the treatments during the entire grower-finisher period. Supplementation with minerals, regardless of source, increased (P < 0.05) the Fe, Cu, and Se levels in the plasma; Fe and Zn levels in the liver; and Se levels in heart. Furthermore, compared with ITM group, the concentration of Zn and Se in the liver and heart, and Se in plasma and longissimus muscle were greater (P < 0.05) in OTM group. Hepatic Cu/Zn-SOD and ALP activities were increased (P < 0.05) when either ITMs or OTMs were supplemented. Pigs supplemented with OTMs displayed greater activities of Cu/Zn-SOD, ALP, and GSH-Px in the liver compared to pigs supplemented with ITMs. Dietary mineral supplementation to pig diets greatly increased (P < 0.05) fecal mineral (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Se) excretion in both grower and finisher phases. Fecal concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Se excretion were lower (P < 0.05) with OTMs supplementation than that in pigs fed diets containing ITMs. These results indicate

  16. Performance of serum-free broth media for growth of Renibacterium salmoninarum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starliper, C.E.; Schill, W.B.; Mathias, J.

    1998-01-01

    Growth of Renibacterium salmoninarum was compared in 14 different broth media; 13 serum-free, and 1 that contained newborn calf serum, KDM2+M. Supplementation with 1% v/v R. salmoninarum MCO4M metabolite was evaluated for 6 of the media that do not utilize it as part of their ingredients. Viable cells were enumerated on Days 10, 20, and 30 post inoculation to evaluate performance. The experiment was repeated 3 times using high, low, and medium (trials 1 to 3, respectively) cell concentrations as inoculum. In general there was no optimal medium and all performed well. The choice of which to employ depends on the ease of preparation and presence of certain ingredients that might affect subsequent assays. In trials 2 and 3, the pH was estimated using test papers at the same time as cells were counted. Maximum pH increase occurred with KDM2+M and those media containing charcoal. For most media, a simple pH determination could be used as a means to check that growth has occurred in a culture, particularly if charcoal was added directly to the media and a visual inspection could not be made to detect growth.

  17. Effect of soybean variety and processing on growth performance of young chicks and pigs.

    PubMed

    Palacios, M F; Easter, R A; Soltwedel, K T; Parsons, C M; Douglas, M W; Hymowitz, T; Pettigrew, J E

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether soybeans without the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor and lectins could be fed effectively to young chicks and pigs. Specifically, we compared the growth performance of chicks and pigs fed diets containing modified soybeans: Kunitz trypsin inhibitor-free (KF), lectin-free (LF), lectin and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor-free (LFKF), conventional soybeans (CSB), and commercially obtained, dehulled, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM). A 7-d chick experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of CSB, KF, LF, LFKF, and SBM. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design, with four replicates, five treatments, and six male chicks per pen (n = 120). The five treatments consisted of 23% CP dextrose-soybean-based diets containing KF, LF, LFKF, CSB, or SBM as the source of dietary protein. A 28-d pig experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of CSB, LF, LFKF, and SBM. Pens of four pigs were assigned randomly to a control, corn-SBM, or one of six corn-soybean diets containing raw or extruded soybean varieties as a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design with five blocks per treatment (n = 140). Chicks fed diets containing any of the raw soybean varieties gained less weight (P < 0.05) than chicks fed SBM (22.81 g/d for SBM vs. 14.17 g/d for the raw soybeans combined). Among the raw soybean treatments, there was a greater effect on growth performance (P < 0.05) by removing both lectins and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (ADG of 16.56 g for LFKF) than by removing each antinutritional factor separately (ADG of 14.38 and 14.11 g for KF and LF, respectively). Pig growth performance was different (P < 0.001) for SBM (ADG of 409 g) and all the varieties when extruded (ADG of 450 g for CSB, 417 g for LF, and 408 g for LFKF) compared with the raw soybean treatments (ADG of 101 g for CSB, 165 g for LF, and 266 g for LFKF). Among the raw soybean treatments, growth

  18. Feeding glycerol-enriched yeast culture improves lactation performance, energy status, and hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme expression of dairy cows during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Ye, G; Liu, J; Liu, Y; Chen, X; Liao, S F; Huang, D; Huang, K

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of feeding glycerol-enriched yeast culture (GY) on feed intake, lactation performance, blood metabolites, and expression of some key hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes in dairy cows during the transition period. Forty-four multiparous transition Holstein cows were blocked by parity, previous 305-d mature equivalent milk yield, and expected calving date and randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments: Control (no additive), 2 L/d of GY (75.8 g/L glycerol and 15.3 g/L yeast), 150 g/d of glycerol (G; 0.998 g/g glycerol), and 1 L/d of yeast culture (Y; 31.1 g/L yeast). All additives were top-dressed and hand mixed into the upper one-third of the total mixed ration in the morning from -14 to +28 d relative to calving. Results indicated that the DMI, NE intake, change of BCS, and milk yields were not affected by the treatments ( > 0.05). Supplementation of GY or Y increased milk fat percentages, milk protein percentages, and milk protein yields relative to the Control or G group ( < 0.05). Cows fed GY or G had higher glucose levels and lower β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) and NEFA levels in plasma than cows fed the Control ( < 0.05) and had lower NEFA levels than cows fed Y ( < 0.05). On 14 d postpartum, cows fed GY or G had higher enzyme activities, mRNA, and protein expression of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C; < 0.05); higher enzyme activities ( < 0.05) and a tendency toward higher mRNA expression ( < 0.10) of glycerol kinase (GK); and a tendency toward higher enzyme activities of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) in the liver ( < 0.10) when compared with cows fed Control or Y. The enzyme activities, mRNA, and protein expression of PEPCK-C, PC, and GK did not differ between cows fed GY and G ( > 0.10). In conclusion, dietary GY or Y supplementation increased the milk fat and protein content of the cows in early lactation and GY or G supplementation improved the energy status as indicated by greater plasma glucose and

  19. Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment Data Report: Site Characterization, System Performance, Weather, Species Composition, and Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.

    2001-09-04

    This numeric data package provides data sets, and accompanying documentation, on site characterization, system performance, weather, species composition, and growth for the Throughfall Displacement Experiment, which was established in the Walker Branch Watershed of East Tennessee to provide data on the responses of forests to altered precipitation regimes. The specific data sets include soil water content and potential, coarse fraction of the soil profile, litter layer temperature, soil temperature, monthly weather, daily weather, hourly weather, species composition of trees and saplings, mature tree and sapling annual growth, and relative leaf area index. Fortran and SAS{trademark} access codes are provided to read the ASCII data files. The data files and this documentation are available without charge on a variety of media and via the Internet from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC).

  20. Selection for Growth Performance in Broiler Chickens Associates with Less Diet Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Jana; Coopman, Frank; Cools, An; Michiels, Joris; Fremaut, Dirk; De Smet, Stefaan; Janssens, Geert P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Global competition for high standard feed-food resources between man and livestock, such as industrial broilers, is a concerning problem. In addition, the low productivity of scavenger chickens in developing countries leaves much to be desired. Changing the ingredients, and therefore, the nutrient composition of feed intake by commercial fed as well as scavenger chickens seems like an obvious solution. In this study, the ability of four broiler chicken breeds to perform on a commercial versus a scavenger diet was tested. The four broiler breeds differed genetically in growth potential. A significant (P < 0.01) negative effect of the scavenger diet on the bodyweight of the fast growing breeds was found and this effect decreased with decreasing growth rate in the other breeds. These differences in bodyweight gain could not be explained by differences in nutrient digestibility but were caused by the lack of ability of the fast growing breeds to increase their feed intake sufficiently. PMID:26042600

  1. Selection for growth performance in broiler chickens associates with less diet flexibility.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Jana; Coopman, Frank; Cools, An; Michiels, Joris; Fremaut, Dirk; De Smet, Stefaan; Janssens, Geert P J

    2015-01-01

    Global competition for high standard feed-food resources between man and livestock, such as industrial broilers, is a concerning problem. In addition, the low productivity of scavenger chickens in developing countries leaves much to be desired. Changing the ingredients, and therefore, the nutrient composition of feed intake by commercial fed as well as scavenger chickens seems like an obvious solution. In this study, the ability of four broiler chicken breeds to perform on a commercial versus a scavenger diet was tested. The four broiler breeds differed genetically in growth potential. A significant (P < 0.01) negative effect of the scavenger diet on the bodyweight of the fast growing breeds was found and this effect decreased with decreasing growth rate in the other breeds. These differences in bodyweight gain could not be explained by differences in nutrient digestibility but were caused by the lack of ability of the fast growing breeds to increase their feed intake sufficiently.

  2. Growth performance of affluent Indian children is similar to that in developed countries.

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Nita; Bahl, Rajiv; Taneja, Sunita; de Onis, Mercedes; Bhan, Maharaj K.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in order to determine whether an affluent population in south Delhi had a growth performance similar to that in developed countries and to identify socioeconomic factors that militated against optimal growth in this group. METHODS: The weights and lengths of 395 children aged 12-23 months and the heights of 331 mothers and 153 grandmothers were measured and information was obtained on family socioeconomic status and child-feeding practices. Children born prematurely, i.e. before 37 weeks of gestation, and those with illness adversely affecting growth, were excluded from the analysis, as with the NCHS/WHO reference population. RESULTS: In 341 children included in the analysis, the mean Z-scores for weight-for-age, length-for-age and weight-for-length were -0.45, -0.28 and -0.32 respectively. About 6% of the children were underweight (weight-for-age Z-score < or =-2), 3% were stunted (length-for-age Z-score < or =-2), and 4% were wasted (weight-for-length Z-score < or =-2). The factors that were significantly associated with higher length-for-age were one or both parents having 17 years or more of education (mean length-for-age Z-score -0.17) and non-vegetarian diet (mean length-for-age Z-score - 0.18). No socioeconomic factors were associated with mean weight-for-length. CONCLUSION: The children in this affluent population were close to the NCHS/WHO reference population with regard to anthropometric indicators. The subpopulation with higher parental education had even better growth. It is intended to include this subpopulation in the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study. PMID:11984604

  3. Growth anisotropy effect of bulk high temperature superconductors on the levitation performance in the applied magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J.; Liao, X. L.; Jing, H. L.; Deng, Z. G.; Yen, F.; Wang, S. Y.; Wang, J. S.

    2013-10-01

    Growth anisotropies of bulk high temperature superconductors (HTSCs) fabricated by a top-seeded melt texture growth process, that is, different pinning effect in the growth sectors (GSs) and growth sector boundaries (GSBs), possess effect on the macro flux trapping and levitation performance of bulk HTSCs. Previous work (Physics Procedia, 36 (2012) 1043) has found that the bulk HTSC array with aligned GSB pattern (AGSBP) exhibits better capability for levitation and suppression of levitation force decay above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG) compared with misaligned GSB pattern (MGSBP). In this paper, we further examine this growth anisotropy effect on the maglev performance of a double-layer bulk HTSC. In contrast to reported trapped flux cases (Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19 (2006) S466), the two superposed bulk HTSCs with same AGSBP with PMG are found to show better maglev performance. These series of results are helpful and support a new way for the performance optimization of present HTS maglev systems.

  4. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  5. What Is Hepatitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Facebook Google + iTunes Play Store What is hepatitis? Online Q&A Reviewed July 2016 Q: What ... Question and answer archives Submit a question World Hepatitis Day Know hepatitis - Act now Event notice Key ...

  6. Drug-induced hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Toxic hepatitis ... to get liver damage. Some drugs can cause hepatitis with small doses, even if the liver breakdown ... liver. Many different drugs can cause drug-induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are ...

  7. Pollen performance before and during the autotrophic-heterotrophic transition of pollen tube growth.

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Andrew G; Travers, Steven E; Mena-Ali, Jorge I; Winsor, James A

    2003-01-01

    For species with bicellular pollen, the attrition of pollen tubes is often greatest where the style narrows at the transition between stigmatic tissue and the transmitting tissue of the style. In this region, the tubes switch from predominantly autotrophic to predominantly heterotrophic growth, the generative cell divides, the first callose plugs are produced, and, in species with RNase-type self-incompatibility (SI), incompatible tubes are arrested. We review the literature and present new findings concerning the genetic, environmental and stylar influences on the performance of pollen before and during the autotrophic-heterotrophic transition of pollen tube growth. We found that the ability of the paternal sporophyte to provision its pollen during development significantly influences pollen performance during the autotrophic growth phase. Consequently, under conditions of pollen competition, pollen selection during the autotrophic phase is acting on the phenotype of the paternal sporophyte. In a field experiment, using Cucurbita pepo, we found broad-sense heritable variation for herbivore-pathogen resistance, and that the most resistant families produced larger and better performing pollen when the paternal sporophytes were not protected by insecticides, indicating that selection during the autotrophic phase can act on traits that are not expressed by the microgametophyte. In a study of a weedy SI species, Solanum carolinense, we found that the ability of the styles to arrest self-pollen tubes at the autotrophic-heterotrophic transition changes with floral age and the presence of developing fruits. These findings have important implications for selection at the level of the microgametophyte and the evolution of mating systems of plants. PMID:12831466

  8. Effects of intrauterine growth retardation on mental performance and behavior, outcomes during adolescence and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hack, M

    1998-01-01

    Studies of the long-term effects of intrauterine growth retardation on mental performance and behavior are reviewed. The results of the majority of studies suggest that, if effects of prematurity and of other associated complicating factors are controlled for, effects of IUGR per se, that can sometimes be demonstrated at an earlier age, become diluted by socio-environmental conditions at later stages in life and no longer appear to have a detrimental effect on mental and behavioral outcomes in adolescence and adulthood.

  9. Sodium butyrate maintains growth performance by regulating the immune response in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W H; Jiang, Y; Zhu, Q F; Gao, F; Dai, S F; Chen, J; Zhou, G H

    2011-06-01

    1. The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary sodium butyrate on the growth performance and immune response of broiler chickens. In experiment 1, 240 1-d-old chickens were allocated into 4 dietary groups (0, 0·25, 0·50 or 1·00 g sodium butyrate/kg) with 6 replicates each. In experiment 2, 120 1-d-old chickens were fed a control diet (without sodium butyrate) or 1·00 g sodium butyrate/kg diet. Half of the chickens fed on each diet were injected intra-peritoneally with 0·5 g/kg body weight of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 16, 18 and 20 d of age. 2. There was no effect of dietary sodium butyrate on growth performance. On d 21, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were decreased in chickens given 1·00 g sodium butyrate/kg, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities were significantly increased, and malondialdehyde (MDA) was decreased by dietary sodium butyrate at 0·50 or 1·00 g/kg. On d 42, serum IL-6 was markedly decreased by dietary sodium butyrate, while 1·00 g sodium butyrate/kg greatly reduced MDA and increased catalase. 3. LPS challenge significantly reduced the growth performance of chickens. Serum IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, corticosterone, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were increased in LPS-challenged chickens. Dietary sodium butyrate supplementation maintained the body weight gain and feed intake. Sodium butyrate supplementation inhibited the increase in IL-6 and AGP in serum at 16 d of age and TNF-α, corticosterone, AGP and PGE(2) at 20 d of age. Similar inhibitory effects of sodium butyrate in serum glucose and total protein concentrations were also found at 20 d of age. 4. The results indicated that dietary sodium butyrate supplementation can improve the growth performance in chickens under stress and that this may be used to moderate the immune response and reduce tissue damage.

  10. Effect of dietary acids on growth performance of nursery pigs: a cooperative study.

    PubMed

    Che, T M; Adeola, O; Azain, M J; Carter, S D; Cromwell, G L; Hill, G M; Mahan, D C; Miller, P S; Pettigrew, J E

    2012-12-01

    An experiment involving 854 crossbred pigs (20 replicate pens of 4 to 8 pigs per pen) was conducted at 8 experiment stations to determine the effects of acids in nursery pig diets and their inclusion amounts on growth performance using diets and weaning ages typical of those used in the United States commercial pork industry. Diets were formulated to have constant a ME and contain 1.45, 1.45, and 1.30% standardized ileal digestible Lys for phases 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The basal diets were supplemented with various types and concentrations of acid at the expense of corn (Zea mays). Treatment diets included 0% acid (control), 0.1 or 0.2% phosphoric acid, 1 or 2% organic acids, and 0.1% phosphoric acid plus 1% organic acids with or without an antibiotic. The organic acids consisted of 50% citric acid and 50% fumaric acid by weight. All but the final diet contained the antibiotic carbadox. All diets contained 3,000 mg of Zn/kg diet from zinc oxide during phases 1 and 2 and had limited acid buffering capacity, ranging from 142, 127, and 122 mEq/kg of feed for phases 1, 2, and 3, respectively. At each participating station, pigs were randomly allotted to dietary treatments on the basis of their initial BW. Sex and ancestry were equally distributed across the treatments. Results indicated that treatment effects on pig performance were observed in phases 1 and 2 but not in phase 3. In phase 1, ADG of pigs fed 0.2% phosphoric acid was greater than that of pigs fed the combination of acids with no antibiotic (P = 0.041). In phase 2, pigs fed treatments containing an antibiotic had a greater ADG than those fed the combination of acids without antibiotic (P < 0.05). Addition of acids to diets did not affect growth performance during any phase or the overall period. Over the 4-wk study, growth rate was slowest on the treatment without antibiotic, with specific differences that were often statistically significant (P < 0.05). In summary, under the conditions of this

  11. Newborn piglet traits associated with survival and growth performance until weaning.

    PubMed

    Panzardi, A; Bernardi, M L; Mellagi, A P; Bierhals, T; Bortolozzo, F P; Wentz, I

    2013-06-01

    Pre-weaning piglet mortality represents significant economic losses, and approximately half of this mortality occurs within the first 3 days after birth. Factors involved in postnatal mortality can also be associated with a poor growth performance until weaning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of some variables measured right after birth on piglet survival during the first week of life and growth performance until weaning. Piglets included in the analysis (n=612) were born from 3 to 5 parity sows. Piglets were monitored for blood oxygen saturation (SatO2), heart rate (HR), blood glucose concentration, rectal temperature at birth (RT0 h) and at 24h after birth (RT24 h). Genetic line, birth following or not an obstetric intervention, birth order, sex, skin color, integrity of the umbilical cord, and time elapsed from birth until first attempts to stand were also recorded. Piglets were weighed at birth (BW), and at 7, 14 and 21 days after birth in order to evaluate their postnatal development. Cumulative mortality rates were 3.3%, 5.4% and 8.7% at 3, 7 and 21 days after birth, respectively. Body temperature at birth (RT0 h) did not affect (P>0.05) the survival nor the piglet growth performance. Piglets with cyanotic skin and those that took more than 5 min to stand showed higher chance of mortality (P<0.05) compared to normal skin piglets and to piglets which stood before 1 min, respectively. Piglets with broken umbilical cord had higher odds (P<0.05) of mortality up to 3 days after birth, respectively. Higher odds (P<0.05) of mortality up to 3 or 7 days were associated with later birth order (>9), low BW (<1275g), low (24-30 mg/dl) and high (45-162 mg/dl) blood glucose concentrations, or low RT24 h (<38.1°C). Piglets with BW<1545 g, low RT24 h (<38.6°C) and female piglets had higher odds of a low weight at weaning (P<0.05). Among the factors studied, cyanotic skin, delay for standing, broken umbilical cord, high birth order, low BW, low RT24 h, and

  12. Transient elastography and APRI score: looking at false positives and false negatives. Diagnostic performance and association to fibrosis staging in chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, L.C.; Ferreira, P.A.; Miotto, N.; Zanaga, L.; Gonçales, E.; Lazarini, M.S.; Gonçales, F.L.; Stucchi, R.S.B.; Vigani, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Although long regarded as the gold standard for liver fibrosis staging in chronic hepatitis C (CHC), liver biopsy (LB) implies both the risk of an invasive procedure and significant variability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance for transient elastography (TE) and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet index (APRI) used alone and in combination compared to liver biopsy and to analyze false positive/negative results. Patients with CHC, and no previous clinical diagnosis of cirrhosis were enrolled to undergo liver biopsy, TE and APRI. A total of 182 adult patients with a median age of 55 years and median body mass index of 26.71 kg/m2 were analyzed. On LB, 56% of patients had significant levels of fibrosis (METAVIR F≥2) and 28% had advanced fibrosis (F3/F4). The strongest performance for both tests was observed for exclusion of advanced fibrosis with good negative predictive values (89 and 86%, respectively). Low necroinflammatory activity on LB was associated with false negative TE. False positives were associated with NASH and smaller LB fragments. Correlation between APRI and Fibroscan for F≥2 was 100% and 84% for F≥3 and remained high in both false negative and false positive instances, correctly identifying F<2 in 71% of cases and F<3 in 78% (and potentially foregoing up to 84% of LB). We concluded that low individual performance indicators could be attributable to limitations of LB. Poorer differentiation of lower levels of fibrosis is a known issue for LB and remains so for noninvasive tests. Good predictability is possible, however, for advanced fibrosis. PMID:27533769

  13. Influence of dietary nano elemental selenium on growth performance, tissue selenium distribution, meat quality, and glutathione peroxidase activity in Guangxi Yellow chicken.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Wang, Y

    2011-03-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate the effect of feed supplementation with nano elemental Se (Nano-Se) on growth performance, tissue Se distribution, meat quality, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in Guangxi Yellow chicken. Four treatments (control, T-1, T-2, and T-3 treatment groups) with 3 replicates of 30 chickens each were carried out. Diets for the control, T-1, T-2, and T-3 groups consisted of the basal diet supplemented with, respectively, 0.00, 0.10, 0.30, and 0.50 mg/kg of Nano-Se. Improved final BW, daily BW gain (DWG), feed conversion ratios, and survival rate (P < 0.05) were observed in the groups supplemented with Nano-Se as compared with the control groups after 90 d of feeding. The groups that received Nano-Se showed higher (P < 0.05) hepatic and muscle Se contents, drip loss percentage, inosine 5'-monophosphate content, and GSH-Px activities in the serum and liver than that did the control groups. For the T-2 and T-3 groups, a significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed in final BW, DWG, muscle Se content, breast drip loss, and GSH-Px activities in the serum and liver compared with the T-1 group. However, no significant differences were observed in final BW, DWG, and GSH-Px activities in the serum and liver between the T-2 and T-3 groups. It could be concluded from this study that supplementing diets with 0.30 mg/kg of Nano-Se for was effective in increasing the growth performance and feed conversion ratios of chickens, the Se content of tissues, and the quality of the meat. PMID:21325242

  14. Growth and reproductive performance by different feed types in fresh water angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare Schultze, 1823).

    PubMed

    Kasiri, Milad; Farahi, Amin; Sudagar, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that reproduction is sensitive to the state of energy reserves, and that there is a balance between energy homeostasis and fertility. In this view, this study examined the effects of different diets on growth and reproductive performance of fresh water angelfish. Twenty four pairs of angelfish (weighing 3.58 ± 0.24 g) were fed with four types of diets including live earth worm (LEW), dried Tubifex (DT), dried Gammarus (DG) and prepared granulated feed (PGF), twice a day for 90 days. Reproductive parameters were measured between days 60 and 90. The significant increase in the gonadosomatic index (GSI), fecundity and hatchability brought about by the LEW were demonstrated by the higher number of spawned eggs and hatched larvae. The best growth observed significantly in PGF, and length of larvae was enhanced in this group, consequently. The numbers of dead and deformed fry were lower in the fish fed with PGF and LEW, but there was no significant difference among experimental groups. This study showed that breeders benefit from inclusion of prepared granulated feed and living earth worm during their growth and reproductive stages, and simultaneous using of them for achieving better results is suggested.

  15. Effects of repeated crowding on the stress response and growth performance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Basrur, T V; Longland, R; Wilkinson, R J

    2010-09-01

    A 64-day growth experiment was conducted in which two groups of Atlantic salmon parr were grown under either control conditions or subjected to a weekly crowding stressor. Subjecting fish to the stressor resulted in a 7.7% reduction in wet weight after 29 days, which was maintained at 7.9% by day 64. This reduction in weight was reflected in a 44% reduction in specific growth rate and 38% increase in feed conversion ratio over the first 29 days of the experiment. Elevation in plasma cortisol was observed in crowded fish on days 1, 29 and 64. Similarly, on days 1 and 29 an increase in both plasma glucose and lactate was detected. On day 64, however, no differences in plasma glucose and lactate were observed, with the magnitude of the cortisol response also significantly reduced. Overall, the relatively moderate impact on growth performance and reduction in magnitude of measured stress parameters at the end of the experiment suggests possible habituation to the applied stressor.

  16. Sex steroid and growth hormone supplementation to enhance performance in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Rogol, A D

    2000-08-01

    Ergogenic aids are taken to enhance energy utilization by producing more, controlling its use, or increasing mechanical efficiency. Most athletes are looking toward enhancing performance by proper training modalities and methods; however, some look to the biochemical route for a "quick fix." Thus, the use of chemical agents is on the rise. Herein is provided information on the anabolic-androgenic agents androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone, and the "parent" compound, testosterone. The former two, at best, have equivocal activity, but testosterone is both anabolic and androgenic in doses that adolescents might receive. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 are anabolic, nonandrogenic compounds with undoubted effects on the lean body mass compartment. Both are expensive, not readily available, and subject to the art of counterfeiting. Thus, very few data are available in non-growth hormone-deficient adolescents. The discussion of these agents ends with issues of fairness, ethics, and the message we attempt to project to our teenagers, whether athletes or not. PMID:10943821

  17. The Effector Protein BPE005 from Brucella abortus Induces Collagen Deposition and Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Downmodulation via Transforming Growth Factor β1 in Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Arriola Benitez, Paula Constanza; Rey Serantes, Diego; Herrmann, Claudia Karina; Pesce Viglietti, Ayelén Ivana; Vanzulli, Silvia; Giambartolomei, Guillermo Hernán; Comerci, Diego José; Delpino, María Victoria

    2015-12-14

    The liver is frequently affected in patients with active brucellosis. In the present study, we identified a virulence factor involved in the modulation of hepatic stellate cell function and consequent fibrosis during Brucella abortus infection. This study assessed the role of BPE005 protein from B. abortus in the fibrotic phenotype induced on hepatic stellate cells during B. abortus infection in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that the fibrotic phenotype induced by B. abortus on hepatic stellate (LX-2) cells was dependent on BPE005, a protein associated with the type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB from B. abortus. Our results indicated that B. abortus inhibits matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) secretion through the activity of the BPE005-secreted protein and induces concomitant collagen deposition by LX-2 cells. BPE005 is a small protein containing a cyclic nucleotide monophosphate binding domain (cNMP) that modulates the LX-2 cell phenotype through a mechanism that is dependent on the cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. Altogether, these results indicate that B. abortus tilts LX-2 cells to a profibrogenic phenotype employing a functional T4SS and the secreted BPE005 protein through a mechanism that involves the cAMP and PKA signaling pathway.

  18. The Effector Protein BPE005 from Brucella abortus Induces Collagen Deposition and Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Downmodulation via Transforming Growth Factor β1 in Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Arriola Benitez, Paula Constanza; Rey Serantes, Diego; Herrmann, Claudia Karina; Pesce Viglietti, Ayelén Ivana; Vanzulli, Silvia; Giambartolomei, Guillermo Hernán; Comerci, Diego José

    2015-01-01

    The liver is frequently affected in patients with active brucellosis. In the present study, we identified a virulence factor involved in the modulation of hepatic stellate cell function and consequent fibrosis during Brucella abortus infection. This study assessed the role of BPE005 protein from B. abortus in the fibrotic phenotype induced on hepatic stellate cells during B. abortus infection in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that the fibrotic phenotype induced by B. abortus on hepatic stellate (LX-2) cells was dependent on BPE005, a protein associated with the type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB from B. abortus. Our results indicated that B. abortus inhibits matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) secretion through the activity of the BPE005-secreted protein and induces concomitant collagen deposition by LX-2 cells. BPE005 is a small protein containing a cyclic nucleotide monophosphate binding domain (cNMP) that modulates the LX-2 cell phenotype through a mechanism that is dependent on the cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. Altogether, these results indicate that B. abortus tilts LX-2 cells to a profibrogenic phenotype employing a functional T4SS and the secreted BPE005 protein through a mechanism that involves the cAMP and PKA signaling pathway. PMID:26667834

  19. Steam assisted oxide growth on aluminium alloys using oxidative chemistries: Part II corrosion performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-11-01

    Surface treatment of aluminium alloys using steam with oxidative chemistries, namely KMnO4 and HNO3 resulted in accelerated growth of oxide on aluminium alloys. Detailed investigation of the corrosion performance of the treated surfaces was carried out using potentiodynamic polarisation and standard industrial test methods such as acetic acid salt spray (AASS) and filiform corrosion on commercial AA6060 alloy. Barrier properties of the film including adhesion were evaluated using tape test under wet and dry conditions. Electrochemical results showed reduced cathodic and anodic activity, while the protection provided by steam treatment with HNO3 was a function of the concentration of NO3- ions. The coating generated by inclusion of KMnO4 showed highest resistance to filiform corrosion. Overall, the performance of the steam treated surfaces under filiform corrosion and AASS test was a result of the local coverage of the alloy microstructure resulting from steam containing with KMnO4 and HNO3.

  20. Influence of different feeding systems on the growth performance and muscle development of Japanese Black steers.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Kazunori; Hikino, Yasuko; Oe, Mika; Ojima, Koichi; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Muroya, Susumu; Chikuni, Koichi

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the growth performance and gene expression for muscle development between grass hay-fed (GH) and concentrate-fed (CT) steers. Daily gain and energy intake during the fattening period of the GH group were lower than those of the CT group. Analysis of C/EBPα, PPARγ2, myosin heavy chain (MHC), and myostatin gene expressions was performed by real-time PCR. Expressions of C/EBPα and myostatin in semitendinosus and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscles were higher in the CT group than in the GH group at the end of fattening. In LL muscle, MHC expression at the end of fattening was greater in the GH group than in the CT group. These results suggest that regulation of adipogenesis and myogenesis by the expression of genes involved in muscle development might have occurred in the skeletal muscle of the GH group by the feeding of grass hay and/or because of the low energy intakes.

  1. The hepatic-arterial/portal-venous scintiangiogram in alcoholic hepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.; Sakimura, I.; Siegel, M.E.; Harley, H.; Lee, K.

    1984-01-01

    This study was designed to identify abnormalities in the hepatic-arterial/portal-venous scintiangiogram (SA) in alcoholic hepatitis (AH). SA's were performed in 35 patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH), 8; acute alcoholic hepatitis superimposed on cirrhosis (A/C), 14; and cirrhosis (C), 13. Posterior flows were done with a bolus of 10 mCi Tc-99m sulfur colloid with computer time-activity curves over the liver and left kidney. Curves were analyzed for per cent of hepatic arterial (HA) and portal venous contribution using the slope ratio method. Hepatic arterialization was estimated from the angle of the HA component of the curve. Reversal of the relative contribution of the hepatic and portal components of total flow were seen in all groups. Although quite severe in AH, the degree of reversal could not be used to differentiate among the groups. The average HA angle in AAH was 48.3 +- 8.1, in A/C 41.5 +- 10.6, and in C 30.4 +- 12.1. In reviewing the data of only those in the acute clinical phase of AH and not the recovery phase (1 AAH, 3 A/C) and those without other causes of alteration in hepatic arterialization (1 hepatoma, 1 portalcaval shunt, 6 renal failure), the average HA angle in AAH was 50.1 +- 6.6, 45.4 +- 8.2 in A/C, and 23.2 +- 4.2 in C. In 6 with renal failure (2 C, 2AAH, 2 A/C) the HA angle ws 52.7 +- 5.7. In all cases cirrhosis could be differentiated from both A/C (P=.05) and AAH (P<.01) using the HA angle. In absence of renal failure, portal shunt, or hepatoma, P was <.01 in both comparisons.

  2. Alterations in Ileal Mucosa Bacteria Related to Diet Complexity and Growth Performance in Young Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Levesque, Crystal L.; Hooda, Seema; Swanson, Kelly S.; de Lange, Kees

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluation of the prolonged impact of weaning diet on ileal mucosa bacteria and during periods of reduced and improved growth was conducted using 454 pyrosequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings Weaned pigs were fed HIGH or LOW complexity diets, with or without antibiotics, for 6 weeks, followed by a common grower diet. Pigs were killed at 2 (n = 4 or 5) and 8 (n = 6) weeks post-weaning (periods of reduced and improved growth, respectively). Mucosal bacteria were removed; DNA was extracted and amplified using the V1–V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Mucosal bacteria clustered more closely by week post-weaning than diet but 44% of bacterial species did not change from week 2 to 8. There was no effect of diet complexity or antibiotic inclusion on indices of bacterial diversity. Firmicutes made up 91 and 96% of total reads at week 2 and 8, respectively. The proportion of Clostridium paraputrificum increased (P = 0.003) from week 2 to 8 in pigs fed LOW but didn’t change in pigs fed HIGH; whereas Clostridium leptum decreased (P = 0.02) from week 2 to 8 in pigs fed LOW but didn’t change in pigs fed HIGH. The proportion of Sarcina genus was 3-fold higher in pigs fed A+ compared to A− at week 2 and 5-fold higher at week 8 despite the lack of in-feed antibiotics at that time. Conclusions/Significance Shifts in mucosal bacteria populations may be related to dietary induced changes in growth performance during reduced and improved growth but further studies are required to confirm causative relationship. Weaning diet results in species specific prolonged alterations in mucosal bacteria, particularly where high levels of in-feed antibiotics are used. A considerable portion of ileal mucosal bacteria colonize early and remain stable over time despite changes in diet. PMID:25247930

  3. Growth performance of planted mangroves in the Philippines: revisiting forest management strategies.

    PubMed

    Samson, Maricar S; Rollon, Rene N

    2008-06-01

    The effort toward restoring lost mangroves in the Philippines has been commendably immense, specifically during the past two decades. In light of such, it is important to evaluate outcomes and, where appropriate, apply the lessons learned to the current strategies in mangrove forest management. This article synthesizes the results from several research projects assessing the performance of planted mangroves across the country. Overall, there is a widespread tendency to plant mangroves in areas that are not the natural habitat of mangroves, converting mudflats, sandflats, and seagrass meadows into often monospecific Rhizophora mangrove forests. In these nonmangrove areas, the Rhizophora seedlings experienced high mortality. Of the few that survived (often through persistent and redundant replanting), the young Rhizophora individuals planted in these nonmangrove and often low intertidal zones had dismally stunted growth relative to the corresponding growth performance of individuals thriving at the high intertidal position and natural mangrove sites. From this evidence, this article argues that a more rational focus of the restoration effort should be the replanting of mangroves in the brackish-water aquaculture pond environments, the original habitat of mangroves. For such, a number of management options can be explored, the implementation of which will ultimately depend on the political will of local and national governments. PMID:18686501

  4. Effects of trehalose supplementation on the growth performance and intestinal innate immunity of juvenile chicks.

    PubMed

    Kikusato, M; Nanto, F; Mukai, K; Toyomizu, M

    2016-06-01

    Trehalose is composed of two molecules of D-glucose joined by an α,α-1,1 glucosidic linkage and has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study investigated the effect of feeding a trehalose-supplemented diet on the growth performance, as well as the oxidative status and the intestinal innate immunity of juvenile chicks. A total of 16 d-old male broiler chicks were used in this study: two groups of 8 birds were fed on a 0% (control) or 0.5% trehalose-supplemented diet for 18 d. The mean body weight of the trehalose group was significantly greater than that of the control group, but feed efficiency was not altered by feeding the trehalose-supplemented diet. No differences in the levels of lipid peroxidation in skeletal muscle, liver and plasma were observed between the control and trehalose-supplemented groups. The mRNA levels of interferon-γ, tumour necrosis factor-like ligand 1A, interleukin-10, NADPH oxidase 4 and inducible NO synthase were significantly reduced by the trehalose supplementation. Our results suggest that dietary supplementation with trehalose after hatching may have beneficial effects on the growth performance of juvenile chicks, probably by improving their intestinal innate immunity. PMID:26986698

  5. Growth performance of weanling Wistar rats fed on accessions of cooked Colocasia esculenta-based diets.

    PubMed

    Lewu, Muinat N; Yakubu, Toyin M; Adebola, Patrick O; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2011-09-01

    The growth performance of weanling albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) maintained on different accessions (offspring of a variety that was planted/collected at a specific location and time but differing in certain morphologic characteristics) of cooked Colocasia esculenta (cocoyam)-based diets (UFCe1-UFCe7) for 28 days was investigated. Proximate analysis of the formulated diets revealed that UFCe3, UFCe4, UFCe5, UFCe6, and UFCe7 had significantly (P<.05) higher moisture contents than the corn starch-based diet (control). All the accession-based diets of C. esculenta had higher ash contents. Similarly, all the accessions of the C. esculenta-based diet had lower crude lipid content, whereas UFCe3-UFCe7 had significantly lower protein content. Although the crude fiber content was significantly higher in UFCe2, UFCe4, and UFCe5, only UFCe3 had significantly higher carbohydrate content among all the accessions of C. esculenta-based diets. UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 increased the average weekly water intake, feed consumption, total body weight, liver-body weight ratio, and kidney-body weight ratio of the animals; UFCe3 and UFCe7 decreased these measures. Overall, UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 are recommended as diets with promise to enhance growth performance in the animals.

  6. Effect of passion fruit seed meal on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter pigs.

    PubMed

    Fachinello, Marcelise Regina; Pozza, Paulo Cesar; Moreira, Ivan; Carvalho, Paulo Levi Oliveira; Castilha, Leandro Dalcin; Pasquetti, Tiago Junior; Esteves, Lucas Antonio Costa; Huepa, Laura Marcela Diaz

    2015-10-01

    Two experiments were carried out in Paraná State, Brazil, to evaluate the nutritional value of passion fruit seed meal (PFM) and to study the effect of PFM on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter pigs (Topigs 20 × Tybor). In experiment 1, 25 castrated males, averaging 19.1-kg body weight, were individually fed in a completely randomized block design, consisting of five treatments and five replicates and an experimental period that lasted 14 days. In experiment 2, a total of 60 pigs (30 females and 30 castrated males) were distributed in a randomized block design with five treatments, six replications, and two animals per experimental unit and 90 days of experimentation. For both experiments, the same PFM inclusion rates were used in the experimental diets, namely, 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 %. The metabolizable energy of PFM was estimated to be 15.0 MJ/kg. Inclusion of PFM at any level did not affect average daily gain, daily feed intake, feed/gain ratio, backfat thickness, loin depth, and plasma or blood components. It is concluded that passion fruit seed meal for swine in the starting phase can be added at a rate of up to 16 % in the diet without any negative effects on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter commercial line pigs.

  7. Analysis of possible influence of conjugated linoleic acid on growth performance and losses of piglets.

    PubMed

    Hadaš, Z; Čechová, M; Nevrkla, P

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of supplementing the feed ration for lactating sows with the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the growth performance and losses of piglets from birth to weaning. The monitoring comprised 20 litters in control and 20 litters in experimental group of Czech Large White × Czech Landrace hybrid combination sows. The control group was given a standard feed mixture for lactating sows, and experimental group was fed with the feed mixture supplemented with 2% of CLA, from the day of farrowing to the weaning of piglets, that is for the time of 28 days. The results of the experiment indicate the significantly better parameters of the numbers of reared piglets in the experimental group and the related lower level of losses of piglets from birth to weaning (p < 0.01). However, the feed mixture for lactating sows enriched in conjugated linoleic acid had no significant effect on the growth performance of piglets from birth to weaning (p > 0.05). Sows in the experimental group showed earlier onset of post-partal oestrus after weaning of piglets (p < 0.05). These findings demonstrate that the supplementation of diet for lactating sows with CLA can improve survival of piglets from birth to weaning and shortening of weaning-to-oestrous interval in sows.

  8. Effects of vitamin C supplementation on growth performance and antioxidant status of layer ducklings.

    PubMed

    Wang, A; Xie, F; Wang, Y H; Wu, J L

    2011-08-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary vitamin C supplements on growth performance, antioxidant status and humoral immunity of layer ducklings. The results showed that the body weight and daily body weight gain of ducklings increased (p < 0.05) with increasing dietary vitamin C supplementations and reached a maximum at 400 mg vitamin C/kg feed. The dietary vitamin C supplementations reduced the malondialdehyde concentration (p < 0.05) and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.05) in serum and liver of ducklings at day 5 and 28. Additionally, feeding 400 mg/kg or 800 mg vitamin C/kg feed increased IgM and IgA concentrations in sera (p < 0.05) and serum IgG concentrations increased (p < 0.05) following supplementation in concentrations of 150-800 mg vitamin C/kg feed. In conclusion, the results suggested that dietary vitamin C supplements of 400 mg/kg feed provide optimal effects on growth performance, antioxidant status and parameters of humoral immunity.

  9. Growth performance of weanling Wistar rats fed on accessions of cooked Colocasia esculenta-based diets.

    PubMed

    Lewu, Muinat N; Yakubu, Toyin M; Adebola, Patrick O; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2011-09-01

    The growth performance of weanling albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) maintained on different accessions (offspring of a variety that was planted/collected at a specific location and time but differing in certain morphologic characteristics) of cooked Colocasia esculenta (cocoyam)-based diets (UFCe1-UFCe7) for 28 days was investigated. Proximate analysis of the formulated diets revealed that UFCe3, UFCe4, UFCe5, UFCe6, and UFCe7 had significantly (P<.05) higher moisture contents than the corn starch-based diet (control). All the accession-based diets of C. esculenta had higher ash contents. Similarly, all the accessions of the C. esculenta-based diet had lower crude lipid content, whereas UFCe3-UFCe7 had significantly lower protein content. Although the crude fiber content was significantly higher in UFCe2, UFCe4, and UFCe5, only UFCe3 had significantly higher carbohydrate content among all the accessions of C. esculenta-based diets. UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 increased the average weekly water intake, feed consumption, total body weight, liver-body weight ratio, and kidney-body weight ratio of the animals; UFCe3 and UFCe7 decreased these measures. Overall, UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 are recommended as diets with promise to enhance growth performance in the animals. PMID:21554124

  10. Growth performance and carcase quality in broiler chickens fed on bacterial protein grown on natural gas.

    PubMed

    Øverland, M; Schøyen, H F; Skrede, A

    2010-10-01

    1. The effects of increasing concentrations (0, 40, 80 or 120 g/kg) of bacterial protein meal (BPM) and bacterial protein autolysate (BPA) grown on natural gas on growth performance and carcase quality in broiler chickens were examined. 2. Adding BPM to diets reduced feed intake and improved gain: feed from 0 to 21 d and overall to 35 d, but did not significantly affect weight gain compared to the soybean meal based control diet. 3. Increasing concentrations of BPA significantly reduced growth rate, feed intake, gain: feed, carcase weight and dressing percentage, but significantly increased carcase dry matter, fat and energy content. 4. Adding BPM to diets had no effect on viscosity of diets and jejunal digesta, and minor effects on litter quality, whereas BPA increased the viscosity of diets and jejunal digesta, improved litter quality at 21 d, but decreased litter quality at 32 d. 5. To conclude, broiler chickens performed better on a BPM product with intact proteins than on an autolysate with ruptured cell walls and a high content of free amino acids and low molecular-weight peptides.

  11. Recombinant porcine lactoferrin expressed in the milk of transgenic mice enhances offspring growth performance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shinn-Chih; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Yen, Chih-Ching; Kuo, Meng-Fu; Yang, Tien-Shuh; Wang, Shih-Rong; Weng, Chung-Nan; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Cheng, Winston T K

    2007-06-13

    The European Commission has proposed a permanent ban on the use of antibiotics as an ingredient in animal feed to promote growth. Lactoferrin is a globular multifunctional protein that has been shown to play a role in iron absorption and to have antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, lactoferrin may serve as a nontherapeutic alternative to antibiotics in livestock husbandry. As a pilot study toward this goal, transgenic mice have been generated harboring a porcine lactoferrin (pLF) gene driven by the mammary gland-specific promoter of the bovine alpha-lactalbumin (alphaLA) gene. The alphaLA-pLF hybrid gene was confirmed to have been successfully integrated and transmitted stably through the germ-line in 9 (5 females and 4 males) of 14 transgenic founders. In the female progenies of six lines analyzed, the transgene copy numbers ranged from 1 to 20 with 1-4 integration sites. Significant levels of pLF protein in milk ranging from 40 to 106 microg/mL with physical characteristics similar to those of native pLF in sow's milk were achieved in three of the transgenic lines obtained. Tissue- and stage-specific pLF expressions were restricted to the mammary gland of the transgenic female mice during lactation. It was further demonstrated that the growth performance of animal pups is enhanced by directly feeding the genetically engineered milk containing enriched pLF protein in transgenic mice. Furthermore, this enhanced growth performance in suckling mice was proportional to the concentration of pLF present in milk. PMID:17489602

  12. Effects of zinc-methionine on growth performance, intestinal flora and immune function in pigeon squabs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Yi, L; Zhao, M L; Wu, J Q; Wang, M Y; Cheng, X C

    2014-01-01

    1. Different concentrations of zinc-methionine (Zn-Met) were given to pigeon squabs, and the resulting effects on growth, immune functions and intestinal microflora were investigated from hatching to 28 d of age. A total of 180 artificially hatched pigeon squabs were randomly allotted to each of three treatments with three replicates of 20 squabs. The three treatments given were either one ml (2 mg/ml) Zn-Met, one ml (10 mg/ml) Zn-Met or one ml 0.9% NaCl solution. 2. The results showed that Zn-Met improved the growth performance of squabs. The average daily and average weekly weight gain was significantly greater in squabs treated with Zn-Met than in the control group. 3. The group given 2 and 10 mg supplemental Zn-Met had heavier thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius than the control group at d 28. 4. Maternal antibody titres against Newcastle disease haemagglutination inhibition and alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase were significantly higher in squabs treated with supplemental 2 and 10 mg Zn-Met compared to the control group at d 14 and d 28. 5. Additionally, the squabs given supplemental 2 mg Zn-Met exhibited significantly higher Bacillaceae, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Bifidobacterium populations at d 14 and d 28, but lower Escherichia coli populations at d 28 compared to the control group. On the contrary, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Bifidobacterium populations were significantly decreased with 10 mg Zn-Met at d 28. 6. This study indicates that supplementation with Zn-Met has a positive effect on growth performance, immune function and regulation of intestinal flora in pigeons. An inclusion level of 2 mg seems to be better than 10 mg Zn-Met per day per bird.

  13. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (≥ 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and

  14. Differential effects of sodium selenite and nano-Se on growth performance, tissue se distribution, and glutathione peroxidase activity of avian broiler.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanbo

    2009-05-01

    The present research evaluated differential effects of sodium selenite and nano-Se on growth performance, tissue Se distribution, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of avian broiler. Broilers were randomly segregated into 12 groups so that three replicates were available for each of the three treatments (T-1, T-2, and T-3) and control groups. The control groups were fed basal diets without Se addition. T-1, T-2, and T-3 were fed with diets containing 0.2 mg kg(-1) sodium selenite, 0.2 mg kg(-1) nano-Se, and 0.5 mg kg(-1) nano-Se, respectively. Compared with the control, Se supplementation remarkably improved daily weight gain and survival rate and decreased feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed between T-1, T-2, and T-3. The tissue Se content was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in Se-supplemented groups than the control, and T-3 showed the highest. Furthermore, higher Se content was observed in liver, and there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) compared with that in muscle. As for serum and hepatic GSH-Px activities, Se supplementation remarkably improved GSH-Px activity (P < 0.05), and there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between treatments (T-1, T-2, and T-3). PMID:18972070

  15. Effects of growth hormone and feeding level on endocrine measurements, hormone receptors, muscle growth and performance of prepubertal heifers.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, M; Purup, S; Frystyk, J; Løvendahl, P; Sørensen, M T; Riis, P M; Flint, D J; Sejrsen, K

    2003-09-01

    Prepubertal Friesian heifer calves (n = 24, initial BW = 195 +/- 5 kg) were assigned to a 2 x 2 factorial block design and used to evaluate the effects of daily GH treatment (0 or 15 mg/d) at either a low or a high feeding level in a 5-wk treatment period on endocrine measurements, hormone receptors, muscle growth, and overall performance. In the pretreatment period, a low feeding level was employed for all calves. During the treatment period, animals at the low feeding level had free access to a roughage-based mixture, whereas animals at the high feeding level had free access to a concentrate mixture and were offered 2 kg/d of the roughage-based mixture. Blood samples were collected weekly starting 3 wk before treatment. Longissimus (LM) and supraspinatus (SS) muscles were obtained at slaughter. Metabolizable energy intake was 81% higher, digestible CP intake was 140% higher, and ADG was 115% higher (all P < 0.001) at the high vs. low feeding level. Feed (DMI, ME, and protein) intake was not affected by GH treatment, but ADG was 18% higher (P < 0.13) in GH-treated than in control heifers at both feeding levels. Although of different magnitudes, the muscle anabolic effects of GH treatment and high vs. low feeding level were additive, and both treatments increased carcass weights (P < 0.02 and P < 0.001, respectively), LM (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001), and SS (P < 0.06 and P < 0.003). The anabolic effect of GH treatment was similar in both muscles, whereas the effect of feeding level was most pronounced in LM. Overall, GH treatment increased plasma GH, IGF-I (both P < 0.001), and IGFBP-3 (P < 0.02); however, GH treatment increased total IGF-I, free IGF-I, and IGFBP-3, and decreased IGFBP-2 mainly at the high feeding level (GH x feeding level interaction; P < 0.02, 0.01, 0.03, and 0.10, respectively). The high feeding level increased insulin, free and total IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 (all P < 0.001), but decreased GH and IGFBP-2 (both P < 0.001). High feeding increased type-1 IGF

  16. Diagnostic performance of gadoxetic acid (Primovist)-enhanced MR imaging versus CT during hepatic arteriography and portography for small hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yim, Sun Young; Park, Beom Jin; Um, Soon Ho; Han, Na Yeon; Sung, Deuk Jae; Cho, Sung Bum; Lee, Seung Hwa; Kim, Min Ju; Jung, Jin Yong; Kim, Jin Dong; Seo, Yeon Seok; Kim, Dong Sik; An, Hyonggin; Kim, Yun Hwan

    2016-09-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with that of computed tomography (CT) during hepatic arteriography and arterial portography (CT HA/AP) for detecting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from small hypervascular nodules.This retrospective study included 38 patients with 131 hypervascular nodules (≤2 cm) who had underwent MRI and CT HA/AP within a 2-week interval. Two observers analyzed MRI while other 2 observers analyzed CT HA/AP. Thereafter, MRI observers reviewed the CT HA/AP and magnetic resonance (MR) images again using both modalities. HCC was diagnosed by pathologic or imaging studies according to American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) criteria. Alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed on a lesion-by-lesion basis. Diagnostic accuracy (area under the ROC curve [Az]), sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated.The pooled Az was significantly higher for the combined modalities (0.946) than for MRI alone (0.9, P = 0.004), and for MRI than for CT HA/AP alone (0.827, P = 0.0154). Subgroup analysis for HCC ≤1 cm showed the sensitivity of the combined modalities (79.4%) was significantly higher than for MRI (52.9%) and CT HA/AP alone (50%) (both, P < 0.005). The specificity of the combined modalities was not different from MRI alone (98.8% vs. 97.3%, P = 0.5), but was significantly higher than for CT HA/AP alone (98.8% vs. 92.5%, P = 0.022).Hypervascular HCCs >1 to 2 cm can be diagnosed sufficiently by MRI. The combined modalities increased the diagnostic accuracy of HCCs ≤1 cm, compared with MRI or CT HA/AP alone. PMID:27684824

  17. Guided Growth of Horizontal ZnSe Nanowires and their Integration into High-Performance Blue-UV Photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Oksenberg, Eitan; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Rechav, Katya; Joselevich, Ernesto

    2015-07-15

    Perfectly aligned horizontal ZnSe nano-wires are obtained by guided growth, and easily integrated into high-performance blue-UV photodetectors. Their crystal phase and crystallographic orientation are controlled by the epitaxial relations with six different sapphire planes. Guided growth paves the way for the large-scale integration of nanowires into optoelectronic devices. PMID:26011601

  18. Liver Fibrosis Staging with MR Elastography: Comparison of Diagnostic Performance between Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B and Those with Other Etiologic Causes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Won; Lee, Jeong Min; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Lee, Kyoung Bun; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2016-07-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance (MR) elastography in staging liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and other etiologic causes. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was institutional review board-approved and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Before surgery, MR elastographic imaging was performed in 352 patients with chronic liver diseases (281 patients with CHB, 71 patients without CHB) and hepatocellular carcinomas and 64 living liver donor candidates. Liver stiffness (LS) values were measured on quantitative shear-stiffness maps of MR elastography, and the diagnostic performance of MR elastography in staging liver fibrosis was evaluated by using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and the Obuchowski measure with the histopathologic analysis of liver fibrosis in the CHB group and in the group composed of other etiologic causes. In 120 patients (97 with CHB, 23 without CHB) and 51 donors, diagnostic performance of MR elastography was validated. Results Areas under the curve of LS values for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis (≥stage F2), severe fibrosis (≥stage F3), and cirrhosis (stage F4) in the CHB group were 0.972 (95% confidence interval: 0.948, 0.987), 0.946 (95% confidence interval: 0.916, 0.968), and 0.920 (95% confidence interval: 0.885, 0.947), respectively. Obuchowski measures were similarly high in the CHB group and in the group composed of other etiologic causes (0.970 vs 0.977). However, the estimated cutoff value for stage F4 in the group with CHB was substantially lower than in the participants with other etiologic causes: 3.67 kPa versus 4.65 kPa. In the validation study for stage F1 or greater, stage F2 or greater, stage F3 or greater, and stage F4, the Youden indexes were 0.807, 0.842, 0.806, and 0.639, respectively, in the group with CHB, and 0.783, 0.900, 1.000, and 0.917, respectively, in the group without CHB. Conclusion The diagnostic

  19. Effects of anthraquinone extract from Rheum officinale Bail on the growth performance and physiological responses of Macrobrachium rosenbergii under high temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Xie, Jun; Ge, Xianping; Xu, Pao; Wang, Aiming; He, Yijin; Zhou, Qunlan; Pan, Liangkun; Chen, Ruli

    2010-07-01

    In order to study the effects of anthraquinone extract from Rheum officinale Bail on Macrobrachium rosenbergii under high temperature stress, freshwater prawns were randomly divided into five groups: a control group was fed with basal diet, and four treatment groups fed with basal diet supplemented with 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% anthraquinone extracts for 10 weeks, respectively. Then, freshwater prawns were exposed to high temperature stress at 35 degrees C for 48h. The growth, changes in haemolymph total protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lysozyme, nitrogen monoxide (NO) and hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were investigated. The results showed that compared the control group, the specific growth rates, feed conversion efficiency, haemolymph ALP and lysozyme activities, total protein contents, hepatic CAT and SOD activities increased while haemolymph AST, ALT and hepatic MDA contents decreased in treatment groups before the stress, but their levels did not correlate with the doses of anthraquinone extracts. The specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion efficiency and haemolymph lysozyme activity significantly increased but haemolymph AST activity decreased in 0.1% dose group; whereas haemolymph ALP activity and feed conversion efficiency increased but ALT activity and hepatic MDA contents significantly decreased in 0.2% dose group before the stress compared with the control. After high temperature stress, 0.1-0.2% anthraquinone extract also could improve the haemolymph total proteins, lysozyme and ALP activities, hepatic catalase, and superoxide dismutase, and reduce haemolymph ALT and AST activities, hepatic malondialdehyde contents. The cumulative mortality in the control was about 100% at 48h after high temperature stress while the cumulative mortality in the treatment groups supplemented with 0.1-0.2% anthraquinone extract were about 48-65%. The

  20. Effect of ambient temperature in neonate aspic vipers: growth, locomotor performance and defensive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Aïdam, Aurélie; Michel, Catherine Louise; Bonnet, Xavier

    2013-07-01

    The impact of temperature during incubation and gestation has been tested in various reptiles; the postnatal period has been rarely investigated however. Three groups of newborn aspic vipers (Vipera aspis) were placed under contrasted thermal regimes during 7 months: (1) a cool 23°C constant regime, (2) a warm 28°C constant regime, and (3) an optimal regime with free-access to a wide range of temperatures. Later, all the snakes were placed under hibernation conditions (6°C) during 3 months. Finally all the snakes were placed in the optimal thermal regime during 2 additional months. The total duration of the experiment was of 12 months. Body mass and feeding rates were recorded weekly, body size was measured monthly. We also assessed locomotor performance and recorded several behavioral traits (e.g., defensive and predatory behaviors). As expected, snakes raised under cool temperatures exhibited low feeding rate, growth rate, body condition, and they exhibited poor locomotor performance; they also displayed marked defensive behaviors (e.g., high number of defensive bites) whilst hesitating during longer periods to bite a prey. Such behavioral effects were detected at the end of the experiment (i.e., 5 months after exposure to contrasted thermal treatments [3 months of hibernation plus 2 months of optimal regime]), revealing long term effects. Surprisingly, growth rate and locomotor performance were not different between the two other groups, warm constant 28°C versus optimal regimes (albeit several behavioral traits differed), suggesting that the access to a wide range of ambient temperatures was not a crucial factor.

  1. Effects of supplemental boron on growth performance and meat quality in African ostrich chicks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Xiao, Ke; Zheng, Xinting; Zhu, Daiyun; Yang, Zhi; Tang, Juan; Sun, Pengpeng; Wang, Jing; Peng, Kemei

    2014-11-19

    To investigate the effects of boron on growth performance and meat quality, 10-day-old Africa ostrich chicks were randomly divided into 6 groups with 6 replicates in each group. For 80 days, birds in the treatments were fed the same basal diet but given different concentrations of boron-supplemented water. The highest final BW (33.4 ± 0.30 kg), ADFI (376 ± 1.83 g), and ADG (224 ± 1.01 g) appeared in the group receiving 160 mg/L boron (group 4). 160 mg/L boron also decreased drip loss (2.20 ± 0.59), cooking loss (35.3 ± 1.14), and elevated pH value (6.13 ± 0.28) of meat (P < 0.05). Ostrich chicks in the 640 mg/L treatment group (group 6) had the lowest final BW (30.8 ± 1.05 kg) and ADG (208 ± 0.74 g) (P < 0.05). The highest ash (1.35 ± 0.01%) and pH (6.18 ± 0.03) and the lowest protein (20.4 ± 1.74%), drip loss (2.10 ± 0.76%), cooking loss (35.0 ± 0.41%), C18:1 (28.2 ± 0.65%), and C18:3ω3 (2.60 ± 0.51%) appeared in group 6 (P < 0.05) as well. Overall, the optimum concentration of 160 mg/L supplemental boron improved ostrich growth performance and meat quality; however, high concentrations of boron decreased both performance and meat quality.

  2. Effects of supplemental boron on growth performance and meat quality in African ostrich chicks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Xiao, Ke; Zheng, Xinting; Zhu, Daiyun; Yang, Zhi; Tang, Juan; Sun, Pengpeng; Wang, Jing; Peng, Kemei

    2014-11-19

    To investigate the effects of boron on growth performance and meat quality, 10-day-old Africa ostrich chicks were randomly divided into 6 groups with 6 replicates in each group. For 80 days, birds in the treatments were fed the same basal diet but given different concentrations of boron-supplemented water. The highest final BW (33.4 ± 0.30 kg), ADFI (376 ± 1.83 g), and ADG (224 ± 1.01 g) appeared in the group receiving 160 mg/L boron (group 4). 160 mg/L boron also decreased drip loss (2.20 ± 0.59), cooking loss (35.3 ± 1.14), and elevated pH value (6.13 ± 0.28) of meat (P < 0.05). Ostrich chicks in the 640 mg/L treatment group (group 6) had the lowest final BW (30.8 ± 1.05 kg) and ADG (208 ± 0.74 g) (P < 0.05). The highest ash (1.35 ± 0.01%) and pH (6.18 ± 0.03) and the lowest protein (20.4 ± 1.74%), drip loss (2.10 ± 0.76%), cooking loss (35.0 ± 0.41%), C18:1 (28.2 ± 0.65%), and C18:3ω3 (2.60 ± 0.51%) appeared in group 6 (P < 0.05) as well. Overall, the optimum concentration of 160 mg/L supplemental boron improved ostrich growth performance and meat quality; however, high concentrations of boron decreased both performance and meat quality. PMID:25363572

  3. Measurement of theophylline metabolites produced by reaction with hepatic microsome by high performance liquid chromatography following solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Konishi, H; Yamaji, A

    1994-01-01

    An analytical method has been developed with which to measure the microsomal enzyme activities responsible for oxidative theophylline metabolism. Three metabolites: 3-Methylxanthine (3-MX); 1-methylxanthine (1-MX); 1,3-dimethyluric acid (1,3-DMU), with acetaminophen as an internal standard (IS), were separated by solid phase extraction using a Sep-Pak C18 cartridge, followed by high performance liquid chromatography on a reversed-phase column with isocratic elution using 25 mM acetate buffer containing 4% acetonitrile and 2.5 mM tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen sulphate (pH 5.25) as the mobile phase. The analytes were clearly resolved and no interference with foreign peaks was observed. A linear relationship was obtained for the metabolites over the concentration range of 0.5-5.0 micrograms/mL, and their analytical recovery was almost 100%. This method can be used to assess drug interactions involving alterations in the biotransformation of theophylline.

  4. Protect Yourself from Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... develop yellowish eyes and skin. All the hepatitis viruses can cause acute, or short-term, hepatitis. Some can also cause chronic hepatitis, in which the infection lasts a long time, sometimes for your whole life. Chronic hepatitis can eventually lead to scarring of ...

  5. Cinnamaldehyde in feedlot cattle diets: intake, growth performance, carcass characteristics, and blood metabolites.

    PubMed

    Yang, W Z; Ametaj, B N; Benchaar, C; He, M L; Beauchemin, K A

    2010-03-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CIN), a natural chemical compound found in the bark of cinnamon trees, can alter rumen fermentation by inhibiting selected ruminal microbes, and consequently, may improve growth performance and feed efficiency of animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing the diet of feedlot cattle with CIN on intake, growth performance, carcass characteristics, and blood metabolites. Seventy yearling steers (BW = 390 +/- 25.2 kg) were assigned to a randomized complete block design with 5 treatments: control (no additive), monensin (MO; 330 mg*steer(-1)*d(-1)), and 400, 800, or 1,600 mg of CIN*steer(-1)*d(-1). At the start of the experiment, steers were blocked according to BW and assigned to 14 blocks of 5 cattle, with cattle within block assigned to treatments. The diets consisted of 9% barley silage, 86% dry-rolled barley grain, and 5% supplement (DM basis). Dry matter intake responded quadratically (P = 0.03) to CIN supplementation with 13% more feed consumed for steers fed CIN (mean of 3 CIN levels) compared with those fed control during the first 28 d of the experiment, and with a tendency of 4% increase over the entire experiment. The ADG (kg/d) tended to respond quadratically (P = 0.08) to CIN supplementation during the first 28 d, but was not affected over the entire experiment (112 d). Feed efficiency (G:F) linearly declined (P = 0.03) during the first 28 d with CIN supplementation and was quadratically affected between d 29 to 56 and d 85 to 112 by CIN dose. Supplementation of MO did not affect (P > 0.15) DMI or growth performance at any time during the experiment. Serum NEFA concentrations were reduced (P = 0.05) by 35, 29, 30, and 22%, respectively, on d 56, 84, 112, and overall with CIN supplementation. Concentrations of serum amyloid A were reduced on d 28 by 56, 60, or 56% for 800 mg of CIN, 1,600 mg of CIN, and MO, respectively, compared with control. Plasma concentrations of lipopolysaccharide binding protein

  6. Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy Combined with Venous Embolization in a Patient with Hepatic Metastases with an Arteriovenous Shunt

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiofuku, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Sakaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kiyosei; Inoue, Masayoshi; Sueyoshi, Satoru; Shinnkai, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Kichikawa, Kimihiko

    2009-07-15

    We describe herein a patient who had hepatic metastases with an arteriovenous shunt and was treated by hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy. The arteriovenous shunt was diagnosed by {sup 99m}Tc-macroaggregated albumin scintigraphy and hepatic venous embolization was performed to reduce shunt flow.

  7. Dietary administration of laminarin improves the growth performance and immune responses in Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guangwen; Li, Wenwu; Lin, Qian; Lin, Xi; Lin, Jianbin; Zhu, Qingguo; Jiang, Heji; Huang, Zhijian

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of laminarin on the growth performance, immunological and biochemical parameters, as well as immune related genes expression in the grouper, Epinephelus coioides. One hundred and eight fish were randomly divided into four groups (45 groupers/group). Blank control group was fed with the basal diet, while low, medium and high doses of laminarin groups were fed with the basal diet supplemented with 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% laminarin, respectively, for 48 days. The immunological and biochemical parameters in blood were investigated. The mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-8, and TLR2 in midgut were also evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. Dietary laminarin supplementation significantly improved the specific growth rate and the feed efficiency ratio of the fish. The level of TP and the activity of LZM, CAT and SOD were higher than that of the control. The levels of UREA and CREA as well as the activity of ALP were lower than of the control. There was no significant difference in the levels of ALT and AST between control groups and treated groups. In addition, dietary laminarin supplementation decreased the levels of C3 and C4. The expression of immune response genes IL-1β, IL-8, and TLR2 showed significant increases (P < 0.05) in groupers fed low dose (0.5%) and medium dose (1.0%) of laminarin compared with the blank control. These results suggest that laminarin modulates the immune response and stimulates growth of the fish. PMID:25266890

  8. Growth Performance and Biometric Characteristics of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Different Host Plants.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Li, Nian-Jhen; Yeh, Chih-Chun

    2015-10-01

    Spodoptera litura (F.), an important polyphagous insect pest, attacks ca. 300 economic crops in dozens of countries. Investigations into its growth and development performance on different host plants can provide an understanding of the potential for increase of S. litura population in the field. We measured the development time, body weight, and head capsule width of S. litura larvae reared on cabbage, taro, peanut, and sesbania, a green manure. Larvae reared on cabbage ingested a significantly higher amount of protein and completed the immature stages in a shorter period than those reared on the other three plants. The relationship between head capsule width and larval instars on these four crops fitted well with Dyar's rule, and the Dyar's ratios ranged from 1.4554 to 1.6786, although a few supernumerary instar individuals on sesbania, peanut, and taro showed lower ratios (1.0103 to 1.1330). The head capsule width among cohorts fed on different host plants varied significantly and overlapped between late instars, which could lead to a misjudgment of instar stage in the field. The growth index of S. litura on cabbage was significantly higher than on the other host plants. Larvae fed on sesbania showed the highest feeding index and a better growth index than on taro and peanut. We therefore suggest that the area-wide pest management against S. litura should take into consideration its occurrence on sesbania in intercropping seasons. Additionally, the effective management of this pest during cropping windows between all these four plants should not be ignored. PMID:26453712

  9. Comparison of ethanol production performance in 10 varieties of sweet potato at different growth stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yanling; Fang, Yang; Zhang, Guohua; Zhou, Lingling; Zhao, Hai

    2012-10-01

    The performance in the ethanol production of 10 varieties of sweet potato was evaluated, and the consumption in raw materials, land occupation and fermentation waste residue in producing 1 ton of anhydrous ethanol were investigated. The comparative results between 10 varieties of sweet potato at 3 growth stages indicated that NS 007 and SS 19 were better feedstocks for ethanol production, exhibiting less feedstock consumption (6.19 and 7.59 tons/ton ethanol, respectively), the least land occupation (0.24 and 0.24 ha/ton ethanol, respectively), less fermentation waste residue (0.56 and 0.55 tons/ton ethanol, respectively), the highest level of ethanol output per unit area (4.17 and 4.17 ton/ha, respectively), and a lower viscosity of the fermentation culture (591 and 612 mPa S, respectively). The data above are average data. In most varieties, the ethanol output speed at day 130 was the highest. Therefore, NS 007 and SS 19 could be used for ethanol production and harvested after 130 days of growth from an economic point of view. In addition, the high content of fermentable sugars and low content of fiber in sweet potatoes are criteria for achieving low viscosity in ethanol fermentation cultures.

  10. Growth performance and puberty attainment in growing pigs fed dietary fumonisin B(1).

    PubMed

    Gbore, F A

    2009-12-01

    Twenty-four male weaned piglets assigned to four diets containing 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 0.2 mg fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) /kg as diets 1, 2, 3 and control diet, respectively, were used to study the effect of dietary FB(1) on growth and puberty attainment in pigs in a 6-month feeding trial. Lower feed intake during 0-4 months and a non-significant (p > 0.05) but FB(1) concentration-dependent decrease in live and DWGs in animals fed FB(1)-contaminated diets was observed at the end of the pubertal phase. The daily and the final live weight gains of animals fed diet 3 were 75.8% and 90.6%, respectively, of the control values. The mean ages at puberty by boars on diets 2 and 3 were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those for animals on the control and diet 1. The animals on diet 3 attained puberty when mean live weight was 60.1 kg, some 30.3 days after the controls attained puberty, at 156.3 days, when the mean live weight was 46.9 kg. This study revealed that dietary FB(1) delays sexual maturity in growing pigs. Male weanling pigs for breeding should not be exposed to dietary FB(1) higher than 5 mg/kg for optimum growth and reproductive performance.

  11. Tracking growth hormone abuse in sport: performance of marker proteins in a controlled setting.

    PubMed

    Bosch, J; Such-Sanmartín, G; Segura, J; Gutiérrez-Gallego, R

    2012-10-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) abuse in sport is a challenge at present. The current strategy used, known as direct method, is based on the quantification of hGH variants in serum. An alternative strategy, known as indirect method, focuses on serum markers such as insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and procollagen type III N-terminal propeptide (P-III-NP). The indirect method allows a longer window of detection (WOO) of hGH abuse. To evaluate the performance of the indirect method, in parallel to the direct method, a clinical trial with recombinant hGH (rhGH) was conducted on healthy male subjects during 7 days (0.026 mg(-1) kg(-1) person(-1) day(-1)). The data were fit to the discriminant formula proposed in the previously published GH-2000 project. The low sensitivity of the scores, judged from the high number of false negative outcomes, imposed a new discriminant analysis, standarised using local population subjects demographically similar to the ones of the study. The sensitivity of the method significantly increased, highlighting the importance of the standardisation. The indirect method allowed extended window of opportunity (WOO), although two false positive evaluations were observed derived from elevated basal IGF-I and P-III-NP concentrations stressing the need for an independent confirmation method. When direct and indirect methods were combined the best selectivity and sensitivity were achieved.

  12. Growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens supplemented with Rhodopseudomonas palustris in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q Q; Yan, H; Liu, X L; Lv, L; Yin, C H; Wang, P

    2014-01-01

    1. The effect of the bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, on the growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens was investigated. 2. A total of 900-d-old Arbor Acres broilers were allocated to three experimental treatments for 6 weeks. Chicks were administered with R. palustris in drinking water as follows: (i) control group without R. palustris; (ii) treatment 1 (R1) with R. palustris of 8 × 10(9) cells per chick per day in drinking water; (iii) treatment 2 (R2) with R. palustris of 1.6 × 10(10) cells per chick per day in drinking water. 3. The results showed that, compared with that of control, both groups of R. palustris treatment increased daily weight gain and improved feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens significantly during the whole growing period of 6 weeks. 4. Both total and glutamic acid contents of chicken breast fillet in R. palustris treatment R2 were higher, while the fat content was lower, than those of the control group. Furthermore, R. palustris treatments also improved sensory attributes of chicken breast fillet. 5. As a probiotic providing rich nutrients and biological active substances, R. palustris administration in drinking water displayed a growth promoting effect and improved meat quality of broiler chickens. PMID:24628388

  13. Transgenerational effects of land use on offspring performance and growth in Trifolium repens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengwen; Bossdorf, Oliver; Prati, Daniel; Fischer, Markus; van Kleunen, Mark

    2016-02-01

    Central European grasslands vary widely in productivity and in mowing and grazing regimes. The resulting differences in competition and heterogeneity among grasslands might have direct effects on plants, but might also affect the growth and morphology of their offspring through maternal effects or adaptive evolution. To test for such transgenerational effects, we grew plants of the clonal herb Trifolium repens from seeds collected in 58 grassland sites differing in productivity and mowing and grazing intensities in different treatments: without competition, with homogeneous competition, and with heterogeneous competition. In the competition-free treatment, T. repens from more productive, less frequently mown, and less intensively grazed sites produced more vegetative offspring, but this was not the case in the other treatments. When grown among or in close proximity to competitors, T. repens plants did not show preferential growth towards open spaces (i.e., no horizontal foraging), but did show strong vertical foraging by petiole elongation. In the homogeneous competition treatment, petiole length increased with the productivity of the parental site, but this was not the case in the heterogeneous competition treatment. Moreover, petiole length increased with mowing frequency and grazing intensity of the parental site in all but the homogeneous competition treatment. In summary, although the expression of differences between plants from sites with different productivities and land-use intensities depended on the experimental treatment, our findings imply that there are transgenerational effects of land use on the morphology and performance of T. repens. PMID:26496993

  14. Growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens supplemented with Rhodopseudomonas palustris in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q Q; Yan, H; Liu, X L; Lv, L; Yin, C H; Wang, P

    2014-01-01

    1. The effect of the bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, on the growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens was investigated. 2. A total of 900-d-old Arbor Acres broilers were allocated to three experimental treatments for 6 weeks. Chicks were administered with R. palustris in drinking water as follows: (i) control group without R. palustris; (ii) treatment 1 (R1) with R. palustris of 8 × 10(9) cells per chick per day in drinking water; (iii) treatment 2 (R2) with R. palustris of 1.6 × 10(10) cells per chick per day in drinking water. 3. The results showed that, compared with that of control, both groups of R. palustris treatment increased daily weight gain and improved feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens significantly during the whole growing period of 6 weeks. 4. Both total and glutamic acid contents of chicken breast fillet in R. palustris treatment R2 were higher, while the fat content was lower, than those of the control group. Furthermore, R. palustris treatments also improved sensory attributes of chicken breast fillet. 5. As a probiotic providing rich nutrients and biological active substances, R. palustris administration in drinking water displayed a growth promoting effect and improved meat quality of broiler chickens.

  15. Effects of Palm Kernel Expellers on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Blood Profiles of Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Seo, J.; Kim, W.; Kim, J.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, S. C.; Jang, Y.; Jang, K.; Kim, K.; Kim, B.; Park, S.; Park, I.; Kim, M. K.; Seo, K. S.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, I. H.; Seo, S.; Song, M.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of palm kernel expellers on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and blood profiles of weaned pigs. A total of 88 weaned pigs (6.94±0.76 kg body weight [BW]; 28 d old) were randomly allotted to 2 dietary treatments (4 pigs/pen; 11 replicates/treatment) in a randomized complete block design (sex as a block). The dietary treatments were a typical nursery diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON) and CON added with 20% of palm kernel expellers (PKE). Pigs were fed for 6 wk using a 3-phase feeding program with declining diet complexity and with phases of 1, 2, and 3 wk, respectively. Blood was collected from randomly selected 2 pigs in each pen before weaning and on d 7 after weaning. Pigs were fed respective dietary treatments containing 0.2% chromic oxide from d 29 to 35 after weaning. Fecal samples were collected from randomly selected 2 pigs in each pen daily for the last 3 days after the 4-d adjustment period. Measurements were growth performances, digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and energy, white and red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, and incidence of diarrhea. The PKE increased average daily gain (ADG) (246 vs 215 g/d; p = 0.06) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) (470 vs 343 g/d; p<0.05) and decreased gain-to-feed ratio (G:F) (0.522 vs 0.628 g/g; p<0.05) during phase 2 compared with CON, but did not affect growth performance during phase 1 and 3. During overall experimental period, PKE increased ADG (383 vs 362 g/d; p = 0.05) and ADFI (549 vs 496 g/d; p<0.05) compared with CON, but did not affect G:F. However, no differences were found on digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, and energy between CON and PKE. The PKE reduced frequency of diarrhea (15% vs 25%; p = 0.08) for the first 2 wk after weaning compared with CON. Similarly, PKE decreased white blood cells (8.19 vs 9.56×103/μL; p = 0.07), red blood cells (2.92 vs 3.25×106/μL; p = 0.09), and packed cell volume (11.1% vs 12

  16. Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waag, Andreas

    This chapter is devoted to the growth of ZnO. It starts with various techniques to grow bulk samples and presents in some detail the growth of epitaxial layers by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The last section is devoted to the growth of nanorods. Some properties of the resulting samples are also presented. If a comparison between GaN and ZnO is made, very often the huge variety of different growth techniques available to fabricate ZnO is said to be an advantage of this material system. Indeed, growth techniques range from low cost wet chemical growth at almost room temperature to high quality MOCVD growth at temperatures above 1, 000∘C. In most cases, there is a very strong tendency of c-axis oriented growth, with a much higher growth rate in c-direction as compared to other crystal directions. This often leads to columnar structures, even at relatively low temperatures. However, it is, in general, not straight forward to fabricate smooth ZnO thin films with flat surfaces. Another advantage of a potential ZnO technology is said to be the possibility to grow thin films homoepitaxially on ZnO substrates. ZnO substrates are mostly fabricated by vapor phase transport (VPT) or hydrothermal growth. These techniques are enabling high volume manufacturing at reasonable cost, at least in principle. The availability of homoepitaxial substrates should be beneficial to the development of ZnO technology and devices and is in contrast to the situation of GaN. However, even though a number of companies are developing ZnO substrates, only recently good quality substrates have been demonstrated. However, these substrates are not yet widely available. Still, the situation concerning ZnO substrates seems to be far from low-cost, high-volume production. The fabrication of dense, single crystal thin films is, in general, surprisingly difficult, even when ZnO is grown on a ZnO substrate. However

  17. Hepatic Perfusion Therapy.

    PubMed

    Rajeev, Rahul; Gamblin, T Clark; Turaga, Kiran K

    2016-04-01

    Isolated hepatic perfusion uses the unique vascular supply of hepatic malignancies to deliver cytotoxic chemotherapy. The procedure involves vascular isolation of the liver and delivery of chemotherapy via the hepatic artery and extraction from retrohepatic vena cava. Benefits of hepatic perfusion have been observed in hepatic metastases of ocular melanoma and colorectal cancer and primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Percutaneous and prophylactic perfusions are avenues of ongoing research.

  18. Top 10 research questions related to growth and maturation of relevance to physical activity, performance, and fitness.

    PubMed

    Malina, Robert M

    2014-06-01

    Growth, maturation, and development dominate the daily lives of children and adolescents for approximately the first 2 decades of life. Growth and maturation are biological processes, while development is largely a behavioral process. The 3 processes occur simultaneously and interact. They can be influenced by physical activity and also can influence activity, performance, and fitness. Allowing for these potential interactions, 10 questions on growth and maturation that have relevance to physical activity, performance, and fitness are presented. The questions are not mutually exclusive and address several broadly defined topical areas: exercise and growth, body weight status (body mass index, adiposity rebound, "unhealthy weight gain"), movement proficiency (hypothesized barrier, role in obesity), individual differences, tracking, maturity-associated variation in performance, and corresponding variation in physical activity. Central to the discussion of each is the need for a biocultural approach recognizing the interactions of biology and behavior as potential influences on the variables of interest.

  19. Effects of sawdust thickness on the growth performance, environmental condition, and welfare quality of yellow broilers.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dan; He, Jiao; Lu, Jian; Wang, Qiang; Chang, Lingling; Shi, Shou Rong; Bing, Tong Hai

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of litter thickness on growth performance, immune status, environmental condition, and welfare quality in yellow broilers. In total, 1,800 one-day-old Suqin yellow broilers were raised for 21 d. On d 22, 1,600 birds of similar BW (404±12 g) were randomly selected and placed into 20 indoor pens (8 birds/m2, 10 m2/pen). These birds were assigned to a litter treatment of 4, 8, 12, and 16 cm. Each treatment was repeated in five pens. The results showed that a thicker litter was related to increased BW, daily weight gain, and daily feed intake (P<0.001). Feed conversion ratio and mortality were unaffected by litter thickness (P=0.320, P=0.353, respectively). Absolute and relative liver weights showed a significant linear response to increasing litter thickness (P=0.01, P=0.001, respectively). The litter moisture content, air ammonia, and CO2 content decreased, whereas the air dust content increased with increasing litter thickness (P<0.001, P=0.017, P=0.033, P<0.001, respectively). Litter thickness had no effect on gait, plumage damage, hock burn or breast skin crusting (P = 0.076, P=0.964, P=0.131, P=0.401, respectively). Plumage cleanliness, foot pad dermatitis, hock swelling and breast blister varied significantly with litter thickness (P=0.027, P=0.011, P=0.014, P=0.042, respectively). The results of this study suggest that an increasing litter thickness has a beneficial effect on the growth performance, environmental condition and welfare of birds. PMID:25577790

  20. Quality of Dried Bacillus NP5 and its Effect on Growth Performance of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Utami, Diah Ayu Satyari; Widanarni; Suprayudi, M Agus

    2015-02-01

    The main things that need to be considered in the preparation of probiotics are viability during preparation and storage which are the disadvantages of the use of fresh culture probiotics. Dried probiotic can be applied through the feed, easy to be applied and has a long shelf life but application of dried probiotic in aquaculture is still not widely studied. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of dried Bacillus NP5 as the probiotic through in vitro assays and determine the best dose for the growth performance of tilapia. The treatment of in vitro assays including the production of dried probiotic without using of the coating material and dried by spray drying method (NS); freeze drying method (NF); with using of the coating material and dried by spray drying method (WS); freeze drying method (WF). The treatment which showed the best result at in vitro assays was applied for in vivo assays. The in vivo assays containing 4 treatments and 5 replicates which were control (K) and the administration of dried Bacillus NP5 Rf(R) (10(10) CFU g(-1)) in feed with dose of 0.5% (A), 1% (B) and 2% (C). The fish fed 3 times a day by at satiation for 28 days. Probiotic that encapsulated by maltodextrin and dried by spray drying method that stored in room temperature had the higher percentage product, viability after drying process and storage. The administration of 0.5% dried Bacillus NP5 showed the best growth performance in tilapia. PMID:26364359

  1. Spatial environmental heterogeneity affects plant growth and thermal performance on a green roof.

    PubMed

    Buckland-Nicks, Michael; Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy

    2016-05-15

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof. Spatial heterogeneity in substrate depth and insolation were correlated with differential growth, survival and flowering in two focal plant species. These effects were likely driven by the resulting spatial heterogeneity in substrate temperature and moisture content. Thermal performance (indicated by heat flux and substrate temperature) was influenced by spatial heterogeneity in vegetation cover and substrate depth. Areas with less insolation were cooler in summer and had greater substrate moisture, leading to more favorable conditions for plant growth and survival. Spatial variation in substrate moisture (7%-26% volumetric moisture content) and temperature (21°C-36°C) during hot sunny conditions in summer could cause large differences in stormwater retention and heat flux within a single green roof. Shaded areas promote smaller heat fluxes through the roof, leading to energy savings, but lower evapotranspiration in these areas should reduce stormwater retention capacity. Spatial heterogeneity can thus result in trade-offs between different ecosystem services. The effects of these spatial heterogeneities are likely widespread in green roofs. Structures that provide shelter from sun and wind may be productively utilized to design higher functioning green roofs and increase biodiversity by providing habitat

  2. Dietary Phytoncide Supplementation Improved Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Han Lin; Zhao, Pin Yao; Lei, Yan; Hossain, Md Manik; Kang, Jungsun; Kim, In Ho

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this 10-wk experiment to evaluate the effects of dietary phytoncide, Korean pine extract as phytogenic feed additive (PFA), on growth performance, blood characteristics, and meat quality in finishing pigs. A total of 160 pigs ([Landrace×Yorkshire]×Duroc, body weight (BW) = 58.2±1.0 kg) were randomly allocated into 1 of 4 treatments according to their BW and sex, 10 replicate pens per treatment with 4 pigs per pen were used (2 barrows and 2 gilts). Dietary treatments were: CON, control diet; PT2, CON+0.02% PFA; PT4, CON+0.04% PFA; PT6, CON+0.06% PFA. Overall, average daily gain (ADG) was higher in PT4 (p<0.05) than in PT6, average daily feed intake (ADFI) was lower in PT6 than in CON (p<0.05). Besides ADFI decreased linearly (p<0.05) with the increased level of phytoncide and gain:feed ratio in PT4 treatment was higher (p<0.05) than CON treatment. During 5 to 10 weeks and overall, quadratic (p<0.05) effect was observed in ADG among the treatments. At the end of this experiment, pigs fed with PT4 diet had a greater (p<0.05) red blood cell concentration compared to the pigs fed CON diet. Water holding capacity increased linearly (p<0.05) with the increased level of phytoncide supplementation. Moreover, firmness, redness, yellowness, and drip loss at day 3 decreased linearly (p<0.05) with the increase in the level of phytoncide supplementation. In conclusion, inclusion of phytoncide could enhance growth performance without any adverse effects on meat quality in finishing pigs. PMID:26954131

  3. Growth performance, hematology, and meat quality characteristics of Mutton Merino lambs fed canola-based diets.

    PubMed

    Sekali, M; Marume, U; Mlambo, V; Strydom, P E

    2016-08-01

    A 56-day feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effect of feeding canola meal (CM) on growth performance, hematology, and meat quality parameters of lambs. Twenty lambs with an average body weight of 23 ± 2.64 kg were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments and fed in individual cages for 56 days. The soya bean meal (SBM) in the control ration was replaced with canola meal at 0 (CM0), 25 (CM25), 50 (CM50), 75 (CM75), and 100 % (CM100) inclusion levels. Average daily weight gain (ADWG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were significantly higher in the CM25 and CM50, respectively. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) (3.09-3.41) and slaughter weight (SLW) (33.2-34.7 kg) were, however, similar among the treatment groups. Diet had no effect on carcass length (78.7-83.7 cm) and ultimate meat pH (pHu) (5.70-5.81). Nevertheless, hot carcass weight (HCW) (16.5-18.7 kg) and cold carcass weight (CCW) (16.2-18.2 kg) were higher (P < 0.05) in the CM0 and CM50 treatment groups. The shear force measurements (1.67-2.17 kg) differed (P < 0.05) across treatments. There was no dietary effect on the lightness (L*) (33.5-35.8), redness (a*) (11.35-12.7), and yellowness (b*) (13.4-14.8) of meat. In conclusion, CM can completely replace SBM in lamb diets without any negative effects on growth performance, general health, and meat quality of Mutton Merino lambs. PMID:27126221

  4. Diagnostic performance of various cephalometric parameters for the assessment of vertical growth pattern

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Maheen; Shaikh, Attiya; Fida, Mubassar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Multiple cephalometric analyses are used to diagnose vertical skeletal facial discrepancy. A multitude of times, these parameters show conflicting results, and a specific diagnosis is hard to reach. Objective: Hence, this study aimed to identify the skeletal analysis that performs best for the identification of vertical skeletal pattern in borderline cases. Methods: The sample consisted of 161 subjects (71 males and 90 females; mean age = 23.6 ± 4.6 years). Y-axis, Sella-Nasion to mandibular plane angle (SN.MP), maxillary plane to mandibular plane angle (MMA), Sella-Nasion to Gonion-Gnathion angle (SN.GoGn), Frankfort to mandibular plane angle (FMA), R-angle and facial height ratio (LAFH.TAFH) were used to evaluate vertical growth pattern on lateral cephalograms. The subjects were divided into three groups (hypodivergent, normodivergent and hyperdivergent groups), as indicated by the diagnostic results of the majority of parameters. Kappa statistics was applied to compare the diagnostic accuracy of various analyses. To further validate the results, sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPV) for each parameter were also calculated. Results: SN.GoGn showed a substantial interclass agreement (k = 0.850). In the hypodivergent group, MMA showed the highest sensitivity (0.934), whereas FMA showed the highest PPV (0.964). In the normodivergent group, FMA showed the highest sensitivity (0.909) and SN.GoGn had the highest PPV (0.903). SN.GoGn showed the highest sensitivity (0.980) and PPV (0.87) in the hyperdivergent group. Conclusions: SN.GoGn and FMA were found to be the most reliable indicators, whereas LAFH.TAFH is the least reliable indicator in assessing facial vertical growth pattern. Hence, the cephalometric analyses may be limited to fewer analyses of higher diagnostic performance. PMID:27653263

  5. Spatial environmental heterogeneity affects plant growth and thermal performance on a green roof.

    PubMed

    Buckland-Nicks, Michael; Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy

    2016-05-15

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof. Spatial heterogeneity in substrate depth and insolation were correlated with differential growth, survival and flowering in two focal plant species. These effects were likely driven by the resulting spatial heterogeneity in substrate temperature and moisture content. Thermal performance (indicated by heat flux and substrate temperature) was influenced by spatial heterogeneity in vegetation cover and substrate depth. Areas with less insolation were cooler in summer and had greater substrate moisture, leading to more favorable conditions for plant growth and survival. Spatial variation in substrate moisture (7%-26% volumetric moisture content) and temperature (21°C-36°C) during hot sunny conditions in summer could cause large differences in stormwater retention and heat flux within a single green roof. Shaded areas promote smaller heat fluxes through the roof, leading to energy savings, but lower evapotranspiration in these areas should reduce stormwater retention capacity. Spatial heterogeneity can thus result in trade-offs between different ecosystem services. The effects of these spatial heterogeneities are likely widespread in green roofs. Structures that provide shelter from sun and wind may be productively utilized to design higher functioning green roofs and increase biodiversity by providing habitat

  6. Effects of aflatoxin and carotenoids on growth performance and immune response in mule ducklings.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y H; Shen, T F; Pang, V F; Chen, B J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if carotenoids could alleviate the adverse effects caused by aflatoxin with respect to growth performance and immune response. In two experiments, a total of 320 mule ducklings were assigned to 5 treatments, i.e. control, aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) 200 ppb, AFB(1) +beta-carotene (BC) 200 ppm, AFB(1)+BC 400 ppm, and AFB(1)+astaxanthin (AS) 200 ppm. In experiment 1, the addition of beta-carotene or astaxanthin in the diet containing AFB(1) 200 ppb resulted in a significant decrease in average daily gain as compared with the control. AFB(1) 200 ppb alone and the addition of BC or AS on top of AFB(1) resulted in a significantly lower daily feed intake than for the control group. There were no significant differences in relative organ weights among treatment groups. Both treatments of BC 400 ppm and AS 200 ppm had significantly more macrophages harvested per duck than the control and AFB(1) 200 ppb treatments. However, there were no significant differences among treatments in percentages of phagocytotic macrophages and number of Candida albican phagocytized by phagocytotic macrophages. In experiment 2, blood biochemical parameters and antibody titers were evaluated. There were no significant differences among treatments in total bilirubin content and alkaline phosphatase activity in the serum or in antibody titers against fowl cholera. However, AFB(1) treatment had the highest activities of AST and ALT in the serum. The addition of BC 400 ppm on top of AFB(1) significantly reduced ALT activity as compared with the AFB(1) 200 ppb treatment. These results suggest that carotenoids could provide a slightly toxic alleviating effect on growth performance, enhance the chemotaxis ability of macrophages, and reduce ALT activity elevated by AFB(1).

  7. Effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing ducks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Zhou, W D; Wu, J L; Zhu, Z G; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i) Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05). ii) Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (p<0.05). iii) Villus height in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). Crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). This experiment showed that feeding of alfalfa meal to growing layer ducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks.

  8. Growth performance, hematology, and meat quality characteristics of Mutton Merino lambs fed canola-based diets.

    PubMed

    Sekali, M; Marume, U; Mlambo, V; Strydom, P E

    2016-08-01

    A 56-day feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effect of feeding canola meal (CM) on growth performance, hematology, and meat quality parameters of lambs. Twenty lambs with an average body weight of 23 ± 2.64 kg were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments and fed in individual cages for 56 days. The soya bean meal (SBM) in the control ration was replaced with canola meal at 0 (CM0), 25 (CM25), 50 (CM50), 75 (CM75), and 100 % (CM100) inclusion levels. Average daily weight gain (ADWG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were significantly higher in the CM25 and CM50, respectively. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) (3.09-3.41) and slaughter weight (SLW) (33.2-34.7 kg) were, however, similar among the treatment groups. Diet had no effect on carcass length (78.7-83.7 cm) and ultimate meat pH (pHu) (5.70-5.81). Nevertheless, hot carcass weight (HCW) (16.5-18.7 kg) and cold carcass weight (CCW) (16.2-18.2 kg) were higher (P < 0.05) in the CM0 and CM50 treatment groups. The shear force measurements (1.67-2.17 kg) differed (P < 0.05) across treatments. There was no dietary effect on the lightness (L*) (33.5-35.8), redness (a*) (11.35-12.7), and yellowness (b*) (13.4-14.8) of meat. In conclusion, CM can completely replace SBM in lamb diets without any negative effects on growth performance, general health, and meat quality of Mutton Merino lambs.

  9. Housing system may affect behavior and growth performance of Jersey heifer calves.

    PubMed

    Pempek, J A; Eastridge, M L; Swartzwelder, S S; Daniels, K M; Yohe, T T

    2016-01-01

    Social pressure is increasing to adopt alternative housing and management practices that allow farm animals more opportunity to exercise and demonstrate social behavior. The present study investigated the effect of pair housing on the behavior and growth performance of Jersey heifer calves. Forty female Jersey calves were allocated to individual or pair housing at birth and monitored for 9 wk. Calves were provided with a single hutch, and those allocated to the pair housing treatment were provided a pen enclosure twice the size of individually housed calves and only one hutch was provided per pair. All calves were fed milk replacer via bucket twice per day (1.89 L/feeding first 7 d; 2.27 L/feeding until weaned) and had ad libitum access to grain and water. Gradual weaning commenced on d 49 by reducing the calves' milk allowance to one feeding per day, and weaning occurred on d 56. Grain consumption was monitored daily and calves were weighed weekly. Direct behavioral observations were conducted twice per week. Calves housed in pairs tended to have greater average daily gain compared with calves housed individually (0.63 vs. 0.59 ± 0.02 kg/d, respectively). Pair housing also increased final body weight compared with individual housing (64.9 vs. 61.7 ± 0.59 kg, respectively). During observation periods, calves housed individually spent more time engaging in nonnutritive sucking than calves housed in pairs (21.5 vs. 8.15 ± 0.03% of total observations). Calves housed in pairs were observed cross sucking 13.5% of the time during observational periods. Although housing Jersey calves in pairs may increase measures of growth performance, future research should aim to reduce cross-sucking behavior within the Jersey breed through alternative feeding systems or environmental enrichment. PMID:26585485

  10. Curcumin, the main active constituent of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), induces apoptosis in hepatic stellate cells by modulating the abundance of apoptosis-related growth factors.

    PubMed

    He, Ya-Jun; Kuchta, Kenny; Lv, Xia; Lin, Yu; Ye, Guo-Rong; Liu, Xu-You; Song, Hui-Dong; Wang, Le-Xin; Kobayashi, Yuta; Shu, Jian-Chang

    2015-11-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanism of action of curcumin against hepatic fibrosis, cultured rat hepatic stellate cells (HSC) (HSC-T6) were incubated with curcumin for 24 h, after which apoptosis was measured by flow-cytometry. The protein levels of the pro-apoptotic factors Fas and p53b as well as of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 were monitored by immunocytochemical ABC staining after incubation with curcumin for 24 h. In the case of 20 μM curcumin, not only was the respective apoptosis index increased, but also the abundance of the pro-apoptotic factors Fas and p53 were amplified, whereas that of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 decreased. All these effects were highly reproducible (P<0.05). Consequently, curcumin has an up-regulating effect on pro-apoptotic factors like Fas and p53 as well as a down-regulating effect of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2, thus inducing apoptosis in HSC.

  11. Effects of pyridoxine on growth performance and plasma aminotransferases and homocysteine of white pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ming; Tang, Jing; Wen, Zhiguo; Huang, Wei; Hou, Shuisheng

    2014-12-01

    A dose-response experiment with seven supplemental pyridoxine levels (0, 0.66, 1.32, 1.98, 2.64, 3.30, and 3.96 mg/kg) was conducted to investigate the effects of pyridoxine on growth performance and plasma aminotransferases and homocysteine of White Pekin ducks and to estimate pyridoxine requirement for these birds. A total of 336 one-day-old male White Pekin ducks were divided to 7 experimental treatments and each treatment contained 8 replicate pens with 6 birds per pen. Ducks were reared in raised wire-floor pens from hatch to 28 d of age. At 28 d of age, the weight gain, feed intake, feed/gain, and the aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and homocysteine in plasma of ducks from each pen were all measured. In our study, the pyridoxine deficiency of ducks was characterized by growth depression, decreasing plasma aspartate aminotransferase activity and increasing plasma homocysteine. The ducks fed vitamin B6-deficient basal diets had the worst weight gain and feed/gain among all birds and this growth depression was alleviated (p<0.05) when pyridoxine was supplemented to basal diets. On the other hand, plasma aspartate aminotransferase and homocysteine may be the sensitive indicators for vitamin B6 status of ducks. The ducks fed basal diets had much lower aspartate aminotransferase activity and higher homocysteine level in plasma compared with other birds fed pyridoxine-supplemented diets (p<0.05). According to quadratic regression, the supplemental pyridoxine requirements of Pekin ducks from hatch to 28 days of age was 2.44 mg/kg for feed/gain and 2.08 mg/kg for plasma aspartate aminotransferase and the corresponding total requirements of this vitamin for these two criteria were 4.37 and 4.01 mg/kg when the pyridoxine concentration of basal diets was included, respectively. All data suggested that pyridoxine deficiency could cause growth retardation in ducks and the deficiency of this vitamin could be indicated by decreasing plasma aspartate

  12. Growth and reproductive performance of two rabbit breeds reared under intensive system in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Apori, Samuel Obeng; Hagan, Julius Kofi; Osei, Yaa Doris

    2015-01-01

    A study on the growth and reproductive performance of two rabbit breeds was undertaken. Data on 588 kits and 97 does of California White and 574 kits and 90 does of New Zealand White rabbits reared under hot and humid environment in Ghana were taken. The reproductive performance of the two breeds, in terms of litter size at birth and weaning, litter weight at birth and weaning, kindling interval, age at sexual maturity, and gestation length as influenced by breed, season of kindling (rainy and dry), year of kindling (2005-2012), and parity (first to sixth and over) were determined. The performance of California White in terms of litter size at birth, at weaning, kit weight at birth, and age at first kindling was 5.9 ± 0.2, 4.6 ± 0.1, 54.7 ± 0.4 g, and 159.8 ± 0.2 days, respectively. That of New Zealand White was 5.9 ± 0.1, 5.1 ± 0.1, 55.2 ± 1.0 g, and 159.9 ± 0.2 days, respectively. The results obtained also showed a significant breed effects on kit weight at birth, litter weight at weaning, and mortality; whereas no significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the two breeds regarding the other traits measured. Parity had significant effects (p < 0.05) on all the growth and reproductive parameters measured with the exception of age at first kindling. Year of kindling also had significant effect on litter weight at birth, kit weight at birth, and at weaning (p < 0.05) but did not have any significant effect on the age at sexual maturity and mortality. Season also had significant (p < 0.05) effects on kit weight at birth, gestation length, kindling interval, and mortality with better performance experienced during the rainy season.

  13. Effect of gluconic acid on piglet growth performance, intestinal microflora, and intestinal wall morphology.

    PubMed

    Biagi, G; Piva, A; Moschini, M; Vezzali, E; Roth, F X

    2006-02-01

    Gluconic acid (GA) derives from the incomplete oxidation of glucose by some Gluconobacter strains. When fed to nonruminant animals, GA is only poorly absorbed in the small intestine and is primarly fermented to butyric acid in the lower gut. This study investigated the effect of GA on in vitro growth response and metabolism of swine cecal microflora and on animal growth performance, intestinal wall morphology, and intestinal microflora. During a 24-h in vitro cecal fermentation, total gas production and maximum rate of gas production were increased by GA (linear, P < 0.001). Ammonia in cecal liquor was reduced by GA after 4, 8, and 24 h of fermentation (quadratic, P < 0.01). After 24 h of fermentation, total short-chain fatty acids, acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid, acetic to propionic acid ratio, and acetic + butyric to propionic acid ratio were linearly increased by GA (P < 0.001). In the in vivo study, 48 piglets were divided into 4 groups and housed in individual cages for 6 wk. Piglets received a basal diet with a) no addition (control) or with GA addition at b) 3,000 ppm, c) 6,000 ppm, or d) 12,000 ppm. After 6 wk, 4 animals per treatment were killed, and samples of intestinal content and mucosa were collected. Compared with control, GA tended to increase average daily gain (+13 and +14% for GA at 3,000 and 6,000 ppm, respectively; P of the model = 0.11; quadratic, P < 0.05). Daily feed consumption and gain to feed ratio were not influenced by GA. Intestinal counts of clostridia, enterobacteriaceae, and lactic acid bacteria were not affected by GA. Gluconic acid tended to increase total short-chain fatty acids in the jejunum (+174, +87, and +74% for GA at 3,000, 6,000, and 12,000 ppm, respectively; P of the model = 0.07; quadratic, P = 0.07). Morphological evaluation of intestinal mucosa from jejunum, ileum, and cecum did not show any significant differences among treatments. This study showed that feeding GA influences the composition and activity

  14. Influence of gestational maternal feed restriction on growth performance and meat quality of rabbit offsprings.

    PubMed

    Goliomytis, M; Skoupa, E-P; Konga, A; Symeon, G K; Charismiadou, M A; Deligeorgis, S G

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of feed restriction during pregnancy on reproductive performance of rabbit does and growth performance and meat quality of their offspring. A total of 26 primiparous non lactating does were equally divided into two treatment groups: the control group (C, n=13) that was fed ad libitum throughout gestation and the feed restricted group (R, n=13) that was fed to 75% of maintenance energy requirements from the 7(th) to the 26(th) day of gestation. Rabbit offsprings were weaned at 35 days of age and grown until the 72 days of age when they were slaughtered for meat quality assessment. Meat quality traits measured were pH(24), colour (L*, a*, b*), percentage of released water, cook loss, shear values and intramuscular fat. At kindling, R does produced smaller litter weights compared with those of does from group C, 447.8 and 591.4 g, respectively, and smaller individual kit birth weights, 56.2 and 71.5 g, respectively (P0.05). Performance and meat quality characteristics of fattening rabbits at 72 days of age were not influenced by gestational feed restriction of their mothers (P>0.05). Taking into consideration that, simultaneous gestation and lactation in rabbit does may be simulated by gestational feed restriction, results of the present study suggest that lactating does can support a simultaneous gestation without any adverse effect on the offsprings' quantitative and qualitative performance at the expense of increased mortality rates at parturition and until weaning.

  15. The big five personality traits and individual job performance growth trajectories in maintenance and transitional job stages.

    PubMed

    Thoresen, Carl J; Bradley, Jill C; Bliese, Paul D; Thoresen, Joseph D

    2004-10-01

    This study extends the literature on personality and job performance through the use of random coefficient modeling to test the validity of the Big Five personality traits in predicting overall sales performance and sales performance trajectories--or systematic patterns of performance growth--in 2 samples of pharmaceutical sales representatives at maintenance and transitional job stages (K. R. Murphy, 1989). In the maintenance sample, conscientiousness and extraversion were positively associated with between-person differences in total sales, whereas only conscientiousness predicted performance growth. In the transitional sample, agreeableness and openness to experience predicted overall performance differences and performance trends. All effects remained significant with job tenure statistically controlled. Possible explanations for these findings are offered, and theoretical and practical implications of findings are discussed. PMID:15506864

  16. Hepatic lesions in 90 captive nondomestic felids presented for autopsy.

    PubMed

    Bernard, J M; Newkirk, K M; McRee, A E; Whittemore, J C; Ramsay, E C

    2015-03-01

    Hepatic lesions in nondomestic felids are poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hepatic lesions in 90 captive, nondomestic felids including tigers, cougars, and lions. Hepatic lesions were histologically characterized as vacuolar change (lipidosis or glycogenosis), biliary cysts, biliary hyperplasia, hepatitis, necrosis, neoplasia, fibrosis, veno-occlusive disease, cholestasis, hematoma, congestion, or hemorrhage. Stepwise logistic regression analyses were performed for vacuolar change, benign biliary lesions, hepatitis, lipogranulomas, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and hepatic stellate cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, with species as the outcome variable. Ninety cats met the inclusion criteria. Seventy livers (78%) contained 1 or more lesions. Hepatocellular vacuolar change (41/90 [46%]) was the most common lesion overall. Extramedullary hematopoiesis, lipogranulomas, and hepatic stellate cell hyperplasia were also common. One snow leopard had veno-occlusive disease. Tigers were more likely than other felids to have no significant hepatic histologic lesions (odds ratio [OR], 12.687; P = .002), and lions were more likely to have biliary cysts (OR, 5.97; P = .021). Six animals (7%) died of hepatic disease: cholangiocellular carcinoma (n = 2) and 1 each of hepatic lipidosis, hepatocellular necrosis, pyogranulomatous hepatitis, and suppurative cholecystitis. Hepatocellular iron and copper accumulations were present in 72 of 90 (80%) and 10 of 90 (11%) sections, respectively. Sinusoidal fibrosis was common (74/90 [82%]) and primarily centrilobular (65/74 [88%]). Hepatocellular iron, copper, and fibrosis were not significantly associated with hepatic lesions. Primary hepatic disease was not a common cause of death in nondomestic felids in this study.

  17. Hepatic lesions in 90 captive nondomestic felids presented for autopsy.

    PubMed

    Bernard, J M; Newkirk, K M; McRee, A E; Whittemore, J C; Ramsay, E C

    2015-03-01

    Hepatic lesions in nondomestic felids are poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hepatic lesions in 90 captive, nondomestic felids including tigers, cougars, and lions. Hepatic lesions were histologically characterized as vacuolar change (lipidosis or glycogenosis), biliary cysts, biliary hyperplasia, hepatitis, necrosis, neoplasia, fibrosis, veno-occlusive disease, cholestasis, hematoma, congestion, or hemorrhage. Stepwise logistic regression analyses were performed for vacuolar change, benign biliary lesions, hepatitis, lipogranulomas, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and hepatic stellate cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, with species as the outcome variable. Ninety cats met the inclusion criteria. Seventy livers (78%) contained 1 or more lesions. Hepatocellular vacuolar change (41/90 [46%]) was the most common lesion overall. Extramedullary hematopoiesis, lipogranulomas, and hepatic stellate cell hyperplasia were also common. One snow leopard had veno-occlusive disease. Tigers were more likely than other felids to have no significant hepatic histologic lesions (odds ratio [OR], 12.687; P = .002), and lions were more likely to have biliary cysts (OR, 5.97; P = .021). Six animals (7%) died of hepatic disease: cholangiocellular carcinoma (n = 2) and 1 each of hepatic lipidosis, hepatocellular necrosis, pyogranulomatous hepatitis, and suppurative cholecystitis. Hepatocellular iron and copper accumulations were present in 72 of 90 (80%) and 10 of 90 (11%) sections, respectively. Sinusoidal fibrosis was common (74/90 [82%]) and primarily centrilobular (65/74 [88%]). Hepatocellular iron, copper, and fibrosis were not significantly associated with hepatic lesions. Primary hepatic disease was not a common cause of death in nondomestic felids in this study. PMID:24788521

  18. Effect of fishmeal replacement by soy protein concentrate with taurine supplementation on growth performance, hematological and biochemical status, and liver histology of totoaba juveniles (Totoaba macdonaldi).

    PubMed

    López, Lus M; Flores-Ibarra, Maricela; Bañuelos-Vargas, Isaura; Galaviz, Mario A; True, Conal D

    2015-08-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of soy protein concentrate (SPC) and simultaneous supplementation with taurine on the growth, hematology, blood biochemistry, and liver histology of totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) juveniles was assessed. Four isoproteic and isolipidic diets were formulated containing either 30 or 60% of SPC (diets S30 and S60), supplemented or not with 1% of taurine (diets S30T and S60T). A fishmeal-based diet formulated for totoaba nutritional requirements, without SPC and taurine supplementation, was used as a reference diet. Triplicate groups of 32 totoaba juveniles (average body weight 7.5 ± 0.6 g) were fed these diets for 45 days. Results showed that growth performance in fish fed S30, S30T, and S60T was similar to fish fed the reference diet. Red blood cells and hematocrit in fish fed with supplemented taurine in both levels of SPC (S30T and S60T) were similar to the fish fed the RD; the addition of taurine improved the state of hydration of totoaba. Plasmatic hemoglobin in fish fed the lower SPC level was similar to fish fed the RD. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in fish fed S30T was similar to fish fed the RD, taurine supplementation prevented the development of hypochromic anemia in this group of fish. Plasmatic albumin in fish fed S30 was similar to fish fed the RD. Plasmatic total protein and globulin concentration increased and AL:GLB (albumin:globulin ratio) decreased in fish fed the SPC-based diets despite taurine supplementation. The protein profile showed that taurine supplementation did not prevent a possible inflammatory process (increased globulins, decreased AL:GLB) in juvenile totoaba fed both levels of SPC. Glucose concentration was similar in fish fed S30, S30T, and S60T. The histological hepatic index was highest in fish fed S60. These results suggest that with an appropriate nutritional level, taurine may play an important modulatory role in the hematology and blood biochemistry status in totoaba fed SPC

  19. Growth performance and intestinal microbial populations of growing pigs fed diets containing sucrose thermal oligosaccharide caramel.

    PubMed

    Orban, J I; Patterson, J A; Adeola, O; Sutton, A L; Richards, G N

    1997-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine growth performance and changes in intestinal microbial populations of growing pigs fed diets containing sucrose thermal oligosaccharide caramel (STOC). Ninety-six barrows and 96 gilts were group-fed experimental nursery diets for 32 d after weaning in both Exp. 1 and 2. For each experiment, pigs were divided into four groups of 48 pigs and were fed either control, antibiotic (Apramycin sulfate, 34 mg/kg), 1% STOC, or 2% STOC diets for 32 d after weaning. Each diet was replicated six times with eight pigs per replication. Pigs were either orally gavaged (Exp 1) with water of STOC (2 g per pig) or pigs were creep-fed (Exp 2) either a control diet or a 2% STOC diet for 5 d before weaning (33 d). At the end of Exp 1 and 2, cecal material was collected for enumeration of total aerobes, total anaerobes, coliforms, lactobacilli, and bifidobacteria. Gilts (96 per experiment) used in Exp. 3 and 4 were weaned at 26 d and fed experimental nursery diets for 32 d. They were fed either a control or 1% STOC diet and were otherwise treated as previously described. There were no significant effects of STOC or antibiotic on ADG, ADFI, feed efficiency, or cecal microbial populations in pigs in this study. Feeding diets containing either antibiotic of STOC did not improve animal performance or change intestinal bacterial populations in the present study. PMID:9027562

  20. Reproductive performance of alternative male phenotypes of growth hormone transgenic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Moreau, Darek T R; Conway, Corinne; Fleming, Ian A

    2011-11-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is one of the first transgenic animals being considered for commercial farming, yet ecological and genetic concerns remain should they enter the wild and interact reproductively with wild fish. Here, we provide the first empirical data reporting on the breeding performance of GH transgenic Atlantic salmon males, including that of an alternative male reproductive phenotype (i.e. small, precocially mature parr), in pair-wise competitive trials within a naturalised stream mesocosm. Wild anadromous (i.e. large, migratory) males outperformed captively reared transgenic counterparts in terms of nest fidelity, quivering frequency and spawn participation. Similarly, despite displaying less aggression, captively reared nontransgenic mature parr were superior competitors to their transgenic counterparts in terms of nest fidelity and spawn participation. Moreover, nontransgenic parr had higher overall fertilisation success than transgenic parr, and their offspring were represented in more spawning trials. Although transgenic males displayed reduced breeding performance relative to nontransgenics, both male reproductive phenotypes demonstrated the ability to participate in natural spawning events and thus have the potential to contribute genes to subsequent generations.

  1. Interrelationship of Bradyrhizobium sp. and plant growth-promoting bacteria in cowpea: survival and symbiotic performance.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Artenisa Cerqueira; Antunes, Jadson Emanuel Lopes; da Costa, Antônio Félix; de Paula Oliveira, José; do Vale Barreto Figueiredo, Marcia

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival of cowpea during bacterial colonization and evaluate the interrelationship of the Bradyrhizobium sp. and plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) as a potential method for optimizing symbiotic performance and cowpea development. Two experiments using the model legume cowpea cv. "IPA 206" were conducted. In the first experiment, cowpea seeds were disinfected, germinated and transferred to sterilized Gibson tubes containing a nitrogen-free nutritive solution. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 24 treatments [Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267); 22 PGPB; absolute control (AC)] with three replicates. In the second experiment, seeds were disinfected, inoculated according to their specific treatment and grown in Leonard jars containing washed and autoclaved sand. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 24 treatments [BR 3267; 22 BR 3267 + PGPB; AC] with three replicates. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated satisfactory colonization of the roots of inoculated plants. Additionally, synergism between BR 3267 and PGPB in cowpeas was observed, particularly in the BR 3267 + Paenibacillus graminis (MC 04.21) and BR 3267 + P. durus (C 04.50), which showed greater symbiotic performance and promotion of cowpea development.

  2. Reproductive performance of alternative male phenotypes of growth hormone transgenic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Darek T R; Conway, Corinne; Fleming, Ian A

    2011-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is one of the first transgenic animals being considered for commercial farming, yet ecological and genetic concerns remain should they enter the wild and interact reproductively with wild fish. Here, we provide the first empirical data reporting on the breeding performance of GH transgenic Atlantic salmon males, including that of an alternative male reproductive phenotype (i.e. small, precocially mature parr), in pair-wise competitive trials within a naturalised stream mesocosm. Wild anadromous (i.e. large, migratory) males outperformed captively reared transgenic counterparts in terms of nest fidelity, quivering frequency and spawn participation. Similarly, despite displaying less aggression, captively reared nontransgenic mature parr were superior competitors to their transgenic counterparts in terms of nest fidelity and spawn participation. Moreover, nontransgenic parr had higher overall fertilisation success than transgenic parr, and their offspring were represented in more spawning trials. Although transgenic males displayed reduced breeding performance relative to nontransgenics, both male reproductive phenotypes demonstrated the ability to participate in natural spawning events and thus have the potential to contribute genes to subsequent generations. PMID:25568019

  3. Effects of Oridonin on growth performance and oxidative stress in broilers challenged with lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Zheng, X C; Wu, Q J; Song, Z H; Zhang, H; Zhang, J F; Zhang, L L; Zhang, T Y; Wang, C; Wang, T

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of oridonin (ORI) on growth performance and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens that were repeatedly challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A total of 384 one-day-old male Arbor Acre broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 8 treatments with 6 replicate cages per treatment and 8 birds per replicate. There were 4 dietary treatments: the control group (birds fed the basal diet), the ORI 50 group, the ORI 80 group, and the ORI 100 group (the basal diet supplemented with 50, 80, and 100 mg/kg oridonin, respectively). Broilers were intraperitoneally injected with either 250 μg/kg BW LPS or an equivalent amount of sterile saline at 16, 18, and 20 d of age. LPS decreased the average daily weight gain (ADG), the average daily feed intake (ADFI), and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) of broiler chickens (P < 0.05); oridonin supplementation had no effects on performance whether before or after LPS injection (P > 0.05). LPS stimulation increased the relative weight of the spleen and bursa (P < 0.05); oridonin inclusion markedly attenuated the increased spleen index (P < 0.05). Additionally, the LPS-induced increases in the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreases in activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and catalase (CAT) were dramatically attenuated by oridonin in both the serum and liver (P < 0.05). Furthermore, LPS down-regulated the mRNA expressions of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), copper and zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), and CAT in the liver (P < 0.05), However, oridonin inclusion increased the liver mRNA expression levels of Nrf2, Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, CAT, and GPx1 (P < 0.05). It was concluded that the dietary oridonin supplementation at an optimum dose of 100 mg/kg improves the antioxidant capacity in broilers, as evidenced by the decrease in MDA and

  4. Simultaneous expression of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and hepatitis B surface antigen/somatostatin (HBsAg/SS) fusion genes in a construct in the skeletal muscle enhances rabbit weight gain.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jian-wei; Liu, Song-cai; Hao, Lin-lin; Zhang, Yong-liang; Zhang, Qianqian; Ren, Xiao-hui; Jiang, Qing-yan

    2008-01-01

    Somatostatin (SS) and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) are synthesized and secreted by the hypothalamus, which can control the synthesis and secretion of the growth hormone (GH) from the hypophysis as well as regulate the GH concentrations in animals and humans. In this article, we describe the regulation of animal growth using plasmid DNA encoding both the GHRH gene and the SS gene fused with the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) gene. We constructed a series of expression plasmids to express the GHRH and HBsAg-SS fusion genes individually as well as collectively. The fusion gene and GHRH were successfully expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, as proven by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblotting tests. Poly D, L-lactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) plasmid-encapsulating microspheres were prepared and injected intramuscularly into the leg skeletal muscles of rabbits. Weight gain/day and the levels of insulinlike growth factor-I (IGF-I), SS, and hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) were monitored. During days 30 postinjection, increase in weight gain/day and IGF- I concentration and decrease in SS were observed in treatment groups. From days 15 to 30 postinjection, the weight gain/day significantly increased (P < 0.05) by 129.13%, 106.8%, and 72.82% relative to the control group in the co-expression GHRH and fusion gene (named P-G-HS), fusion gene (named P-HS), and GHRH (named P-G) groups, respectively. And most importantly, the P-G-HS group showed significant weight gain/day (P < 0.05) relative to the P-G and P-HS groups. A significant increase in the IGF-I concentration and decrease in the SS level relative to the control group were also observed. The results indicated that the combination of plasmid-mediated GHRH supplementation and positive immunization against SS led to more robust weight gain/day in rabbits.

  5. Viral hepatitis: Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Satsangi, Sandeep; Chawla, Yogesh K

    2016-07-01

    Viral hepatitis is a cause for major health care burden in India and is now equated as a threat comparable to the "big three" communicable diseases - HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. Hepatitis A virus and Hepatitis E virus are predominantly enterically transmitted pathogens and are responsible to cause both sporadic infections and epidemics of acute viral hepatitis. Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus are predominantly spread via parenteral route and are notorious to cause chronic hepatitis which can lead to grave complications including cirrhosis of liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. Around 400 million people all over the world suffer from chronic hepatitis and the Asia-Pacific region constitutes the epicentre of this epidemic. The present article would aim to cover the basic virologic aspects of these viruses and highlight the present scenario of viral hepatitis in India. PMID:27546957

  6. Growth performance and health of dairy calves bedded with different types of materials.

    PubMed

    Panivivat, R; Kegley, E B; Pennington, J A; Kellogg, D W; Krumpelman, S L

    2004-11-01

    Granite fines, sand, rice hulls, long wheat straw, and wood shavings were compared as bedding for 60 female dairy calves. Growth, health, stress indices, and behavior of newly born calves, along with physical characteristics and bacterial counts of bedding, were evaluated for 42 d during August to October, 2002. Overall average daily gain and dry matter intake of calves did not differ due to bedding type, although during wk 2 calves housed on rice hulls had the greatest dry matter intake and those housed on wood shavings had the lowest. During wk 2, calves housed on granite fines and sand were treated more often for scours, and calves housed on long wheat straw received the fewest antibiotic treatments (week by bedding material interaction). Granite fines formed a harder surface than other bedding, and calves housed on granite fines scored the dirtiest. When bedding materials were evaluated, sand was scored to be the dirtiest, while pens bedded with rice hulls, long wheat straw, and wood shavings scored cleaner. Long wheat straw had the warmest surface temperature, and rice hulls and wood shavings were warmer than granite fines and sand. Serum cortisol, alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein, immunoglobulin G concentrations, and the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio were not affected by bedding type. On d 0, coliform counts were greatest in rice hulls. After use, coliform counts were greatest in long wheat straw (week by bedding material interaction). On d 42, the concentration of ammonia at 10 cm above the bedding was lowest for long wheat straw. Growth performance of calves bedded for 42 d with 5 bedding types did not differ; however, the number of antibiotic treatments given for scours was greatest on granite fines and sand; coliform counts in the bedding were highest in rice hulls before use and in long wheat straw after 42 d of use.

  7. Evaluating the quality of feed fats and oils and their effects on pig growth performance.

    PubMed

    Shurson, Gerald C; Kerr, Brian J; Hanson, Andrea R

    2015-01-01

    Feed fats and oils provide significant amounts of energy to swine diets, but there is large variation in composition, quality, feeding value, and price among sources. Common measures of lipid quality include moisture, insolubles, and unsaponifiables (MIU), titer, and free fatty acid content, but provide limited information regarding their feeding value. Lipid peroxidation is an important quality factor related to animal growth performance and health, but maximum tolerable limits in various lipids have not been established. Several indicative assays can be used to detect the presence of various peroxidation compounds, but due to the complexity and numerous compounds produced and degraded during peroxidation process, no single method can adequately determine the extent of peroxidation. Until further information is available, using a combination of peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and anisidine value appear to provide a reasonable assessment of the extent of peroxidation in a lipid at a reasonable cost. However, fatty acid composition of the lipid being evaluated should be considered when selecting specific assays. Predictive tests can also be used to estimate the stability or susceptibility of lipids to peroxidation and include active oxygen method, oil stability index, and oxygen bomb method. A review of 16 published studies with pigs has shown an average decrease of 11.4% in growth rate, 8.8% feed intake fed isocaloric diets containing peroxidized lipids compared to diets containing unperoxidized lipids of the same source. Furthermore, serum vitamin E content was generally reduced and serum TBARS content was increased when peroxidized lipids were fed in these studies, suggesting that feeding peroxidized lipids negatively affects metabolic oxidative status of pigs. However, it is unclear if antioxidants are useful additions to lipids to maintain optimal nutritional value, or if their addition to swine diets is beneficial in overcoming

  8. Effect of dietary selenomethionine on growth performance, tissue burden, and histopathology in green and white sturgeon.

    PubMed

    De Riu, Nicola; Lee, Jang-Won; Huang, Susie S Y; Moniello, Giuseppe; Hung, Silas S O

    2014-03-01

    A comparative examination of potential differences in selenium (Se) sensitivity was conducted on two sturgeon species indigenous to the San Francisco Bay-Delta. Juvenile green (Acipenser medirostris), recently given a federally threatened status, and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were exposed to one of four nominal concentrations of dietary l-selenomethionine (SeMet) (0 (control), 50, 100, or 200 mg SeMet/kg diet) for 8 weeks. Mortality, growth performance, whole body composition, histopathology, and Se burdens of the whole body, liver, kidneys, gills, heart, and white muscle were determined every 2 to 4 weeks. Significant (p<0.05) mortality was observed in green sturgeon fed the highest SeMet diet after 2 weeks, whereas no mortality was observed in white sturgeon. Growth rates were significantly reduced in both species; however, green sturgeon was more adversely affected by the treatment. Dietary SeMet significantly affected whole body composition and most noticeably, in the decline of lipid contents in green sturgeon. Selenium accumulated significantly in all tissues relative to the control groups. After 4 and 8 weeks of exposure, marked abnormalities were observed in the kidneys and liver of both sturgeon species; however, green sturgeon was more susceptible to SeMet than white sturgeon at all dietary SeMet levels. Our results showed that a dietary Se concentration at 19.7 ± 0.6 mg Se/kg, which is in range with the reported Se concentrations of the benthic macro-vertebrate community of the San Francisco Bay, had adverse effects on both sturgeon species. However, the exposure had a more severe pathological effect on green sturgeon, suggesting that when implementing conservation measures, this federally listed threatened species should be monitored and managed independently from white sturgeon.

  9. Effects of pitamin on growth performance, carcass characteristics and cecal microflora of broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Park, Byung-Sung

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of dietary pitamin as an antibiotic replacement in broiler chicken. The treated groups were as follows: 1) the control, 2) the antibiotics (8 mg of avilamycin kg(-1) of diet) and 3) the pitamin (70 mg of pitamin kg(-1) of diet) groups. Body weight gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency were significantly higher in the pitamin group than in the antibiotics and control groups (p<0.05). Carcass weight, dressing percentage, and the weight of breast and thigh muscle recorded significantly higher levels in the pitamin group as compared to the other groups (p<0.05). The addition of pitamin to the diets for broilers reduced abdominal fat by 23.35% and stimulated the growth of the thymus, the spleen, and the bursa of Fabricius. TAG levels of the pitamin group declined by 12.03 and 10.45% as compared to the control and antibiotics groups, and their TC levels were reduced by 15.17 and 14.39%, and LDL. C levels were reduced by 10.56 and 11.24%, respectively. Serum IgG was increased significantly by 137.43 and 36.80% in the pitamin group as compared to the control and antibiotics groups, respectively (p<0.05). The numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus on the cecum digesta were significantly higher in the pitamin group than in the antibiotics and control groups and the numbers of Escherichia coli and Salmonella tended to be reduced (p<0.05). In conclusion, when Korean red pine bark extract, pitamin, was added to the broiler diets at a concentration of 70 mg of pitamin kg(-1) of diet, it resulted in better growth performance as compared to the antibiotics by improving immunity and the cecal beneficial microfloral population. PMID:22319873

  10. Right hepatic artery crossing the common hepatic artery: an unusual blood supply to the liver.

    PubMed

    Felli, Emanuele; Vennarecci, Giovanni; Santoro, Roberto; Guglielmo, Nicola; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria

    2016-04-01

    To perform hepatic surgery a precise preoperative and intraoperative study of liver vascular supply is mandatory. Detecting vascular variations may have great importance on surgical strategy and outcome, and details of anatomy do not concern only academical knowledge but become deeply involved in practice. We present a case of unusual blood supply to the liver, the common hepatic artery was directed to the right liver and a right hepatic artery originating from the superior mesenteric artery was directed to the left liver. The right hepatic artery crossed the common hepatic artery in the proximal part of the hepatic pedicle, anterior to the portal vein. To our knowledge this type of anatomical variation has not been described before and it represents a rare finding that has to be kept in mind, especially in case of major hepatectomies and more demanding splitting liver procedures such as A.L.P.P.S., in situ split, ex situ split and living donor liver transplantation. PMID:26198115

  11. The effect of cyclical and severe heat stress on growth performance and metabolism in Afshari lambs.

    PubMed

    Mahjoubi, E; Yazdi, M Hossein; Aghaziarati, N; Noori, G R; Afsarian, O; Baumgard, L H

    2015-04-01

    The extent to which reduced feed intake contributes to decreased growth during heat stress (HS) in the ovine model is not clear. To evaluate the impact of decreased DMI on performance, we conducted an experiment on growing lambs experiencing a cyclical but extensive heat load. Sixteen intact male Afshari lambs (40.1 ± 1.9 kg) were used in a completely randomized design in 2 periods. In period 1, all 16 lambs were housed in thermal neutral (TN) conditions (22.2 ± 3.1°C and a temperature-humidity index [THI] of 67.9 ± 3.2) and fed at libitum for 8 d. In period 2 (P2), which lasted 9 d, 8 lambs were subjected to a cyclical HS condition (33.0 to 45.0°C and a THI of more than 80 at least for 24 h/d and more than 90 for 8 h/d). The other 8 lambs were maintained in TN conditions but pair-fed (pair-fed thermal neutral [PFTN]) to the HS lambs. During each period, DMI and water intake were measured daily. Respiration rate, rectal temperature, and skin temperature at the shoulder, rump, and front and rear leg were recorded at 0700 and 1400 h daily. Dry matte intake declined (17.5%; P < 0.01) in HS lambs and, by design, the temporal pattern and magnitude of reduced feed intake was similar in the PFTN controls. Water intake increased (19%; P < 0.05) during P2 in HS but not in the PFTN controls. Heat stress increased the 0700 and 1400 h skin temperature at the shoulder (5 and 9.2%), rump (6.2 and 10.3%), rear (6 and 9.2%), and front leg (6.5 and 9.8%) and respiratory rates (84 and 163% [P < 0.01]at 0700 and 1400 h, respectfully), but only the 1400 h rectal temperature was increased (P < 0.01; 0.65°C) in HS lambs. Neither environment nor period affected blood urea nitrogen and glucose concentrations. However, circulating NEFA and insulin were increased and declined (P < 0.01) in PFTN lambs, respectively, but neither variable was altered in the HS lambs. Growth was reduced in P2 for lambs in both treatments, but despite being on a similar reduced plane of nutrition, the HS

  12. The effect of cyclical and severe heat stress on growth performance and metabolism in Afshari lambs.

    PubMed

    Mahjoubi, E; Yazdi, M Hossein; Aghaziarati, N; Noori, G R; Afsarian, O; Baumgard, L H

    2015-04-01

    The extent to which reduced feed intake contributes to decreased growth during heat stress (HS) in the ovine model is not clear. To evaluate the impact of decreased DMI on performance, we conducted an experiment on growing lambs experiencing a cyclical but extensive heat load. Sixteen intact male Afshari lambs (40.1 ± 1.9 kg) were used in a completely randomized design in 2 periods. In period 1, all 16 lambs were housed in thermal neutral (TN) conditions (22.2 ± 3.1°C and a temperature-humidity index [THI] of 67.9 ± 3.2) and fed at libitum for 8 d. In period 2 (P2), which lasted 9 d, 8 lambs were subjected to a cyclical HS condition (33.0 to 45.0°C and a THI of more than 80 at least for 24 h/d and more than 90 for 8 h/d). The other 8 lambs were maintained in TN conditions but pair-fed (pair-fed thermal neutral [PFTN]) to the HS lambs. During each period, DMI and water intake were measured daily. Respiration rate, rectal temperature, and skin temperature at the shoulder, rump, and front and rear leg were recorded at 0700 and 1400 h daily. Dry matte intake declined (17.5%; P < 0.01) in HS lambs and, by design, the temporal pattern and magnitude of reduced feed intake was similar in the PFTN controls. Water intake increased (19%; P < 0.05) during P2 in HS but not in the PFTN controls. Heat stress increased the 0700 and 1400 h skin temperature at the shoulder (5 and 9.2%), rump (6.2 and 10.3%), rear (6 and 9.2%), and front leg (6.5 and 9.8%) and respiratory rates (84 and 163% [P < 0.01]at 0700 and 1400 h, respectfully), but only the 1400 h rectal temperature was increased (P < 0.01; 0.65°C) in HS lambs. Neither environment nor period affected blood urea nitrogen and glucose concentrations. However, circulating NEFA and insulin were increased and declined (P < 0.01) in PFTN lambs, respectively, but neither variable was altered in the HS lambs. Growth was reduced in P2 for lambs in both treatments, but despite being on a similar reduced plane of nutrition, the HS

  13. Growth Performance of Early Finishing Gilts as Affected by Different Net Energy Concentrations in Diets

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gang Il; Kim, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Jong Hyuk; Kil, Dong Yong

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the current experiment were to study the response of the growth performance of early finishing gilts to different net energy (NE) concentrations in diets, and to compare the NE values of diets between calculated NE values and measured NE values using French and Dutch CVB (Centraal Veevoederbureau; Central Bureau for Livestock Feeding) NE systems. In a metabolism trail, the NE concentrations in five diets used for the growth trial were determined based on digestible nutrient concentrations, digestible energy, and metabolizable energy using a replicated 5×5 Latin square design with 10 barrows (initial body weight [BW], 39.2±2.2 kg). In a growth trial, a total of 60 early finishing gilts (Landrace×Yorkshire; initial BW, 47.7±3.5 kg) were allotted to five dietary treatments of 8.0, 9.0, 10.0, 11.0, and 12.0 MJ NE/kg (calculated, as-is basis) with 12 replicate pens and one pig per pen in a 42-d feeding experiment. The NE and amino acid (AA) concentrations in all diets were calculated based on the values from NRC (2012). Ratios between standardized ileal digestible AA and NE concentrations in all diets were closely maintained. Pigs were allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. Results indicated that calculated NE concentrations in diets (i.e., five dietary treatments) were close to measured NE concentrations using French NE system in diets. The final BW was increased (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) with increasing NE concentrations in diets. Furthermore, average daily gain (ADG) was increased (linear and quadratic, p<0.01) with increasing NE concentrations in diets. There was a quadratic relationship (p<0.01) between average daily feed intake and NE concentrations in diets. Feed efficiency (G:F) was also increased (linear, p<0.01) as NE concentrations in diets were increased. The NE intake per BW gain (kcal NE/kg of BWG) was increased (linear, p<0.01) with increasing NE concentrations in diets that were predicted from both French and Dutch CVB NE

  14. Relationships among temperament, behavior, and growth during performance testing of bulls.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, S A; Kattesh, H G; Krawczel, P D; Kirkpatrick, F D; Saxton, A M; Rhinehart, J D; Wilkerson, J B

    2015-12-01

    Excitable cattle are dangerous to personnel and have reduced individual performance. The aim of this study was to 1) identify objective criteria for evaluating bull temperament and 2) examine relationships among temperament, behavior, and performance of bulls during an 84-d performance test. Angus bulls ( = 60) were reared in 6 pens based on BW and age. Pen scores (PS; 1 = docile and 5 = very aggressive) were assigned on d -1, 27, 55, and 83. Exit velocity (EV), BW, time to exit the chute, and order through the chute were recorded on d 0, 28, 56, and 84. The ADG was calculated for the 84-d test period, and ultrasound data and frame score calculations were recorded on d 84. Dataloggers measured steps taken, lying time, number of lying bouts, and lying bout duration of bulls ( = 27; 3 pens) from d 3 to 28 and d 59 to 84. Bulls with a d -1 PS of 1 or 2 were categorized as calm (PScalm; = 40), whereas bulls with a PS of 3 or 4 were categorized as excitable (PSexcitable; = 20). Bulls were separated into 2 groups based on the bottom 20 EV (EVcalm) and top 20 EV (EVexcitable) on d 0. Mixed model ANOVA (SAS 9.3) was used to compare groups for the two temperament assessment methods, behavior, and growth performance. Mean EV decreased ( < 0.05) by d 84. Total lying time from d 3 to 28 was greater ( < 0.05) for PScalm bulls when compared with PSexcitable bulls. However, total lying time from d 59 to 84 was greater ( < 0.05) for EVexcitable bulls when compared with EVcalm bulls. Regardless of initial contemporary group assignment, all bulls exited the chute slower ( < 0.001) on d 84 than on d 0. The PSexcitable bulls had greater ( < 0.01) frame scores and greater ADG than PScalm bulls. The PSexcitable bulls had more ( < 0.01) backfat than PScalm bulls. However, ribeye area was smaller ( < 0.01) in EVexcitable bulls than EVcalm bulls. Based on these results, bulls appeared to have habituated over the testing period. Additionally, the potential lack of innate temperament

  15. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis Information for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  16. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus. When first infected, a person can develop ...

  17. Effects of GHRP-2 and Cysteamine Administration on Growth Performance, Somatotropic Axis Hormone and Muscle Protein Deposition in Yaks (Bos grunniens) with Growth Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rui; Wang, Zhisheng; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Wang, Hongze; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Jing, Xiaoping; Wang, Yixin; Cao, Binghai; Bao, Shanke; Zhang, Wenhua; Zhao, Suonan; Ji, Hanzhong; Kong, Xiangying; Niu, Quanxi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2) and cysteamine (CS) administration on growth performance in yaks with growth retardation and try to elucidate its regulatory mechanisms. Trial 1, thirty-six 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks (body weight 38–83.2 kg) were randomly chosen for body weight and jugular blood samples collection. The relationship between body weight and serum GHRH (P < 0.05, R = 0.45), GH (P < 0.05, R = 0.47), IGF-1 (P < 0.05, R = 0.62) was significantly correlated in yaks colonies with lighter body weights. Trial 2, fifteen 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks with growth retardation (average body weight 54.8 ± 8.24 kg) were randomly selected and assigned to negative control group (NG), GHRP-2 injection group (GG) and cysteamine feeding group (CG), with 5 yaks per group. Another five 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks with normal growth performance (average body weight 75.3 ± 2.43 kg) were selected as positive control group (PG). The average daily gain (ADG) of the GG and CG were significantly higher than those in the PG and NG (P < 0.05). Both GHRP-2 and CS administration significantly enhanced the myofiber diameter and area of skeletal muscle (P<0.05). GHRP-2 significantly enhanced the serum GH and IGF-1 levels (P < 0.05), and up-regulated GHR, IGF-1 and IGF-1R mRNA expression in the liver and skeletal muscle (P < 0.05), enhanced the mRNA expression of PI3K, AKt and mTOR in the skeletal muscle (P<0.05). CS significantly reduced the serum SS levels and the hypothalamus SS mRNA expression (P < 0.05), and enhanced GHR and IGF-1 mRNA expression in the liver (P < 0.05), decreased the mRNA expression of muscle atrophy F-box (Atrogin-1) and muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) mRNA (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Growth retardation in yaks was primarily due to somatotropic axis hormones secretion deficiency. Both GHRP-2 and CS administration can accelerate growth performance and GH, IGF-1

  18. Hepatic hemangioma

    MedlinePlus

    ... infantile hemangioendothelioma depends on the child's growth and development. The following treatments may be needed: Inserting a material in a blood vessel of the liver to block it (embolization) Tying off (ligation) a liver artery ...

  19. Effect of wet feeding on growth performance of broiler chickens in a hot climate.

    PubMed

    Dei, H K; Bumbie, G Z

    2011-02-01

    1. The Guinea Savanna in the tropics is characterised by high diurnal temperatures, often beyond the thermo-neutral zone of modern poultry, which imposes heat stress on them. 2. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of partially (12 h wet mash in the day and 12 h dry mash in the night) or wholly (24 h) feeding wet mash on the growth performance of broiler chickens. 3. Three treatments: dry mash (control), wet mash (day) + dry mash (night) and wet mash (day + night) were tested. At 28 d of age, a total of 120 broiler chickens (Hybro, Netherlands) were randomly divided, using a completely randomised design, into 12 groups of 10 birds, each with mean live weight of approximately 800 g/bird. A maize-soybean based grower mash (200 g CP/kg and 12·5 MJ/kg ME) was fed. The wet mash was prepared daily by addition of 1·3 parts of water to 1 part of dry mash and fed from 28 to 56 d of age. The birds were housed in raised-floor pens. Feed and water were given ad libitum and light provided 24 h. Mean daily room temperature was 28-29°C in the morning and 35-41°C in the afternoon. 4. Mean feed intake of birds fed the wet mash (174 g/day) or wet + dry mash (166 g/day) was higher than that of birds fed the dry mash (152 g/day). Mean live weight gain of birds fed the wet mash (64 g/day) or wet + dry mash (64 g/day) was higher than that of birds fed the dry mash (58 g/day). There were no differences in gain/feed ratios (0·38-0·39) of any of the treatments, neither were there any differences between the feeding of wet mash partly or wholly for all variables. 5. It was concluded that wet feeding, particularly during day-time, had the potential to improve growth performance of broiler chickens in a hot climate.

  20. Effects of Clostridium butyricum on growth performance, antioxidation, and immune function of broilers.

    PubMed

    Liao, X D; Ma, G; Cai, J; Fu, Y; Yan, X Y; Wei, X B; Zhang, R J

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the effects of Clostridium butyricum on growth performance, antioxidation, and immune function of broilers, 320 one-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male chicks were assigned to one of 5 treatments with 8 replicates in a completely randomized design for 42 d. The 5 treatments were basal diet (control), basal diet supplemented with 2.5×10(8) cfu C. butyricum/kg (CB1), basal diet supplemented with 5×10(8) cfu C. butyricum/kg (CB2), basal diet supplemented with 1×10(9) cfu C. butyricum/kg (CB3), and basal diet supplemented with 150 mg aureomycin/kg (antibiotic). The results showed that all C. butyricum-supplemented groups during d 1 to 21 and the CB2 group during d 22 to 42 had higher ADG compared with the control (P<0.05). Chicks fed the CB3 diet had higher glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity (P<0.05), and chicks fed the CB2 diet had a higher glutathione (GSH) concentration in duodenal and ileal mucosa at 21 d of age than those in the control group (P<0.05). Chicks fed the CB3 diet had a lower malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in duodenal mucosa than those in the control and CB1 groups (P<0.05). Chicks fed the CB2, CB3, and antibiotic diets had a lower MDA concentration in ileal mucosa than those in the control and CB1 groups (P<0.05). Broilers fed the CB3 diet had greater superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the ileal mucosa on d 21 and in jejunal mucosa on d 42 than those in the other groups (P<0.05). Chicks fed the CB2, CB3, and antibiotic diets had a higher GSH concentration in duodenal and jejunal mucosa on d 42 than those in the control group (P<0.05). Broilers fed the CB2 and CB3 diets had a lower MDA concentration in the jejunal mucosa on d 42 than those in the control and CB1 groups. Chicks fed diets supplemented with C. butyricum had a higher IgM concentration than those in the control group at 21 and 42 d of age (P<0.05). The results indicate that C. butyricum improves broilers' growth performance, antioxidation, and immune

  1. Regression analysis to predict growth performance from dietary net energy in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Nitikanchana, S; Dritz, S S; Tokach, M D; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; White, B J

    2015-06-01

    Data from 41 trials with multiple energy levels (285 observations) were used in a meta-analysis to predict growth performance based on dietary NE concentration. Nutrient and energy concentrations in all diets were estimated using the NRC ingredient library. Predictor variables examined for best fit models using Akaike information criteria included linear and quadratic terms of NE, BW, CP, standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys, crude fiber, NDF, ADF, fat, ash, and their interactions. The initial best fit models included interactions between NE and CP or SID Lys. After removal of the observations that fed SID Lys below the suggested requirement, these terms were no longer significant. Including dietary fat in the model with NE and BW significantly improved the G:F prediction model, indicating that NE may underestimate the influence of fat on G:F. The meta-analysis indicated that, as long as diets are adequate for other nutrients (i.e., Lys), dietary NE is adequate to predict changes in ADG across different dietary ingredients and conditions. The analysis indicates that ADG increases with increasing dietary NE and BW but decreases when BW is above 87 kg. The G:F ratio improves with increasing dietary NE and fat but decreases with increasing BW. The regression equations were then evaluated by comparing the actual and predicted performance of 543 finishing pigs in 2 trials fed 5 dietary treatments, included 3 different levels of NE by adding wheat middlings, soybean hulls, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS; 8 to 9% oil), or choice white grease (CWG) to a corn-soybean meal-based diet. Diets were 1) 30% DDGS, 20% wheat middlings, and 4 to 5% soybean hulls (low energy); 2) 20% wheat middlings and 4 to 5% soybean hulls (low energy); 3) a corn-soybean meal diet (medium energy); 4) diet 2 supplemented with 3.7% CWG to equalize the NE level to diet 3 (medium energy); and 5) a corn-soybean meal diet with 3.7% CWG (high energy). Only small differences were observed

  2. Effect of different doses of coated butyric acid on growth performance and energy utilization in broilers.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, S A; Barri, A; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A

    2016-04-01

    We recently applied four dietary treatments in experiments I and II to determine the effect of protected calcium butyrate (BP) on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens. A group of one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks (total 960, 480 per trial) were used in the study. In experiment I, the basal diets were fed with protected BP inclusion (0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 g/kg of finished feed) (BP) or without (C). In experiment II, 4 different diets were tested: 1) basal diet with no supplementation (C), 2) basal diet supplemented with protected BP (0.3 g/kg) (BP), 3) basal diet supplemented with avilamycin (6 mg/kg, active substance) a common antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) (Av), and 4) basal diet supplemented with the combination of both avilaymicin and BP. In experiment I, considering the entire study period, the use of BP improved feed conversion ratio (P<0.05) irrespective of the dose. Apparent total tract crude fat digestibility and apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEN) were improved after BP supplementation (P<0.05). In experiment II, A or AB diets improved (P<0.05) body weight gain compared to the control treatment. The diets Av, BP, and AvB improved (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio compared to the control treatment. Birds from the treatment diet were characterized by having the thickest mucosa (P<0.05). On days 14, 35, and 42, the use of AB diets improved AMENcontent compared to the control treatment (P<0.05). The apparent ileal digestibility of amino acid data showed that Av or AvB treated birds were characterized by higher Asp, Glu, Cys, Gly, and Ala ileal digestibility than the control animals (P<0.05). The use of Av, BP, or AvB increased ileal digestibility of Thr, Ser, and Pro (P<0.05). There is an indication that BP, alone or in combination with avilamycin, improve the digestion and absorptive processes and consequently birds performance results. PMID:26740137

  3. Effects of Anti-diarrhoeal Herbs on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Meat Quality in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Cho, J H; Zhang, S; Kim, I H

    2012-11-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of anti-diarrhoeal herbs on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and meat quality in pigs. In Exp 1, 150 weanling-growing piglets (average BW = 7.5±0.24 kg, average age = 27±1 d) were allotted into one of the five dietary treatments, including: i) CON, basal diet, ii) DP, basal diet+1 g/kg date pits, iii) JH, basal diet+0.5 g/kg Japanese-honeysuckle, iv) HCT, basal diet+1 g/kg houttuynia cordata thunb, and v) LE, basal diet+1 g/kg laquer tree extract. From wk 0 to 5, the JH, HCT and LE groups presented higher (p<0.05) ADFI, ADG and gain/feed ratio (G/F) than CON and DP groups. During wk 5 to 10, Pigs fed JH, HCT and LE diets indicated higher (p<0.05) ADG and ADFI than the pigs fed CON and DP diets. During the entire experimental period, a significant increase of ADG appeared in JH, HCT and LE (p<0.05). Pigs fed JH, HCT and LE diets got a higher (p<0.05) ADFI than the pigs fed CON and DP diets. Pigs fed diets with supplementations of herb additives revealled lower (p<0.05) score of diarrhea pigs during d 2 to d 6 compared with pigs fed CON diet. In Exp 2, 60 growing-finishing barrows and gilts (average BW = 54.10±1.20 kg, average age = 54±3 d) were allotted to three treatments: i) CON, basal diet; ii) YG, basal diet+1 g/kg yellow ginger and iii) HR, basal dietary+1 g/kg hoantchy root, respectively. From wk 0 to 5, Dietary supplementation of YG and HR enhanced (p<0.05) ADG. No difference was found between YG and HR treatments. During, wk 5 to 10, ADG also was observed higher in YG and HR treatments than CON group (p<0.05). Additional, YG had the highest ADG (p<0.05) among treatments. There was always an increase of ADG in YG and HR (p<0.05) through all periods. HR treatment showed a lower (p<0.05) score of diarrhoeal pigs on d 1and d 2 compared with CON treatment. Pigs fed YG and HR diets had a higher (p<0.05) longissimus muscle area (LMA) than pigs fed CON diet. In conclusion, anti-diarrhoeal herbs can

  4. Identifying the limitations for growth in low performing piglets from birth until 10 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Paredes, S P; Jansman, A J M; Verstegen, M W A; den Hartog, L A; van Hees, H M J; Bolhuis, J E; van Kempen, T A T G; Gerrits, W J J

    2014-06-01

    The evolution of hyper-prolific pig breeds has led to a higher within-litter variation in birth weight and in BW gain during the nursery phase. Based on an algorithm developed in previous research, two populations from a pool of 368 clinically healthy piglets at 6 weeks of age were selected: a low (LP) and a high (HP) performing population and their development was monitored until the end of the nursery phase (10 weeks of age). To understand the cause of the variation in growth between these populations we characterized the LP and HP piglets in terms of body morphology, behaviour, voluntary feed intake, BW gain, and apparent total tract and ileal nutrient digestibility. Piglets were housed individually and were fed a highly digestible diet. At selection, 6 weeks of age, the BW of LP and HP piglets were 6.8±0.1 and 12.2±0.1 kg, respectively. Compared with the LP piglets the HP piglets grew faster (203 g/day), ate more (275 g/day) from 6 to 10 weeks of age and were heavier at 10 weeks (30.0 v. 18.8 kg, all P<0.01). Yet, the differences in average daily gain and average daily feed intake disappeared when compared per kg BW0.75. Assuming similar maintenance requirements per kg BW0.75 the efficiency of feed utilization above maintenance was 0.1 g/g lower for the LP piglets (P=0.09).The gain : feed ratio was similar for both groups. LP piglets tended to take more time to touch a novel object (P=0.10), and spent more time eating (P<0.05). At 10 weeks, LP piglets had a higher body length and head circumference relative to BW (P<0.01). Relative to BW, LP had a 21% higher small intestine weight; 36% longer length, and relative to average FI, the small intestinal weight was 4 g/kg higher (both P=<0.01). Apparent total tract and ileal dry matter, N and gross energy digestibility were similar between groups (P>0.10). We concluded that the low performance of the LP piglets was due to their inability to engage compensatory gain or compensatory feed intake as efficiency of

  5. Effects of Anti-diarrhoeal Herbs on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Meat Quality in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Cho, J. H.; Zhang, S.; Kim, I. H.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of anti-diarrhoeal herbs on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and meat quality in pigs. In Exp 1, 150 weanling-growing piglets (average BW = 7.5±0.24 kg, average age = 27±1 d) were allotted into one of the five dietary treatments, including: i) CON, basal diet, ii) DP, basal diet+1 g/kg date pits, iii) JH, basal diet+0.5 g/kg Japanese-honeysuckle, iv) HCT, basal diet+1 g/kg houttuynia cordata thunb, and v) LE, basal diet+1 g/kg laquer tree extract. From wk 0 to 5, the JH, HCT and LE groups presented higher (p<0.05) ADFI, ADG and gain/feed ratio (G/F) than CON and DP groups. During wk 5 to 10, Pigs fed JH, HCT and LE diets indicated higher (p<0.05) ADG and ADFI than the pigs fed CON and DP diets. During the entire experimental period, a significant increase of ADG appeared in JH, HCT and LE (p<0.05). Pigs fed JH, HCT and LE diets got a higher (p<0.05) ADFI than the pigs fed CON and DP diets. Pigs fed diets with supplementations of herb additives revealled lower (p<0.05) score of diarrhea pigs during d 2 to d 6 compared with pigs fed CON diet. In Exp 2, 60 growing-finishing barrows and gilts (average BW = 54.10±1.20 kg, average age = 54±3 d) were allotted to three treatments: i) CON, basal diet; ii) YG, basal diet+1 g/kg yellow ginger and iii) HR, basal dietary+1 g/kg hoantchy root, respectively. From wk 0 to 5, Dietary supplementation of YG and HR enhanced (p<0.05) ADG. No difference was found between YG and HR treatments. During, wk 5 to 10, ADG also was observed higher in YG and HR treatments than CON group (p<0.05). Additional, YG had the highest ADG (p<0.05) among treatments. There was always an increase of ADG in YG and HR (p<0.05) through all periods. HR treatment showed a lower (p<0.05) score of diarrhoeal pigs on d 1and d 2 compared with CON treatment. Pigs fed YG and HR diets had a higher (p<0.05) longissimus muscle area (LMA) than pigs fed CON diet. In conclusion, anti-diarrhoeal herbs can

  6. Effects of drought-affected corn and nonstarch polysaccharide enzyme inclusion on nursery pig growth performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, C K; Frantz, E L; Bingham, A C; Bergstrom, J R; DeRouchey, J M; Patience, J F

    2015-04-01

    The effectiveness of carbohydrase enzymes has been inconsistent in corn-based swine diets; however, the increased substrate of nonstarch polysaccharides in drought-affected corn may provide an economic model for enzyme inclusion, but this has not been evaluated. A total of 360 barrows (PIC 1050 × 337, initially 5.85 kg BW) were used to determine the effects of drought-affected corn inclusion with or without supplementation of commercial carbohydrases on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of nursery pigs. Initially, 34 corn samples were collected to find representatives of normal and drought-affected corn. The lot selected to represent the normal corn had a test weight of 719.4 kg/m3, 15.0% moisture, and 4.2% xylan. The lot selected to represent drought-affected corn had a test weight of 698.8 kg/m3, 14.3% moisture, and 4.7% xylan. After a 10-d acclimation period postweaning, nursery pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 8 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 4 factorial with main effects of corn (normal vs. drought affected) and enzyme inclusion (none vs. 100 mg/kg Enzyme A vs. 250 mg/kg Enzyme B vs. 100 mg/kg Enzyme A + 250 mg/kg Enzyme B). Both enzymes were included blends of β-glucanase, cellulose, and xylanase (Enzyme A) or hemicellulase and pectinases (Enzyme B). Pigs were fed treatment diets from d 10 to 35 postweaning in 2 phases. Feed and fecal samples were collected on d 30 postweaning to determine apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients. The nutrient concentrations of normal and drought-affected corn were similar, which resulted in few treatment or main effects differences of corn type or enzyme inclusion. No interactions were observed (P > 0.10) between corn source and enzyme inclusion. Overall (d 10 to 35), treatments had no effect on ADG or ADFI, but enzyme A inclusion tended to improve (P < 0.10; 0.74 vs. 0.69) G:F, which was primarily driven by the improved feed efficiency (0

  7. Effects of drought-affected corn and nonstarch polysaccharide enzyme inclusion on nursery pig growth performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, C K; Frantz, E L; Bingham, A C; Bergstrom, J R; DeRouchey, J M; Patience, J F

    2015-04-01

    The effectiveness of carbohydrase enzymes has been inconsistent in corn-based swine diets; however, the increased substrate of nonstarch polysaccharides in drought-affected corn may provide an economic model for enzyme inclusion, but this has not been evaluated. A total of 360 barrows (PIC 1050 × 337, initially 5.85 kg BW) were used to determine the effects of drought-affected corn inclusion with or without supplementation of commercial carbohydrases on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of nursery pigs. Initially, 34 corn samples were collected to find representatives of normal and drought-affected corn. The lot selected to represent the normal corn had a test weight of 719.4 kg/m3, 15.0% moisture, and 4.2% xylan. The lot selected to represent drought-affected corn had a test weight of 698.8 kg/m3, 14.3% moisture, and 4.7% xylan. After a 10-d acclimation period postweaning, nursery pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 8 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 4 factorial with main effects of corn (normal vs. drought affected) and enzyme inclusion (none vs. 100 mg/kg Enzyme A vs. 250 mg/kg Enzyme B vs. 100 mg/kg Enzyme A + 250 mg/kg Enzyme B). Both enzymes were included blends of β-glucanase, cellulose, and xylanase (Enzyme A) or hemicellulase and pectinases (Enzyme B). Pigs were fed treatment diets from d 10 to 35 postweaning in 2 phases. Feed and fecal samples were collected on d 30 postweaning to determine apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients. The nutrient concentrations of normal and drought-affected corn were similar, which resulted in few treatment or main effects differences of corn type or enzyme inclusion. No interactions were observed (P > 0.10) between corn source and enzyme inclusion. Overall (d 10 to 35), treatments had no effect on ADG or ADFI, but enzyme A inclusion tended to improve (P < 0.10; 0.74 vs. 0.69) G:F, which was primarily driven by the improved feed efficiency (0

  8. Integrative Effects of Feeding Aspergillus awamori and fructooligosaccharide on Growth Performance and Digestibility in Broilers: Promotion Muscle Protein Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Ahmed A.; Amber, Khairy; El-Magd, Mohammed A.; Atta, Mostafa S.; Mohammed, Ahmed A.; Ragab, Mohamed M.; Abd El-Kader, Hanaa

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to show the effect of Aspergillus awamori (AA), fructooligosaccharide (FOS), and combined Aspergillus awamori and fructooligosaccharide (AA + FOS) on growth, digestibility, blood parameters, and expression of some growth-related genes. A total of 60 broiler chicks at the age of 15 d were divided into a control group (n = 15) and 3 treatment groups. The control group was fed a basal diet, and the treatment groups were fed basal diets supplemented with 0.05% AA, 0.05% FOS, and combined of 0.05% AA and 0.05% FOS. Results from measurement of growth performance and digestibility revealed a significant increase in the body weight gain with improved feed conversion rate in the experimental groups. Interestingly, dry matter digestibility (DMD) and crude protein utilization (CPU) were improved. In addition, plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were decreased, while plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was increased by feeding AA, FOS, and AA + FOS. Expressions of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) were increased in experimental groups. In conclusion, the supplementation of either Aspergillus awamori or fructooligosaccharide or both improves digestibility and growth performance probably by promoting skeletal muscle protein metabolism. PMID:24895630

  9. Employer-Sponsored Insurance, Health Care Cost Growth, and the Economic Performance of U.S. Industries

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Neeraj; Ghosh, Arkadipta; Escarce, José J

    2009-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of growth in health care costs that outpaces gross domestic product (GDP) growth (“excess” growth in health care costs) on employment, gross output, and value added to GDP of U.S. industries. Study Setting We analyzed data from 38 U.S. industries for the period 1987–2005. All data are publicly available from various government agencies. Study Design We estimated bivariate and multivariate regressions. To develop the regression models, we assumed that rapid growth in health care costs has a larger effect on economic performance for industries where large percentages of workers receive employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI). We used the estimated regression coefficients to simulate economic outcomes under alternative scenarios of health care cost inflation. Results Faster growth in health care costs had greater adverse effects on economic outcomes for industries with larger percentages of workers who had ESI. We found that a 10 percent increase in excess growth in health care costs would have resulted in 120,803 fewer jobs, US$28,022 million in lost gross output, and US$14,082 million in lost value added in 2005. These declines represent 0.17 to 0.18 percent of employment, gross output, and value added in 2005. Conclusion Excess growth in health care costs is adversely affecting the economic performance of U.S. industries. PMID:19500165

  10. Effect of tea polyphenols on production performance, egg quality, and hepatic antioxidant status of laying hens in vanadium-containing diets.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Z H; Zhang, K Y; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Bai, S P; Zeng, Q F; Wang, J P

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of tea polyphenols (TP) on production performance, egg quality, and hepatic-antioxidant status of laying hens in vanadium-containing diets. A total of 300 Lohman laying hens (67 wk old) were used in a 1 plus 3 × 3 experiment design in which hens were given either a diet without vanadium and TP supplementation (control) or diets supplemented with 5, 10, or 15 mg V/kg and TP (0, 600, 1,000 mg/kg) diets for 8 wk, which included 2 phases: a 5-wk accumulation phase and a 3-wk depletion phase. During the accumulation phase, dietary vanadium addition decreased (linear, P < 0.01) albumen height and Haugh unit (HU), and TP supplementation mitigated (linear effect, P < 0.01) this reduction effect induced by vanadium. Eggshell thickness (linear, P < 0.01), redness (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05), and yellowness (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) were decreased by vanadium and increased by the effect of TP when a vanadium-containing diet was fed. In the depletion phase, the bleaching effect on eggshells induced by vanadium disappeared one wk after vanadium withdrawal. Eggshell thickness, eggshell strength, albumen height, and HU were lower (P < 0.05) in the 15 mg/kg vanadium group compared with the control diet until 2 wk post vanadium challenge, but hens fed 15 mg/kg vanadium and 600 mg/kg TP showed no difference from the control diet only after 1 wk withdrawal. In the liver, the activity of glutathione S-transferases and glutathione peroxidase was increased (linear, P < 0.01) with the TP addition at 5 wk in the accumulation phase in the vanadium-containing diet; the malondialdehyde content increased (linear effect, P = 0.02) with the addition of vanadium. The results indicate that supplementation of 10 and 15 mg/kg vanadium resulted in reduced albumen quality, bleaching effect on eggshell color, and antioxidant stress in the liver. The effect of TP addition can prevent laying hens from the adverse effect of vanadium on egg

  11. Improvement of growth rate and optical performances of rapidly grown KDP crystal by adding cyclohexane diamine tetraacetic acid in growth solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shengjun; Wang, Shenglai; Ding, Jianxu; Liu, Guangxia; Liu, Wenjie; Liu, Lin; Wang, Duanliang; Li, Weidong; Gu, Qingtian; Xu, Xinguang

    2014-02-01

    A series of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals were grown by “point seed” rapid growth technique from solutions with different concentrations of cyclohexane diamine tetraacetic acid (CDTA). Effects of CDTA on rapid growth and optical performances of KDP crystals were investigated. The measurement result of laser polarization interference showed that, with increasing the concentration of CDTA in solution, the growth critical supersaturation for the (100) face of KDP crystals decreased continuously, while the growth rate for the (100) face of KDP crystals first increased and then decreased, passing through a maximum. The addition of an appropriate amount of CDTA enhanced the solution stability, increased the UV transmittance and the laser damage threshold, and mitigated the light scattering of these as-grown KDP crystals. However, excess addition of CDTA had adverse effects. The effects of CDTA on the rapid growth and optical properties of KDP crystals are discussed in terms of the chelation of CDTA with impurity metal ions and adsorption of CDTA molecules onto the faces of KDP crystals.

  12. The relationship between growth hormone polymorphism and growth hormone receptor genes with milk yield and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Z; Atashi, H; Dadpasand, M; Derakhshandeh, A; Ghahramani Seno, M. M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between growth hormone GH/AluI and growth hormone receptor GHR/AluI polymorphisms with milk yield and reproductive performances in Holstein dairy cows in Iran. Blood samples of 150 Holstein cows were collected and their genomic DNA was extracted using Gene-Fanavaran DNA extracting kit. Fragments of the 428 bp of exon 5 growth hormone (GH) gene and the 342 bp of exon 10 growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. PCR products were digested by the AluI restriction enzyme and electrophoresed on 3% agarose gel. Continuous and categorical data were analyzed using linear mixed models through Proc MIXED and logistic regression models through Proc GENMOD of SAS software, respectively. The results showed no relationship between the examined traits and GH/AluI or GHR/AluI genes. A significant relationship was found between GH/AluI polymorphism and dystocia, but the presence of the GH-L allele reduced the incidence of dystocia. The results suggest that the GH-LL genotype reduces dystocia probably by affecting the release of growth hormone; nevertheless, further studies will be needed to examine the relationship between dystocia and GH genotypes. PMID:27175183

  13. Dietary Nisin Modulates the Gastrointestinal Microbial Ecology and Enhances Growth Performance of the Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Józefiak, Damian; Kierończyk, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Rawski, Mateusz; Długosz, Jakub; Sip, Anna; Højberg, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Due to antimicrobial properties, nisin is one of the most commonly used and investigated bacteriocins for food preservation. Surprisingly, nisin has had limited use in animal feed as well as there are only few reports on its influence on microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The present study therefore aimed at investigating effects of dietary nisin on broiler chicken GIT microbial ecology and performance in comparison to salinomycin, the widely used ionophore coccidiostat. In total, 720 one-day-old male Ross 308 chicks were randomly distributed to six experimental groups. The positive control (PC) diet was supplemented with salinomycin (60 mg/kg). The nisin (NI) diets were supplemented with increasing levels (100, 300, 900 and 2700 IU nisin/g, respectively) of the bacteriocin. The negative control (NC) diet contained no additives. At slaughter (35 days of age), activity of specific bacterial enzymes (α- and β-glucosidases, α-galactosidases and β-glucuronidase) in crop, ileum and caeca were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the NC group, and nisin supplementation decreased the enzyme activities to levels observed for the PC group. A similar inhibitory influence on bacterial activity was reflected in the levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and putrefactive SCFA (PSCFA) in digesta from crop and ileum; no effect was observed in caeca. Counts of Bacteroides and Enterobacteriacae in ileum digesta were significantly (P<0.001) decreased by nisin and salinomycin, but no effects were observed on the counts of Clostridium perfringens, Lactobacillus/Enterococcus and total bacteria. Like salinomycin, nisin supplementation improved broiler growth performance in a dose-dependent manner; compared to the NC group, the body weight gain of the NI900 and NI2700 groups was improved by 4.7 and 8.7%, respectively. Our findings suggest that dietary nisin exerts a mode of action similar to salinomycin and could be considered as a dietary supplement for broiler

  14. Dietary nisin modulates the gastrointestinal microbial ecology and enhances growth performance of the broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Józefiak, Damian; Kierończyk, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Rawski, Mateusz; Długosz, Jakub; Sip, Anna; Højberg, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Due to antimicrobial properties, nisin is one of the most commonly used and investigated bacteriocins for food preservation. Surprisingly, nisin has had limited use in animal feed as well as there are only few reports on its influence on microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The present study therefore aimed at investigating effects of dietary nisin on broiler chicken GIT microbial ecology and performance in comparison to salinomycin, the widely used ionophore coccidiostat. In total, 720 one-day-old male Ross 308 chicks were randomly distributed to six experimental groups. The positive control (PC) diet was supplemented with salinomycin (60 mg/kg). The nisin (NI) diets were supplemented with increasing levels (100, 300, 900 and 2700 IU nisin/g, respectively) of the bacteriocin. The negative control (NC) diet contained no additives. At slaughter (35 days of age), activity of specific bacterial enzymes (α- and β-glucosidases, α-galactosidases and β-glucuronidase) in crop, ileum and caeca were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the NC group, and nisin supplementation decreased the enzyme activities to levels observed for the PC group. A similar inhibitory influence on bacterial activity was reflected in the levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and putrefactive SCFA (PSCFA) in digesta from crop and ileum; no effect was observed in caeca. Counts of Bacteroides and Enterobacteriacae in ileum digesta were significantly (P<0.001) decreased by nisin and salinomycin, but no effects were observed on the counts of Clostridium perfringens, Lactobacillus/Enterococcus and total bacteria. Like salinomycin, nisin supplementation improved broiler growth performance in a dose-dependent manner; compared to the NC group, the body weight gain of the NI₉₀₀ and NI₂₇₀₀ groups was improved by 4.7 and 8.7%, respectively. Our findings suggest that dietary nisin exerts a mode of action similar to salinomycin and could be considered as a dietary supplement

  15. Hepatic abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, S.; Langer, V.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic abscesses are potentially lethal diseases if early diagnosis and treatment are not instituted. They are prevalent all over the globe and pyogenic abscesses are predominant over amoebic. With better control of intra abdominal and systemic infections by a spectrum of antibiotics, aetiology of pyogenic abscesses are secondary to interventions and diseases in the biliary tree to a large extent today. The common organisms isolated are the Gram negative group. Amoebic abscesses continue to plague some regions of the world where hygiene and sanitation are questionable. Over the years, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis have evolved remarkably. Imaging modalities like ultrasonography and CT scan have become the cornerstone of diagnosis. The absence of ionizing radiation makes MRI an attractive alternative in patients who require multiple follow up scans. Serological testing in amoebic abscesses has become more reliable. Though antibiotics have remained the principal modality of management, percutaneous drainage of abscesses have vastly improved the chances of cure and bring down the morbidity drastically in pyogenic abscesses. Amoebic abscesses respond well to medical treatment with nitroimidazoles, and minimally invasive surgical drainage is an option in cases where open surgery is indicated. PMID:24532886

  16. BrUGE1 transgenic rice showed improved growth performance with enhanced drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Abdula, Sailila E; Lee, Hye Jung; Kim, Joonki; Niño, Marjohn C; Jung, Yu-Jin; Cho, Young-Chan; Nou, Illsup; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Cho, Yong-Gu

    2016-03-01

    UDP-glucose 4-epimerase (UGE) catalyzes the reversible conversion of UDP-glucose to UDP-galactose. To understand the biological function of UGE from Brassica rapa, the gene BrUGE1 was cloned and introduced into the genome of wild type rice 'Gopum' using the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. Four lines which carried a single copy gene were selected and forwarded to T3 generation. Agronomic traits evaluation of the transgenic T3 lines (CB01, CB03, and CB06) under optimal field conditions revealed enriched biomass production particularly in panicle length, number of productive tillers, number of spikelets per panicle, and filled spikelets. These remarkably improved agronomic traits were ascribed to a higher photosynthetic rate complemented with higher CO2 assimilation. Transcripts of BrUGE1 in transgenic lines continuously accumulated at higher levels after the 20% PEG6000 treatment, implying its probable role in drought stress regulation. This was paralleled by rapid accumulation of soluble sugars which act as osmoprotectants, leading to delayed leaf rolling and drying. Our findings suggest the potential of BrUGE1 in improving rice growth performance under optimal and water deficit conditions.

  17. Dietary carob pods on growth performance and meat quality of fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Kotrotsios, Nikolaos; Christaki, Efterpi; Bonos, Eleftherios; Florou-Paneri, Panagiota

    2012-06-01

    In this experiment the effect of dietary carob pods in the growth performance of fattening pigs and their meat quality, including steak chemical composition and fatty acid profile, were examined. A total of 160 weaning piglets, 30 days old, were allocated into four equal groups with 4 subgroups of 5 female and 5 males each. The animals were fed with isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets, containing either 0 or 75 or 100 or 125 g of carob pods per kg of feed. At the end of the experiment, on the 180 day of age, carcass subcutaneous fat thickness, steak chemical composition and steak fatty acid profile were determined. The results of the experiment showed that the dietary addition of 75 or 100 g/kg carob pods increased body weight at slaughter and carcass weight. No significant effect was noticed on the other examined carcass parameters. Consequently, carob pods could be suggested as a potential feed for fattening pigs without any adverse effect on their meat quality.

  18. Crystal growth, polarized spectra, and laser performance of Yb:CaGdAlO4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, J. Q.; Xu, X. D.; Xia, C. T.; Zheng, L. H.; Aka, G.; Yu, H. H.; Sai, Q. L.; Guo, X. Y.; Zhu, L.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the crystal growth, polarized spectra, and laser performance of Yb:CaGdAlO4 crystal were reported. The segregation coefficient of Yb3+ ions was calculated to be 0.47. The cell parameters were determined to be a  =  b  =  0.3658 nm, c  =  1.1985 nm. The peak absorption cross-section was calculated to be 2.65  ×  10-20 cm2 at 979 nm and the peak stimulated emission cross-section was 2.23  ×  10-20 cm2 at 980 nm for the π polarization. The continuous-wave (CW) laser operations of uncoated Yb:CaGdAlO4 crystals with 5  ×  5  ×  3 mm3 in size were demonstrated. A maximum output power of 1.6 W at 1048 nm was obtained with a slope efficiency of 28%. The results show that Yb:CaGdAlO4 crystal is a promising laser medium.

  19. Research note: effect of electronic treatment of drinking water on growth performance of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, N G; Wyatt, C L; Dhillon, A S

    1991-09-01

    Three electronic devices used to treat drinking water were compared with untreated city well water in a broiler growth performance trial. In each treatment feed conversion and BW were measured in 16 replicate pens of 60 female broilers at 29, 42, and 49 days of age. Two of the devices increased dissolved oxygen content of the water and reduced conductivity and microorganism count. One of these reduced broiler mortality (P = .065), decreased pH (P = .062), and increased Fe and Mn concentration in the water. The other increased water temperature, Ti, and Mn but reduced the concentration of Cl, Al, Ca, Cr, Mg, and Sr in the water. Neither the third device, an electrostatic water treatment, nor the other devices affected BW (P = .586) or feed conversion (P = .564) at 49 days of age. No significant treatment differences (P less than or equal to .05) in hematocrit, bursa of Fabricius weight, or tibial ash weight were observed at 21 days of age. PMID:1780270

  20. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle fed different levels of macadamia oil cake.

    PubMed

    Acheampong-Boateng, O; Mikasi, M S; Benyi, K; Amey, A K A

    2008-04-01

    Eighteen cattle (six Bonsmara males, seven Simmanteler x Beefmaster males and five Simmanteler x Beefmaster females) were assigned to three diets containing 0% (Control), 10% and 20% Macadamia oil cake to evaluate the effects of different levels of Macadamia oilcake (MOC) on feed intake, growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle. Differences in average feed intake were not significant (P > 0.05). Average daily gains on the 0% and 20% MOC diets were not significantly different (P < 0.05) but were significantly higher than the average gain on 10% MOC (P < 0.05). The inclusion of 20% MOC increased feed conversion ratio significantly (P < 0.05) compared with the other two treatments. The control group had significantly heavier warm carcasses than the 10% and 20% MOC groups and the 20% MOC group had significantly heavier carcasses than the 10% MOC group. The inclusion of MOC did not significantly affect the dressing percentage and conformation scores of the animals (P > 0.05). There were no condemned livers, suggesting that either there were no toxic factors in the feed or, even if present, were probably inactive in the liver.

  1. Larger body size at metamorphosis enhances survival, growth and performance of young cane toads (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Guzmán, Elisa; Crossland, Michael R; Brown, Gregory P; Shine, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Body size at metamorphosis is a key trait in species (such as many anurans) with biphasic life-histories. Experimental studies have shown that metamorph size is highly plastic, depending upon larval density and environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, food supply, water quality, chemical cues from conspecifics, predators and competitors). To test the hypothesis that this developmental plasticity is adaptive, or to determine if inducing plasticity can be used to control an invasive species, we need to know whether or not a metamorphosing anuran's body size influences its subsequent viability. For logistical reasons, there are few data on this topic under field conditions. We studied cane toads (Rhinella marina) within their invasive Australian range. Metamorph body size is highly plastic in this species, and our laboratory studies showed that larger metamorphs had better locomotor performance (both on land and in the water), and were more adept at catching and consuming prey. In mark-recapture trials in outdoor enclosures, larger body size enhanced metamorph survival and growth rate under some seasonal conditions. Larger metamorphs maintained their size advantage over smaller siblings for at least a month. Our data support the critical but rarely-tested assumption that all else being equal, larger body size at metamorphosis is likely to enhance an individual's long term viability. Thus, manipulations to reduce body size at metamorphosis in cane toads may help to reduce the ecological impact of this invasive species.

  2. BrUGE1 transgenic rice showed improved growth performance with enhanced drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Abdula, Sailila E; Lee, Hye Jung; Kim, Joonki; Niño, Marjohn C; Jung, Yu-Jin; Cho, Young-Chan; Nou, Illsup; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Cho, Yong-Gu

    2016-03-01

    UDP-glucose 4-epimerase (UGE) catalyzes the reversible conversion of UDP-glucose to UDP-galactose. To understand the biological function of UGE from Brassica rapa, the gene BrUGE1 was cloned and introduced into the genome of wild type rice 'Gopum' using the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. Four lines which carried a single copy gene were selected and forwarded to T3 generation. Agronomic traits evaluation of the transgenic T3 lines (CB01, CB03, and CB06) under optimal field conditions revealed enriched biomass production particularly in panicle length, number of productive tillers, number of spikelets per panicle, and filled spikelets. These remarkably improved agronomic traits were ascribed to a higher photosynthetic rate complemented with higher CO2 assimilation. Transcripts of BrUGE1 in transgenic lines continuously accumulated at higher levels after the 20% PEG6000 treatment, implying its probable role in drought stress regulation. This was paralleled by rapid accumulation of soluble sugars which act as osmoprotectants, leading to delayed leaf rolling and drying. Our findings suggest the potential of BrUGE1 in improving rice growth performance under optimal and water deficit conditions. PMID:27162494

  3. The Effects of Dietary Phosphorus on the Growth Performance and Phosphorus Excretion of Dairy Heifers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, B; Wang, C; Wei, Z H; Sun, H Z; Xu, G Z; Liu, J X; Liu, H Y

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of reducing dietary phosphorus (P) on the frame size, udder traits, blood parameters and nutrient digestibility coefficient in 8- to 10-month-old Holstein heifers. Forty-five heifers were divided into 15 blocks according to the mo of age and were randomly assigned one of three dietary treatments: 0.26% (low P [LP]), 0.36% (medium P [MP]), or 0.42% (high P [HP]) (dry matter basis). Samples were collected at the wk 1, 4, 8. The results show that low dietary P had no effect on body measurement. The blood P concentration decreased with decreasing dietary P (p<0.05), while the blood calcium content of LP was higher than that of the MP and HP groups (p<0.05), though still in the normal range. The serum contents of alkalinephosphatase, potassium, and magnesium were similar among the treatments. No differences were found in all nutrients' apparent digestibility coefficients with varied dietary P. However, with P diet decreased from HP to LP, the total fecal P and urine P concentration declined significantly, as did fecal water soluble P (p<0.05). In conclusion, reducing the dietary P from 0.42% to 0.26% did not negatively affect the heifers' growth performance but did significantly lessen manure P excretion into the environment.

  4. Larger Body Size at Metamorphosis Enhances Survival, Growth and Performance of Young Cane Toads (Rhinella marina)

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Guzmán, Elisa; Crossland, Michael R.; Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Body size at metamorphosis is a key trait in species (such as many anurans) with biphasic life-histories. Experimental studies have shown that metamorph size is highly plastic, depending upon larval density and environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, food supply, water quality, chemical cues from conspecifics, predators and competitors). To test the hypothesis that this developmental plasticity is adaptive, or to determine if inducing plasticity can be used to control an invasive species, we need to know whether or not a metamorphosing anuran’s body size influences its subsequent viability. For logistical reasons, there are few data on this topic under field conditions. We studied cane toads (Rhinella marina) within their invasive Australian range. Metamorph body size is highly plastic in this species, and our laboratory studies showed that larger metamorphs had better locomotor performance (both on land and in the water), and were more adept at catching and consuming prey. In mark-recapture trials in outdoor enclosures, larger body size enhanced metamorph survival and growth rate under some seasonal conditions. Larger metamorphs maintained their size advantage over smaller siblings for at least a month. Our data support the critical but rarely-tested assumption that all else being equal, larger body size at metamorphosis is likely to enhance an individual’s long term viability. Thus, manipulations to reduce body size at metamorphosis in cane toads may help to reduce the ecological impact of this invasive species. PMID:23922930

  5. BrUGE1 transgenic rice showed improved growth performance with enhanced drought tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Abdula, Sailila E.; Lee, Hye Jung; Kim, Joonki; Niño, Marjohn C.; Jung, Yu-Jin; Cho, Young-Chan; Nou, Illsup; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Cho, Yong-Gu

    2016-01-01

    UDP-glucose 4-epimerase (UGE) catalyzes the reversible conversion of UDP-glucose to UDP-galactose. To understand the biological function of UGE from Brassica rapa, the gene BrUGE1 was cloned and introduced into the genome of wild type rice ‘Gopum’ using the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. Four lines which carried a single copy gene were selected and forwarded to T3 generation. Agronomic traits evaluation of the transgenic T3 lines (CB01, CB03, and CB06) under optimal field conditions revealed enriched biomass production particularly in panicle length, number of productive tillers, number of spikelets per panicle, and filled spikelets. These remarkably improved agronomic traits were ascribed to a higher photosynthetic rate complemented with higher CO2 assimilation. Transcripts of BrUGE1 in transgenic lines continuously accumulated at higher levels after the 20% PEG6000 treatment, implying its probable role in drought stress regulation. This was paralleled by rapid accumulation of soluble sugars which act as osmoprotectants, leading to delayed leaf rolling and drying. Our findings suggest the potential of BrUGE1 in improving rice growth performance under optimal and water deficit conditions. PMID:27162494

  6. Effects of biotin on growth performance and foot pad dermatitis of starter White Pekin ducklings.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y W; Xie, M; Huang, W; Yang, L; Hou, S S

    2012-01-01

    1. An experiment with 9 dietary supplemental biotin concentrations (0, 0.03, 0.06, 0.09, 0.12, 0.15, 0.18, 0.21, 1.5 mg biotin/kg) was conducted to study the effects of supplementary dietary biotin on growth performance and foot pad dermatitis (FPD) of White Pekin ducklings from hatch to 21 d of age. 2. One-d-old male Pekin ducklings (n=576) were randomly divided into 9 dietary treatments, each containing 8 replicate pens with 8 birds per pen. Final weight, feed intake and body weight gain increased with increasing dietary biotin levels from hatch to 21 d of age. No differences were observed in feed conversion ratio. 3. The supplemental biotin requirement of ducklings for optimal body weight gain was estimated to be 0.180 mg/kg. 4. At 28 d of age, dehydration, cracks, bleeding and scab, and ulceration were observed in biotin-deficient ducks. The external scores for FPD decreased from 17.50 to 1.00 with increasing dietary biotin. It was concluded that supplemental dietary biotin should not be less than 0.21 mg/kg to minimise the incidence of FPD.

  7. Growth, microstructure and supercapacitive performance of copper oxide thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purusottam Reddy, B.; Sivajee Ganesh, K.; Hussain, O. M.

    2016-02-01

    The supercapacitive performance of copper oxide thin film electrodes mainly relies on micro structure, phase, surface area and conductivity which in turn depend on the deposition technique and process parameters during growth. In the present study, thin films of copper oxide were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on stainless steel substrates keeping O2-to-Ar ratio at 1:11 and RF power at 250 W and varying the substrate temperature. The microstructure and the induced phase changes in copper oxide films are observed to be strongly influenced by the substrate temperature since the relaxation time, surface diffusion and surface structural changes are thermally activated. The XRD and Raman studies reveal that the films deposited at low substrate temperature (<200 °C) exhibited CuO, while the films deposited at substrate temperature >200 °C exhibited Cu2O phase. The films prepared at 350 °C exhibited reflections correspond to cubic Cu2O with predominant (111) orientation. The estimated maximum grain size from AFM studies was 72 nm with surface roughness of 51 nm. These films exhibited a highest areal capacitance of 30 mF cm-2 at scan rate of 5 mV s-1. The galvanostatic charge-discharge studies demonstrated high specific capacitance of 908 F g-1 at 0.5 mA cm-2 current density with 80 % of its initial capacity retention even after 1000 cycles.

  8. Growth performance and carcass traits in pigs selected for indirect genetic effects on growth rate in two environments.

    PubMed

    Camerlink, I; Bolhuis, J E; Duijvesteijn, N; van Arendonk, J A M; Bijma, P

    2014-06-01

    Production traits such as growth rate may depend on the social interactions between group members. These social interactions may be partly heritable and are referred to as indirect genetic effects (IGE) or social, associative, or competitive genetic effects. Indirect genetic effects may contribute to heritable variation in traits and can therefore be used to increase the response to selection. This, however, has hardly been tested by selection experiments. Our objective was to determine the effects of 1 generation of selection on IGE for growth (IGEg) in pigs on ADG, BW, ADFI, feed efficiency, and postmortem measurements. Sires (n = 24) and dams (n = 64) were selected to create a high vs. low contrast for IGEg in the offspring (n = 480). The IGE difference was 2.8 g ADG per pen mate, corresponding to 14 g higher ADG in high IGEg offspring compared to low IGEg offspring when housed in groups of 6 (i.e., (6 - 1) × 2.8 = 14). Male (barrows) and female (gilts) offspring were housed in groups of 6 of the same IGEg classification, in either barren concrete pens or pens enriched with straw and wood shavings (n = 80 pens). Pigs were followed from birth to slaughter. Data were analyzed in a mixed model with pen as random factor. There was no difference in ADG between high and low IGEg pigs during the finishing period (wk 10 to 23). Opposite to expectations, high IGEg tended to have a 17 g lower ADG from weaning to slaughter (P = 0.08), which was caused by a higher BW of low IGEg pigs in wk 5 (P = 0.008). This led to a 2.3 kg lower carcass weight (P = 0.02) and 2.2 mm less muscle depth for high IGEg pigs (P = 0.03). High IGEg pigs had a higher stomach wall damage score (P = 0.01). Pigs on straw had a 25 g lower ADG during finishing (P = 0.03) and less stomach wall damage (P < 0.001). Fewer interventions against harmful behavior were required in high IGEg pigs. The unexpected results regarding IGEg may be due to several reasons. Despite initial power calculations showing

  9. Hepatitis A - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... hepatitis A. Children can get hepatitis A at day care center from other children or from child care ... treatment with immunoglobulin therapy. If your child attends day care: Make sure the children and staff at the ...

  10. Hepatitis B Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... IgM; anti-HBe; Hepatitis B e Antibody; HBV DNA Formal name: Hepatitis B Virus Testing Related tests: ... produced by the virus, and others detect viral DNA . The main uses for HBV tests include: To ...

  11. Hepatitis C (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis C is a virus-caused liver inflammation which may cause jaundice, fever and cirrhosis. Persons who are most at risk for contracting and spreading hepatitis C are those who share needles for injecting drugs ...

  12. Influence of dietary electrolyte balance on feed preference and growth performance of postweaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Pino, S A; Solà-Oriol, D; Davin, R; Manzanilla, E G; Pérez, J F

    2015-06-01

    A total of 672 male and female piglets (21 d postweaning; approximately 13 kg BW) were selected to be used in 3 different experiments to assess the influence of dietary electrolyte balance (dEB; Na + K - Cl, in mEq/kg of diet) on feed preference and growth performance. In Exp. 1, piglets were fed 4 isoenergetic diets differing in dEB level: 16, 133, 152, and 269 mEq/kg diets. Changes on dEB were obtained by changing the levels of sodium and chloride with calcium chloride, calcium carbonate, and sodium bicarbonate. Piglets fed the 16 and 133 mEq/kg diets achieved a greater ADG (P < 0.04), BW (P < 0.04), and apparent total-tract digestibility of CP and Zn (P < 0.05) than did piglets fed the 269 mEq/kg diet. The 16 mEq/kg level also reduced blood total CO (P < 0.01), bicarbonate (P < 0.01), and base excess (P < 0.02) concentrations compared with the rest of the dietary treatments. Three diets differing in dEB were designed for Exp. 2 and 3: -16, 151, and 388 mEq/kg diets. In Exp. 2, greater ADFI (P = 0.03), BW (P = 0.02), ADG (P < 0.001), and G:F (P < 0.01) were observed for piglets fed the -16 mEq/kg diet than those fed the 388 mEq/kg diet. Subsequently, their short-term preference for these diets was assessed by using a 2-d choice-test protocol (30 min). Piglets preferred (P < 0.001) the 388 mEq/kg diet to the -16 mEq/kg diet, independently of the dietary treatment they received before. Pigs also preferred (P < 0.001) the 151 mEq/kg diet when compared with the -16 mEq/kg diet. Experiment 3 assessed the long-term preference and short-term consumption of the -16 and 388 mEq/kg diets. Similar to Exp. 2, animals showed a greater (P < 0.001) intake of the 388 mEq/kg diet than they did of the -16 mEq/kg diet during both the preference (14 d) and 1-feeder (2 h) tests conducted. Results show that low rather than high dEB levels optimize growth performance of piglets. When they have the opportunity to choose, piglets are unable to select the diet that optimizes their

  13. Effect of dietary antibiotic, probiotic and prebiotic as growth promoters, on growth performance, carcass characteristics and hematological indices of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ashayerizadeh, A; Dabiri, N; Ashayerizadeh, O; Mirzadeh, K H; Roshanfekr, H; Mamooee, M

    2009-01-01

    This experiment was conducted for comparison the effects of antibiotic (flavomycin), probiotic (primalac), prebiotic (Biolex-MB) and mixture ofprobiotic and prebiotic (primalac plus Biolex-MB) as dietary growth promoter on growth performance, carcass characteristics and hematological indices of broiler chickens. Three hundred day old Ross 308 broilers were equally distributed into 30 floor pens and reared for 42 day. A basal diet was formulated covering the recommendations of NRC (1994) for starter (0-21 days) and grower (22-42 days) periods and considered as control diet. Four tested diets were formulated by supplemented the basal control diet with antibiotic (flavomycin), probiotic (primalac), prebiotic (Biolex-MB) and mixture ofprimalac plus Biolex-MB, respectively. Six replicates were used for each treatment. The results of present study showed that all growth promoters used was improved growth indices of Ross 308 broilers. The highest significant (p<0.05) values of carcass and thigh were recorded for broilers fed diet supplemented with flavomycin. The highest (p>0.05) value of breast was recorded for broilers fed the diet supplemented with primalac, meanwhile the lower value were showed for birds fed either diet or diet supplemented with Biolex-MB. The percent of carcass and cuts followed the same trend. Hematological parameter including cholesterol was recorded the highest (p>0.05) values groups fed the diets either control or supplemented with flavomycin, meanwhile the lower value was showed for bird fed diet supplemented primalac plus Biolex-MB. Triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL) were recorded the highest concentration for bird fed both control and diet supplemented with flavomycin groups while least concentration was found for bird fed diet supplemented with primalac. The results of present study revealed that probiotic and prebiotic as growth promoters can use as alternatives non-antibiotic feed additives to their free

  14. Auto immune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    van Gerven, Nicole Mf; de Boer, Ynto S; Mulder, Chris Jj; van Nieuwkerk, Carin Mj; Bouma, Gerd

    2016-05-21

    To provide an update of the latest trends in epidemiology, clinical course, diagnostics, complications and treatment of auto immune hepatitis (AIH). A search of the MEDLINE database was performed using the search terms: "auto immune hepatitis", "clinical presentation", "symptoms", "signs", "diagnosis", "auto antibodies", "laboratory values", "serology", "histopathology", "histology", "genetics", "HLA genes", "non-HLA genes", "environment", "epidemiology", "prevalence", "incidence", "demographics", "complications", "HCC", "PBC", "PSC", "corticosteroid", "therapy", "treatment", "alternative treatment". English-language full-text articles and abstracts were considered. Articles included reviews, meta-analysis, prospective retrospective studies. No publication date restrictions were applied. AIH is an immune meditated progressive inflammatory liver disease that predominantly affects middle-aged females but may affect people of all ages. The clinical spectrum of AIH is wide, ranging from absent or mild symptoms to fulminant hepatic failure. The aetiology of AIH is still unknown, but is believed to occur as the consequence of an aberrant immune response towards an un-known trigger in a genetically susceptible host. In the absence of a gold standard, diagnosis is based on the combination of clinical, biochemical and histopathological criteria. Immunosuppressive treatment has been the cornerstone of treatment since the earliest description of the disease in 1950 by Waldenström. Such treatment is often successful at inducing remission and generally leads to normal life expectancy. Nevertheless, there remain significant areas of unmet aetiological a clinical needs including fundamental insight in disease pathogenesis, optimal therapy, duration of treatment and treatment alternatives in those patients unresponsive to standard treatment regimens. PMID:27217697

  15. High-Performance Doped Strontium Iodide Crystal Growth Using a Modified Bridgman Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Emmanuel

    The importance of gamma-ray spectroscopy---the science of determining the distribution of energy in a gamma field---can rarely be overstated. High performance scintillators for gamma-ray spectroscopy in Nuclear Nonproliferation applications and homeland security require excellent energy resolution to distinguish neighboring element and isotope lines while minimizing the time and exposure to do so. Semiconductor detectors operate by converting incident photons directly into electrical pulses, but often have problems of high costs due to constituent segregation and surface states as is the case for Cadmium Zinc Telluride. The ideal scintillator material for gamma spectrometer will therefore requires high light yield, excellent proportionality between light yield and gamma photon energy, and material uniformity. A scintillator should possess the following properties; it should convert the kinetic energy of the generated charged particles (typically K-shell electrons) into detectable visible light. This conversion should be linear-the light yield should be proportional to deposited energy over as wide a range as possible. For good light collection, the medium should be transparent to the wavelength of its own emission. The decay time of the induced luminescence should be short so that fast signal pulses can be generated. The medium should be of good optical quality and subject to manufacture in sizes large enough to be of interest as a practical detector. Its index of refraction should be near that of glass (~1.5) to permit efficient coupling of scintillation light to a photomultiplier tube or other photo-sensor. In the past decade, inorganic scintillator research has focused less on improving the characteristics of known scintillators, but rather on the search for new hosts capable of fast response and high energy resolution. Extensive searches have been made for hosts doped with lanthanide activators utilizing the allowed 5d-4f transition. These 5d-4f transitions are

  16. Hepatitis E Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lhomme, Sébastien; Marion, Olivier; Abravanel, Florence; Chapuy-Regaud, Sabine; Kamar, Nassim; Izopet, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Although most hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are asymptomatic, some can be severe, causing fulminant hepatitis and extra-hepatic manifestations, including neurological and kidney injuries. Chronic HEV infections may also occur in immunocompromised patients. This review describes how our understanding of the pathogenesis of HEV infection has progressed in recent years. PMID:27527210

  17. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Hepatitis B (HBV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hepatitis B (HBV) Print A A A Text Size ... Prevented? How Is It Treated? What Is It? Hepatitis (pronounced: hep-uh-TIE-tiss) is a disease ...

  18. Hepatitis E Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lhomme, Sébastien; Marion, Olivier; Abravanel, Florence; Chapuy-Regaud, Sabine; Kamar, Nassim; Izopet, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Although most hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are asymptomatic, some can be severe, causing fulminant hepatitis and extra-hepatic manifestations, including neurological and kidney injuries. Chronic HEV infections may also occur in immunocompromised patients. This review describes how our understanding of the pathogenesis of HEV infection has progressed in recent years. PMID:27527210

  19. Influence of nitrogen sources on growth and fermentation performance of different wine yeast species during alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kemsawasd, Varongsiri; Viana, Tiago; Ardö, Ylva; Arneborg, Nils

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the influence of twenty different single (i.e. 19 amino acids and ammonium sulphate) and two multiple nitrogen sources (N-sources) on growth and fermentation (i.e. glucose consumption and ethanol production) performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and of four wine-related non-Saccharomyces yeast species (Lachancea thermotolerans, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Torulaspora delbrueckii) was investigated during alcoholic fermentation. Briefly, the N-sources with beneficial effects on all performance parameters (or for the majority of them) for each yeast species were alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, isoleucine, ammonium sulphate, serine, valine and mixtures of 19 amino acids and of 19 amino acids plus ammonium sulphate (for S. cerevisiae), serine (for L. thermotolerans), alanine (for H. uvarum), alanine and asparagine (for M. pulcherrima), arginine, asparagine, glutamine, isoleucine and mixture of 19 amino acids (for T. delbrueckii). Furthermore, our results showed a clear positive effect of complex mixtures of N-sources on S. cerevisiae and on T. delbrueckii (although to a lesser extent) as to all performance parameters studied, whereas for L. thermotolerans, H. uvarum and M. pulcherrima, single amino acids affected growth and fermentation performance to the same extent as the mixtures. Moreover, we found groups of N-sources with similar effects on the growth and/or fermentation performance of two or more yeast species. Finally, the influences of N-sources observed for T. delbrueckii and H. uvarum resembled those of S. cerevisiae the most and the least, respectively. Overall, this work contributes to an improved understanding of how different N-sources affect growth, glucose consumption and ethanol production of wine-related yeast species under oxygen-limited conditions, which, in turn, may be used to, e.g. optimize growth and fermentation performance of the given yeast upon N-source supplementation during

  20. The diagnostic performance of dental maturity for identification of the circumpubertal growth phases: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Perinetti, Giuseppe; Westphalen, Graziela H; Biasotto, Matteo; Salgarello, Stefano; Contardo, Luca

    2013-05-23

    The present meta-analysis initially evaluates the reliability of dental maturation in the identification of the circumpubertal growth phases, essentially for determining treatment timing in orthodontics. A literature survey was performed using the Medline, LILACS and SciELO databases, and the Cochrane Library (2000 to 2011). Studies of the correlation between dental and cervical vertebral maturation methods were considered. The mandibular canine, the first and second premolars, and the second molar were investigated. After the selection, six articles qualified for the final analysis. The overall correlation coefficients were all significant, ranging from 0.57 to 0.73. Five of these studies suggested the use of dental maturation as an indicator of the growth phase. However, the diagnostic performance analysis uncovered limited reliability only for the identification of the pre-pubertal growth phase. The determination of dental maturity for the assessment of treatment timing in orthodontics is not recommended.

  1. Thyroid function, metabolic indices and growth performance in pigs fed 00-rapeseed meal.

    PubMed

    Svetina, A; Jerković, I; Vrabac, Ljiljana; Curić, S

    2003-01-01

    Thyroid function and morphology, liver morphology, some metabolic indices, haematological parameters and growth performance of fattening pigs fed 00-rapeseed meal (00-RPM) were examined. The control group was fed on a standard diet containing 6% sunflower seed meal (SM) during the growing period and 8% during the finishing period. The first experimental group was fed a diet in which SM was replaced by equal (6% and 8%) amounts of 00-RPM. The second experimental group was fed with a higher (8% and 10%) amount of 00-RPM. There were no significant differences between the control and experimental groups in the serum concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Thyroid gland and liver weights were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in both groups fed 00-RPM than in the group fed SM. The epithelium of the thyroid gland was cuboidal or columnar and the follicular area was moderately enlarged in pigs fed 00-RPM. Marked changes in liver histology were not observed. The 00-RPM diet increased (P < 0.01) the serum values of total proteins in the first fattening period. At the end of fattening both groups fed 00-RPM had higher (P < 0.05; P < 0.01) concentrations of plasma glucose than the control group. The inclusion of 10% of 00-RPM during the finishing period increased (P < 0.05) the serum values of insulin. Daily weight gain during the growing and the finishing period was higher (P < 0.05) in the experimental groups than in the control group. The results suggest that 6-10% 00-RPM can be used as a protein source in the diet of fattening pigs without poisonous side effects.

  2. Effect of diet saturation on growth performance, carcass characteristics and fat quality of heavy pigs.

    PubMed

    Olivares, A; Daza, A; Rey, A I; López-Bote, C J

    2010-08-01

    Twenty-four castrated male (Duroc × Large Withe × Landrace) with an average weight of 69.4 kg were randomly distributed and located in individual cages and given the experimental diets. Diets were provided ad libitum and were formulated containing three levels of palm oil and hydropalm (hydrogenated palm stearine): 4% and 0% (low saturation), 2% and 2% (moderate saturation) and 0% and 4% (high saturation). Pigs were slaughtered at a local slaughterhouse with an average weight of 129.1 kg. The dietary treatment had no significant influence on growth performances and carcass characteristics. The diet saturation led to an increase of C18:0 and ΣSFA (saturated fatty acids) proportions and to a reduction of C18:1 n-9, C18:2 n-6 and ΣPUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) proportions and in subcutaneous backfat outer and inner layers. The dietary treatment affected significantly the melting point of subcutaneous backfat outer layer but had no significant influence on the melting point of the subcutaneous backfat inner layer. However, a linear effect of C18:0 proportion of subcutaneous backfat outer and inner layers on the melting point was observed. Dietary treatment had no significant effect on the main fatty acids pattern of intramuscular neutral and polar lipids from Longissimus dorsi muscle. In neutral lipids of liver a dietary influence (p < 0.05), but not a clear dose--response relationship, was observed for C16:0, C18:1 n-9, ΣSFA and ΣPUFA fatty acids, whereas in polar lipids the dietary treatment had no significant effect on the main fatty acids proportions. No effect of diet saturation was found on rheological properties of fat except for the hardness. The hardness was higher in the pigs that received the diet with 0% of palm oil and 4% hydropalm than in those given the diet with 4% of palm oil and 0% hydropalm. PMID:21339149

  3. Effects of Supplemental Mannanoligosaccharides on Growth Performance, Faecal Characteristics and Health in Dairy Calves

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Cagdas; Cihan, Huseyin; Temizel, Mutlu; Catik, Serkan; Meral, Yavuz; Orman, Abdulkadir; Yibar, Artun; Gencoglu, Hidir

    2015-01-01

    Twenty Holstein calves were used to investigate the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) supplementation in the whole milk on growth performance, faecal score, faecal pH, selected faecal bacterial populations and health during the preweaning period. Healthy calves selected by clinical examination were allocated to one of the two groups (control [CG] and experimental [EG]) at 5 days old. Each group consisted of 5 male and 5 female calves. Each calf in EG was supplemented with 7 g/d of a MOS product (Celmanax) from 5 days to 56 days of age. MOS supplement was mixed with the whole milk once in the morning and administered to the calves in EG via nipple bottle, whereas the calves in CG were fed the whole milk without MOS. Calves were weaned at 56 days of age. The final body weight, average daily weight gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were statistically similar (p>0.05) but were higher by 3.70%, 6.66%, and 10.97%, respectively, in MOS than in control calves. Feed efficiency (ADG/ADFI) was also similar in two calves group. While faecal scores did not differ on day 5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 49, and 56 between groups, EG had a higher faecal score (p = 0.05) than CG on day 35. Faecal concentration of Lactobacillus was lower (p<0.05) in EG compared with CG. No differences (p>0.05) in faecal concentrations of Bifidobacterium, Clostridium perfringens, and Escherichia coli were found between groups. Although there were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the incidence of diarrhoea, treatment days for diarrhoea and the costs associated with diarrhoea treatments between groups, collectively, the observed reductions in treatment days and the cost of diarrhoea treatments accompanying increases in final body weight, ADG and ADFI for EG may indicate potential benefit of MOS in treatment of diarrhoea. PMID:26580284

  4. Effect of development system on growth and reproductive performance of beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Lardner, H A; Damiran, D; Hendrick, S; Larson, K; Funston, R

    2014-07-01

    Reproductive performance was evaluated in beef heifers born over a 2-yr period to determine the effects of target breeding weight (TBW) and development system (SYS) on growth and subsequent reproductive efficiency. Spring-born Angus heifers (253 ± 0.7 kg) were randomly allocated over 2 consecutive yr (yr 1, n = 80; yr 2, n = 96) to be developed to either 55% (350 kg) of mature BW (moderate gain, MG) or 62% (395 kg) of mature BW (high gain, HG). Each MG and HG group was further assigned to 1 of 2 replicated systems: (1) bale graze bromegrass-alfalfa round bales in field paddocks (BG) or (2) fed bromegrass-alfalfa round bales in drylot pens (DL). Heifers were fed a diet of bromegrass-alfalfa hay (56.9% TDN; 9.8% CP) and barley grain supplement (85.1% TDN; 12.3% CP). After the 202-d development period, heifers were exposed to bulls for a 63-d breeding season. Target BW × SYS interactions were not detected for any measured parameters. During the winter development period, MG heifers had lower (P = 0.01) ADG than HG heifers and MG heifers had lighter (P = 0.01) BW at breeding. The proportion of heifers attaining puberty by 14.5 mo of age was less (P = 0.05) in MG (20 ± 4%) than HG heifers (52 ± 3%). From the end of the 202-d development period to pregnancy diagnosis, ADG was greater (P = 0.04) in MG heifers than HG heifers (0.83 vs. 0.71 kg/d). First-calf pregnancy rates were 86 and 88% for MG and HG heifers, respectively (P = 0.41). Second- and third-calf pregnancy rates of cows, developed in either a MG or HG system as heifers, were not different (P = 0.74; 94.7 vs. 95.9% and 93.8 vs. 93.9%, respectively). Economic analysis revealed a $58 reduced development cost for heifers developed to 55% compared with 62% of mature BW without a loss in reproductive performance. PMID:24778339

  5. Effect of development system on growth and reproductive performance of beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Lardner, H A; Damiran, D; Hendrick, S; Larson, K; Funston, R

    2014-07-01

    Reproductive performance was evaluated in beef heifers born over a 2-yr period to determine the effects of target breeding weight (TBW) and development system (SYS) on growth and subsequent reproductive efficiency. Spring-born Angus heifers (253 ± 0.7 kg) were randomly allocated over 2 consecutive yr (yr 1, n = 80; yr 2, n = 96) to be developed to either 55% (350 kg) of mature BW (moderate gain, MG) or 62% (395 kg) of mature BW (high gain, HG). Each MG and HG group was further assigned to 1 of 2 replicated systems: (1) bale graze bromegrass-alfalfa round bales in field paddocks (BG) or (2) fed bromegrass-alfalfa round bales in drylot pens (DL). Heifers were fed a diet of bromegrass-alfalfa hay (56.9% TDN; 9.8% CP) and barley grain supplement (85.1% TDN; 12.3% CP). After the 202-d development period, heifers were exposed to bulls for a 63-d breeding season. Target BW × SYS interactions were not detected for any measured parameters. During the winter development period, MG heifers had lower (P = 0.01) ADG than HG heifers and MG heifers had lighter (P = 0.01) BW at breeding. The proportion of heifers attaining puberty by 14.5 mo of age was less (P = 0.05) in MG (20 ± 4%) than HG heifers (52 ± 3%). From the end of the 202-d development period to pregnancy diagnosis, ADG was greater (P = 0.04) in MG heifers than HG heifers (0.83 vs. 0.71 kg/d). First-calf pregnancy rates were 86 and 88% for MG and HG heifers, respectively (P = 0.41). Second- and third-calf pregnancy rates of cows, developed in either a MG or HG system as heifers, were not different (P = 0.74; 94.7 vs. 95.9% and 93.8 vs. 93.9%, respectively). Economic analysis revealed a $58 reduced development cost for heifers developed to 55% compared with 62% of mature BW without a loss in reproductive performance.

  6. Granulated lysozyme as an alternative to antibiotics improves growth performance and small intestinal morphology of 10-day-old pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lysozyme is a 1,4-ß-N-acetylmuramidase that has antimicrobial properties. The objective of this experiment was to determine the efficacy of granulated lysozyme, compared to antibiotics, on growth performance, small intestinal morphology, and Campylobacter shedding in 10-d-old pigs. Forty-eight pigs ...

  7. Granulated lysozyme as an alternative to antibiotics improves growth performance and small intestinal morphology of 10-day-old pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lysozyme is a 1,4-ß-N-acetylmuramidase that has antimicrobial properties. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of a purified granulated lysozyme, compared to antibiotics, on growth performance, small intestinal morphology, and Campylobacter shedding in 10-d-old pigs. Forty-...

  8. Growth, condition factor, and bioenergetics modeling link warmer stream temperatures below a small dam to reduced performance of juvenile steelhead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauter, S.T.; Connolly, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the growth and feeding performance of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss using field measures and bioenergetics modeling. Juvenile steelhead populations were sampled from mid-June through August 2004 at study sites upstream and downstream of Hemlock Dam. The growth and diet of juvenile steelhead were determined for a warm (summer) and subsequent (late summer) transitional period at each study site. Empirical data on the growth and diet of juvenile steelhead and mean daily temperatures were used in a bioenergetics model to estimate the proportion of maximum consumption achieved by juvenile steelhead by site and period. Modeled estimates of feeding performance were better for juvenile steelhead at the upstream compared to the downstream site during both periods. The median condition factor of juvenile steelhead did not change over the summer at the upstream site, but showed a significant decline over time at the downstream site. A negative trend in median condition factor at the downstream site supported bioenergetics modeling results that suggested the warmer stream temperatures had a negative impact on juvenile steelhead. Bioenergetics modeling predicted a lower feeding performance for juvenile steelhead rearing downstream compared to upstream of Hemlock Dam although food availability appeared to be limited at both study sites during the warm period. Warmer water temperatures, greater diel variation, and change in diel pattern likely led to the reduced feeding performance and reduced growth, which could have affected the overall survival of juvenile steelhead downstream of Hemlock Dam. ?? 2010 by the Northwest Scientific Association.

  9. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and tissue histology of growing pigs fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality indices, and tissue histology of growing pigs fed crude glycerol were determined in a 138-d feeding trial. Crude glycerol utilized in the trial contained 84.51% glycerol, 11.95% water, 2.91% sodium chloride, and 0.32% methanol. Eight days pos...

  10. The effect of a maternal dietary yeast cell wall supplement during gestation on cow performance and calf growth and immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if feeding of yeast cell wall (YCW) to pregnant cows influences cow performance as well as postnatal calf growth and immunity. Multiparous cows were grouped by predicted calving date into groups of control (C; n=24) and supplemented (Y; n=24) cows. The Y ...

  11. Assessment of the effect of castration upon arrival on long-term growth performance of stocker cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Existing records were used to quantify the impact of castration and dehorning of calves upon arrival at a stocker unit on long-term growth performance and morbidity. Male calves (n = 1,105; BW = 186 ± 24 kg) received over a three-year period were used to assess the effects of castration and dehorni...

  12. Early growth performance of full-sib Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium F1 hybrid progenies at three different sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah Aimin, Atirah Abdullah; Abdullah, Mohd Zaki; Muhammad, Norwati; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2014-09-01

    Field trials of 14 full sib Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium F1 hybrid progenies were evaluated for growth performance at three sites (Bintulu, Mentakab and Segamat). Results indicated that there were significant differences (p> 0.05) for diameter breast height (Dbh) and total height (Ht) among the progenies and different sites. Superior progenies have been identified for future tree selection and improvement.

  13. Growth performance, fillet quality, and reproductive maturity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) cultured to 5 kilograms within freshwater recirculating systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rainbow trout are commonly cultured within aquaculture systems to one pound or less and marketed as pan-sized fillets. Production of larger rainbow trout provides a distinguishable product. Research that describes the growth performance and fillet quality of large rainbow trout is limited, particula...

  14. Effects of dietary humic and butyric acid on growth performance and response to lipopolysaccharide in young pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humic acid (MFG) and fat protected butyric acid (BA) has been shown to modulate energy metabolism and inflammation. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of MFG and BA, alone and in combination, on growth performance and response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced in...

  15. Temperature and ration effects on components of the IGF system and growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during the transition from late stage embryos to early stage juveniles.

    PubMed

    Li, Mao; Leatherland, John

    2008-02-01

    The study investigated the effects of incubation temperature, and the size of ration fed to the transitional embryo/juvenile stage of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on growth, liver and gastrointestinal (GI) tract IGF-1 content, and the expression of insulin-like growth factor-related genes (IGF-1, IGF-2, IGF-RIa, and IGF-RIb) by the liver and GI tract. Embryos were reared from zygote to "swim-up" at either 8.5 degrees C (E(8.5)) or 6.0 degrees C (E(6.0)); at "swim-up" (51-days post-fertilization [dpf] and 72-dpf for the E(8.5) and E(6.0) groups, respectively), the embryos were transferred to grow-up tanks supplied with water at 8.5 degrees C. Late stage embryos (LSEs) at the same developmental stage from the two temperature treatment groups (64-dpf and 86-dpf for the E(8.5) and E(6.0) groups, respectively) were fed with salmonid starter diet at levels of 5.0%, 2.0%, and 0.5% of live body mass per day. Embryos were sampled just prior to first feeding (PFEs), and before complete absorption of the yolk [late stage embryos (LSEs)], and early stage juveniles (ESJs) were sampled after yolk sac absorption when they were fully reliant on exogenous sources of food. The early incubation temperature and ration levels had significant affects on mortality (with lower mortalities in the E(6.0) group) and growth performance of the fish; dry body mass values for fish fed the 5.0% ration were significantly lower in the E(6.0) group of LSEs and ESJs compared with the respective treatment in the E(8.5) group; a similar pattern was seen for total body length, although this was only significant for the LSEs. Whole embryo IGF-1 content was significantly lower in the E(6.0) group compared with the E(8.5) group of PFEs, and hepatic IGF-1 content was significantly lower in the E(6.0) group fed the maintenance ration (0.5%) compared with the E(8.5) fed a similar ration; restricted ration significantly elevated hepatic IGF-1 content in the LSE stage for both temperature treatment

  16. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223

  17. Post-fire wood management alters water stress, growth, and performance of pine regeneration in a Mediterranean ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maranon-Jimenez, Sara; Castro, Jorge; Querejeta, José Ignacio; Fernandez-Ondono, Emilia; Allen, Craig D.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research has focused on comparing the impacts of post-fire salvage logging versus those of less aggressive management practices on forest regeneration. However, few studies have addressed the effects of different burnt-wood management options on seedling/sapling performance, or the ecophysiological mechanisms underlying differences among treatments. In this study, we experimentally assess the effects of post-fire management of the burnt wood on the growth and performance of naturally regenerating pine seedlings (Pinus pinaster). Three post-fire management treatments varying in degree of intervention were implemented seven months after a high-severity wildfire burned Mediterranean pine forests in the Sierra Nevada, southeast Spain: (a) “No Intervention” (NI, all burnt trees left standing); (b) “Partial Cut plus Lopping” (PCL, felling most of the burnt trees, cutting off branches, and leaving all the biomass on site without mastication); and (c) “Salvage Logging” (SL, felling the burnt trees, piling up the logs and masticating the fine woody debris). Three years after the fire, the growth, foliar nutrient concentrations, and leaf carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition (δ13C, δ18O and δ15N) of naturally regenerating seedlings were measured in all the treatments. Pine seedlings showed greatest vigor and size in the PCL treatment, whereas growth was poorest in SL. The nutrient concentrations were similar among treatments, although greater growth in the two treatments with residual wood present indicated higher plant uptake. Seedlings in the SL treatment showed high leaf δ13C and δ18O values indicating severe water stress, in contrast to significantly alleviated water stress indications in the PCL treatment. Seedling growth and physiological performance in NI was intermediate between that of PCL and SL. After six growing seasons, P. pinaster saplings in PCL showed greater growth and cone production than SL saplings. In summary

  18. Biological markers of neonatal calf performance: the relationship of insulin-like growth factor-I, zinc, and copper to poor neonatal growth.

    PubMed

    Graham, T W; Breher, J E; Farver, T B; Cullor, J S; Kehrli, M E; Oberbauer, A M

    2010-08-01

    Raising a heifer calf to reproductive age represents an enormous cost to the producer. Poor neonatal growth exacerbates the costs incurred for rearing, and use of blood variables that may be associated with poorly growing calves may offer predictive value for growth and performance. Thus, the principal objective of the present study was to describe changes in serum IGF-I, zinc, and copper from birth to 90 d in Holstein calves, while accounting for sex and twin status, in poorly growing calves and calves growing well. A second objective was to test the hypothesis that an association exists between these serum variables and morphometric indicators of growth. Measurements of BW, length, and height were recorded at birth and at 30, 60, and 90 d of age. Jugular blood (12 mL) was collected from each calf on d 1 to determine serum total protein, serum IgG, packed cell volume, serum zinc, serum copper, serum IGF-I, and CD18 genotype for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency; serum zinc, serum copper, and serum IGF-I (predictor variables) were also determined for each calf on d 2 through 10 and on d 30, 60, and 90. Stepwise multiple regression and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between the predictor variables and the dependent variables (BW, height, and length at d 30, 60, and 90 of life). Birth weight, sex, serum IGF-I (at all ages), serum copper, and the serum copper-to-zinc ratio were associated, to varying degrees, with the dependent growth variables. Birth weight was consistently the dominant predictor. In conclusion, these results suggest that lighter birth weight, reduced serum IGF-I, and inflammation may be important causes of poor growth in neonatal Holstein dairy calves. PMID:20382870

  19. Hepatitis: protecting BMETs & CEs.

    PubMed

    Baker, S A

    1994-01-01

    Hepatitis is the primary occupational hazard for healthcare workers. Not until the 1970s were hepatitis viruses isolated and identified as types A and B. In the late 1970s, hepatitis D was discovered as a major cause of fulminant hepatitis. Soon, it was evident that another type was also at work. Because testing was only available for types A and B, the new category was referred to as non-A, non-B. In the 1980s, scientists identified two more viruses from this non-A, non-B group, namely hepatitis E and hepatitis C. These five types of hepatitis have different modes of transmission. The fecal-to-oral route is the mode of transmission for hepatitis types A and E. But, types B and D are bloodborne pathogens. With the advent of a safe vaccine for hepatitis B, this category is declining. To date, hepatitis C appears to have multiple routes of transmission, with half the cases being posttransfusion. In the United States, 85,000 people per year develop chronic hepatitis C, which ultimately leads to severe liver damage. This paper addresses each of the five viruses that have been grouped by routes of transmission, prevention techniques for BMETs and CEs, and statistics of reported cases to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP) over the last 20 years. PMID:10139739

  20. Predicting Plant Performance Under Simultaneously Changing Environmental Conditions-The Interplay Between Temperature, Light, and Internode Growth.

    PubMed

    Kahlen, Katrin; Chen, Tsu-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Plant performance is significantly influenced by prevailing light and temperature conditions during plant growth and development. For plants exposed to natural fluctuations in abiotic environmental conditions it is however laborious and cumbersome to experimentally assign any contribution of individual environmental factors to plant responses. This study aimed at analyzing the interplay between light, temperature and internode growth based on model approaches. We extended the light-sensitive virtual plant model L-Cucumber by implementing a common Arrhenius function for appearance rates, growth rates, and growth durations. For two greenhouse experiments, the temperature-sensitive model approach resulted in a precise prediction of cucumber mean internode lengths and number of internodes, as well as in accurately predicted patterns of individual internode lengths along the main stem. In addition, a system's analysis revealed that environmental data averaged over the experimental period were not necessarily related to internode performance. Finally, the need for a species-specific parameterization of the temperature response function and related aspects in modeling temperature effects on plant development and growth is discussed.

  1. The effects of feeder adjustment and trough space on growth performance of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Myers, A J; Goodband, R D; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Nelssen, J L

    2012-12-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of feeder adjustment and trough space on growth performance of finishing pigs. In Exp. 1, 234 pigs (initial BW 41.5 kg) were used in an 89-d trial. Pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 treatments with 9 replications of 8 pigs/pen and 1 replicate with 6 pigs/pen. Treatments consisted of a minimum feeder gap setting of 1.27, 1.91, or 2.54 cm. Feeders were adjusted to a minimum gap setting, but the agitation plate could be moved upward to a maximum opening of 1.91, 2.54, or 3.18 cm, respectively. Feeder adjustments of 1.27, 1.91, and 2.54 cm averaged 28, 58, and 75% pan coverage, respectively. From d 0 to 58, increasing feeder gap improved (linear; P ≤ 0.04) ADG and ADFI, but decreased (linear; P < 0.05) G:F. Although the response was linear for ADG, no increase occurred (quadratic; P = 0.15) beyond the 1.91-cm feeder gap setting. From d 58 to 89, increasing feeder gap setting tended (linear; P = 0.08) to worsen G:F. Overall (d 0 to 89), pigs fed with increasing feeder gap had decreased (linear; P <0.03) G:F due to increased (linear; P <0.02) ADFI. In Exp. 2, 288 pigs (initial BW 41.3 kg) were used in a 91-d study to evaluate the effects of feeder trough space (4.45 vs. 8.9 cm/pig) and minimum feeder gap opening of 1.27 cm (narrow) vs. 2.54 cm (wide). The treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with 6 replications per treatment. Feeder trough space was altered by having pens of either 8 to 16 pigs per pen with all pigs provided 0.74 m(2) floor space per pig. From d 0 to 56 and 56 to 91, no adjustment × space interactions or effects of trough space were observed. From d 0 to 56, pigs with the wide feeder gap setting had decreased (P < 0.02) G:F compared with those that had the narrow feeder gap setting. From d 56 to 91, pigs with the wider feeder gap setting had increased (P < 0.001) ADFI, but consequently had decreased (P < 0.01) G:F. Overall (d 0 to 91), no trough space × feeder adjustment interactions

  2. Airlift column photobioreactors for Porphyridium sp. culturing: Part II. verification of dynamic growth rate model for reactor performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hu-Ping; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna H

    2012-04-01

    Dynamic growth rate model has been developed to quantify the impact of hydrodynamics on the growth of photosynthetic microorganisms and to predict the photobioreactor performance. Rigorous verification of such reactor models, however, is rare in the literature. In this part of work, verification of a dynamic growth rate model developed in Luo and Al-Dahhan (2004) [Biotech Bioeng 85(4): 382-393] was attempted using the experimental results reported in Part I of this work and results from literature. The irradiance distribution inside the studied reactor was also measured at different optical densities and successfully correlated by the Lambert-Beer Law. When reliable hydrodynamic data were used, the dynamic growth rate model successfully predicted the algae's growth rate obtained in the experiments in both low and high irradiance regime indicating the robustness of this model. The simulation results also indicate the hydrodynamics is significantly different between the real algae culturing system and an air-water system that signifies the importance in using reliable data input for the growth rate model.

  3. Conjugated linoleic acid alters growth performance, tissue lipid deposition, and fatty acid composition of darkbarbel catfish (Pelteobagrus vachelli).

    PubMed

    Dong, Gui-Fang; Liu, Wen-Zuo; Wu, Lin-Zhou; Yu, Deng-Hang; Huang, Feng; Li, Peng-Cheng; Yang, Yan-Ou

    2015-02-01

    Fatty liver syndrome is a prevalent problem of farmed fish. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has received increased attention recently as a fat-reducing fatty acid to control fat deposition in mammals. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether dietary CLA can reduce tissue lipid content of darkbarbel catfish (Pelteobagrus vachelli) and whether decreased lipid content is partially due to alterations in lipid metabolism enzyme activities and fatty acid profiles. A 76-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary CLA on the growth, tissue lipid deposition, and fatty acid composition of darkbarbel catfish. Five diets containing 0 % (control), 0.5 % (CLA0.5), 1 % (CLA1), 2 % (CLA2), and 3 % (CLA3) CLA levels were evaluated. Results showed that fish fed with 2-3 % CLA diets showed a significantly lower specific growth rate and feed conversion efficiency than those fed with the control diet. Dietary CLA decreased the lipid contents in the liver and intraperitoneal fat with the CLA levels from 1 to 3 %. Fish fed with 2-3 % CLA diets showed significantly higher lipoprotein lipase and hepatic triacylglycerol lipase activities in liver than those of fish fed with the control, and fish fed with 1-3 % CLA diets had significantly higher pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase activities in liver than those of fish fed with the control. Dietary CLA was incorporated into liver, intraperitoneal fat, and muscle lipids, with higher percentages observed in liver compared with other tissues. Liver CLA deposition was at the expense of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). In contrast, CLA deposition appeared to be primarily at the expense of MUFA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the intraperitoneal fat, whereas in muscle it was at the expense of n-3 PUFA. Our results suggested that CLA at a 1 % dose can reduce liver lipid content without eliciting any negative effect on growth rate in darkbarbel catfish. This lipid-lowering effect could

  4. Effects of linseed oil and palm oil on growth performance, tibia fatty acid and biomarkers of bone metabolism in broilers.

    PubMed

    Zhong, X; Gao, S; Wang, J J; Dong, L; Huang, J; Zhang, L L; Wang, T

    2014-01-01

    1. This study was conducted to determine the effects of different dietary fat sources on growth performance, tibia fatty acids and biomarkers of bone metabolism in broilers. 2. One-d-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were fed with a maize-soya bean basal diet for 42 d, supplemented with oils according to the following 5 treatments: lard (lard group); linseed oil (linseed oil group); palm oil (palm oil group); linseed oil + palm oil (60:40 or 40:60 w/w, LP-1 group and LP-2 group, respectively). 3. No significant differences in weight gain, feed intake and gain/feed ratio were observed between the lard and linseed oil groups. Birds fed on palm oil had significantly greater weight gain and feed intake than those fed on lard or linseed oil. Growth performance in LP-1 and LP-2 was significantly greater than that of single-oil groups. 4. Tibia growth and bone characteristics were not influenced by supplementation with lard, linseed oil, or palm oil alone, but broilers fed on a mixture of fats had significantly greater tibia weight and length compared to broilers fed on linseed oil. Bone mineral density in tibia was significantly increased in LP-1 and LP-2 groups. 5. Supplementation of linseed oil alone or in combination with palm oil enhanced apparent digestibility of calcium, reduced serum calcium and increased tibia calcium concentrations. Moreover, supplementation with linseed oil alone or in combination with palm oil had a positive effect on biomarkers of bone growth. 6. The combination of linseed and palm oils was beneficial for growth performance, tibia growth and biomarkers of bone metabolism.

  5. Detecting Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy in an Endemic Country for Hepatitis B: The Role of Psychometrics and Serum IL-6

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chia-Fen; Chu, Chi-Jen; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Wang, Yen-Po; Liu, Pei-Yi; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Lu, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims It remains unknown what the prevalence of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is in Taiwan, a highly endemic country for chronic viral hepatitis infection. It is also unclear whether abnormal serum cytokine levels can be indicative of the presence of minimal hepatic encephalopathy. We aimed to standardize the tests of psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score and predictive value of proinflammatory cytokines in minimal hepatic encephalopathy in Taiwan. Methods 180 healthy subjects and 94 cirrhotic patients without a history of overt hepatic encephalopathy from a tertiary center were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Blood sampling for determination of serum levels of interleukin 6 and 18 and tumor necrosis factor-α was performed. Based on the normogram of psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score from healthy volunteers, patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy were identified from the cirrhotic patients using the criterion of a psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score less than −4. Results In the healthy subjects, age and education were predictors of subtests of psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy was identified in 27 (29%) cirrhotic patients. Serum interleukin 6 level (OR = 6.50, 95% CI = 1.64–25.76, P = 0.008) was predictive of the presence of minimal hepatic encephalopathy after multivariate analysis. Conclusions The psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score can be a useful tool for detecting patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy in Taiwan and around one third of cirrhotic outpatients fulfill this diagnosis. A high serum interleukin 6 level is predictive of the presence of minimal hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:26039496

  6. Hepatology after Hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Fitz, J Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The ∼90% probability of curing individual patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)using direct-acting antivirals represents one of the most dramatic medical success stories of the modern era, and the journey from viral discovery to treatment occurred over just ∼25 years. The realities of the global burden of disease (2-3% of the world's population is infected), limited access to care and cost of treatment mean that HCV will continue to be a major problem for the next 25 years. But what if HCV (and hepatitis B) could be eradicated? Since liver transplantation and HCV management have been the mainstays of academic hepatology practice, where do we go from here? Unfortunately, we are in an era where the incidence and prevalence of liver diseases around the globe is increasing, and death from complications of cirrhosis is now among the top 10 causes in most countries; so hepatologists are expected to play a major role in the future. Despite remarkable progress, success at the population level is limited by the resource-intensive nature of caring for patients with end-stage disease. Accordingly, the major advances in the next decade are likely to focus on (i) the earlier identification of individuals and populations at higher risk for liver diseases, and (ii) initiation in high-risk populations of specific strategies for early detection and treatment of fibrosis, cancer and cirrhosis. The answers will lie in large part in the further exploration of the human genome in carefully phenotyped patients. Risk variants in the PNPLA3 gene represent the best example to date. The risk variants are common and are enriched in certain populations around the globe; and individuals that possess risk variants are more likely to have liver injury from fatty liver disease (even as children), alcohol and viral hepatitis. Further, those with liver injury are more likely to progress to cirrhosis and hepatoma. Similarly, in those with established liver disease, use of biomarkers and other

  7. Arterial Embolization of Giant Hepatic Hemangiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Giavroglou, Constantinos; Economou, Hippolete; Ioannidis, Ioannis

    2003-02-15

    Hepatic cavernous hemangiomas are usually small and asymptomatic. They are usually discovered incidentally and only a few require treatment. However, giant hemangiomas may cause symptoms,which are indications for treatment. We describe four cases of symptomatic giant hepatic hemangiomas successfully treated with transcatheter arterial embolization, performed with polyvinyl alcohol particles. There were no complications. Follow-up with clinical and imaging examinations showed disappearance of symptoms and decrease in size of lesions.

  8. Hepatic MR imaging techniques, optimization, and artifacts.

    PubMed

    Guglielmo, Flavius F; Mitchell, Donald G; Roth, Christopher G; Deshmukh, Sandeep

    2014-08-01

    This article describes a basic 1.5-T hepatic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol, strategies for optimizing pulse sequences while managing artifacts, the proper timing of postgadolinium 3-dimensional gradient echo sequences, and an effective order of performing pulse sequences with the goal of creating an efficient and high-quality hepatic MR imaging examination. The authors have implemented this general approach on General Electric, Philips, and Siemens clinical scanners.

  9. Effects of Benzoic Acid and Thymol on Growth Performance and Gut Characteristics of Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Hui; Zheng, Ping; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Mao, Xiangbing; Yu, Jie; Chen, Daiwen

    2015-01-01

    A total of 144 weaned crossed pigs were used in a 42-d trial to explore the effects of different concentrations/combinations of benzoic acid and thymol on growth performance and gut characteristics in weaned pigs. Pigs were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments: i) control (C), basal diet, ii) C+1,000 mg/kg benzoic acid+100 mg/kg thymol (BT1), iii) C+1,000 mg/kg benzoic acid+200 mg/kg thymol (BT2) and, iv) C+2,000 mg/kg benzoic acid+100 mg/kg thymol (BT3). Relative to the control, pigs fed diet BT3 had lower diarrhoea score during the overall period (p<0.10) and improved feed to gain ratio between days 1 to 14 (p<0.05), which was accompanied by improved apparent total tract digestibility of ether extract, Ca and crude ash (p<0.05), and larger lipase, lactase and sucrose activities in the jejunum (p<0.05) at d 14 and d 42. Similarly, relative to the control, pigs fed diet BT3 had higher counts for Lactobacillus spp in digesta of ileum at d 14 (p<0.05), and pigs fed diets BT1, BT2, or BT3 also had higher counts of Bacillus spp in digesta of caecum at d 14 (p<0.05), and lower concentration of ammonia nitrogen in digesta of caecum at d 14 and d 42 (p<0.05). Finally, pigs fed diet BT3 had higher concentration of butyric acid in digesta of caecum at d 42 (p<0.05), and a larger villus height:crypt depth ratio in jejunum and ileum at d 14 (p<0.05) than pigs fed the control diet. In conclusion, piglets fed diet supplementation with different concentrations/combinations of benzoic acid and thymol could improve feed efficiency and diarrhoea, and improve gut microfloral composition. The combination of 2,000 mg/kg benzoic acid+100 mg/kg thymol produced better effects than other treatments in most measurements. PMID:25925060

  10. Effects of yeast combined with chromium propionate on growth performance and carcass quality of finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Axman, J E; Gonzalez, J M; Vahl, C I; Drouillard, J S

    2016-07-01

    A combination of yeast and chromium propionate (Y+Cr) was added to the diets of crossbred finishing steers ( = 504; 402 kg ± 5.76 initial BW) to evaluate impact on feedlot performance and carcass traits. We hypothesized supplementation of Y+Cr would increase growth of feedlot steers. Steers with initial plasma glucose concentrations ≤6.0 m were stratified by initial BW and randomly allocated, within strata, to receive 0 (control) or 3.3 g/d Y+Cr. Steers were further divided into heavy and light weight blocks with 6 pens/diet within each weight block. Cattle were housed in dirt-surfaced pens with 21 steers/pen and had ad libitum access to feed. Body weights were measured at 21-d intervals. Blood samples were collected on d 49 and 94 from a subset of steers (5/pen) for analyses of plasma glucose and lactate concentrations. At the end of the finishing phase, animals were weighed and transported 450 km to an abattoir in Holcomb, KS. Severity of liver abscesses and HCW were collected the day of harvest, and after 36 h of refrigeration, USDA yield and quality grades, LM area, and 12th rib subcutaneous fat thickness were determined. There were no treatment × time × weight block interactions ( > 0.05) and no treatment × block interaction for ADG, DMI, or final BW ( ≥ 0.06), but a treatment × block interaction ( = 0.03) was observed for G:F, in which control, light cattle had poorer efficiency compared with other groups. Treatment × weight group interactions were observed for overall yield grade and carcasses that graded yield grade 1 ( ≤ 0.04). Light steers supplemented with Y+Cr had decreased overall yield grade and increased percentage of carcasses grading yield grade 1 compared with their control counterparts, with no differences observed for heavy steers. Regardless of weight group, a greater percentage of carcasses from steers supplemented with Y+Cr graded yield grade 2 ( = 0.03) and fewer carcasses from steers supplemented Y+Cr graded yield grade 3 ( < 0

  11. Effects of yeast combined with chromium propionate on growth performance and carcass quality of finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Axman, J E; Gonzalez, J M; Vahl, C I; Drouillard, J S

    2016-07-01

    A combination of yeast and chromium propionate (Y+Cr) was added to the diets of crossbred finishing steers ( = 504; 402 kg ± 5.76 initial BW) to evaluate impact on feedlot performance and carcass traits. We hypothesized supplementation of Y+Cr would increase growth of feedlot steers. Steers with initial plasma glucose concentrations ≤6.0 m were stratified by initial BW and randomly allocated, within strata, to receive 0 (control) or 3.3 g/d Y+Cr. Steers were further divided into heavy and light weight blocks with 6 pens/diet within each weight block. Cattle were housed in dirt-surfaced pens with 21 steers/pen and had ad libitum access to feed. Body weights were measured at 21-d intervals. Blood samples were collected on d 49 and 94 from a subset of steers (5/pen) for analyses of plasma glucose and lactate concentrations. At the end of the finishing phase, animals were weighed and transported 450 km to an abattoir in Holcomb, KS. Severity of liver abscesses and HCW were collected the day of harvest, and after 36 h of refrigeration, USDA yield and quality grades, LM area, and 12th rib subcutaneous fat thickness were determined. There were no treatment × time × weight block interactions ( > 0.05) and no treatment × block interaction for ADG, DMI, or final BW ( ≥ 0.06), but a treatment × block interaction ( = 0.03) was observed for G:F, in which control, light cattle had poorer efficiency compared with other groups. Treatment × weight group interactions were observed for overall yield grade and carcasses that graded yield grade 1 ( ≤ 0.04). Light steers supplemented with Y+Cr had decreased overall yield grade and increased percentage of carcasses grading yield grade 1 compared with their control counterparts, with no differences observed for heavy steers. Regardless of weight group, a greater percentage of carcasses from steers supplemented with Y+Cr graded yield grade 2 ( = 0.03) and fewer carcasses from steers supplemented Y+Cr graded yield grade 3 ( < 0

  12. Effects of lysine:calorie ratio on growth performance of 10- to 25-kilogram pigs.

    PubMed

    Smith, J W; Tokach, M D; Nelssen, J L; Goodband, R D

    1999-11-01

    Crossbred barrows (n = 336 Newsham Hybrids) initially 9.9 kg and 31+/-2 d of age were used to evaluate the effects of energy density and lysine:calorie ratio on growth performance. Pigs were allotted by initial weight in a 3 x 4 factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design with six replicate pens per treatment. Each pen had four or five pigs with an equal number of pigs per pen within replicate. Pigs were fed increasing dietary energy densities (3.25, 3.38, and 3.51 Mcal ME/kg) and lysine:calorie ratios (3.00, 3.45, 3.90, and 4.35 g lysine/Mcal ME). Energy density was changed by levels of choice white grease (0, 3, and 6%), and lysine:calorie ratio was changed by altering the corn:soybean meal ratio. Over the 21-d trial, an energy density x lysine:calorie ratio interaction was observed for ADG (P < .05). Pigs fed diets containing 3.25 or 3.51 Mcal ME/kg had increasing ADG with increasing lysine:calorie ratio, whereas ADG of pigs fed 3.38 Mcal ME/kg was not affected by lysine:calorie ratio. Feed efficiency (gain:feed ratio) increased and ADFI decreased as lysine:calorie ratio increased (linear, P < .01) and as energy density increased (quadratic, P < .01 and .10, respectively). On d 21, two pigs per pen were scanned ultrasonically for backfat depth. An energy density x lysine:calorie ratio interaction (P < .06) was observed. Pigs fed diets containing 3.25 and 3.38 Mcal ME/kg had decreasing fat depth as lysine:calorie ratio increased; however, backfat depth was not affected by lysine:calorie ratio and was greatest for pigs fed 3.51 Mcal ME/kg. These results suggest that 10- to 25-kg pigs fed diets containing 3.38 Mcal ME/kg had maximum feed efficiency and that they required at least 4.35 g lysine/Mcal ME. However, pigs fed 3.51 Mcal ME/kg had increased fat depth regardless of calorie:lysine ratio.

  13. Breed effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, and palatability attributes in finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Laborde, F L; Mandell, I B; Tosh, J J; Wilton, J W; Buchanan-Smith, J G

    2001-02-01

    Crossbred steers (n = 136) were used to assess breed differences in growth performance, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition (total lipids and phospholipids), and palatability attributes of longissimus muscle. A multiple regression model was applied to crossbreeding data to estimate genetic differences between Simmental and Red Angus at the same level of backfat finish (10 mm). Simmental spent 71 more (P < 0.001) days on feed to acquire the same degree of backfat thickness as Red Angus, had heavier (P < 0.001) slaughter weights, larger (P = 0.002) longissimus muscle area, and increased (P = 0.023) lean yield. Average daily gain did not differ (P = 0.297) between breeds. Simmental were less (P = 0.012) efficient in converting feed to gain than Red Angus. Generally, there were few breed differences in palatability attributes for longissimus and semitendinosus muscles, with the exception of increased (P < 0.05) beef flavor scores for Simmental beef vs Red Angus beef across both muscles. For total lipids, concentrations of myristoleic acid (14:1), palmitoleic acid (16:1), and vaccenic acid (18:1n-7), along with n-6 to n-3 fatty acid (n-6:n-3) ratio, were greater (P < 0.05) in Simmental than Red Angus. In contrast, concentrations of margaric acid (17:0), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) were greater (P < 0.05) in Red Angus than Simmental. For phospholipids, Simmental had lower (P < 0.05) amounts of 20:5n-3, docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), and n-3 PUFA, with a greater (P = 0.017) n-6:n-3 ratio. Activity of delta9-desaturase enzyme in the conversion of palmitic acid (16:0) to 16:1 was greater (P = 0.001) in total lipids from Simmental as compared with Red Angus. A genetic basis for fatty acid differences is suggested, although the biological and practical significance needs to be demonstrated. PMID:11219444

  14. Comparison of Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Korean Local Chickens and Silky Fowl

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Y. K.; Kwon, H. J.; Oh, S. T.; Um, J. S.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, C. W.; Lee, S. K.; An, B. K.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of 4 breeds of local chicken. A total of 480 1-d-old chicks were distributed to 16 pens, with 4 treatments of breed, 4 replicates and 30 chicks per pen. Three Korean local breeds of white-mini broiler, Hanhyup-3-ho, and Woorimatdag, and a breed of silky fowl were raised under identical rearing and feeding conditions for 31-d, 37-d, 36-d, and 59-d, respectively. The BW and feed consumption on a pen basis were weekly measured for all pens, and ADFI, ADG and gain:feed were calculated for each pen. The ADFI and ADG of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were greater than those of silky fowl (p<0.05). Within the Korean local breeds, ADFI of white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05), and ADG of Hanhyup-3-ho and white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05). Gain:feed of silky fowl was less than that of the 3 breeds of Korean local chicken. The carcass and breast yield of white-mini broiler were the greater than those of other breeds (p<0.05). The breast meat color (CIE L*, a*, and b*) of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05). The breast meat of Hanhyup-3-ho had greater cooking loss (p<0.05), whereas water holding capacity and pH were less than those of other breeds (p<0.05). The color score of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken was higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05). Woorimatdag had a higher score on tenderness (p<0.05), whereas flavor score was less than that of other breeds (p<0.05). In conclusion, 4 local breeds of chicken have some unique features and seem to have more advantages, and this information can help consumers who prefer healthy and premium chicken meat. PMID:25049967

  15. Lack of compensatory body growth in a high performance moose Alces alces population.

    PubMed

    Solberg, Erling J; Garel, Mathieu; Heim, Morten; Grøtan, Vidar; Saether, Bernt-Erik

    2008-12-01

    Considerable work has been done on disentangling important factors determining early development in body size, yet our knowledge of the extent to which animals living under varying conditions can achieve catch-up growth for a bad start in life is limited. Here, we investigated how body mass at the age of 8 months influenced adult body mass in a moose Alces alces population living under excellent environmental conditions on the island of Vega in northern Norway. We also investigated if mother age and birth date effects on calf body mass persisted until adulthood. We show that neither males nor females were able to show compensatory growth before they reached adulthood, and that part of the variation in adult body mass may have been due to variation in mother age and date of birth. The pattern observed in males can be related to their growth strategy in relation to reproduction, while such results were not expected in females where size-dependent start of reproduction is likely to interact with body growth. We suggest that the good environmental conditions experienced on Vega led to females having small somatic costs of an early start of reproduction or that larger females were able to acquire more resources for growth than their smaller conspecifics. In both cases, females that postpone their first reproduction may not be able to achieve catch-up growth for their lower early body mass compared to females that start reproduction at an early age. Our results concur with previous studies indicating that compensatory growth is weak in moose, increasing the likelihood that variation in life history characters are also transferred between generations.

  16. [Autoimmune hepatitis induced by isotretionine].

    PubMed

    Guzman Rojas, Patricia; Gallegos Lopez, Roxana; Ciliotta Chehade, Alessandra; Scavino, Yolanda; Morales, Alejandro; Tagle, Martín

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a teenage patient with the diagnosis of drug induced autoimmune hepatitis. The patient is a 16 years old female, with the past medical history of Hashimoto’s hypothyroidism controlled with levothyroxine, who started treatment with Isotretionin (®Accutane) 20 mg q/12 hours for a total of 3 months for the treatment of severe acne. The physical examination was within normal limits and the results of the laboratory exams are: Baseline values of ALT 28 U/L, AST 28 U/L. Three months later: AST 756 U/L, ALT 1199U/L, alkaline phosphatase 114 U/L, with normal bilirrubin levels throughout the process. The serology studies were negative for all viral hepatitis; ANA titers were positive (1/160) and igG levels were also elevated. A liver biopsy was performed, and was compatible with the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. Corticosteroid therapy was started with Prednisone 40 mg per day one week after stopping the treatment with isotretionin, observing an improvement in the laboratory values. We describe this case and review the world literature since there are no reported cases of Isotretinoin-induced autoimmune hepatitis. PMID:27131947

  17. Smartamine M and MetaSmart supplementation during the peripartal period alter hepatic expression of gene networks in 1-carbon metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, and the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor 1 axis pathways.

    PubMed

    Osorio, J S; Ji, P; Drackley, J K; Luchini, D; Loor, J J

    2014-12-01

    Peripartal cows likely require greater amounts of Met not only at the tissue and cell level for methylation reactions but also for milk protein synthesis after calving. Thirty-nine Holstein cows were fed throughout the peripartal period (-21 d to 30 d in milk) a basal control (CON) diet (n=14) with no Met supplementation, CON plus MetaSmart (MS; Adisseo Inc., Antony, France; n=12), or CON plus Smartamine M (SM; Adisseo Inc.; n=13). The Met supplements were adjusted daily and top-dressed over the total mixed ration at a rate of 0.19 or 0.07% (dry matter) of feed for MS or SM. Liver tissue was collected on -10, 7, and 21 d for transcriptome profiling of genes associated with Met and glutathione metabolism as well as components of the inflammation, oxidative stress, growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, and DNA methylation pathways. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) with the preplanned contrasts CON versus SM + MS and SM versus MS. The S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) gene was the most abundant among all genes evaluated, with overall greater expression in Met-supplemented cows than CON, and in SM than MS. Expression of Met adenosyltransferase 1A (MAT1A) was greater in Met-supplemented cows than CON by 21 d postpartum. A greater overall expression of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR) occurred in Met-supplemented cows than CON. In contrast, the expression of glutathione synthase (GSS); glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit (GCLC); and superoxide dismutase 1, cytosolic (SOD1) was lower in Met-supplemented cows than CON. A greater overall expression of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 (NFKB1) and greater upregulation of haptoglobin (HP) on d 7 occurred in Met-supplemented cows than CON. Expression of DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferase 3 alpha (DNMT3A) was greater but expression of DNMT1 was lower in Met-supplemented cows than CON. The response

  18. Controlling post-transfusion hepatitis: a proposal to publicize hepatitis rates of transfusion facilities.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, S N; Sapolsky, H M

    1979-01-01

    A federal requirement that donor blood be labelled as either "paid" or "volunteer" took effect on May 15, 1978. A major rationale for requiring such labelling is that physicians, now that they can distinguish between categories of blood, will fear liability for post-transfusion hepatitis resulting from the use of paid blood. Thus, supporters of the labelling requirement hope that it will deter the use of high-risk commercial blood. Some paid blood, however, is not commercial blood and in fact may be safer than volunteer blood. The labelling strategy for hepatitis control, therefore, has negative as well as positive attributes. This Article considers the efficacy of blood labelling as a hepatitis control measure and proposes an alternative strategy--the periodic publicizing of hepatitis rates of facilities that perform transfusions--that, if practiced responsibly, could significantly decrease hepatitis transmission rates.

  19. Hepatitis C virus antibody titration in patients with chronic hepatitis C, before and after interferon treatment.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, M; Yamada, G; Miyamoto, R; Doi, T; Endo, H; Nishimoto, H; Fujiki, S; Shimomura, H; Mizuno, M; Tsuji, T

    1992-10-01

    We measured hepatitis C virus antibody titers in 13 patients with chronic hepatitis C to determine whether titration of hepatitis C virus antibody was useful or not, to predict and evaluate the efficacy of interferon (IFN) treatment. During administration of IFN, hepatitis C virus titers declined in all patients. Antibody titers performed before treatment as well as just at the end of treatment did not correlate with change of the alanine aminotransferase levels during administration of IFN. Antibody titers declined continuously after treatment in 5 patients with normal alanine amino-transferase levels for over 6 months after discontinuation of IFN. Antibody titers rose again in 6 patients whose alanine aminotransferase levels fluctuated after treatment. An exceptional pattern of change occurred in 2 patients whose antibody titers declined continuously although their alanine aminotransferase levels fluctuated after treatment. Repeated titration of hepatitis C virus antibody appears to be useful for evaluating the long-term efficacy of IFN treatment.

  20. A cytotoxic leachable compound from single-use bioprocess equipment that causes poor cell growth performance.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Matthew; Marghitoiu, Liliana; Lee, Hans; Perez, Lourdes; Rogers, Gary; Nashed-Samuel, Yasser; Nunn, Heather; Kline, Sally

    2014-01-01

    A current trend in the production of biopharmaceuticals is the replacement of fixed stainless steel fluid-handling units with disposable plastic bags. Such single-use systems (SUS) offer numerous advantages, but also introduce a new set of materials into the production process and consequently expose biomanufacturers to a new set of risks related to those materials, not to mention reliance on an entirely new supply chain. In the course of developing and conducting a cell-growth-based test for suitability of disposable plastic components destined for use in cell culture operations, we discovered that the cytotoxic compound bis(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphate (bDtBPP) leaches out of certain bags and into cell culture media in concentrations that are deleterious to cell growth. Specifically, media held in certain bags for several days at 37°C was found to contain bDtBPP, and use of those held-media samples in cell growth experiments provides data that overlap neatly with cell growth experiments using media spiked directly with bDtBPP, proving that bDtBPP leaching is responsible for the reduced growth attributable to those SUS bags. Overall, this issue represents a risk to the production of biopharmaceuticals in SUS, a risk that must be managed by diligent collaboration among companies along the entire supply chain for SUS components. PMID:24497314

  1. Hepatic encephalopathy: a review.

    PubMed

    Lizardi-Cervera, Javier; Almeda, Paloma; Guevara, Luis; Uribe, Misael

    2003-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a complication that presents in as many as 28% of patients with cirrhosis, and reported up to ten years after the diagnosis of cirrhosis. Commonly, it is observed in patients with severe hepatic failure and is characterized by neuropsychiatric manifestations that can range in severity from a mild alteration in mental state to a coma; additionally, some neuromuscular symptoms can be observed. This complication of either acute or chronic hepatic disease is the result of a diminished hepatic reservoir and inability to detoxify some toxins that originate in the bowel. Today, the role of astrocytes, specifically the Alzheimer type II cells, is known to be very important in the pathogenesis of the hepatic encephalopathy, and will be reviewed later. In conclusion, the objectives of this review are: To understand the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, To recognize the precipitating factors, as well as preventive measures for the development of the hepatic encephalopathy, To describe the new classification of hepatic encephalopathy and its clinical implications, To recognize the clinical manifestations and stages of the disease, To understand the main diagnostic tests used to detect the hepatic encephalopathy, To describe the main therapeutic treatments of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:15115963

  2. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. From Hollywood's "Walk of Stars" to Main Street, USA, people from all walks ... that includes many well-known names: Legendary television star Larry Hagman was diagnosed with advanced hepatitis C ...

  3. Age, genotype and sex effects on growth performance of local chickens kept under improved management in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Osei-Amponsah, Richard; Kayang, Boniface B; Naazie, Augustine

    2012-01-01

    Characterisation of animal genetic resources has been recognised globally as an important step towards their sustainable use. Body weight data of local chickens (213 forest and 160 savannah chickens) and 183 French free-ranging SASSO T44 chickens kept under improved management were collected from hatch to 40 weeks of age and analysed to determine the effects of age, genotype and sex on their growth performance. At all ages, SASSO T44 chickens had significantly (P<0.05) higher weights (2.6-3.2 kg at 28 weeks) than the local chickens (1.2-1.7 kg at 28 weeks). The rate of growth at the earlier ages in the local genotypes (5.57-7.80 g/day) was lower than the range of 13.81-15.42 in SASSO T44 chickens. Except at hatch, savannah chickens were significantly heavier (P<0.05) than the forest chickens at all ages. Male chickens had significantly (P<0.05) superior growth rates than females across all genotypes except from the 20th to the 28th week. Growth trends in both sexes depicted linear increase in body weights; however, the rate of increase in body weights was higher in males as compared to females, thus showing clear sexual dimorphism. There were no significant (P>0.05) differences in the growth rates of SASSO T44 chickens and local genotypes at the later ages (20-28 weeks). Local chickens from the savannah zone had better growth rate than forest chickens. The significant effect of ecozone on the growth potential of local chickens is an indication that their productive potential could be improved through interventions in the environment such as provision of feed and some veterinary care.

  4. Effects of selection and training on unit-level performance over time: a latent growth modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Ferris, Gerald R; Perrewé, Pamela L; Blass, Fred R; Heetderks, Thomas D; Perryman, Alexa A

    2009-07-01

    Surprisingly few data exist concerning whether and how utilization of job-related selection and training procedures affects different aspects of unit or organizational performance over time. The authors used longitudinal data from a large fast-food organization (N = 861 units) to examine how change in use of selection and training relates to change in unit performance. Latent growth modeling analyses revealed significant variation in both the use and the change in use of selection and training across units. Change in selection and training was related to change in 2 proximal unit outcomes: customer service performance and retention. Change in service performance, in turn, was related to change in the more distal outcome of unit financial performance (i.e., profits). Selection and training also affected financial performance, both directly and indirectly (e.g., through service performance). Finally, results of a cross-lagged panel analysis suggested the existence of a reciprocal causal relationship between the utilization of the human resources practices and unit performance. However, there was some evidence to suggest that selection and training may be associated with different causal sequences, such that use of the training procedure appeared to lead to unit performance, whereas unit performance appeared to lead to use of the selection procedure. PMID:19594228

  5. Effects of selection and training on unit-level performance over time: a latent growth modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Ferris, Gerald R; Perrewé, Pamela L; Blass, Fred R; Heetderks, Thomas D; Perryman, Alexa A

    2009-07-01

    Surprisingly few data exist concerning whether and how utilization of job-related selection and training procedures affects different aspects of unit or organizational performance over time. The authors used longitudinal data from a large fast-food organization (N = 861 units) to examine how change in use of selection and training relates to change in unit performance. Latent growth modeling analyses revealed significant variation in both the use and the change in use of selection and training across units. Change in selection and training was related to change in 2 proximal unit outcomes: customer service performance and retention. Change in service performance, in turn, was related to change in the more distal outcome of unit financial performance (i.e., profits). Selection and training also affected financial performance, both directly and indirectly (e.g., through service performance). Finally, results of a cross-lagged panel analysis suggested the existence of a reciprocal causal relationship between the utilization of the human resources practices and unit performance. However, there was some evidence to suggest that selection and training may be associated with different causal sequences, such that use of the training procedure appeared to lead to unit performance, whereas unit performance appeared to lead to use of the selection procedure.

  6. Effect of Bacillus baekryungensis YD13 supplemented in diets on growth performance and immune response of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fajun; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2014-10-01

    The effect of a potential probiotic on the growth performance and immune response of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) was investigated. Bacillus baekryungensis YD13 isolated from sea cucumber culturing ponds was added to sea cucumber basal feed as a probiotic in different doses (0, the control; 1×104 (YD134), 1×106 (YD136) and 1×108 (YD138) CFU g-1 of diet), and administered orally to A. japonicus (initial mean wet weight 5.44 g ± 0.17 g). The sea cucumbers were fed in 20 aquaria, 5 each treatment, for 60 d. At the end of growth trial, 20 sea cucumbers from each treatment were challenged with Vibrio splendidus. A. japonicus in YD134 and YD136 exhibited significantly better growth performance than control ( P < 0.05). Five non-specific immune parameters including lysozyme, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in coelomic fluid were measured to evaluate the immune response of A. japonicus to the probiotics. Results showed that all parameters were significantly improved when YD11 was supplemented in the dose of 1×106 CFU g-1 ( P < 0.05). The cumulative incidence and mortality after the Vibrio splendidus challenge decreased significantly in sea cucumbers of YD136. Accordingly, 1×106 CFU g-1 of YD13 in diet was recommended for the growth promotion and immune enhancement of A. japonicus.

  7. Effects of fish protein hydrolysate on growth performance and humoral immune response in large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea R.)* §

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hong-gang; Wu, Tian-xing; Zhao, Zhan-yu; Pan, Xiao-dong

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) on growth performance and humoral immune response of the large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea R.). One thousand and two hundred large yellow croakers [initial average weight: (162.75±23.85) g] were divided into four groups and reared in floating sea cages (3 m×3 m×3 m). The animals were fed with 4 diets: basal diet only (control) or diets supplemented with 5%, 10% and 15% (w/w) FPH. The results show that dietary FPH levels significantly influenced the growth and immunity of the large yellow croaker. Compared with the control group, total weight gain (TWG) in all treatment groups, relative weight gain (RWG) and specific growth rate (SGR) in fish fed with diets supplemented with 10% and 15% FPH were significantly increased (P<0.05). Similar results were observed in immune parameters [lysozyme activity, serum complements, immunoglobulin M (IgM)]. Lysozyme activity, complement C4 and IgM were also significantly increased (P<0.05) in fish fed with diets supplemented with 10% and 15% FPH, while complement C3 level was significantly increased (P<0.05) in all treatment groups. In general, with the supplementation of FPH, particularly at dose of 10%, the growth performance and immunity of the large yellow croaker can be improved effectively. PMID:18763300

  8. Environment, health, and safety performance plays a vital role in sustaining the growth of the semiconductor industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Coleen; Worth, Walter

    2003-07-01

    Rapid technology advances and rapid growth have historically been the basis for the success of the semiconductor industry. Over the last 25 years the industry has enjoyed a growth rate (~15%) which far exceeds the growth rate of the U.S. economy overall (3%-4%). To ensure that this rapid growth rate can be sustained into the future, it is important that the industry makes efficient use of natural resources, minimizes any impact on the environment, and ensures the protection of its workers and the communities in which it operates. It has been repeatedly shown that resource efficiency is linked to lower operating costs and better environmental performance. International SEMATECH's Environment, Safety and Health (ESH) division is engaged in several projects that are aimed at enabling continued, sustainable growth for the industry. These include energy and water conservation, perfluorocompound (PFC) emissions reduction as well as early ESH assessment of the multitude of new chemicals and materials being considered for 157 nm photolithography, low-k dielectrics, and advanced gate stacks. The timely assessment of any potential ESH impacts associated with these materials is essential to ensure that they are used in a safe and environmentally sound manner through cost-efficient ESH solutions and controls. This paper will describe the approach and results of International SEMATECH's efforts in the areas of resource conservation, PFC emissions reduction, and early identification of potential ESH impacts associated with the next generation semiconductor chemicals and materials.

  9. The comparison of three β-agonists for growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Strydom, P E; Frylinck, L; Montgomery, J L; Smith, M F

    2009-03-01

    Forty-eight Bonsmara steers were assigned to three treatment groups and one control group consisting of 12 animals each. The control (C) received no β-agonist, while the three treatment groups received zilpaterol (6ppm) (Z), ractopamine (30ppm) (R) or clenbuterol (2ppm) (Cl) for the last thirty days on feed. Growth performance (final 30 days), USDA quality and yield grades and meat quality (shear force, chemical, histological and biochemical) were compared for the three β-agonist and control groups. Animals responded negatively to Cl treatment during initial stages of supplementation, which was evident in lower feed consumption and initial growth rates. For carcass growth and yield, Cl had greater and more efficient growth rates, higher dressed out yields (proportional), lower USDA yield grades, and reduced marbling compared with C (P<0.05). For meat quality measurements, the M. longissimus (LL) and M. semitendinosus (ST) were sampled. Cl had the greatest effect (P<0.05) on WBSF, especially on the LL, followed by Z. Variation in tenderness and ageing effects corresponded with variation in calpastatin activity and myofibrillar fragmentation between treatment groups. While zilpaterol and ractopamine are currently the only products registered for cattle in different countries, it seems that zilpaterol has an advantage in carcass growth efficiency and yield without showing any adaptation problems for animals such as experienced by the more aggressive β-agonist clenbuterol.

  10. Intraspecific genetic analysis, gamete release performance, and growth of Sargassum muticum (Fucales, Phaeophyta) from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Pang, Shaojun; Gao, Suqin; Shan, Tifeng

    2013-11-01

    Sargassum muticum is one of the most abundant and conspicuous native macroalgae species on the northern coasts of China. It often forms large-scale seaweed beds in subtidal zones. This investigation was designed to understand the intraspecific genetic relationships of this alga based on samples collected from four northern coastal sites of China, and to evaluate gamete release and growth capacity in laboratory conditions. The nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences of 16 samples from four locations were identical. Based on cox3 gene and partial rbcLS operon sequences, intraspecific genetic variability was detected with three and two ribotypes, respectively. Temperature, not irradiance, was shown to significantly affect gamete release and fertilization. Elevated temperature and irradiance enhanced the growth of germlings and vegetative branchlets. Maximum growth rate of germlings was detected at 18-24°C and an irradiance of 60-100 μmol photons/(m2·s). Under ambient conditions (12-25°C and 60-125 μmol photons/(m2·s)), relative growth rate of young branchlets could reach 7.5%/d.

  11. A Comparison of Growth Percentile and Value-Added Models of Teacher Performance. Working Paper #39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Reckase, Mark D.; Stacy, Brian W.; Wooldridge, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    School districts and state departments of education frequently must choose between a variety of methods to estimating teacher quality. This paper examines under what circumstances the decision between estimators of teacher quality is important. We examine estimates derived from student growth percentile measures and estimates derived from commonly…

  12. Combination hepatitis a-hepatitis B vaccine.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, A J; Balfour, J A

    1997-09-01

    The adult formulation of this combination hepatitis A-hepatitis B vaccine contains 720 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units (EU) of formalin-inactivated hepatitis A virus strain HM175 and 20mug of recombinant DNA yeast-derived hepatitis B surface antigen adsorbed onto aluminium salts in 1ml for injection. The paediatric formulation contains half this dosage in 0.5ml for injection. The combination vaccine has been shown to be highly immunogenic in healthy young adults after the full dosage schedule of 3 doses at 0, 1 and 6 months. Trials in older adults and children indicate that immunogenicity is adequate in these groups also. The immunogenicity of the combination vaccine appears to be similar to that of hepatitis A vaccine and hepatitis B vaccine administered separately. Possible advantages for the combination vaccine recipient include fewer injections and lower costs. Local adverse reactions such as soreness at the injection site, redness and swelling occur often with the first dose of the series, but the incidence falls with subsequent doses. Local reactions are usually mild and transient, and reported systemic reactions (fatigue, headache) are thought not to have a causal link with the vaccine. PMID:18020513

  13. Effect of weaning status and implant regimen on growth, performance, and carcass characteristics of steers.

    PubMed

    Schoonmaker, J P; Fluharty, F L; Loerch, S C; Turner, T B; Moeller, S J; Wulf, D M

    2001-05-01

    One hundred forty-three Angus x Simmental crossbred steers (initial BW = 155.1 +/- 4.5 kg) were used in a 2-yr study (yr 1, n = 67; yr 2, n = 76) to determine the effects of weaning age, implant regimen, and the weaning age x implant regimen interaction on steer growth and performance, organ mass, carcass characteristics, and cooked beef palatability. Steers were early-weaned at an average age of 108 d (EW) or normally weaned at an average age of 202 d (NW) and allotted by weight to an aggressive or nonaggressive implant regimen. On their respective weaning dates, EW and NW steers were penned individually and fed a grain-based diet until they were slaughtered at a final BW of 546 kg. A subsample of steers (n = 2 per treatment) were slaughtered at 254 kg. At 254 kg, EW steers implanted with the aggressive implant regimen had 64% greater backfat depth than those implanted with the nonaggressive implant regimen; conversely, NW steers implanted with the aggressive implant regimen had 52% lower backfat depth than those implanted with the nonaggressive implant regimen (weaning status x implant regimen interaction; P < 0.01). A similar interaction was observed for empty visceral organ weights. Early-weaned steers were younger (354.7 vs 372.4 d; P < 0.01) at final slaughter but were in the feedlot longer (246.5 vs 169.6 d; P < 0.01) than NW steers, whereas the aggressive implant regimen decreased days fed (203.3 vs 212.7; P < 0.07) compared to the nonaggressive implant regimen. Overall ADG was greater for EW than for NW steers (1.61 vs 1.50 kg/d; P < 0.01) and for the aggressive compared with the nonaggressive implant regimen (1.59 vs 1.52 kg/d; P < 0.02). Early-weaned steers consumed less DM per day (7.4 vs 8.5 kg/d; P < 0.01) and were more efficient (0.217 vs 0.208 kg/kg; P < 0.02) but consumed more total DM (1,817 vs 1,429 kg; P < 0.01) than NW steers while in the feedlot. Implant regimen did not affect DMI (P > 0.37) or feed efficiency (P > 0.15). Weaning status did

  14. Optimum temperature for the growth performance of juvenile orange-spotted grouper ( Epinephelus coioides H.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiangzhi; Xie, Shouqi; Su, Yongquan; Cui, Yibo

    2008-02-01

    Effects of water temperature (17, 21, 25, 30 and 35°C) and body size (14.75-281.41 g initial body weight) on food consumption, growth, feed conversion, and dry matter content in orange-spotted grouper fed to satiation were investigated. The combined effect of temperature ( T, °C) and body weight ( W, g) on maximum food consumption ( C max, g/day) was described as: ln C max=-7.411+0.828 ln W+0.317 T-0.004 7 T 2, and the optimum feeding temperature was 33.9°C. The combined effect of temperature and body weight on growth ( G) was described as: ln G=-4.461-0.208ln W+0.394 T-0.006 3 T 2. The optimum growth temperature was 31.4°C, whereas overall growth rates were high at 25, 30 and 35 °C. Feed conversion efficiencies ( FCE, %), increasing first and then decreasing with increasing temperature, averaged from 1.8 to 2.1 in terms of dry weight of food fish. The optimum temperature for FCE tended to be lower than that for growth or feeding. Dry matter content increased with both increasing water temperature (17, 25, 30 and 35°C) and body weight, and the combined effect of temperature and body weight on dry matter content ( DM, %) was described as: ln DM=3.232+0.01 4 ln W-0.004 4 T+0.001 2 Tln W.

  15. Experimental assessment of the effects of sublethal salinities on growth performance and stress in cultured tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuc Trong Hong; Do, Huong Thi Thanh; Mather, Peter B; Hurwood, David A

    2014-12-01

    The effects of a range of different sublethal salinities were assessed on physiological processes and growth performance in the freshwater 'tra' catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) juveniles over an 8-week experiment. Fish were distributed randomly among 6 salinity treatments [2, 6, 10, 14 and 18 g/L of salinity and a control (0 g/L)] with a subsequent 13-day period of acclimation. Low salinity conditions from 2 to 10 g/L provided optimal conditions with high survival and good growth performance, while 0 g/L and salinities >14 g/L gave poorer survival rates (p < 0.05). Salinity levels from freshwater to 10 g/L did not have any negative effects on fish weight gain, daily weight gain, or specific growth rate. Food conversion ratio, however, was lowest in the control treatment (p < 0.05) and highest at the maximum salinities tested (18 g/L treatment). Cortisol levels were elevated in the 14 and 18 g/L treatments after 6 h and reached a peak after 24-h exposure, and this also led to increases in plasma glucose concentration. After 14 days, surviving fish in all treatments appeared to have acclimated to their respective conditions with cortisol levels remaining under 5 ng/mL with glucose concentrations stable. Tra catfish do not appear to be efficient osmoregulators when salinity levels exceed 10 g/L, and at raised salinity levels, growth performance is compromised. In general, results of this study confirm that providing culture environments in the Mekong River Basin do not exceed 10 g/L salinity and that cultured tra catfish can continue to perform well. PMID:25139325

  16. Experimental assessment of the effects of sublethal salinities on growth performance and stress in cultured tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuc Trong Hong; Do, Huong Thi Thanh; Mather, Peter B; Hurwood, David A

    2014-12-01

    The effects of a range of different sublethal salinities were assessed on physiological processes and growth performance in the freshwater 'tra' catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) juveniles over an 8-week experiment. Fish were distributed randomly among 6 salinity treatments [2, 6, 10, 14 and 18 g/L of salinity and a control (0 g/L)] with a subsequent 13-day period of acclimation. Low salinity conditions from 2 to 10 g/L provided optimal conditions with high survival and good growth performance, while 0 g/L and salinities >14 g/L gave poorer survival rates (p < 0.05). Salinity levels from freshwater to 10 g/L did not have any negative effects on fish weight gain, daily weight gain, or specific growth rate. Food conversion ratio, however, was lowest in the control treatment (p < 0.05) and highest at the maximum salinities tested (18 g/L treatment). Cortisol levels were elevated in the 14 and 18 g/L treatments after 6 h and reached a peak after 24-h exposure, and this also led to increases in plasma glucose concentration. After 14 days, surviving fish in all treatments appeared to have acclimated to their respective conditions with cortisol levels remaining under 5 ng/mL with glucose concentrations stable. Tra catfish do not appear to be efficient osmoregulators when salinity levels exceed 10 g/L, and at raised salinity levels, growth performance is compromised. In general, results of this study confirm that providing culture environments in the Mekong River Basin do not exceed 10 g/L salinity and that cultured tra catfish can continue to perform well.

  17. Reproductive and growth performance in Jin Hua pigs cloned from somatic cell nuclei and the meat quality of their offspring.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Masatoshi; Otake, Masayoshi; Tsuchiya, Seiko; Chikyu, Mikio; Horiuchi, Atsushi; Kawarasaki, Tatsuo

    2006-10-01

    Somatic cell cloning is expected to be a valuable method for conserving genetic resources in pigs. In this study, we compared the reproductive and growth performance of Jin Hua cloned pigs with that of naturally bred Jin Hua pigs. In addition, we generated offspring from the cloned sows and examined the productivity and quality of meat in the progeny. The birth weights and growth rates of somatic cell-cloned pigs were similar to those of Jin Hua pigs. The cloned pigs reached puberty very early, and this is typical of the Jin Hua breed. Furthermore, reproductive performance, in terms of traits such as gestation period, litter size, and raising rate in the cloned pigs were similar to Jin Hua pigs. Although the offspring of the cloned (OC) pigs had lower birth weights than the Jin Hua breed, the daily weight gain of the OC pigs was significantly higher, especially at the finishing stage. The carcass quality of the OC pigs had similar characteristics to the Jin Hua breed, namely thick back fat and a small loin area. Furthermore, the meat qualities of the OC pigs were similar to those of Jin Hua pigs in terms of intramuscular fat content and tenderness. These results demonstrate that cloned pigs and their offspring were similar to the Jin Hua breed in most of the growth, reproductive, and meat productive performances. This strongly suggests that pigs cloned from somatic cell nuclei have the potential to be a valuable genetic resource for breeding.

  18. Effects of irradiated Ergosan on the growth performance and mucus biological components of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikhzadeh, Najmeh; Chehrara, Fatemeh; Heidarieh, Marzieh; Nofouzi, Katayoon; Baradaran, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Effects of irradiated and non-irradiated Ergosan extract (alginic acid) on rainbow trout growth performance and skin mucosal immunity were compared. Ergosan was irradiated at 30 kGy in a cobalt-60 irradiator. A total of 252 fish (128.03±9.4 g) were randomly divided into four equal groups, given the basal diet either unsupplemented with Ergosan (control group) or supplemented with crude Ergosan (5 g/kg), ethanol-extracted Ergosan (0.33 g/kg) or irradiated Ergosan (0.33 g/kg) according to this protocol: basal diet for 15 days, treatment diet for 15 days, basal diet for 10 days and treatment diet for 15 days. Highest growth performance was observed in fish fed irradiated Ergosan ( P <0.05). Dietary administration of different Ergosan types did not cause any changes in mucus protein level, but improved alkaline phosphatase level and hemagglutination titer compared with the control (basal diet without Ergosan) on day 55 of feeding trial ( P <0.05). Furthermore, the highest value of lysozyme activity was observed in gamma-irradiated Ergosan on day 55. In conclusion, gamma-irradiated Ergosan at 0.33 g/kg was found to improve growth performance and mucus biological components significantly in comparison with the control group (basal diet without Ergosan).

  19. Effect of zinc on growth performance, gut morphometry, and cecal microbial community in broilers challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yuxin; Lei, Zhao; Yuan, Jianmin; Yang, Ying; Guo, Yuming; Zhang, Bingkun

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of supplemental zinc on growth performance, gut morphometry, and the cecal microbial community in broilers challenged with Salmonella typhimurium, 180, 1-day-old male Cobb 500 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments with ten replicates for a 42 day experiment. The 3 treatments were: unchallenged, S. typhimurium-challenged, and S. typhimurium-challenged with 120 mg/kg of zinc supplementation in the diet. Salmonella infection caused a reduction in body-weight gain and feed intake, disrupted the intestinal structure by decreasing the villus-height/crypt-depth ratio of the ileum and increasing the apoptotic index of ileal epithelial cells. Moreover, the cecal microbial community was altered by Salmonella infection, as demonstrated by a reduced number of Lactobacillus and total bacteria. Dietary zinc supplementation improved growth performance by increasing the body-weight gain and feed intake in the challenged broilers. In addition, zinc repaired intestinal injury by reducing the apoptotic index of ileal epithelial cells, enhancing villus height and the villus-height/crypt-depth ratio of the ileum, and the proliferation index of ileal epithelial cells. Finally, zinc regulated the cecal microbial community by increasing the number of total bacteria and beneficial Lactobacillus bacteria, and reducing the number of Salmonella. The results indicated that dietary zinc supplementation improved growth performance, intestinal morphology, and intestinal microbiota in S. typhimurium-challenged broilers. PMID:25467118

  20. Dietary Administration of Lactobacillus plantarum Enhanced Growth Performance and Innate Immune Response of Siberian Sturgeon, Acipenser baerii.

    PubMed

    Pourgholam, Moheb Ali; Khara, Hossein; Safari, Reza; Sadati, Mohammad Ali Yazdani; Aramli, Mohammad Sadegh

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum used as a dietary supplement on the growth performance and innate immune response in juvenile Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii. Juvenile fish (14.6 ± 2.3 g) were fed three experimental diets prepared by supplementing a basal diet with L. plantarum at different concentrations [1 × 10(7), 1 × 10(8) and 1 × 10(9) colony-forming units (cfu) g(-1)] and a control (non-supplemented basal) diet for 8 weeks. Growth performance indices were increased in fish fed the 1 × 10(8) cfu g(-1) L. plantarum diet compared to the other groups. There was an increased innate immune response in fish fed the experimental diets. The highest levels of lysozyme activity, total immunoglobulin (IgM) and complement component 3 (C3) were observed in fish fed the diet containing L. plantarum at a concentration of 1 × 10(8) cfu g(-1), but there was no significant difference in the level of complement component 4 (C4) in fish fed the experimental diets or the control diet. The present study underlying some positive effects (growth performance and immune indices) of dietary administration of L. plantarum at a concentration of 1 × 10(8) cfu g(-1) in the Siberian sturgeon.

  1. Hepatitis C: Information on Testing and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    HEPATITIS C Information on Testing & Diagnosis What is Hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a serious liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis C has been called a silent ...

  2. Evaluation of the performance of four methods for detection of hepatitis B surface antigen and their application for testing 116,455 specimens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Can; Chen, Tianbin; Lin, Jinpiao; Chen, Huijuan; Chen, Jing; Lin, Sheng; Yang, Bin; Shang, Hongyan; Ou, Qishui

    2014-02-01

    Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is a crucial serum marker for the diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. It is imperative to compare test results from different detection methods based on different principles. Four methods, chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA), electrochemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and golden immunochromato-graphic assay (GICA) were applied to test the HBsAg level in 250 specimens. According to the EP12-A2 and EP15-A2 documents from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), the concentration at which repeated results are 50% positive (C50) of HBsAg detected by CMIA, ECLIA, ELISA and GICA was 0.05, 0.08, 0.15 and 15.0IU/ml, respectively. When the detection concentration of HBsAg was 0.5IU/ml, the imprecision degree of CMIA, ECLIA and ELISA was 8.1%, 5.9% and 14.9% respectively. When detecting high HBsAg level (≥20.0IU/ml) and HBsAg negative specimens, the consistency of the four methods was high, while for the low level (0.05-20.0IU/ml), the consistency was poor (except for the CMIA and ECLIA, P<0.05). When evaluation of the four methods in qualitative diagnosis of HBsAg level in the 116,455 specimens, there was no significant discrepancy among CMIA, CMIA and ECLIA, however, GICA was significantly different from the other 3 methods. Compared with CMIA, the false negative rate of ECLIA, ELISA and GICA was 0.2%, 1.3% and 12.3% respectively. In conclusion, GICA was only suitable for the preliminary screening of HBsAg positive individuals and ELISA can be applied to the qualitative diagnosis of HBsAg. Both CMIA and ECLIA were suitable for the quantitative determination of HBsAg.

  3. A candidate gene association study for growth performance in an improved giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ) culture line.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyungtaek; Lyons, Russell E; Li, Yutao; Thanh, Nguyen Minh; Dinh, Hung; Hurwood, David A; Salin, Krishna R; Mather, Peter B

    2014-04-01

    A candidate gene approach using type I single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers can provide an effective method for detecting genes and gene regions that underlie phenotypic variation in adaptively significant traits. In the absence of available genomic data resources, transcriptomes were recently generated in Macrobrachium rosenbergii to identify candidate genes and markers potentially associated with growth. The characterisation of 47 candidate loci by ABI re-sequencing of four cultured and eight wild samples revealed 342 putative SNPs. Among these, 28 SNPs were selected in 23 growth-related candidate genes to genotype in 200 animals selected for improved growth performance in an experimental GFP culture line in Vietnam. The associations between SNP markers and individual growth performance were then examined. For additive and dominant effects, a total of three exonic SNPs in glycogen phosphorylase (additive), heat shock protein 90 (additive and dominant) and peroxidasin (additive), and a total of six intronic SNPs in ankyrin repeats-like protein (additive and dominant), rolling pebbles (dominant), transforming growth factor-β induced precursor (dominant), and UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase 2 (dominant) genes showed significant associations with the estimated breeding values in the experimental animals (P =0.001-0.031). Individually, they explained 2.6-4.8 % of the genetic variance (R²=0.026-0.048). This is the first large set of SNP markers reported for M. rosenbergii and will be useful for confirmation of associations in other samples or culture lines as well as having applications in marker-assisted selection in future breeding programs.

  4. Comparative study on growth performance of two shade trees in tea agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Rinku Moni; Das, Ashesh Kumar; Nath, Arun Jyoti

    2014-07-01

    An attempt was made to study the stem growth of two native dominant shade tree species in terms of annual girth increment in three dominant girth size categories for two years in tea agroforestry system of Barak Valley, Assam. Fifty two sampling plots of 0.1 ha size were established and all trees exceeding 10 cm girth over bark at breast height (1.37 m) were uniquely identified, tagged, and annually measured for girth increment, using metal tape during December 2010-12. Albizia lebbeck and A. odoratissima were dominant shade tree species registering 82% of appearance of the individuals studied. The girth class was categorized into six different categories where 30-50 cm, 50-70 cm and 70-90 cm were dominating girth classes and selected for increment study. Mean annual girth increment ranged from 1.41 cm in Albizia odoratissima (50-70 cm girth class) to 2.97 cm in Albizia lebbeck (70-90 cm girth class) for the first year and 1.70 cm in Albizia odoratissima (50-70 cm girth class) to 3.09 cm in Albizia lebbeck (70-90 cm girth class) for the second year. Albizia lebbeck exhibited better growth in all prominent girth classes as compared to Albizia odoratissima during the observation period. The two shade tree species showed similar trend of growth in both the years of observation and significant difference in girth increment.

  5. Pegvisomant-Induced Cholestatic Hepatitis in an Acromegalic Patient with UGT1A1 ⁎ 28 Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Mallea-Gil, Maria Susana; Bernabeu, Ignacio; Spiraquis, Adriana; Avangina, Alejandra; Loidi, Lourdes; Ballarino, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Pegvisomant (PEGv) is a growth hormone receptor antagonist approved for the treatment of acromegaly; one of its documented adverse effects is reversible elevation of hepatic enzymes. We report a 39-year-old male acromegalic patient with a pituitary macroadenoma who underwent transsphenoidal surgery. The patient's condition improved but GH and IGF-I levels did not normalize; as a consequence, we first administered dopamine agonists and then somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs) with poor response. PEGv 15 mg every other day was added to lanreotide 120 mg monthly. The patient developed a severe hepatitis five months after starting the combination therapy. Elevated ferritin, iron, and transferrin saturation suggested probable hepatitis due to haemochromatosis. We performed a liver biopsy which showed an acute cholestatic hepatitis consistent with toxic etiology. A heterozygous genotype UGT1A1⁎28 polymorphism associated with Gilbert's syndrome was also found in this Argentine patient. The predominant clinical presentation resembled an acute cholestatic hepatitis associated with severe hemosiderosis, a different and new pattern of PEGv hepatotoxicity. PMID:26977326

  6. Pegvisomant-Induced Cholestatic Hepatitis in an Acromegalic Patient with UGT1A1 (⁎) 28 Mutation.

    PubMed

    Mallea-Gil, Maria Susana; Bernabeu, Ignacio; Spiraquis, Adriana; Avangina, Alejandra; Loidi, Lourdes; Ballarino, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Pegvisomant (PEGv) is a growth hormone receptor antagonist approved for the treatment of acromegaly; one of its documented adverse effects is reversible elevation of hepatic enzymes. We report a 39-year-old male acromegalic patient with a pituitary macroadenoma who underwent transsphenoidal surgery. The patient's condition improved but GH and IGF-I levels did not normalize; as a consequence, we first administered dopamine agonists and then somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs) with poor response. PEGv 15 mg every other day was added to lanreotide 120 mg monthly. The patient developed a severe hepatitis five months after starting the combination therapy. Elevated ferritin, iron, and transferrin saturation suggested probable hepatitis due to haemochromatosis. We performed a liver biopsy which showed an acute cholestatic hepatitis consistent with toxic etiology. A heterozygous genotype UGT1A1 (⁎) 28 polymorphism associated with Gilbert's syndrome was also found in this Argentine patient. The predominant clinical presentation resembled an acute cholestatic hepatitis associated with severe hemosiderosis, a different and new pattern of PEGv hepatotoxicity. PMID:26977326

  7. Effect of dried Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella growth factor on growth performance, meat qualities and humoral immune responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    An, Byoung-Ki; Kim, Kwan-Eung; Jeon, Jin-Young; Lee, Kyung Woo

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of dried chlorella powder (Chlorella vulgaris; DCP) and chlorella growth factor (CGF) on growth performance, serum characteristics, meat qualities and humoral immune responses in broiler chicks. A total of 1050 day-old Ross male broiler chicks were randomly divided into 35 pens (30 chicks/pen) and subjected to one of seven dietary treatments. A non-medicated corn-soybean meal base diet was considered as negative control (NC) and added with either antibiotic (PC), three levels of DCP (NC diets added with 0.05, 0.15 or 0.5 % DCP) or two levels of CGF (NC diets added with 0.05 or 0.15 % CGF). The final body weight and daily weight gain in PC and groups fed diets with 0.15 or 0.5 % DCP were heavier (p < 0.001) than those of NC and CGF-treated groups. Serum total lipid concentrations were lower (p = 0.001) in groups fed diets with 0.5 % DCP and 0.05 or 0.15 % CGF compared with PC group. The levels of serum IgG (p = 0.050) and IgM (p = 0.010) were elevated in chicks fed diets with DCP and CGF compared with the PC or NC group. Meat qualities such as cooking loss, meat color, and pH, of edible meats were not altered by dietary treatments. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary DCP, but not CGF, exerted growth-promoting effect, and both DCP and CGF affected humoral immune response in broiler chicks. PMID:27375987

  8. Effect of dried Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella growth factor on growth performance, meat qualities and humoral immune responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    An, Byoung-Ki; Kim, Kwan-Eung; Jeon, Jin-Young; Lee, Kyung Woo

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of dried chlorella powder (Chlorella vulgaris; DCP) and chlorella growth factor (CGF) on growth performance, serum characteristics, meat qualities and humoral immune responses in broiler chicks. A total of 1050 day-old Ross male broiler chicks were randomly divided into 35 pens (30 chicks/pen) and subjected to one of seven dietary treatments. A non-medicated corn-soybean meal base diet was considered as negative control (NC) and added with either antibiotic (PC), three levels of DCP (NC diets added with 0.05, 0.15 or 0.5 % DCP) or two levels of CGF (NC diets added with 0.05 or 0.15 % CGF). The final body weight and daily weight gain in PC and groups fed diets with 0.15 or 0.5 % DCP were heavier (p < 0.001) than those of NC and CGF-treated groups. Serum total lipid concentrations were lower (p = 0.001) in groups fed diets with 0.5 % DCP and 0.05 or 0.15 % CGF compared with PC group. The levels of serum IgG (p = 0.050) and IgM (p = 0.010) were elevated in chicks fed diets with DCP and CGF compared with the PC or NC group. Meat qualities such as cooking loss, meat color, and pH, of edible meats were not altered by dietary treatments. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary DCP, but not CGF, exerted growth-promoting effect, and both DCP and CGF affected humoral immune response in broiler chicks.

  9. Effect of dietary genistein on growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, and body composition of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2015-01-01

    An 8-week feeding experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of dietary genistein on growth performance, body composition, and digestive enzymes activity of juvenile Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus). Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing four graded supplements of genistein: 0, 30, 300, and 3 000 μg/g. Each diet was randomly assigned in triplicate to tanks stocked with 15 juvenile tilapia (10.47±1.24 g). The results show that 30 and 300 μg/g dietary genistein had no significant effect on growth performance of Nile tilapia, but the higher level of genistein (3 000 μg/g) significantly depressed the final body weight and specific growth rate. There was no significant difference in survival rate, feed intake, feed efficiency ratio or whole body composition among all dietary treatments. An assay of digestive enzymes showed that the diet containing 3 000 μg/ggenistein decreased stomach and hepatopancreas protease activity, and amylase activity in the liver and intestine, while a dietary level of 300 μg/g genistein depressed stomach protease and intestine amylase activities. However, no significant difference in stomach amylase activity was found among dietary treatments. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that a high level of dietary genistein (3 000 μg/g, or above) would significantly reduce the growth of Nile tilapia, partly because of its inhibitory effect on the activity of major digestive enzymes. Accordingly, the detrimental effects of genistein, as found in soybean products, should not be ignored when applied as an alternative ingredient source in aquaculture.

  10. Effects of feed supplemented with fermented pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) on growth performance and antioxidant status in broilers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Q J; Wang, Z B; Wang, G Y; Li, Y X; Qi, Y X

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented pine needles and nonfermented pine needles on growth performance and antioxidant capacity in broiler chicks. In total, 300 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 5 dietary treatments, which were then denoted as the control treatment (basal diet); the nonfermented treatment (containing 0.3% and 0.6% nonfermented treatment, respectively, in the starter and grower phase); or the fermented 1, fermented 2, or fermented 3 treatments. The fermented 1, fermented 2, and fermented 3 treatments contained 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% fermented treatment, respectively, in the starter phase and 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0% fermented treatment, respectively, in the growth phase for 42 d. The results showed that fermentation treated supplementation had no adverse effect on the growth performance of broilers at 42 d of age. The activity of total nitric oxide synthase was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented treatment compared with the control and nonfermented treatments in broilers at 21 d of age. Compared with the control, broilers had higher (P<0.05) total superoxide dismutase activities and total antioxidant capacity when they were provided with either the fermented 2 or fermented 3 diet. The malondialdehyde content was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented 2 and fermented 3 treatments compared with the control and nonfermented treatments. It was concluded that the addition of fermented treatment to the diet could improve antioxidant capacity in broilers, as evidenced by the decrease in malondialdehyde and the increase in total superoxide dismutase activities; however, the effect of fermentation treatment on growth performance was negligible. PMID:25834246

  11. Effects of feed supplemented with fermented pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) on growth performance and antioxidant status in broilers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Q J; Wang, Z B; Wang, G Y; Li, Y X; Qi, Y X

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented pine needles and nonfermented pine needles on growth performance and antioxidant capacity in broiler chicks. In total, 300 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 5 dietary treatments, which were then denoted as the control treatment (basal diet); the nonfermented treatment (containing 0.3% and 0.6% nonfermented treatment, respectively, in the starter and grower phase); or the fermented 1, fermented 2, or fermented 3 treatments. The fermented 1, fermented 2, and fermented 3 treatments contained 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% fermented treatment, respectively, in the starter phase and 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0% fermented treatment, respectively, in the growth phase for 42 d. The results showed that fermentation treated supplementation had no adverse effect on the growth performance of broilers at 42 d of age. The activity of total nitric oxide synthase was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented treatment compared with the control and nonfermented treatments in broilers at 21 d of age. Compared with the control, broilers had higher (P<0.05) total superoxide dismutase activities and total antioxidant capacity when they were provided with either the fermented 2 or fermented 3 diet. The malondialdehyde content was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented 2 and fermented 3 treatments compared with the control and nonfermented treatments. It was concluded that the addition of fermented treatment to the diet could improve antioxidant capacity in broilers, as evidenced by the decrease in malondialdehyde and the increase in total superoxide dismutase activities; however, the effect of fermentation treatment on growth performance was negligible.

  12. Effects of dietary stachyose on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and intestinal morphology of juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haibin; Zhang, Yanjiao; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Li, Yanxian; Liu, Jintao

    2015-10-01

    A 12-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary stachyose on the growth performance, digestive enzymes activities and intestinal structures of juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L). Five isonitrogenous (49.58% crude protein) and isolipidic (10.50% crude lipid) diets were formulated to contain 0 (Control), 0.625% (S-0.625), 1.25% (S-1.25), 2.5% (S-2.5) and 5% (S-5) stachyose, respectively. With the increase of stachyose level, the growth performance and feed utilization of turbot, such as the specific growth rate, final mean body weight, weight gain rate and feed efficiency, increased significantly ( P< 0.05) and then stabilized. The feed intake of fish fed S-5 was significantly higher ( P< 0.05) than that of fish in other groups. The activities of trypsin, intestinal caseinolytic, stomach and intestinal amylase were significantly influenced by stachyose ( P<0.05). The highest values of trypsin and intestinal caseinolytic activities were observed in group S-1.25, while the highest activity of stomach amylase and the lowest activity of intestine amylase were observed in group S-5. No lesion or damage was found on the distal intestine structures of fish from all treatments, while the height of simple folds in the distal intestine was significantly increased ( P< 0.05) when 1.25% or 2.5% stachyose was added in the diets. These results indicated that moderate level of stachyose (1.25%) improves the growth performance, feed utilization, digestive enzyme activities and the distal intestine structures of juvenile turbot.

  13. Auto immune hepatiti