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Sample records for growth post bdelloplast

  1. Formation of stable bdelloplasts as a starvation-survival strategy of marine bdellovibrios

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Amat, A.; Torrella, F. )

    1990-09-01

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Bdellovibrio have been isolated from a variety of habitats, including soil (15), rivers (1), estuarine water, seawater, and solar salt concentration ponds. Several wild-type isolates of marine bdellovibrios formed stable bdelloplasts when they infected gram-negative bacterial prey under certain culture conditions. Synchronous predator-prey cultures and low nutrient concentrations increased the yield of stable bdelloplasts. The bdellovibrio cells retained in the stable bdelloplasts showed a high survival capacity in nutrient-depleted saline solution (10% viable Bdellovibrio cells after 3 months at 25{degrees}C), whereas Bdellovibrio attack-phase cells kept under the same starvation conditions lost viability more quickly (1% viable cells after 48 h). The addition of yeast extract to a stable bdelloplast suspension induced lysis of the bdelloplasts and release of motile infecting attack-phase Bdellovibrio cells. Other substances, such as free amino acids, protein hydrolysates, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, carbohydrates, and organic amines, did not induce such a release. Stable bdelloplasts were highly hydrophobic and had a lower endogenous respiration rate than attack-phase cells. In general, stable bdelloplasts were almost as sensitive to temperature changes, desiccation, sonication, tannic acid, and Triton X-100 treatment as attack-phase cells. Electron microscopy of stable bdelloplasts did not reveal any extra cell wall layer, either in the bdelloplast envelope or in the retained Bdellovibrio cells, unlike the bdellocysts of the soil bacterium Bdellovibrio sp. strain W. The authors propose that formation of stable bdelloplasts is a survival strategy of marine bdellovibrios which occurs in response to nutrient- and prey-poor seawater habitats.

  2. Facilitating post traumatic growth

    PubMed Central

    Turner, de Sales; Cox, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Background Whilst negative responses to traumatic injury have been well documented in the literature, there is a small but growing body of work that identifies posttraumatic growth as a salient feature of this experience. We contribute to this discourse by reporting on the experiences of 13 individuals who were traumatically injured, had undergone extensive rehabilitation and were discharged from formal care. All participants were injured through involvement in a motor vehicle accident, with the exception of one, who was injured through falling off the roof of a house. Methods In this qualitative study, we used an audio-taped in-depth interview with each participant as the means of data collection. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically to determine the participants' unique perspectives on the experience of recovery from traumatic injury. In reporting the findings, all participants' were given a pseudonym to assure their anonymity. Results Most participants indicated that their involvement in a traumatic occurrence was a springboard for growth that enabled them to develop new perspectives on life and living. Conclusion There are a number of contributions that health providers may make to the recovery of individuals who have been traumatically injured to assist them to develop new views of vulnerability and strength, make changes in relationships, and facilitate philosophical, physical and spiritual growth. PMID:15248894

  3. China's post-coal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ye; Stern, Nicholas; Wu, Tong; Lu, Jiaqi; Green, Fergus

    2016-08-01

    Slowing GDP growth, a structural shift away from heavy industry, and more proactive policies on air pollution and clean energy have caused China's coal use to peak. It seems that economic growth has decoupled from growth in coal consumption.

  4. Evaluating Latent Variable Growth Models through Ex Post Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David; George, Rani

    1998-01-01

    The use of ex post (historical) simulation statistics as means of evaluating latent growth models is considered, and a variety of simulation quality statistics are applied to such models. Results illustrate the importance of using these measures as adjuncts to more traditional forms of model evaluation. (SLD)

  5. Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Post-Traumatic Growth: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study following an Earthquake Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jieling; Zhou, Xiao; Zeng, Min; Wu, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    Objective The current longitudinal study aims to examine the bidirectional relationship between post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and post-traumatic growth (PTG). Method One hundred twenty-two adults in the most severely affected area were investigated by self-report questionnaires at 12 months and 18 months after the Wenchuan Earthquake occurred in China. Results The autoregressive cross-lagged structure equation analysis revealed that PTG at 12 months post-earthquake could negatively predict PTSS at 18 months post-earthquake above and beyond PTSS stability, whereas PTSS at 12 months post-earthquake could not significantly predict subsequent PTG. Moreover, PTG at 12 months post-earthquake could predict fewer subsequent intrusions, numbing and hyper-arousal symptoms but not avoidance symptoms. Conclusion Growth can play a role in reducing long-term post-traumatic stress symptoms, and the implication of a positive perspective in post-trauma circumstance is discussed. PMID:26046912

  6. Post-Traumatic Growth in Mothers of Children with Autism: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wei; Yan, Ting Ting; Barriball, K. Louise; While, Alison E.; Liu, Xiao Hong

    2015-01-01

    While the adverse effects of raising a child with autism are well demonstrated, there have been few reports of the post-traumatic growth of mothers of children with autism. The purpose of this research was to explore dimensions of post-traumatic growth in this population in Mainland China and identify the factors facilitating post-traumatic…

  7. Behavioral intervention and post-natal growth in full-term intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR) infants.

    PubMed

    Garcia Coll, C T; Halpern, L; Seifer, R; Meyer, E C; Kilis, E; Lester, B M; Vohr, B R; Oh, W

    1996-09-20

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to describe the patterns of post-natal growth in full-term infants as a function of IUGR and (2) to assess the impact of an individualized behavioral feeding intervention with the mothers on these patterns of infant growth. Eighty-eight (88) full-term infants, including 54 with IUGR, half of whom received behavioral intervention were included. Weight, length, skinfold thickness, head circumference and Ponderal Index were measured at birth and at 1, 4, 8, 12, and 18 months. Results show positive intervention effects between birth and 1 month in weight, length, skinfold thickness, and Ponderal Index. However, there were no intervention effects at subsequent ages. No evidence was found for catch-up growth in full-term IUGR infants in weight, length, and head circumference. We conclude that an individualized behavioral feeding intervention can accelerate early growth in IUGR infants, but the positive effects on growth are only seen while the intervention lasts (between birth and 1 month). On most parameters of physical growth, there is no lasting catch-up growth over the first 18 months in IUGR full-term infants.

  8. Nursing students' post-traumatic growth, emotional intelligence and psychological resilience.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Cao, F; Cao, D; Liu, J

    2015-06-01

    Nursing students in the present sample who have experienced childhood adversity have a certain level of post-traumatic growth. If introduced into nursing curricula, emotional intelligence interventions may increase emotional coping resources and enhance social skills for nurses, which may benefit their long-term occupational health. As researchers consider personal resilience a strategy for responding to workplace adversity in nurses, resilience building should be incorporated into nursing education. This is a preliminary study that may guide future investigations of the curvilinear relationship rather than linear relationship between post-traumatic growth and positive factors in the special sample of nursing students. Resilience, emotional intelligence and post-traumatic growth may benefit nursing students' careers and personal well-being in clinical work. Developing both their emotional intelligence and resilience may assist their individual post-traumatic growth and enhance their ability to cope with clinical stress. To investigate the relationships among post-traumatic growth, emotional intelligence and psychological resilience in vocational school nursing students who have experienced childhood adversities, a cross-sectional research design with anonymous questionnaires was conducted and self-report data were analysed. The Childhood Adversities Checklist (Chinese version), Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, Emotional Intelligence Scale and the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale were used. Survey data were collected from 202 Chinese vocational school nursing students during 2011. Post-traumatic growth was associated with emotional intelligence and psychological resilience. Results indicated a curvilinear relationship between emotional intelligence and post-traumatic growth, and between psychological resilience and post-traumatic growth. Moderate-level emotional intelligence and psychological resilience were most associated with the greatest levels of growth

  9. Pre- and post-natal growth in two sisters with 3-M syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lugli, Licia; Bertucci, Emma; Mazza, Vincenzo; Elmakky, Amira; Ferrari, Fabrizio; Neuhaus, Christine; Percesepe, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    3-M syndrome (OMIM #273750) is a rare autosomal recessive growth disorder characterized by severe pre- and post-natal growth restriction, associated with minor skeletal abnormalities and dysmorphisms. Although the 3-M syndrome is well known as a primordial dwarfism, descriptions of the prenatal growth are missing. We report a family with variable phenotypic features of 3-M syndrome and we describe the prenatal and postnatal growth pattern of two affected sisters with a novel homozygous CUL7 mutation (c.3173-1G>C), showing a pre- and post-natal growth deficiency and a normal cranial circumference. PMID:26850509

  10. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) impact on post-germination seedling growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chemical interaction between plants, which is referred to as allelopathy, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plant extracts on the post-germination growth of five plant species...

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Post-Traumatic Growth and Psychological Distress in Colorectal Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Occhipinti, Stefano; Chambers, Suzanne K; Lepore, Stephen; Aitken, Joanne; Dunn, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The stability of post-traumatic growth over time and the relationship between post-traumatic growth and traditional distress outcomes remains unclear. We tracked post-traumatic growth in a population-based sample of colorectal cancer patients from soon after diagnosis to five years subsequently to assess the heterogeneity of a post-traumatic growth response to cancer over time and describe the simultaneous and longitudinal relationships between post-traumatic growth and psychological distress. 1966 colorectal patients who were five months post diagnosis were assessed six times over a five year period. There was considerable heterogeneity associated with both psychological distress and benefit finding scores over time. However, both for benefit finding and psychological distress, the variation in individual scores suggested an underlying positive linear trend and both lagged and lagged change components. Specifically, benefit finding and psychological distress are mutual leading indicators of each other. First, benefit finding served as a leading indicator of distress, in that increases in reported benefit finding from year to year predicted higher future increases in psychological distress. As well, in an inverse relationship, psychological distress served as a leading indicator of benefit finding, such that increases in reported distress from year to year predicted lower future increases in benefit finding. Post-traumatic growth may reflect patients coping efforts to enhance perceptions of wellbeing in response to escalating cancer-related threats, acting as harbinger of increasing trajectories of psychological distress. This explanation is consistent with a cognitive dissonance response in which threats to the integrity of the self then lead to a tendency to accentuate positive aspects of the self. PMID:26418357

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Post-Traumatic Growth and Psychological Distress in Colorectal Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Occhipinti, Stefano; Chambers, Suzanne K.; Lepore, Stephen; Aitken, Joanne; Dunn, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The stability of post-traumatic growth over time and the relationship between post-traumatic growth and traditional distress outcomes remains unclear. We tracked post-traumatic growth in a population-based sample of colorectal cancer patients from soon after diagnosis to five years subsequently to assess the heterogeneity of a post-traumatic growth response to cancer over time and describe the simultaneous and longitudinal relationships between post-traumatic growth and psychological distress. 1966 colorectal patients who were five months post diagnosis were assessed six times over a five year period. There was considerable heterogeneity associated with both psychological distress and benefit finding scores over time. However, both for benefit finding and psychological distress, the variation in individual scores suggested an underlying positive linear trend and both lagged and lagged change components. Specifically, benefit finding and psychological distress are mutual leading indicators of each other. First, benefit finding served as a leading indicator of distress, in that increases in reported benefit finding from year to year predicted higher future increases in psychological distress. As well, in an inverse relationship, psychological distress served as a leading indicator of benefit finding, such that increases in reported distress from year to year predicted lower future increases in benefit finding. Post-traumatic growth may reflect patients coping efforts to enhance perceptions of wellbeing in response to escalating cancer–related threats, acting as harbinger of increasing trajectories of psychological distress. This explanation is consistent with a cognitive dissonance response in which threats to the integrity of the self then lead to a tendency to accentuate positive aspects of the self. PMID:26418357

  13. Client-centred therapy, post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic growth: theoretical perspectives and practical implications.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Stephen

    2004-03-01

    In practice it is not unusual for client-centred therapists to work with people who have experienced traumatic events. However, client-centred therapy is not usually considered within texts on traumatic stress and questions have been raised over the appropriateness of client-centred therapy with trauma survivors. The present study shows how, although he was writing well before the introduction of the term 'post-traumatic stress disorder', Carl Rogers provided a theory of therapy and personality that contains an account of threat-related psychological processes largely consistent with contemporary trauma theory. Rogers' theory provides the conceptual underpinnings to the client-centred and experiential ways of working with traumatized people. Furthermore, Rogers' theory provides an understanding of post-traumatic growth processes, and encourages therapists to adopt a more positive psychological perspective to their understanding of how people adjust to traumatic events.

  14. Client-centred therapy, post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic growth: theoretical perspectives and practical implications.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Stephen

    2004-03-01

    In practice it is not unusual for client-centred therapists to work with people who have experienced traumatic events. However, client-centred therapy is not usually considered within texts on traumatic stress and questions have been raised over the appropriateness of client-centred therapy with trauma survivors. The present study shows how, although he was writing well before the introduction of the term 'post-traumatic stress disorder', Carl Rogers provided a theory of therapy and personality that contains an account of threat-related psychological processes largely consistent with contemporary trauma theory. Rogers' theory provides the conceptual underpinnings to the client-centred and experiential ways of working with traumatized people. Furthermore, Rogers' theory provides an understanding of post-traumatic growth processes, and encourages therapists to adopt a more positive psychological perspective to their understanding of how people adjust to traumatic events. PMID:15025907

  15. Heterochrony and post-natal growth in mammals--an examination of growth plates in limbs.

    PubMed

    Geiger, M; Forasiepi, A M; Koyabu, D; Sánchez-Villagra, M R

    2014-01-01

    Mammals display a broad spectrum of limb specializations coupled with different locomotor strategies and habitat occupation. This anatomical diversity reflects different patterns of development and growth, including the timing of epiphyseal growth plate closure in the long bones of the skeleton. We investigated the sequence of union in 15 growth plates in the limbs of about 400 specimens, representing 58 mammalian species: 34 placentals, 23 marsupials and one monotreme. We found a common general pattern of growth plate closure sequence, but one that is universal neither between species nor in higher-order taxa. Locomotor habitat has no detectable correlation with the growth plate closure sequence, but observed patterns indicate that growth plate closure sequence is determined more strongly through phylogenetic factors. For example, the girdle elements (acetabulum and coracoid process) always ossify first in marsupials, whereas the distal humerus is fused before the girdle elements in some placentals. We also found that heterochronic shifts (changes in timing) in the growth plate closure sequence of marsupials occur with a higher rate than in placentals. This presents a contrast with the more limited variation in timing and morphospace occupation typical for marsupial development. Moreover, unlike placentals, marsupials maintain many epiphyses separated throughout life. However, as complete union of all epiphyseal growth plates is recorded in monotremes, the marsupial condition might represent the derived state. PMID:24251599

  16. Post-natal growth of the gastrointestinal tract of the Siberian hamster: morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Wołczuk, K; Kobak, J

    2014-12-01

    Post-natal growth of the gastrointestinal tract of the Siberian hamster was studied in newborn and 3-, 7-, 14-, 21-, 42- and 90-day-old animals. Morphometric measurements and calculations were carried out: length and internal surface of gastrointestinal tract segments, size (height, width, surface) and density of villi as well as allometric growth rate of the length and internal surface of the segments with respect to the body mass. The fastest growth rate of the gastrointestinal tract segments was noticed during the first 3 days of the post-natal life. Nevertheless, significant regional differences in their growth rate were found. The increase in the length and internal surface of the large intestine was fastest, while the smallest increase was observed in the oesophagus. All segments of the gastrointestinal tract except oesophagus exhibited a positive allometric relationship to the body mass from birth till final weaning, whereas during the post-weaning period, the increase was isometric. Thus, at birth, the gastrointestinal tract segments were relatively smaller compared with those observed in adults, but then, the gastrointestinal tract grew faster than the rest of the body and reached its adult proportions just before the transition to solid food. Most probably, reaching the adult structure of the gastrointestinal tract before the final weaning is an essential condition for the proper growth of an organism after the weaning.

  17. Post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic growth in breast cancer patients--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Darshit; De Ieso, Paolo; Garvey, Gail; Thachil, Thanuja; Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Penniment, Michael; Jayaraj, Rama

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is potentially a traumatic stressor which may be associated with negative outcomes, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or positive changes, such as post-traumatic growth (PTG). This study aims to identify the core issues of BC related PTSD, PTG and psychological distress by interrogating the literature in BC survivors. We have also highlighted issues related to the assessment, diagnosis and clinical management of PTSD and PTG. The authors systematically reviewed studies published from 1985 to 2014 pertaining to PTSD, psychological distress and PTG in BC survivors with particular attention paid to incidence rates and causative factors. Multiple studies intimated that women with BC have evidence of PTSD at the initial stages of diagnosis, whereas PTG develops once patients undergo treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment of PTSD/PTG is paramount from literature review but the previously mentioned relationship between PTSD and PTG in BC patients could not be verified. It is evident from the literature that a small percentage of BC patients experience PTSD, while the majority experience PTG after BC diagnosis and treatment. Future research should include prospective studies focusing on high-risk patients, causative factors and the development of psychological interventions.

  18. Growth hormone therapy for Prader-Willi and Down syndromes: a post-modern medical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Lantos, J D

    2000-04-01

    Post-modernism means the end of traditional certainties. In this paper, growth hormone (GH) is conceptualized as a post-modern medical therapy. It is used in the treatment of conditions that are not traditional diseases, for indications that are not precisely defined. Down syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome represent two clinical conditions in which GH can possibly be used. It is argued that the difference between the two syndromes instructs us as to the principles that might guide appropriate use of GH in the future. In particular, for children, the more GH treatment can be shown to produce benefits other than increased height, the more justifiable its use will be.

  19. Post-traumatic growth following acquired brain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Jenny J.; Kinsella, Elaine L.; Muldoon, Orla T.; Fortune, Dónal G.

    2015-01-01

    The idea that acquired brain injury (ABI) caused by stroke, hemorrhage, infection or traumatic insult to the brain can result in post-traumatic growth (PTG) for individuals is increasingly attracting psychological attention. However, PTG also attracts controversy as a result of ambiguous empirical findings. The extent that demographic variables, injury factors, subjective beliefs, and psychological health are associated with PTG following ABI is not clear. Consequently, this systematic review and meta-analysis explores the correlates of variables within these four broad areas and PTG. From a total of 744 published studies addressing PTG in people with ABI, eight studies met inclusion criteria for detailed examination. Meta-analysis of these studies indicated that growth was related to employment, longer education, subjective beliefs about change post-injury, relationship status, older age, longer time since injury, and lower levels of depression. Results from homogeneity analyses indicated significant inter-study heterogeneity across variables. There is general support for the idea that people with ABI can experience growth, and that various demographics, injury-related variables, subjective beliefs and psychological health are related to growth. The contribution of social integration and the forming of new identities post-ABI to the experience of PTG is explored. These meta-analytic findings are however constrained by methodological limitations prevalent in the literature. Clinical and research implications are discussed with specific reference to community and collective factors that enable PTG. PMID:26321983

  20. Solving fecal coliform growth/reactivation in biosolids during full-scale post-digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Iranpour, R; Palacios, R; Cox, H H J; Abkian, V

    2005-01-01

    Fecal coliform recurrence has been observed at the City of Los Angeles Hyperion Treatment Plant during pilot-scale experiments with a designated thermophilic battery of six anaerobic digesters, while other digesters were still at a mesophilic temperature. Several lab and full-scale experiments indicated the following possible causes of the growth/reactivation of fecal coliforms in post-digestion: a) contamination of thermophilically digested biosolids with mesophilically digested biosolids; b) a large drop in the biosolids temperature between the centrifuges and silos, which could have allowed the reactivation and/or growth of fecal coliforms. These were resolved by the full plant conversion to thermophilic anaerobic digestion and design modifications of the post-digestion train.

  1. Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms and Post-traumatic Growth in 223 Childhood Cancer Survivors: Predictive Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tremolada, Marta; Bonichini, Sabrina; Basso, Giuseppe; Pillon, Marta

    2016-01-01

    With modern therapies and supportive care, survival rates of childhood cancer have increased considerably. However, there are long-term psychological sequelae of these treatments that may not manifest until pediatric survivors are into adulthood. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder in young adult survivors of childhood cancer ranges from 6.2 to 22%; associated risk factors are young age at the assessment, female gender, low education level, and some disease-related factors. The aim of this study was to investigate, in adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of childhood cancer, the incidence and severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs), and to identify the risk factors and the associated post-traumatic growth (PTG) index. Participants were 223 AYA cancer survivors recruited during follow-up visits in the Oncohematology Clinic of the Department of Child and Woman’s Health, University of Padua. Data were collected from self-report questionnaires on PTSS incidence, PTG mean score, perceived social support, and medical and socio-demographic factors. Ex-patients’ mean age at the assessment was 19.33 years (SD = 3.01, 15–25), 123 males and 100 females, with a mean of years off-therapy of 9.64 (SD = 4.17). Most (52.5%) had survived an hematological disorder and 47.5% a solid tumor when they were aged, on average, 8.02 years (SD = 4.40). The main results indicated a moderate presence of clinical (≥9 symptoms: 9.4%) and sub-clinical PTSS (6–8 symptoms: 11.2%), with the avoidance criterion most often encountered. Re-experience symptoms and PTG mean score were significantly associated (r = 0.24; p = 0.0001). A hierarchical regression model (R2 = 0.08; F = 1.46; p = 0.05) identified female gender (β = 0.16; p = 0.05) and less perceived social support (β = -0.43; p = 0.05) as risk factors to developing PTSS. Another hierarchical regression model assessed the possible predictors of the PTG total score (R2 = 0.36; F = 9.1; p = 0.0001), with

  2. Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms and Post-traumatic Growth in 223 Childhood Cancer Survivors: Predictive Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Tremolada, Marta; Bonichini, Sabrina; Basso, Giuseppe; Pillon, Marta

    2016-01-01

    With modern therapies and supportive care, survival rates of childhood cancer have increased considerably. However, there are long-term psychological sequelae of these treatments that may not manifest until pediatric survivors are into adulthood. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder in young adult survivors of childhood cancer ranges from 6.2 to 22%; associated risk factors are young age at the assessment, female gender, low education level, and some disease-related factors. The aim of this study was to investigate, in adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of childhood cancer, the incidence and severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs), and to identify the risk factors and the associated post-traumatic growth (PTG) index. Participants were 223 AYA cancer survivors recruited during follow-up visits in the Oncohematology Clinic of the Department of Child and Woman's Health, University of Padua. Data were collected from self-report questionnaires on PTSS incidence, PTG mean score, perceived social support, and medical and socio-demographic factors. Ex-patients' mean age at the assessment was 19.33 years (SD = 3.01, 15-25), 123 males and 100 females, with a mean of years off-therapy of 9.64 (SD = 4.17). Most (52.5%) had survived an hematological disorder and 47.5% a solid tumor when they were aged, on average, 8.02 years (SD = 4.40). The main results indicated a moderate presence of clinical (≥9 symptoms: 9.4%) and sub-clinical PTSS (6-8 symptoms: 11.2%), with the avoidance criterion most often encountered. Re-experience symptoms and PTG mean score were significantly associated (r = 0.24; p = 0.0001). A hierarchical regression model (R (2) = 0.08; F = 1.46; p = 0.05) identified female gender (β = 0.16; p = 0.05) and less perceived social support (β = -0.43; p = 0.05) as risk factors to developing PTSS. Another hierarchical regression model assessed the possible predictors of the PTG total score (R (2) = 0.36; F = 9.1; p = 0.0001), with

  3. Thermodynamics of post-growth annealing of cadmium zinc telluride nuclear radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Aaron Lee

    Nuclear Radiation Detectors are used for detecting, tracking, and identifying radioactive materials which emit high-energy gamma and X-rays. The use of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) detectors is particularly attractive because of the detector's ability to operate at room temperature and measure the energy spectra of gamma-ray sources with a high resolution, typically less than 1% at 662 keV. While CdZnTe detectors are acceptable imperfections in the crystals limit their full market potential. One of the major imperfections are Tellurium inclusions generated during the crystal growth process by the retrograde solubility of Tellurium and Tellurium-rich melt trapped at the growth interface. Tellurium inclusions trap charge carriers generated by gamma and X-ray photons and thus reduce the portion of generated charge carriers that reach the electrodes for collection and conversion into a readable signal which is representative of the ionizing radiation's energy and intensity. One approach in resolving this problem is post-growth annealing which has the potential of removing the Tellurium inclusions and associated impurities. The goal of this project is to use experimental techniques to study the thermodynamics of Tellurium inclusion migration in post-growth annealing of CdZnTe nuclear detectors with the temperature gradient zone migration (TGZM) technique. Systematic experiments will be carried out to provide adequate thermodynamic data that will inform the engineering community of the optimum annealing parameters. Additionally, multivariable correlations that involve the Tellurium diffusion coefficient, annealing parameters, and CdZnTe properties will be analyzed. The experimental approach will involve systematic annealing experiments (in Cd vapor overpressure) on different sizes of CdZnTe crystals at varying temperature gradients ranging from 0 to 60°C/mm (used to migrate the Tellurium inclusion to one side of the crystal), and at annealing temperatures ranging

  4. Pericytes in the myovascular niche promote post-natal myofiber growth and satellite cell quiescence.

    PubMed

    Kostallari, Enis; Baba-Amer, Yasmine; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Ngoh, Pamela; Relaix, Frederic; Lafuste, Peggy; Gherardi, Romain K

    2015-04-01

    The satellite cells, which serve as adult muscle stem cells, are both located beneath myofiber basement membranes and closely associated with capillary endothelial cells. We observed that 90% of capillaries were associated with pericytes in adult mouse and human muscle. During post-natal growth, newly formed vessels with their neuroglial 2 proteoglycan (NG2)-positive pericytes became progressively associated with the post-natal muscle stem cells, as myofibers increased in size and satellite cells entered into quiescence. In vitro, human muscle-derived pericytes promoted myogenic cell differentiation through insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and myogenic cell quiescence through angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1). Diphtheria toxin-induced ablation of muscle pericytes in growing mice led both to myofiber hypotrophy and to impaired establishment of stem cells quiescence. Similar effects were observed following conditional in vivo deletion of pericyte Igf1 and Angpt1 genes, respectively. Our data therefore demonstrate that, by promoting post-natal myogenesis and stem cell quiescence, pericytes play a key role in the microvascular niche of satellite cells.

  5. Complementary medicine and recovery from cancer: the importance of post-traumatic growth.

    PubMed

    Skaczkowski, G; Hayman, T; Strelan, P; Miller, J; Knott, V

    2013-07-01

    Many users of Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAMs) claim that participation leads to improved well-being; however, contradictory evidence exists, with some studies linking CAM use with poorer quality of life (QoL) or increased distress. This study explored whether an individual's experience of post-traumatic growth (PTG) following cancer may play a role in explaining these disparate outcomes. One hundred and sixty-one cancer survivors (mean age = 58.96, SD = 12.12) completed measures comprised of PTG (Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory), CAM use, QoL (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy scale + Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Spiritual Well-Being Scale), post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms (Impact of Event Scale Revised) and depression, anxiety and stress (21-item short-form Depression Anxiety Stress Scale). A multiple regression controlling for gender, age, general and cancer-specific distress indicated support for PTG as a mediator of the relationship between CAM and QoL. An individual's experience of PTG following cancer may be an important determinant of gaining benefit from participation in CAMs. Future research aimed at identifying potential facilitators of PTG may result in increased benefits of interventions aimed at improving adjustment among cancer survivors. PMID:23730795

  6. Effect of pre-weaning feeding regimens on post-weaning growth performance of Sahiwal calves.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, S A; Ali, A; Nawaz, H; McGill, D; Sarwar, M; Afzal, M; Khan, M S; Ehsanullah; Amer, M A; Bush, R; Wynn, P C; Warriach, H M

    2012-08-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the post-weaning growth response of Sahiwal calves reared on four different pre-weaning dietary regimens. The four diets were: (a) whole cow's milk, starter ration (SR; CP = 20%, total digestible nutrients (TDN) = 72%) and Berseem hay (H; Egyptian clover; CP = 21%, TDN = 63%); (b) whole cow's milk + H; (c) milk replacer (MR; reconstituted to supplier specification; Sprayfo®) + SR + H; and (d) MR + H. The protein and fat percentages of reconstituted MR were 2.22 and 1.84, respectively. Milk or MR were fed at the rate of 10% of the calves' body weight (BW) until 56 days of age, and then withdrawn gradually until weaned completely by 84 days of age. The average initial BW of calves in groups A, B, C and D were 56.3 ± 1.0, 47.5 ± 1.0, 40.4 ± 1.0 and 30.3 ± 1.0 kg, respectively. Initially, there were 12 calves in each group with six of each sex; however, one male calf died from each of groups B and C and were not replaced. During the post-weaning period, 13 to 24 weeks, the calves were fed a single total mixed ration ad libitum based on maize, canola meal, wheat straw and molasses containing 16% CP and 70% TDN. Daily feed intake and weekly BW gains were recorded. The data were analyzed by MIXED model analysis procedures using the statistical program SAS. The intake of calves as percent of their BW, feed conversion ratio and cost per kg of BW gain were not different (P > 0.05) across treatments. The daily gain at 24 weeks of age for the pre-weaning treatments A, B, C and D were 746 ± 33, 660 ± 33, 654 ± 33 and 527 ± 33 g/day and the final liveweights of calves were 119 ± 4.2, 102 ± 4.2, 95 ± 4.2 and 75 ± 4.2 kg, respectively. Gains were influenced significantly (P < 0.05) by pre-weaning treatments. The calves fed MR and H only during the pre-weaning period were unable to catch up post weaning with calves on other dietary treatments. The calves fed whole milk from birth at the rate of 10% of liveweight together with

  7. Post-pruning shoot growth increases fruit abscission and reduces stem carbohydrates and yield in macadamia

    PubMed Central

    McFadyen, Lisa M.; Robertson, David; Sedgley, Margaret; Kristiansen, Paul; Olesen, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims There is good evidence for deciduous trees that competition for carbohydrates from shoot growth accentuates early fruit abscission and reduces yield but the effect for evergreen trees is not well defined. Here, whole-tree tip-pruning at anthesis is used to examine the effect of post-pruning shoot development on fruit abscission in the evergreen subtropical tree macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia, M. integrifolia × tetraphylla). Partial-tree tip-pruning is also used to test the localization of the effect. Methods In the first experiment (2005/2006), all branches on trees were tip-pruned at anthesis, some trees were allowed to re-shoot (R treatment) and shoots were removed from others (NR treatment). Fruit set and stem total non-structural carbohydrates (TNSC) over time, and yield were measured. In the second experiment (2006/2007), upper branches of trees were tip-pruned at anthesis, some trees were allowed to re-shoot (R) and shoots were removed from others (NR). Fruit set and yield were measured separately for upper (pruned) and lower (unpruned) branches. Key Results In the first experiment, R trees set far fewer fruit and had lower yield than NR trees. TNSC fell and rose in all treatments but the decline in R trees occurred earlier than in NR trees and coincided with early shoot growth and the increase in fruit abscission relative to the other treatments. In the second experiment, fruit abscission on upper branches of R trees increased relative to the other treatments but there was little difference in fruit abscission between treatments on lower branches. Conclusions This study is the first to demonstrate an increase in fruit abscission in an evergreen tree in response to pruning. The effect appeared to be related to competition for carbohydrates between post-pruning shoot growth and fruit development and was local, with shoot growth on pruned branches having no effect on fruit abscission on unpruned branches. PMID:21325025

  8. Effects of post-traumatic growth on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex after a disaster

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Seishu; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Sakuma, Atsushi; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    The relating to others factor of post-traumatic growth (PTG), which involves mutual help and a strong sense of connection with humanity, is important for young people who are coping with stress. The prefrontal cortex (PFC), especially the dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), may play an important role in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with regard to coping and resilience. We hypothesized that the neural correlates of PTG may be responsible for resilience to the correlates of PTSD. Our study tested this hypothesis by examining whether measures of PTG, particularly the measures of relating to others after a disaster, were associated with increased regional grey matter volume (rGMV) in the PFC by assessing individuals who had experienced the East Japan Great Earthquake. We calculated the delta-rGMV by subtracting the rGMV obtained 3 months before the disaster from the rGMV obtained after this disaster using voxel-based morphometry. The magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from 26 subjects (M/F: 21/5; age: 21.2 ± 1.6 yrs.) showed that the total scores on a PTG inventory and the subscore for relating to others at the post-assessment were positively and significantly associated with the delta-rGMV in the right DLPFC. The DLPFC seems to be the main neural correlate of PTG. PMID:27670443

  9. 26 CFR 1.167(l)-2 - Public utility property; election as to post-1969 property representing growth in capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-1969 property representing growth in capacity. 1.167(l)-2 Section 1.167(l)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... post-1969 property representing growth in capacity. (a) In general. Section 167(l)(2) prescribes the... (as these terms are defined in section 167(l)(3) (H) and (I), respectively) to use its applicable...

  10. 26 CFR 1.167(l)-2 - Public utility property; election as to post-1969 property representing growth in capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-1969 property representing growth in capacity. 1.167(l)-2 Section 1.167(l)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... post-1969 property representing growth in capacity. (a) In general. Section 167(l)(2) prescribes the... (as these terms are defined in section 167(l)(3) (H) and (I), respectively) to use its applicable...

  11. 26 CFR 1.167(l)-2 - Public utility property; election as to post-1969 property representing growth in capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-1969 property representing growth in capacity. 1.167(l)-2 Section 1.167(l)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... post-1969 property representing growth in capacity. (a) In general. Section 167(l)(2) prescribes the... (as these terms are defined in section 167(l)(3) (H) and (I), respectively) to use its applicable...

  12. 26 CFR 1.167(l)-2 - Public utility property; election as to post-1969 property representing growth in capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-1969 property representing growth in capacity. 1.167(l)-2 Section 1.167(l)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... post-1969 property representing growth in capacity. (a) In general. Section 167(l)(2) prescribes the... (as these terms are defined in section 167(l)(3) (H) and (I), respectively) to use its applicable...

  13. 26 CFR 1.167(l)-2 - Public utility property; election as to post-1969 property representing growth in capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-1969 property representing growth in capacity. 1.167(l)-2 Section 1.167(l)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... post-1969 property representing growth in capacity. (a) In general. Section 167(l)(2) prescribes the... (as these terms are defined in section 167(l)(3) (H) and (I), respectively) to use its applicable...

  14. A Power-Law Growth and Decay Model with Autocorrelation for Posting Data to Social Networking Services.

    PubMed

    Fujiyama, Toshifumi; Matsui, Chihiro; Takemura, Akimichi

    2016-01-01

    We propose a power-law growth and decay model for posting data to social networking services before and after social events. We model the time series structure of deviations from the power-law growth and decay with a conditional Poisson autoregressive (AR) model. Online postings related to social events are described by five parameters in the power-law growth and decay model, each of which characterizes different aspects of interest in the event. We assess the validity of parameter estimates in terms of confidence intervals, and compare various submodels based on likelihoods and information criteria. PMID:27505155

  15. A Power-Law Growth and Decay Model with Autocorrelation for Posting Data to Social Networking Services

    PubMed Central

    Fujiyama, Toshifumi; Matsui, Chihiro; Takemura, Akimichi

    2016-01-01

    We propose a power-law growth and decay model for posting data to social networking services before and after social events. We model the time series structure of deviations from the power-law growth and decay with a conditional Poisson autoregressive (AR) model. Online postings related to social events are described by five parameters in the power-law growth and decay model, each of which characterizes different aspects of interest in the event. We assess the validity of parameter estimates in terms of confidence intervals, and compare various submodels based on likelihoods and information criteria. PMID:27505155

  16. A Power-Law Growth and Decay Model with Autocorrelation for Posting Data to Social Networking Services.

    PubMed

    Fujiyama, Toshifumi; Matsui, Chihiro; Takemura, Akimichi

    2016-01-01

    We propose a power-law growth and decay model for posting data to social networking services before and after social events. We model the time series structure of deviations from the power-law growth and decay with a conditional Poisson autoregressive (AR) model. Online postings related to social events are described by five parameters in the power-law growth and decay model, each of which characterizes different aspects of interest in the event. We assess the validity of parameter estimates in terms of confidence intervals, and compare various submodels based on likelihoods and information criteria.

  17. Augmenting the post-transplantation growth and survivorship of juvenile scleractinian corals via nutritional enhancement.

    PubMed

    Toh, Tai Chong; Ng, Chin Soon Lionel; Peh, Jia Wei Kassler; Toh, Kok Ben; Chou, Loke Ming

    2014-01-01

    Size-dependent mortality influences the recolonization success of juvenile corals transplanted for reef restoration and assisting juvenile corals attain a refuge size would thus improve post-transplantation survivorship. To explore colony size augmentation strategies, recruits of the scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis were fed with live Artemia salina nauplii twice a week for 24 weeks in an ex situ coral nursery. Fed recruits grew significantly faster than unfed ones, with corals in the 3600, 1800, 600 and 0 (control) nauplii/L groups exhibiting volumetric growth rates of 10.65 ± 1.46, 4.69 ± 0.9, 3.64 ± 0.55 and 1.18 ± 0.37 mm3/week, respectively. Corals supplied with the highest density of nauplii increased their ecological volume by more than 74 times their initial size, achieving a mean final volume of 248.38 ± 33.44 mm3. The benefits of feeding were apparent even after transplantation to the reef. The corals in the 3600, 1800, 600 and 0 nauplii/L groups grew to final sizes of 4875 ± 260 mm3, 2036 ± 627 mm3, 1066 ± 70 mm3 and 512 ± 116 mm3, respectively. The fed corals had significantly higher survival rates than the unfed ones after transplantation (63%, 59%, 56% and 38% for the 3600, 1800, 600 and 0 nauplii/L treatments respectively). Additionally, cost-effectiveness analysis revealed that the costs per unit volumetric growth were drastically reduced with increasing feed densities. Corals fed with the highest density of nauplii were the most cost-effective (US$0.02/mm3), and were more than 12 times cheaper than the controls. This study demonstrated that nutrition enhancement can augment coral growth and post-transplantation survival, and is a biologically and economically viable option that can be used to supplement existing coral mariculture procedures and enhance reef restoration outcomes. PMID:24896085

  18. Canine splenic haemangiosarcoma: influence of metastases, chemotherapy and growth pattern on post-splenectomy survival and expression of angiogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Göritz, M; Müller, K; Krastel, D; Staudacher, G; Schmidt, P; Kühn, M; Nickel, R; Schoon, H-A

    2013-07-01

    Splenic haemangiosarcomas (HSAs) from 122 dogs were characterized and classified according to their patterns of growth, survival time post splenectomy, metastases and chemotherapy. The most common pattern of growth was a mixture of cavernous, capillary and solid tumour tissue. Survival time post splenectomy was independent of the growth pattern; however, it was influenced by chemotherapy and metastases. Immunohistochemical assessment of the expression of angiogenic factors (fetal liver kinase-1, angiopoietin-2, angiopoietin receptor-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor A) and conventional endothelial markers (CD31, factor VIII-related antigen) revealed variable expression, particularly in undifferentiated HSAs. Therefore, a combination of endothelial markers should be used to confirm the endothelial origin of splenic tumours. PMID:23276383

  19. Predicting Post Traumatic Growth Based upon Self-Efficacy and Perceived Social Support in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi-Kashani, Farah; Vaziri, Shahram; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Kazemi-Zanjani, Nahid; Shamkoeyan, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that being exposed to traumatic and stressful events could have severe consequences, studies have shown that even in the wake of negative events such as cancer diagnosis, we see some changes and positive impacts in scheme, philosophy of life and self-perception, a process which is called Post Traumatic Growth (PTG). The aim of the current research is to define share of self-efficacy and perceived social support in the prediction of PTG. Methods The research is a correlation type. For this aim, 95 patients with cancer came to Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital, Tehran, Vali-e-Asr Hospital, Zanjan, and Mehraneh Charity Institute, Zanjan in 2012 have been selec ted based on available sampling and evaluated regarding self-efficacy, and perceived social support and PTG. Results Data analysis using Pearson correlation and regression analysis (simple and multiple) showed that self-efficacy and Perceived Social Support in cancer patients have direct significant relation with variable of PTG and explain 13.5%, 10.6% and jointly 20.7% of PTG changes respectively. Conclusion The research findings show that the variables of self-efficacy and Perceived Social Support explain significantly the PTG and these psychological variables can be used to provide improvement plans and mental health and PTG facilities. PMID:25250161

  20. Comparative classification analysis of post-harvest growth detection from terrestrial LiDAR point clouds in precision agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Kristina; Höfle, Bernhard; Hämmerle, Martin; Jarmer, Thomas; Siegmann, Bastian; Lilienthal, Holger

    2015-06-01

    In precision agriculture, detailed geoinformation on plant and soil properties plays an important role, e.g., in crop protection or the application of fertilizers. This paper presents a comparative classification analysis for post-harvest growth detection using geometric and radiometric point cloud features of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data, considering the local neighborhood of each point. Radiometric correction of the TLS data was performed via an empirical range-correction function derived from a field experiment. Thereafter, the corrected amplitude and local elevation features were explored regarding their importance for classification. For the comparison, tree induction, Naive Bayes, and k-Means-derived classifiers were tested for different point densities to distinguish between ground and post-harvest growth. The classification performance was validated against highly detailed RGB reference images and the red edge normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI705), derived from a hyperspectral sensor. Using both geometric and radiometric features, we achieved a precision of 99% with the tree induction. Compared to the reference image classification, the calculated post-harvest growth coverage map reached an accuracy of 80%. RGB and LiDAR-derived coverage showed a polynomial correlation to NDVI705 of degree two with R2 of 0.8 and 0.7, respectively. Larger post-harvest growth patches (>10 × 10 cm) could already be detected by a point density of 2 pts./0.01 m2. The results indicate a high potential of radiometric and geometric LiDAR point cloud features for the identification of post-harvest growth using tree induction classification. The proposed technique can potentially be applied over larger areas using vehicle-mounted scanners.

  1. Effect of Post-Infiltration Soil Aeration at Different Growth Stages on Growth and Fruit Quality of Drip-Irrigated Potted Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Jia, Zongxia; Niu, Wenquan; Wang, Jingwei; Zhang, Mingzhi

    2015-01-01

    Soil hydraulic principles suggest that post-infiltration hypoxic conditions would be induced in the plant root-zone for drip-irrigated tomato production in small pots filled with natural soil. No previous study specifically examined the response of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) at different growth stages to low soil aeration under these conditions. A 2 × 6 factorial experiment was conducted to quantify effects of no post-infiltration soil aeration versus aeration during 5 different periods (namely 27–33, 34–57, 58–85, 86–99, and 27–99 days after sowing), on growth and fruit quality of potted single tomato plants that were sub-surface trickle-irrigated every 2 days at 2 levels. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 liters of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Results showed that post-infiltration aeration, especially during the fruit setting (34–57 DAS) and enlargement (58–85 DAS) growth stages, can positively influence the yield, root dry weight and activity, and the nutritional (soluble solids and vitamin C content), taste (titratable acidity), and market quality (shape and firmness) of the tomato fruits. Interactions between irrigation level and post-infiltration aeration on some of these fruit quality parameters indicated a need for further study on the dynamic interplay of air and water in the root zone of the plants under the conditions of this experiment. PMID:26630675

  2. Effect of Post-Infiltration Soil Aeration at Different Growth Stages on Growth and Fruit Quality of Drip-Irrigated Potted Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Jia, Zongxia; Niu, Wenquan; Wang, Jingwei; Zhang, Mingzhi

    2015-01-01

    Soil hydraulic principles suggest that post-infiltration hypoxic conditions would be induced in the plant root-zone for drip-irrigated tomato production in small pots filled with natural soil. No previous study specifically examined the response of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) at different growth stages to low soil aeration under these conditions. A 2 × 6 factorial experiment was conducted to quantify effects of no post-infiltration soil aeration versus aeration during 5 different periods (namely 27-33, 34-57, 58-85, 86-99, and 27-99 days after sowing), on growth and fruit quality of potted single tomato plants that were sub-surface trickle-irrigated every 2 days at 2 levels. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 liters of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Results showed that post-infiltration aeration, especially during the fruit setting (34-57 DAS) and enlargement (58-85 DAS) growth stages, can positively influence the yield, root dry weight and activity, and the nutritional (soluble solids and vitamin C content), taste (titratable acidity), and market quality (shape and firmness) of the tomato fruits. Interactions between irrigation level and post-infiltration aeration on some of these fruit quality parameters indicated a need for further study on the dynamic interplay of air and water in the root zone of the plants under the conditions of this experiment.

  3. Effect of Post-Infiltration Soil Aeration at Different Growth Stages on Growth and Fruit Quality of Drip-Irrigated Potted Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Jia, Zongxia; Niu, Wenquan; Wang, Jingwei; Zhang, Mingzhi

    2015-01-01

    Soil hydraulic principles suggest that post-infiltration hypoxic conditions would be induced in the plant root-zone for drip-irrigated tomato production in small pots filled with natural soil. No previous study specifically examined the response of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) at different growth stages to low soil aeration under these conditions. A 2 × 6 factorial experiment was conducted to quantify effects of no post-infiltration soil aeration versus aeration during 5 different periods (namely 27-33, 34-57, 58-85, 86-99, and 27-99 days after sowing), on growth and fruit quality of potted single tomato plants that were sub-surface trickle-irrigated every 2 days at 2 levels. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 liters of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Results showed that post-infiltration aeration, especially during the fruit setting (34-57 DAS) and enlargement (58-85 DAS) growth stages, can positively influence the yield, root dry weight and activity, and the nutritional (soluble solids and vitamin C content), taste (titratable acidity), and market quality (shape and firmness) of the tomato fruits. Interactions between irrigation level and post-infiltration aeration on some of these fruit quality parameters indicated a need for further study on the dynamic interplay of air and water in the root zone of the plants under the conditions of this experiment. PMID:26630675

  4. Impact of post-infiltration soil aeration at different growth stages of sub-surface trickle-irrigated tomato plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Jia, Zong-xia; Niu, Wen-Quan; Wang, Jing-wei

    2016-07-01

    Sensitivity to low rhizosphere soil aeration may change over time and therefore plant response may also depend on different growth stages of a crop. This study quantified effects of soil aeration during 5 different periods, on growth and yield of trickle-irrigated potted single tomato plants. Irrigation levels were 0.6 to 0.7 (low level) or 0.7 to 0.8 (high level) of total water holding capacity of the pots. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 l of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Fresh fruit yield, above ground plant dry weight, plant height, and leaf area index response to these treatments were measured. For all these 4 response variables, means of post-infiltration aeration between 58 to 85 days after sowing were 13.4, 43.5, 13.7, and 37.7% higher than those for the non-aerated pots, respectively. The results indicated that: post-infiltration soil aeration can positively impact the yield and growth of sub-surface trickle-irrigated potted tomato plants; positive effects on plant growth can be obtained with aeration during the whole growth period or with aeration for partial periods; positive growth effects of partial periods of aeration appears to persist and result in yield benefit.

  5. Strong influences of larval diet history on subsequent post-settlement growth in the freshwater mollusc Dreissena polymorpha.

    PubMed Central

    Wacker, Alexander; von Elert, Eric

    2002-01-01

    A significant seasonal variation in size at settlement has been observed in newly settled larvae of Dreissena polymorpha in Lake Constance. Diet quality, which varies temporally and spatially in freshwater habitats, has been suggested as a significant factor influencing the life history and development of freshwater invertebrates. Accordingly, experiments were conducted with field-collected larvae to test the proposal that diet quality can determine planktonic larval growth rates, size at settlement and subsequent post-metamorphic growth rates. Larvae were fed one of two diets or starved. One diet was composed of cyanobacterial cells, which are deficient in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and the other was a mixed diet rich in PUFAs. Freshly metamorphosed animals from the starvation treatment had a carbon content per individual 70% lower than that of larvae fed the mixed diet. This apparent exhaustion of larval internal reserves resulted in a 50% reduction of the post-metamorphic growth rates. Growth was also reduced in animals previously fed the cyanobacterial diet. Hence, low food quantity or low food quality during the larval stage of D. polymorpha, lead to irreversible effects for post-metamorphic animals and are related to inferior competitive abilities. PMID:12396485

  6. Post-natal growth in the rat pineal gland: a stereological study.

    PubMed

    Erbagci, H; Kizilkan, N; Ozbag, D; Erkilic, S; Kervancioglu, P; Canan, S; Gumusburun, E

    2012-10-01

    The purpose was to observe the changes in a rat pineal gland using stereological techniques during lactation and post-weaning periods. Thirty Wistar albino rats were studied during different post-natal periods using light microscopy. Pineal gland volume was estimated using the Cavalieri Method. Additionally, the total number of pinealocytes was estimated using the optical fractionator technique. Pineal gland volume displayed statistically significant changes between lactation and after weaning periods. A significant increase in pineal gland volume was observed from post-natal day 10 to post-natal day 90. The numerical density of pinealocytes became stabilized during lactation and decreased rapidly after weaning. However, the total number of pinealocytes continuously increased during post-natal life of all rats in the study. However, this increment was not statistically significant when comparing the lactation and after weaning periods. The increase in post-natal pineal gland volume may depend on increment of immunoreactive fibres, capsule thickness or new synaptic bodies.

  7. Insulin-like growth factor-1 and post-ischemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Guan, J; Bennet, L; Gluckman, P D; Gunn, A J

    2003-08-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a naturally occurring neurotrophic factor that plays an important role in promoting cell proliferation and differentiation during normal brain development and maturation. The present review examines recent evidence that endogenous IGF-1 also plays a significant role in recovery from insults such as hypoxia-ischemia and that giving additional exogenous IGF-1 can actively ameliorate damage. It is now well established that neurons and other cell types die many hours or even days after initial injury due to activation of programmed cell death pathways. IGF-1 and its binding proteins and receptors are intensely induced within damaged brain regions following brain injury, suggesting a possible a role for IGF-1 in brain recovery. Exogenous administration of IGF-1 within a few hours after brain injury is now known to be protective in both gray and white matter and leads to improved somatic function. In contrast, pre-treatment is ineffective, likely reflecting limited intracerebral penetration of IGF-1 into the uninjured brain. The neuroprotective effects of IGF-1 are mediated by IGF-1 receptors and its binding proteins and are specific to particular cellular phenotypes and brain regions. The window of opportunity for treatment with IGF-1 is limited to a few hours after normothermic brain injury, reflecting its specific actions on early, intracellular events in the apoptotic cascade. However, injury-associated mild post-hypoxic hypothermia, which delays the development of cell death, can shift and dramatically extend the window of opportunity for delayed treatment with IGF-1. Such a combined approach is likely to be essential for any clinical treatment.

  8. Cholesteatoma Growth and Proliferation: Post-Transcriptional Regulation by microRNA-21

    PubMed Central

    Friedland, David R.; Eernisse, Rebecca; Erbe, Christy; Gupta, Nidhi; Cioffi, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to identify novel regulatory mechanisms controlling the growth and proliferation of cholesteatoma. Specifically, the potential role of microRNAs, regulators of protein translation, was studied in cholesteatoma. Study Design This study represents a molecular biological investigation characterizing and comparing microRNA and protein expression in cholesteatoma and normal post-auricular skin. Methods Cholesteatoma and normal skin were taken from patients at the time of surgery. Tissue was processed for RNA and protein extraction. Real-time RT-PCR was used to assess levels of human microRNAs, RT-PCR was used to confirm the presence of upstream regulators, and western blot analyses were used to assess levels of downstream target proteins. Results Among the microRNAs investigated, human microRNA-21 (hsa-mir-21) showed a 4.4-fold higher expression in cholesteatoma as compared to normal skin (p=0.0011). The downstream targets of hsa-mir-21, PTEN and PDCD4, were found to be greatly reduced in 3 of 4 cholesteatoma samples. Proposed upstream regulators of hsa-mir-21 expression (CD14, IL-6R, gp130 and STAT3) were present in all cholesteatoma tissues. Conclusions MicroRNAs represent powerful regulators of protein translation and their dysregulation has been implicated in many neoplastic diseases. This study specifically identified up-regulation of hsa-mir-21 concurrent with down-regulation of potent tumor suppressor proteins, PTEN and PDCD4. These proteins control aspects of apoptosis, proliferation, invasion and migration. The results of this study were used to develop a model for cholesteatoma proliferation through microRNA dysregulation. This model can serve as a template for further study into potential RNA-based therapies for the treatment of cholesteatoma. PMID:19672202

  9. Nitrogen deficiency inhibits leaf blade growth in Lolium perenne by increasing cell cycle duration and decreasing mitotic and post-mitotic growth rates.

    PubMed

    Kavanová, Monika; Lattanzi, Fernando Alfredo; Schnyder, Hans

    2008-06-01

    Nitrogen deficiency severely inhibits leaf growth. This response was analysed at the cellular level by growing Lolium perenne L. under 7.5 mM (high) or 1 mM (low) nitrate supply, and performing a kinematic analysis to assess the effect of nitrogen status on cell proliferation and cell growth in the leaf blade epidermis. Low nitrogen supply reduced leaf elongation rate (LER) by 43% through a similar decrease in the cell production rate and final cell length. The former was entirely because of a decreased average cell division rate (0.023 versus 0.032 h(-1)) and thus longer cell cycle duration (30 versus 22 h). Nitrogen status did not affect the number of division cycles of the initial cell's progeny (5.7), and accordingly the meristematic cell number (53). Meristematic cell length was unaffected by nitrogen deficiency, implying that the division and mitotic growth rates were equally impaired. The shorter mature cell length arose from a considerably reduced post-mitotic growth rate (0.033 versus 0.049 h(-1)). But, nitrogen stress did not affect the position where elongation stopped, and increased cell elongation duration. In conclusion, nitrogen deficiency limited leaf growth by increasing the cell cycle duration and decreasing mitotic and post-mitotic elongation rates, delaying cell maturation.

  10. Effects of post-growth annealing in a CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB trilayer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Ji-Feng; Ter Lim, Sze; Tran, Michael; Ji, Rong

    2015-11-01

    CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB tri-layer thin-film stacks have been widely used in the design of STT-RAM devices as functional magnetic-tunnel-junction (MTJ) structures. The materials properties of the CoFeB and MgO layers, including composition and lattice quality, have been extensively researched from the stand point of optimizing for the best MTJ performance. On the other hand, post-growth annealing is required for the MTJ structure to acquire its functional property, i.e. its TMR performance. In this work, we have studied the various possible effects resulting from the post-growth annealing process. Specifically, we show that the post-growth annealing causes boron in the top and bottom CoFeB layers to migrate into the adjacent Ta layers as well as deterioration in lattice quality of the MgO layer. Furthermore, we evaluate other effects that could be possibly induced during the annealing process, including Ta diffusion and layer intermixing in the CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB tri-layer structure. The post-growth annealing causes little change in the Ta diffusion and the layer intermixing. These annealing effects were also evaluated with respect to variations in the MgO growth process; more specifically, an additional natural oxidation treatment during the MgO layer deposition and the insertion of a Fe layer before the MgO layer. Our results indicate that the addition of a natural oxidation process during the MgO deposition process and the insertion of a thin-layer of Fe before the MgO layer both lead to a reduction in the layer intermixing between the MgO and the CoFeB layer and to an improvement in MgO lattice quality. We also show that the post-growth annealing does not alter the beneficial effect of these MgO growth process modifications.

  11. The growth response of Alternanthera philoxeroides in a simulated post-combustion emission with ultrahigh [CO2] and acidic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Griffin, Kevin L; Blazier, John C; Craig, Elizabeth C; Gilbert, Dominique S; Sritrairat, Sanpisa; Anderson, O Roger; Castaldi, Marco J; Beaumont, Larry

    2009-07-01

    Although post-combustion emissions from power plants are a major source of air pollution, they contain excess CO2 that could be used to fertilize commercial greenhouses and stimulate plant growth. We addressed the combined effects of ultrahigh [CO2] and acidic pollutants in flue gas on the growth of Alternanthera philoxeroides. When acidic pollutants were excluded, the biomass yield of A. philoxeroides saturated near 2000 micromol mol(-1) [CO2] with doubled biomass accumulation relative to the ambient control. The growth enhancement was maintained at 5000 micromol mol(-1) [CO2], but declined when [CO2] rose above 1%, in association with a strong photosynthetic inhibition. Although acidic components (SO2 and NO2) significantly offset the CO2 enhancement, the aboveground yield increased considerably when the concentration of pollutants was moderate (200 times dilution). Our results indicate that using excess CO2 from the power plant emissions to optimize growth in commercial green house could be viable.

  12. Experimental methods of post-growth tuning of the excitonic fine structure splitting in semiconductor quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Deterministic sources of polarization entangled photon pairs on demand are considered as important building blocks for quantum communication technology. It has been demonstrated that semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), which exhibit a sufficiently small excitonic fine structure splitting (FSS) can be used as triggered, on-chip sources of polarization entangled photon pairs. As-grown QDs usually do not have the required values of the FSS, making the availability of post-growth tuning techniques highly desired. This article reviews the effect of different post-growth treatments and external fields on the FSS such as thermal annealing, magnetic fields, the optical Stark effect, electric fields, and anisotropic stress. As a consequence of the tuning of the FSS, for some tuning techniques a rotation of the polarization of the emitted light is observed. The joint modification of polarization orientation and FSS can be described by an anticrossing of the bright excitonic states. PMID:22726724

  13. Post-fire wood management alters water stress, growth, and performance of pine regeneration in a Mediterranean ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maranon-Jimenez, Sara; Castro, Jorge; Querejeta, José Ignacio; Fernandez-Ondono, Emilia; Allen, Craig D.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research has focused on comparing the impacts of post-fire salvage logging versus those of less aggressive management practices on forest regeneration. However, few studies have addressed the effects of different burnt-wood management options on seedling/sapling performance, or the ecophysiological mechanisms underlying differences among treatments. In this study, we experimentally assess the effects of post-fire management of the burnt wood on the growth and performance of naturally regenerating pine seedlings (Pinus pinaster). Three post-fire management treatments varying in degree of intervention were implemented seven months after a high-severity wildfire burned Mediterranean pine forests in the Sierra Nevada, southeast Spain: (a) “No Intervention” (NI, all burnt trees left standing); (b) “Partial Cut plus Lopping” (PCL, felling most of the burnt trees, cutting off branches, and leaving all the biomass on site without mastication); and (c) “Salvage Logging” (SL, felling the burnt trees, piling up the logs and masticating the fine woody debris). Three years after the fire, the growth, foliar nutrient concentrations, and leaf carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition (δ13C, δ18O and δ15N) of naturally regenerating seedlings were measured in all the treatments. Pine seedlings showed greatest vigor and size in the PCL treatment, whereas growth was poorest in SL. The nutrient concentrations were similar among treatments, although greater growth in the two treatments with residual wood present indicated higher plant uptake. Seedlings in the SL treatment showed high leaf δ13C and δ18O values indicating severe water stress, in contrast to significantly alleviated water stress indications in the PCL treatment. Seedling growth and physiological performance in NI was intermediate between that of PCL and SL. After six growing seasons, P. pinaster saplings in PCL showed greater growth and cone production than SL saplings. In summary

  14. Growth and contribution of stocked channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818): the importance of measuring post-stocking performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study it was sought to quantify post-stocking growth, survival, and contribution of advanced size (178 mm total length [TL]) channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fingerlings, something rarely done. Channel catfish populations were evaluated before (May 2010) and after (May to August 2011 and 2012) stocking. Relative abundance, stocking contribution, and growth were different (P < 0.05) in the two study impoundments (lakes Lone Chimney and Greenleaf, Oklahoma). For fish stocked in Lake Lone Chimney, stocking contribution was lower (3–35%), and average length and weight of stocked fish by age-2 reached 230 mm TL and 85 g, whereas the stocking contribution (84–98%) and growth in length (340 mm TL) and weight (280 g) were higher by age-2 in Lake Greenleaf. Given these unambiguous differences of post-stocking performance, benchmark metrics that represent population-level information such as relative abundance and average length and weight of the sample masked these significant differences, highlighting the importance of marking hatchery-fish and then following them through time to determine the effectiveness of stocking. These results suggest that stock enhancement programmes would benefit from studies that quantify post-stocking performance of hatchery fish.

  15. Interaction Between Genetic Variants and Exposure to Hurricane Katrina on Post-Traumatic Stress and Post-Traumatic Growth: A Prospective Analysis of Low Income Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Erin C.; Solovieff, Nadia; Lowe, Sarah R.; Gallagher, Patience J.; Chaponis, Jonathan; Rosand, Jonathan; Koenen, Karestan C.; Waters, Mary; Rhodes, Jean; Smoller, Jordan W.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is considerable variation in psychological reactions to natural disasters, with responses ranging from relatively mild and transitory symptoms to severe and persistent posttraumatic stress (PTS). Some survivors also report post-traumatic growth (PTG), or positive psychological changes due to the experience and processing of the disaster and its aftermath. Gene-environment interaction (GxE) studies could offer new insight into the factors underlying variability in post-disaster psychological responses. However, few studies have explored GxE in a disaster context. Methods We examined whether ten common variants in seven genes (BDNF, CACNA1C, CRHR1, FKBP5, OXTR, RGS2, SLC6A4) modified associations between Hurricane Katrina exposure and PTS and PTG. Data were from a prospective study of 205 low-income non-Hispanic Black parents residing in New Orleans prior to and following Hurricane Katrina. Results We found a significant association (after correction) between RGS2 (rs4606; p=0.0044) and PTG, which was mainly driven by a cross-over GxE (p=0.006), rather than a main genetic effect (p=0.071). The G (minor allele) was associated with lower PTG scores for low levels of Hurricane exposure and higher PTG scores for moderate and high levels of exposure. We also found a nominally significant association between variation in FKBP5 (rs1306780, p=0.0113) and PTG, though this result did not survive correction for multiple testing. Limitations Although the inclusion of low-income non-Hispanic Black parents allowed us to examine GxE among a highly vulnerable group, our findings may not generalize to other populations or groups experiencing other natural disasters. Moreover, not all participants invited to participate in the genetic study provided saliva. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify GxE in the context of post-traumatic growth. Future studies are needed to clarify the role of GxE in PTS and PTG and post-disaster psychological

  16. Post-natal growth and development of Simmental calves derived from in vivo or in vitro embryos.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, T G; Sinclair, K D; Broadbent, P J; Goodhand, K L; Robinson, J J

    1998-01-01

    Large fetuses arising from embryos produced in vitro have been shown to exhibit altered organ development in utero, but it is not known whether this persists post natally. Post-natal growth and development was examined in 18 Simmental bulls derived from in vivo frozen-thawed (n = 6), in vitro frozen-thawed (n = 6) or in vitro fresh (n = 6) embryos and reared together post weaning on an ad libitum diet until slaughter at approximately 13 months old. Calves weighing less than 60 kg at birth (n = 11) were classified as normal, and heavier calves (n = 7; all from in vitro embryos) as oversize. Lifetime growth rates and slaughter weights apparently were unaffected by embryo source or birthweight. Mean (+/- s.e.m.) post mortem liver and kidney weights were unaffected by embryo source, but hearts of bulls from in vitro frozen embryos were heavier than those of bulls from in vivo frozen embryos (2.7 +/- 0.04 v 2.3 +/- 0.07 kg, P<0.025). Heart weight per kilogram body weight at slaughter for the 7 perinatally oversize males (4.01 +/- 0.08 g) exceeded that of the other 5 bulls from in vitro embryos (3.60 +/- 0.10 g kg(-1); P<0.04) and the 6 in vivo males (3.56 +/- 0.12 g kg(-1); P<0.02). Overall, one-third of the variation in heart weight at slaughter (r2 = 0.35; P = 0.01) was due to variation in birthweight. This is the first study to demonstrate birthweight-related developmental effects on post-natal organ weight following the transfer of embryos produced in vitro. PMID:10588375

  17. Enhanced or Reduced Fetal Growth Induced by Embryo Transfer into Smaller or Larger Breeds Alters Post-Natal Growth and Metabolism in Pre-Weaning Horses

    PubMed Central

    Peugnet, Pauline; Wimel, Laurence; Duchamp, Guy; Sandersen, Charlotte; Camous, Sylvaine; Guillaume, Daniel; Dahirel, Michèle; Dubois, Cédric; Jouneau, Luc; Reigner, Fabrice; Berthelot, Valérie; Chaffaux, Stéphane; Tarrade, Anne; Serteyn, Didier; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    In equids, placentation is diffuse and nutrient supply to the fetus is determined by uterine size. This correlates with maternal size and affects intra-uterine development and subsequent post-natal growth, as well as insulin sensitivity in the newborn. Long-term effects remain to be described. In this study, fetal growth was enhanced or restricted through ET using pony (P), saddlebred (S) and draft (D) horses. Control P-P (n = 21) and S-S (n = 28) pregnancies were obtained by AI. Enhanced and restricted pregnancies were obtained by transferring P or S embryos into D mares (P-D, n = 6 and S-D, n = 8) or S embryos into P mares (S-P, n = 6), respectively. Control and experimental foals were raised by their dams and recipient mothers, respectively. Weight gain, growth hormones and glucose homeostasis were investigated in the foals from birth to weaning. Fetal growth was enhanced in P-D and these foals remained consistently heavier, with reduced T3 concentrations until weaning compared to P-P. P-D had lower fasting glucose from days 30 to 200 and higher insulin secretion than P-P after IVGTT on day 3. Euglycemic clamps in the immediate post-weaning period revealed no difference in insulin sensitivity between P-D and P-P. Fetal growth was restricted in S-P and these foals remained consistently lighter until weaning compared to S-D, with elevated T3 concentrations in the newborn compared to S-S. S-P exhibited higher fasting glycemia than S-S and S-D from days 30 to 200. They had higher maximum increment in plasma glucose than S-D after IVGTT on day 3 and clamps on day 200 demonstrated higher insulin sensitivity compared to S-D. Neither the restricted nor the enhanced fetal environment affected IGF-1 concentrations. Thus, enhanced and restricted fetal and post-natal environments had combined effects that persisted until weaning. They induced different adaptive responses in post-natal glucose metabolism: an early insulin-resistance was induced in

  18. Effects of pharmacological concentrations of dietary zinc oxide on growth of post-weaning pigs: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sales, James

    2013-06-01

    Pharmacological dietary zinc (Zn) concentrations of 1,000 to 3,000 mg/kg diet from Zn oxide have been found to increase growth in post-weaning pigs. However, results were inconsistent among studies. A frequentist meta-analysis, in which effects were numerically described with standardized effect sizes (Hedges's g), was conducted in order to identify and quantify the responses in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain to feed ratio (G/F) in post-weaning pigs upon dietary Zn supplementation from Zn oxide. The inability of independent continuous variables to explain significant heterogeneity obtained with fixed effect models necessitated the use of random effects models to calculate summary statistics. Dietary Zn supplementation increased (P < 0.05) ADG (mean effect size = 1.086, 95 % confidence intervals = 0.905-1.266, 26 studies, 72 comparisons), ADFI (mean effect size = 0.794, 95 % confidence intervals = 0.616-0.971, 25 studies, 71 comparisons), and G/F (mean effect size = 0.566, 95 % confidence intervals = 0.422-0.710, 24 studies, 70 comparisons). Zinc oxide provided a feasible alternative to in-feed antibiotics to improve growth in post-weaning pigs, and its reduction in diets due to potential environmental pollution will have to be negated by alternative feed additives and management strategies in order to prevent economic losses.

  19. Rethinking of Economic Growth and Life Satisfaction in Post-WWII Japan--A Fresh Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusago, Takayoshi

    2007-01-01

    Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has been utilized by academics and policy makers to indicate the economic well-being of the people. However, economic growth measures cannot capture fully the overall well-being of the people. This paper has tested quality of economic growth in Japan after World War II as to whether it has brought about positive…

  20. Metabolism correlates with variation in post-natal growth rate among songbirds at three latitudes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ton, Riccardo; Martin, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    4. Our results suggest that variation in metabolic rates has an important influence on broad patterns of avian growth rates at a global scale. We suggest further studies that address the ecological and physiological costs and consequences of variation in metabolism and growth rates.

  1. Effects of post-harvest handling conditions on internalization and growth of Salmonella enterica in tomatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internalization during post-harvest handling is a significant route of tomato contamination by phytopathogens and foodborne human pathogens. This study was conducted to determine the effect of immersion time, immersion depth, and the temperature differential between bacterial suspension and tomato p...

  2. Tree Growth and Competition in a Betula platyphylla–Larix cajanderi Post-fire Forest in Central Kamchatka

    PubMed Central

    DOLEŽAL, JIŘÍ; ISHII, HIROAKI; VETROVA, VALENTINA P.; SUMIDA, AKIHIRO; HARA, TOSHIHIKO

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Fire is the dominant disturbance in central Kamchatka boreal forests, yet patterns and mechanisms of stand recovery have not been investigated. • Methods Measurements were made of 1433 stems ≥1·3 m height and annual radial increments of 225 randomly selected trees in a 0·4-ha plot of a 53-year-old fire-origin mixed-species stand to examine the spatio-temporal variation in establishment, growth, size inequality and the mode of competition among individual trees. Growth variations were related to tree size, age and local interference with neighbours. • Key Results Betula platyphylla formed the main canopy following a fire in 1947, with Larix cajanderi and Pinus pumila progressively reinvading the lower tree and shrub stratum. Most B. platyphylla originated from sprouts in small patches (polycormons) during the first 15 post-fire years. Betula platyphylla had normal distributions of diameter and age classes, but negatively skewed height distribution, as expected from shade-intolerant, pioneer species. Larix cajanderi had fewer tall and many short individuals. The smaller and younger B. platyphylla grew disproportionately more in diameter than larger trees from 1950 to 1975, and hence stem size inequalities decreased. The reverse trend was observed from 1995 to 2000: larger trees grew more, indicating an increasing asymmetry of competition for light. Betula platyphylla had steady diameter growth in the first 25 post-fire years, after which the growth declined in smaller trees. Neighbourhood analysis showed that the decline resulted from increased competition from taller neighbours. • Conclusions The observed growth patterns suggest that mode of interactions altered during stand development from early stages of weak competition for soil resources released by fire to later stages of asymmetric competition for light. Asymmetric crown competition started later than reported in other studies, which can be attributed to the lower stem

  3. Influence of post-growth rapid thermal annealing on the transport and lasing characteristics of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, R.; Schrottke, L.; Wienold, M.; Biermann, K.; Tahraoui, A.; Grahn, H. T.

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the effect of post-growth rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the transport and lasing characteristics of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers (THz QCLs) operating in a frequency range between 4.88 and 4.94 THz. The emission frequencies are blue shifted by about 80 GHz after RTA, which is attributed to a shift of the gain maximum to higher frequencies due to composition grading at the interfaces between the quantum wells and barriers of the annealed wafer pieces. The optical output power of the annealed THz QCLs is reduced, which is explained by a broadening of the levels due to the annealing process.

  4. The Time of Maximum Post-Ischemic Hyperperfusion Indicates Infarct Growth Following Transient Experimental Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Wegener, Susanne; Artmann, Judith; Luft, Andreas R.; Buxton, Richard B.; Weller, Michael; Wong, Eric C.

    2013-01-01

    After recanalization, cerebral blood flow (CBF) can increase above baseline in cerebral ischemia. However, the significance of post-ischemic hyperperfusion for tissue recovery remains unclear. To analyze the course of post-ischemic hyperperfusion and its impact on vascular function, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with pulsed arterial spin labeling (pASL) and measured CBF quantitatively during and after a 60 minute transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in adult rats. We added a 5% CO2 - challenge to analyze vasoreactivity in the same animals. Results from MRI were compared to histological correlates of angiogenesis. We found that CBF in the ischemic area recovered within one day and reached values significantly above contralateral thereafter. The extent of hyperperfusion changed over time, which was related to final infarct size: early (day 1) maximal hyperperfusion was associated with smaller lesions, whereas a later (day 4) maximum indicated large lesions. Furthermore, after initial vasoparalysis within the ischemic area, vasoreactivity on day 14 was above baseline in a fraction of animals, along with a higher density of blood vessels in the ischemic border zone. These data provide further evidence that late post-ischemic hyperperfusion is a sequel of ischemic damage in regions that are likely to undergo infarction. However, it is transient and its resolution coincides with re-gaining of vascular structure and function. PMID:23741488

  5. Post-translational modification of osteopontin: Effects on in vitro hydroxyapatite formation and growth

    SciTech Connect

    Boskey, Adele L.; Christensen, Brian; Taleb, Hayat; Sorensen, Esben S.

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thrombin-cleaved fragments of milk-osteopontin effect hydroxyapatite formation differently. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N- and C-terminal fragments promoted hydroxyapatite formation and growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A central fragment inhibited hydroxyapatite formation and growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Binding to collagen or hydroxyapatite seed crystals modified these effects. -- Abstract: The manuscript tests the hypothesis that posttranslational modification of the SIBLING family of proteins in general and osteopontin in particular modify the abilities of these proteins to regulate in vitro hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. Osteopontin has diverse effects on hydroxyapatite (HA) mineral crystallite formation and growth depending on the extent of phosphorylation. We hypothesized that different regions of full-length OPN would also have distinct effects on the mineralization process. Thrombin fragmentation of milk OPN (mOPN) was used to test this hypothesis. Three fragments were tested in a de novo HA formation assay; an N-terminal fragment (aa 1-147), a central fragment (aa 148-204) denoted SKK-fragment and a C-terminal fragment (aa 205-262). Compared to intact mOPN the C- and N-terminal fragments behaved comparably, promoting HA formation and growth, but the central SKK-fragment acted as a mineralization inhibitor. In a seeded growth experiment all fragments inhibited mineral proliferation, but the SKK-fragment was the most effective inhibitor. These effects, seen in HA-formation and seeded growth assays in a gelatin gel system and in a pH-stat experiment were lost when the protein or fragments were dephosphorylated. Effects of the fully phosphorylated protein and fragments were also altered in the presence of fibrillar collagen. The diverse effects can be explained in terms of the intrinsically disordered nature of OPN and its fragments which enable them to interact with their multiple partners.

  6. The Effect of Plant Cultivar, Growth Media, Harvest Method and Post Harvest Treatment on the Microbiology of Edible Crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummerick, Mary P.; Gates, Justin R.; Nguyen, Bao-Thang; Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    Systems for the growth of crops in closed environments are being developed and tested for potential use in space applications to provide a source of fresh food. Plant growth conditions, growth media composition and harvest methods can have an effect on the microbial population of the plant, and therefore should be considered along with the optimization of plant growth and harvest yields to ensure a safe and palatable food crop. This work examines the effect of plant cultivar, growth media, and harvest method on plant microbial populations. Twelve varieties of leafy greens and herbs were grown on a mixture of Fafard #2 and Arcillite in the pillow root containment system currently being considered for the VEGGIE plant growth unit developed by Orbitec. In addition, ,Sierra and Outredgeous lettuce varieties were grown in three different mixtures (Fafard #2, Ardllite, and Perlite/Vermiculite). The plants were analyzed for microbial density. Two harvest methods, "cut and come again" (CACA) and terminal harvest were also compared. In one set ofexpe'riments red leaf lettuce and mizuna were grown in pots in a Biomass Production System for education. Plants were harvested every two weeks by either method. Another set of experiments was performed using the rooting pillows to grow 5 varieties of leafy greens and cut harvesting at different intervals. Radishes were harvested and replanted at two-week intervals. Results indicate up to a 3 IOglO difference in microbial counts between some varieties of plants. Rooting medium resulted in an approximately 2 IOglO lower count in the lettuce grown in arscillite then those grown in the other mixtures. Harvest method and frequency had less impact on microbial counts only showing a significant increase in one variety of plant. Post harvest methods to decrease the bacterial counts on edible crops were investigated in these and other experiments. The effectiveness of PRO-SAN and UV-C radiation is compared.

  7. Effects of egg incubation condition on the post-hatching growth and performance of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, K.M.

    1990-12-01

    The effect of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth and performance capacities of the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina was investigated in the laboratory. Turtle eggs were collected from four sites in New York State and randomly assigned to four incubation temperature treatments to produce males (constant 26{degree}C and downshifted 30-26-30{degree}C) and females (constant 30{degree}C and upshifted 26-30-26{degree}C) under constant and altered temperature regimes. The incubation conditions resulted in 92% males from the constant 26{degree}C group and 93% males from the downshifted group. 100% females resulted from both the constant 30{degree}C group and the upshifted group. Turtles hatching from eggs incubated constantly at 26{degree}C were significantly larger than hatchlings from eggs incubated at a constant 30{degree}C or downshifted. Hatchlings were raised in individual aquaria at 25{degree}C and fed earthworms and fish. After a 9-month growth period, turtles which had been incubated at a constant 30{degree}C gained significantly more mass than did turtles from eggs which had been downshifted or upshifted. There was no extended effect of incubation condition on Post-hatching performance and learning ability as measured by righting and feeding responses. Thus, the mass gain differences seen in this study suggest that physiological differences do result as the consequence of incubation condition. However, these physiological differences are not reflected in normal locomotive or feeding behavior.

  8. Effects of egg incubation condition on the post-hatching growth and performance of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, K.M.

    1990-12-01

    The effect of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth and performance capacities of the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina was investigated in the laboratory. Turtle eggs were collected from four sites in New York State and randomly assigned to four incubation temperature treatments to produce males (constant 26[degree]C and downshifted 30-26-30[degree]C) and females (constant 30[degree]C and upshifted 26-30-26[degree]C) under constant and altered temperature regimes. The incubation conditions resulted in 92% males from the constant 26[degree]C group and 93% males from the downshifted group. 100% females resulted from both the constant 30[degree]C group and the upshifted group. Turtles hatching from eggs incubated constantly at 26[degree]C were significantly larger than hatchlings from eggs incubated at a constant 30[degree]C or downshifted. Hatchlings were raised in individual aquaria at 25[degree]C and fed earthworms and fish. After a 9-month growth period, turtles which had been incubated at a constant 30[degree]C gained significantly more mass than did turtles from eggs which had been downshifted or upshifted. There was no extended effect of incubation condition on Post-hatching performance and learning ability as measured by righting and feeding responses. Thus, the mass gain differences seen in this study suggest that physiological differences do result as the consequence of incubation condition. However, these physiological differences are not reflected in normal locomotive or feeding behavior.

  9. Effects of post-partum administration of ketoprofen on sow health and piglet growth.

    PubMed

    Viitasaari, Elina; Hänninen, Laura; Heinonen, Mari; Raekallio, Marja; Orro, Toomas; Peltoniemi, Olli; Valros, Anna

    2013-10-01

    The effect of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen on the post farrowing phase of sows was studied in a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Ketoprofen (3mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly to 20 healthy sows for 3 days post-partum (p.p.). The control group (n=20) received a saline placebo. Backfat, number of days of constipation and days before feed refusal were measured. Body condition (BCS) and shoulder sores were scored for 1 week p.p. Changes in BCS, backfat and shoulder sore scores were analysed with ANOVA. Blood was collected on days -1, 0, 5 and 14 with respect to medication. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine kinase (CK), haptoglobin and serum amyloid A (SAA) were quantified and analysed with a Mann-Whitney U test. BCS and backfat decreased less following ketoprofen administration than with the placebo (-0.08 ± 0.2 vs. -0.8 ± 0.2, 1.0 ± 0.8mm vs. -2.0 ± 0.9 mm, respectively; P<0.05 for both) during the first 2 weeks of lactation. The shoulder sore score deterioration was milder during days 4-6 p.p. with ketoprofen than placebo (P<0.05). Duration of constipation was shorter with ketoprofen than placebo (5.5 ± 0.3 vs. 6.4 ± 0.3 days p.p.; P<0.05). Incidences of feed refusal occurred later in the ketoprofen group than in the placebos (9.6 ± 0.9 vs. 3.8 ± 0.8 days p.p.; P<0.05). AST and SAA values were higher after ketoprofen administration than placebo on day 5 p.p. (P<0.05). It was concluded that ketoprofen appeared to benefit sows during the first 2 weeks post farrowing, but caused some tissue irritation.

  10. Is there a correspondence between growth and post-handling stress: A respirometry approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Examinations into the linkage between aquaculture performance parameters (e.g. growth, survival) and the physiological stress response has led to the consideration of selecting stress response phenotypes in breeding programs. Methodologies for examining the stress response typically require blood s...

  11. Investigations into the relationship of post-stress metabolic rates and growth of fishes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if respirometry indices of fish following a stressor correspond with growth. On four occasions over a period of one month, oxygen consumption rates of 16 hybrid striped bass families were measured following a standardized handling stressor. Groups of 10...

  12. Investment choices in post-embryonic development: quantifying interactions among growth, regeneration, and asexual reproduction in the annelid Pristina leidyi.

    PubMed

    Zattara, Eduardo E; Bely, Alexandra E

    2013-12-01

    Animals capable of multiple forms of post-embryonic development, such as growth, regeneration, and asexual reproduction, must make choices about which processes to invest in. What strategies guide post-embryonic resource allocation investments? We investigated this question in the annelid Pristina leidyi, which can grow continuously, regenerates well, and reproduces asexually by fission. We found that in this species growth is concentrated in three zones: a subterminal posterior zone (forming new segments), a mid-body zone (forming fission zones), and a previously undescribed subterminal anterior zone at the base of the prostomium (which we suggest continually builds the prostomium through a "conveyor-belt" like process). Body-wide counts of proliferating cells are greater under high food than low food conditions but proliferation patterns themselves are independent of feeding level. Proliferation patterns are strongly affected by amputation, however, with proliferation rapidly shutting-down throughout the body, except at the wound site, following injury. Relative investment to fission and regeneration is highly context-dependent, being sensitive to the position of the cut and the stage of fission. Outcomes range from fission acceleration and regeneration stalling (high fission:regeneration investment) to resorption of fission zones and progression of regeneration (low fission:regeneration investment). Our findings reveal strong interactions between growth, regeneration, and fission and demonstrate a particularly important effect of injury on resource allocation patterns. Patterns of resource investment in P. leidyi show similarities to those described in two other groups that evolved fission independently (naidine annelids and catenulid flatworms), suggesting that similar developmental and physiological contexts may drive convergent evolution of resource allocation strategies. PMID:23913524

  13. Investment choices in post-embryonic development: quantifying interactions among growth, regeneration, and asexual reproduction in the annelid Pristina leidyi.

    PubMed

    Zattara, Eduardo E; Bely, Alexandra E

    2013-12-01

    Animals capable of multiple forms of post-embryonic development, such as growth, regeneration, and asexual reproduction, must make choices about which processes to invest in. What strategies guide post-embryonic resource allocation investments? We investigated this question in the annelid Pristina leidyi, which can grow continuously, regenerates well, and reproduces asexually by fission. We found that in this species growth is concentrated in three zones: a subterminal posterior zone (forming new segments), a mid-body zone (forming fission zones), and a previously undescribed subterminal anterior zone at the base of the prostomium (which we suggest continually builds the prostomium through a "conveyor-belt" like process). Body-wide counts of proliferating cells are greater under high food than low food conditions but proliferation patterns themselves are independent of feeding level. Proliferation patterns are strongly affected by amputation, however, with proliferation rapidly shutting-down throughout the body, except at the wound site, following injury. Relative investment to fission and regeneration is highly context-dependent, being sensitive to the position of the cut and the stage of fission. Outcomes range from fission acceleration and regeneration stalling (high fission:regeneration investment) to resorption of fission zones and progression of regeneration (low fission:regeneration investment). Our findings reveal strong interactions between growth, regeneration, and fission and demonstrate a particularly important effect of injury on resource allocation patterns. Patterns of resource investment in P. leidyi show similarities to those described in two other groups that evolved fission independently (naidine annelids and catenulid flatworms), suggesting that similar developmental and physiological contexts may drive convergent evolution of resource allocation strategies.

  14. Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Predicts Post-Load Hypoglycemia following Bariatric Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Itariu, Bianca K.; Zeyda, Maximilian; Prager, Gerhard; Stulnig, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Postprandial hypoglycemia is a complication following gastric bypass surgery, which frequently remains undetected. Severe hypoglycemic episodes, however, put patients at risk, e.g., for syncope. A major cause of hypoglycemia following gastric bypass is hyperinsulinemic nesidioblastosis. Since pancreatic islets in nesidioblastosis overexpress insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor α and administration of recombinant IGF-1 provokes hypoglycemia, our main objective was to investigate the occurrence of post-load hypoglycemia one year after bariatric surgery and its relation to pre- and post-operative IGF-1 serum concentrations. We evaluated metabolic parameters including 2 h 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and measured IGF-1 serum concentration in thirty-six non-diabetic patients (29 f/7 m), aged 41.3±2.0 y with a median (IQR) BMI of 30.9 kg/m2 (27.5–34.3 kg/m2), who underwent elective bariatric surgery (predominantly gastric bypass, 83%) at our hospital. Post-load hypoglycemia as defined by a 2 h glucose concentration <60 mg/dl was detected in 50% of patients. Serum insulin and C-peptide concentration during the OGTT and HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance) were similar in hypoglycemic and euglycemic patients. Strikingly, pre- and post-operative serum IGF-1 concentrations were significantly higher in hypoglycemic patients (p = 0.012 and p = 0.007 respectively). IGF-1 serum concentration before surgery negatively correlated with 2 h glucose concentration during the OGTT (rho = −0.58, p = 0.0003). Finally, IGF-1 serum concentrations before and after surgery significantly predicted post-load hypoglycemia with odds ratios of 1.28 (95%CI:1.03–1.55, p = 0.029) and 1.18 (95%CI:1.03–1.33, p = 0.015), respectively, for each 10 ng/ml increment. IGF-1 serum concentration could be a valuable biomarker to identify patients at risk for hypoglycemia following bariatric surgery independently of a diagnostic OGTT

  15. Effect of ion beam parameters on engineering of nanoscale voids and their stability under post-growth annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooda, Sonu; Khan, S. A.; Satpati, B.; Stange, D.; Buca, D.; Bala, M.; Pannu, C.; Kanjilal, D.; Kabiraj, Debdulal

    2016-03-01

    Swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation of damaged germanium (d-Ge) layer results in porous structure with voids aligned along ion trajectory due to local melting and resolidification during high electronic energy deposition. The present study focuses on the irradiation temperature- and incident angle-dependent growth dynamics and shape evolution of these voids due to 100 MeV Ag ions irradiation. The d-Ge layers were prepared by multiple low-energy Ar ion implantations in single crystalline Ge with damage formation of ~7 displacements per atom. Further, these d-Ge layers were irradiated using 100 MeV Ag ions at two different temperatures (77 and 300 K) and three different angles (7°, 30° and 45°). After SHI irradiation, substantial volume expansion of d-Ge layer is detected which is due to formation of nanoscale voids. The volume expansion is observed to be more in the samples irradiated at 77 K as compared to 300 K at a given irradiation fluence. It is observed that the voids are of spherical shape at low ion irradiation fluence. The voids grow in size and change their shape from spherical to prolate spheroid with increasing ion fluence. The major axis of spheroid is observed to be aligned approximately along the ion beam direction which has been confirmed by irradiation at three different angles. The change in shape is a consequence of combination of compressive strain and plastic flow developed due to thermal spike generated along ion track. Post-SHI irradiation annealing shows increase in size of voids and reversal of shape from prolate spheroid towards spherical through strain relaxation. The stability of voids was studied with the effect of post-growth annealing.

  16. Optimizing growth and post treatment of diamond for high capacitance neural interfaces.

    PubMed

    Tong, Wei; Fox, Kate; Zamani, Akram; Turnley, Ann M; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Ahnood, Arman; Cicione, Rosemary; Meffin, Hamish; Prawer, Steven; Stacey, Alastair; Garrett, David J

    2016-10-01

    Electrochemical and biological properties are two crucial criteria in the selection of the materials to be used as electrodes for neural interfaces. For neural stimulation, materials are required to exhibit high capacitance and to form intimate contact with neurons for eliciting effective neural responses at acceptably low voltages. Here we report on a new high capacitance material fabricated using nitrogen included ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD). After exposure to oxygen plasma for 3 h, the activated N-UNCD exhibited extremely high electrochemical capacitance greater than 1 mF/cm(2), which originates from the special hybrid sp(2)/sp(3) structure of N-UNCD. The in vitro biocompatibility of the activated N-UNCD was then assessed using rat cortical neurons and surface roughness was found to be critical for healthy neuron growth, with best results observed on surfaces with a roughness of approximately 20 nm. Therefore, by using oxygen plasma activated N-UNCD with appropriate surface roughness, and considering the chemical and mechanical stability of diamond, the fabricated neural interfaces are expected to exhibit high efficacy, long-term stability and a healthy neuron/electrode interface. PMID:27424214

  17. Optimizing growth and post treatment of diamond for high capacitance neural interfaces.

    PubMed

    Tong, Wei; Fox, Kate; Zamani, Akram; Turnley, Ann M; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Ahnood, Arman; Cicione, Rosemary; Meffin, Hamish; Prawer, Steven; Stacey, Alastair; Garrett, David J

    2016-10-01

    Electrochemical and biological properties are two crucial criteria in the selection of the materials to be used as electrodes for neural interfaces. For neural stimulation, materials are required to exhibit high capacitance and to form intimate contact with neurons for eliciting effective neural responses at acceptably low voltages. Here we report on a new high capacitance material fabricated using nitrogen included ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD). After exposure to oxygen plasma for 3 h, the activated N-UNCD exhibited extremely high electrochemical capacitance greater than 1 mF/cm(2), which originates from the special hybrid sp(2)/sp(3) structure of N-UNCD. The in vitro biocompatibility of the activated N-UNCD was then assessed using rat cortical neurons and surface roughness was found to be critical for healthy neuron growth, with best results observed on surfaces with a roughness of approximately 20 nm. Therefore, by using oxygen plasma activated N-UNCD with appropriate surface roughness, and considering the chemical and mechanical stability of diamond, the fabricated neural interfaces are expected to exhibit high efficacy, long-term stability and a healthy neuron/electrode interface.

  18. Post-traumatic growth: a qualitative analysis of experiences regarding positive psychological changes among Iranian women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabi, Esmat; Hajian, Sepideh; Simbar, Masoomeh; Houshyari, Mohammad; Zayeri, Farid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cancer diagnosis is an extremely stressful experience that has a profound impact on a patient’s life. Cancer related perceived stress and complications may lead to the experience of positive psychological changes and post-traumatic growth (PTG). Since there is lack of qualitative research assessing the experience of PTG in Iranian women with breast cancer, this study aims to investigate experiences relating to PTG of Iranian women. Methods: A qualitative phenomenological approach was selected to explore the experiences of Iranian women with PTG. Data were gathered using semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 18 eligible patients, which were then transcribed and analyzed using Van Manen’s thematic analysis approach. Data gathering and analyses were conducted simultaneously. In addition, MAXQDA software was used for data management. Results: In this study, the participants were 18 Iranian women between the ages of 31 and 65 years. Four prominent themes were extracted from the participant’s statements that demonstrated the Iranian women’s experiences with breast cancer-induced psychological growth and maturity: 1) appreciate of life, 2) stability, 3) spiritual prosperity, and 4) effective interaction. Conclusion: Health care professionals are strongly recommended to design robust and timely intervention programs to improving PTG among breast cancer survivors and reduce their perceived distress resulting from cancer diagnosis. PMID:26435823

  19. Possible geodynamic and paleoclimate implications of the post-15-Ma growth of northeastern and eastern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, P. H.

    2012-12-01

    The growth of the Tibetan plateau seems to have changed at ~15-10 Ma. East-west extension and widespread normal faulting began, suggesting that the plateau had reached its maximum elevation and the surface had begun to subside. Concurrently, shortening both within the margins of Tibet and in surrounding territory seems to have accelerated. In northeastern Tibet, the orientation of such shortening changed from ~NNE-SSW before ~20 Ma to ENE-WSW, if not east-west, by 10 Ma. Erosion and incision of deep gorges into eastern Tibet also accelerated since 15-10 Ma, suggesting that surface uplift had steepened stream gradients. Such deformation is a logical consequence of removal of mantle lithosphere from beneath Tibet, with consequent surface uplift and increased gravitational potential energy per unit area in Tibet, though, of course, other explanations can be concocted to explain such widespread changes in styles of deformation throughout eastern Asia. Approximately concurrently, climate seems to have changed in Tibet's surroundings: the Loess Plateau developed in China, summer winds apparently strengthened over the western Arabian Sea, and the climate of NW India and northern Pakistan became more arid, if possibly because of increased seasonality. A rise of eastern Tibet seems likely to have induced or enhanced orographic precipitation over that region, which would lead to ascent over that region. By analogy with Rodwell and Hoskins's demonstration that heating over the northern Bay of Bengal could lead to descent and arid climates over western Asia, the Sahara, and the Mediterranean, heating over eastern Tibet may have induced descent over NW India and northern Pakistan. Such descent would have suppressed rainfall there and created a more arid climate. If so, the South Asian Monsoon in that area would have weakened in response to the rise of eastern Tibet at ca. 10 Ma.

  20. Modelling the growth of ZnO thin films by PVD methods and the effects of post-annealing.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Sabrina; Smith, Roger; Kenny, Steven D; Walls, John M; Sanz-Navarro, Carlos F

    2013-04-01

    Results are presented for modelling of the evaporation and magnetron sputter deposition of Zn(x)O(y) onto an O-terminated ZnO (0001¯) wurtzite surface. Growth was simulated through a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) and an on-the-fly kinetic Monte Carlo (otf-KMC) method, which finds diffusion pathways and barriers without prior knowledge of transitions. We examine the effects of varying experimental parameters, such as substrate bias, distribution of the deposition species and annealing temperature. It was found when comparing evaporation and sputtering growth that the latter process results in a denser and more crystalline structure, due to the higher deposition energy of the arriving species. The evaporation growth also exhibits more stacking faults than the sputtered growth. Post-annealing at 770 K did not allow complete recrystallization, resulting in films which still had stacking faults where monolayers formed in the zinc blende phase, whereas annealing at 920 K enabled the complete recrystallization of some films to the wurtzite structure. At the latter temperature atoms could also sometimes be locked in the zinc blende phase after annealing. When full recrystallization did not take place, both wurtzite and zinc blende phases were seen in the same layer, resulting in a phase boundary. Investigation of the various distributions of deposition species showed that, during evaporation, the best quality film resulted from a stoichiometric distribution where only ZnO clusters were deposited. During sputtering, however, the best quality film resulted from a slightly O rich distribution. Two stoichiometric distributions, one involving mainly ZnO clusters and the other involving mainly single species, showed that the distribution of deposition species makes a huge impact on the grown film. The deposition of predominantly single species causes many more O atoms at the surface to be sputtered or reflected, resulting in an O deficiency of up to 18% in the

  1. Transcriptome analysis of post-hatch breast muscle in legacy and modern broiler chickens reveals enrichment of several regulators of myogenic growth.

    PubMed

    Davis, Richard V N; Lamont, Susan J; Rothschild, Max F; Persia, Michael E; Ashwell, Chris M; Schmidt, Carl J

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture provides excellent model systems for understanding how selective pressure, as applied by humans, can affect the genomes of plants and animals. One such system is modern poultry breeding in which intensive genetic selection has been applied for meat production in the domesticated chicken. As a result, modern meat-type chickens (broilers) exhibit enhanced growth, especially of the skeletal muscle, relative to their legacy counterparts. Comparative studies of modern and legacy broiler chickens provide an opportunity to identify genes and pathways affected by this human-directed evolution. This study used RNA-seq to compare the transcriptomes of a modern and a legacy broiler line to identify differentially enriched genes in the breast muscle at days 6 and 21 post-hatch. Among the 15,945 genes analyzed, 10,841 were expressed at greater than 0.1 RPKM. At day 6 post-hatch 189 genes, including several regulators of myogenic growth and development, were differentially enriched between the two lines. The transcriptional profiles between lines at day 21 post-hatch identify 193 genes differentially enriched and still include genes associated with myogenic growth. This study identified differentially enriched genes that regulate myogenic growth and differentiation between the modern and legacy broiler lines. Specifically, differences in the ratios of several positive (IGF1, IGF1R, WFIKKN2) and negative (MSTN, ACE) myogenic growth regulators may help explain the differences underlying the enhanced growth characteristics of the modern broilers.

  2. Transcriptome Analysis of Post-Hatch Breast Muscle in Legacy and Modern Broiler Chickens Reveals Enrichment of Several Regulators of Myogenic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Richard V. N.; Lamont, Susan J.; Rothschild, Max F.; Persia, Michael E.; Ashwell, Chris M.; Schmidt, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture provides excellent model systems for understanding how selective pressure, as applied by humans, can affect the genomes of plants and animals. One such system is modern poultry breeding in which intensive genetic selection has been applied for meat production in the domesticated chicken. As a result, modern meat-type chickens (broilers) exhibit enhanced growth, especially of the skeletal muscle, relative to their legacy counterparts. Comparative studies of modern and legacy broiler chickens provide an opportunity to identify genes and pathways affected by this human-directed evolution. This study used RNA-seq to compare the transcriptomes of a modern and a legacy broiler line to identify differentially enriched genes in the breast muscle at days 6 and 21 post-hatch. Among the 15,945 genes analyzed, 10,841 were expressed at greater than 0.1 RPKM. At day 6 post-hatch 189 genes, including several regulators of myogenic growth and development, were differentially enriched between the two lines. The transcriptional profiles between lines at day 21 post-hatch identify 193 genes differentially enriched and still include genes associated with myogenic growth. This study identified differentially enriched genes that regulate myogenic growth and differentiation between the modern and legacy broiler lines. Specifically, differences in the ratios of several positive (IGF1, IGF1R, WFIKKN2) and negative (MSTN, ACE) myogenic growth regulators may help explain the differences underlying the enhanced growth characteristics of the modern broilers. PMID:25821972

  3. Interpreting the Economic Growth and Development Policies of Post-Apartheid South Africa: Its Influence on Higher Education and Prospects for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eynon, Diane E.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is structured as a critical policy analysis employing historical methods. It examines how the post apartheid government's economic growth and development polices have informed the higher education system and how this has changed women's financial, occupational, political, social, and educational prospects in South Africa. Through…

  4. Loss of Mitochondrial Malate Dehydrogenase Activity Alters Seed Metabolism Impairing Seed Maturation and Post-Germination Growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sew, Yun Shin; Ströher, Elke; Fenske, Ricarda; Millar, A Harvey

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH; EC 1.1.1.37) has multiple roles; the most commonly described is its catalysis of the interconversion of malate and oxaloacetate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The roles of mMDH in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed development and germination were investigated in mMDH1 and mMDH2 double knockout plants. A significant proportion of mmdh1mmdh2 seeds were nonviable and developed only to torpedo-shaped embryos, indicative of arrested seed embryo growth during embryogenesis. The viable mmdh1mmdh2 seeds had an impaired maturation process that led to slow germination rates as well as retarded post-germination growth, shorter root length, and decreased root biomass. During seed development, mmdh1mmdh2 showed a paler green phenotype than the wild type and exhibited deficiencies in reserve accumulation and reduced final seed biomass. The respiration rate of mmdh1mmdh2 seeds was significantly elevated throughout their maturation, consistent with the previously reported higher respiration rate in mmdh1mmdh2 leaves. Mutant seeds showed a consistently higher content of free amino acids (branched-chain amino acids, alanine, serine, glycine, proline, and threonine), differences in sugar and sugar phosphate levels, and lower content of 2-oxoglutarate. Seed-aging assays showed that quiescent mmdh1mmdh2 seeds lost viability more than 3 times faster than wild-type seeds. Together, these data show the important role of mMDH in the earliest phases of the life cycle of Arabidopsis.

  5. Loss of Mitochondrial Malate Dehydrogenase Activity Alters Seed Metabolism Impairing Seed Maturation and Post-Germination Growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sew, Yun Shin; Ströher, Elke; Fenske, Ricarda; Millar, A Harvey

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH; EC 1.1.1.37) has multiple roles; the most commonly described is its catalysis of the interconversion of malate and oxaloacetate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The roles of mMDH in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed development and germination were investigated in mMDH1 and mMDH2 double knockout plants. A significant proportion of mmdh1mmdh2 seeds were nonviable and developed only to torpedo-shaped embryos, indicative of arrested seed embryo growth during embryogenesis. The viable mmdh1mmdh2 seeds had an impaired maturation process that led to slow germination rates as well as retarded post-germination growth, shorter root length, and decreased root biomass. During seed development, mmdh1mmdh2 showed a paler green phenotype than the wild type and exhibited deficiencies in reserve accumulation and reduced final seed biomass. The respiration rate of mmdh1mmdh2 seeds was significantly elevated throughout their maturation, consistent with the previously reported higher respiration rate in mmdh1mmdh2 leaves. Mutant seeds showed a consistently higher content of free amino acids (branched-chain amino acids, alanine, serine, glycine, proline, and threonine), differences in sugar and sugar phosphate levels, and lower content of 2-oxoglutarate. Seed-aging assays showed that quiescent mmdh1mmdh2 seeds lost viability more than 3 times faster than wild-type seeds. Together, these data show the important role of mMDH in the earliest phases of the life cycle of Arabidopsis. PMID:27208265

  6. Effect of marble industry effluent on seed germination, post germinative growth and productivity of Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Fazal; Hadi, Fazal; Ullah, Zakir; Zia, Muhammad Amir

    2007-11-15

    A green house study was conducted at the University of Malakand, NWFP, Pakistan to evaluate the effect of marble industry effluent on soil pH, germination, post germinative growth and productivity of maize. The experiment was conducted in triplicate form for each treatment and tape water was used as control (T0). Effluents were diluted with tap water at concentration of 20% (T1), 40% (T2), 60% (T3), 80% (T4) and also used 100% (T5) concentration in 4 kg soil pot(-1) and plants were grown for 90 days. Results showed that there was a linear increase in pH of soil with increase in effluent concentration while germination, root length and stem girth was enhanced and found maximum at 40% concentration of effluent applied. The shoot length and root dry biomass was depressed as compared to control. It is concluded from the present study that marble industry effluent can be used as a fertilizer in low concentration especially for highly acidic soil but there is still need to carry out series of greenhouse and field trials to ascertain the fertilizer potentials of this effluent for maize crop. PMID:19090297

  7. Factors regulating circulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF): association with bone mineral density (BMD) in post-menopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Nikola; Paramanathan, Sophia; Mac Donald, Dorothy; Wierzbicki, Anthony S; Hampson, Geeta

    2009-06-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in bone health. We investigated the factors which influence circulating VEGF and their association with bone mineral density (BMD). Two hundred and fifty two post-menopausal women aged 64.5 [9.2] years were studied. BMD was determined at the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH). Serum oestradiol and VEGF were measured. Subjects were genotyped for two polymorphic variants in the 5' untranslated region of the VEGF gene; G(634)C and C(936)T. Positive correlations were seen between circulating VEGF and BMI (r=0.2, p<0.02) and oestradiol (r=0.25, p<0.001). Following multi-linear regression analysis, serum VEGF was associated with the G(634) polymorphism (p=0.08) and dietary calcium intake (p=0.02). The association with calcium intake may be mediated by PTH as suggested by the in vitro studies. Following correction for confounders, there was no association between circulating VEGF and BMD at any site. Both VEGF polymorphisms were significant predictors of LS BMD G(634)C: p=0.017 and C(936)T: p=0.05. Circulating VEGF may be influenced by genetic, environmental and endocrine factors. Polymorphic variants in the VEGF gene are associated with spine BMD. Further larger studies are needed. PMID:19394248

  8. Exposure of mental health nurses to violence associated with job stress, life satisfaction, staff resilience, and post-traumatic growth.

    PubMed

    Itzhaki, Michal; Peles-Bortz, Anat; Kostistky, Hava; Barnoy, Dor; Filshtinsky, Vivian; Bluvstein, Irit

    2015-10-01

    Workplace violence towards health workers in hospitals and in mental health units in particular is increasing. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of exposure to violence, job stress, staff resilience, and post-traumatic growth (PTG) on the life satisfaction of mental health nurses. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. The sample consisted of mental health nurses (n = 118) working in a large mental health centre in Israel. Verbal violence by patients was reported by 88.1% of the nurses, and 58.4% experienced physical violence in the past year. Physical and verbal violence towards nurses was correlated with job stress, and life satisfaction was correlated with PTG and staff resilience. Linear regression analyses indicated that life satisfaction was mainly affected by PTG, staff resilience, and job stress, and less by exposure to verbal and physical violence. The present study is the first to show that, although mental health nurses are frequently exposed to violence, their life satisfaction is affected more by staff resilience, PTG, and job stress than by workplace violence. Therefore, it is recommended that intervention programmes that contribute to PTG and staff resilience, as well as those that reduce job stress among mental health nurses, be explored and implemented.

  9. Pelagic larval duration and settlement size of a reef fish are spatially consistent, but post-settlement growth varies at the reef scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, Susannah M.; Russ, Garry R.; Abesamis, Rene A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that, despite a pelagic larval stage, many coral reef fishes disperse over relatively small distances, leading to well-connected populations on scales of 0-30 km. Although variation in key biological characteristics has been explored on the scale of 100-1000 s of km, it has rarely been explored at the scale relevant to actual larval dispersal and population connectivity on ecological timescales. In this study, we surveyed the habitat and collected specimens ( n = 447) of juvenile butterflyfish, Chaetodon vagabundus, at nine sites along an 80-km stretch of coastline in the central Philippines to identify variation in key life history parameters at a spatial scale relevant to population connectivity. Mean pelagic larval duration (PLD) was 24.03 d (SE = 0.16 d), and settlement size was estimated to be 20.54 mm total length (TL; SE = 0.61 mm). Both traits were spatially consistent, although this PLD is considerably shorter than that reported elsewhere. In contrast, post-settlement daily growth rates, calculated from otolith increment widths from 1 to 50 d post-settlement, varied strongly across the study region. Elevated growth rates were associated with rocky habitats that this species is known to recruit to, but were strongly negatively correlated with macroalgal cover and exhibited negative density dependence with conspecific juveniles. Larger animals had lower early (first 50 d post-settlement) growth rates than smaller animals, even after accounting for seasonal variation in growth rates. Both VBGF and Gompertz models provided good fits to post-settlement size-at-age data ( n = 447 fish), but the VBGF's estimate of asymptotic length ( L ∞ = 168 mm) was more consistent with field observations of maximum fish length. Our findings indicate that larval characteristics are consistent at the spatial scale at which populations are likely well connected, but that site-level biological differences develop post-settlement, most likely as a

  10. Tuning of deep level emission in highly oriented electrodeposited ZnO nanorods by post growth annealing treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Simimol, A.; Manikandanath, N. T.; Chowdhury, Prasanta; Barshilia, Harish C.; Anappara, Aji A.

    2014-08-21

    Highly dense and c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods with hexagonal wurtzite facets were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates by a simple and cost-effective electrodeposition method at low bath temperature (80 °C). The as-grown samples were then annealed at various temperatures (T{sub A} = 100–500 °C) in different environments (e.g., zinc, oxygen, air, and vacuum) to understand their photoluminescence (PL) behavior in the ultra-violet (UV) and the visible regions. The PL results revealed that the as-deposited ZnO nanorods consisted of oxygen vacancy (V{sub O}), zinc interstitial (Zn{sub i}), and oxygen interstitial (O{sub i}) defects and these can be reduced significantly by annealing in different environments at optimal annealing temperatures. However, the intensity of deep level emission increased for T{sub A} greater than the optimized values for the respective environments due to the introduction of various defect centers. For example, for T{sub A} ≥ 450 °C in the oxygen and air environments, the density of O{sub i} defects increased, whereas, the green emission associated with V{sub O} is dominant in the vacuum annealed (T{sub A} = 500 °C) ZnO nanorods. The UV peak red shifted after the post-growth annealing treatments in all the environments and the vacuum annealed sample exhibited highest UV peak intensity. The observations from the PL data are supported by the micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present study gives new insight into the origin of different defects that exist in the electrodeposited ZnO nanorods and how these defects can be precisely controlled in order to get the desired emissions for the opto-electronic applications.

  11. Active post-marketing surveillance of the intralesional administration of human recombinant epidermal growth factor in diabetic foot ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background After several exploratory and confirmatory clinical trials, the intralesional administration of human recombinant epidermal growth factor (hrEGF) has been approved for the treatment of advanced diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of this procedure in medical practice. Methods A prospective, post-marketing active pharmacosurveillance was conducted in 41 hospitals and 19 primary care polyclinics. Patients with DFU received hrEGF, 25 or 75 μg, intralesionally 3 times per week until complete granulation of the ulcer or 8 weeks maximum, adjuvant to standard wound care. Outcomes measured were complete granulation, amputations, and adverse events (AE) during treatment; complete lesion re-epithelization and relapses in follow-up (median: 1.2; maximum 4.2 years). Results The study included 1788 patients with 1835 DFU (81% Wagner’s grades 3 or 4; 43% ischemic) treated from May 2007 to April 2010. Complete granulation was observed in 76% of the ulcers in 5 weeks (median). Ulcer non-ischemic etiology (OR: 3.6; 95% CI: 2.8-4.7) and age (1.02; 1.01-1.03, for each younger year) were the main variables with influence on this outcome. During treatment, 220 (12%) amputations (171 major) were required in 214 patients, mostly in ischemic or Wagner’s grade 3 to 5 ulcers. Re-epithelization was documented in 61% of the 1659 followed-up cases; 5% relapsed per year. AE (4171) were reported in 47% of the subjects. Mild or moderate local pain and burning sensation, shivering and chills, were 87% of the events. Serious events, not related to treatment, occurred in 1.7% of the patients. Conclusions The favorable benefit/risk balance, confirms the beneficial clinical profile of intralesional hrEGF in the treatment of DFUs. PMID:24004460

  12. Brief Report: Effects of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Group-Work on Promoting Post-Traumatic Growth of Mothers Who Have a Child with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wei; Yan, Ting-ting; Du, Ya-song; Liu, Xiao-hong

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the impact of solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) group-work on the post-traumatic growth (PTG) of mothers who have a child with ASD. A quasi-experimental design was used in which 43 mothers participated. 18 mothers in 2 SFBT groups (n = 9 in each group) received a 6-session SFBT group therapy while 25 mothers in a control…

  13. [Effects of strong wind lodging at pre- and post-tasseling stages on growth and yield of summer maize].

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-yan; Wang, Yu-xiang; Hu, Cheng-da; Yan, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Surveying data for wind lodging disaster happening in Nanyang of Henan Province in August 1, 2013, were used to analyze the effects of strong wind lodging at pre- and post-tasseling stages on growth and yield of summer maize, and to determine the differences in lodging resistance among varieties and the suitable sowing time for summer maize. The survey included two varieties of summer maize, Xundan 20 and Zhengdan 958, with five and three sowing dates, respectively. The lodging was divided into four types, i.e., root slope ( RS) , root lodging ( RL) , stem bending (SB) and stem broken (SBK). The results showed that wind lodging occurring at pre- and post-tasseling stages resulted in high lodging percentages for both varieties and all sowing dates. The lodging percentage of Xundan 20 variety ranged between 86.0% and 98.5% for five sowing dates. For Zhengdan 958 variety, it ranged between 60.0% and 76.4% for three sowing dates. After tasseling, the earlier the sowing date, the lower the lodging rate occurred. The main lodging types happening around the tasseling stage were RL with the lodging rate of 53.0%-84.3% for sowing dates II-V of Xundan 20. The main lodging type for sowing date I was SB with the lodging rate of 37.5%. Lodging reduced the aboveground dry matter with the greatest reduction rate occurring in SB, followed by RS and RL. Lodging increased the allocation of dry matter to leaves and stems, but decreased the allocation to spikes. RL and SB shortened the length and diameter of spike, and reduced the grain number per spike. The lodging occurring after the tasseling stage also reduced 100-grain mass. RS had no significant effects on spike characters and yield components. The lodging had serious effects on the yield of summer maize. The yield loss was highest for SB with the reduction percentages of 74.2% and 68.7% for Xundan 20 and Zhengdan 958, respectively. SB occurring before the tasseling stage would lead to a complete crop failure. RL decreased the

  14. [Effects of strong wind lodging at pre- and post-tasseling stages on growth and yield of summer maize].

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-yan; Wang, Yu-xiang; Hu, Cheng-da; Yan, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Surveying data for wind lodging disaster happening in Nanyang of Henan Province in August 1, 2013, were used to analyze the effects of strong wind lodging at pre- and post-tasseling stages on growth and yield of summer maize, and to determine the differences in lodging resistance among varieties and the suitable sowing time for summer maize. The survey included two varieties of summer maize, Xundan 20 and Zhengdan 958, with five and three sowing dates, respectively. The lodging was divided into four types, i.e., root slope ( RS) , root lodging ( RL) , stem bending (SB) and stem broken (SBK). The results showed that wind lodging occurring at pre- and post-tasseling stages resulted in high lodging percentages for both varieties and all sowing dates. The lodging percentage of Xundan 20 variety ranged between 86.0% and 98.5% for five sowing dates. For Zhengdan 958 variety, it ranged between 60.0% and 76.4% for three sowing dates. After tasseling, the earlier the sowing date, the lower the lodging rate occurred. The main lodging types happening around the tasseling stage were RL with the lodging rate of 53.0%-84.3% for sowing dates II-V of Xundan 20. The main lodging type for sowing date I was SB with the lodging rate of 37.5%. Lodging reduced the aboveground dry matter with the greatest reduction rate occurring in SB, followed by RS and RL. Lodging increased the allocation of dry matter to leaves and stems, but decreased the allocation to spikes. RL and SB shortened the length and diameter of spike, and reduced the grain number per spike. The lodging occurring after the tasseling stage also reduced 100-grain mass. RS had no significant effects on spike characters and yield components. The lodging had serious effects on the yield of summer maize. The yield loss was highest for SB with the reduction percentages of 74.2% and 68.7% for Xundan 20 and Zhengdan 958, respectively. SB occurring before the tasseling stage would lead to a complete crop failure. RL decreased the

  15. Effects of LED lighting during incubation on layer and broiler hatchability, chick quality, stress susceptibility and post-hatch growth.

    PubMed

    Huth, Jesse C; Archer, Gregory S

    2015-12-01

    Providing light during incubation has been shown to affect hatchability, but the use of LED lights has not been evaluated. This experiment evaluated the effects of LED lighting during embryogenesis on White Leghorn and commercial broiler eggs. To determine this, two experiments were conducted, the first using White Leghorn eggs (N=3456) and the second using commercial broiler eggs (N=3456) where eggs were incubated 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness (LED) or complete darkness (DARK); the light level was 250 lux. Hatchability, embryo mortality, and chick quality were measured in both studies, and a subset of one of the broiler egg trials were grown out to investigate fear and stress parameters. There was no effect (P>0.05) on hatchability of layer eggs; however, there was a difference (P=0.02) observed in chick quality, with the LED group having more chicks (75.34%) with no defects than the DARK group (56.53%). Broiler eggs exposed to LED light showed an increase in hatchability (90.12%, P=0.03) and an increase in no-defect chick percentage (86.12%, P=0.04) at hatch compared to the DARK chicks (85.76% and 69.43%, respectively). Differences were observed between treatments during the 14 d grow-out. The LED birds had lower (P<0.05) physical asymmetry (0.90±0.05 mm) and heterophil/lymphocyte ratios (0.279±0.021), indicating that they were less susceptible to stress than the DARK birds (1.16±0.07 mm and 0.347±0.021, respectively). There was no difference (P>0.05) observed between treatments in growth, FCR, or fear measures at 14 d. These results indicate that providing LED light during incubation can improve chick quality in both white layer and broiler eggs; however, it only appears to improve hatchability in broilers, which could be related to shell pigmentation. It was also demonstrated that providing LED light during incubation can reduce the stress susceptibility of broilers post-hatch. Utilizing light during incubation may be useful tool for the poultry

  16. Profiles of mRNA expression of related genes in the duck hypothalamus-pituitary growth axis during embryonic and early post-hatch development.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yan; Liu, Hongxiang; Song, Chi; Xu, Wenjuan; Ji, Gaige; Zhu, Chunhong; Shu, Jingting; Li, Huifang

    2015-03-15

    In this study, the ontogeny of body and liver weight and the pattern of related gene mRNA expression in the hypothalamus-pituitary growth axis (HPGA) of two different duck breeds (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) were compared during embryonic and post-hatch development. Duck hypothalamic growth hormone release hormone (GHRH), somatostatin (SS), pituitary growth hormone (GH), liver growth hormone receptor (GHR) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) mRNA were first detected on the 13th embryonic day. During early duck development, SS maintained a lower expression status, whereas the other four genes exhibited highly significant variations in an age-specific manner. Highly significant breed specificity was observed with respect to hepatic IGF-1 mRNA expression, which showed a significant breed-age interaction effect. Compared with previous studies on chickens, significant species differences were observed regarding the mRNA expression of bird embryonic HPGA-related genes. During early development, highly significant breed and age specificity were observed with respect to developmental changes in body and liver weight, and varying degrees of significant linear correlation were found between these performances and the mRNA expression of HPGA-related genes in the duck HPGA. These results suggest that different genetic backgrounds may lead to differences in duck growth and HPGA-related gene mRNA expression, and the differential mRNA expression of related genes in the duck HPGA may be particularly important in the early growth of ducks. Furthermore, hepatic IGF-1 mRNA expression presented highly significant breed specificity, and evidence suggests the involvement of hepatic IGF-1 in mediating genetic effects on embryo and offspring growth in ducks.

  17. Growth, aboveground biomass, and nutrient concentration of young Scots pine and lodgepole pine in oil shale post-mining landscapes in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatjana; Tilk, Mari; Pärn, Henn; Lukjanova, Aljona; Mandre, Malle

    2011-12-01

    The investigation was carried out in 8-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) plantations on post-mining area, Northeast Estonia. The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of lodgepole pine for restoration of degraded lands by comparing the growth, biomass, and nutrient concentration of studied species. The height growth of trees was greater in the Scots pine stand, but the tree aboveground biomass was slightly larger in the lodgepole pine stand. The aboveground biomass allocation to the compartments did not differ significantly between species. The vertical distribution of compartments showed that 43.2% of the Scots pine needles were located in the middle layer of the crown, while 58.5% of the lodgepole pine needles were in the lowest layer of the crown. The largest share of the shoots and stem of both species was allocated to the lowest layer of the crown. For both species, the highest NPK concentrations were found in the needles and the lowest in the stems. On the basis of the present study results, it can be concluded that the early growth of Scots pine and lodgepole pine on oil shale post-mining landscapes is similar. PMID:21374054

  18. The Effect of the Wall Contact and Post-Growth C001-Down on Defects in CdTe Crystals Grown by Contactless PVT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; Grasza, K.; Dudley, M.; Raghothamachar, B.; Cai, L.; Durose, K.; Halliday, D.; Boyall, N. M.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In crystal growth, the quality of the final material may depend, among other factors, on its interaction with the walls of the ampoule during and after the growth, and on the rate of the crystal cool-down at the end of ate the process. To investigate the above phenomena, a series of CdTe crystal growth processes was carried out, The crystals were grown by physical vapor transport without contact with the side walls of the silica glass ampoules, applying the Low Supersaturation Nucleation technique. The source temperature was 930 C, the undercooling was a few degrees. The crystals, having the diameter of 25 mm, grew at the rate of a few mm per day. The post-growth cool-down to the room temperature was conducted at different rates, and lasted from a few minutes to four days. The crystals were characterized using chemical etching low temperature luminescence, and Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography techniques. The dislocation (etch pit) density was measured and its distribution was analyzed by comparison with Poisson curves and with the Normalized Radial Distribution Correlation Function. It was found that the contact of the crystal with silica leads to a strain field and high (in the 105 sq cm range) dislocation (etch pit) density. Similar defect concentrations were found in crystals subjected to fast post-growth cool-down. Typical EPD values for lower cool-down rates and in regions not affected by wall interactions are in the lower 10(exp 4) sq cm range. In some areas the actual dislocation density was about 10(exp 3) sq cm or even less. No apparent effect of the cool-down rate on polygonization was observed. A fine structure could be discerned in low-temperature PL spectra of crystals with low dislocation density.

  19. Chronic growth hormone treatment in normal rats reduces post-prandial skeletal muscle plasma membrane GLUT1 content, but not glucose transport or GLUT4 expression and localization.

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, R; Cittadini, A; Chow, J C; Hirshman, M F; Smith, R J; Douglas, P S; Horton, E S

    1996-01-01

    Whether skeletal muscle glucose transport system is impaired in the basal, post-prandial state during chronic growth hormone treatment is unknown. The current study was designed to determine whether 4 weeks of human growth hormone (hGH) treatment (3.5 mg/kg per day) would impair glucose transport and/or the number of glucose transporters in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from hindlimb skeletal muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats under basal, post-prandial conditions. hGH treatment was shown to have no effect on glucose influx (Vmax or K(m)) determined under equilibrium exchange conditions in isolated plasma membrane vesicles. Plasma membrane glucose transporter number (Ro) measured by cytochalasin B binding was also unchanged by hGH treatment. Consequently, glucose transporter turnover number (Vmax/Ro), a measure of average glucose transporter intrinsic activity, was similar in hGH-treated and control rats. hGH did not change GLUT4 protein content in whole muscle or in the plasma membrane, and muscle content of GLUT4 mRNA also was unchanged. In contrast, GLUT1 protein content in the plasma membrane fraction was significantly reduced by hGH treatment. This was associated with a modest, although not significant, decrease in muscle content of GLUT1 mRNA. In conclusion, high-dose hGH treatment for 4 weeks did not alter post-prandial skeletal muscle glucose transport activity. Neither the muscle level nor the intracellular localization of GLUT4 was changed by the hormone treatment. On the contrary, the basal post-prandial level of GLUT1 in the plasma membrane was reduced by hGH. The mRNA data suggest that this reduction might result from a decrease in the synthesis of GLUT1. PMID:8645183

  20. The lack of synchronization between iron uptake and cell growth leads to iron overload in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during post-exponential growth modes.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinkyu; McCormick, Sean P; Chakrabarti, Mrinmoy; Lindahl, Paul A

    2013-12-31

    Fermenting cells growing exponentially on rich (YPAD) medium underwent a transition to a slow-growing state as glucose levels declined and their metabolism shifted to respiration. During exponential growth, Fe import and cell-growth rates were matched, affording an approximately invariant cellular Fe concentration. During the transition period, the high-affinity Fe import rate declined slower than the cell-growth rate declined, causing Fe to accumulate, initially as Fe(III) oxyhydroxide nanoparticles but eventually as mitochondrial and vacuolar Fe. Once the cells had reached slow-growth mode, Fe import and cell-growth rates were again matched, and the cellular Fe concentration was again approximately invariant. Fermenting cells grown on minimal medium (MM) grew more slowly during the exponential phase and underwent a transition to a true stationary state as glucose levels declined. The Fe concentration of MM cells that just entered the stationary state was similar to that of YPAD cells, but MM cells continued to accumulate Fe in the stationary state. Fe initially accumulated as nanoparticles and high-spin Fe(II) species, but vacuolar Fe(III) also eventually accumulated. Surprisingly, Fe-packed 5-day-old MM cells suffered no more reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage than younger cells, suggesting that the Fe concentration alone does not accurately predict the extent of ROS damage. The mode and rate of growth at the time of harvesting dramatically affected cellular Fe content. A mathematical model of Fe metabolism in a growing cell was developed. The model included the import of Fe via a regulated high-affinity pathway and an unregulated low-affinity pathway. The import of Fe from the cytosol to vacuoles and mitochondria and nanoparticle formation were also included. The model captured essential trafficking behavior, demonstrating that cells regulate Fe import in accordance with their overall growth rate and that they misregulate Fe import when nanoparticles

  1. Post-infarct treatment with [Pyr(1)]apelin-13 improves myocardial function by increasing neovascularization and overexpression of angiogenic growth factors in rats.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Yaser; Faghihi, Mahdieh; Imani, Alireza; Roghani, Mehrdad; Zekri, Ali; Mobasheri, Maryam Beigom; Rastgar, Tayebeh; Moghimian, Maryam

    2015-08-15

    Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of mortality in the world. Angiogenesis is important for cardiac repair after myocardial infarction (MI) as restores blood supply to the ischemic myocardium and preserves cardiac function. Apelin is a peptide that has been recently shown to potentiate angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate angiogenic effects of [Pyr(1)]apelin-13 in the rat model of post-MI. Male Wistar rats (n=36) were randomly divided into three groups: (1) sham (2) MI and (3) MI treated with [Pyr(1)]apelin-13 (MI+Apel). MI animals were subjected to 30min left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) ligation and 14 days of reperfusion. Twenty-four hours after LAD ligation, [Pyr(1)]apelin-13 (10nmol/kg/day) was administered i.p. for 5 days. Hemodynamic functions by catheter introduced into the left ventricle (LV), myocardial fibrosis by Masson׳s trichrome staining, gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA), VEGF receptor-2 (Kdr), Ang-1 (angiopoietin-1), Tie2 (tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin and epidermal growth factor homology domains 2) and eNOS by Real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-Time PCR) and myocardial angiogenesis by CD31 imunostaining were assessed at day 14 post-MI. Post-infarct treatment with [Pyr(1)]apelin-13 improved LV function and decreased myocardial fibrosis. [Pyr(1)]apelin-13 treatment led to a significant increase in the expression of VEGFA, Kdr, Ang-1, Tie2 and eNOS. Further, treatment with [Pyr(1)]apelin-13 promoted capillary density. [Pyr(1)]apelin-13 has angiogenic and anti-fibrotic activity via formation of new blood vessels and overexpression of VEGFA, Kdr, Ang-1, Tie2 and eNOS in the infarcted myocardium which could in turn repair myocardium and improve LV function.

  2. Reconciling Post-Recession Strategies for Economic Growth with Higher Education's Current Fiscal Challenges: Part 1, New Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This week, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is publishing the findings of new research undertaken to explore the relationship between educational spending and economic growth. The report, "The High Cost of Low Educational Performance--The Long-Run Economic Impact of Improving PISA Outcomes", employs recent economic…

  3. Experimental assessment of pro-lymphangiogenic growth factors in the treatment of post-surgical lymphedema following lymphadenectomy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Lymphedema is a frequent consequence of lymph node excision during breast cancer surgery. Current treatment options are limited mainly to external compression therapies to limit edema development. We investigated previously, postsurgical lymphedema in a sheep model following the removal of a single lymph node and determined that autologous lymph node transplantation has the potential to reduce or prevent edema development. In this report, we examine the potential of lymphangiogenic therapy to restore lymphatic function and reduce postsurgical lymphedema. Methods Lymphangiogenic growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C)) and angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) were loaded into a gel-based drug delivery system (HAMC; a blend of hyaluronan and methylcellulose). Drug release rates and lymphangiogenic signaling in target endothelial cells were assessed in vitro and vascular permeability biocompatibility tests were examined in vivo. Following, the removal of a single popliteal lymph node, HAMC with the growth factors was injected into the excision site. Six weeks later, lymphatic functionality was assessed by injecting 125Iodine radiolabeled bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA) into prenodal vessels and measuring its recovery in plasma. Circumferential leg measurements were plotted over time and areas under the curves used to quantify edema formation. Results The growth factors were released over a two-week period in vitro by diffusion from HAMC, with 50% being released in the first 24 hr. The system induced lymphangiogenic signaling in target endothelial cells, while inducing only a minimal inflammatory response in sheep. Removal of the node significantly reduced lymphatic functionality (nodectomy 1.9 ± 0.9, HAMC alone 1.7 ± 0.8) compared with intact groups (3.2 ± 0.7). In contrast, there was no significant difference between the growth factor treatment group (2.3 ± 0.73) and the intact group indicating improved function with the molecular factors. An

  4. Effect of pre-partum feed supplementation on post-partum ovarian activity, milk production and calf growth of small holder dairy Cattle in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Bayemi, Pougue Henri; Nsongka, Munji Victorine; Leinyuy, Isabelle; Webb, Edward Cottington; Nchadji, Justin Mbanya; Cavestany, Daniel; Bryant, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Seventy-two cows were selected for an on-farm study on the effect of feed supplementation before calving on milk production, ovarian activity and calf growth of Holstein, indigenous Red Fulani cows and their crosses. Pre-partum feed supplementation was done using cotton seed cake (80%), maize (18%), bone meal (1%) and kitchen salt (1% NaCl). Supplementation levels consisted of a low supplementation fed at 1 kg per animal per day and high supplementation fed at 2 kg per animal per day. In addition, Red Fulani cows received the supplements in two different ways namely a pre-partum supplementation consisting of 1 kg per cow per day and pre- and post-partum supplementation consisting of 1 kg per cow per day before calving and 1 kg per cow per day post-partum up to 30 days after calving. Blood samples were analysed using ELISA Progesterone kits to determine the length of post-partum anoestrus. Results show that pre-partum levels of feeding did not have any effect (P > 0.05) on body condition score (BCS) at 12 weeks after calving, calf birth weight, average daily weight gain of calves, milk production and post-partum anoestrus. High BCS at calving was shown to influence BCS at 12 weeks of lactation. Holstein cows had bigger calves (P < 0.01) at birth (45 kg) compared to traditional cows (36 kg) and crosses (34 kg). There was little benefit of pre-partum supplementation on the parameters investigated in this study. Consequently, low income farmers are advised to concentrate their efforts of supplementation early in lactation.

  5. Post-traumatic Stress and Growth Among Medical Student Volunteers After the March 2011 Disaster in Fukushima, Japan: Implications for Student Involvement with Future Disasters.

    PubMed

    Anderson, David; Prioleau, Phoebe; Taku, Kanako; Naruse, Yu; Sekine, Hideharu; Maeda, Masaharu; Yabe, Hirooki; Katz, Craig; Yanagisawa, Robert

    2016-06-01

    The March 2011 "triple disaster" (earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident) had a profound effect on northern Japan. Many medical students at Fukushima Medical University volunteered in the relief effort. We aimed to investigate the nature of students' post-disaster involvement and examine the psychological impact of their experiences using a survey containing elements from the Davidson Trauma Scale and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. We collected 494 surveys (70 % response rate), of which 132 students (26.7 %) had volunteered. Volunteers were more likely to be older, have witnessed the disaster in person, had their hometowns affected, and had a family member or close friend injured. In the month after 3/11, volunteers were more likely to want to help, feel capable of helping, and report an increased desire to become a physician. Both in the month after 3/11 and the most recent month before the survey, there were no significant differences in distressing symptoms, such as confusion, anger, or sadness, between volunteers and non-volunteers. Volunteers reported a significantly higher level of posttraumatic growth than non-volunteers. Participating in a greater variety of volunteer activities was associated with a higher level of posttraumatic growth, particularly in the Personal Strength domain. There may be self-selection in some criteria, since students who were likely to be resistant to confusion/anxiety/sadness may have felt more capable of helping and been predisposed to volunteer. However, participation in post-disaster relief efforts did not appear to have a harmful effect on medical students, an important consideration for mobilizing volunteers after future disasters.

  6. Post-growth process for flexible CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells with high specific power.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eunwoo; Kang, Yoonmook; Kim, Donghwan; Kim, Jihyun

    2016-05-16

    We demonstrated a flexible CdS/CdTe thin film solar cell with high specific power of approximately 254 W/kg. A flexible and ultra-light weight CdS/CdTe cell treated with pre-NP etch process exhibited high conversion efficiency of 13.56% in superstrate configuration. Morphological, structural and optical changes of CdS/CdTe thin films were characterized when pre-NP etch step was incorporated to the conventional post-deposition process. Improvement of photovoltaic parameters can be attributed to the removal of the oxide and the formation of Te-rich layer, which benefit the activation process. Pre-NP etched cell maintained their flexibility and performance under the repeated tensile strain of 0.13%. Our method can pave a way for manufacturing flexible CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells with high specific power for mobile and aerospace applications.

  7. Post-growth process for flexible CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells with high specific power.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eunwoo; Kang, Yoonmook; Kim, Donghwan; Kim, Jihyun

    2016-05-16

    We demonstrated a flexible CdS/CdTe thin film solar cell with high specific power of approximately 254 W/kg. A flexible and ultra-light weight CdS/CdTe cell treated with pre-NP etch process exhibited high conversion efficiency of 13.56% in superstrate configuration. Morphological, structural and optical changes of CdS/CdTe thin films were characterized when pre-NP etch step was incorporated to the conventional post-deposition process. Improvement of photovoltaic parameters can be attributed to the removal of the oxide and the formation of Te-rich layer, which benefit the activation process. Pre-NP etched cell maintained their flexibility and performance under the repeated tensile strain of 0.13%. Our method can pave a way for manufacturing flexible CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells with high specific power for mobile and aerospace applications. PMID:27409952

  8. Processed vs. Non-Processed Biowastes for Agriculture: Effects of Post-Harvest Tomato Plants and Biochar on Radish Growth, Chlorophyll Content and Protein Production

    PubMed Central

    Mozzetti Monterumici, Chiara; Rosso, Daniele; Montoneri, Enzo; Ginepro, Marco; Baglieri, Andrea; Novotny, Etelvino Henrique; Kwapinski, Witold; Negre, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to address the issue of processed vs. non-processed biowastes for agriculture, by comparing materials widely differing for the amount of process energy consumption. Thus, residual post harvest tomato plants (TP), the TP hydrolysates obtained at pH 13 and 60 °C, and two known biochar products obtained by 650 °C pyrolysis were prepared. All products were characterized and used in a cultivation of radish plants. The chemical composition and molecular nature of the materials was investigated by solid state 13C NMR spectrometry, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The plants were analysed for growth and content of chlorophyll, carotenoids and soluble proteins. The results show that the TP and the alkaline hydrolysates contain lignin, hemicellulose, protein, peptide and/or amino acids moieties, and several mineral elements. The biochar samples contain also similar mineral elements, but the organic fraction is characterized mainly by fused aromatic rings. All materials had a positive effect on radish growth, mainly on the diameter of roots. The best performances in terms of plant growth were given by miscanthus originated biochar and TP. The most significant effect was the enhancement of soluble protein content in the plants treated with the lowest energy consumption non processed TP. The significance of these findings for agriculture and the environment is discussed. PMID:25906472

  9. Processed vs. non-processed biowastes for agriculture: effects of post-harvest tomato plants and biochar on radish growth, chlorophyll content and protein production.

    PubMed

    Mozzetti Monterumici, Chiara; Rosso, Daniele; Montoneri, Enzo; Ginepro, Marco; Baglieri, Andrea; Novotny, Etelvino Henrique; Kwapinski, Witold; Negre, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to address the issue of processed vs. non-processed biowastes for agriculture, by comparing materials widely differing for the amount of process energy consumption. Thus, residual post harvest tomato plants (TP), the TP hydrolysates obtained at pH 13 and 60 °C, and two known biochar products obtained by 650 °C pyrolysis were prepared. All products were characterized and used in a cultivation of radish plants. The chemical composition and molecular nature of the materials was investigated by solid state 13C NMR spectrometry, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The plants were analysed for growth and content of chlorophyll, carotenoids and soluble proteins. The results show that the TP and the alkaline hydrolysates contain lignin, hemicellulose, protein, peptide and/or amino acids moieties, and several mineral elements. The biochar samples contain also similar mineral elements, but the organic fraction is characterized mainly by fused aromatic rings. All materials had a positive effect on radish growth, mainly on the diameter of roots. The best performances in terms of plant growth were given by miscanthus originated biochar and TP. The most significant effect was the enhancement of soluble protein content in the plants treated with the lowest energy consumption non processed TP. The significance of these findings for agriculture and the environment is discussed. PMID:25906472

  10. 'The letting go, the building up, [and] the gradual process of rebuilding': identity change and post-traumatic growth in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arroll, Megan A; Howard, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the phenomenon of identity change and subsequent post-traumatic growth (PTG) in individuals with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Ten participants (average illness duration 7.4 years) were interviewed (average length, 79 minutes) via a semi-structured interview schedule and verbatim transcriptions were analysed with interpretative phenomenological analysis. The four superordinate themes revealed were 'comparisons of past to present self: "you have to be someone else, and you have to live with that''', 'the effect of social isolation on identity and subsequent insights into others' behaviours', 'contemplation of future and identity: ''where do I go from here?"', and 'PTG: "the letting go, the building up, [and] the gradual process of rebuilding"'. These themes outlined the experiences of those with ME/CFS as they underwent changes in identity due to the limitations the condition imposed on activities and roles, understanding others' behaviours after a period of isolation, the comparison of the past self with the present self and finally, the positive growth that was noted by two of the interviewees with regards to a new 'true' self. Despite the distressing and unpredictable nature of ME/CFS, it appears that individuals with this disorder can experience personal growth.

  11. Study of the effect of post-packaging pasteurization and argon modified atmosphere packaging on the sensory quality and growth of endogenous microflora of a sliced cooked meat product.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Zamorano, Arturo Rivera; Posada-Izquierdo, Guiomar Denisse; García-Gimeno, Rosa María

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of post-packaging pasteurization on the sensory quality and growth of natural microorganisms during refrigerated storage (6 °C) of a cooked meat product considering two packaging atmospheres based on mixture of typical gases (CO(2)/N(2) (22/78%) and novel gases (CO(2)/Ar (17/83%)). Growth of lactic acid bacteria was significantly different between samples with and without post-packaging pasteurization, showing a growth rate >0.44 and equal to 0.28 log cfu/day, respectively. For samples with post-packaging pasteurization, atmosphere CO(2)/Ar resulted in a lower growth of lactic acid bacteria and a better sensory quality. Overall, samples without post-packaging pasteurization did not show a significant reduction of sensory quality during storage time (121 days) while samples with post-packaging pasteurization showed deterioration in their sensory quality. Further investigation is needed to obtain more definitive conclusions about the effect of post-packaging pasteurization and argon-based packaging atmospheres on cooked meat products.

  12. Integrated miRNA, mRNA and protein expression analysis reveals the role of post-transcriptional regulation in controlling CHO cell growth rate

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To study the role of microRNA (miRNA) in the regulation of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell growth, qPCR, microarray and quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis were utilised for simultaneous expression profiling of miRNA, mRNA and protein. The sample set under investigation consisted of clones with variable cellular growth rates derived from the same population. In addition to providing a systems level perspective on cell growth, the integration of multiple profiling datasets can facilitate the identification of non-seed miRNA targets, complement computational prediction tools and reduce false positive and false negative rates. Results 51 miRNAs were associated with increased growth rate (35 miRNAs upregulated and 16 miRNAs downregulated). Gene ontology (GO) analysis of genes (n=432) and proteins (n=285) found to be differentially expressed (DE) identified biological processes driving proliferation including mRNA processing and translation. To investigate the influence of miRNA on these processes we combined the proteomic and transcriptomic data into two groups. The first set contained candidates where evidence of translational repression was observed (n=158). The second group was a mixture of proteins and mRNAs where evidence of translational repression was less clear (n=515). The TargetScan algorithm was utilised to predict potential targets within these two groups for anti-correlated DE miRNAs. Conclusions The evidence presented in this study indicates that biological processes such as mRNA processing and protein synthesis are correlated with growth rate in CHO cells. Through the integration of expression data from multiple levels of the biological system a number of proteins central to these processes including several hnRNPs and components of the ribosome were found to be post-transcriptionally regulated. We utilised the expression data in conjunction with in-silico tools to identify potential miRNA-mediated regulation of mRNA/proteins involved in CHO cell

  13. Effect of post-growth rapid thermal annealing on bilayer InAs/GaAs quantum dot heterostructure grown with very thin spacer thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, S.; Halder, N.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2010-11-15

    We have investigated the effect of post-growth rapid thermal annealing on self-assembled InAs/GaAs bilayer quantum dot samples having very thin barrier thickness (7.5-8.5 nm). In/Ga interdiffusion in the samples due to annealing is presumed to be controlled by the vertical strain coupling from the seed dots in bilayer heterostructure. Strain coupling from embedded seed QD layer maintains a strain relaxed state in active top islands of the bilayer quantum dot sample grown with comparatively thick spacer layer (8.5 nm). This results in minimum In/Ga interdiffusion. However controlled interdiffusion across the interface between dots and GaAs barrier, noticeably enhances the emission efficiency in such bilayer quantum dot heterostructure on annealing up to 700 {sup o}C.

  14. Recrystallization and hydrothermal growth of high U-Th zircon in the Weondong deposit, Korea: Record of post-magmatic alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changyun; Song, Yungoo; Chung, Donghoon; Kang, Il-Mo; Khulganakhuu, Chuluunbaatar; Yi, Keewook

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we investigate zircons with high U and Th contents of 12,000-24,000 and 11,000-40,000 ppm, respectively, from leucocratic granite in the Weondong region of South Korea. Hydrothermally epitaxial growth textures are observed in addition to four distinct textures with different backscattered electron (BSE) intensities within single zircon crystals. We describe the internal textures of the zircon crystals and define the chemical characteristics of each textural domain. The zircon crystals show internally recrystallized and externally crystallized textures, supporting the concept of post-magmatic fluid control. After crystallization of the primary zircon by late magmatism, four types of secondary textures were developed. The type-I domain shows patchy forms within the primary domain due to the structural and chemical recrystallization of self-irradiated zircon by a fluid-dominated diffusion reaction process. The type-II domain is characterized by a pure zircon composition, mineral inclusions (mainly thorite), and micropores due to chemical recrystallization by a coupled dissolution-reprecipitation process during interaction with aqueous fluids. The type-III domain is the purest zircon, is interconnected with type-II, and formed by a second coupled dissolution-reprecipitation process. The type-IV domain is the hydrothermal recrystallization/overgrowth texture formed by the direct crystallization process from fluorine-enriched, zircon-saturated aqueous fluid. These results indicate that the zircon crystals were formed sequentially or intermittently through multi-genetic processes by post-magmatic fluids. Furthermore, we conclude that F-enriched post-magmatic fluid migrated large amounts of zirconium, resulting in the typical overgrowth texture of zircon.

  15. Effect of post-deposition annealing on the growth of Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films for a solar cell absorber layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, G. Suresh; Kishore Kumar, Y. B.; Uday Bhaskar, P.; Sundara Raja, V.

    2008-08-01

    The effect of substrate temperature and post-deposition annealing on the growth and properties of Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films, a potential candidate for a solar cell absorber layer, is investigated. The substrate temperature (Ts) is chosen to be in the range 523-673 K and the annealing temperature (Tpa) is kept at 723 K. Powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of as-deposited films revealed that the films deposited at Ts = 523 K and 573 K contain Cu2-xSe as a secondary phase. Single phase, polycrystalline Cu2ZnSnSe4 films are obtained at Ts = 623 K and films deposited at Ts = 673 K have ZnSe as a secondary phase along with Cu2ZnSnSe4. Direct band gap of as-deposited CZTSe films is found to lie between 1.40 eV and 1.65 eV depending on Ts. XRD patterns of post-deposition annealed films revealed that the films deposited at Ts = 523-623 K are single phase CZTSe and films deposited at Ts = 673 K still contain ZnSe secondary phase. CZTSe films are found to exhibit kesterite structure with the lattice parameters a = 0.568 nm and c = 1.136 nm. Optical absorption studies of post-deposition annealed films show that there is a slight increase in the band gap on annealing, due to decrease in the Cu content. Electrical resistivity of the films is found to lie in the range 0.02-2.6 Ω cm depending on Ts.

  16. Ubiquitin-Mediated Proteasomal Degradation of Oleosins is Involved in Oil Body Mobilization During Post-Germinative Seedling Growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Deruyffelaere, Carine; Bouchez, Isabelle; Morin, Halima; Guillot, Alain; Miquel, Martine; Froissard, Marine; Chardot, Thierry; D'Andrea, Sabine

    2015-07-01

    In oleaginous seeds, lipids--stored in organelles called oil bodies (OBs)--are degraded post-germinatively to provide carbon and energy for seedling growth. To date, little is known about how OB coat proteins, known as oleosins, control OB dynamics during seed germination. Here, we demonstrated that the sequential proteolysis of the five Arabidopsis thaliana oleosins OLE1-OLE5 begins just prior to lipid degradation. Several post-translational modifications (e.g. phosphorylation and ubiquination) of oleosins were concomitant with oleosin degradation. Phosphorylation occurred only on the minor OLE5 and on an 8 kDa proteolytic fragment of OLE2. A combination of immunochemical and proteomic approaches revealed ubiquitination of the four oleosins OLE1-OLE4 at the onset of OB mobilization. Ubiquitination topology was surprisingly complex. OLE1 and OLE2 were modified by three distinct and predominantly exclusive motifs: monoubiquitin, K48-linked diubiquitin (K48Ub(2)) and K63-linked diubiquitin. Ubiquitinated oleosins may be channeled towards specific degradation pathways according to ubiquitination type. One of these pathways was identified as the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. A proteasome inhibitor (MG132) reduced oleosin degradation and induced cytosolic accumulation of K48Ub(2)-oleosin aggregates. These results indicate that K48Ub(2)-modified oleosins are selectively extracted from OB coat and degraded by the proteasome. Proteasome inhibition also reduced lipid hydrolysis, providing in vivo evidence that oleosin degradation is required for lipid mobilization.

  17. Formation of pure Cu nanocrystals upon post-growth annealing of Cu–C material obtained from focused electron beam induced deposition: comparison of different methods

    PubMed Central

    Szkudlarek, Aleksandra; Rodrigues Vaz, Alfredo; Zhang, Yucheng; Rudkowski, Andrzej; Kapusta, Czesław; Erni, Rolf; Moshkalev, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this paper we study in detail the post-growth annealing of a copper-containing material deposited with focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID). The organometallic precursor Cu(II)(hfac)2 was used for deposition and the results were compared to that of compared to earlier experiments with (hfac)Cu(I)(VTMS) and (hfac)Cu(I)(DMB). Transmission electron microscopy revealed the deposition of amorphous material from Cu(II)(hfac)2. In contrast, as-deposited material from (hfac)Cu(I)(VTMS) and (hfac)Cu(I)(DMB) was nano-composite with Cu nanocrystals dispersed in a carbonaceous matrix. After annealing at around 150–200 °C all deposits showed the formation of pure Cu nanocrystals at the outer surface of the initial deposit due to the migration of Cu atoms from the carbonaceous matrix containing the elements carbon, oxygen, and fluorine. Post-irradiation of deposits with 200 keV electrons in a transmission electron microscope favored the formation of Cu nanocrystals within the carbonaceous matrix of freestanding rods and suppressed the formation on their surface. Electrical four-point measurements on FEBID lines from Cu(hfac)2 showed five orders of magnitude improvement in conductivity when being annealed conventionally and by laser-induced heating in the scanning electron microscope chamber. PMID:26425404

  18. Degree of methylation of ZAC1 (PLAGL1) is associated with prenatal and post-natal growth in healthy infants of the EDEN mother child cohort.

    PubMed

    Azzi, Salah; Sas, Theo C J; Koudou, Yves; Le Bouc, Yves; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Dargent-Molina, Patricia; Netchine, Irène; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2014-03-01

    The ZAC1 gene, mapped to the 6q24 region, is part of a network of co-regulated imprinted genes involved in the control of embryonic growth. Loss of methylation at the ZAC1 differentially methylated region (DMR) is associated with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus, a developmental disorder involving growth retardation and diabetes in the first weeks of post-natal life. We assessed whether the degree of methylation of the ZAC1 DMR in leukocytes DNA extracted from cord blood is associated with fetal, birth and post-natal anthropometric measures or with C-peptide concentrations in cord serum. We also searched for an influence of dietary intake and maternal parameters on ZAC1 DMR methylation. We found positive correlations between the ZAC1 DMR methylation index (MI) and estimated fetal weight (EFW) at 32 weeks of gestation, weight at birth and weight at one year of age (respectively, r = 0.15, 0.09, 0.14; P values = 0.01, 0.15, 0.03). However, there were no significant correlations between the ZAC1 DMR MI and cord blood C-peptide levels. Maternal intakes of alcohol and of vitamins B2 were positively correlated with ZAC1 DMR methylation (respectively, r = 0.2 and 0.14; P = 0.004 and 0.04). The influence of ZAC1 seems to start in the second half of pregnancy and continue at least until the first year of life. The maternal environment also appears to contribute to the regulation of DNA methylation.

  19. The relations between violence exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, secondary traumatization, vicarious post traumatic growth and illness attribution among psychiatric nurses.

    PubMed

    Zerach, Gad; Shalev, Tal Ben-Itzchak

    2015-06-01

    This study examined posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD), secondary traumatization (ST) and vicarious posttraumatic growth (VG) among Israeli psychiatric nurses (PN) who were compared to community nurses (CN). Furthermore, we examined the contribution of PN perceptions of the etiology of their patients' mental illness to their PTSD, ST and VG. Results show that PN reported higher levels of both PTSD and ST symptoms, but lower levels of VG, as compare to CN. While ST symptoms were positively related to VG among CN, PTSD and ST symptoms were negatively associated among PN. Finally, exposure to patients' violence, PTSD or ST symptoms, and illness attribution dimensions of 'powerful others', predicted nurses' VG. PN are an at-risk population for work-related stress residues.

  20. Hay fever, a post industrial revolution epidemic: a history of its growth during the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, M B

    1988-05-01

    Although other forms of allergic disease were described in antiquity, hay fever is surprisingly modern. Very rare descriptions can be traced back to Islamic texts of the 9th century and European texts of the 16th century. It was only in the early 19th century that the disease was carefully described and at that time was regarded as most unusual. By the end of the 19th century it had become commonplace in both Europe and North America. This paper attempts to chart the growth of hay fever through the medical literature of the 19th century. It is hoped that an understanding of the increase in prevalence between 1820 and 1900 may provide an insight for modern researchers and give some clues into possible reasons for the epidemic nature of the disease today.

  1. Factors influencing the en route survivorship and post-voyage growth of a common ship biofouling organism, Bugula neritina.

    PubMed

    Schimanski, Kate B; Piola, Richard F; Goldstien, Sharyn J; Floerl, Oliver; Grandison, Clare; Atalah, Javier; Hopkins, Grant A

    2016-09-01

    The likelihood that viable non-indigenous biofouling species will survive a voyage on a vessel is influenced by a range of factors, including the speed, duration, and route of the voyage and the amount of time the vessel spends in port. In this study, a land-based dynamic flow device was used to test the effect of recruit age, vessel speed and voyage duration on the survivorship and growth of the bryozoan Bugula neritina. In the experiment, one-week-old recruits had a higher likelihood (100%) of surviving voyages than older (one-month-old, 90%) or younger (one-day-old, 79%) recruits, but survival was not influenced by vessel speed (6 and 18 knots) or voyage duration (two and eight days). The results suggest that the non-indigenous species B. neritina can be effectively transferred at a range of ages but one-week-old recruits are more likely to survive the translocation process and survive in the recipient environment. PMID:27539565

  2. Factors influencing the en route survivorship and post-voyage growth of a common ship biofouling organism, Bugula neritina.

    PubMed

    Schimanski, Kate B; Piola, Richard F; Goldstien, Sharyn J; Floerl, Oliver; Grandison, Clare; Atalah, Javier; Hopkins, Grant A

    2016-09-01

    The likelihood that viable non-indigenous biofouling species will survive a voyage on a vessel is influenced by a range of factors, including the speed, duration, and route of the voyage and the amount of time the vessel spends in port. In this study, a land-based dynamic flow device was used to test the effect of recruit age, vessel speed and voyage duration on the survivorship and growth of the bryozoan Bugula neritina. In the experiment, one-week-old recruits had a higher likelihood (100%) of surviving voyages than older (one-month-old, 90%) or younger (one-day-old, 79%) recruits, but survival was not influenced by vessel speed (6 and 18 knots) or voyage duration (two and eight days). The results suggest that the non-indigenous species B. neritina can be effectively transferred at a range of ages but one-week-old recruits are more likely to survive the translocation process and survive in the recipient environment.

  3. Early post-larval development of the endoparasitic platyhelminth Mesocestoides corti: trypsin provokes reversible tegumental damage leading to serum-induced cell proliferation and growth.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, I; Galindo, M; Bizarro, C V; Ferreira, H B; Zaha, A; Galanti, N

    2005-11-01

    Mesocestoides corti is a suitable in vitro model for studying the development of human endoparasitic platyhelminthes. Treatment with trypsin, supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS), induces M. corti development from larvae (tetrathyridia) to segmented adult worm; however, the role of this protease and of FBS in post-larval development induction remains unknown. To characterize the participation of trypsin enzymatic activity and of FBS in the induction of tetrathyridia growth and development, both stimuli were added to the larvae either together or sequentially. Additionally, specific inhibition of trypsin activity was also monitored. Finally, the effect of the enzyme on the parasite tegument as well as the proliferative activity and location of proliferating cells after induction of tetrathyridia development were also studied. We conclude that trypsin-induced tetrathyridia development to adult worm is FBS-dependent and that the effect of serum factors is dependent upon a previous trypsin-induced reversible damage to the larva tegument. In dividing and non-dividing tetrathyridia, proliferative activity of cells is mainly located within the apical massif in the anterior region and nerve cords of larvae, respectively. In tetrathyridia stimulated to develop to adult worms, an intense proliferative activity is evident along the nerve cords. Our results suggest that in natural infections the tetrathyridia tegument is temporally made permeable to growth factors by proteolytic enzyme activity in the intestine juice of the definitive host, thus leading to development to adult worms. PMID:15887242

  4. Test-retest, retest, and retest: Growth curve models of repeat testing with Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT).

    PubMed

    Maerlender, Arthur C; Masterson, Caitlin J; James, Tiffany D; Beckwith, Jonathan; Brolinson, Per Gunner; Crisco, Joe; Duma, Stefan; Flashman, Laura A; Greenwald, Rick; Rowson, Steven; Wilcox, Beth; McAllister, Tom W

    2016-10-01

    Computerized neuropsychological testing has become an important tool in the identification and management of sports-related concussions; however, the psychometric effect of repeat testing has not been studied extensively beyond test-retest statistics. The current study analyzed data from Division I collegiate athletes who completed Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) baseline assessments at four sequential time points that varied over the course of their athletic careers. Administrations were part of a larger National Institutes of Health (NIH) study. Growth curve modeling showed that the two memory composite scores increased significantly with successive administrations: Change in Verbal Memory was best represented with a quadratic model, while a linear model best fit Visual Memory. Visual Motor Speed and Reaction Time composites showed no significant linear or quadratic growth. The results demonstrate the effect of repeated test administrations for memory composite scores, while speed composites were not significantly impacted by repeat testing. Acceptable test-retest reliability was demonstrated for all four composites as well.

  5. Test-retest, retest, and retest: Growth curve models of repeat testing with Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT).

    PubMed

    Maerlender, Arthur C; Masterson, Caitlin J; James, Tiffany D; Beckwith, Jonathan; Brolinson, Per Gunner; Crisco, Joe; Duma, Stefan; Flashman, Laura A; Greenwald, Rick; Rowson, Steven; Wilcox, Beth; McAllister, Tom W

    2016-10-01

    Computerized neuropsychological testing has become an important tool in the identification and management of sports-related concussions; however, the psychometric effect of repeat testing has not been studied extensively beyond test-retest statistics. The current study analyzed data from Division I collegiate athletes who completed Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) baseline assessments at four sequential time points that varied over the course of their athletic careers. Administrations were part of a larger National Institutes of Health (NIH) study. Growth curve modeling showed that the two memory composite scores increased significantly with successive administrations: Change in Verbal Memory was best represented with a quadratic model, while a linear model best fit Visual Memory. Visual Motor Speed and Reaction Time composites showed no significant linear or quadratic growth. The results demonstrate the effect of repeated test administrations for memory composite scores, while speed composites were not significantly impacted by repeat testing. Acceptable test-retest reliability was demonstrated for all four composites as well. PMID:27266563

  6. Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waag, Andreas

    This chapter is devoted to the growth of ZnO. It starts with various techniques to grow bulk samples and presents in some detail the growth of epitaxial layers by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The last section is devoted to the growth of nanorods. Some properties of the resulting samples are also presented. If a comparison between GaN and ZnO is made, very often the huge variety of different growth techniques available to fabricate ZnO is said to be an advantage of this material system. Indeed, growth techniques range from low cost wet chemical growth at almost room temperature to high quality MOCVD growth at temperatures above 1, 000∘C. In most cases, there is a very strong tendency of c-axis oriented growth, with a much higher growth rate in c-direction as compared to other crystal directions. This often leads to columnar structures, even at relatively low temperatures. However, it is, in general, not straight forward to fabricate smooth ZnO thin films with flat surfaces. Another advantage of a potential ZnO technology is said to be the possibility to grow thin films homoepitaxially on ZnO substrates. ZnO substrates are mostly fabricated by vapor phase transport (VPT) or hydrothermal growth. These techniques are enabling high volume manufacturing at reasonable cost, at least in principle. The availability of homoepitaxial substrates should be beneficial to the development of ZnO technology and devices and is in contrast to the situation of GaN. However, even though a number of companies are developing ZnO substrates, only recently good quality substrates have been demonstrated. However, these substrates are not yet widely available. Still, the situation concerning ZnO substrates seems to be far from low-cost, high-volume production. The fabrication of dense, single crystal thin films is, in general, surprisingly difficult, even when ZnO is grown on a ZnO substrate. However

  7. Aggravation of post-ischemic liver injury by overexpression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lu; Koh, Hyoung-Won; Bae, Ui-Jin; Park, Byung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is known to inhibit reperfusion-induced apoptosis. IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) is the major circulating carrier protein for IGF-1 and induces apoptosis. In this study, we determined if IGFBP-3 was important in the hepatic response to I/R. To deliver IGFBP-3, we used an adenovirus containing IGFBP-3 cDNA (AdIGFBP-3) or an IGFBP-3 mutant devoid of IGF binding affinity but retaining IGFBP-3 receptor binding ability (AdIGFBP-3(GGG)). Mice subjected to I/R injury showed typical patterns of hepatocellular damage. Protein levels of IGFBP-3 were increased after reperfusion and showed a positive correlation with the extent of liver injury. Prior injection with AdIGFBP-3 aggravated liver injury: serum aminotransferases, prothrombin time, proinflammatory cytokines, hepatocellular necrosis and apoptosis, and neutrophil infiltration were markedly increased compared to control mice. A decrease in antioxidant potential and an upregulation of NADPH oxidase might have caused these aggravating effects of IGFBP-3. Experiments using HepG2 cells and N-acetylcysteine-pretreated mice showed a discernible effect of IGFBP-3 on reactive oxygen species generation. Lastly, AdIGFBP-3 abolished the beneficial effects of ischemic preconditioning and hypothermia. Mice treated with AdIGFBP-3(GGG) exhibited effects similar to those of AdIGFBP-3, suggesting a ligand-independent effect of IGFBP-3. Our results suggest IGFBP-3 as an aggravating factor during hepatic I/R injury. PMID:26073647

  8. Gestational Dietary Protein Is Associated with Sex Specific Decrease in Blood Flow, Fetal Heart Growth and Post-Natal Blood Pressure of Progeny

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Study Overview The incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes is higher in pregnancies where the fetus is male. Sex specific differences in feto-placental perfusion indices identified by Doppler assessment have recently been associated with placental insufficiency and fetal growth restriction. This study aims to investigate sex specific differences in placental perfusion and to correlate these changes with fetal growth. It represents the largest comprehensive study under field conditions of uterine hemodynamics in a monotocous species, with a similar long gestation period to the human. Primiparous 14mo heifers in Australia (n=360) and UK (n=180) were either individually or group fed, respectively, diets with differing protein content (18, 14, 10 or 7% crude protein (CP)) from 60d prior to 98 days post conception (dpc). Fetuses and placentae were excised at 98dpc (n = 48). Fetal development an median uterine artery blood flow were assessed monthly from 36dpc until term using B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography. MUA blood flow to the male feto-placental unit increased in early pregnancy associated with increased fetal growth. Protein restriction before and shortly after conception (-60d up to 23dpc) increased MUA diameter and indices of velocity during late pregnancy, reduced fetal heart weight in the female fetus and increased heart rate at birth, but decreased systolic blood pressure at six months of age. Conclusion and Significance Sex specific differences both in feto-placental Doppler perfusion indices and response of these indices to dietary perturbations were observed. Further, maternal diet affected development of fetal cardiovascular system associated with altered fetal haemodynamics in utero, with such effects having a sex bias. The results from this study provide further insight into the gender specific circulatory differences present in the fetal period and developing cardiovascular system. PMID:25915506

  9. Post Treatment With an FGF Chimeric Growth Factor Enhances Epithelial Cell Proliferation to Improve Recovery From Radiation-Induced Intestinal Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Fumiaki; Hagiwara, Akiko; Umeda, Sachiko; Asada, Masahiro; Goto, Megumi; Oki, Junko; Suzuki, Masashi; Imamura, Toru; Akashi, Makoto

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: A fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 1-FGF2 chimera (FGFC) was created previously and showed greater structural stability than FGF1. This chimera was capable of stimulating epithelial cell proliferation much more strongly than FGF1 or FGF2 even without heparin. Therefore FGFC was expected to have greater biologic activity in vivo. This study evaluated and compared the protective activity of FGFC and FGF1 against radiation-induced intestinal injuries. Methods and Materials: We administered FGFC and FGF1 intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice 24 h before or after total-body irradiation (TBI). The numbers of surviving crypts were determined 3.5 days after TBI with gamma rays at doses ranging from 8 to 12 Gy. Results: The effect of FGFC was equal to or slightly superior to FGF1 with heparin. However, FGFC was significantly more effective in promoting crypt survival than FGF1 (p < 0.01) when 10 {mu}g of each FGF was administered without heparin before irradiation. In addition, FGFC was significantly more effective at promoting crypt survival (p < 0.05) than FGF1 even when administered without heparin at 24 h after TBI at 10, 11, or 12 Gy. We found that FGFC post treatment significantly promoted 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation into crypts and increased crypt depth, resulting in more epithelial differentiation. However, the number of apoptotic cells in FGFC-treated mice decreased to almost the same level as that in FGF1-treated mice. Conclusions: These findings suggest that FGFC strongly enhanced radioprotection with the induction of epithelial proliferation without exogenous heparin after irradiation and is useful in clinical applications for both the prevention and post treatment of radiation injuries.

  10. The Effect of the Wall Contact and Post-Growth, Cool-Down on Defects in CdTe Crystals Grown By 'Contactless' PVT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; Grasza, K.; Dudley, M.; Raghothamachar, B.; Cai, L.; Dunrose, K.; Halliday, D.; Boyall, N. M.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To take a maximum advantage of materials processing in microgravity for understanding the effects of gravity, gravity-independent effects should be minimized. In crystal growth, the quality of the grown crystals may depend, among other factors, on their interaction with the walls of the processing container during and after growth, and on the rate of the crystal cool-down at the end of the process. To investigate the above phenomena, a series of CdTe crystal growth processes was carried out. The crystals were grown by physical vapor transport without contact with the side walls of the silica glass ampoules. To eliminate the effect of the seed quality, and to reduce the number of nuclei and related crystal grains, the Low Supersaturation Nucleation technique was applied. The source temperature was 930 C, the undercooling was a few degrees. The crystals, having the diameter of 25 mm, grew at the rate of a few mm per day. The post-growth cool-down to the room temperature was conducted at different rates, and lasted from a few minutes to four days. The crystals were characterized using chemical etching, low temperature luminescence, and Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography techniques. The dislocation (etch pit) density was measured and its distribution was analyzed by comparison with Poisson curves and with the Normalized Radial Distribution Correlation Function. In the regions where the crystal is in contact with silica, the materials show a considerable strain field which extends for a few mm or more from the silica-crystal interface. In the reference crystal grown with contact with the ampoule walls, and when the crystals are cooled at the highest rates, the etch pit/dislocation density is in the high 10(exp 5) per square centimeter region. Typical EPD values for lower cool-down rates are in the lower 10(exp 4) per square centimeter region. In some areas the actual dislocation density was about 10(exp 3) per square centimeter or even less. No apparent effect of

  11. Dietary daidzein influences laying performance of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and early post-hatch growth of their hatchlings by modulating gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ruqian; Wang, Yaju; Zhou, Yuchuan; Ni, Yingdong; Lu, Lizhi; Grossmann, Roland; Chen, Jie

    2004-08-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that dietary supplementation of daidzein improves egg production in duck breeders during late periods of the laying cycle. The present study was aimed to clarify whether the growth of ducklings hatched from eggs laid by daidzein-treated hens would be affected, and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying potential trans-generational effects, by determining changes of hormone levels and mRNA expression of relevant genes. Daidzein was added to the basal diet of 415-day-old duck breeders at the level of 5 mg/kg. During 9 weeks of daidzein treatment, laying rate increased by 7.70%, average egg mass tended to increase, whereas yolk/albumen ratio decreased significantly. These changes were accompanied by significantly elevated plasma T4 and E2 levels, enhanced gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA, but diminished estrogen receptor (ER)-beta mRNA expression in hypothalamus of daidzein-treated hens. Ducklings hatched from daidzein-treated eggs were significantly smaller at hatching, but they caught up with their control counterparts by 4 weeks of age. Serum levels of T4, pituitary GH, hepatic GH receptor (GHR) and type-1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R) mRNA expression were all suppressed markedly in the daidzein-treated group at hatching, but this suppression proved to be temporary, as at 4 weeks of age, expression levels of all investigated genes were restored. However, it is noteworthy that at 4 weeks of age an obvious down-regulation of hypothalamic GnRH mRNA expression was detected in ducklings maternally exposed to daidzein. Our results provide evidence that maternal exposure to daidzein affects post-hatch growth in the duck with accompanying changes in the secretion of metabolic hormones and expression of growth-related genes. Although the negative effect of maternal daidzein on embryonic growth could be eliminated 4 weeks after hatching, the long-term effect of maternal daidzein on reproductive function is not to be ignored and awaits

  12. Effects of hypophysectomy and recombinant human growth hormone on material and geometric properties and the pre- and post-yield behavior of femurs in young rats.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Sara; Cointry, Gustavo R; Leite Duarte, María E; Sarrió, Leandro; Ferretti, José L; Capozza, Ricardo F

    2004-01-01

    To study the musculoskeletal effects of hypophysectomy (Hx) and a partial replacement treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in rats, we determined the stiffness (elastic modulus, E) and volumetric BMD (vBMD) of cortical bone; the periosteal and endosteal perimeters, area and bending moment of inertia (xCSMI) of the cross sections, and the structural stiffness and pre- and post-yield strength of the femur diaphyses by pQCT and mechanical tests, and the gastrocnemius weight of rats that were either intact (n = 9) or Hx at 15 days of age (20). The latter were otherwise untreated (Hx controls, 4) or given 0.4 (8) or 2.0 (8) IU kg(-1) day(-1), s.c., of rhGH for 45 days starting 15 days after surgery. Hx delayed musculoskeletal development (gastrocnemius weight, bone geometric properties), thus affecting the diaphyseal stiffness and strength. It also reduced the cortical vBMD through an undefined mechanism, and increased the elastic modulus of cortical bone. The Hx also affected the correlation between bone geometric and material properties (xCSMI vs. E), suggesting an antianabolic interaction with the biomechanical control of bone modeling in response to strains caused by mechanical usage. As a result, Hx reduced the stiffness, post-yield, and ultimate strength of the diaphyses. These effects should reflect changes in bone tissue microstructure, perhaps associated with crack generation and progress, but unrelated to bone mineral mass. They are compatible with the induction of a delay in collagen turnover with associated increases in fibers' diameter and crystals' size that may have resulted from the suppression of some other hormones, such as thyroid, prolactin, or other hormones regulated by ACTH. The above doses of rhGH significantly but incompletely prevented the negative Hx effects on bone and muscle development (bone geometric properties, muscle mass). However, rhGH treatment failed to prevent the demineralizing and stiffening effect of Hx on bone

  13. Loss of Mitochondrial Malate Dehydrogenase Activity Alters Seed Metabolism Impairing Seed Maturation and Post-Germination Growth in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH; EC 1.1.1.37) has multiple roles; the most commonly described is its catalysis of the interconversion of malate and oxaloacetate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The roles of mMDH in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed development and germination were investigated in mMDH1 and mMDH2 double knockout plants. A significant proportion of mmdh1mmdh2 seeds were nonviable and developed only to torpedo-shaped embryos, indicative of arrested seed embryo growth during embryogenesis. The viable mmdh1mmdh2 seeds had an impaired maturation process that led to slow germination rates as well as retarded post-germination growth, shorter root length, and decreased root biomass. During seed development, mmdh1mmdh2 showed a paler green phenotype than the wild type and exhibited deficiencies in reserve accumulation and reduced final seed biomass. The respiration rate of mmdh1mmdh2 seeds was significantly elevated throughout their maturation, consistent with the previously reported higher respiration rate in mmdh1mmdh2 leaves. Mutant seeds showed a consistently higher content of free amino acids (branched-chain amino acids, alanine, serine, glycine, proline, and threonine), differences in sugar and sugar phosphate levels, and lower content of 2-oxoglutarate. Seed-aging assays showed that quiescent mmdh1mmdh2 seeds lost viability more than 3 times faster than wild-type seeds. Together, these data show the important role of mMDH in the earliest phases of the life cycle of Arabidopsis. PMID:27208265

  14. Muscle development and body growth in larvae and early post-larvae of shi drum, Umbrina cirrosa L., reared under different larval photoperiod: muscle structural and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Maria D; Abellán, Emilia; Arizcun, Marta; García-Alcázar, Alicia; Navarro, F; Blanco, Alfonso; López-Albors, Octavio M

    2013-08-01

    Shi drum specimens were maintained under four different photoperiod regimes: a natural photoperiod regime (16L:8D), constant light (24L), equal durations of light and dark (12L:12D) and a reduced number of daylight hours (6L:18D) from hatching until the end of larval metamorphosis. Specimens were then kept under natural photoperiod conditions until 111 days post-hatching. Muscle and body parameters were studied. During the vitelline phase, there was little muscle growth and no photoperiod effects were reported; however, a monolayer of red muscle and immature white muscle fibres were observed in the myotome. At hatching, external cells (presumptive myogenic cells) were already present on the surface of the red muscle. At the mouth opening, some presumptive myogenic cells appeared between the red and white muscles. At 20 days, new germinal areas were observed in the apical extremes of the myotome. At this stage, the 16L:8D group (followed by the 24L group) had the longest body length, the largest cross-sectional area of white muscle and the largest white muscle fibres. Conversely, white muscle hyperplasia was most pronounced in the 24L group. Metamorphosis was complete at 33 days in the 24L and 12L:12D groups. At this moment, both groups showed numerous myogenic precursors on the surface of the myotome as well as among the adult muscle fibres (mosaic hyperplastic growth). The 16L:8D group completed metamorphosis at 50 days, showing a similar degree of structural maturity in the myotome to that described in the 24L and 12L:12D groups at 33 days. When comparing muscle growth at the end of the larval period, hypertrophy was highest in the 16L:8D group, whereas hyperplasia was higher in the 24L and 16L:8D groups. At 111 days, all groups showed the adult muscle pattern typical of teleosts; however, the cross-sectional area of white muscle, white muscle fibre hyperplasia, body length and body weight were highest in the 24L group, followed by the 12L:12D group; white muscle

  15. Expression of insulin-like growth factor system genes in liver tissue during embryonic and early post-hatch development in duck (Anas platyrhynchos Domestica).

    PubMed

    Jianmin, Zou; Jingting, Shu; Yanju, Shan; Yan, Hu; Chi, Song; Wenqi, Zhu

    2014-04-01

    The IGF system is one of the most important endocrine and paracrine growth factor systems that regulate fetal and placental growth, whereas the liver is the principal source of circulation IGF-I. In the present study, expression of IGF-I, IGF type-I receptor (IGF-IR), and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3 genes was quantified by RT-PCR in the liver tissue on days 13, 17, 21, 25, and 27 of embryonic development, as well as at 7 days post-hatching (PH) in meat-type Gaoyou ducks and egg-type Jinding ducks. The results showed that IGF-I mRNA could be detected as early as on E 13d, but the expression level was low throughout embryonic development before increasing dramatically by E 27d and 7 days PH in both duck breeds. However, Gaoyou ducks exhibited higher IGF-I mRNA level than Jinding ducks, and the differences were significant on E 13d, E 21d, and at 7 days PH. Expression of IGF-IR in liver increased gradually in the former stages of the embryonic development, reaching its highest point on E 21d, and then declined up until 7 days PH. The expression pattern of IGFBP-3 gene was similar to that of IGF-IR gene, increasing significantly from E 17d. The expression peak appeared on E 25d, then declined significantly just prior to hatching (day 27) and was followed by an increase at 7 days PH. In general, the expression level of IGF-IR and IGFBP-3 genes in Jinding ducks was higher than that in Gaoyou ducks. Inverse relationships were observed for the expression of IGF-I and IGF-IR, and IGF-I and IGFBP-3, whereas a positive relationship was observed for the expression of IGF-IR and IGFBP-3. Our data indicate a differential expression of selected genes that comprise the IGF system in the duck liver tissue during embryonic and early PH growth and development.

  16. Muscle development and body growth in larvae and early post-larvae of shi drum, Umbrina cirrosa L., reared under different larval photoperiod: muscle structural and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Maria D; Abellán, Emilia; Arizcun, Marta; García-Alcázar, Alicia; Navarro, F; Blanco, Alfonso; López-Albors, Octavio M

    2013-08-01

    Shi drum specimens were maintained under four different photoperiod regimes: a natural photoperiod regime (16L:8D), constant light (24L), equal durations of light and dark (12L:12D) and a reduced number of daylight hours (6L:18D) from hatching until the end of larval metamorphosis. Specimens were then kept under natural photoperiod conditions until 111 days post-hatching. Muscle and body parameters were studied. During the vitelline phase, there was little muscle growth and no photoperiod effects were reported; however, a monolayer of red muscle and immature white muscle fibres were observed in the myotome. At hatching, external cells (presumptive myogenic cells) were already present on the surface of the red muscle. At the mouth opening, some presumptive myogenic cells appeared between the red and white muscles. At 20 days, new germinal areas were observed in the apical extremes of the myotome. At this stage, the 16L:8D group (followed by the 24L group) had the longest body length, the largest cross-sectional area of white muscle and the largest white muscle fibres. Conversely, white muscle hyperplasia was most pronounced in the 24L group. Metamorphosis was complete at 33 days in the 24L and 12L:12D groups. At this moment, both groups showed numerous myogenic precursors on the surface of the myotome as well as among the adult muscle fibres (mosaic hyperplastic growth). The 16L:8D group completed metamorphosis at 50 days, showing a similar degree of structural maturity in the myotome to that described in the 24L and 12L:12D groups at 33 days. When comparing muscle growth at the end of the larval period, hypertrophy was highest in the 16L:8D group, whereas hyperplasia was higher in the 24L and 16L:8D groups. At 111 days, all groups showed the adult muscle pattern typical of teleosts; however, the cross-sectional area of white muscle, white muscle fibre hyperplasia, body length and body weight were highest in the 24L group, followed by the 12L:12D group; white muscle

  17. Saturation of subcutaneous adipose tissue expansion and accumulation of ectopic fat associated with metabolic dysfunction during late and post-pubertal growth

    PubMed Central

    Gyllenhammer, Lauren E.; Alderete, Tanya L.; Toledo-Corral, Claudia M.; Weigensberg, Marc; Goran, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective Puberty is a period defined by large changes in adipose tissue accumulation and distribution, however longitudinal patterns of ectopic fat development have not been shown. We have previously shown significant declines in beta-cell function (BCF) across puberty and hypothesize that accumulation of ectopic fat deposition, particularly hepatic fat, will predict this fall. Subject/Methods We conducted a longitudinal study and examined 2-year change in abdominal fat distribution and type 2 diabetes risk markers in 76 Hispanic children and young adults (16.1 ±0.5 years, 66% obese, 52% male, 51% post-pubertal). Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), hepatic fat fraction (HFF) and pancreatic fat fraction (PFF) were measured by 3-Tesla MRI, and markers of type 2 diabetes risk were collected at fasting and during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Results Baseline pubertal status significantly moderated 2-year change in ectopic fat deposition, such that VAT, HFF and PFF increased in individuals during late and post-pubertal growth whereas children earlier in their pubertal development decreased ectopic accumulation and had less VAT accumulation (VAT: pTanner*time =0.044, 0.31±0.08L vs. 0.03±0.10L; HFF: pTanner*time=0.007, 1.34±0.87% vs. −2.61±1.11%; PFF: pTanner*time<0.001, 1.61±0.39% vs. −0.96±0.50%). Independent of pubertal status, two-year increase in HFF and VAT significantly associated with a decline in BCF (β=−1.04, p=0.038; β=−1.81, p=0.020) and metabolic function, while accumulation of SAAT significantly associated with BCF (β=1.36, p=0.012) and metabolic improvement. HFF accumulation was the only depot to significantly predict clinical markers of type 2 diabetes risk, fasting glucose and HbA1c, and circulating free fatty acid levels (β=1.00, p=0.034; β=1.00, p=0.015; β=01.01, p=0.024). Conclusions The accumulation of SAAT defends against type 2 diabetes risk and potentially ectopic

  18. Issues in Post-Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Ravindra H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Post-literacy programs attempt to prevent relapse into illiteracy by ensuring retention, application, and continued growth of literacy skills. Planning for post-literacy should be included at the outset. Post-literacy must be seen as part of the lifelong education continuum, be funded effectively, overcome social and psychological barriers, and…

  19. Post-Growth Annealing of Bridgman-grown CdZnTe and CdMnTe Crystals for Room-temperature Nuclear Radiation Detectors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Egarievwe, Stephen U.; Yang, Ge; Egarievwe, Alexander; Okwechime, Ifechukwude O.; Gray, Justin; Hales, Zaveon M.; Hossain, Anwar; Camarda, Guiseppe S.; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; James, Ralph B.

    2015-02-11

    Bridgman-grown cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) and cadmium manganese telluride (CdMnTe or CMT) crystals often have Te inclusions that limit their performances as X-ray- and gamma-ray-detectors. We present here the results of post-growth thermal annealing aimed at reducing and eliminating Te inclusions in them. In a 2D analysis, we observed that the sizes of the Te inclusions declined to 92% during a 60-h annealing of CZT at 510 °C under Cd vapor. Further, tellurium inclusions were eliminated completely in CMT samples annealed at 570 °C in Cd vapor for 26 h, whilst their electrical resistivity fell by an ordermore » of 102. During the temperature-gradient annealing of CMT at 730 °C and an 18 °C/cm temperature gradient for 18 h in a vacuum of 10-5 mbar, we observed the diffusion of Te from the sample, causing a reduction in size of the Te inclusions. For CZT samples annealed at 700 °C in a 10 °C/cm temperature gradient, we observed the migration of Te inclusions from a low-temperature region to a high one at 0.022 μm/s. During the temperature-gradient annealing of CZT in a vacuum of 10-5 mbar at 570 °C and 30 °C/cm for 18 h, some Te inclusions moved toward the high-temperature side of the wafer, while other inclusions of the same size, i.e., 10 µm in diameter, remained in the same position. These results show that the migration, diffusion, and reaction of Te with Cd in the matrix of CZT- and CMT-wafers are complex phenomena that depend on certain conditions.« less

  20. Post-Growth Annealing of Bridgman-grown CdZnTe and CdMnTe Crystals for Room-temperature Nuclear Radiation Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Egarievwe, Stephen U.; Yang, Ge; Egarievwe, Alexander; Okwechime, Ifechukwude O.; Gray, Justin; Hales, Zaveon M.; Hossain, Anwar; Camarda, Guiseppe S.; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; James, Ralph B.

    2015-02-11

    Bridgman-grown cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) and cadmium manganese telluride (CdMnTe or CMT) crystals often have Te inclusions that limit their performances as X-ray- and gamma-ray-detectors. We present here the results of post-growth thermal annealing aimed at reducing and eliminating Te inclusions in them. In a 2D analysis, we observed that the sizes of the Te inclusions declined to 92% during a 60-h annealing of CZT at 510 °C under Cd vapor. Further, tellurium inclusions were eliminated completely in CMT samples annealed at 570 °C in Cd vapor for 26 h, whilst their electrical resistivity fell by an order of 102. During the temperature-gradient annealing of CMT at 730 °C and an 18 °C/cm temperature gradient for 18 h in a vacuum of 10-5 mbar, we observed the diffusion of Te from the sample, causing a reduction in size of the Te inclusions. For CZT samples annealed at 700 °C in a 10 °C/cm temperature gradient, we observed the migration of Te inclusions from a low-temperature region to a high one at 0.022 μm/s. During the temperature-gradient annealing of CZT in a vacuum of 10-5 mbar at 570 °C and 30 °C/cm for 18 h, some Te inclusions moved toward the high-temperature side of the wafer, while other inclusions of the same size, i.e., 10 µm in diameter, remained in the same position. These results show that the migration, diffusion, and reaction of Te with Cd in the matrix of CZT- and CMT-wafers are complex phenomena that depend on certain conditions.

  1. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling requires a specific endoplasmic reticulum thioredoxin for the post-translational control of receptor presentation to the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Dong, Aiwen; Wodziak, Dariusz; Lowe, Anson W

    2015-03-27

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a well characterized receptor-tyrosine kinase that functions in development and serves a vital role in many human cancers. Understanding EGFR regulatory mechanisms, and hence approaches for clinical intervention, has focused on ligand-receptor interactions and tyrosine kinase activity. Here, we show using the NCI-H460 lung and A431 epidermoid human cancer cell lines that EGFR binding to anterior gradient homolog 2 (AGR2) in the endoplasmic reticulum is required for receptor delivery to the plasma membrane and thus EGFR signaling. Reduced AGR2 protein levels or mutation of an essential cysteine in the active site result in decreased cell surface EGFR and a concomitant decrease in signaling as reflected by AREG, EGR1, and FOS expression. Similar to previously described EGFR nulls, an AGR2 null also resulted in embryonic lethality. Consistent with its role in regulating EGFR-mediated signaling, AGR2 expression is also enhanced in many human cancers and promotes the transformed phenotype. Furthermore, EGFR-mediated signaling in NCI-H460 cells, which are resistant to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478, is also disrupted with reduced AGR2 expression. The results provide insights into why cancer prognosis or response to therapy often does not correlate with EGFR protein or RNA levels because they do not reflect delivery to the cell surface where signaling is initiated. AGR2, therefore, represents a novel post-translational regulator of EGFR-mediated signaling and a promising target for treating human cancers.

  2. Effects of growth irradiance, nitrogen nutrition and watering regime on photosynthesis, leaf conductance and isoprene emission in leaves of Post Oak, Quercus stellata

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, P.; Archer, S.; Guenther, A. Texas A M Univ., College Station )

    1994-06-01

    Seedlings of Post Oak (Quercus stellata), the dominant woody species of oak savannas of east-central Texas, were grown outside in College Station, TX from April to November 1993. Plants were randomly placed in one cell of a 3 [times] 2 [times] 2 factorial experiment, employing 3 nitrogen fertilization (25, 100 and 225 ppm NH[sub 4]NO[sub 23]), 2 light levels (70% and 20% of full sun) and 2 watering regimes (to maintain 80-100% or 30-50% of field capacity). In November, net photosynthesis, leaf conductance and leaf isoprene emission rates at 30[degrees]C and PPFD=1000 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2]s[sup [minus]1] were determined for two mature leaves on each of four plants from eight growth treatments and data were analyzed stastically. For plants grown under the lower watering regime, photosynthesis and isoprene emission increased with both increasing PPFD and nitrogen (effects significant at p<0.01). For plants grown at 70% full sun, effects of nitrogen treatment on photosynthesis, conductance and isoprene emission were significant (p<0.0001) while effects of watering treatment were not significant (p<0.2). Although watering treatment did not lead to significant differences between treatments, in a short-term drying experiment conducted on four plants, isoprene emissions increased through the drying period in previously well-watered plants, but decreased in previously droughted plants. Measurements were also made on two leaves to determine the effects of varying PPFD and temperature on rates of isoprene emission.

  3. Post-translational acquisition of ligand binding- and tyrosine kinase-domain function by the epidermal growth factor and insulin receptors.

    PubMed

    Lane, M D; Slieker, L J; Olson, T S; Martensen, T M

    1987-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and insulin receptor undergo slow post-translational modification by which they acquire hormone binding and tyrosine kinase (EGFR) function. The half-time for acquisition of EGF or insulin binding activity is 30-40 min and of tyrosine kinase activity (EGFR), is 10-15 min. Tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-linked oligosaccharide addition, blocks acquisition of both EGF and insulin binding activity. With EGFR, activation precedes acquisition of resistance to endoglucosaminidase H (t1/2 approximately equal to 75 min), a medial Golgi event. Treatment of active high mannose receptor with endo H generates fully active aglyco-receptor; thus, core oligosaccharide addition is a prerequisite for activation, but not for EGF binding per se. EGFR is activated in and translocated from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) slowly (t1/2 approximately equal to 75 min). Since translocation rate equals the rate for acquisition of endo H resistance, transit from the ER is rate limiting for EGFR maturation. Tunicamycin inhibits exit from the ER parallel to its effect on acquisition of binding activity. Insulin proreceptor, a 210 kDa high-mannose glycopolypeptide, acquires insulin binding function (t1/2 approximately equal to 45 min) then is proteolytically cleaved (t1/2 approximately equal to 3 hr) into subunits of the mature alpha 2 beta 2 receptor. Modification giving rise to insulin binding activity is due to a conformational change in the binding domain, since human autoimmune antibody recognizes only the active species, while rabbit polyclonal antibody recognizes all forms. Newly-translated EGF proreceptor lacks a functional tyrosine domain capable of autophosphorylation; 30-40 min after translation, while still in the ER, tyrosine kinase activity is acquired. Since the kinase domain is cytoplasmic, the receptor may become phosphorylated on tyrosine before reaching the plasma membrane. PMID:3305909

  4. Towards semi-insulating InGaAsP/InP layers by post-growth processing using Fe ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekecs, André; Chicoine, Martin; Ilahi, Bouraoui; Schiettekatte, François; Charette, Paul G.; Arès, Richard

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we report on an effective post-growth processing technique for developing semi-insulating (SI) photonic thin films absorbing in 1.3 µm. For that purpose, we examined a 1 µm thick unintentionally n-doped In0.72Ga0.28As0.61P0.39 epilayer (0.95 eV bandgap) modified by multiple-energy MeV Fe ion implantation. Fe was chosen as a deep-level impurity. The ion beam processing was performed at room temperature, followed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 800 °C for 15 s. We investigated the impact of ion fluence on electrical properties by Hall effect measurements. Channelling Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements were carried out to evaluate crystal quality after each fabrication step. Beyond the onset of amorphization, when the total Fe fluence was more than 4.8 × 1013 cm-2, the implanted InGaAsP layer showed evidence of a poor recrystallization after RTA, and its isolation was impaired. Maximum resistivity values were achieved below the onset of amorphization where annealing reduced ion de-channelling and recovered damage-induced strain. With a total Fe fluence of 1.6 × 1013 cm-2, the electrical resistivity and Hall mobility reached values of 1.4 × 104 Ω cm and 4 × 102 cm2 V-1 s-1. These results add important insights on the optimization of this process for the development of InP-based SI photoconductive films.

  5. Strain balanced quantum posts

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-Alvarez, D.; Alen, B.; Ripalda, J. M.; Llorens, J. M.; Taboada, A. G.; Briones, F.; Roldan, M. A.; Hernandez-Saz, J.; Hernandez-Maldonado, D.; Herrera, M.; Molina, S. I.

    2011-04-25

    Quantum posts are assembled by epitaxial growth of closely spaced quantum dot layers, modulating the composition of a semiconductor alloy, typically InGaAs. In contrast with most self-assembled nanostructures, the height of quantum posts can be controlled with nanometer precision, up to a maximum value limited by the accumulated stress due to the lattice mismatch. Here, we present a strain compensation technique based on the controlled incorporation of phosphorous, which substantially increases the maximum attainable quantum post height. The luminescence from the resulting nanostructures presents giant linear polarization anisotropy.

  6. [Effects of different water potentials on leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of cucumber during post-flowering growth stage].

    PubMed

    Lin, Lu; Tang, Yun; Zhang, Ji-tao; Yan, Wan-li; Xiao, Jian-hong; Ding, Chao; Dong, Chuan; Ji, Zeng-shun

    2015-07-01

    Impacts of different substrate water potentials (SWP) on leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of greenhouse cucumber during its post-flowering growth stage were analyzed in this study. The results demonstrated that -10 and -30 kPa were the critical values for initiating stomatal and non-stomatal limitation of drought stress, respectively. During the stage of no drought stress (-10 kPa < SWP ≤ 0 kPa), gas exchange parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were not different significantly among treatments. During the stage of stomatal limitation of drought stress (-30 kPa

  7. [Effects of different water potentials on leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of cucumber during post-flowering growth stage].

    PubMed

    Lin, Lu; Tang, Yun; Zhang, Ji-tao; Yan, Wan-li; Xiao, Jian-hong; Ding, Chao; Dong, Chuan; Ji, Zeng-shun

    2015-07-01

    Impacts of different substrate water potentials (SWP) on leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of greenhouse cucumber during its post-flowering growth stage were analyzed in this study. The results demonstrated that -10 and -30 kPa were the critical values for initiating stomatal and non-stomatal limitation of drought stress, respectively. During the stage of no drought stress (-10 kPa < SWP ≤ 0 kPa), gas exchange parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were not different significantly among treatments. During the stage of stomatal limitation of drought stress (-30 kPa

  8. Growth, characterization and post-processing of inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic thin films deposited using atomic and molecular layer deposition techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulagatov, Aziz Ilmutdinovich

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) and molecular layer deposition (MLD) are advanced thin film coating techniques developed for deposition of inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic films respectively. Decreasing device dimensions and increasing aspect ratios in semiconductor processing has motivated developments in ALD. The beginning of this thesis will cover study of new ALD chemistry for high dielectric constant Y 2O3. In addition, the feasibility of conducting low temperature ALD of TiN and TiAlN is explored using highly reactive hydrazine as a new nitrogen source. Developments of these ALD processes are important for the electronics industry. As the search for new materials with more advanced properties continues, attention has shifted toward exploring the synthesis of hierarchically nanostructured thin films. Such complex architectures can provide novel functions important to the development of state of the art devices for the electronics industry, catalysis, energy conversion and memory storage as a few examples. Therefore, the main focus of this thesis is on the growth, characterization, and post-processing of ALD and MLD films for fabrication of novel composite (nanostructured) thin films. Novel composite materials are created by annealing amorphous ALD oxide alloys in air and by heat treatment of hybrid organic-inorganic MLD films in inert atmosphere (pyrolysis). The synthesis of porous TiO2 or Al2O3 supported V2O5 for enhanced surface area catalysis was achieved by the annealing of inorganic TiVxOy and AlV xOy ALD films in air. The interplay between phase separation, surface energy difference, crystallization, and melting temperature of individual oxides were studied for their control of film morphology. In other work, a class of novel metal oxide-graphitic carbon composite thin films was produced by pyrolysis of MLD hybrid organic-inorganic films. For example, annealing in argon of titania based hybrid films enabled fabrication of thin films of intimately

  9. Growth of graphene on Cu foils by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition: The effect of in-situ hydrogen plasma post-treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Liping; Yuan, Wen; Wang, Bing; Xiong, Ying

    2016-10-01

    Microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) is a promising method for the large-scale production of high-quality graphene. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of in-situ hydrogen plasma post-treatment on the MPCVD-grown graphene films. By simply varying the duration time of in-situ hydrogen plasma, surface morphology, number of layers and defect density of as-grown graphene films can be manipulated. The role of hydrogen plasma can be proposed from our observations, promoting to further grow graphene films in the early stage and consequently acting as an etching agent to thin graphene films in the later stage. On the basis of above mechanism, monolayer graphene films with low defect density and smooth surface can be grown by adjusting the times of the growing step and the plasma post-treatment step. This additional in-situ hydrogen plasma post-treatment may be significant for growing well-defined graphene films with controllable defects and number of layers.

  10. Growth and mortality patterns in a thinning canopy of post-hurricane regenerating rain forest in eastern Nicaragua (1990-2005).

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Javier; Vandermeer, John; Granzow de la Cerda, Iñigo

    2010-12-01

    One of the strongest hypothesis about the maintenance of tree species diversity in tropical areas is disturbance. In order to assess this, the effect of intensive natural disturbances on forest growth and mortality in a thinning canopy was studied after the landfall of hurricane Joan in 1988. We evaluated the growth and mortality rates of the 26 most common tree species of that forest in eastern Nicaragua. Permanent plots were established at two study sites within the damaged area. Growth and mortality rates of all individual trees > or = 3.18cm diameter at breast height were assessed annually from 1990 to 2005. During this period the forest underwent two phases: the building phase (marked by increased number of individuals of tree species present after the hurricane) and the canopy thinning phase (marked by increased competition and mortality). Our results from the thinning phase show that tree survival was independent of species identity and was positively related to the increase in growth rates. The analysis of mortality presented here aims to test the null hypothesis that individual trees die independently of their species identity. These findings were influenced by the mortality observed during the late thinning phase (2003-2005) and provide evidence in favor of a non-niche hypothesis at the thinning phase of forest regeneration.

  11. Temperature and food quality effects on growth, consumption and post-ingestive utilization efficiencies of the forest tent caterpillar Malacosoma disstria (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae).

    PubMed

    Levesque, K R; Levesque, K R; Fortin, M; Mauffette, Y

    2002-04-01

    Temperature and food quality can both influence growth rates, consumption rates, utilization efficiencies and developmental time of herbivorous insects. Gravimetric analyses were conducted during two consecutive years to assess the effects of temperature and food quality on fourth instar larvae of the forest tent caterpillar Malacosoma disstria Hübner. Larvae were reared in the laboratory at three different temperatures (18, 24 and 30 degrees C) and on two types of diet; leaves of sugar maple trees Acer saccharum Marsh. located at the forest edge (sun-exposed leaves) or within the forest interior (shade-exposed leaves). In general, larvae reared at 18 degrees C had lower growth rates and lower consumption rates than larvae reared at the warmer temperatures (24 and 30 degrees C). Moreover, the duration of the instar decreased significantly with increasing temperatures. Type of diet also affected the growth rates and amount of food ingested by larvae but did not affect the duration of the instar. Larvae fed sun-exposed leaves consumed more food and gained higher biomasses. Values of approximate digestibility and efficiency of conversion of ingested food were also higher when larvae were fed sun-exposed leaves. Higher growth rates with increasing temperatures were primarily the result of the shorter stadium duration. The higher growth rates of larvae fed sun-exposed leaves were possibly the result of stimulatory feeding and consequently greater food intake and also a more efficient use of food ingested. This study suggests that the performance of M. disstria caterpillars could be enhanced by warmer temperatures and higher leaf quality.

  12. The Implications of Rapid Economic Growth for Health-Related Behaviors and Chronic Metabolic Diseases: An Exploratory Study in Post-Earthquake West China

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Hilary; Gipson, Jessica D.; Yang, Fan; Li, Jinrong; Li, Ping; Liu, Wei; Yang, Cui; Mao, Meng; Chang, Yen-Jung; Seto, Edmund; Wang, May C.

    2015-01-01

    A devastating earthquake struck west China in 2008. Reconstruction efforts have focused on urbanization and modernization, hastening economic growth in the area. This rapid growth provides a unique opportunity to explore the potential impact of rapid environmental changes on metabolic disease risk. The study objective was to gather qualitative information from residents of a rapidly changing area in China to determine perceived changes in food- and physical activity-related aspects of the environment and their perceived effects on health. We conducted extensive interviews with 30 residents of an area where towns were rapidly rebuilt after being destroyed by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Findings suggest that a longitudinal investigation of children and their families in this rapidly developing region may identify mechanisms by which environmental factors influence the development of diet-related chronic illnesses. PMID:26478828

  13. Effects of creep feeding and supplemental glutamine or glutamine plus glutamate (Aminogut) on pre- and post-weaning growth performance and intestinal health of piglets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Creep feeding is used to stimulate piglet post-weaning feed consumption. L-Glutamine (GLN) is an important source of fuel for intestinal epithelial cells. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of creep feeding and adding GLN or AminoGut (AG; containing glutamine + glutamate) to pre- and post-weaning diets on pig performance and intestinal health. Litters (N = 120) were allotted to four treatments during 14–21 d of lactation: 1) No creep feed (NC, n = 45); 2) creep fed control diet (CFCD, n = 45); 3) creep fed 1% GLN (CFGLN, n = 15); 4) creep fed .88% AG (CFAG, n = 15). After weaning, the NC and CFCD groups were sub-divided into three groups (n = 15 each), receiving either a control nursery diet (NC-CD, CFCD-CD) or a diet supplemented with either GLN (NC-GLN, CFCD-GLN) or with AG (NC-AG, CFCD-AG). Litters that were creep fed with diets containing GLN or AG also were supplemented with those amino acids in the nursery diets (CFGLN-GLN, CFAG-AG). Glutamine was added at 1% in all three post-weaning diet phases and AG was added at .88% in phase 1 and 2 and at .66% in phase 3. Results Feed conversion (feed/gain) showed means among treatment means close to significance (P = 0.056) and Tukey’s test for pairwise mean comparisons showed that Pigs in the CFGLN-GLN group had the best feed conversion (feed/gain) in the first three-week period post-weaning, exceeding (P = 0.044) controls (CFCD-CD) by 34%. The NC-AG group had (P = 0.02) the greatest feed intake in the last three week of the study, exceeding controls (CFCD-CD) by 12%. CFGLN-GLN, CFCD-GLN and sow reared (SR) pigs had the greatest (P = 0.049) villi height exceeding the CFCD-AG group by 18%, 20% and 19% respectively. The CFAG-AG group had the deepest (P = 0.001) crypts among all treatments. CFGLN-GLN, CFCD-GLN and SR groups had the greatest (P = 0.001) number of cells proliferating (PCNA) exceeding those in the NC-CD group by 43%, 54

  14. Effect of dosage and application mode of L-carnitine on plasma lipid and egg-yolk cholesterol of turkeys, hatchability of eggs and post-hatch growth of their offsprings.

    PubMed

    Oso, A O; Fafiolu, A O; Adeleke, M A; Ladokun, O A; Sobayo, R A; Jegede, A V; Peters, S O; Oyebamiji, O A; Akinsola, J

    2014-08-01

    The effect of dosage and application mode of L-carnitine on plasma lipid and egg-yolk cholesterol of breeder turkeys, hatchability of eggs and post-hatch growth response was investigated using 180 breeder hens. The hens were assigned to six dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangements of two application modes of L-carnitine (diet and drinking water) supplemented at 0, 50 and 100 ppm (mg/kg or mg/l) levels, respectively. Each treatment was replicated five times with six hens per replicate. Dietary inclusion of 50 ppm L-carnitine showed the lowest (p < 0.01) plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein concentration (LDL). Breeder hens offered 50 ppm L-carnitine with no regard to application mode recorded the highest (p < 0.01) plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Hens offered 50 and 100 ppm L-carnitine irrespective of application mode also showed reduced (p < 0.01) egg-yolk TC concentration at 32 weeks of age. Dietary supplementation of 50 ppm L-carnitine for breeder turkeys recorded the lowest (p < 0.01) egg-yolk triglyceride (TG) at 40 weeks of age. Hens offered 50 ppm L-carnitine irrespective of application mode recorded the highest (p < 0.05) hen-day egg production. Incidence of dead-in-shell also reduced (p < 0.05) with increasing dosage of L-carnitine. Dietary supplementation of 50 ppm and oral application in drinking water of 100 ppm L-carnitine for breeder turkeys resulted in highest (p < 0.05) egg fertility. Offsprings from breeder hens fed diets supplemented with L-carnitine recorded no post-hatch mortality. Highest (p < 0.05) post-hatch final live weight and weight gain was obtained with poults obtained from hens fed diet supplemented with 50 ppm L-carnitine. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 50 ppm L-carnitine for turkey hens showed improved serum lipid profile, egg fertility, reduced dead-in-shell, egg-yolk cholesterol and resulted in improved post-hatch growth performance.

  15. Impacts of Climate Change at Watershed Scale: Creating an Ecological Basis for "Smart Growth" and Economic Development in the Post-industrial Lehigh Valley of Eastern PA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, B.; Felzer, B.; Pazzaglia, F.; Sahagian, D.

    2009-05-01

    As modeling of global climate change matures and regional projections regarding regional variability become viable, the scales of climate impact analysis and regional decision-making begin to converge. This convergence provides a critical new challenge for both the climate modeling and policy communities- "How can projected climate change insights at watershed scale most effectively inform decisions regarding land use, zoning, and growth management?" This issue is particularly critical in regions that were formerly heavily industrialized and developed, and that are now finding new avenues for economic growth in the wake of massive clear-cutting, mining, and heavy industry of the 19th and 20th centuries. The Lehigh Valley is a watershed defining a single ecosystem that contains 800,000 people, 321 square miles of croplands and 95 square miles of urban areas, with the remainder of the watershed at various successional stages after massive forest clear-cutting of the last two centuries. Many of the industries that fueled the industrial revolution were based in the Lehigh Valley, and their development came at an environmental cost that was not then recognized, but that left a legacy of mine-scarred lands, acid mine drained streams, soil and water contamination, and a derelict industrial infrastructure that state and local governments have only recently begun to address. Before these institutions can plan for redevelopment of brownfields, regional planning for housing and commercial development, and preservation of forested and agricultural lands, it is first necessary to understand the impacts of climate change on watershed hydrology, productivity, and other ecosystems functions, and to provide this information to decision-makers responsible for environmentally sustainable development and regional planning. "Smart Growth" has become a catch phrase for regional development that is sensitive to social, economic, political, and historical goals, as well as ecological

  16. Expression and regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor ligands and receptors during menstruation and post-menstrual repair of human endometrium.

    PubMed

    Punyadeera, C; Thijssen, V L; Tchaikovski, S; Kamps, R; Delvoux, B; Dunselman, G A J; de Goeij, A F P M; Griffioen, A W; Groothuis, P G

    2006-06-01

    Regeneration and growth of the human endometrium after shedding of the functional layer during menstruation depends on an adequate angiogenic response. We analysed the mRNA expression levels of all known vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ligands and receptors in human endometrium collected in the menstrual and proliferative phases of the menstrual cycle. In addition, we evaluated the expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-R2 and NRP-1 at the protein level. Two periods of elevated mRNA expression of ligands and receptors were observed, separated by a distinct drop at cycle days (CDs) 9 and 10. Immunohistochemical staining showed that VEGF and VEGF-R2 were expressed in epithelial, stromal and endothelial cells. NRP-1 was mainly confined to stroma and blood vessels; only in late-proliferative endometrium, epithelial staining was also observed. Except for endothelial VEGF-R2 expression in CDs 6-8, there were no significant differences in the expression of VEGF, VEGF-R2 or NRP-1 in any of the cell compartments. In contrast, VEGF release by cultured human endometrium explants decreased during the proliferative phase. This output was significantly reduced in menstrual and early-proliferative endometrium by estradiol (E2) treatment. Western blot analysis indicated that part of the VEGF-A was trapped in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Changes in VEGF ligands and receptors were associated with elevated expression of the hypoxia markers HIF1alpha and CA-IX in the menstrual and early proliferative phases. HIF1alpha was also detected in late-proliferative phase endometrium. Our findings indicate that VEGF-A exerts its actions mostly during the first half of the proliferative phase. Furthermore, VEGF-A production appears to be triggered by hypoxia in the menstrual phase and subsequently suppressed by estrogen during the late proliferative phase.

  17. The spatial and temporal expression of VEGF and its receptors 1 and 2 in post-traumatic bone bridge formation of the growth plate.

    PubMed

    Fischerauer, Eva; Heidari, Nima; Neumayer, Bernhard; Deutsch, Alexander; Weinberg, Annelie M

    2011-12-01

    Injuries to growth plates may initiate the formation of reversible or irreversible bone-bridges, may leading to bone length discrepancy or axis deviation. As vascular invasion is essential for the formation of bone tissue, the aim of our study was to investigate the kinetic expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and its receptors R1 and R2 and the ingrowth of vessels in the formation of bone bridges in a rat physeal injury model. Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction was performed for VEGF and its receptors. Samples from the proximal physis of the tibial bone were immunohistochemically evaluated for the expression of VEGF and its R1 and R2 receptors and Laminin. Morphologically, physeal bone bridge formation was validated by means of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Kinetic expression of VEGF and VEGF-R1 mRNA documented a tendency towards an increase in expression on day 7. Histological analyses showed a hematoma containing bone debris on day 1 which was replaced with bony trabeculae by day 14, forming a bone bridge by day 28 which was preceded and accompanied by angiogenesis and consistent with MRI data. VEGF and VEGF-R2 was expressed on the debris within the hematoma and bone trabeculae from days 1 to 28. VEGF-R1 expression was only noted until day 14. The findings of our study suggest that physeal bone bridge formation is in part triggered by VEGF expression and associated with angiogenesis, which was shown to precede bone bridge formation and may be further stimulated through VEGF-positive bone debris.

  18. Effect of a long-term exposure to concentrated sucrose and maltodextrin solutions on the preference, appetence, feed intake and growth performance of post-weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Pino, Sergio A; Solà-Oriol, David; Figueroa, Jaime; Dwyer, Dominic M; Pérez, José F

    2015-03-15

    Commercial pigs display an innate attraction for sweet taste compounds. However, the impact of long-term availability to supplementary carbohydrate solutions on their general feeding behavior has not been examined. In this work we assess the effect of 12-days exposure to 16% sucrose and 16% maltodextrin solutions on the feed intake and growth performance of piglets, and on their preference and appetence for sweet or protein solutions. The innate preference of piglets was assessed by an initial choice test between 2% sucrose and 2% animal plasma solutions for a period of three minutes. Piglets showed higher intake and preference for 2% sucrose than for 2% animal plasma. In Experiment 1, piglets were then free-offered a 16% sucrose solution as a supplement to the diet, showing a higher intake of it than water and a reduction in feed intake and weight gain. A similar situation occurred during the last days of free-exposure to a 16% maltodextrin solution in Experiment 2. The choice test between 2% sucrose and 2% animal plasma solution was repeated after the exposure to the concentrated solutions. In both experiments, a reduction in the initial preference for 2% sucrose was observed. Similarly, piglets that had previous access to the 16% sucrose and 16% maltodextrin solutions showed a decrease in the appetence for 2% sucrose in comparison with that for 2% animal plasma, as measured by a one-pan test at the end of the experiments. It is concluded that long-term exposure to concentrated sucrose and maltodextrin solutions reduces feed intake and growth in weanling piglets, and also reverses their innate preference and appetence for dilute sweet over protein solutions.

  19. Effects of post-reflow cooling rate and thermal aging on growth behavior of interfacial intermetallic compound between SAC305 solder and Cu substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaowu; Xu, Tao; Jiang, Xiongxin; Li, Yulong; Liu, Yi; Min, Zhixian

    2016-04-01

    The interfacial reactions between Cu and Sn3Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) solder reflowed under various cooling rates were investigated. It is found that the cooling rate is an important parameter in solder reflow process because it influences not only microstructure of solder alloy but also the morphology and growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed between solder and Cu substrate. The experimental results indicate that only scallop-like Cu6Sn5 IMC layer is observed between solder and Cu substrate in case of water cooling and air cooling, while bilayer composed of scallop-like Cu6Sn5 and thin layer-like Cu3Sn is detected under furnace cooling due to sufficient reaction time to form Cu3Sn between Cu6Sn5 IMC and Cu substrate which resulted from slow cooling rate. Samples with different reflow cooling rates were further thermal-aged at 423 K. And it is found that the thickness of IMC increases linearly with square root of aging time. The growth constants of interfacial IMC layer during aging were obtained and compared for different cooling rates, indicating that the IMC layer thickness increased faster in samples under low cooling rate than in the high cooling rate under the same aging condition. The long prismatic grains were formed on the existing interfacial Cu6Sn5 grains to extrude deeply into solder matrix with lower cooling rate and long-term aging, and the Cu6Sn5 grains coarsened linearly with cubic root of aging time.

  20. Reintroduction of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) into the St. Regis River, NY: Post-release assessment of habitat use and growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dittman, Dawn E.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Johnson, James H.; Snyder, James

    2015-01-01

    One of the depleted endemic fish species of the Great Lakes, Acipenser fulvescens (Lake Sturgeon), has been the target of extensive conservation efforts. One strategy is reintroduction into historically productive waters. The St. Regis River, NY, represents one such adaptive-management effort, with shared management between New York and the St. Regis Mohawk Tribe. Between 1998 and 2004, a total of 4977 young-of-year Lake Sturgeon were released. Adaptive management requires intermediate progress metrics. During 2004 and 2005, we measured growth, habitat use, and survivorship metrics of the released fish. We captured a total of 95 individuals of all stocked ages. Year-class minimal-survival rates ranged from 0.19–2.1%. The size-at-age and length/biomass relationships were comparable to those reported for juveniles in other Great Lakes waters. These intermediate assessment metrics can provide feedback to resource managers who make restoration-program decisions on a much shorter time-scale than the time-frame in which the ultimate goal of a self-sustaining population can be attained.

  1. Nerve growth factor-mediated inhibition of apoptosis post-caspase activation is due to removal of active caspase-3 in a lysosome-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Mnich, K; Carleton, L A; Kavanagh, E T; Doyle, K M; Samali, A; Gorman, A M

    2014-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is well characterised as an important pro-survival factor in neuronal cells that can inhibit apoptotic cell death upstream of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilisation. Here we addressed the question of whether NGF can also protect against apoptosis downstream of caspase activation. NGF treatment promoted a rapid reduction in the level of the p17 subunit of active caspase-3 in PC12 cells that had been induced to undergo apoptosis by various cytotoxins. The mechanism involved TrkA-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) but not phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, and de novo protein synthesis. Involvement of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and proteasomal degradation were ruled out. In contrast, inhibition of lysosome function using chloroquine and concanamycin A reversed NGF-induced removal of p17. Moreover, in NGF-treated cells, active caspases were found to be localised to lysosomes. The involvement of macroautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy were ruled out. Taken together, these findings suggest an anti-apoptotic mechanism by which NGF induces removal of active caspase-3 in a lysosome-dependent manner. PMID:24787014

  2. The mouse gene for vascular endothelial growth factor. Genomic structure, definition of the transcriptional unit, and characterization of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory sequences.

    PubMed

    Shima, D T; Kuroki, M; Deutsch, U; Ng, Y S; Adamis, A P; D'Amore, P A

    1996-02-16

    We describe the genomic organization and functional characterization of the mouse gene encoding vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a polypeptide implicated in embryonic vascular development and postnatal angiogenesis. The coding region for mouse VEGF is interrupted by seven introns and encompasses approximately 14 kilobases. Organization of exons suggests that, similar to the human VEGF gene, alternative splicing generates the 120-, 164-, and 188-amino acid isoforms, but does not predict a fourth VEGF isoform corresponding to human VEGF206. Approximately 1. 2 kilobases of 5'-flanking region have been sequenced, and primer extension analysis identified a single major transcription initiation site, notably lacking TATA or CCAT consensus sequences. The 5'-flanking region is sufficient to promote a 7-fold induction of basal transcription. The genomic region encoding the 3'-untranslated region was determined by Northern and nuclease mapping analysis. Investigation of mRNA sequences responsible for the rapid turnover of VEGF mRNA (mRNA half-life, <1 h) (Shima, D. T. , Deutsch, U., and D'Amore, P. A. (1995) FEBS Lett. 370, 203-208) revealed that the 3'-untranslated region was sufficient to trigger the rapid turnover of a normally long-lived reporter mRNA in vitro. These data and reagents will allow the molecular and genetic analysis of mechanisms that control the developmental and pathological expression of VEGF.

  3. Chronic playback of boat noise does not impact hatching success or post-hatching larval growth and survival in a cichlid fish

    PubMed Central

    Radford, Andrew N.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic (man-made) noise has been shown to have a negative impact on the behaviour and physiology of a range of terrestrial and aquatic animals. However, direct assessments of fitness consequences are rare. Here we examine the effect of additional noise on early life stages in the model cichlid fish, Neolamprologus pulcher. Many fishes use and produce sounds, they are crucial elements of aquatic ecosystems, and there is mounting evidence that they are vulnerable to anthropogenic noise; adult N. pulcher have recently been shown to change key behaviours during playback of motor boat noise. Using a split-brood design to eliminate potential genetic effects, we exposed half of the eggs and fry from each clutch to four weeks of playbacks of noise originally recorded from small motor boats with the other half acting as a control (receiving no noise playback). There was no significant effect of additional noise on hatching success or fry survival, length or weight at the end of the exposure period. Although care should be taken not to generalize these findings on a single species from a laboratory study, our data suggest that moderate noise increases do not necessarily have direct negative impacts on early-life survival and growth. Further studies on a range of species in natural conditions are urgently needed to inform conservation efforts and policy decisions about the consequences of anthropogenic noise. PMID:25276507

  4. Biological post

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, B. Suresh; Kumar, Senthil; Mohan Kumar, N. S.; Karunakaran, J. V.

    2015-01-01

    Anterior tooth fracture as a result of traumatic injuries, is frequently encountered in endodontic practice. Proper reconstruction of extensively damaged teeth can be achieved through the fragment reattachment procedure known as “biological restoration.” This case report refers to the esthetics and functional recovery of extensively damaged maxillary central incisor through the preparation and adhesive cementation of “biological post” in a young patient. Biological post obtained through extracted teeth from another individual–represent a low-cost option and alternative technique for the morphofunctional recovery of extensively damaged anterior teeth. PMID:26538952

  5. Erythropoietin-mediated expression of placenta growth factor is regulated via activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and post-transcriptionally by miR-214 in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Caryn S; Li, Chen; Mpollo, Marthe-Sandrine Eiymo Mwa; Pullarkat, Vinod; Malik, Punam; Tahara, Stanley M; Kalra, Vijay K

    2015-06-15

    Placental growth factor (PlGF) plays an important role in various pathological conditions and diseases such as inflammation, cancer, atherosclerosis and sickle cell disease (SCD). Abnormally high PlGF levels in SCD patients are associated with increased inflammation and pulmonary hypertension (PHT) and reactive airway disease; however, the transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms regulating PlGF expression are not well defined. Herein, we show that treatment of human erythroid cells and colony forming units with erythropoietin (EPO) increased PlGF expression. Our studies showed EPO-mediated activation of HIF-1α led to subsequent binding of HIF-1α to hypoxia response elements (HREs) within the PlGF promoter, as demonstrated by luciferase transcription reporter assays and ChIP analysis of the endogenous gene. Additionally, we showed miR-214 post-transcriptionally regulated the expression of PlGF as demonstrated by luciferase reporter assays using wild-type (wt) and mutant PlGF-3'-UTR constructs. Furthermore, synthesis of miR-214, located in an intron of DNM3 (dynamin 3), was transcriptionally regulated by transcription factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). These results were corroborated in vivo wherein plasma from SCD patients and lung tissues from sickle mice showed an inverse correlation between PlGF and miR-214 levels. Finally, we observed that miR-214 expression could be induced by fenofibrate, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved PPARα agonist, thus revealing a potential therapeutic approach for reduction in PlGF levels by increasing miR-214 transcription. This strategy has potential clinical implications for several pathological conditions including SCD.

  6. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulations as mediators of the relationship between enacted stigma and post-traumatic growth among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in rural China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Tu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Some previous studies have revealed a negative impact of enacted stigma on post-traumatic growth (PTG) of children affected by HIV/AIDS, but little is known about protective psychological factors that can mitigate the effect of enacted stigma on children's PTG. This study aims to examine the mediating effects of perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulation on the relationship between enacted stigma and PTG among HIV-affected children. Cross-sectional data were collected from 790 children affected by parental HIV (382 girls, 408 boys) aged 6-17 years in 2012 in rural central China. Multiple regression was conducted to test the mediation model. The study found that the experience of enacted stigma had a negative effect on PTG among children affected by HIV/AIDS. Emotional regulation together with hopefulness and perceived social support mediated the impact of enacted stigma on PTG. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulation offer multiple levels of protection that can mitigate the impact of enacted stigma on PTG. Results suggest that future psychological intervention programs should seek strategies to reduce the stigmatizing experience of these children and promote children's level of PTG, and health professionals should also emphasize the development of these protective psychological factors.

  7. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulations as mediators of the relationship between enacted stigma and post-traumatic growth among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Tu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Some previous studies have revealed a negative impact of enacted stigma on post-traumatic growth (PTG) of children affected by HIV/AIDS, but little is known about protective psychological factors that can mitigate the effect of enacted stigma on children's PTG. This study aims to examine the mediating effects of perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulation on the relationship between enacted stigma and PTG among HIV-affected children. Cross-sectional data were collected from 790 children affected by parental HIV (382 girls, 408 boys) aged 6–17 years in 2012 in rural central China. Multiple regression was conducted to test the mediation model. The study found that the experience of enacted stigma had a negative effect on PTG among children affected by HIV/AIDS. Emotional regulation together with hopefulness and perceived social support mediated the impact of enacted stigma on PTG. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulation offer multiple levels of protection that can mitigate the impact of enacted stigma on PTG. Results suggest that future psychological intervention programs should seek strategies to reduce the stigmatizing experience of these children and promote children's level of PTG, and health professionals should also emphasize the development of these protective psychological factors. PMID:26899475

  8. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies...

  9. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies...

  10. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies...

  11. Time-dependent enhancement of inhibitory avoidance retention and MAPK activation by post-training infusion of nerve growth factor into CA1 region of hippocampus of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Walz, R; Lenz, G; Roesler, R; Vianna, M M; Martins, V; Brentani, R; Rodnight, R; Izquierdo, I

    2000-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that chronic intracerebroventricular nerve growth factor (NGF) infusion has a beneficial effect on cognitive performance of lesioned as well as old and developing animals. Here we investigate: (i) the effect of post-training infusion of NGF into the CA1 region of hippocampus on inhibitory avoidance (IA) retention in rats; (ii) the extension of the effect, in time and space, of NGF infusion into CA1 on the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, syn: ERK1/2, p42/p44 MAPK). NGF was bilaterally injected into the CA1 regions of the dorsal hippocampus (0.05, 0.5 or 5.0 ng diluted in 0.5 microL of saline per side ) at 0, 120 or 360 min after IA training in rats. Retention testing was carried out 24 h after training. The injection of 5.0 and 0.5, but not 0.05, ng per side of NGF at 0 and 120 min after IA training enhanced IA retention. The highest dose used was ineffective when injected 360 min after training. The infusion of 0. 5 microL of NGF (5.0 ng) induced a significant enhancement of MAPK activity in hippocampal microslices; this enhancement was restricted to a volume with 0.8 mm radius at 30 min after injection. The MAPK activation was still seen 180 min after NGF infusion, although this value showed only a tendency. In conclusion, localized infusion of NGF into the CA1 region enhanced MAPK activity, restricted in time and space, and enhanced IA retention in a time- and dose-dependent manner.

  12. [Post launch studies].

    PubMed

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Ohashi, Yasuo; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Ikeda, Tadashi; Saijo, Nagahiro; Isonishi, Seiji; Hirao, Yoshihiko; Tsuruo, Takashi; Tsukagoshi, Shigeru; Sone, Saburo; Nakamura, Seigo; Kato, Masuhiro; Mikami, Osamu; von Euler, Mikael; Blackledge, George; Milsted, Bob; Vose, Brent

    2002-11-01

    Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) is a growing concept in Japan as it is elsewhere. Central to improving the use of EBM is generation of data through well conducted controlled clinical studies. There are many problems associated with conduct of clinical studies after launch in Japan, and many initiatives are ongoing to improve the situation. Development of Clinical Research Coordinators (CRO) and central Data Management centers are key to improving the quality of clinical research in Japan. Currently Japan has an undeveloped legal system with regard to post-launch trials and off-label use of registered drugs. There is no reimbursement for off-label and various restrictions imposed on the recipients of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare's (MHLW) funds. Maybe the biggest problem is the high cost of post-marketing studies sponsored by pharmaceutical manufacturers. A high quality system to support post launch clinical studies need a solid financial base. There is a need for a suitable review system for investigator initiated multi-centre studies, as the current IRB system is not sufficient. There are also challenges regarding the differences, perceived or real, in treatment practice and available registrations in Japan and in the West, causing problems in choosing suitable comparators and study designs. At the present time it is not clear whether investigator initiated trials will be acceptable for registration purposes in Japan. The agreed first priority is to build a suitable and strong infrastructure within the academic community to support researchers to investigate important questions with or without pharmaceutical company support. Despite all these issues, several groundbreaking projects are under way throughout Japan, in many different areas and by different collaborative groups, some with government support. In fact, researcher-initiated clinical trials achieved a rapid growth in Japan in the past year.

  13. A detailed investigation on the impact of post-growth annealing on the materials and device characteristics of 35-layer In{sub 0.50}Ga{sub 0.50}As/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetector with quaternary In{sub 0.21}Al{sub 0.21}Ga{sub 0.58}As capping

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikary, Sourav; Chakrabarti, Subhananda

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► We investigated the effect of ex situ annealing on InGaAs/GaAs QDIP with InAlGaAs layer. ► As-grown defect was removed by using post-growth annealing treatment. ► Increase in the compressive strain due to annealing is calculated from XRD curve. ► Three-fold enhancement in responsivity is observed in the QDIPs annealed at 650 °C. ► Two-fold enhancement in D* is observed sample annealed at 650 °C compared to as grown. -- Abstract: The effect of post-growth rapid thermal annealing on 35-layer In{sub 0.50}Ga{sub 0.50}As/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP) with quaternary In{sub 0.21}Al{sub 0.21}Ga{sub 0.58}As capping has been investigated. Transmission electron microscopy showed some as-grown defects were removed by post growth annealing treatment. An increase in the compressive strain in the heterostructure due to annealing was identified from X-ray diffraction curve. A two-color photoresponse in the long-wave region (8.5 and 10.2 μm) was observed in both as-grown device and those annealed at 650 °C temperature. A three-fold enhancement in peak responsivity was observed in the QDIPs annealed at 650 °C (1.19 A/W) compared to that in the as-grown (0.34 A/W). Detectivity also increased by two fold from as-grown to 650 °C annealed device. The changes are attributed to the removal of as-grown defects and dislocations during epitaxial growth. These removals changed the confinement potential profile, which resulted in an improvement in the detectivity and responsivity of the annealed sample.

  14. Growth hormone and growth?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Steve

    2013-09-01

    Pituitary GH is obligatory for normal growth in mammals, but the importance of pituitary GH in avian growth is less certain. In birds, pituitary GH is biologically active and has growth promoting actions in the tibia-test bioassay. Its importance in normal growth is indicated by the growth suppression following the surgical removal of the pituitary gland or after the immunoneutralization of endogenous pituitary GH. The partial restoration of growth in some studies with GH-treated hypophysectomized birds also suggests GH dependency in avian growth, as does the dwarfism that occurs in some strains with GHR dysfunctions. Circulating GH concentrations are also correlated with body weight gain, being high in young, rapidly growing birds and low in slower growing older birds. Nevertheless, despite these observations, there is an extensive literature that concludes pituitary GH is not important in avian growth. This is based on numerous studies with hypophysectomized and intact birds that show only slight, transitory or absent growth responses to exogenous GH-treatment. Moreover, while circulating GH levels correlate with weight gain in young birds, this may merely reflect changes in the control of pituitary GH secretion during aging, as numerous studies involving experimental alterations in growth rate fail to show positive correlations between plasma GH concentrations and the alterations in growth rate. Furthermore, growth is known to occur in the absence of pituitary GH, as most embryonic development occurs prior to the ontogenetic appearance of pituitary somatotrophs and the appearance of GH in embryonic circulation. Early embryonic growth is also independent of the endocrine actions of pituitary GH, since removal of the presumptive pituitary gland does not impair early growth. Embryonic growth does, however, occur in the presence of extrapituitary GH, which is produced by most tissues and has autocrine or paracrine roles that locally promote growth and development

  15. Post-natal imprinting: evidence from marsupials

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, J M; Pask, A J; Shaw, G; Renfree, M B

    2014-01-01

    Genomic imprinting has been identified in therian (eutherian and marsupial) mammals but not in prototherian (monotreme) mammals. Imprinting has an important role in optimising pre-natal nutrition and growth, and most imprinted genes are expressed and imprinted in the placenta and developing fetus. In marsupials, however, the placental attachment is short-lived, and most growth and development occurs post-natally, supported by a changing milk composition tailor-made for each stage of development. Therefore there is a much greater demand on marsupial females during post-natal lactation than during pre-natal placentation, so there may be greater selection for genomic imprinting in the mammary gland than in the short-lived placenta. Recent studies in the tammar wallaby confirm the presence of genomic imprinting in nutrient-regulatory genes in the adult mammary gland. This suggests that imprinting may influence infant post-natal growth via the mammary gland as it does pre-natally via the placenta. Similarly, an increasing number of imprinted genes have been implicated in regulating feeding and nurturing behaviour in both the adult and the developing neonate/offspring in mice. Together these studies provide evidence that genomic imprinting is critical for regulating growth and subsequently the survival of offspring not only pre-natally but also post-natally. PMID:24595366

  16. Fence Posts and Rails

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turton, Roger

    2016-01-01

    "Mathematical Lens" uses photographs as a springboard for mathematical inquiry and appears in every issue of "Mathematics Teacher." Recently while dismantling an old wooden post-and-rail fence, Roger Turton noticed something very interesting when he piled up the posts and rails together in the shape of a prism. The total number…

  17. Growth Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... gland problem or disease. The pituitary gland makes growth hormone, which stimulates the growth of bone and other ... of it may be very short. Treatment with growth hormone can stimulate growth. People can also have too ...

  18. 19. GROUND STORY, POST OFFICE LOBBY DETAIL OF POST OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. GROUND STORY, POST OFFICE LOBBY DETAIL OF POST OFFICE BOXES ALONG WEST WALL OF LEXINGTON AVENUE ARM - Grand Central Post Office Annex, Forty-fifth Street & Lexington Avenue, Southwest corner, New York County, NY

  19. 16. FLOOR 1; MASSIVE CENTER POST IS THE MAIN POST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. FLOOR 1; MASSIVE CENTER POST IS THE MAIN POST OF A 1736 POST MILL WHICH THIS MILL REPLACED; MORTISE FOR QUARTER BAR CAN BE SEEN - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  20. Functional studies of an evolutionarily conserved, cytochrome b5 domain protein reveal a specific role in axonemal organisation and the general phenomenon of post-division axonemal growth in trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    Farr, Helen; Gull, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are highly conserved structures composed of a canonical 9+2 microtubule axoneme. Several recent proteomic studies of cilia and flagella have been published, including a proteome of the flagellum of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Comparing proteomes reveals many novel proteins that appear to be widely conserved in evolution. Amongst these, we found a previously uncharacterised protein which localised to the axoneme in T. brucei, and therefore named it Trypanosome Axonemal protein (TAX)-2. Ablation of the protein using RNA interference in the procyclic form of the parasite has no effect on growth but causes a reduction in motility. Using transmission electron microscopy, various structural defects were seen in some axonemes, most frequently with microtubule doublets missing from the 9+2 arrangement. RNAi knockdown of TAX-2 expression in the bloodstream form of the parasite caused defects in growth and cytokinesis, a further example of the effects caused by loss of flagellar function in bloodstream form T. brucei. In procyclic cells we used a new set of vectors to ablate protein expression in cells expressing a GFP:TAX-2 fusion protein, which enabled us to easily quantify protein reduction and visualise axonemes made before and after RNAi induction. This establishes a useful generic technique but also revealed a specific observation that the new flagellum on the daughter trypanosome continues growth after cytokinesis. Our results provide evidence for TAX-2 function within the axoneme, where we suggest that it is involved in processes linking the outer doublet microtubules and the central pair. PMID:19009637

  1. Effect of incubation temperature on post-embryonic survival and growth of steelhead in a natural stream and a hatchery (Study sites: Dworshak Hatchery and North Fork Palouse River; Stocks: Dworshak hatchery; Year classes: 1994 and 1995): Chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Baker, Bruce M.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether varying incubation temperatures to match development between embryos from different spawning dates affected survival and growth of unfed steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss fry released in a stream and in hatchery ponds. Hatchery steelhead returning to the Clearwater River, Idaho were artificially spawned on two dates separated by a four week interval. Progeny from the early date (ExE, from early males and early females) were incubated in chilled (7°C) water and those from the late date (LxL) in ambient (12°C) water until developmental stage matched. A third group, created by fertilizing eggs from late females with cryopreserved milt from early males (ExL), was included to control for any genetic differences between early and late returning adults. Survival in the stream to 3 and 15 months after release was similar among crosses. Survival in the hatchery to near the end of the standard one year rearing period was similar among crosses for one of two year - classes but different for the other; however, it was difficult to ascribe the differences (ExL>ExE; LxL intermediate but closer to ExE) to incubation temperature differences. We conclude that there was little if any effect of incubation temperature on survival. Length of juveniles of one year - class differed among crosses in the stream and in the hatchery. Length of the other year - class differed among crosses in one pond at the hatchery but not in the other pond or in the stream. When length differed the pattern was always the same: ExE>LxL; ExL intermediate but closer to LxL. We speculate that incubation temperature may have affected growth of juveniles, and in particular that a longer period of incubation in chilled water may have caused fast juvenile growth relative to a shorter incubation period in ambient water.

  2. Post-Polio Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Funding Information Research Programs Training & Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Post-Polio Syndrome ... News From NINDS | Find People | Training | Research | Enhancing Diversity Careers@NINDS | FOIA | Accessibility Policy | Contact Us | Privacy ...

  3. Post Flare Giant Arches and Run-Away Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Matthew; Seaton, Daniel B.; Savage, Sabrina; Bryans, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The nature of post-flare giant arches and their relation to regular post flare loops has long been debated, especially in the context of how post-flare giant arches can sustain their growth for such long periods. In this presentation we discuss how magnetic reconnection can be sustained to such great heights, and the role the background corona plays in maintaining this growth. We use observations from 14 October 2014, when the SWAP EUV solar telescope on-board the PROBA2 spacecraft observed an eruption that led to the formation of perhaps the largest post-eruptive loop system seen in the solar corona in solar cycle 24. These loops grew to a height of approximately 400000 km (>0.5 solar-radii). We provide evidence of on-going reconnection, through observations spanning from the chromosphere to the middle corona, and discuss how only certain conditions can maintain prolonged growth.

  4. STS-67 post flight presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-04-01

    This video is the post-flight presentation by the astronauts of the STS-67 Space Shuttle Mission. The astronauts were: Steve Oswald (Mission Commander), Bill Gregory (Shuttle Pilot), John Grunsfeld (Mission Specialist), Sam Durrance (Payload Specialist), Ron Parise (Payload Specialist), and Tammy Jernigan (Payload Commander). Footage includes: pre-launch suitup and launch (liftoff), the deployment of the telescope package payload (Hopkins UV telescope, Wisconsin UV polarimeter, and Astrostar Tracker) for their astronomical observations of different stellar objects, inside Shuttle shots of data collection stations, protein crystal growth experiments, medical BSO of head and eye functions in microgravity environment, storm activity over the United States and other Earth observation shots, Mid-deck Act Control Experiments, school-Shuttle direct radio communication, and descent and landing footage. This launch was a night launch and the flight was a 17 day flight (extended two days from original flight plan).

  5. STS-67 Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This video is the post-flight presentation by the astronauts of the STS-67 Space Shuttle Mission. The astronauts were: Steve Oswald (Mission Commander), Bill Gregory (Shuttle Pilot), John Grunsfeld (Mission Specialist), Sam Durrance (Payload Specialist), Ron Parise (Payload Specialist), and Tammy Jernigan (Payload Commander). Footage includes: pre-launch suitup and launch (liftoff), the deployment of the telescope package payload (Hopkins UV telescope, Wisconsin UV polarimeter, and Astrostar Tracker) for their astronomical observations of different stellar objects, inside Shuttle shots of data collection stations, protein crystal growth experiments, medical BSO of head and eye functions in microgravity environment, storm activity over the United States and other Earth observation shots, Mid-deck Act Control Experiments, school-Shuttle direct radio communication, and descent and landing footage. This launch was a night launch and the flight was a 17 day flight (extended two days from original flight plan).

  6. The nature of the growth pattern and of the metabolic response to fasting in the rat are dependent upon the dietary protein and folic acid intakes of their pregnant dams and post-weaning fat consumption.

    PubMed

    Burdge, Graham C; Lillycrop, Karen A; Jackson, Alan A; Gluckman, Peter D; Hanson, Mark A

    2008-03-01

    The nutritional cues which induce different phenotypes from a single genotype in developing offspring are poorly understood. How well prenatal nutrient availability before birth predicts that after birth may also determine the offspring's response to later metabolic challenge. We investigated the effect of feeding pregnant rats diets containing protein at 180 g/kg (Control) or 90 g/kg (protein-restricted, PR) and either 1 or 5 mg folic acid/kg on growth and metabolic response to fasting in their offspring, and also the effect of diets with different fat contents (40 g/kg (Fat(4)) or 100 g/kg (Fat(10))) after weaning. Offspring of dams fed the PR diet with 5 mg/kg folic acid were significantly lighter than other offspring. The PR offspring fed the Fat(4) diet had lower plasma TAG than the Control offspring, but this relationship was reversed when offspring were fed Fat(10). Increasing the folic acid content of the Control or PR maternal diets induced opposing effects on plasma TAG, NEFA, beta-hydroxybutyrate and glucose concentrations in offspring fed Fat(4). The effect was accentuated in offspring fed the Fat(10) diet such that these metabolites were increased in the Control offspring, but reduced in the PR offspring. These data show for the first time that maternal dietary folic acid intake alters offspring phenotype depending upon dietary protein intake, and that this effect is modified by fat intake after weaning. Prevention by increased folic acid intake of an altered metabolic phenotype by maternal protein-restriction may be at the expense of somatic growth.

  7. Esthetic Intracanal Posts

    PubMed Central

    Parčina, Ivana; Amižić

    2016-01-01

    The primary function of an endodontic post is to provide retention for the core and enable full sealing of the coronal portion of the root canal. Traditionally used metal posts do not meet the requirements of modern dental medicine due to some fairly significant drawbacks such as color, corrosion potential, non-adhesive bonding and high modulus of elasticity which can lead to root fracture. Recently, esthetic ceramic and fiber reinforced posts have been manufactured in order to avoid such imperfections. Since much attention has been devoted to the esthetic aspects of dental medicine, the use of these posts with composite/ceramic cores is very common in restorative dentistry and it is actually becoming a standard. This is due to the fact that, apart from being an esthetically pleasing material, they are also biocompatible, have good physical properties and the capacity of adhesive bonding to tooth tissue and core buildup. Nonetheless, a good clinician should know how to spot the difference between them in order to select and use the appropriate post system in each specific situation. PMID:27789912

  8. Growth recovery zones.

    PubMed

    Siffert, R S; Katz, J F

    1983-05-01

    Growth arrest lines and zones have been reinvestigated. Sequential studies after dietary deprivation reveal transformations of the physis with diminution in formation of the zone of cell columns, resorption of previously formed bone, and cessation of new bone formation. At 6 weeks post diet restriction, the physis is prominently narrowed with transversely oriented, thin bone plaque sealing it from the subjacent marrow. Initially, restoration of stock diet thickens the bony plaque, creating a growth arrest line. Later the zone of osteogenesis adds new bone as a dense metaphyseal band.

  9. Sugar supplementation stimulates growth performance in calves with growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tomohiro; Hidaka, Yuichi; Kamimura, Shunichi

    2010-01-01

    The growth effect of sugar supplementation was determined in 49 retarded growth calves. Calves were supplemented with sugar at 1 g/kg BW 2 times weekly for 8 weeks. Glucose tolerance tests prior to the experiment showed no difference between the retarded growth calves and normal growth controls. After sugar supplementation, the calves were classified into 4 groups characterized by high (H) or low (L) periodic changes in daily weight gain (DG) with a breakpoint of 0.8 kg/d in three periods, birth to sugar supplementation (Birth-Pre), the 8 weeks during supplementation (Pre-Post) and after feeding to delivery to market (Post-Market). The periodic DG showed a marked increase after supplementation in Pre-Post and Post-Market compared with before supplementation during Birth-Pre in 2 groups (0.93 and 1.11 vs. 0.51 kg/day for L-H-H [n=19], 0.66 and 1.19 vs. 0.42 kg/day for L-L-H [n=24]), but no difference was observed in L-H-L (n=3) and L-L-L (n=3). Peripheral blood was collected on the day before supplementation (Pre), 8 weeks after supplementation (Post) and eight weeks after cease of supplementation. The blood concentrations of both insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose showed significant increases in L-H-H and L-L-H, but decreases in non-esterified fatty acid were observed in L-H-H and L-L-L on day Post compared with day Pre, respectively (p<0.05). At delivery to market, the sugar-supplemented calves had body weights similar to the market average. The growth effect of sugar supplementation could be stimulated through rumen papillae development induce by sucrose, the main component of table sugar.

  10. Post-Secondary Vocational Education and Training: Pathways and Partnerships. Institutional Management in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Rapid growth of tertiary education is partly due to the expansion of post-secondary vocational education and training (PSV). A well developed post-secondary PSV system and links between universities and VET institutions improve skills and employment opportunities. What is post-secondary PSV and how does it relate to other components of the…

  11. STS 63: Post flight presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-02-01

    At a post flight conference, Captain Jim Wetherbee, of STS Flight 63, introduces each of the other members of the STS 63 crew (Eileen Collins, Pilot; Dr. Bernard Harris, Payload Commander; Dr. Michael Foale, Mission Specialist from England; Dr. Janice Voss, Mission Specialist; and Colonel Vladimir Titor, Mission Specialist from Russia), gave a short autobiography of each member and a brief description of their assignment during this mission. A film was shown that included the preflight suit-up, a view of the launch site, the actual night launch, a tour of the Space Shuttle and several of the experiment areas, several views of earth and the MIR Space Station and cosmonauts, the MlR-Space Shuttle rendezvous, the deployment of the Spartan Ultraviolet Telescope, Foale and Harris's EVA and space walk, the retrieval of Spartan, and the night entry home, including the landing. Several spaceborne experiments were introduced: the radiation monitoring experiment, environment monitoring experiment, solid surface combustion experiment, and protein crystal growth and plant growth experiments. This conference ended with still, color pictures, taken by the astronauts during the entire STS 63 flight, being shown.

  12. STS 63: Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    At a post flight conference, Captain Jim Wetherbee, of STS Flight 63, introduces each of the other members of the STS 63 crew (Eileen Collins, Pilot; Dr. Bernard Harris, Payload Commander; Dr. Michael Foale, Mission Specialist from England; Dr. Janice Voss, Misssion Specialist; and Colonel Vladimir Titor, Misssion Specialist from Russia. A short biography of each member and a brief description of their assignment during this mission is given. A film was shown that included the preflight suit-up, a view of the launch site, the actual night launch, a tour of the Space Shuttle and several of the experiment areas, several views of earth and the MIR Space Station and cosmonauts, the MIR-Space Shuttle rendezvous, the deployment of the Spartan Ultraviolet Telescope, Foale and Harris's EVA and space walk, the retrieval of Spartan, and the night entry home, including the landing. Several spaceborne experiments were introduced: the radiation monitoring experiment, environment monitoring experiment, solid surface combustion experiment, and protein crystal growth and plant growth experiments. This conference ended with still, color pictures, taken by the astronauts during the entire STS 63 flight, being shown.

  13. Mouth Growths

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dry Mouth Mouth Growths Mouth Sores and Inflammation Toothache Malocclusion Teeth Grinding Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis Growths can ... Dry Mouth Mouth Growths Mouth Sores and Inflammation Toothache Malocclusion Teeth Grinding Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis NOTE: This ...

  14. Adipogenic and energy metabolism gene networks in longissimus lumborum during rapid post-weaning growth in Angus and Angus × Simmental cattle fed high-starch or low-starch diets

    PubMed Central

    Graugnard, Daniel E; Piantoni, Paola; Bionaz, Massimo; Berger, Larry L; Faulkner, Dan B; Loor, Juan J

    2009-01-01

    Background Transcriptional networks coordinate adipocyte differentiation and energy metabolism in rodents. The level of fiber and starch in diets with adequate energy content fed to young cattle has the potential to alter intramuscular adipose tissue development in skeletal muscle. Post-weaning alterations in gene expression networks driving adipogenesis, lipid filling, and intracellular energy metabolism provide a means to evaluate long-term effects of nutrition on longissimus muscle development across cattle types. Results Longissimus lumborum (LL) from Angus (n = 6) and Angus × Simmental (A × S; n = 6) steer calves (155 ± 10 days age) fed isonitrogenous high-starch (HiS; 1.43 Mcal/kg diet dry matter; n = 6) or low-starch (LoS; 1.19 Mcal/kg diet dry matter; n = 6) diets was biopsied at 0, 56, and 112 days of feeding for transcript profiling of 31 genes associated with aspects of adipogenesis and energy metabolism. Intake of dietary energy (9.44 ± 0.57 Mcal/d) across groups during the study did not differ but feed efficiency (weight gain/feed intake) during the first 56 days was greater for steers fed HiS. Expression of PPARG increased ca. 2-fold by day 56 primarily due to HiS in A × S steers. Several potential PPARG-target genes (e.g., ACACA, FASN, FABP4, SCD) increased 2.5-to-25-fold by day 56 across all groups, with responses (e.g., FASN, FABP4) being less pronounced in A × S steers fed LoS. This latter group of steers had markedly greater blood plasma glucose (0.99 vs. 0.79 g/L) and insulin (2.95 vs. 1.17 μg/L) by day 112, all of which were suggestive of insulin resistance. Interactions were observed for FABP4, FASN, GPAM, SCD, and DGAT2, such that feeding A × S steers high-starch and Angus steers low-starch resulted in greater fold-changes by day 56 or 112 (GPAM). Marked up-regulation of INSIG1 (4-to-8-fold) occurred throughout the study across all groups. SREBF1 expression, however, was only greater on day 112 namely due to LoS in A × S steers. The

  15. Manipulating Each MreB of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus Gives Diverse Morphological and Predatory Phenotypes▿

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Andrew Karl; Lambert, Carey; Wagstaff, Peter Charles; Sockett, Renee Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    We studied the two mreB genes, encoding actinlike cytoskeletal elements, in the predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus. This bacterium enters and replicates within other Gram-negative bacteria by attack-phase Bdellovibrio squeezing through prey outer membrane, residing and growing filamentously in the prey periplasm forming an infective “bdelloplast,” and septating after 4 h, once the prey contents are consumed. This lifestyle brings challenges to the Bdellovibrio cytoskeleton. Both mreB genes were essential for viable predatory growth, but C-terminal green fluorescent protein tagging each separately with monomeric teal-fluorescent protein (mTFP) gave two strains with phenotypic changes at different stages in predatory growth and development. MreB1-mTFP cells arrested growth early in bdelloplast formation, despite successful degradation of prey nucleoid. A large population of stalled bdelloplasts formed in predatory cultures and predation proceeded very slowly. A small proportion of bdelloplasts lysed after several days, liberating MreB1-mTFP attack-phase cells of wild-type morphology; this process was aided by subinhibitory concentrations of an MreB-specific inhibitor, A22. MreB2-mTFP, in contrast, was predatory at an almost wild-type rate but yielded attack-phase cells with diverse morphologies, including spherical, elongated, and branched, the first time such phenotypes have been described. Wild-type predatory rates were seen for all but spherical morphotypes, and septation of elongated morphotypes was achieved by the addition of A22. PMID:20023029

  16. Post-traumatic brachymetatarsia.

    PubMed

    Marcinko, D E; Rappaport, M J; Gordon, S

    1984-01-01

    A case report of post-traumatic brachymetatarsia of the fourth right metatarsal is presented. The literature is reviewed and surgical alternatives are discussed. Treatment consisted of a step-up elongational osteotomy with good results and rapid patient recovery. PMID:6520345

  17. Post modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Dacher, E S

    1996-01-01

    Although there is general agreement that our current approach to health and healing is undergoing substantial change, there has been a lack of critical discussion regarding the extent, character, and direction of that change. It is important for us to articulate the values that we would like expressed in a reconfigured approach to health and healing, and to ensure that our efforts to initiate change are aligned with these values. An overview of western history suggests that the post-modern world view is characterized by four essential values: multidimensional realism, intentionality, holism, and personal authenticity. Our current efforts to change the direction of health care have failed to produce fundamental change. This has resulted from the compelling influence of existing perspectives and the promotion of parochial professional and institutional interests. To assure fundamental change, values that are consistent with a post-modern world must be articulated, fostered, and embedded into innovative programs.

  18. Post-Ike economic resilience along the Texas coast.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ruoxi; Dudensing, Rebekka M

    2015-07-01

    The economic devastation resulting from recent natural disasters has spawned intense interest in programmes that promote regional resilience. The economic impacts of Hurricane Ike (September 2008) endured long beyond the storm's landfall, compounded by a national recession. This study analyses the pattern of post-Ike industrial growth in eight coastal counties of Texas, United States, and identifies sources of resilience and potential drivers of recovery. The results indicate that post-disaster growth patterns differ from established growth patterns. Levels of resilience vary across industrial sectors, and service sectors tend to lead a recovery. The resilience of the hotel and restaurant sector, for instance, suggests that the presence of relief workers might immunise certain sectors against a post-disaster economic downturn. Besides the sectors that are generally resilient, each county has its own distinct sectors that, depending on the extent of the damage suffered, tend to perform strongly after a disaster, owing to the characteristics of the respective county's economy.

  19. 1. Post card view of the bridge, c. 1910. Post ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Post card view of the bridge, c. 1910. Post card courtesy Carol Poh Miller. Photocopy by Berni Rich, Score Photographers Cleveland, OH - B & O Railroad Bridge Number 464, Spanning Old Ship Canal & Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  20. Typical Newel Post, First Floor Newel Post, Typical Baluster, Typical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Typical Newel Post, First Floor Newel Post, Typical Baluster, Typical Nosing, First Floor Stringer Profile, Second Floor Stringer Profile - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers - Battle Mountain Sanitarium, Treasurer's Quarters, 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  1. 10. FLOOR 1; CENTER POST AND POSTS UNDER STONE BEAMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. FLOOR 1; CENTER POST AND POSTS UNDER STONE BEAMS WHICH SUPPORT BRIDGE BEAMS FOR BRIDGE TREES; WEDGES FOR ADJUSTING HEIGHT OF BRIDGE TREE CAN BE SEEN - Shelter Island Windmill, Manwaring Road, Shelter Island, Suffolk County, NY

  2. Post-traumatic amnesia.

    PubMed

    Marshman, Laurence A G; Jakabek, David; Hennessy, Maria; Quirk, Frances; Guazzo, Eric P

    2013-11-01

    Of patients hospitalised for traumatic brain injury (TBI), most pass through a state of altered consciousness known as "post-traumatic amnesia" (PTA). Despite the lack of a consistent definition, PTA is widely used as a construct in neurosurgical practice to guide decision-making and prognosis. Accurate PTA assessment is important, because over-evaluation leads to excess social, financial and opportunity costs, whilst under-evaluation risks patient welfare. Whilst anterograde memory is certainly disrupted in PTA, PTA in fact involves a far more extensive memory disturbance. More instructively, the complete "post-TBI syndrome" also comprises an extensive cognitive deficit which includes a confusional state, as well as a behavioural disturbance characterised by acute agitation. Recently, impairments in attention and executive functioning have also been emphasised; indeed, some consider these the primary disturbance with PTA. Although all of these features were fully described (or implied) by the earliest pioneers, most current PTA scores do not assess the complete "post-TBI syndrome". Currently, the Westmead PTA scale (WPTAS) directs most in-hospital TBI management throughout Australasia: however, in addition to general defects, specific limitations have been identified in the levels of evidence for WPTAS validity. We review the literature regarding PTA and, in particular, the continued role of the WPTAS in directing neurosurgical practice.

  3. Post-natal myogenic and adipogenic developmental

    PubMed Central

    Konings, Gonda; van Weeghel, Michel; van den Hoogenhof, Maarten MG; Gijbels, Marion; van Erk, Arie; Schoonderwoerd, Kees; van den Bosch, Bianca; Dahlmans, Vivian; Calis, Chantal; Houten, Sander M; Misteli, Tom

    2011-01-01

    A-type lamins are a major component of the nuclear lamina. Mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes the A-type lamins A and C, cause a set of phenotypically diverse diseases collectively called laminopathies. While adult LMNA null mice show various symptoms typically associated with laminopathies, the effect of loss of lamin A/C on early post-natal development is poorly understood. Here we developed a novel LMNA null mouse (LMNAGT−/−) based on genetrap technology and analyzed its early post-natal development. We detect LMNA transcripts in heart, the outflow tract, dorsal aorta, liver and somites during early embryonic development. Loss of A-type lamins results in severe growth retardation and developmental defects of the heart, including impaired myocyte hypertrophy, skeletal muscle hypotrophy, decreased amounts of subcutaneous adipose tissue and impaired ex vivo adipogenic differentiation. These defects cause death at 2 to 3 weeks post partum associated with muscle weakness and metabolic complications, but without the occurrence of dilated cardiomyopathy or an obvious progeroid phenotype. Our results indicate that defective early post-natal development critically contributes to the disease phenotypes in adult laminopathies. PMID:21818413

  4. Aetiology of growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Herber, S M; Kay, R

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed in an attempt to identify perinatal risk factors for the development of growth hormone deficiency. More of the affected children were boys, and their birth weights were significantly lower than those of the national average; there were also considerably more preterm and post-term deliveries among boys. PMID:3632025

  5. Growth Hormone

    MedlinePlus

    ... the dose of glucose. Growth hormone stimulates the production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) . ... regular intervals for years afterward to monitor GH production and to detect tumor recurrence. Other blood tests ...

  6. Eyelid Growths

    MedlinePlus

    ... a microscope). The growth is usually removed surgically. Did You Know... A growth on the eyelid that ... respond to initial treatments. Resources In This Article Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Figure 1 ...

  7. Delayed growth

    MedlinePlus

    Growth - slow (child 0 - 5 years); Weight gain - slow (child 0 - 5 years); Slow rate of growth; Retarded growth and development; ... A child should have regular, well-baby check-ups with a health care provider. These checkups are usually scheduled ...

  8. Chronic Post Surgical Pain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Chronic post-surgical pain (CPSP) is a recognised adverse consequence of surgery; surgery is common, therefore the population at risk is considerable. Putative risk factors for CPSP include genetic predisposition, demographic, clinical (pain history, type of surgery, anaesthesia, acute pain severity), and psychological factors (vulnerability vs resilience). Evidence of prevention is limited: long-term benefit from pre-emptive/perioperative analgesia has not been demonstrated consistently. Large scale prospective studies with detailed pre, intra and postoperative multifactorial assessments are required to refine understanding of the aetiology and prognosis of CPSP. PMID:26526062

  9. INC424 for Patients With Myelofibrosis, Post Polycythemia Myelofibrosis or Post-essential Thrombocythemia Myelofibrosis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-24

    Myelofibrosis (PMF); Post Polycythemia Myelofibrosis (PPV MF); Post-essential Thrombocythemia Myelofibrosis (PET-MF); Myelofibrosis; Post Polycythemia Myelofibrosis; Post-essential Thrombocythemia Myelofibrosis

  10. Bacteriovorax stolpii proliferation and predation without sphingophosphonolipids

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneshiro, Edna S. Hunt, Shannon M.; Watanabe, Yoko

    2008-02-29

    Bacteriovorax stolpii strain UKi2, a facultative predator-parasite of larger Gram-negative bacteria, synthesizes distinct sphingophosphonolipids. These lipids are characterized by a direct P-C bond, the novel head group 1-hydroxy-2-aminoethylphosphonate, iso-branched long chain bases and fatty acids, and fatty acids dominated by those with {alpha}-hydroxy groups. Myriocin, an inhibitor of serine:fatty acyl CoA transferase, reversibly blocked sphingophosphonolipid synthesis in B. stolpii UKi2. However, the inhibitor did not block cell proliferation indicating that these lipids are not vital for B. stolpii UKi2 viability and growth. When mixed with Escherichia coli prey cells, control predator-parasite bacteria were effective in forming large E. coli bdelloplasts and cleared the suspension of the prey cells. Although myriocin-treated cells could attack prey cells and form bdelloplasts, their locomotory behavior was altered and fewer and smaller bdelloplasts were produced. These observations open up the possibility for a role of sphingophosphonolipids in B. stolpii UKi2 complex behavior.

  11. [Post Stroke Dementia].

    PubMed

    Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-07-01

    Post-stroke dementia (PSD) is a clinical entity that encompasses all types of dementia following an index stroke. Current evidence suggests that 25-30% of ischemic stroke survivors develop immediate or delayed vascular cognitive impairment or vascular dementia. The type of stroke can be either ischemic, hemorrhagic or hypoperfusive. There are multiple risk factors for PSD including older age, family history, genetic variants, low educational status, vascular comorbidities, prior transient ischemic attack or recurrent stroke and depressive illness. Pre-stroke dementia refers to the occurrence of cognitive impairment before the index stroke, which may be caused by a vascular burden as well as insidious neurodegenerative changes. Neuroimaging determinants of dementia after stroke include silent brain infarcts, white matter changes, lacunar infarcts and medial temporal lobe atrophy. Published clinical trials have not been promising and there is little information on whether PSD can be prevented using pharmacological agents. Control of vascular disease risk and prevention of recurrent strokes are key to reducing the burden of cognitive decline and post-stroke dementia. Modern imaging and analysis techniques will help to elucidate the mechanism of PSD and establish better treatment. PMID:27395459

  12. Post-growth surface smoothing of thin films of diindenoperylene

    SciTech Connect

    Hinderhofer, A.; Hosokai, T.; Yonezawa, K.; Kato, K.; Kera, S.; Ueno, N.; Gerlach, A.; Broch, K.; Frank, C.; Schreiber, F.; Novak, J.

    2012-07-16

    We applied in situ x-ray reflectivity and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy to study the impact of annealing on low temperature (200 K) deposited organic thin films of diindenoperylene (DIP) on SiO{sub 2} and indium tin oxide (ITO). At 200 K, DIP is crystalline on SiO{sub 2} and amorphous on ITO. Upon heating to room temperature, the roughness of DIP is reduced on both substrates, from 1.5 nm to 0.75 nm (SiO{sub 2}) and from 0.90 nm to 0.45 nm (ITO). The smoothing is accompanied by crystallization of the surface molecules, whereas the bulk structure of the films does not strongly reorganize.

  13. Growth factors

    SciTech Connect

    Golde, D.W.; Herschman, H.R.; Lusis, A.J.; Groopman, J.E.

    1980-05-01

    Humoral regulation of somatic and hematopoietic cell growth has been intensely investigated during the past decade. Growth hormone is unique because it regulates the size of the person within the constraints of the genetic program. The somatomedins and insulin growth factors are low molecular weight polypeptides believed to mediate some functions of growth hormone. Epithelial growth factor and nerve growth factor are well-characterized polypeptides that influence the growth and differentiation of epithelial and neural tissues and interact with specific cell surface receptors. The hematopoietins are a family of polypeptide hormones that specifically regulate the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells giving rise to erythrocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, megakaryocytes, and B and T lymphocytes. Platelet-derived growth factor modulates the proliferation of fibroblasts in vitro and may have a role in the development of atherosclerosis and myelofibrosis. New knowledge on the biochemistry and physiology of growth factors will probably have a substantial impact on our understanding of human diseases involving abnormal cell growth.

  14. Champions of profitable growth.

    PubMed

    Stewart, G Bennett

    2004-01-01

    Many companies have posted impressive top-line growth over the past two decades in their respective economic regions--for instance, Wal-Mart in North America, BP in Europe, Toyota in Asia, and News Corporation in the Southern Hemisphere. But which were the best at converting all of that revenue growth into shareholder value? Harvard Business Review asked C. Bennett Stewart III, the senior partner of the consulting firm Stern Stewart & Company, and his colleagues to come up with the answer. For the period 1983 to 2003, they assembled a list of the top 20 high-growth value adders (and laggards) in each of the four regions cited above. Their calculations gave equal weight to companies' revenue growth and market-value-added scores, revealing the important effect of region on the performance of companies in the same industry. For instance, while automakers are positioned high on the Asian list of high-growth value adders, U.S. carmakers GM and Ford--each of which reported revenue growth in excess of 100 billion dollars between 1983 and 2003--are among the value laggards on the North American list, as are DaimlerChrysler and Volkswagen on the European list. The Japanese win through better efficiency, higher quality, and narrower product mixes, the author says. And while there are four telecom companies represented among the European high-growth value adders, there are none on the North American list. That's probably because the European telecoms enjoyed more protective regulation, made fewer high-priced acquisitions, and didn't bet as big on the overblown dot-com economy, the author says.

  15. Champions of profitable growth.

    PubMed

    Stewart, G Bennett

    2004-01-01

    Many companies have posted impressive top-line growth over the past two decades in their respective economic regions--for instance, Wal-Mart in North America, BP in Europe, Toyota in Asia, and News Corporation in the Southern Hemisphere. But which were the best at converting all of that revenue growth into shareholder value? Harvard Business Review asked C. Bennett Stewart III, the senior partner of the consulting firm Stern Stewart & Company, and his colleagues to come up with the answer. For the period 1983 to 2003, they assembled a list of the top 20 high-growth value adders (and laggards) in each of the four regions cited above. Their calculations gave equal weight to companies' revenue growth and market-value-added scores, revealing the important effect of region on the performance of companies in the same industry. For instance, while automakers are positioned high on the Asian list of high-growth value adders, U.S. carmakers GM and Ford--each of which reported revenue growth in excess of 100 billion dollars between 1983 and 2003--are among the value laggards on the North American list, as are DaimlerChrysler and Volkswagen on the European list. The Japanese win through better efficiency, higher quality, and narrower product mixes, the author says. And while there are four telecom companies represented among the European high-growth value adders, there are none on the North American list. That's probably because the European telecoms enjoyed more protective regulation, made fewer high-priced acquisitions, and didn't bet as big on the overblown dot-com economy, the author says. PMID:15241952

  16. Post-traumatic vertigo.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Jules M

    2004-10-01

    The vestibular-like symptoms that commonly follow head injury are most often due to one of a number of specific pathologies affecting vestibular, CNS or cervical structures. These pathologies can be readily identified in the majority of cases by appropriate testing in the examining room, and in vestibular function or neurodiagnosic laboratories. Whereas vestibular suppressants have a roll, they often delay recovery and have been supplanted as the mainstay of treatment in most cases by vestibular rehabilitation techniques. Given the large number of patients requiring outpatient management following head injury, it is appropriate that most generalists and many subspecialists should be aware of the differential diagnosis, workup and treatment options for post-traumatic vertigo.

  17. Technical Education in Pre and Post Independent India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janardhana, G.; Rajasekhar, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with technical education growth, policies in pre and post independent India. The world is moving forward rapidly and positively, into an era where societies and economies are incrementally based on knowledge. The importance of nations in the 21st Century shall be judged not by their economic strength alone, but also by their power…

  18. Post-16 update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    (post16) Faces of Physics To study a physics course post-16 is take out an option on your future. But physics itself is very varied, and so is what you might do with it. It seems right that post-16 physics courses reflect important aspects of this variety. Physics varies with why people do it. As reliable knowledge, physics is often essential to making things happen. This is physics as feeding into technology, and quite often feeding off technology. The human urge here is the urge to create things that work. It drives individual inventors; it drives large teams in multinational companies. At the opposite end of this spectrum is physics driven by curiosity, by the urge to find out. The stock examples are the grand discoveries from the expansion of the universe to the discovery of the nucleus of atoms. But the physicist's curiosity is often on a more detailed, even finicky scale: how exactly do the molecules of this polymer respond to stress?; just how do ions implanted in this material modify its conductivity? It is clear to me that a decent post-16 physics course must respect and reflect both. This is by no means a matter of `basic laws and their applications'. It is a matter of recognizing two fundamental interests, in doing and in explaining, and of recognizing that they are at once closely interdependent and worlds apart. Ideas in physics are also not of one kind. One opposition is the idea of describing Nature in terms of deterministic physical laws, as against describing Nature as the predictable outcome of probabilistic behaviour `underneath'. The first has gripped the Western imagination since at least the time of Descartes. The second has increasingly come to the fore, especially in thermodynamics with the idea that we can only make processes work by fixing the circumstances so that uncaring atoms and molecules happen by chance to do what we want. Now in quantum theory both ideas - determinism and randomness - co-exist. Post-16 physics courses are not in

  19. Post-16 update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    Post-16 Initiative logo This is the first of a regular series of contributions from the Institute's Post-16 Initiative. The Initiative is taking a hard and searching look at the physics taught in schools and colleges from age 16 to age 19. To start with, it is responding to Government initiatives, but hopes to encourage and stimulate good practice in physics teaching on a longer time scale than can be afforded in making responses to current developments. Here Jon Ogborn writes about what AS courses need to be, while Peter Campbell gives his thoughts about teaching matter. Advanced Subsidiary physics: what should it be? From September 2000 all A-levels will be new. Students can take the first Advanced Subsidiary (AS) year and stop there - or decide to go on. In the Institute of Physics post-16 Initiative, we have been thinking how to provide a satisfying one-year experience of physics at the new AS level, and what it should achieve. The students will decide. So the AS course must give a decent picture of what physics is, what it offers for their futures, what interests it can satisfy. That all says breadth, with enough depth to see what is in store later. And this sounds like the right recipe for someone who is taking a single AS year of physics to broaden their A-level experience. It must also be attractive. A way forward is shown by the Salters - Horners course, attracting interest through leading from applications. Why does that work? It gives physics a story to tell, into which ideas fit and make sense. Our own new A-level, Advancing Physics, must also have interesting stories to tell, which must in addition build up an honest picture of physics. An example: teach electric circuits through modern sensing devices. Sensor instrumentation is a key activity of physicists, full of new ideas, but also simple. It makes essential use of circuits such as the potential divider. Practical work gets better things to do than checking the equation for resistors in parallel

  20. NEWS: Post-16 update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Peter

    2000-07-01

    post16.gif As a teacher of physics it is very easy to become preoccupied with particulars of courses, or topics or even single concepts. Concerned with imminent student audiences and desired learning outcomes, the daily challenge is to summon satisfactory teaching approaches and resources for the job at hand. For the conscientious teacher, assessment outcomes may too often seem a judgment on our own efforts rather than those of our students. From time to time we may step back and think bigger, for example while planning a recruitment event, or while away from work on holiday. We may be successful locally. But why, at a time when books and television documentaries popularizing science have a large following, has physics education been facing declining numbers? Many recognize that physics has an essential contribution to make to the training of science or engineering specialists, but we know that it is also important for the skilled worker, the informed citizen and, in fact, for anyone trying to make sense of the world. So what are the best ways forward for post-16 physics? To make any impact on the bigger picture requires organization, thinking and meeting time among people in diverse roles: teachers and curriculum managers; university lecturers; employers and professional bodies; unitary awarding bodies; regulatory and funding agencies; and even Government. For the past few years, the Institute of Physics post-16 Initiative has created an unrivalled opportunity to address the wider issues. Its Shaping the Future booklets series was designed to stimulate informed discussion and debate, by providing background information and analysis. Taken together, the booklets should help all those concerned with physics education to understand where we are now, and why. Literally dozens of people have contributed to a review and analysis of physics education. Each booklet is a 48-page smorgasbord in A4 landscape format, containing many examples of good practice, basic but

  1. IVGEN Post Flight Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcquillen, John; Brown, Dan; Hussey, Sam; Zoldak, John

    2014-01-01

    The Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) Experiment was a technology demonstration experiment that purified ISS potable water, mixed it with salt, and transferred it through a sterilizing filter. On-orbit performance was verified as appropriate and two 1.5 l bags of normal saline solution were returned to earth for post-flight testing by a FDA certified laboratory for compliance with United States Pharmacopiea (USP) standards. Salt concentration deviated from required values and an analysis identified probable causes. Current efforts are focused on Total Organic Content (TOC) testing, and shelf life.The Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) Experiment demonstrated the purification of ISS potable water, the mixing of the purified water with sodium chloride, and sterilization of the solution via membrane filtration. On-orbit performance was monitored where feasible and two 1.5-liter bags of normal saline solution were returned to earth for post-flight testing by a FDA-registered laboratory for compliance with United States Pharmacopeia (USP)standards [1]. Current efforts have been focused on challenge testing with identified [2] impurities (total organic-carbon), and shelf life testing. The challenge testing flowed known concentrations of contaminants through the IVGEN deionizing cartridge and membrane filters to test their effectiveness. One finding was that the filters and DI-resin themselves contribute to the contaminant load during initial startup, suggesting that the first 100 ml of fluid be discarded. Shelf life testing is ongoing and involves periodic testing of stored DI cartridges and membrane filters that are capped and sealed in hermetic packages. The testing is conducted at six month intervals measuring conductivity and endotoxins in the effluent. Currently, the packaging technique has been successfully demonstrated for one year of storage testing. The USP standards specifies that the TOC be conducted at point of generation as opposed to point of

  2. Population post-Rio.

    PubMed

    Myers, N

    1993-01-01

    The June 1993 Rio Earth Summit barely recognized population growth as an issue, despite the evidence that rapid population growth is harming both the environment and development efforts. One reason given for brushing the population issue to the sidelines was that the UN had a major population conference scheduled for 1994. This overlooked the fact that in the interim between the two conferences, the population problem would be compounded by an additional 200 million people. Any delay now will increase the number of potential parents in the future and create an ever-increasing problem. The male participants at Rio who were willing to procrastinate on population issues were joined by feminists who claimed that men should leave this issue to women. These women ignore the fact that men need to be more, not less, involved in family planning. Women need support in increasing their status and in improving educational opportunities for girls. Providing girls with as much education as boys receive in low-income nations would cost less than a quarter of a percent of the collective gross national product of these nations, and this education would provide a solid boast to their economies and to their family planning campaigns. Procrastinators on population issues must stop acting as though a spare planet is available when we overload the earth.

  3. Extrapituitary growth hormone and growth?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Steve; Baudet, Marie-Laure

    2014-09-01

    While growth hormone (GH) is obligatory for postnatal growth, it is not required for a number of growth-without-GH syndromes, such as early embryonic or fetal growth. Instead, these syndromes are thought to be dependent upon local growth factors, rather than pituitary GH. The GH gene is, however, also expressed in many extrapituitary tissues, particularly during early development and extrapituitary GH may be one of the local growth factors responsible for embryonic or fetal growth. Moreover, as the expression of the GH receptor (GHR) gene mirrors that of GH in extrapituitary tissues the actions of GH in early development are likely to be mediated by local autocrine or paracrine mechanisms, especially as extrapituitary GH expression occurs prior to the ontogeny of pituitary somatotrophs or the appearance of GH in the circulation. The extrapituitary expression of pituitary somatotrophs or the appearance of GH in the circulation. The extrapituitary expression of GH in embryos has also been shown to be of functional relevance in a number of species, since the immunoneutralization of endogenous GH or the blockade of GH production is accompanied by growth impairment or cellular apoptosis. The extrapituitary expression of the GH gene also persists in some central and peripheral tissues postnatally, which may reflect its continued functional importance and physiological or pathophysiological significance. The expression and functional relevance of extrapituitary GH, particularly during embryonic growth, is the focus of this brief review.

  4. [POST MORTEM PATERNITY].

    PubMed

    Marguénaud, Jean-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Post mortem paternity, namely the procreation after the death of the man whom is part of the couple, is one of the questions which raised the most hesitations since the first bioethics laws of 1994. The National Assembly, encouraged by several opinions of the CCNE (National advisory committee of ethics) had let itself convince that the transfer had, at least, to be authorized in utero embryos preserved at the regard of which no one could not claim to have rights equal or higher than those of the woman concerned. However, the Senate always ended up obtaining the maintenance of an absolute prohibition of posthumous procreation (starting) from the spermatozoids or frozen embryos. This indifference with the cruelty of the application of the law to the women plunged into mourning--based on a paradoxical appreciation of the interest of the child not to be born orphan, and on a not very glorious taking into account of the interest of the Body of notaries not to change its practices--is particularly debatable. One can, nevertheless, try to understand it according to the obsession of the legalization of surrogate motherhood by application of the principle of nondiscrimination which could justify the requests of the men who, thanks to a surrogate mother, would wish to become fathers starting from gametes or embryos taken or created before the death of their wife or partner. PMID:27356350

  5. NEWS: Post-16 update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Peter

    2000-07-01

    post16.gif As a teacher of physics it is very easy to become preoccupied with particulars of courses, or topics or even single concepts. Concerned with imminent student audiences and desired learning outcomes, the daily challenge is to summon satisfactory teaching approaches and resources for the job at hand. For the conscientious teacher, assessment outcomes may too often seem a judgment on our own efforts rather than those of our students. From time to time we may step back and think bigger, for example while planning a recruitment event, or while away from work on holiday. We may be successful locally. But why, at a time when books and television documentaries popularizing science have a large following, has physics education been facing declining numbers? Many recognize that physics has an essential contribution to make to the training of science or engineering specialists, but we know that it is also important for the skilled worker, the informed citizen and, in fact, for anyone trying to make sense of the world. So what are the best ways forward for post-16 physics? To make any impact on the bigger picture requires organization, thinking and meeting time among people in diverse roles: teachers and curriculum managers; university lecturers; employers and professional bodies; unitary awarding bodies; regulatory and funding agencies; and even Government. For the past few years, the Institute of Physics post-16 Initiative has created an unrivalled opportunity to address the wider issues. Its Shaping the Future booklets series was designed to stimulate informed discussion and debate, by providing background information and analysis. Taken together, the booklets should help all those concerned with physics education to understand where we are now, and why. Literally dozens of people have contributed to a review and analysis of physics education. Each booklet is a 48-page smorgasbord in A4 landscape format, containing many examples of good practice, basic but

  6. Recovery post ICU.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christina

    2014-10-01

    Many ICU patients struggle to recovery following critical illness and may be left with physical, cognitive and psychological problems, which have a negative impact on their quality of life. Gross muscle mass loss and weakness can take some months to recover after the patients' Intensive Care Unit (ICU) discharge, in addition critical illness polyneuropathies can further complicate physical recovery. Psychological problems such as anxiety, depression and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common and have an negative impact on the patients' ability to engage in rehabilitation after ICU discharge. Finally cognitive deficit affecting memory can be a significant problem. The first step in helping patients to recover from such a devastating illness is to recognise those who have the greatest need and target interventions. Research now suggests that there are interventions that can accelerate physical recovery and reduce the incidence of psychological problems such as anxiety, depression and PTSD. Cognitive rehabilitation, however, is still in its infancy. This review will look at the research into patients' recovery and what can be done to improve this where needed.

  7. Direct observation of morphological evolution of a catalyst during carbon nanotube forest growth: new insights into growth and growth termination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Seojeong; Lee, Jaegeun; Kim, Hwan-Chul; Hwang, Jun Yeon; Ku, Bon-Cheol; Zakharov, Dmitri N.; Maruyama, Benji; Stach, Eric A.; Kim, Seung Min

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we develop a new methodology for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis that enables us to directly investigate the interface between carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays and the catalyst and support layers for CNT forest growth without any damage induced by a post-growth TEM sample preparation. Using this methodology, we perform in situ and ex situ TEM investigations on the evolution of the morphology of the catalyst particles and observe the catalyst particles to climb up through CNT arrays during CNT forest growth. We speculate that the lifted catalysts significantly affect the growth and growth termination of CNT forests along with Ostwald ripening and sub-surface diffusion. Thus, we propose a modified growth termination model which better explains various phenomena related to the growth and growth termination of CNT forests.In this study, we develop a new methodology for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis that enables us to directly investigate the interface between carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays and the catalyst and support layers for CNT forest growth without any damage induced by a post-growth TEM sample preparation. Using this methodology, we perform in situ and ex situ TEM investigations on the evolution of the morphology of the catalyst particles and observe the catalyst particles to climb up through CNT arrays during CNT forest growth. We speculate that the lifted catalysts significantly affect the growth and growth termination of CNT forests along with Ostwald ripening and sub-surface diffusion. Thus, we propose a modified growth termination model which better explains various phenomena related to the growth and growth termination of CNT forests. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05547d

  8. Breaking the Cycle: A Phenomenological Approach to Broadening Access to Post-Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cefai, Carmel; Downes, Paul; Cavioni, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, there has been a substantial increase in post-secondary education participation in most Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and European Union countries. This increase, however, does not necessarily reflect a parallel equitable growth in post-secondary education, and early school leaving is still an…

  9. Post-16 Science in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinscoe, David

    2012-01-01

    Science education at post-16 has had a high profile recently. Increasing the quality and quantity of STEM education is seen as a route to economic prosperity for both the individual and the nation. The post-16 sector is being encouraged to produce more STEM undergraduates and more STEM-skilled entrants to the industry with an emphasis on…

  10. Post-Baccalaureate Fellowship Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadbury, Jr., William E.

    The Post-Baccalaureate Fellowship Program provides an opportunity for students who went to college with inferior preparation to supplement their education by studying for 1 year at an academically demanding liberal arts college before entering graduate or professional school. The post-baccalaureate fellows take regular courses in a program that is…

  11. Post-16 update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    (Post-16 Initiative) Engineering Physics? Many A-level physics students do not go on to study physics. For them physics is a support subject, either just for fun or just for the grade. Where physics is a lead subject some students go on to study physics but many more go on to study engineering. So can we deliberately give some aspects of an A-level course an engineering flavour? Electromagnetism would seem a good place to start. There is a clear `physics' route into this topic, a microscopic forces and fields view of the situation. But do our students really need to look at it this way? All electromagnetic machines are linked magnetic and electric circuits. The design idea is to link these circuits as closely as possible. The electric circuits must be as good as possible, with a high conductivity. The magnetic circuits must be as good as possible, with high permeance. Conductivity depends on area/length. So does permeance. The goodness of an electromagnetic machine (how good it is at its job, which is linking electric and magnetic circuits) scales as the square of its linear dimensions. That means small electromagnetic machines are harder to make, and so the very smallest nanomotors are electrostatic. None of this is new, but many teachers are uncomfortable with it. We are thinking like physicists. Many of our students are not. They deserve us to take the trouble every now and again to encourage them to think a bit differently about a topic, to look at practical ways of discussing design and to give their course an engineering flavour. Philip Britton Coursework in A-level Physics The criteria for the new AS and A-levels have provided the teams developing the specifications with an opportunity to think creatively about how internal assessment is used within post-16 physics courses. Teachers may be concerned that allowing 30% of the marks to be internally assessed will create a burden for them. However, it is possible to look at this in a much more positive light

  12. NEWS: Post-16 update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-05-01

    (post16) Making physics connect Doesn't Melvyn Bragg do a wonderful job, engaging both scientists and artists in sensitive discussion on Radio 4 about their methods and their purposes? But every week teachers have the chance to show their students that physics is a way of seeing the world that is well-connected with other aspects of knowledge and culture. The stakes are high: students who fail to appreciate this generally choose not to study the subject beyond GCSE. Most students find our preoccupation with technical detail off-putting. Accepting that we have a syllabus to cover, it's still a question of balance. In our teaching we should aim for variety in order to find ways to connect with every student's interests. Also, we can show that we (the nearest embodiment of a physicist some students will experience) are multidimensional and so fully human. Most important, teachers need flexibility to both encourage and respond to student comment and questions. The first booklet in the discussion series Shaping the Future takes up these themes. Rich in ideas for both immediate use and the longer term, it aims to stimulate debate and improve teaching. Copies cost £5.50 including postage and are available from Ingrid Ebeyer, Post-16 Initiative, Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH. How far is it? This question is asked in many family cars and school minibuses at the start of a journey, and answered by most in terms of hours and minutes rather than miles. What a good idea for introducing a social and historical perspective to a lesson on distance, velocity and time. How far can you actually get in a day? What is the range of human activity? Walking for eight hours will get many people about 25 miles. A pack horse will progress at much the same rate, but fast riding or a coach and team of horses will get further. Motorway driving (when the cones are on holiday) would take you nearly 500 miles. The 05.15 am train from Penzance arrives in Inverness at 7

  13. Post-herpetic neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Tontodonati, Monica; Ursini, Tamara; Polilli, Ennio; Vadini, Francesco; Di Masi, Francesco; Volpone, Damiano; Parruti, Giustino

    2012-01-01

    Background In spite of the large body of evidence available in the literature, definition and treatment of Post-Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN) are still lacking a consistent and universally recognized standardization. Furthermore, many issues concerning diagnosis, prediction and prevention of PHN need to be clarified in view of recent contributions. Objectives To assess whether PHN may be better defined, predicted, treated and prevented in light of recent data, and whether available alternative or adjunctive therapies may improve pain relief in treatment recalcitrant PHN. Methods Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies and protocols were searched; the search sources included PubMed, Cochrane Library, NICE, and DARE. More than 130 papers were selected and evaluated. Results Diagnosis of PHN is essentially clinical, but it can be improved by resorting to the many tools available, including some practical and accessible questionnaires. Prediction of PHN can be now much more accurate, taking into consideration a few well validated clinical and anamnestic variables. Treatment of PHN is presently based on a well characterized array of drugs and drug associations, including, among others, tricyclic antidepressants, gabapentinoids, opioids and many topical formulations. It is still unsatisfactory, however, in a substantial proportion of patients, especially those with many comorbidities and intense pain at herpes zoster (HZ) presentation, so that this frequent complication of HZ still strongly impacts on the quality of life of affected patients. Conclusion Further efforts are needed to improve the management of PHN. Potentially relevant interventions may include early antiviral therapy of acute HZ, prevention of HZ by adult vaccination, as well as new therapeutic approaches for patients experiencing PHN. PMID:23109810

  14. Parameterized Beyond-Einstein Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, Eric; Linder, Eric V.; Cahn, Robert N.

    2007-09-17

    A single parameter, the gravitational growth index gamma, succeeds in characterizing the growth of density perturbations in the linear regime separately from the effects of the cosmic expansion. The parameter is restricted to a very narrow range for models of dark energy obeying the laws of general relativity but can take on distinctly different values in models of beyond-Einstein gravity. Motivated by the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism for testing gravity, we analytically derive and extend the gravitational growth index, or Minimal Modified Gravity, approach to parameterizing beyond-Einstein cosmology. The analytic formalism demonstrates how to apply the growth index parameter to early dark energy, time-varying gravity, DGP braneworld gravity, and some scalar-tensor gravity.

  15. Post-16 update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-03-01

    Post-16 Initiative logo Physics in Mathematical Mood Later this year, as part of the post-16 initiative of the Institute of Physics, a booklet with the above title will be published. In draft form, the booklet was discussed at the ASE conference in January. Some of the issues raised are briefly set out here. If you have any views to contribute, please write to Simon Carson at the Institute of Physics or e-mail simon.carson@physics.org. A mathematical view of the world is intrinsically a part of physics and therefore physics should be studied in an appropriately mathematical way. However, we all know that, to some students at least, mathematics proves to be a stumbling block rather than a powerful aid to understanding. So how can we help? Realizing that as physics teachers we need to deliver the mathematics necessary to an understanding of our subject is a start. Its corollary is that we need to find the space within the physics core. We may wish to use supplementary courses such as AS mathematics or QCA's new free-standing mathematics units, but requiring additional courses as a prerequisite to a study of A-level physics may deter students. Teaching the mathematics in context may aid understanding but we also must ensure that techniques are seen in a variety of contexts and that at some point the tool is abstracted from the background. As teachers we need to be aware of the very basic mathematical difficulties that students bring with them: the use of calculators, standard form, simple algebraic manipulation, for example. Mathematical arguments need to be developed fully and carefully. Encouraging cooperation and discussion between students may help the less able to understand and the more able to appreciate and develop their own understanding through making explicit their reasoning by explaining it to others. And what of new technology? Software tools allow students to develop their understanding about graphs, for example, enabling them to investigate the

  16. Population growth and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    This discussion of the issues relating to the problem posed by population explosion in the developing countries and economic growth in the contemporary world covers the following: predictions of economic and social trends; the Malthusian theory of population; the classical or stationary theory of population; the medical triage model; ecological disaster; the Global 2000 study; the limits to growth; critiques of the Limits to Growth model; nonrenewable resources; food and agriculture; population explosion and stabilization; space and ocean colonization; and the limits perspective. The Limits to Growth model, a general equilibrium anti-growth model, is the gloomiest economic model ever constructed. None of the doomsday models, the Malthusian theory, the classical stationary state, the neo-Malthusian medical triage model, the Global 2000 study, are so far reaching in their consequences. The course of events that followed the publication of the "Limits to Growth" in 1972 in the form of 2 oil shocks, food shock, pollution shock, and price shock seemed to bear out formally the gloomy predictions of the thesis with a remarkable speed. The 12 years of economic experience and the knowledge of resource trends postulate that even if the economic pressures visualized by the model are at work they are neither far reaching nor so drastic. Appropriate action can solve them. There are several limitations to the Limits to Growth model. The central theme of the model, which is overshoot and collapse, is unlikely to be the course of events. The model is too aggregative to be realistic. It exaggerates the ecological disaster arising out of the exponential growth of population and industry. The gross underestimation of renewable resources is a basic flaw of the model. The most critical weakness of the model is its gross underestimation of the historical trend of technological progress and the technological possiblities within industry and agriculture. The model does correctly emphasize

  17. Population growth and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    This discussion of the issues relating to the problem posed by population explosion in the developing countries and economic growth in the contemporary world covers the following: predictions of economic and social trends; the Malthusian theory of population; the classical or stationary theory of population; the medical triage model; ecological disaster; the Global 2000 study; the limits to growth; critiques of the Limits to Growth model; nonrenewable resources; food and agriculture; population explosion and stabilization; space and ocean colonization; and the limits perspective. The Limits to Growth model, a general equilibrium anti-growth model, is the gloomiest economic model ever constructed. None of the doomsday models, the Malthusian theory, the classical stationary state, the neo-Malthusian medical triage model, the Global 2000 study, are so far reaching in their consequences. The course of events that followed the publication of the "Limits to Growth" in 1972 in the form of 2 oil shocks, food shock, pollution shock, and price shock seemed to bear out formally the gloomy predictions of the thesis with a remarkable speed. The 12 years of economic experience and the knowledge of resource trends postulate that even if the economic pressures visualized by the model are at work they are neither far reaching nor so drastic. Appropriate action can solve them. There are several limitations to the Limits to Growth model. The central theme of the model, which is overshoot and collapse, is unlikely to be the course of events. The model is too aggregative to be realistic. It exaggerates the ecological disaster arising out of the exponential growth of population and industry. The gross underestimation of renewable resources is a basic flaw of the model. The most critical weakness of the model is its gross underestimation of the historical trend of technological progress and the technological possiblities within industry and agriculture. The model does correctly emphasize

  18. 78 FR 2950 - Proposed Posting and Posting of Stockyards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... posted the stockyards. On January 26, 2010, we published a notice in the Federal Register (75 FR 4039...., Unadilla, Georgia. IN-170 Tri-State Livestock Auction, LLC., Angola, Indiana. MS-177 Clark's...

  19. Some Aviation Growth Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2002-01-01

    The growth of aviation since the first flight of a heavier-than-air powered manned vehicle in 1903 has been somewhat remarkable. Some of the events that have influenced this growth are reviewed in this paper. This review will include some events prior to World War I; the influence of the war itself; the events during the post-war years including the establishment of aeronautical research laboratories; and the influence of World War II which, among other things, introduced new technologies that included rocket and jet propulsion and supersonic aerodynamics. The subsequent era of aeronautical research and the attendant growth in aviation over the past half century will be reviewed from the view point of the author who, since 1944, has been involved in the NACA/NASA aeronautical research effort at what is now the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The review will discuss some of the research programs related to the development of some experimental aircraft, the Century series of fighter aircraft, multi-mission aircraft, advanced military aircraft and missiles, advanced civil aircraft, supersonic transports, spacecraft and others.

  20. 32 CFR 643.120 - Post offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Post offices. 643.120 Section 643.120 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.120 Post offices. Title 10 U.S.C. 4779b, provides that the SA shall assign suitable space for post office purposes at military posts where post offices have been...

  1. 32 CFR 643.120 - Post offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Post offices. 643.120 Section 643.120 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.120 Post offices. Title 10 U.S.C. 4779b, provides that the SA shall assign suitable space for post office purposes at military posts where post offices have been...

  2. 32 CFR 643.120 - Post offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Post offices. 643.120 Section 643.120 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.120 Post offices. Title 10 U.S.C. 4779b, provides that the SA shall assign suitable space for post office purposes at military posts where post offices have been...

  3. 32 CFR 643.120 - Post offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Post offices. 643.120 Section 643.120 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.120 Post offices. Title 10 U.S.C. 4779b, provides that the SA shall assign suitable space for post office purposes at military posts where post offices have been...

  4. 32 CFR 643.120 - Post offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Post offices. 643.120 Section 643.120 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.120 Post offices. Title 10 U.S.C. 4779b, provides that the SA shall assign suitable space for post office purposes at military posts where post offices have been...

  5. [Post-mortem microbiology analysis].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Amparo; Alberola, Juan; Cohen, Marta Cecilia

    2013-12-01

    Post-mortem microbiology is useful in both clinical and forensic autopsies, and allows a suspected infection to be confirmed. Indeed, it is routinely applied to donor studies in the clinical setting, as well as in sudden and unexpected death in the forensic field. Implementation of specific sampling techniques in autopsy can minimize the possibility of contamination, making interpretation of the results easier. Specific interpretation criteria for post-mortem cultures, the use of molecular diagnosis, and its fusion with molecular biology and histopathology have led to post-mortem microbiology playing a major role in autopsy. Multidisciplinary work involving microbiologists, pathologists, and forensic physicians will help to improve the achievements of post-mortem microbiology, prevent infectious diseases, and contribute to a healthier population.

  6. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician September 01, 2000, http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000901/1035.html) Post-traumatic Stress Reactions Following ... Physician August 01, 1999, http://www.aafp.org/afp/990800ap/524.html) Written by familydoctor.org editorial ...

  7. [Post-mortem microbiology analysis].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Amparo; Alberola, Juan; Cohen, Marta Cecilia

    2013-12-01

    Post-mortem microbiology is useful in both clinical and forensic autopsies, and allows a suspected infection to be confirmed. Indeed, it is routinely applied to donor studies in the clinical setting, as well as in sudden and unexpected death in the forensic field. Implementation of specific sampling techniques in autopsy can minimize the possibility of contamination, making interpretation of the results easier. Specific interpretation criteria for post-mortem cultures, the use of molecular diagnosis, and its fusion with molecular biology and histopathology have led to post-mortem microbiology playing a major role in autopsy. Multidisciplinary work involving microbiologists, pathologists, and forensic physicians will help to improve the achievements of post-mortem microbiology, prevent infectious diseases, and contribute to a healthier population. PMID:23195835

  8. An Application of Convergence Theory to Japan's Post-WWII Economic "Miracle."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Benigno

    2003-01-01

    Provides an explanation of the post-World War II economic phenomenon of Japan as a process of economic convergence within the framework of the neoclassical Solo-Swan model of economic growth. States that this interpretation helps students understand economic growth and development and Japan's modern economic history. (JEH)

  9. 39 CFR 241.1 - Post offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... July 1 each year, post offices are classified by the Postmaster General based on the allowable postal...) Third Class. Post offices having 36 but less 190 revenue units. (4) Fourth Class. Post offices...

  10. Post-bariatric abdominoplasty: our experience.

    PubMed

    Grignaffini, Eugenio; Grieco, Michele P; Bertozzi, Nicolo'; Gandolfi, Marco; Palli, Dante; Cinieri, Francesco Giovanni; Gardani, Marco; Raposio, Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    The fast increase in obesity has been followed by the growth in the demand for plastic surgery in formerly obese patients. The weight loss is accompanied by new dysfunctions and disorders of the outline of the body that affects the quality of life of the patient. Abdominoplasty is a cosmetic surgery procedure that aims to remove the excess of skin and the redundant fat. The aim of this paper was to analyze our experience in this field and to test how functional abdominoplasty improved quality of life in the operated patients. In our Unit from January 2012 to December 2014, 25 patients (18 women and 7 men, age: 24 - 79 years, mean: 51 years) underwent abdominoplastic surgery. Only at least six months after bariatric surgery the patients were eligible for functional abdominoplasty. Average weight of the patients before surgery was 83.5 kg (range 58 - 163 Kg); averege BMI was 31 (range 24.77 - 57). The average quantity of tissue removed was 1.765 Kg (range 250 g - 11,5 Kg). Minor complications rate was in agreement with the percentages reported in literature. No mortality and major complications have occurred in our series. The majority of patients undergoing post-bariatric abdominoplasty reported an improvement in the quality of life and psychological well-being. In our opinion, however, only a multidisciplinary (surgical, psychological, dietological) approach of the post-bariatric patient allows to maintain long-term aesthetic and functional results. PMID:26694156

  11. Post-16 update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-09-01

    Institute of Physics post-16 initiative, shaping the future Physics education based in IT - sorry ICT! Which, of course, makes for a nifty headline, but as is so often the case with neat slogans, little else. Two formative questions: What, in another decade, will the government of the day call `What you lot should be doing with computers'? and What, of the many things that currently exercise our intellects, will there be anything special to say about in a decade, concerning the use of computers in the teaching of physics? Advancing Physics represents some attempts to come to grips with the second of the two questions above. The first is left to a higher wisdom. In thinking about learning, what can we do with the huge processing power, increasingly available in smaller and less obtrusive packages? What will we do that helps people learn physics, both tomorrow and in 2009? Here are a few suggestions based on development work so far. Wide, reliable and shared access to well ordered learning resources. We have created a CD-ROM, with versions for both student and teacher, that provides a wide range of resources. These do not teach, but do provide. A commitment to allowing a course to evolve and adapt. Electronic publication puts the costs into origination, and not into publication and distribution. A website allows for the community of users to contribute. E-mail networks support individuals and propagate good practice. You can create and explore your own microworlds. The interactive nature of models, and the crafted relationships between the models and the natural world give an insight into the creative imaginary worlds of the physicist. The unreasonable, but pleasurable, success of mathematics in describing the natural world can come to the fore. Measurements that were not possible before are now possible. What was previously indirect, and inaccessible, now becomes a direct measurement, making relationships transparent in new and fruitful ways. The dichotomy between

  12. Economic Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, James B.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A conceptual introduction for teachers explains economic growth and how it is measured. Four instructional units follow, beginning with a preschool and kindergarten unit which offers young students an opportunity to interview puppet workers, set up a classroom corner store, and learn the importance of capital resources for increasing productivity…

  13. Growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Bidlingmaier, Martin; Strasburger, Christian J

    2010-01-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) is a proteohormone secreted by the pituitary gland. It acts through binding to the hGH receptor, inducing either direct effects or initiating the production of insulin-like growth-factor I (IGF-I), the most important mediator of hGH effects. Growth hormone is primarily known to promote longitudinal growth in children and adolescents, but has also various important metabolic functions throughout adult life. Effects of hGH on the adult organism are well established from studies with recombinant growth hormone (rhGH) therapy in growth hormone deficient subjects. In this particular group of patients, replacement of hGH leads to increased lipolysis and lean body mass, decreased fat mass, improvements in VO(2max), and maximal power output. Although extrapolation from these findings to the situation in well trained healthy subjects is impossible, and controlled studies in healthy subjects are scarce, abuse of hGH seems to be popular among athletes trying to enhance physical performance. Detection of the application of rhGH is difficult, especially because the amino acid sequence of rhGH is identical to the major 22,000 Da isoform of hGH normally secreted by the pituitary. Furthermore, some physiological properties of hGH secretion also hindered the development of a doping test: secreted in a pulsatile manner, it has a very short half-life in circulation, which leads to highly variable serum levels. Concentration alone therefore cannot prove the exogenous administration of hGH.Two approaches have independently been developed for the detection of hGH doping: The so-called "marker approach" investigates changes in hGH-dependent parameters like IGF-I or components of bone and collagen metabolism, which are increased after hGH injection. In contrast, the so-called "isoform approach" directly analyses the spectrum of molecular isoforms in circulation: the pituitary gland secretes a spectrum of homo- and heterodimers and - multimers of a variable

  14. Post-Ike economic resilience along the Texas coast.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ruoxi; Dudensing, Rebekka M

    2015-07-01

    The economic devastation resulting from recent natural disasters has spawned intense interest in programmes that promote regional resilience. The economic impacts of Hurricane Ike (September 2008) endured long beyond the storm's landfall, compounded by a national recession. This study analyses the pattern of post-Ike industrial growth in eight coastal counties of Texas, United States, and identifies sources of resilience and potential drivers of recovery. The results indicate that post-disaster growth patterns differ from established growth patterns. Levels of resilience vary across industrial sectors, and service sectors tend to lead a recovery. The resilience of the hotel and restaurant sector, for instance, suggests that the presence of relief workers might immunise certain sectors against a post-disaster economic downturn. Besides the sectors that are generally resilient, each county has its own distinct sectors that, depending on the extent of the damage suffered, tend to perform strongly after a disaster, owing to the characteristics of the respective county's economy. PMID:25581315

  15. What about ex post facto

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, H.C.

    1992-07-01

    This note presents a legal question in an attempt to find an answer. The author hopes that some legal scholar can explain the principle of ex post facto in the US Constitution as it applies to some of the environmental laws. One of the major advantages of the Association is that it provides a forum for communication among members with different backgrounds and experience. An ex post facto law is one that is applied retroactively. Under such a law, a person could be punished for some act that violated a law passed after the act was committed, even though the act was legal when committed. The US Constitution prohibits such laws, as will be discussed later. States are also prohibited from enacting ex post facto laws.

  16. Post-Newtonian gravitational bremsstrahlung

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, M.; Will, C. M.

    1977-01-01

    Formulae and numerical results are presented for the gravitational radiation emitted during a low-deflection encounter between two massive bodies. Results are valid through post-Newtonian order within general relativity. The gravitational waveform, the total luminosity and total emitted energy, the angular distribution of emitted energy, and the frequency spectrum are discussed in detail. A method boosting the accuracy of these quantities to post Newtonian order is also presented. A numerical comparison of results with those of Peters, and of Kovacs and Thorne shows that the post Newtonian method is reliable to better than 0.1 percent at v = 0.1 c, to a few percent at v = 0.35 c, and to 10 to 20 percent at v = 0.5 c.

  17. Post-hepatectomy liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Kauffmann, Rondi

    2014-01-01

    Hepatectomies are among some of the most complex operative interventions performed. Mortality rates after major hepatectomy are as high as 30%, with post-hepatic liver failure (PHLF) representing the major source of morbidity and mortality. We present a review of PHLF, including the current definition, predictive factors, pre-operative risk assessment, techniques to prevent PHLF, identification and management. Despite great improvements in morbidity and mortality, liver surgery continues to demand excellent clinical judgement in selecting patients for surgery. Appropriate choice of pre-operative techniques to improve the functional liver remnant (FLR), fastidious surgical technique, and excellent post-operative management are essential to optimize patient outcomes. PMID:25392835

  18. 39 CFR 241.1 - Post offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Post offices. 241.1 Section 241.1 Postal Service... DISCONTINUANCE § 241.1 Post offices. Post Offices are established and maintained at locations deemed necessary to... geographic boundaries. A Post Office may be operated or staffed by a postmaster or by another type of...

  19. 39 CFR 241.1 - Post offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Post offices. 241.1 Section 241.1 Postal Service... DISCONTINUANCE § 241.1 Post offices. Post Offices are established and maintained at locations deemed necessary to... geographic boundaries. A Post Office may be operated or staffed by a postmaster or by another type of...

  20. 39 CFR 241.1 - Post offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Post offices. 241.1 Section 241.1 Postal Service... DISCONTINUANCE § 241.1 Post offices. (a) Establishment. Post Offices are established and maintained at locations... within specified geographic boundaries. A Post Office may be operated or staffed by a postmaster or...

  1. 49 CFR 1312.12 - Posting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Posting requirements. 1312.12 Section 1312.12..., POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY BY OR WITH A WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.12 Posting requirements. (a) General posting requirements. (1) Each...

  2. Issues in post-literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, Ravindra H.; Ouane, Adama; Sutton, Peter

    1989-12-01

    While school enrolments have been rising, the absolute number of illiterates in the world has grown too. Eradication of adult illiteracy and universalization of primary education are hindered by high drop-out in schools and relapse into illiteracy among adults. Post-literacy programmes seek to stop this reversal by ensuring retention, application and continuation of literacy skills. The Unesco Institute for Education (UIE) has been researching and promoting post-literacy strategies since 1980, but finds that most projects do not include provision for post-literacy from the outset, despite the evident need. Those programmes which have been mounted use a variety of strategies, which UIE has analysed in 12 categories. The exact delimitation of the post-literacy stage in the lifelong education continuum differs from project to project, and the emphasis on individual or societal advance depends on local perceptions of the goals of development. Examples are given of successful programmes, and the challenges of increasing participation and motivation, securing adequate funding, and making efficient and flexible use of institutional facilities are discussed.

  3. Job Posting: An Industry Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Dave R.; Pinto, Patrick R.

    1977-01-01

    Reports a survey to determine practices among metalworking firms in Minnesota covering such topics as whether or not the company had a formal or informal job posting system, the actual mechanics of the system, union influence on its design, feedback to unsuccessful job bidders, and current employee acceptance of the system. Recommendations are…

  4. Estonianization Efforts Post-Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rannut, Mart

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the sociolinguistic situation in Estonia. The paper opens with a historic overview, followed by an overview of the current demographic situation and of post-Soviet language and education policies and practices. It is argued that Estonia represents a success story in terms of language policy,…

  5. Reconsidering Post-Traumatic Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This article serves to challenge the prevailing wisdom that suggests that most trauma is followed by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and is best treated with critical incident stress debriefing (CISD). Instead, recent evidence suggests that many individuals exposed to stress do not experience stress responses. Even those who do, however,…

  6. STS-80 Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The flight crew of STS-80, Cmdr. Kenneth D. Cockrell, Pilot Kent V. Rominger, Mission Specialists, Tamara E. Jernigan, Thomas D. Jones, and F. Story Musgrave give a post flight presentation of their mission. This presentation is divided into two parts first a slide presentation of still shots, and the second is a video presentation.

  7. Chaos Theory and Post Modernism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Chaos theory is often associated with post modernism. However, one may make the point that both terms are misunderstood. The point of this article is to define both terms and indicate their relationship. Description: Chaos theory is associated with a definition of a theory dealing with variables (butterflies) that are not directly related to a…

  8. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a real illness. You can get PTSD after living through or seeing a traumatic event, such as war, a hurricane, sexual assault, physical abuse, or a bad accident. PTSD makes you feel stressed and afraid after the danger is over. It affects your life and ...

  9. Post Flight Dynamic Analysis Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, B. R.

    1970-01-01

    Digital six-degrees-of-freedom, open loop Saturn 5 first stage flight evaluation simulation program obtains post flight simulation of the launch vehicle using actual flight data as input. Results are compared with measured data. For preflight analysis, the program uses predicted flight data as input.

  10. Pair take top science posts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pockley, Peter

    2008-11-01

    Australia's science minister Kim Carr has appointed physical scientists to key posts. Penny Sackett, an astronomer, takes over as the government's chief scientist this month, while in January geologist Megan Clark will become chief executive of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), the county's largest research agency. Both five-year appointments have been welcomed by researchers.

  11. Post-midnight occurrence of equatorial plasma bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajith, K. K.; Otsuka, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Tulasiram, S.

    2016-07-01

    The equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs)/equatorial spread F (ESF) irregularities are an important topic of space weather interest because of their impact on transionospheric radio communications, satellite-based navigation and augmentation systems. This local plasma depleted structures develop at the bottom side F layer through Rayleigh-Taylor instability and rapidly grow to topside ionosphere via polarization electric fields within them. The steep vertical gradients due to quick loss of bottom side ionization and rapid uplift of equatorial F layer via prereversal enhancement (PRE) of zonal electric field makes the post-sunset hours as the most preferred local time for the formation of EPBs. However, there is a different class of irregularities that occurs during the post-midnight hours of June solstice reported by the previous studies. The occurrence of these post-midnight EPBs maximize during the low solar activity periods. The growth characteristics and the responsible mechanism for the formation of these post-midnight EPBs are not yet understood. Using the rapid beam steering ability of 47 MHz Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) at Kototabang (0.2°S geographic latitude, 100.3°E geographic longitude, and 10.4°S geomagnetic latitude), Indonesia, the spatial and temporal evolution of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) were examined to classify the evolutionary-type EPBs from those which formed elsewhere and drifted into the field of view of radar. The responsible mechanism for the genesis of summer time post-midnight EPBs were discussed in light of growth rate of Rayleigh-Taylor instability using SAMI2 model.

  12. Kenaf’s allelopathic impact on seedling growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Allelopathy is the chemical interaction between plants, which may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. Research was conducted to determine the impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plant extracts on the post-germination growth of five plant species. Four concentrations (0, 16...

  13. The ISAC post-accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxdal, R. E.; Marchetto, M.

    2014-01-01

    The acceleration chain of the ISAC facility boosts the energy of both radioactive and stable light and heavy ions for beam delivery to both a medium energy area in ISAC-I and a high energy area in ISAC-II. The post-accelerator comprises a 35.4 MHz RFQ to accelerate beams of A/q ≤ 30 from 2 keV/u to 150 keV/u and a post stripper, 106.1 MHz variable energy drift tube linac (DTL) to accelerate ions of A/q ≤ 6 to a final energy between 0.15 MeV/u to 1.5 MeV/u. A 40 MV superconducting linac further accelerates beam from 1.5 MeV/u to energies above the Coulomb barrier. All linacs operate cw to preserve beam intensity.

  14. Post-Lyme disease syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dąbek, Józefa; Cieślik, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    About 10% of patients with Lyme disease continue to experience musculoskeletal pain and cognitive dysfunction after recommended antibiotic treatment. This condition is called post-Lyme disease syndrome (PLDS) or post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. These two terms are used interchangeably. The pathogenesis of PLDS has been controversial. The hypothesis that patients with PLDS may harbor hidden reservoirs of Borrelia burgdorferi after their initial antibiotic treatment is difficult to accept. The prospective, double-blind studies contradict this point of view. Also, recently published research applying xenodiagnosis to PLDS supports the opinion that PLDS most likely has an autoimmune background. Lengthy courses of antibiotics are not justified in patients with PLDS because of the lack of benefit, and they are fraught with hazards. Most patients with PLDS recover from persistent symptoms with time. However, it can take months before they feel completely well. PMID:27407225

  15. Post-burnout thrust measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, E. F.; Smith, H. T.

    1980-06-01

    Research was conducted into the problems of avoiding collision between separated payloads and spent rocket motors due to post burnout thrust, and the problem of contamination of scientific instrumentation due to outgassing of the smoldering insulation. The post burnout thrust was measured using a payload instrument module separated from an instrumented Black Brant VC Rocket in the exoatmosphere. In addition to measuring acceleration and velocities the spent motor was observed by a TV camera on board the command attitude controlled payload module. Analysis shows that the payload separated cleanly from the vehicle at a relative separation velocity of 0.69 m/sec, however the residual thrust of the spent motor overcame this differential, catching up to the payload 37 sec after separation and continuing on a parallel velocity vector at about 1.03 m/sec.

  16. Leg ischemia post-varicocelectomy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Wahbi, Abdullah M; Elmoukaied, Shaza

    2016-01-01

    Varicocelectomy is the most commonly performed operation for the treatment of male infertility. Many surgical approaches are used as each of them has advantages over the other and is preferred by surgeons. Vascular injury has never been reported as a complication of varicocelectomy apart from testicular artery injury. We present a 36-year-old male who developed leg ischemia post-varicocelectomy due to common femoral artery injury. He was successfully treated by using a vein graft. PMID:27022305

  17. The SPOOKI post production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchemin, M.; Klasa, M.; Fortier, S.; Fortin, F.; Hardy, G.; Pelletier, L.; Edouard, S.; Archambault, B.; Yazidi, H.

    2010-09-01

    The Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) delivers a large number of numerical weather prediction products to the various weather offices and clients throughout Canada and abroad. The current post production system was built according to the needs and ideology of the 1980's and it is becoming obsolete with time. Its cumbersome architecture is difficult to maintain and requires a lot of human and computing resources. The "Weather Elements" section of CMC is aware of the problems associated with its maintenance in the long term and has therefore decided to review in depth the whole approach to the operational post production. The analysis of present and future needs have led to the development of an innovative concept in the operational production field inspired by the "Plug and Play" process. SPOOKI (Système de Production Orienté-Objet contennant une Kyrielle d'Informations - Object oriented production system containing a myriad of information) was created in its present form in 2007. It is based on a modular approach where each plug-in component is specialized, reusable and autonomous. These object oriented programming characteristics greatly simplify the maintenance of the system. Particular attention was also given to create a user-friendly system for novice users. An experimental version of SPOOKI is currently running in development mode and an operational one is planned to be implemented in the coming year. The poster presentation will describe SPOOKI, the future CMC operational post production system. Several examples of usage will be shown.

  18. Post-transcriptional RNA Regulons Affecting Cell Cycle and Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Blackinton, Jeff G.

    2014-01-01

    The cellular growth cycle is initiated and maintained by punctual, yet agile, regulatory events involving modifications of cell cycle proteins as well as coordinated gene expression to support cyclic checkpoint decisions. Recent evidence indicates that post-transcriptional partitioning of messenger RNA subsets by RNA-binding proteins help physically localize, temporally coordinate, and efficiently translate cell cycle proteins. This dynamic organization of mRNAs encoding cell cycle components contributes to the overall economy of the cell cycle consistent with the post-transcriptional RNA regulon model of gene expression. This review examines several recent studies demonstrating the coordination of mRNA subsets encoding cell cycle proteins during nuclear export and subsequent coupling to protein synthesis, and discusses evidence for mRNA coordination of p53 targets and the DNA damage response pathway. We consider how these observations may connect to upstream and downstream post-transcriptional coordination and coupling of splicing, export, localization, and translation. Published examples from yeast, nematode, insect, and mammalian systems are discussed, and we consider genetic evidence supporting the conclusion that dysregulation of RNA regulons may promote pathogenic states of growth such as carcinogenesis. PMID:24882724

  19. Post-war mortality decline and consumption expenditures in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsay, G

    1977-03-01

    With the objective of testing whether or not mortality decline is independent of economic development, changes are analyzed in mortality levels and consumption patterns in post-World War 2 Taiwan. According to the official statistics, the crude death rate in post-war Taiwan declined continuously from 11.5/1000 in 1950 to 6.8 in 1960, and then to 4.8 in 1974. During the same period, Taiwan also experienced impressive economic growth, with real per capita income rising from less than $150 in the early 1950s to almost $200 in the early 1960s, and then to more than $400 since 1973. Hence, it is hypothesized that mortality decline in post-war Taiwan was not independent of its economic development. The data for the study are annual aggregate statistics from official reports from 1950 to 1974. After eliminating the effect of the age composition from the mortality trend, the data show that the level of mortality improved much more during the 1st 1/2 of the study than during the last 1/2. Attempts were made to clarify the relationship between economic development and mortality decline by analyzing changes of mortality levels and consumption patterns. Although some weaknesses appear in the study, the preliminary results seem to imply that the mortality reduction in post-war Taiwan was not independent of economic progress. If more information becomes available, further investigation concerning this issue should lead to more conclusive results.

  20. Understanding neuronal connectivity through the post-transcriptional toolkit

    PubMed Central

    Loya, Carlos M.; Van Vactor, David; Fulga, Tudor A.

    2010-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms have emerged as a critical component underlying the diversification and spatiotemporal control of the proteome during the establishment of precise neuronal connectivity. These mechanisms have been shown to be important for virtually all stages of assembling a neural network, from neurite guidance, branching, and growth to synapse morphogenesis and function. From the moment a gene is transcribed, it undergoes a series of post-transcriptional regulatory modifications in the nucleus and cytoplasm until its final deployment as a functional protein. Initially, a message is subjected to extensive structural regulation through alternative splicing, which is capable of greatly expanding the protein repertoire by generating, in some cases, thousands of functionally distinct isoforms from a single gene locus. Then, RNA packaging into neuronal transport granules and recognition by RNA-binding proteins and/or microRNAs is capable of restricting protein synthesis to selective locations and under specific input conditions. This ability of the post-transcriptional apparatus to expand the informational content of a cell and control the deployment of proteins in both spatial and temporal dimensions is a feature well adapted for the extreme morphological properties of neural cells. In this review, we describe recent advances in understanding how post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms refine the proteomic complexity required for the assembly of intricate and specific neural networks. PMID:20360381

  1. Post-traumatic extrapyramidal syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Della Sala, S; Mazzini, L

    1990-02-01

    We report the case of a young man with possible post-traumatic extrapyramidal syndrome. Some features of this case have a bearing on the controversy surrounding the existence of post-traumatic Parkinson disease.

  2. 76 FR 53984 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Prairie Hill, Texas post office has been filed. It... for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Prairie Hill post office in Prairie...

  3. 42 CFR 124.604 - Posted notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... facility shall post notices, which the Secretary supplies in English and Spanish, in appropriate areas of... other than English or Spanish, the facility shall translate the notice into that language and post...

  4. 75 FR 70956 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Lancaster, Tennessee post office has been filed... for review of the closing of the Lancaster Post Office located in Lancaster, Tennessee. The...

  5. 42 CFR 124.604 - Posted notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... other than English or Spanish, the facility shall translate the notice into that language and post the translated notice on signs substantially similar in size and legibility to, and posted with, those...

  6. 42 CFR 124.604 - Posted notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... other than English or Spanish, the facility shall translate the notice into that language and post the translated notice on signs substantially similar in size and legibility to, and posted with, those...

  7. 42 CFR 124.604 - Posted notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... other than English or Spanish, the facility shall translate the notice into that language and post the translated notice on signs substantially similar in size and legibility to, and posted with, those...

  8. 42 CFR 124.604 - Posted notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... other than English or Spanish, the facility shall translate the notice into that language and post the translated notice on signs substantially similar in size and legibility to, and posted with, those...

  9. 76 FR 46857 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Still Pond, Maryland post office has been filed... review of the Postal Service's determination to close the post office in Still Pond, Maryland....

  10. 77 FR 3806 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document... Station post office in Yerington, Nevada. The first petition for review received December 28, 2011,...

  11. 76 FR 44385 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Peach Orchard, Arkansas post office has been filed... review of the closing of the Peach Orchard, Arkansas post office. The petition, which was filed...

  12. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... with post-traumatic stress need early treatment with methods that are used to treat other trauma victims. ... symptoms of post-traumatic stress. The crisis intervention method aims to relieve distress and help the patient ...

  13. 76 FR 62460 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the La Grande, Washington post office has been filed... petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the La Grande post office in La...

  14. 76 FR 58057 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Burnt Prairie, Illinois post office has been filed... for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Burnt Prairie post office in...

  15. 76 FR 77273 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Burns, Colorado post office has been filed. It... for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Burns post office in Burns,...

  16. 76 FR 57083 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Etna, New York post office has been filed. It... for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Etna post office in Etna, New York....

  17. 10 CFR 160.6 - Posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Posting. 160.6 Section 160.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) TRESPASSING ON COMMISSION PROPERTY § 160.6 Posting. Notices stating the pertinent prohibitions of §§ 160.3 and 160.4 and penalties of § 160.5 will be conspicuously posted at all entrances...

  18. 76 FR 59451 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Coyote, New Mexico post office has been filed. It... Postal Service's determination to close the Coyote post office in Coyote, New Mexico. The petition was filed by Manuelita Trujillo on behalf of the Concerned Citizens of the Coyote Post Office...

  19. 10 CFR 20.1902 - Posting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... HIGH RADIATION AREA.” (d) Posting of airborne radioactivity areas. The licensee shall post each airborne radioactivity area with a conspicuous sign or signs bearing the radiation symbol and the words “CAUTION, AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY AREA” or “DANGER, AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY AREA.” (e) Posting of areas...

  20. 10 CFR 20.1902 - Posting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HIGH RADIATION AREA.” (d) Posting of airborne radioactivity areas. The licensee shall post each airborne radioactivity area with a conspicuous sign or signs bearing the radiation symbol and the words “CAUTION, AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY AREA” or “DANGER, AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY AREA.” (e) Posting of areas...

  1. 10 CFR 20.1902 - Posting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... HIGH RADIATION AREA.” (d) Posting of airborne radioactivity areas. The licensee shall post each airborne radioactivity area with a conspicuous sign or signs bearing the radiation symbol and the words “CAUTION, AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY AREA” or “DANGER, AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY AREA.” (e) Posting of areas...

  2. 10 CFR 20.1902 - Posting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... HIGH RADIATION AREA.” (d) Posting of airborne radioactivity areas. The licensee shall post each airborne radioactivity area with a conspicuous sign or signs bearing the radiation symbol and the words “CAUTION, AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY AREA” or “DANGER, AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY AREA.” (e) Posting of areas...

  3. 10 CFR 20.1902 - Posting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... HIGH RADIATION AREA.” (d) Posting of airborne radioactivity areas. The licensee shall post each airborne radioactivity area with a conspicuous sign or signs bearing the radiation symbol and the words “CAUTION, AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY AREA” or “DANGER, AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY AREA.” (e) Posting of areas...

  4. Post-Colonial Theory and Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jim B.; Harding, Kelly J.

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores connections between post-colonial theory and action research. Post-colonial theory is committed to addressing the plague of colonialism. Action research, at its core, promises to problematize uncontested "colonial" hegemonies of any form. Both post-colonial theory and action research engage dialogic, critically reflective and…

  5. 36 CFR 261.51 - Posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Posting. 261.51 Section 261.51 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.51 Posting. Posting is accomplished by: (a) Placing a copy...

  6. 76 FR 69773 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Beech Grove, Kentucky post office has been filed... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Beech Grove post...

  7. 76 FR 67498 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Venice, California post office has been filed. It... close the Venice post office in Venice, California. The petition for review was filed online on...

  8. 48 CFR 752.7029 - Post privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Post privileges. 752.7029... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of USAID Contract Clauses 752.7029 Post privileges. For use in all USAID non-commercial contracts involving performance overseas. Post...

  9. 77 FR 1958 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Jonesville, Texas post office has been filed. It... post office in Jonesville, Texas. The first petition for review, which included an application...

  10. 76 FR 60947 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Jordanville, New York post office has been filed... petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Jordanville post office...

  11. 48 CFR 752.7029 - Post privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Post privileges. 752.7029... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of USAID Contract Clauses 752.7029 Post privileges. For use in all USAID non-commercial contracts involving performance overseas. Post...

  12. 48 CFR 752.7029 - Post privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Post privileges. 752.7029... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of USAID Contract Clauses 752.7029 Post privileges. For use in all USAID non-commercial contracts involving performance overseas. Post...

  13. 76 FR 62461 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Oak Hill, Alabama post office has been filed. It... Postal Service's determination to close the Oak Hill post office in Oak Hill, Alabama. The petition...

  14. 76 FR 45301 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Unionville, Iowa post office has been filed. It... closing of the post office in Unionville, Iowa. The petition, which was filed by Dorothy Jean...

  15. 76 FR 75916 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Prince, West Virginia post office has been filed... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Prince post office...

  16. 37 CFR 2.81 - Post publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Post publication. 2.81 Section 2.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Publication and Post Publication § 2.81 Post publication....

  17. 37 CFR 2.81 - Post publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Post publication. 2.81 Section 2.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Publication and Post Publication § 2.81 Post publication....

  18. 77 FR 1755 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Halsey, Nebraska post office has been filed. It... Halsey post office in Halsey, Nebraska. The first petition for review received December 16, 2011,...

  19. 76 FR 67003 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Adona, Arkansas post office has been filed. It... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Adona post office...

  20. 76 FR 45625 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Rodney, Iowa post office has been filed. It... Service's determination to close the post office in Rodney, Iowa. The petition, which was filed by...

  1. 76 FR 77025 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Avalon, Texas post office has been filed. It... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Avalon post office...

  2. 76 FR 51067 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Stoy, Illinois post office has been filed. It... Postal Service's determination to close the post office in Stoy, Illinois. The petition was filed by...

  3. 76 FR 28103 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Gywnedd, Pennsylvania post office has been filed... of the Gwynedd, Pennsylvania post office. The petition, which was filed by Christina...

  4. 76 FR 82003 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Fostoria, Iowa post office has been filed. It... post office in Fostoria, IA. The first petition for review received November 30, 2011, was filed...

  5. 76 FR 75918 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Lanagan, Missouri post office has been filed. It... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Lanagan post office...

  6. 76 FR 75569 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Prescott, Iowa post office has been filed. It... for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Prescott post office in Prescott,...

  7. 48 CFR 752.7029 - Post privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Post privileges. 752.7029... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of USAID Contract Clauses 752.7029 Post privileges. For use in all USAID non-commercial contracts involving performance overseas. Post...

  8. 37 CFR 2.81 - Post publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Post publication. 2.81 Section 2.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Publication and Post Publication § 2.81 Post publication....

  9. 76 FR 61758 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Argyle, Florida post office has been filed. It... Postal Service's determination to close the Argyle post office in Argyle, Florida. The petition was...

  10. 76 FR 62462 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the West Leyden, New York post office has been filed... Leyden post office in West Leyden, New York. The petition for review was filed by the Town of Lewis...

  11. 76 FR 51066 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Rex, North Carolina post office has been filed. It... Postal Service's determination to close the post office in Rex, North Carolina. The petition was filed...

  12. 77 FR 1963 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Cardwell, Montana post office has been filed. It... post office in Cardwell, Montana. The first petition for review received December 22, 2011, was...

  13. 49 CFR 238.213 - Corner posts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Corner posts. 238.213 Section 238.213... Equipment § 238.213 Corner posts. (a)(1) Except as further specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... occupied volume, two full-height corner posts, each capable of resisting together with its supporting...

  14. 77 FR 4380 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Ponce de Leon, Missouri post office has been filed... de Leon Post Office in Ponce de Leon, Missouri. The petition for review received January 6, 2012,...

  15. 76 FR 75568 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the New Cambria, Kansas post office has been filed. It... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the New Cambria post...

  16. 76 FR 53159 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Ida, Arkansas post office has been filed. It... Postal Service's determination to close the post office in Ida, Arkansas. The petition was filed...

  17. 76 FR 80416 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Mt. Sterling, Wisconsin post office has been filed... determination to close the Mt. Sterling post office in Mt. Sterling, Wisconsin. The petition for review...

  18. 77 FR 4379 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Highfalls, North Carolina post office has been... Highfalls post office in Highfalls, North Carolina. The petition for review received January 11, 2012,...

  19. 76 FR 64979 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Humbird, Wisconsin post office has been filed. It... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Humbird post office...

  20. 77 FR 1751 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Strandquist, Minnesota post office has been filed... Postal Service's determination to close the Strandquist post office in Strandquist, Minnesota....

  1. 76 FR 71083 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Andover, Illinois post office has been filed. It... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Andover post office...

  2. 76 FR 60946 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the North Canton, Connecticut post office has been... petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the North Canton post office in...

  3. 76 FR 19149 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Wesleyville Post Office in Wesleyville... for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Wesleyville, Pennsylvania post...

  4. 76 FR 45624 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Hamilton, Iowa post office has been filed. It... Service's determination to close the post office in Hamilton, Iowa. The petition, which was filed by...

  5. 76 FR 47274 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Innis, Louisiana post office has been filed. It... Service's determination to close the post office in Innis, Louisiana. The petition was filed by...

  6. 49 CFR 238.211 - Collision posts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Collision posts. 238.211 Section 238.211... Equipment § 238.211 Collision posts. (a) Except as further specified in this paragraph, paragraphs (b... time on or after September 8, 2000, shall have either: (i) Two full-height collision posts, located...

  7. 37 CFR 2.81 - Post publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Post publication. 2.81 Section 2.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Publication and Post Publication § 2.81 Post publication....

  8. 76 FR 80413 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Alplaus, New York post office has been filed. It... close the Alplaus post office in Alplaus, New York. The petition for review was filed by Andy...

  9. 76 FR 60949 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Climax, New York post office has been filed. It... Postal Service's determination to close the Climax post office in Climax, New York. The petition...

  10. 77 FR 3809 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Pierceville, Indiana post office has been filed... Pierceville post office in Pierceville, Indiana. The first petition for review received December 28, 2011,...

  11. 76 FR 46331 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Bigelow, Arkansas post office has been filed. It... Service's determination to close the post office in Bigelow, Arkansas. The petition was filed by...

  12. 76 FR 56822 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Gepp, Arkansas post office has been filed. It... Postal Service's determination to close the Gepp post office in Gepp, Arkansas. The petition was...

  13. 77 FR 1960 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Shaftsburg, Michigan post office has been filed... Shaftsburg post office in Shaftsburg, Michigan. The first petition for review received December 27, 2011,...

  14. 76 FR 60945 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Belk, Alabama post office has been filed. It... Postal Service's determination to close the Belk post office in Belk, Alabama. The petition was filed...

  15. 76 FR 62468 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Ingleside, Maryland post office has been filed. It... Postal Service's determination to close the Ingleside post office in Ingleside, Maryland. The...

  16. 49 CFR 238.211 - Collision posts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Collision posts. 238.211 Section 238.211... Equipment § 238.211 Collision posts. (a) Except as further specified in this paragraph, paragraphs (b... time on or after September 8, 2000, shall have either: (i) Two full-height collision posts, located...

  17. 76 FR 44054 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Ukiah, California Main Post Office has been filed... review of the closing of the Ukiah Main Post Office, Ukiah, California. The petition, which was filed...

  18. 76 FR 77026 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Niagara, North Dakota post office has been filed... petitions for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Niagara post office in...

  19. 49 CFR 238.213 - Corner posts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Corner posts. 238.213 Section 238.213... Equipment § 238.213 Corner posts. (a)(1) Except as further specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... occupied volume, two full-height corner posts, each capable of resisting together with its supporting...

  20. 76 FR 55952 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Velpen, Indiana post office has been filed. It... for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Velpen post office in Velpen,...

  1. 76 FR 47614 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Pilot Grove, Iowa post office has been filed. It... of the Postal Service's determination to close the post office in Pilot Grove, Iowa. The...

  2. 49 CFR 238.213 - Corner posts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corner posts. 238.213 Section 238.213... Equipment § 238.213 Corner posts. (a)(1) Except as further specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... occupied volume, two full-height corner posts, each capable of resisting together with its supporting...

  3. 76 FR 70175 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the New Boston, Illinois post office has been filed... received two petitions for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the New Boston post...

  4. 75 FR 4429 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Sundance, CO, post office has been filed. It... closing of the Sundance post office located in Steamboat Springs, Colorado 80487. The appeal was...

  5. 76 FR 77028 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Geuda Springs, Kansas post office has been filed... for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Geuda Springs post office in...

  6. 76 FR 80414 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Freeport, Kansas post office has been filed. It... close the Freeport post office in Freeport, Kansas. The petition for review was filed by Carol...

  7. 48 CFR 752.7029 - Post privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Post privileges. 752.7029... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of USAID Contract Clauses 752.7029 Post privileges. For use in all USAID non-commercial contracts involving performance overseas. Post...

  8. 76 FR 67001 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Witter, Arkansas post office has been filed. It... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Witter post office...

  9. 76 FR 46332 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Minneapolis, North Carolina post office has been... review of the Postal Service's determination to close the post office in Minneapolis, North Carolina....

  10. 76 FR 58847 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Langston, Alabama post office has been filed. It... Postal Service's determination to close the Langston post office in Langston, Alabama. The petition...

  11. 76 FR 69771 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Kettlersville, Ohio post office has been filed. It... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Kettlersville post...

  12. 76 FR 70173 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the West Edmeston, New York post office has been filed... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the West Edmeston post...

  13. 76 FR 62466 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Mallory, New York post office has been filed. It... Postal Service's determination to close the Mallory post office in Mallory, New York. The petition...

  14. 76 FR 55951 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Bentonville, Ohio post office has been filed. It... for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Bentonville post office in...

  15. 39 CFR 241.1 - Post offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Post offices. 241.1 Section 241.1 Postal Service... DISCONTINUANCE § 241.1 Post offices. (a) Establishment. See § 113.1 of this chapter. (b) Classification. As of July 1 each year, post offices are classified by the Postmaster General based on the allowable...

  16. 76 FR 46334 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Chillicothe, Iowa post office has been filed. It... Service's determination to close the post office in Chillicothe, Iowa. The petition was filed by Jason...

  17. 76 FR 52720 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Francitas, Texas post office has been filed. It... Postal Service's determination to close the post office in Francitas, Texas. The petition was filed...

  18. 76 FR 69770 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Boles, Arkansas post office has been filed. It... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Boles post office...

  19. 77 FR 1091 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Alvord, Iowa post office has been filed. It... determination to close the Alvord post office in Alvord, Iowa. The first petition for review received ]...

  20. 76 FR 62465 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Freedom, Wyoming post office has been filed. It... the Postal Service's determination to close the Freedom post office in Freedom, Wyoming. The...

  1. 76 FR 62464 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Auburn, West Virginia post office has been filed... petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Auburn post office in Auburn,...

  2. 76 FR 63678 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Lorraine, New York post office has been filed. It... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Lorraine post office...

  3. 76 FR 62463 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Carolina, West Virginia post office has been filed... petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Carolina post office in...

  4. 76 FR 45882 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Goodwin, Arkansas post office has been filed. It... Service's determination to close the post office in Goodwin, Arkansas. The petition was filed by...

  5. 76 FR 28104 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Tateville, Kentucky post office has been filed. It... closing of the Tateville, Kentucky post office. Petitions were filed by Rebecca Kroell, Glenn Walker,...

  6. 37 CFR 2.81 - Post publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Post publication. 2.81 Section 2.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Publication and Post Publication § 2.81 Post publication....

  7. 76 FR 71084 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Orchard, Iowa post office has been filed. It... received two petitions for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Orchard post office...

  8. 76 FR 70174 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Amoret, Missouri post office has been filed. It... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Amoret post office...

  9. 49 CFR 238.211 - Collision posts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... structural protection described in paragraph (a) of this section, either: (1) Two forward collision posts... structural protection described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, two forward collision posts... body structure. (3) Prior to or during structural deformation, each collision post acting together...

  10. 36 CFR 261.51 - Posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Posting. 261.51 Section 261.51 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.51 Posting. Posting is accomplished by: (a) Placing a copy...

  11. 10 CFR 160.6 - Posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Posting. 160.6 Section 160.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) TRESPASSING ON COMMISSION PROPERTY § 160.6 Posting. Notices stating the pertinent prohibitions of §§ 160.3 and 160.4 and penalties of § 160.5 will be conspicuously posted at all entrances...

  12. 10 CFR 21.6 - Posting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Posting requirements. 21.6 Section 21.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION REPORTING OF DEFECTS AND NONCOMPLIANCE General Provisions § 21.6 Posting requirements... United States where the activities subject to this part are conducted. (b) If posting of the...

  13. 10 CFR 73.75 - Posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Posting. 73.75 Section 73.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Records and Reports § 73.75 Posting. (a... criminal penalties, and associated posting requirements, under section 229 of the Atomic Energy Act...

  14. 36 CFR 261.51 - Posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Posting. 261.51 Section 261.51 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.51 Posting. Posting is accomplished by: (a) Placing a copy...

  15. 36 CFR 71.4 - Posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Posting. 71.4 Section 71.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION FEES § 71.4 Posting. (a) The administering bureaus of the Department of the Interior shall provide for the posting of the following designation sign...

  16. 36 CFR 71.4 - Posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Posting. 71.4 Section 71.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION FEES § 71.4 Posting. (a) The administering bureaus of the Department of the Interior shall provide for the posting of the following designation sign...

  17. 36 CFR 71.4 - Posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Posting. 71.4 Section 71.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION FEES § 71.4 Posting. (a) The administering bureaus of the Department of the Interior shall provide for the posting of the following designation sign...

  18. 76 FR 72454 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Elmo, Missouri post office has been filed. It... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Elmo post office in...

  19. 76 FR 76443 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... COMMISSION Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Greeley, Iowa post office has been filed. It... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Greeley post office...

  20. 76 FR 68232 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Ogden, Arkansas post office has been filed. It... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Ogden post office...

  1. 76 FR 76444 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Holland, Iowa post office has been filed. It... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Holland post office...

  2. 76 FR 72456 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Scottville, Illinois post office has been filed... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Scottville post office...

  3. 76 FR 76447 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Miller, Nebraska post office has been filed. It... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Miller post office...

  4. 76 FR 54511 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Lake Creek, Texas post office has been filed. It... Service's determination to close the Lake Creek post office in Lake Creek, Texas. The petitions were...

  5. 76 FR 54264 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Enloe, Texas post office has been filed. It... Postal Service's determination to close the Enloe post office in Enloe, Texas. The petitions were...

  6. 76 FR 76451 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Nixon, Nevada post office has been filed. It... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Nixon post office...

  7. 76 FR 78954 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Milan, Kansas post office has been filed. It... close the Milan post office in Milan, Kansas. The petition for review was filed by Michele...

  8. 76 FR 76445 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Mountain City, Nevada post office has been filed... for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Mountain City post office in...

  9. 76 FR 63332 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Evansdale, Iowa post office has been filed. It... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Evansdale post office...

  10. 76 FR 72453 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Waverly, Washington post office has been filed. It... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Waverly post office...

  11. 76 FR 58058 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Meridian, New York post office has been filed. It... Postal Service's determination to close the Meridian post office in Meridian, New York. The petition...

  12. 76 FR 76446 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Home, Kansas post office has been filed. It... for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Home post office in Home, Kansas....

  13. 77 FR 5582 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Balm, Florida post office has been filed. It... Commission received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Balm post...

  14. 76 FR 76449 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Spring Dale, West Virginia post office has been... four petitions for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Spring Dale post office...

  15. 76 FR 76448 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Viola, Idaho post office has been filed. It... for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Viola post office in Viola, Idaho....

  16. 76 FR 80986 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the McCallsburg, Iowa post office has been filed. It... close the McCallsburg post office in McCallsburg, Iowa. The petition for review was filed by...

  17. 76 FR 55426 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Ottosen, Iowa post office has been filed. It... for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Ottosen post office in Ottosen,...

  18. 76 FR 54265 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the West Elkton, Ohio post office has been filed. It... Postal Service's determination to close the West Elkton post office in West Elkton, Ohio. The...

  19. 76 FR 68231 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Ferguson, Iowa post office has been filed. It... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Ferguson post office...

  20. 76 FR 72458 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Pace, Mississippi post office has been filed. It... for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Pace post office in Pace,...

  1. 76 FR 55425 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Watson, Alabama post office has been filed. It... for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Watson post office in Watson,...

  2. 76 FR 78702 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Sherwood, Michigan post office has been filed. It... close the Sherwood post office in Sherwood, Michigan. The petition for review was filed by...

  3. 75 FR 15753 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Crescent Lake (Oregon)Post Office ZIP Code 97425... of the closing of the Crescent Lake Post Office, Crescent Lake, Oregon 97425. The appeal was...

  4. 76 FR 66337 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Ruth, Mississippi, post office has been filed. It... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Ruth post office in...

  5. Entrainment Rates in POST Stratocumulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, H. E.; Frick, G.

    2010-12-01

    A recent field study (POST; Physics of Stratocumulus top; July-Aug., 2008) off the California Coast used the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft to observe mostly unbroken stratocumulus clouds (Sc). Seventeen flights were made in a quasi-Lagrangian horizontal pattern and in a vertical profiling pattern +/- 100 m about Sc top that was repeated numerous times. The aircraft carried a full complement of probes, including the high rate (1000-hz) UFT (ultra-fast temperature) and PVM (LWC and effective radius) probes both of which provided data within cloud and were located near the aircraft’s gust probe. The latter two probes were used to estimate the entrainment velocity (we) into the Sc using the “conditional sampling” approach. The range of we values fall within previous estimates of we, and examples of the measurements are presented. This we data set provides new insight on the entrainment process with findings including the following: About on half the POST flights the Sc showed entrainment behavior unlike that expected from previous applications of the “conditional sampling” method. Higher wind speeds and shear near Sc top generated significant turbulence both above and below the cloud-top interface causing the linear entrainment flux approximation near Sc top to be invalid. This behavior would also affect the “flux-jump” method used previously for estimating we., leading to questions about the validity of previous we measurements. In addition the required sharp jump at the interface of the entrainment scalar was not present in some cases. The “conditional sampling” method yields pdfs of the entrainment parcel length which are variable depending on the flight. The lengths are sufficiently large in some cases and are compatible with practical LES grid spacing suggesting a LES modeling and measurement comparison, where the more robust measurement is the entrainment flux into the POST Sc rather than the estimate of we.

  6. Delayed Post-Traumatic Anisocoria.

    PubMed

    Ergül, Dursun Fırat; Ekemen, Serdar; Özdemir, Özcan; Uzan, Çağdaş; Yelken, Birgül

    2015-06-01

    Post-traumatic carotid artery dissection is one of the major causes of ischemic stroke in young patients; its diagnosis remains a challenge for clinicians because of its variable clinical presentation. An otherwise healthy 37-year-old man was referred to the intensive care unit of our faculty for the management of multiple trauma because of a car accident. At 11 days from admission, his doctor noticed the advent of anisocoria. A prompt treatment was instituted with anti-platelet and-coagulant agents. The patient had a complete resolution of symptoms. The prognosis was good, and the patient achieved a complete clinical recovery. He was discharged without any sequelae. PMID:27366498

  7. [Post-traumatic stress disorder].

    PubMed

    Ponteva, Matti; Henriksson, Markus; Isoaho, Raimo; Laukkala, Tanja; Männikkö, Timo; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    Psychosocial support and careful monitoring are recommended for acute stress reaction (ASR) and acute stress disorder (ASD). If symptoms require, short focused cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy can be used for ASD. Medication is rarely necessary, but sleeping pills can be used for a short period. Trauma-focused psychotherapeutic interventions are first-line treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. SSRI or SNRI antidepressant medication is also effective. There is less evidence on antipsychotic and antiepileptic medication. Psychotherapeutic interventions and medication can be, and often are, combined. Children, the elderly, and military and peacekeeping personnel need interventions that are tailored to their needs. PMID:19839195

  8. Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  9. Indian hedgehog roles in post-natal TMJ development and organization.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, T; Shibukawa, Y; Nagayama, M; Mundy, C; Yasuda, T; Okabe, T; Shimono, K; Kanyama, M; Hasegawa, H; Maeda, Y; Lanske, B; Pacifici, M; Koyama, E

    2010-04-01

    Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is essential for embryonic mandibular condylar growth and disc primordium formation. To determine whether it regulates those processes during post-natal life, we ablated Ihh in cartilage of neonatal mice and assessed the consequences on temporomandibular joint (TMJ) growth and organization over age. Ihh deficiency caused condylar disorganization and growth retardation and reduced polymorphic cell layer proliferation. Expression of Sox9, Runx2, and Osterix was low, as was that of collagen II, collagen I, and aggrecan, thus altering the fibrocartilaginous nature of the condyle. Though a disc formed, it exhibited morphological defects, partial fusion with the glenoid bone surface, reduced synovial cavity space, and, unexpectedly, higher lubricin expression. Analysis of the data shows, for the first time, that continuous Ihh action is required for completion of post-natal TMJ growth and organization. Lubricin overexpression in mutants may represent a compensatory response to sustain TMJ movement and function. PMID:20200412

  10. In vitro evaluation of glass fiber post

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Navneet; Singh, Harpal

    2012-01-01

    Statement of problem: Techniques and recommendations for the restoration of endodontically treated teeth have changed from the use of custom cast metal post and core system to glass fiber-reinforced (GFRC) post and composite core system. Has this latest prefabricated glass fiber reinforced post and composite core system increased the fracture resistance of teeth and reduced the incidence of unrestorable root fractures. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of root fracture and mode of failure of endodontically treated teeth restored with two different post and core systems. Material and Methods: Forty maxillary central incisors were randomly divided into two groups. (n=20). All teeth received endodontic treatment. First group was restored with custom cast post and core system. Second group was restored with glass fiber post and composite core system. In Both the groups posts were cemented with adhesive resin cement. Compressive load was applied at an angle of 130 to the long axis of teeth at a cross head speed of 1 mm/min until fracture occurred. Data were analyzed with student “t” test P<.001. Results: The mean value for fracture resistance was (331.4025) N in Group -I Custom cast Ni-Cr post and core and (237.0625) N in Group -II Glass fiber reinforced post and composite core system. Students “t” test shows the significant difference in fracture resistance of two groups. Conclusion: This study showed that the incidence of root fracture was significantly higher in custom cast Ni-Cr post and core system than glass fiber post and composite core system. A more favourable mode of failure was observed in teeth restored with Group II glass fiber post system. Key words:Post-and-core technique, glass fiber post, cast post and-core system, fracture resistance, endodontically treated teeth. PMID:24558556

  11. Post-Secularism, Religious Knowledge and Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, David

    2012-01-01

    Post-secularism seems to follow in the wake of other (what are here called) "postal" perspectives--post-structuralism, postmodernism, post-empiricism, post-positivism, post-analytical philosophy, post-foundationalism and so on--in questioning or repudiating what it takes to be the epistemic assumptions of "modernism." To be sure, post-secularism…

  12. Coming ‘Home’ to (post)Colonial Medicine: Treating Tropical Bodies in Post-War Britain

    PubMed Central

    Bivins, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    While investment and popular enthusiasm have fuelled significant growth in the history of medicine since the 1980s, it remains by some metrics well outside of the historical mainstream. Yet developments in the history of medicine could offer traction to historians more generally. Through its close critical attention to power, embodiment and hegemonic institutions and knowledges, the history of medicine also presents a unique perspective from which to interrogate ‘postcolonialism’. Here, post-war British examples demonstrate the potential of a medical and postcolonial lens for historians exploring policy making, immigration or identity. In this period, civil servants, biomedical researchers, policy makers, and publics including migrants actively shaped medical and governmental responses to an apparently novel phenomenon: the mass migration to Britain of its former tropical subjects. Postcolonial analysis uncovers new models of community, and highlights the importance of the late twentieth-century and the post-imperial city as sites of historiographic and theoretical development.

  13. 14 CFR 417.415 - Post-launch and post-flight-attempt hazard controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Post-launch and post-flight-attempt hazard controls. 417.415 Section 417.415 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Ground Safety § 417.415 Post-launch and post-flight-attempt hazard...

  14. Sterile post-traumatic immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md Nahidul; Bradley, Benjamin A; Ceredig, Rhodri

    2016-01-01

    After major trauma, the human immune system initiates a series of inflammatory events at the injury site that is later followed by suppression of local inflammation favoring the repair and remodeling of the damaged tissues. This local immune response involves complex interactions between resident cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, soluble mediators such as cytokines and chemokines, and recruited cells such as neutrophils, monocytes and mesenchymal stromal cells. If of sufficient magnitude, these initial immune responses nevertheless have systemic consequences resulting in a state called post-traumatic immunosuppression (PTI). However, controversy exists regarding the exact immunological changes occurring in systemic compartments triggered by these local immune responses. PTI is one of the leading causes of post-surgical mortality and makes patients vulnerable to hospital-acquired infections, multiple organ failure and many other complications. In addition, hemorrhage, blood transfusion, immunesenescence and immunosuppressant drugs aggravate PTI. PTI has been intensively studied, but published results are frequently cloudy. The purpose of this review is to focus on the contributions made by different responsive modalities to immunosuppression following sterile trauma and to try to integrate these into an overall scheme of PTI. PMID:27195120

  15. Hot Post-AGB Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, M.; Gauba, G.; Fujii, T.; Nakada, Y.

    2001-08-01

    From the study of IRAS sources with far-IR colors similar to planetary nebulae (PNe), several proto-planetary nebulae with hot (OB) post-AGB central stars have been detected. These stars form an evolutionary link between the cooler G,F,A supergiant stars that have evolved off the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) and the hot (OB) central stars of PNe. The optical spectra of these objects show strong Balmer emission lines and in some cases low excitation nebular emission lines such as [NII] and [SII] superposed on the OB stellar continuum. The absence of of [OIII] 5007Å line and the presence of low excitation nebular emission lines indicate that photoionisation has just started. The UV(IUE) spectra of some of these objects revealed violet shifted stellar wind P-Cygni profiles of CIV, SiIV and NV, indicating hot and fast stellar wind and post-AGB mass loss. These objects appear to be rapildy evolving into the early stages of PNe similar to that observed in the case of Hen1357 IRAS 17119-5926 (Stingray Nebula) and IRAS 18062+2410 SAO85766.

  16. [Post-Lyme disease syndrome].

    PubMed

    Błaut-Jurkowska, Justyna; Jurkowski, Marcin

    2016-02-01

    Lyme disease is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacteria, spirochete of the Borrelia type. Skin, nervous system, musculoskeletal system and heart may be involved in the course of the disease. The prognosis for properly treated Lyme disease is usually good. However, in about 5% of patients so called Post-Lyme disease syndrome (PLSD) develops. It is defined as a syndrome of subjective symptoms persisting despite proper treatment of Borrelia burgdorferi infection. The most common symptoms include: fatigue, muscle and joint pain, and problems with memory and concentration. Pathogenesis of PLDS remains unknown. The differential diagnosis should include neurological, rheumatic and mental diseases. Till now there is no causative treatment of PLDS. In relieving symptom rehabilitation, painkillers, anti-inflammatory and antidepressants medicines are recommended. Emotional and psychological supports are also necessary. Non-specific symptoms reported by patients with post- Lyme disease syndrome raise the suspicion of other pathologies. This can lead to misdiagnosis and implementation of unnecessary, potentially harmful to the patient's therapy. An increase in tick-borne diseases needs to increase physicians awareness of these issues.

  17. [Post-Lyme disease syndrome].

    PubMed

    Błaut-Jurkowska, Justyna; Jurkowski, Marcin

    2016-02-01

    Lyme disease is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacteria, spirochete of the Borrelia type. Skin, nervous system, musculoskeletal system and heart may be involved in the course of the disease. The prognosis for properly treated Lyme disease is usually good. However, in about 5% of patients so called Post-Lyme disease syndrome (PLSD) develops. It is defined as a syndrome of subjective symptoms persisting despite proper treatment of Borrelia burgdorferi infection. The most common symptoms include: fatigue, muscle and joint pain, and problems with memory and concentration. Pathogenesis of PLDS remains unknown. The differential diagnosis should include neurological, rheumatic and mental diseases. Till now there is no causative treatment of PLDS. In relieving symptom rehabilitation, painkillers, anti-inflammatory and antidepressants medicines are recommended. Emotional and psychological supports are also necessary. Non-specific symptoms reported by patients with post- Lyme disease syndrome raise the suspicion of other pathologies. This can lead to misdiagnosis and implementation of unnecessary, potentially harmful to the patient's therapy. An increase in tick-borne diseases needs to increase physicians awareness of these issues. PMID:27000820

  18. Understanding post-starburst quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cales, Sabrina L.

    Post-starburst quasars (PSQs) are an interesting type of hybrid galaxy that harbor both a post-starburst stellar population and luminous AGN. The starburst is hundreds of millions of years old with a mass on the order of 10 billion solar masses. This type of hybrid galaxy provides a natural breading ground for studying the role active galactic nuclei (AGN) play in galaxy evolution (i.e., the black hole mass-galaxy bulge mass relation). My thesis work has centered on testing the idea that, at z ˜ 0.3, PSQs are a phase in the life of galaxies triggered by external events (e.g., mergers, tidal interactions) or whether they are a more heterogeneous population in which multiple mechanisms can contribute to the class (i.e., external events and internal processes). This project is devoted to understanding the properties of PSQs and is comprised of three sub-projects: (i) two-dimensional image analysis with HST imaging and characterization of PSQ morphologies, (ii) determination of stellar population ages and masses and quasar black hole masses and accretion rates via spectral modeling of Keck and KPNO spectroscopy, (iii) comparisons of PSQ properties with other galaxy types and models. Finally, I briefly outline my conclusions in the context of AGN/galaxy evolution.

  19. Activist model of political party growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffs, Rebecca A.; Hayward, John; Roach, Paul A.; Wyburn, John

    2016-01-01

    The membership of British political parties has a direct influence on their political effectiveness. This paper applies the mathematics of epidemiology to the analysis of the growth and decline of such memberships. The party members are divided into activists and inactive members, where all activists influence the quality of party recruitment, but only a subset of activists recruit and thus govern numerical growth. The activists recruit for only a limited period, which acts as a restriction on further party growth. This Limited Activist model is applied to post-war and recent memberships of the Labour, Scottish National and Conservative parties. The model reproduces data trends, and relates realistically to historical narratives. It is concluded that the political parties analysed are not in danger of extinction but experience repeated periods of growth and decline in membership, albeit at lower numbers than in the past.

  20. Step-Growth Polymerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stille, J. K.

    1981-01-01

    Following a comparison of chain-growth and step-growth polymerization, focuses on the latter process by describing requirements for high molecular weight, step-growth polymerization kinetics, synthesis and molecular weight distribution of some linear step-growth polymers, and three-dimensional network step-growth polymers. (JN)

  1. The case for regional post-natural disaster preparation.

    PubMed

    Claringbull, Natalie

    2008-01-01

    The private sector is becoming increasingly responsible to society and the environment. To this end, instead of simply contributing aid after a disaster, firms should establish relationships in advance, investing in regional growth through a post-natural disaster preparation pact. The pact should be a regionally focused partnership agreement - a natural disaster equivalent to the Kyoto Protocol. By coordinating preparation mechanisms through investment and collaboration before disasters hit, companies not only show confidence in the economy, encouraging regional cooperation and fostering economic growth, but also raise awareness of impending threats. Natural disasters affect all areas of life and livelihood; it is therefore beneficial for everyone to work together in advance to improve mitigation strategies and facilitate management processes in disaster recovery.

  2. Understanding fast macroscale fracture from microcrack post mortem patterns

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Claudia; Scheibert, Julien; Bonamy, Daniel; Dalmas, Davy

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic crack propagation drives catastrophic solid failures. In many amorphous brittle materials, sufficiently fast crack growth involves small-scale, high-frequency microcracking damage localized near the crack tip. The ultrafast dynamics of microcrack nucleation, growth, and coalescence is inaccessible experimentally and fast crack propagation was therefore studied only as a macroscale average. Here, we overcome this limitation in polymethylmethacrylate, the archetype of brittle amorphous materials: We reconstruct the complete spatiotemporal microcracking dynamics, with micrometer/nanosecond resolution, through post mortem analysis of the fracture surfaces. We find that all individual microcracks propagate at the same low, load-independent velocity. Collectively, the main effect of microcracks is not to slow down fracture by increasing the energy required for crack propagation, as commonly believed, but on the contrary to boost the macroscale velocity through an acceleration factor selected on geometric grounds. Our results emphasize the key role of damage-related internal variables in the selection of macroscale fracture dynamics. PMID:22203962

  3. Measuring Growth with the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Walter P., Jr.; Lopez-Baez, Sandra I.

    2008-01-01

    The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI; R. G. Tedeschi & L. G. Calhoun, 1996) was used to measure the growth of university students (N = 347). Results were compared with those of trauma studies and indicate that the PTGI is a general measure of growth suitable for future nontrauma studies. Results reflect a minimal relationship between…

  4. Simulating Population Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byington, Scott

    1997-01-01

    Presents a strategy to help students grasp the important implications of population growth. Involves an interactive demonstration that allows students to experience exponential and logistic population growth followed by a discussion of the implications of population-growth principles. (JRH)

  5. Growth hormone test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003706.htm Growth hormone test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone test measures the amount of growth hormone in ...

  6. The State of Humanities in Post-Apartheid South Africa--A Quantitative Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, V.; Yu, K.

    2010-01-01

    This article depicts the state of Humanities in post-apartheid South Africa by examining HEMIS enrolment and graduation data from 1999 to 2007. It demonstrates that although the decline in student enrolment and graduation in Humanities has not been severe; read in the context of substantial growth of all other disciplines, Humanities is in a…

  7. Acute regulation of IGF-I by alterations in post-exercise macronutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This investigation sought to examine the contributions of exercise and nutrient replenishment on in vivo regulation of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis components. Eight college-aged males completed three high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols followed by three post-exercise ...

  8. The Post Industrial Era and the Third World: Some Unsolved Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshoff, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    Disadvantages of the post industrial society to developing nations are examined. For example, a dominant feature of this new era is the questioning of material values and a shift towards the quality of life syndrome. As a result, the validity of the growth and profit motif is being questioned. (RM)

  9. Applying the Dualistic Model of Passion to Post-Secondary Online Instruction: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberger, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    With the growth of online education, online student attrition and failure rates will continue to be a concern for post-secondary institutions. Although many factors may contribute to such phenomena, the role of the online instructor is clearly an important factor. Exploring how online instructors perceive their role as online teachers,…

  10. Fin-de-Siecle Advances in Neuroeducation: Henry Herbert Donaldson and Reuben Post Halleck

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodoridou, Zoe D.; Triarhou, Lazaros C.

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on two early attempts at bridging neuroscience and education, made by Henry Herbert Donaldson (1857-1938), a neurologist, and Reuben Post Halleck (1859-1936), an educator. Their works, respectively entitled "The Growth of the Brain: A Study of the Nervous System in Relation to Education" (1895) and "The Education of the…

  11. Silicon dendritic web growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, S.

    1984-01-01

    Technological goals for a silicon dendritic web growth program effort are presented. Principle objectives for this program include: (1) grow long web crystals front continuously replenished melt; (2) develop temperature distribution in web and melt; (3) improve reproductibility of growth; (4) develop configurations for increased growth rates (width and speed); (5) develop new growth system components as required for improved growth; and (6) evaluate quality of web growth.

  12. [Growth charts and intrauterine growth retardation].

    PubMed

    Gouyon, J-B; Ferdynus, C; Quantin, C

    2013-09-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction indicates that a fetus is unable to achieve its growth potential. The individual growth potential is approximated by customization of growth charts. Neonatal growth charts rely on body weight measures at birth while fetal growth charts rely on body weight estimated from biometric measurements of the fetus. The neonatal and fetal growth charts are not equivalent and have different meanings for epidemiologists and clinicians. Fetal growth charts also assess fetal growth velocity, but individual assessment of fetal weight may be flawed by lack of precision. Neonatal charts are constructed based on data obtained in the whole population or in a subgroup without gestational diseases. The two types of neonatal charts markedly differ at low gestational ages as 30% of preterm infants present intrauterine growth restriction, usually due to maternal diseases. Even if intrauterine growth restriction is a risk factor of fetal mortality, neonatal mortality, and short- and long-term morbidity, the predictive value of the charts (whether or not they are customized) at an individual level is low and may be improved by additional investigations.

  13. 6. Photocopy of a 1944 architectural drawing titled: Post Office ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of a 1944 architectural drawing titled: Post Office & Post Exchange. Elevations, Sections and Details. 1-29-44 - Madigan Hospital, Post Office & Post Exchange, Bounded by Wilson & McKinley Avenues & Garfield & Lincoln Streets, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  14. Interacting parametrized post-Friedmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richarte, Martín G.; Xu, Lixin

    2016-04-01

    We apply the interacting parametrized post-Friedmann (IPPF) method to coupled dark energy models where the interaction is proportional to dark matter density at background level. In the first case, the dark components are treated as fluids and the growth of dark matter perturbations only feel the interaction via the modification of background quantities provided dark matter follows geodesic. We also perform a Markov Chain Monte-Carlo analysis which combines several cosmological probes including the cosmic microwave background (WMAP9+Planck) data, baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements, JLA sample of supernovae, Hubble constant (HST), and redshift-space distortion (RSD) measurements through the fσ 8(z) data points. The joint observational analysis of Planck+WP+JLA+BAO+HST+ RSD data leads to a coupling parameter, ξ c=0.00140_{-0.00080}^{+0.00079} at 1σ level for vanishing momentum transfer potential. On the other hand, we deal with a coupled quintessence model which exhibits a violation of the equivalence principle coming form a coupling term in the modified Euler equation; as a result of that the local Hubble expansion rate and the effective gravitational coupling are both enhanced. Provided that the interaction is parallel to scalar field velocity the momentum transfer potential is switched on, leading to a lower interaction coupling ξ c=0.00136_{-0.00073}^{+0.00080} at 1σ level when Planck+WP+JLA+BAO+HST+RSD data are combined. Besides, the CMB power spectrum shows up a correlation between the coupling parameter ξ c and the position of acoustic peaks or their amplitudes. The first peak's height increases when ξ c takes larger values and its position is shifted. We also obtain the matter power spectrum may be affected by the strength of interaction coupling over scales bigger than 10^{-2} h Mpc^{-1}, reducing its amplitude in relation to the vanilla model.

  15. [Post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth].

    PubMed

    Korábová, I; Masopustová, Z

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the issue of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth to health care professionals. The text focuses on the diagnostic definition of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth, symptoms, physiological background, prevalence, course, risk factors and consequences of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth for a woman, her child and her partner. Options for interventions and therapy are outlined as well. PMID:26982058

  16. [Post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth].

    PubMed

    Korábová, I; Masopustová, Z

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the issue of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth to health care professionals. The text focuses on the diagnostic definition of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth, symptoms, physiological background, prevalence, course, risk factors and consequences of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth for a woman, her child and her partner. Options for interventions and therapy are outlined as well.

  17. 10 CFR 860.6 - Posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Posting. 860.6 Section 860.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRESPASSING ON DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY § 860.6 Posting. Notices stating the pertinent prohibitions of §§ 860.3 and 860.4 and penalties of § 860.5 will be conspicuously posted at all entrances of...

  18. [The Occupational Medicine Post-Graduate School of Milan].

    PubMed

    Chiappino, G

    2003-01-01

    From its very foundation, post-graduate work for medical doctors has been the main objective of the "Clinica del Lavoro". This completion of the doctor's training has, in the course of the past century, moved in time with the evolution of Occupational Medicine as a science: new developments in the field, the results of experimentation and research carried out in the Clinic, have immediately been passed on to young doctors. The professionals trained in the Clinic have always been considered the very best and have been sought after by the most important medical facilities in the country. Since the beginning of the last century, when Luigi Devoto began to evaluate the infectious, poisonous, and deficiency pathologies connected with the workplace, to the post-war years of rapid growth, when Enrico Vigliani studied and prepared our doctors to deal with dust-related pulmonary diseases, metal-based poisons, and many other problems connected with the transformation of an agricultural society to an industrial society, and up to the present years, which have been characterized by the post-industrial new economy, the "Clinica del Lavoro" has always taught and put into practice the motto of Luigi Devoto: "Occupational medicine is not a part of medicine, but rather a particular way to practice medicine". PMID:12768953

  19. Theoretical Study of Fractal Growth and Stability on Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, Veronika V.; Solov'yov, Ilia A.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2009-12-03

    We perform a theoretical study of the fractal growing process on surface by using the deposition, diffusion, aggregation method. We present a detailed analysis of the post-growth processes occurring in a nanofractal on surface. For this study we developed a method which describes the internal dynamics of particles in a fractal and accounts for their diffusion and detachment. We demonstrate that these kinetic processes are responsible for the formation of the final shape of the islands on surface after the post-growth relaxation.

  20. Pre- and post-weaning performance of artificially reared calves. II. The effects of milk substitute and milk substitute-whey diets on the performance of calves with particular reference to the selection of calves with improved growth potential from their blood composition a week after birth.

    PubMed

    Couvaras, S

    1981-03-01

    Sixteen Friesland bull calves were divided into two groups and raised artificially in an early weaning system. The liquid feeding of one group consisted of a commercial milk substitute and that of the other group of a 50:50 milk substitute-whey mixture. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals, starting one week after birth, and analysed for packed cell volume (PCV), blood glucose and haemoglobin (Hb); serum albumin, total protein, urea, inorganic phosphate (Pi), Ca, Mg, Na and K. The liquid portion of the diet had no significant effect on either the blood composition of the calves or on their performance (mass gain, dry matter intake and feed conversion) at the end of the experimental period (week 13). The only significant difference (P less than 0,05) between the two groups was the body mass of the calves at weaning. There were significant changes in the concentrations of most blood constituents with age (P less than 0,001 for Hb, PCV, albumin, globulin, Pi and K; P less than 0,01 for urea and Ca). A significant correlation (P less than 0,05) was also found between the calves' growth rates from 1 to 13 weeks and the concentration of globulin at one week of age. The regression of growth rate from 1 to 13 weeks with the blood constituents, globulin, Hb, PCV, Pi, Mg and Ca at one week of age accounted for 67,4% of the variance among calves. The evidence suggests that the above types of liquid feeding in an early weaning system would not significantly affect the composition of the blood of calves when sampled approximately six weeks or more after weaning, provided a predictive assessment of subsequent growth performance.

  1. Post-settlement survivorship in two Caribbean broadcasting corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Margaret W.

    2014-12-01

    The post-settlement phase of broadcast-spawned coral life histories is poorly known due to its almost complete undetectability and, hence, presumed low abundance in the field. We used lab-cultured settled polyps of two important Caribbean reef-building species with negligible larval recruitment to quantify early post-settlement survivorship (6-9 weeks) over multiple years/cohorts and differing orientation on a reef in the Florida Keys. Orbicella faveolata showed significantly and consistently better survivorship in vertical rather than horizontal orientation, but no discernable growth overall. Meanwhile, Acropora palmata showed no significant difference in survivorship between orientations, but significantly greater growth in the horizontal orientation. Both species showed significant variation in mean survivorship between cohorts of different years; 0-47 % for O. faveolata and 12-49 % for A. palmata over the observed duration. These results demonstrate wide variation in success of cohorts and important differences in the larval recruitment capacities of these two important but imperiled reef-building species.

  2. Linking Post-Translational Modifications and Variation of Phenotypic Traits*

    PubMed Central

    Albertin, Warren; Marullo, Philippe; Bely, Marina; Aigle, Michel; Bourgais, Aurélie; Langella, Olivier; Balliau, Thierry; Chevret, Didier; Valot, Benoît; da Silva, Telma; Dillmann, Christine; de Vienne, Dominique; Sicard, Delphine

    2013-01-01

    Enzymes can be post-translationally modified, leading to isoforms with different properties. The phenotypic consequences of the quantitative variability of isoforms have never been studied. We used quantitative proteomics to dissect the relationships between the abundances of the enzymes and isoforms of alcoholic fermentation, metabolic traits, and growth-related traits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although the enzymatic pool allocated to the fermentation proteome was constant over the culture media and the strains considered, there was variation in abundance of individual enzymes and sometimes much more of their isoforms, which suggests the existence of selective constraints on total protein abundance and trade-offs between isoforms. Variations in abundance of some isoforms were significantly associated to metabolic traits and growth-related traits. In particular, cell size and maximum population size were highly correlated to the degree of N-terminal acetylation of the alcohol dehydrogenase. The fermentation proteome was found to be shaped by human selection, through the differential targeting of a few isoforms for each food-processing origin of strains. These results highlight the importance of post-translational modifications in the diversity of metabolic and life-history traits. PMID:23271801

  3. Experiences in home-based growth monitoring.

    PubMed

    Suelan, F; Briones, H

    1992-01-01

    A growth monitoring project (GMP) of child weighing was implemented by the Philippines' Department of Health (DOH) through the Integrated Provincial Health Office to monitor either children's nutritional progress or their faltering of growth. Weaknesses, however, were found in the GMP. For example, only 31% of preschoolers included in the Nutrition Center of the Philippines (NCP) survey had growth charts. An 1990 UNICEF-DOH survey also found that the growth chart was used primarily by mothers and service providers to record infant immunization. Mothers brought their children to well-baby clinics in barangay health centers only when their children were sick. Conducted only once per year, weighing was not perceived as a tool in detecting and preventing sickness, and ensuring normal growth. Asked to help improve the GMP, the NCP consulted intended beneficiaries and cooperators to develop a plan to pilot an intensive monitoring project in four towns of Negros Occidental, starting in January 1991 and ending in December 1992. The resultant Home-Based Growth Monitoring (HBGM) project would place emphasis upon enabling rural mothers to become self-sustaining agents for child growth monitoring. A key feature was the establishment of a weighing post in a strategic place for every 2-3 family clusters. The HBGM project was piloted in 1991 in Calatrava, Toboso, Cauayan, and Sipalay. This paper describes project implementation, problems and solutions, and results.

  4. Effects of caffeine or EDTA post-treatment on EMS mutagenesis in soybean.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B; Gu, A; Deng, X; Geng, Y; Lu, Z

    1995-04-01

    Seeds of soybean cultivar LD4 were mutagenically treated with EMS (0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 0.9, 1.5 and 1.8%) for 3 h only or plus caffeine (50 mM) or EDTA (1 mM) post-treatment for 5 h. The experimental results indicated that: (1) of the different concentrations of EMS treatment, the M2 mutation frequency induced with 0.6% EMS was the highest (9.7%). When the EMS concentration was over 0.9%, the mutation frequency decreased rapidly. (2) Of the EMS treatments plus caffeine or EDTA post-treatment, the mutagenic effect of 0.6% EMS was the best for inducing morphological variations. Caffeine post-treatment decreased notably the mutation frequency of EMS treatment; when concentrations of EMS were very high (1.5% and 1.8%), mutation frequencies of EDTA post-treatment were still 5.0% and 4.88%, but no mutants were found in EMS treatment or plus caffeine post-treatment. (3) In the M2 mutation spectrum, 11 kinds of mutant types were observed in EMS treatment or plus caffeine or EDTA post-treatment. Relative frequencies of some mutant types (growth period, plant height, grain size, leaf shape and sterility, etc.) were similar among the three treatments, but EDTA post-treatment could change the relative frequencies of yield characteristics (number of pods and grains, grain weight/plant) induced by EMS treatment only.

  5. STS-113 Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    The STS-113 post-flight presentation begins with a view of Mission Specialists Michael E. Lopez-Alegria and John B. Herrington getting suited for the space mission. The STS-113 crew consists of: Commander James D. Wetherbee, Pilot Paul Lockhart, Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington. Cosmonauts Valery Korzun, and Sergei Treschev, and astronaut Peggy Whitson who are all members of the expedition five crew, and Commander Kenneth Bowersox, Flight Engineers Nikolai Budarin and Donald Pettit, members of Expedition Six. The main goal of this mission is to take Expedition Six up to the International Space Station and Return Expedition Five to the Earth. The second objective is to install the P(1) Truss segment. Three hours prior to launch, the crew of Expedition Six along with James Wetherbee, Paul Lockhart, Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington are shown walking to an astrovan, which takes them to the launch pad. The actual liftoff is presented. Three Extravehicular Activities (EVA)'s are performed on this mission. Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington are shown performing EVA 1 and EVA 2 which include making connections between the P1 and S(0) Truss segments, and installing fluid jumpers. A panoramic view of the ISS with the Earth in the background is shown. The grand ceremony of the crew exchange is presented. The astronauts performing everyday duties such as brushing teeth, washing hair, sleeping, and eating pistachio nuts are shown. The actual landing of the Space Shuttle is presented.

  6. Post orgasmic illness syndrome (POIS)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Men with post orgasmic illness syndrome (POIS) become ill rather immediately after ejaculation, whether spontaneously at night, during sexual intercourse or masturbation. Two subtypes are distinguished: primary and secondary POIS. It also occurs before or after a man has been sterilized. POIS is an invalidating most probably auto-immune disease leading to much distress in males and their partners. It is characterized by five criteria. Its symptoms are described by seven clusters. However, the manifestation of these symptoms varies from one male to the other but is relatively constant in the person himself. Among men the symptoms vary in intensity, durations and sort of symptoms. POIS is a chronic disorder that manifests itself in POIS “attacks” that occur within a few minutes to a few hours after ejaculation, and disappear spontaneously after 3 to 7 days. POIS is not associated with increased total serum IgE concentrations. On the contrary, there are indications that POIS is triggered by specific cytokines that are released by an auto-immune reaction to the man’s seminal fluid. Indirect clinical evidence suggests that the antigen (Ag) triggering the POIS systemic reaction is not bound to spermatozoa but to seminal fluid produced by prostatic tissue. In addition, POIS may also occur—although rarely—in females. In those cases, it is hypothesized that the Ag is associated with female prostatic tissue around the vagina.

  7. Post orgasmic illness syndrome (POIS)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Men with post orgasmic illness syndrome (POIS) become ill rather immediately after ejaculation, whether spontaneously at night, during sexual intercourse or masturbation. Two subtypes are distinguished: primary and secondary POIS. It also occurs before or after a man has been sterilized. POIS is an invalidating most probably auto-immune disease leading to much distress in males and their partners. It is characterized by five criteria. Its symptoms are described by seven clusters. However, the manifestation of these symptoms varies from one male to the other but is relatively constant in the person himself. Among men the symptoms vary in intensity, durations and sort of symptoms. POIS is a chronic disorder that manifests itself in POIS “attacks” that occur within a few minutes to a few hours after ejaculation, and disappear spontaneously after 3 to 7 days. POIS is not associated with increased total serum IgE concentrations. On the contrary, there are indications that POIS is triggered by specific cytokines that are released by an auto-immune reaction to the man’s seminal fluid. Indirect clinical evidence suggests that the antigen (Ag) triggering the POIS systemic reaction is not bound to spermatozoa but to seminal fluid produced by prostatic tissue. In addition, POIS may also occur—although rarely—in females. In those cases, it is hypothesized that the Ag is associated with female prostatic tissue around the vagina. PMID:27652231

  8. Post orgasmic illness syndrome (POIS).

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2016-08-01

    Men with post orgasmic illness syndrome (POIS) become ill rather immediately after ejaculation, whether spontaneously at night, during sexual intercourse or masturbation. Two subtypes are distinguished: primary and secondary POIS. It also occurs before or after a man has been sterilized. POIS is an invalidating most probably auto-immune disease leading to much distress in males and their partners. It is characterized by five criteria. Its symptoms are described by seven clusters. However, the manifestation of these symptoms varies from one male to the other but is relatively constant in the person himself. Among men the symptoms vary in intensity, durations and sort of symptoms. POIS is a chronic disorder that manifests itself in POIS "attacks" that occur within a few minutes to a few hours after ejaculation, and disappear spontaneously after 3 to 7 days. POIS is not associated with increased total serum IgE concentrations. On the contrary, there are indications that POIS is triggered by specific cytokines that are released by an auto-immune reaction to the man's seminal fluid. Indirect clinical evidence suggests that the antigen (Ag) triggering the POIS systemic reaction is not bound to spermatozoa but to seminal fluid produced by prostatic tissue. In addition, POIS may also occur-although rarely-in females. In those cases, it is hypothesized that the Ag is associated with female prostatic tissue around the vagina. PMID:27652231

  9. Carbohydrate post-glycosylational modifications

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hai; Chen, Xi

    2008-01-01

    Carbohydrate modification is a common phenomenon in nature. Many carbohydrate modifications such as some epimerization, O-acetylation, O-sulfation, O-methylation, N-deacetylation, and N-sulfation, take place after the formation of oligosaccharide or polysaccharide backbones. These modifications can be categorized as carbohydrate post-glycosylational modifications (PGMs). Carbohydrate PGMs further extend the complexity of the structures and the synthesis of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. They also increase the capacity of the biological information that can be controlled by finely tuning the structures of carbohydrates. Developing efficient methods to obtain structurally defined naturally occurring oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycoconjugates with carbohydrate PGMs is essential for understanding the biological significance of carbohydrate PGMs. Combine with high-throughput screening methods, synthetic carbohydrates with PGMs are invaluable probes in structure-activity relationship studies. We illustrate here several classes of carbohydrates with PGMs and their applications. Recent progress in chemical, enzymatic, and chemoenzymatic syntheses of these carbohydrates and their derivatives are also presented. PMID:17340000

  10. 10 CFR 1048.6 - Posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Posting. 1048.6 Section 1048.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) TRESPASSING ON STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE FACILITIES AND OTHER PROPERTY § 1048.6 Posting. Notices stating the pertinent prohibitions of §§ 1048.3 and 1048.4 and the penalties of §...

  11. 10 CFR 1048.6 - Posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Posting. 1048.6 Section 1048.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) TRESPASSING ON STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE FACILITIES AND OTHER PROPERTY § 1048.6 Posting. Notices stating the pertinent prohibitions of §§ 1048.3 and 1048.4 and the penalties of §...

  12. 10 CFR 76.70 - Post issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Post issuance. 76.70 Section 76.70 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.70 Post issuance. (a) Amendment of certificate terms and conditions. The terms and conditions of a certificate...

  13. 10 CFR 76.70 - Post issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Post issuance. 76.70 Section 76.70 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.70 Post issuance. (a) Amendment of certificate terms and conditions. The terms and conditions of a certificate...

  14. 10 CFR 76.70 - Post issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Post issuance. 76.70 Section 76.70 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.70 Post issuance. (a) Amendment of certificate terms and conditions. The terms and conditions of a certificate...

  15. 10 CFR 76.70 - Post issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Post issuance. 76.70 Section 76.70 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.70 Post issuance. (a) Amendment of certificate terms and conditions. The terms and conditions of a certificate...

  16. 10 CFR 76.70 - Post issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Post issuance. 76.70 Section 76.70 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.70 Post issuance. (a) Amendment of certificate terms and conditions. The terms and conditions of a certificate...

  17. 76 FR 71085 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Deer Grove, Illinois post office has been filed... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Deer Grove post office in Deer Grove, Illinois. The petition for review was filed by Galen R. Hooper (Petitioner) and...

  18. 76 FR 64127 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Basalt, Idaho post office has been filed. It... received two petitions for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Basalt post office in Basalt, Idaho. The petitions for review were filed by Franklyn and Nancy Freeman, and Paul and...

  19. 77 FR 823 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Plover, Iowa post office has been filed. It... determination to close the Plover post office in Plover, Iowa. The first petition for review received November... Plover. The earliest postmark date is November 19, 2011. The Commission hereby institutes a...

  20. 77 FR 1752 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Ashton, Iowa, post office has been filed. It... determination to close the Ashton post office in Ashton, Iowa. The first petition for review received December 9... by Melvin Tiedemann, Mayor on behalf of the City of Ashton. The third petition for review...

  1. 76 FR 72457 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Morgan City, Mississippi post office has been... two petitions for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Morgan City post office in Morgan City, Mississippi. The first petition for review received October 31, 2011, was filed by Wayne...

  2. 46 CFR 169.217 - Posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Posting. 169.217 Section 169.217 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Certificate of Inspection § 169.217 Posting. The certificate of inspection must be framed...

  3. 46 CFR 169.217 - Posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Posting. 169.217 Section 169.217 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Certificate of Inspection § 169.217 Posting. The certificate of inspection must be framed...

  4. 46 CFR 169.217 - Posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Posting. 169.217 Section 169.217 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Certificate of Inspection § 169.217 Posting. The certificate of inspection must be framed...

  5. 46 CFR 169.217 - Posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Posting. 169.217 Section 169.217 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Certificate of Inspection § 169.217 Posting. The certificate of inspection must be framed...

  6. Post-Colonialism Perspectives on Educational Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Chuan-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Educational competition has always been the puzzle issue of educational researches. In this article, I analyze several aspects of educational competition within the perspective of post-colonialism discourse. In the political aspect, Taiwanese education is linked with political power, to present the post-colonial spirit by continuing dynastic…

  7. 76 FR 65545 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Agate, Colorado post office has been filed. It... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Agate post office in Agate, Colorado. The petition for review was filed online on October 12, 2011 by Gail Pitzer...

  8. Constructing Relationships in Post-Divorce Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.; And Others

    This paper introduces a post-divorce therapy project in which therapists focus on communication patterns and help families resolve their problematic post-divorce situations by co-creating more useful ways of dealing with their disputes and conflicts. The paper also examines how therapists attempt to construct alternative relationships with and…

  9. Post-emergence herbicides useful in calendula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Easy and effective weed control is required by growers who are considering new industrial crops. Post-emergence herbicides typically are the products of choice by today’s growers. Unfortunately, post-emergence herbicides with proven safety margins are not known for calendula (Calendula officinalis),...

  10. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence

    This paper is a clinical discussion of post-traumatic stress disorder and violence, particularly as it applies to the Vietnam Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome. In the first section, the syndrome is described as the sudden onset of explosive rage and unprovoked violence with little or no warning, accompanied by a drastic change in personality. It is…

  11. 77 FR 1959 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Parlin, Colorado post office has been filed. It... Commission received two petitions for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Parlin...

  12. 77 FR 7213 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Santa Fe, Missouri post office has been filed. It... Commission received two petitions for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Santa Fe...

  13. 77 FR 1962 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Daisy, Georgia post office has been filed. It... Commission received eleven petitions for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Daisy...

  14. 77 FR 4381 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Peterson, Minnesota post office has been filed. It... Commission received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Peterson...

  15. 76 FR 67000 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Jenkinjones, West Virginia post office has been... Commission received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Jenkinjones...

  16. 77 FR 1750 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Elk River, Idaho post office has been filed. It... Commission received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Elk River...

  17. 76 FR 75917 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Fort Meade, South Dakota post office has been... Commission received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Fort Meade...

  18. 76 FR 61759 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Pimmit Branch, Falls Church, Virginia post...

  19. 76 FR 67002 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the New Hampton, Missouri post office has been filed... Commission received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the New Hampton...

  20. 77 FR 2099 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Hope, Minnesota post office has been filed. It... Commission received two petitions for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Hope...