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Sample records for growth post bdelloplast

  1. Formation of stable bdelloplasts as a starvation-survival strategy of marine bdellovibrios

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Amat, A.; Torrella, F. )

    1990-09-01

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Bdellovibrio have been isolated from a variety of habitats, including soil (15), rivers (1), estuarine water, seawater, and solar salt concentration ponds. Several wild-type isolates of marine bdellovibrios formed stable bdelloplasts when they infected gram-negative bacterial prey under certain culture conditions. Synchronous predator-prey cultures and low nutrient concentrations increased the yield of stable bdelloplasts. The bdellovibrio cells retained in the stable bdelloplasts showed a high survival capacity in nutrient-depleted saline solution (10% viable Bdellovibrio cells after 3 months at 25{degrees}C), whereas Bdellovibrio attack-phase cells kept under the same starvation conditions lost viability more quickly (1% viable cells after 48 h). The addition of yeast extract to a stable bdelloplast suspension induced lysis of the bdelloplasts and release of motile infecting attack-phase Bdellovibrio cells. Other substances, such as free amino acids, protein hydrolysates, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, carbohydrates, and organic amines, did not induce such a release. Stable bdelloplasts were highly hydrophobic and had a lower endogenous respiration rate than attack-phase cells. In general, stable bdelloplasts were almost as sensitive to temperature changes, desiccation, sonication, tannic acid, and Triton X-100 treatment as attack-phase cells. Electron microscopy of stable bdelloplasts did not reveal any extra cell wall layer, either in the bdelloplast envelope or in the retained Bdellovibrio cells, unlike the bdellocysts of the soil bacterium Bdellovibrio sp. strain W. The authors propose that formation of stable bdelloplasts is a survival strategy of marine bdellovibrios which occurs in response to nutrient- and prey-poor seawater habitats.

  2. China's post-coal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ye; Stern, Nicholas; Wu, Tong; Lu, Jiaqi; Green, Fergus

    2016-08-01

    Slowing GDP growth, a structural shift away from heavy industry, and more proactive policies on air pollution and clean energy have caused China's coal use to peak. It seems that economic growth has decoupled from growth in coal consumption.

  3. Evaluating Latent Variable Growth Models through Ex Post Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David; George, Rani

    1998-01-01

    The use of ex post (historical) simulation statistics as means of evaluating latent growth models is considered, and a variety of simulation quality statistics are applied to such models. Results illustrate the importance of using these measures as adjuncts to more traditional forms of model evaluation. (SLD)

  4. Post-traumatic growth among the UK veterans following treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Dominic; Palmer, E; Lock, R; Busuttil, W

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine levels of post-traumatic growth (PTG) in a sample of the UK veterans who had received treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The study followed-up 149 UK veterans after they had completed standardised treatment for PTSD provided by Combat Stress. Data had previously been collected on a range of mental health outcomes before treatment, and then repeated 6 months after the end of treatment. For the current study, participants completed the post-traumatic growth inventory (PTGI) measure. Analysis was conducted to explore levels of PTG and whether there were any relationships between pretreatment and post-treatment ratings of mental health and PTG. The mean score on the PTGI was 32.6. Evidence of a treatment effect on levels of PTG was observed. There appeared to be a relationship between improvements in symptoms of PTSD and depression and higher levels of PTG. This study observed the presence of PTG following exposure to traumatic events within a sample of the UK veterans following their treatment for PTSD. PTG scores were moderately low in comparison to similar studies in the USA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Post-Traumatic Growth: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study following an Earthquake Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jieling; Zhou, Xiao; Zeng, Min; Wu, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    Objective The current longitudinal study aims to examine the bidirectional relationship between post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and post-traumatic growth (PTG). Method One hundred twenty-two adults in the most severely affected area were investigated by self-report questionnaires at 12 months and 18 months after the Wenchuan Earthquake occurred in China. Results The autoregressive cross-lagged structure equation analysis revealed that PTG at 12 months post-earthquake could negatively predict PTSS at 18 months post-earthquake above and beyond PTSS stability, whereas PTSS at 12 months post-earthquake could not significantly predict subsequent PTG. Moreover, PTG at 12 months post-earthquake could predict fewer subsequent intrusions, numbing and hyper-arousal symptoms but not avoidance symptoms. Conclusion Growth can play a role in reducing long-term post-traumatic stress symptoms, and the implication of a positive perspective in post-trauma circumstance is discussed. PMID:26046912

  6. Alveolar Epithelial Dynamics in Post-pneumonectomy Lung Growth

    PubMed Central

    Chamoto, Kenji; Gibney, Barry C.; Ackermann, Maximilian; Lee, Grace S.; Konerding, Moritz A.; Tsuda, Akira; Mentzer, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    The intimate anatomic and functional relationship between epithelial cells and endothelial cells within the alveolus suggests the likelihood of a coordinated response during post-pneumonectomy lung growth. To define the population dynamics and potential contribution of alveolar epithelial cells to alveolar angiogenesis, we studied alveolar Type II and Type I cells during the 21 days after pneumonectomy. Alveolar Type II cells were defined and isolated by flow cytometry using a CD45−, MHC class II+, phosphine+ phenotype. These phenotypically defined alveolar Type II cells demonstrated an increase in cell number after pneumonectomy; the increase in cell number preceded the increase in Type I (T1α+) cells. Using a parabiotic wild type/GFP pneumonectomy model, less than 3% of the Type II cells and 1% of the Type I cells were positive for GFP—a finding consistent with the absence of a blood-borne contribution to alveolar epithelial cells. The CD45−, MHC class II+, phosphine+ Type II cells demonstrated the active transcription of angiogenesis-related genes both before and after pneumonectomy. When the Type II cells on day 7 after pneumonectomy were compared to non-surgical controls, 10 genes demonstrated significantly increased expression (p<.05). In contrast to the normal adult Type II cells, there was notable expression of inflammation-associated genes (Ccl2, Cxcl2, Ifng) as well as genes associated with epithelial growth (Ereg, Lep). Together, the data suggest an active contribution of local alveolar Type II cells to alveolar growth. PMID:23408540

  7. Relationships among Trait Resilience, Virtues, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, and Post-traumatic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Wenjie; Guo, Pengfei; Gan, Pei

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to examine the relationship between trait resilience and virtues in the context of trauma. A total of 537 participants who attended the preliminary investigation and completed the Life Events Checklist were screened. Of these participants, 142 suffered from personal traumatic experiences in the past year; these individuals were qualified and invited to respond to online questionnaires to assess trait resilience, virtues (i.e., Conscientiousness, Vitality, and Relationship), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and post-traumatic growth (PTG). The following questionnaires were used: Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-Revised, Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, PTSD Checklist-Specific, and Post-traumatic Growth Inventory-Chinese. Only 95 participants who manifested self-reported PTSD symptoms and PTG were involved in the current analyses. Trauma was positively and significantly correlated with PTSD in the current sample. Results indicated that trait resilience was positively associated with virtues and PTG; by contrast, PTSD scores were negatively but not significantly related to most of these factors. The three virtues contributed to PTG to a greater extent than trait resilience in non-PTSD and PTSD groups. However, trait resilience remained a significant predictor in the PTSD group even when the three virtues were controlled. The relationship between trait resilience and PTG was moderated by PTSD type (non-PTSD group vs. PTSD group). Our results further suggested that trait resilience and virtues were conceptually related but functionally different constructs. Trait resilience and virtues are positively related; thus, these factors contributed variances to PTG in the context of trauma; however, trait resilience is only manifested when virtues are controlled and when individuals are diagnosed as PTSD. Furthermore, implications and limitations of this study are discussed. PMID:25932954

  8. Post-Traumatic Growth in Mothers of Children with Autism: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wei; Yan, Ting Ting; Barriball, K. Louise; While, Alison E.; Liu, Xiao Hong

    2015-01-01

    While the adverse effects of raising a child with autism are well demonstrated, there have been few reports of the post-traumatic growth of mothers of children with autism. The purpose of this research was to explore dimensions of post-traumatic growth in this population in Mainland China and identify the factors facilitating post-traumatic…

  9. Post-Traumatic Growth in Mothers of Children with Autism: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wei; Yan, Ting Ting; Barriball, K. Louise; While, Alison E.; Liu, Xiao Hong

    2015-01-01

    While the adverse effects of raising a child with autism are well demonstrated, there have been few reports of the post-traumatic growth of mothers of children with autism. The purpose of this research was to explore dimensions of post-traumatic growth in this population in Mainland China and identify the factors facilitating post-traumatic…

  10. Post-traumatic growth in parents after infants' neonatal intensive care unit hospitalisation.

    PubMed

    Aftyka, Anna; Rozalska-Walaszek, Ilona; Rosa, Wojciech; Rybojad, Beata; Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Hanna

    2017-03-01

    To determine the incidence and severity of post-traumatic growth in a group of parents of children hospitalised in the intensive care unit in the past. A premature birth or a birth with life-threatening conditions is a traumatic event for the parents and may lead to a number of changes, some of which are positive, known as post-traumatic growth. The survey covered 106 parents of 67 infants aged 3-12 months. An original questionnaire and standardised research tools were used in the study: Impact Event Scale - Revised, Perceived Stress Scale, COPE Inventory: Positive Reinterpretation and Growth, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, Post-traumatic Growth Inventory and Parent and Infant Characteristic Questionnaire. Due to a stepwise backward variables selection, we found three main factors that explain post-traumatic growth: post-traumatic stress symptoms, positive reinterpretation and growth and dichotomic variable infants' survival. This model explained 29% of the post-traumatic growth variation. Similar models that were considered separately for mothers and fathers showed no significantly better properties. Post-traumatic growth was related to a lesser extent to sociodemographic variables or the stressor itself, and related to a far greater extent to psychological factors. Our study highlights the fact that post-traumatic growth in the parents of neonates hospitalised in the neonatal intensive care units remains under-evaluated. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Nursing students' post-traumatic growth, emotional intelligence and psychological resilience.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Cao, F; Cao, D; Liu, J

    2015-06-01

    Nursing students in the present sample who have experienced childhood adversity have a certain level of post-traumatic growth. If introduced into nursing curricula, emotional intelligence interventions may increase emotional coping resources and enhance social skills for nurses, which may benefit their long-term occupational health. As researchers consider personal resilience a strategy for responding to workplace adversity in nurses, resilience building should be incorporated into nursing education. This is a preliminary study that may guide future investigations of the curvilinear relationship rather than linear relationship between post-traumatic growth and positive factors in the special sample of nursing students. Resilience, emotional intelligence and post-traumatic growth may benefit nursing students' careers and personal well-being in clinical work. Developing both their emotional intelligence and resilience may assist their individual post-traumatic growth and enhance their ability to cope with clinical stress. To investigate the relationships among post-traumatic growth, emotional intelligence and psychological resilience in vocational school nursing students who have experienced childhood adversities, a cross-sectional research design with anonymous questionnaires was conducted and self-report data were analysed. The Childhood Adversities Checklist (Chinese version), Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, Emotional Intelligence Scale and the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale were used. Survey data were collected from 202 Chinese vocational school nursing students during 2011. Post-traumatic growth was associated with emotional intelligence and psychological resilience. Results indicated a curvilinear relationship between emotional intelligence and post-traumatic growth, and between psychological resilience and post-traumatic growth. Moderate-level emotional intelligence and psychological resilience were most associated with the greatest levels of growth

  12. Intraperiplasmic growth of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J: attachment of long-chain fatty acids to escherichia coli peptidoglycan.

    PubMed Central

    Thomashow, M F; Rittenberg, S C

    1978-01-01

    During the initial stages of intraperiplasmic growth of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus on Escherichia coli, the peptidoglycan of the E. coli becomes acylated with long-chain fatty acids, primarily palmitic acid (60%) and oleic acid (20%). The attachment of the fatty acids to the peptidoglycan involves a carboxylic-ester bond, i.e., they were removed by treatment with alkaline hydroxylamine. Their linkage to the peptidoglycan does not involve a protein molecule. When the bdelloplast peptidoglycan was digested with lysozyme, the fatty acid-containing split products behaved as lipopeptidoglycan, i.e., they were extracted into the organic phase of 1-butanol:acetic acid:water (4:15) two-phase system; all of the lysozyme split products generated from normal E. coli peptidoglycan were extracted into the water phase. It is suggested that the function of the acylation reaction is to help stabilize the bdelloplast outer membrane against osmotic forces. In addition, a model is presented to explain how a bdellovibrio penetrates, stabilizes, and lyses a substrate cell. PMID:357411

  13. Post-traumatic growth in mothers of children with autism: a phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Yan, Ting Ting; Barriball, K Louise; While, Alison E; Liu, Xiao Hong

    2015-01-01

    While the adverse effects of raising a child with autism are well demonstrated, there have been few reports of the post-traumatic growth of mothers of children with autism. The purpose of this research was to explore dimensions of post-traumatic growth in this population in Mainland China and identify the factors facilitating post-traumatic growth. A total of 11 mothers of pre-school children were recruited from five rehabilitation centres of children with disabilities in Shanghai. The semi-structured interviews were conducted between August 2012 and October 2012 and analysed using thematic analysis. The data partially confirmed Tedeschi and Calhoun's model of post-traumatic growth. A new philosophy of life, appreciation of life, relating to others, personal strength and spiritual change were five domains of post-traumatic growth in mothers of children with autism. Perceived social support, peer example, effective coping style and self-efficacy enhancement were facilitating factors of post-traumatic growth. Further studies are needed to understand how to promote the post-traumatic growth of mothers of children with autism.

  14. Factors Affecting Post-Service Wage Growth for Veterans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    sign of NATLOC would be expected to be negative. The study of human capital acquisition has shown that in most cases , additional schooling received by...Organization of -he Study .. ... ..... ... 7 I. LITERATURE REVIEW............. . .. .. .. ... 8 A. Background Literature........ ... . .. .. .I...... 1...Stolzenberg and Winkler (,Ref. 6 . ........ 8 B. Review of Post-Service Earnings Studies . . . . 11 1. Cooper (Ref. 3]..................11 2. Bryant

  15. Economic Recovery: Sustaining U.S. Economic Growth in a Post-Crisis Economy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-22

    Mankiw , Principles of Economics (Ft. Worth, Dryden Press, 1998), p556, and Robert J. Barro, “Are Government Bonds Net Wealth?” Journal of Political...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Economic Recovery: Sustaining U.S. Economic Growth in a Post...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Economic Recovery: Sustaining U.S. Economic Growth in a Post

  16. Exposure to war traumatic experiences, post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic growth among nurses in Gaza.

    PubMed

    Shamia, N A; Thabet, A A M; Vostanis, P

    2015-12-01

    What is known on the subject? This study builds on existing research on war-related factors that may affect health-care staff by particularly focusing on trauma exposure in both professional and everyday life, as well as on correlates of later positive psychological changes. What this paper adds to existing knowledge? It shows that one in five nursing staff working in Gaza experienced post-traumatic stress symptoms within the clinical range, 2 years after an incursion on Gaza and after being exposed to substantial trauma during this period. Participants appeared to develop a variety of post-traumatic growth responses following trauma exposure. Although nurses experienced traumatic events both as civilians and in their health-care capacity, personal exposure was strongly associated with PTSD symptoms. What are the implications for practice? Support to nursing and other health-care professionals in war situations should entail different levels, remain available well after an acute conflict, and take into consideration both personal and practice-related traumatic events. Mental health nursing practitioners can play a pivotal role in this. To establish the association between war traumatic experiences, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and post-traumatic growth among nurses in the Gaza Strip, 2 years after an incursion on Gaza, and during a period of ongoing trauma exposure. This study builds on existing evidence by considering exposure to personal and work-related traumatic events, and on factors associated with later positive psychological adaptation. The sample consisted of 274 randomly selected nurses in Gaza who completed the Gaza Traumatic Events Checklist, PTSD Checklist, and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Of the nurses, 19.7% reported full PTSD. There was a significant relationship between traumatic events and PTSD scores; as well as between community-related traumatic events and post-traumatic growth. Participants reported a range of traumatic

  17. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) impact on post-germination seedling growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The chemical interaction between plants, which is referred to as allelopathy, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plant extracts on the post-germination growth of five plant species...

  18. The relationship between post-traumatic stress and post-traumatic growth among adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Zebrack, Brad; Kwak, Minyoung; Salsman, John; Cousino, Melissa; Meeske, Kathleen; Aguilar, Christine; Embry, Leanne; Block, Rebecca; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Cole, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Objective Theories of posttraumatic growth suggest that some degree of distress is necessary to stimulate growth; yet investigations of the relationship between stress and growth following trauma are mixed. This study aims to understand the relationship between posttraumatic stress symptoms and posttraumatic growth in adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients. Method 165 AYA patients aged 14–39 years at diagnosis completed standardized measures of posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth at 12 months following diagnosis. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing and regression were used to examine linear and curvilinear relationship between posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth. Results No significant relationships between overall posttraumatic stress severity and posttraumatic growth were observed at 12-month follow-up. However, curvilinear relationships between re-experiencing (a posttraumatic stress symptom) and two of five posttraumatic growth indicators (New possibilities, Personal strengths) were observed. Conclusion Findings suggest that re-experiencing is associated with some aspects of posttraumatic growth but not others. Although re-experiencing is considered a symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder, it also may represent a cognitive process necessary to achieve personal growth for AYAs. Findings call into question the supposed psychopathological nature of re-experiencing and suggest that re-experiencing, as a cognitive process, may be psychologically adaptive. Opportunities to engage family, friends, cancer survivors, or health care professionals in frank discussions about fears, worries, or concerns may help AYAs re-experiencing cancer in a way that enhances their understanding of what happened to them and contributes to positive adaptation to life after cancer. PMID:24916740

  19. The effects of different methods of emotional disclosure: differentiating post-traumatic growth from stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Slavin-Spenny, Olga M; Cohen, Jay L; Oberleitner, Lindsay M; Lumley, Mark A

    2011-10-01

    Research on emotional disclosure should test the effects of different disclosure methods and whether symptoms are affected differently than post-traumatic growth. We randomized 214 participants with unresolved stressful experiences to four disclosure conditions (written, private spoken, talking to a passive listener, talking to an active facilitator) or two control conditions. All groups had one 30-minute session. After 6 weeks, disclosure groups reported more post-traumatic growth than controls, and disclosure conditions were similar in this effect. All groups decreased in stress symptoms (intrusions, avoidance, psychological and physical symptoms), but disclosure did not differ from control. We conclude that 30 minutes of disclosure leads to post-traumatic growth but not necessarily symptom reduction, and various disclosure methods have similar effects. Research on the effects of disclosure should focus on the benefits of growth as well as symptom reduction.

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Post-Traumatic Growth and Psychological Distress in Colorectal Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Occhipinti, Stefano; Chambers, Suzanne K; Lepore, Stephen; Aitken, Joanne; Dunn, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The stability of post-traumatic growth over time and the relationship between post-traumatic growth and traditional distress outcomes remains unclear. We tracked post-traumatic growth in a population-based sample of colorectal cancer patients from soon after diagnosis to five years subsequently to assess the heterogeneity of a post-traumatic growth response to cancer over time and describe the simultaneous and longitudinal relationships between post-traumatic growth and psychological distress. 1966 colorectal patients who were five months post diagnosis were assessed six times over a five year period. There was considerable heterogeneity associated with both psychological distress and benefit finding scores over time. However, both for benefit finding and psychological distress, the variation in individual scores suggested an underlying positive linear trend and both lagged and lagged change components. Specifically, benefit finding and psychological distress are mutual leading indicators of each other. First, benefit finding served as a leading indicator of distress, in that increases in reported benefit finding from year to year predicted higher future increases in psychological distress. As well, in an inverse relationship, psychological distress served as a leading indicator of benefit finding, such that increases in reported distress from year to year predicted lower future increases in benefit finding. Post-traumatic growth may reflect patients coping efforts to enhance perceptions of wellbeing in response to escalating cancer-related threats, acting as harbinger of increasing trajectories of psychological distress. This explanation is consistent with a cognitive dissonance response in which threats to the integrity of the self then lead to a tendency to accentuate positive aspects of the self.

  1. The relationship between post traumatic stress disorder and post traumatic growth: gender differences in PTG and PTSD subgroups.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuchang; Xu, Jiuping; Liu, Dongyue

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and post traumatic growth (PTG) in 2,300 earthquake survivors 1 year after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between PTSD and PTG and also tested for the gender differences in PTSD and PTG subgroups. A stratification random sampling strategy and questionnaires were used to collect the data. The PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Check list-Civilian and the PTG was assessed using the Post traumatic growth inventory. 2,300 individuals were involved in the initial survey with 2,080 completing the final questionnaire, a response rate of 90.4%. One-way ANOVA analyses were performed to investigate the gender differences in the PTSD and PTG subgroups. One year following the earthquake, 40.1 and 51.1% of survivors reported PTSD and PTG, respectively. A bivariate correlation analysis indicated that there was a positive association between PTG and PTSD. The PTG and PTSD variance analysis conducted on female and male subgroups suggested that women were more affected than men. Given the relatively high PTG prevalence, it was concluded that researchers need to pay more attention to the positive outcomes of an earthquake rather than just focusing on the negative effects. The surveys and analyses indicated that psychological intervention and care for the earthquake disaster survivors should focus more on females and older people, who tend to be more adversely affected.

  2. Client-centred therapy, post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic growth: theoretical perspectives and practical implications.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Stephen

    2004-03-01

    In practice it is not unusual for client-centred therapists to work with people who have experienced traumatic events. However, client-centred therapy is not usually considered within texts on traumatic stress and questions have been raised over the appropriateness of client-centred therapy with trauma survivors. The present study shows how, although he was writing well before the introduction of the term 'post-traumatic stress disorder', Carl Rogers provided a theory of therapy and personality that contains an account of threat-related psychological processes largely consistent with contemporary trauma theory. Rogers' theory provides the conceptual underpinnings to the client-centred and experiential ways of working with traumatized people. Furthermore, Rogers' theory provides an understanding of post-traumatic growth processes, and encourages therapists to adopt a more positive psychological perspective to their understanding of how people adjust to traumatic events.

  3. An Insulin-Like Growth Factor in Rhodnius prolixus Is Involved in Post-feeding Nutrient Balance and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Defferrari, Marina S.; Orchard, Ian; Lange, Angela B.

    2016-01-01

    Growth of organisms is modulated by the availability of nutrients and energy, and is mostly regulated by insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) through the insulin signaling system. In insects, IGFs produced by the fat body induce cell division during the molt cycle, regulate adult body size, and have metabolic effects. Here, we describe an IGF from the hematophagous hemipteran Rhodnius prolixus and show its activity in regulating growth and metabolism in the post-feeding period during the fifth, and last, nymphal instar. Rhopr-IGF transcript is present in a variety of tissues, with greatest expression in the fat body, the dorsal vessel, and the CNS. We silenced the expression of the transcript using RNA interference, and at 2 weeks after feeding, insects with reduced Rhopr-IGF expression showed increased hemolymph lipid and carbohydrate levels when compared to controls, but no differences were observed in fat body lipid or carbohydrate content. In order to assess the role of Rhopr-IGF in post-feeding growth, double stranded IGF-injected insects were followed through ecdysis, and this treatment resulted in shorter adults, with shorter and narrower wings, when compared to controls. The results suggest that Rhopr-IGF modulates growth in R. prolixus most likely through altering the usage of nutrients that are available in the hemolymph. PMID:28018164

  4. Post-fire tree stress and growth following smoldering duff fires

    Treesearch

    Morgan Varner; Francis E. Putz; Robert J. Mitchell; J. Kevin Hiers; Joseph J. O’Brien; Doria R. Gordon

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the proximate causes of post-fire conifer mortality due to smoldering duff fires is essential to the restoration and management of coniferous forests throughout North America. To better understand duff fire-caused mortality, we investigated tree stress and radial growth following experimental fires in a long-unburned forest on deep sands in northern...

  5. An intrauterine catch-up growth regimen increases food intake and post-natal growth in rats.

    PubMed

    Baik, M; Rajasekar, P; Lee, M S; Kim, J; Kwon, D-H; Kang, W; Nguyen, T H; Vu, T-T T

    2014-12-01

    Nutritional conditions during the intrauterine stage are an important developmental programming factor that can affect the growth and metabolic status during foetal development and permanently alter the phenotypes of newborn offspring and adults. This study was performed to examine the effects of intrauterine catch-up growth (IUCG) on food intake, post-natal body growth and the metabolic status of offspring and growing rats. Control pregnant rats were fed ad libitum during the entire gestation period. For the IUCG regimen, pregnant rats were fed 50% of the food of the controls from pregnancy days 4 through 11 (8 days), followed by ad libitum feeding from pregnancy days 12 through parturition. The birth weight of offspring was not affected by the IUCG regimen. At weaning, offspring from each treatment group were assigned to two groups and given either a normal diet or high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks until 103 days of age. In the normal diet group, the IUCG offspring showed a 9.0% increase (P < 0.05) in total food intake, were 11.2% heavier (p < 0.05) at 103 days of age and had an 11.0% greater (p < 0.05) daily weight gain compared with control offspring. The IUCG regimen did not affect body glucose and lipid metabolism. After exposure to the HFD, the IUCG regimen has not exacerbated metabolic disorders. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the IUCG nutritional regimen during pregnancy can increase the food intake and post-natal body growth of offspring without inducing metabolic disorders such as obesity and insulin resistance. The IUCG nutritional regimen might be used to improve the food intake and post-natal body growth of domestic animals.

  6. Effects of delayed settlement on post-settlement growth and survival of scleractinian coral larvae.

    PubMed

    Graham, Erin M; Baird, Andrew H; Willis, Bette L; Connolly, Sean R

    2013-10-01

    Demographic connectivity requires both the dispersal of individuals between sub-populations, and their subsequent contribution to population dynamics. For planktonic, non-feeding marine larvae, the capacity to delay settlement enables greater dispersal distances, but the energetic cost of delayed settlement has been shown to adversely impact post-settlement fitness in several taxa. Here, we assess whether delayed settlement influences mortality rates or growth rates for the first 6 weeks following settlement of the scleractinian coral, Acropora tenuis. Coral larvae that were settled at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after spawning, and then deployed in the field, showed negligible effects of delayed settlement on post-settlement survival and time to initial budding for colony formation. Between-cohort differences in budding rate appeared to be explained by temporal variation in the post-settlement acquisition of zooxanthellae. The potential for coral larvae to remain in the pelagic zone for increased periods of time with little to no effect on post-settlement survival and growth suggests that the capacity for delayed settlement is likely to have meaningful demographic consequences for broadcast-spawning reef-building corals, and that the predicted trade-off between delayed settlement and post-settlement fitness is less applicable to reef-building scleractinian corals than other taxa with non-feeding larvae.

  7. 26 CFR 1.167(l)-2 - Public utility property; election as to post-1969 property representing growth in capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public utility property; election as to post-1969 property representing growth in capacity. 1.167(l)-2 Section 1.167(l)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... post-1969 property representing growth in capacity. (a) In general. Section 167(l)(2) prescribes...

  8. Growth hormone therapy for Prader-Willi and Down syndromes: a post-modern medical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Lantos, J D

    2000-04-01

    Post-modernism means the end of traditional certainties. In this paper, growth hormone (GH) is conceptualized as a post-modern medical therapy. It is used in the treatment of conditions that are not traditional diseases, for indications that are not precisely defined. Down syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome represent two clinical conditions in which GH can possibly be used. It is argued that the difference between the two syndromes instructs us as to the principles that might guide appropriate use of GH in the future. In particular, for children, the more GH treatment can be shown to produce benefits other than increased height, the more justifiable its use will be.

  9. Programmed functionalization of SURMOFs via liquid phase heteroepitaxial growth and post-synthetic modification.

    PubMed

    Tu, Min; Wannapaiboon, Suttipong; Fischer, Roland A

    2013-12-07

    Heterostructured surface mounted metal-organic frameworks (SURMOFs) [Cu2(NH2-bdc)2(dabco)] (B) on top of [Cu2(bdc)2(dabco)] (A) were deposited on pyridyl-terminated Au covered QCM substrate using a step-by-step liquid phase epitaxial growth method. Sequentially, the pore size of the top layer [Cu2(NH2-bdc)2(dabco)] (B) was modified by targeting the installed amino moiety with tert-butyl isothiocyanate (tBITC). The adsorption properties of the programmed functionalized SURMOFs studied using an environment controlled quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) instrument exhibited the possibility to achieve high selectivity and capacity by heteroepitaxial growth and post-synthetic modification.

  10. Effects of salts and temperatures on post-irradiation growth of Penicillium exposed to ultraviolet

    SciTech Connect

    Valdez, R.; Siegel, B.Z.; Siegel, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    The growth of Penicillium notatum colonies after uv irradiation of dried mycelium or spores was studied in relation to post-irradiation temperature and salt environment. Dried mycelium and spores behaved differently with respect to sensitivity to temperature, salts and uv, especially the latter. Threshold inhibitory doses for spores were modified markedly either at 4 C or in magnesium and calcium chlorides. It is suggested that these temperature and salt effects are related to prevention of photochemical membrane damage.

  11. Post-traumatic growth in survivors of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Mijin; Yoo, Il Young; Kim, Sue; Lee, Jehwan

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to understand factors related to post-traumatic growth (PTG) in patients who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), building baseline data for developing intervention programs to enhance PTG in HSCT survivors. A self-report survey was administered to 100 patients who received HSCT within the last 5 years. The Post-traumatic Growth Inventory, Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Perceived Social Support Scale, and Healthcare Professional's Support Scale were used, as well as items on demographic and clinical characteristics. Standard deviations of frequency and percentage, Chi-squared test between genders, independent t-test, correlation analysis between independent variables and extent of PTG, and regression analysis were conducted. The PTG levels of HSCT survivors were statistically significantly higher when participants were women, carried out more religious activities, had higher educational levels, or utilized nurse counseling. The 'intrusive thinking' traumatic impact subcategory, as well as social support and support from healthcare professionals, were found to be highly related to PTG scores. Upon multiple regression analysis, factors with greatest influence on PTG in HSCT survivors were support from healthcare professionals, followed in order, by social support, utilization of nurse counseling, intrusive thinking, and frequency of religious activities. We suggest implementing programs for HSCT patients to enhance support from healthcare professionals and to increase post-traumatic growth through greater utilization of nurse counseling, self-help meetings, and writing. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Exploring Facilitators of Post-traumatic Growth in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Khanjani, Mohammad Saeed; Younesi, Seyed Jalal; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Azkhosh, Manouchehr

    2017-01-01

    Introduction There is increasing evidence regarding people’s reactions to life stressors in which people also may show positive experiences following a traumatic event. The aim of the present study was to explain the facilitators of post-traumatic growth based on the experiences of patients with a spinal cord injury. Methods This was a qualitative study conducted on 16 Iranian patients with a spinal cord injury using semistructured, in-depth interviews, and content analysis in 2015. These participants, despite their spinal cord injury, were successful in their lives and were considered successful members of society. A purposive sampling method was used until reaching data saturation, and then the collected data were analyzed using a content analysis method. Results The study revealed several factors as facilitators of post-traumatic growth in the patients. The extracted facilitators were put into seven categories of main concepts, including existence of support resources, contact with spinal cord injury associations, spiritual beliefs, positive attitude toward injury, access to proper facilities, enhancement of knowledge and awareness, and active presence in society. Conclusion Different factors may facilitate post-traumatic growth in patients with a spinal cord injury. Understanding these facilitators may help us in designing educational, support, and consulting programs for patients and their families as well as to the correct the support programs. PMID:28243405

  13. Genetic analysis of post-weaning growth traits of Thalli sheep under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Asghar; Akhtar, Pervez; Ali, Safdar; Javed, Khalid; Younas, Muhammad; Shakoor, Abdul; Waheed, Usman

    2014-12-01

    Present investigation was carried out to study the influence of genetic and non-genetic factors affecting post-weaning performance traits in Thalli sheep. Data on post-weaning growth of Thalli sheep maintained at Livestock Experiment Station, Rakh Ghulaman, District Bhakkar-Punjab, Pakistan during 1977-2003 were subjected to genetic analysis. The average values for weight at 180 and 270 days of age, yearling weight and post-weaning average daily gain were 22.37 ± 4.21, 25.96 ± 4.90 and 28.93 ± 5.20 kg and 28 ± 0.01 g/day, respectively. Weight at 180, 270 and 365 days of age and post-weaning average daily gain were significantly affected by year of birth, sex, type of birth and weaning weight (covariable) whereas season of birth was a significant source of variation for 180 and 270 days of age. The heritability estimates for 180 and 270 days, yearling weight and post-weaning average daily gain were 0.07 ± 0.02, 0.08 ± 0.02, 0.07 ± 0.02 and 0.07 ± 0.02, respectively.

  14. Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms and Post-traumatic Growth in 223 Childhood Cancer Survivors: Predictive Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Tremolada, Marta; Bonichini, Sabrina; Basso, Giuseppe; Pillon, Marta

    2016-01-01

    With modern therapies and supportive care, survival rates of childhood cancer have increased considerably. However, there are long-term psychological sequelae of these treatments that may not manifest until pediatric survivors are into adulthood. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder in young adult survivors of childhood cancer ranges from 6.2 to 22%; associated risk factors are young age at the assessment, female gender, low education level, and some disease-related factors. The aim of this study was to investigate, in adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of childhood cancer, the incidence and severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs), and to identify the risk factors and the associated post-traumatic growth (PTG) index. Participants were 223 AYA cancer survivors recruited during follow-up visits in the Oncohematology Clinic of the Department of Child and Woman's Health, University of Padua. Data were collected from self-report questionnaires on PTSS incidence, PTG mean score, perceived social support, and medical and socio-demographic factors. Ex-patients' mean age at the assessment was 19.33 years (SD = 3.01, 15-25), 123 males and 100 females, with a mean of years off-therapy of 9.64 (SD = 4.17). Most (52.5%) had survived an hematological disorder and 47.5% a solid tumor when they were aged, on average, 8.02 years (SD = 4.40). The main results indicated a moderate presence of clinical (≥9 symptoms: 9.4%) and sub-clinical PTSS (6-8 symptoms: 11.2%), with the avoidance criterion most often encountered. Re-experience symptoms and PTG mean score were significantly associated (r = 0.24; p = 0.0001). A hierarchical regression model (R (2) = 0.08; F = 1.46; p = 0.05) identified female gender (β = 0.16; p = 0.05) and less perceived social support (β = -0.43; p = 0.05) as risk factors to developing PTSS. Another hierarchical regression model assessed the possible predictors of the PTG total score (R (2) = 0.36; F = 9.1; p = 0.0001), with

  15. Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms and Post-traumatic Growth in 223 Childhood Cancer Survivors: Predictive Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tremolada, Marta; Bonichini, Sabrina; Basso, Giuseppe; Pillon, Marta

    2016-01-01

    With modern therapies and supportive care, survival rates of childhood cancer have increased considerably. However, there are long-term psychological sequelae of these treatments that may not manifest until pediatric survivors are into adulthood. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder in young adult survivors of childhood cancer ranges from 6.2 to 22%; associated risk factors are young age at the assessment, female gender, low education level, and some disease-related factors. The aim of this study was to investigate, in adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of childhood cancer, the incidence and severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs), and to identify the risk factors and the associated post-traumatic growth (PTG) index. Participants were 223 AYA cancer survivors recruited during follow-up visits in the Oncohematology Clinic of the Department of Child and Woman’s Health, University of Padua. Data were collected from self-report questionnaires on PTSS incidence, PTG mean score, perceived social support, and medical and socio-demographic factors. Ex-patients’ mean age at the assessment was 19.33 years (SD = 3.01, 15–25), 123 males and 100 females, with a mean of years off-therapy of 9.64 (SD = 4.17). Most (52.5%) had survived an hematological disorder and 47.5% a solid tumor when they were aged, on average, 8.02 years (SD = 4.40). The main results indicated a moderate presence of clinical (≥9 symptoms: 9.4%) and sub-clinical PTSS (6–8 symptoms: 11.2%), with the avoidance criterion most often encountered. Re-experience symptoms and PTG mean score were significantly associated (r = 0.24; p = 0.0001). A hierarchical regression model (R2 = 0.08; F = 1.46; p = 0.05) identified female gender (β = 0.16; p = 0.05) and less perceived social support (β = -0.43; p = 0.05) as risk factors to developing PTSS. Another hierarchical regression model assessed the possible predictors of the PTG total score (R2 = 0.36; F = 9.1; p = 0.0001), with

  16. Thermodynamics of post-growth annealing of cadmium zinc telluride nuclear radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Aaron Lee

    Nuclear Radiation Detectors are used for detecting, tracking, and identifying radioactive materials which emit high-energy gamma and X-rays. The use of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) detectors is particularly attractive because of the detector's ability to operate at room temperature and measure the energy spectra of gamma-ray sources with a high resolution, typically less than 1% at 662 keV. While CdZnTe detectors are acceptable imperfections in the crystals limit their full market potential. One of the major imperfections are Tellurium inclusions generated during the crystal growth process by the retrograde solubility of Tellurium and Tellurium-rich melt trapped at the growth interface. Tellurium inclusions trap charge carriers generated by gamma and X-ray photons and thus reduce the portion of generated charge carriers that reach the electrodes for collection and conversion into a readable signal which is representative of the ionizing radiation's energy and intensity. One approach in resolving this problem is post-growth annealing which has the potential of removing the Tellurium inclusions and associated impurities. The goal of this project is to use experimental techniques to study the thermodynamics of Tellurium inclusion migration in post-growth annealing of CdZnTe nuclear detectors with the temperature gradient zone migration (TGZM) technique. Systematic experiments will be carried out to provide adequate thermodynamic data that will inform the engineering community of the optimum annealing parameters. Additionally, multivariable correlations that involve the Tellurium diffusion coefficient, annealing parameters, and CdZnTe properties will be analyzed. The experimental approach will involve systematic annealing experiments (in Cd vapor overpressure) on different sizes of CdZnTe crystals at varying temperature gradients ranging from 0 to 60°C/mm (used to migrate the Tellurium inclusion to one side of the crystal), and at annealing temperatures ranging

  17. Pericytes in the myovascular niche promote post-natal myofiber growth and satellite cell quiescence.

    PubMed

    Kostallari, Enis; Baba-Amer, Yasmine; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Ngoh, Pamela; Relaix, Frederic; Lafuste, Peggy; Gherardi, Romain K

    2015-04-01

    The satellite cells, which serve as adult muscle stem cells, are both located beneath myofiber basement membranes and closely associated with capillary endothelial cells. We observed that 90% of capillaries were associated with pericytes in adult mouse and human muscle. During post-natal growth, newly formed vessels with their neuroglial 2 proteoglycan (NG2)-positive pericytes became progressively associated with the post-natal muscle stem cells, as myofibers increased in size and satellite cells entered into quiescence. In vitro, human muscle-derived pericytes promoted myogenic cell differentiation through insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and myogenic cell quiescence through angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1). Diphtheria toxin-induced ablation of muscle pericytes in growing mice led both to myofiber hypotrophy and to impaired establishment of stem cells quiescence. Similar effects were observed following conditional in vivo deletion of pericyte Igf1 and Angpt1 genes, respectively. Our data therefore demonstrate that, by promoting post-natal myogenesis and stem cell quiescence, pericytes play a key role in the microvascular niche of satellite cells. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Growth kinetics of Salmonella spp. pre- and post-thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Vijay K; Marks, Harry M

    2006-05-25

    This paper reports estimated growth kinetic parameters for a cocktail of stationary phase Salmonella serotypes, pre- and post-thermal inactivation treatment. Cells were grown in brain-heart infusion broth at 25 or 37 degrees Celsius and then destruction of the cells was quantified at 55 degrees Celsius using a submerged coil heating apparatus. The surviving cells (about 1-2 log(10) cfu/ml) were subsequently grown at 25 or 37 degrees Celsius. The results indicated that lag phase duration times for the post- heat treated cells increased at 25 and 37 degrees Celsius by about 6.2 h and at least 3 to 4 h, respectively, and thus the increases appear to be truly different. However, when considering the ratios of the lag phase duration times for post-treated to pre-treated cells, a significant difference was not found, where estimated ratios could exceed 4. Estimated exponential growth rates, EGR, were not affected by the treatment, where for 37 degrees Celsius, EGR was estimated to be 0.9 log(10) (cfu/ml)/h, and at 25 degrees Celsius, the EGR was estimated at 0.45 log(10) (cfu/ml)/h.

  19. Post-growth thermal treatment of the InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Jasinski, J.; Babinski, A.; Bozek, R.; Baranowski, J.M.

    2000-11-22

    The effect of post-growth thermal treatment of the InAs/GaAs quantum dots is investigated in this work. The photoluminescence (PL) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of samples annealed at temperatures up to 950 degrees C are presented. A complete dissolution of QDs and substantial broadening of the wetting layer (WL) can be seen from TEM. We propose that the thermally induced modification of the WL rather than QDs can be responsible for a blue-shift and narrowing of PL peaks in structures containing InAs/GaAs QDs.

  20. Post-traumatic growth in parents after a child's admission to intensive care: maybe Nietzsche was right?

    PubMed

    Colville, Gillian; Cream, Penelope

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to establish the degree to which parents report post-traumatic growth after the intensive care treatment of their child. Prospective cross-sectional cohort study. Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). A total of 50 parents of children, admitted to PICU for >12 h. Parents provided stress ratings as their child was discharged from PICU and, 4 months later, completed postal questionnaires rating their anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress and post-traumatic growth. As much as 44 parents (88%) indicated on the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) [1] that they had experienced a positive change to a great degree as a result of their experiences in PICU. Parents of children who were ventilated (P = 0.024) reported statistically higher post-traumatic growth as did parents of older children (P = 0.032). PTGI scores were positively correlated with post-traumatic stress scores at 4 months (P = 0.021), but on closer inspection this relationship was found to be curvilinear. Post-traumatic growth emerged as a salient concept for this population. It was more strongly associated with moderate levels of post-traumatic stress, than high or low levels.

  1. Post-pruning shoot growth increases fruit abscission and reduces stem carbohydrates and yield in macadamia.

    PubMed

    McFadyen, Lisa M; Robertson, David; Sedgley, Margaret; Kristiansen, Paul; Olesen, Trevor

    2011-05-01

    There is good evidence for deciduous trees that competition for carbohydrates from shoot growth accentuates early fruit abscission and reduces yield but the effect for evergreen trees is not well defined. Here, whole-tree tip-pruning at anthesis is used to examine the effect of post-pruning shoot development on fruit abscission in the evergreen subtropical tree macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia, M. integrifolia × tetraphylla). Partial-tree tip-pruning is also used to test the localization of the effect. In the first experiment (2005/2006), all branches on trees were tip-pruned at anthesis, some trees were allowed to re-shoot (R treatment) and shoots were removed from others (NR treatment). Fruit set and stem total non-structural carbohydrates (TNSC) over time, and yield were measured. In the second experiment (2006/2007), upper branches of trees were tip-pruned at anthesis, some trees were allowed to re-shoot (R) and shoots were removed from others (NR). Fruit set and yield were measured separately for upper (pruned) and lower (unpruned) branches. In the first experiment, R trees set far fewer fruit and had lower yield than NR trees. TNSC fell and rose in all treatments but the decline in R trees occurred earlier than in NR trees and coincided with early shoot growth and the increase in fruit abscission relative to the other treatments. In the second experiment, fruit abscission on upper branches of R trees increased relative to the other treatments but there was little difference in fruit abscission between treatments on lower branches. This study is the first to demonstrate an increase in fruit abscission in an evergreen tree in response to pruning. The effect appeared to be related to competition for carbohydrates between post-pruning shoot growth and fruit development and was local, with shoot growth on pruned branches having no effect on fruit abscission on unpruned branches.

  2. Post-pruning shoot growth increases fruit abscission and reduces stem carbohydrates and yield in macadamia

    PubMed Central

    McFadyen, Lisa M.; Robertson, David; Sedgley, Margaret; Kristiansen, Paul; Olesen, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims There is good evidence for deciduous trees that competition for carbohydrates from shoot growth accentuates early fruit abscission and reduces yield but the effect for evergreen trees is not well defined. Here, whole-tree tip-pruning at anthesis is used to examine the effect of post-pruning shoot development on fruit abscission in the evergreen subtropical tree macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia, M. integrifolia × tetraphylla). Partial-tree tip-pruning is also used to test the localization of the effect. Methods In the first experiment (2005/2006), all branches on trees were tip-pruned at anthesis, some trees were allowed to re-shoot (R treatment) and shoots were removed from others (NR treatment). Fruit set and stem total non-structural carbohydrates (TNSC) over time, and yield were measured. In the second experiment (2006/2007), upper branches of trees were tip-pruned at anthesis, some trees were allowed to re-shoot (R) and shoots were removed from others (NR). Fruit set and yield were measured separately for upper (pruned) and lower (unpruned) branches. Key Results In the first experiment, R trees set far fewer fruit and had lower yield than NR trees. TNSC fell and rose in all treatments but the decline in R trees occurred earlier than in NR trees and coincided with early shoot growth and the increase in fruit abscission relative to the other treatments. In the second experiment, fruit abscission on upper branches of R trees increased relative to the other treatments but there was little difference in fruit abscission between treatments on lower branches. Conclusions This study is the first to demonstrate an increase in fruit abscission in an evergreen tree in response to pruning. The effect appeared to be related to competition for carbohydrates between post-pruning shoot growth and fruit development and was local, with shoot growth on pruned branches having no effect on fruit abscission on unpruned branches. PMID:21325025

  3. Post-drought growth responses of western Juniper (Juniperus occidentals var. occidentalis) in central Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Paul A.; Soulé, Peter T.; Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    Increased atmospheric CO2 may affect the physiological response of natural trees to drought. We examined radial growth rates developed from five western juniper chronologies to determine if post-drought growth responses have changed. Using prior year October to current year June precipitation from 1896-1998, we identified drought recovery years as having standardized scores (z-scores) >0 and preceded by a year with a z-score <-0.6. We defined our analysis by an early period, 1896-1930, when atmospheric CO2 concentrations were close to preindustrial levels, and a late period, 1964-1998, when concentrations were substantially higher. Mean growth index values of recovery years between early and late periods were significantly greater (p<0.05) for four of the five sites, and for all sites combined. These results are consistent with the drought-ameliorating effects of CO2 shown by controlled laboratory studies and suggest that rising levels of atmospheric CO2 may impact western juniper growth rates.

  4. Rising methane: post-2007 growth, geographic loci, timings and isotopic shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisbet, Euan G.; Manning, Martin R.; Dlugokencky, Ed; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E.; Brownlow, Rebecca

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric methane is rising rapidly again, after a period of stability [1]. NOAA report a global growth rate from 2007-2013 of 5.7±1.2 ppb yr-1, followed by extreme growth of 12.6±0.5 ppb in 2014 and 10.0±0.7 ppb in 2015. Growth has been accompanied by a shift in δ13C(CH4) (a measure of the 13C/12C isotope ratio in methane) to significantly more negative values since 2007. This isotopic shift has been observed in independently calibrated NOAA, Royal Holloway and NIWA-New Zealand measurements: thus the negative trend is real, global, and not a calibration artifact. Fossil fuel methane emissions, which are mostly more positive than atmospheric values, are not driving the rise in methane. Instead, the geographic loci of post-2007 growth, and the timings of the methane rise and isotopic shift suggest growth was dominated by significant increases in biogenic methane emissions, particularly in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere: for example in years with heavy rainfall under the Inter-Tropical Convergence, from wetlands and increased agricultural sources such as ruminants and rice paddies. Changes in the removal rate of methane by the OH radical or other sinks may also have occurred but do not appear fully to explain short term variations in methane isotopes. All these drivers of rising methane - wetlands, ruminants, changing sinks - may reflect underlying decade-long trends in tropical climate: methane may thus be an important climate-change signal. 1. Nisbet, E.G. et al. (2016) Rising atmospheric methane: 2007-2014 growth and isotopic shift, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 30, doi:10.1002/ 2016GB005406.

  5. Effect of Post-Growth Annealing on Morphology of Ge Mesa Selectively Grown on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sungbong; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Yamada, Koji; Itabashi, Sei-Ichi; Wada, Kazumi

    Effect of the post-growth annealing on the morphology of a Ge mesa selectively grown on Si was studied from the viewpoint of near-infrared photodiode applications. By ultrahigh-vacuum chemical vapor deposition, Ge mesas were selectively grown at 600°C on Si (001) substrates partially covered with SiO2 masks. The as-grown Ge mesas showed trapezoidal cross-sections having a top (001) surface and {311} sidewall facets, as similar to previous reports. However, after the subsequent post-growth annealing at -800°C in the ultrahigh-vacuum chamber, the mesas were deformed into rounded shapes having a depression at the center and mounds near the edges. Such a deformation cannot be observed for the samples annealed once after cooled and exposed to the air. The residual hydrogen atoms on the Ge surface from the germane (GeH4) decomposition is regarded as a trigger to the observed morphological instability, while the final mesa shape is determined in order to minimize a sum of the surface and/or strain energies.

  6. Effects of post-traumatic growth on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex after a disaster

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Seishu; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Sakuma, Atsushi; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    The relating to others factor of post-traumatic growth (PTG), which involves mutual help and a strong sense of connection with humanity, is important for young people who are coping with stress. The prefrontal cortex (PFC), especially the dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), may play an important role in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with regard to coping and resilience. We hypothesized that the neural correlates of PTG may be responsible for resilience to the correlates of PTSD. Our study tested this hypothesis by examining whether measures of PTG, particularly the measures of relating to others after a disaster, were associated with increased regional grey matter volume (rGMV) in the PFC by assessing individuals who had experienced the East Japan Great Earthquake. We calculated the delta-rGMV by subtracting the rGMV obtained 3 months before the disaster from the rGMV obtained after this disaster using voxel-based morphometry. The magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from 26 subjects (M/F: 21/5; age: 21.2 ± 1.6 yrs.) showed that the total scores on a PTG inventory and the subscore for relating to others at the post-assessment were positively and significantly associated with the delta-rGMV in the right DLPFC. The DLPFC seems to be the main neural correlate of PTG. PMID:27670443

  7. Attenuation of post-infarction remodeling in rats by sustained myocardial growth hormone administration.

    PubMed

    Daskalopoulos, Evangelos P; Vilaeti, Agapi D; Barka, Eleonora; Mantzouratou, Polixeni; Kouroupis, Dimitrios; Kontonika, Marianthi; Tourmousoglou, Christos; Papalois, Apostolos; Pantos, Constantinos; Blankesteijn, W Matthijs; Agathopoulos, Simeon; Kolettis, Theofilos M

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of left ventricular remodeling is an important therapeutic target post-myocardial infarction. Experimentally, treatment with growth hormone (GH) is beneficial, but sustained local administration has not been thoroughly investigated. We studied 58 rats (322 ± 4 g). GH was administered via a biomaterial-scaffold, following in vitro and in vivo evaluation of degradation and drug-release curves. Treatment consisted of intra-myocardial injection of saline or alginate-hydrogel, with or without GH, 10 min after permanent coronary artery ligation. Echocardiographic and histologic remodeling-indices were examined 3 weeks post-ligation, followed by immunohistochemical evaluation of angiogenesis, collagen, macrophages and myofibroblasts. GH-release completed at 3 days and alginate-degradation at ∼7 days. Alginate + GH consistently improved left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic diameters, ventricular sphericity, wall tension index and infarct-thickness. Microvascular-density and myofibroblast-count in the infarct and peri-infarct areas were higher after alginate + GH. Macrophage-count and collagen-content did not differ between groups. Early, sustained GH-administration enhances angiogenesis and myofibroblast-activation and ameliorates post-infarction remodeling.

  8. Curriculum-Based Measurement of Oral Reading: Evaluation of Growth Estimates Derived with Pre-Post Assessment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Theodore J.; Monaghen, Barbara D.; Zopluoglu, Cengiz; Van Norman, Ethan R.

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum-based measurement of oral reading (CBM-R) is used to index the level and rate of student growth across the academic year. The method is frequently used to set student goals and monitor student progress. This study examined the diagnostic accuracy and quality of growth estimates derived from pre-post measurement using CBM-R data. A…

  9. 26 CFR 1.167(l)-2 - Public utility property; election as to post-1969 property representing growth in capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-1969 property representing growth in capacity. 1.167(l)-2 Section 1.167(l)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(l)-2 Public utility property; election as to post-1969 property representing growth in capacity. (a) In general. Section 167(l)(2) prescribes the...

  10. 26 CFR 1.167(l)-2 - Public utility property; election as to post-1969 property representing growth in capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-1969 property representing growth in capacity. 1.167(l)-2 Section 1.167(l)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(l)-2 Public utility property; election as to post-1969 property representing growth in capacity. (a) In general. Section 167(l)(2) prescribes the...

  11. 26 CFR 1.167(l)-2 - Public utility property; election as to post-1969 property representing growth in capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-1969 property representing growth in capacity. 1.167(l)-2 Section 1.167(l)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(l)-2 Public utility property; election as to post-1969 property representing growth in capacity. (a) In general. Section 167(l)(2) prescribes the...

  12. 26 CFR 1.167(l)-2 - Public utility property; election as to post-1969 property representing growth in capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-1969 property representing growth in capacity. 1.167(l)-2 Section 1.167(l)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(l)-2 Public utility property; election as to post-1969 property representing growth in capacity. (a) In general. Section 167(l)(2) prescribes the...

  13. Post-collisional magmatism: Crustal growth not identified by zircon Hf-O isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couzinié, Simon; Laurent, Oscar; Moyen, Jean-François; Zeh, Armin; Bouilhol, Pierre; Villaros, Arnaud

    2016-12-01

    The combination of U-Pb, Lu-Hf and O isotopic analyses in global zircon databases has recently been used to constrain continental crustal growth and evolution. To identify crust-forming events, these studies rely on the assumption that new crust is formed from depleted mantle sources. In contrast, this work suggests that post-collisional mafic magmas and their derivatives represent a non-negligible contribution to crustal growth, despite having zircons with "crust-like" Hf-O isotopic characteristics. We address this paradox and its implications for crustal evolution on the basis of a case study from the Variscan French Massif Central (FMC). The late stages of continental collisions are systematically marked by the emplacement of peculiar mafic magmas, rich in both compatible (Fe, Mg, Ni, Cr) and incompatible elements (K2O, HFSE, LREE) and displaying crust-like trace element patterns. This dual signature is best explained by melting of phlogopite- (and/or amphibole-) bearing peridotite, formed by contamination of the mantle by limited amounts (10-20%) of crustal material during continental subduction shortly preceding collision. Mass balance constraints show that in melts derived from such a hybrid source, 62-85% of the bulk mass is provided by the mantle component, whereas incompatible trace elements are dominantly crustal in origin. Thereby, post-collisional mafic magmas represent significant additions to the crust, whilst their zircons have "crustal" isotope signatures (e.g. - 2 < εHft < - 9 and + 6.4 < δ18O < + 10 ‰ in the FMC). Because post-collisional mafic magmas are (i) ubiquitous since the late Archean; (ii) the parental magmas of voluminous granitoid suites; and (iii) selectively preserved in the geological record, zircons crystallized from such magmas (and any material derived from their differentiation or reworking) bias the crustal growth record of global zircon Hf-O isotopic datasets towards ancient crust formation and, specifically, may lead to an

  14. OVEREXPRESSION OF VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF POST-TRANSPLANTATION CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Aninda; Contreras, Alan G.; Datta, Dipak; Flynn, Evelyn; Zeng, Liling; Cohen, Herbert T.; Briscoe, David M.; Pal, Soumitro

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is an increasing and major problem following solid organ transplantation. In part, the increased cancer risk is associated with the use of immunosuppressive agents, especially calcineurin inhibitors. We propose that the effect of calcineurin inhibitors on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) leads to an angiogenic milieu that favors tumor growth. Here, we used 786-0 human renal cancer cells to investigate the effect of Cyclosporine (CsA) on VEGF expression. Utilizing a full-length VEGF promoter-luciferase construct, we found that CsA markedly induced VEGF transcriptional activation through the PKC signaling pathway, specifically involving PKCζ and PKCδ isoforms. Moreover, CsA promoted the association of PKCζ and PKCδ with the transcription factor Sp1 as observed by immunoprecipitation assays. Using promoter deletion constructs, we found that CsA-mediated VEGF transcription was primarily Sp1-dependent. Furthermore, CsA-induced and PKC-Sp1-mediated VEGF transcriptional activation was partially inhibited by pVHL. CsA also promoted the progression of human renal tumors in vivo, where VEGF is overexpressed. Finally, to evaluate the in vivo significance of CsA-induced VEGF overexpression in terms of post-transplantation tumor development, we injected CT26 murine carcinoma cells (known to form angiogenic tumors) into mice with fully MHC mismatched cardiac transplants. We observed that therapeutic doses of CsA increased tumor size, VEGF mRNA expression, and also enhanced tumor angiogenesis. However, co-administration of a blocking anti-VEGF antibody inhibited this CsA-mediated tumor growth. Collectively, these findings define PKC-mediated VEGF transcriptional activation as a key component in the progression of CsA-induced post-transplantation cancer. PMID:18632621

  15. A Power-Law Growth and Decay Model with Autocorrelation for Posting Data to Social Networking Services.

    PubMed

    Fujiyama, Toshifumi; Matsui, Chihiro; Takemura, Akimichi

    2016-01-01

    We propose a power-law growth and decay model for posting data to social networking services before and after social events. We model the time series structure of deviations from the power-law growth and decay with a conditional Poisson autoregressive (AR) model. Online postings related to social events are described by five parameters in the power-law growth and decay model, each of which characterizes different aspects of interest in the event. We assess the validity of parameter estimates in terms of confidence intervals, and compare various submodels based on likelihoods and information criteria.

  16. A Power-Law Growth and Decay Model with Autocorrelation for Posting Data to Social Networking Services

    PubMed Central

    Fujiyama, Toshifumi; Matsui, Chihiro; Takemura, Akimichi

    2016-01-01

    We propose a power-law growth and decay model for posting data to social networking services before and after social events. We model the time series structure of deviations from the power-law growth and decay with a conditional Poisson autoregressive (AR) model. Online postings related to social events are described by five parameters in the power-law growth and decay model, each of which characterizes different aspects of interest in the event. We assess the validity of parameter estimates in terms of confidence intervals, and compare various submodels based on likelihoods and information criteria. PMID:27505155

  17. Slow crack growth behavior in post-consumer recycled high-density polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuanjie

    A post-consumer recycled homopolymer (PCR-100-PE-N) was blended with high density ethylene hexene copolymer (HHM TR-480N) over the composition range of 0-100%. The resistance to slow crack growth (s.c.g.) was measured by a notched tensile test under a constant load in distilled water at three different temperatures 40sp°C, 60sp°C, and 80sp°C. The slow crack growth rate da/dt decreases about three or four orders at the same stress intensity factor and temperature as the composition increased from 0 to 100% of the copolymer. In the range of compositions below 50% of the copolymer, the slow crack growth rate decreases relatively slowly with composition compared to the very rapid decreases for compositions greater than 50% of the copolymer. The results might be explained in terms of a network formed by the crystals and the tie molecules that contain short-chain branches. The network becomes continuous when the copolymer is the major component and consequently the resistance to the slow crack growth increases rapidly. The fracture mechanisms for slow crack growth are identified using the activated rate process analysis. Considering the values of activation energies, it is concluded that progressive and incremental pull out of tie molecules from crystalline lamella was proposed as crack initiation mechanism. It is found from Ksb{c}-da/dt curve that crack propagates with a time dependence, average 0.224 ± 0.069, at low stress intensity, and a higher slopes, average 0.509 ± 0.099, at high stress intensity. With the help of SEM study of the fracture surfaces, it is concluded that average slope 0.224 represents sharp crack situation of relaxation, while the average slope 0.509 is considered to be the results of crack tip blunting effects.

  18. Implementation of a Nutrition Program Reduced Post-Discharge Growth Restriction in Thai Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Japakasetr, Suchada; Sirikulchayanonta, Chutima; Suthutvoravut, Umaporn; Chindavijak, Busba; Kagawa, Masaharu; Nokdee, Somjai

    2016-01-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants are vulnerable to growth restriction after discharge due to cumulative protein and energy deficits during their hospital stay and early post-discharge period. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of the preterm infant, post-discharge nutrition (PIN) program to reduce post-discharge growth restriction in Thai VLBW preterm infants. A prospective, non-randomized interventional cohort study was undertaken to assess the growth of 22 VLBW preterm infants who received the PIN program and compared them with 22 VLBW preterm infants who received conventional nutrition services. Infant’s growth was recorded monthly until the infants reached six months’ corrected age (6-moCA). Intervention infants had significantly greater body weights (p = 0.013) and head circumferences (p = 0.009). Also, a greater proportion of the intervention group recovered their weight to the standard weight at 4-moCA (p = 0.027) and at 6-moCA (p = 0.007) and their head circumference to the standard head circumference at 6-moCA (p = 0.004) compared to their historical comparison counterparts. Enlistment in the PIN program thus resulted in significantly reduced post-discharge growth restriction in VLBW preterm infants. Further research on longer term effects of the program on infant’s growth and development is warranted. PMID:27999313

  19. Implementation of a Nutrition Program Reduced Post-Discharge Growth Restriction in Thai Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Japakasetr, Suchada; Sirikulchayanonta, Chutima; Suthutvoravut, Umaporn; Chindavijak, Busba; Kagawa, Masaharu; Nokdee, Somjai

    2016-12-17

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants are vulnerable to growth restriction after discharge due to cumulative protein and energy deficits during their hospital stay and early post-discharge period. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of the preterm infant, post-discharge nutrition (PIN) program to reduce post-discharge growth restriction in Thai VLBW preterm infants. A prospective, non-randomized interventional cohort study was undertaken to assess the growth of 22 VLBW preterm infants who received the PIN program and compared them with 22 VLBW preterm infants who received conventional nutrition services. Infant's growth was recorded monthly until the infants reached six months' corrected age (6-moCA). Intervention infants had significantly greater body weights (p = 0.013) and head circumferences (p = 0.009). Also, a greater proportion of the intervention group recovered their weight to the standard weight at 4-moCA (p = 0.027) and at 6-moCA (p = 0.007) and their head circumference to the standard head circumference at 6-moCA (p = 0.004) compared to their historical comparison counterparts. Enlistment in the PIN program thus resulted in significantly reduced post-discharge growth restriction in VLBW preterm infants. Further research on longer term effects of the program on infant's growth and development is warranted.

  20. A non-randomised trial of an art therapy intervention for patients with haematological malignancies to support post-traumatic growth.

    PubMed

    Singer, Susanne; Götze, Heide; Buttstädt, Marianne; Ziegler, Corinna; Richter, Robert; Brown, Anna; Niederwieser, Dietger; Dorst, Jana; Jäkel, Nadja; Geue, Kristina

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of art therapy on post-traumatic growth in patients with haematological malignancies in a non-randomised trial (n = 36, intervention group; n = 129, control group). Art therapy was administered over a period of 22 weeks in small groups. Post-traumatic growth was measured with the Stress-Related Growth Scale. After controlling for the effect of potential confounders, no difference in post-traumatic growth was observed between the intervention and control groups after 22 weeks. There was no evidence for an effect of weekly group sessions with art therapy on post-traumatic growth in patients with haematological malignancies.

  1. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein concentration and post-translational modification in embryological fluid.

    PubMed

    Miell, J P; Jauniaux, E; Langford, K S; Westwood, M; White, A; Jones, J S

    1997-04-01

    Levels of proteolytic activity directed against insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) and the distribution of phosphorylated isoforms of IGFBP-1 were assessed in matched sample sets of maternal serum, coelomic fluid and amniotic fluid from 21 pregnancies at 6-12 weeks gestation. In addition, concentrations of immunoreactive IGFBP-1 to -3, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and -II were determined in all three compartments in 21 pregnancies, and in coelomic fluid and maternal serum in 58 pregnancies. IGF-I concentrations were highest in maternal serum and similarly low in coelomic and amniotic fluid. IGF-II concentrations were also highest in maternal serum but easily detectable in coelomic fluid where concentrations showed a significant correlation with gestational age. IGFBP-1 concentrations were higher in coelomic fluid than in either maternal serum or amniotic fluid and showed a significant correlation with gestational age in this compartment. Analysis of IGFBP-1 phosphoforms showed clear differences in phosphorylation of IGFBP-1 between groups with maternal serum containing predominantly the phosphorylated forms and coelomic fluid almost exclusively the non-phosphorylated form. First trimester amniotic fluid IGFBP-1 was barely detectable and appeared non-phosphorylated. These findings suggest that the high IGF-II concentrations and lack of inhibitory phosphoforms of IGFBP-1 in coelomic fluid could potentially enhance mitogenic activity in the early human gestational sac. IGFBP-2 concentrations were high in coelomic fluid compared with maternal serum whereas coelomic fluid IGFBP-3 concentrations were intermediate, easily detectable and correlated strongly with gestational age. Protease activity was far less in coelomic fluid than in matched maternal serum samples. Marked differences in both concentrations and post-translational modification of IGFBPs in maternal serum compared with embryonic fluid suggest different regulatory pathways.

  2. Survival and growth of Listeria innocua treated by pulsed light technology: impact of post-treatment temperature and illumination conditions.

    PubMed

    Lasagabaster, Amaia; de Marañón, Iñigo Martínez

    2014-08-01

    Inactivation of Listeria innocua by pulsed light (PL) was evaluated at different post-treatment temperature and illumination conditions. The impact of post-PL-treatment temperature on L. innocua culturability was evaluated for cells cultured at 37 °C (optimal growth temperature) and 4 °C (classical refrigerated food temperature). For both culture conditions, significant higher reductions (up to 3 log) were observed after post-PL-treatment temperature of 4 °C than of 37 °C. Contrarily, L. innocua culturability after PL treatment increased up to 2.2 log in presence of daylight illumination in comparison to dark storage. This photorepair mechanism was quickly activated reaching the maximum photoreactivation level after only 30 min of illumination. Moreover, photorepair capacity was rapidly reduced by increasing the time in darkness from PL treatment to samples illumination, being completely lost after time in darkness equal or greater than 5 h. According to these findings, the combination of PL with post-treatment temperature of 4 °C has a synergistic effect on the inactivation of L. innocua, whereas post-treatment daylight illumination has an antagonic effect on PL antimicrobial efficacy. Post-PL-treatment temperature and illumination conditions could be thereby considered important environmental factors to activate, inhibit or control the repair and/or growth of L. innocua survivors after PL treatment.

  3. Predicting Post Traumatic Growth Based upon Self-Efficacy and Perceived Social Support in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi-Kashani, Farah; Vaziri, Shahram; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Kazemi-Zanjani, Nahid; Shamkoeyan, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that being exposed to traumatic and stressful events could have severe consequences, studies have shown that even in the wake of negative events such as cancer diagnosis, we see some changes and positive impacts in scheme, philosophy of life and self-perception, a process which is called Post Traumatic Growth (PTG). The aim of the current research is to define share of self-efficacy and perceived social support in the prediction of PTG. Methods The research is a correlation type. For this aim, 95 patients with cancer came to Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital, Tehran, Vali-e-Asr Hospital, Zanjan, and Mehraneh Charity Institute, Zanjan in 2012 have been selec ted based on available sampling and evaluated regarding self-efficacy, and perceived social support and PTG. Results Data analysis using Pearson correlation and regression analysis (simple and multiple) showed that self-efficacy and Perceived Social Support in cancer patients have direct significant relation with variable of PTG and explain 13.5%, 10.6% and jointly 20.7% of PTG changes respectively. Conclusion The research findings show that the variables of self-efficacy and Perceived Social Support explain significantly the PTG and these psychological variables can be used to provide improvement plans and mental health and PTG facilities. PMID:25250161

  4. Emotive and cognitive processes in cancer patients: linguistic profiles of post-traumatic growth.

    PubMed

    Scrignaro, M; Marini, E; Magrin, M E; Borreani, C

    2017-01-06

    Starting from the challenge offered by the authors of the post-traumatic growth (PTG) construct (Tedeschi & Calhoun, ), this paper aims to explore the existence of different linguistic profiles of cognitive and emotional processes in PTG narratives. The autobiographical narratives of 40 cancer patients were analysed for both PTG and linguistic indicators of emotions and cognitive processes. PTG was operationalised as the presence of redemption sequences (McAdams, ). The emotional and cognitive linguistic indicators were analysed by the LIWC program (Pennebaker & Francis, ). All the narratives included PTG (M = 3.55, SD = 1.91). Three clusters of linguistic profiles were retained (60%-79% of variance explained): "disengagement", "assimilative" and "accommodative". These clusters differed significantly by PTG (F = 9.70, p < .000, η(2)  = .34). Given the limitations of the study, the results highlight the importance of the linguistic approach to a deeper understanding of PTG and to tailored pathways of its promotion. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. In ovo temperature manipulation influences post-hatch muscle growth in the turkey.

    PubMed

    Maltby, V; Somaiya, A; French, N A; Stickland, N C

    2004-08-01

    1. The effect of manipulating egg incubation temperature for short periods on turkey muscle development was determined using the M. semitendinosus, a thigh muscle, as the model. 2. Experiment 1. Eggs were incubated at a control temperature of 37.5 degrees C. For a 4-d period of 0 to 4, 5 to 8, 9 to 12, 13 to 16, 17 to 20 or 21 to 24 embryonic days (ED) eggs were transferred to either 38.5 or 35.5 degrees C. A regime of 38.5 degrees C at 5 to 8 and 9 to 12 ED caused an increased myonuclei number and muscle fibre number, respectively. 3. Experiment 2. Eggs were incubated at a control temperature of 37.5 degrees C. At 5 to 8 ED eggs were transferred to 38.5 or 35.5 degrees C. Temperature-manipulated embryos showed a delay in differentiation (myogenin expression) of the semitendinosus muscle compared to controls. 4. Manipulating the incubation temperature for 4 d in early incubation alters muscle development in the turkey with no observation of deformities or reduction in hatchability. We speculate that this increase in temperature may result in an improved muscle growth in the post-hatch bird.

  6. Psychological Functioning, Post-Traumatic Growth, and Coping in Parents and Siblings of Adolescent Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Turner-Sack, Andrea M; Menna, Rosanne; Setchell, Sarah R; Maan, Cathy; Cataudella, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    To examine psychological functioning, post-traumatic growth (PTG), coping, and cancer-related characteristics of adolescent cancer survivors' parents and siblings.
. Descriptive, correlational.
. Children's Hospital of Western Ontario in London, Ontario, Canada.
. Adolescents who finished cancer treatment 2-10 years prior (n = 31), as well as their parents (n = 30) and siblings (n = 18). 
. Participants completed self-report measures of psychological distress, PTG, life satisfaction, coping, and cancer-related characteristics.
. Psychological functioning, PTG, and coping.
. Parents' and siblings' PTG levels were similar to survivors' PTG levels; however, parents reported higher PTG than siblings. Parents who used less avoidant coping, were younger, and had higher life satisfaction experienced less psychological distress. Parents whose survivor children used more active coping reported less psychological distress. Siblings who were older used more active coping, and the longer it had been since their brother or sister was diagnosed, the less avoidant coping they used. 
. Childhood and adolescent cancer affects survivors' siblings and parents in unique ways.
. Relationship to the survivor, use of coping strategies, life satisfaction, and time since diagnosis affect family members' postcancer experiences.

  7. Effects of blastomere biopsy on post-natal growth and behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Sampino, S; Zacchini, F; Swiergiel, A H; Modlinski, A J; Loi, P; Ptak, G E

    2014-09-01

    Does blastomere biopsy (BB) of preimplantation embryos induce long-term effects on their growth and post-natal behavior? BB induces long-term effects on body weight and behavior in male mice. BB is an essential technique for performing preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), a screening test that can detect genetic abnormalities of embryos before their transfer in utero. There is limited understanding of the post-natal consequences and safety of BB. Offspring who had a BB performed as embryos, as well as control offspring, were examined for body and neurological development and subjected to a screening battery of behavioral tests, designed to model symptoms of psychiatric disorders. At least 12 mice were used for each test over the course of 16 weeks. Embryos were subjected to a single BB at the 8-cell stage and then cultured in vitro until the blastocyst stage (BB group). Two control groups were created, one consisting of embryos cultured in vitro without any manipulation (in vitro control (IVC) group) and one of embryos developed entirely in vivo (in vivo group). Embryos from in vitro groups (BB and IVC) were transferred to pseudo-pregnant female mice at the blastocyst stage. Body growth parameters and developmental landmarks of the resulting offspring were observed during their entire lifespan. Furthermore, validated behavioral tests were used to assess early communicative functions, startle reflex, and anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. We found that male mice derived from BB exhibited peculiar behavioral alterations and changes in body weight. BB-derived male mice showed increased body weight with respect to both controls as early as the second week of life. Adult males displayed decreased times of immobility in the tail suspension test (P < 0.05) and deficits in habituation to, and pre-pulse inhibition of, the startle reflex (P < 0.05). BB did not affect communicative skills and anxiety-like responses. Extrapolation of these results to humans requires

  8. Comparative classification analysis of post-harvest growth detection from terrestrial LiDAR point clouds in precision agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Kristina; Höfle, Bernhard; Hämmerle, Martin; Jarmer, Thomas; Siegmann, Bastian; Lilienthal, Holger

    2015-06-01

    In precision agriculture, detailed geoinformation on plant and soil properties plays an important role, e.g., in crop protection or the application of fertilizers. This paper presents a comparative classification analysis for post-harvest growth detection using geometric and radiometric point cloud features of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data, considering the local neighborhood of each point. Radiometric correction of the TLS data was performed via an empirical range-correction function derived from a field experiment. Thereafter, the corrected amplitude and local elevation features were explored regarding their importance for classification. For the comparison, tree induction, Naive Bayes, and k-Means-derived classifiers were tested for different point densities to distinguish between ground and post-harvest growth. The classification performance was validated against highly detailed RGB reference images and the red edge normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI705), derived from a hyperspectral sensor. Using both geometric and radiometric features, we achieved a precision of 99% with the tree induction. Compared to the reference image classification, the calculated post-harvest growth coverage map reached an accuracy of 80%. RGB and LiDAR-derived coverage showed a polynomial correlation to NDVI705 of degree two with R2 of 0.8 and 0.7, respectively. Larger post-harvest growth patches (>10 × 10 cm) could already be detected by a point density of 2 pts./0.01 m2. The results indicate a high potential of radiometric and geometric LiDAR point cloud features for the identification of post-harvest growth using tree induction classification. The proposed technique can potentially be applied over larger areas using vehicle-mounted scanners.

  9. Effect of Post-Infiltration Soil Aeration at Different Growth Stages on Growth and Fruit Quality of Drip-Irrigated Potted Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Jia, Zongxia; Niu, Wenquan; Wang, Jingwei; Zhang, Mingzhi

    2015-01-01

    Soil hydraulic principles suggest that post-infiltration hypoxic conditions would be induced in the plant root-zone for drip-irrigated tomato production in small pots filled with natural soil. No previous study specifically examined the response of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) at different growth stages to low soil aeration under these conditions. A 2 × 6 factorial experiment was conducted to quantify effects of no post-infiltration soil aeration versus aeration during 5 different periods (namely 27–33, 34–57, 58–85, 86–99, and 27–99 days after sowing), on growth and fruit quality of potted single tomato plants that were sub-surface trickle-irrigated every 2 days at 2 levels. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 liters of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Results showed that post-infiltration aeration, especially during the fruit setting (34–57 DAS) and enlargement (58–85 DAS) growth stages, can positively influence the yield, root dry weight and activity, and the nutritional (soluble solids and vitamin C content), taste (titratable acidity), and market quality (shape and firmness) of the tomato fruits. Interactions between irrigation level and post-infiltration aeration on some of these fruit quality parameters indicated a need for further study on the dynamic interplay of air and water in the root zone of the plants under the conditions of this experiment. PMID:26630675

  10. Effect of Post-Infiltration Soil Aeration at Different Growth Stages on Growth and Fruit Quality of Drip-Irrigated Potted Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Jia, Zongxia; Niu, Wenquan; Wang, Jingwei; Zhang, Mingzhi

    2015-01-01

    Soil hydraulic principles suggest that post-infiltration hypoxic conditions would be induced in the plant root-zone for drip-irrigated tomato production in small pots filled with natural soil. No previous study specifically examined the response of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) at different growth stages to low soil aeration under these conditions. A 2 × 6 factorial experiment was conducted to quantify effects of no post-infiltration soil aeration versus aeration during 5 different periods (namely 27-33, 34-57, 58-85, 86-99, and 27-99 days after sowing), on growth and fruit quality of potted single tomato plants that were sub-surface trickle-irrigated every 2 days at 2 levels. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 liters of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Results showed that post-infiltration aeration, especially during the fruit setting (34-57 DAS) and enlargement (58-85 DAS) growth stages, can positively influence the yield, root dry weight and activity, and the nutritional (soluble solids and vitamin C content), taste (titratable acidity), and market quality (shape and firmness) of the tomato fruits. Interactions between irrigation level and post-infiltration aeration on some of these fruit quality parameters indicated a need for further study on the dynamic interplay of air and water in the root zone of the plants under the conditions of this experiment.

  11. Impact of post-infiltration soil aeration at different growth stages of sub-surface trickle-irrigated tomato plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Jia, Zong-xia; Niu, Wen-Quan; Wang, Jing-wei

    2016-07-01

    Sensitivity to low rhizosphere soil aeration may change over time and therefore plant response may also depend on different growth stages of a crop. This study quantified effects of soil aeration during 5 different periods, on growth and yield of trickle-irrigated potted single tomato plants. Irrigation levels were 0.6 to 0.7 (low level) or 0.7 to 0.8 (high level) of total water holding capacity of the pots. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 l of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Fresh fruit yield, above ground plant dry weight, plant height, and leaf area index response to these treatments were measured. For all these 4 response variables, means of post-infiltration aeration between 58 to 85 days after sowing were 13.4, 43.5, 13.7, and 37.7% higher than those for the non-aerated pots, respectively. The results indicated that: post-infiltration soil aeration can positively impact the yield and growth of sub-surface trickle-irrigated potted tomato plants; positive effects on plant growth can be obtained with aeration during the whole growth period or with aeration for partial periods; positive growth effects of partial periods of aeration appears to persist and result in yield benefit.

  12. Strong influences of larval diet history on subsequent post-settlement growth in the freshwater mollusc Dreissena polymorpha.

    PubMed Central

    Wacker, Alexander; von Elert, Eric

    2002-01-01

    A significant seasonal variation in size at settlement has been observed in newly settled larvae of Dreissena polymorpha in Lake Constance. Diet quality, which varies temporally and spatially in freshwater habitats, has been suggested as a significant factor influencing the life history and development of freshwater invertebrates. Accordingly, experiments were conducted with field-collected larvae to test the proposal that diet quality can determine planktonic larval growth rates, size at settlement and subsequent post-metamorphic growth rates. Larvae were fed one of two diets or starved. One diet was composed of cyanobacterial cells, which are deficient in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and the other was a mixed diet rich in PUFAs. Freshly metamorphosed animals from the starvation treatment had a carbon content per individual 70% lower than that of larvae fed the mixed diet. This apparent exhaustion of larval internal reserves resulted in a 50% reduction of the post-metamorphic growth rates. Growth was also reduced in animals previously fed the cyanobacterial diet. Hence, low food quantity or low food quality during the larval stage of D. polymorpha, lead to irreversible effects for post-metamorphic animals and are related to inferior competitive abilities. PMID:12396485

  13. Post-Traumatic Growth and Resilience in Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Patients: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Greup, Suzanne R; Kaal, Suzanne E J; Jansen, Rosemarie; Manten-Horst, Eveliene; Thong, Melissa S Y; van der Graaf, Winette T A; Prins, Judith B; Husson, Olga

    2017-09-08

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the literature on post-traumatic growth (PTG) and resilience among adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients. A literature search in Embase, PsychInfo, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Cinahl was carried out. Thirteen articles met the pre-defined inclusion criteria. Qualitative interview studies showed that AYA cancer patients report PTG and resilience: PTG is described by AYA cancer patients in terms of benefit finding, including changing view of life and feeling stronger and more confident, whereas resilience is described as a balance of several factors, including stress and coping, goals, optimism, finding meaning, connection, and belonging. Quantitative studies showed that sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were not associated with PTG. Enduring stress was negatively, and social support positively, associated with PTG. Symptom distress and defensive coping were negatively and adaptive cognitive coping was positively associated with resilience. Both PTG and resilience were positively associated with satisfaction with life and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Resilience was found to be a mediator in the relationship between symptom distress and HRQoL. Two interventions aiming to promote resilience, a stress management and a therapeutic music video-intervention, were not successful in significantly increasing overall resilience. Most AYA cancer patients report at least some PTG or resilience. Correlates of PTG and resilience, including symptom distress, stress, coping, social support, and physical activity, provide further insight to improve the effectiveness of interventions aimed at promoting these positive outcomes and potentially buffer negative outcomes.

  14. Osterix couples chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in post-natal condylar growth.

    PubMed

    Jing, J; Hinton, R J; Jing, Y; Liu, Y; Zhou, X; Feng, J Q

    2014-10-01

    Osterix (Osx) is a transcription factor essential for osteoblast differentiation and bone mineralization. Although there are indications that Osx also plays a regulatory role in cartilage, this has not been well-studied. The goal of this study was to define the function of Osx in the post-natal growth of the secondary cartilage at the mandibular condyle. Conditional Osx knockout (cKO) mice that were missing Osx only in cartilage were generated by crossing Osx-loxP mice to Aggrecan-Cre mice. Cre activity was induced by tamoxifen injection twice a week from day 12 to 1 mo of age, and specimens were collected at 1 and 5 mo of age. At 1 mo of age, the condylar hypertrophic chondrocyte zone in the cKO-mice was > three-fold thicker than that in the age-matched control, with little sign of endochondral bone formation. Immunohistochemistry and analysis of histological data revealed a defect in the coupling of chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in the cKO mice. In five-month-old mice examined to address whether late-stage removal of the Cre-deletion event would alleviate the phenotype, the hypertrophic chondrocyte zone in the cKO condyles was considerably larger than in wild-type mice. There were large discrete areas of calcified cartilage in the hypertrophic zone, few signs of endochondral bone formation, and large regions of disorganized intramembranous bone. Analysis of these data further strengthens the notion that Osterix is essential for the coupling of terminal cartilage differentiation and endochondral ossification in mandibular condylar cartilage.

  15. Analysis of post-exposure density growth in radiochromic film with respect to the radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Shima, Katsumi; Tateoka, Kunihiko; Saitoh, Yuichi; Suzuki, Junji; Yaegashi, Yuji; Fujimoto, Kazunori; Nakazawa, Takuya; Nakata, Akihiro; Abe, Tadanori; Imai, Sho; Sakata, Kouichi; Hareyama, Masato

    2012-01-01

    The post-exposure density growth (PEDG) is one of the characteristics of radiochromic film (RCF). In film dosimetry using RCF and a flatbed scanner, pixel values read out from the RCF are converted to dose (hereafter, film dose) by using a calibration curve. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between the pixel value read out from the RCF and the PEDG, and that between the film dose converted from the RCF and the PEDG. The film (GAFCHROMIC EBT) was irradiated with 10-MV X-rays in an ascending 11-dose-step arrangement. The pixel values of the irradiated EBT film were measured at arbitrary hours using an Epson flatbed scanner. In this study, the reference time was 24 h after irradiation, and all dose conversions from the pixel values read out from the EBT film were made using a calibration curve for 24 h after irradiation. For delivered doses of 33 and 348 cGy, the measured pixel values at 0.1 and 16 h after irradiation represented ranges of -9.6% to -0.7% and -3.9% to -0.3%, respectively, of the reference value. The relative changes between the pixel values read out from the EBT film at each elapsed time and that at the reference time decreased with increasing delivered dose. However, the difference range for all the film doses had a width of approximately -10% of the reference value at elapsed times from 0.1 to 16 h, and it showed no dependence on the delivered dose.

  16. Nitrogen deficiency inhibits leaf blade growth in Lolium perenne by increasing cell cycle duration and decreasing mitotic and post-mitotic growth rates.

    PubMed

    Kavanová, Monika; Lattanzi, Fernando Alfredo; Schnyder, Hans

    2008-06-01

    Nitrogen deficiency severely inhibits leaf growth. This response was analysed at the cellular level by growing Lolium perenne L. under 7.5 mM (high) or 1 mM (low) nitrate supply, and performing a kinematic analysis to assess the effect of nitrogen status on cell proliferation and cell growth in the leaf blade epidermis. Low nitrogen supply reduced leaf elongation rate (LER) by 43% through a similar decrease in the cell production rate and final cell length. The former was entirely because of a decreased average cell division rate (0.023 versus 0.032 h(-1)) and thus longer cell cycle duration (30 versus 22 h). Nitrogen status did not affect the number of division cycles of the initial cell's progeny (5.7), and accordingly the meristematic cell number (53). Meristematic cell length was unaffected by nitrogen deficiency, implying that the division and mitotic growth rates were equally impaired. The shorter mature cell length arose from a considerably reduced post-mitotic growth rate (0.033 versus 0.049 h(-1)). But, nitrogen stress did not affect the position where elongation stopped, and increased cell elongation duration. In conclusion, nitrogen deficiency limited leaf growth by increasing the cell cycle duration and decreasing mitotic and post-mitotic elongation rates, delaying cell maturation.

  17. Post-natal growth in the rat pineal gland: a stereological study.

    PubMed

    Erbagci, H; Kizilkan, N; Ozbag, D; Erkilic, S; Kervancioglu, P; Canan, S; Gumusburun, E

    2012-10-01

    The purpose was to observe the changes in a rat pineal gland using stereological techniques during lactation and post-weaning periods. Thirty Wistar albino rats were studied during different post-natal periods using light microscopy. Pineal gland volume was estimated using the Cavalieri Method. Additionally, the total number of pinealocytes was estimated using the optical fractionator technique. Pineal gland volume displayed statistically significant changes between lactation and after weaning periods. A significant increase in pineal gland volume was observed from post-natal day 10 to post-natal day 90. The numerical density of pinealocytes became stabilized during lactation and decreased rapidly after weaning. However, the total number of pinealocytes continuously increased during post-natal life of all rats in the study. However, this increment was not statistically significant when comparing the lactation and after weaning periods. The increase in post-natal pineal gland volume may depend on increment of immunoreactive fibres, capsule thickness or new synaptic bodies.

  18. Molecular beam epitaxy growth and post-growth annealing of FeSe films on SrTiO3: a scanning tunneling microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Peng, Jun-Ping; Zhang, Hui-Min; Zhang, Wen-Hao; Ding, Hao; Deng, Peng; Chang, Kai; Song, Can-Li; Ji, Shuai-Hua; Wang, Lili; He, Ke; Chen, Xi; Xue, Qi-Kun; Ma, Xu-Cun

    2014-07-02

    Low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy are used to investigate the atomic and electronic structure evolution of FeSe films grown on SrTiO3 as a function of post-growth annealing. Single unit cell FeSe films are found to bond strongly with the underlying substrate, and become superconductive with diminishing chemical bond disorders at the interface via post-annealing. For thicker FeSe films, post-annealing removes excess Se in the films and leads to a transition from semiconductor into metallic behaviors. In double and multilayer films, strain-induced complex textures are observed and suggested to be the main cause for the absent superconductivity.

  19. The Characteristics of Emotional Response of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Post-traumatic Growth among Chinese Adults Exposed to an Explosion Incident.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chuguang; Han, Jin; Zhang, Yuqing; Hannak, Walter; Liu, Zhengkui

    2017-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and post-traumatic growth (PTG) are two different outcomes that may occur after experiencing traumatic events. Meanwhile, the traumatic exposure level and emotion response played an important role in the process. The present study first evaluated the relationship between PTSD, PTG, and traumatic exposure level and then compared the characteristics of emotional response through response time of the affective priming paradigm. For the purpose of evaluating the relationship between PTSD, PTG, and trauma exposure level, a sample of 2,395 participants completed measures of posttraumatic stress disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), Post-traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) and a trauma exposure-related survey, and Pearson's correlation analysis for the scales were conducted. In order to compare the characteristics of emotional response between PTSD and PTG, we randomly selected 90 participants and divided them into groups of PTSD, PTG, and control according the scores of PCL-C and PTGI, then the 90 participants were asked to do the affective priming task and the response time was recorded, at last analysis of variance was employed to analyze the data. The results indicated that PTSD was not correlated with PTG. It was positively correlated with the traumatic exposure level, but PTG was not observed in this phenomenon. Finally, the data of response time showed that PTSD required more time to do the priming task and PTG demonstrated no difference compared to the control group. Combined with previous research findings, the relationship between PTSD and PTG may depend on the type and severity of the trauma, the exposure level, and other such parameters. In terms of positive outcome of trauma PTG displayed no changes of emotional performance from the perspective of behavior. The preliminary results suggested that PTG was more related to a self-reported or self-experienced state.

  20. The growth response of Alternanthera philoxeroides in a simulated post-combustion emission with ultrahigh [CO2] and acidic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Griffin, Kevin L; Blazier, John C; Craig, Elizabeth C; Gilbert, Dominique S; Sritrairat, Sanpisa; Anderson, O Roger; Castaldi, Marco J; Beaumont, Larry

    2009-07-01

    Although post-combustion emissions from power plants are a major source of air pollution, they contain excess CO2 that could be used to fertilize commercial greenhouses and stimulate plant growth. We addressed the combined effects of ultrahigh [CO2] and acidic pollutants in flue gas on the growth of Alternanthera philoxeroides. When acidic pollutants were excluded, the biomass yield of A. philoxeroides saturated near 2000 micromol mol(-1) [CO2] with doubled biomass accumulation relative to the ambient control. The growth enhancement was maintained at 5000 micromol mol(-1) [CO2], but declined when [CO2] rose above 1%, in association with a strong photosynthetic inhibition. Although acidic components (SO2 and NO2) significantly offset the CO2 enhancement, the aboveground yield increased considerably when the concentration of pollutants was moderate (200 times dilution). Our results indicate that using excess CO2 from the power plant emissions to optimize growth in commercial green house could be viable.

  1. Post-release feeding and growth of hatchery-reared Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus: relevance to stocking effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, T; Watanabe, M; Kawata, G; Ebe, K

    2011-05-01

    The feeding and growth of hatchery-reared (HR) Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus of c. 100 mm total length (L(T) ) released off the coast of Fukushima, Japan, were investigated. From 2 to 15 days after release, the HR P. olivaceus frequently exhibited high empty-stomach frequency (>40%), low stomach-content mass (<1% of body mass), reduced somatic condition from release (c.-10%) and negligible growth. Thereafter, empty-stomach frequency decreased, the stomach-content mass of HR fish increased to 2-8% of body mass, the somatic condition recovered and growth rate increased to 0·5-1·5 mm day(-1) . Prey items were initially mysids, shifting thereafter to fishes such as the Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonica, as observed similarly in wild counterparts. The proportion of mysids decreased with time after release irrespective of size at release, indicating the importance of mysids for adaptation to natural food. Recapture rates at age 1 year, derived from fish market surveys, varied greatly among release years (4-11%). The variation in the recapture rates was largely accounted for by the post-release growth rates (r(2) = 0·5), suggesting a relationship between the post-release growth of HR fish and their survival and subsequent stocking effectiveness.

  2. Post-fire wood management alters water stress, growth, and performance of pine regeneration in a Mediterranean ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maranon-Jimenez, Sara; Castro, Jorge; Querejeta, José Ignacio; Fernandez-Ondono, Emilia; Allen, Craig D.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research has focused on comparing the impacts of post-fire salvage logging versus those of less aggressive management practices on forest regeneration. However, few studies have addressed the effects of different burnt-wood management options on seedling/sapling performance, or the ecophysiological mechanisms underlying differences among treatments. In this study, we experimentally assess the effects of post-fire management of the burnt wood on the growth and performance of naturally regenerating pine seedlings (Pinus pinaster). Three post-fire management treatments varying in degree of intervention were implemented seven months after a high-severity wildfire burned Mediterranean pine forests in the Sierra Nevada, southeast Spain: (a) “No Intervention” (NI, all burnt trees left standing); (b) “Partial Cut plus Lopping” (PCL, felling most of the burnt trees, cutting off branches, and leaving all the biomass on site without mastication); and (c) “Salvage Logging” (SL, felling the burnt trees, piling up the logs and masticating the fine woody debris). Three years after the fire, the growth, foliar nutrient concentrations, and leaf carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition (δ13C, δ18O and δ15N) of naturally regenerating seedlings were measured in all the treatments. Pine seedlings showed greatest vigor and size in the PCL treatment, whereas growth was poorest in SL. The nutrient concentrations were similar among treatments, although greater growth in the two treatments with residual wood present indicated higher plant uptake. Seedlings in the SL treatment showed high leaf δ13C and δ18O values indicating severe water stress, in contrast to significantly alleviated water stress indications in the PCL treatment. Seedling growth and physiological performance in NI was intermediate between that of PCL and SL. After six growing seasons, P. pinaster saplings in PCL showed greater growth and cone production than SL saplings. In summary

  3. Experimental methods of post-growth-tuning of the excitonic fine structure splitting in semiconductor quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Plumhof, Johannes D; Trotta, Rinaldo; Rastelli, Armando; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2012-01-01

    Deterministic sources of polarization entangled photon pairs on demand are considered as important building block for quantum communication technology. It has been demonstrated that semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), exhibiting a sufficiently small excitonic fine structure splitting (FSS) can be used as triggered, on-chip sources of polarization entangled photon pairs. As-grown QDs usually do not exhibit the required values of the FSS, making the availability of post-growth tuning techniques highly desired. This article reviews the effect of different post-growth treatments and external fields on the FSS such as thermal annealing, magnetic fields, the optical Stark effect, electric fields and anisotropic stress. As a consequence of the tuning of the FSS for some tuning techniques a rotation of the polarization of the emitted light is observed. The joint modification of polarization orientation and FSS can be described by an anticrossing of the bright excitonic states.

  4. Study of growth time and post annealing effect on the performance of ZnO nanorods ultraviolet photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shasti, M.; Dariani, R. S.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, Zinc Oxide nanorods with different thicknesses are grown on a glass substrate by a hydrothermal method to fabricate an ultraviolet photodetector. The sample is post annealed in an argon environment as an annealing process can have a positive effect on the photodetector performance. The morphology, crystalline structure, and optical properties of ZnO nanorods (NRs) are investigated by SEM, XRD, UV-Visible spectrometer, and PL spectra. The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of both growth time and post annealing on enhancement of photoresponse of the ZnO NR photodetector. Measurements indicate that the sample with higher thickness exhibits a higher photocurrent and photoresponsivity. Also, with post annealing, an increase in photocurrent and photoresponsivity is observed due to decreasing defect levels.

  5. Rumination, event centrality, and perceived control as predictors of post-traumatic growth and distress: The Cognitive Growth and Stress model.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Matthew; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Lowe, Michelle; Robinson, Sarita

    2017-09-01

    The Cognitive Growth and Stress (CGAS) model draws together cognitive processing factors previously untested into a single model. Intrusive rumination, deliberate rumination, present and future perceptions of control, and event centrality were assessed as predictors of post-traumatic growth (PTG) and post-traumatic stress (PTS). The CGAS model is tested on a sample of survivors (N = 250) of a diverse range of adverse events using structural equation modelling techniques. Overall, the best fitting model was supportive of the theorized relations between cognitive constructs and accounted for 30% of the variance in PTG and 68% of the variance in PTS across the sample. Rumination, centrality, and perceived control factors are significant determinants of positive and negative psychological change across the wide spectrum of adversarial events. In its first phase of development, the CGAS model also provides further evidence of the distinct processes of growth and distress following adversity. Clinical implications People can experience positive change after adversity, regardless of life background or types of events experienced. While growth and distress are possible outcomes after adversity, they occur through distinct processes. Support or intervention should consider rumination, event centrality, and perceived control factors to enhance psychological well-being. Cautions/limitations Longitudinal research would further clarify the findings found in this study. Further extension of the model is recommended to include other viable cognitive processes implicated in the development of positive and negative changes after adversity. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Excess dietary cholesterol may have an adverse effect on growth performance of early post-larval Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Niu, Jin; Chen, Peng-Fei; Tian, Li-Xia; Liu, Yong-Jian; Lin, Hei-Zhao; Yang, Hui-Jun; Liang, Gui-Ying

    2012-06-25

    One experiment was conducted to determine the nutritive value of cholesterol for post-larval shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Four isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets supplemented with four levels of cholesterol (D1, D2, D3 and D4 with 0, 0.5%, 1% and 2% cholesterol, respectively) were fed to triplicate groups of L. vannamei shrimp (mean initial wet weight 0.8 mg) for 27 days. After the trial, shrimp fed the D1 diet had the best growth performance (final body weights: FBW; weight gain: WG; specific growth rate: SGR), while there was no significant difference between diet treatments with respect to survival. The whole body crude protein level in the shrimp decreased with the increase in dietary cholesterol levels, while the whole body crude lipid level in shrimps in the D4 diet treatment was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in other diet treatments. Dietary analysis indicated that the D1 diet contained 0.92% cholesterol prior to supplementation, which may have satisfied the dietary cholesterol requirement of post-larval L. vannamei; excess dietary cholesterol may thus lead to adverse effects on the growth performance of post-larval shrimp.

  7. Growth and contribution of stocked channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818): the importance of measuring post-stocking performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study it was sought to quantify post-stocking growth, survival, and contribution of advanced size (178 mm total length [TL]) channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fingerlings, something rarely done. Channel catfish populations were evaluated before (May 2010) and after (May to August 2011 and 2012) stocking. Relative abundance, stocking contribution, and growth were different (P < 0.05) in the two study impoundments (lakes Lone Chimney and Greenleaf, Oklahoma). For fish stocked in Lake Lone Chimney, stocking contribution was lower (3–35%), and average length and weight of stocked fish by age-2 reached 230 mm TL and 85 g, whereas the stocking contribution (84–98%) and growth in length (340 mm TL) and weight (280 g) were higher by age-2 in Lake Greenleaf. Given these unambiguous differences of post-stocking performance, benchmark metrics that represent population-level information such as relative abundance and average length and weight of the sample masked these significant differences, highlighting the importance of marking hatchery-fish and then following them through time to determine the effectiveness of stocking. These results suggest that stock enhancement programmes would benefit from studies that quantify post-stocking performance of hatchery fish.

  8. Interaction Between Genetic Variants and Exposure to Hurricane Katrina on Post-Traumatic Stress and Post-Traumatic Growth: A Prospective Analysis of Low Income Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Erin C.; Solovieff, Nadia; Lowe, Sarah R.; Gallagher, Patience J.; Chaponis, Jonathan; Rosand, Jonathan; Koenen, Karestan C.; Waters, Mary; Rhodes, Jean; Smoller, Jordan W.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is considerable variation in psychological reactions to natural disasters, with responses ranging from relatively mild and transitory symptoms to severe and persistent posttraumatic stress (PTS). Some survivors also report post-traumatic growth (PTG), or positive psychological changes due to the experience and processing of the disaster and its aftermath. Gene-environment interaction (GxE) studies could offer new insight into the factors underlying variability in post-disaster psychological responses. However, few studies have explored GxE in a disaster context. Methods We examined whether ten common variants in seven genes (BDNF, CACNA1C, CRHR1, FKBP5, OXTR, RGS2, SLC6A4) modified associations between Hurricane Katrina exposure and PTS and PTG. Data were from a prospective study of 205 low-income non-Hispanic Black parents residing in New Orleans prior to and following Hurricane Katrina. Results We found a significant association (after correction) between RGS2 (rs4606; p=0.0044) and PTG, which was mainly driven by a cross-over GxE (p=0.006), rather than a main genetic effect (p=0.071). The G (minor allele) was associated with lower PTG scores for low levels of Hurricane exposure and higher PTG scores for moderate and high levels of exposure. We also found a nominally significant association between variation in FKBP5 (rs1306780, p=0.0113) and PTG, though this result did not survive correction for multiple testing. Limitations Although the inclusion of low-income non-Hispanic Black parents allowed us to examine GxE among a highly vulnerable group, our findings may not generalize to other populations or groups experiencing other natural disasters. Moreover, not all participants invited to participate in the genetic study provided saliva. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify GxE in the context of post-traumatic growth. Future studies are needed to clarify the role of GxE in PTS and PTG and post-disaster psychological

  9. Interaction between genetic variants and exposure to Hurricane Katrina on post-traumatic stress and post-traumatic growth: a prospective analysis of low income adults.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Erin C; Solovieff, Nadia; Lowe, Sarah R; Gallagher, Patience J; Chaponis, Jonathan; Rosand, Jonathan; Koenen, Karestan C; Waters, Mary C; Rhodes, Jean E; Smoller, Jordan W

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable variation in psychological reactions to natural disasters, with responses ranging from relatively mild and transitory symptoms to severe and persistent posttraumatic stress (PTS). Some survivors also report post-traumatic growth (PTG), or positive psychological changes due to the experience and processing of the disaster and its aftermath. Gene-environment interaction (GxE) studies could offer new insight into the factors underlying variability in post-disaster psychological responses. However, few studies have explored GxE in a disaster context. We examined whether ten common variants in seven genes (BDNF, CACNA1C, CRHR1, FKBP5, OXTR, RGS2, SLC6A4) modified associations between Hurricane Katrina exposure and PTS and PTG. Data were from a prospective study of 205 low-income non-Hispanic Black parents residing in New Orleans prior to and following Hurricane Katrina. We found a significant association (after correction) between RGS2 (rs4606; p=0.0044) and PTG, which was mainly driven by a cross-over GxE (p=0.006), rather than a main genetic effect (p=0.071). The G (minor allele) was associated with lower PTG scores for low levels of Hurricane exposure and higher PTG scores for moderate and high levels of exposure. We also found a nominally significant association between variation in FKBP5 (rs1306780, p=0.0113) and PTG, though this result did not survive correction for multiple testing. Although the inclusion of low-income non-Hispanic Black parents allowed us to examine GxE among a highly vulnerable group, our findings may not generalize to other populations or groups experiencing other natural disasters. Moreover, not all participants invited to participate in the genetic study provided saliva. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify GxE in the context of post-traumatic growth. Future studies are needed to clarify the role of GxE in PTS and PTG and post-disaster psychological responses, especially among vulnerable populations

  10. Photosynthetic acclimation is important for post-submergence recovery of photosynthesis and growth in two riparian species

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Fang-Li; Nagel, Kerstin A.; Zeng, Bo; Schurr, Ulrich; Matsubara, Shizue

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Concomitant increases in O2 and irradiance upon de-submergence can cause photoinhibition and photo-oxidative damage to the photosynthetic apparatus of plants. As energy and carbohydrate supply from photosynthesis is needed for growth, it was hypothesized that post-submergence growth recovery may require efficient photosynthetic acclimation to increased O2 and irradiance to minimize photo-oxidative damage. The hypothesis was tested in two flood-tolerant species: a C3 herb, Alternanthera philoxeroides; and a C4 grass, Hemarthria altissima. The impact of low O2 and low light, typical conditions in turbid floodwater, on post-submergence recovery was assessed by different flooding treatments combined with shading. Methods Experiments were conducted during 30 d of flooding (waterlogging or submergence) with or without shading and subsequent recovery of 20 d under growth conditions. Changes in dry mass, number of branches/tillers, and length of the longest internodes and main stems were recorded to characterize growth responses. Photosynthetic parameters (photosystem II efficiency and non-photochemical quenching) were determined in mature leaves based on chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements. Key Results In both species growth and photosynthesis recovered after the end of the submergence treatment, with recovery of photosynthesis (starting shortly after de-submergence) preceding recovery of growth (pronounced on days 40–50). The effective quantum yield of photosystem II and non-photochemical quenching were diminished during submergence but rapidly increased upon de-submergence. Similar changes were found in all shaded plants, with or without flooding. Submerged plants did not suffer from photoinhibition throughout the recovery period although their growth recovery was retarded. Conclusions After sudden de-submergence the C3 plant A. philoxeroides and the C4 plant H. altissima were both able to maintain the functionality of the photosynthetic

  11. Multiple factors underlying the maximum motility of Escherichia coli as cultures enter post-exponential growth.

    PubMed Central

    Amsler, C D; Cho, M; Matsumura, P

    1993-01-01

    Motility and chemotaxis allow cells to move away from stressful microenvironments. Motility of Escherichia coli in batch cultures, as measured by cell swimming speed, was low in early-exponential-phase cells, peaked as the cells entered post-exponential phase, and declined into early stationary phase. Transcription from the flhB operon and synthesis of flagellin protein similarly peaked in late exponential and early post-exponential phases, respectively. The increase in swimming speed between early-exponential and post-exponential phases was correlated with twofold increases in both flagellar length and flagellar density per cell volume. This increased investment in flagella probably reflects the increased adaptive value of motility in less favorable environments. The decrease in speed between post-exponential and stationary phases was correlated with a threefold decrease in torque produced by the flagellar motors and presumably reflects decreased proton motive force available to stationary-phase cells. Images PMID:8407796

  12. Staphylococcus aureus aconitase inactivation unexpectedly inhibits post-exponential-phase growth and enhances stationary-phase survival.

    PubMed

    Somerville, Greg A; Chaussee, Michael S; Morgan, Carrie I; Fitzgerald, J Ross; Dorward, David W; Reitzer, Lawrence J; Musser, James M

    2002-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus preferentially catabolizes glucose, generating pyruvate, which is subsequently oxidized to acetate under aerobic growth conditions. Catabolite repression of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle results in the accumulation of acetate. TCA cycle derepression coincides with exit from the exponential growth phase, the onset of acetate catabolism, and the maximal expression of secreted virulence factors. These data suggest that carbon and energy for post-exponential-phase growth and virulence factor production are derived from the catabolism of acetate mediated by the TCA cycle. To test this hypothesis, the aconitase gene was genetically inactivated in a human isolate of S. aureus, and the effects on physiology, morphology, virulence factor production, virulence for mice, and stationary-phase survival were examined. TCA cycle inactivation prevented the post-exponential growth phase catabolism of acetate, resulting in premature entry into the stationary phase. This phenotype was accompanied by a significant reduction in the production of several virulence factors and alteration in host-pathogen interaction. Unexpectedly, aconitase inactivation enhanced stationary-phase survival relative to the wild-type strain. Aconitase is an iron-sulfur cluster-containing enzyme that is highly susceptible to oxidative inactivation. We speculate that reversible loss of the iron-sulfur cluster in wild-type organisms is a survival strategy used to circumvent oxidative stress induced during host-pathogen interactions. Taken together, these data demonstrate the importance of the TCA cycle in the life cycle of this medically important pathogen.

  13. Voxel based parallel post processor for void nucleation and growth analysis of atomistic simulations of material fracture.

    PubMed

    Hemani, H; Warrier, M; Sakthivel, N; Chaturvedi, S

    2014-05-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used in the study of void nucleation and growth in crystals that are subjected to tensile deformation. These simulations are run for typically several hundred thousand time steps depending on the problem. We output the atom positions at a required frequency for post processing to determine the void nucleation, growth and coalescence due to tensile deformation. The simulation volume is broken up into voxels of size equal to the unit cell size of crystal. In this paper, we present the algorithm to identify the empty unit cells (voids), their connections (void size) and dynamic changes (growth and coalescence of voids) for MD simulations of large atomic systems (multi-million atoms). We discuss the parallel algorithms that were implemented and discuss their relative applicability in terms of their speedup and scalability. We also present the results on scalability of our algorithm when it is incorporated into MD software LAMMPS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced or reduced fetal growth induced by embryo transfer into smaller or larger breeds alters post-natal growth and metabolism in pre-weaning horses.

    PubMed

    Peugnet, Pauline; Wimel, Laurence; Duchamp, Guy; Sandersen, Charlotte; Camous, Sylvaine; Guillaume, Daniel; Dahirel, Michèle; Dubois, Cédric; Jouneau, Luc; Reigner, Fabrice; Berthelot, Valérie; Chaffaux, Stéphane; Tarrade, Anne; Serteyn, Didier; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    In equids, placentation is diffuse and nutrient supply to the fetus is determined by uterine size. This correlates with maternal size and affects intra-uterine development and subsequent post-natal growth, as well as insulin sensitivity in the newborn. Long-term effects remain to be described. In this study, fetal growth was enhanced or restricted through ET using pony (P), saddlebred (S) and draft (D) horses. Control P-P (n = 21) and S-S (n = 28) pregnancies were obtained by AI. Enhanced and restricted pregnancies were obtained by transferring P or S embryos into D mares (P-D, n = 6 and S-D, n = 8) or S embryos into P mares (S-P, n = 6), respectively. Control and experimental foals were raised by their dams and recipient mothers, respectively. Weight gain, growth hormones and glucose homeostasis were investigated in the foals from birth to weaning. Fetal growth was enhanced in P-D and these foals remained consistently heavier, with reduced T3 concentrations until weaning compared to P-P. P-D had lower fasting glucose from days 30 to 200 and higher insulin secretion than P-P after IVGTT on day 3. Euglycemic clamps in the immediate post-weaning period revealed no difference in insulin sensitivity between P-D and P-P. Fetal growth was restricted in S-P and these foals remained consistently lighter until weaning compared to S-D, with elevated T3 concentrations in the newborn compared to S-S. S-P exhibited higher fasting glycemia than S-S and S-D from days 30 to 200. They had higher maximum increment in plasma glucose than S-D after IVGTT on day 3 and clamps on day 200 demonstrated higher insulin sensitivity compared to S-D. Neither the restricted nor the enhanced fetal environment affected IGF-1 concentrations. Thus, enhanced and restricted fetal and post-natal environments had combined effects that persisted until weaning. They induced different adaptive responses in post-natal glucose metabolism: an early insulin-resistance was induced in

  15. Enhanced or Reduced Fetal Growth Induced by Embryo Transfer into Smaller or Larger Breeds Alters Post-Natal Growth and Metabolism in Pre-Weaning Horses

    PubMed Central

    Peugnet, Pauline; Wimel, Laurence; Duchamp, Guy; Sandersen, Charlotte; Camous, Sylvaine; Guillaume, Daniel; Dahirel, Michèle; Dubois, Cédric; Jouneau, Luc; Reigner, Fabrice; Berthelot, Valérie; Chaffaux, Stéphane; Tarrade, Anne; Serteyn, Didier; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    In equids, placentation is diffuse and nutrient supply to the fetus is determined by uterine size. This correlates with maternal size and affects intra-uterine development and subsequent post-natal growth, as well as insulin sensitivity in the newborn. Long-term effects remain to be described. In this study, fetal growth was enhanced or restricted through ET using pony (P), saddlebred (S) and draft (D) horses. Control P-P (n = 21) and S-S (n = 28) pregnancies were obtained by AI. Enhanced and restricted pregnancies were obtained by transferring P or S embryos into D mares (P-D, n = 6 and S-D, n = 8) or S embryos into P mares (S-P, n = 6), respectively. Control and experimental foals were raised by their dams and recipient mothers, respectively. Weight gain, growth hormones and glucose homeostasis were investigated in the foals from birth to weaning. Fetal growth was enhanced in P-D and these foals remained consistently heavier, with reduced T3 concentrations until weaning compared to P-P. P-D had lower fasting glucose from days 30 to 200 and higher insulin secretion than P-P after IVGTT on day 3. Euglycemic clamps in the immediate post-weaning period revealed no difference in insulin sensitivity between P-D and P-P. Fetal growth was restricted in S-P and these foals remained consistently lighter until weaning compared to S-D, with elevated T3 concentrations in the newborn compared to S-S. S-P exhibited higher fasting glycemia than S-S and S-D from days 30 to 200. They had higher maximum increment in plasma glucose than S-D after IVGTT on day 3 and clamps on day 200 demonstrated higher insulin sensitivity compared to S-D. Neither the restricted nor the enhanced fetal environment affected IGF-1 concentrations. Thus, enhanced and restricted fetal and post-natal environments had combined effects that persisted until weaning. They induced different adaptive responses in post-natal glucose metabolism: an early insulin-resistance was induced in

  16. Growth technique and effect of post growth annealing on the optical properties of In(Ga)As/GaAs quantum dot heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Debiprasad; Ahmad, Aijaz; Adhikary, Sourav; Ghadi, Hemant; Chakrabarti, Subhananda

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a technique to maintain the constant overgrowth percentage of quantum dots (QDs) in all layers of a multistacked heterostructure and hence the dot size uniformity is achieved. Two samples have been grown and compared in terms of their optical properties. Post growth annealing was carried out to observe the variation in their properties. The active layer of sample A is composed of 2.7 monolayer (ML) InAs QDs and the QD deposition amount is same for all the stacks. For the proposed sample B, 8ML In(Ga)As QDs were grown as seed layer, and the subsequent QD deposition is kept constant at 5ML. The overgrowth percentage in all QD layers were constant ( 40%) for this sample. Monomodal photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra was observed for the proposed sample B, whereas sample A has multimodal spectra. The samples were subjected to post growth annealing in argon atmosphere for 650, 700, 750, 800, 850, and 900°C. A negligible shift in the PL peak was observed for sample B up to 750°C, which confirms better thermal stability. The PL activation energy variation with respect to the annealed temperature was negligible for the proposed sample B ( 165 meV up to 750 °C). Hence the proposed growth mode of In(Ga)As multistacked QD heterostructure has better optical characteristics than the conventional structure in terms of PL spectra, FWHM, and also activation energy.

  17. Effects of pharmacological concentrations of dietary zinc oxide on growth of post-weaning pigs: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sales, James

    2013-06-01

    Pharmacological dietary zinc (Zn) concentrations of 1,000 to 3,000 mg/kg diet from Zn oxide have been found to increase growth in post-weaning pigs. However, results were inconsistent among studies. A frequentist meta-analysis, in which effects were numerically described with standardized effect sizes (Hedges's g), was conducted in order to identify and quantify the responses in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain to feed ratio (G/F) in post-weaning pigs upon dietary Zn supplementation from Zn oxide. The inability of independent continuous variables to explain significant heterogeneity obtained with fixed effect models necessitated the use of random effects models to calculate summary statistics. Dietary Zn supplementation increased (P < 0.05) ADG (mean effect size = 1.086, 95 % confidence intervals = 0.905-1.266, 26 studies, 72 comparisons), ADFI (mean effect size = 0.794, 95 % confidence intervals = 0.616-0.971, 25 studies, 71 comparisons), and G/F (mean effect size = 0.566, 95 % confidence intervals = 0.422-0.710, 24 studies, 70 comparisons). Zinc oxide provided a feasible alternative to in-feed antibiotics to improve growth in post-weaning pigs, and its reduction in diets due to potential environmental pollution will have to be negated by alternative feed additives and management strategies in order to prevent economic losses.

  18. Age at spermarche and comparison of growth and performance of pre- and post-spermarcheal Chinese boys.

    PubMed

    Ji, C Y

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of first ejaculation emission (spermarche) in Chinese Han boys in 1995 was considered. The subjects were 86,744 Han boys 9 through 18 years randomly selected from 28 provinces. Median spermarcheal ages (MSAs) were 14.4 and 14.6 years for urban and rural boys, respectively, and 14.3, 14.6, and 14.7 years for the boys of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd socioeconomic classes, respectively. Two environmental factors, ecological and socioeconomic, had strong influence upon MSAs. Eight indicators of somatic growth and motor ability were compared between pre- and post-spermarcheal boys of the same age. Post-spermarcheal boys were advanced in body size, shape, and physiological function during early and middle puberty, but most of the difference disappeared by 16 years. Pre-spermarcheal boys in a given age group were more linear and had more potential for increasing leg length into late adolescence. Within an age group, post-spermarcheal boys had advanced performances in several tasks requiring endurance, strength, and power around the age of maximum growth, 13-15 years. At older ages, the groups did not differ.

  19. Metabolism correlates with variation in post-natal growth rate among songbirds at three latitudes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ton, Riccardo; Martin, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    4. Our results suggest that variation in metabolic rates has an important influence on broad patterns of avian growth rates at a global scale. We suggest further studies that address the ecological and physiological costs and consequences of variation in metabolism and growth rates.

  20. Rethinking of Economic Growth and Life Satisfaction in Post-WWII Japan--A Fresh Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusago, Takayoshi

    2007-01-01

    Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has been utilized by academics and policy makers to indicate the economic well-being of the people. However, economic growth measures cannot capture fully the overall well-being of the people. This paper has tested quality of economic growth in Japan after World War II as to whether it has brought about positive…

  1. Rethinking of Economic Growth and Life Satisfaction in Post-WWII Japan--A Fresh Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusago, Takayoshi

    2007-01-01

    Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has been utilized by academics and policy makers to indicate the economic well-being of the people. However, economic growth measures cannot capture fully the overall well-being of the people. This paper has tested quality of economic growth in Japan after World War II as to whether it has brought about positive…

  2. Post-traumatic growth in stomach cancer survivors: Prevalence, correlates and relationship with health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Sim, Bo Yun; Lee, Young Whee; Kim, Hwasoon; Kim, Soo Hyun

    2015-06-01

    Post-traumatic growth (PTG) is defined as positive psychological changes experienced as a result of struggle with highly challenging life circumstances. Interest in PTG has increased in cancer survivorship care; however, little is known about PTG among stomach cancer survivors. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and correlates of PTG, and to identify relationships between PTG and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Cross-sectional descriptive design. In total, 122 stomach cancer survivors were recruited from one university hospital in South Korea. Measurements included the Korean version of the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy--General Population. Over half (53.3%) of the participants experienced moderate to high levels of PTG. 'Change of self-perception' was the most common growth domain, followed by 'relating to others', 'new possibilities' and 'spiritual change'. Older age, low socio-economic status (i.e. low education level and low monthly income) and lack of religion were associated with lower levels of PTG. Survivors with higher levels of PTG had better social/family well-being (P < 0.001) and better functional well-being (P < 0.001). Psychological interventions to enhance PTG may have a positive effect on impaired HRQOL among stomach cancer survivors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effects of Multi-Growth Factors-Containing Cream on Post-Thyroidectomy Scars: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sungsik; Shin, Jung U; Lee, Youngin; Chung, Woong Youn; Nam, Kee-Hyun; Kwon, Tae Gwang; Lee, Ju Hee

    2017-06-01

    Growth factors play important roles in wound healing. However, the evidence for the effects of growth factors on post-thyroidectomy scars is limited. We performed a prospective study to assess the preventive and therapeutic effect of a multi-growth factor (MGF)-containing cream on post-thyroidectomy scars. Twenty-one patients with thyroidectomy scars applied MGF cream twice a day. We assessed the changes in erythema, pigmentation, skin elasticity, and skin hydration status using the erythema index, melanin index, cutometer, and corneometer, respectively. In addition, Vancouver scar scale (VSS) and patient satisfaction were assessed at 10 days after surgery (baseline), 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after baseline. The mean total VSS scores were significantly lower at 6 weeks (3.24±1.51 vs. 1.91±1.38) and 12 weeks (3.24±1.51 vs. 1.71±1.59) compared to the baseline. The degree of pigmentation was significantly lower at 12 weeks compared to the baseline, and the skin elasticity, and the skin hydration status were significantly higher at 12 weeks compared to the baseline. Over 85% of the patients were satisfied with the use of MGF cream without any adverse effect. MGF cream might have additive or supportive effect for scar formation after thyroidectomy.

  4. Grass seedling growth and survival under different post-fire grazing management scenarios

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As wildfires have increased in frequency and size throughout the Great Basin, post-fire rehabilitation activities have become important in reestablishing resilient sagebrush steppe communities. Many rehabilitation treatments fail when perennial grass seedlings do not establish. This can be due to pr...

  5. Effects of post-harvest handling conditions on internalization and growth of Salmonella enterica in tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Internalization during post-harvest handling is a significant route of tomato contamination by phytopathogens and foodborne human pathogens. This study was conducted to determine the effect of immersion time, immersion depth, and the temperature differential between bacterial suspension and tomato p...

  6. Tree Growth and Competition in a Betula platyphylla–Larix cajanderi Post-fire Forest in Central Kamchatka

    PubMed Central

    DOLEŽAL, JIŘÍ; ISHII, HIROAKI; VETROVA, VALENTINA P.; SUMIDA, AKIHIRO; HARA, TOSHIHIKO

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Fire is the dominant disturbance in central Kamchatka boreal forests, yet patterns and mechanisms of stand recovery have not been investigated. • Methods Measurements were made of 1433 stems ≥1·3 m height and annual radial increments of 225 randomly selected trees in a 0·4-ha plot of a 53-year-old fire-origin mixed-species stand to examine the spatio-temporal variation in establishment, growth, size inequality and the mode of competition among individual trees. Growth variations were related to tree size, age and local interference with neighbours. • Key Results Betula platyphylla formed the main canopy following a fire in 1947, with Larix cajanderi and Pinus pumila progressively reinvading the lower tree and shrub stratum. Most B. platyphylla originated from sprouts in small patches (polycormons) during the first 15 post-fire years. Betula platyphylla had normal distributions of diameter and age classes, but negatively skewed height distribution, as expected from shade-intolerant, pioneer species. Larix cajanderi had fewer tall and many short individuals. The smaller and younger B. platyphylla grew disproportionately more in diameter than larger trees from 1950 to 1975, and hence stem size inequalities decreased. The reverse trend was observed from 1995 to 2000: larger trees grew more, indicating an increasing asymmetry of competition for light. Betula platyphylla had steady diameter growth in the first 25 post-fire years, after which the growth declined in smaller trees. Neighbourhood analysis showed that the decline resulted from increased competition from taller neighbours. • Conclusions The observed growth patterns suggest that mode of interactions altered during stand development from early stages of weak competition for soil resources released by fire to later stages of asymmetric competition for light. Asymmetric crown competition started later than reported in other studies, which can be attributed to the lower stem

  7. Tree growth and competition in a Betula platyphylla-Larix cajanderi post-fire forest in central Kamchatka.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Jirí; Ishii, Hiroaki; Vetrova, Valentina P; Sumida, Akihiro; Hara, Toshihiko

    2004-09-01

    Fire is the dominant disturbance in central Kamchatka boreal forests, yet patterns and mechanisms of stand recovery have not been investigated. Measurements were made of 1433 stems > or =1.3 m height and annual radial increments of 225 randomly selected trees in a 0.4-ha plot of a 53-year-old fire-origin mixed-species stand to examine the spatio-temporal variation in establishment, growth, size inequality and the mode of competition among individual trees. Growth variations were related to tree size, age and local interference with neighbours. Betula platyphylla formed the main canopy following a fire in 1947, with Larix cajanderi and Pinus pumila progressively reinvading the lower tree and shrub stratum. Most B. platyphylla originated from sprouts in small patches (polycormons) during the first 15 post-fire years. Betula platyphylla had normal distributions of diameter and age classes, but negatively skewed height distribution, as expected from shade-intolerant, pioneer species. Larix cajanderi had fewer tall and many short individuals. The smaller and younger B. platyphylla grew disproportionately more in diameter than larger trees from 1950 to 1975, and hence stem size inequalities decreased. The reverse trend was observed from 1995 to 2000: larger trees grew more, indicating an increasing asymmetry of competition for light. Betula platyphylla had steady diameter growth in the first 25 post-fire years, after which the growth declined in smaller trees. Neighbourhood analysis showed that the decline resulted from increased competition from taller neighbours. The observed growth patterns suggest that mode of interactions altered during stand development from early stages of weak competition for soil resources released by fire to later stages of asymmetric competition for light. Asymmetric crown competition started later than reported in other studies, which can be attributed to the lower stem density leaving much space for individual growth, greater relative

  8. Comparison of Olivine Grain Growth during Dynamic Recrystallization, Post-deformational Annealing, and Static Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speciale, P. A.; Behr, W. M.; Hirth, G.; Tokle, L.

    2016-12-01

    Strain localization is associated with dynamic recrystallization in shear zones. However, whether localization persists to form long-lived plate boundaries is debated because of the possible counteracting effects of grain growth. We deformed Balsam Gap dunite, a natural olivine aggregate, under axial compression to examine the relative contributions of strain energy and surface energy in facilitating grain boundary migration (GBM) and grain growth. Experiments were conducted at 1100-1200°C, 10-4-10-5 s-1, and 1300 MPa confining pressure. Samples that were allowed to recover after deformation show abundant evidence of surface energy-driven GBM, but average grain size does not increase significantly compared to that in samples quenched prior to annealing. In contrast, samples that continued to deform at a reduced strain rate (for the same time as the annealed samples) show both strain energy- and surface energy-driven GBM, and an increased grain size. These observations suggest that growth is enhanced by continued deformation at low stress. More sluggish grain growth in deformed samples that annealed under static conditions may result from continued recrystallization during stress relaxation, grain boundary pinning by accessory chromite, or melt along grain boundaries and at triple junctions. To facilitate comparison of our results to published grain growth laws for olivine, we also conducted a hydrostatic grain growth experiment on 10-20 μm powders of Balsam Gap dunite and San Carlos olivine separated by a Pt disc and annealed for 24 hours at 1100°C. A similar experiment was run at 1000°C for 10 minutes to constrain the initial grain size before annealing. Both powdered materials exhibit grain growth after 24 hours. However, although they had the same starting grain size, the annealed San Carlos olivine is slightly coarser than the annealed Balsam Gap dunite, which suggests that grain growth is inhibited in the dunite.

  9. Remnant growth rate after portal vein embolization is a good early predictor of post-hepatectomy liver failure.

    PubMed

    Leung, Universe; Simpson, Amber L; Araujo, Raphael L C; Gönen, Mithat; McAuliffe, Conor; Miga, Michael I; Parada, E Patricia; Allen, Peter J; D'Angelica, Michael I; Kingham, T Peter; DeMatteo, Ronald P; Fong, Yuman; Jarnagin, William R

    2014-10-01

    After portal vein embolization (PVE), the future liver remnant (FLR) hypertrophies for several weeks. An early marker that predicts a low risk of post-hepatectomy liver failure can reduce the delay to surgery. Liver volumes of 153 patients who underwent a major hepatectomy (>3 segments) after PVE for primary or secondary liver malignancy between September 1999 and November 2012 were retrospectively evaluated with computerized volumetry. Pre- and post-PVE FLR volume and functional liver volume were measured. Degree of hypertrophy (DH = post-FLR/post-functional liver volume - pre-FLR/pre-functional liver volume) and growth rate (GR = DH/weeks since PVE) were calculated. Postoperative complications and liver failure were correlated with DH, measured GR, and estimated GR derived from a formula based on body surface area. Eligible patients underwent 93 right hepatectomies, 51 extended right hepatectomies, 4 left hepatectomies, and 5 extended left hepatectomies. Major complications occurred in 44 patients (28.7%) and liver failure in 6 patients (3.9%). Nonparametric regression showed that post-embolization FLR percent correlated poorly with liver failure. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that DH and GR were good predictors of liver failure (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.80; p = 0.011 and AUC = 0.79; p = 0.015) and modest predictors of major complications (AUC = 0.66; p = 0.002 and AUC = 0.61; p = 0.032). No patient with GR >2.66% per week had liver failure develop. The predictive value of measured GR was superior to estimated GR for liver failure (AUC = 0.79 vs 0.58; p = 0.046). Both DH and GR after PVE are strong predictors of post-hepatectomy liver failure. Growth rate might be a better guide for the optimum timing of liver resection than static volumetric measurements. Measured volumetrics correlated with outcomes better than estimated volumetrics. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of post-growth thermal treatments on the critical current density of TSMG YBCO bulk superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diko, P.; Antal, V.; Zmorayová, K.; Šefčiková, M.; Chaud, X.; Kováč, J.; Yao, X.; Chen, I.; Eisterer, M.; Weber, H. W.

    2010-12-01

    Oxygenation and thermochemical post-growth treatments of top seeded melt-growth (TSMG) YBCO bulk superconductors can significantly influence critical current density. It is shown that, depending on oxygenation conditions and the size of 211 particles, different reductions of intrinsic critical current density values can be obtained due to the reduction in the sample cross-section caused by the presence of a/b-microcracks induced by 211 particles, and a/b- and a/c-cracks induced by oxygenation. The possibility of eliminating oxygenation cracks by high pressure oxygenation and consequently significantly increasing the macroscopic critical current density is demonstrated. An effective dopant concentration for chemical pinning is proposed and possible clustering of substitutions in the Y123 lattice by thermochemical treatments is shown.

  11. The Time of Maximum Post-Ischemic Hyperperfusion Indicates Infarct Growth Following Transient Experimental Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Wegener, Susanne; Artmann, Judith; Luft, Andreas R.; Buxton, Richard B.; Weller, Michael; Wong, Eric C.

    2013-01-01

    After recanalization, cerebral blood flow (CBF) can increase above baseline in cerebral ischemia. However, the significance of post-ischemic hyperperfusion for tissue recovery remains unclear. To analyze the course of post-ischemic hyperperfusion and its impact on vascular function, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with pulsed arterial spin labeling (pASL) and measured CBF quantitatively during and after a 60 minute transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in adult rats. We added a 5% CO2 - challenge to analyze vasoreactivity in the same animals. Results from MRI were compared to histological correlates of angiogenesis. We found that CBF in the ischemic area recovered within one day and reached values significantly above contralateral thereafter. The extent of hyperperfusion changed over time, which was related to final infarct size: early (day 1) maximal hyperperfusion was associated with smaller lesions, whereas a later (day 4) maximum indicated large lesions. Furthermore, after initial vasoparalysis within the ischemic area, vasoreactivity on day 14 was above baseline in a fraction of animals, along with a higher density of blood vessels in the ischemic border zone. These data provide further evidence that late post-ischemic hyperperfusion is a sequel of ischemic damage in regions that are likely to undergo infarction. However, it is transient and its resolution coincides with re-gaining of vascular structure and function. PMID:23741488

  12. Functional differences in the growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor axis in cattle and pigs: implications for post-partum nutrition and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Lucy, M C

    2008-07-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) control growth and lactation in cattle and swine. Insulin participates in the endocrinology of growth and lactation because insulin and GH are antagonistic in their actions. Dairy cows experience a period of negative energy balance during the first 4-8 weeks post-partum. During this period, their somatotropic axis (comprised of GH, the GH receptor and IGF-I) becomes uncoupled and there is elevated GH and diminished IGF-I in the circulation. Blood insulin concentrations are low as well. Sows are different from dairy cows because their somatotropic axis remains coupled during lactation and both GH and IGF-I are elevated. Nonetheless, sows that become catabolic during lactation will have reduced IGF-I concentrations. Sows are inseminated after weaning so their metabolic state is different from post-partum beef and dairy cows that are inseminated when they are lactating. Dairy cows are fed ad libitum and naturally have low IGF-I during lactation. Sows have elevated IGF-I when they are well-fed. A threshold of IGF-I protein in follicular fluid may be met by local ovarian (paracrine/autocrine) and endocrine sources of IGF-I. Nutritionally induced changes in insulin and in liver IGF-I secretion that arise from perturbations of the somatotropic axis have a direct effect on the ovary through the endocrine actions of insulin and IGF-I. Sows and cows that are nutritionally compromised have low concentrations of insulin and IGF-I in their blood and this theoretically reduces ovarian responsiveness to gonadotropins. Although sows are inseminated after weaning, there appear to be carry-over effects of the previous lactation on the ovarian follicular populations that develop after the sow is weaned. Understanding the mechanisms through which metabolic hormones control ovarian function may lead to improved reproductive management of both pigs and cattle because lactation and post-partum reproduction are closely tied in

  13. Growth factor- and cytokine-stimulated endothelial progenitor cells in post-ischemic cerebral neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Peplow, Philip V.

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells are resident in the bone marrow blood sinusoids and circulate in the peripheral circulation. They mobilize from the bone marrow after vascular injury and home to the site of injury where they differentiate into endothelial cells. Activation and mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells from the bone marrow is induced via the production and release of endothelial progenitor cell-activating factors and includes specific growth factors and cytokines in response to peripheral tissue hypoxia such as after acute ischemic stroke or trauma. Endothelial progenitor cells migrate and home to specific sites following ischemic stroke via growth factor/cytokine gradients. Some growth factors are less stable under acidic conditions of tissue ischemia, and synthetic analogues that are stable at low pH may provide a more effective therapeutic approach for inducing endothelial progenitor cell mobilization and promoting cerebral neovascularization following ischemic stroke. PMID:25317152

  14. Coercive and Prosocial Fathering, Antisocial Personality, and Growth in Children's Post-Divorce Noncompliance

    PubMed Central

    DeGarmo, David S.

    2009-01-01

    The study employed multiple methods including direct observation of fathering behaviors and child noncompliance to better address our understanding of the quantity and quality of divorced father contact. A weighted county sample of 230 divorced-father families with a focal child aged 4 to 11 years was employed to test whether fathers' antisocial personality (ASP) moderated effects of monthly contact with children in predicting children's observed noncompliance over 18 months. Latent growth models obtained significant individual differences in levels of noncompliance and growth rates. ASP significantly moderated the beneficial impact of fathers' monthly contact. Fathers' observed parenting practices significantly predicted levels but not growth rates. Parenting did not account for the effect of Contact × ASP suggesting both environmental and potentially genetic influences on child adjustment. Findings were robust across boys and girls and age levels. Implications for preventive intervention are discussed. PMID:20438456

  15. Post-translational modification of osteopontin: Effects on in vitro hydroxyapatite formation and growth

    SciTech Connect

    Boskey, Adele L.; Christensen, Brian; Taleb, Hayat; Sorensen, Esben S.

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thrombin-cleaved fragments of milk-osteopontin effect hydroxyapatite formation differently. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N- and C-terminal fragments promoted hydroxyapatite formation and growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A central fragment inhibited hydroxyapatite formation and growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Binding to collagen or hydroxyapatite seed crystals modified these effects. -- Abstract: The manuscript tests the hypothesis that posttranslational modification of the SIBLING family of proteins in general and osteopontin in particular modify the abilities of these proteins to regulate in vitro hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. Osteopontin has diverse effects on hydroxyapatite (HA) mineral crystallite formation and growth depending on the extent of phosphorylation. We hypothesized that different regions of full-length OPN would also have distinct effects on the mineralization process. Thrombin fragmentation of milk OPN (mOPN) was used to test this hypothesis. Three fragments were tested in a de novo HA formation assay; an N-terminal fragment (aa 1-147), a central fragment (aa 148-204) denoted SKK-fragment and a C-terminal fragment (aa 205-262). Compared to intact mOPN the C- and N-terminal fragments behaved comparably, promoting HA formation and growth, but the central SKK-fragment acted as a mineralization inhibitor. In a seeded growth experiment all fragments inhibited mineral proliferation, but the SKK-fragment was the most effective inhibitor. These effects, seen in HA-formation and seeded growth assays in a gelatin gel system and in a pH-stat experiment were lost when the protein or fragments were dephosphorylated. Effects of the fully phosphorylated protein and fragments were also altered in the presence of fibrillar collagen. The diverse effects can be explained in terms of the intrinsically disordered nature of OPN and its fragments which enable them to interact with their multiple partners.

  16. Post-Traumatic Caspase-3 Expression in the Adjacent Areas of Growth Plate Injury Site: A Morphological Study

    PubMed Central

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Loreto, Carla; Castorina, Sergio; Pichler, Karin; Weinberg, Annelie Martina

    2013-01-01

    The epiphyseal plate is a hyaline cartilage plate that sits between the diaphysis and the epiphysis. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of an injury in the growth plate chondrocytes through the study of histological morphology, immunohistochemistry, histomorphometry and Western Blot analyses of the caspase-3 and cleaved PARP-1, and levels of the inflammatory cytokines, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), in order to acquire more information about post-injury reactions of physeal cell turnover. In our results, morphological analysis showed that in experimental bones, neo-formed bone trabeculae—resulting from bone formation repair—invaded the growth plate and reached the metaphyseal bone tissue (bone bridge), and this could result in some growth arrest. We demonstrated, by ELISA, increased expression levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. Immunohistochemistry, histomorphometry and Western Blot analyses of the caspase-3 and cleaved PARP-1 showed that the physeal apoptosis rate of the experimental bones was significantly higher than that of the control ones. In conclusion, we could assume that the inflammation process causes stress to chondrocytes that will die as a biological defense mechanism, and will also increase the survival of new chondrocytes for maintaining cell homeostasis. Nevertheless, the exact stimulus leading to the increased apoptosis rate, observed after injury, needs additional research to understand the possible contribution of chondrocyte apoptosis to growth disturbance. PMID:23899790

  17. Post-traumatic caspase-3 expression in the adjacent areas of growth plate injury site: a morphological study.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Loreto, Carla; Castorina, Sergio; Pichler, Karin; Weinberg, Annelie Martina

    2013-07-29

    The epiphyseal plate is a hyaline cartilage plate that sits between the diaphysis and the epiphysis. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of an injury in the growth plate chondrocytes through the study of histological morphology, immunohistochemistry, histomorphometry and Western Blot analyses of the caspase-3 and cleaved PARP-1, and levels of the inflammatory cytokines, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), in order to acquire more information about post-injury reactions of physeal cell turnover. In our results, morphological analysis showed that in experimental bones, neo-formed bone trabeculae-resulting from bone formation repair-invaded the growth plate and reached the metaphyseal bone tissue (bone bridge), and this could result in some growth arrest. We demonstrated, by ELISA, increased expression levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. Immunohistochemistry, histomorphometry and Western Blot analyses of the caspase-3 and cleaved PARP-1 showed that the physeal apoptosis rate of the experimental bones was significantly higher than that of the control ones. In conclusion, we could assume that the inflammation process causes stress to chondrocytes that will die as a biological defense mechanism, and will also increase the survival of new chondrocytes for maintaining cell homeostasis. Nevertheless, the exact stimulus leading to the increased apoptosis rate, observed after injury, needs additional research to understand the possible contribution of chondrocyte apoptosis to growth disturbance.

  18. The Effect of Plant Cultivar, Growth Media, Harvest Method and Post Harvest Treatment on the Microbiology of Edible Crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummerick, Mary P.; Gates, Justin R.; Nguyen, Bao-Thang; Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    Systems for the growth of crops in closed environments are being developed and tested for potential use in space applications to provide a source of fresh food. Plant growth conditions, growth media composition and harvest methods can have an effect on the microbial population of the plant, and therefore should be considered along with the optimization of plant growth and harvest yields to ensure a safe and palatable food crop. This work examines the effect of plant cultivar, growth media, and harvest method on plant microbial populations. Twelve varieties of leafy greens and herbs were grown on a mixture of Fafard #2 and Arcillite in the pillow root containment system currently being considered for the VEGGIE plant growth unit developed by Orbitec. In addition, ,Sierra and Outredgeous lettuce varieties were grown in three different mixtures (Fafard #2, Ardllite, and Perlite/Vermiculite). The plants were analyzed for microbial density. Two harvest methods, "cut and come again" (CACA) and terminal harvest were also compared. In one set ofexpe'riments red leaf lettuce and mizuna were grown in pots in a Biomass Production System for education. Plants were harvested every two weeks by either method. Another set of experiments was performed using the rooting pillows to grow 5 varieties of leafy greens and cut harvesting at different intervals. Radishes were harvested and replanted at two-week intervals. Results indicate up to a 3 IOglO difference in microbial counts between some varieties of plants. Rooting medium resulted in an approximately 2 IOglO lower count in the lettuce grown in arscillite then those grown in the other mixtures. Harvest method and frequency had less impact on microbial counts only showing a significant increase in one variety of plant. Post harvest methods to decrease the bacterial counts on edible crops were investigated in these and other experiments. The effectiveness of PRO-SAN and UV-C radiation is compared.

  19. Effects of egg incubation condition on the post-hatching growth and performance of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, K.M.

    1990-12-01

    The effect of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth and performance capacities of the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina was investigated in the laboratory. Turtle eggs were collected from four sites in New York State and randomly assigned to four incubation temperature treatments to produce males (constant 26[degree]C and downshifted 30-26-30[degree]C) and females (constant 30[degree]C and upshifted 26-30-26[degree]C) under constant and altered temperature regimes. The incubation conditions resulted in 92% males from the constant 26[degree]C group and 93% males from the downshifted group. 100% females resulted from both the constant 30[degree]C group and the upshifted group. Turtles hatching from eggs incubated constantly at 26[degree]C were significantly larger than hatchlings from eggs incubated at a constant 30[degree]C or downshifted. Hatchlings were raised in individual aquaria at 25[degree]C and fed earthworms and fish. After a 9-month growth period, turtles which had been incubated at a constant 30[degree]C gained significantly more mass than did turtles from eggs which had been downshifted or upshifted. There was no extended effect of incubation condition on Post-hatching performance and learning ability as measured by righting and feeding responses. Thus, the mass gain differences seen in this study suggest that physiological differences do result as the consequence of incubation condition. However, these physiological differences are not reflected in normal locomotive or feeding behavior.

  20. Effects of egg incubation condition on the post-hatching growth and performance of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, Kathleen M.

    1990-12-01

    The effect of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth and performance capacities of the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina was investigated in the laboratory. Turtle eggs were collected from four sites in New York State and randomly assigned to four incubation temperature treatments to produce males (constant 26°C and downshifted 30-26-30°C) and females (constant 30°C and upshifted 26-30-26°C) under constant and altered temperature regimes. The incubation conditions resulted in 92% males from the constant 26°C group and 93% males from the downshifted group. 100% females resulted from both the constant 30°C group and the upshifted group. Turtles hatching from eggs incubated constantly at 26°C were significantly larger than hatchlings from eggs incubated at a constant 30°C or downshifted. Hatchlings were raised in individual aquaria at 25°C and fed earthworms and fish. After a 9-month growth period, turtles which had been incubated at a constant 30°C gained significantly more mass than did turtles from eggs which had been downshifted or upshifted. There was no extended effect of incubation condition on Post-hatching performance and learning ability as measured by righting and feeding responses. Thus, the mass gain differences seen in this study suggest that physiological differences do result as the consequence of incubation condition. However, these physiological differences are not reflected in normal locomotive or feeding behavior.

  1. Investigations into the relationship of post-stress metabolic rates and growth of fishes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine if respirometry indices of fish following a stressor correspond with growth. On four occasions over a period of one month, oxygen consumption rates of 16 hybrid striped bass families were measured following a standardized handling stressor. Groups of 10...

  2. Ridge-trench collision in Archean and Post-Archean crustal growth: Evidence from southern Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, E. P.; Forsythe, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    The growth of continental crust at convergent plate margins involves both continuous and episodic processes. Ridge-trench collision is one episodic process that can cause significant magmatic and tectonic effects on convergent plate margins. Because the sites of ridge collision (ridge-trench triple junctions) generally migrate along convergent plate boundaries, the effects of ridge collision will be highly diachronous in Andean-type orogenic belts and may not be adequately recognized in the geologic record. The Chile margin triple junction (CMTJ, 46 deg S), where the actively spreading Chile rise is colliding with the sediment-filled Peru-Chile trench, is geometrically and kinematically the simplest modern example of ridge collision. The south Chile margin illustrates the importance of the ridge-collision tectonic setting in crustal evolution at convergent margins. Similarities between ridge-collision features in southern Chile and features of Archean greenstone belts raise the question of the importance of ridge collision in Archean crustal growth. Archean plate tectonic processes were probably different than today; these differences may have affected the nature and importance of ridge collision during Archean crustal growth. In conclusion, it is suggested that smaller plates, greater ridge length, and/or faster spreading all point to the likelihood that ridge collision played a greater role in crustal growth and development of the greenstone-granite terranes during the Archean. However, the effects of modern ridge collision, and the processes involved, are not well enough known to develop specific models for the Archean ridge collison.

  3. Is there a correspondence between growth and post-handling stress: A respirometry approach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Examinations into the linkage between aquaculture performance parameters (e.g. growth, survival) and the physiological stress response has led to the consideration of selecting stress response phenotypes in breeding programs. Methodologies for examining the stress response typically require blood s...

  4. Post-fertilization physiology and growth performance of loblolly pine clones

    Treesearch

    N.T. King; J.R. Seiler; T.R. Fox; KurtH. Johnsen

    2008-01-01

    The physiological processes leading to enhanced growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) following fertilization are not clearly understood. Part of the debate revolves around the temporal response of net photosynthetic rate (An) to fertilization and whether the An response is always positive. We measured light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Asat), dark respiration...

  5. Post discharge growth assessment in preterm infants: implications of adopting the WHO standards.

    PubMed

    Fustiñana, Carlos A; Rodríguez, Diana; Mariani, Gonzalo

    2014-04-01

    The WHO standards have been used as a gold standard for growth assessment in preterm infants since 1986. The introduction of the WHO standards in Argentina could improve detection of sub-optimal growth. To compare the proportion of growth retardation in terms of weight, body height and head circumference in preterm infants with a birth weight less than 1500 g (VLBW) assessed according to the WHO standards and the Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría (SAP) standards. Cohort study in VLBW newborn infants. Measurements included were weight, height and head circumferences measured at 40, 53, 66, 79 and 92 postmenstrual weeks (±1 week). Sex was recorded as an independent outcome measure for both standards (WHO and SAP). Mean Z scores were analyzed for both standards using Student's test, and the difference of proportions was assessed using the c2 test (OR; 95% CI). Two hundred and four infants were included. No differences were observed in anthropometric outcome measures at birth by sex. A greater growth was seen in terms of weight and height as per the SAP standards compared to the WHO standards, which was more marked in male infants than female infants, and which diminished around their first year of life. Growth retardation in terms of height was observed in both males and females assessed with the WHO standards. No differences were observed in head circumference. A higher proportion of patients with a weight below 2 standard deviations at 3 months old was found as per the WHO (p < 0.01; OR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.150.78), but that was not the case with height and head circumference. This study allows to suggest that changing the standards does not imply a significant modification in our follow-up practice over the first year of life of an infant.

  6. Effects of post-partum administration of ketoprofen on sow health and piglet growth.

    PubMed

    Viitasaari, Elina; Hänninen, Laura; Heinonen, Mari; Raekallio, Marja; Orro, Toomas; Peltoniemi, Olli; Valros, Anna

    2013-10-01

    The effect of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen on the post farrowing phase of sows was studied in a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Ketoprofen (3mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly to 20 healthy sows for 3 days post-partum (p.p.). The control group (n=20) received a saline placebo. Backfat, number of days of constipation and days before feed refusal were measured. Body condition (BCS) and shoulder sores were scored for 1 week p.p. Changes in BCS, backfat and shoulder sore scores were analysed with ANOVA. Blood was collected on days -1, 0, 5 and 14 with respect to medication. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine kinase (CK), haptoglobin and serum amyloid A (SAA) were quantified and analysed with a Mann-Whitney U test. BCS and backfat decreased less following ketoprofen administration than with the placebo (-0.08 ± 0.2 vs. -0.8 ± 0.2, 1.0 ± 0.8mm vs. -2.0 ± 0.9 mm, respectively; P<0.05 for both) during the first 2 weeks of lactation. The shoulder sore score deterioration was milder during days 4-6 p.p. with ketoprofen than placebo (P<0.05). Duration of constipation was shorter with ketoprofen than placebo (5.5 ± 0.3 vs. 6.4 ± 0.3 days p.p.; P<0.05). Incidences of feed refusal occurred later in the ketoprofen group than in the placebos (9.6 ± 0.9 vs. 3.8 ± 0.8 days p.p.; P<0.05). AST and SAA values were higher after ketoprofen administration than placebo on day 5 p.p. (P<0.05). It was concluded that ketoprofen appeared to benefit sows during the first 2 weeks post farrowing, but caused some tissue irritation.

  7. Riverbank restoration in the southern United States: The effects of soil texture and moisture regime on survival and growth of willow posts

    Treesearch

    S. Reza Pezeshki; Steven D. Schaff; F. Douglas Shields

    2000-01-01

    Field studies were conducted to quantify the relationship between soil conditions and growth of black willow posts planted for riverbank erosion control along Harland Creek (HC) and Twentymile Creek (TC) sites in Mississippi. Both sites had a wide range of soil texture and moisture regimes. Soil texture, water level, redox potential (Eh), and willow survival and growth...

  8. Correlates of post-traumatic stress symptoms and growth in cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shand, Lyndel K; Cowlishaw, Sean; Brooker, Joanne E; Burney, Sue; Ricciardelli, Lina A

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationships among demographic, medical, and psychosocial factors and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and post-traumatic growth (PTG) in oncology populations. A systematic search identified k = 116 relevant studies published between 1990 and 2012. Meta-analyses synthesized results from studies that reported data on correlates of PTSS (k = 26) or PTG (k = 48). A meta-analysis was performed for k = 5 studies reporting the correlation between PTSS and PTG. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were associated with depression (r = 0.56), anxiety (r = 0.65), distress (r = 0.62), social support (r = -0.33), and physical quality of life (r = -0.44). PTG was associated with age (r = -0.08), gender (r = -0.15), distress (r = -0.16), depression (r = -0.06), social support (r = 0.30), optimism (r = 0.27), positive reappraisal (r = 0.46), spirituality (r = 0.33), and religious coping (r = 0.36). There was a small positive relationship between PTSS and PTG (r = 0.13). Post-traumatic stress symptoms and PTG appear to be independent constructs, rather than opposite ends of a single dimension. This is reflected in a small relationship between these variables and different psychosocial correlates. PTSS were strongly associated with variables reflecting a general state of negative affect. Optimism, spirituality, and positive coping styles were associated with PTG. It remains unclear how they are associated with PTSS, given the lack of relevant studies. Longitudinal research is required to examine how psychosocial factors influence the relationship between PTSS and PTG. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Investment choices in post-embryonic development: quantifying interactions among growth, regeneration, and asexual reproduction in the annelid Pristina leidyi.

    PubMed

    Zattara, Eduardo E; Bely, Alexandra E

    2013-12-01

    Animals capable of multiple forms of post-embryonic development, such as growth, regeneration, and asexual reproduction, must make choices about which processes to invest in. What strategies guide post-embryonic resource allocation investments? We investigated this question in the annelid Pristina leidyi, which can grow continuously, regenerates well, and reproduces asexually by fission. We found that in this species growth is concentrated in three zones: a subterminal posterior zone (forming new segments), a mid-body zone (forming fission zones), and a previously undescribed subterminal anterior zone at the base of the prostomium (which we suggest continually builds the prostomium through a "conveyor-belt" like process). Body-wide counts of proliferating cells are greater under high food than low food conditions but proliferation patterns themselves are independent of feeding level. Proliferation patterns are strongly affected by amputation, however, with proliferation rapidly shutting-down throughout the body, except at the wound site, following injury. Relative investment to fission and regeneration is highly context-dependent, being sensitive to the position of the cut and the stage of fission. Outcomes range from fission acceleration and regeneration stalling (high fission:regeneration investment) to resorption of fission zones and progression of regeneration (low fission:regeneration investment). Our findings reveal strong interactions between growth, regeneration, and fission and demonstrate a particularly important effect of injury on resource allocation patterns. Patterns of resource investment in P. leidyi show similarities to those described in two other groups that evolved fission independently (naidine annelids and catenulid flatworms), suggesting that similar developmental and physiological contexts may drive convergent evolution of resource allocation strategies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Facebook Surveillance of Former Romantic Partners: Associations with PostBreakup Recovery and Personal Growth

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Previous research has found that continuing offline contact with an ex-romantic partner following a breakup may disrupt emotional recovery. The present study examined whether continuing online contact with an ex-partner through remaining Facebook friends and/or engaging in surveillance of the ex-partner's Facebook page inhibited postbreakup adjustment and growth above and beyond offline contact. Analysis of the data provided by 464 participants revealed that Facebook surveillance was associated with greater current distress over the breakup, more negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the ex-partner, and lower personal growth. Participants who remained Facebook friends with the ex-partner, relative to those who did not remain Facebook friends, reported less negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the former partner, but lower personal growth. All of these results emerged after controlling for offline contact, personality traits, and characteristics of the former relationship and breakup that tend to predict postbreakup adjustment. Overall, these findings suggest that exposure to an ex-partner through Facebook may obstruct the process of healing and moving on from a past relationship. PMID:22946958

  11. Effects of Pre- and Post-Administration of Vitamin A on the Growth of Refractory Cancers in Xenograft Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan; Imai, Masahiko; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Shinya; Takahashi, Noriko

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin A is an essential nutrient that is obtained from the daily diet. The major forms of vitamin A in the body consist of retinol, retinal, retinoic acid (RA), and retinyl esters. Retinal is fundamental for vision and RA is used in clinical therapy of human acute promyelocytic leukemia. The actions of retinol and retinyl palmitate (RP) are not known well. Recently, we found that retinol is a potent anti-proliferative agent against human refractory cancers, including gallbladder cancer, being more effective than RA, while RP was inactive. In the current study, we determined serum retinol concentrations in xenograft mice bearing tumors derived from four refractory cancer cell lines. We also examined the effects of vitamin A on proliferation of human gallbladder cancer cells in vivo. Serum retinol concentrations were significantly lower in xenograft mice with tumors derived from various refractory cancer cell lines as compared with control mice. The growth of tumors was inhibited with increasing serum retinol concentrations obtained post-administration of RP. In addition, pre-administration of RP increased serum retinol concentrations and suppressed tumor growth. These results indicate that administration of RP can maintain retinol concentrations in the body and that this might suppress cancer cell growth and attachment. The regulation of vitamin A concentration in the body, which is critical biomarker of health, could be beneficial for cancer prevention and therapy.

  12. Post-pollination mechanisms in Nicotiana longiflora and N. plumbaginifolia: pollen tube growth rate, offspring paternity and hybridization.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Castro, Dulce M; Holtsford, Timothy P

    2009-09-01

    In natural populations where interfertile species coexist, conspecific and heterospecific pollen can be delivered to the stigmas. Post-pollination mechanisms might determine the seed siring success of different pollen donors within species as well as the chances for hybridization between species. Nicotiana longiflora and N. plumbaginifolia occur in sympatry in Northwest Argentina, where they have overlapping flowering seasons and share floral visitors. We explored (1) pollen tube growth rates for outcross versus self pollen in single-donor pollinations; (2) siring success of self versus outcross pollen donors in competitive pollinations, and (3) possibilities for hybridization by performing two- (outcross conspecific vs. heterospecific) and three-pollen donor (self vs. outcross vs. heterospecific) crosses. In N. longiflora, both pollen tube growth rate and siring success favored outcross pollen over self pollen and strong rejection of heterospecific pollen. In N. plumbaginifolia, pollen tube growth rate was similar for self and outcross pollen, self pollen sired similar numbers of offspring than outcross pollen and heterospecific pollen sired roughly the same number of progeny than self pollen. Results suggest that in natural sympatric populations, interspecific crosses would likely lead to unidirectional hybridization with N. plumbaginifolia as the seed parent.

  13. Constant amplitude and post-overload fatigue crack growth behavior in PM aluminum alloy AA 8009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, A. P.

    1991-01-01

    A recently developed, rapidly solidified, powder metallurgy, dispersion strengthened aluminum alloy, AA 8009, was fatigue tested at room temperature in lab air. Constant amplitude/constant delta kappa and single spike overload conditions were examined. High fatigue crack growth rates and low crack closure levels compared to typical ingot metallurgy aluminum alloys were observed. It was proposed that minimal crack roughness, crack path deflection, and limited slip reversibility, resulting from ultra-fine microstructure, were responsible for the relatively poor da/dN-delta kappa performance of AA 8009 as compared to that of typical IM aluminum alloys.

  14. [Post-natal growth of the child born with intra-uterine malnutrition].

    PubMed

    Urrusti-Sanz, J; Yoshida-Ando, P; Frenk, S; Velasco-Candano, L; Rosado, A; Miranda-Rodriguez, A; Lilia Aspra, A

    1978-01-01

    Growth and morbidity were studied in a group of children at one and two years of age of which 10 were born with intrauterine malnutrition, 14 were prematures and nine had normal weight. All were evaluated , according to the Gesell test, at two years of age. Malnourished and premature children grew at greater rate than normals, reaching their size at one year of age. However, at the age of two, length of premature children was less than in normals. Gesell's test results were subnormal in 50 percent of the malnourished ones.

  15. The expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EGFR) during post-natal testes development in the yak.

    PubMed

    Pan, Y; Cui, Y; Yu, S; Zhang, Q; Fan, J; Abdul Rasheed, B; Yang, K

    2014-12-01

    Growth factors play critical role in cell proliferation, regulate tissue differentiation and modulate organogenesis. Several growth factors have been identified in the testes of various mammalian species in last few years. In present investigation, the objective was to determine the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in yak testicular tissue by relative quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) from mRNA and protein levels. The testicular tissues were collected from male yak at 6 and 24 months old. Results of RT-PCR and WB showed that the expression quantity of EGF and EGFR at 24 months of age was higher than at 6 months, and the increase rate of EGFR on mRNA and protein levels was higher than the increase rate EGF during post-natal testes development. Positive staining for EGF and EGFR was very low and mainly localized to Leydig cells testes at 6 months of age with immunohistochemistry, and seminiferous tubules were not observed. At 24 month of age, both the EGF and EGFR could be detected in Leydig cells, peritubular myoid cells, sertoli cells and germ cells of the yak testes. However, EGF and EGFR were localized to preferential adluminal compartment and basal compartment in the seminiferous tubules, respectively. In conclusion, the findings in present studies suggest that EGF and EGFR as important paracrine and/or autocrine regulators in yak testes development and spermatogenesis. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Post-growth purification of Co nanostructures prepared by focused electron beam induced deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begun, E.; Dobrovolskiy, O. V.; Kompaniiets, M.; Sachser, R.; Gspan, Ch; Plank, H.; Huth, M.

    2015-02-01

    In the majority of cases nanostructures prepared by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) employing an organometallic precursor contain predominantly carbon-based ligand dissociation products. This is unfortunate with regard to using this high-resolution direct-write approach for the preparation of nanostructures for various fields, such as mesoscopic physics, micromagnetism, electronic correlations, spin-dependent transport and numerous applications. Here we present an in situ cleaning approach to obtain pure Co-FEBID nanostructures. The purification procedure lies in the exposure of heated samples to a H2 atmosphere in conjunction with the irradiation by low-energy electrons. The key finding is that the combination of annealing at 300 °C, H2 exposure and electron irradiation leads to compact, carbon- and oxygen free Co layers down to a thickness of about 20 nm starting from as-deposited Co-FEBID structures. In addition to this, in temperature-dependent electrical resistance measurements on post-processed samples we find a typical metallic behavior. In low-temperature magnetoresistance and Hall effect measurements we observe ferromagnetic behavior.

  17. Stressful Life Events and Predictors of Post-traumatic Growth among High-Risk Early Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arpawong, Thalida E.; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Milam, Joel E.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Land, Helen; Sun, Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sussman, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Stressful life events (SLEs) may elicit positive psychosocial change among youth, referred to as Post-traumatic Growth (PTG). We assessed types of SLEs experienced, degree to which participants reported PTG, and variables predicting PTG across 24 months among a sample of high risk, ethnically diverse early emerging adults. Participants were recruited from alternative high schools (n = 564; mean age=16.8; 65% Hispanic). Multi-level regression models were constructed to examine the impact of environmental (SLE quantity, severity) and personal factors (hedonic ability, perceived stress, developmental stage, future time orientation) on a composite score of PTG. The majority of participants reported positive changes resulted from their most life-altering SLE of the past two years. Predictors of PTG included fewer SLEs, less general stress, having a future time perspective, and greater identification with the developmental stage of Emerging Adulthood. Findings suggest intervention targets to foster positive adaptation among early emerging adults who experience frequent SLEs. PMID:26640507

  18. Growth and Post-Deposition Treatments of SrTiO3 Films for Dye-Sensitized Photoelectrosynthesis Cell Applications.

    PubMed

    Call, Robert W; Alibabaei, Leila; Dillon, Robert J; Knauf, Robin R; Nayak, Animesh; Dempsey, Jillian L; Papanikolas, John M; Lopez, Rene

    2016-05-18

    Sensitized SrTiO3 films were evaluated as potential photoanodes for dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cells (DSPECs). The SrTiO3 films were grown via pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on a transparent conducting oxide (fluorine-doped tin oxide, FTO) substrate, annealed, and then loaded with zinc(II) 5,10,15-tris(mesityl)-20-[(dihydroxyphosphoryl)phenyl] porphyrin (MPZnP). When paired with a platinum wire counter electrode and an Ag/AgCl reference electrode these sensitized films exhibited photocurrent densities on the order of 350 nA/cm(2) under 0 V applied bias conditions versus a normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) and 75 mW/cm(2) illumination at a wavelength of 445 nm. The conditions of the post-deposition annealing step-namely, a high-temperature reducing atmosphere-proved to be the most important growth parameters for increasing photocurrent in these electrodes.

  19. Cardioprotective role of growth/differentiation factor 1 in post-infarction left ventricular remodelling and dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ming-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Li, Liangpeng; Cai, Zhongxiang; Liu, Xiaoxiong; Wan, Nian; Hu, Gangying; Wan, Fengwei; Zhang, Rui; Zhu, Xueyong; Xia, Hao; Li, Hongliang

    2015-07-01

    Growth/differentiation factor 1 (GDF1) is a secreted glycoprotein of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily that mediates cell differentiation events during embryonic development. GDF1 is expressed in several tissues, including the heart. However, the functional role of GDF1 in myocardial infarction (MI)-induced cardiac remodelling and dysfunction is not known. Here, we performed gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies using cardiac-specific GDF1 transgenic (TG) and knockout (KO) mice to determine the role of GDF1 in the pathogenesis of functional and architectural cardiac remodelling after MI, which was induced by surgical left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. Our results demonstrate that overexpression of GDF1 in the heart causes a significant decrease in MI-derived mortality post-MI and leads to attenuated infarct size expansion, left ventricular (LV) dilatation, and cardiac dysfunction at 1 week and 4 weeks after MI injury. Compared with control animals, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, inflammation, hypertrophy, and interstitial fibrosis were all remarkably reduced in the GDF1-TG mice following MI. In contrast, GDF1 deficiency greatly exacerbated the pathological cardiac remodelling response after infarction. Further analysis of the in vitro and in vivo signalling events indicated that the beneficial role of GDF1 in MI-induced cardiac dysfunction and LV remodelling was associated with the inhibition of non-canonical (MEK-ERK1/2) and canonical (Smad) signalling cascades. Overall, our data reveal that GDF1 in the heart is a novel mediator that protects against the development of post-infarction cardiac remodelling via negative regulation of the MEK-ERK1/2 and Smad signalling pathways. Thus, GDF1 may serve as a valuable therapeutic target for the treatment of MI. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The effect of manipulations of incubation temperature on embryonic and post-hatching growth of native Saudi chickens.

    PubMed

    Albokhadaim, I F; Ismail, I B; El-Bahr, S M; Althnaian, T

    2010-09-01

    Embryonated egg is an ideal, environment in which to investigate the effects of incubation temperature on the development of the chick embryo. The objective of the current study were to investigate the effect of increasing the incubation temperature of chick embryo by 1.2 degrees C for 7 days (ED4 to ED11) on the body movement and mass of native saudi chick embryo. This objective was extended to examine the influence of pre-hatching temperature on post-hatching growth. Therefore, a total of 180 hatching egg of native Saudi chicken divided into two equal groups incubated at temperature 37.5 degrees C. The incubation temperature was raised to 38.7 degrees C from ED4 to ED11 in treated group before being returned to the control group incubation temperature (37.5 degrees C). The study revealed that elevating the incubation temperature of the eggs of native Saudi chicken by just 1.2 degrees C, from 37.5 to 38.7 degrees C, during embryonic days (ED) 4-11 causes significant increase in embryonic movement as demonstrated in day 8 in the chicks incubated at 38.7 degrees C together with an increase in embryonic development, the embryos incubated at higher temperature were heavier in weights and exhibit significantly longer legs than the controls in ED12 and 15. The increase in pre-hatching incubation temperature (38.7 degrees C) did not reveal any significant effects on post-hatching growth or of feed conversion efficiency.

  1. Transforming growth factor-β promotes ‘death by neglect’ in post-activated human T cells

    PubMed Central

    Sillett, H K; Cruickshank, S M; Southgate, J; Trejdosiewicz, L K

    2001-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is central to the wound repair processes that follow local trauma and inflammation. In order to mimic the early events of wound-healing, we studied the effects of TGF-β on mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood cells. TGF-β added at the initiation of mitogenesis did not significantly alter T-cell activation, proliferation, CD45 isoform switching, or activation-induced cell death. By contrast, TGF-β added 72 hr post-activation (or later) enhanced the cumulative increase in apoptotic T cells. TGF-β had no effect on mitogen-induced up-regulation of Fas (CD95) or Fas ligand and did not enhance killing of the Fas-sensitive Jurkat cell line by activated T cells. Furthermore, TGF-β had no direct effect on levels of mRNA for members of the bcl family (bcl-X, bfl-1, bik, bak, bax, bcl-2 and mcl-1). These findings suggest that TGF-β does not directly induce apoptosis via the Fas system or by direct effects on bcl proteins. However, interleukin-2, which can ‘rescue’ lymphocytes from spontaneous apoptosis due to cytokine deprivation, abolished the pro-apoptotic effects of TGF-β on post-activated T cells, thus demonstrating that TGF-β increases the cytokine-dependence of T cells for survival. We propose a novel role for TGF-β in the suppression of inflammation by promoting the elimination of post-activated T cells once the initiating stimulus has been resolved. PMID:11298829

  2. Post-thaw culture in presence of insulin-like growth factor I improves the quality of cattle cryopreserved embryos.

    PubMed

    Makarevich, Alexander V; Kubovičová, Elena; Hegedušová, Zdena; Pivko, Juraj; Louda, František

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the effect of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I; added during post-thaw culture (48 h)) on the preimplantation viability and quality of cryopreserved bovine in vivo recovered embryos. The morula stage embryos, non-surgically recovered from superovulated dairy cows of Czech Fleckvieh cattle breed, had previously been cryopreserved by a slow freezing technique and stored in liquid nitrogen since 1989-1990. Following thawing, the embryos were cultured for 48 h either alone (no IGF-I) or in the presence of IGF-I (10 or 100 ng/ml); non-cultured embryos served as a control. Thereafter, the embryos were analyzed for cleavage to the blastocyst stage, apoptosis (TUNEL), embryo cell number and quality of actin cytoskeleton. Following post-thaw culture 41% of embryos developed to advanced blastocysts. IGF-I increased this per cent and, at a higher dose, essentially reduced the per cent of degenerated embryos. In cultured embryos, IGF-I at both doses elevated the cell number compared with non-cultured embryos. However, in comparison with embryos cultured without IGF-I, only the higher IGF-I dose resulted in elevating the embryo cell number. The TUNEL index was significantly lowered by IGF-I treatment. Thawed embryos were mostly of the grade III actin type and fewer (12%) had grade II actin, whilst no grade I actin embryos were noted. The addition of IGF-I resulted in the appearance of grade I actin embryos (8.33 and 6.9% for 10 and 100 ng/ml, respectively). These observations indicate that the addition of IGF-I during post-thaw culture can improve the quality of bovine cryopreserved embryos.

  3. Short-term maternal psychological stress in the post-conception period in ewes affects fetal growth and gestation length.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jennifer; Ferguson, Drewe; Jauregui, Guillermo; Panarace, Martín; Medina, Mariano; Lehnert, Sigrid; Hill, Jonathan R

    2008-08-01

    Fetal development can be influenced by maternal environment in the peri-conceptional period. This study investigated the effect of maternal feed intake and psychological stress within the first 6 days after conception on embryo development and fetal growth. Superovulated ewes (n=40) were artificially inseminated with semen from one ram. Ewes were then divided into four groups (n=10): group 1 (control) was fed at maintenance level, group 2 (high) at 2x maintenance, and group 3 (low) at 0.5x maintenance on days 2-6 after conception. Group 4 (stress) was fed at maintenance level and then an intense physical and psychological stress challenge was applied for 1 h only on days 2 and 3 after conception. Embryos were recovered at day 6. A total of 113 transferable grade embryos were transferred singly into synchronized untreated recipients, while the remaining embryos (n=165) were fixed and stained for cell counts. Post-conception maternal stress or feed intake did not alter the cell count or grade of day 6 embryos. Fetuses from the stress group had longer crown-rump lengths at day 30 and longer femur length at day 58. Fetuses from the stressed and high feed groups had greater abdominal circumferences at day 85. Subsequent birth weights were not significantly different. Ewes carrying lambs from the stress treatment had shorter gestation lengths. These results show that short-term perturbations of the post-conception maternal environment have measurable effects on fetal development and gestation length.

  4. The potential effects of pre-settlement processes on post-settlement growth and survival of juvenile northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra) in Gulf of Alaska nursery habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedewa, Erin J.; Miller, Jessica A.; Hurst, Thomas P.; Jiang, Duo

    2017-04-01

    Early life history traits in marine fish such as growth, size, and timing of life history transitions often vary in response to environmental conditions. Identifying the potential effects of trait variation across life history stages is critical to understanding growth, recruitment, and survival. Juvenile northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra) were collected (2005, 2007, 2009-2011) from two coastal nurseries in the Gulf of Alaska during the early post-settlement period (July-August) to examine variation in early life history traits in relation to water temperature and juvenile densities in nurseries as well as to evaluate the potential for carry-over effects. Size-at-hatch, larval growth, metamorphosis size and timing, and post-metamorphic and recent growth of juveniles were quantified using otolith structural analysis and compared across years and sites. Additionally, traits of fish caught in July and August were compared for evidence of selective mortality. Post-metamorphic and recent growth were related to temperatures in nurseries as well as temperatures during the larval period, indicating a direct influence of concurrent nursery temperatures and a potential indirect effect of thermal conditions experienced by larvae. Correlations between metamorphic traits and fish size at capture demonstrated that interannual variation in size persisted across life history stages regardless of post-settlement growth patterns. No evidence of density-dependent growth or growth-selective mortality were detected during the early post-settlement period; however, differences in hatch size and metamorphosis timing between fish collected in July and August indicate a selective loss of individuals although the pattern varied across years. Overall, variation in size acquired early in life and temperature effects on the phenology of metamorphosis may influence the direction of selection and survival of northern rock sole.

  5. Post-deposition growth kinetics of Ge on Ge(0 0 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinkham, B. P.; Jenichen, B.; Kaganer, V. M.; Shayduk, R.; Braun, W.; Ploog, K. H.

    2008-07-01

    We study the nucleation and growth kinetics on the Ge(0 0 1) surface at elevated temperatures using in situ surface X-ray diffraction. The time evolution of characteristic length scales on the surface is analyzed through the widths of the different components of the integer-order (morphology sensitive) and fractional-order (reconstruction sensitive) diffraction peaks. We find an activation energy of 0.58 eV for Ge island nucleation during homoepitaxy, which implies a diffusion activation energy higher than that obtained for both adatom and dimer diffusion on Ge(0 0 1) in previous studies. Sub-monolayer homoepitaxial Ge islands coarsen according to a power law, with a relatively low time exponent of n=0.2. The coarsening of small 2×1 reconstruction domains on a flat surface prepared by deposition of an integer number of layers shows a strong temperature dependence, whereby the coarsening exponent decreases from 0.41 to 0.2 as the temperature is increased.

  6. Optimizing growth and post treatment of diamond for high capacitance neural interfaces.

    PubMed

    Tong, Wei; Fox, Kate; Zamani, Akram; Turnley, Ann M; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Ahnood, Arman; Cicione, Rosemary; Meffin, Hamish; Prawer, Steven; Stacey, Alastair; Garrett, David J

    2016-10-01

    Electrochemical and biological properties are two crucial criteria in the selection of the materials to be used as electrodes for neural interfaces. For neural stimulation, materials are required to exhibit high capacitance and to form intimate contact with neurons for eliciting effective neural responses at acceptably low voltages. Here we report on a new high capacitance material fabricated using nitrogen included ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD). After exposure to oxygen plasma for 3 h, the activated N-UNCD exhibited extremely high electrochemical capacitance greater than 1 mF/cm(2), which originates from the special hybrid sp(2)/sp(3) structure of N-UNCD. The in vitro biocompatibility of the activated N-UNCD was then assessed using rat cortical neurons and surface roughness was found to be critical for healthy neuron growth, with best results observed on surfaces with a roughness of approximately 20 nm. Therefore, by using oxygen plasma activated N-UNCD with appropriate surface roughness, and considering the chemical and mechanical stability of diamond, the fabricated neural interfaces are expected to exhibit high efficacy, long-term stability and a healthy neuron/electrode interface.

  7. Photosynthetic activity of cotyledons is critical during post-germinative growth and seedling establishment.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Valle; Nájera, Victoria A; González, Maricruz; Pérez-Ruiz, Juan M; Cejudo, Francisco J

    2017-07-10

    Thioredoxins (Trxs) play a relevant role in thiol-dependent redox regulation, which allows the rapid adaptation of chloroplast metabolism to unpredictable environmental conditions. In chloroplasts, Trxs use reducing equivalents provided by photoreduced ferredoxin (Fdx) via the action of a ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase (FTR), thus linking redox regulation to light. In addition, these organelles contain an NADPH-thioredoxin reductase, NTRC, with a Trx domain at the C-terminus. NTRC efficiently reduces 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (Prxs), hence having antioxidant function. However, NTRC also participates in the redox regulation of processes, such as starch and chlorophyll biosynthesis, which are known to be regulated by Trxs. Thus, the question arising is whether there is a cross-talk between the 2 redox systems. Arabidopsis mutants simultaneously devoid of NTRC and Trx x or Trxs f show a dramatic growth inhibition phenotype, indicating that NTRC is required for the function of these unrelated Trxs. Remarkably, both the ntrc-trxx double mutant and, to a higher extent, the ntrc-trxf1f2 triple mutant show high mortality at the seedling stage, which is rescued by sucrose. These findings show the relevant role of redox regulation for chloroplast performance and uncover the key function of cotyledons chloroplasts at the transition to autotrophic metabolism during seedling establishment.

  8. Is There a New Service Proletariat? Post-industrial Employment Growth and Social Inequality in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Luis

    2008-01-01

    In Spain the absolute number of employed persons has increased from about 12,300,000 persons in 1994 to 19,300,000 at the end of 2005. In the same period, the number of immigrants has increased from about 500,000 to more than 4 million. The aim of this paper is to analyse the implications of these changes for social inequality. In particular, we investigate whether a new type of unskilled service class is likely to emerge as a distinct social class. We address this issue by means of three more specific research questions. The first one refers to the pattern of changes in the employment structure by occupational class: has the mentioned employment growth implied an expansion of the swelling service proletariat? The other two questions refer to the issue of demographic class formation: which is the composition of the class structure by gender and country of origin? And, are unskilled service occupations stop-gaps springboards towards better positions, or are they long-term traps? We answer these questions by means of a dynamic analysis of the panel data of the Spanish Labour Force Surveys (SLFS). We study trends over time in the class structure and, then, analyse upward mobility chances and the risk of falling into unemployment from unskilled occupations from year t to year t + 1. PMID:24839339

  9. Post-hatching growth and development of the pectoral and pelvic limbs in the black noddy, Anous minutus.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Michael B

    2008-06-01

    The black tern (Anous minutus) uses a semi-precocial growth strategy. Terrestrial locomotor capacity occurs soon after hatching, but pectoral limb development is delayed and flight is not possible until about post-hatching day 50. A growth series (hatchlings to fledglings) was used to explore how limb musculoskeletal development varied with body mass. In the pelvic limb, bone lengths scaled isometrically or with negative allometry. Gastrocnemius muscle mass and the failure load and stiffness of the tibiotarsus scaled isometrically. In the pectoral limb, pectoralis and supracoracoideus muscle masses increased with strong positive allometry that was mirrored by increases in wing bone strength and stiffness. Bending strength (sigma(ult)) and modulus (E) remained fairly constant throughout development to fledging for all limb bones. The moment of inertia (I) scaled with negative allometry for the tibiotarsus and with strong positive allometry in the wing bones. Differences in sigma(ult) and E of the tibiotarsus between pre-fledged chicks and adults was due, primarily, to increases in bone density rather than increases in the moment of inertia of the skeletal elements, whereas sigma(ult) of wing bones was a function of increases in both bone density and I. Early development of functional pelvic limbs in tree-nesting birds is relatively unusual, and presumably reflects a familial trait that does not appear to compromise breeding success in this species.

  10. Rumen development and growth of Balouchi lambs offered alfalfa hay pre- and post-weaning.

    PubMed

    Norouzian, Mohammad Ali; Valizadeh, Reza; Vahmani, Payam

    2011-08-01

    The consumption of solid feed is essential for successful transition from a pre-ruminant to a functional digestive tract. Lambs fed starter rations containing highly fermentable carbohydrates often experience dramatic changes in concentrations of rumen and blood metabolites. The optimal amount of roughage required in the diet of pre-ruminant animals is still unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding alfalfa hay on performance and rumen development in young Balouchi lambs. In a completely randomized design, 30 lambs were fed one of three experimental diets consisting of a control, without alfalfa hay (C), a diet containing 7.5% alfalfa hay (A1), and a diet containing 15% alfalfa hay (A2). Lambs fed A1 and A2 diets had lower dry matter intake during the pre-weaning period (P < 0.01) and overall (P = 0.02), but feed conversion ratio and average daily gain were not affected by feeding alfalfa hay. Concentration of beta-hydroxybutyric acid was higher in C compared with the A1 and A2 groups (P < 0.01). Concentrations of glucose and non-esterified fatty acids did not differ among the groups of animals. Feeding alfalfa hay reduced thickness of the rumen epithelial keratinized layer (P = 0.04) and increased thickness of muscular layer (P = 0.05). We concluded that including 15% alfalfa hay in the starter diet could reduce thickness of the keratinization layer and increase muscularity of rumen wall without adverse effects on growth and performance of newborn lambs.

  11. Post-term growth and cognitive development at 5 years of age in preterm children: Evidence from a prospective population-based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Laure; Nusinovici, Simon; Flamant, Cyril; Cariou, Bertrand; Rouger, Valérie; Gascoin, Géraldine; Darmaun, Dominique; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Hanf, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    While the effects of growth from birth to expected term on the subsequent development of preterm children has attracted plentiful attention, less is known about the effects of post-term growth. We aimed to delineate distinct patterns of post-term growth and to determine their association with the cognitive development of preterm children. Data from a prospective population-based cohort of 3,850 surviving infants born at less than 35 weeks of gestational age were used. Growth was assessed as the Body Mass Index (BMI) Z-scores at 3, 9, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. Cognitive development at five years of age was evaluated by the Global School Adaptation score (GSA). Latent class analysis was implemented to identify distinct growth patterns and logistic regressions based on propensity matching were used to evaluate the relationship between identified growth trajectories and cognitive development. Four patterns of post-term growth were identified: a normal group with a Z-score consistently around zero during childhood (n = 2,469; 64%); a group with an early rapid rise in the BMI Z-score, but only up to 2 years of age (n = 195; 5%); a group with a slow yet steady rise in the BMI Z-score during childhood (n = 510; 13%); and a group with a negative Z-score growth until 3 years of age (n = 676; 18%). The group with a slow yet steady rise in the BMI Z-score was significantly associated with low GSA scores. Our findings indicate heterogeneous post-term growth of preterm children, with potential for association with their cognitive development. PMID:28350831

  12. Post-term growth and cognitive development at 5 years of age in preterm children: Evidence from a prospective population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Simon, Laure; Nusinovici, Simon; Flamant, Cyril; Cariou, Bertrand; Rouger, Valérie; Gascoin, Géraldine; Darmaun, Dominique; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Hanf, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    While the effects of growth from birth to expected term on the subsequent development of preterm children has attracted plentiful attention, less is known about the effects of post-term growth. We aimed to delineate distinct patterns of post-term growth and to determine their association with the cognitive development of preterm children. Data from a prospective population-based cohort of 3,850 surviving infants born at less than 35 weeks of gestational age were used. Growth was assessed as the Body Mass Index (BMI) Z-scores at 3, 9, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. Cognitive development at five years of age was evaluated by the Global School Adaptation score (GSA). Latent class analysis was implemented to identify distinct growth patterns and logistic regressions based on propensity matching were used to evaluate the relationship between identified growth trajectories and cognitive development. Four patterns of post-term growth were identified: a normal group with a Z-score consistently around zero during childhood (n = 2,469; 64%); a group with an early rapid rise in the BMI Z-score, but only up to 2 years of age (n = 195; 5%); a group with a slow yet steady rise in the BMI Z-score during childhood (n = 510; 13%); and a group with a negative Z-score growth until 3 years of age (n = 676; 18%). The group with a slow yet steady rise in the BMI Z-score was significantly associated with low GSA scores. Our findings indicate heterogeneous post-term growth of preterm children, with potential for association with their cognitive development.

  13. Stacked GaAs quantum dots fabricated by refilling of self-organized nanoholes: optical properties and post-growth annealing.

    PubMed

    Polojärvi, Ville; Schramm, Andreas; Guina, Mircea; Stemmann, Andrea; Heyn, Christian

    2011-03-11

    We study the photoluminescence and impact of post-growth annealing of stacked, strain-free GaAs quantum dots fabricated by refilling of self-organized nanoholes using molecular beam epitaxy. Temperature- and power-dependent photoluminescence studies reveal an excellent optical quality of the quantum-dot stack. After high-temperature post-growth annealing only slight blueshifts and an increase in full width at half-maximum of the photoluminescence peak are observed, indicating very high-temperature stability and crystalline quality of the stacked GaAs quantum-dot structure.

  14. Stacked GaAs quantum dots fabricated by refilling of self-organized nanoholes: optical properties and post-growth annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polojärvi, Ville; Schramm, Andreas; Guina, Mircea; Stemmann, Andrea; Heyn, Christian

    2011-03-01

    We study the photoluminescence and impact of post-growth annealing of stacked, strain-free GaAs quantum dots fabricated by refilling of self-organized nanoholes using molecular beam epitaxy. Temperature- and power-dependent photoluminescence studies reveal an excellent optical quality of the quantum-dot stack. After high-temperature post-growth annealing only slight blueshifts and an increase in full width at half-maximum of the photoluminescence peak are observed, indicating very high-temperature stability and crystalline quality of the stacked GaAs quantum-dot structure.

  15. Age-related changes in secretion rate and post-secretory metabolism of growth hormone in swine.

    PubMed

    Farmer, C; Lapierre, H; Matte, J J; Brazeau, P

    1993-07-01

    The effect of age on growth hormone (GH) metabolism and GH-releasing factor (GRF)-induced GH concentrations were studied in 7 young (3 mo, 39 kg) and 7 old (30 mo, 156 kg) Yorkshire x Landrace female pigs. Jugular catheters were surgically inserted and 60 hr later total serum volume was determined. The following day, all animals were infused for 3 hr with GH (30.3 ng.min/kg B.W.) in order to calculate GH metabolic clearance rate (MCR), secretion rate (SR) and half-life (t 1/2). Two days later, 15 micrograms/kg of GRF was injected i.v. into all pigs. On a per animal basis, aging increased (P < .01) MCR (299 vs 132 ml/min), SR (714 vs 422 ng/min) and serum volume (6.6 vs 2.01), whereas t1/2 was unaltered (P > .1). Basal GH concentrations were lower in older pigs (P < .10) but the GRF-induced GH concentrations (measured as GH peak or area under the curve, AUC) were not affected by age (P > .1). Yet, when induced total GH secretion (AUC x MCR) and average total serum GH (mean GH post-injection x serum volume) were calculated per pig, these variables significantly increased between 3 and 30 mo of age. Basal IGF-I concentrations were lower in older pigs (P < .01), yet, there was a tendency (P = .10) for these pigs to show a greater IGF-I response to GH infusion. The present data therefore indicate that age alters both SR and post-secretory metabolism of GH.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Myostatin shows a specific expression pattern in pig skeletal and extraocular muscles during pre- and post-natal growth.

    PubMed

    Patruno, Marco; Caliaro, Francesca; Maccatrozzo, Lisa; Sacchetto, Roberta; Martinello, Tiziana; Toniolo, Luana; Reggiani, Carlo; Mascarello, Francesco

    2008-02-01

    Myogenesis is driven by an extraordinary array of cellular signals that follow a common expression pattern among different animal phyla. Myostatin (mstn) is a secreted growth factor that plays a pivotal role in skeletal muscle mass regulation. The aim of the present study was to investigate mstn expression in a large mammal (the pig) in order to ascertain whether distinct expression changes of this factor might be linked to the fiber-type composition of the muscle examined and/or to specific developmental stages. To assess the expression pattern of mstn in relation to myogenic proliferative (Pax7 and MyoD) and differentiative (myogenin) markers, we evaluated muscles with different myosin heavy-chain compositions sampled during pre- and post-natal development and on myogenic cells isolated from the same muscles. Skeletal muscles showed higher levels of mRNA for mstn and all other genes examined during fetal development than after birth. The wide distribution of mstn was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry experiments supporting evidence for cytoplasmic staining in early fetal periods as well as the localization in type 1 fibers at the end of the gestation period. Extraocular muscles, in contrast, did not exhibit decreasing mRNA levels for mstn or other genes even in adult samples and expressed higher levels of both mstn mRNA and protein compared with skeletal muscles. Experiments carried out on myogenic cells showed that mstn mRNA levels decreased when myoblasts entered the differentiation program and that cells isolated at early post-natal stages maintained a high level of Pax7 expression. Our results showed that mstn had a specific expression pattern whose variations depended on the muscle type examined, thus supporting the hypothesis that at birth, porcine myogenic cells continue to be influenced by hyperplastic/proliferative mechanisms.

  17. Transcriptome analysis of post-hatch breast muscle in legacy and modern broiler chickens reveals enrichment of several regulators of myogenic growth.

    PubMed

    Davis, Richard V N; Lamont, Susan J; Rothschild, Max F; Persia, Michael E; Ashwell, Chris M; Schmidt, Carl J

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture provides excellent model systems for understanding how selective pressure, as applied by humans, can affect the genomes of plants and animals. One such system is modern poultry breeding in which intensive genetic selection has been applied for meat production in the domesticated chicken. As a result, modern meat-type chickens (broilers) exhibit enhanced growth, especially of the skeletal muscle, relative to their legacy counterparts. Comparative studies of modern and legacy broiler chickens provide an opportunity to identify genes and pathways affected by this human-directed evolution. This study used RNA-seq to compare the transcriptomes of a modern and a legacy broiler line to identify differentially enriched genes in the breast muscle at days 6 and 21 post-hatch. Among the 15,945 genes analyzed, 10,841 were expressed at greater than 0.1 RPKM. At day 6 post-hatch 189 genes, including several regulators of myogenic growth and development, were differentially enriched between the two lines. The transcriptional profiles between lines at day 21 post-hatch identify 193 genes differentially enriched and still include genes associated with myogenic growth. This study identified differentially enriched genes that regulate myogenic growth and differentiation between the modern and legacy broiler lines. Specifically, differences in the ratios of several positive (IGF1, IGF1R, WFIKKN2) and negative (MSTN, ACE) myogenic growth regulators may help explain the differences underlying the enhanced growth characteristics of the modern broilers.

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of Post-Hatch Breast Muscle in Legacy and Modern Broiler Chickens Reveals Enrichment of Several Regulators of Myogenic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Richard V. N.; Lamont, Susan J.; Rothschild, Max F.; Persia, Michael E.; Ashwell, Chris M.; Schmidt, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture provides excellent model systems for understanding how selective pressure, as applied by humans, can affect the genomes of plants and animals. One such system is modern poultry breeding in which intensive genetic selection has been applied for meat production in the domesticated chicken. As a result, modern meat-type chickens (broilers) exhibit enhanced growth, especially of the skeletal muscle, relative to their legacy counterparts. Comparative studies of modern and legacy broiler chickens provide an opportunity to identify genes and pathways affected by this human-directed evolution. This study used RNA-seq to compare the transcriptomes of a modern and a legacy broiler line to identify differentially enriched genes in the breast muscle at days 6 and 21 post-hatch. Among the 15,945 genes analyzed, 10,841 were expressed at greater than 0.1 RPKM. At day 6 post-hatch 189 genes, including several regulators of myogenic growth and development, were differentially enriched between the two lines. The transcriptional profiles between lines at day 21 post-hatch identify 193 genes differentially enriched and still include genes associated with myogenic growth. This study identified differentially enriched genes that regulate myogenic growth and differentiation between the modern and legacy broiler lines. Specifically, differences in the ratios of several positive (IGF1, IGF1R, WFIKKN2) and negative (MSTN, ACE) myogenic growth regulators may help explain the differences underlying the enhanced growth characteristics of the modern broilers. PMID:25821972

  19. Post-embryonic development of Camallanus cotti (Nematoda: Camallanidae), with emphasis on growth of some taxonomically important somatic characters.

    PubMed

    Levsen, Arne; Berland, Bjørn

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the quantitative post-embryonic development of the Asian freshwater fish nematode Camallanus cotti Fujita, 1927, is described. Larval and adult morphometrics were obtained by following the parasite's life cycle experimentally using copepods Macrocyclops albidus (Jurine) as intermediate host and guppies Poecilia reticulata (Peters), southern platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther) and paradise fish Macropodus opercularis (L.) as definitive host. Additionally, adult worms were obtained from heavily infected paradise fish imported from Singapore. It is suggested that the gradual change in proportions of the worm's somatic body parts reflects the specific ecological role of each developmental stage. The free-living infective first-stage larva seems to be adapted for transmission, as indicated by its relatively long tail, designed to generate host-attracting movements, and its non-functional intestine. The second- and third-stage larvae from the copepod intermediate host seem mainly to invest in trophic functionality, i.e., the development of the buccal capsule and the oesophagus, which are crucial structures for the worm's successful establishment in the definitive fish host. Once in the fish intestine, the larvae enter a period of considerable growth. After the fourth (i.e., last) moult, a 72% increase in average female body length occurs. This is accompanied by doubling the average vulva-tail tip distance and the average tail length. The length of the female hind body expands in an accelerating allometric fashion, and seems to be closely linked to the posterior-wards expansion of the uterus. In the males however, growth seems to cease after the final moult. We conclude that female post-maturational body size, but especially the length of the hind body and the tail, are closely related to reproductive state, i.e., the developmental stage of the offspring in the uterus, and, probably, the worms' age. Any future taxonomical studies of camallanids in

  20. Effect of post-deposition annealing on the growth and properties of cubic SnS films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalapathi, U.; Poornaprakash, B.; Park, Si-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    We report a detailed investigation of the effect of post-deposition annealing on the growth and physical properties of chemically grown cubic SnS films. Chemically deposited cubic SnS films were subjected to annealing in a graphite box with loaded elemental sulfur under N2 at 150-350 °C for 10, 30, and 60 min in order to understand the grain growth and morphology of the films. Films annealed at 150-250 °C for 10 min showed improved grain size and a more uniform grain morphology. Films annealed at 150-250 °C for 30 and 60 min showed a decrease in the grain size and non-uniform grain morphology for the cubic SnS phase. Films annealed at 300 and 350 °C for 10 min revealed the formation of minor secondary phase SnS2, and the grain morphology changed from round shape to flake-like. Longer annealing at 300 and 350 °C improved the extent of the SnS2 phase, and it was found to be the dominant phase after annealing at 350 °C for 60 min. The direct optical band gap of SnS films is 1.75-1.67 eV, depending on the annealing temperature and time. The films exhibited p-type electrical conductivity. The films annealed at 250 °C for 10 min showed a higher hole mobility of 77.7 cm2V-1s-1. Thus, lower annealing temperatures and shorter annealing times are favorable conditions to produce high-quality cubic SnS films.

  1. Loss of Mitochondrial Malate Dehydrogenase Activity Alters Seed Metabolism Impairing Seed Maturation and Post-Germination Growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sew, Yun Shin; Ströher, Elke; Fenske, Ricarda; Millar, A Harvey

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH; EC 1.1.1.37) has multiple roles; the most commonly described is its catalysis of the interconversion of malate and oxaloacetate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The roles of mMDH in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed development and germination were investigated in mMDH1 and mMDH2 double knockout plants. A significant proportion of mmdh1mmdh2 seeds were nonviable and developed only to torpedo-shaped embryos, indicative of arrested seed embryo growth during embryogenesis. The viable mmdh1mmdh2 seeds had an impaired maturation process that led to slow germination rates as well as retarded post-germination growth, shorter root length, and decreased root biomass. During seed development, mmdh1mmdh2 showed a paler green phenotype than the wild type and exhibited deficiencies in reserve accumulation and reduced final seed biomass. The respiration rate of mmdh1mmdh2 seeds was significantly elevated throughout their maturation, consistent with the previously reported higher respiration rate in mmdh1mmdh2 leaves. Mutant seeds showed a consistently higher content of free amino acids (branched-chain amino acids, alanine, serine, glycine, proline, and threonine), differences in sugar and sugar phosphate levels, and lower content of 2-oxoglutarate. Seed-aging assays showed that quiescent mmdh1mmdh2 seeds lost viability more than 3 times faster than wild-type seeds. Together, these data show the important role of mMDH in the earliest phases of the life cycle of Arabidopsis.

  2. The long and short of non-coding RNAs during post-natal growth and differentiation of skeletal muscles: Focus on lncRNA and miRNAs.

    PubMed

    Butchart, Lauren C; Fox, Archa; Shavlakadze, Tea; Grounds, Miranda D

    2016-12-01

    Post-natal growth of skeletal muscle is a dynamic process involving proliferation and fusion of myoblasts with elongating myofibres (hyperplasia of myonuclei) until 3 weeks post-natally in mice, with ongoing differentiation and further increases in myofibre size mostly by hypertrophy until about 12 weeks of age. The expression of mRNAs that control these events are well described, but little is known about the in vivo roles of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including both microRNAs (miRNAs) and the lesser-studied long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). We analysed expression patterns for a broad range of lncRNAs (including Neat1, Malat1, Sra, Meg3, LncMyoD and linc-MD1), miRNAs and mRNAs in muscles of normal male C57Bl/6J mice at 2 days and 2, 4, 6 and 12 weeks after birth. These post-natal patterns were compared with expression of these RNAs during classic C2C12 myogenesis and differentiation in tissue culture. This overview of RNAs during post-natal skeletal muscle growth provides a novel focus on ncRNAs during this often overlooked growth period, with many potential applications to normal muscle growth in humans and livestock, and to childhood muscle disorders. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Interpreting the Economic Growth and Development Policies of Post-Apartheid South Africa: Its Influence on Higher Education and Prospects for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eynon, Diane E.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is structured as a critical policy analysis employing historical methods. It examines how the post apartheid government's economic growth and development polices have informed the higher education system and how this has changed women's financial, occupational, political, social, and educational prospects in South Africa. Through…

  4. Interpreting the Economic Growth and Development Policies of Post-Apartheid South Africa: Its Influence on Higher Education and Prospects for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eynon, Diane E.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is structured as a critical policy analysis employing historical methods. It examines how the post apartheid government's economic growth and development polices have informed the higher education system and how this has changed women's financial, occupational, political, social, and educational prospects in South Africa. Through…

  5. Dynamic response of tetragonal lysozyme crystals to changes in relative humidity: implications for post-growth crystal treatments.

    PubMed

    Dobrianov, I; Kriminski, S; Caylor, C L; Lemay, S G; Kimmer, C; Kisselev, A; Finkelstein, K D; Thorne, R E

    2001-01-01

    The dynamic response of tetragonal lysozyme crystals to dehydration has been characterized in situ using a combination of X-ray topography, high-resolution diffraction line-shape measurements and conventional crystallographic diffraction. For dehydration from 98% relative humidity (r.h.) to above 89%, mosaicity and diffraction resolution show little change and X-ray topographs remain featureless. Lattice constants decrease rapidly but the lattice-constant distribution within the crystal remains very narrow, indicating that water concentration gradients remain very small. Near 88% r.h., the c-axis lattice parameter decreases abruptly, the steady-state mosaicity and diffraction resolution degrade sharply and topographs develop extensive contrast. This transformation exhibits metastability and hysteresis. At fixed r.h. < 88% it is irreversible, but the original order can be almost completely restored by rehydration. These results suggest that this transformation is a first-order structural transition involving an abrupt loss of crystal water. The front between transformed and untransformed regions may propagate inward from the crystal surface and the resulting stresses along the front may degrade mosaicity. Differences in crystal size, shape and initial perfection may produce the observed variations in degradation timescale. Consequently, the success of more general post-growth treatments may often involve identifying procedures that either avoid lattice transitions, minimize disorder created during such transitions or maintain the lattice in an ordered metastable state.

  6. Decreased serum fibroblast growth factor - 2 levels in pre- and post-treatment patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    He, Shen; Zhang, Tianhong; Hong, Bo; Peng, Daihui; Su, Hui; Lin, Zhiguang; Fang, Yiru; Jiang, Kaida; Liu, Xiaohua; Li, Huafang

    2014-09-05

    Increasing evidence indicates that neurotrophic factor dysfunction might be involved in the pathophysiology and treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, one of the major neurotrophins, plays an important role in the central nervous system (CNS). The aim of this study was to explore whether the FGF-2 in serum was associated with MDD and to evaluate the effects of antidepressant treatment on serum FGF-2 levels. Serum FGF-2 levels were determined in 28 pre- and post-treatment MDD patients and 30 healthy controls using ELISA. The results of the current study revealed that serum FGF-2 levels in MDD patients were significantly lower than those in healthy controls (p=0.005), and the serum FGF-2 levels decreased significantly but marginally following treatment for 8 weeks (p=0.005). These findings demonstrate that the lower serum FGF-2 levels contribute to the pathophysiology of MDD and that FGF-2 may be used as a peripheral biological marker for MDD.

  7. Exposure of mental health nurses to violence associated with job stress, life satisfaction, staff resilience, and post-traumatic growth.

    PubMed

    Itzhaki, Michal; Peles-Bortz, Anat; Kostistky, Hava; Barnoy, Dor; Filshtinsky, Vivian; Bluvstein, Irit

    2015-10-01

    Workplace violence towards health workers in hospitals and in mental health units in particular is increasing. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of exposure to violence, job stress, staff resilience, and post-traumatic growth (PTG) on the life satisfaction of mental health nurses. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. The sample consisted of mental health nurses (n = 118) working in a large mental health centre in Israel. Verbal violence by patients was reported by 88.1% of the nurses, and 58.4% experienced physical violence in the past year. Physical and verbal violence towards nurses was correlated with job stress, and life satisfaction was correlated with PTG and staff resilience. Linear regression analyses indicated that life satisfaction was mainly affected by PTG, staff resilience, and job stress, and less by exposure to verbal and physical violence. The present study is the first to show that, although mental health nurses are frequently exposed to violence, their life satisfaction is affected more by staff resilience, PTG, and job stress than by workplace violence. Therefore, it is recommended that intervention programmes that contribute to PTG and staff resilience, as well as those that reduce job stress among mental health nurses, be explored and implemented.

  8. Color control of nanowire InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes by post-growth treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hezhi; Jacopin, Gwénolé; Neplokh, Vladimir; Largeau, Ludovic; Julien, François H; Kryliouk, Olga; Tchernycheva, Maria

    2015-11-20

    Core/shell InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on vertically standing single nanowires and nanowire arrays were fabricated and extensively characterized. The emission of single wire LEDs with the same conformal contact geometry as the array device exhibits the same broadening as the array LED electroluminescence, which proves an excellent wire-to-wire homogeneity. The electroluminescence spectra present two peaks corresponding to the m-plane InGaN quantum well (blue emission) and to an In-rich region at the m-plane-semipolar plane junction (green emission), in agreement with structural characterizations. Modification of the contact layout and a post-growth plasma treatment enable strongly suppressing the unwanted green electroluminescence while increasing the intensity in the blue spectral range for the same injected electrical power. Electron beam induced current mapping proves the inhibition of the electrical activity of the top part of the nanowire after plasma treatment. Inductively coupled plasma etching of the In-rich region permits one to completely remove the green emission for all injection currents, but loss of intensity in the blue spectral range is observed. Selectively contacting the m-plane and plasma treatment of the top part of the nanowire appear as a viable solution for controlling the color of core/shell nanowire LEDs with an inhomogeneous indium composition.

  9. Effect of marble industry effluent on seed germination, post germinative growth and productivity of Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Fazal; Hadi, Fazal; Ullah, Zakir; Zia, Muhammad Amir

    2007-11-15

    A green house study was conducted at the University of Malakand, NWFP, Pakistan to evaluate the effect of marble industry effluent on soil pH, germination, post germinative growth and productivity of maize. The experiment was conducted in triplicate form for each treatment and tape water was used as control (T0). Effluents were diluted with tap water at concentration of 20% (T1), 40% (T2), 60% (T3), 80% (T4) and also used 100% (T5) concentration in 4 kg soil pot(-1) and plants were grown for 90 days. Results showed that there was a linear increase in pH of soil with increase in effluent concentration while germination, root length and stem girth was enhanced and found maximum at 40% concentration of effluent applied. The shoot length and root dry biomass was depressed as compared to control. It is concluded from the present study that marble industry effluent can be used as a fertilizer in low concentration especially for highly acidic soil but there is still need to carry out series of greenhouse and field trials to ascertain the fertilizer potentials of this effluent for maize crop.

  10. A comparison of the growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in a reclaimed oil shale post-mining area and in a Calluna site in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatjana; Mandre, Malle; Klõseiko, Jaan; Pärn, Henn

    2010-07-01

    The growth of Scots pine and its suitability for afforestation of post-mining landscapes in Northeast Estonia were assessed in comparative analytical studies by using morphological parameters and mineral nutrition characteristics. The growth and nutrient uptake of Scots pine growing on post-mining substrate were compared with the characteristics of pines of the same age (22-23 years) in a Calluna forest site type predominant in North Estonia in similar climatic zone. Results of the analyses of soil upper layers showed that the concentration of N and P in soil did not differ between the opencast spoil and Calluna site, but significantly higher pH of soil and concentrations of K, Ca, and Mg were found in mine spoil. The concentrations of K and Mg in needles were significantly higher in the post-mining area, but the concentrations of N, P, and Ca did not differ significantly. Comparison of the needle nutrient concentration with the standard for optimum concentrations revealed P deficit in the post-mining area and P and K deficit in the Calluna site. Scots pine formed longer and thinner needles and shoots in the post-mining substrate than in the Calluna site. It was assumed that in the post-mining area the growth of pines is predominantly dependent on K and Ca concentrations in their tissues as the biomass of needles was strongly correlated with the K/Ca ratio, whereas the biomass in the Calluna site was correlated with the N/P ratio. The height and diameter of trees were significantly larger in the post-mining area.

  11. Posttraumatic growth, depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, post-migration stressors and quality of life in multi-traumatized psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background in Norway.

    PubMed

    Teodorescu, Dinu-Stefan; Siqveland, Johan; Heir, Trond; Hauff, Edvard; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Lien, Lars

    2012-07-23

    Psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background have often been exposed to a variety of potentially traumatizing events, with numerous negative consequences for their mental health and quality of life. However, some patients also report positive personal changes, posttraumatic growth, related to these potentially traumatic events. This study describes posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, post-migration stressors, and their association with quality of life in an outpatient psychiatric population with a refugee background in Norway. Fifty five psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background participated in a cross-sectional study using clinical interviews to measure psychopathology (SCID-PTSD, MINI), and four self-report instruments measuring posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, and quality of life (PTGI-SF, IES-R, HSCL-25-depression scale, and WHOQOL-Bref) as well as measures of social integration, social network and employment status. All patients reported some degree of posttraumatic growth, while only 31% reported greater amounts of growth. Eighty percent of the patients had posttraumatic stress symptoms above the cut-off point, and 93% reported clinical levels of depressive symptoms. Quality of life in the four domains of the WHOQOL-Bref levels were low, well below the threshold for the'life satisfaction' standard proposed by Cummins. A hierarchic regression model including depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, posttraumatic growth, and unemployment explained 56% of the total variance found in the psychological health domain of the WHOQOL-Bref scale. Posttraumatic growth made the strongest contribution to the model, greater than posttraumatic stress symptoms or depressive symptoms. Post-migration stressors like unemployment, weak social network and poor social integration were moderately negatively correlated with posttraumatic growth and quality of life, and positively

  12. Posttraumatic growth, depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, post-migration stressors and quality of life in multi-traumatized psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background in Norway

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background have often been exposed to a variety of potentially traumatizing events, with numerous negative consequences for their mental health and quality of life. However, some patients also report positive personal changes, posttraumatic growth, related to these potentially traumatic events. This study describes posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, post-migration stressors, and their association with quality of life in an outpatient psychiatric population with a refugee background in Norway. Methods Fifty five psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background participated in a cross-sectional study using clinical interviews to measure psychopathology (SCID-PTSD, MINI), and four self-report instruments measuring posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, and quality of life (PTGI-SF, IES-R, HSCL-25-depression scale, and WHOQOL-Bref) as well as measures of social integration, social network and employment status. Results All patients reported some degree of posttraumatic growth, while only 31% reported greater amounts of growth. Eighty percent of the patients had posttraumatic stress symptoms above the cut-off point, and 93% reported clinical levels of depressive symptoms. Quality of life in the four domains of the WHOQOL-Bref levels were low, well below the threshold for the’life satisfaction’ standard proposed by Cummins. A hierarchic regression model including depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, posttraumatic growth, and unemployment explained 56% of the total variance found in the psychological health domain of the WHOQOL-Bref scale. Posttraumatic growth made the strongest contribution to the model, greater than posttraumatic stress symptoms or depressive symptoms. Post-migration stressors like unemployment, weak social network and poor social integration were moderately negatively correlated with posttraumatic growth and

  13. Pelagic larval duration and settlement size of a reef fish are spatially consistent, but post-settlement growth varies at the reef scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, Susannah M.; Russ, Garry R.; Abesamis, Rene A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that, despite a pelagic larval stage, many coral reef fishes disperse over relatively small distances, leading to well-connected populations on scales of 0-30 km. Although variation in key biological characteristics has been explored on the scale of 100-1000 s of km, it has rarely been explored at the scale relevant to actual larval dispersal and population connectivity on ecological timescales. In this study, we surveyed the habitat and collected specimens ( n = 447) of juvenile butterflyfish, Chaetodon vagabundus, at nine sites along an 80-km stretch of coastline in the central Philippines to identify variation in key life history parameters at a spatial scale relevant to population connectivity. Mean pelagic larval duration (PLD) was 24.03 d (SE = 0.16 d), and settlement size was estimated to be 20.54 mm total length (TL; SE = 0.61 mm). Both traits were spatially consistent, although this PLD is considerably shorter than that reported elsewhere. In contrast, post-settlement daily growth rates, calculated from otolith increment widths from 1 to 50 d post-settlement, varied strongly across the study region. Elevated growth rates were associated with rocky habitats that this species is known to recruit to, but were strongly negatively correlated with macroalgal cover and exhibited negative density dependence with conspecific juveniles. Larger animals had lower early (first 50 d post-settlement) growth rates than smaller animals, even after accounting for seasonal variation in growth rates. Both VBGF and Gompertz models provided good fits to post-settlement size-at-age data ( n = 447 fish), but the VBGF's estimate of asymptotic length ( L ∞ = 168 mm) was more consistent with field observations of maximum fish length. Our findings indicate that larval characteristics are consistent at the spatial scale at which populations are likely well connected, but that site-level biological differences develop post-settlement, most likely as a

  14. Pre-drought priming sustains grain development under post-anthesis drought stress by regulating the growth hormones in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Abid, Muhammad; Shao, Yuhang; Liu, Sixi; Wang, Feng; Gao, Jingwen; Jiang, Dong; Tian, Zhongwei; Dai, Tingbo

    2017-05-19

    Drought stress during grain filling is the most yield-damaging to wheat. Pre-drought priming facilitated the wheat plants to sustain grain development against the post-anthesis drought stress by modulating the levels of growth hormones. Post-anthesis drought stress substantially reduces grain yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) due to impaired grain development associated with imbalanced levels of growth hormones. To investigate whether pre-drought priming could sustain grain development in wheat by regulating favorable levels of growth hormones under post-anthesis drought conditions, the plants of a drought-sensitive (Yangmai-16) and drought-tolerant (Luhan-7) wheat cultivar were exposed to a moderate drought stress during tillering (Feekes 2 stage) for priming, and then, a subsequent severe drought stress was applied from 7 to 14 days after anthesis. The results showed that drought-stressed plants of both cultivars showed a decline in flag leaf water potential, chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic rate, grain size initiation, and grain filling as compared to well-watered plants; however, decline in these traits was less in pre-drought primed (PD) plants than in nonprimed (ND) plants. Under drought stress, the PD plants regulated higher concentrations of zeatin and zeatin riboside, indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellins, and lower abscisic acid content in grains, resulting in higher endosperm cell division and expansion, grain size initiation, grain-filling rate and duration, and finally higher grain dry weights as compared to ND plants. The PD plants of both cultivars showed higher potential to tolerate the post-anthesis drought stress, but more effect was displayed by drought-tolerant cultivar. From the achieved results, it was concluded that pre-drought priming facilitated the wheat plants to sustain higher grain development and yield against the most yield-damaging post-anthesis drought stress by modulating the levels of growth hormones.

  15. Mismatch between shape changes and ecological shifts during the post-settlement growth of the surgeonfish, Acanthurus triostegus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many coral reef fishes undergo habitat and diet shifts during ontogeny. However, studies focusing on the physiological and morphological adaptations that may prepare them for these transitions are relatively scarce. Here, we explored the body shape variation related to ontogenetic shifts in the ecology of the surgeonfish Acanthurus triostegus (Acanthuridae) from new settler to adult stages at Moorea Island (French Polynesia). Specifically, we tested the relationship between diet and habitat shifts and changes in overall body shape during the ontogeny of A. triostegus using a combination of geometric morphometric methods, stomach contents and stable isotope analysis. Results After reef settlement, stable isotope composition of carbon and nitrogen revealed a change from a zooplanktivorous to a benthic algae diet. The large amount of algae (> 75% of stomach contents) found in the digestive tract of small juveniles (25–30 mm SL) suggested the diet shift is rapid. The post-settlement growth of A. triostegus is highly allometric. The allometric shape changes mainly concern cephalic and pectoral regions. The head becomes shorter and more ventrally oriented during growth. Morphological changes are directly related to the diet shift given that a small mouth ventrally oriented is particularly suited for grazing activities at the adult stage. The pectoral fin is more anteriorely and vertically positioned and its basis is larger in adults than in juveniles. This shape variation had implications for swimming performance, manoeuvrability, turning ability and is related to habitat shift. Acanthurus triostegus achieves its main transformation of body shape to an adult-like form at size of 35–40 mm SL. Conclusion Most of the shape changes occurred after the reef colonization but before the transition between juvenile habitat (fringing reef) and adult habitat (barrier reef). A large amount of allometric variation was observed after diet shift from zooplankton to

  16. Effects of isobutyrate supplementation in pre- and post-weaned dairy calves diet on growth performance, rumen development, blood metabolites and hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Liu, Q; Zhang, Y L; Pei, C X; Zhang, S L; Guo, G; Huo, W J; Yang, W Z; Wang, H

    2017-05-01

    Isobutyrate supplements could improve rumen development by increasing ruminal fermentation products, especially butyrate, and then promote the growth performance of calves. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of isobutyrate supplementation on growth performance, rumen development, blood metabolites and hormone secretion in pre- and post-weaned dairy calves. In total, 56 Chinese Holstein male calves with 30 days of age and 72.9±1.43 kg of BW, blocked by days of age and BW, were assigned to four groups in a randomized block design. The treatments were as follows: control, low-isobutyrate, moderate-isobutyrate and high-isobutyrate with 0, 0.03, 0.06 and 0.09 g isobutyrate/kg BW per calf per day, respectively. Supplemental isobutyrate was hand-mixed into milk of pre-weaned calves and the concentrate portion of post-weaned calves. The study consisted of 10 days of an adaptation period and a 50-day sampling period. Calves were weaned at 60 days of age. Seven calves were chosen from each treatment at random and slaughtered at 45 and 90 days of age. BW, dry matter (DM) intake and stomach weight were measured, samples of ruminal tissues and blood were determined. For pre- and post-weaned calves, DM intake and average daily gain increased linearly (P<0.05), but feed conversion ratio decreased linearly (P<0.05) with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. Total stomach weight and the ratio of rumen weight to total stomach weight tended to increase (P=0.073) for pre-weaned calves and increased linearly (P=0.021) for post-weaned calves, whereas the ratio of abomasum weight to total stomach weight was not affected for pre-weaned calves and decreased linearly (P<0.05) for post-weaned calves with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. Both length and width of rumen papillae tended to increase linearly for pre-weaned calves, but increased linearly (P<0.05) for post-weaned calves with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. The relative expression of messenger

  17. Tuning of deep level emission in highly oriented electrodeposited ZnO nanorods by post growth annealing treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Simimol, A.; Manikandanath, N. T.; Chowdhury, Prasanta; Barshilia, Harish C.; Anappara, Aji A.

    2014-08-21

    Highly dense and c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods with hexagonal wurtzite facets were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates by a simple and cost-effective electrodeposition method at low bath temperature (80 °C). The as-grown samples were then annealed at various temperatures (T{sub A} = 100–500 °C) in different environments (e.g., zinc, oxygen, air, and vacuum) to understand their photoluminescence (PL) behavior in the ultra-violet (UV) and the visible regions. The PL results revealed that the as-deposited ZnO nanorods consisted of oxygen vacancy (V{sub O}), zinc interstitial (Zn{sub i}), and oxygen interstitial (O{sub i}) defects and these can be reduced significantly by annealing in different environments at optimal annealing temperatures. However, the intensity of deep level emission increased for T{sub A} greater than the optimized values for the respective environments due to the introduction of various defect centers. For example, for T{sub A} ≥ 450 °C in the oxygen and air environments, the density of O{sub i} defects increased, whereas, the green emission associated with V{sub O} is dominant in the vacuum annealed (T{sub A} = 500 °C) ZnO nanorods. The UV peak red shifted after the post-growth annealing treatments in all the environments and the vacuum annealed sample exhibited highest UV peak intensity. The observations from the PL data are supported by the micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present study gives new insight into the origin of different defects that exist in the electrodeposited ZnO nanorods and how these defects can be precisely controlled in order to get the desired emissions for the opto-electronic applications.

  18. Active post-marketing surveillance of the intralesional administration of human recombinant epidermal growth factor in diabetic foot ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background After several exploratory and confirmatory clinical trials, the intralesional administration of human recombinant epidermal growth factor (hrEGF) has been approved for the treatment of advanced diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of this procedure in medical practice. Methods A prospective, post-marketing active pharmacosurveillance was conducted in 41 hospitals and 19 primary care polyclinics. Patients with DFU received hrEGF, 25 or 75 μg, intralesionally 3 times per week until complete granulation of the ulcer or 8 weeks maximum, adjuvant to standard wound care. Outcomes measured were complete granulation, amputations, and adverse events (AE) during treatment; complete lesion re-epithelization and relapses in follow-up (median: 1.2; maximum 4.2 years). Results The study included 1788 patients with 1835 DFU (81% Wagner’s grades 3 or 4; 43% ischemic) treated from May 2007 to April 2010. Complete granulation was observed in 76% of the ulcers in 5 weeks (median). Ulcer non-ischemic etiology (OR: 3.6; 95% CI: 2.8-4.7) and age (1.02; 1.01-1.03, for each younger year) were the main variables with influence on this outcome. During treatment, 220 (12%) amputations (171 major) were required in 214 patients, mostly in ischemic or Wagner’s grade 3 to 5 ulcers. Re-epithelization was documented in 61% of the 1659 followed-up cases; 5% relapsed per year. AE (4171) were reported in 47% of the subjects. Mild or moderate local pain and burning sensation, shivering and chills, were 87% of the events. Serious events, not related to treatment, occurred in 1.7% of the patients. Conclusions The favorable benefit/risk balance, confirms the beneficial clinical profile of intralesional hrEGF in the treatment of DFUs. PMID:24004460

  19. RopGEF2 is involved in ABA-suppression of seed germination and post-germination growth of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shujuan; Wu, Yuxuan; He, Yuqing; Wang, Yarui; Xiao, Jun; Li, Lin; Wang, Yanping; Chen, Xi; Xiong, Wei; Wu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    The involvement of Rho of Plants (ROP) GTPases in abscisic acid (ABA) signalling in Arabidopsis has been demonstrated in many studies. However, the roles of RopGEFs (Rop guanine nucleotide exchange factors), which modulate ROP activities in ABA signalling, are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that RopGEF2 may play a negative role in ABA-suppressed seed germination and post-germination growth. We show that disruption of RopGEF2 enhances sensitivity to exogenous ABA in seed germination assays and that RopGEF2pro-GUS is mainly expressed in developing embryos and germinating seeds. Interestingly, YFP-RopGEF2 is located in both the cytoplasmic region and in mitochondria. Notably, the PRONE2 (plant-specific ROP nucleotide exchanger 2) domain of RopGEF2 is detected in mitochondria, whereas the N-terminus of RopGEF2 is shown to be in the cytosol. After ABA treatment, degradation of RopGEF2 is triggered in the cytosol through the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system. The binding of RopGEF2 to ROP2, ROP6 or ROP10, which has been demonstrated to be involved in ABA signalling, not only alters the localization of RopGEF2 but also enables RopGEF2 to escape degradation in the cell. Thus, in this study, we deduce a sophisticated mechanism of ABA-mediated RopGEF2-ROP signalling, which potentially implicates the inactivation of ROPs in responsiveness to ABA. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A Post-Final Assignment for the Methods Course: Providing an Incentive to Professional Growth for Future Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Michael L.

    This paper describes J. Rosengren's post-final assignment and M. Harmin's truth signs activity that were incorporated into a secondary science methods course for preservice teachers. The strength of the post-final assignment is that it is a strategy for extending student learning past the end of a course and even beyond the initial teaching…

  1. The Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus twin-arginine transport system has roles in predatory and prey-independent growth.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chien-Yi; Hobley, Laura; Till, Rob; Capeness, Michael; Kanna, Machi; Burtt, William; Jagtap, Pratik; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Sockett, R Elizabeth

    2011-11-01

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus grows in one of two ways: either (i) predatorily [in a host-dependent (HD) manner], when it invades the periplasm of another Gram-negative bacterium, exporting into the prey co-ordinated waves of soluble enzymes using the prey cell contents for growth; or (ii) in a host-independent (HI) manner, when it grows (slowly) axenically in rich media. Periplasmic invasion potentially exposes B. bacteriovorus to extremes of pH and exposes the need to scavenge electron donors from prey electron transport components by synthesis of metalloenzymes. The twin-arginine transport system (Tat) in other bacteria transports folded metalloenzymes and the B. bacteriovorus genome encodes 21 potential Tat-transported substrates and Tat transporter proteins TatA1, TatA2 and TatBC. GFP tagging of the Tat signal peptide from Bd1802, a high-potential iron-sulfur protein (HiPIP), revealed it to be exported into the prey bacterium during predatory growth. Mutagenesis showed that the B. bacteriovorus tatA2 and tatC gene products are essential for both HI and HD growth, despite the fact that they partially complement (in SDS resistance assays) the corresponding mutations in Escherichia coli where neither TatA nor TatC are essential for life. The essentiality of B. bacteriovorus TatA2 was surprising given that the B. bacteriovorus genome encodes a second tatA homologue, tatA1. Transcription of tatA1 was found to be induced upon entry to the bdelloplast, and insertional inactivation of tatA1 showed that it significantly slowed the rates of both HI and HD growth. B. bacteriovorus is one of a few bacterial species that are reliant on a functional Tat system and where deletion of a single tatA1 gene causes a significant growth defect(s), despite the presence of its tatA2 homologue.

  2. Brief Report: Effects of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Group-Work on Promoting Post-Traumatic Growth of Mothers Who Have a Child with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wei; Yan, Ting-ting; Du, Ya-song; Liu, Xiao-hong

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the impact of solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) group-work on the post-traumatic growth (PTG) of mothers who have a child with ASD. A quasi-experimental design was used in which 43 mothers participated. 18 mothers in 2 SFBT groups (n = 9 in each group) received a 6-session SFBT group therapy while 25 mothers in a control…

  3. Brief Report: Effects of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Group-Work on Promoting Post-Traumatic Growth of Mothers Who Have a Child with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wei; Yan, Ting-ting; Du, Ya-song; Liu, Xiao-hong

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the impact of solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) group-work on the post-traumatic growth (PTG) of mothers who have a child with ASD. A quasi-experimental design was used in which 43 mothers participated. 18 mothers in 2 SFBT groups (n = 9 in each group) received a 6-session SFBT group therapy while 25 mothers in a control…

  4. Brief report: effects of solution-focused brief therapy group-work on promoting post-traumatic growth of mothers who have a child with ASD.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Yan, Ting-ting; Du, Ya-song; Liu, Xiao-hong

    2014-08-01

    The study evaluated the impact of solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) group-work on the post-traumatic growth (PTG) of mothers who have a child with ASD. A quasi-experimental design was used in which 43 mothers participated. 18 mothers in 2 SFBT groups (n = 9 in each group) received a 6-session SFBT group therapy while 25 mothers in a control group received no treatment. The Post-traumatic Growth Inventory was used to measure the PTG levels of the participants at baseline, post-treatment and 6-month follow-up assessments. Mothers who attended SFBT group-work reported higher PTG scores both at post-treatment (t = 4.065, p = .001) and 6-month follow-up (t = 2.980, p = .006) assessments. Further investigations to prove whether SFBT in groups can increase the positivity of clients would promote the use of SFBT.

  5. Growth

    Treesearch

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  6. [The Influence of Subjective Health Status, Post-Traumatic Growth, and Social Support on Successful Aging in Middle-Aged Women].

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hee; Jang, Hyung Suk; Yang, Young Hee

    2016-10-01

    This study was done to investigate factors influencing successful aging in middle-aged women. A convenience sample of 103 middle-aged women was selected from the community. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics, two-sample t-test, one-way ANOVA, Kruskal Wallis test, Pearson correlations, Spearman correlations and multiple regression analysis with the SPSS/WIN 22.0 program. Results of regression analysis showed that significant factors influencing successful aging were post-traumatic growth and social support. This regression model explained 48% of the variance in successful aging. Findings show that the concept 'post-traumatic growth' is an important factor influencing successful aging in middle-aged women. In addition, social support from friends/co-workers had greater influence on successful aging than social support from family. Thus, we need to consider the positive impact of post-traumatic growth and increase the chances of social participation in a successful aging program for middle-aged women.

  7. Effects of Embryonic Exposure to Salinity Stress or Hypoxia on Post-metamorphic Growth and Survival of the Polychaete Capitella teleta.

    PubMed

    Pechenik, Jan A; Chaparro, Oscar R; Pilnick, Aaron; Karp, Melissa; Acquafredda, Michael; Burns, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Although a good number of studies have investigated the impact of larval experience on aspects of post-metamorphic performance, only a few have considered the potential impact of stresses experienced by brooded embryos. In this study we separately investigated the impact of salinity stress (as low as 10) and hypoxia (1 ml O2 l(-1)) experienced by brooded embryos of the deposit-feeding polychaete Capitella teleta on hatching success, metamorphosis, post-metamorphic survival, and post-metamorphic growth. Salinity reduction from 30 to 10 or 15 reduced relative hatching success, presumably by reducing embryonic survival, but generally had no negative latent effects on juvenile survival or growth. Prolonged exposure to hypoxic conditions had no negative effects, as seen on measurements recorded, other than abandonment of brood tubes by some females. There were no negative effects on days to emergence from brood tubes, numbers of larvae emerging from brood tubes, juvenile survival, or juvenile growth. Future studies should consider the potential role of maternal behavior in protecting embryos from at least short-term exposures to hypoxia, and the capacity for anaerobic metabolism in both embryos and adults of this species.

  8. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci influencing carcass, post-natal growth and reproductive traits in commercial Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    McClure, M C; Morsci, N S; Schnabel, R D; Kim, J W; Yao, P; Rolf, M M; McKay, S D; Gregg, S J; Chapple, R H; Northcutt, S L; Taylor, J F

    2010-12-01

    To gain insight into the number of loci of large effect that underlie variation in cattle, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) scan for 14 economically important traits was performed in two commercial Angus populations using 390 microsatellites, 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one duplication loci. The first population comprised 1769 registered Angus bulls born between 1955 and 2003, with Expected Progeny Differences computed by the American Angus Association. The second comprised 38 half-sib families containing 1622 steers with six post-natal growth and carcass phenotypes. Linkage analysis was performed by half-sib least squares regression with gridqtl or Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of complex pedigrees with loki. Of the 673 detected QTL, only 118 have previously been reported, reflecting both the conservative approach to QTL reporting in the literature, and the more liberal approach taken in this study. From 33 to 71% of the genetic variance and 35 to 56% of the phenotypic variance in each trait was explained by the detected QTL. To analyse the effects of 11 SNPs and one duplication locus within candidate genes on each trait, a single marker analysis was performed by fitting an additive allele substitution model in both mapping populations. There were 53 associations detected between the SNP/duplication loci and traits with -log(10) P(nominal) ≥ 4.0, where each association explained 0.92% to 4.4% of the genetic variance and 0.01% to 1.86% of the phenotypic variance. Of these associations, only six SNP/duplication loci were located within 8 cM of a QTL peak for the trait, with two being located at the QTL peak: SST_DG156121:c.362A>G for ribeye muscle area and TG_X05380:c.422C>T for calving ease. Strong associations between several SNP/duplication loci and trait variation were obtained in the absence of any detected linked QTL. However, we reject the causality of several commercialized DNA tests, including an association between TG

  9. Effects of LED lighting during incubation on layer and broiler hatchability, chick quality, stress susceptibility and post-hatch growth.

    PubMed

    Huth, Jesse C; Archer, Gregory S

    2015-12-01

    Providing light during incubation has been shown to affect hatchability, but the use of LED lights has not been evaluated. This experiment evaluated the effects of LED lighting during embryogenesis on White Leghorn and commercial broiler eggs. To determine this, two experiments were conducted, the first using White Leghorn eggs (N=3456) and the second using commercial broiler eggs (N=3456) where eggs were incubated 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness (LED) or complete darkness (DARK); the light level was 250 lux. Hatchability, embryo mortality, and chick quality were measured in both studies, and a subset of one of the broiler egg trials were grown out to investigate fear and stress parameters. There was no effect (P>0.05) on hatchability of layer eggs; however, there was a difference (P=0.02) observed in chick quality, with the LED group having more chicks (75.34%) with no defects than the DARK group (56.53%). Broiler eggs exposed to LED light showed an increase in hatchability (90.12%, P=0.03) and an increase in no-defect chick percentage (86.12%, P=0.04) at hatch compared to the DARK chicks (85.76% and 69.43%, respectively). Differences were observed between treatments during the 14 d grow-out. The LED birds had lower (P<0.05) physical asymmetry (0.90±0.05 mm) and heterophil/lymphocyte ratios (0.279±0.021), indicating that they were less susceptible to stress than the DARK birds (1.16±0.07 mm and 0.347±0.021, respectively). There was no difference (P>0.05) observed between treatments in growth, FCR, or fear measures at 14 d. These results indicate that providing LED light during incubation can improve chick quality in both white layer and broiler eggs; however, it only appears to improve hatchability in broilers, which could be related to shell pigmentation. It was also demonstrated that providing LED light during incubation can reduce the stress susceptibility of broilers post-hatch. Utilizing light during incubation may be useful tool for the poultry

  10. Seed ageing-induced inhibition of germination and post-germination root growth is related to lower activity of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in maize roots.

    PubMed

    Sveinsdóttir, Hólmfrídur; Yan, Feng; Zhu, Yiyong; Peiter-Volk, Tina; Schubert, Sven

    2009-01-30

    Seeds of most crops can be severely damaged and lose vigor when stored under conditions of high humidity and temperature. The aged seeds are characterized by delayed germination and slow post-germination growth. To date, little is known about the physiological mechanisms responsible for slow root growth of seedlings derived from aged seeds. Plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase is a universal H(+) pump in plant cells and is involved in various physiological processes including the elongation growth of plant cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a mild seed ageing treatment on plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity of seedling roots. Maize (Zea mays L.) seeds with 17% water content were aged at 45 degrees C for 30h. The aged seeds showed a 20% reduction in germination. Seedlings from aged seeds grew slowly during an experimental period of 120h after imbibition. Plasma membranes of maize seedling roots were isolated for investigation in vitro. Plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (EC 3.6.3.6) activity was 14% lower for seedling roots developed from aged seeds as compared to control seeds. Protein gel immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that the reduced activity of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase was attributed to a decrease in steady-state protein concentration of this enzyme. In conclusion, seed ageing causes a lower steady-state enzyme concentration of the H(+)-ATPase in the plasma membrane, which is related to slow germination and post-germination growth of seedling roots.

  11. E.s.r. study of the post-radiolysis growth of spin-trapped radicals in gamma-irradiated aqueous solutions of thymine.

    PubMed

    Joshi, A; Moss, H; Riesz, P

    1978-08-01

    The post-irradiation growth of the spin-adduct nitroxide radical produced by the addition of the thymine--OD radical to t-nitrosobutane (tNB) in gamma-irradiated, de-aerated D2O solutions was investigated by e.s.r. The thymine--OD radical was formed by the addition of an OD radical to the C(5) position of thymine. Growth reached a greater maximum value and was more rapid with increasing dose. At a fixed dose, growth was also greater and more rapid if oxygen was present after gamma-radiolysis. The addition of a second radical to the spin-adduct nitroxide during radiolysis to give a diamagnetic intermediate, which can regenerate the spin-adduct radical during storage in air-free and in air-saturated solutions at room temperature, was inferred to be responsible for post-irradiation growth. U.V. photolysis at 260-280 nm of a solution containing the diamagnetic intermediate rapidly regenerates the spin-adduct nitroxide. The longer lifetime of the diamagnetic intermediate in oxygen-free solutions may be relevant to an understanding of the anoxic sensitization by nitroxides in cellular systems.

  12. Towards improved quantification of post-fire conifer mortality and recovery: Impacts of fire radiative flux on seedling and mature tree mortality, physiology, and growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, A. M.; Kolden, C.; Smith, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Fire activity, in terms of intensity, frequency, and total area burned, is expected to increase with changing climate. A challenge for landscape level assessment of fire effects, termed burn severity, is that current assessments provide very little information regarding vegetation physiological performance and recovery, limiting our understanding of fire effects on ecosystem services such as carbon storage/cycling. To address these limitations, we evaluated an alternative dose-response methodology for quantifying fire effects that attempts to bridge fire combustion dynamics and ecophysiology. Specifically, we conducted a highly controlled, laboratory assessment of seedling response to increasing doses of fire radiative energy applied through surface fires, for two western U.S. conifer species. Seedling physiology and spectral reflectance were acquired pre- and up to 1 year post-fire. Post-fire mortality, physiological performance, and spectral reflectance were strongly related with fire radiative energy density (FRED: J m-2) dose. To examine how these relationships change with tree size and age, we conducted small prescribed fires at the tree scale (35 m2) in a mature conifer stand. Radial growth and resin duct defenses were assessed on the mature conifer trees following the prescribed fires. Differences in dose-response relationships between seedlings and mature trees indicate the importance of fire behavior (e.g., flaming-dominated versus smoldering-dominated combustion) in characterizing these relationships. Ultimately, these results suggest that post-fire impacts on growth of surviving seedlings and mature trees require modes of heat transfer to impact tree canopies.

  13. Mesocarnivores as focal species for the restoration of post-logging aecond growth in the northern redwoods

    Treesearch

    Keith M. Slauson

    2012-01-01

    The management of second growth forests to accelerate the restoration of late-successional and old growth characteristics will be one of the greatest challenges for conservation in the redwood region over the next century. In the redwood region, the largest complex of protected areas exists in the north, however >50 percent of these forest reserves are composed...

  14. Impact of the epidermal growth factor receptor mutation status on the post-recurrence survival of patients with surgically resected non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Tomoyoshi; Takenoyama, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Toyozawa, Ryo; Inamasu, Eiko; Kojo, Miyako; Toyokawa, Gouji; Yoshida, Tsukihisa; Shiraishi, Yoshimasa; Morodomi, Yosuke; Hirai, Fumihiko; Taguchi, Kenichi; Shimokawa, Mototsugu; Seto, Takashi; Ichinose, Yukito

    2015-03-01

    The impact of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) status and the use of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) therapy have not been well discussed only in recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The purpose of this study was to identify the prognostic factors associated with post-recurrence survival after surgical resection of NSCLC in terms of the EGFR mutation status and the use of EGFR-TKI therapy. From 2000 through 2011, 1237 consecutive patients with NSCLC underwent pulmonary resection at our institution. Of these patients, 280 experienced postoperative recurrence by the end of 2012. We reviewed the cases of recurrence and analysed the predictors and length of post-recurrence survival. The median post-recurrence survival time and the 5-year survival rate of all patients were 25 months and 20.8%, respectively. A multivariate analysis identified the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS), brain metastasis, number of sites of recurrence and EGFR mutation status to be independent prognostic factors for post-recurrence survival. Among all cases, the median post-recurrence survival time according to the use of EGFR-TKI therapy was as follows: 49 months in the EGFR mutation-positive patients treated with EGFR-TKI therapy, 20 months in the EGFR wild or unknown cases treated with EGFR-TKI therapy and 17 months in the patients not treated with EGFR-TKI therapy. As to EGFR mutation-positive cases, the patients treated with EGFR-TKIs exhibited significantly longer post-recurrence survival time than the patients treated without EGFR-TKIs (49 vs 12 months). It is essential for recurrent NSCLC patients to be examined for the EGFR mutation status. Patients with a positive EGFR mutation status receive significant benefits from EGFR-TKI therapy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  15. Profiles of mRNA expression of related genes in the duck hypothalamus-pituitary growth axis during embryonic and early post-hatch development.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yan; Liu, Hongxiang; Song, Chi; Xu, Wenjuan; Ji, Gaige; Zhu, Chunhong; Shu, Jingting; Li, Huifang

    2015-03-15

    In this study, the ontogeny of body and liver weight and the pattern of related gene mRNA expression in the hypothalamus-pituitary growth axis (HPGA) of two different duck breeds (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) were compared during embryonic and post-hatch development. Duck hypothalamic growth hormone release hormone (GHRH), somatostatin (SS), pituitary growth hormone (GH), liver growth hormone receptor (GHR) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) mRNA were first detected on the 13th embryonic day. During early duck development, SS maintained a lower expression status, whereas the other four genes exhibited highly significant variations in an age-specific manner. Highly significant breed specificity was observed with respect to hepatic IGF-1 mRNA expression, which showed a significant breed-age interaction effect. Compared with previous studies on chickens, significant species differences were observed regarding the mRNA expression of bird embryonic HPGA-related genes. During early development, highly significant breed and age specificity were observed with respect to developmental changes in body and liver weight, and varying degrees of significant linear correlation were found between these performances and the mRNA expression of HPGA-related genes in the duck HPGA. These results suggest that different genetic backgrounds may lead to differences in duck growth and HPGA-related gene mRNA expression, and the differential mRNA expression of related genes in the duck HPGA may be particularly important in the early growth of ducks. Furthermore, hepatic IGF-1 mRNA expression presented highly significant breed specificity, and evidence suggests the involvement of hepatic IGF-1 in mediating genetic effects on embryo and offspring growth in ducks.

  16. Growth, aboveground biomass, and nutrient concentration of young Scots pine and lodgepole pine in oil shale post-mining landscapes in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatjana; Tilk, Mari; Pärn, Henn; Lukjanova, Aljona; Mandre, Malle

    2011-12-01

    The investigation was carried out in 8-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) plantations on post-mining area, Northeast Estonia. The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of lodgepole pine for restoration of degraded lands by comparing the growth, biomass, and nutrient concentration of studied species. The height growth of trees was greater in the Scots pine stand, but the tree aboveground biomass was slightly larger in the lodgepole pine stand. The aboveground biomass allocation to the compartments did not differ significantly between species. The vertical distribution of compartments showed that 43.2% of the Scots pine needles were located in the middle layer of the crown, while 58.5% of the lodgepole pine needles were in the lowest layer of the crown. The largest share of the shoots and stem of both species was allocated to the lowest layer of the crown. For both species, the highest NPK concentrations were found in the needles and the lowest in the stems. On the basis of the present study results, it can be concluded that the early growth of Scots pine and lodgepole pine on oil shale post-mining landscapes is similar.

  17. The Effect of the Wall Contact and Post-Growth C001-Down on Defects in CdTe Crystals Grown by Contactless PVT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; Grasza, K.; Dudley, M.; Raghothamachar, B.; Cai, L.; Durose, K.; Halliday, D.; Boyall, N. M.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In crystal growth, the quality of the final material may depend, among other factors, on its interaction with the walls of the ampoule during and after the growth, and on the rate of the crystal cool-down at the end of ate the process. To investigate the above phenomena, a series of CdTe crystal growth processes was carried out, The crystals were grown by physical vapor transport without contact with the side walls of the silica glass ampoules, applying the Low Supersaturation Nucleation technique. The source temperature was 930 C, the undercooling was a few degrees. The crystals, having the diameter of 25 mm, grew at the rate of a few mm per day. The post-growth cool-down to the room temperature was conducted at different rates, and lasted from a few minutes to four days. The crystals were characterized using chemical etching low temperature luminescence, and Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography techniques. The dislocation (etch pit) density was measured and its distribution was analyzed by comparison with Poisson curves and with the Normalized Radial Distribution Correlation Function. It was found that the contact of the crystal with silica leads to a strain field and high (in the 105 sq cm range) dislocation (etch pit) density. Similar defect concentrations were found in crystals subjected to fast post-growth cool-down. Typical EPD values for lower cool-down rates and in regions not affected by wall interactions are in the lower 10(exp 4) sq cm range. In some areas the actual dislocation density was about 10(exp 3) sq cm or even less. No apparent effect of the cool-down rate on polygonization was observed. A fine structure could be discerned in low-temperature PL spectra of crystals with low dislocation density.

  18. Growth, structural, and optical properties of self-assembled (In,Ga)as quantum posts on GaAs.

    PubMed

    He, J; Krenner, H J; Pryor, C; Zhang, J P; Wu, Y; Allen, D G; Morris, C M; Sherwin, M S; Petroff, P M

    2007-03-01

    Self-assembled quantum dots embedded in semiconductor heterostructures have proved to be a rich system for exploring the physics of three dimensionally confined charges and excitons. We present here a novel structure, which allows adjusting the level of confinement between 3D and 2D for electrons and holes, respectively. The quantum post consists of a quantum dot connected to a short quantum wire. The molecular beam epitaxy deposition of these self-assembled structures is discussed, and their structural and chemical compositions are presented. Their optical properties measured by photoluminescence are compared to an eight-band strain-dependent k.p model incorporating detailed structure and alloy composition. The calculations show electron delocalization in the quantum wire part of the quantum post and hole localization in the strain-induced regions at the ends of the quantum post. The quantum post offers the possibility of controlling the dipole moment in the structure and opens up new means for tuning the intra-subband transitions by controlling its dimensions.

  19. Improving post-transfer survival of bovine embryos produced in vitro: actions of insulin-like growth factor-1, colony stimulating factor-2 and hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Block, J; Hansen, P J; Loureiro, B; Bonilla, L

    2011-12-01

    Technologies for in vitro embryo production have the potential to enhance the efficiency of cattle production systems. However, utilization of in vitro-produced embryos for transfer remains limited throughout much of the world. Despite improvements over the past two decades, problems associated with the production of bovine embryos in vitro still exist which limit the widespread commercial application of this technology. In particular, bovine embryos produced in vitro have a reduced capacity to establish and maintain pregnancy as compared with their in vivo-derived counterparts. Embryo competence for survival following transfer is improved by in vivo culture in the sheep oviduct, thus indicating that standard embryo culture conditions are sub-optimal. Therefore, one strategy to improve post-transfer survival is to modify embryo culture media to more closely mimic the in vivo microenvironment. The maternal environment in which the bovine embryo develops in vivo contains various growth factors, cytokines, hormones, and other regulatory molecules. In addition to affecting bovine embryo development in vitro, recent research indicates that embryo competence for survival following transfer can also be improved when such molecules are added to embryo culture medium. Among the specific molecules that can increase post-transfer embryo survival are insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), colony stimulating factor-2 (CSF-2) and hyaluronan. This paper will review the effects IGF-1, CSF-2 and hyaluronan on post-culture embryo viability and discuss the potential mechanisms through which each of these molecules improves post-transfer survival. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. CD44 targeting reduces tumour growth and prevents post-chemotherapy relapse of human breast cancers xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Marangoni, E; Lecomte, N; Durand, L; de Pinieux, G; Decaudin, D; Chomienne, C; Smadja-Joffe, F; Poupon, M-F

    2009-01-01

    CD44 is a marker of tumour-initiating cells and is upregulated in invasive breast carcinoma; however, its role in the cancer progression is unknown. Here, we show that antibody-mediated CD44-targeting in human breast cancer xenografts (HBCx) significantly reduces tumour growth and that this effect is associated to induction of growth-inhibiting factors. Moreover, treatment with this antibody prevents tumour relapse after chemotherapy-induced remission in a basal-like HBCx. PMID:19240712

  1. Effect of low-temperature post-growth annealing on anisotropic strain in epitaxial Fe layers deposited on GaAs(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Tholapi, R. Liefeith, L.; Ekindorf, G.; Slobodskyy, T.; Hansen, W.; Perumal, K.

    2016-06-28

    We study the effect of low-temperature post growth annealing on the Fe layer in an epitaxial Fe/GaAs(001) heterojunction. High resolution X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity were used to probe the Fe layer before and after annealing. No change in morphological features like annealing induced intermixing and thickness variation of the Fe layer are observed. However, annealing leads to increase in the compressive strain and improves isotropy of the ferromagnetic layer as revealed by measuring both lateral and out-of-plane lattice components.

  2. The lack of synchronization between iron uptake and cell growth leads to iron overload in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during post-exponential growth modes.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinkyu; McCormick, Sean P; Chakrabarti, Mrinmoy; Lindahl, Paul A

    2013-12-31

    Fermenting cells growing exponentially on rich (YPAD) medium underwent a transition to a slow-growing state as glucose levels declined and their metabolism shifted to respiration. During exponential growth, Fe import and cell-growth rates were matched, affording an approximately invariant cellular Fe concentration. During the transition period, the high-affinity Fe import rate declined slower than the cell-growth rate declined, causing Fe to accumulate, initially as Fe(III) oxyhydroxide nanoparticles but eventually as mitochondrial and vacuolar Fe. Once the cells had reached slow-growth mode, Fe import and cell-growth rates were again matched, and the cellular Fe concentration was again approximately invariant. Fermenting cells grown on minimal medium (MM) grew more slowly during the exponential phase and underwent a transition to a true stationary state as glucose levels declined. The Fe concentration of MM cells that just entered the stationary state was similar to that of YPAD cells, but MM cells continued to accumulate Fe in the stationary state. Fe initially accumulated as nanoparticles and high-spin Fe(II) species, but vacuolar Fe(III) also eventually accumulated. Surprisingly, Fe-packed 5-day-old MM cells suffered no more reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage than younger cells, suggesting that the Fe concentration alone does not accurately predict the extent of ROS damage. The mode and rate of growth at the time of harvesting dramatically affected cellular Fe content. A mathematical model of Fe metabolism in a growing cell was developed. The model included the import of Fe via a regulated high-affinity pathway and an unregulated low-affinity pathway. The import of Fe from the cytosol to vacuoles and mitochondria and nanoparticle formation were also included. The model captured essential trafficking behavior, demonstrating that cells regulate Fe import in accordance with their overall growth rate and that they misregulate Fe import when nanoparticles

  3. Post-Transcriptional Regulation of MKK4-A Stress Signaling Kinase Implicated in the Regulation of Metastatic Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    REPORTABLE OUTCOMES: Reportable outcomes that have resulted from this research to include: DISSERTATION: ictoria L. Robinson : Post-transcriptional...manuscript by Robinson et al. is provided in the following Appendix. TRANSLATIONAL REGULATION OF MAP KINASE KINASE 4 (MKK4) EXPRESSION Victoria L... Robinson ‡, Ore Shalhav‡, Kristen Otto‡, Tomoko Kawai§, Myriam Gorospe§, and Carrie W. Rinker-Schaeffer‡¶ From the ‡Department of Surgery, Section of

  4. Egg laying characteristics, egg weight, embryo development, hatching weight and post-hatch growth in relation to oviposition time of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Akil, R; Zakaria, A H

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine egg laying characteristics and the effects of oviposition time on egg weight, embryo development and post-hatch growth in broiler breeders. In experiment 1, eggs collected for 3 consecutive days on hourly basis between 06:30 and 17:30h were categorized to early, middle and late oviposition times in the clutch. In experiment 2, eggs were incubated to study embryo development, remaining albumen, liver weight, heart weight and the tibia length of embryos at 12, 14, 16 and 18 days of incubation as well as the body weight of hatchlings and chickens at 7, 21 and 42 days of age in relation to oviposition time. About 76% of nest eggs were laid from 06:30 to 11:30h. A similar pattern was observed in floor eggs. Egg weight decreased (P<0.01) with advanced position in the clutch. Generally, oviposition time had no effect on embryo growth parameters. At hatch, body weight of chicks derived from eggs of late oviposition times was less (P<0.01) than that of chicks from eggs produced earlier in the clutch. From 3-week-old onwards, chickens of early oviposition time sustained heavier (P<0.05) weight than chickens of middle oviposition time whereas chickens of late oviposition time obtained a middle weight. Differences in egg weights, body weight at hatch and post-hatch growth due to time of oviposition suggest that oviposition time together with incubation conditions should be considered for obtaining greater uniformity and growth of chickens.

  5. Post-traumatic growth of children affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake and their attitudes to memorial services and media coverage.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Natsuko; Honda, Nami; Matsuoka, Hiroo; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Homma, Hiroaki; Tomita, Hiroaki

    2016-05-01

    Post-traumatic growth (PTG) refers to positive changes that result from coping with a major life crisis or a traumatic event. Factors influencing PTG in youth have not been well characterized but could have a great impact on overall maturation. Fourth to ninth graders (n = 3337) attending elementary or junior high schools located in a district severely damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake completed a questionnaire, including the revised Posttraumatic Growth Inventory for Children (PTGI-C-R) along with the Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms for Children 15 items (PTSSC-15), 31 months after the event. Experience of the disaster, prior traumatic experiences, and attitudes toward memories of the disaster (rumination) were scored by their caregivers and teachers, and effects of these factors on PTG were evaluated. There were no significant associations between PTGI-C-R and sex or experiences of the disaster. However, PTGI-C-R was negatively correlated with age (r = -0.132, P < 0.001). There was significant but very weak negative correlation between PTGI-C-R and PTSSC-15 among the children (r = -0.096, P < 0.001). PTGI-C-R was significantly associated with positive attitudes to memorial services (P < 0.001) and media coverage (P < 0.05). Positive attitudes to deliberate rumination may facilitate PTG in children following natural disasters. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  6. Reconciling Post-Recession Strategies for Economic Growth with Higher Education's Current Fiscal Challenges: Part 1, New Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This week, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is publishing the findings of new research undertaken to explore the relationship between educational spending and economic growth. The report, "The High Cost of Low Educational Performance--The Long-Run Economic Impact of Improving PISA Outcomes", employs recent…

  7. Reconciling Post-Recession Strategies for Economic Growth with Higher Education's Current Fiscal Challenges: Part 1, New Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This week, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is publishing the findings of new research undertaken to explore the relationship between educational spending and economic growth. The report, "The High Cost of Low Educational Performance--The Long-Run Economic Impact of Improving PISA Outcomes", employs recent…

  8. Post-infarct treatment with [Pyr(1)]apelin-13 improves myocardial function by increasing neovascularization and overexpression of angiogenic growth factors in rats.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Yaser; Faghihi, Mahdieh; Imani, Alireza; Roghani, Mehrdad; Zekri, Ali; Mobasheri, Maryam Beigom; Rastgar, Tayebeh; Moghimian, Maryam

    2015-08-15

    Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of mortality in the world. Angiogenesis is important for cardiac repair after myocardial infarction (MI) as restores blood supply to the ischemic myocardium and preserves cardiac function. Apelin is a peptide that has been recently shown to potentiate angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate angiogenic effects of [Pyr(1)]apelin-13 in the rat model of post-MI. Male Wistar rats (n=36) were randomly divided into three groups: (1) sham (2) MI and (3) MI treated with [Pyr(1)]apelin-13 (MI+Apel). MI animals were subjected to 30min left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) ligation and 14 days of reperfusion. Twenty-four hours after LAD ligation, [Pyr(1)]apelin-13 (10nmol/kg/day) was administered i.p. for 5 days. Hemodynamic functions by catheter introduced into the left ventricle (LV), myocardial fibrosis by Masson׳s trichrome staining, gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA), VEGF receptor-2 (Kdr), Ang-1 (angiopoietin-1), Tie2 (tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin and epidermal growth factor homology domains 2) and eNOS by Real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-Time PCR) and myocardial angiogenesis by CD31 imunostaining were assessed at day 14 post-MI. Post-infarct treatment with [Pyr(1)]apelin-13 improved LV function and decreased myocardial fibrosis. [Pyr(1)]apelin-13 treatment led to a significant increase in the expression of VEGFA, Kdr, Ang-1, Tie2 and eNOS. Further, treatment with [Pyr(1)]apelin-13 promoted capillary density. [Pyr(1)]apelin-13 has angiogenic and anti-fibrotic activity via formation of new blood vessels and overexpression of VEGFA, Kdr, Ang-1, Tie2 and eNOS in the infarcted myocardium which could in turn repair myocardium and improve LV function.

  9. Effect of different feeding regimes on pre-weaning growth rumen fermentation and its influence on post-weaning performance of lambs.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, R S; Tripathi, M K; Verma, D L; Karim, S A

    2009-10-01

    Influence of pre-weaning live weight on post-weaning growth performance was assessed on thirty-nine 15-day-old Indian native lambs, randomly fed in three equal groups until 180 days of age. During pre-weaning phase lambs were maintained under feeding regimen of grazing (C-0; Control), grazing and ad lib creep mixture supplementation (C-AL) or grazing, with ad lib creep mixture and milk replacer supplementation (C-ALMR). Lambs were allowed to suckle respective dam in morning and evening till 90 days of age, and fed ad lib green leaves of Ailanthus excelsa after grazing. After weaning all lambs were maintained on grazing and ad lib finisher concentrates supplementation. Pre-weaning performance of lambs in terms of weaning weight (17.2 kg), average daily gain (ADG; 154 g) and feed conversion ratio 3.73 was higher (p < 0.01) in C-ALMR lambs but total gain and ADG were similar among three groups during post-weaning phase. However, improved pre-weaning plane of nutrition and growth rate increased (p < 0.01) finishing weight (FW) of lambs in C-AL, 33 kg and C-ALMR, 32 kg. Dry matter intake was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in C-AL and C-ALMR lambs due to combined effect of feeding. Rumen pH was lowest (p = 0.049) in C-AL lambs. Rumen ciliate protozoa population (10(4)/ml) decreased in C-ALMR lambs (4.3) but increased in C-AL lambs (50.0) more so in C-0 Lambs (19.8). Concentrate feeding of C-AL lamb improved nutrient digestibility. Lambs of C-0 group consumed more DM during post-weaning phase that improved growth performance, while nutrient digestibility was not affected by pre-weaning nutrition. Thus, pre-weaning nutrition has significant influence on FW, however influence of milk replacer feeding on lamb growth need further studies.

  10. Post-settlement migratory behaviour and growth-related costs in two diadromous fish species, Galaxias maculatus and Galaxias brevipinnis.

    PubMed

    Jung, C A; Barbee, N C; Swearer, S E

    2009-08-01

    The physiological challenges incurred during the transition from sea to fresh water and the constraints they place on the rate at which the common galaxiid Galaxias maculatus and the climbing galaxiid Galaxias brevipinnis can migrate from marine to freshwater habitats were examined. The duration of the marine to freshwater transition, the relationship between post-settlement age (PSA) and standard length (L(S)) as a proxy for energetic costs incurred during settlement and the potential effects of estuary geomorphology on migratory behaviour was investigated. Rate of upstream migration after settlement was not uniform. Upstream migration rate was slowest directly after settlement and increased with increasing PSA and distance from the river mouth, indicating a delay in upstream migration by newly recruited galaxiids. L(s) did not increase with age, at least within the first 21 days post settlement. These patterns were consistent for both species, in spite of differences in their life histories, across the recruitment season, despite seasonal variation in recruit size, and among estuaries with different properties. The results suggest that the timing and speed of migratory behaviour primarily reflect physiological constraints. Given the duration of residency of these species in estuaries, this study indicates that estuaries are critical transitional habitats for diadromous fishes during their migration from marine to freshwater habitats.

  11. Effect of pre-partum feed supplementation on post-partum ovarian activity, milk production and calf growth of small holder dairy Cattle in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Bayemi, Pougue Henri; Nsongka, Munji Victorine; Leinyuy, Isabelle; Webb, Edward Cottington; Nchadji, Justin Mbanya; Cavestany, Daniel; Bryant, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Seventy-two cows were selected for an on-farm study on the effect of feed supplementation before calving on milk production, ovarian activity and calf growth of Holstein, indigenous Red Fulani cows and their crosses. Pre-partum feed supplementation was done using cotton seed cake (80%), maize (18%), bone meal (1%) and kitchen salt (1% NaCl). Supplementation levels consisted of a low supplementation fed at 1 kg per animal per day and high supplementation fed at 2 kg per animal per day. In addition, Red Fulani cows received the supplements in two different ways namely a pre-partum supplementation consisting of 1 kg per cow per day and pre- and post-partum supplementation consisting of 1 kg per cow per day before calving and 1 kg per cow per day post-partum up to 30 days after calving. Blood samples were analysed using ELISA Progesterone kits to determine the length of post-partum anoestrus. Results show that pre-partum levels of feeding did not have any effect (P > 0.05) on body condition score (BCS) at 12 weeks after calving, calf birth weight, average daily weight gain of calves, milk production and post-partum anoestrus. High BCS at calving was shown to influence BCS at 12 weeks of lactation. Holstein cows had bigger calves (P < 0.01) at birth (45 kg) compared to traditional cows (36 kg) and crosses (34 kg). There was little benefit of pre-partum supplementation on the parameters investigated in this study. Consequently, low income farmers are advised to concentrate their efforts of supplementation early in lactation.

  12. Post-traumatic Stress and Growth Among Medical Student Volunteers After the March 2011 Disaster in Fukushima, Japan: Implications for Student Involvement with Future Disasters.

    PubMed

    Anderson, David; Prioleau, Phoebe; Taku, Kanako; Naruse, Yu; Sekine, Hideharu; Maeda, Masaharu; Yabe, Hirooki; Katz, Craig; Yanagisawa, Robert

    2016-06-01

    The March 2011 "triple disaster" (earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident) had a profound effect on northern Japan. Many medical students at Fukushima Medical University volunteered in the relief effort. We aimed to investigate the nature of students' post-disaster involvement and examine the psychological impact of their experiences using a survey containing elements from the Davidson Trauma Scale and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. We collected 494 surveys (70 % response rate), of which 132 students (26.7 %) had volunteered. Volunteers were more likely to be older, have witnessed the disaster in person, had their hometowns affected, and had a family member or close friend injured. In the month after 3/11, volunteers were more likely to want to help, feel capable of helping, and report an increased desire to become a physician. Both in the month after 3/11 and the most recent month before the survey, there were no significant differences in distressing symptoms, such as confusion, anger, or sadness, between volunteers and non-volunteers. Volunteers reported a significantly higher level of posttraumatic growth than non-volunteers. Participating in a greater variety of volunteer activities was associated with a higher level of posttraumatic growth, particularly in the Personal Strength domain. There may be self-selection in some criteria, since students who were likely to be resistant to confusion/anxiety/sadness may have felt more capable of helping and been predisposed to volunteer. However, participation in post-disaster relief efforts did not appear to have a harmful effect on medical students, an important consideration for mobilizing volunteers after future disasters.

  13. Development and validation of a predictive model for the growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in post-harvest shellstock oysters.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Salina; DaSilva, Ligia; DePaola, Angelo; Bowers, John; White, Chanelle; Munasinghe, Kumudini Apsara; Brohawn, Kathy; Mudoh, Meshack; Tamplin, Mark

    2013-01-15

    Information is limited about the growth and survival of naturally-occurring Vibrio parahaemolyticus in live oysters under commercially relevant storage conditions harvested from different regions and in different oyster species. This study produced a predictive model for the growth of naturally-occurring V. parahaemolyticus in live Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) harvested from the Chesapeake Bay, MD, USA and stored at 5-30 °C until oysters gapped. The model was validated with model-independent data collected from Eastern oysters harvested from the Chesapeake Bay and Mobile Bay, AL, USA and Asian (C. ariakensis) oysters from the Chesapeake Bay, VA, USA. The effect of harvest season, region and water condition on growth rate (GR) was also tested. At each time interval, two samples consisting of six oysters each were analyzed by a direct-plating method for total V. parahaemolyticus. The Baranyi D-model was fitted to the total V. parahaemolyticus growth and survival data. A secondary model was produced using the square root model. V. parahaemolyticus slowly inactivated at 5 and 10 °C with average rates of -0.002 and -0.001 log cfu/h, respectively. The average GRs at 15, 20, 25, and 30 °C were 0.038, 0.082, 0.228, and 0.219 log cfu/h, respectively. The bias and accuracy factors of the secondary model for model-independent data were 1.36 and 1.46 for Eastern oysters from Mobile Bay and the Chesapeake Bay, respectively. V. parahaemolyticus GRs were markedly lower in Asian oysters. Harvest temperature, salinity, region and season had no effect on GRs. The observed GRs were less than those predicted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's V. parahaemolyticus quantitative risk assessment.

  14. Monitoring of tumor growth and post-irradiation recurrence in a diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma mouse model.

    PubMed

    Caretti, Viola; Zondervan, Ilse; Meijer, Dimphna H; Idema, Sander; Vos, Wim; Hamans, Bob; Bugiani, Marianna; Hulleman, Esther; Wesseling, Pieter; Vandertop, W Peter; Noske, David P; Kaspers, Gertjan; Molthoff, Carla F M; Wurdinger, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a fatal malignancy because of its diffuse infiltrative growth pattern. Translational research suffers from the lack of a representative DIPG animal model. Hence, human E98 glioma cells were stereotactically injected into the pons of nude mice. The E98 DIPG tumors presented a strikingly similar histhopathology to autopsy material of a DIPG patient, including diffuse and perivascular growth, brainstem- and supratentorial invasiveness and leptomeningeal growth. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was effectively employed to image the E98 DIPG tumor. [(18) F] 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18) F]fluorothymidine (FLT) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging was applied to assess the subcutaneous (s.c.) E98 tumor proliferation status but no orthotopic DIPG activity could be visualized. Next, E98 cells were cultured in vitro and engineered to express firefly luciferase and mCherry (E98-Fluc-mCherry). These cultured E98-Fluc-mCherry cells developed focal pontine glioma when injected into the pons directly. However, the diffuse E98 DIPG infiltrative phenotype was restored when cells were injected into the pons immediately after an intermediate s.c. passage. The diffuse E98-Fluc-mCherry model was subsequently used to test escalating doses of irradiation, applying the bioluminescent Fluc signal to monitor tumor recurrence over time. Altogether, we here describe an accurate DIPG mouse model that can be of clinical relevance for testing experimental therapeutics in vivo.

  15. Post-growth process for flexible CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells with high specific power.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eunwoo; Kang, Yoonmook; Kim, Donghwan; Kim, Jihyun

    2016-05-16

    We demonstrated a flexible CdS/CdTe thin film solar cell with high specific power of approximately 254 W/kg. A flexible and ultra-light weight CdS/CdTe cell treated with pre-NP etch process exhibited high conversion efficiency of 13.56% in superstrate configuration. Morphological, structural and optical changes of CdS/CdTe thin films were characterized when pre-NP etch step was incorporated to the conventional post-deposition process. Improvement of photovoltaic parameters can be attributed to the removal of the oxide and the formation of Te-rich layer, which benefit the activation process. Pre-NP etched cell maintained their flexibility and performance under the repeated tensile strain of 0.13%. Our method can pave a way for manufacturing flexible CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells with high specific power for mobile and aerospace applications.

  16. Diverse and divergent protein post-translational modifications in two growth stages of a natural microbial community.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhou; Wang, Yingfeng; Yao, Qiuming; Justice, Nicholas B; Ahn, Tae-Hyuk; Xu, Dong; Hettich, Robert L; Banfield, Jillian F; Pan, Chongle

    2014-07-25

    Detailed characterization of post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins in microbial communities remains a significant challenge. Here we directly identify and quantify a broad range of PTMs (hydroxylation, methylation, citrullination, acetylation, phosphorylation, methylthiolation, S-nitrosylation and nitration) in a natural microbial community from an acid mine drainage site. Approximately 29% of the identified proteins of the dominant Leptospirillum group II bacteria are modified, and 43% of modified proteins carry multiple PTM types. Most PTM events, except S-nitrosylations, have low fractional occupancy. Notably, PTM events are detected on Cas proteins involved in antiviral defense, an aspect of Cas biochemistry not considered previously. Further, Cas PTM profiles from Leptospirillum group II differ in early versus mature biofilms. PTM patterns are divergent on orthologues of two closely related, but ecologically differentiated, Leptospirillum group II bacteria. Our results highlight the prevalence and dynamics of PTMs of proteins, with potential significance for ecological adaptation and microbial evolution.

  17. Diverse and divergent protein post-translational modifications in two growth stages of a natural microbial community

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhou; Wang, Yingfeng; Yao, Qiuming; Justice, Nicholas B.; Ahn, Tae-Hyuk; Xu, Dong; Hettich, Robert L.; Banfield, Jillian F.; Pan, Chongle

    2014-01-01

    Detailed characterization of post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins in microbial communities remains a significant challenge. Here we directly identify and quantify a broad range of PTMs (hydroxylation, methylation, citrullination, acetylation, phosphorylation, methylthiolation, S-nitrosylation and nitration) in a natural microbial community from an acid mine drainage site. Approximately 29% of the identified proteins of the dominant Leptospirillum group II bacteria are modified, and 43% of modified proteins carry multiple PTM types. Most PTM events, except S-nitrosylations, have low fractional occupancy. Notably, PTM events are detected on Cas proteins involved in antiviral defense, an aspect of Cas biochemistry not considered previously. Further, Cas PTM profiles from Leptospirillum group II differ in early versus mature biofilms. PTM patterns are divergent on orthologues of two closely related, but ecologically differentiated, Leptospirillum group II bacteria. Our results highlight the prevalence and dynamics of PTMs of proteins, with potential significance for ecological adaptation and microbial evolution. PMID:25059763

  18. Processed vs. Non-Processed Biowastes for Agriculture: Effects of Post-Harvest Tomato Plants and Biochar on Radish Growth, Chlorophyll Content and Protein Production

    PubMed Central

    Mozzetti Monterumici, Chiara; Rosso, Daniele; Montoneri, Enzo; Ginepro, Marco; Baglieri, Andrea; Novotny, Etelvino Henrique; Kwapinski, Witold; Negre, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to address the issue of processed vs. non-processed biowastes for agriculture, by comparing materials widely differing for the amount of process energy consumption. Thus, residual post harvest tomato plants (TP), the TP hydrolysates obtained at pH 13 and 60 °C, and two known biochar products obtained by 650 °C pyrolysis were prepared. All products were characterized and used in a cultivation of radish plants. The chemical composition and molecular nature of the materials was investigated by solid state 13C NMR spectrometry, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The plants were analysed for growth and content of chlorophyll, carotenoids and soluble proteins. The results show that the TP and the alkaline hydrolysates contain lignin, hemicellulose, protein, peptide and/or amino acids moieties, and several mineral elements. The biochar samples contain also similar mineral elements, but the organic fraction is characterized mainly by fused aromatic rings. All materials had a positive effect on radish growth, mainly on the diameter of roots. The best performances in terms of plant growth were given by miscanthus originated biochar and TP. The most significant effect was the enhancement of soluble protein content in the plants treated with the lowest energy consumption non processed TP. The significance of these findings for agriculture and the environment is discussed. PMID:25906472

  19. Processed vs. non-processed biowastes for agriculture: effects of post-harvest tomato plants and biochar on radish growth, chlorophyll content and protein production.

    PubMed

    Mozzetti Monterumici, Chiara; Rosso, Daniele; Montoneri, Enzo; Ginepro, Marco; Baglieri, Andrea; Novotny, Etelvino Henrique; Kwapinski, Witold; Negre, Michèle

    2015-04-21

    The aim of this work was to address the issue of processed vs. non-processed biowastes for agriculture, by comparing materials widely differing for the amount of process energy consumption. Thus, residual post harvest tomato plants (TP), the TP hydrolysates obtained at pH 13 and 60 °C, and two known biochar products obtained by 650 °C pyrolysis were prepared. All products were characterized and used in a cultivation of radish plants. The chemical composition and molecular nature of the materials was investigated by solid state 13C NMR spectrometry, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The plants were analysed for growth and content of chlorophyll, carotenoids and soluble proteins. The results show that the TP and the alkaline hydrolysates contain lignin, hemicellulose, protein, peptide and/or amino acids moieties, and several mineral elements. The biochar samples contain also similar mineral elements, but the organic fraction is characterized mainly by fused aromatic rings. All materials had a positive effect on radish growth, mainly on the diameter of roots. The best performances in terms of plant growth were given by miscanthus originated biochar and TP. The most significant effect was the enhancement of soluble protein content in the plants treated with the lowest energy consumption non processed TP. The significance of these findings for agriculture and the environment is discussed.

  20. Effect of bacteria treated and untreated post-methanated distillery effluent (PMDE) on seed germination, seedling growth and amylase activity in Phaseolus mungo L.

    PubMed

    Bharagava, Ram Naresh; Chandra, Ram

    2010-08-15

    Present study deals the effect of bacteria treated and untreated post-methanated distillery effluent (PMDE) on germination, seedling growth and amylase activity in Phaseolus mungo L. seeds. Results revealed that untreated PMDE was highly toxic in nature carrying high BOD, COD values along with high metals content. But, after bacterial treatment, these values were reduced by 64.58 and 74.20%, respectively. It was observed that 40% untreated PMDE has no inhibitory effect on seed germination but 60, 80 and 100% PMDE has inhibited 20, 40 and 60% germination, respectively while 100% germination was recorded up to 60% treated PMDE. Moreover, 40 and 60% PMDE has shown deleterious effects on seedling growth parameter and seeds treated with 80 and 100% PMDE showed no root development. However, 20% bacteria treated PMDE was found most suitable for plant growth possibly due to presence of optimum level of nutrients. Further, Phaseolus seeds treated with 60 and 80% untreated PMDE showed reduced amylase activity and no amylase activity was observed in seeds treated with 100% untreated PMDE. But, seeds treated with bacterial degraded PMDE showed amylase activity and molecular weight of alpha-amylase enzyme determined by SDS-PAGE was approximately 47.5, 46 and 44.5 kDa, respectively. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficacy and safety of growth hormone replacement therapy in Japanese adults with growth hormone deficiency: a post-marketing observational study.

    PubMed

    Shimatsu, Akira; Tai, Shigeru; Imori, Makoto; Ihara, Katsuichiro; Taketsuna, Masanori; Funai, Jumpei; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Teramoto, Akira; Irie, Minoru; Chihara, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    This large-scale observational study examined the long-term effectiveness and safety of growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy for adult GH deficiency (GHD) in Japanese clinical practice using the Hypopituitary Control and Complications Study database. The study included 402 GHD patients for safety analyses and a subset of 209 patients (149 adult-onset and 60 childhood-onset GHD patients) who had not previously received GH replacement therapy for the efficacy analyses. Data on clinical, metabolic, quality of life (QoL) characteristics, and all adverse events (AEs) were collected at baseline (start of GH treatment), 6 months, 1 year and 2 years. Over the observation period, there were improvements from baseline in insulin-like growth factor-I standard deviation scores (P<0.001), although the changes in metabolic parameters were minimal. QoL (Short Form-36) Z-scores significantly increased from baseline in both onset-type groups for several subscale domains (P<0.05). A total of 145 (36.1%) patients experienced ≥1 AE. Common AEs were hyperlipidaemia (2.7%) and hyperinsulinaemia (2.2%). Some patients experienced recurrent hypothalamic/pituitary tumour (events per 1000 patient-years: 2.78), new benign (0.93), malignant tumour (10.28) or other new tumour (0.93), new diabetes mellitus (7.45), and new stroke (3.71). Seven patients died during the observation period. Our safety findings are inconclusive about the associations between GH replacement and AEs, although the incidence of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular events are similar to those reported in the Japanese general population. In conclusion, the key beneficial effects of GH replacement therapy for GHD are observed in routine clinical practice in Japan.

  2. Effect of deposition condition and post growth irradiation treatment on the physical properties of diamond-like carbon films

    SciTech Connect

    Semenovich, V.A.; Dub, S.N.; Klyui, N.I.

    1995-12-31

    Effect of the RF (13.56 MHz) amplitude (Usa) bias voltage on the physical properties of the films has been examined. Relation between the properties of the films and growth conditions were obtained. Bias voltage and gas composition have a marked influence on the properties of prepared films. Nitrogen implantation of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films improves essentially mechanical properties (increasing of the hardness and Young`s modulus more than two times), which correlates with changes of the optical properties, namely, decreasing of optical band gap and increasing of refractive index of the implanted layer.

  3. Effect of system of lamb rearing and season on early post-partum fertility of ewes and growth performance of lambs in Katahdin sheep.

    PubMed

    Rastle-Simpson, S; D'Souza, K; Redhead, A; Singh-Knights, D; Baptiste, Q; Knights, M

    2016-07-23

    The effect of season (S), lamb rearing system (RT) and grain supplementation (GS) on post-partum fertility in Katahdin ewes and growth in Katahdin lambs was evaluated. Katahdin ewes were bred to lamb in fall (n = 36) or spring (n = 56) and at approximately 2.5 months post-partum were randomly assigned to be permanently separated or to continue to suckle their lambs for an additional 3 months. All ewes were joined with rams following treatment to synchronize oestrus. Weaned (W, n = 84) and continuously suckled lambs (CSK, n = 88) were fed forage only (n = 84; hay and pasture for fall- and spring-born lambs respectively) or were supplemented (n = 88; 18% crude protein ration ad libitum) and all weighed biweekly. Ewes rebred in the fall had a shorter ram introduction to lambing interval (p < 0.05), higher prolificacy (p = 0.001) and higher lambing rates (p = 0.02); however, the proportion of ewes lambing was not affected by season. The first service lambing rate was lower in ewes continuously suckling lambs in the spring, but not in the fall breeding season (S × RT, p = 0.03). Lambs that continuously suckled their dams and were supplemented grew quicker and gained more (p < 0.001) than their weaned and unsupplemented counterparts. The effect of CSK on growth rate of lambs was greater in the spring (RT × S; p = 0.05), and the effect of supplementation on growth rate of lambs was greater in the fall (GS × S; p < 0.0001). In conclusion, Katahdin lambs achieved higher weight gains from continuous suckling and grain supplementation. Moreover, Katahdin ewes are capable of early rebreeding post-partum while suckling their lambs, which makes them suited for use in accelerated lambing programmes.

  4. A sunflower WRKY transcription factor stimulates the mobilization of seed-stored reserves during germination and post-germination growth.

    PubMed

    Raineri, Jesica; Hartman, Matías D; Chan, Raquel L; Iglesias, Alberto A; Ribichich, Karina F

    2016-09-01

    The sunflower transcription factor HaWRKY10 stimulates reserves mobilization in Arabidopsis. Gene expression and enzymes activity assays indicated that lipolysis and gluconeogenesis were increased. Microarray results suggested a parallelism in sunflower. Germinating oilseeds converts stored lipids into sugars, and thereafter in metabolic energy that is used in seedling growth and establishment. During germination, the induced lipolysis linked to the glyoxylate pathway and gluconeogenesis produces sucrose, which is then transported to the embryo and driven through catabolic routes. Herein, we report that the sunflower transcription factor HaWRKY10 regulates carbon partitioning by reducing carbohydrate catabolism and increasing lipolysis and gluconeogenesis. HaWRKY10 was regulated by abscisic acid and gibberellins in the embryo leaves 48 h after seed imbibition and highly expressed during sunflower seed germination and seedling growth, concomitantly with lipid mobilization. Sunflower leaf disks overexpressing HaWRKY10 showed repressed expression of genes related to sucrose cleavage and glycolysis compared with controls. Moreover, HaWRKY10 constitutive expression in Arabidopsis seeds produced higher decrease in lipid reserves, whereas starch and sucrose were more preserved compared with wild type. Gene transcripts abundance and enzyme activities involved in stored lipid mobilization and gluconeogenesis increased more in transgenic than in wild type seeds 36 h after imbibition, whereas the negative regulator of lipid mobilization, ABI4, was repressed. Altogether, the results point out a functional parallelism between tissues and plant species, and reveal HaWRKY10 as a positive regulator of storage reserve mobilization in sunflower.

  5. Study of the effect of post-packaging pasteurization and argon modified atmosphere packaging on the sensory quality and growth of endogenous microflora of a sliced cooked meat product.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Zamorano, Arturo Rivera; Posada-Izquierdo, Guiomar Denisse; García-Gimeno, Rosa María

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of post-packaging pasteurization on the sensory quality and growth of natural microorganisms during refrigerated storage (6 °C) of a cooked meat product considering two packaging atmospheres based on mixture of typical gases (CO(2)/N(2) (22/78%) and novel gases (CO(2)/Ar (17/83%)). Growth of lactic acid bacteria was significantly different between samples with and without post-packaging pasteurization, showing a growth rate >0.44 and equal to 0.28 log cfu/day, respectively. For samples with post-packaging pasteurization, atmosphere CO(2)/Ar resulted in a lower growth of lactic acid bacteria and a better sensory quality. Overall, samples without post-packaging pasteurization did not show a significant reduction of sensory quality during storage time (121 days) while samples with post-packaging pasteurization showed deterioration in their sensory quality. Further investigation is needed to obtain more definitive conclusions about the effect of post-packaging pasteurization and argon-based packaging atmospheres on cooked meat products.

  6. Growth patterns during the first 12 months of life: post-hoc analysis for South Australian Aboriginal and Caucasian infants in a randomised controlled trial of formula feeding.

    PubMed

    Hawke, Karen; Louise, Jennie; Collins, Carmel; Zhou, Shao J; Brown, Alex; Gibson, Robert; Makrides, Maria

    2017-05-01

    To compare growth characteristics of Aboriginal and Caucasian formula-fed in-fants in the first 12 months of life. We conducted post-hoc data analysis of infants who were part of a previous randomised controlled trial comparing infants randomly assigned to cow or goat milk-based infant formulae. Weight, height, and body composition were assessed at serial time points between study entry (~1-2 weeks of age) and 12 months. There was no growth difference between the randomised groups so the two groups were combined and the data were used to conduct a non-randomised comparison of the growth between Aboriginal (n=11) and Caucasian formula-fed (n=169) infants. Aboriginal formula-fed infants had significantly higher mean z-scores for weight (0.65 difference, [95% CI 0.11, 1.18], p=0.018) and weight-for-length (0.82 difference [95% CI 0.20, 1.44], p=0.010) at 2 months, and all time points onward compared with Caucasian formula-fed infants. Mean length z-scores and the overall growth trajectory across time did not differ between Aboriginal and Caucasian formula-fed infants. Concordant with the weight and weight-for-length z-scores, Aboriginal infants had increased fat mass at 2 months (292 g difference [95% CI 56, 528], p=0.015), and all time points onward compared to Caucasian infants. There was no difference in fat free mass. Though there was only a small number of Aboriginal infants for comparison, our data indicate Aboriginal formu-la-fed infants were heavier and had a larger increase in fat mass over time compared with Caucasian formula-fed infants. Further studies using a larger cohort are needed to substantiate these findings.

  7. Embryonic exposure of medaka (Oryzias latipes) to propylparaben: effects on early development and post-hatching growth.

    PubMed

    González-Doncel, Miguel; García-Mauriño, José Enrique; San Segundo, Laura; Beltrán, Eulalia M; Sastre, Salvador; Fernández Torija, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Here we proposed a battery of non-invasive biomarkers and a histological survey to examine physiological/anatomical features in embryos, eleutheroembryos (13 days post-fertilization, dpf), and larvae (28-42 dpf) of medaka to investigate the effects of embryonic exposure to propylparaben (PrP). Concentrations <1000 μg PrP/L didn't exert early or late toxic effects. However, survivorship was affected at 4000 μg/L in eleutheroembryos and at ≥1000 μg/L in larvae. Histological alterations were found in 37.5% of eleutheroembryos exposed to 4000 μg PrP/L. Morphometric analysis of the gallbladder revealed significant dilation at ≥400 μg/L throughout embryo development. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), as indicator of cytochrome P4501A activity, didn't reveal induction/inhibition although its combination with a P4501A agonist (i.e. β-naphthoflavone) resulted in a synergic EROD response. Results suggest a low toxicity of PrP for fish and support the use of fish embryos and eleutheroembryos as alternatives of in vivo biomarkers indicative of exposure/toxicity.

  8. Effect of mowing cotton stalks and preventing plant re-growth on post-harvest reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Davis, Richard F; Kemerait, Robert C

    2010-06-01

    The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is a major parasite of cotton in the U.S., and management tactics for this nematode attempt to minimize population levels. We compared three post-harvest practices for their ability to reduce nematode population levels in the field, thereby reducing initial nematode population for the next year's crop. The three practices tested were: 1) chemical defoliation before harvest plus cutting cotton stalks after harvest, 2) chemical defoliation plus applying a herbicide to kill plants prior to cutting the stalks, and 3) chemical defoliation without cutting stalks. Experiments were conducted in both the greenhouse and in the field. The greenhouse experiments demonstrated that M. incognita reproduction (measured as egg counts and root gall rating indices) was significantly greater when stalks were not cut. Cutting stalks plus applying herbicide to kill cotton roots did not significantly reduce nematode reproduction compared to cutting stalks alone. In field experiments, cutting stalks reduced egg populations and root galling compared to defoliation without stalk cutting. In a greenhouse bioassay which used soil from the field plots, plants grown in soil from the defoliation only treatment had greater root gall ratings and egg counts than in the stalk cutting plus herbicide treatment. Therefore, we conclude that cutting cotton stalks immediately after harvest effectively reduces M. incognita reproduction, and may lead to a lower initial population density of this nematode in the following year.

  9. Effect of post-growth rapid thermal annealing on bilayer InAs/GaAs quantum dot heterostructure grown with very thin spacer thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, S.; Halder, N.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2010-11-15

    We have investigated the effect of post-growth rapid thermal annealing on self-assembled InAs/GaAs bilayer quantum dot samples having very thin barrier thickness (7.5-8.5 nm). In/Ga interdiffusion in the samples due to annealing is presumed to be controlled by the vertical strain coupling from the seed dots in bilayer heterostructure. Strain coupling from embedded seed QD layer maintains a strain relaxed state in active top islands of the bilayer quantum dot sample grown with comparatively thick spacer layer (8.5 nm). This results in minimum In/Ga interdiffusion. However controlled interdiffusion across the interface between dots and GaAs barrier, noticeably enhances the emission efficiency in such bilayer quantum dot heterostructure on annealing up to 700 {sup o}C.

  10. Enabling area-selective potential-energy engineering in InGaN/GaN quantum wells by post-growth intermixing.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chao; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S

    2015-03-23

    We report on a unique area-selective, post-growth approach in engineering the quantum-confined potential-energy profile of InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) utilizing metal/dielectric-coating induced intermixing process. This led to simultaneous realization of adjacent regions with peak emission of 2.74 eV and 2.82 eV with a high spatial resolution (~1 μm) at the coating boundary. The potential profile softening in the intermixed QW light-emitting diode (LED) was experimentally and numerically correlated, shedding light on the origin of alleviated efficiency droop from 30.5% to 16.6% (at 150 A/cm²). The technique is advantageous for fabricating high efficiency light-emitters, and is amenable to monolithic integration of nitride-based photonic devices.

  11. The influence of post-growth annealing on the optical properties of InAs quantum dot chains grown on pre-patterned GaAs(100).

    PubMed

    Hakkarainen, T V; Polojärvi, V; Schramm, A; Tommila, J; Guina, M

    2012-03-23

    We report on the effect of post-growth thermal annealing of [011]- ,[011(-)]-, and [010]-oriented quantum dot chains grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs(100) substrates patterned by UV-nanoimprint lithography. We show that the quantum dot chains experience a blueshift of the photoluminescence energy, spectral narrowing, and a reduction of the intersubband energy separation during annealing. The photoluminescence blueshift is more rapid for the quantum dot chains than for self-assembled quantum dots that were used as a reference. Furthermore, we studied polarization resolved photoluminescence and observed that annealing reduces the intrinsic optical anisotropy of the quantum dot chains and the self-assembled quantum dots.

  12. Father's death does not affect growth and maturation but hinders reproduction: evidence from adolescent girls in post-war Estonia.

    PubMed

    Hõrak, Peeter; Valge, Markus

    2015-12-01

    The popular concept of predictive-adaptive responses poses that girls growing up without a father present in the family mature and start reproduction earlier because the father's absence is a cue for environmental harshness and uncertainty that favours switching to a precocious life-history strategy. Most studies supporting this concept have been performed in situations where the father's absence is caused by divorce or abandonment. Using a dataset of Estonian adolescent girls who had lost their fathers over the period of World War II, we show that father's death did not affect the rate of pubertal maturation (assessed on the basis of development of breasts and axillary hair) or growth. Father's death did not affect the age of first birth but, contrary to predictions, reduced lifetime reproductive success. Our findings thus do not support the concept of predictive-adaptive responses and suggest that alternative explanations for covariation between fatherlessness and early maturation are required. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. The Impact of Stigma and Social Support on Development of Post-Traumatic Growth among Persons Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Kamen, Charles; Vorasarun, Chaniga; Canning, Ty; Kienitz, Eliza; Weiss, Carolyn; Flores, Sergio; Etter, Darryl; Lee, Susanne; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Given high rates of trauma in people living with HIV (PLH) and the health benefits of posttraumatic growth (PTG), understanding how to foster PTG in PLH exposed to trauma could be of interest to clinical psychologists working with this population. The current study examined factors theoretically related to development of PTG in PLH, namely HIV-related stigma, disclosure of HIV status, and emotional support. A sample of 334 HIV-positive adults answered a battery of self-report questionnaires. HIV-related stigma, disclosure to sexual partners, and emotional support were significant predictors of PTG: stigma was associated with lower PTG, whereas disclosure and emotional support were associated with higher PTG. Disclosure and emotional support remained significantly associated with PTG in the model including demographic factors and stigma. These findings highlight the need for development of interventions that can aid PLH in disclosing their HIV status to sexual partners and increasing available social support. PMID:26611361

  14. The Impact of Stigma and Social Support on Development of Post-traumatic Growth Among Persons Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Kamen, Charles; Vorasarun, Chaniga; Canning, Ty; Kienitz, Eliza; Weiss, Carolyn; Flores, Sergio; Etter, Darryl; Lee, Susanne; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

    2016-06-01

    Given high rates of trauma in people living with HIV (PLH) and the health benefits of posttraumatic growth (PTG), understanding how to foster PTG in PLH exposed to trauma could be of interest to clinical psychologists working with this population. The current study examined factors theoretically related to development of PTG in PLH, namely HIV-related stigma, disclosure of HIV status, and emotional support. A sample of 334 HIV-positive adults answered a battery of self-report questionnaires. HIV-related stigma, disclosure to sexual partners, and emotional support were significant predictors of PTG: stigma was associated with lower PTG, whereas disclosure and emotional support were associated with higher PTG. Disclosure and emotional support remained significantly associated with PTG in the model including demographic factors and stigma. These findings highlight the need for development of interventions that can aid PLH in disclosing their HIV status to sexual partners and increasing available social support.

  15. Resilience, post-traumatic growth, and work engagement among health care professionals after the Great East Japan Earthquake: A 4-year prospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Daisuke; Kawashima, Yuzuru; Noguchi, Hiroko; Usuki, Masato; Yamashita, Akihiro; Koido, Yuichi; Matsuoka, Yutaka J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Although attention has been paid to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among health care professionals after disasters, the impact of traumatic events on their work has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine whether disaster-related distress, resilience, and post-traumatic growth (PTG) affect work engagement among health care professionals who had been deployed to the areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on March 11, 2011. Methods: We recruited disaster medical assistance team members who were engaged in rescue activities after the earthquake. The short version of the Resilience Scale (RS-14) and Peritraumatic Distress Inventory (PDI) were administered one month after the earthquake, and the short form of Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (SF-PTGI) and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) were administered four years after the earthquake. Work engagement is composed of vigor, dedication, and absorption. Regression analyses were used to examine the relationship of UWES with RS-14, PDI, and SF-PTGI. Results: We obtained baseline data of 254 participants in April 2011, and 191 (75.2%) completed the follow-up assessment between December 2014 and March 2015. The results showed that RS-14 predicted vigor, dedication, and absorption; in addition, SF-PTGI was positively related with these three parameters (p<0.01 for all). Conclusions: Resilience at baseline and PTG after rescue activities may increase work engagement among health care professionals after disasters. These findings could be useful for establishing a support system after rescue activities during a large-scale disaster and for managing work-related stress among health care professionals. PMID:27265533

  16. Degree of methylation of ZAC1 (PLAGL1) is associated with prenatal and post-natal growth in healthy infants of the EDEN mother child cohort.

    PubMed

    Azzi, Salah; Sas, Theo C J; Koudou, Yves; Le Bouc, Yves; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Dargent-Molina, Patricia; Netchine, Irène; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2014-03-01

    The ZAC1 gene, mapped to the 6q24 region, is part of a network of co-regulated imprinted genes involved in the control of embryonic growth. Loss of methylation at the ZAC1 differentially methylated region (DMR) is associated with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus, a developmental disorder involving growth retardation and diabetes in the first weeks of post-natal life. We assessed whether the degree of methylation of the ZAC1 DMR in leukocytes DNA extracted from cord blood is associated with fetal, birth and post-natal anthropometric measures or with C-peptide concentrations in cord serum. We also searched for an influence of dietary intake and maternal parameters on ZAC1 DMR methylation. We found positive correlations between the ZAC1 DMR methylation index (MI) and estimated fetal weight (EFW) at 32 weeks of gestation, weight at birth and weight at one year of age (respectively, r = 0.15, 0.09, 0.14; P values = 0.01, 0.15, 0.03). However, there were no significant correlations between the ZAC1 DMR MI and cord blood C-peptide levels. Maternal intakes of alcohol and of vitamins B2 were positively correlated with ZAC1 DMR methylation (respectively, r = 0.2 and 0.14; P = 0.004 and 0.04). The influence of ZAC1 seems to start in the second half of pregnancy and continue at least until the first year of life. The maternal environment also appears to contribute to the regulation of DNA methylation.

  17. Resilience, post-traumatic growth, and work engagement among health care professionals after the Great East Japan Earthquake: A 4-year prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Daisuke; Kawashima, Yuzuru; Noguchi, Hiroko; Usuki, Masato; Yamashita, Akihiro; Koido, Yuichi; Matsuoka, Yutaka J

    2016-07-22

    Although attention has been paid to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among health care professionals after disasters, the impact of traumatic events on their work has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine whether disaster-related distress, resilience, and post-traumatic growth (PTG) affect work engagement among health care professionals who had been deployed to the areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on March 11, 2011. We recruited disaster medical assistance team members who were engaged in rescue activities after the earthquake. The short version of the Resilience Scale (RS-14) and Peritraumatic Distress Inventory (PDI) were administered one month after the earthquake, and the short form of Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (SF-PTGI) and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) were administered four years after the earthquake. Work engagement is composed of vigor, dedication, and absorption. Regression analyses were used to examine the relationship of UWES with RS-14, PDI, and SF-PTGI. We obtained baseline data of 254 participants in April 2011, and 191 (75.2%) completed the follow-up assessment between December 2014 and March 2015. The results showed that RS-14 predicted vigor, dedication, and absorption; in addition, SF-PTGI was positively related with these three parameters (p<0.01 for all). Resilience at baseline and PTG after rescue activities may increase work engagement among health care professionals after disasters. These findings could be useful for establishing a support system after rescue activities during a large-scale disaster and for managing work-related stress among health care professionals.

  18. Degree of methylation of ZAC1 (PLAGL1) is associated with prenatal and post-natal growth in healthy infants of the EDEN mother child cohort

    PubMed Central

    Azzi, Salah; Sas, Theo CJ; Koudou, Yves; Le Bouc, Yves; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Dargent-Molina, Patricia; Netchine, Irène; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2014-01-01

    The ZAC1 gene, mapped to the 6q24 region, is part of a network of co-regulated imprinted genes involved in the control of embryonic growth. Loss of methylation at the ZAC1 differentially methylated region (DMR) is associated with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus, a developmental disorder involving growth retardation and diabetes in the first weeks of post-natal life. We assessed whether the degree of methylation of the ZAC1 DMR in leukocytes DNA extracted from cord blood is associated with fetal, birth and post-natal anthropometric measures or with C-peptide concentrations in cord serum. We also searched for an influence of dietary intake and maternal parameters on ZAC1 DMR methylation. We found positive correlations between the ZAC1 DMR methylation index (MI) and estimated fetal weight (EFW) at 32 weeks of gestation, weight at birth and weight at one year of age (respectively, r = 0.15, 0.09, 0.14; P values = 0.01, 0.15, 0.03). However, there were no significant correlations between the ZAC1 DMR MI and cord blood C-peptide levels. Maternal intakes of alcohol and of vitamins B2 were positively correlated with ZAC1 DMR methylation (respectively, r = 0.2 and 0.14; P = 0.004 and 0.04). The influence of ZAC1 seems to start in the second half of pregnancy and continue at least until the first year of life. The maternal environment also appears to contribute to the regulation of DNA methylation. PMID:24316753

  19. Biofilm growth on polyvinylchloride surface incubated in suboptimal microbial warm water and effect of sanitizers on biofilm removal post biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Maharjan, Pramir; Huff, Geraldine; Zhang, Wen; Watkins, Susan

    2017-01-01

    An in vitro experiment was conducted to understand the nature of biofilm growth on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surface when exposed to suboptimal-quality microbial water (>4 log10 cfu/mL) obtained from a poultry drinking water source mimicking water in waterlines during the first week of poultry brooding condition. PVC sections (internal surface area of 15.16 cm(2)) were utilized in the study to grow biofilm. After a 7-d test period, test coupons with 7-day-old biofilm were transferred into autoclaved municipal water and then treated with either chlorine-based or hydrogen peroxide-based sanitizer at bird drinking water rate, to see the impact on removal of biofilm formed on test coupons. Two trials (T1 and T2) were conducted. Test coupons used in T1 and T2 had the bacterial growth of 3.67 (SEM 0.04) and 3.97 (SEM 0.11) log10 cfu/cm(2) on d 7. After sanitizer application, chlorine-based sanitizer removed bacteria in biofilm completely (0 cfu/cm(2)) within 24 h post treatment whereas hydrogen peroxide-based sanitizer reduced the counts to 1.68 log10 cfu/cm(2) (P < 0.05) by 48 h post sanitizer application. Control remained the same (P > 0.05). Results indicated that biofilm formation can occur quickly under suboptimal water condition on PVC surface, and sanitizer application helped mitigate already formed biofilm, yet chlorine proved to be more effective than hydrogen peroxide.

  20. Recrystallization and hydrothermal growth of high U-Th zircon in the Weondong deposit, Korea: Record of post-magmatic alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changyun; Song, Yungoo; Chung, Donghoon; Kang, Il-Mo; Khulganakhuu, Chuluunbaatar; Yi, Keewook

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we investigate zircons with high U and Th contents of 12,000-24,000 and 11,000-40,000 ppm, respectively, from leucocratic granite in the Weondong region of South Korea. Hydrothermally epitaxial growth textures are observed in addition to four distinct textures with different backscattered electron (BSE) intensities within single zircon crystals. We describe the internal textures of the zircon crystals and define the chemical characteristics of each textural domain. The zircon crystals show internally recrystallized and externally crystallized textures, supporting the concept of post-magmatic fluid control. After crystallization of the primary zircon by late magmatism, four types of secondary textures were developed. The type-I domain shows patchy forms within the primary domain due to the structural and chemical recrystallization of self-irradiated zircon by a fluid-dominated diffusion reaction process. The type-II domain is characterized by a pure zircon composition, mineral inclusions (mainly thorite), and micropores due to chemical recrystallization by a coupled dissolution-reprecipitation process during interaction with aqueous fluids. The type-III domain is the purest zircon, is interconnected with type-II, and formed by a second coupled dissolution-reprecipitation process. The type-IV domain is the hydrothermal recrystallization/overgrowth texture formed by the direct crystallization process from fluorine-enriched, zircon-saturated aqueous fluid. These results indicate that the zircon crystals were formed sequentially or intermittently through multi-genetic processes by post-magmatic fluids. Furthermore, we conclude that F-enriched post-magmatic fluid migrated large amounts of zirconium, resulting in the typical overgrowth texture of zircon.

  1. Characterization of stochastic noise and post-irradiation density growth for reflective-type radiochromic film in therapeutic photon beam dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Kamomae, Takeshi; Oita, Masataka; Hayashi, Naoki; Sasaki, Motoharu; Aoyama, Hideki; Oguchi, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Mariko; Monzen, Hajime; Itoh, Yoshiyuki; Naganawa, Shinji

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the dosimetric uncertainty of stochastic noise and the post-irradiation density growth for reflective-type radiochromic film to obtain the appropriate dose from the exactly controlled film density. Film pieces were irradiated with 6-MV photon beams ranging from 0 to 400cGy. The pixel values (PVs) of these films were obtained using a flatbed scanner at elapsed times of 1min to 120h between the end of irradiation and the film scan. The means and standard deviations (SDs) of the PVs were calculated. The SDs of the converted dose scale, usd, and the dose increases resulting from the PV increases per ±29min at each elapsed time, utime, were computed. The combined dose uncertainties from these two factors, uc, were then calculated. A sharp increase in the PV occurred within the first 3h after irradiation, and a slight increase continued from 3h to 120h. usd was independent of post-irradiation elapsed time. Sharp decreases in utime were obtained within 1h after irradiation, and slight decreases in utime were observed from 1 to 24h after irradiation. uc first decreased 1h after irradiation and remained constant afterward. Assuming that the post-irradiation elapsed times of all of the related measurements are synchronized within ±29min, the elapsed time should be at least 1h in our system. It is important to optimize the scanning protocol for each institution with consideration of the required measurement uncertainty and acceptable latency time.

  2. Cervical insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) to predict spontaneous onset of labor and induction to delivery interval in post-term pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dögl, Malin; Skogvoll, Eirik; Heimstad, Runa

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate whether insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) assessed in cervical secretion can predict successful induction and spontaneous onset of labor in post-term pregnancy, compared to ultrasound measurement of cervical length and Bishop score. Cohort study, originating from a randomized controlled trial. Obstetric department of a university and tertiary referral hospital, Norway. Five hundred and eight post-term women who had been randomized to induction of labor or expectant management 1 week beyond estimated day of delivery (289 [±2] days of gestation). Time to delivery was related to presence of IGFBP-1 in cervical secretion, Bishop score and ultrasound measurement of cervical length recorded at inclusion. Spontaneous onset of labor and delivery within 3 days in the expectant management, and delivery within 24 hours of induction in the induction group. Test characteristics (sensitivity, specificity and negative and positive values and likelihood ratios) for IGFBP-1, Bishop score and cervical length were calculated. Logistic regression and Cox regression were used to account for parity and body mass index. With expectant management, IGFBP-1 predicted spontaneous labor onset and delivery within 72 hours with low sensitivity and high specificity (0.45 and 0.80, respectively), as did Bishop score (0.24, 0.92). Cervical length was more sensitive (0.67, 0.58). IGFBP-1 predicted successful induction within 24 hours with low sensitivity and high specificity (0.30, 0.85), such as Bishop score (0.06, 1.00) and cervical length (0.45, 0.76). Parity enhanced successful induction. IGFBP-1 predicts both spontaneous labor onset and successful induction in post-term pregnancy. Bishop score and cervical length performed equally well. © 2010 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2010 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Effect of post-deposition annealing on the growth of Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films for a solar cell absorber layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, G. Suresh; Kishore Kumar, Y. B.; Uday Bhaskar, P.; Sundara Raja, V.

    2008-08-01

    The effect of substrate temperature and post-deposition annealing on the growth and properties of Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films, a potential candidate for a solar cell absorber layer, is investigated. The substrate temperature (Ts) is chosen to be in the range 523-673 K and the annealing temperature (Tpa) is kept at 723 K. Powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of as-deposited films revealed that the films deposited at Ts = 523 K and 573 K contain Cu2-xSe as a secondary phase. Single phase, polycrystalline Cu2ZnSnSe4 films are obtained at Ts = 623 K and films deposited at Ts = 673 K have ZnSe as a secondary phase along with Cu2ZnSnSe4. Direct band gap of as-deposited CZTSe films is found to lie between 1.40 eV and 1.65 eV depending on Ts. XRD patterns of post-deposition annealed films revealed that the films deposited at Ts = 523-623 K are single phase CZTSe and films deposited at Ts = 673 K still contain ZnSe secondary phase. CZTSe films are found to exhibit kesterite structure with the lattice parameters a = 0.568 nm and c = 1.136 nm. Optical absorption studies of post-deposition annealed films show that there is a slight increase in the band gap on annealing, due to decrease in the Cu content. Electrical resistivity of the films is found to lie in the range 0.02-2.6 Ω cm depending on Ts.

  4. Post-prandial decrease in plasma growth hormone levels is not related to the increase in plasma insulin levels in goats.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Koki; Kobayashi, Ryoko; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sato, Katsuyoshi; Katoh, Kazuo; Roh, Sang-Gun

    2017-06-26

    In the present study, we examined whether the post-prandial reduction in plasma growth hormone (GH) levels is related to the increase in plasma insulin levels in ruminants. We performed two experiments: intravenous bolus injection of insulin (0.2 IU/kg body weight) or glucose (1.0 mmol/kg body weight) was administered to increase the plasma insulin levels in male Shiba goats. In the insulin injection experiment, significant (p<0.05) increase in GH concentrations was observed, 15-20 min after the injection; it was accompanied with a significant (p<0.01) increase in cortisol concentrations at 45-90 min, when compared to the concentrations in the saline-injected controls. The glucose injection significantly (p<0.05) increased the plasma GH concentration at 20-45 min; this was not accompanied by significantly higher cortisol concentrations than were observed for the saline-injected control. Hypoglycemia induced by the insulin injection, which causes the excitation of the adrenal cortex, might be involved in the increase in insulin levels. Based on these results, we conclude that post-prandial increases in plasma insulin or glucose levels do not induce a decrease in GH concentration after feeding in the ruminants.

  5. Post-orogenic shoshonitic magmas of the Yzerfontein pluton, South Africa: the `smoking gun' of mantle melting and crustal growth during Cape granite genesis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, J. D.; Buick, I. S.; Frei, D.; Lana, C.; Villaros, A.

    2017-09-01

    The post-orogenic Yzerfontein pluton, in the Saldania Belt of South Africa was constructed through numerous injections of shoshonitic magmas. Most magma compositions are adequately modelled as products of fractionation, but the monzogranites and syenogranites may have a separate origin. A separate high-Mg mafic series has a less radiogenic mantle source. Fine-grained magmatic enclaves in the intermediate shoshonitic rocks are autoliths. The pluton was emplaced between 533 ± 3 and 537 ± 3 Ma (LA-SF-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon), essentially synchronously with many granitic magmas of the Cape Granite Suite (CGS). Yzerfontein may represent a high-level expression of the mantle heat source that initiated partial melting of the local crust and produced the CGS granitic magmas, late in the Saldanian Orogeny. However, magma mixing is not evident at emplacement level and there are no magmatic kinships with the I-type granitic rocks of the CGS. The mantle wedge is inferred to have been enriched during subduction along the active continental margin. In the late- to post-orogenic phase, the enriched mantle partially melted to produce heterogeneous magma batches, exemplified by those that formed the Yzerfontein pluton, which was further hybridised through minor assimilation of crustal materials. Like Yzerfontein, the small volumes of mafic rocks associated with many batholiths, worldwide, are probably also low-volume, high-level expressions of crustal growth through the emplacement of major amounts of mafic magma into the deep crust.

  6. Formation of pure Cu nanocrystals upon post-growth annealing of Cu-C material obtained from focused electron beam induced deposition: comparison of different methods.

    PubMed

    Szkudlarek, Aleksandra; Rodrigues Vaz, Alfredo; Zhang, Yucheng; Rudkowski, Andrzej; Kapusta, Czesław; Erni, Rolf; Moshkalev, Stanislav; Utke, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study in detail the post-growth annealing of a copper-containing material deposited with focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID). The organometallic precursor Cu(II)(hfac)2 was used for deposition and the results were compared to that of compared to earlier experiments with (hfac)Cu(I)(VTMS) and (hfac)Cu(I)(DMB). Transmission electron microscopy revealed the deposition of amorphous material from Cu(II)(hfac)2. In contrast, as-deposited material from (hfac)Cu(I)(VTMS) and (hfac)Cu(I)(DMB) was nano-composite with Cu nanocrystals dispersed in a carbonaceous matrix. After annealing at around 150-200 °C all deposits showed the formation of pure Cu nanocrystals at the outer surface of the initial deposit due to the migration of Cu atoms from the carbonaceous matrix containing the elements carbon, oxygen, and fluorine. Post-irradiation of deposits with 200 keV electrons in a transmission electron microscope favored the formation of Cu nanocrystals within the carbonaceous matrix of freestanding rods and suppressed the formation on their surface. Electrical four-point measurements on FEBID lines from Cu(hfac)2 showed five orders of magnitude improvement in conductivity when being annealed conventionally and by laser-induced heating in the scanning electron microscope chamber.

  7. Formation of pure Cu nanocrystals upon post-growth annealing of Cu–C material obtained from focused electron beam induced deposition: comparison of different methods

    PubMed Central

    Szkudlarek, Aleksandra; Rodrigues Vaz, Alfredo; Zhang, Yucheng; Rudkowski, Andrzej; Kapusta, Czesław; Erni, Rolf; Moshkalev, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this paper we study in detail the post-growth annealing of a copper-containing material deposited with focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID). The organometallic precursor Cu(II)(hfac)2 was used for deposition and the results were compared to that of compared to earlier experiments with (hfac)Cu(I)(VTMS) and (hfac)Cu(I)(DMB). Transmission electron microscopy revealed the deposition of amorphous material from Cu(II)(hfac)2. In contrast, as-deposited material from (hfac)Cu(I)(VTMS) and (hfac)Cu(I)(DMB) was nano-composite with Cu nanocrystals dispersed in a carbonaceous matrix. After annealing at around 150–200 °C all deposits showed the formation of pure Cu nanocrystals at the outer surface of the initial deposit due to the migration of Cu atoms from the carbonaceous matrix containing the elements carbon, oxygen, and fluorine. Post-irradiation of deposits with 200 keV electrons in a transmission electron microscope favored the formation of Cu nanocrystals within the carbonaceous matrix of freestanding rods and suppressed the formation on their surface. Electrical four-point measurements on FEBID lines from Cu(hfac)2 showed five orders of magnitude improvement in conductivity when being annealed conventionally and by laser-induced heating in the scanning electron microscope chamber. PMID:26425404

  8. Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waag, Andreas

    This chapter is devoted to the growth of ZnO. It starts with various techniques to grow bulk samples and presents in some detail the growth of epitaxial layers by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The last section is devoted to the growth of nanorods. Some properties of the resulting samples are also presented. If a comparison between GaN and ZnO is made, very often the huge variety of different growth techniques available to fabricate ZnO is said to be an advantage of this material system. Indeed, growth techniques range from low cost wet chemical growth at almost room temperature to high quality MOCVD growth at temperatures above 1, 000∘C. In most cases, there is a very strong tendency of c-axis oriented growth, with a much higher growth rate in c-direction as compared to other crystal directions. This often leads to columnar structures, even at relatively low temperatures. However, it is, in general, not straight forward to fabricate smooth ZnO thin films with flat surfaces. Another advantage of a potential ZnO technology is said to be the possibility to grow thin films homoepitaxially on ZnO substrates. ZnO substrates are mostly fabricated by vapor phase transport (VPT) or hydrothermal growth. These techniques are enabling high volume manufacturing at reasonable cost, at least in principle. The availability of homoepitaxial substrates should be beneficial to the development of ZnO technology and devices and is in contrast to the situation of GaN. However, even though a number of companies are developing ZnO substrates, only recently good quality substrates have been demonstrated. However, these substrates are not yet widely available. Still, the situation concerning ZnO substrates seems to be far from low-cost, high-volume production. The fabrication of dense, single crystal thin films is, in general, surprisingly difficult, even when ZnO is grown on a ZnO substrate. However

  9. The role of transforming growth factors beta1 and beta3 in pre- and post-natal pulmonary surfactant development.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lin; Deng, Chun; Fu, Zhou; Guo, Chunbao

    2011-03-01

    The aim was to explore the pulmonary surfactant regulatory effect of TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 during pre- and post-natal porcine development. Pigs on embryonic day 99 (E94) (term = 114 days) and 1-h (D0) and 15-day (D20) neonates were killed to obtain whole lungs. DSPC (disaturated phosphatidylcholine) was separated from other phospholipids, and chemical methods were used to determine the amounts of DSPC, TPL (total phospholipids) and TP (total protein) in BALF (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid). TPL was elevated at E94. DSPC in TPL was significantly higher in the D20 group than in the E94 group. Reductions in TP correlated with developmental age. The levels of TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 mRNA were determined by RT (reverse transcription)-PCR and Northern blot. The expression of TGF-β1 mRNA was low at E94, increased at D0 and then decreased at D20. The expression of TGF-β3 was high at E94, reduced at D0, and then elevated at D20. We further examined the effect of exogenously administered TGF-1 on the expression of SPs (surfactant proteins) and cytidine triphosphorylate: CCT (phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase) activity in porcine fetal lung cells cultured for 5 days. The results indicated that TGF-β1 inhibited the expression of all three SPs (SP-A, SP-B and SP-C) and CCT activity, but did not alter the expression level of SP-D transcripts. We conclude that TGF-1 inhibits the expression of surfactant components. The alterations of TGF-β3 seem to partly explain the pulmonary surfactant changes observed in development, but this result needs further investigation.

  10. Factors influencing the en route survivorship and post-voyage growth of a common ship biofouling organism, Bugula neritina.

    PubMed

    Schimanski, Kate B; Piola, Richard F; Goldstien, Sharyn J; Floerl, Oliver; Grandison, Clare; Atalah, Javier; Hopkins, Grant A

    2016-09-01

    The likelihood that viable non-indigenous biofouling species will survive a voyage on a vessel is influenced by a range of factors, including the speed, duration, and route of the voyage and the amount of time the vessel spends in port. In this study, a land-based dynamic flow device was used to test the effect of recruit age, vessel speed and voyage duration on the survivorship and growth of the bryozoan Bugula neritina. In the experiment, one-week-old recruits had a higher likelihood (100%) of surviving voyages than older (one-month-old, 90%) or younger (one-day-old, 79%) recruits, but survival was not influenced by vessel speed (6 and 18 knots) or voyage duration (two and eight days). The results suggest that the non-indigenous species B. neritina can be effectively transferred at a range of ages but one-week-old recruits are more likely to survive the translocation process and survive in the recipient environment.

  11. Genetic correlation of longevity with growth, post-mortem, docility and some morphological traits in the Pirenaica beef cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Varona, L; Moreno, C; Altarriba, J

    2012-06-01

    Survival or longevity is an economically relevant trait in cattle. However, it is not currently included in cattle selection criteria because of the delayed recording of phenotypic data and the high computational demand of survival techniques under proportional hazard models. The identification of longevity-correlated traits that can be early registered in lifetime would therefore be very useful for beef cattle selection processes. The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic correlation of survival (SURV) with: growth - birth weight (BW), weight at 120 days (W120), weight at 210 days (W210); carcass - cold carcass weight (CCW), conformation (CON), fatness (FAT) and meat colour (COL); teat morphology - teat thickness (TT), teat length (TL) and udder depth (UD); leg morphology - forward (FL) and backward legs (BL); milk production (MILK) and docility (DOC). In the statistical analysis, SURV was measured in discrete-time intervals and modelled via a sequential threshold model. A series of independent bivariate Bayesian analyses between cow survival and each recorded trait were carried out. The posterior mean estimates (and posterior standard deviation) for the heritability of SURV was 0.05 (0.01); and for the relevant genetic correlations with SURV were 0.07 (0.04), 0.12 (0.05), 0.10 (0.05), 0.15 (0.05), -0.18 (0.06), 0.33 (0.06) and 0.27 (0.15) for BW, W120, W210, CCW, CON, FAT and COL, respectively.

  12. Effect of incubation temperature on muscle growth of barramundi Lates calcarifer at hatch and post-exogenous feeding.

    PubMed

    Carey, G R; Kraft, P G; Cramp, R L; Franklin, C E

    2009-01-01

    Muscle morphology was investigated in newly hatched barramundi Lates calcarifer larvae incubated at set temperatures (26, 29 and 31 degrees C) prior to hatching. Three days after hatching (the start of exogenous feeding), larvae from the 26 and 31 degrees C treatments were each divided into two groups and reared at that temperature or transferred over the period of several hours to 29 degrees C (control temperature). Incubation temperature significantly affected muscle cellularity in the developing embryo, with larvae incubated at 26 degrees C (mean +/-s.e. 223.3 +/- 7.9) having on average 14.4% more inner muscle fibres than those incubated at 31 degrees C (195.2 +/- 8.8) and 4.8% more than those incubated at 29 degrees C (213.5 +/- 4.7). Conversely, inner muscle fibre cross-sectional area significantly increased at the warm incubation temperature in L. calcarifer, so that the total cross-sectional muscle area was not different between treatment groups. The total cross-sectional area of superficial muscle fibres and the proportion of superficial to total fibre cross-sectional area in just hatched L. calcarifer were also affected by incubation temperature, with incubation at the cool temperature (26 degrees C) increasing both the total cross-sectional area and proportion of superficial muscle fibres. By 9 days post-hatch, the aforementioned differences were no longer significant. Similarly, there was no difference in total superficial fibre cross-sectional area between any treatment groups of L. calcarifer, whereas incubation temperature still significantly affected the proportion of superficial to total muscle fibre cross-sectional area. Larvae hatched and grown at 31 degrees C had a significantly reduced percentage of superficial muscle cross-sectional area (mean +/-s.e. 5.11 +/- 0.66%) compared with those incubated and grown at 29 degrees C (8.04 +/- 0.77%) and 26 degrees C (9.32 +/- 0.56%) and those incubated at 26 degrees C and transferred to 29 degrees C (7

  13. Post-fire interactions between soil water repellency, soil fertility and plant growth in soil collected from a burned piñon-juniper woodland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernelius, Kaitlynn J.; Madsen, Matthew D.; Hopkins, Bryan G.; Bansal, Sheel; Anderson, Val J.; Eggett, Dennis L.; Roundy, Bruce A.

    2017-01-01

    Woody plant encroachment can increase nutrient resources in the plant-mound zone. After a fire, this zone is often found to be water repellent. This study aimed to understand the effects of post-fire water repellency on soil water and inorganic nitrogen and their effects on plant growth of the introduced annual Bromus tectorum and native bunchgrass Pseudoroegneria spicata. Plots centered on burned Juniperus osteosperma trees were either left untreated or treated with surfactant to ameliorate water repellency. After two years, we excavated soil from the untreated and treated plots and placed it in zerotension lysimeter pots. In the greenhouse, half of the pots received an additional surfactant treatment. Pots were seeded separately with B. tectorum or P. spicata. Untreated soils had high runoff, decreased soilwater content, and elevated NO3eN in comparison to surfactant treated soils. The two plant species typically responded similar to the treatments. Above-ground biomass and microbial activity (estimated through soil CO2 gas emissions) was 16.8-fold and 9.5-fold higher in the surfactant-treated soils than repellent soils, respectably. This study demonstrates that water repellency can influence site recovery by decreasing soil water content, promoting inorganic N retention, and impairing plant growth and microbial activity.

  14. Preferential orientation, microstructure and functional properties of SnO2:Sb thin film: The effects of post-growth annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Haoran; Li, Lingxia; Sun, Zheng; Yu, Shihui; Luo, Weijia

    2016-01-01

    The SnO2:Sb thin films (ATO) were deposited on quartz glass by magnetron sputtering. The effects of post-growth annealing on preferential orientation, microstructure and functional properties of thin films have been investigated. It was found that the thin films were polycrystalline with the cassiterite tetragonal (rutile type) structure. As the annealing temperature increased from 200 °C to 600 °C, the crystalline quality of the thin films improved. The texture transition from (2 0 0) to (2 1 1) crystallographic orientations was found as annealing temperature increased to 600 °C. This result revealed that the process of abnormal grain growth occurred. However, the crystalline quality was subsequently deteriorated with further increase of the annealing temperature. The obtained ATO thin film annealed at 600 °C showed the lowest resistivity of 1.5 × 10-3 Ω cm with the carrier concentration of 2.11 × 1020 cm-3 and hall mobility of 21.37 cm2 V-1 s-1. The average optical transmittance was 84.9% in the visible wavelength range from 380 to 780 nm. In addition, the mechanism of the changes of electrical and optical properties at different annealing temperature was proposed.

  15. Growth and decay of a post-sunset equatorial anomaly at low latitudes: Control of E×B, neutral winds and daytime electrojet strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabas, R. S.; Singh, Lakha; Garg, S. C.; Das, Rupesh M.; Sharma, Kavita; Vohra, V. K.

    2006-09-01

    Analyzing the 2 months ionospheric electron content (IEC) data acquired during a high solar activity period from a network of a stations whose sub-ionospheric points at 420 km were located within ± 1° of 84° meridian and covering a latitude belt of 3 21°N (magnetic), it has been shown that following sunset a fresh equatorial anomaly develops in continuation to the decaying daytime equatorial anomaly (DEA) in the low latitude belt. The occurrence of this post-sunset equatorial anomaly (PEA) is although a regular phenomenon but large day-to-day variations are seen in its strength (crest to trough ratio) and the latitude extent, PEA develops fully within 2 3 h of sunset and then decays. During its development crest of anomaly clearly shows a pole-ward movement and during decay it shows substantial equator-ward movement. While the trough of PEA is always seen over the magnetic equator, the crest of fully developed anomaly may be seen to lie at latitudes anywhere between 12°N and 21°N magnetic or more on different days. Thus the development and decay of PEA produce large latitudinal disturbance of F-region plasma in the lower latitude belt in the post-sunset hours and the occurrence of various low latitude phenomenon observed in IEC, e.g. post-sunset IEC decreases at equatorial latitudes, post-sunset IEC enhancements at 12°N or higher latitudes, pre-midnight IEC enhancements at equatorial latitudes, etc., have been attributed to the systematic development and decay of PEA. Also, the occurrence and development of PEA has been found to play an important role in the onset of equatorial plasma bubble associated ionospheric irregularities and their latitudinal growth. The equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) is primarily caused by the ExB drifts whereas meridional winds in association with E×B drifts also seems to play some role in determining the crest of PEA.

  16. Pou1f1, the key transcription factor related to somatic growth in tilapia (Orechromis niloticus), is regulated by two independent post-transcriptional regulation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongfang; Qin, Jingkai; Jia, Jirong; Yan, Peipei; Li, Wensheng

    2017-01-29

    This study aims to determine the post-transcriptional regulation mechanism of the transcription factor pou1f1 (pou class 1 homeobox 1), which is the key gene for pituitary development, somatic growth in vertebrates, and transcription of several hormone genes in teleost fish. MicroRNA miR-223-3p was identified as a bona fide target of pou1f; overexpression of miR-223-3p in primary pituitary cells led to the down-regulation of pou1f1 and downstream genes, and inhibition of miR-223-3p led to the up-regulation of pou1f1 in Nile tilapia dispersed primary pituitary cells. An adenylate-uridylate-rich element (AU-Rich element) was found in the 3'UTR of pou1f1 mRNA, and deletion of the AU-Rich element led to slower mRNA decay and therefore more protein output. A potential mutual relationship between miR-223-3p and the AU-rich element was also investigated, and the results demonstrated that with or without the AU-Rich element, miR-223-3p induced the up-regulation of a reporter system under serum starvation conditions, indicating that miR-223-3p and the AU-Rich element function independent of each other. This study is the first to investigate the post-transcriptional mechanism of pou1f1, which revealed that miR-223-3p down-regulated pou1f1 and downstream gene expressions, and the AU-Rich element led to rapid decay of pou1f1 mRNA. MicroRNA miR-223-3p and the AU-Rich element co-regulated the post-transcriptional expression of pou1f1 independently in Nile tilapia, demonstrating that pou1f1 is under the control of a dual post-transcription regulation mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Aggravation of post-ischemic liver injury by overexpression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lu; Koh, Hyoung-Won; Bae, Ui-Jin; Park, Byung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is known to inhibit reperfusion-induced apoptosis. IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) is the major circulating carrier protein for IGF-1 and induces apoptosis. In this study, we determined if IGFBP-3 was important in the hepatic response to I/R. To deliver IGFBP-3, we used an adenovirus containing IGFBP-3 cDNA (AdIGFBP-3) or an IGFBP-3 mutant devoid of IGF binding affinity but retaining IGFBP-3 receptor binding ability (AdIGFBP-3GGG). Mice subjected to I/R injury showed typical patterns of hepatocellular damage. Protein levels of IGFBP-3 were increased after reperfusion and showed a positive correlation with the extent of liver injury. Prior injection with AdIGFBP-3 aggravated liver injury: serum aminotransferases, prothrombin time, proinflammatory cytokines, hepatocellular necrosis and apoptosis, and neutrophil infiltration were markedly increased compared to control mice. A decrease in antioxidant potential and an upregulation of NADPH oxidase might have caused these aggravating effects of IGFBP-3. Experiments using HepG2 cells and N-acetylcysteine-pretreated mice showed a discernible effect of IGFBP-3 on reactive oxygen species generation. Lastly, AdIGFBP-3 abolished the beneficial effects of ischemic preconditioning and hypothermia. Mice treated with AdIGFBP-3GGG exhibited effects similar to those of AdIGFBP-3, suggesting a ligand-independent effect of IGFBP-3. Our results suggest IGFBP-3 as an aggravating factor during hepatic I/R injury. PMID:26073647

  18. Gestational dietary protein is associated with sex specific decrease in blood flow, fetal heart growth and post-natal blood pressure of progeny.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Medrano, Juan H; Copping, Katrina J; Hoare, Andrew; Wapanaar, Wendela; Grivell, Rosalie; Kuchel, Tim; Miguel-Pacheco, Giuliana; McMillen, I Caroline; Rodgers, Raymond J; Perry, Viv E A

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes is higher in pregnancies where the fetus is male. Sex specific differences in feto-placental perfusion indices identified by Doppler assessment have recently been associated with placental insufficiency and fetal growth restriction. This study aims to investigate sex specific differences in placental perfusion and to correlate these changes with fetal growth. It represents the largest comprehensive study under field conditions of uterine hemodynamics in a monotocous species, with a similar long gestation period to the human. Primiparous 14 mo heifers in Australia (n=360) and UK (n=180) were either individually or group fed, respectively, diets with differing protein content (18, 14, 10 or 7% crude protein (CP)) from 60 d prior to 98 days post conception (dpc). Fetuses and placentae were excised at 98 dpc (n = 48). Fetal development an median uterine artery blood flow were assessed monthly from 36 dpc until term using B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography. MUA blood flow to the male feto-placental unit increased in early pregnancy associated with increased fetal growth. Protein restriction before and shortly after conception (-60 d up to 23 dpc) increased MUA diameter and indices of velocity during late pregnancy, reduced fetal heart weight in the female fetus and increased heart rate at birth, but decreased systolic blood pressure at six months of age. Sex specific differences both in feto-placental Doppler perfusion indices and response of these indices to dietary perturbations were observed. Further, maternal diet affected development of fetal cardiovascular system associated with altered fetal haemodynamics in utero, with such effects having a sex bias. The results from this study provide further insight into the gender specific circulatory differences present in the fetal period and developing cardiovascular system.

  19. Influence of Initial Organic N Reserves and Residual Leaf Area on Growth, N Uptake, N Partitioning and N Storage in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) during Post-cutting Regrowth

    PubMed Central

    MEURIOT, F.; AVICE, J.-C.; SIMON, J.-C.; LAINE, P.; DECAU, M.-L.; OURRY, A.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims The influence of initial residual leaf area and initial N reserves on N uptake, final N distribution, and yield in alfalfa regrowing after cutting, were studied. • Methods The effects of two levels of initial residual leaf area (plants cut to 15 cm, with (L+) or without (L−) their leaves) and two initial levels of N status [high N (HN) or low N (LN)] on growth, N uptake and N partitioning, allocation and storage after 29 d of post-cutting regrowth were analysed. • Key Results During most of the regrowth period (8–29 d after the initial harvest), HN and L+ plants had higher net N uptake rates than LN and L− plants, respectively, resulting in a greater final mineral N uptake for these treatments. However, the final partitioning of exogenous N to the regrowing shoots was the same for all treatments (67 % of total exogenous N on average). Final shoot growth, total plant N content, and N allocation to the different taproot N pools were significantly lower in plants with reduced initial leaf area and initial N reserve status. • Conclusions Although both initial residual leaf area and initial N reserves influenced alfalfa regrowth, the residual leaf area had a greater effect on final forage production and N composition in the taproot, whereas the N uptake rate and final total N content in plant were more affected by the initial N reserve status than by the residual leaf area. Moreover, N storage as proteins (especially as vegetative storage proteins, rather than nitrate or amino acids) in the taproot allowed nitrate uptake to occur at significant rates. This suggests that protein storage is not only a means of sequestering N in a tissue for further mobilization, utilization for growth or tissue maintenance, but may also indirectly influence both N acquisition and reduction capacities. PMID:15271775

  20. Comparing Growth Rates after Hospital Discharge of Preterm Infants Fed with Either Post-Discharge Formula or High-Protein, Medium-Chain Triglyceride Containing Formula.

    PubMed

    Ekcharoen, Chanikarn; Tantibhaedhyangkul, Ruangvith

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate whether a high energy, high-protein, MCT-containing formula (HPMCT) is as appropriate as a post-discharge formula (PDF) for feeding preterm infants after hospital discharge by comparing growth, adverse effects, and cost per gram of bodyweight gain. The present study was a randomized controlled trial. The calculated sample size was 20 infants for each intervention group. After the consent procedure, preterm infants who had postconceptional age (PCA) 35⁺¹ to 36⁺⁰ weeks and weight between 1,800 and 3,000 g at hospital discharge were randomly enrolled to receive either PDF or HPMCT starting from the discharge day. Intervention period lasted at least 28 days and until the infant's weight was at least 3,000 g or PCA was at least 40⁺⁰ weeks. Body weight, length, and head circumference were measured on days 0, 14, 28, 56, and 84 after hospital discharge. Formula intakes and adverse symptoms (abdominal distension, diarrhea, and constipation) were recorded by parents before each visit in diaries provided by the study group. Cost was calculated from estimated actual formula intakes. There were six and five infants enrolled into PDF and HPMCT group, respectively. Demographic data were not different between the two groups. There were no significant differences of growth rates in both groups at days 28, 56, and 84 after hospital discharge. Adverse effects and costs were not different either. PDF and HPMCT might be comparably appropriate for feeding catching-up preterm infants after hospital discharge, as noted from growth rates, adverse effects, and costs. However, further studies involving biochemical and neurodevelopmental evaluation, with long-term follow-up in larger populations are needed to clearly compare both formulas.

  1. Effects of pre-germinated fenugreek seeds inclusion in low-fiber diets on post-weaned rabbits' health status, growth performances, carcass characteristics, and meat chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Mabrouki, Sabah; Chalghoumi, Raja; Abdouli, Hedi

    2017-03-01

    Newly weaned rabbits frequently suffer from digestive disorders particularly when fed low-fiber diets. Fenugreek seeds are rich in dietary fiber and would be suited to moderate such disorders. This study investigated the effect of pre-germinated fenugreek seeds (PGFS) on rabbits' health, digestibility, growth performance, and carcass parameters. Fourteen weaned rabbits were fed one of the following diets: (1) low fiber as negative control (NC), (2) low fiber containing 5% PGFS (F5), (3) low fiber containing 10% PGFS (F10), and (4) adequate fiber as positive control (PC). Each rabbit was reared in an individual cage for 7 weeks. Morbidity and sanitary risk indexes were not different (P > 0.05) between the four diets. Only 20% of the rabbits had a detectable caecal Escherichia Coli (E. coli) count (<10(5) cfu/g), and all rabbits did not show Eimeria oocysts in their feces. Compared to NC, PC gave a lower (P < 0.05) weight gain and a higher (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR). It was associated with a lighter (P < 0.05) chilled carcass weight, and its meat had slightly more moisture and ether extract with less protein. Inclusion of PGFS decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake at the 10% level and, consequently, tended to improve FCR, while no effect was detected on carcass characteristics and meat composition. This study suggested that (1) the low-fiber diet was adequate for both health and growth aspects of post-weaned rabbits, and (2) the inclusion of PGFS was without consequence on rabbits' health status and growth performance.

  2. Novel angiogenic inhibitor DN-9693 that inhibits post-transcriptional induction of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) by vascular endothelial growth factor in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Seiji; Tanaka, Noriko; Kubota, Satoshi; Mukudai, Yoshiki; Yosimichi, Gen; Sugahara, Toshio; Takigawa, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is a potent angiogenic factor. In this report, we describe for the first time that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated induction of the ctgf/ccn2 gene was a post-transcriptional event that was inhibited by a novel angiogenic inhibitor, DN-9693, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Steady-state mRNA levels of ctgf/ccn2 were remarkably increased by VEGF in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the activity of the ctgf/ccn2 promoter was not responsive to VEGF as confirmed by a reporter gene assay and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. By employing a RNA degradation assay, we eventually found that the observed increase in the ctgf/ccn2 mRNA level was due to an increased stability of the mRNA induced by VEGF. DN-9693 at a dose of 0.1 to 2 ng/mL did not affect basal levels of ctgf/ccn2 mRNA; however, enhancement of ctgf/ccn2 mRNA expression by VEGF was specifically inhibited by DN-9693. Of importance, the inhibitory effects could be also ascribed to post-transcriptional regulation, because the VEGF-mediated increase in stability of ctgf/ccn2 mRNA was suppressed by DN-9693. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of DN-9693 on VEGF-induced activation of three subgroups of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways and found that DN-9693 blocked the activation of these pathways by VEGF. These results suggest that VEGF increases ctgf/ccn2 mRNA stability through mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated intracellular signaling cascade(s), which can be inhibited posttranscriptionally by a novel angiogenic inhibitor, DN-9693, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

  3. Ubiquitin-Mediated Proteasomal Degradation of Oleosins is Involved in Oil Body Mobilization During Post-Germinative Seedling Growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Deruyffelaere, Carine; Bouchez, Isabelle; Morin, Halima; Guillot, Alain; Miquel, Martine; Froissard, Marine; Chardot, Thierry; D'Andrea, Sabine

    2015-07-01

    In oleaginous seeds, lipids--stored in organelles called oil bodies (OBs)--are degraded post-germinatively to provide carbon and energy for seedling growth. To date, little is known about how OB coat proteins, known as oleosins, control OB dynamics during seed germination. Here, we demonstrated that the sequential proteolysis of the five Arabidopsis thaliana oleosins OLE1-OLE5 begins just prior to lipid degradation. Several post-translational modifications (e.g. phosphorylation and ubiquination) of oleosins were concomitant with oleosin degradation. Phosphorylation occurred only on the minor OLE5 and on an 8 kDa proteolytic fragment of OLE2. A combination of immunochemical and proteomic approaches revealed ubiquitination of the four oleosins OLE1-OLE4 at the onset of OB mobilization. Ubiquitination topology was surprisingly complex. OLE1 and OLE2 were modified by three distinct and predominantly exclusive motifs: monoubiquitin, K48-linked diubiquitin (K48Ub(2)) and K63-linked diubiquitin. Ubiquitinated oleosins may be channeled towards specific degradation pathways according to ubiquitination type. One of these pathways was identified as the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. A proteasome inhibitor (MG132) reduced oleosin degradation and induced cytosolic accumulation of K48Ub(2)-oleosin aggregates. These results indicate that K48Ub(2)-modified oleosins are selectively extracted from OB coat and degraded by the proteasome. Proteasome inhibition also reduced lipid hydrolysis, providing in vivo evidence that oleosin degradation is required for lipid mobilization. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Effects of severity of post-flowering leaf removal on berry growth and composition of three red Vitis vinifera L. cultivars grown under semiarid conditions.

    PubMed

    Kotseridis, Yorgos; Georgiadou, Afroditi; Tikos, Panagiotis; Kallithraka, Stamatina; Koundouras, Stefanos

    2012-06-13

    The effects of the severity of post-flowering leaf removal on the growth and phenolic composition of berry skin and seeds were studied in three Vitis vinifera L. genotypes over two consecutive seasons, 2007 and 2008. The study was conducted in a commercial vertical shoot positioned (VSP)-trained nonirrigated vineyard of northern Greece, planted with cultivars Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Sangiovese. Three different severities of leaf removal in the fruit zone were applied manually at berry set: nondefoliated (ND), removal of the lateral shoots of the first six basal nodes (LR), and full removal of the total leaf area (main leaves and lateral shoots) of the first six basal nodes (FR). Grape samples were obtained at commercial harvest. Leaf removal decreased yield per vine and cluster weight in Merlot and Sangiovese. Cluster compactness was reduced with the severity of defoliation only in Merlot, due to a decrease in berry number per cluster; berry fresh weight was unaffected in both cultivars. On the contrary, in Cabernet Sauvignon, yield was unaffected but berry size was restrained by leaf removal. Skin and seed mass followed variations in berry mass (except for seed mass in Sangiovese). Fruit zone leaf removal did not affect must soluble solids and increased titratable acidity only in Merlot. Defoliation increased skin anthocyanins in Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon in the order FR > LR > ND but significantly reduced seed flavan-3-ols mainly as a result of the reduction in catechin and epicatechin amount. For these varieties, FR had lower seed flavan-3-ols than ND in both varieties, whereas LR had intermediate values. However, in Sangiovese, the highest seed phenolic content was recorded in LR. The results showed that post-flowering leaf removal improved the overall berry composition in Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon but had limited effect in Sangiovese.

  5. Post Treatment With an FGF Chimeric Growth Factor Enhances Epithelial Cell Proliferation to Improve Recovery From Radiation-Induced Intestinal Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Fumiaki; Hagiwara, Akiko; Umeda, Sachiko; Asada, Masahiro; Goto, Megumi; Oki, Junko; Suzuki, Masashi; Imamura, Toru; Akashi, Makoto

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: A fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 1-FGF2 chimera (FGFC) was created previously and showed greater structural stability than FGF1. This chimera was capable of stimulating epithelial cell proliferation much more strongly than FGF1 or FGF2 even without heparin. Therefore FGFC was expected to have greater biologic activity in vivo. This study evaluated and compared the protective activity of FGFC and FGF1 against radiation-induced intestinal injuries. Methods and Materials: We administered FGFC and FGF1 intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice 24 h before or after total-body irradiation (TBI). The numbers of surviving crypts were determined 3.5 days after TBI with gamma rays at doses ranging from 8 to 12 Gy. Results: The effect of FGFC was equal to or slightly superior to FGF1 with heparin. However, FGFC was significantly more effective in promoting crypt survival than FGF1 (p < 0.01) when 10 {mu}g of each FGF was administered without heparin before irradiation. In addition, FGFC was significantly more effective at promoting crypt survival (p < 0.05) than FGF1 even when administered without heparin at 24 h after TBI at 10, 11, or 12 Gy. We found that FGFC post treatment significantly promoted 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation into crypts and increased crypt depth, resulting in more epithelial differentiation. However, the number of apoptotic cells in FGFC-treated mice decreased to almost the same level as that in FGF1-treated mice. Conclusions: These findings suggest that FGFC strongly enhanced radioprotection with the induction of epithelial proliferation without exogenous heparin after irradiation and is useful in clinical applications for both the prevention and post treatment of radiation injuries.

  6. The Effect of the Wall Contact and Post-Growth, Cool-Down on Defects in CdTe Crystals Grown By 'Contactless' PVT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; Grasza, K.; Dudley, M.; Raghothamachar, B.; Cai, L.; Dunrose, K.; Halliday, D.; Boyall, N. M.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To take a maximum advantage of materials processing in microgravity for understanding the effects of gravity, gravity-independent effects should be minimized. In crystal growth, the quality of the grown crystals may depend, among other factors, on their interaction with the walls of the processing container during and after growth, and on the rate of the crystal cool-down at the end of the process. To investigate the above phenomena, a series of CdTe crystal growth processes was carried out. The crystals were grown by physical vapor transport without contact with the side walls of the silica glass ampoules. To eliminate the effect of the seed quality, and to reduce the number of nuclei and related crystal grains, the Low Supersaturation Nucleation technique was applied. The source temperature was 930 C, the undercooling was a few degrees. The crystals, having the diameter of 25 mm, grew at the rate of a few mm per day. The post-growth cool-down to the room temperature was conducted at different rates, and lasted from a few minutes to four days. The crystals were characterized using chemical etching, low temperature luminescence, and Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography techniques. The dislocation (etch pit) density was measured and its distribution was analyzed by comparison with Poisson curves and with the Normalized Radial Distribution Correlation Function. In the regions where the crystal is in contact with silica, the materials show a considerable strain field which extends for a few mm or more from the silica-crystal interface. In the reference crystal grown with contact with the ampoule walls, and when the crystals are cooled at the highest rates, the etch pit/dislocation density is in the high 10(exp 5) per square centimeter region. Typical EPD values for lower cool-down rates are in the lower 10(exp 4) per square centimeter region. In some areas the actual dislocation density was about 10(exp 3) per square centimeter or even less. No apparent effect of

  7. The Effect of the Wall Contact and Post-Growth, Cool-Down on Defects in CdTe Crystals Grown By 'Contactless' PVT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; Grasza, K.; Dudley, M.; Raghothamachar, B.; Cai, L.; Dunrose, K.; Halliday, D.; Boyall, N. M.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To take a maximum advantage of materials processing in microgravity for understanding the effects of gravity, gravity-independent effects should be minimized. In crystal growth, the quality of the grown crystals may depend, among other factors, on their interaction with the walls of the processing container during and after growth, and on the rate of the crystal cool-down at the end of the process. To investigate the above phenomena, a series of CdTe crystal growth processes was carried out. The crystals were grown by physical vapor transport without contact with the side walls of the silica glass ampoules. To eliminate the effect of the seed quality, and to reduce the number of nuclei and related crystal grains, the Low Supersaturation Nucleation technique was applied. The source temperature was 930 C, the undercooling was a few degrees. The crystals, having the diameter of 25 mm, grew at the rate of a few mm per day. The post-growth cool-down to the room temperature was conducted at different rates, and lasted from a few minutes to four days. The crystals were characterized using chemical etching, low temperature luminescence, and Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography techniques. The dislocation (etch pit) density was measured and its distribution was analyzed by comparison with Poisson curves and with the Normalized Radial Distribution Correlation Function. In the regions where the crystal is in contact with silica, the materials show a considerable strain field which extends for a few mm or more from the silica-crystal interface. In the reference crystal grown with contact with the ampoule walls, and when the crystals are cooled at the highest rates, the etch pit/dislocation density is in the high 10(exp 5) per square centimeter region. Typical EPD values for lower cool-down rates are in the lower 10(exp 4) per square centimeter region. In some areas the actual dislocation density was about 10(exp 3) per square centimeter or even less. No apparent effect of

  8. Potential of pomegranate fruit extract (Punica granatum Linn.) to increase vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor expressions on the post-tooth extraction wound of Cavia cobaya

    PubMed Central

    Nirwana, Intan; Rachmadi, Priyawan; Rianti, Devi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pomegranates fruit extracts have several activities, among others, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antioxidants that have the main content punicalagin and ellagic acid. Pomegranate has the ability of various therapies through different mechanisms. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) function was to form new blood vessels produced by various cells one of them was macrophages. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was a growth factor proven chemotactic, increased fibroblast proliferation and collagen matrix production. In addition, VEGF and PDGF synergize in their ability to vascularize tissues. The PDGF function was to stabilize and regulate maturation of new blood vessels. Activities of pomegranate fruit extract were observed by measuring the increased of VEGF and PDGF expression as a marker of wound healing process. Aim: To investigate the potential of pomegranate extracts on the tooth extraction wound to increase the expression of VEGF and PDGF on the 4th day of wound healing process. Materials and Methods: This study used 12 Cavia cobaya, which were divided into two groups, namely, the provision of 3% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and pomegranate extract. The 12 C. cobaya would be executed on the 4th day, the lower jaw of experimental animals was taken, decalcified about 30 days. The expression of VEGF and PDGF was examined using immunohistochemical techniques. The differences of VEGF and PDGF expression were evaluated statistically using t-test. Results: Statistically analysis showed that there were significant differences between control and treatment groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: Pomegranate fruit extract administration increased VEGF and PDGF expression on post-tooth extraction wound. PMID:28919696

  9. Loss of Mitochondrial Malate Dehydrogenase Activity Alters Seed Metabolism Impairing Seed Maturation and Post-Germination Growth in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH; EC 1.1.1.37) has multiple roles; the most commonly described is its catalysis of the interconversion of malate and oxaloacetate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The roles of mMDH in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed development and germination were investigated in mMDH1 and mMDH2 double knockout plants. A significant proportion of mmdh1mmdh2 seeds were nonviable and developed only to torpedo-shaped embryos, indicative of arrested seed embryo growth during embryogenesis. The viable mmdh1mmdh2 seeds had an impaired maturation process that led to slow germination rates as well as retarded post-germination growth, shorter root length, and decreased root biomass. During seed development, mmdh1mmdh2 showed a paler green phenotype than the wild type and exhibited deficiencies in reserve accumulation and reduced final seed biomass. The respiration rate of mmdh1mmdh2 seeds was significantly elevated throughout their maturation, consistent with the previously reported higher respiration rate in mmdh1mmdh2 leaves. Mutant seeds showed a consistently higher content of free amino acids (branched-chain amino acids, alanine, serine, glycine, proline, and threonine), differences in sugar and sugar phosphate levels, and lower content of 2-oxoglutarate. Seed-aging assays showed that quiescent mmdh1mmdh2 seeds lost viability more than 3 times faster than wild-type seeds. Together, these data show the important role of mMDH in the earliest phases of the life cycle of Arabidopsis. PMID:27208265

  10. Post-growth annealing induced change of conductivity in As-doped ZnO grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    To, C. K.; Yang, B.; Su, S. C.; Ling, C. C.; Beling, C. D.; Fung, S.

    2011-12-01

    Arsenic-doped ZnO films were fabricated by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method at a relatively low substrate temperature of 200 deg. C. Post-growth annealing in air was carried out up to a temperature of 1000 deg. C. The samples were characterized by Hall measurement, positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), and cathodoluminescence (CL). The as-grown sample was of n-type and it converted to p-type material after the 400 deg. C annealing. The resulting hole concentration was found to increase with annealing temperature and reached a maximum of 6 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} at the annealing temperature of 600 deg. C. The origin of the p-type conductivity was consistent with the As{sub Zn}(V{sub Zn}){sub 2} shallow acceptor model. Further increasing the annealing temperature would decrease the hole concentration of the samples finally converted the sample back to n-type. With evidence, it was suggested that the removal of the p-type conductivity was due to the dissociation of the As{sub Zn}(V{sub Zn}){sub 2} acceptor and the creation of the deep level defect giving rise to the green luminescence.

  11. Post-growth annealing induced change of conductivity in As-doped ZnO grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    To, C. K.; Yang, B.; Su, S. C.; Ling, C. C.; Beling, C. D.; Fung, S.

    2011-12-01

    Arsenic-doped ZnO films were fabricated by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method at a relatively low substrate temperature of 200 °C. Post-growth annealing in air was carried out up to a temperature of 1000 °C. The samples were characterized by Hall measurement, positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), and cathodoluminescence (CL). The as-grown sample was of n-type and it converted to p-type material after the 400 °C annealing. The resulting hole concentration was found to increase with annealing temperature and reached a maximum of 6 × 1017 cm-3 at the annealing temperature of 600 °C. The origin of the p-type conductivity was consistent with the AsZn(VZn)2 shallow acceptor model. Further increasing the annealing temperature would decrease the hole concentration of the samples finally converted the sample back to n-type. With evidence, it was suggested that the removal of the p-type conductivity was due to the dissociation of the AsZn(VZn)2 acceptor and the creation of the deep level defect giving rise to the green luminescence.

  12. N and Al co-doping as a way to p-type ZnO without post-growth annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snigurenko, Dymitr; Guziewicz, Elzbieta; Krajewski, Tomasz A.; Jakiela, Rafal; Syryanyy, Yevgen; Kopalko, Krzysztof; Paszkowicz, Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate experimental results on p-type ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and co-doped with aluminum and nitrogen (ANZO). The films were obtained at low temperature (100 °C) with different N to Al ratio and show conductivity type, which depends on the N and Al content. We applied the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to get insight into a chemical nature of dopants and we found three pronounced contributions of the N1s core level which appear at binding energies of 396.1, 397.4 and around 399 eV. Based on ANZO and undoped ZnO films, both grown by the ALD technique, the ZnO homojunction was obtained in one technological process without any post-growth high temperature processing. The rectification ratio as high as 4 × 104 at ± 2 V was achieved when an ultrathin Al2O3 layer was inserted between p- and n-type ZnO and a n-type ZnO buffer layer deposited on an insulating Si substrate was applied.

  13. Muscle development and body growth in larvae and early post-larvae of shi drum, Umbrina cirrosa L., reared under different larval photoperiod: muscle structural and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Maria D; Abellán, Emilia; Arizcun, Marta; García-Alcázar, Alicia; Navarro, F; Blanco, Alfonso; López-Albors, Octavio M

    2013-08-01

    Shi drum specimens were maintained under four different photoperiod regimes: a natural photoperiod regime (16L:8D), constant light (24L), equal durations of light and dark (12L:12D) and a reduced number of daylight hours (6L:18D) from hatching until the end of larval metamorphosis. Specimens were then kept under natural photoperiod conditions until 111 days post-hatching. Muscle and body parameters were studied. During the vitelline phase, there was little muscle growth and no photoperiod effects were reported; however, a monolayer of red muscle and immature white muscle fibres were observed in the myotome. At hatching, external cells (presumptive myogenic cells) were already present on the surface of the red muscle. At the mouth opening, some presumptive myogenic cells appeared between the red and white muscles. At 20 days, new germinal areas were observed in the apical extremes of the myotome. At this stage, the 16L:8D group (followed by the 24L group) had the longest body length, the largest cross-sectional area of white muscle and the largest white muscle fibres. Conversely, white muscle hyperplasia was most pronounced in the 24L group. Metamorphosis was complete at 33 days in the 24L and 12L:12D groups. At this moment, both groups showed numerous myogenic precursors on the surface of the myotome as well as among the adult muscle fibres (mosaic hyperplastic growth). The 16L:8D group completed metamorphosis at 50 days, showing a similar degree of structural maturity in the myotome to that described in the 24L and 12L:12D groups at 33 days. When comparing muscle growth at the end of the larval period, hypertrophy was highest in the 16L:8D group, whereas hyperplasia was higher in the 24L and 16L:8D groups. At 111 days, all groups showed the adult muscle pattern typical of teleosts; however, the cross-sectional area of white muscle, white muscle fibre hyperplasia, body length and body weight were highest in the 24L group, followed by the 12L:12D group; white muscle

  14. Expression of insulin-like growth factor system genes in liver tissue during embryonic and early post-hatch development in duck (Anas platyrhynchos Domestica).

    PubMed

    Jianmin, Zou; Jingting, Shu; Yanju, Shan; Yan, Hu; Chi, Song; Wenqi, Zhu

    2014-04-03

    The IGF system is one of the most important endocrine and paracrine growth factor systems that regulate fetal and placental growth, whereas the liver is the principal source of circulation IGF-I. In the present study, expression of IGF-I, IGF type-I receptor (IGF-IR), and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3 genes was quantified by RT-PCR in the liver tissue on days 13, 17, 21, 25, and 27 of embryonic development, as well as at 7 days post-hatching (PH) in meat-type Gaoyou ducks and egg-type Jinding ducks. The results showed that IGF-I mRNA could be detected as early as on E 13d, but the expression level was low throughout embryonic development before increasing dramatically by E 27d and 7 days PH in both duck breeds. However, Gaoyou ducks exhibited higher IGF-I mRNA level than Jinding ducks, and the differences were significant on E 13d, E 21d, and at 7 days PH. Expression of IGF-IR in liver increased gradually in the former stages of the embryonic development, reaching its highest point on E 21d, and then declined up until 7 days PH. The expression pattern of IGFBP-3 gene was similar to that of IGF-IR gene, increasing significantly from E 17d. The expression peak appeared on E 25d, then declined significantly just prior to hatching (day 27) and was followed by an increase at 7 days PH. In general, the expression level of IGF-IR and IGFBP-3 genes in Jinding ducks was higher than that in Gaoyou ducks. Inverse relationships were observed for the expression of IGF-I and IGF-IR, and IGF-I and IGFBP-3, whereas a positive relationship was observed for the expression of IGF-IR and IGFBP-3. Our data indicate a differential expression of selected genes that comprise the IGF system in the duck liver tissue during embryonic and early PH growth and development.

  15. Expression of insulin-like growth factor system genes in liver and brain tissue during embryonic and post-hatch development of the turkey.

    PubMed

    Richards, Mark P; Poch, Stephen M; McMurtry, John P

    2005-05-01

    A molecular cloning strategy employing primer-directed reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was devised to sequence 1300 bp of a turkey liver-derived cDNA corresponding to the complete coding region and the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II mRNA transcript (GenBank accession no. ). The turkey IGF-II gene codes for a 187 amino acid precursor protein that includes a signal peptide, the mature IGF-II hormone, and a C-terminal extension peptide comprised of 24, 67 and 96 amino acids, respectively. Turkey IGF-II showed greater than 95% sequence identity at both the nucleotide and amino acid level with chicken IGF-II. Expression of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF type-I receptor (IGF-IR), and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-2 and -5 genes was quantified relative to an internal 18S rRNA standard by RT-PCR in liver and whole brain tissue on days 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24 and 26 of embryonic development, as well as at hatch (H, day 28) and at 3 weeks post-hatching (PH). Expression of liver IGF-I was low throughout embryonic development, but increased more than 8-fold by 3 weeks PH. In contrast, IGF-I was expressed in brain tissue at much higher levels than liver throughout development and this level of expression in brain increased gradually, reaching its highest point at 3 weeks PH. IGF-II was expressed at comparable levels in brain and liver tissue during embryonic development, except for transient increases in liver just prior to hatching (days 24 and 26) and at 3 weeks PH. Expression of IGF-IR declined in brain throughout development reaching its lowest level at 3 weeks PH. In liver, IGF-IR expression was lower than that of brain throughout development. An inverse relationship was observed for the expression of IGF-I and IGF-IR genes in brain, but not in liver, through 3 weeks PH. Expression of the IGFBP-2 gene increased in liver around the time of hatch (days 26-28) and declined by 3 weeks PH, whereas the level of expression of

  16. Post-Growth Annealing of Bridgman-grown CdZnTe and CdMnTe Crystals for Room-temperature Nuclear Radiation Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Egarievwe, Stephen U.; Yang, Ge; Egarievwe, Alexander; Okwechime, Ifechukwude O.; Gray, Justin; Hales, Zaveon M.; Hossain, Anwar; Camarda, Guiseppe S.; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; James, Ralph B.

    2015-02-11

    Bridgman-grown cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) and cadmium manganese telluride (CdMnTe or CMT) crystals often have Te inclusions that limit their performances as X-ray- and gamma-ray-detectors. We present here the results of post-growth thermal annealing aimed at reducing and eliminating Te inclusions in them. In a 2D analysis, we observed that the sizes of the Te inclusions declined to 92% during a 60-h annealing of CZT at 510 °C under Cd vapor. Further, tellurium inclusions were eliminated completely in CMT samples annealed at 570 °C in Cd vapor for 26 h, whilst their electrical resistivity fell by an order of 102. During the temperature-gradient annealing of CMT at 730 °C and an 18 °C/cm temperature gradient for 18 h in a vacuum of 10-5 mbar, we observed the diffusion of Te from the sample, causing a reduction in size of the Te inclusions. For CZT samples annealed at 700 °C in a 10 °C/cm temperature gradient, we observed the migration of Te inclusions from a low-temperature region to a high one at 0.022 μm/s. During the temperature-gradient annealing of CZT in a vacuum of 10-5 mbar at 570 °C and 30 °C/cm for 18 h, some Te inclusions moved toward the high-temperature side of the wafer, while other inclusions of the same size, i.e., 10 µm in diameter, remained in the same position. These results show that the migration, diffusion, and reaction of Te with Cd in the matrix of CZT- and CMT-wafers are complex phenomena that depend on certain conditions.

  17. Post-Growth Annealing of Bridgman-grown CdZnTe and CdMnTe Crystals for Room-temperature Nuclear Radiation Detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Egarievwe, Stephen U.; Yang, Ge; Egarievwe, Alexander; ...

    2015-02-11

    Bridgman-grown cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) and cadmium manganese telluride (CdMnTe or CMT) crystals often have Te inclusions that limit their performances as X-ray- and gamma-ray-detectors. We present here the results of post-growth thermal annealing aimed at reducing and eliminating Te inclusions in them. In a 2D analysis, we observed that the sizes of the Te inclusions declined to 92% during a 60-h annealing of CZT at 510 °C under Cd vapor. Further, tellurium inclusions were eliminated completely in CMT samples annealed at 570 °C in Cd vapor for 26 h, whilst their electrical resistivity fell by an ordermore » of 102. During the temperature-gradient annealing of CMT at 730 °C and an 18 °C/cm temperature gradient for 18 h in a vacuum of 10-5 mbar, we observed the diffusion of Te from the sample, causing a reduction in size of the Te inclusions. For CZT samples annealed at 700 °C in a 10 °C/cm temperature gradient, we observed the migration of Te inclusions from a low-temperature region to a high one at 0.022 μm/s. During the temperature-gradient annealing of CZT in a vacuum of 10-5 mbar at 570 °C and 30 °C/cm for 18 h, some Te inclusions moved toward the high-temperature side of the wafer, while other inclusions of the same size, i.e., 10 µm in diameter, remained in the same position. These results show that the migration, diffusion, and reaction of Te with Cd in the matrix of CZT- and CMT-wafers are complex phenomena that depend on certain conditions.« less

  18. Effects of growth irradiance, nitrogen nutrition and watering regime on photosynthesis, leaf conductance and isoprene emission in leaves of Post Oak, Quercus stellata

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, P.; Archer, S.; Guenther, A. Texas A M Univ., College Station )

    1994-06-01

    Seedlings of Post Oak (Quercus stellata), the dominant woody species of oak savannas of east-central Texas, were grown outside in College Station, TX from April to November 1993. Plants were randomly placed in one cell of a 3 [times] 2 [times] 2 factorial experiment, employing 3 nitrogen fertilization (25, 100 and 225 ppm NH[sub 4]NO[sub 23]), 2 light levels (70% and 20% of full sun) and 2 watering regimes (to maintain 80-100% or 30-50% of field capacity). In November, net photosynthesis, leaf conductance and leaf isoprene emission rates at 30[degrees]C and PPFD=1000 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2]s[sup [minus]1] were determined for two mature leaves on each of four plants from eight growth treatments and data were analyzed stastically. For plants grown under the lower watering regime, photosynthesis and isoprene emission increased with both increasing PPFD and nitrogen (effects significant at p<0.01). For plants grown at 70% full sun, effects of nitrogen treatment on photosynthesis, conductance and isoprene emission were significant (p<0.0001) while effects of watering treatment were not significant (p<0.2). Although watering treatment did not lead to significant differences between treatments, in a short-term drying experiment conducted on four plants, isoprene emissions increased through the drying period in previously well-watered plants, but decreased in previously droughted plants. Measurements were also made on two leaves to determine the effects of varying PPFD and temperature on rates of isoprene emission.

  19. Effect of vascular endothelial growth factor gene therapy on post-traumatic peripheral nerve regeneration and denervation-related muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Moimas, S; Novati, F; Ronchi, G; Zacchigna, S; Fregnan, F; Zentilin, L; Papa, G; Giacca, M; Geuna, S; Perroteau, I; Arnež, Z M; Raimondo, S

    2013-10-01

    Functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury depends on both improvement of nerve regeneration and prevention of denervation-related skeletal muscle atrophy. To reach these goals, in this study we overexpressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by means of local gene transfer with adeno-associated virus (AAV). Local gene transfer in the regenerating peripheral nerve was obtained by reconstructing a 1-cm-long rat median nerve defect using a vein segment filled with skeletal muscle fibers that have been previously injected with either AAV2-VEGF or AAV2-LacZ, and the morphofunctional outcome of nerve regeneration was assessed 3 months after surgery. Surprisingly, results showed that overexpression of VEGF in the muscle-vein-combined guide led to a worse nerve regeneration in comparison with AAV-LacZ controls. Local gene transfer in the denervated muscle was obtained by direct injection of either AAV2-VEGF or AAV2-LacZ in the flexor digitorum sublimis muscle after median nerve transection and results showed a significantly lower progression of muscle atrophy in AAV2-VEGF-treated muscles in comparison with muscles treated with AAV2-LacZ. Altogether, our results suggest that local delivery of VEGF by AAV2-VEGF-injected transplanted muscle fibers do not represent a rational approach to promote axonal regeneration along a venous nerve guide. By contrast, AAV2-VEGF direct local injection in denervated skeletal muscle significantly attenuates denervation-related atrophy, thus representing a promising strategy for improving the outcome of post-traumatic neuromuscular recovery after nerve injury and repair.

  20. Towards semi-insulating InGaAsP/InP layers by post-growth processing using Fe ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekecs, André; Chicoine, Martin; Ilahi, Bouraoui; Schiettekatte, François; Charette, Paul G.; Arès, Richard

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we report on an effective post-growth processing technique for developing semi-insulating (SI) photonic thin films absorbing in 1.3 µm. For that purpose, we examined a 1 µm thick unintentionally n-doped In0.72Ga0.28As0.61P0.39 epilayer (0.95 eV bandgap) modified by multiple-energy MeV Fe ion implantation. Fe was chosen as a deep-level impurity. The ion beam processing was performed at room temperature, followed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 800 °C for 15 s. We investigated the impact of ion fluence on electrical properties by Hall effect measurements. Channelling Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements were carried out to evaluate crystal quality after each fabrication step. Beyond the onset of amorphization, when the total Fe fluence was more than 4.8 × 1013 cm-2, the implanted InGaAsP layer showed evidence of a poor recrystallization after RTA, and its isolation was impaired. Maximum resistivity values were achieved below the onset of amorphization where annealing reduced ion de-channelling and recovered damage-induced strain. With a total Fe fluence of 1.6 × 1013 cm-2, the electrical resistivity and Hall mobility reached values of 1.4 × 104 Ω cm and 4 × 102 cm2 V-1 s-1. These results add important insights on the optimization of this process for the development of InP-based SI photoconductive films.

  1. Dietary Supplementation of Magnesium Oxide (MgO) Nanoparticles for Better Survival and Growth of the Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Post-larvae.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Veeran; Bhavan, Periyakali Saravana; Rajkumar, Gopalan; Satgurunathan, Thangavelu; Muralisankar, Thirunavukkarasu

    2016-10-05

    This study was performed to assess the growth-promoting potential of dietary magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) in Macrobrachium rosenbergii post-larvae (PL). MgO NPs were supplemented at 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg kg(-1) with the basal diet (containing 0.95 g Mg kg(-1)); the concentrations of Mg in MgO NP-supplemented diets were increased correspondingly (1.07, 1.15, 1.24, 1.37 and 1.46 g Mg kg(-1) respectively). MgO NP-supplemented diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL (initial weight 0.11 ± 0.04 g) for a period of 90 days. In the carcasses of experimental prawns, the content of Mg was found to be elevated significantly with respect to the individual diet (102.14, 183.29, 205.46, 221.03, 237.10 and 254.36 μg Mg g(-1) respectively) when compared with that of the control. The contents of Cu, Zn, Fe, Ca, Na and K levels were also found to be elevated in the carcasses of experimental prawns. Significant (P < 0.05) improvements were observed in nutritional indices [survival rate (SR), weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER)], activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase), concentrations of basic biochemical constituents (total protein, amino acid, carbohydrate, lipid, profiles of amino acids and fatty acids) and population of haemocytes [total and differential (hyalinocytes, semigranulocytes and granulocytes)] in all the test PL. Maximum performance was recorded in 500 mg kg(-1) MgO NP-supplemented-feed-fed PL. There were no significant elevations recorded in activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)], lipid peroxidation (LPO) and metabolic enzymes [glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT)] recorded in any of the MgO NP-supplemented-feed-fed PL when compared with the control. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed increases in the staining

  2. The effect of the prenatal and post-natal long-term exposure to 50 Hz electric field on growth, pubertal development and IGF-1 levels in female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Bumin; Cesur, Gokhan; Comlekci, Selcuk; Songur, Ahmet; Gokcimen, Alparslan; Sahin, Onder; Ulukut, Ozlem; Yilmaz, H Ramazan; Sutcu, Recep; Caliskan, Sadettin

    2009-08-01

    To investigate prenatal and post-natal effects of extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field (EF) on growth and pubertal development, pregnant Wistar rats were randomly distributed among three groups. The pregnant rats of the prenatal group were exposed to 24-hour EF at 50 Hz EF 10 kV/min during pregnancy and their subsequent randomly selected female pups continued to be exposed until puberty. The post-natal group was unexposed to EF during pregnancy, but randomly selected female pups from this group were exposed to EF between delivery and puberty at the same doses and duration as the prenatal group. The third group was a sham-exposed group. The mean birth weight and weight gain of the pups during study period were found significantly reduced in prenatal group than post-natal and sham-exposed groups (p < 0.001). No difference could be found among the three groups for body weight at puberty (p > 0.05). The mean age at vaginal opening and estrous were significantly higher at prenatal group than post-natal and sham-exposed groups (p < 0.001). Serum insulin-like growth hormone-1 (IGF-1) levels were found significantly reduced in prenatal exposure group compared with the other two groups (p < 0.001). There was no difference for birth weight, weight gain, the mean age at vaginal opening and estrous and IGF-1 levels between post-natal and sham-exposed groups (p > 0.05). There was also no difference for FSH, LH and E2 levels at puberty among the three groups (p > 0.05). Histological examination revealed that both the prenatal and post-natal groups had the evidence of tissue damage on hypothalamus, pituitary gland and ovaries. In conclusion, early beginning of prenatal exposure of rats to 24 hours 50 Hz EF at 10 kV/m until puberty without magnetic field (MF) resulted in growth restriction, delayed puberty and reduced IGF-1 levels in female Wistar rats. These effects probably associated with direct toxic effects of EF on target organs. Post-natal exposure to EF at similar

  3. [Effects of different water potentials on leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of cucumber during post-flowering growth stage].

    PubMed

    Lin, Lu; Tang, Yun; Zhang, Ji-tao; Yan, Wan-li; Xiao, Jian-hong; Ding, Chao; Dong, Chuan; Ji, Zeng-shun

    2015-07-01

    Impacts of different substrate water potentials (SWP) on leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of greenhouse cucumber during its post-flowering growth stage were analyzed in this study. The results demonstrated that -10 and -30 kPa were the critical values for initiating stomatal and non-stomatal limitation of drought stress, respectively. During the stage of no drought stress (-10 kPa < SWP ≤ 0 kPa), gas exchange parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were not different significantly among treatments. During the stage of stomatal limitation of drought stress (-30 kPa

  4. Follow-Up of Post-Discharge Growth and Mortality after Treatment for Severe Acute Malnutrition (FuSAM Study): A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kerac, Marko; Bunn, James; Chagaluka, George; Bahwere, Paluku; Tomkins, Andrew; Collins, Steve; Seal, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) plays a vital role in achieving global child survival targets. Effective treatment programmes are available but little is known about longer term outcomes following programme discharge. Methods From July 2006 to March 2007, 1024 children (median age 21.5 months, IQR 15–32) contributed 1187 admission episodes to an inpatient-based SAM treatment centre in Blantyre, Malawi. Long term outcomes, were determined in a longitudinal cohort study, a year or more after initial programme discharge. We found information on 88%(899/1024). Results In total, 42%(427/1024) children died during or after treatment. 25%(105/427) of deaths occurred after normal programme discharge, >90 days after admission. Mortality was greatest among HIV seropositive children: 62%(274/445). Other risk factors included age <12 months; severity of malnutrition at admission; and disability. In survivors, weight-for-height and weight-for-age improved but height-for-age remained low, mean −2.97 z-scores (SD 1.3). Conclusions Although SAM mortality in this setting was unacceptably high, our findings offer important lessons for future programming, policy and research. First is the need for improved programme evaluation: most routine reporting systems would have missed late deaths and underestimated total mortality due to SAM. Second, a more holistic view of SAM is needed: while treatment will always focus on nutritional interventions, it is vital to also identify and manage underlying clinical conditions such as HIV and disability. Finally early identification and treatment of SAM should be emphasised: our results suggest that this could improve longer term as well as short term outcomes. As international policy and programming becomes increasingly focused on stunting and post-malnutrition chronic disease outcomes, SAM should not be forgotten. Proactive prevention and treatment services are essential, not only to reduce mortality in the short term

  5. Growth, characterization and post-processing of inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic thin films deposited using atomic and molecular layer deposition techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulagatov, Aziz Ilmutdinovich

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) and molecular layer deposition (MLD) are advanced thin film coating techniques developed for deposition of inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic films respectively. Decreasing device dimensions and increasing aspect ratios in semiconductor processing has motivated developments in ALD. The beginning of this thesis will cover study of new ALD chemistry for high dielectric constant Y 2O3. In addition, the feasibility of conducting low temperature ALD of TiN and TiAlN is explored using highly reactive hydrazine as a new nitrogen source. Developments of these ALD processes are important for the electronics industry. As the search for new materials with more advanced properties continues, attention has shifted toward exploring the synthesis of hierarchically nanostructured thin films. Such complex architectures can provide novel functions important to the development of state of the art devices for the electronics industry, catalysis, energy conversion and memory storage as a few examples. Therefore, the main focus of this thesis is on the growth, characterization, and post-processing of ALD and MLD films for fabrication of novel composite (nanostructured) thin films. Novel composite materials are created by annealing amorphous ALD oxide alloys in air and by heat treatment of hybrid organic-inorganic MLD films in inert atmosphere (pyrolysis). The synthesis of porous TiO2 or Al2O3 supported V2O5 for enhanced surface area catalysis was achieved by the annealing of inorganic TiVxOy and AlV xOy ALD films in air. The interplay between phase separation, surface energy difference, crystallization, and melting temperature of individual oxides were studied for their control of film morphology. In other work, a class of novel metal oxide-graphitic carbon composite thin films was produced by pyrolysis of MLD hybrid organic-inorganic films. For example, annealing in argon of titania based hybrid films enabled fabrication of thin films of intimately

  6. The importance of late- and post-orogenic crustal growth in the early Proterozoic: Evidence from Sm-Nd isotopic studies of igneous rocks in the Makkovik Province, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Andrew; Fryer, Brian J.

    1994-07-01

    Sm-Nd isotopic studies suggest that large tracts of 1900-1700 Ma old crust in Laurentia-Baltica is of 'juvenile' origin. This crust has generally been ascribed to arc magmatism, sustained over long periods, and most conceptual models for crustal growth emphasize this process. The late- to post-orogenic granitoid rocks that areally dominate many ancient orogenic belts are commonly viewed as anatectic derivatives of the earlier arc-type crust. However, in regions of short crustal residence, the time resolution of isotopic tracers, such as the Sm-Nd system, does not permit discrimination between this model and continued growth of the crust during post-orogenic magmatism. The relative contributions of recycled crust and new, mantle-derived material in late- to post-orogenic magmas can only be assessed where they also transect much older crustal blocks. The Nd isotopic signatures of 1800-1720 Ma igneous suites in the Makkovik Province define such a boundary between an Archean craton and a juvenile Proterozoic domain. In the juvenile domain, the Nd signatures of most igneous suites are equivocal (initial epsilon(sub Nd) = 0 to +2), and they could be anatectic derivatives of slightly older orthogneisses; however, addition of new, mantle-derived material is documented by 'A-type' granites with initial epsilon(sub Nd) up to +4. In the cratonic domain, temporally and compositionally equivalent igneous suites mostly have initial epsilon(sub Nd) of -7 to -3, significantly above local Archean basement, which has epsilon(sub Nd) of -15 at 1800 Ma. Conservative calculations suggest that most of these suites contain more than 50% new, mantle-derived material. These results suggest significant crustal growth via late-stage magmatism, and direct interaction of mantle-derived magmas and lower crustal rocks. In contrast, 1650 Ma igneous suites lack clear systematic variation in epsilon(sub Nd), and are interpreted as representing crustal growth via later, distal, arc-type magmatism

  7. Strain balanced quantum posts

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-Alvarez, D.; Alen, B.; Ripalda, J. M.; Llorens, J. M.; Taboada, A. G.; Briones, F.; Roldan, M. A.; Hernandez-Saz, J.; Hernandez-Maldonado, D.; Herrera, M.; Molina, S. I.

    2011-04-25

    Quantum posts are assembled by epitaxial growth of closely spaced quantum dot layers, modulating the composition of a semiconductor alloy, typically InGaAs. In contrast with most self-assembled nanostructures, the height of quantum posts can be controlled with nanometer precision, up to a maximum value limited by the accumulated stress due to the lattice mismatch. Here, we present a strain compensation technique based on the controlled incorporation of phosphorous, which substantially increases the maximum attainable quantum post height. The luminescence from the resulting nanostructures presents giant linear polarization anisotropy.

  8. The importance of CeO 2 growth temperature and its post-annealing for the improvement of the microwave surface resistance of DyBa 2Cu 3O z films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugesan, M.; Obara, H.; Nakagawa, Y.; Yamasaki, H.; Kosaka, S.

    2007-06-01

    We report here the influence of growth temperature of CeO 2 buffer layer T) as well as the post-annealing of the buffer layer on the crystallinity and the microwave surface resistance Rs of DyBa 2Cu 3O z (DBCO) films grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). It is found that (i) an increase in the T) facilitates the epitaxial growth of the CeO 2 films, which is a prerequisite to obtain the high quality superconducting films and (ii) the post-annealing of buffer layer at 1050 °C in flowing O 2 for 1 h leads to a profound improvement in the morphology and in the crystallinity of CeO 2 films. Apparently, there exists a critical growth temperature ( T)=800-820C, as found in this and previous study [J.C. Nie, H. Yamasaki, Y. Nakagawa, K.D. Bagarinao, M. Murugesan, H. Obara, Y. Mawatari, J. Crystal Growth 284 (2005) 417]) for CeO 2, below which the crystalline quality of CeO 2 films might not be improved merely by the post-annealing. It is explained that for T)<800C, the as-grown CeO 2 grains are longitudinal in shape, and it forms corrugated structure upon annealing. This poor morphology yields a deteriorated crystallinity (i.e., a large value of Δ ω and Δ φ, and the formation of secondary phase) for the CeO 2 as well as the overlying DBCO films, and hence a poor microwave performance of DBCO films for T)<800C. We also observed that the Rs in DBCO films monotonously decreased with increase in the growth temperature of CeO 2. Further, the post-annealing of the CeO 2 buffer layer prior to DBCO deposition greatly helps to reduce the Rs at the liquid N 2 temperature region, which is immensely required for the use of superconducting films in the passive microwave device components. Thus, the 800-820 °C of T) and the post-annealing of CeO 2 at 1050 °C in flowing O 2 for 1 h may be readily exploited to grow RBCO (R=Y or rare-earth elements) films for microwave applications on the technologically viable r-Al 2O 3 substrates.

  9. Direct assessment of relaxation and defect propagation in different as-grown and in situ post-growth annealed thin Ge/Si and step-graded Si 1- xGe x/Si buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, M. Y. A.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.; Patel, C. J.; Hernandez, C.; Campidelli, Y.; Bensahel, D.; Kyutt, R. N.

    2001-11-01

    The strain-sensitive X-ray two-dimensional reciprocal space mapping diffractrometry (2D-RSM) is employed to investigate the relaxation parameters and defect propagation in various thin relaxed buffer layers (RBLs) having a pure Ge top. In addition, we also studied the effect of in situ post-growth thermal treatments at an early growth stage of RBLs with low and intermediate Ge fraction. Both direct Ge epitaxy and multi-layer step-graded epitaxy have been adopted to grow these RBLs using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at elevated partial pressure (around 10 Torr), which implies a much higher growth rate than RBLs grown using ultra-high vacuum CVD technique. Fully relaxed Ge top layers were obtained for both the direct Ge epitaxy, as well as for the step-graded technique. The results, when comparing these two techniques, favor the direct Ge epitaxy. However, the results of in situ post-growth annealing of the step-graded RBLs indicate a large reduction in the threading dislocations present in the grading regions without a change of relaxation degree or Ge% incorporation in that region.

  10. Post clamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, John K. (Inventor); Meyn, Erwin H. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A pair of spaced collars are mounted at right angles on a clamp body by retaining rings which enable the collars to rotate with respect to the clamp body. Mounting posts extend through aligned holes in the collars and clamp body. Each collar can be clamped onto the inserted post while the clamp body remains free to rotate about the post and collar. The clamp body is selectively clamped onto each post.

  11. Influence of homo-buffer layers and post-deposition rapid thermal annealing upon atomic layer deposition grown ZnO at 100 °C with three-pulsed precursors per growth cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yung-Chen; Yuan, Kai-Yun; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2017-10-01

    ZnO main epilayers are deposited with three-pulsed precursors in every growth cycle at 100 °C on various thicknesses of 300 °C-grown homo-buffer layers by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on sapphire substrate. Samples are treated without and with post-deposition rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Two different annealing temperatures 300 and 1000 °C are utilized in the ambience of oxygen for 5 min. Extremely low background electron concentration 8.4 × 1014 cm-3, high electron mobility 62.1 cm2/V s, and pronounced enhancement of near bandgap edge photoluminescence (PL) are achieved for ZnO main epilayer with sufficient thickness of buffer layer (200 ALD cycles) and post-deposition RTA at 1000 °C. Effective block and remove of thermally unstable mobile defects and other crystal lattice imperfections are the agents of quality promotion of ZnO thin film.

  12. Thermal inactivation and post-treatment growth during storage of multiple Salmonella serotypes in ground beef as affected by sodium lactate and oregano oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We assessed the heat resistance of Salmonella in raw ground beef in both the absence and presence of sodium lactate or oregano oil, and with combinations of these two GRAS-listed ingredients, and determined their bactericidal or bacteriostatic activities during post-thermal treatment storage at 15C....

  13. Genotypic Regulation of Aflatoxin Accumulation but Not Aspergillus Fungal Growth upon Post-Harvest Infection of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Seeds.

    PubMed

    Korani, Walid Ahmed; Chu, Ye; Holbrook, Corley; Clevenger, Josh; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2017-07-12

    Aflatoxin contamination is a major economic and food safety concern for the peanut industry that largely could be mitigated by genetic resistance. To screen peanut for aflatoxin resistance, ten genotypes were infected with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Aspergillus flavus strain. Percentages of fungal infected area and fungal GFP signal intensity were documented by visual ratings every 8 h for 72 h after inoculation. Significant genotypic differences in fungal growth rates were documented by repeated measures and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) analyses. SICIA (Seed Infection Coverage and Intensity Analyzer), an image processing software, was developed to digitize fungal GFP signals. Data from SICIA image analysis confirmed visual rating results validating its utility for quantifying fungal growth. Among the tested peanut genotypes, NC 3033 and GT-C20 supported the lowest and highest fungal growth on the surface of peanut seeds, respectively. Although differential fungal growth was observed on the surface of peanut seeds, total fungal growth in the seeds was not significantly different across genotypes based on a fluorometric GFP assay. Significant differences in aflatoxin B levels were detected across peanut genotypes. ICG 1471 had the lowest aflatoxin level whereas Florida-07 had the highest. Two-year aflatoxin tests under simulated late-season drought also showed that ICG 1471 had reduced aflatoxin production under pre-harvest field conditions. These results suggest that all peanut genotypes support A. flavus fungal growth yet differentially influence aflatoxin production.

  14. A p-type-doped quantum dot superluminescent LED with broadband and flat-topped emission spectra obtained by post-growth intermixing under a GaAs proximity cap.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z Y; Jiang, Q; Luxmoore, I J; Hogg, R A

    2009-02-04

    Broadband superluminescent light emitting diodes are realized by a post-growth annealing process, on modulation p-doped multiple InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot layer structures, under a GaAs proximity cap. The device exhibits a large and flat emission with spectral width up to 132 nm at 2 mW. This is mainly attributed to the reduction of the energy separation between the ground state and the excited state, in addition to the optical quality of the intermixed modulation p-doped quantum dot materials being comparable to that of the as-grown sample.

  15. Principal Component Analysis of Conformation and Blood Marker Traits at Pre- and Post-Weaning Stages of Growth in F2 Crossbred Nigerian Indigenous X Landrace Pigs.

    PubMed

    Okoro, V M; Ogundu, U E; Okani, M; Oziri, I; Eneowo, O; Olisenekwu, O T; Kadurumba, O; Ogbuewu, I P; Onyemauwa, S; Ukwu, H O; Ibe, S N

    2015-01-01

    Linear body measurements and blood hematology and biochemistry parameters were taken on 92 and 15 grower pigs, respectively, chosen randomly from a crossbred F2 population of Nigerian Indigenous (NI) x Landrace pigs to evaluate body conformation and blood marker traits using a multivariate approach. For linear body measurements at pre-weaning stage (4 weeks old), two principal components accounted for 91.63% of the total variation in body conformation traits, while at post weaning stage (12 weeks old), one principal component accounted for 73.63% of the total variations in body conformation traits. The first factor (principal component) accounted for 72.34% of the total variance (body weight) while the second factor accounted for 19.29% (ear length) at pre-weaning stage. While at post-weaning stage only one factor contributed to the total variability of the original six traits tested, with 73.63% (body length). For blood parameters, three principal components accounted for 81.85% of the total variation at pre-weaning stage while 89.44% of the total variation at post-weaning stage was accounted for by four principal components. The first factor (principal component) accounted for 38.048% (Packed cell volume), the second accounted for 24.72% (hemoglobin) and the third accounted for 19.08% (aspartate transaminase). While at the post-weaning stage, the first factor was influenced by red blood corpuscles (37.17%), the second factor had its loading for hemoglobin (25.80%), the third factor had loading for white blood corpuscles (13.67%), while the fourth factor had loading for alkaline phosphatase only (12.80%). Using communality extraction factors, ear length best described body conformation at the pre-weaning stage; whereas, at post-weaning stage, body length was the best descriptor. In blood parameters, packed cell volume best described blood marker traits at the pre-weaning stage; whereas, at the post-weaning stage, red blood corpuscles best described it. Hence, the

  16. Growth of graphene on Cu foils by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition: The effect of in-situ hydrogen plasma post-treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Liping; Yuan, Wen; Wang, Bing; Xiong, Ying

    2016-10-01

    Microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) is a promising method for the large-scale production of high-quality graphene. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of in-situ hydrogen plasma post-treatment on the MPCVD-grown graphene films. By simply varying the duration time of in-situ hydrogen plasma, surface morphology, number of layers and defect density of as-grown graphene films can be manipulated. The role of hydrogen plasma can be proposed from our observations, promoting to further grow graphene films in the early stage and consequently acting as an etching agent to thin graphene films in the later stage. On the basis of above mechanism, monolayer graphene films with low defect density and smooth surface can be grown by adjusting the times of the growing step and the plasma post-treatment step. This additional in-situ hydrogen plasma post-treatment may be significant for growing well-defined graphene films with controllable defects and number of layers.

  17. Effects of pre- and post-natal treatment with KRN633, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, on retinal vascular development and patterning in mice.

    PubMed

    Morita, Akane; Nakahara, Tsutomu; Abe, Naomichi; Kurauchi, Yuki; Mori, Asami; Sakamoto, Kenji; Nagamitsu, Tohru; Ishii, Kunio

    2014-03-01

    The impaired function of angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), during pregnancy is associated with preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. To determine how the attenuation of VEGF signals during retinal vascular development affects retinal vascular growth and patterns, we examined the effects of pre- and post-natal treatment of mice with KRN633, a VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on retinal vascular development and structure. Delays in retinal vascular development were observed in the pups of mother mice that were treated daily with KRN633 (5 mg/kg/day) from embryonic day 13.5 until the day of delivery. A more marked delay was seen in pups treated with the inhibitor (5 mg/kg/day) on the day of birth and on the following day. Pups treated postnatally with KRN633 showed abnormal retinal vascular patterns, such as highly dense capillary networks and decreased numbers of central arteries and veins. The high-density vascular networks in KRN633-treated pups showed a greater sensitivity to VEGF signaling inhibition than the normal vascular networks in vehicle-treated pups. Compared to vehicle-treated pups, more severe hypoxia and stronger VEGF mRNA expression were observed in avascular areas in KRN633-treated pups. These results suggest that a short-term loss of VEGF function at the earliest stages of vascular development suppresses vascular growth, leading to abnormal vascular patterning, at least in part via mechanisms involving VEGF in the mouse retina.

  18. Effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation to lactating sows on growth and indicators of stress in post-weaned pig

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary n-3 PUFA are precursors for lipid metabolites that reduce inflammation. Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that enriching the sow diet in n-3 PUFA during late gestation and throughout lactation reduces stress and inflammation, and promotes growth in weaned pigs. A protecte...

  19. Biofilm growth on polyvinylchloride surface incubated in suboptimal microbial warm water and effect of sanitizers on biofilm removal post biofilm formation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An in vitro experiment was conducted to understand the nature of biofilm growth on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surface when exposed to sub optimal quality microbial water (> 4 log10 cfu/ml) obtained from poultry drinking water source mimicking water in waterlines during the first week of poultry broodi...

  20. Temperature and food quality effects on growth, consumption and post-ingestive utilization efficiencies of the forest tent caterpillar Malacosoma disstria (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae).

    PubMed

    Levesque, K R; Levesque, K R; Fortin, M; Mauffette, Y

    2002-04-01

    Temperature and food quality can both influence growth rates, consumption rates, utilization efficiencies and developmental time of herbivorous insects. Gravimetric analyses were conducted during two consecutive years to assess the effects of temperature and food quality on fourth instar larvae of the forest tent caterpillar Malacosoma disstria Hübner. Larvae were reared in the laboratory at three different temperatures (18, 24 and 30 degrees C) and on two types of diet; leaves of sugar maple trees Acer saccharum Marsh. located at the forest edge (sun-exposed leaves) or within the forest interior (shade-exposed leaves). In general, larvae reared at 18 degrees C had lower growth rates and lower consumption rates than larvae reared at the warmer temperatures (24 and 30 degrees C). Moreover, the duration of the instar decreased significantly with increasing temperatures. Type of diet also affected the growth rates and amount of food ingested by larvae but did not affect the duration of the instar. Larvae fed sun-exposed leaves consumed more food and gained higher biomasses. Values of approximate digestibility and efficiency of conversion of ingested food were also higher when larvae were fed sun-exposed leaves. Higher growth rates with increasing temperatures were primarily the result of the shorter stadium duration. The higher growth rates of larvae fed sun-exposed leaves were possibly the result of stimulatory feeding and consequently greater food intake and also a more efficient use of food ingested. This study suggests that the performance of M. disstria caterpillars could be enhanced by warmer temperatures and higher leaf quality.

  1. [Participation of growth hormone and insulin in the regulation of gastric secretion in athletes wrestler in sportive and post sportive ontogenesis].

    PubMed

    Panov, S F; Pleshakov, A A; Batrakov, A A; Nepliuev, D A

    2010-01-01

    The role of gastrin, STH, insulin and glucose in the formation, and long-term adaptation of gastric secretion in athletes--wrestlers in the sportive and post sportive ontogeny Revealed an undulation in the age dynamics of the basal secretion of hormones and glucose in the blood. The ups and downs of different waves in the dynamics occur in sensitive periods of ontogeny. In a bicycle stress load changes in the secretion of hormones and glucose levels in 90% of cases are not statistically significant, but insufficient to achieve the end result of regulation--an adequate level of hydrolysis of proteins in response to physical stress.

  2. The relationship of birthweight, muscle size at birth and post-natal growth to grip strength in 9-year-old Indian children: findings from the Mysore Parthenon study.

    PubMed

    Barr, J G; Veena, S R; Kiran, K N; Wills, A K; Winder, N R; Kehoe, S; Fall, C H D; Sayer, A A; Krishnaveni, G V

    2010-10-01

    Foetal development may permanently affect muscle function. Indian newborns have a low mean birthweight, predominantly due to low lean tissue and muscle mass. We aimed to examine the relationship of birthweight, and arm muscle area (AMA) at birth and post-natal growth to handgrip strength in Indian children. Grip strength was measured in 574 children aged 9 years, who had detailed anthropometry at birth and every 6-12 months post-natally. Mean (standard deviation (s.d.)) birthweight was 2863 (446) g. At 9 years, the children were short (mean height s.d. -0.6) and light (mean weight s.d. -1.1) compared with the World Health Organization growth reference. Mean (s.d.) grip strength was 12.7 (2.2) kg (boys) and 11.0 (2.0) kg (girls). Weight, length and AMA at birth, but not skinfold measurements at birth, were positively related to 9-year grip strength (β = 0.40 kg/s.d. increase in birthweight, P < 0.001; and β = 0.41 kg/s.d. increase in AMA, P < 0.001). Grip strength was positively related to 9-year height, body mass index and AMA and to gains in these measurements from birth to 2 years, 2-5 years and 5-9 years (P < 0.001 for all). The associations between birth size and grip strength were attenuated but remained statistically significant for AMA after adjusting for 9-year size. We conclude that larger overall size and muscle mass at birth are associated with greater muscle strength in childhood, and that this is mediated mainly through greater post-natal size. Poorer muscle development in utero is associated with reduced childhood muscle strength.

  3. Comparison of growth and exploratory behavior in mice fed an exclusively milk formula diet and mice fed a food-pellet diet post weaning.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Toshiaki; Itou, Takuya; Nishimura, Masakazu

    2005-11-26

    An exclusively milk formula diet stunted the growth of mice immediately following weaning. Milk-fed mice displayed a low-frequency profile of exploratory behavior, while pellet-fed mice showed high-frequency exploration. In contrast to exploratory behavior, feeding behavior did not differ significantly between milk- and pellet-fed mice. Despite showing low-frequency exploratory behavior, mice on an exclusively milk formula diet showed no difference in behavioral activities analyzed by an automatic hole-board apparatus compared to pellet-fed mice. These results suggest that the growth stunt caused by an exclusively milk formula diet retards the acquisition of active exploratory behavior without affecting the emotional state of mice.

  4. The Effect of the Wall Contact and Post-Growth Cool-Down on Defects in CdTe Crystals Grown by 'Contactless' Physical Vapour Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; Grasza, K.; Durose, K.; Halliday, D. P.; Boyall, N. M.; Dudley, M.; Raghothamachar, B.; Cai, L.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A series of cadmium telluride crystals grown by physical vapor transport without contact with the ampoule walls and cooled at different rates were characterized using synchrotron X-ray topography, photoluminescence, and chemical etching. Strain from sticking to silica glass and its effect on the dislocation density is shown. It was found that very fast cool-down increases dislocation density by at least one order of magnitude. None of the samples had random dislocation distributions but coarse clumping of dislocations on the scale of more than 100 microns was more prevalent in slowly cooled crystals. Photoluminescence revealed that slow cooling favored the donor-acceptor luminescence involving complex A centers. This was diminished in fast cooled material; and effect presumed to be due to dislocation gettering. Fast cooling also enhanced the formation of shallow acceptors. Implications for Bridgman growth of CdTe and the vapor growth of CdZnTe are discussed briefly.

  5. The Effect of the Wall Contact and Post-Growth Cool-Down on Defects in CdTe Crystals Grown by 'Contactless' Physical Vapour Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; Grasza, K.; Durose, K.; Halliday, D. P.; Boyall, N. M.; Dudley, M.; Raghothamachar, B.; Cai, L.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A series of cadmium telluride crystals grown by physical vapor transport without contact with the ampoule walls and cooled at different rates were characterized using synchrotron X-ray topography, photoluminescence, and chemical etching. Strain from sticking to silica glass and its effect on the dislocation density is shown. It was found that very fast cool-down increases dislocation density by at least one order of magnitude. None of the samples had random dislocation distributions but coarse clumping of dislocations on the scale of more than 100 microns was more prevalent in slowly cooled crystals. Photoluminescence revealed that slow cooling favored the donor-acceptor luminescence involving complex A centers. This was diminished in fast cooled material; and effect presumed to be due to dislocation gettering. Fast cooling also enhanced the formation of shallow acceptors. Implications for Bridgman growth of CdTe and the vapor growth of CdZnTe are discussed briefly.

  6. Advanced maternal age causes adverse programming of mouse blastocysts leading to altered growth and impaired cardiometabolic health in post-natal life.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, M A; Smith, C G C; Smyth, N R; Osmond, C; Fleming, T P

    2016-09-01

    Does advanced maternal age (AMA) in mice affect cardiometabolic health during post-natal life in offspring derived from an assisted reproduction technology (ART) procedure? Offspring derived from blastocysts collected from aged female mice displayed impaired body weight gain, blood pressure, glucose metabolism and organ allometry during post-natal life compared with offspring derived from blastocysts from young females; since all blastocysts were transferred to normalized young mothers, this effect is independent of maternal pregnancy conditions. Although studies in mice have shown that AMA can affect body weight and behaviour of offspring derived from natural reproduction, data on the effects of AMA on offspring cardiometabolic health during post-natal development are not available. Given the increasing use of ART to alleviate infertility in women of AMA, it is pivotal to develop ART-AMA models addressing the effects of maternal aging on offspring health. Blastocysts from old (34-39 weeks) or young (8-9 weeks) C57BL/6 females mated with young CBA males (13-15 weeks) were either subjected to differential cell staining (inner cell mass and trophectoderm) or underwent embryo transfer (ET) into young MF1 surrogates (8-9 weeks) to produce young (Young-ET, 9 litters) and old (Old-ET, 10 litters) embryo-derived offspring. Offspring health monitoring was carried out for 30 weeks. All animals were fed with standard chow. Blood pressure was measured at post-natal Weeks 9, 15 and 21, and at post-natal Week 30 a glucose tolerance test (GTT) was performed. Two days after the GTT mice were killed for organ allometry. Blastocyst cell allocation variables were evaluated by T-test and developmental data were analysed with a multilevel random effects regression model. The total number of cells in blastocysts from aged mice was decreased (P < 0.05) relative to young mice due to a lower number of cells in the trophectoderm (mean ± SEM: 34.5 ± 2.1 versus 29.6 ± 1.0). Weekly body

  7. Advanced maternal age causes adverse programming of mouse blastocysts leading to altered growth and impaired cardiometabolic health in post-natal life

    PubMed Central

    Velazquez, M.A.; Smith, C.G.C.; Smyth, N.R.; Osmond, C.; Fleming, T.P.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does advanced maternal age (AMA) in mice affect cardiometabolic health during post-natal life in offspring derived from an assisted reproduction technology (ART) procedure? SUMMARY ANSWER Offspring derived from blastocysts collected from aged female mice displayed impaired body weight gain, blood pressure, glucose metabolism and organ allometry during post-natal life compared with offspring derived from blastocysts from young females; since all blastocysts were transferred to normalized young mothers, this effect is independent of maternal pregnancy conditions. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Although studies in mice have shown that AMA can affect body weight and behaviour of offspring derived from natural reproduction, data on the effects of AMA on offspring cardiometabolic health during post-natal development are not available. Given the increasing use of ART to alleviate infertility in women of AMA, it is pivotal to develop ART–AMA models addressing the effects of maternal aging on offspring health. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Blastocysts from old (34–39 weeks) or young (8–9 weeks) C57BL/6 females mated with young CBA males (13–15 weeks) were either subjected to differential cell staining (inner cell mass and trophectoderm) or underwent embryo transfer (ET) into young MF1 surrogates (8–9 weeks) to produce young (Young-ET, 9 litters) and old (Old-ET, 10 litters) embryo-derived offspring. Offspring health monitoring was carried out for 30 weeks. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS All animals were fed with standard chow. Blood pressure was measured at post-natal Weeks 9, 15 and 21, and at post-natal Week 30 a glucose tolerance test (GTT) was performed. Two days after the GTT mice were killed for organ allometry. Blastocyst cell allocation variables were evaluated by T-test and developmental data were analysed with a multilevel random effects regression model. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE The total number of cells in blastocysts from

  8. Effects of creep feeding and supplemental glutamine or glutamine plus glutamate (Aminogut) on pre- and post-weaning growth performance and intestinal health of piglets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Creep feeding is used to stimulate piglet post-weaning feed consumption. L-Glutamine (GLN) is an important source of fuel for intestinal epithelial cells. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of creep feeding and adding GLN or AminoGut (AG; containing glutamine + glutamate) to pre- and post-weaning diets on pig performance and intestinal health. Litters (N = 120) were allotted to four treatments during 14–21 d of lactation: 1) No creep feed (NC, n = 45); 2) creep fed control diet (CFCD, n = 45); 3) creep fed 1% GLN (CFGLN, n = 15); 4) creep fed .88% AG (CFAG, n = 15). After weaning, the NC and CFCD groups were sub-divided into three groups (n = 15 each), receiving either a control nursery diet (NC-CD, CFCD-CD) or a diet supplemented with either GLN (NC-GLN, CFCD-GLN) or with AG (NC-AG, CFCD-AG). Litters that were creep fed with diets containing GLN or AG also were supplemented with those amino acids in the nursery diets (CFGLN-GLN, CFAG-AG). Glutamine was added at 1% in all three post-weaning diet phases and AG was added at .88% in phase 1 and 2 and at .66% in phase 3. Results Feed conversion (feed/gain) showed means among treatment means close to significance (P = 0.056) and Tukey’s test for pairwise mean comparisons showed that Pigs in the CFGLN-GLN group had the best feed conversion (feed/gain) in the first three-week period post-weaning, exceeding (P = 0.044) controls (CFCD-CD) by 34%. The NC-AG group had (P = 0.02) the greatest feed intake in the last three week of the study, exceeding controls (CFCD-CD) by 12%. CFGLN-GLN, CFCD-GLN and sow reared (SR) pigs had the greatest (P = 0.049) villi height exceeding the CFCD-AG group by 18%, 20% and 19% respectively. The CFAG-AG group had the deepest (P = 0.001) crypts among all treatments. CFGLN-GLN, CFCD-GLN and SR groups had the greatest (P = 0.001) number of cells proliferating (PCNA) exceeding those in the NC-CD group by 43%, 54

  9. Effects of creep feeding and supplemental glutamine or glutamine plus glutamate (Aminogut) on pre- and post-weaning growth performance and intestinal health of piglets.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Rafael A; Usry, James L; Arrellano, Consuelo; Nogueira, Eduardo T; Kutschenko, Marianne; Moeser, Adam J; Odle, Jack

    2013-08-03

    Creep feeding is used to stimulate piglet post-weaning feed consumption. L-Glutamine (GLN) is an important source of fuel for intestinal epithelial cells. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of creep feeding and adding GLN or AminoGut (AG; containing glutamine + glutamate) to pre- and post-weaning diets on pig performance and intestinal health. Litters (N = 120) were allotted to four treatments during 14-21 d of lactation: 1) No creep feed (NC, n = 45); 2) creep fed control diet (CFCD, n = 45); 3) creep fed 1% GLN (CFGLN, n = 15); 4) creep fed .88% AG (CFAG, n = 15). After weaning, the NC and CFCD groups were sub-divided into three groups (n = 15 each), receiving either a control nursery diet (NC-CD, CFCD-CD) or a diet supplemented with either GLN (NC-GLN, CFCD-GLN) or with AG (NC-AG, CFCD-AG). Litters that were creep fed with diets containing GLN or AG also were supplemented with those amino acids in the nursery diets (CFGLN-GLN, CFAG-AG). Glutamine was added at 1% in all three post-weaning diet phases and AG was added at .88% in phase 1 and 2 and at .66% in phase 3. Feed conversion (feed/gain) showed means among treatment means close to significance (P = 0.056) and Tukey's test for pairwise mean comparisons showed that Pigs in the CFGLN-GLN group had the best feed conversion (feed/gain) in the first three-week period post-weaning, exceeding (P = 0.044) controls (CFCD-CD) by 34%. The NC-AG group had (P = 0.02) the greatest feed intake in the last three week of the study, exceeding controls (CFCD-CD) by 12%. CFGLN-GLN, CFCD-GLN and sow reared (SR) pigs had the greatest (P = 0.049) villi height exceeding the CFCD-AG group by 18%, 20% and 19% respectively. The CFAG-AG group had the deepest (P = 0.001) crypts among all treatments. CFGLN-GLN, CFCD-GLN and SR groups had the greatest (P = 0.001) number of cells proliferating (PCNA) exceeding those in the NC-CD group by 43%, 54% and 63% respectively

  10. Growth of superconducting NdFe0.88Co0.12AsO films by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and post arsenic diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrales-Mendoza, I.; Bartolo-Pèrez, P.; Sánchez-Reséndiz, V. M.; Gallardo-Hernández, S.; Conde-Gallardo, A.

    2015-01-01

    Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and post-deposition arsenic diffusion processes were successfully employed to grow superconducting NdFe0.88Co0.12AsO thin films. First, by employing iron, cobalt and neodymium metal-organic precursors, a precursor film is grown by MOCVD on (001)-oriented LaAlO3 substrates. Subsequently, the arsenic is incorporated during an annealing of these precursor films in the presence of a NdFe0.9Co0.1AsO pellet. The chemical composition and crystallographic results indicate the formation of the cobalt-doped NdFeAsO polycrystalline phase. The secondary ion mass spectroscopy indicates a homogeneous arsenic diffusion process. The resistance and magnetization measurements as a function of temperature indicate a superconducting transition ˜15 \\text{K} .

  11. Effects of high CO2 level during early incubation and late incubation in ovo dexamethasone injection on perinatal embryonic parameters and post-hatch growth of broilers.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, H; Tona, K; Bruggeman, V; Onagbesan, O; Decuypere, E

    2008-03-01

    1. A total of 1200 Cobb broiler breeder eggs were incubated under either standard conditions (C group) or high CO(2) levels (CO(2) group) during the first 10 d of incubation. The CO(2) level of the CO(2) incubator was attained gradually by a natural build-up of CO(2) due to air-tight closure of the incubator. From d 10 of incubation onwards, all eggs were incubated under standard incubation conditions. At d 18 of incubation, the eggs of both incubation groups (CO(2) and C group) were either injected with water-soluble dexamethasone (DEXA group) or with saline (0.9% NaCl; saline group) or were not injected (control). 2. Body weights, plasma hormonal concentrations (T(3), T(4) and corticosteroid) and glucose concentrations were measured regularly during the perinatal (at IP, internal pipping) and post-hatch period (at 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks post-hatch). Additionally, hatchability and pattern of embryonic mortality were determined after hatch. 3. The results showed that high CO(2) levels during the first 10 d of incubation or dexamethasone injection at d 18 of incubation decreased embryo mortality, mainly because of a reduction in embryo malpositioning. However, a combination of a CO(2) incubation and a dexamethasone injection led to an increase in embryo mortality and therefore a decrease in hatchability. 4. Although dexamethasone injection at embryonic d 18 decreased body weight in the second week of the rearing period and CO(2) incubation increased body weight during the first 2 weeks of the rearing period, no consistent effect of both the incubation and injection treatments on body weight at slaughter age was observed.

  12. Effect of dosage and application mode of L-carnitine on plasma lipid and egg-yolk cholesterol of turkeys, hatchability of eggs and post-hatch growth of their offsprings.

    PubMed

    Oso, A O; Fafiolu, A O; Adeleke, M A; Ladokun, O A; Sobayo, R A; Jegede, A V; Peters, S O; Oyebamiji, O A; Akinsola, J

    2014-08-01

    The effect of dosage and application mode of L-carnitine on plasma lipid and egg-yolk cholesterol of breeder turkeys, hatchability of eggs and post-hatch growth response was investigated using 180 breeder hens. The hens were assigned to six dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangements of two application modes of L-carnitine (diet and drinking water) supplemented at 0, 50 and 100 ppm (mg/kg or mg/l) levels, respectively. Each treatment was replicated five times with six hens per replicate. Dietary inclusion of 50 ppm L-carnitine showed the lowest (p < 0.01) plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein concentration (LDL). Breeder hens offered 50 ppm L-carnitine with no regard to application mode recorded the highest (p < 0.01) plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Hens offered 50 and 100 ppm L-carnitine irrespective of application mode also showed reduced (p < 0.01) egg-yolk TC concentration at 32 weeks of age. Dietary supplementation of 50 ppm L-carnitine for breeder turkeys recorded the lowest (p < 0.01) egg-yolk triglyceride (TG) at 40 weeks of age. Hens offered 50 ppm L-carnitine irrespective of application mode recorded the highest (p < 0.05) hen-day egg production. Incidence of dead-in-shell also reduced (p < 0.05) with increasing dosage of L-carnitine. Dietary supplementation of 50 ppm and oral application in drinking water of 100 ppm L-carnitine for breeder turkeys resulted in highest (p < 0.05) egg fertility. Offsprings from breeder hens fed diets supplemented with L-carnitine recorded no post-hatch mortality. Highest (p < 0.05) post-hatch final live weight and weight gain was obtained with poults obtained from hens fed diet supplemented with 50 ppm L-carnitine. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 50 ppm L-carnitine for turkey hens showed improved serum lipid profile, egg fertility, reduced dead-in-shell, egg-yolk cholesterol and resulted in improved post-hatch growth performance.

  13. Root hair-specific disruption of cellulose and xyloglucan in AtCSLD3 mutants, and factors affecting the post-rupture resumption of mutant root hair growth.

    PubMed

    Galway, Moira E; Eng, Ryan C; Schiefelbein, John W; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O

    2011-05-01

    The glycosyl transferase encoded by the cellulose synthase-like gene CSLD3/KJK/RHD7 (At3g03050) is required for cell wall integrity during root hair formation in Arabidopsis thaliana but it remains unclear whether it contributes to the synthesis of cellulose or hemicellulose. We identified two new alleles, root hair-defective (rhd) 7-1 and rhd7-4, which affect the C-terminal end of the encoded protein. Like root hairs in the previously characterized kjk-2 putative null mutant, rhd7-1 and rhd7-4 hairs rupture before tip growth but, depending on the growth medium and temperature, hairs are able to survive rupture and initiate tip growth, indicating that these alleles retain some function. At 21°C, the rhd7 tip-growing root hairs continued to rupture but at 5ºC, rupture was inhibited, resulting in long, wild type-like root hairs. At both temperatures, the expression of another root hair-specific CSLD gene, CSLD2, was increased in the rhd7-4 mutant but reduced in the kjk-2 mutant, suggesting that CSLD2 expression is CSLD3-dependent, and that CSLD2 could partially compensate for CSLD3 defects to prevent rupture at 5°C. Using a fluorescent brightener (FB 28) to detect cell wall (1 → 4)-β-glucans (primarily cellulose) and CCRC-M1 antibody to detect fucosylated xyloglucans revealed a patchy distribution of both in the mutant root hair cell walls. Cell wall thickness varied, and immunogold electron microscopy indicated that xyloglucan distribution was altered throughout the root hair cell walls. These cell wall defects indicate that CSLD3 is required for the normal organization of both cellulose and xyloglucan in root hair cell walls.

  14. P-type ATPase TAT-2 negatively regulates monomethyl branched-chain fatty acid mediated function in post-embryonic growth and development in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Seamen, Emylie; Blanchette, Jennifer M; Han, Min

    2009-08-01

    Monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids (mmBCFAs) are essential for Caenorhabditis elegans growth and development. To identify factors acting downstream of mmBCFAs for their function in growth regulation, we conducted a genetic screen for suppressors of the L1 arrest that occurs in animals depleted of the 17-carbon mmBCFA C17ISO. Three of the suppressor mutations defined an unexpected player, the P-type ATPase TAT-2, which belongs to the flippase family of proteins that are implicated in mediating phospholipid bilayer asymmetry. We provide evidence that TAT-2, but not other TAT genes, has a specific role in antagonizing the regulatory activity of mmBCFAs in intestinal cells. Interestingly, we found that mutations in tat-2 also suppress the lethality caused by inhibition of the first step in sphingolipid biosynthesis. We further showed that the fatty acid side-chains of glycosylceramides contain 20%-30% mmBCFAs and that this fraction is greatly diminished in the absence of mmBCFA biosynthesis. These results suggest a model in which a C17ISO-containing sphingolipid may mediate the regulatory functions of mmBCFAs and is negatively regulated by TAT-2 in intestinal cells. This work indicates a novel connection between a P-type ATPase and the critical regulatory function of a specific fatty acid.

  15. Impacts of Climate Change at Watershed Scale: Creating an Ecological Basis for "Smart Growth" and Economic Development in the Post-industrial Lehigh Valley of Eastern PA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, B.; Felzer, B.; Pazzaglia, F.; Sahagian, D.

    2009-05-01

    As modeling of global climate change matures and regional projections regarding regional variability become viable, the scales of climate impact analysis and regional decision-making begin to converge. This convergence provides a critical new challenge for both the climate modeling and policy communities- "How can projected climate change insights at watershed scale most effectively inform decisions regarding land use, zoning, and growth management?" This issue is particularly critical in regions that were formerly heavily industrialized and developed, and that are now finding new avenues for economic growth in the wake of massive clear-cutting, mining, and heavy industry of the 19th and 20th centuries. The Lehigh Valley is a watershed defining a single ecosystem that contains 800,000 people, 321 square miles of croplands and 95 square miles of urban areas, with the remainder of the watershed at various successional stages after massive forest clear-cutting of the last two centuries. Many of the industries that fueled the industrial revolution were based in the Lehigh Valley, and their development came at an environmental cost that was not then recognized, but that left a legacy of mine-scarred lands, acid mine drained streams, soil and water contamination, and a derelict industrial infrastructure that state and local governments have only recently begun to address. Before these institutions can plan for redevelopment of brownfields, regional planning for housing and commercial development, and preservation of forested and agricultural lands, it is first necessary to understand the impacts of climate change on watershed hydrology, productivity, and other ecosystems functions, and to provide this information to decision-makers responsible for environmentally sustainable development and regional planning. "Smart Growth" has become a catch phrase for regional development that is sensitive to social, economic, political, and historical goals, as well as ecological

  16. Expression and regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor ligands and receptors during menstruation and post-menstrual repair of human endometrium.

    PubMed

    Punyadeera, C; Thijssen, V L; Tchaikovski, S; Kamps, R; Delvoux, B; Dunselman, G A J; de Goeij, A F P M; Griffioen, A W; Groothuis, P G

    2006-06-01

    Regeneration and growth of the human endometrium after shedding of the functional layer during menstruation depends on an adequate angiogenic response. We analysed the mRNA expression levels of all known vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ligands and receptors in human endometrium collected in the menstrual and proliferative phases of the menstrual cycle. In addition, we evaluated the expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-R2 and NRP-1 at the protein level. Two periods of elevated mRNA expression of ligands and receptors were observed, separated by a distinct drop at cycle days (CDs) 9 and 10. Immunohistochemical staining showed that VEGF and VEGF-R2 were expressed in epithelial, stromal and endothelial cells. NRP-1 was mainly confined to stroma and blood vessels; only in late-proliferative endometrium, epithelial staining was also observed. Except for endothelial VEGF-R2 expression in CDs 6-8, there were no significant differences in the expression of VEGF, VEGF-R2 or NRP-1 in any of the cell compartments. In contrast, VEGF release by cultured human endometrium explants decreased during the proliferative phase. This output was significantly reduced in menstrual and early-proliferative endometrium by estradiol (E2) treatment. Western blot analysis indicated that part of the VEGF-A was trapped in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Changes in VEGF ligands and receptors were associated with elevated expression of the hypoxia markers HIF1alpha and CA-IX in the menstrual and early proliferative phases. HIF1alpha was also detected in late-proliferative phase endometrium. Our findings indicate that VEGF-A exerts its actions mostly during the first half of the proliferative phase. Furthermore, VEGF-A production appears to be triggered by hypoxia in the menstrual phase and subsequently suppressed by estrogen during the late proliferative phase.

  17. The impact of fluctuations and correlations in droplet growth by collision-coalescence revisited - Part 1: Numerical calculation of post-gel droplet size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso, Lester; Raga, Graciela B.

    2017-06-01

    The impact of stochastic fluctuations in cloud droplet growth is a matter of broad interest, since stochastic effects are one of the possible explanations of how cloud droplets cross the size gap and form the raindrop embryos that trigger warm rain development in cumulus clouds. Most theoretical studies on this topic rely on the use of the kinetic collection equation, or the Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithm. However, the kinetic collection equation is a deterministic equation with no stochastic fluctuations. Moreover, the traditional calculations using the kinetic collection equation are not valid when the system undergoes a transition from a continuous distribution to a distribution plus a runaway raindrop embryo (known as the sol-gel transition). On the other hand, the stochastic simulation algorithm, although intrinsically stochastic, fails to adequately reproduce the large end of the droplet size distribution due to the huge number of realizations required. Therefore, the full stochastic description of cloud droplet growth must be obtained from the solution of the master equation for stochastic coalescence. In this study the master equation is used to calculate the evolution of the droplet size distribution after the sol-gel transition. These calculations show that after the formation of the raindrop embryo, the expected droplet mass distribution strongly differs from the results obtained with the kinetic collection equation. Furthermore, the low-mass bins and bins from the gel fraction are strongly anticorrelated in the vicinity of the critical time, this being one of the possible explanations for the differences between the kinetic and stochastic approaches after the sol-gel transition. Calculations performed within the stochastic framework provide insight into the inability of explicit microphysics cloud models to explain the droplet spectral broadening observed in small, warm clouds.

  18. Effect of a long-term exposure to concentrated sucrose and maltodextrin solutions on the preference, appetence, feed intake and growth performance of post-weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Pino, Sergio A; Solà-Oriol, David; Figueroa, Jaime; Dwyer, Dominic M; Pérez, José F

    2015-03-15

    Commercial pigs display an innate attraction for sweet taste compounds. However, the impact of long-term availability to supplementary carbohydrate solutions on their general feeding behavior has not been examined. In this work we assess the effect of 12-days exposure to 16% sucrose and 16% maltodextrin solutions on the feed intake and growth performance of piglets, and on their preference and appetence for sweet or protein solutions. The innate preference of piglets was assessed by an initial choice test between 2% sucrose and 2% animal plasma solutions for a period of three minutes. Piglets showed higher intake and preference for 2% sucrose than for 2% animal plasma. In Experiment 1, piglets were then free-offered a 16% sucrose solution as a supplement to the diet, showing a higher intake of it than water and a reduction in feed intake and weight gain. A similar situation occurred during the last days of free-exposure to a 16% maltodextrin solution in Experiment 2. The choice test between 2% sucrose and 2% animal plasma solution was repeated after the exposure to the concentrated solutions. In both experiments, a reduction in the initial preference for 2% sucrose was observed. Similarly, piglets that had previous access to the 16% sucrose and 16% maltodextrin solutions showed a decrease in the appetence for 2% sucrose in comparison with that for 2% animal plasma, as measured by a one-pan test at the end of the experiments. It is concluded that long-term exposure to concentrated sucrose and maltodextrin solutions reduces feed intake and growth in weanling piglets, and also reverses their innate preference and appetence for dilute sweet over protein solutions.

  19. The sequence of prenatal growth restraint and post-natal catch-up growth leads to a thicker intima-media and more pre-peritoneal and hepatic fat by age 3-6 years.

    PubMed

    Sebastiani, G; Díaz, M; Bassols, J; Aragonés, G; López-Bermejo, A; de Zegher, F; Ibáñez, L

    2016-08-01

    Infants born small-for-gestational-age (SGA) who develop post-natal weight catch-up are at risk for insulin resistance, central adiposity and cardiovascular disease in later life, even in the absence of overweight. In young (age 3-6 years) non-obese SGA children, we assessed arterial health (as judged by intima-media thickness [IMT]) and abdominal fat distribution (subcutaneous, visceral, preperitoneal and hepatic components by magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] and/or ultrasound [US]) besides a selection of endocrine markers. Comparisons of measures in SGA (n = 27) vs. appropriate-for-GA (AGA) children (n = 19) of similar height, weight and body mass index. Longitudinal outcomes (age 3-6 years) were carotid IMT (cIMT); fasting glucose, circulating insulin, IGF-I and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin; abdominal fat partitioning by US. Cross-sectional outcomes (age 6 years) were aortic IMT (aIMT) and abdominal fat partitioning by MRI. At 3 and 6 years, cIMT and IGF-I results were higher and HMW adiponectin lower in SGA than AGA children; at 6 years, SGA subjects had also a thicker aIMT and more pre-peritoneal and hepatic fat, and were less insulin sensitive (all P values between <0.05 and <0.0001). cIMT correlated positively with pre-peritoneal fat, particularly at 6 years. Post-SGA status and weight gain in early childhood (between 3 and 6 years) were independent predictors of cIMT at 6 years, explaining 48 % of its variance. SGA children aged 3-6 years were found to have a thicker intima- media and more pre-peritoneal and hepatic fat than AGA children of comparable size. © 2015 World Obesity.

  20. 'Having cancer was awful but also something good came out': Post-traumatic growth among adult survivors of pediatric and adolescent cancer.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Eduardo R; Yi, Jaehee; Akter, Jesmin; Kim, Jonghee; Warner, Echo L; Kirchhoff, Anne C

    2017-06-01

    The cancer experience may cultivate positive psychological changes that can help reduce distress during adult survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer life course. The aim of this study is to examine the positive impact of cancer in adult survivors utilizing posttraumatic growth as a guiding framework. Participants were identified and recruited through the Utah Cancer Registry. Eligible cases were diagnosed with cancer age ≤20 years from 1973 to 2009, born in Utah, and were age ≥18 at study. Semi-structured phone interviews (N = 53) were analyzed using deductive analysis. The primary five themes that emerged were similar to Tedeschi and Calhoun's (1996) themes for measuring positive effects, and were used to frame our results. The primary themes along with uniquely identified sub-themes are the following: personal strength (psychological confidence, emotional maturity), improved relationship with others (family intimacy, empathy for others), new possibilities (having passion work with cancer), appreciation for life (reprioritization), and spiritual development (strengthened spiritual beliefs, participating in religious rituals and activities). For survivors, cancer was life altering and for many the experience continues. Understanding survivors' complex cancer experience can help improve psychosocial oncology care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biomaterials Transforming growth factor-beta 1 delivery from microporous scaffolds decreases inflammation post-implant and enhances function of transplanted islets

    PubMed Central

    Liu, JMH; Zhang, J; Zhang, X; Hlavaty, KA; Ricci, CF; Leonard, JN; Shea, LD; Gower, RM

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterial scaffolds are central to many regenerative strategies as they create a space for infiltration of host tissue and provide a platform to deliver growth factors and progenitor cells. However, biomaterial implantation results in an unavoidable inflammatory response, which can impair tissue regeneration and promote loss or dysfunction of transplanted cells. We investigated localized TGF-β1 delivery to modulate this immunological environment around scaffolds and transplanted cells. TGF-β1 was delivered from layered scaffolds, with protein entrapped within an inner layer and outer layers designed for cell seeding and host tissue integration. Scaffolds were implanted into the epididymal fat pad, a site frequently used for cell transplantation. Expression of cytokines TNF-a, IL-12, and MCP-1 were decreased by at least 40% for scaffolds releasing TGF-β1 relative to control scaffolds. This decrease in inflammatory cytokine production corresponded to a 60% decrease in leukocyte infiltration. Transplantation of islets into diabetic mice on TGF-β1 scaffolds significantly improved the ability of syngeneic islets to control blood glucose levels within the first week of transplant and delayed rejection of allogeneic islets. Together, these studies emphasize the ability of localized TGF-β1 delivery to modulate the immune response to biomaterial implants and enhance cell function in cell-based therapies. PMID:26701143

  2. Chronic playback of boat noise does not impact hatching success or post-hatching larval growth and survival in a cichlid fish

    PubMed Central

    Radford, Andrew N.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic (man-made) noise has been shown to have a negative impact on the behaviour and physiology of a range of terrestrial and aquatic animals. However, direct assessments of fitness consequences are rare. Here we examine the effect of additional noise on early life stages in the model cichlid fish, Neolamprologus pulcher. Many fishes use and produce sounds, they are crucial elements of aquatic ecosystems, and there is mounting evidence that they are vulnerable to anthropogenic noise; adult N. pulcher have recently been shown to change key behaviours during playback of motor boat noise. Using a split-brood design to eliminate potential genetic effects, we exposed half of the eggs and fry from each clutch to four weeks of playbacks of noise originally recorded from small motor boats with the other half acting as a control (receiving no noise playback). There was no significant effect of additional noise on hatching success or fry survival, length or weight at the end of the exposure period. Although care should be taken not to generalize these findings on a single species from a laboratory study, our data suggest that moderate noise increases do not necessarily have direct negative impacts on early-life survival and growth. Further studies on a range of species in natural conditions are urgently needed to inform conservation efforts and policy decisions about the consequences of anthropogenic noise. PMID:25276507

  3. Photosynthetic and growth responses of zea mays L and four weed species following post-emergence treatments with mesotrione and atrazinet.

    PubMed

    Creech, J Earl; Monaco, Thomas A; Evans, John O

    2004-11-01

    We compared photosynthesis and growth of Zea mays L (corn) and four weed species, Setaria viridis (L) Beauv (green foxtail), Echinochloa crus-galli (L) Beauv (barnyardgrass), Abutilon theophrasti Medic (velvetleaf), and Amaranthus retroflexus L (redroot pigweed), following foliar applications with atrazine, mesotrione, or a combination of atrazine and mesotrione in two greenhouse experiments. Plant responses to the three herbicide treatments were compared with responses of untreated plants (control). Photosynthesis on day 14 and dry mass of Z mays was not reduced by any of the herbicide treatments. Photosynthesis and dry mass of E crus-galli, A retroflexus and A theophrasti were significantly reduced by mesotrione and atrazine alone and in combination. Photosynthesis on day 14 and dry mass of large Sviridis plants were not suppressed by either herbicide applied alone. The mesotrione plus atrazine treatment was the most effective treatment for grass weed control because plants did not regain photosynthetic capacity and had significantly lower dry mass. Shoot dry mass of broadleaf weeds was significantly reduced by all three herbicide treatments, except for A retroflexus treated with mesotrione alone.

  4. Self-esteem and hope mediate the relations between social support and post-traumatic stress disorder and growth in adolescents following the Ya'an earthquake.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao; Wu, Xinchun; Zhen, Rui

    2017-09-07

    Although posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) can co-exist, and several theories suggest that social support, self-esteem, and hope can predict both PTSD and PTG, no study to date has examined the combined role of social support, self-esteem, and hope in PTSD and PTG. The present study aimed to simultaneously examine the mediating roles of self-esteem and hope in the relations between social support and PTSD, and between social support and PTG. This study included 397 adolescents living in Lushan County, China, who were affected by the Ya'an earthquake. The participants completed the self-report questionnaires at two and a half years after the earthquake. Structural equation models were built to examine the roles of social support, self-esteem, and hope in PTSD and PTG. Social support directly and negatively predicted PTSD and positively predicted PTG. Moreover, social support negatively predicted PTSD via self-esteem, and positively predicted PTG via hope. In addition, social support positively predicted PTG through multiple mediating paths from self-esteem to hope. PTSD and PTG had different predictive paths. Specifically, social support reduced PTSD through enhanced self-esteem and promoted PTG through hope, or through the path from self-esteem to hope.

  5. Reintroduction of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) into the St. Regis River, NY: Post-release assessment of habitat use and growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dittman, Dawn E.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Johnson, James H.; Snyder, James

    2015-01-01

    One of the depleted endemic fish species of the Great Lakes, Acipenser fulvescens (Lake Sturgeon), has been the target of extensive conservation efforts. One strategy is reintroduction into historically productive waters. The St. Regis River, NY, represents one such adaptive-management effort, with shared management between New York and the St. Regis Mohawk Tribe. Between 1998 and 2004, a total of 4977 young-of-year Lake Sturgeon were released. Adaptive management requires intermediate progress metrics. During 2004 and 2005, we measured growth, habitat use, and survivorship metrics of the released fish. We captured a total of 95 individuals of all stocked ages. Year-class minimal-survival rates ranged from 0.19–2.1%. The size-at-age and length/biomass relationships were comparable to those reported for juveniles in other Great Lakes waters. These intermediate assessment metrics can provide feedback to resource managers who make restoration-program decisions on a much shorter time-scale than the time-frame in which the ultimate goal of a self-sustaining population can be attained.

  6. Targeting the pathway of GSK-3β/nerve growth factor to attenuate post-infarction arrhythmias by preconditioned adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsung-Ming; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Chiou, Tzyy-Wen; Chuang, Ming-Hsi; Chen, Chun-Hung; Lin, Po-Cheng; Lin, Shinn-Zong

    2017-03-01

    Adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) transplantation is a promising new therapy to improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction. However, its low efficacy of transdifferentiation hampers its usefulness. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) signal has been shown to play a role in preconditioning-induced cardioprotection. We assessed whether n-butylidenephthalide (BP) primed ADSCs can attenuate arrhythmias by a GSK-3β-dependent pathway after myocardial infarction. Male Wistar rats after coronary ligation was randomly allocated to receive intramyocardial injection of vehicle, ADSCs, BP-preconditioned ADSCs, (BP+lithium)-preconditioned ADSCs, (BP+SB216763)-preconditioned ADSCs, and (BP+LY294002)-preconditioned ADSCs. ADSCs were primed for 16h before implantation. After 4weeks of implantation, ADSCs were retained in myocardium, reduced fibrosis and improved cardiac function. Sympathetic hyperinnervation was blunted after administering ADSCs, assessed by immunofluorescent analysis, and Western blotting and real-time quantitative RT-PCR of nerve growth factor. Arrhythmic scores during programmed stimulation in the ADSC-treated infarcted rats were significantly lower than vehicle. BP-preconditioned ADSCs had superior cardioprotection, greater ADSC engraftment and transdifferentiation, and antiarrhythmic effects compared with ADSCs alone. Simultaneously, BP increased the levels of phospho-Akt and down-regulated GSK-3β activity. The effects of BP against sympathetic hyperinnervation were blocked by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor. Addition of either lithium or SB216763 did not have additional effects compared with BP alone. Compared with ADSC alone, BP-primed ADSC implantation improved stem cell engraftment and attenuated sympathetic hyperinnervation and arrhythmias through a PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β-dependent pathway, suggesting that a synergic action was achieved between BP pretreatment and ADSCs.

  7. Improving nutrition in Afghanistan through a community-based growth monitoring and promotion programme: A pre-post evaluation in five districts

    PubMed Central

    Mayhew, Maureen; Ickx, Paul; Stanekzai, Hedayatullah; Mashal, Taufiq; Newbrander, William

    2014-01-01

    In Afghanistan, malnutrition in children less than 60 months of age remains high despite nutritional services being offered in health facilities since 2003. Afghanistan's Ministry of Public Health solicited extensive community consultation to develop pictorial community-based growth monitoring and promotion (cGMP) tools to help illiterate community health workers (CHWs) provide nutritional assessment and counselling. The planned evaluation in the five districts where cGMP was implemented demonstrated that a mean weight-for-age (WFA) Z-score of 414 participant children was 0.3 Z-scores higher than that of matched non-participants who lived outside of cGMP programme catchment areas. The mean change in WFA Z-scores at evaluation was 0.3 (95% CI 0.3, 0.4) Z-scores higher than at entry into the programme. The most influential factor on WFA Z-score changes in participants was initial WFA Z-score. Those with an initial WFA Z-score of less than −2 experienced a mean increase of 0.33 (95% CI 0.29, 0.38) WFA Z-scores per session attended, while those with a baseline WFA Z-score of greater than zero showed a decrease of 0.19 (95% CI 0.22, 0.15) WFA Z-scores per session attended. These results are encouraging since they demonstrate that the cGMP programme in Afghanistan for illiterate women has some potential to contribute to improving nutrition, specifically in underweight children of either sex who enter the programme at less than nine months of age and attend 50% or more sessions. PMID:24852811

  8. Improving nutrition in Afghanistan through a community-based growth monitoring and promotion programme: a pre-post evaluation in five districts.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Maureen; Ickx, Paul; Stanekzai, Hedayatullah; Mashal, Taufiq; Newbrander, William

    2014-01-01

    In Afghanistan, malnutrition in children less than 60 months of age remains high despite nutritional services being offered in health facilities since 2003. Afghanistan's Ministry of Public Health solicited extensive community consultation to develop pictorial community-based growth monitoring and promotion (cGMP) tools to help illiterate community health workers (CHWs) provide nutritional assessment and counselling. The planned evaluation in the five districts where cGMP was implemented demonstrated that a mean weight-for-age (WFA) Z-score of 414 participant children was 0.3 Z-scores higher than that of matched non-participants who lived outside of cGMP programme catchment areas. The mean change in WFA Z-scores at evaluation was 0.3 (95% CI 0.3, 0.4) Z-scores higher than at entry into the programme. The most influential factor on WFA Z-score changes in participants was initial WFA Z-score. Those with an initial WFA Z-score of less than -2 experienced a mean increase of 0.33 (95% CI 0.29, 0.38) WFA Z-scores per session attended, while those with a baseline WFA Z-score of greater than zero showed a decrease of 0.19 (95% CI 0.22, 0.15) WFA Z-scores per session attended. These results are encouraging since they demonstrate that the cGMP programme in Afghanistan for illiterate women has some potential to contribute to improving nutrition, specifically in underweight children of either sex who enter the programme at less than nine months of age and attend 50% or more sessions.

  9. How to monitor pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction and delivery before 32 weeks: post-hoc analysis of TRUFFLE study.

    PubMed

    Ganzevoort, W; Mensing Van Charante, N; Thilaganathan, B; Prefumo, F; Arabin, B; Bilardo, C M; Brezinka, C; Derks, J B; Diemert, A; Duvekot, J J; Ferrazzi, E; Frusca, T; Hecher, K; Marlow, N; Martinelli, P; Ostermayer, E; Papageorghiou, A T; Schlembach, D; Schneider, K T M; Todros, T; Valcamonico, A; Visser, G H A; Van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A; Lees, C C; Wolf, H

    2017-06-01

    In the recent TRUFFLE study, it appeared that, in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR) between 26 and 32 weeks' gestation, monitoring of the fetal ductus venosus (DV) waveform combined with computed cardiotocography (CTG) to determine timing of delivery increased the chance of infant survival without neurological impairment. However, concerns with the interpretation were raised, as DV monitoring appeared to be associated with a non-significant increase in fetal death, and some infants were delivered after 32 weeks, at which time the study protocol no longer applied. This secondary sensitivity analysis of the TRUFFLE study focuses on women who delivered before 32 completed weeks' gestation and analyzes in detail the cases of fetal death. Monitoring data of 317 pregnancies with FGR that delivered before 32 weeks were analyzed, excluding those with absent outcome data or inevitable perinatal death. Women were allocated randomly to one of three groups of indication for delivery according to the following monitoring strategies: (1) reduced fetal heart rate short-term variation (STV) on CTG; (2) early changes in fetal DV waveform; and (3) late changes in fetal DV waveform. Primary outcome was 2-year survival without neurological impairment. The association of the last monitoring data before delivery and infant outcome was assessed by multivariable analysis. Two-year survival without neurological impairment occurred more often in the two DV groups (both 83%) than in the CTG-STV group (77%), however, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.21). Among the surviving infants in the DV groups, 93% were free of neurological impairment vs 85% of surviving infants in the CTG-STV group (P = 0.049). All fetal deaths (n = 7) occurred in the groups with DV monitoring. Of the monitoring parameters obtained shortly before fetal death in these seven cases, an abnormal CTG was observed in only one case. Multivariable regression analysis of

  10. Erythropoietin-mediated expression of placenta growth factor is regulated via activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and post-transcriptionally by miR-214 in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Caryn S; Li, Chen; Mpollo, Marthe-Sandrine Eiymo Mwa; Pullarkat, Vinod; Malik, Punam; Tahara, Stanley M; Kalra, Vijay K

    2015-06-15

    Placental growth factor (PlGF) plays an important role in various pathological conditions and diseases such as inflammation, cancer, atherosclerosis and sickle cell disease (SCD). Abnormally high PlGF levels in SCD patients are associated with increased inflammation and pulmonary hypertension (PHT) and reactive airway disease; however, the transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms regulating PlGF expression are not well defined. Herein, we show that treatment of human erythroid cells and colony forming units with erythropoietin (EPO) increased PlGF expression. Our studies showed EPO-mediated activation of HIF-1α led to subsequent binding of HIF-1α to hypoxia response elements (HREs) within the PlGF promoter, as demonstrated by luciferase transcription reporter assays and ChIP analysis of the endogenous gene. Additionally, we showed miR-214 post-transcriptionally regulated the expression of PlGF as demonstrated by luciferase reporter assays using wild-type (wt) and mutant PlGF-3'-UTR constructs. Furthermore, synthesis of miR-214, located in an intron of DNM3 (dynamin 3), was transcriptionally regulated by transcription factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). These results were corroborated in vivo wherein plasma from SCD patients and lung tissues from sickle mice showed an inverse correlation between PlGF and miR-214 levels. Finally, we observed that miR-214 expression could be induced by fenofibrate, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved PPARα agonist, thus revealing a potential therapeutic approach for reduction in PlGF levels by increasing miR-214 transcription. This strategy has potential clinical implications for several pathological conditions including SCD. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2015 Biochemical Society.

  11. Retinoic acid suppresses the response to platelet-derived growth factor in human hepatic Ito-cell-like myofibroblasts: a post-receptor mechanism independent of raf/fos/jun/egr activation.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, B H; Coll, D; Beno, D W

    1993-01-01

    Activated Ito-cell-like myofibroblasts proliferate in vivo during human liver injury and subsequent fibrogenesis. To examine the associated regulatory mechanisms, human liver myofibroblasts were characterized after culture purification from mixed liver-cell isolates obtained from perfused normal human livers. The cells resembled rat Ito-cell-derived myofibroblasts expressing desmin and alpha-smooth-muscle actin filaments as well as the interstitial collagens type I and III. [3H]Thymidine incorporation was inducible with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and was suppressible with retinoic acid (RAc) in a concentration-dependent fashion. RAc suppression did not alter PDGF alpha- or beta-receptor abundance or activation. In addition, RAc functioned via a pathway distal or independent of cytoplasmic raf activation (i.e. phosphorylation, kinase function and perinuclear translocation) and nuclear fos, jun and egr expression, as these steps were similarly unaffected by RAc treatment. Since normal Ito cells contain abundant amounts of vitamin A which is lost during activation, these data suggest that retinoids could contribute to the maintenance of the quiescent non-proliferative state by suppressing mitogenesis at a post-cytokine receptor step distal from or independent of fos/jun/egr [e.g. via changes in activator protein-1 (AP-1) binding]. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8379934

  12. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulations as mediators of the relationship between enacted stigma and post-traumatic growth among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Tu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Some previous studies have revealed a negative impact of enacted stigma on post-traumatic growth (PTG) of children affected by HIV/AIDS, but little is known about protective psychological factors that can mitigate the effect of enacted stigma on children's PTG. This study aims to examine the mediating effects of perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulation on the relationship between enacted stigma and PTG among HIV-affected children. Cross-sectional data were collected from 790 children affected by parental HIV (382 girls, 408 boys) aged 6–17 years in 2012 in rural central China. Multiple regression was conducted to test the mediation model. The study found that the experience of enacted stigma had a negative effect on PTG among children affected by HIV/AIDS. Emotional regulation together with hopefulness and perceived social support mediated the impact of enacted stigma on PTG. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulation offer multiple levels of protection that can mitigate the impact of enacted stigma on PTG. Results suggest that future psychological intervention programs should seek strategies to reduce the stigmatizing experience of these children and promote children's level of PTG, and health professionals should also emphasize the development of these protective psychological factors. PMID:26899475

  13. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulations as mediators of the relationship between enacted stigma and post-traumatic growth among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in rural China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Tu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Some previous studies have revealed a negative impact of enacted stigma on post-traumatic growth (PTG) of children affected by HIV/AIDS, but little is known about protective psychological factors that can mitigate the effect of enacted stigma on children's PTG. This study aims to examine the mediating effects of perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulation on the relationship between enacted stigma and PTG among HIV-affected children. Cross-sectional data were collected from 790 children affected by parental HIV (382 girls, 408 boys) aged 6-17 years in 2012 in rural central China. Multiple regression was conducted to test the mediation model. The study found that the experience of enacted stigma had a negative effect on PTG among children affected by HIV/AIDS. Emotional regulation together with hopefulness and perceived social support mediated the impact of enacted stigma on PTG. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulation offer multiple levels of protection that can mitigate the impact of enacted stigma on PTG. Results suggest that future psychological intervention programs should seek strategies to reduce the stigmatizing experience of these children and promote children's level of PTG, and health professionals should also emphasize the development of these protective psychological factors.

  14. Pilot study on growth parameters and nutritional biochemical markers in very low birth weight preterm infants fed human milk fortified with either human milk fortifier or post discharge formula.

    PubMed

    Khorana, Meera; Jiamsajjamongkhon, Chanin

    2014-06-01

    Nutrition is an important aspect in the care of very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants. Human milk fortified with human milk fortifiers (HMF) is best for enteral feeding of premature infants. HMF is expensive and not easily available in Thailand. Post discharge formula (PDF) has been routinely used to fortify human milk at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH) but there is lack of supportive data regarding efficacy and safety. To study and compare anthropometrics, biochemical markers and complications in VLBW infants fed human milk fortified with either HMF or PDF. This was a prospective, randomized pilot study conducted in the neonatal unit of QSNICH from 1 March 2010 to 28 February 2011. Very low birth weight neonates, whose mothers had adequate breast milk within 96 hours of birth, were enrolled in the study and received parenteral nutrition and enteral feeding as per protocol. Once the babies were feeding 100 cc/kg/day of human milk, they were randomly divided into two groups: the human milk fortified group (HMF group) and the post discharge formula fortified group (PDF group). Body weight was recorded daily while head circumference and length were recorded weekly. Hematocrit, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, electrolytes (including phosphorus and calcium), alkaline phosphatase and albumin were checked at the beginning of the study (feeding 100 cc/kg/day), 3 weeks later and when on full oral breast feeding or reached a weight of 2,000 grams, which ever came first. Thirty-eight infants were enrolled in the study but eventually only 33 remained (18 in HMF group, 15 in PDF group). Both groups had similar baseline demographic data, nutritional management, postnatal morbidities and length of stay. There were no statistically significant differences in growth parameters and serum biochemical markers between the groups. Definite NEC was not different between the groups. Other complications of prematurity including osteopenia of

  15. Intra-Myocardial Injection of Both Growth Factors and Heart Derived Sca-1+/CD31− Cells Attenuates Post-MI LV Remodeling More Than Does Cell Transplantation Alone: Neither Intervention Enhances Functionally Significant Cardiomyocyte Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohong; Li, Qinglu; Hu, Qingsong; Suntharalingam, Piradeep; From, Arthur H. L.; Zhang, Jianyi

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are two potent cell survival and regenerative factors in response to myocardial injury (MI). We hypothesized that simultaneous delivery of IGF+HGF combined with Sca-1+/CD31− cells would improve the outcome of transplantation therapy in response to the altered hostile microenvironment post MI. One million adenovirus nuclear LacZ-labeled Sca-1+/CD31− cells were injected into the peri-infarction area after left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) ligation in mice. Recombinant mouse IGF-1+HGF was added to the cell suspension prior to the injection. The left ventricular (LV) function was assessed by echocardiography 4 weeks after the transplantation. The cell engraftment, differentiation and cardiomyocyte regeneration were evaluated by histological analysis. Sca-1+/CD31− cells formed viable grafts and improved LV ejection fraction (EF) (Control, 54.5+/−2.4; MI, 17.6+/−3.1; Cell, 28.2+/−4.2, n = 9, P<0.01). IGF+HGF significantly enhanced the benefits of cell transplantation as evidenced by increased EF (38.8+/−2.2; n = 9, P<0.01) and attenuated adverse structural remodeling. Furthermore, IGF+HGF supplementation increased the cell engraftment rate, promoted the transplanted cell survival, enhanced angiogenesis, and minimally stimulated endogenous cardiomyocyte regeneration in vivo. The in vitro experiments showed that IGF+HGF treatment stimulated Sca-1+/CD31− cell proliferation and inhibited serum free medium induced apoptosis. Supperarray profiling of Sca-1+/CD31− cells revealed that Sca-1+/CD31− cells highly expressed various trophic factor mRNAs and IGF+HGF treatment altered the mRNAs expression patterns of these cells. These data indicate that IGF-1+HGF could serve as an adjuvant to cell transplantation for myocardial repair by stimulating donor cell and endogenous cardiac stem cell survival, regeneration and promoting angiogenesis. PMID:24919180

  16. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutant SOD1 sequesters Hu antigen R (HuR) and TIA-1-related protein (TIAR): implications for impaired post-transcriptional regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Lu, Liang; Wang, Shuying; Zheng, Lei; Li, Xuelin; Suswam, Esther A; Zhang, Xiaowen; Wheeler, Crystal G; Nabors, L B; Filippova, Natalia; King, Peter H

    2009-12-04

    Down-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the mouse leads to progressive and selective degeneration of motor neurons similar to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In mice expressing ALS-associated mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), VEGF mRNA expression in the spinal cord declines significantly prior to the onset of clinical manifestations. In vitro models suggest that dysregulation of VEGF mRNA stability contributes to that decline. Here, we show that the major RNA stabilizer, Hu Antigen R (HuR), and TIA-1-related protein (TIAR) colocalize with mutant SOD1 in mouse spinal cord extracts and cultured glioma cells. The colocalization was markedly reduced or abolished by RNase treatment. Immunoanalysis of transfected cells indicated that colocalization occurred in insoluble aggregates and inclusions. RNA immunoprecipitation showed a significant loss of VEGF mRNA binding to HuR and TIAR in mutant SOD1 cells, and there was marked depletion of HuR from polysomes. Ectopic expression of HuR in mutant SOD1 cells more than doubled the mRNA half-life of VEGF and significantly increased expression to that of wild-type SOD1 control. Cellular effects produced by mutant SOD1, including impaired mitochondrial function and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, were reversed by HuR in a gene dose-dependent pattern. In summary, our findings indicate that mutant SOD1 impairs post-transcriptional regulation by sequestering key regulatory RNA-binding proteins. The rescue effect of HuR suggests that this impairment, whether related to VEGF or other potential mRNA targets, contributes to cytotoxicity in ALS.

  17. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies with...

  18. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies with...

  19. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies with...

  20. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies with...

  1. Growth hormone and growth?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Steve

    2013-09-01

    Pituitary GH is obligatory for normal growth in mammals, but the importance of pituitary GH in avian growth is less certain. In birds, pituitary GH is biologically active and has growth promoting actions in the tibia-test bioassay. Its importance in normal growth is indicated by the growth suppression following the surgical removal of the pituitary gland or after the immunoneutralization of endogenous pituitary GH. The partial restoration of growth in some studies with GH-treated hypophysectomized birds also suggests GH dependency in avian growth, as does the dwarfism that occurs in some strains with GHR dysfunctions. Circulating GH concentrations are also correlated with body weight gain, being high in young, rapidly growing birds and low in slower growing older birds. Nevertheless, despite these observations, there is an extensive literature that concludes pituitary GH is not important in avian growth. This is based on numerous studies with hypophysectomized and intact birds that show only slight, transitory or absent growth responses to exogenous GH-treatment. Moreover, while circulating GH levels correlate with weight gain in young birds, this may merely reflect changes in the control of pituitary GH secretion during aging, as numerous studies involving experimental alterations in growth rate fail to show positive correlations between plasma GH concentrations and the alterations in growth rate. Furthermore, growth is known to occur in the absence of pituitary GH, as most embryonic development occurs prior to the ontogenetic appearance of pituitary somatotrophs and the appearance of GH in embryonic circulation. Early embryonic growth is also independent of the endocrine actions of pituitary GH, since removal of the presumptive pituitary gland does not impair early growth. Embryonic growth does, however, occur in the presence of extrapituitary GH, which is produced by most tissues and has autocrine or paracrine roles that locally promote growth and development

  2. Growth in Cushing syndrome.

    PubMed

    Voutilainen, R; Leisti, S; Perheentupa, J

    1985-07-01

    Pre- and post-operative growth was analysed in eight children with Cushing syndrome. Six children had Cushing's disease; three of them were treated by bilateral adrenalectomy and three by transphenoidal pituitary adenectomy. One child had an adrenocortical adenoma and another primary adrenocortical nodular dysplasia. The typical cushingoid habitus was not always present during hypercortisolism. In contrast, abnormal deceleration of longitudinal growth and increase in relative weight were constant. The slowing of growth started 0.2-5.1 years before diagnosis. In four children these changes concurred. In three others the excessive weight gain preceded the slowing of growth, by 2.5-7.0 years. In one patient the deceleration appeared first; this was a girl with concomitant coeliac disease. This pattern of growth change occurring before (normal slowing of growth in) late puberty should raise the possibility of hypercortisolism. There was a suggestion of a better growth recovery in Cushing disease after pituitary adenectomy than after bilateral adrenalectomy.

  3. Post-growth thermal oxidation of wurtzite InN thin films into body-center cubic In{sub 2}O{sub 3} for chemical/gas sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.F.; Yakovlev, N.L.; Chi, D.Z.; Liu, W.

    2014-06-01

    Post-growth thermal oxidations of InN have been studied using high-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and secondary ion-mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The InN thin films, having relative high crystal quality, were grown by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on c-sapphire substrates using InGaN/GaN buffer layers. HRXRD reveals that oxidation of wurtzite InN into body-center cubic In{sub 2}O{sub 3} occurred at elevated temperatures. A Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} encapsulation improves the crystal quality of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxidized by using conventional rapid thermal annealing (RTA) but it results in the presence of undesired metallic indium. Cycle-RTA not only improves the crystal quality but also avoids the byproduct of metallic indium. SIMS depth profile, using contaminate elements as the ‘interface markers,’ provide evidence that the oxidation of InN is dominated by oxygen inward diffusion mechanism. Together with the HRXRD results, we conclude that the crystal quality of the resultant In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InN heterostructure is mainly controlled by the balance between the speeds of oxygen diffusion and InN thermal dissociation, which can be effectively tuned by cycle-RTA. The obtained In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InN heterostructures can be fundamental materials for studying high speed chemical/gas sensing devices. - Graphical abstract: Oxidation of h-InN into bcc-In{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been realized at elevated temperatures. A Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} cap improves the crystal quality of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxidized by conventional RTA but it results in the presence of undesired metallic indium. Cycle-RTA not only improves the crystal quality but also avoids the byproduct of metallic indium. SIMS depth profiles provide evidence that the oxidation of InN is dominated by oxygen inward diffusion mechanism. The crystal quality of the resultant In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InN heterostructure is mainly controlled by the balance between the speeds of oxygen diffusion and InN thermal

  4. Bacteriovorax stolpii proliferation and predation without sphingophosphonolipids

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneshiro, Edna S. Hunt, Shannon M.; Watanabe, Yoko

    2008-02-29

    Bacteriovorax stolpii strain UKi2, a facultative predator-parasite of larger Gram-negative bacteria, synthesizes distinct sphingophosphonolipids. These lipids are characterized by a direct P-C bond, the novel head group 1-hydroxy-2-aminoethylphosphonate, iso-branched long chain bases and fatty acids, and fatty acids dominated by those with {alpha}-hydroxy groups. Myriocin, an inhibitor of serine:fatty acyl CoA transferase, reversibly blocked sphingophosphonolipid synthesis in B. stolpii UKi2. However, the inhibitor did not block cell proliferation indicating that these lipids are not vital for B. stolpii UKi2 viability and growth. When mixed with Escherichia coli prey cells, control predator-parasite bacteria were effective in forming large E. coli bdelloplasts and cleared the suspension of the prey cells. Although myriocin-treated cells could attack prey cells and form bdelloplasts, their locomotory behavior was altered and fewer and smaller bdelloplasts were produced. These observations open up the possibility for a role of sphingophosphonolipids in B. stolpii UKi2 complex behavior.

  5. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Post Partum

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, W.; Marth, C.; Bergant, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic birth experiences may lead to serious psychological impairment. Recent studies show that a considerable number of women can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in some cases in a subsyndromal form. Until now, the possibility that postpartum psychological symptoms might be a continuum of a pre-existing disorder in pregnancy has rarely been considered. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the proportion of women who develop post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of childbirth. Materials and Methods: 56 multiparous women were recruited for the study. The diagnosis of PTSD was made according to the criteria for psychological disorders in the DSM-IV (Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). The data were collected in structured interviews in the 30th to 38th week of gestation and in the 6th week post partum. Results: Of the 56 women participating, 52 (93 %) completed the survey. Uncontrolled results showed that 21.15 % of the multiparous women met the full diagnostic PTSD criteria in the 6th week post partum. After the exclusion of all cases already characterised by all criteria or a subsyndromal form of PTSD caused by previous traumatisation, the PTSD rate was below 8 % at 6 weeks postpartum (= incidence rate of PTSD post partum). Conclusions: The present study is the first prospective longitudinal study to demonstrate the occurrence of full criteria PTSD in multiparous women as a result of childbirth after having excluded pre-existing PTSD. The results of our study show a high prevalence rate of PTSD during pregnancy. A number of women report all aspects of post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of childbirth. PMID:25253905

  6. Post-Error Adjustments

    PubMed Central

    Danielmeier, Claudia; Ullsperger, Markus

    2011-01-01

    When our brain detects an error, this process changes how we react on ensuing trials. People show post-error adaptations, potentially to improve their performance in the near future. At least three types of behavioral post-error adjustments have been observed. These are post-error slowing (PES), post-error reduction of interference, and post-error improvement in accuracy (PIA). Apart from these behavioral changes, post-error adaptations have also been observed on a neuronal level with functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography. Neuronal post-error adaptations comprise activity increase in task-relevant brain areas, activity decrease in distracter-encoding brain areas, activity modulations in the motor system, and mid-frontal theta power increases. Here, we review the current literature with respect to these post-error adjustments, discuss under which circumstances these adjustments can be observed, and whether the different types of adjustments are linked to each other. We also evaluate different approaches for explaining the functional role of PES. In addition, we report reanalyzed and follow-up data from a flanker task and a moving dots interference task showing (1) that PES and PIA are not necessarily correlated, (2) that PES depends on the response–stimulus interval, and (3) that PES is reliable on a within-subject level over periods as long as several months. PMID:21954390

  7. Fence Posts and Rails

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turton, Roger

    2016-01-01

    "Mathematical Lens" uses photographs as a springboard for mathematical inquiry and appears in every issue of "Mathematics Teacher." Recently while dismantling an old wooden post-and-rail fence, Roger Turton noticed something very interesting when he piled up the posts and rails together in the shape of a prism. The total number…

  8. Fence Posts and Rails

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turton, Roger

    2016-01-01

    "Mathematical Lens" uses photographs as a springboard for mathematical inquiry and appears in every issue of "Mathematics Teacher." Recently while dismantling an old wooden post-and-rail fence, Roger Turton noticed something very interesting when he piled up the posts and rails together in the shape of a prism. The total number…

  9. STS-73 Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The post flight presentation of the STS-73 Space Shuttle's United States Microgravity Lab. (USML) mission was presented by the flight crew, Cmdr. Kenneth Bowersox, Pilot Kent Rominger, Payload Specialists Albert Sacco and Fred Gregory, and Mission Specialists Kathryn Thornton, Catherine 'Cady' Collman, and Michael Lopez-Alegria, using color video and slides. Film footage includes the prelaunch and launch activities, the USML and Middeck experiments (Advanced Protein Crystallization Facility (APCF), the Astroculture(tm) (ASC) hardware and experiment, the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), the Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF), the Drop Physics Module (DPM), the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC), the Glovebox (GBX), the Zeolite Crystal Growth (ZCG) experiment, the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE), the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) experiment, three Measuring Microgravity experiments (the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), the Three Dimensional Microgravity Accelerometer (3DMA), and the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE)), and the High-Packed Digital Television (HI-PAC) demonstration system), pre-return flight systems checkout, reentry, and space shuttle landing. The USML experiments were monitored via the HI-PAC system downlink. Earth views included mostly geographical locations (Mediterranean Sea; Turkey; Lake Powell, Arizona/Utah area; San Francisco Bay; Baltimore, Maryland; Washington, DC; India; Tibet; China; Bhutan; Philadelphia; and the Himalayas).

  10. Effect of incubation temperature on post-embryonic survival and growth of steelhead in a natural stream and a hatchery (Study sites: Dworshak Hatchery and North Fork Palouse River; Stocks: Dworshak hatchery; Year classes: 1994 and 1995): Chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Baker, Bruce M.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether varying incubation temperatures to match development between embryos from different spawning dates affected survival and growth of unfed steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss fry released in a stream and in hatchery ponds. Hatchery steelhead returning to the Clearwater River, Idaho were artificially spawned on two dates separated by a four week interval. Progeny from the early date (ExE, from early males and early females) were incubated in chilled (7°C) water and those from the late date (LxL) in ambient (12°C) water until developmental stage matched. A third group, created by fertilizing eggs from late females with cryopreserved milt from early males (ExL), was included to control for any genetic differences between early and late returning adults. Survival in the stream to 3 and 15 months after release was similar among crosses. Survival in the hatchery to near the end of the standard one year rearing period was similar among crosses for one of two year - classes but different for the other; however, it was difficult to ascribe the differences (ExL>ExE; LxL intermediate but closer to ExE) to incubation temperature differences. We conclude that there was little if any effect of incubation temperature on survival. Length of juveniles of one year - class differed among crosses in the stream and in the hatchery. Length of the other year - class differed among crosses in one pond at the hatchery but not in the other pond or in the stream. When length differed the pattern was always the same: ExE>LxL; ExL intermediate but closer to LxL. We speculate that incubation temperature may have affected growth of juveniles, and in particular that a longer period of incubation in chilled water may have caused fast juvenile growth relative to a shorter incubation period in ambient water.

  11. Post-quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Daniel J; Lange, Tanja

    2017-09-13

    Cryptography is essential for the security of online communication, cars and implanted medical devices. However, many commonly used cryptosystems will be completely broken once large quantum computers exist. Post-quantum cryptography is cryptography under the assumption that the attacker has a large quantum computer; post-quantum cryptosystems strive to remain secure even in this scenario. This relatively young research area has seen some successes in identifying mathematical operations for which quantum algorithms offer little advantage in speed, and then building cryptographic systems around those. The central challenge in post-quantum cryptography is to meet demands for cryptographic usability and flexibility without sacrificing confidence.

  12. [Post-partum thyroiditis].

    PubMed

    Neves, Celestino; Alves, Marta; Delgado, Luís; Medina, J Luís

    2009-01-01

    In the post-partum period the immune alterations are associated with the multiple autoimmune diseases relapse. After birth, immune-tolerance variation slowly disappear, and is observed a return to a normal state - after an exacerbation period - of autoimmune reactivity, during which a great increase in T cells and autoantibodies is observed. In this period - 3 to 9 months after birth - the thyroid autoimmune disease relapses or reappears. The reactivation of the immune system in the post-partum period unchains an acute phase of celular destruction which characterizes the post-partum thyroiditis.

  13. Post-quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Daniel J.; Lange, Tanja

    2017-09-01

    Cryptography is essential for the security of online communication, cars and implanted medical devices. However, many commonly used cryptosystems will be completely broken once large quantum computers exist. Post-quantum cryptography is cryptography under the assumption that the attacker has a large quantum computer; post-quantum cryptosystems strive to remain secure even in this scenario. This relatively young research area has seen some successes in identifying mathematical operations for which quantum algorithms offer little advantage in speed, and then building cryptographic systems around those. The central challenge in post-quantum cryptography is to meet demands for cryptographic usability and flexibility without sacrificing confidence.

  14. Oak Growth and Response to Thinning

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley

    2004-01-01

    Oak growth and yield is simultaneously influenced by tree-, stand-, and landscape-scale factors. At the tree scale oak diameter growth varies by tree species (typically n. red oak >= scarlet oak > black oak > white oak > chestnut oak > chinkapin oak > post oak), but oak diameter growth is even more strongly influenced by crown class. Oak stands go...

  15. Growth Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... because their parents are. But some children have growth disorders. Growth disorders are problems that prevent children from developing ... or other features. Very slow or very fast growth can sometimes signal a gland problem or disease. ...

  16. Growth Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... function and also play a role in growth. Hypothyroidism can cause slow growth because the thyroid gland ... to support normal growth. A major symptom of hypothyroidism is feeling tired or sluggish. A blood test ...

  17. SUGAR-DEPENDENT6 encodes a mitochondrial flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glycerol-3-p dehydrogenase, which is required for glycerol catabolism and post germinative seedling growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Quettier, Anne-Laure; Shaw, Eve; Eastmond, Peter J

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to clone and characterize the SUGAR-DEPENDENT6 (SDP6) gene, which is essential for postgerminative growth in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Mutant alleles of sdp6 were able to break down triacylglycerol following seed germination but failed to accumulate soluble sugars, suggesting that they had a defect in gluconeogenesis. Map-based cloning of SDP6 revealed that it encodes a mitochondrial flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent glycerol-3-P (G3P) dehydrogenase:ubiquinone oxidoreductase called FAD-GPDH. This gene has previously been proposed to play a role both in the break down of glycerol (derived from triacylglycerol) and in NAD(+)/NADH homeostasis. Germinated seeds of sdp6 were severely impaired in the metabolism of [U-(14)C]glycerol to CO(2) and accumulated high levels of G3P. These data suggest that SDP6 is essential for glycerol catabolism. The activity of the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase is competitively inhibited by G3P in vitro. We show that phosphoglucose isomerase is likely to be inhibited in vivo because there is a 6-fold reduction in the transfer of (14)C-label into the opposing hexosyl moiety of sucrose when [U-(14)C]glucose or [U-(14)C]fructose is fed to sdp6 seedlings. A block in gluconeogenesis, at the level of hexose phosphate isomerization, would account for the arrested seedling growth phenotype of sdp6 and explain its rescue by sucrose and glucose but not by fructose. Measurements of NAD(+) and NADH levels in sdp6 seedlings also suggest that NAD(+)/NADH homeostasis is altered, and this observation is consistent with the hypothesis that SDP6 participates in a mitochondrial G3P shuttle by cooperating with the cytosolic NAD-dependent GPDH protein GPDHC1.

  18. Post-Concussion Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... those often experienced by people diagnosed with depression, anxiety or post-traumatic stress disorder. In many cases, both physiological effects of brain trauma and emotional reactions to these ...

  19. Post-splenectomy syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001290.htm Post-splenectomy syndrome To use the sharing features on ... Sabiston Textbook of Surgery: The Biological Basis of Modern Surgical Practice . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017: ...

  20. CRITICALITY SAFETY POSTING GUIDELINES

    SciTech Connect

    JENSEN, M.A.

    2001-11-01

    This document provides a set of guidelines in the preparation of criticality safety postings. Guidance is provided in word choice, word arrangement, common human factors considerations. and use of color to highlight limits, cautions, and permissives.

  1. Post-Polio Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... first episode of polio. Currently, the most accepted theory regarding the cause of post-polio syndrome rests ... conserve your energy. Moving from one frame of mind to another can be difficult. Here are some ...

  2. STS-78 Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The flight crew of the STS-78 mission, Cmdr. Terence T. Henricks, Pilot Kevin R. Kregel, Payload Cmdr. Susan J. Helms, Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Charles E. Brady, Jr., and Payload Specialists Jean-Jacques Favier, Ph.D. and Robert B. Thirsk, M.D., back from their seventeen day mission, offer a video and still photo presentation of their journey. Included in the presentation are pre-launch, launch, and post-launch activities; experiments performed in the Spacelab; and re-entry; and the landing at KSC. Each of the STS-78 crew members discuss particular aspects of the mission including the 22 LMS life science and microgravity experiments. The experiments address human physiology, metallic alloys and protein crystal growth, and the study of the behavior of fluids and materials processing in the near-weightless environment of space.

  3. Growth hormone regulation of follicular growth.

    PubMed

    Lucy, Matthew C

    2011-01-01

    The somatotropic axis-consisting of growth hormone (GH), the insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF1 and IGF2), GH binding protein (GHBP), IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) 1 to 6, and the cell-surface receptors for GH and the IGFs-has major effects on growth, lactation and reproduction. The primary target tissues for GH are involved in growth and metabolism. The functionality of the somatotropic axis depends in part on the expression of liver GH receptor (GHR), which determines the amount of IGF1 released from the liver in response to GH. The IGF1 acts as a pleiotropic growth factor and also serves as the endocrine negative feedback signal controlling pituitary GH secretion. Growth hormone and IGF1 undergo dynamic changes throughout the life cycle, particularly when animals are either growing, early post partum or lactating. Cells within the reproductive tract can respond directly to GH but to a lesser degree than the primary target tissues. The major impact that GH has on reproduction, therefore, may be secondary to its systemic effects on metabolism (including insulin sensitivity) or secondary to the capacity for GH to control IGF1 secretion. Insulin-like growth factor 1 and IGFBP are also synthesised within the ovary and this local synthesis is a component of the collective IGF1 action on the follicle. Future studies of GH should focus on its direct effects on the follicle as well as its indirect effects mediated by shifts in nutrient metabolism, insulin sensitivity, IGF1 and IGFBP.

  4. Post adoption depression.

    PubMed

    Fields, Eve S; Meuchel, Jennifer M; Jaffe, Chiara J; Jha, Manish; Payne, Jennifer L

    2010-04-01

    We sought to evaluate the prevalence rate and factors associated with post adoption depression. One hundred and twelve adoptive mothers of infants under 12 months of age were recruited from local and national adoption organizations. A modified Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and a questionnaire collecting medical and psychiatric history, perceived stress, and demographics were administered retrospectively. The rates of significant depressive symptoms (defined as EPDS >or=12) were calculated at three time points post adoption, and associations with specific clinical variables (personal or family psychiatric history, stress, and adjustment difficulty) were assessed. Eighty-six mothers were included. Rates of significant depressive symptoms (EPDS >or=12) were found in 27.9% of subjects at 0-4 weeks, 25.6% at 5-12 weeks, and 12.8% at 13-52 weeks post adoption. Significant depressive symptoms were not associated with personal or family psychiatric history but were associated with stress (p = 0.0011) and adjustment difficulties (p = 0.042) post adoption. Significant depressive symptoms were relatively common in adoptive mothers within the first year after adoption and were associated with environmental stress. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the existence of post adoption depression and the factors associated with it.

  5. Esthetic Intracanal Posts

    PubMed Central

    Parčina, Ivana; Amižić

    2016-01-01

    The primary function of an endodontic post is to provide retention for the core and enable full sealing of the coronal portion of the root canal. Traditionally used metal posts do not meet the requirements of modern dental medicine due to some fairly significant drawbacks such as color, corrosion potential, non-adhesive bonding and high modulus of elasticity which can lead to root fracture. Recently, esthetic ceramic and fiber reinforced posts have been manufactured in order to avoid such imperfections. Since much attention has been devoted to the esthetic aspects of dental medicine, the use of these posts with composite/ceramic cores is very common in restorative dentistry and it is actually becoming a standard. This is due to the fact that, apart from being an esthetically pleasing material, they are also biocompatible, have good physical properties and the capacity of adhesive bonding to tooth tissue and core buildup. Nonetheless, a good clinician should know how to spot the difference between them in order to select and use the appropriate post system in each specific situation. PMID:27789912

  6. STS 63: Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    At a post flight conference, Captain Jim Wetherbee, of STS Flight 63, introduces each of the other members of the STS 63 crew (Eileen Collins, Pilot; Dr. Bernard Harris, Payload Commander; Dr. Michael Foale, Mission Specialist from England; Dr. Janice Voss, Misssion Specialist; and Colonel Vladimir Titor, Misssion Specialist from Russia. A short biography of each member and a brief description of their assignment during this mission is given. A film was shown that included the preflight suit-up, a view of the launch site, the actual night launch, a tour of the Space Shuttle and several of the experiment areas, several views of earth and the MIR Space Station and cosmonauts, the MIR-Space Shuttle rendezvous, the deployment of the Spartan Ultraviolet Telescope, Foale and Harris's EVA and space walk, the retrieval of Spartan, and the night entry home, including the landing. Several spaceborne experiments were introduced: the radiation monitoring experiment, environment monitoring experiment, solid surface combustion experiment, and protein crystal growth and plant growth experiments. This conference ended with still, color pictures, taken by the astronauts during the entire STS 63 flight, being shown.

  7. Defective chloroplast development inhibits maintenance of normal levels of abscisic acid in a mutant of the Arabidopsis RH3 DEAD-box protein during early post-germination growth.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang-Hee; Park, Jiyoung; Williams, Donna S; Xiong, Yuqing; Hwang, Inhwan; Kang, Byung-Ho

    2013-03-01

    The plastid has its own translation system, and its ribosomes are assembled through a complex process in which rRNA precursors are processed and ribosomal proteins are inserted into the rRNA backbone. DEAD-box proteins have been shown to play roles in multiple steps in ribosome biogenesis. To investigate the cellular and physiological roles of an Arabidopsis DEAD-box protein, RH3, we examined its expression and localization and the phenotypes of rh3-4, a T-DNA insertion mutant allele of RH3. The promoter activity of RH3 is strongest in the greening tissues of 3-day and 1-week-old seedlings but reduced afterwards. Cotyledons were pale and seedling growth was retarded in the mutant. The most obvious abnormality in the mutant chloroplasts was their lack of normal ribosomes. Electron tomography analysis indicated that ribosome density in the 3-day-old mutant chloroplasts is only 20% that of wild-type chloroplasts, and the ribosomes in the mutant are smaller. These chloroplast defects in rh3-4 were alleviated in 2-week-old cotyledons and true leaves. Interestingly, rh3-4 seedlings have lower amounts of abscisic acid prior to recovery of their chloroplasts, and were more sensitive to abiotic stresses. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that nuclear genes for chloroplast proteins are down-regulated, and proteins mediating chloroplast-localized steps of abscisic acid biosynthesis are expressed to a lower extent in 1-week-old rh3-4 seedlings. Taken together, these results suggest that conversion of eoplasts into chloroplasts in young seedlings is critical for the seedlings to start carbon fixation as well as for maintenance of abscisic acid levels for responding to environmental challenges. © 2012 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. The "Post-Post Period" and Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Marcia

    2005-01-01

    Described as "post-experimental" and of the "post-post period," the current moment in social science research is typified by multi-voiced texts, researcher reflexivity, cultural criticism, and experimental works; characteristics in keeping with post-structurally informed understandings of social science research as contingent, evolving and messy.…

  9. Post-Secondary Vocational Education and Training: Pathways and Partnerships. Institutional Management in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Rapid growth of tertiary education is partly due to the expansion of post-secondary vocational education and training (PSV). A well developed post-secondary PSV system and links between universities and VET institutions improve skills and employment opportunities. What is post-secondary PSV and how does it relate to other components of the…

  10. Post-Secondary Vocational Education and Training: Pathways and Partnerships. Institutional Management in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Rapid growth of tertiary education is partly due to the expansion of post-secondary vocational education and training (PSV). A well developed post-secondary PSV system and links between universities and VET institutions improve skills and employment opportunities. What is post-secondary PSV and how does it relate to other components of the…

  11. Post-wildfire management

    Treesearch

    Jonathan W. Long; Carl Skinner; Susan Charnley; Ken Hubbert; Lenya Quinn-Davidson; Marc Meyer

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires, especially large, severe, and unmanageable events, exert major influences on socioecological systems, not only through risks to life and property, but also losses of important values associated with mature forest stands. These events prompt decisions about post-wildfire management interventions, including short-term emergency responses, salvage logging, and...

  12. [Post-transfusional AIDS].

    PubMed

    Azzini, M; Maccabruni, A; Marcellini, M; Michelone, G; Dei Cas, A

    1987-01-01

    Two cases of post-transfusional AIDS in two premature babies who received blood of the same seropositive donor, are reported. The risk of the susceptibility to HIV infection of these patients, in relation to the immaturity of immune system and to the transfusional treatment often necessary in premature newborns, is stressed.

  13. Post-Concussion Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... even if you never lost consciousness. If a concussion occurs while you're playing a sport, don't go back in the game. Seek medical attention so that you don't risk worsening your injury. Causes Some experts believe post-concussion symptoms are caused by structural damage to the ...

  14. Personal growth after traumatic experiences.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Michael

    Psychiatric practice acknowledges that people who are subjected to traumatic events may develop emotional negativity requiring intervention. However, it has recently been acknowledged that emotional distress caused by a traumatic event can facilitate that person's recovery into an emotionally stronger person. This article aims to provide a clinical understanding of the phenomenon of post-trauma growth.

  15. Post-Ike economic resilience along the Texas coast.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ruoxi; Dudensing, Rebekka M

    2015-07-01

    The economic devastation resulting from recent natural disasters has spawned intense interest in programmes that promote regional resilience. The economic impacts of Hurricane Ike (September 2008) endured long beyond the storm's landfall, compounded by a national recession. This study analyses the pattern of post-Ike industrial growth in eight coastal counties of Texas, United States, and identifies sources of resilience and potential drivers of recovery. The results indicate that post-disaster growth patterns differ from established growth patterns. Levels of resilience vary across industrial sectors, and service sectors tend to lead a recovery. The resilience of the hotel and restaurant sector, for instance, suggests that the presence of relief workers might immunise certain sectors against a post-disaster economic downturn. Besides the sectors that are generally resilient, each county has its own distinct sectors that, depending on the extent of the damage suffered, tend to perform strongly after a disaster, owing to the characteristics of the respective county's economy.

  16. [Post-traumatic stress].

    PubMed

    Ogłodek, Ewa; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

    2012-01-01

    As civilization advanced, the number of disasters, including their types and size of the threat to humanity. In addition to natural disasters and wars, there are currently a disaster communication, environmental and technological. Disasters "new generation" include increasingly frequent bombings and terrorist attacks. These events are an impediment to long-lasting and deep impact on the mental functioning of the victims of the event. This represents a potential risk of a variety of psychopathological symptoms, which go beyond the limits of human suffering. ICD-I0 classification includes individuals sickness arising as a consequence of pathological after surviving the disaster, which include: acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), post-traumatic stress disorder linked to depression, symptoms anxiety, addictions, dissociative disorders and personality changes and permanent after the disaster.

  17. Post-stroke dyskinesias

    PubMed Central

    Nakawah, Mohammad Obadah; Lai, Eugene C

    2016-01-01

    Strokes, whether ischemic or hemorrhagic, are among the most common causes of secondary movement disorders in elderly patients. Stroke-related (vascular) movement disorders, however, are uncommon complications of this relatively common disease. The spectrum of post-stroke movement disorders is broad and includes both hypo- and hyperkinetic syndromes. Post-stroke dyskinesias are involuntary hyperkinetic movements arising from cerebrovascular insults and often present with mixed phenotypes of hyperkinesia which can sometimes be difficult to classify. Nevertheless, identification of the most relevant motor phenotype, whenever possible, allows for a more specific phenomenological categorization of the dyskinesia and thus helps guide its treatment. Fortunately, post-stroke dyskinesias are usually self-limiting and resolve within 6 to 12 months of onset, but a short-term pharmacotherapy might sometimes be required for symptom control. Functional neurosurgical interventions targeting the motor thalamus or globus pallidus interna might be considered for patients with severe, disabling, and persistent dyskinesias (arbitrarily defined as duration longer than 12 months). PMID:27853372

  18. 10. FLOOR 1; CENTER POST AND POSTS UNDER STONE BEAMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. FLOOR 1; CENTER POST AND POSTS UNDER STONE BEAMS WHICH SUPPORT BRIDGE BEAMS FOR BRIDGE TREES; WEDGES FOR ADJUSTING HEIGHT OF BRIDGE TREE CAN BE SEEN - Shelter Island Windmill, Manwaring Road, Shelter Island, Suffolk County, NY

  19. 1. Post card view of the bridge, c. 1910. Post ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Post card view of the bridge, c. 1910. Post card courtesy Carol Poh Miller. Photocopy by Berni Rich, Score Photographers Cleveland, OH - B & O Railroad Bridge Number 464, Spanning Old Ship Canal & Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  20. Typical Newel Post, First Floor Newel Post, Typical Baluster, Typical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Typical Newel Post, First Floor Newel Post, Typical Baluster, Typical Nosing, First Floor Stringer Profile, Second Floor Stringer Profile - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers - Battle Mountain Sanitarium, Treasurer's Quarters, 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  1. Further Exploration of Post-Flare Giant Arches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Matthew; Seaton, Daniel B.; Dennis, Brian R.; feng, Li

    2017-08-01

    Recent observations from the SWAP EUV imager on-board PROBA2 and SXI X-ray observations from the GOES satellite have shown that post-flare giant arches and regular post-flare loops are one and the same thing. However, it is still not clear how certain loop systems are able to sustain prolonged growth to heights of approximately 400000 km (>0.5 solar-radii). In this presentation we further explore the energy deposition rate above post-flare loop systems through high-energy RHESSI observations. We also explore the difference between the loop systems through a multi-wavelength epoch analysis.

  2. Post-natal myogenic and adipogenic developmental

    PubMed Central

    Konings, Gonda; van Weeghel, Michel; van den Hoogenhof, Maarten MG; Gijbels, Marion; van Erk, Arie; Schoonderwoerd, Kees; van den Bosch, Bianca; Dahlmans, Vivian; Calis, Chantal; Houten, Sander M; Misteli, Tom

    2011-01-01

    A-type lamins are a major component of the nuclear lamina. Mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes the A-type lamins A and C, cause a set of phenotypically diverse diseases collectively called laminopathies. While adult LMNA null mice show various symptoms typically associated with laminopathies, the effect of loss of lamin A/C on early post-natal development is poorly understood. Here we developed a novel LMNA null mouse (LMNAGT−/−) based on genetrap technology and analyzed its early post-natal development. We detect LMNA transcripts in heart, the outflow tract, dorsal aorta, liver and somites during early embryonic development. Loss of A-type lamins results in severe growth retardation and developmental defects of the heart, including impaired myocyte hypertrophy, skeletal muscle hypotrophy, decreased amounts of subcutaneous adipose tissue and impaired ex vivo adipogenic differentiation. These defects cause death at 2 to 3 weeks post partum associated with muscle weakness and metabolic complications, but without the occurrence of dilated cardiomyopathy or an obvious progeroid phenotype. Our results indicate that defective early post-natal development critically contributes to the disease phenotypes in adult laminopathies. PMID:21818413

  3. Post-growth surface smoothing of thin films of diindenoperylene

    SciTech Connect

    Hinderhofer, A.; Hosokai, T.; Yonezawa, K.; Kato, K.; Kera, S.; Ueno, N.; Gerlach, A.; Broch, K.; Frank, C.; Schreiber, F.; Novak, J.

    2012-07-16

    We applied in situ x-ray reflectivity and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy to study the impact of annealing on low temperature (200 K) deposited organic thin films of diindenoperylene (DIP) on SiO{sub 2} and indium tin oxide (ITO). At 200 K, DIP is crystalline on SiO{sub 2} and amorphous on ITO. Upon heating to room temperature, the roughness of DIP is reduced on both substrates, from 1.5 nm to 0.75 nm (SiO{sub 2}) and from 0.90 nm to 0.45 nm (ITO). The smoothing is accompanied by crystallization of the surface molecules, whereas the bulk structure of the films does not strongly reorganize.

  4. Champions of profitable growth.

    PubMed

    Stewart, G Bennett

    2004-01-01

    Many companies have posted impressive top-line growth over the past two decades in their respective economic regions--for instance, Wal-Mart in North America, BP in Europe, Toyota in Asia, and News Corporation in the Southern Hemisphere. But which were the best at converting all of that revenue growth into shareholder value? Harvard Business Review asked C. Bennett Stewart III, the senior partner of the consulting firm Stern Stewart & Company, and his colleagues to come up with the answer. For the period 1983 to 2003, they assembled a list of the top 20 high-growth value adders (and laggards) in each of the four regions cited above. Their calculations gave equal weight to companies' revenue growth and market-value-added scores, revealing the important effect of region on the performance of companies in the same industry. For instance, while automakers are positioned high on the Asian list of high-growth value adders, U.S. carmakers GM and Ford--each of which reported revenue growth in excess of 100 billion dollars between 1983 and 2003--are among the value laggards on the North American list, as are DaimlerChrysler and Volkswagen on the European list. The Japanese win through better efficiency, higher quality, and narrower product mixes, the author says. And while there are four telecom companies represented among the European high-growth value adders, there are none on the North American list. That's probably because the European telecoms enjoyed more protective regulation, made fewer high-priced acquisitions, and didn't bet as big on the overblown dot-com economy, the author says.

  5. POST-MENOPAUSAL OSTEOPOROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, C. Alison

    1997-01-01

    Millions of women will be prescribed hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and be told that it will prevent osteoporosis occuring, despite the fact that there is doubt about its long term usefulness. Preventive measures outlined in this article are much more preferable, but need to be directed towards the whole population, not just menopausal women. The prevention of osteoporosis is an important public health issue which needs to be addressed now, not in the next century. This article explores the issues that surround the medicalisation of post-menopausal osteoporosis. PMID:17987149

  6. [Post-stripping telangiectasis].

    PubMed

    Hutinel, B; Maraval, M

    1985-01-01

    These telangiectasia appear between one and six months after the operation, especially in cases of capillary fragility. The most common localizations are the antero-internal and external sides of the thighs and knees. Unnecessary strippings, of continent saphenous veins, are the most frequent cause of these. Their prevention consists of the least possible traumatising stripping, using a fine stripper, a very rigorous post-operative support, and the wearing of light varicose stockings or tights for between one and three months. The treatment using microsclerosis, often delicate, should not be undertaken before six months.

  7. Perioperative post graduate education.

    PubMed

    Kapnoullas, J

    1997-04-01

    This article describes post-graduate perioperative education in Australia at the Australian Catholic University and St. Vincent's Public Hospital: The Graduate Certificate in Perioperative Practice. The Australian Catholic University operates from eight campuses along the east coast of Australia. There are approximately 9000 students along with 1000 staff. The University consists of major faculties that all have clear relevance to the workplace-namely Arts and Sciences, Education and Health Sciences. Qualifications are offered at Certificate of Doctoral level studies in the areas of business, education, ethics, human movement, management, information systems, music, nursing, religion, social work and theology.

  8. [Post-traumatic tics].

    PubMed

    Alegre, S; Chacón, J; Redondo, L; Navarro-Busto, C; Solana, B

    1996-10-01

    Secondary tics are those in which an aetiology justifying them can be found, as compared to idiopathic tics, which make up the majority, and the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (SGT), which is, at the moment, of unknown origin. Of the possible aetiologies described as causing tics, craneo-encephalic trauma has been mentioned on very few occasions. We present a case of post-traumatic tics (verbal and neck) in a young man of 24, and review the published cases which can be considered to be of post-traumatic tics. We have found six cases of tics secondary to traumas, all craneo-encephalic, like ours (the one under study). The time interval between the blow and the appearance of the tic or tics varied between 2 weeks and 3 months. The absence of significant lesions seen in the complementary investigations make it impossible for us to discover the site of the lesion caused by the trauma. However, the presence in some cases of other tics before the trauma, and of family histories of tics, supports the idea of a genetic basis or predisposition to suffer this disorder.

  9. [Post-abortion contraception].

    PubMed

    Ohannessian, A; Jamin, C

    2016-12-01

    To establish guidelines of the French National College of Gynecologists and Obstetricians about post-abortion contraception. A systematic review of the literature about post-abortion contraception was performed on Medline and Cochrane Database between 1978 and March 2016. The guidelines of the French and foreign scientific societies were also consulted. After an abortion, if the woman wishes to use a contraception, it should be started as soon as possible because of the very early ovulation resumption. The contraception choice must be done in accordance with the woman's expectations and lifestyle. The contraindications of each contraception must be respected. The long-acting reversible contraception, intra-uterine device (IUD) and implant, could be preferred (grade C) as the efficacy is not dependent on compliance. Thus, they could better prevent repeat abortion (LE3). In case of surgical abortion, IUD should be proposed and inserted immediately after the procedure (grade A), as well as the implant (grade B). In case of medical abortion, the implant can be inserted from the day of mifépristone, the IUD after an ultrasound examination confirming the success of the abortion (no continuing pregnancy or retained sac) (grade C). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Post herpetic neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Philip, Annie; Thakur, Rajbala

    2011-06-01

    During the past decade, important advances have been made in understanding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention and treatment of post herpetic neuralgia pain as well as treatment of other neuropathic pain conditions. PHN is accepted as a model for management and clinical trials of neuropathic pain of less clear etiologies. In palliative medicine, where the etiology of pain may be nociceptive, neuropathic, or mixed, it is frequently to the research on PHN that we turn in order to extrapolate the data to the patients at hand. To review and summarize what is known about epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features and prevention strategies for post herpetic neuralgia. Discuss the available including the most recent therapeutic options as regards to their mechanism of action, efficacy, safety and tolerability in an attempt to explain the rationale for their use. A multidisciplinary and integrative approach has the best chance of success in the management of patients with PHN pain, a problem that can be often frustrating to the patient and challenging to the clinician. Prevention strategies for PHN include administration of zoster vaccine, treatment with antiviral therapy within 72 hours of rash onset and aggressive pain control. First and second line pharmacotherapy include anticonvulsants, antidepressants, topical lidocaine, high dose capsaicin, and opioids either used individually or in combination. Interventional techniques play a limited role in the management of PHN although some data indicate that Intrathecal methylprednisolone and spinal cord stimulation may be effective.

  11. Post Falls Dam stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Gorny, R.H.; Gibson, J.Z.

    1995-12-31

    The stability of Washington Water Power`s (WWP) Middle Channel and South Channel Dams at Post Falls, Idaho, were evaluated as required by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and did not meet guideline stability criteria under Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) loading. This paper describes the stability analysis, stabilization design, design parameters, construction of the anchors, and compares the design and as-built conditions. Value engineering was used to select the optimal stabilization measure. Constructibility, cost, and schedule were major considerations. The value engineering study evaluated 41 potential stabilization alternatives, selected post tensioning, and used scheduling criteria to optimize the design. Access considerations required the installation of five 47 strand, 7400 kN (1645{sup k}) anchors in the Middle Dam, and installation of six anchors with different capacities anchors in the South Channel Dam. The Washington Water Power - Black & Veatch team used value engineering, contractor prequalification, resident engineering services provided by the engineer, and strong construction support provided by the Owner to successfully complete the project on a very tight schedule.

  12. INC424 for Patients With Myelofibrosis, Post Polycythemia Myelofibrosis or Post-essential Thrombocythemia Myelofibrosis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-27

    Myelofibrosis (PMF); Post Polycythemia Myelofibrosis (PPV MF); Post-essential Thrombocythemia Myelofibrosis (PET-MF); Myelofibrosis; Post Polycythemia Myelofibrosis; Post-essential Thrombocythemia Myelofibrosis

  13. Extrapituitary growth hormone and growth?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Steve; Baudet, Marie-Laure

    2014-09-01

    While growth hormone (GH) is obligatory for postnatal growth, it is not required for a number of growth-without-GH syndromes, such as early embryonic or fetal growth. Instead, these syndromes are thought to be dependent upon local growth factors, rather than pituitary GH. The GH gene is, however, also expressed in many extrapituitary tissues, particularly during early development and extrapituitary GH may be one of the local growth factors responsible for embryonic or fetal growth. Moreover, as the expression of the GH receptor (GHR) gene mirrors that of GH in extrapituitary tissues the actions of GH in early development are likely to be mediated by local autocrine or paracrine mechanisms, especially as extrapituitary GH expression occurs prior to the ontogeny of pituitary somatotrophs or the appearance of GH in the circulation. The extrapituitary expression of pituitary somatotrophs or the appearance of GH in the circulation. The extrapituitary expression of GH in embryos has also been shown to be of functional relevance in a number of species, since the immunoneutralization of endogenous GH or the blockade of GH production is accompanied by growth impairment or cellular apoptosis. The extrapituitary expression of the GH gene also persists in some central and peripheral tissues postnatally, which may reflect its continued functional importance and physiological or pathophysiological significance. The expression and functional relevance of extrapituitary GH, particularly during embryonic growth, is the focus of this brief review.

  14. Isolated post resonator mesogyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, Dorian; Peay, Chris; Wellman, Joanne; Shcheglov, Kirill; Hayworth, Ken; Wiberg, Dean; Yee, Karl; Sipppola, Clayton

    2004-01-01

    A new symmetric vibratory gyroscope principle has been devised in which a central post proof mass is counter-rocked against an outer sensing plate such that the motion is isolated from the gyroscope case. Prototype gyroscopes have been designed and fabricated with micromachined silicon at mesoscale (20-cm resonator width), vs. microscale (e.g., 2-mm resonator width) to achieve higher sensitivity and machined precision. This novel mesogyro design arose out of an ongoing technical cooperation between JPL and Boeing begun in 1997 to advance the design of micro-inertial sensors for low-cost space applications. This paper describes the theory of operation of the mesogyro and relationships with other vibratory gyroscopes, the mechanical design, closed loop electronics design, bulk silicon fabrication and packaged gyroscope assembly and test methods. The initial packaged prototype test results are reported for what is believed to be the first silicon mesogyroscope.

  15. Technical Education in Pre and Post Independent India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janardhana, G.; Rajasekhar, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with technical education growth, policies in pre and post independent India. The world is moving forward rapidly and positively, into an era where societies and economies are incrementally based on knowledge. The importance of nations in the 21st Century shall be judged not by their economic strength alone, but also by their power…

  16. Post-16 update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    (post16) Faces of Physics To study a physics course post-16 is take out an option on your future. But physics itself is very varied, and so is what you might do with it. It seems right that post-16 physics courses reflect important aspects of this variety. Physics varies with why people do it. As reliable knowledge, physics is often essential to making things happen. This is physics as feeding into technology, and quite often feeding off technology. The human urge here is the urge to create things that work. It drives individual inventors; it drives large teams in multinational companies. At the opposite end of this spectrum is physics driven by curiosity, by the urge to find out. The stock examples are the grand discoveries from the expansion of the universe to the discovery of the nucleus of atoms. But the physicist's curiosity is often on a more detailed, even finicky scale: how exactly do the molecules of this polymer respond to stress?; just how do ions implanted in this material modify its conductivity? It is clear to me that a decent post-16 physics course must respect and reflect both. This is by no means a matter of `basic laws and their applications'. It is a matter of recognizing two fundamental interests, in doing and in explaining, and of recognizing that they are at once closely interdependent and worlds apart. Ideas in physics are also not of one kind. One opposition is the idea of describing Nature in terms of deterministic physical laws, as against describing Nature as the predictable outcome of probabilistic behaviour `underneath'. The first has gripped the Western imagination since at least the time of Descartes. The second has increasingly come to the fore, especially in thermodynamics with the idea that we can only make processes work by fixing the circumstances so that uncaring atoms and molecules happen by chance to do what we want. Now in quantum theory both ideas - determinism and randomness - co-exist. Post-16 physics courses are not in

  17. Post-16 update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    Post-16 Initiative logo This is the first of a regular series of contributions from the Institute's Post-16 Initiative. The Initiative is taking a hard and searching look at the physics taught in schools and colleges from age 16 to age 19. To start with, it is responding to Government initiatives, but hopes to encourage and stimulate good practice in physics teaching on a longer time scale than can be afforded in making responses to current developments. Here Jon Ogborn writes about what AS courses need to be, while Peter Campbell gives his thoughts about teaching matter. Advanced Subsidiary physics: what should it be? From September 2000 all A-levels will be new. Students can take the first Advanced Subsidiary (AS) year and stop there - or decide to go on. In the Institute of Physics post-16 Initiative, we have been thinking how to provide a satisfying one-year experience of physics at the new AS level, and what it should achieve. The students will decide. So the AS course must give a decent picture of what physics is, what it offers for their futures, what interests it can satisfy. That all says breadth, with enough depth to see what is in store later. And this sounds like the right recipe for someone who is taking a single AS year of physics to broaden their A-level experience. It must also be attractive. A way forward is shown by the Salters - Horners course, attracting interest through leading from applications. Why does that work? It gives physics a story to tell, into which ideas fit and make sense. Our own new A-level, Advancing Physics, must also have interesting stories to tell, which must in addition build up an honest picture of physics. An example: teach electric circuits through modern sensing devices. Sensor instrumentation is a key activity of physicists, full of new ideas, but also simple. It makes essential use of circuits such as the potential divider. Practical work gets better things to do than checking the equation for resistors in parallel

  18. Population post-Rio.

    PubMed

    Myers, N

    1993-01-01

    The June 1993 Rio Earth Summit barely recognized population growth as an issue, despite the evidence that rapid population growth is harming both the environment and development efforts. One reason given for brushing the population issue to the sidelines was that the UN had a major population conference scheduled for 1994. This overlooked the fact that in the interim between the two conferences, the population problem would be compounded by an additional 200 million people. Any delay now will increase the number of potential parents in the future and create an ever-increasing problem. The male participants at Rio who were willing to procrastinate on population issues were joined by feminists who claimed that men should leave this issue to women. These women ignore the fact that men need to be more, not less, involved in family planning. Women need support in increasing their status and in improving educational opportunities for girls. Providing girls with as much education as boys receive in low-income nations would cost less than a quarter of a percent of the collective gross national product of these nations, and this education would provide a solid boast to their economies and to their family planning campaigns. Procrastinators on population issues must stop acting as though a spare planet is available when we overload the earth.

  19. Post removal techniques part 1.

    PubMed

    Dickie, Jamie; McCrosson, John

    2014-01-01

    Dismantling restorations from teeth which require endodontic re-treatment can be difficult. Many dentists are reluctant to remove posts through fear of weakening, perforating or fracturing the remaining root structure. A variety of techniques have been described and developed for post removal. This is the first in a series of two papers which provide an overview of these techniques.The rationale for endodontic re-treatment, pre-operative assessment and factors affecting post removal are discussed. Techniques are illustrated with clinical case reports. The second paper describes the use of specific post removal devices and the removal of fibre posts. Endodontic re-treatment has a more successful long-term outcome than surgical treatment for failed root canal treatment. This may involve the removal of existing post restorations or portions thereof.

  20. Growth Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... that can lead to significantly short stature is dwarfism . Dwarfism results from abnormal growth of the bones and cartilage in the body. In many forms of dwarfism the person has abnormal body proportions, such as ...

  1. Growth Hormone

    MedlinePlus

    ... to help diagnose and monitor the treatment of acromegaly and gigantism . Growth hormone is essential for normal ... signs and symptoms of GH excess ( gigantism and acromegaly ). Suppression testing may be done when a pituitary ...

  2. Delayed growth

    MedlinePlus

    ... ready-to-feed formula. When to Contact a Medical Professional Contact your health care provider if you are concerned about your child's growth. Medical evaluations are important even if you think developmental ...

  3. Eyelid Growths

    MedlinePlus

    ... any growths that do not respond to initial treatments. Resources In This Article Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Figure 1 Xanthelasma Figure 2 Basal Cell Carcinoma of Eyelid Eyelid and Tearing Disorders Overview of ...

  4. IVGEN Post Flight Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcquillen, John; Brown, Dan; Hussey, Sam; Zoldak, John

    2014-01-01

    The Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) Experiment was a technology demonstration experiment that purified ISS potable water, mixed it with salt, and transferred it through a sterilizing filter. On-orbit performance was verified as appropriate and two 1.5 l bags of normal saline solution were returned to earth for post-flight testing by a FDA certified laboratory for compliance with United States Pharmacopiea (USP) standards. Salt concentration deviated from required values and an analysis identified probable causes. Current efforts are focused on Total Organic Content (TOC) testing, and shelf life.The Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) Experiment demonstrated the purification of ISS potable water, the mixing of the purified water with sodium chloride, and sterilization of the solution via membrane filtration. On-orbit performance was monitored where feasible and two 1.5-liter bags of normal saline solution were returned to earth for post-flight testing by a FDA-registered laboratory for compliance with United States Pharmacopeia (USP)standards [1]. Current efforts have been focused on challenge testing with identified [2] impurities (total organic-carbon), and shelf life testing. The challenge testing flowed known concentrations of contaminants through the IVGEN deionizing cartridge and membrane filters to test their effectiveness. One finding was that the filters and DI-resin themselves contribute to the contaminant load during initial startup, suggesting that the first 100 ml of fluid be discarded. Shelf life testing is ongoing and involves periodic testing of stored DI cartridges and membrane filters that are capped and sealed in hermetic packages. The testing is conducted at six month intervals measuring conductivity and endotoxins in the effluent. Currently, the packaging technique has been successfully demonstrated for one year of storage testing. The USP standards specifies that the TOC be conducted at point of generation as opposed to point of

  5. Microsatellite primer development for post oak, Quercus stellata (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Chatwin, Warren B; Carpenter, Kyrie K; Jimenez, Felix R; Elzinga, Dave B; Johnson, Leigh A; Maughan, Peter J

    2014-10-01

    The American Cross Timbers forest ecosystem runs from southeastern Kansas to Central Texas and is primarily composed of post oak (Quercus stellata). This old-growth forest currently occupies only about 2% of its ancestral range. To facilitate genetic research on this species, we developed microsatellite primers specific to post oak from reduced genomic libraries. • Two Q. stellata individuals, sampled from the northern and southern range of the post oak forest, were subject to genomic reduction and 454 pyrosequencing. Bioinformatic analysis identified putative microsatellites from which 12 polymorphic primer sets were screened on three populations. The number of alleles observed ranged from five to 20 across all populations, while observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.05 to 0.833 and 0.236 to 0.893, respectively, within individual populations. • We report the development of microsatellite markers, specific to post oak, to aid the study of genetic diversity and population structure of extant forest remnants.

  6. Population growth and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    This discussion of the issues relating to the problem posed by population explosion in the developing countries and economic growth in the contemporary world covers the following: predictions of economic and social trends; the Malthusian theory of population; the classical or stationary theory of population; the medical triage model; ecological disaster; the Global 2000 study; the limits to growth; critiques of the Limits to Growth model; nonrenewable resources; food and agriculture; population explosion and stabilization; space and ocean colonization; and the limits perspective. The Limits to Growth model, a general equilibrium anti-growth model, is the gloomiest economic model ever constructed. None of the doomsday models, the Malthusian theory, the classical stationary state, the neo-Malthusian medical triage model, the Global 2000 study, are so far reaching in their consequences. The course of events that followed the publication of the "Limits to Growth" in 1972 in the form of 2 oil shocks, food shock, pollution shock, and price shock seemed to bear out formally the gloomy predictions of the thesis with a remarkable speed. The 12 years of economic experience and the knowledge of resource trends postulate that even if the economic pressures visualized by the model are at work they are neither far reaching nor so drastic. Appropriate action can solve them. There are several limitations to the Limits to Growth model. The central theme of the model, which is overshoot and collapse, is unlikely to be the course of events. The model is too aggregative to be realistic. It exaggerates the ecological disaster arising out of the exponential growth of population and industry. The gross underestimation of renewable resources is a basic flaw of the model. The most critical weakness of the model is its gross underestimation of the historical trend of technological progress and the technological possiblities within industry and agriculture. The model does correctly emphasize

  7. NEWS: Post-16 update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Peter

    2000-07-01

    post16.gif As a teacher of physics it is very easy to become preoccupied with particulars of courses, or topics or even single concepts. Concerned with imminent student audiences and desired learning outcomes, the daily challenge is to summon satisfactory teaching approaches and resources for the job at hand. For the conscientious teacher, assessment outcomes may too often seem a judgment on our own efforts rather than those of our students. From time to time we may step back and think bigger, for example while planning a recruitment event, or while away from work on holiday. We may be successful locally. But why, at a time when books and television documentaries popularizing science have a large following, has physics education been facing declining numbers? Many recognize that physics has an essential contribution to make to the training of science or engineering specialists, but we know that it is also important for the skilled worker, the informed citizen and, in fact, for anyone trying to make sense of the world. So what are the best ways forward for post-16 physics? To make any impact on the bigger picture requires organization, thinking and meeting time among people in diverse roles: teachers and curriculum managers; university lecturers; employers and professional bodies; unitary awarding bodies; regulatory and funding agencies; and even Government. For the past few years, the Institute of Physics post-16 Initiative has created an unrivalled opportunity to address the wider issues. Its Shaping the Future booklets series was designed to stimulate informed discussion and debate, by providing background information and analysis. Taken together, the booklets should help all those concerned with physics education to understand where we are now, and why. Literally dozens of people have contributed to a review and analysis of physics education. Each booklet is a 48-page smorgasbord in A4 landscape format, containing many examples of good practice, basic but

  8. Nuclear Power - Post Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Jose, Jr.

    2011-10-01

    The extreme events that led to the prolonged power outage at the Fukushima Daiicchi nuclear plant have highlighted the importance of assuring a means for stable long term cooling of the nuclear fuel and containment following a complete station blackout. Legislative bodies, regulatory agencies and industry are drawing lessons from those events and considering what changes, if any, are needed to nuclear power, post Fukushima. The enhanced safety of a new class of reactor designed by NuScale Power is drawing significant attention in light of the Fukushima events. During normal operation, each NuScale containment is fully immersed in a water-filled stainless steel lined concrete pool that resides underground. The pool, housed in a Seismic Category I building, is large enough to provided 30 days of core and containment cooling without adding water. After 30 days, the decay heat generations coupled with thermal radiation heat transfer is completely adequate to remove core decay heat for an unlimited period of time. These passive power systems can perform their function without requiring an external supply of water of power. An assessment of the NuScale passive systems is being performed through a comprehensive test program that includes the NuScale integral system test facility at Oregon State University

  9. [Post traumatic partial seizures].

    PubMed

    Carvajal, P; Almárcegui, C; Pablo, M J; Peralta, P; Bernal, M; Valdizán, J R

    Post traumatic epilepsy represents 4% of the prevalence of the disorder and is one of the sequelas which is most difficult to prevent. Risk factors have been described to predict the appearance of seizures. A seven year old boy with a severe head injury was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. On neuroimaging studies there were multiple foci of contusion, mainly in the left hemisphere, and blood in the III and IV ventricles and frontal horn of the left lateral ventricle. The patient had severe sequelae of head injury with a right spastic hemiplegia and hemiparesia with hypertony of the left side, together with complete blindness of both eyes due to bilateral atrophy of the optic nerve. Serial EEG were done, in which a recording showed alternating periods of hypervoltage grapho elements superimposed on a trace of very low voltage, with continuous activity of low voltage and low frequency. There were no grapho elements with acute morphology. However, the patient had a first partial seizure a year and a half after his head injury. On the EEG an epileptogenic focus was identified in the left hemisphere. Within two years of his head injury he had seven seizures. He had not received prophylactic antiepileptic treatment after the head injury. We report a case of epilepsy secondary to a head injury, in which the first seizure occurred one and a half years after injury. In view of the risk factors, we discuss whether prophylactic anti epileptic treatment might have been beneficial.

  10. Recovery post ICU.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christina

    2014-10-01

    Many ICU patients struggle to recovery following critical illness and may be left with physical, cognitive and psychological problems, which have a negative impact on their quality of life. Gross muscle mass loss and weakness can take some months to recover after the patients' Intensive Care Unit (ICU) discharge, in addition critical illness polyneuropathies can further complicate physical recovery. Psychological problems such as anxiety, depression and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common and have an negative impact on the patients' ability to engage in rehabilitation after ICU discharge. Finally cognitive deficit affecting memory can be a significant problem. The first step in helping patients to recover from such a devastating illness is to recognise those who have the greatest need and target interventions. Research now suggests that there are interventions that can accelerate physical recovery and reduce the incidence of psychological problems such as anxiety, depression and PTSD. Cognitive rehabilitation, however, is still in its infancy. This review will look at the research into patients' recovery and what can be done to improve this where needed.

  11. [POST MORTEM PATERNITY].

    PubMed

    Marguénaud, Jean-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Post mortem paternity, namely the procreation after the death of the man whom is part of the couple, is one of the questions which raised the most hesitations since the first bioethics laws of 1994. The National Assembly, encouraged by several opinions of the CCNE (National advisory committee of ethics) had let itself convince that the transfer had, at least, to be authorized in utero embryos preserved at the regard of which no one could not claim to have rights equal or higher than those of the woman concerned. However, the Senate always ended up obtaining the maintenance of an absolute prohibition of posthumous procreation (starting) from the spermatozoids or frozen embryos. This indifference with the cruelty of the application of the law to the women plunged into mourning--based on a paradoxical appreciation of the interest of the child not to be born orphan, and on a not very glorious taking into account of the interest of the Body of notaries not to change its practices--is particularly debatable. One can, nevertheless, try to understand it according to the obsession of the legalization of surrogate motherhood by application of the principle of nondiscrimination which could justify the requests of the men who, thanks to a surrogate mother, would wish to become fathers starting from gametes or embryos taken or created before the death of their wife or partner.

  12. Breast Cancer and Posttraumatic Growth

    PubMed Central

    İnan, Figen Şengün; Üstün, Besti

    2014-01-01

    The current methods for early diagnosis and increased treatment options have improved survival rates in breast cancer. Breast cancer diagnosis effects individuals in physical, psychological and social dimensions either positively or negatively. In the literature, usually the negative effects encountered in the period after the diagnosis of breast cancer are mostly described, with limited data on the positive effects. Nevertheless, the identification of positive changes and defining its determinants is important in supporting and strengthening posttraumatic growth in this group. The objective of this review is to explain posttraumatic growth and its determinants in breast cancer during the post-treatment period in accordance with the relevant literature. In our evaluation, it was noticed that breast cancer survivors experience posttraumatic growth in the post-treatment period, but the literature is limited in explaining the nature of posttraumatic growth and its determinants. Both qualitative and quantitative research that will provide in-depth information on the subject, explaining culture-specific posttraumatic growth and related factors, are required. PMID:28331647

  13. Breaking the Cycle: A Phenomenological Approach to Broadening Access to Post-Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cefai, Carmel; Downes, Paul; Cavioni, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, there has been a substantial increase in post-secondary education participation in most Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and European Union countries. This increase, however, does not necessarily reflect a parallel equitable growth in post-secondary education, and early school leaving is still an…

  14. Breaking the Cycle: A Phenomenological Approach to Broadening Access to Post-Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cefai, Carmel; Downes, Paul; Cavioni, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, there has been a substantial increase in post-secondary education participation in most Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and European Union countries. This increase, however, does not necessarily reflect a parallel equitable growth in post-secondary education, and early school leaving is still an…

  15. Index for characterizing post-fire soil environments in temperate coniferous forests

    Treesearch

    Theresa B. Jain; David S. Pilliod; Russell T. Graham; Leigh B. Lentile; Jonathan E. Sandquist

    2012-01-01

    Many scientists and managers have an interest in describing the environment following a fire to understand the effects on soil productivity, vegetation growth, and wildlife habitat, but little research has focused on the scientific rationale for classifying the post-fire environment. We developed an empirically-grounded soil post-fire index (PFI) based on available...

  16. Post-16 update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    (Post-16 Initiative) Engineering Physics? Many A-level physics students do not go on to study physics. For them physics is a support subject, either just for fun or just for the grade. Where physics is a lead subject some students go on to study physics but many more go on to study engineering. So can we deliberately give some aspects of an A-level course an engineering flavour? Electromagnetism would seem a good place to start. There is a clear `physics' route into this topic, a microscopic forces and fields view of the situation. But do our students really need to look at it this way? All electromagnetic machines are linked magnetic and electric circuits. The design idea is to link these circuits as closely as possible. The electric circuits must be as good as possible, with a high conductivity. The magnetic circuits must be as good as possible, with high permeance. Conductivity depends on area/length. So does permeance. The goodness of an electromagnetic machine (how good it is at its job, which is linking electric and magnetic circuits) scales as the square of its linear dimensions. That means small electromagnetic machines are harder to make, and so the very smallest nanomotors are electrostatic. None of this is new, but many teachers are uncomfortable with it. We are thinking like physicists. Many of our students are not. They deserve us to take the trouble every now and again to encourage them to think a bit differently about a topic, to look at practical ways of discussing design and to give their course an engineering flavour. Philip Britton Coursework in A-level Physics The criteria for the new AS and A-levels have provided the teams developing the specifications with an opportunity to think creatively about how internal assessment is used within post-16 physics courses. Teachers may be concerned that allowing 30% of the marks to be internally assessed will create a burden for them. However, it is possible to look at this in a much more positive light

  17. NEWS: Post-16 update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-05-01

    (post16) Making physics connect Doesn't Melvyn Bragg do a wonderful job, engaging both scientists and artists in sensitive discussion on Radio 4 about their methods and their purposes? But every week teachers have the chance to show their students that physics is a way of seeing the world that is well-connected with other aspects of knowledge and culture. The stakes are high: students who fail to appreciate this generally choose not to study the subject beyond GCSE. Most students find our preoccupation with technical detail off-putting. Accepting that we have a syllabus to cover, it's still a question of balance. In our teaching we should aim for variety in order to find ways to connect with every student's interests. Also, we can show that we (the nearest embodiment of a physicist some students will experience) are multidimensional and so fully human. Most important, teachers need flexibility to both encourage and respond to student comment and questions. The first booklet in the discussion series Shaping the Future takes up these themes. Rich in ideas for both immediate use and the longer term, it aims to stimulate debate and improve teaching. Copies cost £5.50 including postage and are available from Ingrid Ebeyer, Post-16 Initiative, Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH. How far is it? This question is asked in many family cars and school minibuses at the start of a journey, and answered by most in terms of hours and minutes rather than miles. What a good idea for introducing a social and historical perspective to a lesson on distance, velocity and time. How far can you actually get in a day? What is the range of human activity? Walking for eight hours will get many people about 25 miles. A pack horse will progress at much the same rate, but fast riding or a coach and team of horses will get further. Motorway driving (when the cones are on holiday) would take you nearly 500 miles. The 05.15 am train from Penzance arrives in Inverness at 7

  18. Redefining Post-Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turpin, David H.

    2005-01-01

    For at least a brief period of time, the release of Bob Rae's review of post-secondary education in Ontario served to focus public attention on the importance of post-secondary education not only in Ontario, but across Canada. This article elaborates further on Rae's review which stresses the crucial importance of the higher studies and recommends…

  19. Post-16 Science in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinscoe, David

    2012-01-01

    Science education at post-16 has had a high profile recently. Increasing the quality and quantity of STEM education is seen as a route to economic prosperity for both the individual and the nation. The post-16 sector is being encouraged to produce more STEM undergraduates and more STEM-skilled entrants to the industry with an emphasis on…

  20. Redefining Post-Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turpin, David H.

    2005-01-01

    For at least a brief period of time, the release of Bob Rae's review of post-secondary education in Ontario served to focus public attention on the importance of post-secondary education not only in Ontario, but across Canada. This article elaborates further on Rae's review which stresses the crucial importance of the higher studies and recommends…

  1. On Post-Hoc Blocking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonett, Douglas G.

    1982-01-01

    Post-hoc blocking and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) both employ a concomitant variable to increase statistical power relative to the completely randomized design. It is argued that the advantages attributed to the block design are not always valid and that there are circumstances when the ANCOVA would be preferred to post-hoc blocking.…

  2. Post-Baccalaureate Fellowship Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadbury, Jr., William E.

    The Post-Baccalaureate Fellowship Program provides an opportunity for students who went to college with inferior preparation to supplement their education by studying for 1 year at an academically demanding liberal arts college before entering graduate or professional school. The post-baccalaureate fellows take regular courses in a program that is…

  3. Some Aviation Growth Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2002-01-01

    The growth of aviation since the first flight of a heavier-than-air powered manned vehicle in 1903 has been somewhat remarkable. Some of the events that have influenced this growth are reviewed in this paper. This review will include some events prior to World War I; the influence of the war itself; the events during the post-war years including the establishment of aeronautical research laboratories; and the influence of World War II which, among other things, introduced new technologies that included rocket and jet propulsion and supersonic aerodynamics. The subsequent era of aeronautical research and the attendant growth in aviation over the past half century will be reviewed from the view point of the author who, since 1944, has been involved in the NACA/NASA aeronautical research effort at what is now the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The review will discuss some of the research programs related to the development of some experimental aircraft, the Century series of fighter aircraft, multi-mission aircraft, advanced military aircraft and missiles, advanced civil aircraft, supersonic transports, spacecraft and others.

  4. Post-16 update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-03-01

    Post-16 Initiative logo Physics in Mathematical Mood Later this year, as part of the post-16 initiative of the Institute of Physics, a booklet with the above title will be published. In draft form, the booklet was discussed at the ASE conference in January. Some of the issues raised are briefly set out here. If you have any views to contribute, please write to Simon Carson at the Institute of Physics or e-mail simon.carson@physics.org. A mathematical view of the world is intrinsically a part of physics and therefore physics should be studied in an appropriately mathematical way. However, we all know that, to some students at least, mathematics proves to be a stumbling block rather than a powerful aid to understanding. So how can we help? Realizing that as physics teachers we need to deliver the mathematics necessary to an understanding of our subject is a start. Its corollary is that we need to find the space within the physics core. We may wish to use supplementary courses such as AS mathematics or QCA's new free-standing mathematics units, but requiring additional courses as a prerequisite to a study of A-level physics may deter students. Teaching the mathematics in context may aid understanding but we also must ensure that techniques are seen in a variety of contexts and that at some point the tool is abstracted from the background. As teachers we need to be aware of the very basic mathematical difficulties that students bring with them: the use of calculators, standard form, simple algebraic manipulation, for example. Mathematical arguments need to be developed fully and carefully. Encouraging cooperation and discussion between students may help the less able to understand and the more able to appreciate and develop their own understanding through making explicit their reasoning by explaining it to others. And what of new technology? Software tools allow students to develop their understanding about graphs, for example, enabling them to investigate the

  5. Coagulopathy post peritoneovenous shunt.

    PubMed Central

    LeVeen, H H; Ip, M; Ahmed, N; Hutto, R B; LeVeen, E G

    1987-01-01

    In 1942, 53% of medically treated patients with cirrhosis were dead 6 months after the onset of ascites. Only 30% survived 1 year. This dismal outlook has improved only slightly with advances in medicine. Yet, some internists reject the peritoneovenous shunt (PVS) for this fatal condition even if they are aware that a diminished blood volume causes the abnormal sodium retention responsible for ascites. Their objections are based on life-threatening complications of PVS, especially post shunt coagulopathy (PSC). Blood shed into the peritoneal cavity becomes incoagulable. Such blood is immediately coagulated by a protocoagulant (soluble collagen) and concurrently lysed by tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) secreted by the peritoneal serosa. Wide zones of lysis surround peritoneal tissue placed on fibrin plates. Large volumes of ascitic fluid infused into circulating blood simulates the fate of blood shed into the peritoneal cavity with lysis playing the major role. Addition of ascitic fluid to normal platelet-rich plasma in vitro initiates clot lysis on thromboelastogram (TEG). Epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) counteracts this lysis. EACA and clotting factors normalize the TEG and arrest PSC. Disposal of ascitic fluid at surgery prevents or ameliorates PSC. Mild PSC was encountered only twice in 150+ consecutive patients (1.3%) with only one case being clinically significant (0.6%). Severe PSC occurred seven times in 98 early shunt patients whose ascitic fluid was not discarded. Severe PSC requires shunt interruption and control of bleeding with clotting factors and EACA. Peritoneal lavage with saline prevents the recurrence of PSC on reopening the shunt. In four patients, EACA and clotting factors were adequate to arrest coagulopathy. Three earlier patients died of PSC before its cause and treatment were understood. Proper management eliminates this life-threatening complication, and PSC cannot be considered a deterrent to PVS. Disseminated intravascular

  6. Growth Kinetics in Epitaxial Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessinger, Uwe

    Growth kinetics in heteroepitaxial growth are related to the nucleation and growth of atomic-height islands during the deposition of a material on a dissimilar substrate. Experimental measurements of the initial morphology of CaF_2 films deposited on Si(111) substrates were performed. These measurements consisted of photoemission spectroscopy and diffraction, which give sub-nanometer scale information averaged over the entire sample, and plan-view transmission electron microscopy, which gives localized information on a scale of several nanometers. These results, combined with others in the literature, revealed four distinct growth morphologies dependent on the deposition rate, substrate temperature and spacing between atomic-height steps on the surface, two of which had not been previously explained. A model based on two extant theories of homoepitaxial growth kinetics was developed to explain the different observed growth morphologies for the heteroepitaxial system CaF_2/Si(111). The first theory deals with whether the initial nucleation will occur at substrate steps or through adatom collisions on flat terraces, while the second deals with the nucleation of subsequent layers as these initial atomic islands increase in size. In extending these theories to heteroepitaxy, very different rates of upper-layer nucleation for the different size islands that nucleated at steps and on terraces are predicted. By applying this theory to CaF_2/Si(111), the diffusion barriers for CaF_2 molecule migration both on the reacted Si-Ca-F interface layer and on subsequent CaF_2 layers was extracted. The four different growth morphologies are explained within a common framework. The theory is quite general, and should apply to most heteroepitaxial systems. These theories were extended to predict a means by which the upper-layer nucleation may be inhibited while the underlying layer is completed. This method involves initiating the growth at conditions favoring many, small islands on

  7. Reviewing Canadian Post-Secondary Education: Post-Secondary Education Policy in Post-Industrial Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Dale

    2007-01-01

    Since 2004, a number of Canadian provinces have initiated comprehensive reviews of their respective public post-secondary education systems. This paper examines the ways in which these provincial post-secondary education reviews are consistent with the pervasive influence of economic globalization on higher education and a more market-driven and…

  8. Economic Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, James B.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A conceptual introduction for teachers explains economic growth and how it is measured. Four instructional units follow, beginning with a preschool and kindergarten unit which offers young students an opportunity to interview puppet workers, set up a classroom corner store, and learn the importance of capital resources for increasing productivity…

  9. Root growth

    Treesearch

    Terrell T. Baker; William H. Conner; B. Graeme Lockaby; Marianne K. Burke; John A. Stanturf

    2000-01-01

    While vegetation dynamics of forested floodplains have received considerable attention (Megonigal and others 1997, Mitch and Gosselink 1993), the highly dynamic fine root component of these ecosystems has been primarily ignored. Characterizing fine root growth is a challenging endeavor in any system, but the difficulties are particularly evident in forested floodplains...

  10. Post-deformation examination of specimens subjected to SCC testing

    SciTech Connect

    Gussev, Maxim N.; Field, Kevin G.; Busby, Jeremy T.; Leonard, Keith J.

    2016-09-01

    This report details the results of post-radiation and post-deformation characterizations performed during FY 2015–FY 2016 on a subset of specimens that had previously been irradiated at high displacement per atom (dpa) damage doses. The specimens, made of commercial austenitic stainless steels and alloys, were subjected to stress-corrosion cracking tests (constant extension rate testing and crack growth testing) at the University of Michigan under conditions typical of nuclear power plants. After testing, the specimens were returned to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for further analysis and evaluation.

  11. Post-Tropical Cyclone Matthew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    NASA Gets a Last Look at Post-Tropical Cyclone Matthew Before It was Swallowed Up Post-Tropical Cyclone Matthew was swallowed up or absorbed by a cold front on Oct. 10, but NASA's Terra satellite captured a last look at the storm before that happened. On Sunday, Oct. 9, 2016 at 11:45 a.m. EDT (1545 UTC) NASA's Terra satellite captured a last look at Post-Tropical Cyclone Matthew as it was being absorbed by a cold front along the U.S. Eastern Seaboard. Read more: go.nasa.gov/2dfhQg9 Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

  12. 32 CFR 643.120 - Post offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Post offices. 643.120 Section 643.120 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.120 Post offices. Title 10 U.S.C. 4779b, provides that the SA shall assign suitable space for post office purposes at military posts where post offices have been...

  13. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy post liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vachiat, Ahmed; McCutcheon, Keir; Mahomed, Adam; Schleicher, Gunter; Brand, Liezl; Botha, Jean; Sussman, Martin; Manga, Pravin

    2016-10-23

    A patient with end-stage liver disease developed stress-induced Takotsubo cardiomyopathy post liver transplantation, with haemodynamic instability requiring a left ventricular assist device. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this condition.

  14. [Post-mortem microbiology analysis].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Amparo; Alberola, Juan; Cohen, Marta Cecilia

    2013-12-01

    Post-mortem microbiology is useful in both clinical and forensic autopsies, and allows a suspected infection to be confirmed. Indeed, it is routinely applied to donor studies in the clinical setting, as well as in sudden and unexpected death in the forensic field. Implementation of specific sampling techniques in autopsy can minimize the possibility of contamination, making interpretation of the results easier. Specific interpretation criteria for post-mortem cultures, the use of molecular diagnosis, and its fusion with molecular biology and histopathology have led to post-mortem microbiology playing a major role in autopsy. Multidisciplinary work involving microbiologists, pathologists, and forensic physicians will help to improve the achievements of post-mortem microbiology, prevent infectious diseases, and contribute to a healthier population.

  15. Post-MI pericarditis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Post-MI pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium (the sac-like covering of the heart). Any previous injury to the heart muscle can cause pericarditis. Incidences of pericarditis are associated with ...

  16. An Application of Convergence Theory to Japan's Post-WWII Economic "Miracle."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Benigno

    2003-01-01

    Provides an explanation of the post-World War II economic phenomenon of Japan as a process of economic convergence within the framework of the neoclassical Solo-Swan model of economic growth. States that this interpretation helps students understand economic growth and development and Japan's modern economic history. (JEH)

  17. An Application of Convergence Theory to Japan's Post-WWII Economic "Miracle."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Benigno

    2003-01-01

    Provides an explanation of the post-World War II economic phenomenon of Japan as a process of economic convergence within the framework of the neoclassical Solo-Swan model of economic growth. States that this interpretation helps students understand economic growth and development and Japan's modern economic history. (JEH)

  18. Post-tubal sterilization syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lethbridge, D J

    1992-01-01

    This article presents a review of the literature on post-tubal sterilization syndrome. Although studies have shortcomings they suggest the majority of women undergoing tubal sterilization do not experience changes in menstrual patterns after the procedure, but a minority do. Suggestions are made for further research, conducted from a nursing perspective. Implications for practice are suggested, given the tentative information on post-tubal sterilization syndrome.

  19. Phenomenology of stochastic exponential growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirjol, Dan; Jafarpour, Farshid; Iyer-Biswas, Srividya

    2017-06-01

    Stochastic exponential growth is observed in a variety of contexts, including molecular autocatalysis, nuclear fission, population growth, inflation of the universe, viral social media posts, and financial markets. Yet literature on modeling the phenomenology of these stochastic dynamics has predominantly focused on one model, geometric Brownian motion (GBM), which can be described as the solution of a Langevin equation with linear drift and linear multiplicative noise. Using recent experimental results on stochastic exponential growth of individual bacterial cell sizes, we motivate the need for a more general class of phenomenological models of stochastic exponential growth, which are consistent with the observation that the mean-rescaled distributions are approximately stationary at long times. We show that this behavior is not consistent with GBM, instead it is consistent with power-law multiplicative noise with positive fractional powers. Therefore, we consider this general class of phenomenological models for stochastic exponential growth, provide analytical solutions, and identify the important dimensionless combination of model parameters, which determines the shape of the mean-rescaled distribution. We also provide a prescription for robustly inferring model parameters from experimentally observed stochastic growth trajectories.

  20. Post-breakdown stages in transformer oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kúdelčík, Jozef; Varačka, Lukáš; Jahoda, Emil; Poljak, Silvester

    2017-05-01

    The external pressure influences significantly on the electric strength of liquid dielectrics. Quantitative explanation of this experimental fact is one of the main evidences for the bubble breakdown theory. The measurements of negative dc breakdown voltage were made in transformer oil ITO 100 for various external pressures and the developments of post-breakdown stages were recorded by high-speed camera. The initiation of breakdown was characterized by the growth of narrow streamers the creation of which was attributed to field injected electrons at local asperities of the cathode surface. Once the streamers reached the anode, large currents were found to flow through the gap leading to formation of a plasma channel. Post-breakdown stage in transformer oil consisted of vapour channel between the electrodes. This channel was created during breakdown and it expanded into space and then contracted. Time development of its length and diameter from records of high-speed camera were determined. The times of expansion and collapse were dependent on the breakdown voltage and the external pressures. These parameters decreased with the increase of the external pressure.

  1. Post-antibacterial effect of thymol.

    PubMed

    Zarrini, Gholamreza; Delgosha, Zahra Bahari; Moghaddam, Kamyar Mollazadeh; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza

    2010-06-01

    The antibacterial activity of thymol has been well established and reported in the scientific literature. Continued suppression of bacterial growth following limited exposure to antimicrobial compounds at different concentrations greater than or equal to the minimum inhibitory concentration level (MIC) and at concentrations less than the MIC can be used as an indicator of biological activity, and are respectively referred to as a post-antibacterial effect (PAE) and a post-antibiotic sub-MIC effect (PA-SME). In this study, the PAE and the PA-SME of thymol against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus cereus were investigated. A spectrophotometric method was used to determine the PAE and the PA-SME of thymol against the selected test strains. Thymol exhibited a considerable PAE and PA-SME at MIC and sub-MIC concentrations against test strains. The greatest duration of both the PAE and the PA-SME was observed for thymol against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The PAE and PA-SME times for E. coli were 12 and 8 h, respectively, and for P. aeruginosa were 11 and 7.5 h, respectively. The duration of the PAE and PA-SME observed for S. aureus and B. cereus was shorter than for Gram-negative strains.

  2. Post-16 update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-09-01

    Institute of Physics post-16 initiative, shaping the future Physics education based in IT - sorry ICT! Which, of course, makes for a nifty headline, but as is so often the case with neat slogans, little else. Two formative questions: What, in another decade, will the government of the day call `What you lot should be doing with computers'? and What, of the many things that currently exercise our intellects, will there be anything special to say about in a decade, concerning the use of computers in the teaching of physics? Advancing Physics represents some attempts to come to grips with the second of the two questions above. The first is left to a higher wisdom. In thinking about learning, what can we do with the huge processing power, increasingly available in smaller and less obtrusive packages? What will we do that helps people learn physics, both tomorrow and in 2009? Here are a few suggestions based on development work so far. Wide, reliable and shared access to well ordered learning resources. We have created a CD-ROM, with versions for both student and teacher, that provides a wide range of resources. These do not teach, but do provide. A commitment to allowing a course to evolve and adapt. Electronic publication puts the costs into origination, and not into publication and distribution. A website allows for the community of users to contribute. E-mail networks support individuals and propagate good practice. You can create and explore your own microworlds. The interactive nature of models, and the crafted relationships between the models and the natural world give an insight into the creative imaginary worlds of the physicist. The unreasonable, but pleasurable, success of mathematics in describing the natural world can come to the fore. Measurements that were not possible before are now possible. What was previously indirect, and inaccessible, now becomes a direct measurement, making relationships transparent in new and fruitful ways. The dichotomy between

  3. 39 CFR 241.1 - Post offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... July 1 each year, post offices are classified by the Postmaster General based on the allowable postal...) Third Class. Post offices having 36 but less 190 revenue units. (4) Fourth Class. Post offices having...

  4. Population growth.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Despite efforts to reduce population growth, the World Bank projects a world population of 10 billion by 2050, with 7 billion living in developing countries. From October 1979 to September 1984, the US Agency for International Development (AID) funded the Research Triangle Institute's (RTI) Integrated Population and Development Planning (IPDP) project to assess rapid population growth effects in 25 developing countries. In October 1984, US AID extended funding for the program, nicknamed INPLAN, for 3 years, at a cost of $6.3 million. Up to 50% of people in developing countries are under age 15, a fact that guarantees large population increases for the next 50-75 years. Also, many regions have been slow to correlate high fertility with socioeconomic development, and in some areas, fertility is actually increasing. INPLAN aims to make governments more aware of population dynamics and to provide training and tools for effective development planning. 40% of INPLAN's work will be done in Africa, 25% in Latin America, and 20% in Asia, with some activity in the Near East. One project in Egypt, involving the use of model generation by microcomputer, was developed by RTI to show rural to urban migration and rapid population growth affects on the educational system. INPLAN expects to develop several other planning sector models on labor force and employment, health and family planning, food supply, housing, and urban development, and apply them to 20-25 countries. Another project provided 9 microcomputer systems and training to Nigerian government agencies. IMPLAN will purchase and distribute 60 such systems in the future.

  5. FGF signalling regulates bone growth through autophagy.

    PubMed

    Cinque, Laura; Forrester, Alison; Bartolomeo, Rosa; Svelto, Maria; Venditti, Rossella; Montefusco, Sandro; Polishchuk, Elena; Nusco, Edoardo; Rossi, Antonio; Medina, Diego L; Polishchuk, Roman; De Matteis, Maria Antonietta; Settembre, Carmine

    2015-12-10

    Skeletal growth relies on both biosynthetic and catabolic processes. While the role of the former is clearly established, how the latter contributes to growth-promoting pathways is less understood. Macroautophagy, hereafter referred to as autophagy, is a catabolic process that plays a fundamental part in tissue homeostasis. We investigated the role of autophagy during bone growth, which is mediated by chondrocyte rate of proliferation, hypertrophic differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition in growth plates. Here we show that autophagy is induced in growth-plate chondrocytes during post-natal development and regulates the secretion of type II collagen (Col2), the major component of cartilage ECM. Mice lacking the autophagy related gene 7 (Atg7) in chondrocytes experience endoplasmic reticulum storage of type II procollagen (PC2) and defective formation of the Col2 fibrillary network in the ECM. Surprisingly, post-natal induction of chondrocyte autophagy is mediated by the growth factor FGF18 through FGFR4 and JNK-dependent activation of the autophagy initiation complex VPS34-beclin-1. Autophagy is completely suppressed in growth plates from Fgf18(-/-) embryos, while Fgf18(+/-) heterozygous and Fgfr4(-/-) mice fail to induce autophagy during post-natal development and show decreased Col2 levels in the growth plate. Strikingly, the Fgf18(+/-) and Fgfr4(-/-) phenotypes can be rescued in vivo by pharmacological activation of autophagy, pointing to autophagy as a novel effector of FGF signalling in bone. These data demonstrate that autophagy is a developmentally regulated process necessary for bone growth, and identify FGF signalling as a crucial regulator of autophagy in chondrocytes.

  6. Post-mortem clinical pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Ferner, R E

    2008-01-01

    Clinical pharmacology assumes that deductions can be made about the concentrations of drugs from a knowledge of the pharmacokinetic parameters in an individual; and that the effects are related to the measured concentration. Post-mortem changes render the assumptions of clinical pharmacology largely invalid, and make the interpretation of concentrations measured in post-mortem samples difficult or impossible. Qualitative tests can show the presence of substances that were not present in life, and can fail to detect substances that led to death. Quantitative analysis is subject to error in itself, and because post-mortem concentrations vary in largely unpredictable ways with the site and time of sampling, as a result of the phenomenon of post-mortem redistribution. Consequently, compilations of ‘lethal concentrations’ are misleading. There is a lack of adequate studies of the true relationship between fatal events and the concentrations that can be measured subsequently, but without such studies, clinical pharmacologists and others should be wary of interpreting post-mortem measurements. PMID:18637886

  7. Post-operative urinary retention.

    PubMed

    Steggall, Martin; Treacy, Colm; Jones, Mark

    Urinary retention is a common complication of surgery and anaesthesia. The risk of post-operative urinary retention is increased following certain surgical procedures and anaesthetic modalities, and with patients' advancing age. Patients at increased risk of post-operative urinary retention should be identified before surgery or the condition should be identified and treated in a timely manner following surgery. If conservative measures do not help the patient to pass urine, the bladder will need to be drained using either an intermittent catheter or an indwelling urethral catheter, which can result in catheter-associated urinary tract infections. This article provides an overview of normal bladder function, risk factors for developing post-operative urinary retention, and treatment options. Guidance drawn from the literature aims to assist nurses in identifying at-risk patients and inform patient care.

  8. What about ex post facto

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, H.C.

    1992-07-01

    This note presents a legal question in an attempt to find an answer. The author hopes that some legal scholar can explain the principle of ex post facto in the US Constitution as it applies to some of the environmental laws. One of the major advantages of the Association is that it provides a forum for communication among members with different backgrounds and experience. An ex post facto law is one that is applied retroactively. Under such a law, a person could be punished for some act that violated a law passed after the act was committed, even though the act was legal when committed. The US Constitution prohibits such laws, as will be discussed later. States are also prohibited from enacting ex post facto laws.

  9. In vivo growth of a bioengineered internal anal sphincter: comparison of growth factors for optimization of growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, Eiichi A; Raghavan, Shreya; Gilmont, Robert R; Mittal, Krittika; Somara, Sita; Bitar, Khalil N; Teitelbaum, Daniel H

    2011-02-01

    Our laboratory has developed and implanted a novel bioengineered internal anal sphincter (IAS) to treat anal incontinence. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) has been used in mice; however, the optimal growth factor for successful IAS implantation is unclear. This study compares several growth factors in order to optimize IAS viability and functionality. Bioengineered IAS rings were implanted subcutaneously into the dorsum of wildtype C57Bl/6 mice, with an osmotic pump dispensing FGF-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) (n = 4 per group). Control mice received IAS implants but no growth factor. The IAS was harvested approximately 25 days post-implantation. Tissue was subjected to physiologic testing, then histologically analyzed. Muscle phenotype was confirmed by immunofluorescence. All implants supplemented with growth factors maintained smooth muscle phenotype. Histological scores, blood vessel density and muscle fiber thickness were all markedly better with growth factors. Neovascularization was comparable between the three growth factors. Basal tonic force of the constructs was highest with VEGF or PDGF. All growth factors demonstrated excellent performance. As our ultimate goal is clinical implantation, our strong results with PDGF, a drug approved for use in the United States and the European Union, pave the way for translating bioengineered IAS implantation to the clinical realm.

  10. 75 FR 5036 - Proposed Posting, Posting and Deposting of Stockyards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    .... The document shows the facility number for Shamrock Livestock Commission, Shamrock, Texas is the same... number for Shamrock Livestock Commission, Shamrock, Texas as follows: Stockyard name and Facility number location Date of posting TX-355 Shamrock Livestock November 3, 2003 Commission, Shamrock, Texas. J....

  11. Hydrodynamics of post CHF region

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, M.; De Jarlais, G.

    1984-04-01

    Among various two-phase flow regimes, the inverted flow in the post-dryout region is relatively less well understood due to its special heat transfer conditions. The review of existing data indicates further research is needed in the areas of basic hydrodynamics related to liquid core disintegration mechanisms, slug and droplet formations, entrainment, and droplet size distributions. In view of this, the inverted flow is studied in detail both analytically and experimentally. Criteria for initial flow regimes in the post-dryout region are given. Preliminary models for subsequent flow regime transition criteria are derived together with correlations for a mean droplet diameter based on the adiabatic simulation data.

  12. Post-processing of data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifer, Hans-Joachim

    The post processing of Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA) data has comparable influence on the final results, e.g. reliability, accuracy etc., as well as all the other aspects of LDA instruments. This is due to the fact that signal statistics in LDA are completely different from signal statistics well known in other measuring procedures where the continuous time history of the physical quantity under consideration is available. Four topics are presented: statistical quantities such as mean velocity, turbulence intensity, and histograms; filter control for both counter processors and FFT processors; auto and cross correlation and their Fourier transform; post processing of photon correlograms.

  13. Kenaf’s allelopathic impact on seedling growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Allelopathy is the chemical interaction between plants, which may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. Research was conducted to determine the impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plant extracts on the post-germination growth of five plant species. Four concentrations (0, 16...

  14. Mutant tristetraprolin: a potent inhibitor of malignant glioma cell growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Malignant gliomas rely on the production of certain critical growth factors including VEGF, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, to fuel rapid tumor growth, angiogenesis, and treatment resistance. Post-transcriptional regulation through adenine and uridine-rich elements of the 3' untranslated region is one ...

  15. 32 CFR 643.120 - Post offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Post offices. 643.120 Section 643.120 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE... assign suitable space for post office purposes at military posts where post offices have been established...

  16. 39 CFR 241.1 - Post offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... revenue units for the second preceding fiscal year as follows: (1) First Class. Post offices having 950 or more revenue units. (2) Second Class. Post offices having 190 but less than 950 revenue units. (3) Third Class. Post offices having 36 but less 190 revenue units. (4) Fourth Class. Post offices having...

  17. [Gastrobronchial fistula post sleeve gastrectomy].

    PubMed

    Barboza Besada, Eduardo; Barboza Beraún, Aurelio; Castillo-Ángeles, Manuel; Málaga, Germán; Tan Kuong, Jesús; Valdivia Retamozo, José; Portugal Vivanco, José; Contardo Zambrano, Manuel; Montes, Martín; Kaemena, María Luisa

    2013-01-01

    A 35 years old female with morbid obesity IMC 45 was referred because of a gastrobronchial fistula developed post sleeve gastrectomy initially treated with endoscopic techniques without improvement, reason why a total resection of the gastric remanent with a Roux en Y reconstruction was done as an option with successful result.

  18. East Texas post oak region

    Treesearch

    Herbert S. Sternitzke

    1967-01-01

    This report summarizes information on forest area and timber volume in a 26-county area designated as the post oak region of east Texas. These counties are on the western fringe of lands capable of supporting productive southern forests. The information here is from the first detailed forest inventory of the region, made during 1965 in cooperation with the Texas...

  19. Issues in post-literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, Ravindra H.; Ouane, Adama; Sutton, Peter

    1989-12-01

    While school enrolments have been rising, the absolute number of illiterates in the world has grown too. Eradication of adult illiteracy and universalization of primary education are hindered by high drop-out in schools and relapse into illiteracy among adults. Post-literacy programmes seek to stop this reversal by ensuring retention, application and continuation of literacy skills. The Unesco Institute for Education (UIE) has been researching and promoting post-literacy strategies since 1980, but finds that most projects do not include provision for post-literacy from the outset, despite the evident need. Those programmes which have been mounted use a variety of strategies, which UIE has analysed in 12 categories. The exact delimitation of the post-literacy stage in the lifelong education continuum differs from project to project, and the emphasis on individual or societal advance depends on local perceptions of the goals of development. Examples are given of successful programmes, and the challenges of increasing participation and motivation, securing adequate funding, and making efficient and flexible use of institutional facilities are discussed.

  20. Reconsidering Post-Traumatic Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This article serves to challenge the prevailing wisdom that suggests that most trauma is followed by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and is best treated with critical incident stress debriefing (CISD). Instead, recent evidence suggests that many individuals exposed to stress do not experience stress responses. Even those who do, however,…

  1. Chaos Theory and Post Modernism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Chaos theory is often associated with post modernism. However, one may make the point that both terms are misunderstood. The point of this article is to define both terms and indicate their relationship. Description: Chaos theory is associated with a definition of a theory dealing with variables (butterflies) that are not directly related to a…

  2. Fence Posts for Southern Farms

    Treesearch

    H. H. Muntz

    1950-01-01

    Of the more common woods native to the South, the heartwood of osageorange (bois d'arc), black locust, red mulberry, cedar, and baldcypress is most desirable and makes good fence posts without any preservative treatment. The heartwood of other southern tree species, and all sapwood is much less durable and will give only a few years of service when used for fence...

  3. Post Occupancy Evaluation in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Chris; Thomson, Keith

    2004-01-01

    The Scottish Executive, the devolved government for Scotland, is engaging with stakeholders to achieve excellence in the school estate through Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE). Design of the school environment has a direct impact on teaching and learning, activities which can be supported or frustrated by many building elements. Through a…

  4. STS-80 Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The flight crew of STS-80, Cmdr. Kenneth D. Cockrell, Pilot Kent V. Rominger, Mission Specialists, Tamara E. Jernigan, Thomas D. Jones, and F. Story Musgrave give a post flight presentation of their mission. This presentation is divided into two parts first a slide presentation of still shots, and the second is a video presentation.

  5. Reconsidering Post-Traumatic Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This article serves to challenge the prevailing wisdom that suggests that most trauma is followed by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and is best treated with critical incident stress debriefing (CISD). Instead, recent evidence suggests that many individuals exposed to stress do not experience stress responses. Even those who do, however,…

  6. Chaos Theory and Post Modernism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Chaos theory is often associated with post modernism. However, one may make the point that both terms are misunderstood. The point of this article is to define both terms and indicate their relationship. Description: Chaos theory is associated with a definition of a theory dealing with variables (butterflies) that are not directly related to a…

  7. A Post-Occidental Globe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esen, Huseyin; Sanchez, Alejandra; Araya, Daniel; Gallaga, Drea; Kanogoiw, Fungai; Geary, James; Choe, Keecheng; Ullah, Khan Grogan; Carbajo, Lisa; Fitzpatrick, Margaret; Pour-Previti, Mercedes; Peters, Michael A.; Mukherjee, Mousumi; Britez, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    This is an experiment in conversation on the topic of "a post-occidental globe". It emerges from a moderated discussion group where members of a class--master's and PhD students--reflected upon a set of resources provided as part of a course in Global Studies in Education at the University of Illinois. The conversation threads were moderated and…

  8. Estonianization Efforts Post-Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rannut, Mart

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the sociolinguistic situation in Estonia. The paper opens with a historic overview, followed by an overview of the current demographic situation and of post-Soviet language and education policies and practices. It is argued that Estonia represents a success story in terms of language policy,…

  9. A Post-Occidental Globe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esen, Huseyin; Sanchez, Alejandra; Araya, Daniel; Gallaga, Drea; Kanogoiw, Fungai; Geary, James; Choe, Keecheng; Ullah, Khan Grogan; Carbajo, Lisa; Fitzpatrick, Margaret; Pour-Previti, Mercedes; Peters, Michael A.; Mukherjee, Mousumi; Britez, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    This is an experiment in conversation on the topic of "a post-occidental globe". It emerges from a moderated discussion group where members of a class--master's and PhD students--reflected upon a set of resources provided as part of a course in Global Studies in Education at the University of Illinois. The conversation threads were moderated and…

  10. Residual bone growth after lengthening procedures.

    PubMed

    Journeau, Pierre; Lascombes, Pierre; Barbier, Dominique; Popkov, Dmitry

    2016-12-01

    The prognosis of limb length discrepancy is a major subject in paediatric orthopaedic surgery. The strategy depends on the prognosis and must be adapted to each patient. The residual growth of the lengthened segment often remains unknown, but is dependent on age, the percentage of lengthening and other factors. Using a large cohort of 150 children who had undergone bone lengthening procedures, we describe five patterns of post-intervention growth and identify factors that are favourable for normal residual growth. The criteria for bone lengthening which should maintain good residual growth are-bone age at lengthening should be before the pubertal growth spurt; the interval between two lengthening procedures should be over three years; the percentage of lengthening should be <30% of the initial segment; and no more than two lengthening procedures should be carried out during infancy.

  11. Growth in pediatric renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, A; Phadke, K

    2007-04-01

    One of the fundamental challenges in managing pediatric renal transplant recipient is to ensure normal growth and development. The goal of renal transplant is not just to prolong life but to optimize quality of life. Short stature during childhood may be associated with academic underachievement and development of comorbidities such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, learning disability, and mood disorders. The most important factors affecting growth are use of corticosteroids, allograft function, and age and height deficit at the time of transplant. Aggressive conservative management of chronic renal failure and early use of growth hormone therapy will help in optimizing height at time of transplant. Early transplant, steroid minimization or withdrawal, and growth hormone therapy will help in achieving normal adult height in a majority of renal post transplant population. Steroid avoidance to achieve good growth still needs to be validated.

  12. Traffic lights for axon growth: proteoglycans and their neuronal receptors.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yingjie

    2014-02-15

    Axon growth is a central event in the development and post-injury plasticity of the nervous system. Growing axons encounter a wide variety of environmental instructions. Much like traffic lights in controlling the migrating axons, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) often lead to "stop" and "go" growth responses in the axons, respectively. Recently, the LAR family and NgR family molecules were identified as neuronal receptors for CSPGs and HSPGs. These discoveries provided molecular tools for further study of mechanisms underlying axon growth regulation. More importantly, the identification of these proteoglycan receptors offered potential therapeutic targets for promoting post-injury axon regeneration.

  13. Post-midnight occurrence of equatorial plasma bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajith, K. K.; Otsuka, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Tulasiram, S.

    2016-07-01

    The equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs)/equatorial spread F (ESF) irregularities are an important topic of space weather interest because of their impact on transionospheric radio communications, satellite-based navigation and augmentation systems. This local plasma depleted structures develop at the bottom side F layer through Rayleigh-Taylor instability and rapidly grow to topside ionosphere via polarization electric fields within them. The steep vertical gradients due to quick loss of bottom side ionization and rapid uplift of equatorial F layer via prereversal enhancement (PRE) of zonal electric field makes the post-sunset hours as the most preferred local time for the formation of EPBs. However, there is a different class of irregularities that occurs during the post-midnight hours of June solstice reported by the previous studies. The occurrence of these post-midnight EPBs maximize during the low solar activity periods. The growth characteristics and the responsible mechanism for the formation of these post-midnight EPBs are not yet understood. Using the rapid beam steering ability of 47 MHz Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) at Kototabang (0.2°S geographic latitude, 100.3°E geographic longitude, and 10.4°S geomagnetic latitude), Indonesia, the spatial and temporal evolution of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) were examined to classify the evolutionary-type EPBs from those which formed elsewhere and drifted into the field of view of radar. The responsible mechanism for the genesis of summer time post-midnight EPBs were discussed in light of growth rate of Rayleigh-Taylor instability using SAMI2 model.

  14. Post-Newtonian Jeans Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazari, Elham; Kazemi, Ali; Roshan, Mahmood; Abbassi, Shahram

    2017-04-01

    The Jeans analysis is studied in the first post-Newtonian limit. In other words, the relativistic effects on local gravitational instability are considered for systems whose characteristic velocities and corresponding gravitational fields are higher than those permitted in the Newtonian limit. The dispersion relation for the propagation of small perturbations is found in the post-Newtonian approximation using two different techniques. A new Jeans mass is derived and compared to the standard Jeans mass. In this limit, the relativistic effects make the new Jeans mass smaller than the Newtonian Jeans mass. Furthermore, the fractional difference between these two masses increases when the temperature/pressure of the system increases. Interestingly, in this limit, pressure can enhance gravitational instability instead of preventing it. Finally, the results are applied to high-temperature astrophysical systems, and the possibility of local fragmentation in some relativistic systems is investigated.

  15. Post-Lyme disease syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dąbek, Józefa; Cieślik, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    About 10% of patients with Lyme disease continue to experience musculoskeletal pain and cognitive dysfunction after recommended antibiotic treatment. This condition is called post-Lyme disease syndrome (PLDS) or post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. These two terms are used interchangeably. The pathogenesis of PLDS has been controversial. The hypothesis that patients with PLDS may harbor hidden reservoirs of Borrelia burgdorferi after their initial antibiotic treatment is difficult to accept. The prospective, double-blind studies contradict this point of view. Also, recently published research applying xenodiagnosis to PLDS supports the opinion that PLDS most likely has an autoimmune background. Lengthy courses of antibiotics are not justified in patients with PLDS because of the lack of benefit, and they are fraught with hazards. Most patients with PLDS recover from persistent symptoms with time. However, it can take months before they feel completely well. PMID:27407225

  16. The ISAC post-accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxdal, R. E.; Marchetto, M.

    2014-01-01

    The acceleration chain of the ISAC facility boosts the energy of both radioactive and stable light and heavy ions for beam delivery to both a medium energy area in ISAC-I and a high energy area in ISAC-II. The post-accelerator comprises a 35.4 MHz RFQ to accelerate beams of A/q ≤ 30 from 2 keV/u to 150 keV/u and a post stripper, 106.1 MHz variable energy drift tube linac (DTL) to accelerate ions of A/q ≤ 6 to a final energy between 0.15 MeV/u to 1.5 MeV/u. A 40 MV superconducting linac further accelerates beam from 1.5 MeV/u to energies above the Coulomb barrier. All linacs operate cw to preserve beam intensity.

  17. Post-Lyme disease syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ścieszka, Joanna; Dąbek, Józefa; Cieślik, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    About 10% of patients with Lyme disease continue to experience musculoskeletal pain and cognitive dysfunction after recommended antibiotic treatment. This condition is called post-Lyme disease syndrome (PLDS) or post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. These two terms are used interchangeably. The pathogenesis of PLDS has been controversial. The hypothesis that patients with PLDS may harbor hidden reservoirs of Borrelia burgdorferi after their initial antibiotic treatment is difficult to accept. The prospective, double-blind studies contradict this point of view. Also, recently published research applying xenodiagnosis to PLDS supports the opinion that PLDS most likely has an autoimmune background. Lengthy courses of antibiotics are not justified in patients with PLDS because of the lack of benefit, and they are fraught with hazards. Most patients with PLDS recover from persistent symptoms with time. However, it can take months before they feel completely well.

  18. OCO-2 Post Launch Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-02

    NASA Kennedy Space Center Public Affairs Officer George Diller, moderates a post-launch press briefing, following the successful launch of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2), NASA’s first spacecraft dedicated to studying carbon dioxide, Wednesday, July 2, 2014, at the Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. OCO-2 will measure the global distribution of carbon dioxide, the leading human-produced greenhouse gas driving changes in Earth’s climate. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Post-penetrating keratoplasty glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Anand; Minudath, KB; Vanathi, M; Choudhary, Sunil; Gupta, Viney; Sihota, Ramanjit; Panda, Anita

    2008-01-01

    Post-penetrating keratoplasty (post-PK) glaucoma is an important cause of irreversible visual loss and graft failure. The etiology for this disorder is multifactorial, and with the use of new diagnostic equipment, it is now possible to elucidate the exact pathophysiology of this condition. A clear understanding of the various mechanisms that operate during different time frames following PK is essential to chalk out the appropriate management algorithms. The various issues with regard to its management, including the putative risk factors, intraocular pressure (IOP) assessment post-PK, difficulties in monitoring with regard to the visual fields and optic nerve evaluation, are discussed. A step-wise approach to management starting from the medical management to surgery with and without metabolites and the various cycloablative procedures in cases of failed filtering procedures and excessive perilimbal scarring is presented. Finally, the important issue of minimizing the incidence of glaucoma following PK, especially through the use of oversized grafts and iris tightening procedures in the form of concomitant iridoplasty are emphasized. It is important to weigh the risk-benefit ratio of any modality used in the treatment of this condition as procedures aimed at IOP reduction, namely trabeculectomy with antimetabolites, and glaucoma drainage devices can trigger graft rejection, whereas cyclodestructive procedures can not only cause graft failure but also precipitate phthisis bulbi. Watchful expectancy and optimal time of intervention can salvage both graft and vision in this challenging condition. PMID:18579984

  20. The SPOOKI post production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchemin, M.; Klasa, M.; Fortier, S.; Fortin, F.; Hardy, G.; Pelletier, L.; Edouard, S.; Archambault, B.; Yazidi, H.

    2010-09-01

    The Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) delivers a large number of numerical weather prediction products to the various weather offices and clients throughout Canada and abroad. The current post production system was built according to the needs and ideology of the 1980's and it is becoming obsolete with time. Its cumbersome architecture is difficult to maintain and requires a lot of human and computing resources. The "Weather Elements" section of CMC is aware of the problems associated with its maintenance in the long term and has therefore decided to review in depth the whole approach to the operational post production. The analysis of present and future needs have led to the development of an innovative concept in the operational production field inspired by the "Plug and Play" process. SPOOKI (Système de Production Orienté-Objet contennant une Kyrielle d'Informations - Object oriented production system containing a myriad of information) was created in its present form in 2007. It is based on a modular approach where each plug-in component is specialized, reusable and autonomous. These object oriented programming characteristics greatly simplify the maintenance of the system. Particular attention was also given to create a user-friendly system for novice users. An experimental version of SPOOKI is currently running in development mode and an operational one is planned to be implemented in the coming year. The poster presentation will describe SPOOKI, the future CMC operational post production system. Several examples of usage will be shown.

  1. Post-transcriptional RNA Regulons Affecting Cell Cycle and Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Blackinton, Jeff G.

    2014-01-01

    The cellular growth cycle is initiated and maintained by punctual, yet agile, regulatory events involving modifications of cell cycle proteins as well as coordinated gene expression to support cyclic checkpoint decisions. Recent evidence indicates that post-transcriptional partitioning of messenger RNA subsets by RNA-binding proteins help physically localize, temporally coordinate, and efficiently translate cell cycle proteins. This dynamic organization of mRNAs encoding cell cycle components contributes to the overall economy of the cell cycle consistent with the post-transcriptional RNA regulon model of gene expression. This review examines several recent studies demonstrating the coordination of mRNA subsets encoding cell cycle proteins during nuclear export and subsequent coupling to protein synthesis, and discusses evidence for mRNA coordination of p53 targets and the DNA damage response pathway. We consider how these observations may connect to upstream and downstream post-transcriptional coordination and coupling of splicing, export, localization, and translation. Published examples from yeast, nematode, insect, and mammalian systems are discussed, and we consider genetic evidence supporting the conclusion that dysregulation of RNA regulons may promote pathogenic states of growth such as carcinogenesis. PMID:24882724

  2. Longitudinal Course of Risk for Parental Post-Adoption Depression

    PubMed Central

    Foli, Karen J.; South, Susan C.; Lim, Eunjung; Hebdon, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised (PDPI-R) could be used to reveal distinct classes of adoptive parents across time. Design Longitudinal data were collected via online surveys at 4-6 weeks pre-placement, 4-6 weeks post-placement, and 5-6 months post-placement. Setting Participants were primarily clients of the largest adoption agency in the United States. Participants Participants included 127 adoptive parents (68 mothers and 59 fathers). Methods We applied a latent class growth analysis to the PDPI-R and conducted mixed effects modeling of class, time, and class×time interaction for the following categories of explanatory variables: parental expectations; interpersonal variables; psychological symptoms; and life orientation. Results Four latent trajectory classes were found. Class 1 (55% of sample) showed a stably low level of PDPI-R scores over time. Class 2 (32%) reported mean scores below the cut-off points at all three time points. Class 3 (8%) started at an intermediate level and increased after post-placement, but decreased at 5-6 months post-placement. Class 4 (5%) had high mean scores at all three time points. Significant main effects were found for almost all explanatory variables for class and for several variables for time. Significant interactions between class and time were found for expectations about the child and amount of love and ambivalence in parent's intimate relationship. Conclusion Findings may assist nurses to be alert to trajectories of risk for post-adoption depression. Additional factors, not included in the PDPI-R, to determine risk for post-adoption depression may be needed for adoptive parents. PMID:26874267

  3. Vehicle Support Posts Installation at Mobile Launcher

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-11

    Construction workers at the Mobile Launcher at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, prepare to install vehicle support posts. A total of eight support posts are being installed to support the load of the Space Launch System's (SLS) solid rocket boosters, with four posts for each of the boosters. The support posts are about five feet tall and each weigh about 10,000 pounds. The posts will structurally support the SLS rocket through T-0 and liftoff. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing installation of the support posts to prepare for the launch of the Orion spacecraft atop the SLS rocket.

  4. Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  5. Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  6. Microsatellite primer development for post oak, Quercus stellata (Fagaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Chatwin, Warren B.; Carpenter, Kyrie K.; Jimenez, Felix R.; Elzinga, Dave B.; Johnson, Leigh A.; Maughan, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: The American Cross Timbers forest ecosystem runs from southeastern Kansas to Central Texas and is primarily composed of post oak (Quercus stellata). This old-growth forest currently occupies only about 2% of its ancestral range. To facilitate genetic research on this species, we developed microsatellite primers specific to post oak from reduced genomic libraries. • Methods and Results: Two Q. stellata individuals, sampled from the northern and southern range of the post oak forest, were subject to genomic reduction and 454 pyrosequencing. Bioinformatic analysis identified putative microsatellites from which 12 polymorphic primer sets were screened on three populations. The number of alleles observed ranged from five to 20 across all populations, while observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.05 to 0.833 and 0.236 to 0.893, respectively, within individual populations. • Conclusions: We report the development of microsatellite markers, specific to post oak, to aid the study of genetic diversity and population structure of extant forest remnants. PMID:25309841

  7. Understanding neuronal connectivity through the post-transcriptional toolkit

    PubMed Central

    Loya, Carlos M.; Van Vactor, David; Fulga, Tudor A.

    2010-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms have emerged as a critical component underlying the diversification and spatiotemporal control of the proteome during the establishment of precise neuronal connectivity. These mechanisms have been shown to be important for virtually all stages of assembling a neural network, from neurite guidance, branching, and growth to synapse morphogenesis and function. From the moment a gene is transcribed, it undergoes a series of post-transcriptional regulatory modifications in the nucleus and cytoplasm until its final deployment as a functional protein. Initially, a message is subjected to extensive structural regulation through alternative splicing, which is capable of greatly expanding the protein repertoire by generating, in some cases, thousands of functionally distinct isoforms from a single gene locus. Then, RNA packaging into neuronal transport granules and recognition by RNA-binding proteins and/or microRNAs is capable of restricting protein synthesis to selective locations and under specific input conditions. This ability of the post-transcriptional apparatus to expand the informational content of a cell and control the deployment of proteins in both spatial and temporal dimensions is a feature well adapted for the extreme morphological properties of neural cells. In this review, we describe recent advances in understanding how post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms refine the proteomic complexity required for the assembly of intricate and specific neural networks. PMID:20360381

  8. Step-Growth Polymerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stille, J. K.

    1981-01-01

    Following a comparison of chain-growth and step-growth polymerization, focuses on the latter process by describing requirements for high molecular weight, step-growth polymerization kinetics, synthesis and molecular weight distribution of some linear step-growth polymers, and three-dimensional network step-growth polymers. (JN)

  9. STS-46 Post Flight Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    At a post flight press conference, the flight crew of the STS-46 mission (Cmdr. Loren Shriver, Pilot Andrew Allen, Mission Specialists Claude Nicollier (European Space Agency (ESA)), Marsha Ivins (Flight Engineer), Jeff Hoffman (Payload Commander), Franklin Chang-Dias, and Payload Specialist Franco Malerba (Italian Space Agency (ISA))) discussed their roles in and presented video footage, slides and still photographs of the different aspects of their mission. The primary objectives of the mission were the deployment of ESA's European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) satellite and the joint NASA/ISA deployment and testing of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS). Secondary objectives included the IMAX Camera, the Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Materials Exposure (LDVE), and the Pituitary Growth Hormone Cell Function (PHCF) experiments. Video footage of the EURECA and TSS deployment procedures are shown. Earth views were extensive and included Javanese volcanoes, Amazon basin forest ground fires, southern Mexico, southern Bolivian volcanoes, south-west Sudan and the Sahara Desert, and Melville Island, Australia. Questions from reporters and journalists from Johnson Space Center and Kennedy Space Center were discussed.

  10. Post-exposed fiber Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Gary A.

    This thesis explains the development and characterization of a novel technique to fabricate weak fiber Bragg gratings for highly specific multi-element sensor arrays. This method, termed the "rescan technique," involves re-exposing a local region of a grating to fringeless ultraviolet light to "trim" unwanted portions of the reflection spectrum. The spectral effects that result from a rescan can only be adequately described by inventing the concept of a three-dimensional index growth surface, where induced index is a function of both the writing intensity and the exposure time. Using this information, it is possible to predict the spectral response of a rescanned grating using a numerical model. For our model, we have modified the piecewise-uniform approach to include coefficients within the coupled-mode formulism that imitate the same scattering properties as the actual grating. By taking high accuracy measurements of the refractive index change in germanosilicate fiber, we have created the necessary 3D map of photoinduced index to accurately model gratings and their post-exposure spectra. We will also demonstrate that optical fiber exhibits what we call "exposure history"; the final index change in a region depends on the previous exposures conditions.

  11. STS-46 post flight press conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-08-01

    At a post flight press conference, the flight crew of the STS-46 mission (Cmdr. Loren Shriver, Pilot Andrew Allen, Mission Specialists Claude Nicollier (European Space Agency (ESA)), Marsha Ivins (Flight Engineer), Jeff Hoffman (Payload Commander), Franklin Chang-Dias, and Payload Specialist Franco Malerba (Italian Space Agency (ISA))) discussed their roles in and presented video footage, slides and still photographs of the different aspects of their mission. The primary objectives of the mission were the deployment of ESA's European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) satellite and the joint NASA/ISA deployment and testing of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS). Secondary objectives included the IMAX Camera, the Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Materials Exposure (LDVE), and the Pituitary Growth Hormone Cell Function (PHCF) experiments. Video footage of the EURECA and TSS deployment procedures are shown. Earth views were extensive and included Javanese volcanoes, Amazon basin forest ground fires, southern Mexico, southern Bolivian volcanoes, south-west Sudan and the Sahara Desert, and Melville Island, Australia. Questions from reporters and journalists from Johnson Space Center and Kennedy Space Center were discussed.

  12. Management of post-hepatectomy complications

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shan; Fu, Quan; Wuyun, Gerile; Wuyun, Tu

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic resection had an impressive growth over time. It has been widely performed for the treatment of various liver diseases, such as malignant tumors, benign tumors, calculi in the intrahepatic ducts, hydatid disease, and abscesses. Management of hepatic resection is challenging. Despite technical advances and high experience of liver resection of specialized centers, it is still burdened by relatively high rates of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Especially, complex resections are being increasingly performed in high risk and older patient population. Operation on the liver is especially challenging because of its unique anatomic architecture and because of its vital functions. Common post-hepatectomy complications include venous catheter-related infection, pleural effusion, incisional infection, pulmonary atelectasis or infection, ascites, subphrenic infection, urinary tract infection, intraperitoneal hemorrhage, gastrointestinal tract bleeding, biliary tract hemorrhage, coagulation disorders, bile leakage, and liver failure. These problems are closely related to surgical manipulations, anesthesia, preoperative evaluation and preparation, and postoperative observation and management. The safety profile of hepatectomy probably can be improved if the surgeons and medical staff involved have comprehensive knowledge of the expected complications and expertise in their management. This review article focuses on the major postoperative issues after hepatic resection and presents the current management. PMID:24307791

  13. 76 FR 45882 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Goodwin, Arkansas post office has been filed. It... Service's determination to close the post office in Goodwin, Arkansas. The petition was filed by Randy...

  14. 76 FR 44385 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Peach Orchard, Arkansas post office has been filed... review of the closing of the Peach Orchard, Arkansas post office. The petition, which was filed by...

  15. 42 CFR 124.604 - Posted notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... facility shall post notices, which the Secretary supplies in English and Spanish, in appropriate areas of... other than English or Spanish, the facility shall translate the notice into that language and post the...

  16. 76 FR 19149 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Wesleyville Post Office in...

  17. 75 FR 77921 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The... an appeal of the closing of the Graves Mill, Virginia post office. The procedural schedule...

  18. 76 FR 11824 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Mitchellville Post Office in...

  19. 77 FR 3806 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document... Station post office in Yerington, Nevada. The first petition for review received December 28, 2011,...

  20. 76 FR 58057 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Burnt Prairie, Illinois post office has been filed... for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Burnt Prairie post office in...