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Sample records for gssp global stratotype

  1. The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of Changhsingian Stage (Upper Permian)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jin, Y.; Wang, Y.; Henderson, C.; Wardlaw, B.R.; Shen, S.; Cao, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base-Changhsingian Stage is defined at the First Appearance Datum (FAD) of the conodont Clarkina wangi within the lineage from C. longicuspidata to C. wangi at a point 88 cm above the base of the Changxing Limestone in the lower part of Bed 4 (base of 4a-2) at Meishan D section, Changxing County, Zhejiang Province, South China. This level is consistent with the first appearance of Changhsingian index fusulinid Palaeofusulina sinensis and tapashanitid ammonoids. The speciation event from Clarkina longicuspidata to C. wangi occurs just above the flooding surface of the second parasequence in the Changxing Limestone. In addition, the boundary interval is clearly recognizable by the depletion of isotopic carbon ratios and the normal polarity zone appearing above the Late Wuchiapingian reversed polarity zone. Section C, about 300 m to the west of Section D, exposes more of the upper Longtan Formation. It clearly shows the transitional nature of deposition across the Longtan/Changxing formational boundary, and thus is described as a supplementary reference section.

  2. Formal definition and dating of the GSSP (Global Stratotype Section and Point) for the base of the Holocene using the Greenland NGRIP ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, S. O.

    2009-04-01

    The Greenland ice core from NorthGRIP (NGRIP) contains a proxy climate record across the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary of unprecedented clarity and resolution. Analysis of an array of physical and chemical parameters within the ice enables the base of the Holocene, as reflected in the first signs of climatic warming at the end of the Younger Dryas/Greenland Stadial 1 cold phase, to be located with a high degree of precision. This climatic event is most clearly reflected in an abrupt shift in deuterium excess values, accompanied by more gradual changes in ^18O, dust concentration, a range of chemical species, and annual layer thickness. A timescale based on multi-parameter annual layer counting provides an age of 11,700 calendar yr b2k (before AD 2000) for the base of the Holocene, with a maximum counting error of 99 yr. A proposal that an archived core from this unique sequence should constitute the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Holocene Series/Epoch (Quaternary System/Period) has been ratified by the International Union of Geological Sciences. The results have been published in Journal of Quaternary Science vol. 24(1), pp. 3-17, 2009 by an author team consisting of Mike Walker, Sigfus Johnsen, Sune Olander Rasmussen, Trevor Popp, Jørgen-Peder Steffensen, Phil Gibbard, Wim Hoek, John Lowe, John Andrews, Svante Björck, Les C. Cwynar, Konrad Hughen, Peter Kershaw, Bernd Kromer, Thomas Litt, David J. Lowe, Takeshi Nakagawa, Rewi Newnham, and Jakob Schwander. The poster presents the definition and the underlying data.

  3. Structural complexity at and around the Triassic-Jurassic GSSP at Kuhjoch, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palotai, M.; Pálfy, J.; Sasvári, Á.

    2017-02-01

    One of the key requirements for a Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) is the absence of tectonic disturbance. The GSSP for the Triassic-Jurassic system boundary was recently defined at Kuhjoch, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria. New field observations in the area of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary GSSP site demonstrate that the overturned, tight, and almost upright Karwendel syncline was formed at semibrittle deformation conditions, confirmed by axial planar foliation. Tight to isoclinal folds at various scales were related to a tectonic transport to the north. Brittle faulting occurred before and after folding as confirmed by tilt tests (the rotation of structural data by the average bedding). Foliation is ubiquitous in the incompetent units, including the Kendlbach Formation at the GSSP. A reverse fault (inferred to be formed as a normal fault before folding) crosscuts the GSSP sections, results in the partial tectonic omission of the Schattwald Beds, and thus makes it impossible to measure a complete and continuous stratigraphic section across the whole Kendlbach Formation. Based on these observations, the Kuhjoch sections do not fulfil the specific requirement for a GSSP regarding the absence of tectonic disturbances near boundary level.

  4. In search of the Upper Pleistocene GSSP: bridging the gap in the correlation of Marine and Continental sedimentary successions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negri, Alessandra; Amorosi, Alessandro; Bertini, Adele; Florindo, Fabio; Lurcock, Pontus; Marabini, Stefano; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Morigi, Caterina; Rossi, Veronica; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Battista Vai, Gian

    2016-04-01

    The Upper Pleistocene Subseries/Subepoch is still lacking a formal Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP), the necessary internationally agreed reference point on a stratigraphic section, which defines its lower boundary. Analyses performed by our group seem to indicate that the "Fronte" section (Taranto, Italy) has very high potential to contain such GSSP. We have already achieved a pretty complete stratigraphic framework at the Fronte site where data acquisition have been based on a classical biostratigraphic methodology using a multidisciplinary approach: calcareous nannofossils, planktonic and benthic foraminifera, pollen and dinoflagellate cysts. These data have been then integrated with facies analysis, stable oxygen isotopes and paleomagnetism. We will present these results and the future perspectives of this work aiming to compare our data and set the criteria for extending the correlation between the "Fronte" and other time equivalent marine and continental sections. This will allow to add all the necessary requirements to candidate the section for the Upper Pleistocene GSSP.

  5. Two episodes of environmental change at the Permian-Triassic boundary of the GSSP section Meishan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hongfu; Xie, Shucheng; Luo, Genming; Algeo, Thomas J.; Zhang, Kexin

    2012-11-01

    High-resolution stratigraphic records through the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) interval of the global stratotype section and point (GSSP) at Meishan, Zhejiang Province, China reveal that the PTB crisis was not a single, abrupt catastrophe. A bed-by-bed analysis of environmental and biotic changes makes clear that the crisis can be resolved into two discrete episodes, each consisting of three stages: A) unstably oscillating conditions, B) peak crisis conditions, and C) ameliorating conditions. The first crisis episode commenced in Bed 23, peaked in Beds 24e-26, and ameliorated in Beds 27 and 28, while the second crisis episode commenced in Bed 29, peaked in Beds 34-38, and ameliorated in Beds 39 and higher. The macroscopic mass extinctions happened not at the beginning, nor the end of each cycle, but at times when the crisis or perturbation of environments began. These extinction events do not show detectable feedbacks to concurrent environmental changes. In each episode, cyanobacteria proliferation postdated the macroscopic extinction while proliferation of green sulfur bacteria predated the environmental crisis. Causational analysis between environmental and microbial changes show that geomicrobial functional groups exercised pronounced effects on the marine C-N-S cycles and ocean redox conditions during the PTB crisis. It is possible thus that the microbial crises played an important role in strengthening or evening triggering the environmental crisis.

  6. Sedimentary organic matter characterization of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary GSSP at Kuhjoch (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, M.; Veld, H.; Kürschner, W. M.

    2010-03-01

    The Triassic-Jurassic (T-J) boundary interval coincides with enhanced extinction rates in the marine realm and pronounced changes in terrestrial ecosystems on the continents. It is further marked by distinct negative excursions in the δ13C org and δ13C carb signature that may represent strong perturbations of the global carbon cycle. We present integrated geochemical, stable-isotope and palynological data from the Kuhjoch section, the Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Jurassic (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria). We show that the initial carbon isotope excursion (CIE), coinciding with the marine extinction interval and the formation of black shales in the western Tethys Eiberg Basin, is marked by only minor changes in kerogen type, which is mainly of terrestrial origin. Increased Total Organic Carbon (TOC) concentrations of 9% at the first half of the initial CIE coincide with Hydrogen Index (HI) values of over 600 mg HC/g TOC. The high correlation (with R2 = 0.93) between HI values and terrestrial Cheirolepidiaceaen conifer pollen suggests a terrestrial source for the hydrogen enriched organic compounds. The lack of major changes in source of the sedimentary organic matter suggests that changes in the δ13C org composition are genuine and represent true disturbances of the global C-cycle. The sudden decrease in total inorganic carbon (TIC) concentrations likely represents the onset of a biocalcification crisis. It coincides with a 4.5‰ negative shift in δ13C org values and possibly corresponds to the onset of CAMP related volcanic activity. The second half of the initial CIE is marked by the dramatic increase of green algae remains in the sediment. The simultaneous increase of the C org/N tot ratio suggests increased marine primary production at the final stage of black shale formation.

  7. Ichnological record of palaeoenvironment from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary interval at El Kef, Tunisia: The first study of old and new sections at the stratotype area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Tovar, F. J.; Uchman, A.; M'Hamdi, A.; Riahi, S.; Ismail-Lattrache, K. B.

    2016-08-01

    Trace fossil analysis of the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary interval at El Kef (Tunisia) has provided new information on the response of the macrobenthic tracemaker community to the K/Pg boundary event. Ichnological data from the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary were completed with those from a new, well-exposed section nearby. The trace fossil assemblage consists of dominant Trichichnus, frequent Chondrites, and rare Thalassinoides and Zoophycos in the uppermost Maastrichtian, and only Trichichnus in the lowest Danian, the diversity being comparatively lower than in other K/Pg boundary sections worldwide. Bioturbational structures are observed continuously across the K/Pg boundary interval, without primary lamination; this discards anoxic conditions. However, the upward-decreasing diversity in the sections may be related to a transition from a moderately dysoxic or slightly dysoxic macrobenthic habitat in the sediment during the latest Maastrichtian to a strong or very strong dysoxia during early Danian. Comparison with micropaleontological data reveals a minor influence of the K/Pg boundary event on the macrobenthic tracemaker community, while the change in oxygenation of pore waters at the El Kef sections can be attributed to local or regional phenomenon, marked by increasing clay content in the Danian sediments.

  8. Proposed stratotype for the base of the highest Cambrian stage at the first appearance datum of Cordylodus andresi, Lawson Cove section, Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, J.F.; Ethington, Raymond L.; Evans, K.R.; Holmer, L.E.; Loch, James D.; Popov, L.E.; Repetski, J.E.; Ripperdan, R.L.; Taylor, John F.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a candidate for the Global Standard Stratotype-section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the highest stage of the Furongian Series of the Cambrian System. The section is at Lawson Cove in the Ibex area of Millard County, Utah, USA. The marker horizon is the first appearance datum (FAD) of the conodont Cordylodus andresi Viira et Sergeyeva in Kaljo et al. [Kaljo, D., Borovko, N., Heinsalu, H., Khazanovich, K., Mens, K., Popov, L., Sergeyeva, S., Sobolevskaya, R., Viira, V., 1986. The Cambrian-Ordovician boundary in the Baltic-Ladoga clint area (North Estonia and Leningrad Region, USSR). Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Toimetised. Geologia 35, 97-108]. At this section and elsewhere this horizon also is the FAD of the trilobite Eurekia apopsis (Winston et Nicholls, 1967). This conodont characterizes the base of the Cordylodus proavus Zone, which has been recognized in many parts of the world. This trilobite characterizes the base of the Eurekia apopsis Zone, which has been recognized in many parts of North America. The proposed boundary is 46.7 m above the base of the Lava Dam Member of the Notch Peak Formation at the Lawson Cove section. Brachiopods, sequence stratigraphy, and carbon-isotope geochemistry are other tools that characterize this horizon and allow it to be recognized in other areas. ?? 2006 Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, CAS.

  9. Spheroidal carbonaceous fly ash particles provide a globally synchronous stratigraphic marker for the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Rose, Neil L

    2015-04-07

    Human impacts on Earth are now so great that they have led to the concept of a new geological epoch defined by this global human influence: the Anthropocene. While not universally accepted, the term is increasingly popular and widely used. However, even among proponents, there is considerable debate regarding when the epoch may have started, from coeval with the Holocene, through the Industrial Revolution, to the mid-20th century when unprecedented human activities resulted in exponential increases in population, resource consumption, and pollutant emission. Recently, this latter period, known as the Great Acceleration, appears to be becoming the more widely accepted start date. To define any start point, a global stratigraphic marker or Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) is typically required. Here, spheroidal carbonaceous fly ash particles (SCPs), byproducts of industrial fossil-fuel combustion, are proposed as a primary marker for a GSSP at the time of the Great Acceleration. Data from over 75 lake sediment records show a global, synchronous, and dramatic increase in particle accumulation starting in c. 1950 driven by the increased demand for electricity and the introduction of fuel-oil combustion, in addition to coal, as a means to produce it. SCPs are morphologically distinct and solely anthropogenic in origin, providing an unambiguous marker. This is a clear signal of great stratigraphic utility representing a primary driving force for global anthropogenic change.

  10. Age constraints on the proposed Plio-Pleistocene boundary stratotype at Vrica, Italy.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Obradovich, J.D.; Naeser, C.W.; Izett, G.A.; Pasini, G.; Bigazzi, G.

    1982-01-01

    Estimates of the age of the stratotype Plio-Pleistocene boundary in Italy range from 1.65 to 2.5 Myr. We aim here to clarify this dating confusion, and we present new radiometric data on ashes from the proposed stratotype section, Vrica, Italy, which indicate that the Plio-Pleistocene boundary must be less than 2 Myr old. Biostratigraphical criteria - the first appearance datums (FADs) and the last appearance datums (LADs) of planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannoplankton tied to the magnetic reversal chronology - suggest that this boundary may be nearer to 1.7 Myr.-from Authors

  11. Age constraints on the proposed Plio-Pleistocene boundary stratotype at Vrica, Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Obradovich, J.D.; Naeser, C.W.; Izett, G.A.; Pasini, G.; Bigazzi, G.

    1982-01-01

    Estimates1-4 of the age of the stratotype Plio-Pleistocene boundary in Italy range from 1.65 to 2.5 Myr. We aim here to clarify this dating confusion, and we present new radiometric data on ashes from the proposed stratotype section, Vrica, Italy which indicate that the Plio-Pleistocene boundary must be less than 2 Myr old. Biostratigraphical criteria - The first appearance datums (FADs) and last appearance datums (LADs) of plank-tonic foraminifera and calcareous nannoplankton tied to the magnetic reversal chronology - Suggest that this boundary may be nearer to 1.7 Myr. Attempts to make the boundary far older than this are without basis. ?? 1982 Nature Publishing Group.

  12. Palynological studies of Middle Pennsylvanian coal beds of the proposed Pennsylvania System stratotype in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Kosanke, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    One hundred and ninety-one segment samples from 27 coal beds and adjacent strata occurring in the Kanawha Formation and Charleston Sandstone have been collected and examined in detail. More than 25,000 palynomorphs have been counted in order to establish a standard for the stratotype. Palynomorph abundance, assemblages, range zones, and correlations are documented. Paleoecology, as evidenced by succession of salynomorphs within coal beds and extinctions between coal beds, is reported.

  13. Palynology of selected coal beds in the proposed Pennsylvanian System stratotype in West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kosanke, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    The usefulness of Pennsylvanian palynomorphs, spores, and pollen grains, as an aid in coal-correlation investigations in the Appalachians, has been known for many years. However, much of this and subsequent information was scattered in the literature or was not from the proposed stratotype area of West Virginia. Investigation of coals from sections of the proposed Pennsylvanian System stratotype provided the opportunity to examine changes in palynomorph content through a number of coals from the New River Formation to the basal part of the Monongahela Formation. The rank of most coals of the Pocahontas and New River Formations of West Virginia does not permit extraction of palynomorphs with current laboratory maceration techniques. Because of this, the data of some possibly equivalent lower rank Pennsylvanian coals from adjacent parts of southern Ohio and eastern Kentucky have been included. The coals examined from the Kanawha Formation, Charleston Sandstone, and Monongahela Formations of West Virginia have yielded abundant and well-preserved palynomorphs. Attention has been focused on the Charleston Sandstone, which is a massive, complex unit lacking marine fossils and composed primarily of sandstone. The coal is a significant resource in Pennsylvanian rocks, and the correlation of coals is an important consideration in the area of the stratotype in West Virginia and in adjacent States. As a result of this preliminary examination, the approximate range zones of some important taxa have been established. These range zones together with abundance data are used to correlate the coals. The range zones of some important taxa from Lower to Upper Pennsylvanian coals are: Densosporites irregularis Hacquebard and Barss, Stenozonotriletes lycosporoides (Butterworth and Williams) Smith and Butterworth, Schulzospora rara Kosanke, Laevigatosporites spp., Radiizonates spp., Torispora securis Balme, Zosterosporites triangularis Kosanke, Thymospora pseudothiessenii (Kosanke

  14. Mesogondolella and Jinogondolella (Conodonta): Multielement definition of the taxa that bracket the basal Guadalupian (Middle Permian Series) GSSP

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, L.L.; Wardlaw, B.R.; Henderson, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Multielement definitions are presented here for Mesogondolella and Jinogondolella based on species that bracket the basal Guadalupian (Middle Permian Series) GSSP. Distinctive apparatus characters that appear with the first Jinogondolella include several details of P2 element dimorphism and process bifurcation in S3 elements. The sequential expression of these multielement characters is traced through M. idahoensis, M. lamberti, and J. nankingensis. The resulting multielement definition of Jinogondolella serves to distinguish it from all other closely related genera. Mesogondolella lamberti is recognized as a distinct species, and J. serrata is formally designated a junior synonym of J. nankingensis. ?? 2007 Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, CAS.

  15. Combined oxygen- and carbon-isotope records through the Early Jurassic: multiple global events and two modes of carbon-cycle/temperature coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesselbo, S. P.; Korte, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Jurassic comprises some 55 million years of Earth history. However, within the Jurassic, only one major environmental change (hyperthermal) event is really well known - the Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) at ~183 Ma - and until very recently the extent to which the accompanying environmental changes were global has been strongly debated. Nevertheless, partly as a result of the international effort to define Global Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs), much more is now being discovered about environmental changes taking place at and around the other Jurassic Age (Stage) boundaries, to the extent that meaningful comparisons between these events can begin to be made. Here we present new carbon and oxygen isotope data from mollusks (bivalves and belemnites) and brachiopods collected through the marine Early Jurassic succession of NE England, including the Sinemurian-Plienbachian boundary GSSP. All materials have been screened by chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy to check for diagenetic alteration. Analysis of carbon isotopes from marine calcite is supplemented by analysis of carbon-isotope values from fossil wood collected through the same section. It is demonstrated that both long-term and short-term carbon-isotope shifts from the UK Early Jurassic represent global changes in carbon cycle balances. The Sinemurian-Pliensbachian boundary event is an event of global significance and shows several similarities to the Toarcian OAE (relative sea-level change, carbon-isotope signature), but also some significant contrasts (oxygen-isotope based paleotemperatures which provide no evidence for warming). Significant contrast in oxygen- and carbon-isotope co-variation also occurs on a long timescale. There appear to be two modes in the co-variation of carbon and oxygen isotopes through this time interval: mode 1 shows positive correlation and may be explained by conventional sources and sinks for carbon-dioxide; mode 2, representing negative

  16. From Greenhouse to Icehouse: Evidence of Climatic Changes Across the Marine Eocene-Oligocene Transition From the Massignano GSSP Section (Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coccioni, R.; Marsili, A.; Montanari, A.

    2004-12-01

    The transition from global "greenhouse" conditions of the early and middle Eocene to global "icehouse" conditions of the early Oligocene marks a turning point in Cenozoic Earth history which was marked by reorganization of global ocean circulation patterns and significant turnovers in the marine and terrestrial biota (Prothero et al., 2003) and led to the development of the first East Antarctic ice-sheet, close to the Eocene/Oligocene boundary (33.7 Ma). The Massignano GSSP for the Eocene/Oligocene boundary (Premoli Silva & Jenkins, 1993), exposed in an abandoned quarry in the Monte Conero area, on the Adriatic coast of central Italy, was investigated at high-resolution in order to provide evidence for climatic changes across the marine Eocene-Oligocene transition. The Massignano section is 23-m thick and consists of alternating reddish/greenish-grey marls and calcareous marls with several biotite-rich levels of volcanic origin which were deposited in a lower bathyal depositional setting, at a paleodepth of 1000-2000 m (Coccioni & Galeotti, 2003). A complete geological record of 3 myr (from 36.2 to 33.2 Ma according to the time scale of Berggren et al., 1995) is preserved which spans the interval from the latest Eocene to the early Oligocene, from Chron C16n to C13n (Bice & Montanari, 1988; Lowrie & Lanci, 1994), and is provided by an accurate calibration of bio- and geochemical events. Cosmic signatures are also recorded in the Massignano section (Montanari et al., 1993) where three impactoclastic, iridium-rich layers occurs in the middle-lower part of the succession (Montanari et al., 1988, 1993; Bodeselitsch et al., 2004). They are possibly linked to the Popigai and Chesapeake Bay impacts and related to a comet shower over a duration of 2.2 myr (Farley et al., 1998). Calcareous nannofossil and foraminiferal assemblages (Coccioni et al., 2000; Spezzaferri et al., 2002), dinoflagellate cyst palynology (Brinkhuis & Biffi, 1993), ostracod faunas (Dall'Antonia et al

  17. Biostratigraphy and assemblage evolution in Planktic Foraminifera across the Cretaceous-Paleogene transition in low latitude, northern and southern Tethys realm: El Kef GSSP, Elles (Tunisia) and Agost, Caravaca (Betic Cordillera, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallala, N.; Zaghbib-Turki, D.; Turki, M. M.; Arenillas, I.; Arz, J. A.; Molina, E.

    2009-04-01

    The detailed planktic foraminiferal biostratigraphic and quantitative study from the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) transition interval of the most expanded and continuous sections located in Spanish (Agost, Caravaca) and Tunisian sections (El Kef and Ellès), allows us to establish the zonation and subzonation of this interval and to distinguish four Acme-stages across the K/Pg transition interval of these low latitude sections. The uppermost Maastrichtian in Tunisian and Spanish sections, is characterized by standard planktic foraminiferal zones: Abathomphalus mayaroensis subdivided into Plummerita hantkeninoides Subzones. This index species is absent at middle and high-latitude twice in Atlantic and Antarctic oceans. Consequently, this species is considered to be restricted to the tropical and subtropical deep seawater. The lower Danian is characterized by Guembelitria cretacea, Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina, and Parasubbotina pseudobulloides biozones. The Guembelitria cretacea Zone was subdivided into the Hedbergella holmdelensis and Parvularugoglobigerina longiapertura Subzones; the Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina Zone into the Parvularugoglobigerina sabina and Eoglobigerina simplicissima Subzones; and the Parasubbotina pseudobulloides Zone into the Eoglobigerina trivialis and Subbotina triloculinoides Subzones. These zones and subzones are less expanded at the Caravaca and Agost sections than in Tunisian sections: El Kef (Global Stratotype Section and Point for the K/Pg) and Ellès, but it is sufficiently expanded to analyze correctly the planktic foraminiferal assemblage evolution across the K-Pg transition. Across this transition, at the Tethys area, we have identified four Acme-stages: Acme-stage 0: is typical of the upper Maastrichtian interval is dominated by cosmopolitan species dwelling surface and intermediate seawater. Acme-stage 1: is typical of the G. cretacea Zone and is dominated by Guembelitria species belonging to "Cretaceous survivors" species

  18. Paleontological, mineralogical and chemical studies of syngenetic and epigenetic Pb-Zn-Ba-P mineralizations at the stratotype of the K/P boundary (El Kef area, Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, H. G.; Weiss, W.; Botz, R.; Dohrmann, R.

    2011-06-01

    The El Kef area, Tunisia, is host of the official stratotype of the K/P boundary and of a complex metallic and non-metallic mineralization at Djebel Sekarna, encompassing syn(dia)genetic shale- and carbonate-hosted Zn-P and epigenetic Pb-Zn-Ba ore mineralizations. Micropaleontological, geological, mineralogical, and chemical studies (major and minor elements, C- and O-isotopes) of Upper Santonian to Lower Eocene calcareous-siliciclastic sediments resulted in a subdivision of this mineralization into eight mineralizing stages. Stages 1 and 2 (late Cretaceous-early Paleogene) are representative of syn(diagenetic) shale- and carbonate-hosted sulfidic and siliceous (Fe)-Zn-P mineralization deposited in shallow marine to slightly brackish sediments. Stages 3-5 (early Eocene respectively—pre- and post- Nummulites involutus-exilis zones) are representatives of epigenetic sulfidic and sulfatic (Fe)-Zn-Pb-Ba mineralizations at temperatures as high as 170/200°C and stages 6 and 7 (early Eocene respectively—post- Alveolina oblonga zone) cover the non-sulfidic Zn-(Pb) mineralization at temperatures as high as 60°C which is transitional from hypogene into supergene mineralization ("epithermal calamine deposits"). Stage 8 represents alteration of the pre-existing mineral assemblages in course of the Holocene weathering. The Cretaceous through Paleogene aquatic system is characterized by a poisoning of the sea with base metals, mainly Zn, and the atmosphere was chocked with clouds of fine-grained volcanic ejecta. Both processes contributed to the build-up of Zn-(Pb) deposits and vast, but uneconomic bentonitic clay deposits around the K/P boundary. Ore mineralization in the El Kef area is a multiple-phase process which reached its climax during the early Eocene as indicated by the large foram zones. These inorganic concentration processes resulting in the formation of mineral deposits had obviously also a negative effect on the long-term course of regional Earth

  19. The first magnetostratigraphic data on the stratotype of the Lopata Formation, Northeastern Yenisei Ridge: Problems of its age and paleogeography of the Siberian Platform at the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatsillo, A. V.; Kuznetsov, N. B.; Pavlov, V. E.; Fedonkin, M. A.; Priyatkina, N. S.; Serov, S. G.; Rudko, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    New paleomagnetic and magnetostratigraphic data are presented for the stratotype of the Upper Riphean Lopata Formation (Teya River, Yenisei Ridge). The paleomagnetic pole calculated is significantly distinct from the Phanerozoic and Riphean poles of the Siberian Platform and is similar to the Late Vendian-Early Cambrian poles of the Madagascar Group. The stratigraphic range studied is characterized by an anomalously high frequency of geomagnetic inversions (15 zones of magnetic polarity), which is comparable with the inversion frequency of the Late Vendian sections of Baltica. These data, along with previous paleontological findings, indicate an age of the Lopata Formation of 555-540 Ma.

  20. Magnetostratigraphic correlation of the Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybylski, Piotr A.; Ogg, James G.; Wierzbowski, Andrzej; Coe, Angela L.; Hounslow, Mark W.; Wright, John K.; Atrops, François; Settles, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A magnetic polarity pattern for Boreal and Sub-Boreal ammonite zones of the Upper Oxfordian to Lower Kimmeridgian was established and confirmed in four British sections, including the proposed Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) on the Isle of Skye (Scotland) to define the base of the international Kimmeridgian Stage. A coeval pattern for Sub-Mediterranean ammonite zones was compiled from seven sections in Poland, one German section and multi-section composites from France and Spain. The mean paleopole for the European Craton (excluding Spain) at the Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian boundary is 74.2°N, 181.3°E ( Α95 = 3.8°). The common magnetic polarity scale enables inter-correlation of ammonite subzones among these three faunal provinces and to the marine magnetic-anomaly M-Sequence. The proposed GSSP at the base of the Pictonia baylei Zone is near the base of an extended interval dominated by reversed polarity, which is interpreted to be Chron M26r. This GSSP level projects to the lower to middle part of the Epipeltoceras bimammatum Subzone, which is the middle subzone of this E. bimammatum Zone in the Sub-Mediterranean standard zonation. In contrast, the traditional placement of the Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian boundary in that Sub-Mediterranean standard zonation (base of Sutneria platynota Zone) is at the base of Chron M25r, or nearly 1 million years younger.

  1. Solutions in chronostratigraphy: the Paleocene/Eocene boundary debate, and Aubry vs. Hedberg on chronostratigraphic principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    In several recent papers, M.-P. Aubry et al. have argued that "Hedbergian" principles of chronostratigraphy are being violated by the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) when selecting Global Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) for the formal divisions of the geological time scale. The current debate over the definition of the Paleocene/Eocene (P/E) boundary has been a major focus of their arguments. Unfortunately, Aubry et al. have obscured matters by misusing the term "unit stratotype," and by equivocally using the term "stage" for the very different concepts of "synthem" and "global chronostratigraphic stage." The P/E boundary option most repugnant to Aubry et al. (Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE)=P/E=Thanetian/Ypresian boundary) is perfectly compatible with H.D. Hedberg's views. In contrast, another option preferred by Aubry et al. (recognition of new ˜1 m.y. duration age/stage between Thanetian and Ypresian) is inconsistent with Hedberg's views. Additional problems with the P/E boundary arguments of Aubry et al. include the fact that a "Ypresian unit stratotype" does not exist, the fact that the base of the Ypresian synthem is not immutable, and the fact that the nannofossil Tribrachiatus digitalis is of dubious relevance to the boundary debate. As for chronostratigraphy in general, Aubry et al. have misrepresented Hedberg's views by: (1) falsely claiming that the content of a stage is what determines its boundaries; (2) misunderstanding the general concept of the boundary stratotype; (3) distorting the "base defines boundary" principle; (4) falsely claiming that traditional (pre-GSSP) chronostratigraphic boundaries cannot be changed; (5) falsely implying that traditional stage unit stratotype boundaries can be adjusted by no more than 300,000 years when defining formal age/stage boundaries with GSSPs; (6) falsely claiming that the definition of a geochronologic/chronostratigraphic boundary should precede its correlation; (7) claiming that

  2. Immuno-localisations (GSSP) of subcellular accumulation sites of phenanthrene, aroclor 1254 and lead (Pb) in relation to cytopathologies in the gills and digestive gland of the mussel Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed

    Einsporn, Sonja; Koehler, Angela

    2008-07-01

    Cell and tissue pathology of both, gill and digestive tissue, has been the subject of many studies for the elucidation of contaminant-induced biological effects. In the present study, cellular pathological alterations were linked to subcellular sites of chemical accumulation in gills and digestive gland tissues. For this purpose, mussels (Mytilus edulis) were exposed to the organic contaminants aroclor 1254 (PCB) (20 microg/L), phenanthrene (PAH) (150 microg/L) or the metal lead (Pb) (2.5mg/L). The localization of chemicals at the subcellular level was analysed by an antibody-based detection system (GSSP) by the use of commercially available antibodies specifically directed against the chemicals. Pathological changes were analysed in parallel in identical samples by transmission electron microscopy. After exposure to the different contaminants, cell organelles such as mitochondria, the endo-lysosomal system as well as endoplasmic reticulum showed clear evidence of chemically-induced alterations. Large numbers of crystalloid inclusions were found in mitochondria and in autophagic lysosomes as well as multi-lamellated whorls after PAH and aroclor exposure. Immunocytochemical detection of the chemicals showed their accumulation inside of various cell organelles such as lysosomes, mitochondria, and nuclei. Additionally, chemicals were localized in association to membranes, cilia and microvilli of gill and digestive gland cells. Furthermore, the chitinous rod and mucus secretions of gill epithelial cells were positively labelled for contaminants indicating their role in protection. Localization of contaminants by immuno-detection in combination with pathological diagnosis gives insights into the cellular targets of chemical attack.

  3. Utility of palmatolepids and icriodontids in recognizing Upper Devonian Series, Stage, and possible substage boundaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ziegler, W.; Sandberg, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    Conodonts are accepted internationally to define Devonian Series and Stage boundaries. Hence, the evolution and taxonomy of pelagic palmatolepids, primarily Palmatolepis and its direct ancestor Mesotaxis, and shallow-water icriodontids, Icriodus, Pelekysgnathus, and "Icriodus", are the major tools for recognizing subdivisions of the Upper Devonian. Palmatolepids are the basis for the Late Devonian Standard Conodont Zonation (ZIEGLER & SANDBERG 1990), whereas icriodontids are the basis for the alternative, integrated shallow-water zonation (SANDBERG & DREESEN 1984). However, an alternative palmatolepid taxonomy for some Frasnian species has been employed recently by some conodont workers using the Montagne Noire (M.N.) zonation, shape analyses of Pa elements, and multielement reconstructions of KLAPPER (1989), KLAPPER & FOSTER (1993); and KLAPPER et al. (1996). Herein, the evolution of palmatolepids and icriodontids is summarized in terms of our zonation and some of the taxonomic differences with the alternative M.N. zonation are exemplified. One of the problems in relating the Standard and M.N. zonations arises from previous errors of interpretation and drafting of the Martenberg section in Germany. This section was designated the reference section for the Frasnian transitans through jamieae Zones by ZIEGLER & SANDBERG (1990). Herein, the early and middle Frasnian zonal boundaries at Martenberg are improved by re-study of our old and recent collections from three profiles, spaced only 4 m apart. Serious problems exist with the Global Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSP's), selected by the Subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy, following the paleontologic definition of the bases of the Frasnian, Famennian, and Tournaisian Stages, because of the difficulty in making global correlations from these GSSP's. Our summary of these problems should be helpful if future workers decide to relocate these GSSP's.

  4. Diagenetic overprint on negative δ13C excursions across the Permian/Triassic boundary: A case study from Meishan section, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rong

    2016-04-01

    The Permian-Triassic carbonate succession that formed during the biggest mass extinction event in geological history has long been studied to examine the biomass extinction patterns and mechanisms. Such studies have shown that the stable inorganic carbon isotope displays a worldwide significant negative shift in the Permian/Triassic transitional period, which has generally been attributed to a synchronistic shift in δ13C in the global carbon cycle. The assertion, however, is based on the assumption that the δ13C signals recorded in the carbonate succession are primary in origin. In this study, the diagenetic features of Beds 24 to 62 from Meishan Section, China, which is the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Permian-Triassic boundary, are examined to determine the negative shift in δ13Ccarb across the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (PTME) is diagenetic in origin or not. Bed 24, the topmost unit of Changhsing Formation, is formed of skeletal packstones. Beds 25 to 62, belonging to Yinkeng Formation, are formed of either claystones, or mudstones and/or calcareous mudstones with dolomite being present. Petrographic data indicate that zoned dolomite crystals are widespread in early Triassic beds. Geochemical data including stable isotopic composition, minor and trace elements, and rare-earth elements indicate that the dolomite and coexisting calcite are formed in different depositional/diagenetic environment. The dramatically negative δ13C excursions of calcite in Beds 26 and 28 are related to meteoric diagenesis, while the negative δ13C excursions of calcite in dolomite-bearing beds are ascribed to enriched 12C resulted from dolomitization mediated by sulfate reducing bacterial (SRB) in burial process. The results show that the δ13C signals recorded in the global stratotype section that spans the PTB is not primary in origin. The synchronistic negative shift in δ13C signals across the PTME are partly contributed by diagenesis.

  5. Proposed Auxiliary Boundary Stratigraphic Section and Point (ASSP) for the base of the Ordovician System at Lawson Cove, Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, James F.; Evans, Kevin R.; Ethington, Raymond L.; Freeman, Rebecca; Loch, James D.; Repetski, John E.; Ripperdan, Robert; Taylor, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Ordovician System is at the First Appearance Datum (FAD) of the conodont Iapetognathus fluctivagus at Green Point in Newfoundland, Canada. Strata there are typical graptolitic facies that were deposited near the base of the continental slope.We propose establishing an Auxiliary boundary Stratotype Section and Point (ASSP) at the FAD of I. fluctivagus at the Lawson Cove section in the Ibex area of Millard County, Utah, USA. There, strata consist of typical shelly facies limestones that were deposited on a tropical carbonate platform and contain abundant conodonts, trilobites, brachiopods, and other fossil groups. Cambrian and Ordovician strata in this area are ~5300m thick, with the Lawson Cove section spanning 243m in three overlapping segments. Six other measured and studied sections in the area show stratigraphic relationships similar to those at Lawson Cove. Faunas have been used to divide these strata into 14 conodont and 7 trilobite zonal units. The widespread olenid trilobite Jujuyaspis occurs ~90cm above the proposed boundary at Lawson Cove; this genus is generally regarded as earliest Ordovician. Rhynchonelliform and linguliform brachiopods are common to abundant and are useful for correlation. The FAD of Iapetognathus fluctivagus and occurrences of Jujuyaspis and the Lower Ordovician planktonic graptolite Anisograptus matanensis all occur within a 2.4m interval of strata at a nearby section. Non-biological correlation tools include a detailed sequence stratigraphic classification and a detailed carbon-isotope profile. Especially useful for correlation is a positive 13C excursion peak ~15cm below the proposed boundary horizon. All of these correlation tools form an integrated framework that makes the Lawson Cove section especially useful as an ASSP for global correlation of strata with faunas typical of shallow, warm-water, shelly facies.

  6. Biogeochemical evidence for euxinic oceans and ecological disturbance presaging the end-Permian mass extinction event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Changqun; Love, Gordon D.; Hays, Lindsay E.; Wang, Wei; Shen, Shuzhong; Summons, Roger E.

    2009-05-01

    The Permian-Triassic Boundary event at 252.2 Ma marks the largest extinction of marine fauna in the Phanerozoic and there is a wide consensus that the extinction coincided with an intense oceanic anoxic event. The stratotype of the Changhsingian Stage, precisely constrained by the PTB Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) and the GSSP for the Wuchiapingian-Changhsingian Boundary, both at Meishan in southern China, is well-documented in respect to geochronology and the pattern of extinction. Here we report secular trends in bulk isotopic parameters and lipid biomarkers in a core spanning 214 m of stratigraphic section across the PTB and through the entire Changhsingian interval. Our analysis of these data, viewed in the context of relative sea level change and strontium isotopes, reveals distinct shifts in paleoenvironmental conditions and profound changes in plankton ecology well before and following the biological extinction event. Specifically, patterns of steroids and triterpenoids indicate a marine plankton community that was heavily dominated by bacteria during the late Wuchiapingian, middle Changhsingian and early Griesbachian stages. Secular trends in aromatic hydrocarbons diagnostic for anoxygenic green sulphur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae) identify periods when euxinic conditions extended into the photic zone during the entire Changhsingian stage. Here also, the δ15N of organic nitrogen progressively shifted from positive values around + 2 or + 3‰ to - 1‰ coincident with a sharp negative excursion in δ13C org and slightly postdating the sharp minimum in δ13C values of inorganic carbon that occurs at the top of Bed 24. These results, together the published chronology indicate that conditions unfavourable for aerobiosis existed in the marine photic zone at Meishan for 1.5 million years prior to the main phase of the biological extinction. The induction of marine euxinic conditions, worldwide, at the end of the Permian was likely a consequence of the

  7. Timing of global regression and microbial bloom linked with the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction: implications for driving mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Baresel, Björn; Bucher, Hugo; Bagherpour, Borhan; Brosse, Morgane; Guodun, Kuang; Schaltegger, Urs

    2017-03-06

    New high-resolution U-Pb dates indicate a duration of 89 ± 38 kyr for the Permian hiatus and of 14 ± 57 kyr for the overlying Triassic microbial limestone in shallow water settings of the Nanpanjiang Basin, South China. The age and duration of the hiatus coincides with the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) and the extinction interval in the Meishan Global Stratotype Section and Point, and strongly supports a glacio-eustatic regression, which best explains the genesis of the worldwide hiatus straddling the PTB in shallow water records. In adjacent deep marine troughs, rates of sediment accumulation display a six-fold decrease across the PTB compatible with a dryer and cooler climate as indicated by terrestrial plants. Our model of the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction (PTBME) hinges on the synchronicity of the hiatus with the onset of the Siberian Traps volcanism. This early eruptive phase released sulfur-rich volatiles into the stratosphere, thus simultaneously eliciting a short-lived ice age responsible for the global regression and a brief but intense acidification. Abrupt cooling, shrunk habitats on shelves and acidification may all have synergistically triggered the PTBME. Subsequently, the build-up of volcanic CO2 induced a transient cool climate whose early phase saw the deposition of the microbial limestone.

  8. Timing of global regression and microbial bloom linked with the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction: implications for driving mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Baresel, Björn; Bucher, Hugo; Bagherpour, Borhan; Brosse, Morgane; Guodun, Kuang; Schaltegger, Urs

    2017-01-01

    New high-resolution U-Pb dates indicate a duration of 89 ± 38 kyr for the Permian hiatus and of 14 ± 57 kyr for the overlying Triassic microbial limestone in shallow water settings of the Nanpanjiang Basin, South China. The age and duration of the hiatus coincides with the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) and the extinction interval in the Meishan Global Stratotype Section and Point, and strongly supports a glacio-eustatic regression, which best explains the genesis of the worldwide hiatus straddling the PTB in shallow water records. In adjacent deep marine troughs, rates of sediment accumulation display a six-fold decrease across the PTB compatible with a dryer and cooler climate as indicated by terrestrial plants. Our model of the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction (PTBME) hinges on the synchronicity of the hiatus with the onset of the Siberian Traps volcanism. This early eruptive phase released sulfur-rich volatiles into the stratosphere, thus simultaneously eliciting a short-lived ice age responsible for the global regression and a brief but intense acidification. Abrupt cooling, shrunk habitats on shelves and acidification may all have synergistically triggered the PTBME. Subsequently, the build-up of volcanic CO2 induced a transient cool climate whose early phase saw the deposition of the microbial limestone. PMID:28262815

  9. Timing of global regression and microbial bloom linked with the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction: implications for driving mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baresel, Björn; Bucher, Hugo; Bagherpour, Borhan; Brosse, Morgane; Guodun, Kuang; Schaltegger, Urs

    2017-03-01

    New high-resolution U-Pb dates indicate a duration of 89 ± 38 kyr for the Permian hiatus and of 14 ± 57 kyr for the overlying Triassic microbial limestone in shallow water settings of the Nanpanjiang Basin, South China. The age and duration of the hiatus coincides with the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) and the extinction interval in the Meishan Global Stratotype Section and Point, and strongly supports a glacio-eustatic regression, which best explains the genesis of the worldwide hiatus straddling the PTB in shallow water records. In adjacent deep marine troughs, rates of sediment accumulation display a six-fold decrease across the PTB compatible with a dryer and cooler climate as indicated by terrestrial plants. Our model of the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction (PTBME) hinges on the synchronicity of the hiatus with the onset of the Siberian Traps volcanism. This early eruptive phase released sulfur-rich volatiles into the stratosphere, thus simultaneously eliciting a short-lived ice age responsible for the global regression and a brief but intense acidification. Abrupt cooling, shrunk habitats on shelves and acidification may all have synergistically triggered the PTBME. Subsequently, the build-up of volcanic CO2 induced a transient cool climate whose early phase saw the deposition of the microbial limestone.

  10. Learning to tell Neoproterozoic time.

    PubMed

    Knoll, A H

    2000-03-01

    In 1989, the International Commission on Stratigraphy established a Working Group on the Terminal Proterozoic Period. Nine years of intensive, multidisciplinary research by scientists from some two dozen countries have markedly improved the framework for the correlation and calibration of latest Proterozoic events. Three principal phenomena--the Marinoan ice age, Ediacaran animal diversification, and the beginning of the Cambrian Period--specify the limits and character of this interval, but chemostratigraphy and biostratigraphy based on single-celled microfossils (acritarchs), integrated with high-resolution radiometric dates, provide the temporal framework necessary to order and evaluate terminal Proterozoic tectonic, biogeochemical, climatic, and biological events. These data also provide a rational basis for choosing the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) that will define the beginning of this period. A comparable level of stratigraphic resolution may be achievable for the preceding Cryogenian Period, providing an opportunity to define this interval, as well, in chronostratigraphic terms--perhaps bounded at beginning and end by the onset of Sturtian glaciation and the decay of Marinoan ice sheets, respectively. Limited paleontological, isotopic, and radiometric data additionally suggest a real but more distant prospect of lower Neoproterozoic correlation and stratigraphic subdivision.

  11. Learning to tell Neoproterozoic time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, A. H.

    2000-01-01

    In 1989, the International Commission on Stratigraphy established a Working Group on the Terminal Proterozoic Period. Nine years of intensive, multidisciplinary research by scientists from some two dozen countries have markedly improved the framework for the correlation and calibration of latest Proterozoic events. Three principal phenomena--the Marinoan ice age, Ediacaran animal diversification, and the beginning of the Cambrian Period--specify the limits and character of this interval, but chemostratigraphy and biostratigraphy based on single-celled microfossils (acritarchs), integrated with high-resolution radiometric dates, provide the temporal framework necessary to order and evaluate terminal Proterozoic tectonic, biogeochemical, climatic, and biological events. These data also provide a rational basis for choosing the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) that will define the beginning of this period. A comparable level of stratigraphic resolution may be achievable for the preceding Cryogenian Period, providing an opportunity to define this interval, as well, in chronostratigraphic terms--perhaps bounded at beginning and end by the onset of Sturtian glaciation and the decay of Marinoan ice sheets, respectively. Limited paleontological, isotopic, and radiometric data additionally suggest a real but more distant prospect of lower Neoproterozoic correlation and stratigraphic subdivision.

  12. Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkley, June, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    The articles in this collection deal with various methods of global education--education to prepare students to function as understanding and informed citizens of the world. Topics discussed in the 26 articles include: (1) the necessity of global education; (2) global education in the elementary school language arts curriculum; (3) science fiction…

  13. Global HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on global human resource development (HRD). "Globalization of Human Resource Management (HRM) in Government: A Cross-Cultural Perspective" (Pan Suk Kim) relates HRM to national cultures and addresses its specific functional aspects with a unique dimension in a global organization.…

  14. Global Composite

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... cover from one day to another. The lower panel is a composite in which red, green, and blue radiances from MISR's 70-degree ... In relatively clear ocean areas, the oblique-angle composite is generally brighter than its nadir counterpart due to enhanced ... Mar 2002 Images:  Global Composite location:  Global Images thumbnail:  ...

  15. Global Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Russo, P.

    2009-05-01

    IYA2009 is a global collaboration between almost 140 nations and more than 50 international organisations sharing the same vision. Besides the common brand, mission, vision and goals, IAU established eleven cornerstones programmes to support the different IYA2009 stakeholder to organize events, activities under a common umbrella. These are global activities centred on specific themes and are aligned with IYA2009's main goals. Whether it is the support and promotion of women in astronomy, the preservation of dark-sky sites around the world or educating and explaining the workings of the Universe to millions, the eleven Cornerstones are key elements in the success of IYA2009. However, the process of implementing global projects across cultural boundaries is challenging and needs central coordination to preserve the pre-established goals. During this talk we will examine the ups and downs of coordinating such a project and present an overview of the principal achievements for the Cornerstones so far.

  16. Global Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... 30, 2017 More news Who We Are Our Strategy Our Jobs Our Funding Our Leadership Global Health Our Newsletter Where We Work Download Fact Sheets Overseas Rightsizing What CDC Is Doing Who We Are Our Strategy Our Funding Our Partnerships Our Organization Our Leadership ...

  17. Global Warming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hileman, Bette

    1989-01-01

    States the foundations of the theory of global warming. Describes methodologies used to measure the changes in the atmosphere. Discusses steps currently being taken in the United States and the world to slow the warming trend. Recognizes many sources for the warming and the possible effects on the earth. (MVL)

  18. Global Warming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of global warming. (PR)

  19. Global Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1993-01-01

    Global change is a relatively new area of scientific study using research from many disciplines to determine how Earth systems change, and to assess the influence of human activity on these changes. This teaching packet consists of a poster and three activity sheets. In teaching these activities four themes are important: time, change, cycles, and Earth as home.

  20. Panwapa: Global Kids, Global Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Panwapa, created by the Sesame Street Workshop of PBS, is an example of an initiative on the Internet designed to enhance students' learning by exposing them to global communities. Panwapa means "Here on Earth" in Tshiluba, a Bantu language spoken in the Democratic Republic of Congo. At the Panwapa website, www.panwapa.org, children aged…

  1. Anthropocene: Shifting Paradigms in Geoscience, Philosophy, History and Geopolitics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslin, M. A.; Lewis, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of the Anthropocene has created a profound paradigm shift within the scientific community that we argue will create equally important changes in philosophy, history and politics. There is general scientific agreement that human activity has been a geologically recent, yet profound, influence on the Earth System. The magnitude, variety and longevity of human-induced changes, to the lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, biosphere and atmosphere suggests that we should refer to the present, not as within the Holocene Epoch (as it is currently formally referred to), but instead as within the Anthropocene Epoch. Discussion is now centred on defining the start of the epoch using the fundamental principles of stratigraphy. These must include (i) a near permanent change to the Earth system that sets it on to a new trajectory and (ii) global changes to the Earth system recorded in a number of stratigraphic deposits worldwide to provide a correlative boundary event or marker called a Global Stratotype Section & Point (GSSP) or 'golden spike'. Using this framework we conclude that just two time-periods are likely adhere to the criteria. These are 1) the irreversible cross-ocean exchange of species alongside the globally synchronous coolest part of the Little Ice Age in the 17th century, marked by the 1610 minima of CO2 (Orbis Spike), and 2) the accelerating atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial changes in the second half of the 20th century, referred to as the Great Acceleration and conveniently marked by the 1964 peak radionuclide fallout (Bomb Spike). We seek to clear up misconceptions and misunderstandings about geological criteria and relevant evidence that have crept into the literature. We also argue that there are multiple definitions of the Anthropocene and even if a formal definition of the Anthropocene Epoch is agreed by geoscientists, this would in no way invalidate other definitions or uses. It is the utility and wide appeal that makes the Anthropocene

  2. Going Global

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulard, Garry

    2010-01-01

    In a move to increase its out-of-state and international student enrollment, officials at the University of Iowa are stepping up their global recruitment efforts--even in the face of criticism that the school may be losing sight of its mission. The goal is to increase enrollment across the board, with both in-state as well as out-of-state and…

  3. ONR Global

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    ONRG provides seed funding for innovative research CSP Liaison Visit VSP NICOP Proposal NICOP ADs Making a Difference Graphene • A...better than silicon. ONR Global partnered with UK’s Dr Geim, who was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics for his research on graphene . Reducing...total life-cycle costs • Pitch-Adapting Propeller - a propeller blade tip redesign deform as it rotates provides improved efficiency, lower

  4. Global Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Palmer, Bruce J.

    2015-11-01

    Global Arrays (GA) is a distributed-memory programming model that allows for shared-memory-style programming combined with one-sided communication, to create a set of tools that combine high performance with ease-of-use. GA exposes a relatively straightforward programming abstraction, while supporting fully-distributed data structures, locality of reference, and high-performance communication. GA was originally formulated in the early 1990’s to provide a communication layer for the Northwest Chemistry (NWChem) suite of chemistry modeling codes that was being developed concurrently.

  5. Magnetostratigraphy of the Lower Jurassic (Hettangian-Sinemurian)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüsing, Silja Katherine; Abels, Hemmo; Deenen, Martijn; Ruhl, Micha; Krijgsman, Wout

    2013-04-01

    Magnetostratigraphy and correlation to the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) constitute a standard dating tool in Earth Sciences. When integrated with biostratigraphy and especially cyclostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy allows high-resolution correlations all over the world, because paleomagnetic polarity reversals can geologically be seen as globally synchronous events. It is therefore the stratigraphic tool of choice to perform correlations between continental and marine realms. An integrated astronomical time scale, which has been achieved for most of the Neogene and is in progress for the Palaeogene and Mesozoic, provides high resolution and accuracy. The Geologic Time Scale (GTS) for the Early Jurassic is far less robust (Gradstein et al., 2004, 2012) because magnetostratigraphic records of marine Hettangian and Sinemurian successions are rare and equivocal (Gallet et al., 1990; Yang et al., 1996). Consequently, the Global Stratotype Section and Points (GSSP's) for the Hettangian (Kuhjoch; Austria) and Sinemurian (East Quantoxhead; UK) are mainly defined on biostratigraphic (ammonite) arguments (Hillebrandt et al., 2007; Bloos and Page, 2002). Cyclostratigraphic analyses from the Lower Jurassic marine successions at St. Audrie's Bay and East Quantoxhead located on the west Somerset coast on the southern side of the Bristol Channel Basin (UK) resulted in an independent astronomical framework for the Hettangian Stage, allowing to locate the stratigraphic position of the marine defined Triassic-Jurassic and Hettangian-Sinemurian boundary in the continental realm (Ruhl et al., 2010). We will present the magnetostratigraphy of the Hettangian and lower Sinemurian successions of St. Audrie's Bay and East Quantoxhead, which will be used to evaluate the marine-continental correlations in the recovery interval following the end-Triassic mass extinction and to develop a more robust GPTS for the Lower Jurassic.

  6. Platinum group elements and 187Os/ 188Os in a purported impact ejecta layer near the Eifelian-Givetian stage boundary, Middle Devonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Birger; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; El Hassani, Ahmed; Bultynck, Pierre

    2006-09-01

    A global faunal crisis close to the Eifelian-Givetian stage boundary in the mid-Devonian has been purported to be related to the impact of one or two major extraterrestrial bodies. This was based on unusual mineralogical and chemical features within a distinct composite marl bed, at a level c. 40 cm below the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the Eifelian-Givetian boundary at Jebel Mech Irdane in Morocco. The impact relation has been challenged based partly on the absence of platinum group element data. We present here detailed Ir, Os, Pd and Pt as well as Os isotopic data across the bed at Mech Irdane and from a correlated 10 cm bed at a nearby site, Rich Haroun. Iridium concentrations of 0.13-0.28 ng/g in the beds represent a small enrichment compared to average shale, but Ir/Al ratios are only a factor 1.5-2 higher than background at respective site. Such small enrichments can readily be explained by terrestrial diagenetic processes, and do not require the presence of an extraterrestrial component. On an Al-normalized basis Pd and Pt show weak enrichments, typically a factor 2-4 higher than background. High 187Os/ 188Os ratios, 1.1-3.8, reflect ingrowth of radiogenic Os from Re, which is also evident from Os concentrations of up to 3 ng/g. The platinum group inter-element ratios are clearly non-chondritic. The overall platinum group and trace element (e.g. Co, Ni, As, V) patterns indicate that diagenetic processes at redox fronts have played a crucial role in shaping most element enrichments. If an excess siderophile-rich extraterrestrial component exists in these beds it represents less than 0.2‰ by weight.

  7. Global teaching of global seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, S.; Wysession, M.

    2005-12-01

    Our recent textbook, Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, & Earth Structure (Blackwell, 2003) is used in many countries. Part of the reason for this may be our deliberate attempt to write the book for an international audience. This effort appears in several ways. We stress seismology's long tradition of global data interchange. Our brief discussions of the science's history illustrate the contributions of scientists around the world. Perhaps most importantly, our discussions of earthquakes, tectonics, and seismic hazards take a global view. Many examples are from North America, whereas others are from other areas. Our view is that non-North American students should be exposed to North American examples that are type examples, and that North American students should be similarly exposed to examples elsewhere. For example, we illustrate how the Euler vector geometry changes a plate boundary from spreading, to strike-slip, to convergence using both the Pacific-North America boundary from the Gulf of California to Alaska and the Eurasia-Africa boundary from the Azores to the Mediterranean. We illustrate diffuse plate boundary zones using western North America, the Andes, the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and the East Africa Rift. The subduction zone discussions examine Japan, Tonga, and Chile. We discuss significant earthquakes both in the U.S. and elsewhere, and explore hazard mitigation issues in different contexts. Both comments from foreign colleagues and our experience lecturing overseas indicate that this approach works well. Beyond the specifics of our text, we believe that such a global approach is facilitated by the international traditions of the earth sciences and the world youth culture that gives students worldwide common culture. For example, a video of the scene in New Madrid, Missouri that arose from a nonsensical earthquake prediction in 1990 elicits similar responses from American and European students.

  8. Global Geomorphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, I.

    1985-01-01

    Any global view of landforms must include an evaluation of the link between plate tectonics and geomorphology. To explain the broad features of the continents and ocean floors, a basic distinction between the tectogene and cratogene part of the Earth's surface must be made. The tectogene areas are those that are dominated by crustal movements, earthquakes and volcanicity at the present time and are essentially those of the great mountain belts and mid ocean ridges. Cratogene areas comprise the plate interiors, especially the old lands of Gondwanaland and Laurasia. Fundamental as this division between plate margin areas and plate interiors is, it cannot be said to be a simple case of a distinction between tectonically active and stable areas. Indeed, in terms of megageomorphology, former plate margins and tectonic activity up to 600 million years ago have to be considered.

  9. Global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, John

    2005-06-01

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources.

  10. Global gamesmanship.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Ian C; van Putten, Alexander B; McGrath, Rita Gunther

    2003-05-01

    Competition among multinationals these days is likely to be a three-dimensional game of global chess: The moves an organization makes in one market are designed to achieve goals in another in ways that aren't immediately apparent to its rivals. The authors--all management professors-call this approach "competing under strategic interdependence," or CSI. And where this interdependence exists, the complexity of the situation can quickly overwhelm ordinary analysis. Indeed, most business strategists are terrible at anticipating the consequences of interdependent choices, and they're even worse at using interdependency to their advantage. In this article, the authors offer a process for mapping the competitive landscape and anticipating how your company's moves in one market can influence its competitive interactions in others. They outline the six types of CSI campaigns--onslaughts, contests, guerrilla campaigns, feints, gambits, and harvesting--available to any multiproduct or multimarket corporation that wants to compete skillfully. They cite real-world examples such as the U.S. pricing battle Philip Morris waged with R.J. Reynolds--not to gain market share in the domestic cigarette market but to divert R.J. Reynolds's resources and attention from the opportunities Philip Morris was pursuing in Eastern Europe. And, using data they collected from their studies of consumer-products companies Procter & Gamble and Unilever, the authors describe how to create CSI tables and bubble charts that present a graphical look at the competitive landscape and that may uncover previously hidden opportunities. The CSI mapping process isn't just for global corporations, the authors explain. Smaller organizations that compete with a portfolio of products in just one national or regional market may find it just as useful for planning their next business moves.

  11. Global trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Megie, G.; Chanin, M.-L.; Ehhalt, D.; Fraser, P.; Frederick, J. F.; Gille, J. C.; Mccormick, M. P.; Schoebert, M.; Bishop, L.; Bojkov, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    Measuring trends in ozone, and most other geophysical variables, requires that a small systematic change with time be determined from signals that have large periodic and aperiodic variations. Their time scales range from the day-to-day changes due to atmospheric motions through seasonal and annual variations to 11 year cycles resulting from changes in the sun UV output. Because of the magnitude of all of these variations is not well known and highly variable, it is necessary to measure over more than one period of the variations to remove their effects. This means that at least 2 or more times the 11 year sunspot cycle. Thus, the first requirement is for a long term data record. The second related requirement is that the record be consistent. A third requirement is for reasonable global sampling, to ensure that the effects are representative of the entire Earth. The various observational methods relevant to trend detection are reviewed to characterize their quality and time and space coverage. Available data are then examined for long term trends or recent changes in ozone total content and vertical distribution, as well as related parameters such as stratospheric temperature, source gases and aerosols.

  12. Mineralogy and geochemistry of claystones from the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary at Penglaitan, South China: Insights into the pre-Lopingian geological events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yu-Ting; He, Bin; Xu, Yi-Gang

    2013-01-01

    The Guadalupian-Lopingian (G/L) boundary, at a stratigraphically well-documented outcrop in Penglaitan, Guangxi Autonomous Region, South China, has been approved as the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP). Several volcanic ashes or tuffs occur at this boundary, but their mineralogy and geochemistry are not available yet and no reliable age for this boundary has been obtained. A combined study of mineralogy, geochemistry and geochronology has been carried out in this study on six layers of claystones collected below (Group 1) and above (Group 2) the G/L boundary at the Penglaitan section. Both Group 1 and Group 2 claystones are likely clastic in origin, rather than volcanic ashes as previously thought. Thus the Penglaitan claystones are not suitable for age determination of the G/L boundary. They are significantly different in terms of mineralogy and geochemistry. Specifically, Group 1 claystones are likely derived from a mafic source which is genetically related to the Emeishan large igneous province, therefore providing additional evidence for the synchroneity between the G/L boundary mass extinction and the Emeishan volcanism. Group 2 samples were derived from a felsic source, of which zircons yield an age spectrum peaked at 262 ± 3 Ma, undistinguishable within the uncertainty from the currently accepted G/L boundary age (260.4 ± 0.4 Ma). Nevertheless, Group 2 samples are not related to Emeishan volcanism, because their negative zircon ɛHf(t) values differ significantly from those of Emeishan magmas and trace element compositions of zircons are indicative of an arc source, rather than a within-plate source. In consideration of paleogeographic reconstruction, we propose that the Group 2 claystones may have been derived from continental arcs during the palaeo-Tethys evolution. This is the first sedimentary evidence for Permian continental arc in the northern margin of palaeo-Tethys.

  13. Integrated orbital time scale of the Valanginian-Hauterivian (Early Cretaceous): Chronological relationships between Paraná-Etendeka LIP, Weissert and Faraoni events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Mathieu; Deconinck, Jean-François; Pellenard, Pierre; Riquier, Laurent; Company, Miguel; Moiroud, Mathieu; Reboulet, Stéphane

    2014-05-01

    During the Valanginian and the Hauterivian stages, the Weissert and Faraoni Events recorded global perturbations of the carbon cycle, marine organic matter deposits and rapid ecosystem changes. Both events were successively attributed to the activity of the Paraná-Etendeka Large Igneous Province (LIP). However, due to the scarcity of the radiometric ages available for this time interval, the chronological relationships between these events and the activity of the Paraná-Etendeka LIP remain unclear. Recently, the duration of the Valanginian Stage was calculated using a cyclostratigraphic approach on GSSP candidates and stratotypes (Martinez et al., 2013), but could not be anchored on a radiometric age. Here, we propose a duration assessment of the Hauterivian Stage using a similar cyclostratigraphic approach on the hemipelagic marl-limestone alternations from the La Charce section (Hauterivian GSSP candidate; SE France) and the Río Argos section (Barremian GSSP candidate; SE Spain). This duration could be anchored on an U/Pb age from a tuff level precisely dated using calcareous nannofossils and chemostratigraphy, to provide a refined geological time scale for the Valanginian and the Hauterivian stages. A total of 2000 spectral gamma-ray measurements were performed with a constant 0.20-m sample step. Spectral analyses were performed on the gamma-ray series to detect any sedimentary cycle. The precession, obliquity, 100-kyr and 405-kyr eccentricity cycles were identified by comparing sedimentary to orbital period ratios. The duration of the Hauterivian Stage could be assessed at 5.9 myr, using the 405-kyr eccentricity cycle as a reference. By anchoring the U/Pb age of Aguirre-Urreta et al. (2008) on the orbital time scale provided for the Valanginian-Hauterivian stages, the base of the Valanginian Stage could be dated at -140.2 ± 1.5 Ma, the base of the Hauterivian at -135.1 ± 1.5 Ma and the base of the Barremian at -129.2 ± 1.5 Ma. In addition, the Weissert

  14. Combining local lithofacies and global geochemical signals to test the acidification hypothesis for the onset of Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 in the U.S. Western Interior Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. M.; Sageman, B. B.; Selby, D. S.; Oakes, R. L.; Bralower, T. J.; Parker, A. L.; Leckie, R. M.; Sepulveda, J.

    2015-12-01

    Strata preserving Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2), which span the Cenomanian-Turonian (C/T; Late Cretaceous), exhibit evidence of widespread anoxia, a major perturbation to the global carbon cycle, and increased biotic turnover rates. It has been hypothesized that a major volcanic (LIP) eruption, increased CO2 levels, and significant climate warming triggered the event. Recently, OAE2 has also been cited as a potential example of ocean acidification in Earth history and therefore has potential to offer predictive insights on impacts of increasing modern pCO2 levels. As part of an effort to test this hypothesis, the 131-m Smoky Hollow #1 (SH-1) core was drilled near Big Water, Utah during the summer of 2014. The core recovered an expanded stratigraphic record of OAE2 from the mud-rich western margin of the Western Interior Seaway. A high-resolution stable carbon isotope record from bulk organic carbon (δ13Corg) indicates near-continuous preservation of OAE2 with a sustained +2.5‰ excursion that is over 5 times the thickness of the same excursion at the C/T GSSP in Pueblo, Colorado. Notably, this record is characterized by a 1-m thick carbonate-barren interval at the δ13C excursion's onset. This may indicate an episode of ocean acidification driving suppressed carbonate sedimentation or carbonate dissolution. An alternative interpretation is that variations in carbonate concentrations are unrelated to changes in ocean chemistry and are instead driven by changes in local sedimentation patterns (e.g. transgressive-regressive parasequences). To test these hypotheses, a regional lithostratigraphic correlation to the nearshore Cottonwood Canyon section is constructed to assess whether prograding sandy parasequences may have altered carbonate sedimentation rates at the SH-1 locality. Initial osmium and δ13C chemostratigraphies are also developed to constrain the timing of perturbations in global geochemical cycles at the initiation of OAE2, including the onset of large

  15. Globalization and human cooperation.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Nancy R; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-03-17

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, "globalized" individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods.

  16. Global Awareness and Perspectives in Global Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnouf, Laura

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the whole notion of global education by discussing theoretical and practical understandings by major figures in the field. Global education is a recent addition in social studies and there are many different understandings and conceptual which effectively teach the concepts in schools as part of the entire curriculum. A review…

  17. Transforming Academic Globalization into Globalization for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramalhoto, M. F.

    2006-01-01

    Driving innovation and continuous improvement with regard to ecological, environmental and human sustainability is essential for win-win globalization. That calls for research on strategic and monitoring planning to manage globalization and technological and scientific change. This paper describes a new basic function of the university institution…

  18. Globalization and human cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, Nancy R.; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, “globalized” individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods. PMID:19255433

  19. Globalization, global health, and access to healthcare.

    PubMed

    Collins, Téa

    2003-01-01

    It is now commonly realized that the globalization of the world economy is shaping the patterns of global health, and that associated morbidity and mortality is affecting countries' ability to achieve economic growth. The globalization of public health has important implications for access to essential healthcare. The rise of inequalities among and within countries negatively affects access to healthcare. Poor people use healthcare services less frequently when sick than do the rich. The negative impact of globalization on access to healthcare is particularly well demonstrated in countries of transitional economies. No longer protected by a centralized health sector that provided free universal access to services for everyone, large segments of the populations in the transition period found themselves denied even the most basic medical services. Only countries where regulatory institutions are strong, domestic markets are competitive and social safety nets are in place, have a good chance to enjoy the health benefits of globalization.

  20. Global health diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Adams, Vincanne; Novotny, Thomas E; Leslie, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    A variety of shifts emergent with globalization, which are reflected in part by nascent programs in "Global Public Health," "Global Health Sciences," and "Global Health," are redefining international public health. We explore three of these shifts as a critical discourse and intervention in global health diplomacy: the expansion in non-governmental organization participation in international health programs, the globalization of science and pharmaceutical research, and the use of militarized languages of biosecurity to recast public health programs. Using contemporary anthropological and international health literature, we offer a critical yet hopeful exploration of the implications of these shifts for critical inquiry, health, and the health professions.

  1. Global solidarity, migration and global health inequity.

    PubMed

    Eckenwiler, Lisa; Straehle, Christine; Chung, Ryoa

    2012-09-01

    The grounds for global solidarity have been theorized and conceptualized in recent years, and many have argued that we need a global concept of solidarity. But the question remains: what can motivate efforts of the international community and nation-states? Our focus is the grounding of solidarity with respect to global inequities in health. We explore what considerations could motivate acts of global solidarity in the specific context of health migration, and sketch briefly what form this kind of solidarity could take. First, we argue that the only plausible conceptualization of persons highlights their interdependence. We draw upon a conception of persons as 'ecological subjects' and from there illustrate what such a conception implies with the example of nurses migrating from low and middle-income countries to more affluent ones. Next, we address potential critics who might counter any such understanding of current international politics with a reference to real-politik and the insights of realist international political theory. We argue that national governments--while not always or even often motivated by moral reasons alone--may nevertheless be motivated to acts of global solidarity by prudential arguments. Solidarity then need not be, as many argue, a function of charitable inclination, or emergent from an acknowledgment of injustice suffered, but may in fact serve national and transnational interests. We conclude on a positive note: global solidarity may be conceptualized to helpfully address global health inequity, to the extent that personal and transnational interdependence are enough to motivate national governments into action.

  2. Transient Global Amnesia

    MedlinePlus

    ... global amnesia is a sudden, temporary episode of memory loss that can't be attributed to a ... know well. But that doesn't make your memory loss less disturbing. Fortunately, transient global amnesia is ...

  3. Global climate change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1991-01-01

    Present processes of global climate change are reviewed. The processes determining global temperature are briefly described and the concept of effective temperature is elucidated. The greenhouse effect is examined, including the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases.

  4. IMERG Global Precipitation Rates

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement mission has produced its first global map of rainfall and snowfall. The GPM Core Observatory launched one year ago on Feb. 27, 2014 as a collaboration betwee...

  5. The Global Menace.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Sarah

    2012-08-01

    The history of medicine has gone 'global.' Why? Can the proliferation of the 'global' in our writing be explained away as a product of staying true to our historical subjects' categories? Or has this historiography in fact delivered a new 'global' problematic or performed serious 'global' analytic work? The situation is far from clear, and it is the tension between the global as descriptor and an analytics of the global that concerns me here. I have three main concerns: (1) that there is an epistemic collusion between the discourses of universality that inform medical science and global-talk; (2) that the embrace of the 'global' authorises a turning away from analyses of power in history-writing in that (3) this turning away from analyses of power in history-writing leads to scholarship that reproduces rather than critiques globalisation as a set of institutions, discourses and practices.

  6. Promoting "Global" Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Roland

    1996-01-01

    Discusses and illustrates three ways to promote prosocial attitudes towards global issues among students. Includes classroom environments that reinforce desired attitudes; facilitating direct "emotional" experiences that influence attitudes; and engaging students in thoughtful deliberation about global issues. Offers illustrative…

  7. Globalization and State Soverignty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Grahame Thompson, Globalization in Question , (Macitutious, Polity Press, 2000, 2nd edition), 256-257. Islam, M. Monwarul., “Globalization and Future of... in Question , (Macitutious, Polity Press, 2000, 2nd edition), 256-257. 8 Martin Wolf, “Will the Nation State Survive Globalization?” Foreign Affairs...Among Many?” Interview with Lebel France- January 2000; available from <http://www.france.diplomatie.fr. 7 Paul Hirst and Grahame Thompson, Globalization

  8. Global Atmospheric Aerosol Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Johannes; Aquila, Valentina; Righi, Mattia

    2012-01-01

    Global aerosol models are used to study the distribution and properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as well as their effects on clouds, atmospheric chemistry, radiation, and climate. The present article provides an overview of the basic concepts of global atmospheric aerosol modeling and shows some examples from a global aerosol simulation. Particular emphasis is placed on the simulation of aerosol particles and their effects within global climate models.

  9. Mapping Global Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    The demand to cultivate global citizenship is frequently invoked as central to colleges' and universities' internationalization efforts. However, the term "global citizenship" remains undertheorized in the context of U.S. higher education. This article maps and engages three common global citizenship positions--entrepreneurial, liberal…

  10. Global Governance, Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundy, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In the last half decade, a rising literature has focused on the idea that processes of economic, political and social globalization require analysis in terms of governance at the global level. It is argued in this article that emerging forms of global governance have produced significant challenges to conventional conceptions of international…

  11. Globalization Takes Off.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Tibor

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) database determined the growth of frequency of use of the term globalization during 1989-1995. Lists globalized items during 1989-1995: business, industry, production, and technology. Notes that science has not become globalized because it is still supported and managed by national governments.…

  12. Developing Successful Global Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Everyone seems to agree the world desperately needs strong leaders who can manage a global workforce and all the inherent challenges that go with it. That's a big part of the raison d'etre for global leadership development programs. But are today's organizations fully utilizing these programs to develop global leaders, and, if so, are they…

  13. An Attainable Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Castaneda, Viann Pedersen

    Concordia College (Minnesota) has established a global studies curriculum that encourages the development of a global perspective in future business leaders. Global perspective is seen as having five dimensions: (1) perspective consciousness; (2) "state of the planet" awareness; (3) cross-cultural awareness; (4) knowledge of global…

  14. The Global Positioning System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    Global Positioning System ( GPS ) and current program status are provided. The importance of...the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (NAVSTAR GPS or GPS ) will have on future weapons employment. The study will: examine why we need a high...Washington, D.C., 24 January, 1984. Malone, Daniel K. GPS /NAVSTAR. Military Review, March 1986. Nepean, Phillip The NAVSTAR Global Positioning System

  15. Global Cancer Humanitarian Award

    Cancer.gov

    Pat Garcia-Gonzalez of the Max Foundation accepted the first annual NCI Global Cancer Medicine Humanitarian Award for her work in chronic myeloid leukemia at the NCI, Center for Global Health Symposium for Global Cancer Research, held in Boston on March 25, 2015.

  16. Globalization and American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, William; Nicoletti, Augustine

    2008-01-01

    Globalization is a potent force in today's world. The welfare of the United States is tied to the welfare of other countries by economics, the environment, politics, culture, information, and technology. This paper identifies the implications of globalization for education, presents applications of important aspects of globalization that teachers…

  17. Global Health and the Global Economic Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Stephen; Bakker, Isabella

    2011-01-01

    Although the resources and knowledge for achieving improved global health exist, a new, critical paradigm on health as an aspect of human development, human security, and human rights is needed. Such a shift is required to sufficiently modify and credibly reduce the present dominance of perverse market forces on global health. New scientific discoveries can make wide-ranging contributions to improved health; however, improved global health depends on achieving greater social justice, economic redistribution, and enhanced democratization of production, caring social institutions for essential health care, education, and other public goods. As with the quest for an HIV vaccine, the challenge of improved global health requires an ambitious multidisciplinary research program. PMID:21330597

  18. Global sea level linked to global temperature

    PubMed Central

    Vermeer, Martin; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    We propose a simple relationship linking global sea-level variations on time scales of decades to centuries to global mean temperature. This relationship is tested on synthetic data from a global climate model for the past millennium and the next century. When applied to observed data of sea level and temperature for 1880–2000, and taking into account known anthropogenic hydrologic contributions to sea level, the correlation is >0.99, explaining 98% of the variance. For future global temperature scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fourth Assessment Report, the relationship projects a sea-level rise ranging from 75 to 190 cm for the period 1990–2100. PMID:19995972

  19. Global perspectives: A new global ethic, a new global partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Brundtland, G.H.

    1990-06-01

    In her keynote address at the opening plenary session of the Globe '90 Conference held in Vancouver in March, Mrs. Brundtland called for a new global partnership of government, industry, producers and consumers to meet present and future environmental challenges. This partnership would require help to developing countries to help free them from their handicaps of debt, overpopulation and poverty; that improvements made to the environment would not be offset by ecological damage in other areas. She was encouraged that the policy of sustainable development has been widely adapted as the only viable strategy for global change.

  20. [Globalization, poverty and health].

    PubMed

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between globalization, poverty and health, defining and presenting the main characteristics of contemporary globalization. It also establishes the characteristics of poverty today, both globally and regionally. Reviewing articles and world reports, it presents a set of evidence on the relationships between globalization and poverty, as well as their influence on health. Furthermore, it presents the opportunities offered by globalization, through a series of worldwide initiatives prompted by actions among countries under the aegis of the United Nations in general and the WHO in particular, in addition to intergovernmental alliances and coalitions and other civil society representatives.

  1. Global Collaborative STEM Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meabh Kelly, Susan; Smith, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Global Collaborative STEM Education, as the name suggests, simultaneously supports two sets of knowledge and skills. The first set is STEM -- science, technology, engineering and math. The other set of content knowledge and skills is that of global collaboration. Successful global partnerships require awareness of one's own culture, the biases embedded within that culture, as well as developing awareness of the collaborators' culture. Workforce skills fostered include open-mindedness, perseverance when faced with obstacles, and resourceful use of technological "bridges" to facilitate and sustain communication. In respect for the 2016 GIFT Workshop focus, Global Collaborative STEM Education projects dedicated to astronomy research will be presented. The projects represent different benchmarks within the Global Collaborative STEM Education continuum, culminating in an astronomy research experience that fully reflects how the global STEM workforce collaborates. To facilitate wider engagement in Global Collaborative STEM Education, project summaries, classroom resources and contact information for established international collaborative astronomy research projects will be disseminated.

  2. Stratotype for the Mérida Glaciation at Pueblo Llano in the northern Venezuelan Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Milner, M. W.; Voros, J.; Kalm, V.; Hütt, G.; Bezada, M.; Hancock, R. G. V.; Aufreiter, S.

    2000-12-01

    The Mérida Glaciation (cf. Wisconsinan, Weichselian) as proposed by Schubert (1974b) culminated at about 18 ka during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and ended at about 13 ka as indicated by 14C dating and correlation with the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia. Moraines of an early stade of Mérida Glaciation reached to 2800 m a.s.l. and were largely overrun or eradicated by the maximum Wisconsinan advance (LGM); where they outcrop, the older moraines are characterized by eroded, weathered glacial diamictons and outwash fans. At Pueblo Llano in the central Mérida Andes (Cordillera de Trujillo), older to younger beds of contorted glacitectonized diamict, overlying beds of bouldery till and indurated outwash, all belong to the early Mérida stade. Overlying the early Mérida stade, deposits of rhythmically bedded glaciolacustrine sediments are in turn overlain with contorted sand and silt beds capped with outwash. Above the outwash terrace a loop moraine of LGM age completely encircles the margins of the basin. A stream cut exposed by catastrophic (tectonic or surge?) release of meltwater displays a lithostratigraphic succession that is bereft of organic material for radiocarbon dating. Five optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates place the maximum age of the lowest till at 81 ka. Particle size distributions allow clear distinctions between major lithic units. Heavy mineral analysis of the middle and lower coarse units in the section provide information on sediment sourcing and on major lithostratigraphic divisions. Trace element concentrations provide information on the relative homogeneity of the deposits. The HREE (heavy rare earth element) concentrations allow discrimination of the lower till from the rest of the section; the LREE (light rare earth element) concentrations highlight differences between the lower till, LGM till, and the rest of the section.

  3. The stratotype and facies of the glacial Lower Vendian Nichatka Formation, Chara River basin, Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumakov, N. M.; Kernitskii, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    Sediments of the Nichatka Formation are facially studied and thoroughly described, the sections are correlated, and the subformations are recognized. The formation represents a key stratigraphic unit to reveal the origin of the Central Siberian glacial horizon and to correlate it with glacial horizons in other regions of the world, namely, with the Laplandian Horizon of the Lower Vendian, Nantou and Marino tillites, etc. The Nichatka Formation is correlated with the glacial Bolshoi Patom (Dzhemkukan) Formation of the Vendian reference section at the Ura Uplift. Unlike the latter, it is mainly composed of continental glacial deposits and is marked by a complex facies composition. The glacial origin of the Nichatka Formation is reliably determined on the basis of a set of diagnostic characters. This permits a more complete reconstruction of the Early Vendian depositional environments. In addition to typical basal tillites and marginal moraine deposits, the formation includes glaciolacustrine and fluvioglacial sediments along with aquatillites, allotillites, and the glacial fan, including subaqueous, deposits.

  4. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    PubMed Central

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K−1 decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge. PMID:27386558

  5. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    PubMed

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K(-1) decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge.

  6. The new global health.

    PubMed

    De Cock, Kevin M; Simone, Patricia M; Davison, Veronica; Slutsker, Laurence

    2013-08-01

    Global health reflects the realities of globalization, including worldwide dissemination of infectious and noninfectious public health risks. Global health architecture is complex and better coordination is needed between multiple organizations. Three overlapping themes determine global health action and prioritization: development, security, and public health. These themes play out against a background of demographic change, socioeconomic development, and urbanization. Infectious diseases remain critical factors, but are no longer the major cause of global illness and death. Traditional indicators of public health, such as maternal and infant mortality rates no longer describe the health status of whole societies; this change highlights the need for investment in vital registration and disease-specific reporting. Noncommunicable diseases, injuries, and mental health will require greater attention from the world in the future. The new global health requires broader engagement by health organizations and all countries for the objectives of health equity, access, and coverage as priorities beyond the Millennium Development Goals are set.

  7. The New Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Patricia M.; Davison, Veronica; Slutsker, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Global health reflects the realities of globalization, including worldwide dissemination of infectious and noninfectious public health risks. Global health architecture is complex and better coordination is needed between multiple organizations. Three overlapping themes determine global health action and prioritization: development, security, and public health. These themes play out against a background of demographic change, socioeconomic development, and urbanization. Infectious diseases remain critical factors, but are no longer the major cause of global illness and death. Traditional indicators of public health, such as maternal and infant mortality rates no longer describe the health status of whole societies; this change highlights the need for investment in vital registration and disease-specific reporting. Noncommunicable diseases, injuries, and mental health will require greater attention from the world in the future. The new global health requires broader engagement by health organizations and all countries for the objectives of health equity, access, and coverage as priorities beyond the Millennium Development Goals are set. PMID:23876365

  8. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    PubMed

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.

  9. Global health for a globally minded president.

    PubMed

    Daulaire, Nils

    2009-01-01

    President-elect Barack Obama can build on historic initiatives championed by his predecessor in global AIDS and malaria. These should serve as the platform for a more comprehensive and evidence-based set of activities aimed at addressing the major causes of ill health and instability in low-income countries. Obama should launch a new Global Family Health Action Plan aimed at saving the lives of six million children and women annually in impoverished nations. Existing policies driven by U.S. domestic ideological battles, particularly those relating to sexual and reproductive health, should be revised and brought into line with solid science and evidence from the field.

  10. Wideband Global SATCOM (WGS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-326 Wideband Global SATCOM (WGS) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense Acquisition...Wideband Global SATCOM (WGS) DoD Component Air Force Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Production Estimate) Defense Acquisition...Program Baseline (APB) dated March 12, 2014 WGS December 2015 SAR March 23, 2016 16:19:48 UNCLASSIFIED 5 Mission and Description Wideband Global

  11. NAVSTAR Global Positioning System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    number) The NAVSTAR Global Positioning System ( GPS ) is an all-weather, Jam-resistant, continuous-operations space-based, passive radio navigation and...with an understanding of the capabilities and limitations of the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System ( GPS ). II. Problem: To fight the next battle...navigation equipment and was not able to navigate on instruments or across a distant 9000-foot mountain. Had a NAVSTAR Global Positioning System ( GPS

  12. NASA Global Hawk Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naftel, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Global Hawk Project is supporting Earth Science research customers. These customers include: US Government agencies, civilian organizations, and universities. The combination of the Global Hawks range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities separates the Global Hawk platform from all other platforms available to the science community. This presentation includes an overview of the concept of operations and an overview of the completed science campaigns. In addition, the future science plans, using the NASA Global Hawk System, will be presented.

  13. Global Rietveld Refinement

    PubMed Central

    Shankland, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Global optimisation methods of structure determination from powder diffraction data have risen to prominence in a relatively short space of time and they now constitute a key approach in the examination of polycrystalline molecular organic materials. A correctly formulated global optimisation approach may be regarded as a “global Rietveld refinement” that is capable of delivering accurate crystal structures from high-quality powder diffraction data. This paper focuses on how accuracy at all stages of a powder diffraction experiment impacts upon the overall structure solution process and particular attention is paid to assessing the degree of accuracy with which structures are returned from the global optimisation process. PMID:27366603

  14. Global water cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin; Goodman, Steven J.; Christy, John R.; Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.; Chou, Shi-Hung; Crosson, William; Wang, Shouping; Ramirez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    This research is the MSFC component of a joint MSFC/Pennsylvania State University Eos Interdisciplinary Investigation on the global water cycle extension across the earth sciences. The primary long-term objective of this investigation is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates change on both global and regional scales. Significant accomplishments in the past year are presented and include the following: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) global modeling; and (4) optimal precipitation and stream flow analysis and hydrologic processes.

  15. Future Global Cryosphere: Impacts of Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, T. Y.; Barry, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the Earth is undergoing potentially rapid changes in all cryospheric components, including Arctic sea ice shrinkage, mountain glacier recession, thawing permafrost, diminishing snow cover, and accelerated melting of the Greenland ice sheet. This has significant implications for global climate, hydrology, water resources, and global sea level. Physical evidences of changes observed in the cryosphere are: (a) Duration of ice cover of rivers and lakes in high latitudes of N. H. decreased by about two weeks over the 20th Century; (b) Significant retreat of glaciers world wide during the 20th Century; (c) Thinning of Arctic sea-ice extent and thickness by about 40% in late summer in recent decades, with the minimum sea ice concentration mapped by the SSM/I sensor of NASA in 2007; (d) Snow cover decreased in area by about 10% since global observations by satellites began in the late 1960s, in various places of the Northern Hemisphere; (e) In North America, snow water equivalent decreased by about 10mm since observations by passive microwave sensors began in the late 1970s; (f) Degradations of permafrost have been detected in some parts of the polar and sub-polar regions, and (g) The total 20th Century global average sea level rise was about 0.17m, likely due to decline in glaciers, snow, ice sheets, and losses from Greenland and Antarctica ice. Next, projected changes to the Cryosphere: northern hemisphere snow cover, avalanches, land ice, permafrost, freshwater ice, and sea ice changes, are presented.

  16. From Global Knowledge to Global Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzini, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I argue that student learning is enhanced when civic engagement is a component of international education initiatives. When only presented with knowledge about global challenges, students can become frustrated and overwhelmed unless they also understand how they might contribute to solutions. Political science programs are…

  17. "Global Competency" Is Imperative for Global Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimers, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    According to a recent report of scenarios prepared by the National Intelligence Council, the next 15 years will bring significant global changes, including the transformation of the international political system built after World War II, a transfer of wealth from the West to the East, pressure on natural resources resulting from continuing…

  18. Balancing global city with global village.

    PubMed

    Afshar, F

    1998-12-01

    The discourse on habitat and human settlements is increasingly dominated by that of the global, mega-city. If the aim of those of us in the human settlements field are to improve our understanding of and action on habitat and human settlements, this, often exclusive, focus is a mistake. Our habitat is better understood and acted upon as a network of interwoven settlements and surrounding countryside, large and small, themselves interwoven within our larger ecosystem. In this network the habitat of our smaller settlements (smaller cities, towns, villages) and rural areas and our global village also plays a critical role. The assumption can be challenged that urbanization and the mega-city are the critical issues of habitat and human settlements. Evidence suggests that with some rurbanization there is also counter urbanization, the ruralization of cities, and, perhaps most important, a growing urbanization as city-country interactions intensify. Habitat for all and habitat for a healthy, sustainable planet demands our openness to these new concepts and realities. It demands an integrated, balanced, approach which helps a wide range of living settlement nodes, large and small, to nurture each other. Global City and Global Village must go hand in hand. Our planetary and human health depends on it.

  19. Learning to Plunder: Global Education, Global Inequality and the Global City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannock, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Most research and policy discussions of education in the global city have focused on the ways in which globalization and the emergence of global or globalizing cities can create social, economic and educational inequality locally, within the global city itself. Global cities, however, are, by definition, powerful places, where the core…

  20. Globalization, Interdependence and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubauer, Deane

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary globalization is marked by rapidly and dramatically increasing interdependence, which operates both within and among countries. Increasing global interdependence has profound influence on education at all levels, such as how to deal with a world with more permeable boundaries in which people are on the move more frequently (migration)…

  1. Global Wind Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This brief article describes a new global wind-power map that has quantified global wind power and may help planners place turbines in locations that can maximize power from the winds and provide widely available low-cost energy. The researchers report that their study can assist in locating wind farms in regions known for strong and consistent…

  2. Assessing Individuals' Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Kelly Carter; Braskamp, David C.; Braskamp, Larry A.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the Global Perspective Inventory (GPI), a survey instrument that measures participants' global perspective in terms of cognitive, intrapersonal, and interpersonal domains--each in terms of both development and acquisition. A summary of the recent research on the GPI is provided along with a discussion of potential uses.

  3. Global Awareness Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, James

    The paper discusses the Global Awareness Test administered to 6,396 grade 9 students in New Brunswick, Canada at the beginning and end of the 1987 school year. The test was designed to better assess the impact of the grade 9 social studies program and the activities of New Brunswick's Global Education Centre. By comparing the results of the pre-…

  4. Building Global Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Thomas; Buchem, Ilona; Camacho, Mar; Cronin, Catherine; Gordon, Averill; Keegan, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Within the background where education is increasingly driven by the economies of scale and research funding, we propose an alternative online open and connected framework (OOC) for building global learning communities using mobile social media. We critique a three year action research case study involving building collaborative global learning…

  5. Teaching Global Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peet, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Describes the course, "Global Society," for first-year International Studies students at a Massachusetts liberal arts college. The course, which takes a historical approach, informs students about the nature, history, and present characteristics of the global system, taking theoretical, historical, and critical approaches that stress the…

  6. Global 2000 Countdown Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Fourteen units for high school global education classes are based on "The Global 2000 Report to the President," which examines the relationships between worldwide population growth and resource and environmental consequences. Topics of the units are population; income; food; fisheries; forests; water; nonfuel minerals; energy; impacts on…

  7. Global Diversity and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Art

    2003-01-01

    Argues that global diversity has become a business imperative in today's business climate. Global diversity is of core importance even for companies that are considered domestic. Suggests community colleges need help in understanding their customer base and their shifting values in order to meet their needs and win customer loyalty. (NB)

  8. The Global Youth Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alschuler, Alfred; Myers, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    The Global Youth Academy began as a low-cost, private school that taught global citizenship to its own students and foreign students recruited enroute. The school-on-wings formula is simple: build the curriculum into a tour, integrate academic and personal growth, and stress community service. The program succeeds academically while promoting…

  9. An Attainable Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanvey, Robert G.

    A more complete understanding of global perspective is provided in this essay through an examination of the modes of thought, sensitivities, intellectual skills, and explanatory capacities which contribute to the formation of a global perspective. With an emphasis on both a formal and informal educational level, the essay is divided into five…

  10. Simulating Global Climate Summits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesperman, Dean P.; Haste, Turtle; Alrivy, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    One of the most persistent and controversial issues facing the global community is climate change. With the creation of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992 and the Kyoto Protocol (1997), the global community established some common ground on how to address this issue. However, the last several climate summits have failed…

  11. Preparing Global Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Dennis C.; Welch, Lucas; Al-Khanji, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Global citizens are those who are aware of, demonstrate respect for, and are comfortable engaging across cultural boundaries. This article explores why preparing global citizens is important and how positive psychology can inform our understanding of those who engage comfortably in today's complicated world. Soliya's Connect program is described…

  12. Poverty + Hunger = Global Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Geography teachers can use mathematics to teach fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students about critical global issues. Five sample problems concerning population, poverty, waste, the arms race, and hunger are presented. The global issue related to each problem is discussed, and the solution and mathematical skill are provided. (RM)

  13. Translation as (Global) Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  14. Global Tuberculosis Report 2016

    MedlinePlus

    ... WHO Language عربي 中文 English Français Русский Español Tuberculosis (TB) Menu Tuberculosis The End TB Strategy Areas ... data News, events and features About us Global tuberculosis report 2016 WHO has published a global TB ...

  15. Defining Global Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Sarina; Lattimer, Heather

    2013-01-01

    As the world is becoming increasingly flat, it has become important for educators to prepare students to understand global perspectives and engage with people from countries and cultures around the world. Although there is no question as to the importance of global education to meet with the demands of a flat world, what internationalization and…

  16. Global Interaction in Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Audrey Grace

    2010-01-01

    Based on a virtual conference, Glide'08 (Global Interaction in Design Education), that brought international design scholars together online, this special issue expands on the topics of cross-cultural communication and design and the technological affordances that support such interaction. The author discusses the need for global interaction in…

  17. Global and Local Textuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, B. G.

    Coherence and cohesion are fundamental considerations of the composing process that help to define the global and local components of texuality. Global text coherence centers on those aspects of the familiar rhetorical situation. Coherence operates at the paragraph and essay levels, answering questions about focus, tone, mode, topic, and thesis.…

  18. Globalization of Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Robert F.; Iannarelli, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    A new study, sponsored by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, presented a comprehensive new perspective on the globalization of management education, (AACSB International, 2011). Its findings are sobering: with regard to emerging global trends in higher education and cross-border business, the report reveals a sizable gap…

  19. Critically Theorizing the Global

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudelli, William

    2013-01-01

    Globalization has unleashed profound changes in education. These include positivistic international school comparisons, a singular focus on schools as drivers of economic development, and the adoption of neoliberal market principles in school. These changes, however, generally go unexamined within the field and literature of global education.…

  20. The Campanian - Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) climate transition linked to a global carbon cycle perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, S.; Friedrich, O.; Gale, A. S.

    2009-04-01

    The Late Cretaceous was a period of long-term climate cooling succeeding the extreme warmth of the mid-Cretaceous greenhouse world. The cooling is mainly considered as a result of changes in ocean circulation due to plate movements resulting in progressive deep-water exchange between the deep oceanic basins and a parallel drop in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In Campanian - Maastrichtian times, pronounced climate cooling is documented between 71 - 69 Ma, when distinct changes in foraminiferal oxygen and carbon isotope data at a global scale indicate substantial deep-water cooling and reduced rates of organic carbon burial. The causal mechanisms of this cooling period, however, are poorly understood to date. While some authors suggest mainly oceanographic changes, others supposed an ephemeral glaciation related to a eustatic sea-level fall. Mainly, the relative timing of oceanic oxygen and carbon isotope changes to eustatic sea-level changes is not proven yet. Likewise, the influence of plate tectonic changes as the opening of gateways or the subduction of mid-ocean ridges and/or of orbital forcing is poorly understood. A principle objection beside the sparse available data is the low temporal resolution of biostratigraphic zonations. Here, we present carbon isotope stratigraphies from Campanian-Maastrichtian Boundary sites in the Boreal and Tethyan shelf seas of Europe and from Shatsky Rise in the tropical Pacific in order to improve the resolution of stratigraphic correlation. Prominent features at that time are two negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) in the late Campanian and earliest Maastrichtian, which are well documented in the Lägerdorf-Kronsmoor section in N-Germany and the Campanian-Maastrichtian Boundary Stratotype at Tercis in SW France. These new carbon isotope records correlate well with the carbon isotope reference curve from the English Chalk (Jarvis et al., 2002, 2006). The new carbon isotope record at Site 305 in the tropical

  1. Ethics in global surgery.

    PubMed

    Wall, Anji E

    2014-07-01

    Global surgery, while historically a small niche, is becoming a larger part of the global health enterprise. This article discusses the burden of global surgery, emphasizing the importance of addressing surgical needs in low- and middle-income countries. It describes the barriers to surgical care in the developing world, the ethical challenges that these barriers create, and strategies to overcome these barriers. It emphasizes the crucial role of preparation for global surgical interventions as a way to maximize benefits as well as minimize harms and ethical challenges. It ends with the cautionary statement that preparation does not eliminate ethical problems, so surgical volunteers must be prepared not only for the technical challenges of global surgery but also for the ethical challenges.

  2. Globalization of healthcare.

    PubMed

    2012-05-01

    Globalization-the increasing transnational circulation of money, goods, people, ideas, and information worldwide-is generally recognized as one of the most powerful forces shaping our current and future history. How is it affecting healthcare, and in that context, what is the purpose and significance of Global Advances in Health and Medicine (GAHM), publisher of this journal? Our goal is not homogenization but rather to provide an opportunity for integration, convergence, and collaboration across cultures. By respecting and conserving the richness and diversity of each new medicine, we embrace globalization. Globalization is of course not new; it began in the Renaissance and particularly with the 15th- and 16th-century voyages of exploration by Columbus, Magellan, and others. Since the beginning of time, there have been interactions and exchanges among different peoples and cultures. However, the current magnitude of globalization is unprecedented and yet still expanding rapidly.

  3. Global Value Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhen; Puliga, Michelangelo; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The fragmentation of production across countries has become an important feature of the globalization in recent decades and is often conceptualized by the term “global value chains” (GVCs). When empirically investigating the GVCs, previous studies are mainly interested in knowing how global the GVCs are rather than how the GVCs look like. From a complex networks perspective, we use the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to study the evolution of the global production system. We find that the industry-level GVCs are indeed not chain-like but are better characterized by the tree topology. Hence, we compute the global value trees (GVTs) for all the industries available in the WIOD. Moreover, we compute an industry importance measure based on the GVTs and compare it with other network centrality measures. Finally, we discuss some future applications of the GVTs. PMID:25978067

  4. Globalization and Health.

    PubMed

    Martin, Greg

    2005-04-22

    This debut editorial of Globalization and Health introduces the journal, briefly delineating its goals and objectives and outlines its scope of subject matter. 'Open Access' publishing is expected to become an increasingly important format for peer reviewed academic journals and that Globalization and Health is 'Open Access' is appropriate. The rationale behind starting a journal dedicated to globalization and health is three fold:Firstly: Globalization is reshaping the social geography within which we might strive to create health or prevent disease. The determinants of health - be they a SARS virus or a predilection for fatty foods - have joined us in our global mobility. Driven by economic liberalization and changing technologies, the phenomenon of 'access' is likely to dominate to an increasing extent the unfolding experience of human disease and wellbeing.Secondly: Understanding globalization as a subject matter itself needs certain benchmarks and barometers of its successes and failings. Health is one such barometer. It is a marker of social infrastructure and social welfare and as such can be used to either sound an alarm or give a victory cheer as our interconnectedness hurts and heals the populations we serve.And lastly: In as much as globalization can have an effect on health, it is also true that health and disease has an effect on globalization as exemplified by the existence of quarantine laws and the devastating economic effects of the AIDS pandemic.A balanced view would propose that the effects of globalization on health (and health systems) are neither universally good nor bad, but rather context specific. If the dialogue pertaining to globalization is to be directed or biased in any direction, then it must be this: that we consider the poor first.

  5. Global Partnership in Global Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A.; Obersteiner, M.

    2007-12-01

    The emergence of a global partnership on earth observations will crucially drive the configuration of future observing systems and consequently shape how socio-economic benefits are generated. In this paper we take a game-theoretical approach to model cooperation on building global earth observation systems. We consider several societies whose economies are subject to shocks mimicking major natural disasters. Economies operate optimally and lead to the best possible expected value for the social welfares in the future. In order to increase its welfare even more society can make a decision to invest into a global alerting system which lowers the risk of disasters. We start our investigation from a single-society case and show conditions under which benefits of such investment can be reaped. The propensity to invest increases with economic affluence and degree of vulnerability to natural disasters. We find that for poor and/or less vulnerable countries it is better to forbear from investment. If to consider a situation of multiple societies a strategic gaming situation emerges motivated by the fact that every society will benefit from a global system regardless of whether they invested or not. Our analysis of possible equilibrium solutions shows that similar to the formation of trading blocks (e.g. EU, NAFTA) only in the case of similar societies we will observe cooperation behavior (when all invest) and otherwise we will observe free-riding. This insight, that we might face a prisoners dilemma problem in the formation of a GEOSS, has important implications for the GEO process.

  6. How global brands compete.

    PubMed

    Holt, Douglas B; Quelch, John A; Taylor, Earl L

    2004-09-01

    It's time to rethink global branding. More than two decades ago, Harvard Business School professor Theodore Levitt argued that corporations should grow by selling standardized products all over the world. But consumers in most countries had trouble relating to generic products, so executives instead strove for global scale on backstage activities such as production while customizing product features and selling techniques to local tastes. Such "glocal" strategies now rule marketing. Global branding has lost more luster recently because transnational companies have been under siege, with brands like Coca-Cola and Nike becoming lightning rods for antiglobalization protests. The instinctive reaction of most transnational companies has been to try to fly below the radar. But global brands can't escape notice. In fact, most transnational corporations don't realize that because of their power and pervasiveness, people view them differently than they do other firms. In a research project involving 3,300 consumers in 41 countries, the authors found that most people choose one global brand over another because of differences in the brands'global qualities. Ratherthan ignore the global characteristics of their brands, firms must learn to manage those characteristics. That's critical, because future growth for most companies will likely come from foreign markets. Consumers base preferences on three dimensions of global brands--quality (signaled by a company's global stature); the cultural myths that brands author; and firms' efforts to address social problems. The authors also found that it didn't matter to consumers whether the brands they bought were American--a remarkable finding considering that the study was conducted when anti-American sentiment in many nations was on the rise.

  7. Global atmospheric changes.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1991-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the processes that are responsible for the greenhouse effect, air pollution, acid deposition, and increased exposure to UV radiation. PMID:1820255

  8. Global reach and engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-09-01

    Popular culture reflects both the interests of and the issues affecting the general public. As concerns regarding climate change and its impacts grow, is it permeating into popular culture and reaching that global audience?

  9. The Global Menace

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Summary The history of medicine has gone ‘global.’ Why? Can the proliferation of the ‘global’ in our writing be explained away as a product of staying true to our historical subjects’ categories? Or has this historiography in fact delivered a new ‘global’ problematic or performed serious ‘global’ analytic work? The situation is far from clear, and it is the tension between the global as descriptor and an analytics of the global that concerns me here. I have three main concerns: (1) that there is an epistemic collusion between the discourses of universality that inform medical science and global-talk; (2) that the embrace of the ‘global’ authorises a turning away from analyses of power in history-writing in that (3) this turning away from analyses of power in history-writing leads to scholarship that reproduces rather than critiques globalisation as a set of institutions, discourses and practices. PMID:26345469

  10. Cancer and globalization.

    PubMed

    Sasco, Annie J

    2008-02-01

    Global human cancer is increasing. Exposures to cancer risk factors are not only becoming more prevalent in the less industrialized countries, but they have also become more complex all over the world. Human societies have always traded and migrated, yet the growth of powerful economic institutions and globalization is accelerating, mixing many cancer risk factors. Critically, new cancer risk factors have also appeared, concurrent with globalization: modern diet, addictive products, pharmaceuticals, and toxic and waste products. Prevention, which still rests on recognition and elimination of exposure to carcinogens, is difficult, with seemingly opposed priorities such as income (corporate or individual) versus health. The solutions require not only individual behavioural change but also more importantly innovative action of all concerned at the global, collective level.

  11. Global Health Observatory (GHO)

    MedlinePlus

    ... mental health Noncommunicable diseases Mental health 3.5 Substance abuse Global Information System on Alcohol and Health (GISAH) Resources for the Prevention and Treatment of Substance Use Disorders 3.6 Road traffic injuries Road ...

  12. Meeting global conservation challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-10-01

    Hot on the heels of last year's Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement, representatives from the global conservation community met to set the conservation agenda that will help to implement these targets.

  13. Technology and Global Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grübler, Arnulf

    2003-10-01

    Technology and Global Change describes how technology has shaped society and the environment over the last 200 years. Technology has led us from the farm to the factory to the internet, and its impacts are now global. Technology has eliminated many problems, but has added many others (ranging from urban smog to the ozone hole to global warming). This book is the first to give a comprehensive description of the causes and impacts of technological change and how they relate to global environmental change. Written for specialists and nonspecialists alike, it will be useful for researchers and professors, as a textbook for graduate students, for people engaged in long-term policy planning in industry (strategic planning departments) and government (R & D and technology ministries, environment ministries), for environmental activists (NGOs), and for the wider public interested in history, technology, or environmental issues.

  14. Defining and Quantifying Globalization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-08

    to be one of the most powerful issues facing the world today. Anthony Giddens , director of the London School of Economics, states the globalization...globalization is a central theme throughout this work. 12 Anthony Giddens , The Consequences of Modernity (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1990), 64. 13 Thomas...of the world such that space is no longer mapped in terms of physical geography to include distances and borders. In support of this view, Anthony

  15. Global Positioning System Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-27

    GPS : FREE – DEPENDABLE – RELIABLE - ACCURATE 1 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM STATUS Benjamin Barbour Major, United States Air Force Schriever AFB... Global Positioning System Service Interface Committee (CGSIC) held in Groton, CT, April 2011 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY...Continuing work with international GNSS community  Maintains Backward Compatibility  Managing GPS systems and supporting stakeholders Committed to responsible stewardship of GPS

  16. USGS global change research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The Earth's global environment--its interrelated climate, land, oceans, fresh water, atmospheric and ecological systems-has changed continually throughout Earth history. Human activities are having ever-increasing effects on these systems. Sustaining our environment as population and demands for resources increase requires a sound understanding of the causes and cycles of natural change and the effects of human activities on the Earth's environmental systems. The U.S. Global Change Research Program was authorized by Congress in 1989 to provide the scientific understanding necessary to develop national and international policies concerning global environmental issues, particularly global climate change. The program addresses questions such as: what factors determine global climate; have humans already begun to change the global climate; will the climate of the future be very different; what will be the effects of climate change; and how much confidence do we have in our predictions? Through understanding, we can improve our capability to predict change, reduce the adverse effects of human activities, and plan strategies for adapting to natural and human-induced environmental change.

  17. Is Global Warming Accelerating?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, J.; Delsole, T. M.; Tippett, M. K.

    2009-12-01

    A global pattern that fluctuates naturally on decadal time scales is identified in climate simulations and observations. This newly discovered component, called the Global Multidecadal Oscillation (GMO), is related to the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation and shown to account for a substantial fraction of decadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature. IPCC-class climate models generally underestimate the variance of the GMO, and hence underestimate the decadal fluctuations due to this component of natural variability. Decomposing observed sea surface temperature into a component due to anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing plus the GMO, reveals that most multidecadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature can be accounted for by these two components alone. The fact that the GMO varies naturally on multidecadal time scales implies that it can be predicted with some skill on decadal time scales, which provides a scientific rationale for decadal predictions. Furthermore, the GMO is shown to account for about half of the warming in the last 25 years and hence a substantial fraction of the recent acceleration in the rate of increase in global average sea surface temperature. Nevertheless, in terms of the global average “well-observed” sea surface temperature, the GMO can account for only about 0.1° C in transient, decadal-scale fluctuations, not the century-long 1° C warming that has been observed during the twentieth century.

  18. Globalization and Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencze, J. Lawrence; Carter, Lyn; Chiu, Mei-Hung; Duit, Reinders; Martin, Sonya; Siry, Christina; Krajcik, Joseph; Shin, Namsoo; Choi, Kyunghee; Lee, Hyunju; Kim, Sung-Won

    2012-12-01

    Processes of globalization have played a major role in economic and cultural change worldwide. More recently, there is a growing literature on rethinking science education research and development from the perspective of globalization. This paper provides a critical overview of the state and future development of science education research from the perspective of globalization. Two facets are given major attention. First, the further development of science education as an international research domain is critically analyzed. It seems that there is a predominance of researchers stemming from countries in which English is the native language or at least a major working language. Second, the significance of rethinking the currently dominant variants of science instruction from the perspectives of economic and cultural globalization is given major attention. On the one hand, it is argued that processes concerning globalization of science education as a research domain need to take into account the richness of the different cultures of science education around the world. At the same time, it is essential to develop ways of science instruction that make students aware of the various advantages, challenges and problems of international economic and cultural globalization.

  19. Globalization and Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencze, J. Lawrence; Carter, Lyn; Chiu, Mei-Hung; Duit, Reinders; Martin, Sonya; Siry, Christina; Krajcik, Joseph; Shin, Namsoo; Choi, Kyunghee; Lee, Hyunju; Kim, Sung-Won

    2013-06-01

    Processes of globalization have played a major role in economic and cultural change worldwide. More recently, there is a growing literature on rethinking science education research and development from the perspective of globalization. This paper provides a critical overview of the state and future development of science education research from the perspective of globalization. Two facets are given major attention. First, the further development of science education as an international research domain is critically analyzed. It seems that there is a predominance of researchers stemming from countries in which English is the native language or at least a major working language. Second, the significance of rethinking the currently dominant variants of science instruction from the perspectives of economic and cultural globalization is given major attention. On the one hand, it is argued that processes concerning globalization of science education as a research domain need to take into account the richness of the different cultures of science education around the world. At the same time, it is essential to develop ways of science instruction that make students aware of the various advantages, challenges and problems of international economic and cultural globalization.

  20. Global challenges and globalization of bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Nezhmetdinova, Farida

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes problems and implications for man and nature connected with the formation of a new architecture of science, based on the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science (NBIC). It also describes evolution and genesis of bioethics, a scientific discipline and social practice with a special role of ethical management of potential risks of scientific research. The aim was to demonstrate the necessity of bioethical social control in the development of a global bioeconomy driven by NBIC technologies. PMID:23447421

  1. Life crises on land across the Permian-Triassic boundary in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yuanqiao; Shi, G. R.

    2009-02-01

    The western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan area of southwest China commands a unique and significant position globally in the study of Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) events as it contains well and continuously exposed PTB sections of marine, non-marine and marginal-marine origin in the same area. By using a range of high-resolution stratigraphic methods including biostratigraphy, eventostratigraphy, chronostratigraphy and chemostratigraphy, not only are the non-marine PTB sections correlated with their marine counterparts in the study area with high-resolution, the non-marine PTB sections of the study area can also be aligned with the PTB Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) at Meishan in eastern China. Plant megafossils ("megaplants") in the study area indicate a major loss in abundance and diversity across the PTB, and no coal beds and/or seams have been found in the non-marine Lower Triassic although they are very common in the non-marine Upper Permian. The megaplants, however, did not disappear consistently across the whole area, with some elements of the Late Permian Cathaysian Gigantopteris flora surviving the PTB mass extinction and locally even extending up to the Lower Triassic. Palynomorphs exhibit a similar temporal pattern characterized by a protracted stepwise decrease from fern-dominated spores in the Late Permian to pteridosperm and gymnosperm-dominated pollen in the Early Triassic, which was however punctuated by an accelerated loss in both abundance and diversity across the PTB. Contemporaneous with the PTB crisis in the study area was the peculiar prevalence and dominance of some fungi and/or algae species. The temporal patterns of megaplants and palynomorphs across the PTB in the study area are consistent with the regional trends of plant changes in South China, which also show a long-term decrease in species diversity from the Late Permian Wuchiapingian through the Changhsingian to the earliest Triassic, with about 48% and 77% losses of

  2. Cenomanian-Turonian Bentonites of the Boquillas Formation, Texas, USA: keys to understanding Carbonate Shelf deposition in a Greenhouse Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Steve; Eldrett, James; Ma, Chao; Minisini, Daniel; Macaulay, Calum; Ozkan, Aysen; Kelly, Amy

    2016-04-01

    The Boquillas Formation (Fm.) (equivalent to the Eagle Ford Group) was deposited at the Southern end of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway (KWIS) and the northwestern margin of the Gulf of Mexico Carbonate Shelf (passive margin) in a starved retroarc foreland basin setting during part of the Cenomanian and Turonian Stages (CT; 97-90 Ma). The Boquillas Fm. includes several Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAE) marked by global Carbon Isotope Excursions (CIE) and trace metal anomalies. Here we provide a robust zircon U/Pb geochronologic framework used to accurately interpret and predict variability in facies distribution. The Boquillas Fm. consists of a succession of cyclic marlstone and limestone beds and over 300 bentonites deposited in a distal, restricted, suboxic setting mostly below storm wave base. Bentonites are generally homogenous clay-rich layers 1-10 cm thick (average 5 cm, up to 1 m) showing sharp contacts and strong yellow-orange mineral fluorescence under UV light. In addition to detailed logging of roadcuts, two research wells drilled behind outcrops, Shell IONA-1 and Shell INNES-1, recovered >330 m of continuous core from the Austin Chalk at surface through the Boquillas and Buda Limestone Fm. The bentonites form ~5% of the 60-111 m thick Boquillas Fm. intervals and are interpreted as distal pyroclastic fall deposits from large volume (>10-100 km3) Plinian eruptions from calderas associated with the subduction-related Western North American Cordilleran magmatic arc. Some of the Boquillas Fm. bentonites can be correlated using cores, petrophysical logs, geochemistry, and biostratigraphy for more than 1000 km to the north within the Western Interior Seaway at the CT global stratotype (GSSP) section at Pueblo, CO as well as many other sections in the KWIS. This contribution integrates new high-precision zircon U/Pb TIMs age data (2σ as low as 0.05 Myr) from both core and outcrop samples with independent proxies derived from sedimentology, biostratigraphy

  3. Developing Global Nurse Influencers.

    PubMed

    Spies, Lori A

    2016-01-01

    How can universities create engaged citizens and global leaders? Each year, a select group of advanced practice nursing students at Baylor University Louise Herrington School of Nursing travel to Africa for a month-long clinical mission experience. Students work alongside local and missionary healthcare providers in a comprehensive Christian outreach to the community at a high-volume clinic. Creating rich learning experiences in a global setting in significant and sustainable ways is difficult, but intentionally focusing on what we are called to do and who we serve provides ballast for faculty and students. The success of the trip in preparing students to be global influencers is evident by the work graduates elect to do around the world, following graduation.

  4. Global ice sheet modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed.

  5. Global weather research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Modeling, prediction, and analysis of global meteorological phenomena influencing the large scale behavior of the atmosphere are summarized. Prediction of global weather phenomena based on satellite data is discussed and models of global phenomena developed. The atmospheric general circulation model (AGCE) is reviewed, axisymmetric flow calculated, and axisymmetric states in cylindrical, spherical, three dimensional, and spin up numerical models for AGCE described. The role of latent heat release in baroclinic waves, latent heat and cyclonic systems, and a theoretical study of baroclinic flow related to the AGCE and the flow regime were studied with a simplified general circulation model. AGCE and the geophysical fluid flow cell (GFFC) instrumentation are discussed. Investigation of solar and planetary convection for GFFC is described. The utilization of satellite cloud observations to diagnose the energy state and transformations in extratropical cyclones is reviewed.

  6. The global sulfur cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, D. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The results of the planetary biology microbial ecology's 1984 Summer Research Program, which examined various aspects of the global sulfur cycle are summarized. Ways in which sulfur flows through the many living and chemical species that inhabit the surface of the Earth were investigated. Major topics studied include: (1) sulfur cycling and metabolism of phototropic and filamentous sulfur bacteria; (2) sulfur reduction in sediments of marine and evaporite environments; (3) recent cyanobacterial mats; (4) microanalysis of community metabolism in proximity to the photic zone in potential stromatolites; and (5) formation and activity of microbial biofilms on metal sulfides and other mineral surfaces. Relationships between the global sulfur cycle and the understanding of the early evolution of the Earth and biosphere and current processes that affect global habitability are stressed.

  7. The global water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, Taikan; Entekhabi, Dara; Harrold, Timothy Ives

    The global water cycle consists of the oceans, water in the atmosphere, and water in the landscape. The cycle is closed by the fluxes between these reservoirs. Although the amounts of water in the atmosphere and river channels are relatively small, the fluxes are high, and this water plays a critical role in society, which is dependent on water as a renewable resource. On a global scale, the meridional component of river runoff is shown to be about 10% of the corresponding atmospheric and oceanic meridional fluxes. Artificial storages and water withdrawals for irrigation have significant impacts on river runoff and hence on the overall global water cycle. Fully coupled atmosphere-land-river-ocean models of the world's climate are essential to assess the future water resources and scarcities in relation to climate change. An assessment of future water scarcity suggests that water shortages will worsen, with a very significant increase in water stress in Africa. The impact of population growth on water stress is shown to be higher than that of climate change. The virtual water trade, which should be taken into account when discussing the global water cycle and water scarcity, is also considered. The movement of virtual water from North America, Oceania, and Europe to the Middle East, North West Africa, and East Asia represents significant global savings of water. The anticipated world water crisis widens the opportunities for the study of the global water cycle to contribute to the development of sustainability within society and to the solution of practical social problems.

  8. The global drug gap.

    PubMed

    Reich, M R

    2000-03-17

    Global inequities in access to pharmaceutical products exist between rich and poor countries because of market and government failures as well as huge income differences. Multiple policies are required to address this global drug gap for three categories of pharmaceutical products: essential drugs, new drugs, and yet-to-be-developed drugs. Policies should combine "push" approaches of subsidies to support targeted drug development, "pull" approaches of financial incentives such as market guarantees, and "process" approaches aimed at improved institutional capacity. Constructive solutions are needed that can both protect the incentives for research and development and reduce the inequities of access.

  9. Globalization and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Frenk, Julio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia M

    2011-09-01

    This article discusses the nature of the health challenges created by globalization and proposes new forms of international cooperation to confront them. The discussion of global health challenges includes both the transfer of health risks, with an emphasis on infectious diseases, and the international dissemination of health opportunities, including the transfer of knowledge and technology. The authors argue that the health-related challenges and opportunities of an increasingly interdependent world demand new forms of international cooperation. The authors suggest the promotion of 3 elements that, in their essence, contain the idea of collaboration: exchange, evidence, and empathy.

  10. Global Biogeochemistry: an Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, B., III

    1984-01-01

    The dynamic biogeochemical equilibria among the major pools of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus represented by terrestrial biomes, the world's oceans, and the troposphere are disturbed. Since even the most rapid processes of adjustments among the reservoirs take decades, new equilibria are far from established. These human-induced perturbations and the system's subsequent responses constitute an on-going biogeochemical experiment at the global level. Current and new information must be combined in a way that allows testing of various hypotheses about the workings of global biogeochemical systems. This enables assessment of current knowledge and evaluation of the gaps.

  11. Global environmental report card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Worldwatch Institute, a Washington, D.C.-based think tank, issued a gloomy yet hopeful annual “State of the World” report on global environmental trends on 10 January.The report notes some recent successful efforts to protect the environment, including the phasing out of the production of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and the 2001 signing of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Nonetheless, the report calls for a global war on environmental degradation “that is as aggressive and well-funded as the war on terrorism” following the 11 September terrorist attacks in the United States.

  12. The Global Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    2003-10-01

    What can we teachers do? For students we can provide a strong background in the process of science and in scientific ethics. We can encourage students to apply such knowledge wisely throughout their lives. For the public at large, we can speak out in favor of real science at every opportunity. It is possible that the current scientific consensus on global warming is based on incomplete evidence, but global warming ought not be dismissed as unscientific or a hoax, and scientists ought not allow that to happen. As we celebrate National Chemistry Week, we should resolve to support chemistry and science as strongly as we can.

  13. Global aphasia without hemiparesis.

    PubMed

    Tranel, D; Biller, J; Damasio, H; Adams, H P; Cornell, S H

    1987-03-01

    Three patients acutely developed global aphasia, but did not manifest the typical accompanying right hemiparesis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies demonstrated that the patients had two discrete left hemisphere lesions, one in the anterior language cortices or language-related subcortical areas, and one in the posterior language cortices. Cerebral angiography showed that two patients had complete occlusion of the left internal carotid artery, and the third had an intraluminal "clot" in the supraclinoid portion of the left internal carotid, findings suggestive of an embolic etiology. Our cases indicate that global aphasia without hemiparesis predicts two discrete lesions and a particularly good recovery of speech and language.

  14. Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton are free-floating algae that grow in the euphotic zone of the upper ocean, converting carbon dioxide, sunlight, and available nutrients into organic carbon through photosynthesis. Despite their microscopic size, these photoautotrophs are responsible for roughly half the net primary production on Earth (NPP; gross primary production minus respiration), fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels our global ocean ecosystems. Phytoplankton thus play a critical role in the global carbon cycle, and their growth patterns are highly sensitive to environmental changes such as increased ocean temperatures that stratify the water column and prohibit the transfer of cold, nutrient richwaters to the upper ocean euphotic zone.

  15. Global water cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Christy, John R.; Goodman, Steven J.; Miller, Tim L.; Fitzjarrald, Dan; Lapenta, Bill; Wang, Shouping

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates changes on both global and regional scales. The following subject areas are covered: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) diabatic heating; (4) MSU (Microwave Sounding Unit) temperature analysis; (5) Optimal precipitation and streamflow analysis; (6) CCM (Community Climate Model) hydrological cycle; (7) CCM1 climate sensitivity to lower boundary forcing; and (8) mesoscale modeling of atmosphere/surface interaction.

  16. Military Implications of Global Warming.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    U.S. environmental issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current U.S. Policy as it pertains to global warming and climate...for military involvement to reduce global warming . Global warming and other environmental issues are important to the U.S. military. As the United

  17. NASA Global Hawk Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    NASA Global Hawk is operational and supporting Earth science research. 29 Flights were conducted during the first year of operations, with a total of 253 flight hours. Three major science campaigns have been conducted with all objectives met. Two new science campaigns are in the planning stage

  18. Engineers: Going Global

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feest, Tim

    2008-01-01

    This article demonstrates the need for engineering courses in UK higher education to give a higher priority to global and sustainability issues. In support of this case, the author summarizes and assesses evidence from a recently-concluded study by the Institute of Education, University of London, and Engineers Against Poverty, a specialist…

  19. Global Image Denoising.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Hossein; Milanfar, Peyman

    2014-02-01

    Most existing state-of-the-art image denoising algorithms are based on exploiting similarity between a relatively modest number of patches. These patch-based methods are strictly dependent on patch matching, and their performance is hamstrung by the ability to reliably find sufficiently similar patches. As the number of patches grows, a point of diminishing returns is reached where the performance improvement due to more patches is offset by the lower likelihood of finding sufficiently close matches. The net effect is that while patch-based methods, such as BM3D, are excellent overall, they are ultimately limited in how well they can do on (larger) images with increasing complexity. In this paper, we address these shortcomings by developing a paradigm for truly global filtering where each pixel is estimated from all pixels in the image. Our objectives in this paper are two-fold. First, we give a statistical analysis of our proposed global filter, based on a spectral decomposition of its corresponding operator, and we study the effect of truncation of this spectral decomposition. Second, we derive an approximation to the spectral (principal) components using the Nyström extension. Using these, we demonstrate that this global filter can be implemented efficiently by sampling a fairly small percentage of the pixels in the image. Experiments illustrate that our strategy can effectively globalize any existing denoising filters to estimate each pixel using all pixels in the image, hence improving upon the best patch-based methods.

  20. The Global Energy Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jax, Daniel W.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan about greenhouse effect and global warming. Includes diagrams and graphs from which students are asked to make inferences. Provides background information about how energy enters and leaves the earth system, the energy budget, consequences of obstructing the energy balance, and the greenhouse effect. (three references) (MCO)

  1. The Global Circuit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Henry

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of and research related to a theory explaining the earth's electric budget. The theory suggests a global electric circuit completed by a positive current flowing up into thunderstorm clouds, from clouds to ionosphere, distributed around the globe, and down to earth through the lower atmosphere in fair-weather regions. (JN)

  2. Global Learning Scales up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Becoming more global is a familiar refrain for many a school administrator or curriculum developer wrestling with delivering 21st century skills. Over the past decade, districts have expanded their foreign language programs, added Mandarin Chinese to the mix, and in some cases launched language immersion classes in their elementary schools. Others…

  3. Vaccines: Shaping global health.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Ting, Ching-Chia; Lobos, Fernando

    2017-03-14

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) gathered leaders in immunization programs, vaccine manufacturing, representatives of the Argentinean Health Authorities and Pan American Health Organization, among other global health stakeholders, for its 17th Annual General Meeting in Buenos Aires, to reflect on how vaccines are shaping global health. Polio eradication and elimination of measles and rubella from the Americas is a result of successful collaboration, made possible by timely supply of affordable vaccines. After decades of intense competition for high-value markets, collaboration with developing countries has become critical, and involvement of multiple manufacturers as well as public- and private-sector investments are essential, for developing new vaccines against emerging infectious diseases. The recent Zika virus outbreak and the accelerated Ebola vaccine development exemplify the need for international partnerships to combat infectious diseases. A new player, Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) has made its entrance in the global health community, aiming to stimulate research preparedness against emerging infections. Face-to-face panel discussions facilitated the dialogue around challenges, such as risks of viability to vaccine development and regulatory convergence, to improve access to sustainable vaccine supply. It was discussed that joint efforts to optimizing regulatory pathways in developing countries, reducing registration time by up to 50%, are required. Outbreaks of emerging infections and the global Polio eradication and containment challenges are reminders of the importance of vaccines' access, and of the importance of new public-private partnerships.

  4. Geography and global health.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tim; Moon, Graham

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the report of the World Health Organisation's Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, Closing the gap in a generation (Marmot 2008), this invited commentary considers the scope for geographical research on global health. We reflect on current work and note future possibilities, particularly those that take a critical perspective on the interplay of globalisation, security and health.

  5. Globalizing Space Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    transferred to U.S. Strategic Command. The primary function of JTF/CNO is protecting Internet use within DOD. As threats such as computer worms and...almost total domi- nance over Internet use . This offers an easy means to reconfigure space and information systems. Since capabilities such as global

  6. Global Skill Shortages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Malcolm S.; Zaidi, Mahmood A.

    This book discusses the causes and impact of global skill shortages, focusing on data from skill shortages measured in the period 1995-1998 in 19 developed and emerging economies. Chapter one contains a brief introduction. Chapter two is a review of theoretical literature on skill shortages, including static and dynamic shortages, efficiency wage…

  7. Globalism and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of twenty-four-hour news media, local, state, and national agencies' warnings and with the explosive role of the Internet, people are more aware of global health concerns that may have significant consequences for the world's population. As international travel continues to increase, health care professionals around the world are…

  8. Making a global impact.

    PubMed

    2015-12-12

    How can vets, individually and collectively, make an impact on the global stage? Addressing this question at the BVA Congress at the London Vet Show, René Carlson, president of the World Veterinary Association, encouraged the profession to play its part locally, nationally and internationally, in tackling current challenges. Kristy Ebanks reports.

  9. [Globalization and infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Mirski, Tomasz; Bartoszcze, Michał; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata

    2011-01-01

    Globalization is a phenomenon characteristic of present times. It can be considered in various aspects: economic, environmental changes, demographic changes, as well as the development of new technologies. All these aspects of globalization have a definite influence on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. Economic aspects ofglobalization are mainly the trade development, including food trade, which has an impact on the spread of food-borne diseases. The environmental changes caused by intensive development of industry, as a result of globalization, which in turn affects human health. The demographic changes are mainly people migration between countries and rural and urban areas, which essentially favors the global spread of many infectious diseases. While technological advances prevents the spread of infections, for example through better access to information, it may also increase the risk, for example through to create opportunities to travel into more world regions, including the endemic regions for various diseases. The phenomenon ofglobalization is also closely associated with the threat of terrorism, including bioterrorism. It forces the governments of many countries to develop effective programs to protect and fight against this threat.

  10. Global Aerosol Observations

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... atmosphere, directly influencing global climate and human health. Ground-based networks that accurately measure column aerosol amount and ... being used to improve Air Quality Models and for regional health studies. To assess the human-health impact of chronic aerosol exposure, ...

  11. Energy and Global Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reader, Mark

    1979-01-01

    Author believes that the nuclear fuel cycle is damaging to our health, physical system, ecosystem, and social system. He recommends reversing the trend toward nuclear power and solving the energy crisis by creating a global society able to live in balance with its physical environment. Journal available from 7 Harwood Drive, Amherst, New York…

  12. Global Is Local.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Mary R.

    1995-01-01

    By reflecting the new global community in staffing, collections, programs, exhibits, and services, public libraries will be fulfilling their role in the acculturation and education of new citizens, as well as contributing to greater community understanding and a new world order. A sidebar lists seven steps for serving recent immigrants. (AEF)

  13. Global Atmospheric Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Carl C.

    1975-01-01

    The global atmospheric monitoring plans of the World Meteorological Organization are detailed. Single and multipurpose basic monitoring systems and the monitoring of chemical properties are discussed. The relationship of the World Meteorological Organization with the United Nations environment program is discussed. A map of the World…

  14. A Global Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Summary The emergence of global history has been one of the more notable features of academic history over the past three decades. Although historians of disease were among the pioneers of one of its earlier incarnations—world history—the recent “global turn” has made relatively little impact on histories of health, disease, and medicine. Most continue to be framed by familiar entities such as the colony or nation-state or are confined to particular medical “traditions.” This article aims to show what can be gained from taking a broader perspective. Its purpose is not to replace other ways of seeing or to write a new “grand narrative” but to show how transnational and transimperial approaches are vital to understanding some of the key issues with which historians of health, disease, and medicine are concerned. Moving on from an analysis of earlier periods of integration, the article offers some reflections on our own era of globalization and on the emerging field of global health. PMID:26725408

  15. Tending the Global Commons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the global trends associated with the increasing levels of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFS) in the earth's atmosphere. Presents several ecological effects associated with these increases, along with some of the possible social and economic implications for the quality of life. Argues for more…

  16. Global Hawk Science Flights

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Global Hawk is a robotic plane that can fly altitudes above 60,000 feet (18.3 kilometers) -- roughly twice as high as a commercial airliner -- and as far as 11,000 nautical miles (20,000 kilome...

  17. GAR Global Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskrey, Andrew; Safaie, Sahar

    2015-04-01

    Disaster risk management strategies, policies and actions need to be based on evidence of current disaster loss and risk patterns, past trends and future projections, and underlying risk factors. Faced with competing demands for resources, at any level it is only possible to priorities a range of disaster risk management strategies and investments with adequate understanding of realised losses, current and future risk levels and impacts on economic growth and social wellbeing as well as cost and impact of the strategy. The mapping and understanding of the global risk landscape has been greatly enhanced by the latest iteration of the GAR Global Risk Assessment and the objective of this submission is to present the GAR global risk assessment which contributed to Global Assessment Report (GAR) 2015. This initiative which has been led by UNISDR, was conducted by a consortium of technical institutions from around the world and has covered earthquake, cyclone, riverine flood, and tsunami probabilistic risk for all countries of the world. In addition, the risks associated with volcanic ash in the Asia-Pacific region, drought in various countries in sub-Saharan Africa and climate change in a number of countries have been calculated. The presentation will share thee results as well as the experience including the challenges faced in technical elements as well as the process and recommendations for the future of such endeavour.

  18. Teaching global bioethics.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, James

    2003-10-01

    We live in a world with enormous disparities in health. The life expectancy in Japan is 80 years; in Malawi, 40 years. The under-five mortality in Norway is 4/1000; in Sierra Leone, 316/1000. The situation is actually worse than these figures suggest because average rates tend to mask inequalities within a country. Several presidents of the IAB have urged bioethicists to attend to global disparities and to broaden the scope of bioethics. For the last six years I have tried to do just that. In this paper, I report and reflect on my attempts to teach bioethics in ways that address global health and justice. I then discuss ways to address key ethical issues in global health: the problem of inequalities; the nature of the duty to assist; the importance of the duty not to harm; the difference between a cosmopolitan and a political view of justice. I also discuss how teaching about global health may help to shift the emphasis in bioethics--from sensational cases to everyday matters, from autonomy and justice, and from access to healthcare to the social determinants of health. At the end of my paper, I reflect on questions that I have not resolved: how to delineate the scope of bioethics, whether my approach over-politicises bioethics, and how to understand the responsibilities of bioethicists.

  19. Global Learning Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    Learning, education, and training becomes more and more internationalized. As examples, study programs are exported across borders, curricula are harmonized across Europe, learners work in globally distributed groups. However, the quality of educational offers differs dramatically. In this paper, an approach to manage quality for globally…

  20. Managing Global Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, C. Maxwell

    The book examines the historical background of and accomplishments in seven global problem areas. It is hypothesized that effective management within today's framework is the only way to progress toward the political and economic order that is necessary to assure peace and security, justice, and human rights, and to improve the quality of life. It…

  1. The Globalization of Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macedo, Donaldo; Gounari, Panayota

    2005-01-01

    Addressing ethnic cleansing, culture wars, human sufferings, terrorism, immigration, and intensified xenophobia, "Globalization of Racism" explains why it is vital that we gain a nuanced understanding of how ideology underlies all social, cultural, and political discourse and racist actions. The book looks at recent developments in…

  2. The Global Internet Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Deborah Joy

    2009-01-01

    The global rise of Internet-based education is discussed in relation to models drawn from social studies and epidemiology. Experiential and data density models are highlighted, also the capacity for technological change, and phenomena observed in the spread of disease. The lesson of these illustrations is that even apparently permanent phenomena…

  3. Subnational Opposition to Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Using a unique dataset on the geographic distribution of reported protest events from local sources, the study explains the variation in community-level mobilization in response to neoliberal reforms in two countries in the global periphery. Building on insights from macro, cross-national studies of protests related to market reforms, this article…

  4. GLOBAL WATER RESEARCH COALITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC) is a collaboration of 14 member drinking and wastewater research organizations. The USEPA is currently a partner to the GWRC membership. Through the GWRC, the members are able to leverage research funds on mutually desired efforts to m...

  5. Global aspects of monsoons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, T.

    1985-01-01

    Recent developments are studied in three areas of monsoon research: (1) global aspects of the monsoon onset, (2) the orographic influence of the Tibetan Plateau on the summer monsoon circulations, and (3) tropical 40 to 50 day oscillations. Reference was made only to those studies that are primarily based on FGGE Level IIIb data. A brief summary is given.

  6. Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are responsible for roughly half the net primary production (NPP) on Earth, fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels global ocean ecosystems and drives the ocean's biogeochemical cycles. Phytoplankton growth is highly sensitive to variations in ocean physical properties, such as upper ocean stratification and light availability within this mixed layer. Satellite ocean color sensors, such as the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS; McClain 2009) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; Esaias 1998), provide observations of sufficient frequency and geographic coverage to globally monitor physically-driven changes in phytoplankton distributions. In practice, ocean color sensors retrieve the spectral distribution of visible solar radiation reflected upward from beneath the ocean surface, which can then be related to changes in the photosynthetic phytoplankton pigment, chlorophyll- a (Chla; measured in mg m-3). Here, global Chla data for 2013 are evaluated within the context of the 16-year continuous record provided through the combined observations of SeaWiFS (1997-2010) and MODIS on Aqua (MODISA; 2002-present). Ocean color measurements from the recently launched Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS; 2011-present) are also considered, but results suggest that the temporal calibration of the VIIRS sensor is not yet sufficiently stable for quantitative global change studies. All MODISA (version 2013.1), SeaWiFS (version 2010.0), and VIIRS (version 2013.1) data presented here were produced by NASA using consistent Chla algorithms.

  7. Mathematics and Global Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Richard H.

    This resource was written to provide students with an awareness of critical issues facing the world today. In courses for college students, it can motivate their study of mathematics, teach them how to solve mathematical problems related to current global issues, provide coherence to mathematical studies through a focus on issues of human…

  8. Global Lessons from Siberia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Jan L.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a visit by two U.S. social studies educators to schools in Krasnoyarsk, a city in Siberia, Russia. Discusses economic and social changes brought about by the end of the Cold War. Recommends more international and global education for both Russia and the United States. (CFR)

  9. Teaching for Global Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffler, Walter S.

    1979-01-01

    Explains why global education programs are needed at all educational levels. Reasons include international interdependence, rapid communication, and the likelihood that students will one day travel to a foreign country. Methods should involve mass media, community resources, language study, stress on intercultural sensitivity, and the case study…

  10. Global Data Toolset (GDT)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cress, Jill J.; Riegle, Jodi L.

    2007-01-01

    According to the United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) approximately 60 percent of the data contained in the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) has missing or incomplete boundary information. As a result, global analyses based on the WDPA can be inaccurate, and professionals responsible for natural resource planning and priority setting must rely on incomplete geospatial data sets. To begin to address this problem the World Data Center for Biodiversity and Ecology, in cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC), the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), the Global Earth Observation System, and the Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network (IABIN) sponsored a Protected Area (PA) workshop in Asuncion, Paraguay, in November 2007. The primary goal of this workshop was to train representatives from eight South American countries on the use of the Global Data Toolset (GDT) for reviewing and editing PA data. Use of the GDT will allow PA experts to compare their national data to other data sets, including non-governmental organization (NGO) and WCMC data, in order to highlight inaccuracies or gaps in the data, and then to apply any needed edits, especially in the delineation of the PA boundaries. In addition, familiarizing the participants with the web-enabled GDT will allow them to maintain and improve their data after the workshop. Once data edits have been completed the GDT will also allow the country authorities to perform any required review and validation processing. Once validated, the data can be used to update the global WDPA and IABIN databases, which will enhance analysis on global and regional levels.

  11. Volcanoes and global catastrophes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simkin, Tom

    1988-01-01

    The search for a single explanation for global mass extinctions has let to polarization and the controversies that are often fueled by widespread media attention. The historic record shows a roughly linear log-log relation between the frequency of explosive volcanic eruptions and the volume of their products. Eruptions such as Mt. St. Helens 1980 produce on the order of 1 cu km of tephra, destroying life over areas in the 10 to 100 sq km range, and take place, on the average, once or twice a decade. Eruptions producing 10 cu km take place several times a century and, like Krakatau 1883, destroy life over 100 to 1000 sq km areas while producing clear global atmospheric effects. Eruptions producting 10,000 cu km are known from the Quaternary record, and extrapolation from the historic record suggests that they occur perhaps once in 20,000 years, but none has occurred in historic time and little is known of their biologic effects. Even larger eruptions must also exist in the geologic record, but documentation of their volume becomes increasingly difficult as their age increases. The conclusion is inescapable that prehistoric eruptions have produced catastrophes on a global scale: only the magnitude of the associated mortality is in question. Differentiation of large magma chambers is on a time scale of thousands to millions of years, and explosive volcanoes are clearly concentrated in narrow belts near converging plate margins. Volcanism cannot be dismissed as a producer of global catastrophes. Its role in major extinctions is likely to be at least contributory and may well be large. More attention should be paid to global effects of the many huge eruptions in the geologic record that dwarf those known in historic time.

  12. Global veterinary leadership.

    PubMed

    Wagner, G Gale; Brown, Corrie C

    2002-11-01

    The public needs no reminder that deadly infectious diseases such as FMD could emerge in any country at any moment, or that national food security could be compromised by Salmonella or Listeria infections. Protections against these risks include the knowledge that appropriate and equivalent veterinary education will enable detection and characterization of emerging disease agents, as well as an appropriate response, wherever they occur. Global veterinary leadership is needed to reduce the global threat of infectious diseases of major food animal and public health importance. We believe that the co-curriculum is an excellent way to prepare and train veterinarians and future leaders who understand and can deal with global issues. The key to the success of the program is the veterinarian's understanding that there is a cultural basis to the practice of veterinary medicine in any country. The result will be a cadre of veterinarians, faculty, and other professionals who are better able (language and culture) to understand the effects of change brought about by free trade and the importance of interdisciplinary and institutional relationships to deal effectively with national and regional issues of food safety and security. New global veterinary leadership programs will build on interests, experience, ideas, and ambitions. A college that wishes to take advantage of this diversity must offer opportunities that interest veterinarians throughout their careers and that preferably connect academic study with intensive experiential training in another country. At its best, the global veterinary leadership program would include a partnership between veterinarians and several international learning centers, a responsiveness to the identified international outreach needs of the profession, and attention to critical thinking and reflection. The global veterinary leadership program we have described is intended to be a set of ideas meant to promote collaboration, coalitions, and

  13. Rock Magnetic Cyclostratigraphy of the Mid-Cretaceous Greenhorn Limestone, South-Central Colorado---Influence of Orbitally Induced Climate Variability for Chornostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellers, T.; Geissman, J. W.; Jackson, J.

    2015-12-01

    We are testing the hypothesis that depositional processes of the mid-Cretaceous Greenhorn Limestone were influenced by orbitally-driven climate variations using rock magnetic data. Correlation of the data, including anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM), magnetic susceptibility, isothermal remanent magnetization in different DC fields to saturation, and hysteresis properties, from three continuously exposed sections of the full Greenhorn Limestone provides detailed spatial distribution for the depositional processes and magnetic mineral climate encoding. The Greenhorn Limestone includes the Lincoln Limestone, Hartland Shale, and the Bridge Creek Limestone members and consists of calcareous shales and limestones representing near maximum depths in the Cretaceous interior seaway. The sections, each about 30 m thick, extend from the upper Graneros Shale, through the Greenhorn Formation, to the lower Carlisle Shale, with samples collected at a two to five cm interval and are located at Badito, CO; north of Redwing, CO; and at the Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) at Lake Pueblo, CO. Our over 1000 samples were hand crushed to granule size pieces and packed into 7cc IODP boxes. Bulk magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) intensity at different peak AF levels, and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) intensity record variations in magnetic mineral concentration and are proxies to determine orbital scale cycles and precise stratigraphic correlation between sections. ARM intensities in a peak field of 100 mT at both sites range between 1.2 x 10-3 and 1.3 x 10-4 A/m and better define periodic variation within the Greenhorn Limestone displaying differences in ferromagnetic mineral content of detrital origin. Magnetic susceptibility, which ranges from 3.5 x 10-2 to 2.86 x 10-3, also shows periodic variation with a strong correlation among the three sections. Saturation IRM at 100 mT ranges from 3.2 x 10-1 to 1.1x 10-2 A

  14. OWL representation of the geologic timescale implementing stratigraphic best practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    The geologic timescale is a cornerstone of the earth sciences. Versions are available from many sources, with the following being of particular interest: (i) The official International Stratigraphic Chart (ISC) is maintained by the International Commission for Stratigraphy (ICS), following principles developed over the last 40 years. ICS provides the data underlying the chart as part of a specialized software package, and the chart itself as a PDF using the standard colours; (ii) ITC Enschede has developed a representation of the timescale as a thesaurus in SKOS, used in a Web Map Service delivery system; (iii) JPL's SWEET ontology includes a geologic timescale. This takes full advantage of the capabilities of OWL. However, each of these has limitations - The ISC falls down because of incompatibility with web technologies; - While SKOS supports multilingual labelling, SKOS does not adequately support timescale semantics, in particular since it does not include ordering relationships; - The SWEET version (as of version 2) is not fully aligned to the model used by ICS, in particular not recognizing the role of the Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Point (GSSP). Furthermore, it is distributed as static documents, rather than through a dynamic API using SPARQL. The representation presented in this paper overcomes all of these limitations as follows: - the timescale model is formulated as an OWL ontology - the ontology is directly derived from the UML representation of the ICS best practice proposed by Cox & Richard [2005], and subsequently included as the Geologic Timescale package in GeoSciML (http://www.geosciml.org); this includes links to GSSPs as per the ICS process - key properties in the ontology are also asserted to be subProperties of SKOS properties (topConcept and broader/narrower relations) in order to support SKOS-based queries; SKOS labelling is used to support multi-lingual naming and synonyms - the International Stratigraphic Chart is implemented

  15. How to teach geocomplexity at two opposite levels? The 'Klippen of Cabrières' case study (Hérault, France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The starting point of this essay is a question from a school teacher who came in contact with me via my photo gallery online. His question, "What is the origin of the Roc de Murviel?" actually covers three or four separate problems, and requires to devise simple and specific comparisons in order to help children of 8 years old to understand a bunch of difficult and abstract concepts. But, in contrast, Carboniferous marine sedimentary deposits of the so-called unit "Klippen of Cabrières" are known of geologists worldwide, due to the presence of a Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) located not far from the "Roc de Murviel", the "La Serre" section, where is defined the base of the Carboniferous System, Mississippian Sub-System and Tournaisien Stage. In this case, to remind how the conceptions about the formation of the "Klippen of Cabrières" evolved may serve as an introduction to the explanation of syntectonic sedimentation and to the history of the concept of thrust nappe for the well-trained public as well as academics or engineers not experts in the specificities of regional geology. Difficulty (at least in France) will come from the scarcity of naturalists, a species in danger of extinction, and from the small number of historians concerned by the natural sciences. At the public school, the first method is to decompose the problem into independent issues (Cartesian reductionism) such as: nature and age of the rock? mode of sedimentation? part of an ancient mountain chain? existence as a landform in the current landscape? Concerning the specific question of geological time, because most children of this age do not yet know how to read the time, a second method is to replace the model of the clock (the entire history of the planet Earth reduced to one year) by the metaphor of either the staircase or the ladder, both adapted from the international stratigraphic scale. A third method is to use the concept of "toolbox" for each sub-disciplines or

  16. Global Geospace Science Programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, George; Shawhan, Stanley; Calabrese, Michael; Alexander, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    The Global Geospace Science (GGS) Program, an element of the international Solar Terrestrial Physics Program dedicated to the study of the global plasma dynamics of the solar-terrestrial environment, is discussed. Past research on the injection of solar wind ions into the magnetosphere and on the detection of ions in the terrestrial ring current of both solar wind and ionospheric origins is reviewed, showing its relevance for the GGS program. Research on the interplanetary magnetic field, the auroral electrojet, the outer magnetosphere, the geomagnetic tail, the ionospheric electric field and the related electron precipitation is also addressed. The results demonstrate that the solar wind and the ionsophere both contribute to the magnetospheric particle population. Unanswered questions regarding hot plasma sources, transport processes, energy storage in the magnetic field, and energization of plasmas are discussed. The relevant mission strategy, instrumentation, theory and modeling, and data collection are addressed.

  17. Global data on blindness.

    PubMed Central

    Thylefors, B.; Négrel, A. D.; Pararajasegaram, R.; Dadzie, K. Y.

    1995-01-01

    Globally, it is estimated that there are 38 million persons who are blind. Moreover, a further 110 million people have low vision and are at great risk of becoming blind. The main causes of blindness and low vision are cataract, trachoma, glaucoma, onchocerciasis, and xerophthalmia; however, insufficient data on blindness from causes such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration preclude specific estimations of their global prevalence. The age-specific prevalences of the major causes of blindness that are related to age indicate that the trend will be for an increase in such blindness over the decades to come, unless energetic efforts are made to tackle these problems. More data collected through standardized methodologies, using internationally accepted (ICD-10) definitions, are needed. Data on the incidence of blindness due to common causes would be useful for calculating future trends more precisely. PMID:7704921

  18. Neuroscience and Global Learning.

    PubMed

    Ruscio, Michael G; Korey, Chris; Birck, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Traditional study abroad experiences take a variety of forms with most incorporating extensive cultural emersion and a focus on global learning skills. Here we ask the question: Can this type of experience co-exist with a quality scientific experience and continued progression through a typically rigorous undergraduate neuroscience curriculum? What are the potential costs and benefits of this approach? How do we increase student awareness of study abroad opportunities and inspire them to participate? We outline programs that have done this with some success and point out ways to cultivate this approach for future programs. These programs represent a variety of approaches in both their duration and role in a given curriculum. We discuss a one-week first year seminar program in Berlin, a summer study abroad course in Munich and Berlin, semester experiences and other options offered through the Danish Institute for Study Abroad in Copenhagen. Each of these experiences offers opportunities for interfacing global learning with neuroscience.

  19. Program in global biology

    SciTech Connect

    Mooneyhan, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    NASA's Global Biology Research Program and its goals for greater understanding of planetary biological processes are discussed. Consideration is given to assessing major pathways and rates of exchange of elements such as carbon and nitrogen, extrapolating local rates of anaerobic activities, determining exchange rates of ocean nutrients, and developing models for the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus. Satellites and sensors operating today are covered: the Nimbus, NOAA, and Landsat series. Block diagrams of the software and hardware for a typical ground data processing and analysis system are provided. Samples of the surface cover data achieved with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, the Multispectral Scanner, and the Thematic Mapper are presented, as well as a productive capacity model for coastal wetlands. Finally, attention is given to future goals, their engineering requirements, and the necessary data analysis system.

  20. Global warming challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Hengeveld, H. )

    1994-11-01

    Global warming will necessitate significant adjustments in Canadian society and its economy. In 1979, the Canadian federal government created its Canadian Climate Program (CCP) in collaboration with other agencies, institutions, and individuals. It sought to coordinate national efforts to understand global and regional climate, and to promote better use of the emerging knowledge. Much of the CCP-coordinated research into sources and sinks of greenhouse gases interfaces with other national and international programs. Other researchers have become involved in the Northern Wetlands Study, a cooperative United States-Canada initiative to understand the role of huge northern bogs and muskegs in the carbon cycle. Because of the need to understand how the whole, linked climate system works, climate modeling emerged as a key focus of current research. 35 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Neuroscience and Global Learning

    PubMed Central

    Ruscio, Michael G.; Korey, Chris; Birck, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Traditional study abroad experiences take a variety of forms with most incorporating extensive cultural emersion and a focus on global learning skills. Here we ask the question: Can this type of experience co-exist with a quality scientific experience and continued progression through a typically rigorous undergraduate neuroscience curriculum? What are the potential costs and benefits of this approach? How do we increase student awareness of study abroad opportunities and inspire them to participate? We outline programs that have done this with some success and point out ways to cultivate this approach for future programs. These programs represent a variety of approaches in both their duration and role in a given curriculum. We discuss a one-week first year seminar program in Berlin, a summer study abroad course in Munich and Berlin, semester experiences and other options offered through the Danish Institute for Study Abroad in Copenhagen. Each of these experiences offers opportunities for interfacing global learning with neuroscience. PMID:26240528

  2. The global aftershock zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Margaret Segou,; Warner Marzocchi,

    2014-01-01

    The aftershock zone of each large (M ≥ 7) earthquake extends throughout the shallows of planet Earth. Most aftershocks cluster near the mainshock rupture, but earthquakes send out shivers in the form of seismic waves, and these temporary distortions are large enough to trigger other earthquakes at global range. The aftershocks that happen at great distance from their mainshock are often superposed onto already seismically active regions, making them difficult to detect and understand. From a hazard perspective we are concerned that this dynamic process might encourage other high magnitude earthquakes, and wonder if a global alarm state is warranted after every large mainshock. From an earthquake process perspective we are curious about the physics of earthquake triggering across the magnitude spectrum. In this review we build upon past studies that examined the combined global response to mainshocks. Such compilations demonstrate significant rate increases during, and immediately after (~ 45 min) M > 7.0 mainshocks in all tectonic settings and ranges. However, it is difficult to find strong evidence for M > 5 rate increases during the passage of surface waves in combined global catalogs. On the other hand, recently published studies of individual large mainshocks associate M > 5 triggering at global range that is delayed by hours to days after surface wave arrivals. The longer the delay between mainshock and global aftershock, the more difficult it is to establish causation. To address these questions, we review the response to 260 M ≥ 7.0 shallow (Z ≤ 50 km) mainshocks in 21 global regions with local seismograph networks. In this way we can examine the detailed temporal and spatial response, or lack thereof, during passing seismic waves, and over the 24 h period after their passing. We see an array of responses that can involve immediate and widespread seismicity outbreaks, delayed and localized earthquake clusters, to no response at all. About 50% of the

  3. Global Burden of Stroke.

    PubMed

    Feigin, Valery L; Norrving, Bo; Mensah, George A

    2017-02-03

    On the basis of the GBD (Global Burden of Disease) 2013 Study, this article provides an overview of the global, regional, and country-specific burden of stroke by sex and age groups, including trends in stroke burden from 1990 to 2013, and outlines recommended measures to reduce stroke burden. It shows that although stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years rates tend to decline from 1990 to 2013, the overall stroke burden in terms of absolute number of people affected by, or who remained disabled from, stroke has increased across the globe in both men and women of all ages. This provides a strong argument that "business as usual" for primary stroke prevention is not sufficiently effective. Although prevention of stroke is a complex medical and political issue, there is strong evidence that substantial prevention of stroke is feasible in practice. The need to scale-up the primary prevention actions is urgent.

  4. Mutual learning globally

    PubMed Central

    Schnyder, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    This article is about the development of the trauma field over the last 20 years from an organizational perspective, and about trauma from a global, culture-sensitive perspective. My professional career is very closely linked to the development of the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) in the 1990s. Later on, I was fortunate enough to witness, and contribute to, the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies’ (ISTSS) increasing focus on trauma as a global issue. I am trying to demonstrate how important the ESTSS and the ISTSS have been for me, how serving these societies has shaped my thinking, both as a clinician and a researcher, and how much I learned from these experiences. PMID:23755322

  5. Infectious diseases and global warming: Tracking disease incidence rates globally

    SciTech Connect

    Low, N.C.

    1995-09-01

    Given the increasing importance of impact of global warming on public health, there is no global database system to monitor infectious disease and disease in general, and to which global data of climate change and environmental factors, such as temperature, greenhouse gases, and human activities, e.g., coastal development, deforestation, can be calibrated, investigated and correlated. The author proposes the diseases incidence rates be adopted as the basic global measure of morbidity of infectious diseases. The importance of a correctly chosen measure of morbidity of disease is presented. The importance of choosing disease incidence rates as the measure of morbidity and the mathematical foundation of which are discussed. The author further proposes the establishment of a global database system to track the incidence rates of infectious diseases. Only such a global system can be used to calibrate and correlate other globally tracked climatic, greenhouse gases and environmental data. The infrastructure and data sources for building such a global database is discussed.

  6. Global risks survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    The top five risks facing the globe over the next decade, in order of the likelihood of their occurring, are severe income disparity, chronic fiscal imbalance, rising greenhouse gas emissions, water supply crises, and the mismanagement of population aging. That is according to a survey of more than 1000 experts from industry, government, academia, and civil society, presented in the World Economic Forum's Global Risks 2013 report that was issued on 8 January.

  7. Monitoring global vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.; Houston, A. G.; Heydorn, R. P.; Botkin, D. B.; Estes, J. E.; Strahler, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt is made to identify the need for, and the current capability of, a technology which could aid in monitoring the Earth's vegetation resource on a global scale. Vegetation is one of our most critical natural resources, and accurate timely information on its current status and temporal dynamics is essential to understand many basic and applied environmental interrelationships which exist on the small but complex planet Earth.

  8. Managing global accounts.

    PubMed

    Yip, George S; Bink, Audrey J M

    2007-09-01

    Global account management--which treats a multinational customer's operations as one integrated account, with coherent terms for pricing, product specifications, and service--has proliferated over the past decade. Yet according to the authors' research, only about a third of the suppliers that have offered GAM are pleased with the results. The unhappy majority may be suffering from confusion about when, how, and to whom to provide it. Yip, the director of research and innovation at Capgemini, and Bink, the head of marketing communications at Uxbridge College, have found that GAM can improve customer satisfaction by 20% or more and can raise both profits and revenues by at least 15% within just a few years of its introduction. They provide guidelines to help companies achieve similar results. The first steps are determining whether your products or services are appropriate for GAM, whether your customers want such a program, whether those customers are crucial to your strategy, and how GAM might affect your competitive advantage. If moving forward makes sense, the authors' exhibit, "A Scorecard for Selecting Global Accounts," can help you target the right customers. The final step is deciding which of three basic forms to offer: coordination GAM (in which national operations remain relatively strong), control GAM (in which the global operation and the national operations are fairly balanced), and separate GAM (in which a new business unit has total responsibility for global accounts). Given the difficulty and expense of providing multiple varieties, the vast majority of companies should initially customize just one---and they should be careful not to start with a choice that is too ambitious for either themselves or their customers to handle.

  9. Nanomedicine for global health.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Nathaniel; Lee, Bryan; Kim, Austin; Yang, Richard; Pan, Ricky; Lee, Dong-Keun; Chow, Edward K; Ho, Dean

    2014-12-01

    Despite modern advances, a broad range of disorders such as cancer and infectious diseases continually afflict the global population. Novel therapeutics are continuously being explored to address these challenges. Therefore, scalable, effective, and safe therapies that are readily accessible to third-world countries are of major interest. In this article, we discuss the potential advantages that the nanomedicine field may harness toward successful implementation against some of the major diseases of our generation.

  10. Global Shipping Game

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-28

    War and Political Risks Account, Amlin Clemente-Colón, Pablo , Dr. Chief Scientist, US National Ice Center Collins, Gabe, Mr. Co-founder, China... Fernandez , Courtney, Ms. Global Strategic Analyst, Strategic Assessment Team Feygin, Anatol, Mr. Vice President, Energy Strategist, Loews Corporation...Coast Guard Newton, George, CAPT (Ret) Advisor, U.S. Arctic Research Commission Niemen, Pablo , CDR International Fellow, US Naval War College O’Brien

  11. Earthwatch global environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, C.E.; Brown, D.W.

    1981-05-01

    Progress in the U.N. Env. Program Earthwatch is reviewed. Earthwatch was established in 1974 to monitor and assess various environmental problems, including desertification, tropical deforestation, acid rain, carbon dioxide buildup, chemical contamination, and radioactive waste disposal. Global environmental assessment and informantion exchange projects are discussed. A framework is proposed calling for threshold criteria, statements of current conditions, predictions of trends to be observed, and alerts to warn of approaching environmental threats. (1 diagram, 10 references)

  12. Global green new deal.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Achim

    2009-01-01

    The last year was marked by food, fuel, and financial crises and the latter has translated itself into a global economic crisis. Climate change is accelerating and, unless checked, it promises to be the greatest market failure of all time with serious and significant implications for employment and economic activity. We must produce and consume in far more efficient and less extractive ways; we must re-invest in the productivity of the work force, innovation, and the natural assets that beget prosperity.

  13. Global Hail Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, A.; Sanderson, M.; Hand, W.; Blyth, A.; Groenemeijer, P.; Kunz, M.; Puskeiler, M.; Saville, G.; Michel, G.

    2012-04-01

    Hail risk models are rare for the insurance industry. This is opposed to the fact that average annual hail losses can be large and hail dominates losses for many motor portfolios worldwide. Insufficient observational data, high spatio-temporal variability and data inhomogenity have hindered creation of credible models so far. In January 2012, a selected group of hail experts met at Willis in London in order to discuss ways to model hail risk at various scales. Discussions aimed at improving our understanding of hail occurrence and severity, and covered recent progress in the understanding of microphysical processes and climatological behaviour and hail vulnerability. The final outcome of the meeting was the formation of a global hail risk model initiative and the launch of a realistic global hail model in order to assess hail loss occurrence and severities for the globe. The following projects will be tackled: Microphysics of Hail and hail severity measures: Understand the physical drivers of hail and hailstone size development in different regions on the globe. Proposed factors include updraft and supercooled liquid water content in the troposphere. What are the thresholds drivers of hail formation around the globe? Hail Climatology: Consider ways to build a realistic global climatological set of hail events based on physical parameters including spatial variations in total availability of moisture, aerosols, among others, and using neural networks. Vulnerability, Exposure, and financial model: Use historical losses and event footprints available in the insurance market to approximate fragility distributions and damage potential for various hail sizes for property, motor, and agricultural business. Propagate uncertainty distributions and consider effects of policy conditions along with aggregating and disaggregating exposure and losses. This presentation provides an overview of ideas and tasks that lead towards a comprehensive global understanding of hail risk for

  14. Global breast cancer seasonality.

    PubMed

    Oh, Eun-Young; Ansell, Christine; Nawaz, Hamayun; Yang, Chul-Ho; Wood, Patricia A; Hrushesky, William J M

    2010-08-01

    Human breast cancer incidence has seasonal patterns that seem to vary among global populations. The aggregate monthly frequency of breast cancer diagnosis was collected and examined for 2,921,714 breast cancer cases diagnosed across 64 global regions over spans from 2 to 53 years. Breast cancer is consistently diagnosed more often in spring and fall, both in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, regardless of presumable menopausal status (50). This seasonality is increasingly more prominent as population distance from the equator increases and this latitude dependence is most pronounced among women living in rural areas. Moreover, the overall annual incidence (2005-2006), per 100,000 population, of breast cancer increased as the latitude of population residence increased. These data make it clear that human breast cancer discovery occurs non-randomly throughout each year with peaks near both equinoxes and valleys near both solstices. This stable global breast cancer seasonality has implications for better prevention, more accurate screening, earlier diagnosis, and more effective treatment. This complex latitude-dependent breast cancer seasonality is clearly related to predictable local day/night length changes which occur seasonally. Its mechanism may depend upon seasonal sunlight mediation of vitamin D and seasonal mediation of nocturnal melatonin peak level and duration.

  15. Global Water Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidment, D. R.; Salas, F.; Teng, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    A global water map is a coverage of the earth that describes the state of water circulation in a phase of the hydrologic cycle. This information can be published as a map showing the state of the water variable at a particular point in time, or charted as a time series showing the temporal variation of that variable at a point in space. Such maps can be created through the NASA Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) for precipitation, evaporation, soil moisture, and other parameters describing the vertical exchange of water between the land and atmosphere, through a combination of observations and simulation modeling. Point observations of water variables such as precipitation and streamflow are carried out by local hydrologic measurement agencies associated with a particular area. These point observations are now being published as web services in the WaterML language and federated using the Global Earth Observing System of Systems to enable the publication of water observations maps for these variables. By combining water maps derived from LDAS with those from federated point observations, a deeper understanding of global water conditions and movement can be created. This information should be described in a Hydrologic Data Book that specifies the information content of each of these map layers so that they can be appropriately used and combined.

  16. Global burden sharing.

    PubMed

    Brundtland, G X

    1994-06-01

    The Prime Minister of Norway discusses issues of population growth and sustainable development. Months before the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, she establishes the basis upon which a global compact on population and development can be built. Individuals and groups in developed countries increasingly implore people in developing countries to reduce their levels of fertility in the interest of environmental protection and sustainable development. People in developing countries, however, point out that the industrialized developed countries have a disproportionately large role in polluting the environment. Fertility declines, lower consumption levels in the North, and less waste are all needed to safeguard the long-term health and survivability of the planet. The world simply cannot sustain a Western level of consumption for all. Accordingly, a commitment by the South to reduce population growth should be coupled with an equal commitment from the North to reduce the strain of consumption and production patterns on the global environment. Individual attitudes and habits must change while internationally coordinated political decisions are also made about the course and content of the world economy. Norway hosted a meeting January 1994 to address changing consumption patterns in hopes of launching a qualitatively new debate on sustainable consumption in the North and to demonstrate to the South that we are serious about our responsibility. As we move ahead, the author stresses the need to recognize the importance of providing education to both men and women, and paying the bill for necessary global reforms.

  17. The Global Precipitation Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Scott; Kummerow, Christian

    2000-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Mission (GPM), expected to begin around 2006, is a follow-up to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Unlike TRMM, which primarily samples the tropics, GPM will sample both the tropics and mid-latitudes. The primary, or core, satellite will be a single, enhanced TRMM satellite that can quantify the 3-D spatial distributions of precipitation and its associated latent heat release. The core satellite will be complemented by a constellation of very small and inexpensive drones with passive microwave instruments that will sample the rainfall with sufficient frequency to be not only of climate interest, but also have local, short-term impacts by providing global rainfall coverage at approx. 3 h intervals. The data is expected to have substantial impact upon quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting and data assimilation into global and mesoscale numerical models. Based upon previous studies of rainfall data assimilation, GPM is expected to lead to significant improvements in forecasts of extratropical and tropical cyclones. For example, GPM rainfall data can provide improved initialization of frontal systems over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The purpose of this talk is to provide information about GPM to the USWRP (U.S. Weather Research Program) community and to discuss impacts on quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting and data assimilation.

  18. Global residential appliance standards

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.; McMahon, J.E. ); Lebot, B. )

    1993-03-01

    In most countries, residential electricity consumption typically ranges from 20% to 40% of total electricity consumption. This energy is used for heating, cooling, refrigeration and other end-uses. Significant energy savings are possible if new appliance purchases are for models with higher efficiency than that of existing models. There are several ways to ensure or encourage such an outcome, for example, appliance rebates, innovative procurement, and minimum efficiency standards. This paper focuses on the latter approach. At the present time, the US is the only country with comprehensive appliance energy efficiency standards. However, many other countries, such as Australia, Canada, the European Community (EC), Japan and Korea, are considering enacting standards. The greatest potential impact of minimum efficiency standards for appliances is in the developing countries (e.g., China and India), where saturations of household appliances are relatively low but growing rapidly. This paper discusses the potential savings that could be achieved from global appliance efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. It also could be achieved from global appliance efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. It also discusses the impediments to establishing common standards for certain appliance types, such as differing test procedures, characteristics, and fuel prices. A methodology for establishing global efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers is described.

  19. Global trends, needs, issues.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, R G

    1998-01-01

    Worldwide, Pharmaceutical Plant Management struggles with the competing priorities of lowering costs, rising customer expectations, more demanding government regulations, and the need to reduce cycle times especially in the introduction of new products. All of this takes place in an environment of global competition, regulatory harmonization, mergers and downsizing, and employee insecurity. Employees are expected to do more with less, work with more sophisticated equipment and processes, take more personal responsibility for quality and productivity, work in teams, etc. In summary, we are talking about CHANGE, the speed of which will accelerate in the years to come. This presentation will discuss how some pharmaceutical plants are addressing these challenges. Examples will be given in the areas of validation, process reengineering, risk analysis, role of the quality function and people. It is my contention that most of the global trends today are insufficient to meet the challenges that we face. I hope that this presentation will generate some ideas on what the global trends should be.

  20. Poland and Global Threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleer, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This essay seeks to present the specifics of global threats, as well as the reasons for them being universal in nature, and for their persistence. A certain classification of the threats is also engaged in. At the same time, an attempt is made to show the specific threats present - irrespective of their global counterparts - in different regions, and even in different states. The genesis and nature of the latter are demonstrated in a somewhat ad hoc manner by reference to the threats considered to face Poland. If the global threats are truly universal, and arise out of the changes taking place around the world in the last half-century (primarily around the twin phenomena of globalisation and the information revolution), a specific reverse kind of situation applies to decolonisation, plus the collapse of the communist system and the transformation into market economies that apply to formerly communist countries. Equally, some at least of the threats facing Poland may have even a longer history, given that they are very much influenced by past economic and political development, as well as the dominant cultural system.

  1. Global Energy Futures Model

    SciTech Connect

    Malczynski, Leonard; Baker, Arnold; Beyeler, Walt; Conrad, Stephen; Harris, David; Harris, Paul; Rexroth, Paul; Bixler, and Nathan

    2004-01-01

    The Global Energy Futures Model (GEFM) is a demand-based, gross domestic product (GDP)-driven, dynamic simulation tool that provides an integrated framework to model key aspects of energy, nuclear-materials storage and disposition, environmental effluents from fossil and non fossil energy and global nuclear-materials management. Based entirely on public source data, it links oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear and renewable energy dynamically to greenhouse-gas emissions and 13 other measures of environmental impact. It includes historical data from 1990 to 2000, is benchmarked to the DOE/EIA/IEO 2002 [5] Reference Case for 2000 to 2020, and extrapolates energy demand through the year 2050. The GEFM is globally integrated, and breaks out five regions of the world: United States of America (USA), the Peoples Republic of China (China), the former Soviet Union (FSU), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations excluding the USA (other industrialized countries), and the rest of the world (ROW) (essentially the developing world). The GEFM allows the user to examine a very wide range of what ir scenarios through 2050 and to view the potential effects across widely dispersed, but interrelated areas. The authors believe that this high-level learning tool will help to stimulate public policy debate on energy, environment, economic and national security issues.

  2. Global temperature change

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto; Lo, Ken; Lea, David W.; Medina-Elizade, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Global surface temperature has increased ≈0.2°C per decade in the past 30 years, similar to the warming rate predicted in the 1980s in initial global climate model simulations with transient greenhouse gas changes. Warming is larger in the Western Equatorial Pacific than in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific over the past century, and we suggest that the increased West–East temperature gradient may have increased the likelihood of strong El Niños, such as those of 1983 and 1998. Comparison of measured sea surface temperatures in the Western Pacific with paleoclimate data suggests that this critical ocean region, and probably the planet as a whole, is approximately as warm now as at the Holocene maximum and within ≈1°C of the maximum temperature of the past million years. We conclude that global warming of more than ≈1°C, relative to 2000, will constitute “dangerous” climate change as judged from likely effects on sea level and extermination of species. PMID:17001018

  3. Global sea level rise

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, B.C. )

    1991-04-15

    Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records exhibit considerable scatter, from about 1 mm to 3 mm/yr. This disparity is not attributable to instrument error; long-term trends computed at adjacent sites often agree to within a few tenths of a millimeter per year. Instead, the differing estimates of global sea level rise appear to be in large part due to authors' using data from gauges located at convergent tectonic plate boundaries, where changes of land elevation give fictitious sea level trends. In addition, virtually all gauges undergo subsidence or uplift due to postglacial rebound (PGR) from the last deglaciation at a rate comparable to or greater than the secular rise of sea level. Modeling PGR by the ICE-3G model of Tushingham and Peltier (1991) and avoiding tide gauge records in areas of converging tectonic plates produces a highly consistent set of long sea level records. The value for mean sea level rise obtained from a global set of 21 such stations in nine oceanic regions with an average record length of 76 years during the period 1880-1980 is 1.8 mm/yr {plus minus} 0.1. This result provides confidence that carefully selected long tide gauge records measure the same underlying trend of sea level and that many old tide gauge records are of very high quality.

  4. Global climate feedbacks

    SciTech Connect

    Manowitz, B.

    1990-10-01

    The important physical, chemical, and biological events that affect global climate change occur on a mesoscale -- requiring high spatial resolution for their analysis. The Department of Energy has formulated two major initiatives under the US Global Change Program: ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurements), and CHAMMP (Computer Hardware Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics). ARM is designed to use ground and air-craft based observations to document profiles of atmospheric composition, clouds, and radiative fluxes. With research and models of important physical processes, ARM will delineate the relationships between trace gases, aerosol and cloud structure, and radiative transfer in the atmosphere, and will improve the parameterization of global circulation models. The present GCMs do not model important feedbacks, including those from clouds, oceans, and land processes. The purpose of this workshop is to identify such potential feedbacks, to evaluate the uncertainties in the feedback processes (and, if possible, to parameterize the feedback processes so that they can be treated in a GCM), and to recommend research programs that will reduce the uncertainties in important feedback processes. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  5. Global interrupt and barrier networks

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E; Heidelberger, Philip; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.

    2008-10-28

    A system and method for generating global asynchronous signals in a computing structure. Particularly, a global interrupt and barrier network is implemented that implements logic for generating global interrupt and barrier signals for controlling global asynchronous operations performed by processing elements at selected processing nodes of a computing structure in accordance with a processing algorithm; and includes the physical interconnecting of the processing nodes for communicating the global interrupt and barrier signals to the elements via low-latency paths. The global asynchronous signals respectively initiate interrupt and barrier operations at the processing nodes at times selected for optimizing performance of the processing algorithms. In one embodiment, the global interrupt and barrier network is implemented in a scalable, massively parallel supercomputing device structure comprising a plurality of processing nodes interconnected by multiple independent networks, with each node including one or more processing elements for performing computation or communication activity as required when performing parallel algorithm operations. One multiple independent network includes a global tree network for enabling high-speed global tree communications among global tree network nodes or sub-trees thereof. The global interrupt and barrier network may operate in parallel with the global tree network for providing global asynchronous sideband signals.

  6. Globally Happy: Individual Globalization, Expanded Capacities, and Subjective Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Ming-Chang; Chang, Heng-Hao; Chen, Wan-chi

    2012-01-01

    Deep integration of Asia into the global society necessarily affects wellbeing of local populations. This study proposes a notion of "extend capacities" to explain the relationships between individual globalization and subjective wellbeing among Asian populations in a context of increasing global integration. Using Amartya Sen's theory…

  7. Building Global Citizenship: Engaging Global Issues, Practicing Civic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunell, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    How can international politics courses be used to generate global civic engagement? The article describes how experiential learning can be used to stimulate student interest in issues of contemporary, global significance and to build students' repertoire of globally and locally relevant civic skills. It describes how students can become active…

  8. Bibliography of global change, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography lists 585 reports, articles, and other documents introduced in the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Database in 1992. The areas covered include global change, decision making, earth observation (from space), forecasting, global warming, policies, and trends.

  9. Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic

    MedlinePlus

    ... infected. HIV has led to a resurgence of tuberculosis (TB), particularly in Africa, and TB is a ... contributions to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (The Global Fund) as well as ...

  10. Global Hawk's View of Karl

    NASA Video Gallery

    This time-lapse video shows Hurricane Karl as seen from NASA's unmanned Global Hawk aircraft during a 25.3-hour flight Sept. 16-17, 2010. Eight of the Global Hawk's 20 passes over the hurricane wer...

  11. Global Change: The Scientific Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monastersky, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Described are efforts to organize the research efforts concerning global change. Objectives include the development of long-term monitoring programs, global process research campaigns, and predictive computer models. (CW)

  12. ESPC Coupled Global Ensemble Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ESPC Coupled Global Ensemble Design Justin McLay...range global atmospheric ensemble forecasting system using the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM). Couple NAVGEM to a simple SST model that...SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ESPC Coupled Global Ensemble Design 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  13. Rethinking the 'global' in global health: a dialectic approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Current definitions of 'global health' lack specificity about the term 'global'. This debate presents and discusses existing definitions of 'global health' and a common problem inherent therein. It aims to provide a way forward towards an understanding of 'global health' while avoiding redundancy. The attention is concentrated on the dialectics of different concepts of 'global' in their application to malnutrition; HIV, tuberculosis & malaria; and maternal mortality. Further attention is payed to normative objectives attached to 'global health' definitions and to paradoxes involved in attempts to define the field. Discussion The manuscript identifies denotations of 'global' as 'worldwide', as 'transcending national boundaries' and as 'holistic'. A fourth concept of 'global' as 'supraterritorial' is presented and defined as 'links between the social determinants of health anywhere in the world'. The rhetorical power of the denotations impacts considerably on the object of 'global health', exemplified in the context of malnutrition; HIV, tuberculosis & malaria; and maternal mortality. The 'global' as 'worldwide', as 'transcending national boundaries' and as 'holistic' house contradictions which can be overcome by the fourth concept of 'global' as 'supraterritorial'. The 'global-local-relationship' inherent in the proposed concept coheres with influential anthropological and sociological views despite the use of different terminology. At the same time, it may be assembled with other views on 'global' or amend apparently conflicting ones. The author argues for detaching normative objectives from 'global health' definitions to avoid so called 'entanglement-problems'. Instead, it is argued that the proposed concept constitutes an un-euphemistical approach to describe the inherently politicised field of 'global health'. Summary While global-as-worldwide and global-as-transcending-national-boundaries are misleading and produce redundancy with public and

  14. Teaching with a Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Percy

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of teaching from a global perspective far outweigh the disadvantages. Teaching from a global perspective provides the employer with global workers. Such teaching produces students who possess the knowledge of languages, culture, social systems, dress, religion, and cultural norms, as well as skills for employment in the global…

  15. Global Container Management Process Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-19

    GLOBAL CONTAINER MANAGEMENT PROCESS IMPROVEMENTS GRP Traci L. Bowman, Major, USAF AFIT-ENS-GRP-15...020 GLOBAL CONTAINER MANAGEMENT PROCESS IMPROVEMENTS GRP Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences Graduate...STATEMENT A. APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENS-GRP-15-J-020 GLOBAL CONTAINER MANAGEMENT PROCESS

  16. API Global Sourcing Strategies 2010.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Shannon

    2010-09-01

    The API Global Sourcing Strategies 2010 Conference, held in Berlin, included topics covering new developments in the field of global sourcing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). This conference report highlights selected presentations on development in Eastern API markets, specifically India and China, factors influencing changes in global API sourcing, and risk mitigation in API sourcing.

  17. Research on Globalization and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spring, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Research on globalization and education involves the study of intertwined worldwide discourses, processes, and institutions affecting local educational practices and policies. The four major theoretical perspectives concerning globalization and education are world culture, world systems, postcolonial, and culturalist. The major global educational…

  18. Global Positioning Systems in Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-26

    Global Positioning Systems ( GPS ) in combat. Fratricide has been reduced because of the effective use of...gained by the use of Global Positioning Systems ( GPS ) in combat. Fratricide has been reduced because of the effective use of GPS in common equipment...The advantages of using Global Positioning Systems ( GPS ) in combat have proven to reduce fratricide, collateral damage, and the number of

  19. The Ecology of Global English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canagarajah, A. Suresh

    2007-01-01

    Global English is under contestation. Although some consider lingua franca English (LFE) as a neutral medium or code that does not belong to any specific culture or nationality, others see the deceptive nature of this linguistic globalization. Along with Spring (2007/this issue), they see global English as embodying partisan interests and values.…

  20. Global Warming And Meltwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratu, S.

    2012-04-01

    In order to find new approaches and new ideas for my students to appreciate the importance of science in their daily life, I proposed a theme for them to debate. They had to search for global warming information and illustrations in the media, and discuss the articles they found in the classroom. This task inspired them to search for new information about this important and timely theme in science. I informed my students that all the best information about global warming and meltwater they found would be used in a poster that would help us to update the knowledge base of the Physics laboratory. I guided them to choose the most eloquent images and significant information. Searching and working to create this poster, the students arrived to better appreciate the importance of science in their daily life and to critically evaluate scientific information transmitted via the media. In the poster we created, one can find images, photos and diagrams and some interesting information: Global warming refers to the rising average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected evolution. In the last 100 years, the Earth's average surface temperature increased by about 0.8 °C with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuel. They indicate that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9 °C for the lowest emissions scenario and 2.4 to 6.4 °C for the highest predictions. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, and potentially result in expansion of subtropical deserts. Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing decrease of

  1. Global Volcano Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, R. S. J.; Loughlin, S. C.; Cottrell, E.; Valentine, G.; Newhall, C.; Jolly, G.; Papale, P.; Takarada, S.; Crosweller, S.; Nayembil, M.; Arora, B.; Lowndes, J.; Connor, C.; Eichelberger, J.; Nadim, F.; Smolka, A.; Michel, G.; Muir-Wood, R.; Horwell, C.

    2012-04-01

    Over 600 million people live close enough to active volcanoes to be affected when they erupt. Volcanic eruptions cause loss of life, significant economic losses and severe disruption to people's lives, as highlighted by the recent eruption of Mount Merapi in Indonesia. The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland in 2010 illustrated the potential of even small eruptions to have major impact on the modern world through disruption of complex critical infrastructure and business. The effects in the developing world on economic growth and development can be severe. There is evidence that large eruptions can cause a change in the earth's climate for several years afterwards. Aside from meteor impact and possibly an extreme solar event, very large magnitude explosive volcanic eruptions may be the only natural hazard that could cause a global catastrophe. GVM is a growing international collaboration that aims to create a sustainable, accessible information platform on volcanic hazard and risk. We are designing and developing an integrated database system of volcanic hazards, vulnerability and exposure with internationally agreed metadata standards. GVM will establish methodologies for analysis of the data (eg vulnerability indices) to inform risk assessment, develop complementary hazards models and create relevant hazards and risk assessment tools. GVM will develop the capability to anticipate future volcanism and its consequences. NERC is funding the start-up of this initiative for three years from November 2011. GVM builds directly on the VOGRIPA project started as part of the GRIP (Global Risk Identification Programme) in 2004 under the auspices of the World Bank and UN. Major international initiatives and partners such as the Smithsonian Institution - Global Volcanism Program, State University of New York at Buffalo - VHub, Earth Observatory of Singapore - WOVOdat and many others underpin GVM.

  2. Global Seabird Ammonia Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddick, S. N.; Blackall, T. D.; Dragosits, U.; Daunt, F. H.; Braban, C. F.; Tang, Y. S.; Trathan, P.; Wanless, S.; Sutton, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Seabird colonies represent a major source of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) in remote coastal and marine systems in temperate, tropical and polar regions. Previous studies have shown that NH3 emissions from Scottish seabird colonies were substantial - of similar magnitude to the most intensive agricultural point source emissions. The UK data were used to model global seabird NH3 emissions and suggested that penguins are a major source of emissions on and around the Antarctic continent. The largest seabird colonies are in the order of millions of seabirds. Due to the isolation of these colonies from anthropogenic nitrogen sources, they may play a major role in the nitrogen cycle within these ecosystems. A global seabird database was constructed and used in conjunction with a species-specific seabird bioenergetics model to map the locations of NH3 emissions from seabird colonies. The accuracy of the modelled emissions was validated with field data of NH3 emissions measured at key seabird colonies in different climatic regions of the world: temperate (Isle of May, Scotland), tropical (Ascension Island) and polar (Signy Island, South Georgia). The field data indicated good agreement between modelled and measured NH3 emissions. The measured NH3 emissions also showed the variability of emission with climate. Climate dependence of seabird NH3 emissions may have further implications under a changing global climate. Seabird colonies represent NH3 emission ‘hotspots’, often far from anthropogenic sources, and are likely to be the major source of nitrogen input to these remote coastal ecosystems. The direct manuring by seabirds at colony locations may strongly influence species richness and biodiversity. The subsequent volatilisation and deposition of NH3 increases the spatial extent of seabird influence on nitrogen cycling in their local ecosystem. As many seabird populations are fluctuating due to changing food supply, climate change or anthropogenic pressures, these factors

  3. Global Adjoint Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozdag, Ebru; Lefebvre, Matthieu; Lei, Wenjie; Peter, Daniel; Smith, James; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Tromp, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    We will present our initial results of global adjoint tomography based on 3D seismic wave simulations which is one of the most challenging examples in seismology in terms of intense computational requirements and vast amount of high-quality seismic data that can potentially be assimilated in inversions. Using a spectral-element method, we incorporate full 3D wave propagation in seismic tomography by running synthetic seismograms and adjoint simulations to compute exact sensitivity kernels in realistic 3D background models. We run our global simulations on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Cray XK7 "Titan" system taking advantage of the GPU version of the SPECFEM3D_GLOBE package. We have started iterations with initially selected 253 earthquakes within the magnitude range of 5.5 < Mw < 7.0 and numerical simulations having resolution down to ~27 s to invert for a transversely isotropic crust and mantle model using a non-linear conjugate gradient algorithm. The measurements are currently based on frequency-dependent traveltime misfits. We use both minor- and major-arc body and surface waves by running 200 min simulations where inversions are performed with more than 2.6 million measurements. Our initial results after 12 iterations already indicate several prominent features such as enhanced slab (e.g., Hellenic, Japan, Bismarck, Sandwich), plume/hotspot (e.g., the Pacific superplume, Caroline, Yellowstone, Hawaii) images, etc. To improve the resolution and ray coverage, particularly in the lower mantle, our aim is to increase the resolution of numerical simulations first going down to ~17 s and then to ~9 s to incorporate high-frequency body waves in inversions. While keeping track of the progress and illumination of features in our models with a limited data set, we work towards to assimilate all available data in inversions from all seismic networks and earthquakes in the global CMT catalogue.

  4. Global Core Plasma Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, Dennis L.; Craven, P. D.; Comfort, R. H.

    1999-01-01

    Abstract. The Global Core Plasma Model (GCPM) provides, empirically derived, core plasma density as a function of geomagnetic and solar conditions throughout the inner magnetosphere. It is continuous in value and gradient and is composed of separate models for the ionosphere, the plasmasphere, the plasmapause, the trough, and the polar cap. The relative composition of plasmaspheric H+, He+, and O+ is included in the GCPM. A blunt plasmaspheric bulge and rotation of the bulge with changing geomagnetic conditions is included. The GCPM is an amalgam of density models, intended to serve as a framework for continued improvement as new measurements become available and are used to characterize core plasma density, composition, and temperature.

  5. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-07

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We also discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. Moreover, the mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three

  6. A New Global Geomorphology?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.

    1985-01-01

    Geomorphology is entering a new era of discovery and scientific excitement centered on expanding scales of concern in both time and space. The catalysts for this development include technological advances in global remote sensing systems, mathematical modeling, and the dating of geomorphic surfaces and processes. Even more important are new scientific questions centered on comparative planetary geomorphology, the interaction of tectonism with landscapes, the dynamics of late Cenozoic climatic changes, the influence of cataclysmic processes, the recognition of extremely ancient landforms, and the history of the world's hydrologic systems. These questions all involve feedback relationships with allied sciences that have recently yielded profound developments.

  7. Global Precipitation Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Kummerow, Christian D.; Shepherd, James Marshall

    2008-01-01

    This chapter begins with a brief history and background of microwave precipitation sensors, with a discussion of the sensitivity of both passive and active instruments, to trace the evolution of satellite-based rainfall techniques from an era of inference to an era of physical measurement. Next, the highly successful Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission will be described, followed by the goals and plans for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission and the status of precipitation retrieval algorithm development. The chapter concludes with a summary of the need for space-based precipitation measurement, current technological capabilities, near-term algorithm advancements and anticipated new sciences and societal benefits in the GPM era.

  8. Global carbon budget 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peng, S.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2015-05-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each

  9. Global change and mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krabbenhoft, David P.; Sunderland, Elsie M.

    2013-01-01

    More than 140 nations recently agreed to a legally binding treaty on reductions in human uses and releases of mercury that will be signed in October of this year. This follows the 2011 rule in the United States that for the first time regulates mercury emissions from electricity-generating utilities. Several decades of scientific research preceded these important regulations. However, the impacts of global change on environmental mercury concentrations and human exposures remain a major uncertainty affecting the potential effectiveness of regulatory activities.

  10. Global carbon budget 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peng, S.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2015-05-08

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from

  11. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global

  12. Plecanatide: First Global Approval.

    PubMed

    Al-Salama, Zaina T; Syed, Yahiya Y

    2017-03-03

    Plecanatide (Trulance(TM)) is an oral guanylate cyclase-C agonist that is being developed by Synergy Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, such as chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). It is a synthetic analogue of human uroguanylin, a 16 amino acid peptide that regulates ion and fluid transport in the gastrointestinal tract. In January 2017, plecanatide received its first global approval in the USA for the treatment of adult patients with CIC. Plecanatide is undergoing phase III investigation in IBS-C. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of plecanatide leading to this first approval in CIC.

  13. The Global Energy Challenge

    ScienceCinema

    Crabtree, George

    2016-07-12

    The expected doubling of global energy demand by 2050 challenges our traditional patterns of energy production, distribution and use.   The continued use of fossil fuels raises concerns about supply, security, environment and climate.  New routes are needed for the efficient conversion of energy from chemical fuel, sunlight, and heat to electricity or hydrogen as an energy carrier and finally to end uses like transportation, lighting, and heating. Opportunities for efficient new energy conversion routes based on nanoscale materials will be presented, with emphasis on the sustainable energy technologies they enable.

  14. Global Land Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The Global Land Information System (GLIS) is a World Wide Web-based query tool developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide data and information about the Earth's land surface. Examples of holdings available through the GLIS include cartographic data, topographic data, soils data, aerial photographs, and satellite images from various agencies and cooperators located around the world. Both hard copy and digital data collections are represented in the GLIS, and preview images are available for millions of the products in the system.

  15. The global ocean microbiome.

    PubMed

    Moran, Mary Ann

    2015-12-11

    The microbiome of the largest environment on Earth has been gradually revealing its secrets over four decades of study. Despite the dispersed nature of substrates and the transience of surfaces, marine microbes drive essential transformations in all global elemental cycles. Much has been learned about the microbes that carry out key biogeochemical processes, but there are still plenty of ambiguities about the factors important in regulating activity, including the role of microbial interactions. Identifying the molecular "currencies" exchanged within the microbial community will provide key information on microbiome function and its vulnerability to environmental change.

  16. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-11-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006-2015), EFF was 9

  17. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    DOE PAGES

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; ...

    2015-12-07

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We also discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology andmore » data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. Moreover, the mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each

  18. Global carbon budget 2014

    DOE PAGES

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; ...

    2015-05-08

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissionsmore » from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ;, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates

  19. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    DOE PAGES

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; ...

    2016-11-14

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongsidemore » methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006

  20. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-11-14

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are

  1. Designing Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, P. C.; ORyan, C.

    2012-12-01

    In a time when sensationalism rules the online world, it is best to keep things short. The people of the online world are not passing back and forth lengthy articles, but rather brief glimpses of complex information. This is the target audience we attempt to educate. Our challenge is then to attack not only ignorance, but also apathy toward global climate change, while conforming to popular modes of learning. When communicating our scientific material, it was difficult to determine what level of information was appropriate for our audience, especially with complex subject matter. Our unconventional approach for communicating the carbon crisis as it applies to global climate change caters to these 'recreational learners'. Using story-telling devices acquired from Carolyne's biomedical art background coupled with Peter's extensive knowledge of carbon cycle and ecosystems science, we developed a dynamic series of illustrations that capture the attention of a callous audience. Adapting complex carbon cycle and climate science into comic-book-style animations creates a channel between artist, scientist, and the general public. Brief scenes of information accompanied by text provide a perfect platform for visual learners, as well as fresh portrayals of stale material for the jaded. In this way art transcends the barriers of the cerebral and the abstract, paving the road to understanding.;

  2. Globalization and Christian love.

    PubMed

    Father Peter J Henriot

    2006-01-01

    Globalization is having a very negative impact on the world's poorest people. Decisions made in the First World-decisions often based on a profit-oriented ethic-are degrading the quality of life of people in the Third World and taking away their voice. The church is called to act in solidarity to respond to people in need worldwide. It must take a radical stance to promote love, justice, development, and peace. Acting in solidarity with others expresses a commitment to the common good and recognizes that all people are interconnected-that "our" well-being depends on the well-being of others. It acknowledges that people exist within a community. The concept of solidarity-with its emphasis on relationships among people-runs counter to many of the structures that drive globalization. People of the church must undertake a personal assessment, examining their thoughts and feelings about acting in solidarity with people in need. Through change and personal action, these individuals can promote justice around the world.

  3. Global temperature variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Roy W.; Christy, John R.

    1993-01-01

    Lower stratospheric temperature anomalies from MSU channel 4 were compared to ten years of radiosonde data to validate the satellite record, and the results were submitted for publication. Various assumed stratospheric weighting profiles were tested to determine whether the theoretical channel 4 weighting function had significant errors. It was found that the real weighting function is slightly sharper than the theoretical weighting function. We also found evidence for a step-function cooling in the radiosonde record during 1982, a period when two satellites were operating with no evidence of changes in the satellites. Lower tropospheric bulk temperature datasets continue to be sent to climate researchers and modelers, as well as to the Climate Analysis Center (CAC). The CAC is also implementing our MSU software to be able to do the MSU processing at their site. Drift in MSU channel 3 is being quantified and corrected to allow it to be used together with channel 2 for a better lowertropospheric gridpoint temperature product. A new global oceanic precipitation dataset has been produced from MSU channel 1 data, and compared to ten years of global raingage data.

  4. Global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Corell, R.W.; Anderson, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Fifty years ago the buzz words in science were [open quotes]atomic energy,[close quotes] and the general mood of the public, in those more naive days, was that the earth is so large that it could take any kind of human abuse. The advance of science and technology since then has proved that this is not the case. It is now common sense, even to the layperson, that the earth's environment is delicate and needs careful protection if future generations are to enjoy it. The buzz words now are [open quotes]global change.[close quotes] This book is the outcome of the Workshop on the Science of Global Environmental Change sponsored by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and is one of the NATO's Advanced Science Institute Series books. It is essentially a collection of the lectures given in the workshop. The workshop was apparently not intended for in-depth scientific discussions but to review the overall current research situation and to identify future research needs. Accordingly, the papers collected in this volume are basically of this nature.

  5. Global OpenSearch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, D. J.; Mitchell, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    At AGU 2014, NASA EOSDIS demonstrated a case-study of an OpenSearch framework for Earth science data discovery. That framework leverages the IDN and CWIC OpenSearch API implementations to provide seamless discovery of data through the 'two-step' discovery process as outlined by the Federation for Earth Sciences (ESIP) OpenSearch Best Practices. But how would an Earth Scientist leverage this framework and what are the benefits? Using a client that understands the OpenSearch specification and, for further clarity, the various best practices and extensions, a scientist can discovery a plethora of data not normally accessible either by traditional methods (NASA Earth Data Search, Reverb, etc) or direct methods (going to the source of the data) We will demonstrate, via the CWICSmart web client, how an earth scientist can access regional data on a regional phenomena in a uniform and aggregated manner. We will demonstrate how an earth scientist can 'globalize' their discovery. You want to find local data on 'sea surface temperature of the Indian Ocean'? We can help you with that. 'European meteorological data'? Yes. 'Brazilian rainforest satellite imagery'? That too. CWIC allows you to get earth science data in a uniform fashion from a large number of disparate, world-wide agencies. This is what we mean by Global OpenSearch.

  6. Reconciliation of global temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benestad, R. E.

    2012-03-01

    In recent years there has been a public debate about whether the rate of global warming has waned, prompting the paper 'Is the climate warming or cooling?' in Geophysical Research Letters by Easterling and Wehner (2009). This question has also attracted attention in wider scientific circles, and in a recent paper in Science, Solomon et al (2010) suggested that a decrease in stratospheric water vapour concentrations has slowed the global surface temperature rate between 2000 and 2009. Yet another study by Kaufmann et al (2011) argued that the 'hiatus' in the global warming coincided with near constant combined anthropogenic and natural forcings. The reason: a declining solar insolation, a shift to La Niña conditions and a rapid growth in short-lived sulfur emissions have masked the effect from rising greenhouse gas concentrations (GHGs). So, what is new? In the paper 'Global temperature evolution 1979-2010', Foster and Rahmstorf (2011) re-examine the situation. Whereas Kaufmann's group only examined the global temperature record from the Hadley Centre and Climate Research Unit (HadCRUT3; Brohan et al 2006) in the United Kingdom, Foster and Rahmstorf present an analysis of the range of available historical temperature records, both from surface thermometers and satellite-based remote sensing. There is one caveat associated with the analysis that Kaufmann's group carried out, which is that the HadCRUT3 record does not fully capture recent enhanced warming over the Arctic, thereby underestimating the evolution of the true global mean compared with other sources. Other analyses, such as the one from NASA/GISS (GISSTEMP; Hansen et al 2010) and those based on atmospheric models (e.g. Kalnay et al 1996), cover the Arctic region better by interpolating the values surrounding the data void or taking physics into account. These, and independent indices such as sea-ice extent (Kinnard et al 2011), ice melting over Greenland (Mernild et al 2009) and permafrost thawing

  7. Global Methane Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeburgh, W. S.

    2003-12-01

    Methane (CH4) has been studied as an atmospheric constituent for over 200 years. A 1776 letter from Alessandro Volta to Father Campi described the first experiments on flammable "air" released by shallow sediments in Lake Maggiore (Wolfe, 1996; King, 1992). The first quantitative measurements of CH4, both involving combustion and gravimetric determination of trapped oxidation products, were reported in French by Boussingault and Boussingault, 1864 and Gautier (1901), who reported CH4 concentrations of 10 ppmv and 0.28 ppmv (seashore) and 95 ppmv (Paris), respectively. The first modern measurements of atmospheric CH4 were the infrared absorption measurements of Migeotte (1948), who estimated an atmospheric concentration of 2.0 ppmv. Development of gas chromatography and the flame ionization detector in the 1950s led to observations of vertical CH4 distributions in the troposphere and stratosphere, and to establishment of time-series sampling programs in the late 1970s. Results from these sampling programs led to suggestions that the concentration of CH4, as that of CO2, was increasing in the atmosphere. The possible role of CH4 as a greenhouse gas stimulated further research on CH4 sources and sinks. Methane has also been of interest to microbiologists, but findings from microbiology have entered the larger context of the global CH4 budget only recently.Methane is the most abundant hydrocarbon in the atmosphere. It plays important roles in atmospheric chemistry and the radiative balance of the Earth. Stratospheric oxidation of CH4 provides a means of introducing water vapor above the tropopause. Methane reacts with atomic chlorine in the stratosphere, forming HCl, a reservoir species for chlorine. Some 90% of the CH4 entering the atmosphere is oxidized through reactions initiated by the OH radical. These reactions are discussed in more detail by Wofsy (1976) and Cicerone and Oremland (1988), and are important in controlling the oxidation state of the atmosphere

  8. Global burden of COPD.

    PubMed

    López-Campos, José Luis; Tan, Wan; Soriano, Joan B

    2016-01-01

    It is estimated that the world population will reach a record 7.3 billion in 2015, and the high burden of chronic conditions associated with ageing and smoking will increase further. Respiratory diseases in general receive little attention and funding in comparison with other major causes of global morbidity and mortality. In particular, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been a major public health problem and will remain a challenge for clinicians within the 21st century. Worldwide, COPD is in the spotlight, since its high prevalence, morbidity and mortality create formidable challenges for health-care systems. This review emphasizes the magnitude of the COPD problem from a clinician's standpoint by drawing extensively from the new findings of the Global Burden of Disease study. Updated, distilled information on the population distribution of COPD is useful for the clinician to help provide an appreciation of the relative impact of COPD in daily practice compared with other chronic conditions, and to allocate minimum resources in anticipation of future needs in care. Despite recent trends in reduction of COPD standardized mortality rates and some recent successes in anti-smoking efforts in a number of Western countries, the overarching demographic impact of ageing in an ever-expanding world population, joined with other factors such as high rates of smoking and air pollution in Asia, will ensure that COPD will continue to pose an ever-increasing problem well into the 21st century.

  9. (Global energy development)

    SciTech Connect

    Trivelpiece, A.W.; Fulkerson, W.

    1989-11-21

    This is the report of foreign travel by Alvin W. Trivelpiece and William Fulkerson who were part of a US delegation of ten individuals who visited the Soviet Union for two weeks as part of a joint activity between the US National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the Academy of Sciences (AS) of the USSR. Trivelpiece headed the US delegation. The trip was sponsored by the NAS under a grant from the MacArthur Foundation. It consisted of three parts: (1) a tour of energy facilities and laboratories in Siberia, including the cities of Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk, Nazarovo, Achinsk, Bratsk, and Irkutsk; (2) a joint seminar in Moscow called Global Energy Development and Associated Ecological (Environmental) Impacts''; and (3) a workshop to discuss areas of potential future collaboration and cooperation. A Memorandum of Record was signed on the final day. It recommended that the Presidents of the two Academies establish a joint committee for ...coordinating, recommending, and encouraging activities in accordance with this memorandum.'' Projects for possible collaboration were identified in the areas of energy data and models, global warming, technologies for more efficient use of energy, clean coal, gas turbines, tools for assessing environmental impacts, and analysis of approaches to energy decision making.

  10. The Global Soil Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanarella, Luca

    2015-07-01

    The Global Soil Partnership (GSP) has been established, following an intensive preparatory work of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in collaboration with the European Commission (EC), as a voluntary partnership coordinated by the FAO in September 2011 [1]. The GSP is open to all interested stakeholders: Governments (FAO Member States), Universities, Research Organizations, Civil Society Organizations, Industry and private companies. It is a voluntary partnership aiming towards providing a platform for active engagement in sustainable soil management and soil protection at all scales: local, national, regional and global. As a “coalition of the willing” towards soil protection, it attempts to make progress in reversing soil degradation with those partners that have a genuine will of protecting soils for our future generations. It openly aims towards creating an enabling environment, despite the resistance of a minority of national governments, for effective soil protection in the large majority of the countries that are genuinely concerned about the rapid depletion of their limited soil resources.

  11. Drought - A Global Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackner, S.; Barnwal, P.; von der Goltz, J.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the lasting effects of early childhood exposure to drought on economic and health outcomes in a large multi-country dataset. By pooling all Demographic and Health Survey rounds for which household geocodes are available, we obtain an individual-level dataset covering 47 developing countries. Among other impact measures, we collect infant and child mortality data from 3.3m live births and data on stunting and wasting for 1.2m individuals, along with data on education, employment, wealth, marriage and childbearing later in life for similarly large numbers of respondents. Birth years vary from 1893 to 2012. We seek to improve upon existing work on the socio-economic impact of drought in a number of ways. First, we introduce from the hydrological literature a drought measure, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), that has been shown to closely proxy the Palmer drought index, but has far less demanding data requirements, and can be obtained globally and for long time periods. We estimate the SPI for 110 years on a global 0.5° grid, which allows us to assign drought histories to the geocoded individual data. Additionally, we leverage our large sample size to explicitly investigate both how drought impacts have changed over time as adaptation occurred at a varying pace in different locations, and the role of the regional extent of drought in determining impacts.

  12. Parallel hierarchical global illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Quinn O.

    1997-10-08

    Solving the global illumination problem is equivalent to determining the intensity of every wavelength of light in all directions at every point in a given scene. The complexity of the problem has led researchers to use approximation methods for solving the problem on serial computers. Rather than using an approximation method, such as backward ray tracing or radiosity, the authors have chosen to solve the Rendering Equation by direct simulation of light transport from the light sources. This paper presents an algorithm that solves the Rendering Equation to any desired accuracy, and can be run in parallel on distributed memory or shared memory computer systems with excellent scaling properties. It appears superior in both speed and physical correctness to recent published methods involving bidirectional ray tracing or hybrid treatments of diffuse and specular surfaces. Like progressive radiosity methods, it dynamically refines the geometry decomposition where required, but does so without the excessive storage requirements for ray histories. The algorithm, called Photon, produces a scene which converges to the global illumination solution. This amounts to a huge task for a 1997-vintage serial computer, but using the power of a parallel supercomputer significantly reduces the time required to generate a solution. Currently, Photon can be run on most parallel environments from a shared memory multiprocessor to a parallel supercomputer, as well as on clusters of heterogeneous workstations.

  13. Global Initiatives for Early Childhood Care and Education: Global Guidelines and Global Guidelines Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trube, Mary Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This report focuses on the Association for Childhood Education International's (ACEI) Global Guidelines (GG) and Global Guidelines Assessment (GGA), which were developed in response to and in keeping with the prominence that the issue of quality early childhood care, development, and education has reached globally. Further, the paper positions the…

  14. Global Citizenship and Global Universities. The Age of Global Interdependence and Cosmopolitanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Carlos Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the role of global universities and globalisations in an age of global interdependence and cosmopolitanism. Competing agendas that result from actions and reactions to multiple globalisations are considered in relation to global citizenship education. These agendas are crucial in understanding dilemmas of the local and the…

  15. Global Map of Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The images used for the base of this Ganymede globe were chosen from coverage supplied by the Galileo solid-state imaging (SSI) camera and Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. The monochrome and color data were both processed using Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS). The individual images were radiometrically calibrated and photometrically normalized using a Lunar-Lambert function with empirically derived values. A linear correction based on the statistics of all overlapping areas was then applied to minimize image brightness variations. The image data were selected on the basis of overall image quality, reasonable original input resolution (from 20 km/pixel for gap fill to as much as 180 m/pixel), and availability of moderate emission/incidence angles for topography and albedo. The black and white monochrome base mosaic was constructed separately from the three-band color mosaic. Although consistency was achieved where possible, different filters were included for monochrome global image coverage as necessary: clear for Voyager 1 and 2; clear, near-IR (757 nm), and green (559 nm) for Galileo SSI. Individual images were projected to a Sinusoidal Equal-Area projection at an image resolution of 1 km/pixel. The global color mosaic was processed in Sinusoidal projection with an image resolution of 6 km/pixel. The color utilized the SSI filters 1-micron (991 nm) wavelength for red, SSI 559 nm for green, and SSI 413 nm for violet. Where SSI color coverage was lacking in the longitude range of 210o-250o, Voyager 2 wide-angle images were included to complete the global coverage. The chosen filters for the Voyager 2 data were 530 nm for green, and 480-500 nm for blue. The red band was synthesized in this area based on statistics calculated from the surrounding SSI 1-micron (991 nm) data and SSI and Voyager data in the blue and green bands. The final global color mosaic was then scaled up to 1 km/pixel and merged with the monochrome mosaic. The north pole

  16. Global Environmental Alert Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, V. F.; Cervone, G.; Singh, A.; Kafatos, M.

    2006-12-01

    Every year natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, tsunamis, etc. occur around the world, causing hundreds of thousands of deaths and injuries, billions of dollars in economic losses, and destroying natural landmarks and adveresely affecting ecosystems. Due to increasing urbanization, and increasingly higher percentage of the world's population living in megacities, the existence of nuclear power plants and other facilities whose potential destruction poses unacceptable high risks, natural hazards represent an increasing threat for economic losses, as well as risk to people and property. Warning systems represent an innovative and effective approach to mitigate the risks associated with natural hazards. Several state-of-the-art analyses show that early warning technologies are now available for most natural hazards and systems are already in operation in some parts of the world. Nevertheless, recent disasters such as the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the 2005 Kashmir earthquake and the 2005 Katrina hurricane, highlighted inadequacies in early warning system technologies. Furthermore, not all available technologies are deployed in every part of the world, due to the lack of awareness and resources in the poorer countries, leaving very large and densely populated areas at risk. Efforts towards the development of a global warning system are necessary for filling the gaps of existing technologies. A globally comprehensive early warning system based on existing technologies will be a means to consolidate scientific knowledge, package it in a form usable to international and national decision makers and actively disseminate this information to protect people and properties. There is not a single information broker who searches and packages the policy relevant material and delivers it in an understandable format to the public and decision makers. A critical review of existing systems reveals the need for the innovative service. We propose here a Global

  17. Global tropospheric ozone investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.

    1998-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is one of the most important trace gases in the troposphere, and it is responsible for influencing many critical chemical and radiative processes. Ozone contributes to the formation of the hydroxyl radical (OH), which is central to most chemical reactions in the lower atmosphere, and it absorbs UV, visible, and infrared radiation which affects the energy budget and atmospheric temperatures. In addition, O3 can be used as a tracer of atmospheric pollution and stratosphere troposphere exchange. At elevated concentrations, O3 can also produce detrimental biological and human health effects. The US National Research Council (NRC) Board on Sustainable Development reviewed the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) [NRC, 1995], and it identified tropospheric chemistry as one of the high priority areas for the USGCRP in the next decade. The NRC identified the following specific challenges in tropospheric chemistry. Although we understand the reason for the high levels of 03 over several regions of the world, we need to better establish the distribution of O3 in the troposphere in order to document and understand the changes in the abundance of global tropospheric O3. This information is needed to quantify the contribution of O3 to the Earth' s radiative balance and to understand potential impacts on the health of the biosphere. Having recognized the importance of particles in the chemistry of the stratosphere, we must determine how aerosols and clouds affect the chemical processes in the troposphere. This understanding is essential to predict the chemical composition of the atmosphere and to assess the resulting forcing effects in the climate system. We must determine if the self-cleansing chemistry of the atmosphere is changing as a result of human activities. This information is required to predict the rate at which pollutants are removed from the atmosphere. Over nearly two decades, airborne Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) systems have been used in

  18. The Global Flood Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P.; Huddelston, M.; Michel, G.; Thompson, S.; Heynert, K.; Pickering, C.; Abbott Donnelly, I.; Fewtrell, T.; Galy, H.; Sperna Weiland, F.; Winsemius, H.; Weerts, A.; Nixon, S.; Davies, P.; Schiferli, D.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, a Global Flood Model (GFM) initiative has been proposed by Willis, UK Met Office, Esri, Deltares and IBM. The idea is to create a global community platform that enables better understanding of the complexities of flood risk assessment to better support the decisions, education and communication needed to mitigate flood risk. The GFM will provide tools for assessing the risk of floods, for devising mitigation strategies such as land-use changes and infrastructure improvements, and for enabling effective pre- and post-flood event response. The GFM combines humanitarian and commercial motives. It will benefit: - The public, seeking to preserve personal safety and property; - State and local governments, seeking to safeguard economic activity, and improve resilience; - NGOs, similarly seeking to respond proactively to flood events; - The insurance sector, seeking to understand and price flood risk; - Large corporations, seeking to protect global operations and supply chains. The GFM is an integrated and transparent set of modules, each composed of models and data. For each module, there are two core elements: a live "reference version" (a worked example) and a framework of specifications, which will allow development of alternative versions. In the future, users will be able to work with the reference version or substitute their own models and data. If these meet the specification for the relevant module, they will interoperate with the rest of the GFM. Some "crowd-sourced" modules could even be accredited and published to the wider GFM community. Our intent is to build on existing public, private and academic work, improve local adoption, and stimulate the development of multiple - but compatible - alternatives, so strengthening mankind's ability to manage flood impacts. The GFM is being developed and managed by a non-profit organization created for the purpose. The business model will be inspired from open source software (eg Linux): - for non-profit usage

  19. Feeling global, acting ethically: global identification and fairtrade consumption.

    PubMed

    Reese, Gerhard; Kohlmann, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Global identification has become a popular construct in recent psychological debate as it relates to harmonious intergroup relations and a caring for all humanity. Based on social identity theorizing, the current research tests whether global identification can also predict consumer choices, at the expense of lower personal benefit. Importantly, we assumed that concerns about global injustice represent a crucial component of that relation. We predicted that participants who identified strongly with all humanity would rather choose a Fairtrade product alternative over a conventional one, compared with low identifiers. In addition, we assumed that this effect be mediated by perceived global injustice. Both predictions were confirmed in a consumer choice study (N = 68). Overall, global identification and globally relevant consumer behavior seem meaningfully interconnected, and we discuss these findings with regard to recent theoretical developments in Fairtrade consumption research.

  20. Global tree network for computing structures enabling global processing operations

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich; Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2010-01-19

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global tree network communications among processing nodes interconnected according to a tree network structure. The global tree network enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices are included that interconnect the nodes of the tree via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual tree and sub-tree structures. The global operations performed include one or more of: broadcast operations downstream from a root node to leaf nodes of a virtual tree, reduction operations upstream from leaf nodes to the root node in the virtual tree, and point-to-point message passing from any node to the root node. The global tree network is configurable to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner, and, is physically and logically partitionable.

  1. [Global risk management].

    PubMed

    Sghaier, W; Hergon, E; Desroches, A

    2015-08-01

    Risk management is a fundamental component of any successful company, whether it is in economic, societal or environmental aspect. Risk management is an especially important activity for companies that optimal security challenge of products and services is great. This is the case especially for the health sector institutions. Risk management is therefore a decision support tool and a means to ensure the sustainability of an organization. In this context, what methods and approaches implemented to manage the risks? Through this state of the art, we are interested in the concept of risk and risk management processes. Then we focus on the different methods of risk management and the criteria for choosing among these methods. Finally we highlight the need to supplement these methods by a systemic and global approach including through risk assessment by the audits.

  2. Global emissions inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Dignon, J.

    1995-07-01

    Atmospheric chemistry determines the concentrations of most of the important greenhouse gases except for carbon dioxide. The rate of removal of the greenhouse gases from the atmosphere is also controlled by atmospheric chemistry. The indirect effects of chemical forcing resulting from the chemical interactions of other species can also affect the concentrations of radiatively important gases such as ozone. In order to establish the contribution of any possible climatic change attributable to individual greenhouse gases, spatially and temporally resolved estimates of their emissions need to be established. Unfortunately, for most of the radiatively important species the global magnitudes of their individual fluxes are not known to better than a factor of two and their spatial distributions are even more poorly characterized. Efforts to estimate future projections of potential impacts and to monitor international agreements will require continued research to narrow the uncertainties of magnitude and geographical distribution of emissions.

  3. Global geochemical problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harriss, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Application of remote sensing techniques to the solution of geochemical problems is considered with emphasis on the 'carbon-cycle'. The problem of carbon dioxide sinks and the areal extent of coral reefs are treated. In order to assess the problems cited it is suggested that remote sensing techniques be utilized to: (1)monitor globally the carbonate and bicarbonate concentrations in surface waters of the world ocean; (2)monitor the freshwater and oceanic biomass and associated dissolved organic carbon; (3) inventory the coral reef areas and types and the associated oceanographic climatic conditions; and (4)measure the heavy metal fluxes from forested and vegetated areas, from volcanos, from different types of crustal rocks, from soils, and from sea surfaces.

  4. Apremilast: first global approval.

    PubMed

    Poole, Raewyn M; Ballantyne, Anita D

    2014-05-01

    Apremilast (Otezla(®)), an oral small molecule inhibitor of type-4 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE-4), is under development with Celgene Corporation for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis, ankylosing spondylitis, Behçet's syndrome, atopic dermatitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Apremilast is indicated for the treatment of active psoriatic arthritis in adults. Apremilast has received its first global approval for this indication in the USA. Regulatory submissions for approval in this indication are under review in Canada and Europe. Regulatory filings have also been submitted for apremilast in the treatment of plaque psoriasis in the USA and Europe. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of apremilast leading to its first approval for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis.

  5. Pomalidomide: first global approval.

    PubMed

    Elkinson, Shelley; McCormack, Paul L

    2013-05-01

    Pomalidomide (Pomalyst(®)) is a small molecule analogue of thalidomide under development with Celgene Corporation for the oral treatment of haematological and connective tissue diseases. Pomalidomide has been approved in the USA and is awaiting approval in the EU for use with low-dose dexamethasone for the treatment of relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma that has progressed following at least two prior therapies, including lenalidomide and bortezomib. The efficacy and safety of pomalidomide as monotherapy in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma has also been evaluated in a phase III trial. The agent is in phase III clinical development for the treatment of myelofibrosis and in phase II development for systemic sclerosis. Pomalidomide is also being investigated in patients with amyloidosis, prostate cancer, small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, graft-versus-host disease, and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of pomalidomide leading to this first global approval for relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma.

  6. Global Enhanced Vegetation Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    By carefully measuring the wavelengths and intensity of visible and near-infrared light reflected by the land surface back up into space, the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Team can quantify the concentrations of green leaf vegetation around the world. The above MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) map shows the density of plant growth over the entire globe. Very low values of EVI (white and brown areas) correspond to barren areas of rock, sand, or snow. Moderate values (light greens) represent shrub and grassland, while high values indicate temperate and tropical rainforests (dark greens). The MODIS EVI gives scientists a new tool for monitoring major fluctuations in vegetation and understanding how they affect, and are affected by, regional climate trends. For more information, read NASA Unveils Spectacular Suite of New Global Data Products from MODIS. Image courtesy MODIS Land Group/Vegetation Indices, Alfredo Huete, Principal Investigator, and Kamel Didan, University of Arizona

  7. Rebuilding global fisheries.

    PubMed

    Worm, Boris; Hilborn, Ray; Baum, Julia K; Branch, Trevor A; Collie, Jeremy S; Costello, Christopher; Fogarty, Michael J; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Jennings, Simon; Jensen, Olaf P; Lotze, Heike K; Mace, Pamela M; McClanahan, Tim R; Minto, Cóilín; Palumbi, Stephen R; Parma, Ana M; Ricard, Daniel; Rosenberg, Andrew A; Watson, Reg; Zeller, Dirk

    2009-07-31

    After a long history of overexploitation, increasing efforts to restore marine ecosystems and rebuild fisheries are under way. Here, we analyze current trends from a fisheries and conservation perspective. In 5 of 10 well-studied ecosystems, the average exploitation rate has recently declined and is now at or below the rate predicted to achieve maximum sustainable yield for seven systems. Yet 63% of assessed fish stocks worldwide still require rebuilding, and even lower exploitation rates are needed to reverse the collapse of vulnerable species. Combined fisheries and conservation objectives can be achieved by merging diverse management actions, including catch restrictions, gear modification, and closed areas, depending on local context. Impacts of international fleets and the lack of alternatives to fishing complicate prospects for rebuilding fisheries in many poorer regions, highlighting the need for a global perspective on rebuilding marine resources.

  8. The Global Positioning System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a constellation of navigation satellites called Navigation Satellite Timing And Ranging (NAVSTAR), maintained by the U.S. Department of Defense. Many outdoor enthusiasts recognize that a handheld GPS receiver can be an accurate tool for determining their location on the terrain. The GPS receiver helps determine locations on the Earth's surface by collecting signals from three or more satellites through a process called triangulation. Identifying a location on the Earth is more useful if you also know about the surrounding topographic conditions. Using a topographic map with the GPS receiver provides important information about features of the surrounding terrain and can help you plot an effective route from one location to another.

  9. Global atmospheric moisture variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; James, Bonnie F.; Chi, Kay; Huang, Huo-Jin

    1989-01-01

    Research efforts during FY-88 have focused on completion of several projects relating to analysis of FGGE data during SOP-1 and on expanded studies of global atmospheric moisture. In particular, a revised paper on the relationship between diabatic heating and baroclinicity in the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) was submitted. A summary of completed studies on diagnostic convective parameterization was presented at the Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography Convergence last February. These investigations of diabatic heating in the SPCZ have demonstrated the requirement for a more quantitative description of atmospheric moisture. As a result, efforts were directed toward use of passive remote microwave measurements from the Nimbus-7 SMMR and the DOD's Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI/I) as critical sources of moisture data. Activities this year are summarized.

  10. Global Warming on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; McDonald, S. W.; Person, M. J.; Olkin, C. B.; Dunham, E. J.; Spencer, J. R.; Stansberry, J. A.; Buie, M. W.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; McConnochie, T. H.

    1998-01-01

    Triton, Neptune's largest moon, has been predicted to undergo significant seasonal changes that would reveal themselves as changes in its mean frost temperature. But whether this temperature should at the present time be increasing, decreasing or constant depends on a number of parameters (such as the thermal properties of the surface, and frost migration patterns) that are unknown. Here we report observations of a recent stellar occultation by Triton which, when combined with earlier results, show that Triton has undergone a period of global warming since 1989. Our most conservative estimates of the rate of temperature and surface-pressure increase during this period imply that the atmosphere is doubling in bulk every 10 years, significantly faster than predicted by any published frost model for Triton. Our result suggests that permanent polar caps on Triton play a c dominant role in regulating seasonal atmospheric changes. Similar processes should also be active on Pluto.

  11. Neurology goes global

    PubMed Central

    Mateen, Farrah J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary In recent years, the need for additional neurologists and neurologic expertise in many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) has become more apparent. Many organizations are committed to this unmet need, but the scope of the problem remains mostly underappreciated. Neurologists may be skeptical about their value in resource-limited settings, yet we are critically needed and can have a marked effect. International experiences, however, must be carried out in ethical, informed, and sustainable ways in tandem with local health care providers when possible. We present a brief overview of critical issues in global neurology, the importance of focusing on benefits to the LMIC, and options for volunteer opportunities in clinical service, education, research, and disaster relief. Finally, we offer practical pointers and resources for planning these experiences. PMID:25110621

  12. Global warming on trial

    SciTech Connect

    Broeker, W.S.

    1992-04-01

    Jim Hansen, a climatologist at NASA's Goddard Space Institute, is convinced that the earth's temperature is rising and places the blame on the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Unconvinced, John Sununu, former White House chief of staff, doubts that the warming will be great enough to produce serious threat and fears that measures to reduce the emissions would throw a wrench into the gears that drive the Unites States' troubled economy. During his three years at the White House, Sununu's view prevailed, and although his role in the debate has diminished, others continue to cast doubt on the reality of global warming. A new lobbying group called the Climate Council has been created to do just this. Burning fossil fuels is not the only problem; a fifth of emissions of carbon dioxide now come from clearing and burning forests. Scientists are also tracking a host of other greenhouse gases that emanate from a variety of human activities; the warming effect of methane, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxide combined equals that of carbon dioxide. Although the current warming from these gases may be difficult to detect against the background noise of natural climate variation, most climatologists are certain that as the gases continue to accumulate, increases in the earth's temperature will become evident even to skeptics. If the reality of global warming were put on trial, each side would have trouble making its case. Jim Hansen's side could not prove beyond a reasonable doubt that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have warmed the planet. But neither could John Sununu's side prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the warming expected from greenhouse gases has not occurred. To see why each side would have difficulty proving its case, this article reviews the arguments that might be presented in such a hearing.

  13. Global geodetic observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Claude; Pearlman, Mike; Sarti, Pierguido

    2015-01-01

    Global geodetic observatories (GGO) play an increasingly important role both for scientific and societal applications, in particular for the maintenance and evolution of the reference frame and those applications that rely on the reference frame for their viability. The International Association of Geodesy (IAG), through the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), is fully involved in coordinating the development of these systems and ensuring their quality, perenniality and accessibility. This paper reviews the current role, basic concepts, and some of the critical issues associated with the GGOs, and advocates for their expansion to enhance co-location with other observing techniques (gravity, meteorology, etc). The historical perspective starts with the MERIT campaign, followed by the creation of international services (IERS, IGS, ILRS, IVS, IDS, etc). It provides a basic definition of observing systems and observatories and the build up of the international networks and the role of co-locations in geodesy and geosciences and multi-technique processing and data products. This paper gives special attention to the critical topic of local surveys and tie vectors among co-located systems in sites; the agreement of space geodetic solutions and the tie vectors now place one of the most significant limitations on the quality of integrated data products, most notably the ITRF. This topic focuses on survey techniques, extrapolation to instrument reference points, computation techniques, systematic biases, and alignment of the individual technique reference frames into ITRF. The paper also discusses the design, layout and implementation of network infrastructure, including the role of GGOS and the benefit that would be achieved with better standardization and international governance.

  14. Global change research highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, C.

    1995-12-31

    Wood - the fuel source of the past - is expected to be a fuel source of the future. Fast growing trees are being cloned and nurtured for conversion to biofuels to replace or supplement gasoline for transportation. The future may also bring higher temperatures and drought if global climate changes as predicted. So, it seems practical to raise fastgrowing trees that not only provide fuel by capturing carbon from the atmosphere (helping to deter climate change) but also flourish under dry conditions. A recent ORNL finding has bearing on this goal. Hybrid willow trees have been cloned because they grow fast and serve as good fuel sources. However, there are important gender differences. Male willow clones are generally more tolerant of drought than female willows. Also, male willows cause no weed problems because they do not disperse seeds. In addition research work has looked at the impact of enhanced carbon dioxide environments on the growth of trees and the potential sequestering of carbon dioxide into the trees or soils. Scientists have found that ground-level ozone in the environment can reduce the growth of the loblolly pine, a forest tree species of great economic importance in the Southeast. It is predicted that global warming could lead to changes in regional precipitation, even periods of drought. How would climate change affect the growth of forest trees? This is a question ORNL has been attempting to answer. Geologic records have been studied by means of isotope ratio techniques to study reasons for vegetation changes in the past. The question is what was the reason for these changes.

  15. Measurement of Global Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flaming, Gilbert Mark

    2004-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Program is an international cooperative effort whose objectives are to (a) obtain increased understanding of rainfall processes, and (b) make frequent rainfall measurements on a global basis. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States and the Japanese Aviation and Exploration Agency (JAXA) have entered into a cooperative agreement for the formulation and development of GPM. This agreement is a continuation of the partnership that developed the highly successful Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) that was launched in November 1997; this mission continues to provide valuable scientific and meteorological information on rainfall and the associated processes. International collaboration on GPM from other space agencies has been solicited, and discussions regarding their participation are currently in progress. NASA has taken lead responsibility for the planning and formulation of GPM, Key elements of the Program to be provided by NASA include a Core satellite bus instrumented with a multi-channel microwave radiometer, a Ground Validation System and a ground-based Precipitation Processing System (PPS). JAXA will provide a Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar for installation on the Core satellite and launch services. Other United States agencies and international partners may participate in a number of ways, such as providing rainfall measurements obtained from their own national space-borne platforms, providing local rainfall measurements to support the ground validation activities, or providing hardware or launch services for GPM constellation spacecraft. This paper will present an overview of the current planning for the GPM Program, and discuss in more detail the status of the lead author's primary responsibility, development and acquisition of the GPM Microwave Imager.

  16. Global Images of Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Global images of Earth from Galileo. In each frame, the continent of Antarctica is visible at the bottom of the globe. South America may be seen in the first frame (top left), the great Pacific Ocean in the second (bottom left), India at the top and Australia to the right in the third (top right), and Africa in the fourth (bottom right). Taken at six-hour intervals on December 11, 1990, at a range of between 2 and 2.7 million kilometers (1.2 to 1.7 million miles). P-37630

    These images were taken during Galileo's first Earth flyby. This gravity assist increased Galileo's speed around the Sun by about 5.2 kilometers per second (or 11,600 miles per hour) and substantially redirected Galileo as required for its flybys of the asteroid Gaspra in October 1991 and Earth in 1992. Galileo's closest approach (960 kilometers, or 597 miles, above the Earth's surface) to the Earth was on December 8, 1990, 3 days before these pictures were taken.

    Each of these images is a color composite, made up using images taken through red, green, and violet filters. The four images are part of the Galileo Earth spin movie, a 256-frame time-lapse motion picture that shows a 25-hour period of Earth's rotation and atmospheric dynamics. The movie gives scientists a unique overall view of global weather patterns, as opposed to the limited view of weather satellite images.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA'is Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  17. A United Nations Global Health Panel for Global Health Governance.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization now relies upon voluntary contributions tied to specific projects, underwriting 75% of operations. A resulting cacophony of non-governmental, foundation, and private sector actors have emerged overlapping and fractionating WHO programs. In this expanding world of "global health organizations," WHO's role must be redefined. We propose coordination of global health initiatives through a United Nations Global Health Panel with active participation of WHO. Given recent events, the UN is poised to take a greater leadership role in global health.

  18. 75 FR 56997 - Global Markets Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... COMMISSION Global Markets Advisory Committee AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission (``CFTC''). ACTION: Notice of meeting of Global Markets Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: The Global Markets Advisory Committee...., Washington, DC 20581, attention Office of the Secretary. Please use the title ``Global Markets...

  19. Global/Local Dynamic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeffer, A; Das, S; Lawless, D; Ng, B

    2006-10-10

    Many dynamic systems involve a number of entities that are largely independent of each other but interact with each other via a subset of state variables. We present global/local dynamic models (GLDMs) to capture these kinds of systems. In a GLDM, the state of an entity is decomposed into a globally influenced state that depends on other entities, and a locally influenced state that depends only on the entity itself. We present an inference algorithm for GLDMs called global/local particle filtering, that introduces the principle of reasoning globally about global dynamics and locally about local dynamics. We have applied GLDMs to an asymmetric urban warfare environment, in which enemy units form teams to attack important targets, and the task is to detect such teams as they form. Experimental results for this application show that global/local particle filtering outperforms ordinary particle filtering and factored particle filtering.

  20. Space sensors for global change

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1994-02-15

    Satellite measurements should contribute to a fuller understanding of the physical processes behind the radiation budget, exchange processes, and global change. Climate engineering requires global observation for early indications of predicted effects, which puts a premium on affordable, distributed constellations of satellites with effective, affordable sensors. Defense has a requirement for continuous global surveillance for warning of aggression, which could evolve from advanced sensors and satellites in development. Many climate engineering needs match those of defense technologies.

  1. Networking the Global Maritime Partnership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-13

    NETWORKING THE GLOBAL MARITIME PARTNERSHIP ix years after Admiral Michael Mullen, then Chief of Naval Operations, pro- posed his “thousand-ship navy...concept at the Seventeenth International Seapower Symposium at the U.S. Naval War College in 2005, his notion of a Global Maritime Partnership is... global commons.2 Real-world operations, especially in the Pacific Rim, have demonstrated that networking maritime forces is crucial to the effectiveness

  2. Sweden -- A Global Military Player?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-21

    European Union membership and Swedish motives for participation in global operations. This is followed by an analysis of the Swedish Armed Forces...operations. This is followed by an analysis of the Swedish Armed Forces‘ capability to provide high readiness force packages for global operations...follows an analysis of the Swedish Armed Forces‘ capability to provide high readiness force packages for global operations. Finally, the political

  3. Global Positioning System (GPS) Modernization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM ( GPS ) MODERNIZATION Lt. Col. C. McGinn, Capt. S...CA 90501, USA Abstract The Global Positioning System ( GPS ) signal is now the primary means of obtaining precise time to an internationally accepted...number. 1. REPORT DATE NOV 2000 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2000 to 00-00-2000 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Global Positioning System ( GPS

  4. NAVSTAR Global Positioning System Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-10

    Global Positioning System ( GPS ) is an all-weather, space-based navigation system under development by the Department of Defense (DoD...Happing Agency Los Angeles, California 90009 ABSTRACT The Navstar Global Positioning System ( GPS ) is an all-weather, space-based navigation system ...TITLE llnclud* Security Clauiti.ati-n) NAVSTAR Global Positioning System Overview N/A PROJECT NO. N/A TASK NO. N/A WORK UNIT NO.

  5. Global Health and Foreign Policy

    PubMed Central

    Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health. PMID:20423936

  6. The Global Seismographic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, J.; Anderson, K. R.; Butler, R.; Davis, P. B.; Derr, J.; Gee, L. S.; Song, X.

    2009-12-01

    Twenty-five years ago the IRIS Consortium was formed to advance the seismological interests of the US academic community. One of its core programs was the Global Seismographic Network (GSN).The GSN built upon the successes of its predecessors, the World-Wide Standardized Seismograph Network and the Global Digital Seismograph Network operated by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and Project IDA operated by the University of California San Diego (UCSD), but with a far-reaching vision of more than 100 global stations with broadband seismometers, real-time data telemetry, and free and open data access. Based upon a partnership with USGS Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory and the UCSD IDA group, and with funding from the National Science Foundation, IRIS established its first stations in 1986. Today the GSN comprises 153 stations operated in cooperation with over 100 host organizations in 69 countries. With the goal of recording the entire seismic spectrum, the GSN stations include very-broadband seismometers installed in vaults and in 100m boreholes, strong-motion sensors to insure on-scale recordings of nearby or very large earthquakes, and high-frequency sensors to extend the frequency band for nuclear treaty monitoring interests. Using the GSN logistics, communications, and infrastructure for broader science interests, many GSN stations have been expanded as geophysical observatories to include microbarographs, GPS receivers, along with numerous co-located gravimeters, geomagnetic sensors, and meteorological sensors. In the early days of the GSN data were recorded at the stations on magnetic tape and then sent to the IRIS Data Center via mail. Gradually near real-time data collection progressed to telephone dial-up access, via private VSAT satellite access, and finally through the public Internet. Now over 95% of the GSN stations have real-time data flow openly accessible from IRIS, and from USGS and IDA data collection centers. In the years prior to the

  7. The global tectonic pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doglioni, Carlo

    1990-07-01

    The relative motion vectors between the lithosphere and the underlying mantle appear to follow global flow lines which can be constructed by linking axes of extension and compression over the Earth's surface. The flow lines for the last 40 Ma are generally WNW-ESE (E-W), with an undulation of an about 15,000 km wavelength, showing a gradual and progressive variation in orientation. The undulation, which is sharper to the east, may reflect the mantle flow around an unstable rotation axis. The westward motion of the lithospheric plates could be interpreted as a result of differential angular velocity induced by the deceleration of the earth's rotation or, in a toroidal field, by the effects induced by lateral heterogeneities both in the lithosphere and in the mantle. In this light, plate tectonics is a consequence of variable decoupling at the base of the lithosphere as a function of mantle anisotropies. Simply stated, when there is compression or transpression between two plates, it is the eastern plate which moves more rapidly westwards relative to the underlying mantle. If there is extension or transtension, it is the western plate that moves faster westwards. Lithospheric subduction, especially if it dips westward, produces an obstacle to the eastward flow of the mantle. This is referred to as the Nail Effect. The eastward roll-back of the subduction hinge due to the mantle push will generate back-arc extension. Subductions following the mantle flow (E or NE-dipping) are associated to thicker thrust belts with huge exposures of basement rocks in the hinterland and shallow foreland basins. The subductions contrasting the mantle flow (W or SW-dipping) are characterized by shallow thrust belts with deep foreland basin and coeval extension in the back. E-dipping subductions are passive responses to actively thrusting plates: the base plate and intra-lithospheric decollements are connected to the surface and can uplift deep rocks. The W-dipping subductions are

  8. Global Courts, Global Judges, and a Multicitizen Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudelli, William

    2007-01-01

    Transjudicialism is a phenomenon where precedents derived beyond a particular venue, such as global, regional, and national courts, serve as legal rationale within sovereign jurisdictions. Transjudicialism is part of a broader trend towards judicial globalization where legal discourses transcend national jurisdictions and supra-national bodies…

  9. Globalization 101: The Three Tensions of Globalization. Occasional Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Laurence E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper defines globalization as the acceleration and intensification of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations. The paper states that questions as to globalization's effects on the world would probably be answered in different ways in different countries. It discusses the three tensions of…

  10. Developing a Global Mindset: Integrating Demographics, Sustainability, Technology, and Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggarwal, Raj

    2011-01-01

    Business schools face a number of challenges in responding to the business influences of demographics, sustainability, and technology--all three of which are also the fundamental driving forces for globalization. Demographic forces are creating global imbalances in worker populations and in government finances; the world economy faces…

  11. Developing a Global Mindset: Learning of Global Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cseh, Maria; Davis, Elizabeth B.; Khilji, Shaista E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore the requirements of leading in a global environment as perceived by the leaders participating in this study as well as the way these leaders learn and develop their global mindset. Design/methodology/approach: The research methodology informed by social constructivism included…

  12. Global health diplomacy: advancing foreign policy and global health interests.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Josh; Kates, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Attention to global health diplomacy has been rising but the future holds challenges, including a difficult budgetary environment. Going forward, both global health and foreign policy practitioners would benefit from working more closely together to achieve greater mutual understanding and to advance respective mutual goals.

  13. Local Literacies, Global Scales: The Labor of Global Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stornaiuolo, Amy; LeBlanc, Robert Jean

    2014-01-01

    While connecting students and teachers in new configurations using digital technologies offers great promise for literacy and learning, this column considers the complexities of negotiating local and global literacies in global collaborations. It introduces the theoretical concept of "scaling" to highlight the ways teachers actively and…

  14. Global warming and global dioxide emission: An empirical study

    SciTech Connect

    Linyan Sun; Wang, M.

    1996-04-01

    In this paper, the dynamic relationship between global surface temperature (global warming) and global carbon dioxide emission (CO{sub 2}) is modelled and analyzed by causality and spectral analysis in the time domain and frequency domain, respectively. Historical data of global CO{sub 2} emission and global surface temperature anomalies over 129 years from 1860-1988 are used in this study. The causal relationship between the two phenomena is first examined using the Sim and Granger causality test in the time domain after the data series are filtered by ARIMA models. The Granger causal relationship is further scrutinized and confirmed by cross-spectral and multichannel spectral analysis in the frequency domain. The evidence found from both analyses proves that there is a positive causal relationship between the two variables. The time domain analysis suggests that Granger causality exists between global surface temperature and global CO{sub 2} emission. Further, CO{sub 2} emission causes the change in temperature. The conclusions are further confirmed by the frequency domain analysis, which indicates that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission causes climate warming because a high coherence exists between the two variables. Furthermore, it is proved that climate changes happen after an increase in CO{sub 2} emission, which confirms that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission does cause global warming. 27 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Global Environmental Alert Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A.; Grasso, V. F.

    There is a pressing need to build a mechanism which can consolidate scientific information and evidences package this knowledge in a form usable to international and national decision makers and actively disseminate this information to those users Although much information and many data sets are available in the public domain currently there is no information broker who searches and packages the policy relevant material and delivers that information in an easily understandable format to the public and decision makers A Global Environmental Alert Service GEAS could provide information emanating from monitoring earth observing and early warning systems to users in a near real time mode and bridge the gap between the scientific community and policy makers A state-of-art analysis of existing alert systems indicates that efforts are necessary for turning the tide in early warning processes and technologies A comparison analysis of existing warning systems is presented in order to assess feasibility and performance of existing systems of interest Several criteria have been chosen for the comparison analysis so as to provide a comprehensive description of the systems regarding coverage of contents impact and accessibility to information A critical review of existing alert systems reveals a major gap and need for an innovative service Characteristics and operational aspects of such a service are proposed Early warning represents the process to effectively and timely detect a potential risk

  16. The Global File System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soltis, Steven R.; Ruwart, Thomas M.; OKeefe, Matthew T.

    1996-01-01

    The global file system (GFS) is a prototype design for a distributed file system in which cluster nodes physically share storage devices connected via a network-like fiber channel. Networks and network-attached storage devices have advanced to a level of performance and extensibility so that the previous disadvantages of shared disk architectures are no longer valid. This shared storage architecture attempts to exploit the sophistication of storage device technologies whereas a server architecture diminishes a device's role to that of a simple component. GFS distributes the file system responsibilities across processing nodes, storage across the devices, and file system resources across the entire storage pool. GFS caches data on the storage devices instead of the main memories of the machines. Consistency is established by using a locking mechanism maintained by the storage devices to facilitate atomic read-modify-write operations. The locking mechanism is being prototyped in the Silicon Graphics IRIX operating system and is accessed using standard Unix commands and modules.

  17. Global diversity of Ascidiacea.

    PubMed

    Shenkar, Noa; Swalla, Billie J

    2011-01-01

    The class Ascidiacea presents fundamental opportunities for research in the fields of development, evolution, ecology, natural products and more. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge regarding the global biodiversity of the class Ascidiacea, focusing in their taxonomy, main regions of biodiversity, and distribution patterns. Based on analysis of the literature and the species registered in the online World Register of Marine Species, we assembled a list of 2815 described species. The highest number of species and families is found in the order Aplousobranchia. Didemnidae and Styelidae families have the highest number of species with more than 500 within each group. Sixty percent of described species are colonial. Species richness is highest in tropical regions, where colonial species predominate. In higher latitudes solitary species gradually contribute more to the total species richness. We emphasize the strong association between species richness and sampling efforts, and discuss the risks of invasive species. Our inventory is certainly incomplete as the ascidian fauna in many areas around the world is relatively poorly known, and many new species continue to be discovered and described each year.

  18. Energy and globalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birjandi, Hossein Saremi

    Before the Industrial Revolution, nations required no energy fuel. People relied on human, animal, and wind and waterpower for energy need. Energy (oil) has resettled populations, elected officials in the free world, or changed the governments of the energy rich countries by force. Energy fueled wars, played the major factor in the might of those who have it or more importantly the abilities to acquire it by force. This dissertation researches the primacy of oil as an energy source from the time of oil's discovery to the present times. Between 1945 and 1960, the use of oil and gas doubled as power was generated for industries as steel, cement, metalworking and more important of all filling station hoses into automobiles gas tanks, thus energy swept people and societies quite literally off their feet. One in every six jobs in the industrial world hired by the giant automotive industries. The big five American oil companies spurred on by special tax benefit, these companies grew to gigantic sizes by taking out the best part of the nation's oil. Then, for greater growth, they leaped overseas and built up an immensely profitable system, in alliance with Anglo-Dutch Shell and British Petroleum, known as seven sisters. On the other side of the world, the energy producing nations form an alliance mainly to protect themselves from downward price fluctuations of oil. The struggle for survival in the global energy market forced those countries to get together and form OPEC, which is referred as an "oil cartel".

  19. Vortioxetine: first global approval.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Andrew; Deeks, Emma D

    2014-01-01

    Vortioxetine is an orally administered small molecule developed by Lundbeck A/S for the once-daily treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Vortioxetine received its first global approval for MDD in the USA in September 2013 and regulatory approval for its use in this indication in the EU (where it has received a positive opinion) and Canada is awaited. The drug is a bis-aryl-sulphanyl amine compound that combines serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibition with other characteristics, including receptor activity modulation. In vitro studies indicate that vortioxetine is an inhibitor of the 5-HT transporter and is a 5-HT(1D), 5-HT₃ and 5-HT₇ receptor antagonist, a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist and a 5-HT(1B) receptor partial agonist. Animal and in vitro studies indicate that several neurotransmitter systems may be impacted by vortioxetine, with the drug enhancing levels of 5-HT, noradrenaline, dopamine, acetylcholine and histamine in certain areas of the brain, as well as modulating γ-aminobutyric acid and glutamate neurotransmission. Phase III trials of vortioxetine in both MDD and GAD have been conducted worldwide. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of vortioxetine leading to this first approval for MDD.

  20. Global Epidemiology of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Glaziou, Philippe; Sismanidis, Charalambos; Floyd, Katherine; Raviglione, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Despite the availability of effective chemotherapy, tuberculosis (TB) killed 1.3 million people in 2012. Alongside HIV, it remains a top cause of death from an infectious disease. Global targets for reductions in the epidemiological burden of TB have been set for 2015 and 2050 within the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and by the Stop TB Partnership. Achieving these targets is the focus of national and international efforts in TB control, and showing whether or not they are achieved is of major importance to guide future and sustainable investments. This article provides a short overview of sources of data to estimate TB disease burden; presents estimates of TB incidence, prevalence, and mortality in 2012 and an assessment of progress toward the 2015 targets for reductions in these indicators based on trends since 1990 and projections up to 2015; analyzes trends in TB notifications and in the implementation of the Stop TB Strategy; and considers prospects for elimination of TB after 2015. PMID:25359550

  1. Global Coronal Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P. F.

    2016-02-01

    After the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) was launched in 1996, the aboard Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) observed a global coronal wave phenomenon, which was initially named ``EIT wave" after the telescope. The bright fronts are immediately followed by expanding dimmings. It has been shown that the brightenings and dimmings are mainly due to plasma density increase and depletion, respectively. Such a spectacular phenomenon sparked long-lasting interest and debates. The debates were concentrated on two topics, one is about the driving source, and the other is about the nature of this wavelike phenomenon. The controversies are most probably because there may exist two types of large-scale coronal waves that were not well resolved before the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) was launched: one is a piston-driven shock wave straddling over the erupting coronal mass ejection (CME), and the other is an apparently propagating front, which may correspond to the CME frontal loop. Such a two-wave paradigm was proposed more than 13 years ago, and now is being recognized by more and more colleagues. In this paper, we review how various controversies can be resolved in the two-wave framework and how important it is to have two different names for the two types of coronal waves.

  2. Underworld Goes Global

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordani, J. P.; Moresi, L. N.; capitanio, F. A.; Mansour, J.; Quenette, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    We recently embarked on a project to develop a spherical version of the Underworld code. It seemed fitting that we should try to complete this monstrous journey in under 80 days and with little more than a carpet bag containing a few clean clothes and a book of finite element methodology to guide the way. We report our adventures along the way. Underworld was designed to model processes at the lithosphere scale and was therefore focused on efficient/accurate treatment of large deformation, history dependent material properties and interfaces. At the scale of interest, the curvature of the Earth can often be neglected and the original Underworld code assumed, for simplicity, a Cartesian geometry. Two important considerations led us to develop a spherical code: 1) that many of the processes of interest at the lithospheric scale are driven by global-scale flows which we are increasingly incorporating directly in models (e.g. convergent boundary processes driven by the buoyancy of subducted slabs); and 2) that mapping observables from {lat, long, depth} to Cartesian coordinates introduces an unnecessary complication to interpretation of the resulting models. (Actuallly, three important considerations ... having flown around the world a number of times, keenly observing the world below, and having failed to observe any vertices or edges ... ) We will discuss our choices in mesh construction, particle advection, integration schemes, parallel decomposition, and the abstractions necessary to keep the underlying code independent of the chosen geometry.

  3. Baricitinib: First Global Approval.

    PubMed

    Markham, Anthony

    2017-03-13

    Baricitinib (Olumiant™) is an orally-administered, small-molecule, janus-associated kinase (JAK) inhibitor developed by Eli Lilly and Incyte Corporation for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), atopic dermatitis and systemic lupus erythematosus. JAKs transduce intracellular signals from cell surface receptors for various cytokines and growth factors involved in inflammation and immune function, suggesting JAK inhibitors may be of therapeutic benefit in inflammatory conditions. In February 2017, baricitinib was approved in the EU, as monotherapy or in combination with methotrexate, for the treatment of moderate to severe active rheumatoid arthritis in adult patients who have responded inadequately to, or who are intolerant to one or more disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Regulatory approval to market baricitinib as a treatment for RA has also been sought in the USA and Japan. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of baricitinib leading to this first global approval for the treatment for moderate to severe active RA in adult patients who have responded inadequately to, or are intolerant to one or more DMARDs.

  4. Lenvatinib: first global approval.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lesley J

    2015-04-01

    Lenvatinib (Lenvima™) is a multitargeted receptor kinase inhibitor that inhibits the kinase activities of vascular endothelial-derived growth factor receptors 1, 2 and 3, fibroblast growth factor receptors 1, 2, 3 and 4, platelet-derived growth factor receptor α, RET and KIT. In addition to their role in normal cellular function, these kinases have been implicated in pathogenic angiogenesis, tumour growth and cancer progression. Lenvatinib is being developed by Eisai Co. Ltd for the treatment of solid tumours, primarily for differentiated thyroid cancer, and other malignancies. A capsule formulation of the drug has received approval in the USA for use in locally recurrent or metastatic, progressive, radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer. Lenvatinib is in pre-registration for this indication in the EU, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Russia, Singapore and Switzerland, and is in phase 3 development in Argentina, Chile and Thailand. Lenvatinib has orphan designation in the EU and Japan for use in differentiated thyroid cancer. In addition, an ongoing global, phase 3 trial is evaluating the use of lenvatinib as first-line treatment in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of lenvatinib leading to this first approval in locally recurrent or metastatic, progressive, radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer.

  5. (Managing the global environment)

    SciTech Connect

    Rayner, S.F.

    1989-10-03

    The conference was stimulated by concern that policy makers increasingly have to make environmental management decisions in the absence of solidly established scientific consensus about ecological processes and the consequences of human actions. Often, as in the case of climate change, some decisions may have to be made in the absence of information that is desirable but may not be available for years to come, if ever. Six topics were identified as running throughout the Congress. These were: the epistemology and history of the sciences or disciplines concerned with the environment, including the scientific basis of rationality and modes of dealing with uncertainty and complexity; the social, economic, and institutional conditions for the production of knowledge bearing on the environment, including the politics of research and the improvement of scientific data; the structuring and institutionalization of expert assessments on national and international levels, including the global distribution of expertise; the means of establishing scientific information, the role of the media in transmitting and processing knowledge about the environment, and the organization of public environmental debate; and decision making and management under conditions of uncertainty; and, finally the relationship between science and ethics. 13 refs.

  6. Global Water Resource Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Gordon J.; Dooge, James C. I.; Rodda, John C.

    1994-07-01

    The world's water resources are coming under increasing stress, a stress that will become critical globally sometime during the next century. This is due to the rapidly rising population demanding more and more water and an increasing level of affluence. The book discusses the background to this issue and the measures to be taken over the next 20-30 years to overcome some of the difficulties that can be foreseen, and the means of avoiding others, such as the hazard of floods. It looks at the water resource and its assessment and management in an integrated fashion. It deals with the requirements of agriculture and of rural and urban societies and to a lesser extent with those of industry and power, against the background of the needs of the natural environment. It presents a number of ways and means of improving the management of national and international affairs involving fresh water. It highlights the importance of fresh water as a major issue for the environment and for development.

  7. Global Water Resource Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Gordon J.; Dooge, James C. I.; Rodda, John C.

    2004-01-01

    The world's water resources are coming under increasing stress, a stress that will become critical globally sometime during the next century. This is due to the rapidly rising population demanding more and more water and an increasing level of affluence. The book discusses the background to this issue and the measures to be taken over the next 20-30 years to overcome some of the difficulties that can be foreseen, and the means of avoiding others, such as the hazard of floods. It looks at the water resource and its assessment and management in an integrated fashion. It deals with the requirements of agriculture and of rural and urban societies and to a lesser extent with those of industry and power, against the background of the needs of the natural environment. It presents a number of ways and means of improving the management of national and international affairs involving fresh water. It highlights the importance of fresh water as a major issue for the environment and for development.

  8. Global Diversity of Ascidiacea

    PubMed Central

    Shenkar, Noa; Swalla, Billie J.

    2011-01-01

    The class Ascidiacea presents fundamental opportunities for research in the fields of development, evolution, ecology, natural products and more. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge regarding the global biodiversity of the class Ascidiacea, focusing in their taxonomy, main regions of biodiversity, and distribution patterns. Based on analysis of the literature and the species registered in the online World Register of Marine Species, we assembled a list of 2815 described species. The highest number of species and families is found in the order Aplousobranchia. Didemnidae and Styelidae families have the highest number of species with more than 500 within each group. Sixty percent of described species are colonial. Species richness is highest in tropical regions, where colonial species predominate. In higher latitudes solitary species gradually contribute more to the total species richness. We emphasize the strong association between species richness and sampling efforts, and discuss the risks of invasive species. Our inventory is certainly incomplete as the ascidian fauna in many areas around the world is relatively poorly known, and many new species continue to be discovered and described each year. PMID:21701684

  9. The lure of global branding.

    PubMed

    Aaker, D A; Joachimsthaler, E

    1999-01-01

    As more and more companies begin to see the world as their market, brand builders look with envy upon those businesses that appear to have created global brands--brands whose positioning, advertising strategy, personality, look, and feel are in most respects the same from one country to another. Attracted by such high-profile examples of success, these companies want to globalize their own brands. But that's a risky path to follow, according to David Aaker and Erich Joachimsthaler. Why? Because creating strong global brands takes global brand leadership. It can't be done simply by edict from on high. Specifically, companies must use organizational structures, processes, and cultures to allocate brand-building resources globally, to create global synergies, and to develop a global brand strategy that coordinates and leverages country brand strategies. Aaker and Joachimsthaler offer four prescriptions for companies seeking to achieve global brand leadership. First, companies must stimulate the sharing of insights and best practices across countries--a system in which "it won't work here" attitudes can be overcome. Second, companies should support a common global brand-planning process, one that is consistent across markets and products. Third, they should assign global managerial responsibility for brands in order to create cross-country synergies and to fight local bias. And fourth, they need to execute brilliant brand-building strategies. Before stampeding blindly toward global branding, companies need to think through the systems they have in place. Otherwise, any success they achieve is likely to be random--and that's a fail-safe recipe for mediocrity.

  10. Upper Cretaceous to Lower Miocene of the Subsilesian Unit (Western Carpathians, Czech Republic): stratotypes of formations revised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubík, Miroslav; Franců, Juraj; Gilíková, Helena; Otava, Jiří; Švábenická, Lilian

    2016-06-01

    Type sections/areas for all four formations distinguished in the sedimentary succession of the Subsilesian Unit on Czech territory were revisited and described. New data on lithology, sedimentology, fossil record, biostratigraphy, heavy-minerals and geochemical proxies are based on observations and analysis of these sections. The historical type section of the Frýdek Formation was destroyed during railway construction in 19th century. Outcrops of Campanian to Maastrichtian marls and sandstones on the southwestern slope of "Castle hill" at Frýdek, are proposed as a new type section. The Ostravice riverbed in Frýdlant nad Ostravicí was originally designated as the type area, not mentioning the particular section. This area, even when supplemented with Sibudov Creek, does not show all typical facies of the formation. The outcrops range from lowermost Eocene to Eocene-Oligocene transition. In the original description of the Menilite Formation Glocker mentioned several localities in the area covering the Ždanice, Subsilesian and Silesian units, not mentioning the principal one. The single sections, each not exceeding a thickness of 2 m, are not sufficient to be a type section. Instead of that, we propose the area between Paršovice and Bystřice pod Hostýnem, covering the historical localities, as the type area. The type locality of the Ženklava Formation is an outcrop in an unnamed creek in Ženklava according to the original definition. It seems to be reasonable to extend the type section to the whole 500 m long section of the creek with the outcrops that better illustrate the lithological variability of the formation. New biostratigraphic data allow assignment to late Egerian (Eggenburgian?).

  11. GLOBAL CHANGE AND WATER RESOURCES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of global change on future water resources is difficult to predict because various components are likely to be affected in opposing ways. Global warming would tend to increase evapotranspiration (ET) rates and irrigation water requirements, while increasing precipitation would both dec...

  12. Bringing Globalization into the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Nancy Carter

    2006-01-01

    Some of the most effective resources for bringing the concept of globalization into the classroom is through the personal and professional experiences of the classroom teacher, the personal experiences of students from diverse cultures, the inclusion of curriculum activities with a global context, and the involvement of guest speakers with global…

  13. Thinking Globally when Teaching Locally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Reken, Ruth E.; Rushmore, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Advances in science and technology, globalization of trade, international competition for markets, ethnic conflicts, and the limits of the planet's ecosystem have brought global issues and the people of the world to doorsteps and classrooms. With the increasing interaction among peoples of the world, skills in cross-cultural communication,…

  14. Globalization: Separating Fact from Fantasy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workforce Economics Trends, 1999

    1999-01-01

    In the new environment of increased international trade and investment flows, human resources represent the key competitive edge of this interconnected global economy. The share the United States has of worldwide output is shrinking. This issue explores data that provide a snapshot of how globalization is affecting the economy and changing its…

  15. Global Sales Training's Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehle, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    A one-size-fits-all global sales strategy that fails to take into account the cultural, regulatory, geographic, and economic differences that exist across borders is a blueprint for failure. For training organizations tasked with educating globally dispersed sales forces, the challenge is adapting to these differences while simultaneously…

  16. Universities and Globalization: Critical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Jan, Ed.; Newson, Janice, Ed.

    The 14 papers in this collection examine how a globalizing political economy affects the way universities are governed, discussing practices such as managerialism, accountability, and privatization which represent a shift toward business values and a market agenda. Part 1 gives a theoretical overview of the globalization agenda. Part 2 gives three…

  17. Year 2000--A Global Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    By 2000 A.D. there is a great potential for progressive impoverishment of world resources and degradation of the global environment. This adaptation of the report "Global Future: Time to Act", summarizes a reconnaisance of the future as it might be if no preventative measures are taken. As the world becomes more crowded, polluted, vulnerable to…

  18. Tracking a Global Academic Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.; Reisberg, Liz; Rumbley, Laura E.

    2010-01-01

    A global revolution has been taking place in higher education during the past half-century. In the educators' view, four fundamental and interrelated forces have impelled the current academic revolution: the "massification" of higher education, globalization, the advent of the knowledge society and the importance of research universities…

  19. Perspectives on global change theory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global changes in ecological drivers, such as CO2 concentrations, climate, and nitrogen deposition, are increasingly recognized as key to understanding contemporary ecosystem dynamics, but a coherent theory of global change has not yet been developed. We outline the characteristics of a theory of gl...

  20. Schooling for a Global Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, James M., Ed.

    The book explores objectives, needs, and practices in the area of global education in elementary and secondary schools. Major purposes of the volume are to present a comprehensive, up-to-date examination of existing programs, characterize components of an ideal global education program, and provide advice to educators as they develop and implement…

  1. Scholars, Spies, and Global Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirks, Nicholas B.

    2012-01-01

    No one doubts that globalization is one of the most important trends of today. As American universities expand their global footprint with branch campuses in Singapore, Abu Dhabi, and elsewhere, many faculty are concerned about oppressive governance, human-rights violations, and lack of academic freedom abroad. Meanwhile administrators grapple…

  2. Digital Citizenship within Global Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searson, Michael; Hancock, Marsali; Soheil, Nusrat; Shepherd, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    EduSummIT 2013 featured a working group that examined digital citizenship within a global context. Group members recognized that, given today's international, regional, political, and social dynamics, the notion of "global" might be more aspirational than practical. The development of informed policies and practices serving and involving…

  3. Global health and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Bruno R; Brant, Luisa C C; Moraes, Diego N; Ribeiro, Antonio L P

    2014-11-01

    The modern definition of Global Health has expanded its scope beyond neglected diseases and low-income and underdeveloped countries. The current initiatives focus on improvement of health, reduction of disparities and protection against global threats, seeking for interaction with health practices, policies and systems. There has been a growing interest on Global Health research, given the epidemiological transition currently underway in low and mid-income countries and the increasing epidemiological importance of cardiovascular and other non-communicable diseases, to the detriment of infectious diseases and nutritional deficiencies. Various aspects-formerly neglected-of these diseases, such as epidemiology, prevention, diagnosis and therapy, have been addressed in Global Health publications, leading to a better understanding of the importance of health as a public good, beyond borders. Scientific evidence supports broader initiatives in which governments, foundations and the civil society must share responsibilities and funding to achieve health equity, the main goal of Global Health.

  4. Global bioethics: utopia or reality?

    PubMed

    Hellsten, Sirkku K

    2008-08-01

    This article discusses what 'global bioethics' means today and what features make bioethical research 'global'. The article provides a historical view of the development of the field of 'bioethics', from medical ethics to the wider study of bioethics in a global context. It critically examines the particular problems that 'global bioethics' research faces across cultural and political borders and suggests some solutions on how to move towards a more balanced and culturally less biased dialogue in the issues of bioethics. The main thesis is that we need to bring global and local aspects closer together when looking for international guidelines, by paying more attention to particular cultures and local economic and social circumstances in reaching a shared understanding of the main values and principles of bioethics, and in building 'biodemocracy'.

  5. Globalization and medicine in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Reznik, David L; Murphy, John W; Belgrave, Linda Liska

    2007-05-01

    In a qualitative study of urban Trinidadians who work in the medical industry, the concept of medical globalization was provisionally analysed. Two research questions were addressed: what is globalization, in the context of mainstream medicine, and how is this process manifested in everyday practices? Four fundamental principles of medical globalization emerged from in-depth interviews and analysis of observational materials: (1) the notion of history as an autonomous force with globalization as the latest stage, (2) the expansion of 'Total Market' philosophy as a driving social force, (3) the fragmentation of society into atomistic, self-interested, and competitive individuals, and (4) the adoption of a 'centralised' set of ideals as the normative core necessary for social order. In this paper, findings from this investigation and their implications are discussed. In particular, medical globalization is linked with major themes in medical sociological theory including dualism and medicalization.

  6. Global population growth.

    PubMed

    Langmore, J

    1992-07-01

    The global population passed 5 billion in 1987. In the year 2000 the world's population will be more than 6 billion, increasing by 90-100 million each year. About 95% of future demographic growth will take place in developing countries. The number of school age children is projected to increase from 940 million in 1980 to 1280 million by the year 2000. Under current labor force growth projections in developing countries, around 1.6 billion new jobs will have to be created between 1980 and 2025, with nearly 1 billion of them in Asia. Population often increases at a more rapid rate than agricultural growth. Food production per capita has declined in 70 developing countries. Much of the projected population increase will take place in environmentally fragile regions of the developing world. Population pressures contribute to deforestation, desertification, and scarcity of clean water. The United Nations Population Fund has estimated that in Asia over 43% of women not using family planning would like to postpone, space, or limit their childbearing. Over half of the world's couples of reproductive age are now using contraception. Family planning to postpone the first birth and to eliminate late child bearing would reduce both child loss and maternal illness and death. Both infant and maternal mortality are greater with higher order births. Reducing average family size is an effective way of reducing infant and maternal mortality. The World Bank has given high priority to population assistance, with large programs in Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. Population assistance provided by the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau totaled about $4.5 million during 1989-90 and is expected to be about $8 million during 1991-92. Australia should increase the proportion of its development assistance budget devoted to population, and family planning programs should increase to around $26 million in line with other major donors.

  7. GLobal Integrated Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunkel, Matthew; McGuire, Melissa; Smith, David A.; Gefert, Leon P.

    2011-01-01

    The GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE) is a collaborative engineering application built to resolve the design session issues of real-time passing of data between multiple discipline experts in a collaborative environment. Utilizing Web protocols and multiple programming languages, GLIDE allows engineers to use the applications to which they are accustomed in this case, Excel to send and receive datasets via the Internet to a database-driven Web server. Traditionally, a collaborative design session consists of one or more engineers representing each discipline meeting together in a single location. The discipline leads exchange parameters and iterate through their respective processes to converge on an acceptable dataset. In cases in which the engineers are unable to meet, their parameters are passed via e-mail, telephone, facsimile, or even postal mail. The result of this slow process of data exchange would elongate a design session to weeks or even months. While the iterative process remains in place, software can now exchange parameters securely and efficiently, while at the same time allowing for much more information about a design session to be made available. GLIDE is written in a compilation of several programming languages, including REALbasic, PHP, and Microsoft Visual Basic. GLIDE client installers are available to download for both Microsoft Windows and Macintosh systems. The GLIDE client software is compatible with Microsoft Excel 2000 or later on Windows systems, and with Microsoft Excel X or later on Macintosh systems. GLIDE follows the Client-Server paradigm, transferring encrypted and compressed data via standard Web protocols. Currently, the engineers use Excel as a front end to the GLIDE Client, as many of their custom tools run in Excel.

  8. GLOBAL STAR FORMATION REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Silk, Joseph; Norman, Colin E-mail: norman@stsci.edu

    2009-07-20

    A general treatment of disk star formation is developed from a dissipative multiphase model, with the dominant dissipation due to cloud collisions. The Schmidt-Kennicutt (SK) law emerges naturally for star-forming disks and starbursts. We predict that there should be an inverse correlation between Tully-Fisher law and SK law residuals. The model is extended to include a multiphase treatment of supernova feedback that leads to a turbulent pressure-regulated generalization of the star formation law and is applicable to gas-rich starbursts. Enhanced pressure, as expected in merger-induced star formation, enhances star formation efficiency. An upper limit is derived for the disk star formation rate in starbursts that depends on the ratio of global ISM to cloud pressures. We extend these considerations to the case where the interstellar gas pressure in the inner galaxy is dominated by outflows from a central active galactic nucleus (AGN). During massive spheroid formation, AGN-driven winds trigger star formation, resulting in enhanced supernova feedback and outflows. The outflows are comparable to the AGN-boosted star formation rate and saturate in the super-Eddington limit. Downsizing of both SMBH and spheroids is a consequence of AGN-driven positive feedback. Bondi accretion feeds the central black hole with a specific accretion rate that is proportional to the black hole mass. AGN-enhanced star formation is mediated by turbulent pressure and relates spheroid star formation rate to black hole accretion rate. The relation between black hole mass and spheroid velocity dispersion has a coefficient (Salpeter time to gas consumption time ratio) that provides an arrow of time. Highly efficient, AGN-boosted star formation can occur at high redshift.

  9. The global water systems project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, H.; Jaeger, C.; Leveque, C.; Lettenmaier, D.; Lins, H.; Meybeck, M.; Niasse, M.; Vorosmarty, C.

    2003-04-01

    The Global Water System (GWS) plays a central and integrative role in the dynamics of the Earth system. It is a regulator of biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes, and it is also is essential for sustenance of human societies. The GWS is increasingly modified by humans and through climate effects (facets of it have moved well outside the range of natural variability), without adequate understanding of how the system works. For understanding the changes, feedbacks and potentially critical thresholds within the Earth system, and eventually for better managing the GWS, new synthetic knowledge is required. The Global Water System Project (GWSP) is a new activity being undertaken jointly by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), International Geophshere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), International Human Dimensions Program (IHP), and Diversitas. It will address the GWS in a comprehensive fashion at the global scale, building upon the emerging new consolidated Earth systems data sets, global monitoring tools, and predictive and coupled modeling capabilities. The central scientific question that motivates the GWSP is: "How are humans changing the global water cycle, the associated biogeochemical cycles, and the biological components of the GWS, and what are the social feedbacks arising from these changes?" GWSP will be structured around three "framing questions": a) What are the relative magnitudes of global-scale changes in the global water system that are attributable to changing human activities, and to environmental factors such as climate variability and change?; b) What are the main mechanisms by which human activities are affecting the global water system; and c) To what extent is the global water system resilient to global change? Examples of issues that might be addressed under each of these questions are provided.

  10. Global obstetric medicine: Collaborating towards global progress in maternal health

    PubMed Central

    Ateka-Barrutia, Oier; Rojas-Suarez, Jose Antonio; Wijeyaratne, Chandrika; Castillo, Eliana; Lombaard, Hennie; Magee, Laura A

    2015-01-01

    Globally, the nature of maternal mortality and morbidity is shifting from direct obstetric causes to an increasing proportion of indirect causes due to chronic conditions and ageing of the maternal population. Obstetric medicine can address an important gap in the care of women by broadening its scope to include colleagues, communities and countries that do not yet have established obstetric medicine training, education and resources. We present the concept of global obstetric medicine by highlighting three low- and middle-income country experiences as well as an example of successful collaboration. The article also discusses ideas and initiatives to build future partnerships within the global obstetric medicine community. PMID:27512469

  11. Developing Scientific Literacy Skills through Interdisciplinary, Technology-Based Global Simulations: GlobalEd 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Kimberly A.; Brown, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    GlobalEd 2 (GE2) is a set of technology-mediated, problem-based learning (PBL) simulations for middle-grade students, that capitalises on the multidisciplinary nature of the social sciences as an expanded curricular space for students to learn and apply scientific literacies and concepts, while simultaneously also enriching their understanding of…

  12. Global Troposphere Experiment Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandy, Alan R.; Thornton, Donald C.

    1997-01-01

    For the Global Troposphere Experiment project Pacific Exploratory Measurements West B (PEM West B), we made determinations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with isotopically labelled internal standards. This technique provides measurements with precision of 1 part-per-trillion by volume below 20 pptv and 1% above 20 pptv. Measurement of DMS and SO2 were performed with a time cycle of 5-6 minutes with intermittent zero checks. The detection limits were about 1 pptv for SO2 and 2 pptv for DMS. Over 700 measurements of each compound were made in flight. Volcanic impacts on the upper troposphere were again found as a result of deep convection in the tropics. Extensive emission of SO2 from the Pacific Rim land masses were primarily observed in the lower well-mixed part of the boundary layer but also in the upper part of the boundary layer. Analyses of the SO2 data with aerosol sulfate, beryllium-7, and lead-210 indicated that SO2, contributed to half or more of the observed total oxidized sulfur (SO2 plus aerosol sulfate) in free tropospheric air. Cloud processing and rain appeared to be responsible for lower SO2 levels between 3 and 8.5 km than above or below this region. During both phases of PEM-West, dimethyl sulfide did not appear to be a major source of sulfur dioxide in the upper free troposphere over the western Pacific Ocean. In 1991 the sources Of SO2 at high altitude appeared to be both anthropogenic and volcanic with an estimated 1% being solely from DMS. The primary difference for the increase in the DMS source was the very low concentration of SO2 at high altitude. In the midlatitude region near the Asian land masses, DMS in the mixed layer was lower than in the tropical region of the western Pacific. Convective cloud systems near volcanoes in the tropical convergence in the western Pacific troposphere were a major source of SO2 at high altitudes during PEM-West B. High levels of SO2 were

  13. Mars Observer's global mapping mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, A. L.; Palluconi, D. F.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of the Mars Observer global mapping mission are to determine the global elemental and mineralogical character of the Martian surface material, define globally the topography and gravitational field of Mars, establish the nature of Mars's magnetic field, determine the time and space distribution, abundance, sources, and sinks of volatile Martian material and dust over a seasonal cycle, and explore the structure and aspects of the circulation of the Martian atmosphere. The experiments and instruments to be used in this mission are described, and the operations and data analysis are briefly considered.

  14. Global Governmental Investment in Nanotechnologies

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnologies seem to have huge potential to bring benefits in areas as diverse as drug development, water decontamination, information and communication infrastructures, and the production of stronger, lighter and perfect nanomaterials. This potential attracts global investment from governments and private sectors in nanotechnologies with the hopes that R&D and commercial applications of nanomaterials, nanodevices, nanoparticles and nanodrugs will provide new impetus, after the ebb-tides of biotechnology and dotcom, to turn faltering economies around. The global governmental funding has been actively promoting industrial and academic cooperation to realize big prosperity from the nanotechnologies. This article summarizes historic trends and status of global governmental supports for nanotechnologies. PMID:19865495

  15. [Gilberto Freyre: theoretician of globalization?].

    PubMed

    Gerstenberger, Debora

    2014-01-01

    Gilberto Freyre is one of Brazil's all-time finest intellectuals and social scientists. However, unlike his famous French colleague and contemporary Fernand Braudel, Freyre is not currently considered a founder of the new 'global history'. The article poses some questions: How valuable is Gilberto Freyre's work to contemporary historiography? Since most of his books address such themes as colonialism, migration, and the 'miscegenation' of different ethnicities and cultures, do they perhaps also tell us something about what we now call globalization? As historians, within the framework of the new global history, can we use his writings to (better) understand the past? And if so, how can we make use of his work?

  16. HIV/AIDS: global trends, global funds and delivery bottlenecks

    PubMed Central

    Coovadia, Hoosen M; Hadingham, Jacqui

    2005-01-01

    Globalisation affects all facets of human life, including health and well being. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has highlighted the global nature of human health and welfare and globalisation has given rise to a trend toward finding common solutions to global health challenges. Numerous international funds have been set up in recent times to address global health challenges such as HIV. However, despite increasingly large amounts of funding for health initiatives being made available to poorer regions of the world, HIV infection rates and prevalence continue to increase world wide. As a result, the AIDS epidemic is expanding and intensifying globally. Worst affected are undoubtedly the poorer regions of the world as combinations of poverty, disease, famine, political and economic instability and weak health infrastructure exacerbate the severe and far-reaching impacts of the epidemic. One of the major reasons for the apparent ineffectiveness of global interventions is historical weaknesses in the health systems of underdeveloped countries, which contribute to bottlenecks in the distribution and utilisation of funds. Strengthening these health systems, although a vital component in addressing the global epidemic, must however be accompanied by mitigation of other determinants as well. These are intrinsically complex and include social and environmental factors, sexual behaviour, issues of human rights and biological factors, all of which contribute to HIV transmission, progression and mortality. An equally important factor is ensuring an equitable balance between prevention and treatment programmes in order to holistically address the challenges presented by the epidemic. PMID:16060961

  17. Mercury Emissions: The Global Context

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mercury emissions are a global problem that knows no national or continental boundaries. Mercury that is emitted to the air can travel thousands of miles in the atmosphere before it is eventually deposited back to the earth.

  18. Interprofessional Online Global Health Course

    PubMed Central

    Devraj, Radhika; Blankson, Faustina; Xin, Huaibo

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The design and evaluation of an online global health course targeted for pharmacy and other undergraduates is presented. Design. Enrolled students represented nursing, health education, pharmacy and a variety of other disciplines. The course was designed as an entirely online one with no class meetings. The course consisted of eight modules addressing global health competencies and interprofessional education competencies. Readings, quizzes, study question and team projects were tailored to the goals of each module. Students worked in interprofessional teams for their team projects. Assessment. Assessments consisted of pre and post course perceptions and course evaluation. Rubrics were designed to evaluate team assignments and peer assessment of team participation. Conclusion. Course was successful in enhancing perceptions of global health knowledge and understanding of roles and responsibilities of various health disciplines in addressing challenges of global health. No changes in teamwork perceptions were documented after completing the course. The overall course structure was successful in meeting course goals. PMID:28090104

  19. Interprofessional Online Global Health Course.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Therese I; Devraj, Radhika; Blankson, Faustina; Xin, Huaibo

    2016-11-25

    Objective. The design and evaluation of an online global health course targeted for pharmacy and other undergraduates is presented. Design. Enrolled students represented nursing, health education, pharmacy and a variety of other disciplines. The course was designed as an entirely online one with no class meetings. The course consisted of eight modules addressing global health competencies and interprofessional education competencies. Readings, quizzes, study question and team projects were tailored to the goals of each module. Students worked in interprofessional teams for their team projects. Assessment. Assessments consisted of pre and post course perceptions and course evaluation. Rubrics were designed to evaluate team assignments and peer assessment of team participation. Conclusion. Course was successful in enhancing perceptions of global health knowledge and understanding of roles and responsibilities of various health disciplines in addressing challenges of global health. No changes in teamwork perceptions were documented after completing the course. The overall course structure was successful in meeting course goals.

  20. Global forcing and regional interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1992-01-01

    The Climate System Modeling Program (CSMP) sponsored a “Global Forcing and Regional Interaction Workshop” from October 21 to 23, 1991, at Colorado State University's Pingree Park campus, to evaluate the relationship between global climate forcing and the response of the land surface on a regional scale. The general aim of the workshop was to develop specific action plans and preliminary science research strategies for regional-global interactions. Each participant was invited to identify tractable, high pay-off science issues related to global forcing and regional interactions. The workshop, with twenty-six participants about evenly split between atmospheric scientists, hydrologists, and ecologists, was also designed to facilitate a network of collaborators to prepare multidisciplinary research proposals. Discussion also focused on regional climate over the last 200 years and included the influence of atmosphere-land surface processes on natural climate variability. Several major recommendations were made on topics discussed.

  1. NASA Global Hawk Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelFrate, John; Naftel, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Global Hawk project planning. Global Hawk is the only available system capable of simultaneously meeting the requirements for high altitude (65K ft), long endurance (>31 hours), power (10 KVA), and a large payload capacity (2000 lbs). There are important science data gathering and satellite validation requirements that can only be met with the combination of capabilities provided by the Global Hawk system. Global Hawk will give a unique range, shown in maps, at a high altitude. An overview of the design of the aircraft, and the ground station is given. The flights are scheduled to begin in 2009, and will carry instruments that will be used to validate the Aura satellite data and also be used in hurricane and severe storm research.

  2. GLOBAL TRANSITION TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental accounting using emergy is a tool for evaluating development and determining what is sustainable. Global sustainable development means that all nations will become better places for their inhabitants to live. Development follows a cycle of change from rapid growth ...

  3. Some coolness concerning global warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindzen, Richard S.

    1990-01-01

    The greenhouse effect hypothesis is discussed. The effects of increasing CO2 levels in the atmosphere on global temperature changes are analyzed. The problems with models currently used to predict climatic changes are examined.

  4. A Global Tour of Fire

    NASA Video Gallery

    Fire observations from around the world taken over nearly 10 years are shown in this visualization of NASA satellite data. This visualization leads viewers on a narrated global tour of fire detecti...

  5. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961-2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key

  6. Solar influences on global change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Monitoring of the Sun and the Earth has yielded new knowledge essential to this debate. There is now no doubt that the total radiative energy from the Sun that heats the Earth's surface changes over decadal time scales as a consequence of solar activity. Observations indicate as well that changes in ultraviolet radiation and energetic particles from the Sun, also connected with the solar activity, modulate the layer of ozone that protects the biosphere from the solar ultraviolet radiation. This report reassesses solar influences on global change in the light of this new knowledge of solar and atmospheric variability. Moreover, the report considers climate change to be encompassed within the broader concept of global change; thus the biosphere is recognized to be part of a larger, coupled Earth system. Implementing a program to continuously monitor solar irradiance over the next several decades will provide the opportunity to estimate solar influences on global change, assuming continued maintenance of observations of climate and other potential forcing mechanisms. In the lower atmosphere, an increase in solar radiation is expected to cause global warming. In the stratosphere, however, the two effects produce temperature changes of opposite sign. A monitoring program that would augment long term observations of tropospheric parameters with similar observations of stratospheric parameters could separate these diverse climate perturbations and perhaps isolate a greenhouse footprint of climate change. Monitoring global change in the troposphere is a key element of all facets of the United States Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), not just of the study of solar influences on global change. The need for monitoring the stratosphere is also important for global change research in its own right because of the stratospheric ozone layer.

  7. Global View of Mars Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This global map of Mars is based on topographical information collected by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. Illumination is from the upper right. The image width is approximately 18,000 kilometers (11,185 miles). Candor Chasma forms part of the large Martian canyon system named Valles Marineris. The location of Southwest Candor Chasma is indicated in the annotated version.

  8. Global warming potentials of Hydrofluoroethers.

    PubMed

    Blowers, Paul; Moline, Dena Marie; Tetrault, Kyle Franklin; Wheeler, R'nld Ruth; Tuchawena, Shane Lee

    2008-02-15

    Global warming potentials are estimated for hydrofluoroethers, which are an emerging class of compounds for industrial use. Comparisons are made to the limited data previously available before observations about molecular design are discussed. We quantify how molecular structure can be manipulated to reduce environmental impacts due to global warming. We further highlight the need for additional research on this class of compounds so environmental performance can be assessed for green design.

  9. Globalization and global health: toward nursing praxis in the global community.

    PubMed

    Falk-Rafael, Adeline

    2006-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that neocolonialism, in the form of economic globalization as it has evolved since the 1980s, contributes significantly to the poverty and immense global burden of disease experienced by peoples of the developing world, as well as to escalating environmental degradation of alarming proportions. Nursing's fundamental responsibilities to promote health, prevent disease, and alleviate suffering call for the expression of caring for humanity and environment through political activism at local, national, and international levels to bring about reforms of the current global economic order.

  10. A global strategy for labor.

    PubMed

    Faux, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    The rules of the global market were established to protect the interests of investors at the expense of workers and they shift benefits to investors, costs to workers. Globalization is measured by the interests of investors. But 20 years of investor protectionism show that growth has slowed and equality has gotten worse. The purpose of neo-liberal policies has been to discipline labor to free capital from having to bargain with workers over gains from rising productivity. But such bargaining is the essence of a democratic market. Uncontrolled globalization puts government's domestic policies on the side of capital. In an economy whose growth depends on foreign markets, rising domestic wages make it harder to compete internationally. There has been a general deterioration of labor's position relative to capital's. A global marketplace implies a global politics, and the real work happens when representatives of multi-national business privately negotiate the rules. Labor must change the framework in which the investor class pursues its interest across borders, while workers are constricted by borders. Labor unions are critical; they can deny the human resource necessary for profits. The strike is the ultimate threat to investors. One solution: a "grand bargain" linking development with broadly increased living standards connected to planning for sustainable development to create a global social contract. Workers have advantages: they are the majority and they are indispensable.

  11. 76 FR 41525 - Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles... Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to Houston,...

  12. Global Scale Atmospheric Processes Research Program Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worley, B. A. (Editor); Peslen, C. A. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Global modeling; satellite data assimilation and initialization; simulation of future observing systems; model and observed energetics; dynamics of planetary waves; First Global Atmospheric Research Program Global Experiment (FGGE) diagnosis studies; and National Research Council Research Associateship Program are discussed.

  13. The Global Health Impact Index: Promoting Global Health.

    PubMed

    Hassoun, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Millions of people cannot access essential medicines they need for deadly diseases like malaria, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV/AIDS. There is good information on the need for drugs for these diseases but until now, no global estimate of the impact drugs are having on this burden. This paper presents a model measuring companies' key malaria, TB and HIV/AIDS drugs' consequences for global health (global-health-impact.org). It aggregates drugs' impacts in several ways-by disease, country and originator-company. The methodology can be extended across diseases as well as drugs to provide a more extensive picture of the impact companies' drugs are having on the global burden of disease. The study suggests that key malaria, TB and HIV/AIDS drugs are, together, ameliorating about 37% of the global burden of these diseases and Sanofi, Novartis, and Pfizer's drugs are having the largest effect on this burden. Moreover, drug impacts vary widely across countries. This index provides important information for policy makers, pharmaceutical companies, countries, and other stake-holders that can help increase access to essential medicines.

  14. Solidarity and Competitiveness in a Global Context: Comparable Concepts in Global Citizenship Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Carlos Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Any study linking terms such as global education, internationalization, and global citizenship facing the dilemmas of local and global tensions, invariably has to address the questions of globalizations and neoliberalism, two concepts and two global movements that define our time and age, the age of interdependence. Neoliberal globalization, as I…

  15. The Global Nitrogen Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, J. N.

    2003-12-01

    anthropogenic processes and nitrogen budgets for the global land mass and for continents and oceans using Galloway and Cowling (2002) and material from Cory Cleveland (University of Colorado) and Douglas Capone (University of Southern California) from a paper in review in Biogeochemistry ( Galloway et al., 2003a). This chapter also presents an overview of the consequences of Nr accumulation in the environment (using Galloway et al. (2003b) as a primary reference) and then concludes with estimates of minima and maxima Nr creation rates in 2050.

  16. Global Cooling: Effect of Urban Albedo on Global Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2007-05-22

    In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). The roof and the pavement albedo can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60%. We estimate U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills. Increasing albedo of urban surfaces can reduce the summertime urban temperature and improve the urban air quality. Increasing the urban albedo has the added benefit of reflecting more of the incoming global solar radiation and countering the effect of global warming. We estimate that increasing albedo of urban areas by 0.1 results in an increase of 3 x 10{sup -4} in Earth albedo. Using a simple global model, the change in air temperature in lowest 1.8 km of the atmosphere is estimated at 0.01K. Modelers predict a warming of about 3K in the next 60 years (0.05K/year). Change of 0.1 in urban albedo will result in 0.01K global cooling, a delay of {approx}0.2 years in global warming. This 0.2 years delay in global warming is equivalent to 10 Gt reduction in CO2 emissions.

  17. Causes for Retail Industry Globalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadeesha, M.

    2012-12-01

    The heading of this article itself pushing me to think why retail industry is globalizing! Because to increase their presence worldwide and profit on the onside and for the sake of ìname and fameî in industry is other side, but todayís trend and compitetitation force industrial giants to forget the word ìname and fameî globalization is the only strategy to compensate their market share or profit from one country to another country or domestic market. The presence of retail industry in the global level from centuries, but the global recognaization of retail industry came to limelight only two decades ago. As soon as restrictions are removed in this sector, all the retail industry big giants spread across the world to extend their operations especially in emerging markets. Is this a good sign for retailers? Off course it is good sign for some countries and some countries are stick to their own perceptions. Some of the countries welcome this move because the FDI will improve their economic structure. On the other side employment opportunity is also one of the issues in globalization of retail sector. Because retail industry needs huge workforce, so significance of retail has been undoubted.

  18. NASA Global Hawk Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delfrate, John

    2008-01-01

    This joint NASA/NGSC study was conducted with the expectation that the Global Hawk Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration Phase was nearing completion. (final ACTD flight was in Aug 06) This study convinced the 303d that the 2 available ACTD aircraft should be transferred to NASA Dryden. Global Hawk is the only available system capable of simultaneously meeting the requirements for high altitude (65K ft), long endurance (>31 hours), power (10 KVA), and a large payload capacity (2000 lbs). There are important NASA and NOAA science data gathering and satellite validation requirements that can only be met with the combination of capabilities provided by the Global Hawk system. NASA Global Hawk Missions: Unmanned Aerial System AURA Validation Experiment. (UAS AVE) April-May 2009 is the target date. Flights will cover the Pacific Ocean region south of Hawaii. 10-15 NASA and NOAA sponsored instruments. Data will be used for satellite validation. Next planning meeting for UAS AVE is at Dryden in April. Unmanned Aerial System Synthetic Aperture Radar. (UAS SAR) Flights to begin in mid to late 2009. The SAR instrument, developed by JPL, is contained in a pod and is being flown on Dryden s G-III. Northrop Grumman is conducting a feasibility study on adding wing pods to the NASA Global Hawk aircraft. Hurricane and Severe Storm Research. Hurricane missions in 2010 and 2013. Planning workshop at Dryden in June.

  19. Global Simulation of Aviation Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Sheth, Kapil; Ng, Hok Kwan; Morando, Alex; Li, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    The simulation and analysis of global air traffic is limited due to a lack of simulation tools and the difficulty in accessing data sources. This paper provides a global simulation of aviation operations combining flight plans and real air traffic data with historical commercial city-pair aircraft type and schedule data and global atmospheric data. The resulting capability extends the simulation and optimization functions of NASA's Future Air Traffic Management Concept Evaluation Tool (FACET) to global scale. This new capability is used to present results on the evolution of global air traffic patterns from a concentration of traffic inside US, Europe and across the Atlantic Ocean to a more diverse traffic pattern across the globe with accelerated growth in Asia, Australia, Africa and South America. The simulation analyzes seasonal variation in the long-haul wind-optimal traffic patterns in six major regions of the world and provides potential time-savings of wind-optimal routes compared with either great circle routes or current flight-plans if available.

  20. Global scale predictability of floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerts, Albrecht; Gijsbers, Peter; Sperna Weiland, Frederiek

    2016-04-01

    Flood (and storm surge) forecasting at the continental and global scale has only become possible in recent years (Emmerton et al., 2016; Verlaan et al., 2015) due to the availability of meteorological forecast, global scale precipitation products and global scale hydrologic and hydrodynamic models. Deltares has setup GLOFFIS a research-oriented multi model operational flood forecasting system based on Delft-FEWS in an open experimental ICT facility called Id-Lab. In GLOFFIS both the W3RA and PCRGLOB-WB model are run in ensemble mode using GEFS and ECMWF-EPS (latency 2 days). GLOFFIS will be used for experiments into predictability of floods (and droughts) and their dependency on initial state estimation, meteorological forcing and the hydrologic model used. Here we present initial results of verification of the ensemble flood forecasts derived with the GLOFFIS system. Emmerton, R., Stephens, L., Pappenberger, F., Pagano, T., Weerts, A., Wood, A. Salamon, P., Brown, J., Hjerdt, N., Donnelly, C., Cloke, H. Continental and Global Scale Flood Forecasting Systems, WIREs Water (accepted), 2016 Verlaan M, De Kleermaeker S, Buckman L. GLOSSIS: Global storm surge forecasting and information system 2015, Australasian Coasts & Ports Conference, 15-18 September 2015,Auckland, New Zealand.

  1. Introduction to Global Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Global health education is becoming increasingly prominent in universities throughout the country especially in programs focused on health and behavioral sciences, law, economics, and political science. Introduction to Global Health Promotion is a book that can be used by both instructors and students in the field of global health. The book provides theories and models, human rights, and technology relevant to the field. In addition the book is designed to share best evidence for promoting health and reducing morbidity and mortality in a variety of areas. The book can be used by health educators, public health practitioners, professors, and students as a resource for research and practice in the field of health promotion and disease prevention.

  2. Scientific linkages in global change

    SciTech Connect

    Jutro, P.R.; Worrest, R.C.; Janetos, A.C.

    1989-06-16

    In the atmosphere, certain trace gases both promote global warming and deplete the ozone layer. The primary radiatively active trace gases that affect global warming are carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, methane, and tropospheric ozone. In the troposphere, the atmosphere up to 10 miles above the earth's surface, these compounds function as greenhouse gases. Many of these gases also influence the concentration of ozone in the stratosphere, the atmospheric layer located between 10-30 miles above the earth's surface. The diffuse layer of ozone in the stratosphere protects life on earth from harmful solar radiation. A reduction of the layer could have very important impacts on the earth's systems. Interactions exist in various ecological processes as well. Physical, chemical, and biological activities of plants and animals are affected directly by global climate change and by increased ultraviolet radiation resulting from depletion of stratospheric ozone.

  3. Global phenotypic characterization of bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bochner, Barry R

    2009-01-01

    The measure of the quality of a systems biology model is how well it can reproduce and predict the behaviors of a biological system such as a microbial cell. In recent years, these models have been built up in layers, and each layer has been growing in sophistication and accuracy in parallel with a global data set to challenge and validate the models in predicting the content or activities of genes (genomics), proteins (proteomics), metabolites (metabolomics), and ultimately cell phenotypes (phenomics). This review focuses on the latter, the phenotypes of microbial cells. The development of Phenotype MicroArrays, which attempt to give a global view of cellular phenotypes, is described. In addition to their use in fleshing out and validating systems biology models, there are many other uses of this global phenotyping technology in basic and applied microbiology research, which are also described. PMID:19054113

  4. The globalization of nursing knowledge.

    PubMed

    Holt, J; Barrett, C; Clarke, D; Monks, R

    2000-08-01

    External influences placed upon nurses working in universities and in clinical practice require them to attract research funding, carry out research, generate new knowledge and publish in national and international journals. While there does not appear to be an agreed, unified body of nursing knowledge, critical and scholarly debate is essential to generate knowledge, but this is not an activity in which the majority of nurses can effectively participate. Nevertheless, nurses in the Western world are free to communicate their research, theories or ideas, essentially uncensored, to a vast invisible audience, and there is global dissemination through a vast array of literature and educational materials. This paper challenges nurses to examine the implications of globalization and suggests that the continuing debate on the nature of nursing knowledge should be updated to include consideration of both a change in philosophical stance and the far reaching effects of global dissemination of information.

  5. (Discussions of global environmental problems)

    SciTech Connect

    Krahl-Urban, B.

    1989-11-02

    The traveler visited the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of the Environmental Sciences Division to provide programmatic interpretations and technical overviews of research topics addressing international environmental issues. Many of today's environmental problems can no longer be considered as regional-scale impacts. Global warming, acidification, ozone depletion, drought, deforestation, and air pollution effects are global-level processes that can only be effectively approached by international scientific cooperation. The traveler's recommendations for the final planning and coordination of international environmental issues emphasized focusing on international cooperation with research institutions in West Germany and in other countries of the European Community. Several key global environmental issues are addressed by the Juelich Nuclear Research Center (KFA Juelich), West Germany. Scientific cooperation with KFA Juelich should be promising in theoretical ecology, systems analysis, and toxicology. Scientific exchange between ORNL and KFA Juelich in environmental sciences has been initiated by the traveler.

  6. Global occurrences of gas hydrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Lorenson, T.D.

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas hydrate is found worldwide in sediments of outer continental margins of all oceans and in polar areas with continuous permafrost. There are currently 77 localities identified globally where geophysical, geochemical and/or geological evidence indicates the presence of gas hydrate. Details concerning individual gas-hydrate occurrences are compiled at a new world-wide-web (www) site (http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/globalhydrate). This site has been created to facilitate global gas-hydrate research by providing information on each of the localities where there is evidence for gas hydrate. Also considered are the implications of gas hydrate as a potential (1) energy resource, (2) factor in global climate change, and (3) geohazard.

  7. Quantifying global international migration flows.

    PubMed

    Abel, Guy J; Sander, Nikola

    2014-03-28

    Widely available data on the number of people living outside of their country of birth do not adequately capture contemporary intensities and patterns of global migration flows. We present data on bilateral flows between 196 countries from 1990 through 2010 that provide a comprehensive view of international migration flows. Our data suggest a stable intensity of global 5-year migration flows at ~0.6% of world population since 1995. In addition, the results aid the interpretation of trends and patterns of migration flows to and from individual countries by placing them in a regional or global context. We estimate the largest movements to occur between South and West Asia, from Latin to North America, and within Africa.

  8. Global Trends in Mercury Management

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyunghee

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Environmental Program Governing Council has regulated mercury as a global pollutant since 2001 and has been preparing the mercury convention, which will have a strongly binding force through Global Mercury Assessment, Global Mercury Partnership Activities, and establishment of the Open-Ended Working Group on Mercury. The European Union maintains an inclusive strategy on risks and contamination of mercury, and has executed the Mercury Export Ban Act since December in 2010. The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Mercury Action Plan (1998) and the Mercury Roadmap (2006) and has proposed systematic mercury management methods to reduce the health risks posed by mercury exposure. Japan, which experienced Minamata disease, aims vigorously at perfection in mercury management in several ways. In Korea, the Ministry of Environment established the Comprehensive Plan and Countermeasures for Mercury Management to prepare for the mercury convention and to reduce risks of mercury to protect public health. PMID:23230466

  9. (Chemistry of the global atmosphere)

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, G.

    1990-09-27

    The traveler attended the conference The Chemistry of the Global Atmosphere,'' and presented a paper on the anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to the atmosphere. The conference included meetings of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) programme, a core project of the International Geosphere/Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and the traveler participated in meetings on the IGAC project Development of Global Emissions Inventories'' and agreed to coordinate the working group on CO{sub 2}. Papers presented at the conference focused on the latest developments in analytical methods, modeling and understanding of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, NMHCs, CFCs, and aerosols.

  10. Emerging diseases: the global express.

    PubMed

    Brown, C

    2010-01-01

    The expansion of global trade has ensured that the global economy continues to improve and that political liberalization promotes changes toward democracy and enhanced world peace. However, the inherent risks due to pathogens moving from one country to another within this global trade have expanded accordingly as well. International guidelines for safe trade, promulgated by the World Trade Organization, and interpreted by the World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the World Organization for Animal Health, have undergone fast-paced changes in an effort to stay current with rapidly evolving emerging disease concerns. But serious gaps remain, and the threat of pathogens moving to new areas or emerging in new ways is considerable.

  11. In search of global leaders.

    PubMed

    Green, Stephen; Hassan, Fred; Immelt, Jeffrey; Marks, Michael; Meiland, Daniel

    2003-08-01

    For all the talk about global organizations and executives, there's no definitive answer to the question of what we really mean by "global." A presence in multiple countries? Cultural adaptability? A multilingual top team? We asked four CEOs and the head of an international recruiting agency--HSBC's Stephen Green, Schering-Plough's Fred Hassan, GE's Jeffrey-lmmelt, Flextronics's Michael Marks, and Egon Zehnder's Daniel Meiland--to tell us what they think. They share some common ground. They all agree, for example, that the shift from a local to a global marketplace is irreversible and gaining momentum. "We're losing sight of the reality of globalization. But we should pay attention, because national barriers are quickly coming down", Daniel Meiland says. "If you look ahead five or ten years, the people with the top jobs in large corporations ... will be those who have lived in several cultures and who can converse in at least two languages." But the CEOs also disagree on many issues--on the importance of overseas assignments, for instance, and on the degree to which you need to adhere to local cultural norms. Some believe strongly that the global leader should, as a prerequisite to the job, live and work in other countries. As Stephen Green put it, "If you look at the executives currently running [HSBC's] largest businesses, all of them have worked in more than one, and nearly all in more than two, major country markets." Others downplay the importance of overseas assignments. "Putting people in foreign settings doesn't automatically imbue new attitudes, and it is attitudes rather than experiences that make a culture global," says Fred Hassan. The executives' essays capture views that are as diverse and multidimensional as the companies they lead.

  12. Global data sets - obtain the modeled global values

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-19

    On the ASDC web site home page , select " SSE ".  Select "Global Data".  Select ... the desired parameter.  Selecting the parameter name will bring up the data as text in a window, which you can copy and paste ... Selecting (compressed) to the right of the parameter name will allow you to save a compressed data file on your local machine. ...

  13. Going Global: Utilizing Instructional Geocaching to Enhance Students' Global Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szolosi, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Within contemporary society, technology has taken on an integral role in the way we come to know and understand the world. In recognition of that reality, an increasing number of educators have begun to utilize an emerging technology resource, GPS devices, and a GPS-based activity, geocaching, to help enhance students' global competency. The…

  14. Global Field and Global Imagining: Bourdieu and Worldwide Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2008-01-01

    This paper maps the global dimension of higher education and associated research, including the differentiation of national systems and institutions, while reflecting critically on theoretical tools for working this terrain. Arguably the most sustained theorization of higher education is by Bourdieu: the paper explores the relevance and limits of…

  15. Curriculum Gatekeeping in Global Education: Global Educators' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching social studies from a global perspective has been resisted by many since its inception (Kirkwood, 2009). Critics have labeled the theory anti-American and unpatriotic (Schlafly, 1986; Burack, 2001). Others are concerned with its shifting perspectives and apparent lack of core facts (Finn, 1988). Over time, some critics have changed their…

  16. Higher Education: Globalizing the Globalizing Process of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yukiko

    The paper asserts that in a globalized world in which more and more students change countries for their education, either virtually or in reality, and in which curriculum materials cross national borders and are incorporated into local courses, faculty development becomes increasingly important. To address the issue of improving faculty…

  17. Joint variability of global runoff and global sea surface temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Global land surface runoff and sea surface temperatures (SST) are analyzed to identify the primary modes of variability of these hydroclimatic data for the period 1905-2002. A monthly water-balance model first is used with global monthly temperature and precipitation data to compute time series of annual gridded runoff for the analysis period. The annual runoff time series data are combined with gridded annual sea surface temperature data, and the combined dataset is subjected to a principal components analysis (PCA) to identify the primary modes of variability. The first three components from the PCA explain 29% of the total variability in the combined runoff/SST dataset. The first component explains 15% of the total variance and primarily represents long-term trends in the data. The long-term trends in SSTs are evident as warming in all of the oceans. The associated long-term trends in runoff suggest increasing flows for parts of North America, South America, Eurasia, and Australia; decreasing runoff is most notable in western Africa. The second principal component explains 9% of the total variance and reflects variability of the El Ni??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and its associated influence on global annual runoff patterns. The third component explains 5% of the total variance and indicates a response of global annual runoff to variability in North Aflantic SSTs. The association between runoff and North Atlantic SSTs may explain an apparent steplike change in runoff that occurred around 1970 for a number of continental regions.

  18. Facing Violence - A Global Challenge.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Thomas; Kienzler, Hanna; Wollmann, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Violence has been shown to be a global challenge resulting in long-lasting social, medical, and mental health sequelae. In this article, we focus on massive social violence, such as war and civil war. Social suffering and mental health problems related to violence as a global public health problem can be tackled only with a holistic approach that addresses the specific region, culture and group and the limited resources available in most countries. Research that can give a reliable assessment of complex long-term outcomes is still largely missing, and can be seen as a major and complex challenge for future study.

  19. Global warming: A Northwest perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.J.; Counts, C.A.

    1990-02-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council convened a symposium in Olympia, Washington, on the subject of global climate change ( the greenhouse effect'') and its potential for affecting the Pacific Northwest. The symposium was organized in response to a need by the Power Council to understand global climate change and its potential impacts on resource planning and fish and wildlife planning for the region, as well as a need to understand national policy developing toward climate change and the Pacific Northwest's role in it. 40 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR LIGHTING TEST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In KSC's Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers are conducting a solar illumination test of the solar panels on the Mars Global Surveyor. The Surveyor is outfitted with two solar arrays, each featuring two panels, that provide electrical power for operating the spacecraft's electronic equipment and scientific instruments, as well as charging two nickel hydrogen batteries that provide power when the spacecraft is in the dark. For launch, the solar arrays will be folded against the side of the spacecraft. The Mars Global Surveyor is being prepared for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle during a launch window opening Nov. 6.

  1. Global health diplomacy and peace.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Buss, Paulo

    2011-09-01

    Diplomacy and health are in a period of rapid transition, so this article elaborates on the complex multilevel, multiactor negotiation processes that shape and manage the global policy environment for health. It explores the dynamic relationship between health and foreign policy and provides examples from the national, regional, and global levels. Reflecting on the deliberations in different international bodies, it discusses key questions and opportunities that could contribute to moving forward both health and peace agendas. The concluding remarks draw attention to the importance of bridging the capacity gap.

  2. Global ocean circulation by altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wunsch, Carl; Haidvogel, D.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objectives of this project are to determine the general circulation of the oceans and many of its climate and biochemical consequences through the optimum use of altimetry data from TOPEX/POSEIDON and related missions. Emphasis is on the global-scale circulation, as opposed to the regional scale, but some more local studies will be carried out. Because of funding limitations, the primary initial focus will be on the time-dependent global-scale circulation rather than the mean; eventually, the mean circulation must be dealt with as well.

  3. Global change: Acronyms and abbreviations

    SciTech Connect

    Woodard, C.T.; Stoss, F.W.

    1995-05-01

    This list of acronyms and abbreviations is compiled to provide the user with a ready reference to dicipher the linguistic initialisms and abridgements for the study of global change. The terms included in this first edition were selected from a wide variety of sources: technical reports, policy documents, global change program announcements, newsletters, and other periodicals. The disciplinary interests covered by this document include agriculture, atmospheric science, ecology, environmental science, oceanography, policy science, and other fields. In addition to its availability in hard copy, the list of acronyms and abbreviations is available in DOS-formatted diskettes and through CDIAC`s anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP) area on the Internet.

  4. Global planning of several plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bescos, Sylvie

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses an attempt to solve the problem of planning several pharmaceutical plants at a global level. The interest in planning at this level is to increase the global control over the production process, to improve its overall efficiency, and to reduce the need for interaction between production plants. In order to reduce the complexity of this problem and to make it tractable, some abstractions were made. Based on these abstractions, a prototype is being developed within the framework of the EUREKA project PROTOS, using Constraint Logic Programming techniques.

  5. Enhancing Polyhedral Relaxations for Global Optimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bao, Xiaowei

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade, global optimization has attracted a lot of attention due to the increased practical need for obtaining global solutions and the success in solving many global optimization problems that were previously considered intractable. In general, the central question of global optimization is to find an optimal solution to a given…

  6. The Global Citizen Conceptualized: Accommodating Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilley, Kathleen; Barker, Michelle; Harris, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Universities' aims for educating global citizens are rarely supported by a theoretical underpinning or evidence of outcomes. This study explored how international higher education experts conceptualize the global citizen or related terms representing the "ideal global graduate." A global notion of citizenship was accepted by the majority…

  7. Global Population Profile: 2002. International Population Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Matthew; McDevitt, Thomas; Stanecki, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Global Population Profile: 2002 summarizes the most important trends in global population at the dawn of the 21st century. The presentation is organized around four themes: (1) Global Population; (2) Growth, Global Population; (3) Composition, Contraceptive Prevalence in the Developing World; and (4) the AIDS Pandemic in the 21st Century. This…

  8. Global Perspectives: Some Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Global Perspectives, New York, NY.

    To enlighten the reader on the status, objectives, and needs of global education, this paper poses and answers questions related to global perspectives. A global perspective is interpreted to include heightened awareness and understanding of the global system as well as increased consciousness of the intimate relationship of self, humankind, and…

  9. Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Bill

    1995-01-01

    A resource for teaching about the consequences of global warming. Discusses feedback from the temperature increase, changes in the global precipitation pattern, effects on agriculture, weather extremes, effects on forests, effects on biodiversity, effects on sea levels, and actions which will help the global community cope with global warming. (LZ)

  10. Computational methods for global/local analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, Jonathan B.; Mccleary, Susan L.; Aminpour, Mohammad A.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Computational methods for global/local analysis of structures which include both uncoupled and coupled methods are described. In addition, global/local analysis methodology for automatic refinement of incompatible global and local finite element models is developed. Representative structural analysis problems are presented to demonstrate the global/local analysis methods.

  11. Energy, atmospheric chemistry, and global climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1991-01-01

    Global atmospheric changes due to ozone destruction and the greenhouse effect are discussed. The work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is reviewed, including its judgements regarding global warming and its recommendations for improving predictive capability. The chemistry of ozone destruction and the global atmospheric budget of nitrous oxide are reviewed, and the global sources of nitrous oxide are described.

  12. Used planet: A global history

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Erle C.; Kaplan, Jed O.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Vavrus, Steve; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Verburg, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Human use of land has transformed ecosystem pattern and process across most of the terrestrial biosphere, a global change often described as historically recent and potentially catastrophic for both humanity and the biosphere. Interdisciplinary paleoecological, archaeological, and historical studies challenge this view, indicating that land use has been extensive and sustained for millennia in some regions and that recent trends may represent as much a recovery as an acceleration. Here we synthesize recent scientific evidence and theory on the emergence, history, and future of land use as a process transforming the Earth System and use this to explain why relatively small human populations likely caused widespread and profound ecological changes more than 3,000 y ago, whereas the largest and wealthiest human populations in history are using less arable land per person every decade. Contrasting two spatially explicit global reconstructions of land-use history shows that reconstructions incorporating adaptive changes in land-use systems over time, including land-use intensification, offer a more spatially detailed and plausible assessment of our planet's history, with a biosphere and perhaps even climate long ago affected by humans. Although land-use processes are now shifting rapidly from historical patterns in both type and scale, integrative global land-use models that incorporate dynamic adaptations in human–environment relationships help to advance our understanding of both past and future land-use changes, including their sustainability and potential global effects. PMID:23630271

  13. Media and the Global Citizen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Lynne; Pulliam, William E.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews and evaluates media products from a variety of disciplines which are intended to help students understand environmental problems from a global perspective. Products are organized into four topics: Our place in the universe, Our place in nature's system, When systems break down, and Restoring harmony in earth's systems. Rental and purchase…

  14. Global Trends in Academic Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, William K.; Finkelstein, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Even before the current global economic crisis, discontent with the governance of higher education institutions was widespread among faculty in the United States and throughout the world. Drawing from the 2007 Changing Academic Profession (CAP) survey of faculty in seventeen countries, the authors examine faculty perceptions of the current state…

  15. Global Climate Change Interaction Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.

    1998-01-01

    Students investigate the effects of global climate change on life in the Great Lakes region in this activity. Teams working together construct as many links as possible for such factors as rainfall, lake water, evaporation, skiing, zebra mussels, wetlands, shipping, walleye, toxic chemicals, coastal homes, and population. (PVD)

  16. Wildlife Endangerment: A Global Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshorn, Arthur

    1981-01-01

    This essay discusses threats to wildlife posed by technological advances and human population growth. It presents evidence that habitats are being destroyed by pollution, exploitation of virgin lands, energy resource extraction, and other rapidly changing conditions. The author proposes a coordinated global effort to preserve vanishing species.…

  17. The Real Global Technology Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Leonard; Salzman, Harold

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. is no longer the universally preferred home for the global technology elite. Increasing numbers of scientists and engineers who were educated and have built successful careers there are returning to China, India, and other countries. Noting these trends, the policy and technology communities are sounding the alarm about an impending U.S.…

  18. Coordinating chemists for global development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-06-01

    Chemistry research and education face challenges anywhere in the world, but more so in less developed -- or less stable -- economies. These countries and their more economically fortunate neighbours can all contribute to the development of chemistry and its ability to tackle local and global issues.

  19. Social Capital and Global Mindset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhaylov, Natalie S.; Fierro, Isidro

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the process of development of cultural knowledge and cosmopolitan identities among international management students in multicultural learning environments and to investigate how international business students develop global mindset during their studies. Design/methodology/approach: A comparative…

  20. Global National Qualifications Framework Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornavold, Jens; Pevec-Grm, Slava; Graham, Michael; Deij, Arjen; Singh, Madhu; Charkoun, Borhène; Agrawal, Shivani

    2013-01-01

    This publication is a global, country-by-country, inventory of National Qualifications Frameworks (NQFs). It is a copublication, prepared by two EU agencies, the European Training Foundation (ETF) and the Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (Cedefop); and UNESCO's Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) and the Section for TVET at…

  1. Creating a Global Perspective Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braskamp, Larry A.

    2011-01-01

    The author has written this Guidebook to assist users interested in creating a campus that will be more global in its mission, programs, and people. His approach is to focus on the views and contributions of the people who are engaged in higher education. Thus it has a "person" emphasis rather than a structural or policy point of view. The author…

  2. Mars Global Surveyor MOC Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Images of several dust devils were captured by the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) during its global geodesy campaign. The images shown were taken two days apart, May 13, 1999 and May 15, 1999. Dust devils are columnar vortices of wind that move across the landscape and pick up dust. They look like mini tornadoes.

  3. The Sickening Implications of Globalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keigher, Sharon M.; Lowery, Christine T.

    1998-01-01

    "We are all in this together..." begins this review of the threats of globalization. Topics discussed include malnutrition, infectious diseases, urbanization, border protection, poverty, "lifestyle" diseases, the risks of technology, and war. Alternatives to the present trend toward capitalist transformation, possible and practical reforms are…

  4. Global Imagery in Online Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Geraldine E.; Janson, Marius

    2007-01-01

    A well-designed online advertisement is essential for effective communication with potential customers and contributes to successful e-commerce. However, creating online sales messages that appeal to a broad range of cultures can pose unique challenges. Internet ads must offer both a globally appealing and a culture-specific message that in turn…

  5. From Internationalisation to Global Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourn, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, many universities have re-evaluated their roles and approaches towards learning in the context of a globalised society. Some institutions have responded to globalisation by marketing themselves more effectively internationally. Others have responded by promoting ideas such as "graduates as global citizens" or by…

  6. Globalization and Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and…

  7. Global Unemployment: Challenge to Futurists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Bertram; Singh, Kusum

    Creative actions toward preventing global unemployment seek to (1) uncover the painful realities of joblessness, (2) design better models for fruitful discourse and action, (3) climb the "commanding policy heights" of moral vision, (4) move from autocratic to democratic corporatism, (5) uncover the kind of information that may hold power…

  8. Geographic Inquiry into Global Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, A. David

    1993-01-01

    Describes the background and development of the Geographic Inquiry into Global Issues (GIGI) project. Maintains that the secondary school lessons are designed to teach citizenship and critical thinking skills. Emphasizes that the pedagogical approach is founded on the inquiry approach. (CFR)

  9. Globalization, Social Movements, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortina, Regina

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: This essay is a part of a special issue that emerges from a year-long faculty seminar at Teachers College, Columbia University. The seminar's purpose has been to examine in fresh terms the nexus of globalization, education, and citizenship. Participants come from diverse fields of research and practice, among them art…

  10. Forecasting Tides in Global HYCOM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    ocean tides significantly impact the deep ocean tides. Blocking the Sea of Okhotsk creates differences in the tidal amplitudes over much of the...increasing the skill. Unfortunately, we can’t use this approach in the baroclinic global model with sea ice. Tidal resonances represent a challenge for

  11. Globalization, Sustainable Development and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toakley, Arthur Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Globalization is a natural outcome of the sustained technological and economic growth, which originated with the Industrial Revolution in Britain during the 18th century. This path to continuing economic growth spread initially to continental Europe and North America, and brought with it the creation of large towns and substantial social change.…

  12. Maine's Approach to Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broyles, India L.; Krawic, Joanne

    This study of Maine schools inquires into efforts that have been made to internationalize the curriculum. Specifically, the researchers were interested in how curricular goals and organization contribute to an understanding of global society. The efforts to internationalize the curriculum upon which the researchers focused included the…

  13. Global Trends in Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Lai, Chun-Chin

    2012-01-01

    The paradigm of human resource development has shifted to workplace learning and performance. Workplace can be an organization, an office, a kitchen, a shop, a farm, a website, even a home. Workplace learning is a dynamic process to solve workplace problems through learning. An identification of global trends of workplace learning can help us to…

  14. Respiratory diseases of global consequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Respiratory diseases are one of the two major categories of poultry diseases that cause the most severe economic losses globally (the other being enteric disease). The economic impact of respiratory disease is both direct, from the production losses caused by primary disease and indirect from preve...

  15. Global Citizens: Who Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Lorna; Bamber, Philip; Lyons, Minna

    2012-01-01

    A growing desire to instigate global citizenship programmes in higher education has led to the development of optional structured opportunities for students to engage in prosocial activities. One of the challenges facing such programmes is to demonstrate and plan for the personal growth of those students. This article reports the dispositional,…

  16. GLOBAL TRANSITION TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global transition to sustainable development is possible but many obstacles lie in the way and it will require acts of political will on the part of both the developed and developing nations to become a reality. In this paper, sustainable development is defined as continuous prog...

  17. Business School Partnerships for Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Rob; Slanickova, Daniela; Warwick, Philip

    2013-01-01

    International partnerships are an essential tool to enable business schools to internationalize their activities. They can lead to improved research, better more internationally relevant teaching, provide staff with an international perspective, and help prepare students for careers in global business. Using case studies of four of Durham…

  18. Global warming and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Khasnis, Atul A; Nettleman, Mary D

    2005-01-01

    Global warming has serious implications for all aspects of human life, including infectious diseases. The effect of global warming depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. From the human standpoint, changes in the environment may trigger human migration, causing disease patterns to shift. Crop failures and famine may reduce host resistance to infections. Disease transmission may be enhanced through the scarcity and contamination of potable water sources. Importantly, significant economic and political stresses may damage the existing public health infrastructure, leaving mankind poorly prepared for unexpected epidemics. Global warming will certainly affect the abundance and distribution of disease vectors. Altitudes that are currently too cool to sustain vectors will become more conducive to them. Some vector populations may expand into new geographic areas, whereas others may disappear. Malaria, dengue, plague, and viruses causing encephalitic syndromes are among the many vector-borne diseases likely to be affected. Some models suggest that vector-borne diseases will become more common as the earth warms, although caution is needed in interpreting these predictions. Clearly, global warming will cause changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases. The ability of mankind to react or adapt is dependent upon the magnitude and speed of the change. The outcome will also depend on our ability to recognize epidemics early, to contain them effectively, to provide appropriate treatment, and to commit resources to prevention and research.

  19. Teaching about Global Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffron, Susan Gallagher; Valmond, Kharra

    2011-01-01

    Students are exposed to many different media reports about global climate change. Movies such as "The Day After Tomorrow" and "Ice Age" are examples of instances when movie producers have sought to capture the attention of audiences by augmenting the challenges that climate change poses. Students may receive information from a wide range of media…

  20. The Globalization of Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBoer, George E.

    2011-01-01

    Standards-based science education, with its emphasis on monitoring and accountability, is rapidly becoming a key part of the globalization of science education. Standards-based testing within countries is increasingly being used to determine the effectiveness of a country's educational system, and international testing programs such as Programme…

  1. Perspectives on global change theory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human-caused global changes in ecological drivers, such as carbon dioxide concentrations, climate, and nitrogen deposition, as well as direct human impacts (land use change, species movements and extinctions, etc.) are increasingly recognized as key to understanding contemporary ecosystem dynamics, ...

  2. Education and the Global Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzer, Allen O.

    Honda of America is part of a global company that strives to be competitive all over the world. In order to maintain and increase its competitiveness, the company focuses intensely on training and retraining its workers and on fostering team spirit. The company maintains extensive training facilities that offer many courses to employees. Employees…

  3. Reinterpreting Globalization in Multilingual Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohamy, Elana

    2007-01-01

    Joel Spring (2007/this issue) argues that in most nation states around the world today, English plays a central role primarily as a commodity of globalization. At the same time in the United States, English is being perpetuated in nationalistic terms as the only legitimate language. This is done through a variety of mechanisms such as language…

  4. Global Communications Grid Architecture Tutorial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    Tactical Networked Radio 0 Integrated network 0 Fixed and Mobile Users 0 Global connectivity via SATCOM, radio and terrestrial backbone 0 All digital ... services 0 Adaptable, scaleable 0 obust, protected 0 Self-managed Applications Fu n Services ctio n Comm M a nag em ent Security M anagem ent

  5. Global Academe: Engaging Intellectual Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy-Zekmi, Silvia, Ed.; Hollis, Karyn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The representation of the economic, political, cultural and, more importantly, global interrelations between agents involved in the process of intellectual activity is at the core of the inquiry in this volume that scrutinizes a distinct transformation occurring in the modalities of intellectual production also detectable in the changing role of…

  6. Tourism in a Globalizing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudina, Elena V.; Uhina, Tatiana V.; Bushueva, Irina V.; Pirozhenko, Natalia T.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the investigated problem is caused by the fact that virtually no comprehensive research on issues related to tourism as an integrative multidimensional phenomenon in the socio-cultural environment in the context of globalization has been made by now. The purpose of this article is based on sociological and cultural approach to…

  7. Global Warming Estimation from MSU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, Robert, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we have developed time series of global temperature from 1980-97 based on the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) Ch 2 (53.74 GHz) observations taken from polar-orbiting NOAA operational satellites. In order to create these time series, systematic errors (approx. 0.1 K) in the Ch 2 data arising from inter-satellite differences are removed objectively. On the other hand, smaller systematic errors (approx. 0.03 K) in the data due to orbital drift of each satellite cannot be removed objectively. Such errors are expected to remain in the time series and leave an uncertainty in the inferred global temperature trend. With the help of a statistical method, the error in the MSU inferred global temperature trend resulting from orbital drifts and residual inter-satellite differences of all satellites is estimated to be 0.06 K decade. Incorporating this error, our analysis shows that the global temperature increased at a rate of 0.13 +/- 0.06 K decade during 1980-97.

  8. Global temperature monitoring from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    Global and regional temperature variations in the lower troposphere and lower stratosphere are examined for the period 1979-92 from Microwave Sounder Unit (MSU) data obtained by the Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS)-N series of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) operational satellites. In the lower troposphere, globally-averaged temperature variations appear to be dominated by tropical El Nino (warm) and La Nina (cool) events and volcanic eruptions. The Pinatubo volcanic eruption in June 1991 appears to have initiated a cooling trend which persisted through the most recent data analyzed (July, 1992), and largely overwhelmed the warming from the 1991-92 El Nino. The cooling has been stronger in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. The temperature trend over the 13.5 year satellite record is small (+0.03 C) compared to the year-to-year variability (0.2-0.4 C), making detection of any global warming signal fruitless to date. However, the future global warming trend, currently predicted to be around 0.3 C/decade, will be much easier to discern should it develop. The lower stratospheric temperature record is dominated by warm episodes from the Pinatubo eruption and the March 1982 eruption of El Chichon volcano.

  9. Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) is an integrated assessment model that links the world's energy, agriculture and land use systems with a climate model. The model is designed to assess various climate change policies and technology strategies for the globe over long tim...

  10. Global Geologic Map of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, T.; Figueredo, P.; Greeley, R.; Hare, T.; Kolb, E.; Mullins, K.; Senske, D.; Tanaka, K.; Weiser, S.

    2008-01-01

    Europa, with its indications of a sub-ice ocean, is of keen interest to astrobiology and planetary geology. Knowledge of the global distribution and timing of Europan geologic units is a key step for the synthesis of data from the Galileo mission, and for the planning of future missions to the satellite. The first geologic map of Europa was produced at a hemisphere scale with low resolution Voyager data. Following the acquisition of higher resolution data by the Galileo mission, researchers have identified surface units and determined sequences of events in relatively small areas of Europa through geologic mapping using images at various resolutions acquired by Galileo's Solid State Imaging camera. These works provided a local to subregional perspective and employed different criteria for the determination and naming of units. Unified guidelines for the identification, mapping and naming of Europan geologic units were put forth by and employed in regional-to-hemispheric scale mapping which is now being expanded into a global geologic map. A global photomosaic of Galileo and Voyager data was used as a basemap for mapping in ArcGIS, following suggested methodology of all-stratigraphy for planetary mapping. The following units have been defined in global mapping and are listed in stratigraphic order from oldest to youngest: ridged plains material, Argadnel Regio unit, dark plains material, lineaments, disrupted plains material, lenticulated plains material and Chaos material.

  11. Used planet: a global history.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Erle C; Kaplan, Jed O; Fuller, Dorian Q; Vavrus, Steve; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Verburg, Peter H

    2013-05-14

    Human use of land has transformed ecosystem pattern and process across most of the terrestrial biosphere, a global change often described as historically recent and potentially catastrophic for both humanity and the biosphere. Interdisciplinary paleoecological, archaeological, and historical studies challenge this view, indicating that land use has been extensive and sustained for millennia in some regions and that recent trends may represent as much a recovery as an acceleration. Here we synthesize recent scientific evidence and theory on the emergence, history, and future of land use as a process transforming the Earth System and use this to explain why relatively small human populations likely caused widespread and profound ecological changes more than 3,000 y ago, whereas the largest and wealthiest human populations in history are using less arable land per person every decade. Contrasting two spatially explicit global reconstructions of land-use history shows that reconstructions incorporating adaptive changes in land-use systems over time, including land-use intensification, offer a more spatially detailed and plausible assessment of our planet's history, with a biosphere and perhaps even climate long ago affected by humans. Although land-use processes are now shifting rapidly from historical patterns in both type and scale, integrative global land-use models that incorporate dynamic adaptations in human-environment relationships help to advance our understanding of both past and future land-use changes, including their sustainability and potential global effects.

  12. Military Strategy of Global Jihad

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-23

    Che in Bolivia (San Salvador: n.p., 1968), 244-246, quoted in Donald C. Hodges, The Legacy of Che Guevara: A Documentary Study (London: Thames and... Hudson , 1977), 101. 61 The Political Commission of the Communist Party of El Salvador, 100-101. 62 The global jihadis face a particular challenge in

  13. Honors Education and Global Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfensberger, Marca V. C.

    2012-01-01

    An issue of "Journal of the National Collegiate Honors Council" devoted to "Honors Around the Globe" is an important opportunity to consider the role of honors in creating international awareness and understanding. Honors faculty and administrators have become increasingly active in global cross-communication through, for…

  14. Global contour processing in amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Dennis M.; Yu, Cong; Kuai, Shu-Guang; Rislove, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments described here was to investigate global image processing using methods that require global processing while eliminating or compensating for low level abnormalities: visibility, shape perception and positional uncertainty. In order to accomplish this we used a closed figure made up of Gabor patches either in noise or on a blank field. The stimuli were circular or elliptical contours, formed by N equally spaced Gabor patches. We performed two separate experiments: In one experiment we fixed N and varied the aspect ratio using a staircase to determine the threshold aspect ratio; in the second experiment we held the aspect ratio constant (at twice the threshold aspect ratio) and varied N in order to measure the threshold number of elements required to judge the shape. Our results confirm and extend previous studies showing that humans with naturally occurring amblyopia show deficits in contour processing. Our results show that the deficits depend strongly on spatial scale (target size and spatial frequency). The deficit in global contour processing is substantially greater in noise (where contour-linking is required) than on a blank field. The magnitude of the deficits is modest when low-level deficits (reduced visibility, increased positional uncertainty, and abnormal shape perception) are minimized, and does not seem to depend much on acuity, crowding or stereoacuity. The residual deficits reported here cannot be simply ascribed to reduced visibility or increased positional uncertainty, and we therefore conclude that these are genuine deficits in global contour segregation and integration. PMID:17223155

  15. Globalization and Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watras, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The term "globalization" is relatively new. Alfred E. Eckes, Jr. and Thomas W. Zeiler credit Theodore Levitt for coining the word in 1983 in an article in the Harvard Business Review. In a short time, other authors adopted the term. Thomas Freidman, for example, used the phrase to define the 1990s. Freidman claimed that the world had entered a new…

  16. Going Global in Arlington, Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Edgar

    2010-01-01

    In July 2008, the Ashlawn Elementary School in Arlington, Virginia, began the implementation of the Global Citizenship Project, which is designed around the four guiding principles of the Earth Charter: respect and care for the community of life; ecological integrity; social and economic justice; and democracy, nonviolence and peace. The intent of…

  17. Global Change Education Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortensen, Lynn L., Ed.

    This guide is intended as an aid to educators who conduct programs and activities on climate and global change issues for a variety of audiences. The selected set of currently available materials are appropriate for both formal and informal programs in environmental education and can help frame and clarify some of the key issues associated with…

  18. Globalization, Citizenship and Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the notions of globalization as embodied in Japanese educational reforms during the 1980s and 1990s. Modern institutional discourses of educational reform in Japan have shifted over time and all of these reform movements have been constructed by particular social and historical trajectories. Generally speaking, it has been…

  19. Regional strategies for global leadership.

    PubMed

    Ghemawat, Pankaj

    2005-12-01

    The leaders of such global powerhouses as GE, Wal-Mart, and Toyota seem to have grasped two crucial truths: First, far from becoming submerged by the rising tide of globalization, geographic and other regional distinctions may in fact be increasing in importance. Second, regionally focused strategies, used in conjunction with local and global initiatives, can significantly boost a company's performance. The business and economic data reveal a highly regionalized world. For example, trade within regions, rather than across them, drove the surge of international commerce in the second half of the twentieth century. Regionalization is also apparent in foreign direct investment, companies' international sales, and competition among the world's largest multinationals. Harvard Business School Professor Pankaj Ghemawat says that the most successful companies employ five types of regional strategies in addition to--or even instead of--global ones: home base, portfolio, hub, platform, and mandate. Some companies adopt the strategies in sequence, but the most nimble switch from one to another and combine approaches as their markets and businesses evolve. At Toyota, for example, exports from the home base continue to be substantial even as the company builds up an international manufacturing presence. And as Toyota achieves economies of scale and scope with a strong network of hubs, the company also pursues economies of specialization through interregional mandates. Embracing regional strategies requires flexibility and creativity. A company must decide what constitutes a region, choose the most appropriate strategies, and mesh those strategies with the organization's existing structures. In a world that is neither truly global nor truly local, finding ways of coordinating within and across regions can deliver a powerful competitive advantage.

  20. What is a global manager?

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Christopher A; Ghoshal, Sumantra

    2003-08-01

    Riven by ideology, religion, and mistrust, the world seems more fragmented than at any time since, arguably, World War II. But however deep the political divisions, business operations continue to span the globe, and executives still have to figure out how to run them efficiently and well. In "What Is a Global Manager?" (first published in September-October 1992), business professors Christopher Bartlett and Sumantra Ghoshal lay out a model for a management structure that balances the local, regional, and global demands placed on companies operating across the world's many borders. In the volatile world of transnational corporations, there is no such thing as a "universal" global manager, the authors say. Rather, there are three groups of specialists: business managers, country managers, and functional managers. And there are the top executives at corporate headquarters who manage the complex interactions between the three--and can identify and develop the talented executives a successful transnational requires. This kind of organizational structure characterizes a transnational rather than an old-line multinational, international, or global company. Transnationals integrate assets, resources, and diverse people in operating units around the world. Through a flexible management process, in which business, country, and functional managers form a triad of different perspectives that balance one another, transnational companies can build three strategic capabilities: global-scale efficiency and competitiveness; national-level responsiveness and flexibility; and cross-market capacity to leverage learning on a worldwide basis. Through a close look at the successful careers of Leif Johansson of Electrolux, Howard Gottlieb of NEC, and Wahib Zaki of Procter & Gamble, the authors illustrate the skills that each managerial specialist requires.

  1. Global Distribution of Pyrogenic Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisser, Moritz; Abiven, Samuel; Schmidt, Michael W. I.

    2016-04-01

    Pyrogenic Carbon (PyC) is ubiquitous in the environment and represents presumably one of the most stable compounds of the total organic carbon. Due to its persistence in the soil, it might play an important role in the global carbon cycle. In order to model future CO2 emissions from soils it is thus crucial to know where and how much of PyC exists on a global scale. Yet, only rough estimates for global PyC stocks in soils could be made, and even less is known about the distribution across ecosystems. Therefore we propose here literature analysis of data on PyC concentrations and stocks worldwide. We extracted PyC values in soils from the literature (n = 600) and analysed the percentage of PyC in the soil organic carbon (SOC) as a function of climate (temperature, precipitation), soil parameters (pH, clay content), fire characteristics (fire frequency and fire regime) and land use. Overall, the average contribution of PyC to SOC was 13 %, ranging from 0.1 % up to 60 %. We observed that the PyC content was significantly higher with high clay content, higher pH, and in cultivated land as compared to forest and grassland. We did not observe any relationships between fire activity, frequency or intensity and PyC % at a global scale. When the fire regime was monitored on site (only 12 % of the data we collected), we observed higher PyC concentrations with higher fire frequencies. We hypothesise that the resolution of global fire datasets is neither temporally nor spatially high enough to explain the very local fire history of the soil samples. Data points were not homogeneously distributed on the globe, but rather aggregated in places like Central Europe, the Russian Steppe or North America. Therefore, a global interpolation is not directly possible. We modelled PyC concentrations, based on the five most significant parameters, which were clay content, pH, mean annual temperature and precipitation as well as land use. We then predicted worldwide PyC using global datasets

  2. Think global, act local: Preserving the global commons

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Oliver P.; Hendriks, Achim; Rand, David G.; Nowak, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Preserving global public goods, such as the planet’s ecosystem, depends on large-scale cooperation, which is difficult to achieve because the standard reciprocity mechanisms weaken in large groups. Here we demonstrate a method by which reciprocity can maintain cooperation in a large-scale public goods game (PGG). In a first experiment, participants in groups of on average 39 people play one round of a Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD) with their two nearest neighbours on a cyclic network after each PGG round. We observe that people engage in “local-to-global” reciprocity, leveraging local interactions to enforce global cooperation: Participants reduce PD cooperation with neighbours who contribute little in the PGG. In response, low PGG contributors increase their contributions if both neighbours defect in the PD. In a control condition, participants do not know their neighbours’ PGG contribution and thus cannot link play in the PD to the PGG. In the control we observe a sharp decline of cooperation in the PGG, while in the treatment condition global cooperation is maintained. In a second experiment, we demonstrate the scalability of this effect: in a 1,000-person PGG, participants in the treatment condition successfully sustain public contributions. Our findings suggest that this simple “local-to-global” intervention facilitates large-scale cooperation. PMID:27808222

  3. Biological Feedbacks in Global Desertification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlesinger, William H.; Reynolds, James F.; Cunningham, Gary L.; Huenneke, Laura F.; Jarrell, Wesley M.; Virginia, Ross A.; Whitford, Walter G.

    1990-03-01

    Studies of ecosystem processes on the Jornada Experimental Range in southern New Mexico suggest that long-term grazing of semiarid grasslands leads to an increase in the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of water, nitrogen, and other soil resources. Heterogeneity of soil resources promotes invasion by desert shrubs, which leads to a further localization of soil resources under shrub canopies. In the barren area between shrubs, soil fertility is lost by erosion and gaseous emissions. This positive feedback leads to the desertification of formerly productive land in southern New Mexico and in other regions, such as the Sahel. Future desertification is likely to be exacerbated by global climate warming and to cause significant changes in global biogeochemical cycles.

  4. Biological feedbacks in global desertification.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, W H; Reynolds, J F; Cunningham, G L; Huenneke, L F; Jarrell, W M; Virginia, R A; Whitford, W G

    1990-03-02

    Studies of ecosystem processes on the Jornada Experimental Range in southern New Mexico suggest that longterm grazing of semiarid grasslands leads to an increase in the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of water, nitrogen, and other soil resources. Heterogeneity of soil resources promotes invasion by desert shrubs, which leads to a further localization of soil resources under shrub canopies. In the barren area between shrubs, soil fertility is lost by erosion and gaseous emissions. This positive feedback leads to the desertification of formerly productive land in southern New Mexico and in other regions, such as the Sahel. Future desertification is likely to be exacerbated by global climate warming and to cause significant changes in global biogeochemical cycles.

  5. Global nuclear-structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.

    1990-04-20

    The revival of interest in nuclear ground-state octupole deformations that occurred in the 1980's was stimulated by observations in 1980 of particularly large deviations between calculated and experimental masses in the Ra region, in a global calculation of nuclear ground-state masses. By minimizing the total potential energy with respect to octupole shape degrees of freedom in addition to {epsilon}{sub 2} and {epsilon}{sub 4} used originally, a vastly improved agreement between calculated and experimental masses was obtained. To study the global behavior and interrelationships between other nuclear properties, we calculate nuclear ground-state masses, spins, pairing gaps and {Beta}-decay and half-lives and compare the results to experimental qualities. The calculations are based on the macroscopic-microscopic approach, with the microscopic contributions calculated in a folded-Yukawa single-particle potential.

  6. Global topological k-defects

    SciTech Connect

    Babichev, E.

    2006-10-15

    We consider global topological defects in symmetry-breaking models with a noncanonical kinetic term. Apart from a mass parameter entering the potential, one additional dimensional parameter arises in such models - a kinetic mass. The properties of defects in these models are quite different from standard global domain walls, vortices, and monopoles, if their kinetic mass scale is smaller than their symmetry-breaking scale. In particular, depending on the concrete form of the kinetic term, the typical size of such a defect can be either much larger or much smaller than the size of a standard defect with the same potential term. The characteristic mass of a nonstandard defect, which might have been formed during a phase transition in the early universe, depends on both the temperature of a phase transition and the kinetic mass.

  7. Global F-theory GUTs

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Grimm, Thomas W.; Jurke, Benjamin; Weigand, Timo; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    We construct global F-theory GUT models on del Pezzo surfaces in compact Calabi-Yau fourfolds realized as complete intersections of two hypersurface constraints. The intersections of the GUT brane and the flavour branes as well as the gauge flux are described by the spectral cover construction. We consider a split S[U(4) x U(1){sub X}] spectral cover, which allows for the phenomenologically relevant Yukawa couplings and GUT breaking to the MSSM via hypercharge flux while preventing dimension-4 proton decay. General expressions for the massless spectrum, consistency conditions and a new method for the computation of curvature-induced tadpoles are presented. We also provide a geometric toolkit for further model searches in the framework of toric geometry. Finally, an explicit global model with three chiral generations and all required Yukawa couplings is defined on a Calabi-Yau fourfold which is fibered over the del Pezzo transition of the Fano threefold P{sup 4}.

  8. Global Trade and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Ellen R.; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854

  9. Global Consequences of Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Jonathan A.; DeFries, Ruth; Asner, Gregory P.; Barford, Carol; Bonan, Gordon; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Coe, Michael T.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Helkowski, Joseph H.; Holloway, Tracey; Howard, Erica A.; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Monfreda, Chad; Patz, Jonathan A.; Prentice, I. Colin; Ramankutty, Navin; Snyder, Peter K.

    2005-07-01

    Land use has generally been considered a local environmental issue, but it is becoming a force of global importance. Worldwide changes to forests, farmlands, waterways, and air are being driven by the need to provide food, fiber, water, and shelter to more than six billion people. Global croplands, pastures, plantations, and urban areas have expanded in recent decades, accompanied by large increases in energy, water, and fertilizer consumption, along with considerable losses of biodiversity. Such changes in land use have enabled humans to appropriate an increasing share of the planet's resources, but they also potentially undermine the capacity of ecosystems to sustain food production, maintain freshwater and forest resources, regulate climate and air quality, and ameliorate infectious diseases. We face the challenge of managing trade-offs between immediate human needs and maintaining the capacity of the biosphere to provide goods and services in the long term.

  10. Global Health Simulation During Residency

    PubMed Central

    Rosenman, Jane R.; Fischer, Philip R.; Arteaga, Grace M.; Hulyalkar, Manasi; Butteris, Sabrina M.; Pitt, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Resident participation in international health electives (IHEs) has been shown to be beneficial, yet not all residents have the opportunity to participate. We sought to determine whether participating in simulated global health cases, via the standardized Simulation Use for Global Away Rotations (SUGAR) curriculum, was useful for all pediatric residents, not merely those planning to go on an IHE. Pediatric residents in our program took part in 2 SUGAR cases and provided feedback via an online survey. Thirty-six of 40 residents participated (90%); 72% responded to the survey. Three of 10 residents not previously planning to work in resource-limited settings indicated participation in SUGAR made them more likely to do so. Nearly all residents (88%) felt SUGAR should be part of the residency curriculum. All felt better prepared for working cross-culturally. While designed to prepare trainees for work in resource-limited settings, SUGAR may be beneficial for all residents. PMID:27583300

  11. Globalization's "losers" become its movers.

    PubMed

    2000-01-01

    Far from reducing international migration flows, globalization will give rise to increased migration pressures in the years to come. It is noted in the book "Workers without Frontiers: The impact of globalization on international migration" that the total number of migrants worldwide have surpassed 120 million and is growing. It argues that flows of goods and capital between rich and poor countries will not be large enough to offset the needs for employment in poorer countries. Instead, social disruption caused by economic restructuring is likely promoting migration among people from poor communities. Moreover, the book finds that falling prices for transportation and the increased speed of communication have changed the character of international migration, making it much less a permanent move. Other contributing factors include a major shift in which many more countries have become suppliers, receivers, or both; and the standards of living in some of the countries.

  12. Updating Martin's global extinction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Australia has been cited as a weak link in anthropogenic models of megafauna extinction, but recent work suggests instead that the evidence for rapid extinction shortly after human arrival is robust. The global model is revisited, based on the contention that late Pleistocene megafauna extinctions took place rapidly on islands, and some islands (such as Australia and the Americas) are much larger than others. Modern dating methods are increasingly able to refine chronologies, and careful scrutiny suggests that hundreds of dates should be deleted from archives. An updated summary of results from New Zealand, North America and Australia is presented, with a brief discussion on why temperate refugia offering protection from climate change ultimately did not work, strongly supporting the global extinction hypothesis pioneered by Paul Martin.

  13. Global trade and public health.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization's General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date.

  14. ESPC Coupled Global Prediction System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    coupled air-sea momentum flux on the ocean circulation has been investigated in a series of near twin experiments, where aspects of the coupled wind stress...Award Number: N0001414WX20051 http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil LONG-TERM GOALS Develop and implement a fully coupled global atmosphere/wave/ ocean ...arise in the coupled system. Implement the tripolar grid for WaveWatch-III and wave forcing in the ocean . Incorporate time-dependent, radiatively

  15. A global HMX decomposition model

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, M.L.

    1996-12-01

    HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) decomposes by competing reaction pathways to form various condensed and gas-phase intermediate and final products. Gas formation is related to the development of nonuniform porosity and high specific surface areas prior to ignition in cookoff events. Such thermal damage enhances shock sensitivity and favors self-supported accelerated burning. The extent of HMX decomposition in highly confined cookoff experiments remains a major unsolved experimental and modeling problem. The present work is directed at determination of global HMX kinetics useful for predicting the elapsed time to thermal runaway (ignition) and the extent of decomposition at ignition. Kinetic rate constants for a six step engineering based global mechanism were obtained using gas formation rates measured by Behrens at Sandia National Laboratories with his Simultaneous Modulated Beam Mass Spectrometer (STMBMS) experimental apparatus. The six step global mechanism includes competition between light gas (H[sub 2]Awe, HCN, CO, H[sub 2]CO, NO, N[sub 2]Awe) and heavy gas (C[sub 2]H[sub 6]N[sub 2]Awe and C[sub 4]H[sub 10]N0[sub 2]) formation with zero order sublimation of HMX and the mononitroso analog of HMX (mn-HMX), C[sub 4]H[sub 8]N[sub 8]Awe[sub 7]. The global mechanism was applied to the highly confined, One Dimensional Time to eXplosion (ODTX) experiment and hot cell experiments by suppressing the sublimation of HMX and mn-HMX. An additional gas-phase reaction was also included to account for the gas-phase reaction of N[sub 2]Awe with H[sub 2]CO. Predictions compare adequately to the STMBMS data, ODTX data, and hot cell data. Deficiencies in the model and future directions are discussed.

  16. Structuring Successful Global Virtual Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    task interdependence, and team-based rewards in virtual teams. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology , 13(1), 1–28. Hinsz, V. B...performance in virtual teams. Journal of Managerial Psychology , 20, 261–274. doi:10.1108/02683940510589046. Rosen, B., Furst, S., & Blackburn, R...public release; distribution is unlimited. Structuring Successful Global Virtual Teams The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are

  17. Global NeuroAIDS Roundtable

    PubMed Central

    Achim, Cristian L.; Boivin, Michael J.; Brew, Bruce J.; Clifford, David B.; Colosi, Deborah A.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Heaton, Robert K.; Gallo-Diop, Amadou; Grant, Igor; Kanmogne, Georgette D.; Kumar, Mahendra; Letendre, Scott; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Nath, Avindra; Pardo, Carlos A.; Paul, Robert H.; Pulliam, Lynn; Robertson, Kevin; Royal, Walter; Sacktor, Ned; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Smith, Davey M.; Valcour, Victor; Wigdahl, Brian; Wood, Charles

    2013-01-01

    In May 2012, the Division of AIDS Research at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) organized the “Global NeuroAIDS Roundtable” in conjunction with the 11th International Symposium on Neurovirology and the 2012 Conference on HIV in the Nervous System. The meeting was held in New York, NY, USA and brought together NIMH-funded investigators who are currently working on projects related to the neurological complications of AIDS (NeuroAIDS) in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and Latin America in order to provide an opportunity to share their recent findings and discuss the challenges encountered within each country. The major goals of the roundtable were to evaluate HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and determine if it may be directly attributable to distinct HIV subtypes or clades and to discuss the future priorities for global NeuroAIDS research. At the “Global NeuroAIDS Roundtable”, presentations of preliminary research indicated that HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment is prevalent in all countries examined regardless of which HIV clade is present in the region. The only clear-cut difference between HIV-1 clades was in relation to subtypes A and D in Uganda. However, a key point that emerged from the discussions was that there is an urgent need to standardize neurocognitive assessment methodologies across the globe before definitive conclusions can be drawn regarding the relationship between HIV clade diversity and neuropathogenesis. Future research directions were also discussed at the roundtable with particular emphasis on the potential of viral and host factor molecular interactions to impact the pathophysiology of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) from a global perspective. PMID:23354550

  18. Global Change in the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alverson, Keith

    2004-05-01

    Many people, even perhaps the occasional Eos reader, associate the term ``global change'' with warming caused by mankind's recent addiction to fossil fuels. Some may also be well aware of enormous global changes in the distant past uninfluenced by humans; for example, Pleistocene ice ages. But was there any ``global change'' between the end of the last ice age and the onset of industrialization? The answer to this question is addressed early-in the title, even-in the new book Global Change in the Holocene. I don't suggest anyone stop reading after the title, though; the rest of the book is both highly informative and a real pleasure to read. The opening chapter tells us that the Holocene is certainly not, as sometimes charged, a ``bland, pastoral coda to the contrasted movements of a stirring Pleistocene symphony.'' Rather, it is a ``period of continuous change.'' Melodious language aside, the combination of sustained and high-amplitude climatic variability and a wealth of well-preserved, precisely datable paleoclimate archives make the Holocene unique. Only by studying the Holocene can we hope to unravel the low-frequency workings of the Earth system and the degree to which humans have changed our world. This book sets out to teach the reader how to obtain the relevant data and how to use it to do much more than showing static analogues of possible future climate states. It challenges researchers to discern in their data the effects of the dynamic processes underlying coupled variability in the Earth's climate and ecosystems. These processes continue to act today, and it is through providing an understanding of these system dynamics in the Holocene that paleo-environmental studies can make the greatest contribution to future-oriented concerns.

  19. Global services systems - Space communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepphird, F. H.; Wolbers, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    The requirements projected to the year 2000 for space-based global service systems, including both personal communications and innovative services, are developed based on historic trends and anticipated worldwide demographic and economic growth patterns. The growing demands appear to be best satisfied by developing larger, more sophisticated space systems in order to reduce the size, complexity, and expense of ground terminals. The availability of low-cost ground terminals will, in turn, further stimulate the generation of new services and new customers.

  20. Compaction of Global Data Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    AD- A225 856 Naval Oceanographic and Technical Note 27 Atmospheric Research Laboratory May 1990 nC II FILF Copy Compaction of Global Data Fields A. H...IU 0 Ij P\\ I -’ as - -O - - YrŘ 5/ ii Ch Cc I 4" IIJ /1 1 att, 14 o c qu 0 in 64 low Ln u Ln U Ln LLJ KA E0 U-j u odd LD x 0 LL- cr - -1 Ap 0 Ln 00

  1. Combining global and local approximations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haftka, Raphael T.

    1991-01-01

    A method based on a linear approximation to a scaling factor, designated the 'global-local approximation' (GLA) method, is presented and shown capable of extending the range of usefulness of derivative-based approximations to a more refined model. The GLA approach refines the conventional scaling factor by means of a linearly varying, rather than constant, scaling factor. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated for a simple beam example with a crude and more refined FEM model.

  2. Combining global and local approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Haftka, R.T. )

    1991-09-01

    A method based on a linear approximation to a scaling factor, designated the 'global-local approximation' (GLA) method, is presented and shown capable of extending the range of usefulness of derivative-based approximations to a more refined model. The GLA approach refines the conventional scaling factor by means of a linearly varying, rather than constant, scaling factor. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated for a simple beam example with a crude and more refined FEM model. 6 refs.

  3. A Global Space Control Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    panic within the booming commercial satellite industry or, worse, suggesting a space arms race . The US Air Force uses the terminology of “ space ...Views November–December 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 66 A Global Space Control Strategy Dr. B. T. Cesul The 2011 National Security Space ...Strategy notes that space is becoming an operating medium in which the continued dominance of the United States is not assured.1 Already, potential

  4. The Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iceland, Charles

    2015-04-01

    As population growth and economic growth take place, and as climate change accelerates, many regions across the globe are finding themselves increasingly vulnerable to flooding. A recent OECD study of the exposure of the world's large port cities to coastal flooding found that 40 million people were exposed to a 1 in 100 year coastal flood event in 2005, and the total value of exposed assets was about US 3,000 billion, or 5% of global GDP. By the 2070s, those numbers were estimated to increase to 150 million people and US 35,000 billion, or roughly 9% of projected global GDP. Impoverished people in developing countries are particularly at risk because they often live in flood-prone areas and lack the resources to respond. WRI and its Dutch partners - Deltares, IVM-VU University Amsterdam, Utrecht University, and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency - are in the initial stages of developing a robust set of river flood and coastal storm surge risk measures that show the extent of flooding under a variety of scenarios (both current and future), together with the projected human and economic impacts of these flood scenarios. These flood risk data and information will be accessible via an online, easy-to-use Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer. We will also investigate the viability, benefits, and costs of a wide array of flood risk reduction measures that could be implemented in a variety of geographic and socio-economic settings. Together, the activities we propose have the potential for saving hundreds of thousands of lives and strengthening the resiliency and security of many millions more, especially those who are most vulnerable. Mr. Iceland will present Version 1.0 of the Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer and provide a preview of additional elements of the Analyzer to be released in the coming years.

  5. Global Project Management: Graduate Course

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    business and if the project will have successful performance. In the final project presentation, the student should address what countries they may...the idiosyncrasies of different countries in an effort to plan a successful global project execution. Alternate schedule. This class may be used for...required? * Will religious factors influence the project? 24-Mar-06 ENCE ft 24 13 GP Characteristics * Multiple Time Zones * Exchange rates * Long

  6. Global Positioning System Navigation Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    Historical Remarks on Navigation In Greek mythology , Odysseus sailed safely by the Sirens only to encounter the monsters Scylla and Charybdis...TNED 000 00 1(.7 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Pinsent, John. Greek Mythology . Paul Hamlyn, London, 1969. 2. Kline, Morris. Mathematical Thought from Ancient to...Algorithms 20. ABS AACT (Continue an reverse sid* If necessary and identify by block nttrnber) The Global Positioning System (CPS) will be a constellation of

  7. ESPC Coupled Global Prediction System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ESPC Coupled Global Prediction System Carolyn A...ocean/land/ice prediction system capable of providing daily predictions out to 10 days and weekly predictions out to 30-90 days. Initial Operational...globe from undersea to the upper atmosphere and from the tropics to the poles. The system will be implemented on Navy operational computer systems

  8. Global Warming Estimation from MSU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, Robert; Yoo, Jung-Moon

    1998-01-01

    Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer observations in Ch 2 (53.74 GHz) from sequential, sun-synchronous, polar-orbiting NOAA satellites contain small systematic errors. Some of these errors are time-dependent and some are time-independent. Small errors in Ch 2 data of successive satellites arise from calibration differences. Also, successive NOAA satellites tend to have different Local Equatorial Crossing Times (LECT), which introduce differences in Ch 2 data due to the diurnal cycle. These two sources of systematic error are largely time independent. However, because of atmospheric drag, there can be a drift in the LECT of a given satellite, which introduces time-dependent systematic errors. One of these errors is due to the progressive chance in the diurnal cycle and the other is due to associated chances in instrument heating by the sun. In order to infer global temperature trend from the these MSU data, we have eliminated explicitly the time-independent systematic errors. Both of the time-dependent errors cannot be assessed from each satellite. For this reason, their cumulative effect on the global temperature trend is evaluated implicitly. Christy et al. (1998) (CSL). based on their method of analysis of the MSU Ch 2 data, infer a global temperature cooling trend (-0.046 K per decade) from 1979 to 1997, although their near nadir measurements yield near zero trend (0.003 K/decade). Utilising an independent method of analysis, we infer global temperature warmed by 0.12 +/- 0.06 C per decade from the observations of the MSU Ch 2 during the period 1980 to 1997.

  9. The Development of Global Science

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    How do we build research capacity throughout the world and capture the great human potential? To us, the answer is rather straightforward: the time-honored tradition of scientific mentoring must be practiced on a wider scale across borders. Herein, we detail the necessity for expanding mentorship to a global scale and provide several important principles to be considered when designing, planning, and implementing programs and centers of research around the world. PMID:27162942

  10. Global Land Information System (GLIS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1992-01-01

    The Global Land Information System (GLIS) is an interactive computer system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for scientists seeking sources of information about the Earth's land surfaces. GLIS contains "metadata," that is, descriptive information about data sets. Through GLIS, scientists can evaluate data sets, determine their availability, and place online requests for products. GLIS is more, however, than a mere list of products. It offers online samples of earth science data that may be ordered through the system.

  11. The Ethics of Globalizing Bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Rennie, Stuart; Mupenda, Bavon

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, there have been efforts to globalize the field of bioethics, particularly in developing countries, where biomedical and other research is increasingly taking place. We describe and evaluate some key ethical criticisms directed towards these initiatives, and argue that while they may be marked by ethical, practical, and political tensions and pitfalls, they can nevertheless play an important role in stimulating critical bioethics culture in countries vulnerable to exploitation by foreign agencies and/or their own authorities. PMID:25632370

  12. Global land and water grabbing

    PubMed Central

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; Saviori, Antonio; D’Odorico, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Societal pressure on the global land and freshwater resources is increasing as a result of the rising food demand by the growing human population, dietary changes, and the enhancement of biofuel production induced by the rising oil prices and recent changes in United States and European Union bioethanol policies. Many countries and corporations have started to acquire relatively inexpensive and productive agricultural land located in foreign countries, as evidenced by the dramatic increase in the number of transnational land deals between 2005 and 2009. Often known as “land grabbing,” this phenomenon is associated with an appropriation of freshwater resources that has never been assessed before. Here we gather land-grabbing data from multiple sources and use a hydrological model to determine the associated rates of freshwater grabbing. We find that land and water grabbing are occurring at alarming rates in all continents except Antarctica. The per capita volume of grabbed water often exceeds the water requirements for a balanced diet and would be sufficient to improve food security and abate malnourishment in the grabbed countries. It is found that about 0.31 × 1012 m3⋅y−1 of green water (i.e., rainwater) and up to 0.14 × 1012 m3⋅y−1 of blue water (i.e., irrigation water) are appropriated globally for crop and livestock production in 47 × 106 ha of grabbed land worldwide (i.e., in 90% of the reported global grabbed land). PMID:23284174

  13. Global environmental drivers of influenza

    PubMed Central

    Deyle, Ethan R.; Maher, M. Cyrus; Hernandez, Ryan D.; Basu, Sanjay; Sugihara, George

    2016-01-01

    In temperate countries, influenza outbreaks are well correlated to seasonal changes in temperature and absolute humidity. However, tropical countries have much weaker annual climate cycles, and outbreaks show less seasonality and are more difficult to explain with environmental correlations. Here, we use convergent cross mapping, a robust test for causality that does not require correlation, to test alternative hypotheses about the global environmental drivers of influenza outbreaks from country-level epidemic time series. By moving beyond correlation, we show that despite the apparent differences in outbreak patterns between temperate and tropical countries, absolute humidity and, to a lesser extent, temperature drive influenza outbreaks globally. We also find a hypothesized U-shaped relationship between absolute humidity and influenza that is predicted by theory and experiment, but hitherto has not been documented at the population level. The balance between positive and negative effects of absolute humidity appears to be mediated by temperature, and the analysis reveals a key threshold around 75 °F. The results indicate a unified explanation for environmental drivers of influenza that applies globally. PMID:27799563

  14. Dark matter and global symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mambrini, Yann; Profumo, Stefano; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.

    2016-09-01

    General considerations in general relativity and quantum mechanics are known to potentially rule out continuous global symmetries in the context of any consistent theory of quantum gravity. Assuming the validity of such considerations, we derive stringent bounds from gamma-ray, X-ray, cosmic-ray, neutrino, and CMB data on models that invoke global symmetries to stabilize the dark matter particle. We compute up-to-date, robust model-independent limits on the dark matter lifetime for a variety of Planck-scale suppressed dimension-five effective operators. We then specialize our analysis and apply our bounds to specific models including the Two-Higgs-Doublet, Left-Right, Singlet Fermionic, Zee-Babu, 3-3-1 and Radiative See-Saw models. Assuming that (i) global symmetries are broken at the Planck scale, that (ii) the non-renormalizable operators mediating dark matter decay have O (1) couplings, that (iii) the dark matter is a singlet field, and that (iv) the dark matter density distribution is well described by a NFW profile, we are able to rule out fermionic, vector, and scalar dark matter candidates across a broad mass range (keV-TeV), including the WIMP regime.

  15. Global Climate Change and Agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2009-01-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released in 2007 significantly increased our confidence about the role that humans play in forcing climate change. There is now a high degree of confidence that the (a) current atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) far exceed those of the pre-industrial era, (b) global increases in CO2 arise mainly from fossil fuel use and land use change while those of CH4 and N2O originate primarily from agricultural activities, and (c) the net effect of human activities since 1750 has led to a warming of the lower layers of the atmosphere, with an increased radiative forcing of 1.6 W m-2. Depending on the scenario of human population growth and global development, mean global temperatures could rise between 1.8 and 4.0 °C by the end of the 21st century.

  16. The Microsoft Global Ortho Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walcher, W.; Leberl, F.; Gruber, M.

    2012-07-01

    Wide area and thus continental mapping extending beyond national borders is a novel concept in civilian photogrammetry. The Microsoft Global Ortho Program was launched in the Spring of 2009 as a result of Microsoft's need for global geo-data at a high geometric resolution and radiometric excellence. By fall of 2012 more than 10 million km2 of the USA and 14 European countries will have been covered by seamless 30 cm GSD color-, 60 cm GSD false-color infrared ortho-mosaics and a 1 meter GSD digital surface model. The ortho-maps are being published to Microsoft's Bing Maps Internet mapping portal. The Global Ortho Program was designed for highly and unprecedented automated mapping of essentially entire continents. In 2011, exclusive of flight operations, the product output per person has been measured in excess of 275,000 square km per year. We describe research efforts that made this achievement possible. Those include a specially designed aerial sensor (Ultracam G), logistics simulation for fight planning and optimization, in-flight blur detection and subsequent automatic blur removal, modeling and removal of atmospheric and environmental conditions, automated shear detection and DTM refinement, an IT architecture to process >200,000 aerial images/day, and for creating over 1,000,000 km2 ortho-imagery and DSM data in 24 hours. While addressing these issues, we provide ideas how this might affect the future of spatial infrastructure initiatives.

  17. Global Neurosurgery: The Unmet Need.

    PubMed

    Park, Kee B; Johnson, Walter D; Dempsey, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    Globally, the lack of access to basic surgical care causes 3 times as much deaths as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria combined. The magnitude of this unmet need has been described recently, and the numbers are startling. Major shifts in global health agenda have highlighted access to essential and emergency surgery as a high priority. A broad examination of the current global neurosurgical efforts to improve access has revealed some strengths, particularly in the realm of training; however, the demand grossly outstrips the supply; most people in low-income countries do not have access to basic surgical care, either due to lack of availability or affordability. Projects that help create a robust and resilient health system within low- and middle-income countries require urgent implementation. In this context, concurrent scale-up of human resources, investments in capacity building, local data collection, and analysis for accurate assessment are essential. In addition, through process of collaboration and consensus building within the neurosurgical community, a unified voice of neurosurgery is necessary to effectively advocate for all those who need neurosurgical care wherever, whenever.

  18. Gaia's breath - Global methane exhalations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rogers, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    Methane (CH4) is the most abundant organic compound in the Earth's atmosphere, where it acts as a greenhouse gas and thus has implications for global climate change. The current atmospheric CH4 budget, however, does not take into account geologically-sourced CH4 seepage. Geological sources of CH4 include natural macro- and micro-seeps, mud volcanoes, and other miscellaneous sources such as gas hydrates, magmatic volcanoes, geothermal regions, and mid-ocean ridges. Macro-seeps contribute ???25 Tg (teragrams) CH4/yr to the atmosphere, whereas, micro-seepage contributes perhaps 7 Tg CH4/yr. Mud volcanoes emit ???5 Tg CH4/yr, and miscellaneous sources emit ???8 Tg CH4/yr to the atmosphere. Thus, the total contribution to the atmosphere from geological sources is estimated to be 45 Tg CH4/yr, which is significant to the atmospheric organic carbon cycle and should be included in any global inventory of atmospheric CH4. We argue that the atmospheric CH4 global inventory of the Interplanetary Panel on Climate Change must be adjusted in order to incorporate geologically-sourced CH4 from naturally occurring seepage.

  19. Global Routine Vaccination Coverage, 2015.

    PubMed

    Casey, Rebecca M; Dumolard, Laure; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Diallo, Mamadou S; Hampton, Lee M; Wallace, Aaron S

    2016-11-18

    In 1974, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Expanded Program on Immunization* to provide protection against six vaccine-preventable diseases through routine infant immunization (1). Based on 2015 WHO and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) estimates, global coverage with the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP3), the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) and the third dose of polio vaccine (Pol3) has remained stable (84%-86%) since 2010. From 2014 to 2015, estimated global coverage with the second MCV dose (MCV2) increased from 39% to 43% by the end of the second year of life and from 58% to 61% when older age groups were included. Global coverage was higher in 2015 than 2010 for newer or underused vaccines, including rotavirus vaccine, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), rubella vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, and 3 doses of hepatitis B (HepB3) vaccine. Coverage estimates varied widely by WHO Region, country, and district; in addition, for the vaccines evaluated (MCV, DTP3, Pol3, HepB3, Hib3), wide disparities were found in coverage by country income classification. Improvements in equity of access are necessary to reach and sustain higher coverage and increase protection from vaccine-preventable diseases for all persons.

  20. Global warming: Economic policy responses

    SciTech Connect

    Dornbusch, R.; Poterba, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global warming. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global warming: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global warming and the extent to which it is due to human activities; availability of economic tools to control the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, and how vigorously should they be applied; and political economy considerations which influence the design of an international program for controlling greenhouse gases. Many perspectives are offered on the approaches to remedying environmental problems that are currently being pursued in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Deforestation in the Amazon is discussed, as well as ways to slow it. Public finance assessments are presented of both the domestic and international policy issues raised by plans to levy a tax on the carbon emissions from various fossil fuels. Nine chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.