Efficient G(sup 4)FET-Based Logic Circuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vatan, Farrokh
2008-01-01
A total of 81 optimal logic circuits based on four-gate field-effect transistors (G(sup 4)4FETs) have been designed to implement all Boolean functions of up to three variables. The purpose of this development was to lend credence to the expectation that logic circuits based on G(sup 4)FETs could be more efficient (in the sense that they could contain fewer transistors), relative to functionally equivalent logic circuits based on conventional transistors. A G(sup 4)FET a combination of a junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and a metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) superimposed in a single silicon island and can therefore be regarded as two transistors sharing the same body. A G(sup 4)FET can also be regarded as a single device having four gates: two side junction-based gates, a top MOS gate, and a back gate activated by biasing of a silicon-on-insulator substrate. Each of these gates can be used to control the conduction characteristics of the transistor; this possibility creates new options for designing analog, radio-frequency, mixed-signal, and digital circuitry. One such option is to design a G(sup 4)FET to function as a three-input NOT-majority gate, which has been shown to be a universal and programmable logic gate. Optimal NOT-majority-gate, G(sup 4)FET-based logic-circuit designs were obtained in a comparative study that also included formulation of functionally equivalent logic circuits based on NOR and NAND gates implemented by use of conventional transistors. In the study, the problem of finding the optimal design for each logic function and each transistor type was solved as an integer-programming optimization problem. Considering all 81 non-equivalent Boolean functions included in the study, it was found that in 63% of the cases, fewer logic gates (and, hence, fewer transistors) would be needed in the G(sup 4)FET-based implementations.
G(sup 4)FET Implementations of Some Logic Circuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mojarradi, Mohammad; Akarvardar, Kerem; Cristoleveanu, Sorin; Gentil, Paul; Blalock, Benjamin; Chen, Suhan
2009-01-01
Some logic circuits have been built and demonstrated to work substantially as intended, all as part of a continuing effort to exploit the high degrees of design flexibility and functionality of the electronic devices known as G(sup 4)FETs and described below. These logic circuits are intended to serve as prototypes of more complex advanced programmable-logicdevice-type integrated circuits, including field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). In comparison with prior FPGAs, these advanced FPGAs could be much more efficient because the functionality of G(sup 4)FETs is such that fewer discrete components are needed to perform a given logic function in G(sup 4)FET circuitry than are needed perform the same logic function in conventional transistor-based circuitry. The underlying concept of using G(sup 4)FETs as building blocks of programmable logic circuitry was also described, from a different perspective, in G(sup 4)FETs as Universal and Programmable Logic Gates (NPO-41698), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 7 (July 2007), page 44. A G(sup 4)FET can be characterized as an accumulation-mode silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) featuring two junction field-effect transistor (JFET) gates. The structure of a G(sup 4)FET (see Figure 1) is the same as that of a p-channel inversion-mode SOI MOSFET with two body contacts on each side of the channel. The top gate (G1), the substrate emulating a back gate (G2), and the junction gates (JG1 and JG2) can be biased independently of each other and, hence, each can be used to independently control some aspects of the conduction characteristics of the transistor. The independence of the actions of the four gates is what affords the enhanced functionality and design flexibility of G(sup 4)FETs. The present G(sup 4)FET logic circuits include an adjustable-threshold inverter, a real-time-reconfigurable logic gate, and a dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) cell (see Figure 2). The configuration
Universal programmable logic gate and routing method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fijany, Amir (Inventor); Vatan, Farrokh (Inventor); Akarvardar, Kerem (Inventor); Blalock, Benjamin (Inventor); Chen, Suheng (Inventor); Cristoloveanu, Sorin (Inventor); Kolawa, Elzbieta (Inventor); Mojarradi, Mohammad M. (Inventor); Toomarian, Nikzad (Inventor)
2009-01-01
An universal and programmable logic gate based on G.sup.4-FET technology is disclosed, leading to the design of more efficient logic circuits. A new full adder design based on the G.sup.4-FET is also presented. The G.sup.4-FET can also function as a unique router device offering coplanar crossing of signal paths that are isolated and perpendicular to one another. This has the potential of overcoming major limitations in VLSI design where complex interconnection schemes have become increasingly problematic.
Order g{sup 2} susceptibilities in the symmetric phase of the Standard Model
Bödeker, D.; Sangel, M. E-mail: msangel@physik.uni-bielefeld.de
2015-04-01
Susceptibilities of conserved charges such as baryon minus lepton number enter baryogenesis computations, since they provide the relationship between conserved charges and chemical potentials. Their next-to-leading order corrections are of order g, where g is a generic Standard Model coupling. They are due to soft Higgs boson exchange, and have been calculated recently, together with some order g{sup 2} corrections. Here we compute the complete g{sup 2} contributions. Close to the electroweak crossover the soft Higgs contribution is of order g{sup 2}, and is determined by the non-perturbative physics at the magnetic screening scale.
Order g{sup 2} susceptibilities in the symmetric phase of the Standard Model
Bödeker, D.; Sangel, M.
2015-04-23
Susceptibilities of conserved charges such as baryon minus lepton number enter baryogenesis computations, since they provide the relationship between conserved charges and chemical potentials. Their next-to-leading order corrections are of order g, where g is a generic Standard Model coupling. They are due to soft Higgs boson exchange, and have been calculated recently, together with some order g{sup 2} corrections. Here we compute the complete g{sup 2} contributions. Close to the electroweak crossover the soft Higgs contribution is of order g{sup 2}, and is determined by the non-perturbative physics at the magnetic screening scale.
Non-gaussian inflationary shapes in G{sup 3} theories beyond Horndeski
Fasiello, Matteo; Renaux-Petel, Sébastien E-mail: srenaux@lpthe.jussieu.fr
2014-10-01
We consider the possible signatures of a recently introduced class of healthy theories beyond Horndeski models on higher-order correlators of the inflationary curvature fluctuation. Despite the apparent large number and complexity of the cubic interactions, we show that the leading-order bispectrum generated by the Generalized Horndeski (also called G{sup 3}) interactions can be reduced to a linear combination of two well known k-inflationary shapes. We conjecture that said behavior is not an accident of the cubic order but a consequence dictated by the requirements on the absence of Ostrogradski instability, the general covariance and the linear dispersion relation in these theories.
2014-10-03
introduce distributed logics. Distributed logics lift the distribution structure of a distributed system directly into the logic, thereby parameterizing...the logic by the distribution structure itself. Each domain supports a “local modal logic.” The connections between domains are realized as...There are also multi- agent logic systems [12]. What distinguishes distributed logics from these are that the morphisms, i.e., the nbd maps, have
Plotnikov, Mikhail G
2011-02-11
Multiple Walsh series (S) on the group G{sup m} are studied. It is proved that every at most countable set is a uniqueness set for series (S) under convergence over cubes. The recovery problem is solved for the coefficients of series (S) that converge outside countable sets or outside sets of Dirichlet type. A number of analogues of the de la Vallee Poussin theorem are established for series (S). Bibliography: 28 titles.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Le Balleur, J. C.
1988-01-01
The applicability of conventional mathematical analysis (based on the combination of two-valued logic and probability theory) to problems in which human judgment, perception, or emotions play significant roles is considered theoretically. It is shown that dispositional logic, a branch of fuzzy logic, has particular relevance to the common-sense reasoning typical of human decision-making. The concepts of dispositionality and usuality are defined analytically, and a dispositional conjunctive rule and dispositional modus ponens are derived.
Lusk, E.L.; Overbeek, R.A.
1989-01-01
This book contains the proceedings of the 1989 North American Conference on Logic Programming. Included are the following papers: Expanding query power in constrain logic programming languages, Investigating the linguistics of DNA with definite clause grammars, An intermediate language to support prolog's unification.
Efficient Multiplexer FPGA Block Structures Based on G4FETs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vatan, Farrokh; Fijany, Amir
2009-01-01
Generic structures have been conceived for multiplexer blocks to be implemented in field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) based on four-gate field-effect transistors (G(sup 4)FETs). This concept is a contribution to the continuing development of digital logic circuits based on G4FETs and serves as a further demonstration that logic circuits based on G(sup 4)FETs could be more efficient (in the sense that they could contain fewer transistors), relative to functionally equivalent logic circuits based on conventional transistors. Results in this line of development at earlier stages were summarized in two previous NASA Tech Briefs articles: "G(sup 4)FETs as Universal and Programmable Logic Gates" (NPO-41698), Vol. 31, No. 7 (July 2007), page 44, and "Efficient G4FET-Based Logic Circuits" (NPO-44407), Vol. 32, No. 1 ( January 2008), page 38 . As described in the first-mentioned previous article, a G4FET can be made to function as a three-input NOT-majority gate, which has been shown to be a universal and programmable logic gate. The universality and programmability could be exploited to design logic circuits containing fewer components than are required for conventional transistor-based circuits performing the same logic functions. The second-mentioned previous article reported results of a comparative study of NOT-majority-gate (G(sup 4)FET)-based logic-circuit designs and equivalent NOR- and NAND-gate-based designs utilizing conventional transistors. [NOT gates (inverters) were also included, as needed, in both the G(sup 4)FET- and the NOR- and NAND-based designs.] In most of the cases studied, fewer logic gates (and, hence, fewer transistors), were required in the G(sup 4)FET-based designs. There are two popular categories of FPGA block structures or architectures: one based on multiplexers, the other based on lookup tables. In standard multiplexer- based architectures, the basic building block is a tree-like configuration of multiplexers, with possibly a few
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zadeh, Lofti A.
1988-01-01
The author presents a condensed exposition of some basic ideas underlying fuzzy logic and describes some representative applications. The discussion covers basic principles; meaning representation and inference; basic rules of inference; and the linguistic variable and its application to fuzzy control.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zadeh, Lofti A.
1988-01-01
The author presents a condensed exposition of some basic ideas underlying fuzzy logic and describes some representative applications. The discussion covers basic principles; meaning representation and inference; basic rules of inference; and the linguistic variable and its application to fuzzy control.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itoh, Hideo; Mukai, Seiji; Watanabe, Masanobu; Mori, Masahiko; Yajima, Hiroyoshi
1990-07-01
A beam-scanning laser diode (BSLD) is presently applied to a novel optoelectronic logic operation, designated 'beam-scanning binary logic' (BSBL), that covers the implementation of both the basic logic gates and a spatial code encoder for photodetection, while allowing a greater reduction of the number of active devices than ordinary binary logic operations. BSBL executes multifunctional logic operations simultaneously. The data connections between logic gates in BSLD are flexible, due to the ability to electrically control both output power and laser-beam direction.
Fuzzy logic controller optimization
Sepe, Jr., Raymond B; Miller, John Michael
2004-03-23
A method is provided for optimizing a rotating induction machine system fuzzy logic controller. The fuzzy logic controller has at least one input and at least one output. Each input accepts a machine system operating parameter. Each output produces at least one machine system control parameter. The fuzzy logic controller generates each output based on at least one input and on fuzzy logic decision parameters. Optimization begins by obtaining a set of data relating each control parameter to at least one operating parameter for each machine operating region. A model is constructed for each machine operating region based on the machine operating region data obtained. The fuzzy logic controller is simulated with at least one created model in a feedback loop from a fuzzy logic output to a fuzzy logic input. Fuzzy logic decision parameters are optimized based on the simulation.
Reversible logic for supercomputing.
DeBenedictis, Erik P.
2005-05-01
This paper is about making reversible logic a reality for supercomputing. Reversible logic offers a way to exceed certain basic limits on the performance of computers, yet a powerful case will have to be made to justify its substantial development expense. This paper explores the limits of current, irreversible logic for supercomputers, thus forming a threshold above which reversible logic is the only solution. Problems above this threshold are discussed, with the science and mitigation of global warming being discussed in detail. To further develop the idea of using reversible logic in supercomputing, a design for a 1 Zettaflops supercomputer as required for addressing global climate warming is presented. However, to create such a design requires deviations from the mainstream of both the software for climate simulation and research directions of reversible logic. These deviations provide direction on how to make reversible logic practical.
Separation Logic and Concurrency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bornat, Richard
Concurrent separation logic is a development of Hoare logic adapted to deal with pointers and concurrency. Since its inception, it has been enhanced with a treatment of permissions to enable sharing of data between threads, and a treatment of variables as resource alongside heap cells as resource. An introduction to the logic is given with several examples of proofs, culminating in a treatment of Simpson's 4-slot algorithm, an instance of racy non-blocking concurrency.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Du Fresne, E. R.; Dowler, W. L.
1985-01-01
Logic gates for light signals constructed from combinations of prisms, polarizing plates, and quarterwave plates. Optical logic gate performs elementary logic operation on light signals received along two optical fibers. Whether gate performs OR function or exclusive-OR function depends on orientation of analyzer. Nonbinary truth tables also obtained by rotating polarizer or analyzer to other positions or inserting other quarter-wave plates.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Preston, K., Jr.
1972-01-01
The characteristics of the holographic logic computer are discussed. The holographic operation is reviewed from the Fourier transform viewpoint, and the formation of holograms for use in performing digital logic are described. The operation of the computer with an experiment in which the binary identity function is calculated is discussed along with devices for achieving real-time performance. An application in pattern recognition using neighborhood logic is presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howard, Ayanna
2005-01-01
The Fuzzy Logic Engine is a software package that enables users to embed fuzzy-logic modules into their application programs. Fuzzy logic is useful as a means of formulating human expert knowledge and translating it into software to solve problems. Fuzzy logic provides flexibility for modeling relationships between input and output information and is distinguished by its robustness with respect to noise and variations in system parameters. In addition, linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements allow systems to make decisions based on imprecise and incomplete information. The user of the Fuzzy Logic Engine need not be an expert in fuzzy logic: it suffices to have a basic understanding of how linguistic rules can be applied to the user's problem. The Fuzzy Logic Engine is divided into two modules: (1) a graphical-interface software tool for creating linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements and (2) a fuzzy-logic software library for embedding fuzzy processing capability into current application programs. The graphical- interface tool was developed using the Tcl/Tk programming language. The fuzzy-logic software library was written in the C programming language.
Electrically reconfigurable logic array
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Agarwal, R. K.
1982-01-01
To compose the complicated systems using algorithmically specialized logic circuits or processors, one solution is to perform relational computations such as union, division and intersection directly on hardware. These relations can be pipelined efficiently on a network of processors having an array configuration. These processors can be designed and implemented with a few simple cells. In order to determine the state-of-the-art in Electrically Reconfigurable Logic Array (ERLA), a survey of the available programmable logic array (PLA) and the logic circuit elements used in such arrays was conducted. Based on this survey some recommendations are made for ERLA devices.
Ferrite logic reliability study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baer, J. A.; Clark, C. B.
1973-01-01
Development and use of digital circuits called all-magnetic logic are reported. In these circuits the magnetic elements and their windings comprise the active circuit devices in the logic portion of a system. The ferrite logic device belongs to the all-magnetic class of logic circuits. The FLO device is novel in that it makes use of a dual or bimaterial ferrite composition in one physical ceramic body. This bimaterial feature, coupled with its potential for relatively high speed operation, makes it attractive for high reliability applications. (Maximum speed of operation approximately 50 kHz.)
Beams, Timothy J.; Whittingham, Ian B.; Peach, Gillian
2006-07-15
The properties of the least-bound vibrational level (v=14) of the {sup 5}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} state formed during the ultracold collision of two spin-polarized metastable 2 {sup 3}S{sub 1} helium atoms are crucial to studies of photoassociation spectroscopy of metastable helium. We report a calculation of the autoionization lifetime {tau}{sub g} of this state induced by spin-dipole coupling of the {sup 5}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} state to the {sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} state from which Penning and associative ionization processes are highly probable. We find {tau}{sub g}{approx_equal}150 {mu}s, significantly larger than the recent experimental estimates of (0.5-3) {mu}s.
Fundamentals of Digital Logic.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noell, Monica L.
This course is designed to prepare electronics personnel for further training in digital techniques, presenting need to know information that is basic to any maintenance course on digital equipment. It consists of seven study units: (1) binary arithmetic; (2) boolean algebra; (3) logic gates; (4) logic flip-flops; (5) nonlogic circuits; (6)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yopp, David
2010-01-01
Understanding logical necessity is an important component of proof and reasoning for teachers of grades K-8. The ability to determine exactly where young students' arguments are faulty offers teachers the chance to give youngsters feedback as they progress toward writing mathematically valid deductive proofs. As defined, logical necessity is the…
Programmable Logic Controllers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen
This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…
Logic via Computer Programming.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wieschenberg, Agnes A.
This paper proposed the question "How do we teach logical thinking and sophisticated mathematics to unsophisticated college students?" One answer among many is through the writing of computer programs. The writing of computer algorithms is mathematical problem solving and logic in disguise and it may attract students who would otherwise stop…
AROUSAL AND LOGICAL INFERENCE.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
KOEN, FRANK
THE PURPOSE OF THE EXPERIMENT WAS TO DETERMINE THE DEGREE TO WHICH PHYSIOLOGICAL AROUSAL, AS INDEXED BY THE GRASON STADLER TYPE OPERANT CONDITIONING APPARATUS (GSR), IS RELATED TO THE ACCURACY OF LOGICAL REASONING. THE STIMULI WERE 12 SYLLOGISMS, THREE OF EACH OF FOUR DIFFERENT LOGICAL FORMS. THE 14 SUBJECTS (SS) INDICATED THEIR AGREEMENT OR…
Fundamentals of Digital Logic.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noell, Monica L.
This course is designed to prepare electronics personnel for further training in digital techniques, presenting need to know information that is basic to any maintenance course on digital equipment. It consists of seven study units: (1) binary arithmetic; (2) boolean algebra; (3) logic gates; (4) logic flip-flops; (5) nonlogic circuits; (6)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.
1989-01-01
Provides background material on logic programing and presents PROLOG as a high-level artificial intelligence programing language that borrows its basic constructs from logic. Suggests the language is one which will help the educator to achieve various goals, particularly the promotion of problem solving ability. (MVL)
Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device
Hafiz, M. A. A.; Kosuru, L.; Younis, M. I.
2016-01-01
In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme. PMID:27021295
Amplifying genetic logic gates.
Bonnet, Jerome; Yin, Peter; Ortiz, Monica E; Subsoontorn, Pakpoom; Endy, Drew
2013-05-03
Organisms must process information encoded via developmental and environmental signals to survive and reproduce. Researchers have also engineered synthetic genetic logic to realize simpler, independent control of biological processes. We developed a three-terminal device architecture, termed the transcriptor, that uses bacteriophage serine integrases to control the flow of RNA polymerase along DNA. Integrase-mediated inversion or deletion of DNA encoding transcription terminators or a promoter modulates transcription rates. We realized permanent amplifying AND, NAND, OR, XOR, NOR, and XNOR gates actuated across common control signal ranges and sequential logic supporting autonomous cell-cell communication of DNA encoding distinct logic-gate states. The single-layer digital logic architecture developed here enables engineering of amplifying logic gates to control transcription rates within and across diverse organisms.
Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hafiz, M. A. A.; Kosuru, L.; Younis, M. I.
2016-03-01
In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.
Regulatory Conformance Checking: Logic and Logical Form
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dinesh, Nikhil
2010-01-01
We consider the problem of checking whether an organization conforms to a body of regulation. Conformance is studied in a runtime verification setting. The regulation is translated to a logic, from which we synthesize monitors. The monitors are evaluated as the state of an organization evolves over time, raising an alarm if a violation is…
Regulatory Conformance Checking: Logic and Logical Form
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dinesh, Nikhil
2010-01-01
We consider the problem of checking whether an organization conforms to a body of regulation. Conformance is studied in a runtime verification setting. The regulation is translated to a logic, from which we synthesize monitors. The monitors are evaluated as the state of an organization evolves over time, raising an alarm if a violation is…
THRESHOLD LOGIC IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
COMPUTER LOGIC, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , BIONICS, GEOMETRY, INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES, LINEAR PROGRAMMING, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC, MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION, NETWORKS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, PROBABILITY, SWITCHING CIRCUITS, SYNTHESIS
Zargham, M.R.
1995-06-01
Recently, fuzzy logic has been applied to many areas, such as process control, image understanding, robots, expert systems, and decision support systems. This paper will explain the basic concepts of fuzzy logic and its application in different fields. The steps to design a control system will be explained in detail. Fuzzy control is the first successful industrial application of fuzzy logic. A fuzzy controller is able to control systems which previously could only be controlled by skilled operators. In recent years Japan has achieved significant progress in this area and has applied it to variety of products such as cruise control for cars, video cameras, rice cookers, washing machines, etc.
Bouloufa, Nadia; Crubellier, Anne; Dulieu, Olivier
2007-05-15
A reexamination of the photoassociation spectrum of the external well of the 0{sub g}{sup -} potential of Cs{sub 2} converging to the (6s{sub 1} at {sub {approx}}{sub sol{approx}} at {sub 2}+6p{sub 3} at {sub {approx}}{sub sol{approx}} at {sub 2}) limit is performed, in order to resolve inconsistencies arising from a previously published paper [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1408 (2000)]. We use the same analytical description of the potential as in an other previous analysis [Phys. Rev. A 66, 052506 (2002)], but we make a shift of 2 in the assignment of the observed vibrational lines. The agreement between experimental and calculated energy positions is improved and the intensities calculated using the new potential account well for all available data. The fitting procedure reveals a strong interdependence of the parameters of the model, which limits the accuracy of the determination of the radiative lifetimes of the 6p{sup 2}P{sub 1} at {sub {approx}}{sub sol{approx}} at {sub 2} and 6p{sup 2}P{sub 3} at {sub {approx}}{sub sol{approx}} at {sub 2} atomic levels. Only a more precise experimental study could allow one to improve the determination of these lifetime values.
1981-01-01
79/7, Imperial College, University of London. [Colmerauer 1973] Colmerauer, A., Un Systeme de Communication Homme - machine Kanoui, H., en Francais...any of the LOGIC interface functions (,-, THE, ALL, ANY, etc.) can be obtained by invoking the command (DOC fn), where "fn" is the name of the function...well as for output) illustrates one more way in which the LOGLISP programmer can fruitfully exploit the interface between LOGIC and LISP. GIVE is just a
2008-07-14
as a basis for Phase II research. 2 Background 2.1 Event logic 2.1.1 Event structures Intuitively, an event structure is an abstract algebraic ...Theoretical Computer Science, 149:257–298, 1995. [2] Uri Abraham. Models for Concurrency, volume 11 of Algebra , Logic and Applications Series. Gordon...the ordering of events in a distributed system. Comms. ACM, 21(7):558–65, 1978. [28] Leslie Lamport. Hybrid systems in TLA+. In Grossman , Nerode, Ravn
The Rocky Road to Logical Thinking.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burch, Fern; Aaronson, Tim
1985-01-01
Presents offline logic activities to extend concepts in "Rocky's Boots." Activities focus on: (1) building logic circuits; (2) recognizing logic in language; (3) playing logic games; and (4) testing logic circuits. Detailed procedures accompanied by illustrative examples are included. (JN)
From Indexed Lax Logic to Intuitionistic Logic
2008-01-07
Categorical and Kripke semantics for constructive S4 modal logic. In CSL ’01: Proceedings of the 15th International Workshop on Computer Science Logic, pages...af(K,a) ⇒ af(K,a) by ⊥L 2. Σ, a; pΓ,⊥q, pCq ⊃ af(K,a) ⇒ af(K,a) by definition of p·q Case: D = D1 Σ;Γ, A ⊃ B ⇒ A D2 Σ;Γ, A ⊃ B,B ⇒ C Σ;Γ, A ⊃ B ⇒ C...L 1. Σ; pΓ, A ⊃ Bq ⇒ pAq by i.h. on D1 2. Σ; pΓq, pAq ⊃ pBq ⇒ pAq by definition of p·q 3. Σ; pΓ, A ⊃ B,Bq ⇒ pCq by i.h. on D2 4. Σ; pΓq, pAq ⊃ pBq
Prakash, Manu; Gershenfeld, Neil
2007-02-09
We demonstrate universal computation in an all-fluidic two-phase microfluidic system. Nonlinearity is introduced into an otherwise linear, reversible, low-Reynolds number flow via bubble-to-bubble hydrodynamic interactions. A bubble traveling in a channel represents a bit, providing us with the capability to simultaneously transport materials and perform logical control operations. We demonstrate bubble logic AND/OR/NOT gates, a toggle flip-flop, a ripple counter, timing restoration, a ring oscillator, and an electro-bubble modulator. These show the nonlinearity, gain, bistability, synchronization, cascadability, feedback, and programmability required for scalable universal computation. With increasing complexity in large-scale microfluidic processors, bubble logic provides an on-chip process control mechanism integrating chemistry and computation.
Diagnosable structured logic array
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor); Miles, Lowell (Inventor); Gambles, Jody (Inventor); Maki, Gary K. (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A diagnosable structured logic array and associated process is provided. A base cell structure is provided comprising a logic unit comprising a plurality of input nodes, a plurality of selection nodes, and an output node, a plurality of switches coupled to the selection nodes, where the switches comprises a plurality of input lines, a selection line and an output line, a memory cell coupled to the output node, and a test address bus and a program control bus coupled to the plurality of input lines and the selection line of the plurality of switches. A state on each of the plurality of input nodes is verifiably loaded and read from the memory cell. A trusted memory block is provided. The associated process is provided for testing and verifying a plurality of truth table inputs of the logic unit.
Radiation tolerant combinational logic cell
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maki, Gary R. (Inventor); Gambles, Jody W. (Inventor); Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A system has a reduced sensitivity to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transient(s) compared to traditional logic devices. In a particular embodiment, the system includes an input, a logic block, a bias stage, a state machine, and an output. The logic block is coupled to the input. The logic block is for implementing a logic function, receiving a data set via the input, and generating a result f by applying the data set to the logic function. The bias stage is coupled to the logic block. The bias stage is for receiving the result from the logic block and presenting it to the state machine. The state machine is coupled to the bias stage. The state machine is for receiving, via the bias stage, the result generated by the logic block. The state machine is configured to retain a state value for the system. The state value is typically based on the result generated by the logic block. The output is coupled to the state machine. The output is for providing the value stored by the state machine. Some embodiments of the invention produce dual rail outputs Q and Q'. The logic block typically contains combinational logic and is similar, in size and transistor configuration, to a conventional CMOS combinational logic design. However, only a very small portion of the circuits of these embodiments, is sensitive to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transients.
Vagin, Nikolai P; Ionin, Andrei A; Podmar'kov, Yu P; Frolov, M P; Yuryshev, Nikolai N; Kochetov, Igor' V; Napartovich, A P
2005-04-30
The method of intracavity laser spectroscopy using a Co:MgF{sub 2} laser is applied to record the absorption spectra from the first excited a{sup 1{Delta}}{sub g} state of gaseous molecular oxygen at the a{sup 1{Delta}}{sub g} {yields} b{sup 1{Sigma}}{sub g}{sup +} transition at 1.91 {mu}m. The gas flow from a chemical singlet oxygen generator with a known concentration of singlet oxygen O{sub 2} (a{sup 1{Delta}}{sub g}) was supplied to the cavity of the Co:MgF{sub 2} laser. The absorption line intensities are measured for five spectral lines of the Q-branch of the 0-0 vibrational band for the a{sup 1{Delta}}{sub g} {yields} b{sup 1{Sigma}}{sub g}{sup +} transition. The O{sub 2} (b{sup 1{Sigma}}{sub g}{sup +} {yields} a{sup 1{Delta}}{sub g}) transition probability calculated from these data was (1.20 {+-} 0.25) x 10{sup -3} s{sup -1}. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)
Programmable Logic Application Notes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, Richard
2000-01-01
This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will start a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issues section discussing worst-case analysis requirements.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Welty, Gordon A.
The logic of the evaluation of educational and other action programs is discussed from a methodological viewpoint. However, no attempt is made to develop methods of evaluating programs. In Part I, the structure of an educational program is viewed as a system with three components--inputs, transformation of inputs into outputs, and outputs. Part II…
Quantum probabilistic logic programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balu, Radhakrishnan
2015-05-01
We describe a quantum mechanics based logic programming language that supports Horn clauses, random variables, and covariance matrices to express and solve problems in probabilistic logic. The Horn clauses of the language wrap random variables, including infinite valued, to express probability distributions and statistical correlations, a powerful feature to capture relationship between distributions that are not independent. The expressive power of the language is based on a mechanism to implement statistical ensembles and to solve the underlying SAT instances using quantum mechanical machinery. We exploit the fact that classical random variables have quantum decompositions to build the Horn clauses. We establish the semantics of the language in a rigorous fashion by considering an existing probabilistic logic language called PRISM with classical probability measures defined on the Herbrand base and extending it to the quantum context. In the classical case H-interpretations form the sample space and probability measures defined on them lead to consistent definition of probabilities for well formed formulae. In the quantum counterpart, we define probability amplitudes on Hinterpretations facilitating the model generations and verifications via quantum mechanical superpositions and entanglements. We cast the well formed formulae of the language as quantum mechanical observables thus providing an elegant interpretation for their probabilities. We discuss several examples to combine statistical ensembles and predicates of first order logic to reason with situations involving uncertainty.
Temporal logics meet telerobotics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rutten, Eric; Marce, Lionel
1989-01-01
The specificity of telerobotics being the presence of a human operator, decision assistance tools are necessary for the operator, especially in hostile environments. In order to reduce execution hazards due to a degraded ability for quick and efficient recovery of unexpected dangerous situations, it is of importance to have the opportunity, amongst others, to simulate the possible consequences of a plan before its actual execution, in order to detect these problematic situations. Hence the idea of providing the operator with a simulator enabling him to verify the temporal and logical coherence of his plans. Therefore, the power of logical formalisms is used for representation and deduction purposes. Starting from the class of situations that are represented, a STRIPS (the STanford Research Institute Problem Solver)-like formalism and its underlying logic are adapted to the simulation of plans of actions in time. The choice of a temporal logic enables to build a world representation, on which the effects of plans, grouping actions into control structures, will be transcribed by the simulation, resulting in a verdict and information about the plan's coherence.
Programmable Logic Application Notes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, Richard; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This report will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will continue a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issue's section discussing the use of Root-Sum-Square calculations for digital delays.
Substructural Logical Specifications
2012-11-14
pronounced “A mobile” or, whimsically, “gnab A” in reference to the pronunciation of !A as “bang A.” The primary sequent of ordered logic is Γ; ∆; Ω =⇒ A...distinguished atomic proposition by inserting a rule into the signature that teaches the atomic proposition how to act like the nested rule. (Or, looking at it
Metacomputation and logic programming
Abramov, S.M.
1992-03-01
This paper presents an approach to logic programming based on implementing reverse semantics of programming languages. The interpreter that implements reverse semantics is called a Universal Resolving Algorithm (URA). Implementation and methods for application of a URA are based on methods of metacomputation. 12 refs., 2 figs.
Mapping Individual Logical Processes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smetana, Frederick O.
1975-01-01
A technique to measure and describe concisely a certain class of individual mental reasoning processes has been developed. The measurement is achieved by recording the complete dialog between a large, varied computerized information system with a broad range of logical operations and options and a human information seeker. (Author/RC)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Straumanis, Joan
A major problem in teaching symbolic logic is that of providing individualized and early feedback to students who are learning to do proofs. To overcome this difficulty, a computer program was developed which functions as a line-by-line proof checker in Sentential Calculus. The program, DEMON, first evaluates any statement supplied by the student…
Sandia ATM SONET Interface Logic
Kitta, Joseph P.
1994-07-21
SASIL is used to program the EPLD's (Erasable Programmable Logic Devices) and PAL's (Programmable Array Logic) that make up a large percentage of the Sandia ATM SONET Interface (OC3 version) for the INTEL Paragon.
Conditional Logic and Primary Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ennis, Robert H.
Conditional logic, as interpreted in this paper, means deductive logic characterized by "if-then" statements. This study sought to investigate the knowledge of conditional logic possessed by primary children and to test their readiness to learn such concepts. Ninety students were designated the experimental group and participated in a…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pascal, Robert; Pross, Addy
2016-11-01
In this paper we propose a logical connection between the physical and biological worlds, one resting on a broader understanding of the stability concept. We propose that stability manifests two facets - time and energy, and that stability's time facet, expressed as persistence, is more general than its energy facet. That insight leads to the logical formulation of the Persistence Principle, which describes the general direction of material change in the universe, and which can be stated most simply as: nature seeks persistent forms. Significantly, the principle is found to express itself in two mathematically distinct ways: in the replicative world through Malthusian exponential growth, and in the `regular' physical/chemical world through Boltzmann's probabilistic considerations. By encompassing both `regular' and replicative worlds, the principle appears to be able to help reconcile two of the major scientific theories of the 19th century - the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Darwin's theory of evolution - within a single conceptual framework.
Pascal, Robert; Pross, Addy
2016-11-01
In this paper we propose a logical connection between the physical and biological worlds, one resting on a broader understanding of the stability concept. We propose that stability manifests two facets - time and energy, and that stability's time facet, expressed as persistence, is more general than its energy facet. That insight leads to the logical formulation of the Persistence Principle, which describes the general direction of material change in the universe, and which can be stated most simply as: nature seeks persistent forms. Significantly, the principle is found to express itself in two mathematically distinct ways: in the replicative world through Malthusian exponential growth, and in the 'regular' physical/chemical world through Boltzmann's probabilistic considerations. By encompassing both 'regular' and replicative worlds, the principle appears to be able to help reconcile two of the major scientific theories of the 19th century - the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Darwin's theory of evolution - within a single conceptual framework.
Programmable Logic Application Notes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, Richard
1998-01-01
This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, heavy ion test results, and some total dose results.
Programmable Logic Application Notes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, Richard
1998-01-01
This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, and some total dose results.
1986-12-01
determining the consequences of assumptions about the behavior of a system . If the space of behaviors is represented by an envisionment , many such...consequences can be represented by pruning states from the envisionment . This paper provides a formal logic of occurrence which justifies the...algorithms involved and provides a language for relating specific histories to envisionments . The concepts and axioms are general enough to be applicable to
Kompa, K. L.; Levine, R. D.
2001-01-01
We propose a scheme for molecule-based information processing by combining well-studied spectroscopic techniques and recent results from chemical dynamics. Specifically it is discussed how optical transitions in single molecules can be used to rapidly perform classical (Boolean) logical operations. In the proposed way, a restricted number of states in a single molecule can act as a logical gate equivalent to at least two switches. It is argued that the four-level scheme can also be used to produce gain, because it allows an inversion, and not only a switching ability. The proposed scheme is quantum mechanical in that it takes advantage of the discrete nature of the energy levels but, we here discuss the temporal evolution, with the use of the populations only. On a longer time range we suggest that the same scheme could be extended to perform quantum logic, and a tentative suggestion, based on an available experiment, is discussed. We believe that the pumping can provide a partial proof of principle, although this and similar experiments were not interpreted thus far in our terms. PMID:11209046
Concrete Quantum Logics and Δ -Logics, States and Δ -States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hroch, Michal; Pták, Pavel
2017-04-01
By a concrete quantum logic (in short, by a logic) we mean the orthomodular poset that is set-representable. If L=({Ω },L) is a logic and L is closed under the formation of symmetric difference, Δ , we call L a Δ -logic. In the first part we situate the known results on logics and states to the context of Δ -logics and Δ -states (the Δ -states are the states that are subadditive with respect to the symmetric difference). Moreover, we observe that the rather prominent logic E^{even}_{Ω } of all even-coeven subsets of the countable set Ω possesses only Δ -states. Then we show when a state on the logics given by the divisibility relation allows for an extension as a state. In the next paragraph we consider the so called density logic and its Δ -closure. We find that the Δ -closure coincides with the power set. Then we investigate other properties of the density logic and its factor.
Connectable DNA logic gates: OR and XOR logics.
Gerasimova, Yulia V; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M
2012-03-05
Modern computer processors are based on semiconductor logic gates connected to each other in complex circuits. This study contributes to the development of a new class of connectable logic gates made of DNA in which the transfer of oligonucleotide fragments as input/output signals occurs upon hybridization of DNA sequences. The DNA strands responsible for a logic function form associates containing immobile DNA four-way junction structures when the signal is high and dissociate into separate strands when the signal is low. A basic set of logic gates (NOT, AND, and OR) was designed. Two NOT gates, two AND gates, and an OR gate were connected in a network that corresponds to an XOR logic function. The design of the logic gates presented here may contribute to the development of the first biocompatible molecular computer. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Programmable Logic Application Notes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, Richard
1999-01-01
This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter the focus is on some experimental data on low voltage drop out regulators to support mixed 5 and 3.3 volt systems. A discussion of the Small Explorer WIRE spacecraft will also be given. Lastly, we show take a first look at robust state machines in Hardware Description Languages (VHDL) and their use in critical systems. If you have information that you would like to submit or an area you would like discussed or researched, please give me a call or e-mail.
Bright, Liam Kofi
2017-07-10
The logical empiricists expressed a consistent attitude to racial categorisation in both the ethical and scientific spheres. Their attitude may be captured in the following slogan: human racial taxonomy is an empirically meaningful mode of classifying persons that we should refrain from deploying. I offer an interpretation of their position that would render coherent their remarks on race with positions they adopted on the scientific status of taxonomy in general, together with their potential moral or political motivations for adopting that position. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Flexible programmable logic module
Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.
2001-01-01
The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.
Adaptive parallel logic networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martinez, Tony R.; Vidal, Jacques J.
1988-01-01
Adaptive, self-organizing concurrent systems (ASOCS) that combine self-organization with massive parallelism for such applications as adaptive logic devices, robotics, process control, and system malfunction management, are presently discussed. In ASOCS, an adaptive network composed of many simple computing elements operating in combinational and asynchronous fashion is used and problems are specified by presenting if-then rules to the system in the form of Boolean conjunctions. During data processing, which is a different operational phase from adaptation, the network acts as a parallel hardware circuit.
O{sub 2}(X{sup 3}Σ{sub g}{sup −}) and O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}Δ{sub g}) charge exchange with simple ions
Ziółkowski, Marcin; Schatz, George C.; Viggiano, A. A.; Midey, Anthony; Dotan, Itzhak
2014-06-07
We present theory and experiments which describe charge transfer from the X{sup 3}Σ{sub g}{sup −} and a{sup 1}Δ{sub g} states of molecular oxygen and atomic and molecular cations. Included in this work are new experimental results for O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}Δ{sub g}) and the cations O{sup +}, CO{sup +}, Ar{sup +}, and N{sub 2}{sup +}, and new theory based on complete active space self-consistent field method calculations and an extended Langevin model to calculate rate constants for ground and excited O{sub 2} reacting with the atomic ions Ar{sup +}, Kr{sup +}, Xe{sup +}, Cl{sup +}, and Br{sup +}. The T-shaped orientation of the (X − O{sub 2}){sup +} potential surface is used for the calculations, including all the low lying states up to the second singlet state of the oxygen molecule b{sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +}. The calculated rate constants for both O{sub 2}(X{sup 3}Σ{sub g}{sup −}) and O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}Δ{sub g}) show consistent trends with the experimental results, with a significant dependence of rate constant on charge transfer exothermicity that does not depend strongly on the nature of the cation. The comparisons with theory show that partners with exothermicities of about 1 eV have stronger interactions with O{sub 2}, leading to larger Langevin radii, and also that more of the electronic states are attractive rather than repulsive, leading to larger rate constants. Rate constants for charge transfer involving O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}Δ{sub g}) are similar to those for O{sub 2}(X{sup 3}Σ{sub g}{sup −}) for a given exothermicity ignoring the electronic excitation of the O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}Δ{sub g}) state. This means (and the electronic structure calculations support) that the ground and excited states of O{sub 2} have about the same attractive interactions with ions.
Barriers in Concurrent Separation Logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hobor, Aquinas; Gherghina, Cristian
We develop and prove sound a concurrent separation logic for Pthreads-style barriers. Although Pthreads barriers are widely used in systems, and separation logic is widely used for verification, there has not been any effort to combine the two. Unlike locks and critical sections, Pthreads barriers enable simultaneous resource redistribution between multiple threads and are inherently stateful, leading to significant complications in the design of the logic and its soundness proof. We show how our logic can be applied to a specific example program in a modular way. Our proofs are machine-checked in Coq.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canaris, J.
1991-01-01
A new logic family, which is immune to single event upsets, is described. Members of the logic family are capable of recovery, regardless of the shape of the upsetting event. Glitch propagation from an upset node is also blocked. Logic diagrams for an Inverter, Nor, Nand, and Complex Gates are provided. The logic family can be implemented in a standard, commercial CMOS process with no additional masks. DC, transient, static power, upset recovery and layout characteristics of the new family, based on a commercial 1 micron CMOS N-Well process, are described.
Fuzzy logic and coarse coding using programmable logic devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brooks, Geoffrey
2009-05-01
Naturally-occurring sensory signal processing algorithms, such as those that inspired fuzzy-logic control, can be integrated into non-naturally-occurring high-performance technology, such as programmable logic devices, to realize novel bio-inspired designs. Research is underway concerning an investigation into using field programmable logic devices (FPLD's) to implement fuzzy logic sensory processing. A discussion is provided concerning the commonality between bio-inspired fuzzy logic algorithms and coarse coding that is prevalent in naturally-occurring sensory systems. Undergraduate design projects using fuzzy logic for an obstacle-avoidance robot has been accomplished at our institution and other places; numerous other successful fuzzy logic applications can be found as well. The long-term goal is to leverage such biomimetic algorithms for future applications. This paper outlines a design approach for implementing fuzzy-logic algorithms into reconfigurable computing devices. This paper is presented in an effort to connect with others who may be interested in collaboration as well as to establish a starting point for future research.
Parsing with logical variables (logic-based programming systems)
Finin, T.W.; Stone Palmer, M.
1983-01-01
Logic based programming systems have enjoyed an increasing popularity in applied AI work in the last few years. One of the contributions to computational linguistics made by the logic programming paradigm has been the definite clause grammar. In comparing DCGS with previous parsing mechanisms such as ATNS, certain clear advantages are seen. The authors feel that the most important of these advantages are due to the use of logical variables with unification as the fundamental operation on them. To illustrate the power of the logical variable, they have implemented an experimental atn system which treats atn registers as logical variables and provides a unification operation over them. They aim to simultaneously encourage the use of the powerful mechanisms available in DCGS and demonstrate that some of these techniques can be captured without reference to a resolution theorem prover. 14 references.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2005-01-01
A new all-electronic Particle Image Velocimetry technique that can efficiently map high speed gas flows has been developed in-house at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Particle Image Velocimetry is an optical technique for measuring the instantaneous two component velocity field across a planar region of a seeded flow field. A pulsed laser light sheet is used to illuminate the seed particles entrained in the flow field at two instances in time. One or more charged coupled device (CCD) cameras can be used to record the instantaneous positions of particles. Using the time between light sheet pulses and determining either the individual particle displacements or the average displacement of particles over a small subregion of the recorded image enables the calculation of the fluid velocity. Fuzzy logic minimizes the required operator intervention in identifying particles and computing velocity. Using two cameras that have the same view of the illumination plane yields two single exposure image frames. Two competing techniques that yield unambiguous velocity vector direction information have been widely used for reducing the single-exposure, multiple image frame data: (1) cross-correlation and (2) particle tracking. Correlation techniques yield averaged velocity estimates over subregions of the flow, whereas particle tracking techniques give individual particle velocity estimates. For the correlation technique, the correlation peak corresponding to the average displacement of particles across the subregion must be identified. Noise on the images and particle dropout result in misidentification of the true correlation peak. The subsequent velocity vector maps contain spurious vectors where the displacement peaks have been improperly identified. Typically these spurious vectors are replaced by a weighted average of the neighboring vectors, thereby decreasing the independence of the measurements. In this work, fuzzy logic techniques are used to determine the true
Reversible logic gates on Physarum Polycephalum
Schumann, Andrew
2015-03-10
In this paper, we consider possibilities how to implement asynchronous sequential logic gates and quantum-style reversible logic gates on Physarum polycephalum motions. We show that in asynchronous sequential logic gates we can erase information because of uncertainty in the direction of plasmodium propagation. Therefore quantum-style reversible logic gates are more preferable for designing logic circuits on Physarum polycephalum.
Borresen, Jon; Lynch, Stephen
2012-01-01
In the 1940s, the first generation of modern computers used vacuum tube oscillators as their principle components, however, with the development of the transistor, such oscillator based computers quickly became obsolete. As the demand for faster and lower power computers continues, transistors are themselves approaching their theoretical limit and emerging technologies must eventually supersede them. With the development of optical oscillators and Josephson junction technology, we are again presented with the possibility of using oscillators as the basic components of computers, and it is possible that the next generation of computers will be composed almost entirely of oscillatory devices. Here, we demonstrate how coupled threshold oscillators may be used to perform binary logic in a manner entirely consistent with modern computer architectures. We describe a variety of computational circuitry and demonstrate working oscillator models of both computation and memory.
Quantificational logic of context
Buvac, Sasa
1996-12-31
In this paper we extend the Propositional Logic of Context, to the quantificational (predicate calculus) case. This extension is important in the declarative representation of knowledge for two reasons. Firstly, since contexts are objects in the semantics which can be denoted by terms in the language and which can be quantified over, the extension enables us to express arbitrary first-order properties of contexts. Secondly, since the extended language is no longer only propositional, we can express that an arbitrary predicate calculus formula is true in a context. The paper describes the syntax and the semantics of a quantificational language of context, gives a Hilbert style formal system, and outlines a proof of the system`s completeness.
Borresen, Jon; Lynch, Stephen
2012-01-01
In the 1940s, the first generation of modern computers used vacuum tube oscillators as their principle components, however, with the development of the transistor, such oscillator based computers quickly became obsolete. As the demand for faster and lower power computers continues, transistors are themselves approaching their theoretical limit and emerging technologies must eventually supersede them. With the development of optical oscillators and Josephson junction technology, we are again presented with the possibility of using oscillators as the basic components of computers, and it is possible that the next generation of computers will be composed almost entirely of oscillatory devices. Here, we demonstrate how coupled threshold oscillators may be used to perform binary logic in a manner entirely consistent with modern computer architectures. We describe a variety of computational circuitry and demonstrate working oscillator models of both computation and memory. PMID:23173034
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper presents the Logical Process Calculus (LPC), a formalism that supports heterogeneous system specifications containing both operational and declarative subspecifications. Syntactically, LPC extends Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems with operators from the alternation-free linear-time mu-calculus (LT(mu)). Semantically, LPC is equipped with a behavioral preorder that generalizes Hennessy's and DeNicola's must-testing preorder as well as LT(mu's) satisfaction relation, while being compositional for all LPC operators. From a technical point of view, the new calculus is distinguished by the inclusion of: (1) both minimal and maximal fixed-point operators and (2) an unimple-mentability predicate on process terms, which tags inconsistent specifications. The utility of LPC is demonstrated by means of an example highlighting the benefits of heterogeneous system specification.
Nanoparticle Based Logic Gates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berven, Christopher; Wybourne, Martin; Longstreth, Lydia
2003-05-01
Ligand stabilized gold nanoparticles have novel properties that can be exploited for their use as possible building blocks for room-temperature single electron devices. With a core of 70 gold atoms or less (diameter <= 1.4 nm), the self-capacitance of these particles is a fraction of an atto-Farad. This small capacitance translates into an electrostatic charging energy well in excess of the thermal energy at room temperature. Single electron behavior has been demonstrated in one- and two-dimensional arrays of nanoparticles. In traditional single electron devices, the self-capacitance is negligible, whereas the self-capacitance in nanoparticle based devices can be the dominant capacitance. This means that the effect of charging a nanoparticle chain is highly localized which is in contrast to traditional single electron devices where the induced potential due to an excess electron on an island is felt by many neighboring islands. As a result, the current-voltage characteristics and plots of stable electron occupancy in the arrays have different behavior to that found in traditional devices. We show that this new regime of tunneling behavior can be exploited to create a novel family of single-electron logic gate devices. Using numerical simulation we have found that when a one-dimensional array of nanoparticles is gated in an electron-pump arrangement and properly biased, the behavior is that of an AND gate. The addition of an inverter circuit results in NAND gate behavior, the inverter providing the power necessary for the cascading of multiple NAND gates and the generation of arbitrary logic circuits.
Simulated Laboratory in Digital Logic.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cleaver, Thomas G.
Design of computer circuits used to be a pencil and paper task followed by laboratory tests, but logic circuit design can now be done in half the time as the engineer accesses a program which simulates the behavior of real digital circuits, and does all the wiring and testing on his computer screen. A simulated laboratory in digital logic has been…
Simulated Laboratory in Digital Logic.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cleaver, Thomas G.
Design of computer circuits used to be a pencil and paper task followed by laboratory tests, but logic circuit design can now be done in half the time as the engineer accesses a program which simulates the behavior of real digital circuits, and does all the wiring and testing on his computer screen. A simulated laboratory in digital logic has been…
Programmable Logic Controllers. Teacher Edition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rauh, Bob; Kaltwasser, Stan
These materials were developed for a seven-unit secondary or postsecondary education course on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) that treats most of the skills needed to work effectively with PLCs as programming skills. The seven units of the course cover the following topics: fundamentals of programmable logic controllers; contracts, timers,…
Japanese Logic Puzzles and Proof
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wanko, Jeffrey J.
2009-01-01
An understanding of proof does not start in a high school geometry course. Rather, attention to logical reasoning throughout a student's school experience can help the development of proof readiness. In the spirit of problem solving, the author has begun to use some Japanese logic puzzles other than sudoku to help students develop additional…
Logic, Probability, and Human Reasoning
2015-01-01
multiplication, it needs a working memory to hold intermediate results. Syllogism: a form of inference that Aristotle formulated based on two premises and a...where knowledge itself takes the form of fully Box 1. The application of p-logic to syllogistic reasoning Aristotle formulated the logic of syllogisms
Logic, reasoning, and verbal behavior
Terrell, Dudley J.; Johnston, J. M.
1989-01-01
This paper analyzes the traditional concepts of logic and reasoning from the perspective of radical behaviorism and in the terms of Skinner's treatment of verbal behavior. The topics covered in this analysis include the proposition, premises and conclusions, logicality and rules, and deductive and inductive reasoning. PMID:22478015
Logic and the National Curriculum.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nelson, David
2000-01-01
Reviews the historic relationship between logic and the mathematics curriculum. Proposes a list of logical elements for modern school mathematics. Checks the current national curriculum against this list and finds it to be deficient, especially in relation to the development of ideas of proof. Presents arguments for reform. (Contains 29…
Zapatrin, R.R.
1992-02-01
Given a finite ortholattice L, the *-semigroup is explicitly built whose annihilator ortholattice is isomorphic to L. Thus, it is shown that any finite quantum logic is the additive part of a binary logic. Some areas of possible applications are outlined. 7 refs.
Power optimization in logic isomers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panwar, Ramesh; Rennels, David; Alkalaj, Leon
1993-01-01
Logic isomers are labeled, 2-isomorphic graphs that implement the same logic function. Logic isomers may have significantly different power requirements even though they have the same number of transistors in the implementation. The power requirements of the isomers depend on the transition activity of the input signals. The power requirements of isomorphic graph isomers of n-input NAND and NOR gates are shown. Choosing the less power-consuming isomer instead of the others can yield significant power savings. Experimental results on a ripple-carry adder are presented to show that the implementation using the least power-consuming isomers requires approximately 10 percent less power than the implementation using the most power-consuming isomers. Simulations of other random logic designs also confirm that designs using less power-consuming isomers can reduce the logic power demand by approximately 10 percent as compared to designs using more power-consuming isomers.
Weighted Automata and Weighted Logics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Droste, Manfred; Gastin, Paul
In automata theory, a fundamental result of Büchi and Elgot states that the recognizable languages are precisely the ones definable by sentences of monadic second order logic. We will present a generalization of this result to the context of weighted automata. We develop syntax and semantics of a quantitative logic; like the behaviors of weighted automata, the semantics of sentences of our logic are formal power series describing ‘how often’ the sentence is true for a given word. Our main result shows that if the weights are taken in an arbitrary semiring, then the behaviors of weighted automata are precisely the series definable by sentences of our quantitative logic. We achieve a similar characterization for weighted Büchi automata acting on infinite words, if the underlying semiring satisfies suitable completeness assumptions. Moreover, if the semiring is additively locally finite or locally finite, then natural extensions of our weighted logic still have the same expressive power as weighted automata.
Nucleic acid based logical systems.
Han, Da; Kang, Huaizhi; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Cuichen; Zhou, Cuisong; You, Mingxu; Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Xiaobing; Tan, Weihong
2014-05-12
Researchers increasingly visualize a significant role for artificial biochemical logical systems in biological engineering, much like digital logic circuits in electrical engineering. Those logical systems could be utilized as a type of servomechanism to control nanodevices in vitro, monitor chemical reactions in situ, or regulate gene expression in vivo. Nucleic acids (NA), as carriers of genetic information with well-regulated and predictable structures, are promising materials for the design and engineering of biochemical circuits. A number of logical devices based on nucleic acids (NA) have been designed to handle various processes for technological or biotechnological purposes. This article focuses on the most recent and important developments in NA-based logical devices and their evolution from in vitro, through cellular, even towards in vivo biological applications.
Computerized logic design of digital circuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gussow, S.; Oglesby, R.
1974-01-01
Procedure performs all work required for logic design of digital counters or sequential circuits and simplification of Boolean expressions. Program provides simple, accurate, and comprehensive logic design capability to users both experienced and totally inexperienced in logic design
Contradicting logics in everyday practice.
Kristiansen, Margrethe; Obstfelder, Aud; Lotherington, Ann Therese
2016-01-01
Performance management is criticised as a direct challenge to the dominant logic of professionalism in health care organisations. The purpose of this paper is to report an ethnographic study that investigates how performance management and professionalism as contradicting logics are interpreted and implemented by managers and nurses in everyday practice within Norwegian nursing homes. The paper presents an analysis of 18 semistructured interviews and 100 hours of observation of managers and nurses from three nursing homes. The study draws on the institutional logic perspective as a theoretical framework. In the analysis, the authors searched for patterns of activities and interactions that reflected managers and nurses' coping strategies for handling contradicting logics. Qualitative content analysis was used to systematically code the data, supported by NVIVO software. The authors identified three forms of coping strategies: the adjustment of professionalism to standards, the reinforcement of professional flexibility and problem solving, and the strategic adoption of documentation. These patterns of activities and interactions reflect new organisational structures that allowed contradicting logics to co-exist. The study demonstrates that a new complex dimension of governing processes within nursing homes is the way in which managers and nurses handle the tension between contradicting logics in their daily work and clinicians' everyday practice. The study provides new insight into how managers and nurses reshape internal organisational structures to cope with contradicting logics in nursing homes.
Using LogicWorks to Teach Logic Design.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Spoerri, Peter
1988-01-01
Discusses a computer simulation to teach logic design using a Macintosh computer which allows circuits to be built piece by piece. Describes features of the simulation and presents several schematics drawn by the software. (MVL)
Fuzzy logic in control systems: Fuzzy logic controller. I, II
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Chuen Chien
1990-01-01
Recent advances in the theory and applications of fuzzy-logic controllers (FLCs) are examined in an analytical review. The fundamental principles of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic are recalled; the basic FLC components (fuzzification and defuzzification interfaces, knowledge base, and decision-making logic) are described; and the advantages of FLCs for incorporating expert knowledge into a control system are indicated. Particular attention is given to fuzzy implication functions, the interpretation of sentence connectives (and, also), compositional operators, and inference mechanisms. Applications discussed include the FLC-guided automobile developed by Sugeno and Nishida (1985), FLC hardware systems, FLCs for subway trains and ship-loading cranes, fuzzy-logic chips, and fuzzy computers.
Using LogicWorks to Teach Logic Design.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Spoerri, Peter
1988-01-01
Discusses a computer simulation to teach logic design using a Macintosh computer which allows circuits to be built piece by piece. Describes features of the simulation and presents several schematics drawn by the software. (MVL)
Formalized Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bitbol, Michel
The task of a formal epistemology is defined. It appears that a formal epistemology must be a generalization of "logic" in the sense of Wittgenstein's Tractatus. The generalization is required because, whereas logic presupposes a strict relation between activity and language, this relation may be broken in some domains of experimental enquiry (e.g., in microscopic physics). However, a formal epistemology should also retain a major feature of Wittgenstein's "logic": It must not be a discourse about scientific knowledge, but rather a way of making manifest the structures usually implicit in knowledge-gaining activity. This strategy is applied to the formalism of quantum mechanics.
Sequentialization of logic programs
Treitel, R.J.
1987-01-01
Logical inference can be done in two directions, either forwards from facts already known to other facts that may be of interest, or backwards from goals whose answers are needed to subgoals whose answers may be available. Some programs and languages use on direction exclusively because it is clearly better (in the sense of computational efficiency) for their purposes. There are, however, problems that are better solved by using some rules for forwards inference and other backwards. In theorem-providing and artificial-intelligence work over the past two decades, numerous systems have been developed that allow inference to be drawn either forwards or backwards, and a number of heuristics have evolved for deciding which direction to use a rule in. This dissertation attempts to put these decisions on a quantitative footing by developing algorithms for estimating the computational cost of a set of directions for rules and applying standard optimization techniques to derive the best set of choices. In ascending order of difficulty, it is assumed first that no forward rule uses any facts deduced by a backward rule; then that directions can be chosen freely; and finally that each rule can be split up and used partly forwards, partly backwards. All of these problems, except for a highly constrained version of the first one, are shown to be NP-complete.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, David E.; Jonsson, Ari K.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
In recent years, Graphplan style reachability analysis and mutual exclusion reasoning have been used in many high performance planning systems. While numerous refinements and extensions have been developed, the basic plan graph structure and reasoning mechanisms used in these systems are tied to the very simple STRIPS model of action. In 1999, Smith and Weld generalized the Graphplan methods for reachability and mutex reasoning to allow actions to have differing durations. However, the representation of actions still has some severe limitations that prevent the use of these techniques for many real-world planning systems. In this paper, we 1) separate the logic of reachability from the particular representation and inference methods used in Graphplan, and 2) extend the notions of reachability and mutual exclusion to more general notions of time and action. As it turns out, the general rules for mutual exclusion reasoning take on a remarkably clean and simple form. However, practical instantiations of them turn out to be messy, and require that we make representation and reasoning choices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dougherty, Edward R.; Chen, Yidong
1998-06-01
Binary granulometric filters are formed from unions of parameterized openings, a point passing the filter if and only if a translate of at least one structuring element fits in the image and contains the point. A granulometry induces a reconstructive granulometry by passing any image component not eliminated by the granulometry. As historically studied in the context of Matheron's granulometric theory, reconstructive granulometries appear as unions of reconstructive parameterized openings. The theory is extended to a much wider class of filters: a logical structural filter (LSF) is formed as a union of intersections of both reconstructive and complementary reconstructive openings. A reconstructive opening passes a component if and only if at least one translate of the structuring element fits inside; a complementary reconstructive opening passes a component if and only if no translate of the structuring element fits inside. The original reconstructive granulometries form the special class of disjunctive LSFs. Complement-free LSFs form granulometries in a slightly more general sense; LSFs containing complements are not increasing and therefore not openings. Along with the relevant algebraic representations for LSFs, the theories of optimal and adaptive granulometric filters are extended to LSFs, a systematic formulation of adaptive transitions is given, transition probabilities for adaptation are found, and two applications to biological imaging are presented.
Kral, M J
1994-01-01
Although suicide is not viewed as a mental disorder per se, it is viewed by many if not most clinicians, researchers, and lay people as a real or natural symptom of depression. It is at least most typically seen as the unfortunate, severe, yet logical end result of a chain of negative self-appraisals, negative events, and hopelessness. Extending an approach articulated by the early French sociologist Gabriel Tarde, in this paper I argue that suicide is merely an idea, albeit a very bad one, having more in common with societal beliefs and norms regarding such things as divorce, abortion, sex, politics, consumer behavior, and fashion. I make a sharp contrast between perturbation and lethality, concepts central to Edwin S. Shneidman's theory of suicide. Evidence supportive of suicide as an idea is discussed based on what we are learning from the study of history and culture, and about contagion/cluster phenomena, media/communication, and choice of method. It is suggested that certain individuals are more vulnerable to incorporate the idea and act of suicide into their concepts of self, based on the same principles by which ideas are spread throughout society. Just as suicide impacts on society, so does society impact on suicide.
Knowledge representation in fuzzy logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zadeh, Lotfi A.
1989-01-01
The author presents a summary of the basic concepts and techniques underlying the application of fuzzy logic to knowledge representation. He then describes a number of examples relating to its use as a computational system for dealing with uncertainty and imprecision in the context of knowledge, meaning, and inference. It is noted that one of the basic aims of fuzzy logic is to provide a computational framework for knowledge representation and inference in an environment of uncertainty and imprecision. In such environments, fuzzy logic is effective when the solutions need not be precise and/or it is acceptable for a conclusion to have a dispositional rather than categorical validity. The importance of fuzzy logic derives from the fact that there are many real-world applications which fit these conditions, especially in the realm of knowledge-based systems for decision-making and control.
Knowledge representation in fuzzy logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zadeh, Lotfi A.
1989-01-01
The author presents a summary of the basic concepts and techniques underlying the application of fuzzy logic to knowledge representation. He then describes a number of examples relating to its use as a computational system for dealing with uncertainty and imprecision in the context of knowledge, meaning, and inference. It is noted that one of the basic aims of fuzzy logic is to provide a computational framework for knowledge representation and inference in an environment of uncertainty and imprecision. In such environments, fuzzy logic is effective when the solutions need not be precise and/or it is acceptable for a conclusion to have a dispositional rather than categorical validity. The importance of fuzzy logic derives from the fact that there are many real-world applications which fit these conditions, especially in the realm of knowledge-based systems for decision-making and control.
Adamatzky, Andrew; Sirakoulis, Georgios Ch; Martínez, Genaro J; Baluška, Frantisek; Mancuso, Stefano
Theoretical constructs of logical gates implemented with plant roots are morphological computing asynchronous devices. Values of Boolean variables are represented by plant roots. A presence of a plant root at a given site symbolises the logical True, an absence the logical False. Logical functions are calculated via interaction between roots. Two types of two-inputs-two-outputs gates are proposed: a gate 〈x, y〉→〈xy, x+y〉 where root apexes are guided by gravity and a gate 〈x,y〉→〈x¯y,x〉 where root apexes are guided by humidity. We propose a design of binary half-adder based on the gates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Emerging Standards for Medical Logic
Clayton, Paul D.; Hripcsak, George; Pryor, T. Allan
1990-01-01
Sharing medical logic has traditionally occurred in the form of lectures, conversations, books and journals. As knowledge based computer systems have demonstrated their utility in the health care arena, individuals have pondered the best way to transfer knowledge in a computer based representation (1). A simple representation which allows the knowledge to be shared can be constructed when the knowledge base is modular. Within this representation, units have been named Medical Logic Modules (MLM's) and a syntax has emerged which would allow multiple users to create, criticize, and share those types of medical logic which can be represented in this format. In this paper we talk about why standards exist and why they emerge in some areas and not in others. The appropriateness of using the proposed standards for medical logic modules is then examined against this broader context.
Digital logic testing and testability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debany, Warren H., Jr.
1991-02-01
Electronic hardware is subject to defects that are introduced at the time of manufacture and failures that occur in the field. Because of the complexity of digital logic circuits, they are difficult to test. This report provides an overview of digital logic testing. It provides access to the literature and unifies terminology and concepts that have evolved in this field. It discusses the types and causes of failures in digital logic. This report presents the topics of logic and fault simulation, fault grading, test generation algorithms, and fault isolation. The discussion of testability measurement is useful for understanding testability requirements and analysis techniques. Design-for-testability and built in test techniques are presented.
Heat exchanger expert system logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cormier, R.
1988-01-01
The reduction is described of the operation and fault diagnostics of a Deep Space Network heat exchanger to a rule base by the application of propositional calculus to a set of logic statements. The value of this approach lies in the ease of converting the logic and subsequently implementing it on a computer as an expert system. The rule base was written in Process Intelligent Control software.
Temporal Reasoning and Default Logics.
1985-10-01
cases. But the examples that break these logics always seem to have an artificial, or even perverse , nature to them. Davis’s demonstration that...since we are so controlled in our use of the default rules, we can expect better behavior from the three logics. The point of the rest of the paper...pred- icates) pcause, event, persist, point, contradict, clipped, , < .To the extent we could then precisely characterize the programs 1i/ behavior we
Fuzzy logic and neural networks
Loos, J.R.
1994-11-01
Combine fuzzy logic`s fuzzy sets, fuzzy operators, fuzzy inference, and fuzzy rules - like defuzzification - with neural networks and you can arrive at very unfuzzy real-time control. Fuzzy logic, cursed with a very whimsical title, simply means multivalued logic, which includes not only the conventional two-valued (true/false) crisp logic, but also the logic of three or more values. This means one can assign logic values of true, false, and somewhere in between. This is where fuzziness comes in. Multi-valued logic avoids the black-and-white, all-or-nothing assignment of true or false to an assertion. Instead, it permits the assignment of shades of gray. When assigning a value of true or false to an assertion, the numbers typically used are {open_quotes}1{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}0{close_quotes}. This is the case for programmed systems. If {open_quotes}0{close_quotes} means {open_quotes}false{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}1{close_quotes} means {open_quotes}true,{close_quotes} then {open_quotes}shades of gray{close_quotes} are any numbers between 0 and 1. Therefore, {open_quotes}nearly true{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.8 or 0.9, {open_quotes}nearly false{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.1 or 0.2, and {close_quotes}your guess is as good as mine{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.5. The flexibility available to one is limitless. One can associate any meaning, such as {open_quotes}nearly true{close_quotes}, to any value of any granularity, such as 0.9999. 2 figs.
Optically controllable molecular logic circuits
Nishimura, Takahiro Fujii, Ryo; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun
2015-07-06
Molecular logic circuits represent a promising technology for observation and manipulation of biological systems at the molecular level. However, the implementation of molecular logic circuits for temporal and programmable operation remains challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate an optically controllable logic circuit that uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for signaling. The FRET-based signaling process is modulated by both molecular and optical inputs. Based on the distance dependence of FRET, the FRET pathways required to execute molecular logic operations are formed on a DNA nanostructure as a circuit based on its molecular inputs. In addition, the FRET pathways on the DNA nanostructure are controlled optically, using photoswitching fluorescent molecules to instruct the execution of the desired operation and the related timings. The behavior of the circuit can thus be controlled using external optical signals. As an example, a molecular logic circuit capable of executing two different logic operations was studied. The circuit contains functional DNAs and a DNA scaffold to construct two FRET routes for executing Input 1 AND Input 2 and Input 1 AND NOT Input 3 operations on molecular inputs. The circuit produced the correct outputs with all possible combinations of the inputs by following the light signals. Moreover, the operation execution timings were controlled based on light irradiation and the circuit responded to time-dependent inputs. The experimental results demonstrate that the circuit changes the output for the required operations following the input of temporal light signals.
Fuzzy logic particle tracking velocimetry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wernet, Mark P.
1993-01-01
Fuzzy logic has proven to be a simple and robust method for process control. Instead of requiring a complex model of the system, a user defined rule base is used to control the process. In this paper the principles of fuzzy logic control are applied to Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). Two frames of digitally recorded, single exposure particle imagery are used as input. The fuzzy processor uses the local particle displacement information to determine the correct particle tracks. Fuzzy PTV is an improvement over traditional PTV techniques which typically require a sequence (greater than 2) of image frames for accurately tracking particles. The fuzzy processor executes in software on a PC without the use of specialized array or fuzzy logic processors. A pair of sample input images with roughly 300 particle images each, results in more than 200 velocity vectors in under 8 seconds of processing time.
Intersecting Adjectives in Syllogistic Logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moss, Lawrence S.
The goal of natural logic is to present and study logical systems for reasoning with sentences of (or which are reasonably close to) ordinary language. This paper explores simple systems of natural logic which make use of intersecting adjectives; these are adjectives whose interpretation does not vary with the noun they modify. Our project in this paper is to take one of the simplest syllogistic fragments, that of all and some, and to add intersecting adjectives. There are two ways to do this, depending on whether one allows iteration or prefers a "flat" structure of at most one adjective. We present rules of inference for both types of syntax, and these differ. The main results are four completeness theorems: for each of the two types of syntax we have completeness for the all fragment and for the full language of this paper.
Logic, probability, and human reasoning.
Johnson-Laird, P N; Khemlani, Sangeet S; Goodwin, Geoffrey P
2015-04-01
This review addresses the long-standing puzzle of how logic and probability fit together in human reasoning. Many cognitive scientists argue that conventional logic cannot underlie deductions, because it never requires valid conclusions to be withdrawn - not even if they are false; it treats conditional assertions implausibly; and it yields many vapid, although valid, conclusions. A new paradigm of probability logic allows conclusions to be withdrawn and treats conditionals more plausibly, although it does not address the problem of vapidity. The theory of mental models solves all of these problems. It explains how people reason about probabilities and postulates that the machinery for reasoning is itself probabilistic. Recent investigations accordingly suggest a way to integrate probability and deduction.
Reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices
Takeuchi, N.; Yamanashi, Y.; Yoshikawa, N.
2014-01-01
Reversible computing has been studied since Rolf Landauer advanced the argument that has come to be known as Landauer's principle. This principle states that there is no minimum energy dissipation for logic operations in reversible computing, because it is not accompanied by reductions in information entropy. However, until now, no practical reversible logic gates have been demonstrated. One of the problems is that reversible logic gates must be built by using extremely energy-efficient logic devices. Another difficulty is that reversible logic gates must be both logically and physically reversible. Here we propose the first practical reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices and experimentally demonstrate the logical and physical reversibility of the gate. Additionally, we estimate the energy dissipation of the gate, and discuss the minimum energy dissipation required for reversible logic operations. It is expected that the results of this study will enable reversible computing to move from the theoretical stage into practical usage. PMID:25220698
Reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeuchi, N.; Yamanashi, Y.; Yoshikawa, N.
2014-09-01
Reversible computing has been studied since Rolf Landauer advanced the argument that has come to be known as Landauer's principle. This principle states that there is no minimum energy dissipation for logic operations in reversible computing, because it is not accompanied by reductions in information entropy. However, until now, no practical reversible logic gates have been demonstrated. One of the problems is that reversible logic gates must be built by using extremely energy-efficient logic devices. Another difficulty is that reversible logic gates must be both logically and physically reversible. Here we propose the first practical reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices and experimentally demonstrate the logical and physical reversibility of the gate. Additionally, we estimate the energy dissipation of the gate, and discuss the minimum energy dissipation required for reversible logic operations. It is expected that the results of this study will enable reversible computing to move from the theoretical stage into practical usage.
Reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices.
Takeuchi, N; Yamanashi, Y; Yoshikawa, N
2014-09-15
Reversible computing has been studied since Rolf Landauer advanced the argument that has come to be known as Landauer's principle. This principle states that there is no minimum energy dissipation for logic operations in reversible computing, because it is not accompanied by reductions in information entropy. However, until now, no practical reversible logic gates have been demonstrated. One of the problems is that reversible logic gates must be built by using extremely energy-efficient logic devices. Another difficulty is that reversible logic gates must be both logically and physically reversible. Here we propose the first practical reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices and experimentally demonstrate the logical and physical reversibility of the gate. Additionally, we estimate the energy dissipation of the gate, and discuss the minimum energy dissipation required for reversible logic operations. It is expected that the results of this study will enable reversible computing to move from the theoretical stage into practical usage.
An exercise in "anhomomorphic logic"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sorkin, Rafael D.
2007-05-01
A classical logic exhibits a threefold inner structure comprising an algebra of propositions fraktur U, a space of "truth values" V, and a distinguished family of mappings phi from propositions to truth values. Classically fraktur U is a Boolean algebra, V = Bbb Z2, and the admissible maps phi: fraktur U Bbb Z2 are homomorphisms. If one admits a larger set of maps, one obtains an anhomomorphic logic that seems better suited to quantal reality (and the needs of quantum gravity). I explain these ideas and illustrate them with three simple examples.
A Logical Approach to Entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Abhishek
2016-10-01
In this paper we innovate a logical approach to develop an intuition regarding the phenomenon of quantum entanglement. In the vein of the logic introduced we substantiate that particles that were entangled in the past will be entangled in perpetuity and thereby abide a rule that restricts them to act otherwise. We also introduce a game and by virtue of the concept of Nash equilibrium we have been able to show that entangled particles will mutually correspond to an experiment that is performed on any one of the particle.
Superconducting gates with fluxon logics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nacak, H.; Kusmartsev, F. V.
2010-10-01
We have developed several logic gates (OR, XOR, AND and NAND) made of superconducting Josephson junctions. The gates based of the flux cloning phenomenon and high speed of fluxons moving in Josephson junctions of different shapes. In a contrast with previous design the gates operates extremely fast since fluxons are moving with the speed close to the speed of light. We have demonstrated their operations and indicated several ways to made a more complicated logic elements which have at the same time a compact form.
Critique of Putnam's quantum logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bacciagaluppi, Guido
1993-10-01
Putnam gives a strongly realist account of quantum logic. This has been criticised as suggesting a hidden variable interpretation for quantum mechanics. Friedman and Glymour have done this in the framework of noncontextual hidden variable theories, which, however, does not fully represent Putnam's ideas. Here Putnam's approach to quantum logic is understood in terms of contextual truth-value assignments. The concept of a measurement is discussed. It follows that in order to reproduce quantum mechanical predictions a kind of disturbance is necessary, which is then analyzed. Finally, it is shown that the Putnam approach does not escape proofs of nonlocality, and thus shares, indeed, the unwelcome features of a hidden variable theory.
Defining Datalog in Rewriting Logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alpuente, M.; Feliú, M. A.; Joubert, C.; Villanueva, A.
In recent work, the effectiveness of using declarative languages has been demonstrated for many problems in program analysis. Using a simple relational query language, like Datalog, complex interprocedural analyses involving dynamically created objects can be expressed in just a few lines. By exploiting the power of the Rewriting Logic language Maude, we aim at transforming Datalog programs into efficient rewrite systems that compute the same answers. A prototype has been implemented and applied to some real-world Datalog-based analyses. Experimental results show that the performance of solving Datalog queries in rewriting logic is comparable to state-of-the-art Datalog solvers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ruspini, Enrique H.
1991-01-01
Summarized here are the results of recent research on the conceptual foundations of fuzzy logic. The focus is primarily on the principle characteristics of a model that quantifies resemblance between possible worlds by means of a similarity function that assigns a number between 0 and 1 to every pair of possible worlds. Introduction of such a function permits one to interpret the major constructs and methods of fuzzy logic: conditional and unconditional possibility and necessity distributions and the generalized modus ponens of Zadeh on the basis of related metric relationships between subsets of possible worlds.
Dynamic Logic Assigned to Automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chajda, Ivan; Paseka, Jan
2017-02-01
A dynamic logic B can be assigned to every automaton [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] without regard if [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] is deterministic or nondeterministic. This logic enables us to formulate observations on [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] in the form of composed propositions and, due to a transition functor T, it captures the dynamic behaviour of [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.]. There are formulated conditions under which the automaton [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] can be recovered by means of B and T.
Logic programming and metadata specifications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.; Saacks, Marguerite E.
1992-01-01
Artificial intelligence (AI) ideas and techniques are critical to the development of intelligent information systems that will be used to collect, manipulate, and retrieve the vast amounts of space data produced by 'Missions to Planet Earth.' Natural language processing, inference, and expert systems are at the core of this space application of AI. This paper presents logic programming as an AI tool that can support inference (the ability to draw conclusions from a set of complicated and interrelated facts). It reports on the use of logic programming in the study of metadata specifications for a small problem domain of airborne sensors, and the dataset characteristics and pointers that are needed for data access.
Boggle Logic Puzzles: Minimal Solutions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Needleman, Jonathan
2013-01-01
Boggle logic puzzles are based on the popular word game Boggle played backwards. Given a list of words, the problem is to recreate the board. We explore these puzzles on a 3 x 3 board and find the minimum number of three-letter words needed to create a puzzle with a unique solution. We conclude with a series of open questions.
Program Theory Evaluation: Logic Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, Francois
2011-01-01
Program theory evaluation, which has grown in use over the past 10 years, assesses whether a program is designed in such a way that it can achieve its intended outcomes. This article describes a particular type of program theory evaluation--logic analysis--that allows us to test the plausibility of a program's theory using scientific knowledge.…
Logic Programming and Knowledge Maintenance.
1987-08-13
the literature , and became convinced that many of the advantages of frames and semantic nets can be captured in logic programming systems by a...consists of: needs(john,money). married_to(john,mary). loves(john,mary). (mary is the dead victim in this thriller .) The victim’s sister sara consists of
Gateways to Writing Logical Arguments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCann, Thomas M.
2010-01-01
Middle school and high school students have a conception of what the basic demands of logic are, and they draw on this understanding in anticipating certain demands of parents and teachers when the adolescents have to defend positions. At the same time, many adolescents struggle to "write" highly elaborated arguments. Teaching students lessons in…
Program Theory Evaluation: Logic Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, Francois
2011-01-01
Program theory evaluation, which has grown in use over the past 10 years, assesses whether a program is designed in such a way that it can achieve its intended outcomes. This article describes a particular type of program theory evaluation--logic analysis--that allows us to test the plausibility of a program's theory using scientific knowledge.…
Guide on Logical Database Design.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fong, Elizabeth N.; And Others
This report discusses an iterative methodology for logical database design (LDD). The methodology includes four phases: local information-flow modeling, global information-flow modeling, conceptual schema design, and external schema modeling. These phases are intended to make maximum use of available information and user expertise, including the…
Mathematical Induction: Deductive Logic Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dogan, Hamide
2016-01-01
Many studies mentioned the deductive nature of Mathematical Induction (MI) proofs but almost all fell short in explaining its potential role in the formation of the misconceptions reported in the literature. This paper is the first of its kind looking at the misconceptions from the perspective of the abstract of the deductive logic from one's…
Logical Empiricism, Politics, and Professionalism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edgar, Scott
2009-01-01
This paper considers George A. Reisch's account of the role of Cold War political forces in shaping the apolitical stance that came to dominate philosophy of science in the late 1940s and 1950s. It argues that at least as early as the 1930s, Logical Empiricists such as Rudolf Carnap already held that philosophy of science could not properly have…
Logical Empiricism, Politics, and Professionalism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edgar, Scott
2009-01-01
This paper considers George A. Reisch's account of the role of Cold War political forces in shaping the apolitical stance that came to dominate philosophy of science in the late 1940s and 1950s. It argues that at least as early as the 1930s, Logical Empiricists such as Rudolf Carnap already held that philosophy of science could not properly have…
Logical Reasoning and Retrieval Performance.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allen, Bryce
1993-01-01
A study of logical reasoning ability of endusers searching a CD-ROM index and its correlation to searching performance was conducted at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Findings showed a correlation between cognitive skills and citation selection and indicated that computer system design can be improved using a cognitive engineering…
Olbright, G.R.; Bryan, R.P.; Brennan, T.M.; Lear, K.; Poirier, G.E.; Fu, W.S. ); Jewell, J.L.; Lee, Y.H. )
1990-10-31
We describe a new class of optical logic devices which consist of integrated phototransistors and surface-emitting lasers. The devices function as optical neurons having high gain and, as arrays, are ideal for neural networks, parallel optical signal processing and optical computing applications. 3 refs., 3 figs.
Generic physical protection logic trees
Paulus, W.K.
1981-10-01
Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.
Logic synthesis from DDL description
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shiva, S. G.
1980-01-01
The implementation of DDLTRN and DDLSIM programs on SEL-2 computer system is reported. These programs were tested with DDL descriptions of various complexity. An algorithm to synthesize the combinational logic using the cells available in the standard IC cell library was formulated. The algorithm is implemented as a FORTRAN program and a description of the program is given.
Learning fuzzy logic control system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lung, Leung Kam
1994-01-01
The performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Control System (LFLCS), developed in this thesis, has been evaluated. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller (LFLC) learns to control the motor by learning the set of teaching values that are generated by a classical PI controller. It is assumed that the classical PI controller is tuned to minimize the error of a position control system of the D.C. motor. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller developed in this thesis is a multi-input single-output network. Training of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is implemented off-line. Upon completion of the training process (using Supervised Learning, and Unsupervised Learning), the LFLC replaces the classical PI controller. In this thesis, a closed loop position control system of a D.C. motor using the LFLC is implemented. The primary focus is on the learning capabilities of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller. The learning includes symbolic representation of the Input Linguistic Nodes set and Output Linguistic Notes set. In addition, we investigate the knowledge-based representation for the network. As part of the design process, we implement a digital computer simulation of the LFLCS. The computer simulation program is written in 'C' computer language, and it is implemented in DOS platform. The LFLCS, designed in this thesis, has been developed on a IBM compatible 486-DX2 66 computer. First, the performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is evaluated by comparing the angular shaft position of the D.C. motor controlled by a conventional PI controller and that controlled by the LFLC. Second, the symbolic representation of the LFLC and the knowledge-based representation for the network are investigated by observing the parameters of the Fuzzy Logic membership functions and the links at each layer of the LFLC. While there are some limitations of application with this approach, the result of the simulation shows that the LFLC is able to control the angular shaft position of the
Hagiwara, Yoko; Nishio, Hisahide; Kitoh, Yoshihiko; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Narita, Naoko; Wada, Hiroko; Yokoyama, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Hajime; Matsuo, Masafumi )
1994-01-01
The mutations in one-third of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients remain unknown, as they do not involve gross rearrangements of the dystrophin gene. The authors now report a defect in the splicing of precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA), resulting from a maternally inherited mutation of the dystrophin gene in a patient with Becker muscular dystrophy. This defect results from a G-to-T transversion at the terminal nucleotide of exon 13, within the 5[prime] splice site of intron 13, and causes complete skipping of exon 13 during processing of dystrophin pre-mRNA. The predicted polypeptide encoded by the aberrant mRNA is a truncated dystrophin lacking 40 amino acids from the amino-proximal end of the rod domain. This is the first report of an intraexon point mutation that completely inactivates a 5[prime] splice donor site in dystrophin pre-mRNA. Analysis of the genomic context of the G[sup [minus]1]-to-T mutation at the 5[prime] splice site supports the exon-definition model of pre-mRNA splicing and contributes to the understanding of splice-site selection. 48 refs., 5 figs.
Cybulski, S.M.; Kendall, R.A.; Chalasinski, G.; Severson, M.W.; Szczesniak, M.M.
1997-05-01
A potential energy surface for the Ar({sup 1}S)+O{sub 2}(X{sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup {minus}}) interaction is calculated using the supermolecular unrestricted Mo/ller{endash}Plesset (UMP) perturbation theory and analyzed via the perturbation theory of intermolecular forces. The global minimum occurs for the T-shaped geometry, around 6.7a{sub 0}. Our UMP4 estimate of the well depth of the global minimum is D{sub e}=117cm{sup {minus}1} and the related ground state dissociation energy obtained by diffusion Monte Carlo calculations is 88cm{sup {minus}1}. These values are expected to be accurate to within a few percent. The potential energy surface also reveals a local minimum for the collinear geometry at ca{approximately}7.6a{sub 0}. The well depth for the secondary minimum at the UMP4 level is estimated at D{sub e}=104cm{sup {minus}1}. The minima are separated by a barrier of 23cm{sup {minus}1}. The global minimum is determined by the minimum in the exchange repulsion in the direction perpendicular to the O{endash}O bond. The secondary, linear minimum is enhanced by a slight flattening of the electron density near the ends of the interoxygen axis. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Quantum Logics of Idempotents of Unital Rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bikchentaev, Airat; Navara, Mirko; Yakushev, Rinat
2015-06-01
We introduce some new examples of quantum logics of idempotents in a ring. We continue the study of symmetric logics, i.e., collections of subsets generalizing Boolean algebras and closed under the symmetric difference.
SASIL. Sandia ATM SONET Interface Logic
Kitta, J P
1994-07-01
SASIL is used to program the EPLD`s (Erasable Programmable Logic Devices) and PAL`s (Programmable Array Logic) that make up a large percentage of the Sandia ATM SONET Interface (OC3 version) for the INTEL Paragon.
Tribotronic Logic Circuits and Basic Operations.
Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Li Min; Tang, Wei; Han, Chang Bao; Wang, Zhong Lin
2015-06-17
A tribotronic logic device is fabricated to convert external mechanical stimuli into logic level signals, and tribotronic logic circuits such as NOT, AND, OR, NAND, NOR, XOR, and XNOR gates are demonstrated for performing mechanical-electrical coupled tribotronic logic operations, which realize the direct interaction between the external environment and the current silicon integrated circuits. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Computerized logic design of digital circuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sussow, S.; Oglesby, R.
1973-01-01
This manual presents a computer program that performs all the work required for the logic design of digital counters or sequential circuits and the simplification of Boolean logic expressions. The program provides both the experienced and inexperienced logic designer with a comprehensive logic design capability. The manual contains Boolean simplification and sequential design theory, detailed instructions for use of the program, a large number of illustrative design examples, and complete program documentation.
An Introduction to Calculator Logic Systems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mitchell, Charles E.; Blume, Glendon W.
1980-01-01
Each of the hand-held calculator logic systems found on the market today is introduced, along with some of the advantages and disadvantages of each. The systems reviewed are: arithmetic logic, algebraic logic-no hierarchy, algebraic operating system, and reverse polish notation. (MP)
Logics of Business Education for Sustainability
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Andersson, Pernilla; Öhman, Johan
2016-01-01
This paper explores various kinds of logics of "business education for sustainability" and how these "logics" position the subject business person, based on eight teachers' reasoning of their own practices. The concept of logics developed within a discourse theoretical framework is employed to analyse the teachers' reasoning.…
Piaget's Logic of Meanings: Still Relevant Today
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wavering, Michael James
2011-01-01
In his last book, "Toward a Logic of Meanings" (Piaget & Garcia, 1991), Jean Piaget describes how thought can be categorized into a form of propositional logic, a logic of meanings. The intent of this article is to offer this analysis by Piaget as a means to understand the language and teaching of science. Using binary propositions, conjunctions,…
Lakoff on Linguistics and Natural Logic.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilks, Yorick
This paper examines and criticizes Lakoff's notions of a natural logic and of a generative semantics described in terms of logic. The author argues that the relationship of these notions to logic as normally understood is unclear but suggests a number of possible interpretations of the thesis of generative semantics. Further, on these…
Piaget's Logic of Meanings: Still Relevant Today
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wavering, Michael James
2011-01-01
In his last book, "Toward a Logic of Meanings" (Piaget & Garcia, 1991), Jean Piaget describes how thought can be categorized into a form of propositional logic, a logic of meanings. The intent of this article is to offer this analysis by Piaget as a means to understand the language and teaching of science. Using binary propositions, conjunctions,…
Logics of Business Education for Sustainability
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Andersson, Pernilla; Öhman, Johan
2016-01-01
This paper explores various kinds of logics of "business education for sustainability" and how these "logics" position the subject business person, based on eight teachers' reasoning of their own practices. The concept of logics developed within a discourse theoretical framework is employed to analyse the teachers' reasoning.…
Applications of Logic Coverage Criteria and Logic Mutation to Software Testing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kaminski, Garrett K.
2011-01-01
Logic is an important component of software. Thus, software logic testing has enjoyed significant research over a period of decades, with renewed interest in the last several years. One approach to detecting logic faults is to create and execute tests that satisfy logic coverage criteria. Another approach to detecting faults is to perform mutation…
Applications of Logic Coverage Criteria and Logic Mutation to Software Testing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kaminski, Garrett K.
2011-01-01
Logic is an important component of software. Thus, software logic testing has enjoyed significant research over a period of decades, with renewed interest in the last several years. One approach to detecting logic faults is to create and execute tests that satisfy logic coverage criteria. Another approach to detecting faults is to perform mutation…
Fuzzy Versions of Epistemic and Deontic Logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gounder, Ramasamy S.; Esterline, Albert C.
1998-01-01
Epistemic and deontic logics are modal logics, respectively, of knowledge and of the normative concepts of obligation, permission, and prohibition. Epistemic logic is useful in formalizing systems of communicating processes and knowledge and belief in AI (Artificial Intelligence). Deontic logic is useful in computer science wherever we must distinguish between actual and ideal behavior, as in fault tolerance and database integrity constraints. We here discuss fuzzy versions of these logics. In the crisp versions, various axioms correspond to various properties of the structures used in defining the semantics of the logics. Thus, any axiomatic theory will be characterized not only by its axioms but also by the set of properties holding of the corresponding semantic structures. Fuzzy logic does not proceed with axiomatic systems, but fuzzy versions of the semantic properties exist and can be shown to correspond to some of the axioms for the crisp systems in special ways that support dependency networks among assertions in a modal domain. This in turn allows one to implement truth maintenance systems. For the technical development of epistemic logic, and for that of deontic logic. To our knowledge, we are the first to address fuzzy epistemic and fuzzy deontic logic explicitly and to consider the different systems and semantic properties available. We give the syntax and semantics of epistemic logic and discuss the correspondence between axioms of epistemic logic and properties of semantic structures. The same topics are covered for deontic logic. Fuzzy epistemic and fuzzy deontic logic discusses the relationship between axioms and semantic properties for these logics. Our results can be exploited in truth maintenance systems.
An Embedded Reconfigurable Logic Module
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tucker, Jerry H.; Klenke, Robert H.; Shams, Qamar A. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
A Miniature Embedded Reconfigurable Computer and Logic (MERCAL) module has been developed and verified. MERCAL was designed to be a general-purpose, universal module that that can provide significant hardware and software resources to meet the requirements of many of today's complex embedded applications. This is accomplished in the MERCAL module by combining a sub credit card size PC in a DIMM form factor with a XILINX Spartan I1 FPGA. The PC has the ability to download program files to the FPGA to configure it for different hardware functions and to transfer data to and from the FPGA via the PC's ISA bus during run time. The MERCAL module combines, in a compact package, the computational power of a 133 MHz PC with up to 150,000 gate equivalents of digital logic that can be reconfigured by software. The general architecture and functionality of the MERCAL hardware and system software are described.
Nanowire NMOS Logic Inverter Characterization.
Hashim, Yasir
2016-06-01
This study is the first to demonstrate characteristics optimization of nanowire N-Channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor (NW-MOS) logic inverter. Noise margins and inflection voltage of transfer characteristics are used as limiting factors in this optimization. A computer-based model used to produce static characteristics of NW-NMOS logic inverter. In this research two circuit configuration of NW-NMOS inverter was studied, in first NW-NMOS circuit, the noise margin for (low input-high output) condition was very low. For second NMOS circuit gives excellent noise margins, and results indicate that optimization depends on applied voltage to the inverter. Increasing gate to source voltage with (2/1) nanowires ratio results better noise margins. Increasing of applied DC load transistor voltage tends to increasing in decreasing noise margins; decreasing this voltage will improve noise margins significantly.
The logic of medical diagnosis.
Stanley, Donald E; Campos, Daniel G
2013-01-01
Establishing diagnoses is a crucial aspect of medical practice. However, this process has received comparatively little logical and pedagogical attention when compared to statistical methods for evaluating evidence. This article investigates the logic of medical diagnosis in order to fill this void. It is organized in three parts: the first attempts to explain why more attention ought to be paid to diagnosis, at least as much as to evidence; the second calls attention to the method of diagnosis by abductive reasoning developed in the 19th century by Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914); and the third demonstrates the use and pervasiveness of abduction by any other name in clinical diagnosis. We examine six diagnostic strategies in common use that contain most, if not all, of Peirce's structure of inquiry in science.
The Logic Behind Feynman's Paths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García Álvarez, Edgardo T.
The classical notions of continuity and mechanical causality are left in order to reformulate the Quantum Theory starting from two principles: (I) the intrinsic randomness of quantum process at microphysical level, (II) the projective representations of symmetries of the system. The second principle determines the geometry and then a new logic for describing the history of events (Feynman's paths) that modifies the rules of classical probabilistic calculus. The notion of classical trajectory is replaced by a history of spontaneous, random and discontinuous events. So the theory is reduced to determining the probability distribution for such histories accordingly with the symmetries of the system. The representation of the logic in terms of amplitudes leads to Feynman rules and, alternatively, its representation in terms of projectors results in the Schwinger trace formula.
Parallel optical logic operations on reversible networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shamir, Joseph
2013-03-01
A generic optical network architecture is proposed for the implementation of programmable logic operations. Based on reversible optical gate elements the processor is highly energy efficient and intrinsically fast. In this architecture the whole logic operation is executed by light propagating through the system with no energy dissipation. Energy must be spent only at the input interface and at discrete locations where the logic operation results are to be detected. As a consequence, the theoretical lower limit for energy dissipation in logic operations must be reconsidered. The strength of this approach is demonstrated by examples showing the implementation of various lossless logic operations, including Half Adder and Full Adder.
All-optical symmetric ternary logic gate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chattopadhyay, Tanay
2010-09-01
Symmetric ternary number (radix=3) has three logical states (1¯, 0, 1). It is very much useful in carry free arithmetical operation. Beside this, the logical operation using this type of number system is also effective in high speed computation and communication in multi-valued logic. In this literature all-optical circuits for three basic symmetrical ternary logical operations (inversion, MIN and MAX) are proposed and described. Numerical simulation verifies the theoretical model. In this present scheme the different ternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch has been used categorically in this manuscript.
Anaesthesia monitoring using fuzzy logic.
Baig, Mirza Mansoor; Gholamhosseini, Hamid; Kouzani, Abbas; Harrison, Michael J
2011-10-01
Humans have a limited ability to accurately and continuously analyse large amount of data. In recent times, there has been a rapid growth in patient monitoring and medical data analysis using smart monitoring systems. Fuzzy logic-based expert systems, which can mimic human thought processes in complex circumstances, have indicated potential to improve clinicians' performance and accurately execute repetitive tasks to which humans are ill-suited. The main goal of this study is to develop a clinically useful diagnostic alarm system based on fuzzy logic for detecting critical events during anaesthesia administration. The proposed diagnostic alarm system called fuzzy logic monitoring system (FLMS) is presented. New diagnostic rules and membership functions (MFs) are developed. In addition, fuzzy inference system (FIS), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), and clustering techniques are explored for developing the FLMS' diagnostic modules. The performance of FLMS which is based on fuzzy logic expert diagnostic systems is validated through a series of off-line tests. The training and testing data set are selected randomly from 30 sets of patients' data. The accuracy of diagnoses generated by the FLMS was validated by comparing the diagnostic information with the one provided by an anaesthetist for each patient. Kappa-analysis was used for measuring the level of agreement between the anaesthetist's and FLMS's diagnoses. When detecting hypovolaemia, a substantial level of agreement was observed between FLMS and the human expert (the anaesthetist) during surgical procedures. The diagnostic alarm system FLMS demonstrated that evidence-based expert diagnostic systems can diagnose hypovolaemia, with a substantial degree of accuracy, in anaesthetized patients and could be useful in delivering decision support to anaesthetists.
Cosmic logic: a computational model
Vanchurin, Vitaly
2016-02-01
We initiate a formal study of logical inferences in context of the measure problem in cosmology or what we call cosmic logic. We describe a simple computational model of cosmic logic suitable for analysis of, for example, discretized cosmological systems. The construction is based on a particular model of computation, developed by Alan Turing, with cosmic observers (CO), cosmic measures (CM) and cosmic symmetries (CS) described by Turing machines. CO machines always start with a blank tape and CM machines take CO's Turing number (also known as description number or Gödel number) as input and output the corresponding probability. Similarly, CS machines take CO's Turing number as input, but output either one if the CO machines are in the same equivalence class or zero otherwise. We argue that CS machines are more fundamental than CM machines and, thus, should be used as building blocks in constructing CM machines. We prove the non-computability of a CS machine which discriminates between two classes of CO machines: mortal that halts in finite time and immortal that runs forever. In context of eternal inflation this result implies that it is impossible to construct CM machines to compute probabilities on the set of all CO machines using cut-off prescriptions. The cut-off measures can still be used if the set is reduced to include only machines which halt after a finite and predetermined number of steps.
Skelton, R M
1995-04-01
This paper introduces the reader to modern logic, more particularly the branch of logic called 'Model Theory', which is extensively used by Bion. Logic today is no longer described as the study of 'valid inference', but rather by the notion of consistency of beliefs. This central concern of the logician with consistency is also seen to be that of the psychoanalyst when he aims for eventual resolution of conflict between a patient's contradictory beliefs. Models are explained as the use of the already familiar to explain the unfamiliar, as when, for example, we invoke our familiar planetary system to understand the complex structure of the atom. In psychoanalysis we seek to find the old childhood models underpinning a patient's contemporary model of himself and others. Thus both Model Theory and psychoanalysis are interested in how we 'see the new in terms of the old'. Finally, the creation of models is assimilated to the integrative tendency of depressive activity and the dissolving or collapsing of models linked to paranoid-schizoid activity. As these two processes in the individual are linked by Bion we can see human beings as continually oscillating between creating and destroying models of their inner and outer worlds.
All-photonic multifunctional molecular logic device.
Andréasson, Joakim; Pischel, Uwe; Straight, Stephen D; Moore, Thomas A; Moore, Ana L; Gust, Devens
2011-08-03
Photochromes are photoswitchable, bistable chromophores which, like transistors, can implement binary logic operations. When several photochromes are combined in one molecule, interactions between them such as energy and electron transfer allow design of simple Boolean logic gates and more complex logic devices with all-photonic inputs and outputs. Selective isomerization of individual photochromes can be achieved using light of different wavelengths, and logic outputs can employ absorption and emission properties at different wavelengths, thus allowing a single molecular species to perform several different functions, even simultaneously. Here, we report a molecule consisting of three linked photochromes that can be configured as AND, XOR, INH, half-adder, half-subtractor, multiplexer, demultiplexer, encoder, decoder, keypad lock, and logically reversible transfer gate logic devices, all with a common initial state. The system demonstrates the advantages of light-responsive molecules as multifunctional, reconfigurable nanoscale logic devices that represent an approach to true molecular information processing units.
All-Photonic Multifunctional Molecular Logic Device
2011-01-01
Photochromes are photoswitchable, bistable chromophores which, like transistors, can implement binary logic operations. When several photochromes are combined in one molecule, interactions between them such as energy and electron transfer allow design of simple Boolean logic gates and more complex logic devices with all-photonic inputs and outputs. Selective isomerization of individual photochromes can be achieved using light of different wavelengths, and logic outputs can employ absorption and emission properties at different wavelengths, thus allowing a single molecular species to perform several different functions, even simultaneously. Here, we report a molecule consisting of three linked photochromes that can be configured as AND, XOR, INH, half-adder, half-subtractor, multiplexer, demultiplexer, encoder, decoder, keypad lock, and logically reversible transfer gate logic devices, all with a common initial state. The system demonstrates the advantages of light-responsive molecules as multifunctional, reconfigurable nanoscale logic devices that represent an approach to true molecular information processing units. PMID:21563823
Chen, Wang E-mail: okakent@okayama-u.ac.jp Kawaguchi, Kentarou E-mail: okakent@okayama-u.ac.jp Tang, Jian; Bernath, Peter F. E-mail: okakent@okayama-u.ac.jp
2016-02-14
Thirteen bands for the B{sup 1}Δ{sub g}–A{sup 1}Π{sub u} system and eleven bands for the B{sup ′1}Σ{sub g}{sup +}–A{sup 1}Π{sub u} system of C{sub 2} were identified in the Fourier transform infrared emission spectra of hydrocarbon discharges. The B{sup ′1}Σ{sub g}{sup +} v = 4 and the B{sup 1}Δ{sub g} v = 6, 7, and 8 vibrational levels involved in nine bands were studied for the first time. A direct global analysis with Dunham parameters was carried out satisfactorily for the B{sup 1}Δ{sub g}–A{sup 1}Π{sub u} system except for a small perturbation in the B{sup 1}Δ{sub g} v = 6 level. The calculated rovibrational term energies up to B{sup 1}Δ{sub g} v = 12 showed that the level crossing between the B{sup 1}Δ{sub g} and d{sup 3}Π{sub g} states is responsible for many of the prominent perturbations in the Swan system observed previously. Nineteen forbidden transitions of the B{sup 1}Δ{sub g}–a{sup 3}Π{sub u} transition were identified and the off-diagonal spin-orbit interaction constant A{sub dB} between d{sup 3}Π{sub g} and B{sup 1}Δ{sub g} was derived as 8.3(1) cm{sup −1}. For the B{sup ′1}Σ{sub g}{sup +}–A{sup 1}Π{sub u} system, only individual band analyses for each vibrational level in the B′{sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +} state could be done satisfactorily and Dunham parameters obtained from these effective parameters showed that the anharmonic vibrational constant ω{sub e}x{sub e} is anomalously small (nearly zero). Inspection of the RKR (Rydberg-Klein-Rees) potential curves for the B{sup ′1}Σ{sub g}{sup +} and X{sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +} states revealed that an avoided crossing or nearly avoided crossing may occur around 30 000 cm{sup −1}, which is responsible for the anomalous molecular constants in these two states.
The logic of relations and the logic of management.
Buntinx, W
2008-07-01
Increasing emphasis on financial and administrative control processes is affecting service culture in support organisations for persons with intellectual disability. This phenomenon is currently obvious in Dutch service organisations that find themselves in transition towards more community care and at the same time under pressure from new administrative and funding managerial bureaucracy. As a result, the logic of management is becoming more dominant in direct support settings and risk to overshadow the logic of relationships between staff and clients. The article presents a reflection on this phenomenon, starting from a description of service team characteristics as found in the literature. Next, findings about direct support staff (DSS) continuity are summarised from four Dutch studies. Following up these findings, the concept of 'microsystems' is explored as a possible answer to the organisational challenges demonstrated in the studies. Team characteristics, especially team size and membership continuity for DSS, appear relevant factors for assuring supportive relationships and service quality in direct support teams. The structure of the primary support team shows to be of special interest. The organisational concept of 'microsystems' is explored with respect to transcending the present conflict between bureaucratic managerial pressure and the need for supportive relationships. Service organisations need to create structural conditions for the efficacy of direct support teams in terms of client relationships and relevant client outcomes. At the same time, the need for administrative and control processes can not be denied. The concept of 'microsystems', application of a Quality of Life framework and the use of new instruments, such as the Supports Intensity Scale, can contribute to an organisational solution for the present conflicting logic of relations and management.
The universal magnetic tunnel junction logic gates representing 16 binary Boolean logic operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Junwoo; Suh, Dong Ik; Park, Wanjun
2015-05-01
The novel devices are expected to shift the paradigm of a logic operation by their own nature, replacing the conventional devices. In this study, the nature of our fabricated magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) that responds to the two external inputs, magnetic field and voltage bias, demonstrated seven basic logic operations. The seven operations were obtained by the electric-field-assisted switching characteristics, where the surface magnetoelectric effect occurs due to a sufficiently thin free layer. The MTJ was transformed as a universal logic gate combined with three supplementary circuits: A multiplexer (MUX), a Wheatstone bridge, and a comparator. With these circuits, the universal logic gates demonstrated 16 binary Boolean logic operations in one logic stage. A possible further approach is parallel computations through a complimentary of MUX and comparator, capable of driving multiple logic gates. A reconfigurable property can also be realized when different logic operations are produced from different level of voltages applying to the same configuration of the logic gate.
Pan, Deng; Wei, Hong; Xu, Hongxing
2013-04-22
Optical interferometric logic gates in metal slot waveguide network are designed and investigated by electromagnetic simulations. The designed logic gates can realize all fundamental logic operations. A single Y-shaped junction can work as logic gate for four logic functions: AND, NOT, OR and XOR. By cascading two Y-shaped junctions, NAND, NOR and XNOR can be realized. The working principle is analyzed in detail. In the simulations, these gates show large intensity contrast for the Boolean logic states of the output. These results can be useful for future integrated optical computing.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pryor, Richard Lee (Inventor)
1977-01-01
A line driver including a pair of complementary transistors having their conduction paths serially connected between an operating and a reference potential and their bases connected through a first switch to a signal input terminal. A second switch is connected between the common base connection and the common connection of the conduction paths. With the second switch open and the first closed, an output voltage, responsive to the input signal, corresponding to first or second binary values is obtained. When the second switch is closed and the first opened, the transistor pair is turned off, disconnecting the line driver from its load, thereby providing tri-state logic operation.
Freedman, Michael H.
1998-01-01
We introduce “ultrafilter limits” into the classical Turing model of computation and develop a paradigm for interpreting the problem of distinguishing the class P from NP as a logical problem of decidability. We use P(NP) to denote decision problems which can be solved on a (nondeterministic) Turing machine in polynomial time. The concept is that in an appropriate limit it may be possible to prove that problems in P are still decidable, so a problem whose limit is undecidable would be established as lying outside of P. PMID:9419334
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, Moshe; Maimon, Oded
2016-11-01
We strive to understand, by using mathematical tools, the phenomena where the observer can interpret simultaneously opposite situations, such as the distinct interpretations of the Necker cube. In this study we present a new coordinate system that draws a distinction between -0 and +0. The central theorem presented here postulates that when divisions and multiplications of 0 are combined with real numbers, the Mobius strip provides a model for non-standard analysis. We also suggest that the axis 0 is the fifth dimension extension of the quaternions. We also propose to add the soft logic capability to humanoid type robots, as a way to overcome the Turing test.
Jelassi, H.; De Lesegno, B. Viaris; Pruvost, L.
2007-09-19
We report on the study of the (ns{sub 1/2}+np{sub 1/2})0{sub g}{sup -}Rb{sub 2} and Cs{sub 2} weakly-bound-level photoassociative spectroscopy in a magneto-optical trap. For the analysis, a Lu-Fano graph is plotted for each set of data. We show that an improved LeRoy-Bernstein formula must to be used. The data is then analysed by a classical procedure using the improved LeRoy-Bernstein formula. The (ns{sub 1/2}+np{sub 1/2})0{sub g}{sup -}Rb{sub 2} and Cs{sub 2} multipolar coefficients c{sub 6} are fitted. They are found to be in good agreement with previous results.
Synthesizing Biomolecule-based Boolean Logic Gates
Miyamoto, Takafumi; Razavi, Shiva; DeRose, Robert; Inoue, Takanari
2012-01-01
One fascinating recent avenue of study in the field of synthetic biology is the creation of biomolecule-based computers. The main components of a computing device consist of an arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, memory, and the input and output devices. Boolean logic gates are at the core of the operational machinery of these parts, hence to make biocomputers a reality, biomolecular logic gates become a necessity. Indeed, with the advent of more sophisticated biological tools, both nucleic acid- and protein-based logic systems have been generated. These devices function in the context of either test tubes or living cells and yield highly specific outputs given a set of inputs. In this review, we discuss various types of biomolecular logic gates that have been synthesized, with particular emphasis on recent developments that promise increased complexity of logic gate circuitry, improved computational speed, and potential clinical applications. PMID:23526588
Molecular processors: from qubits to fuzzy logic.
Gentili, Pier Luigi
2011-03-14
Single molecules or their assemblies are information processing devices. Herein it is demonstrated how it is possible to process different types of logic through molecules. As long as decoherent effects are maintained far away from a pure quantum mechanical system, quantum logic can be processed. If the collapse of superimposed or entangled wavefunctions is unavoidable, molecules can still be used to process either crisp (binary or multi-valued) or fuzzy logic. The way for implementing fuzzy inference engines is declared and it is supported by the examples of molecular fuzzy logic systems devised so far. Fuzzy logic is drawing attention in the field of artificial intelligence, because it models human reasoning quite well. This ability may be due to some structural analogies between a fuzzy logic system and the human nervous system. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Electronic logic for enhanced switch reliability
Cooper, J.A.
1984-01-20
A logic circuit is used to enhance redundant switch reliability. Two or more switches are monitored for logical high or low output. The output for the logic circuit produces a redundant and fail-safe representation of the switch outputs. When both switch outputs are high, the output is high. Similarly, when both switch outputs are low, the logic circuit's output is low. When the output states of the two switches do not agree, the circuit resolves the conflict by memorizing the last output state which both switches were simultaneously in and produces the logical complement of this output state. Thus, the logic circuit of the present invention allows the redundant switches to be treated as if they were in parallel when the switches are open and as if they were in series when the switches are closed. A failsafe system having maximum reliability is thereby produced.
Synthesizing biomolecule-based Boolean logic gates.
Miyamoto, Takafumi; Razavi, Shiva; DeRose, Robert; Inoue, Takanari
2013-02-15
One fascinating recent avenue of study in the field of synthetic biology is the creation of biomolecule-based computers. The main components of a computing device consist of an arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, memory, and the input and output devices. Boolean logic gates are at the core of the operational machinery of these parts, and hence to make biocomputers a reality, biomolecular logic gates become a necessity. Indeed, with the advent of more sophisticated biological tools, both nucleic acid- and protein-based logic systems have been generated. These devices function in the context of either test tubes or living cells and yield highly specific outputs given a set of inputs. In this review, we discuss various types of biomolecular logic gates that have been synthesized, with particular emphasis on recent developments that promise increased complexity of logic gate circuitry, improved computational speed, and potential clinical applications.
[Continuity and transformation of body logic].
Bolens, Guillemette
2003-01-01
This article is concerned with two distinct corporeal logics. In the first, corporeality is founded on joints, tendons, and mobility; in the second, the envelope and its apertures are considered primordial. The first logic is extant in very few works. Although these texts (e.g. The Iliad, Beowulf) clearly share the same, very specific, conception of the body, they belong to different histories. The corporeal logic of the 'jointed body' (corps articulaire) cannot, therefore, be appraised in terms of longue durée. The texts represent, instead, a moment of transition between the psychodynamics of orality and literacy. A problem correlated to this fact is that readers (ancient and modern) no longer think using the same logic as that pertaining to the jointed body. They tend to translate information regarding the logic of the jointed body into data meaningful in their own logic.
Minuteman Weapon System Test Set logic replacement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Royse, S. D.
In the late 1960s, the Minuteman Weapon System Test Set was constructed as a part of the Minuteman development program. The missile Reentry Vehicle is that portion of the Minuteman missile system which reenters the atmosphere with the nuclear warhead. The test set has the objective to test the electrical/electro-mechanical systems and components of the reentry vehicle at both the repair depot and missile maintenance squadron levels. With the recent advances in semiconductor technologies, the Diode Transistor Logic (DTL) technology used to implement the test set logic became obsolete. The present paper is concerned with efforts to develop a prototype replacement for the test set logic. Attention is given to the functions of the test set, the documentation of existing logic, and the prototype design approach, which involves the subdivision of the logic into three basic functional groups. The logic replacement is based on the utilization of a multiple microprocessor system.
People Like Logical Truth: Testing the Intuitive Detection of Logical Value in Basic Propositions
2016-01-01
Recent studies on logical reasoning have suggested that people are intuitively aware of the logical validity of syllogisms or that they intuitively detect conflict between heuristic responses and logical norms via slight changes in their feelings. According to logical intuition studies, logically valid or heuristic logic no-conflict reasoning is fluently processed and induces positive feelings without conscious awareness. One criticism states that such effects of logicality disappear when confounding factors such as the content of syllogisms are controlled. The present study used abstract propositions and tested whether people intuitively detect logical value. Experiment 1 presented four logical propositions (conjunctive, biconditional, conditional, and material implications) regarding a target case and asked the participants to rate the extent to which they liked the statement. Experiment 2 tested the effects of matching bias, as well as intuitive logic, on the reasoners’ feelings by manipulating whether the antecedent or consequent (or both) of the conditional was affirmed or negated. The results showed that both logicality and matching bias affected the reasoners’ feelings, and people preferred logically true targets over logically false ones for all forms of propositions. These results suggest that people intuitively detect what is true from what is false during abstract reasoning. Additionally, a Bayesian mixed model meta-analysis of conditionals indicated that people’s intuitive interpretation of the conditional “if p then q” fits better with the conditional probability, q given p. PMID:28036402
Characterizing Kripke Structures in Temporal Logic.
1987-12-01
Emerson, A.P. Sistla . Automatic Verification of Finite-State Concurrent Systems using Temporal Logic Specifications: A Practical Approach. Tenth ACM...Machinery, Austin, Texas, January, 1982. to appear in JACM. 5. E. A. Emerson and P. Sistla . Deciding Full Branching-time Logic. The Sixteenth Annual... Sistla , E.M. Clarke. "Complexity of Propositional Linear Temporal Logics". Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery 32, 3 (July 1985), 733-749
Fuzzy logic based robotic controller
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Attia, F.; Upadhyaya, M.
1994-01-01
Existing Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) robotic controllers rely on an inverse kinematic model to convert user-specified cartesian trajectory coordinates to joint variables. These joints experience friction, stiction, and gear backlash effects. Due to lack of proper linearization of these effects, modern control theory based on state space methods cannot provide adequate control for robotic systems. In the presence of loads, the dynamic behavior of robotic systems is complex and nonlinear, especially where mathematical modeling is evaluated for real-time operators. Fuzzy Logic Control is a fast emerging alternative to conventional control systems in situations where it may not be feasible to formulate an analytical model of the complex system. Fuzzy logic techniques track a user-defined trajectory without having the host computer to explicitly solve the nonlinear inverse kinematic equations. The goal is to provide a rule-based approach, which is closer to human reasoning. The approach used expresses end-point error, location of manipulator joints, and proximity to obstacles as fuzzy variables. The resulting decisions are based upon linguistic and non-numerical information. This paper presents a solution to the conventional robot controller which is independent of computationally intensive kinematic equations. Computer simulation results of this approach as obtained from software implementation are also discussed.
Fuzzy Logic for Incidence Geometry
2016-01-01
The paper presents a mathematical framework for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects in the context of Geography, in which all entities and their relationships are described by human language. These entities could be labelled by commonly used names of landmarks, water areas, and so forth. Unlike single points that are given in Cartesian coordinates, these geographic entities are extended in space and often loosely defined, but people easily perform spatial reasoning with extended geographic objects “as if they were points.” Unfortunately, up to date, geographic information systems (GIS) miss the capability of geometric reasoning with extended objects. The aim of the paper is to present a mathematical apparatus for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects that is usable in GIS. In the paper we discuss the fuzzy logic (Aliev and Tserkovny, 2011) as a reasoning system for geometry of extended objects, as well as a basis for fuzzification of the axioms of incidence geometry. The same fuzzy logic was used for fuzzification of Euclid's first postulate. Fuzzy equivalence relation “extended lines sameness” is introduced. For its approximation we also utilize a fuzzy conditional inference, which is based on proposed fuzzy “degree of indiscernibility” and “discernibility measure” of extended points. PMID:27689133
Logic circuits from zero forcing.
Burgarth, Daniel; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Hogben, Leslie; Severini, Simone; Young, Michael
We design logic circuits based on the notion of zero forcing on graphs; each gate of the circuits is a gadget in which zero forcing is performed. We show that such circuits can evaluate every monotone Boolean function. By using two vertices to encode each logical bit, we obtain universal computation. We also highlight a phenomenon of "back forcing" as a property of each function. Such a phenomenon occurs in a circuit when the input of gates which have been already used at a given time step is further modified by a computation actually performed at a later stage. Finally, we show that zero forcing can be also used to implement reversible computation. The model introduced here provides a potentially new tool in the analysis of Boolean functions, with particular attention to monotonicity. Moreover, in the light of applications of zero forcing in quantum mechanics, the link with Boolean functions may suggest a new directions in quantum control theory and in the study of engineered quantum spin systems. It is an open technical problem to verify whether there is a link between zero forcing and computation with contact circuits.
HDL to verification logic translator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.
The increasingly higher number of transistors possible in VLSI circuits compounds the difficulty in insuring correct designs. As the number of possible test cases required to exhaustively simulate a circuit design explodes, a better method is required to confirm the absence of design faults. Formal verification methods provide a way to prove, using logic, that a circuit structure correctly implements its specification. Before verification is accepted by VLSI design engineers, the stand alone verification tools that are in use in the research community must be integrated with the CAD tools used by the designers. One problem facing the acceptance of formal verification into circuit design methodology is that the structural circuit descriptions used by the designers are not appropriate for verification work and those required for verification lack some of the features needed for design. We offer a solution to this dilemma: an automatic translation from the designers' HDL models into definitions for the higher-ordered logic (HOL) verification system. The translated definitions become the low level basis of circuit verification which in turn increases the designer's confidence in the correctness of higher level behavioral models.
Fuzzy Logic for Incidence Geometry.
Tserkovny, Alex
The paper presents a mathematical framework for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects in the context of Geography, in which all entities and their relationships are described by human language. These entities could be labelled by commonly used names of landmarks, water areas, and so forth. Unlike single points that are given in Cartesian coordinates, these geographic entities are extended in space and often loosely defined, but people easily perform spatial reasoning with extended geographic objects "as if they were points." Unfortunately, up to date, geographic information systems (GIS) miss the capability of geometric reasoning with extended objects. The aim of the paper is to present a mathematical apparatus for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects that is usable in GIS. In the paper we discuss the fuzzy logic (Aliev and Tserkovny, 2011) as a reasoning system for geometry of extended objects, as well as a basis for fuzzification of the axioms of incidence geometry. The same fuzzy logic was used for fuzzification of Euclid's first postulate. Fuzzy equivalence relation "extended lines sameness" is introduced. For its approximation we also utilize a fuzzy conditional inference, which is based on proposed fuzzy "degree of indiscernibility" and "discernibility measure" of extended points.
HDL to verification logic translator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.
1992-01-01
The increasingly higher number of transistors possible in VLSI circuits compounds the difficulty in insuring correct designs. As the number of possible test cases required to exhaustively simulate a circuit design explodes, a better method is required to confirm the absence of design faults. Formal verification methods provide a way to prove, using logic, that a circuit structure correctly implements its specification. Before verification is accepted by VLSI design engineers, the stand alone verification tools that are in use in the research community must be integrated with the CAD tools used by the designers. One problem facing the acceptance of formal verification into circuit design methodology is that the structural circuit descriptions used by the designers are not appropriate for verification work and those required for verification lack some of the features needed for design. We offer a solution to this dilemma: an automatic translation from the designers' HDL models into definitions for the higher-ordered logic (HOL) verification system. The translated definitions become the low level basis of circuit verification which in turn increases the designer's confidence in the correctness of higher level behavioral models.
River Protection Project (RPP) Level 0 Logic
SEEMAN, S.E.
2000-01-20
The following modifications were made to the River Protection Project Level-0 logic in going from Rev. I to Rev. 2. The first change was the change to the heading at the top of the drawing: ''TWRS Program Logic'' to ''River Protection Project Mission Logic''. Note that purely format changes (e.g., fonts, location of boxes, date format, addition of numbers to ''ghost'' boxes) are not discussed. However, the major format change was to show DOE-BNFL Inc. Interface Control Documents (ICDs) on the logic.
Probabilistic and fuzzy logic in clinical diagnosis.
Licata, G
2007-06-01
In this study I have compared classic and fuzzy logic and their usefulness in clinical diagnosis. The theory of probability is often considered a device to protect the classical two-valued logic from the evidence of its inadequacy to understand and show the complexity of world [1]. This can be true, but it is not possible to discard the theory of probability. I will argue that the problems and the application fields of the theory of probability are very different from those of fuzzy logic. After the introduction on the theoretical bases of fuzzy approach to logic, I have reported some diagnostic argumentations employing fuzzy logic. The state of normality and the state of disease often fight their battle on scalar quantities of biological values and it is not hard to establish a correspondence between the biological values and the percent values of fuzzy logic. Accordingly, I have suggested some applications of fuzzy logic in clinical diagnosis and in particular I have utilised a fuzzy curve to recognise subjects with diabetes mellitus, renal failure and liver disease. The comparison between classic and fuzzy logic findings seems to indicate that fuzzy logic is more adequate to study the development of biological events. In fact, fuzzy logic is useful when we have a lot of pieces of information and when we dispose to scalar quantities. In conclusion, increasingly the development of technology offers new instruments to measure pathological parameters through scalar quantities, thus it is reasonable to think that in the future fuzzy logic will be employed more in clinical diagnosis.
Logical Empiricism, Politics, and Professionalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edgar, Scott
2009-02-01
This paper considers George A. Reisch’s account of the role of Cold War political forces in shaping the apolitical stance that came to dominate philosophy of science in the late 1940s and 1950s. It argues that at least as early as the 1930s, Logical Empiricists such as Rudolf Carnap already held that philosophy of science could not properly have political aims, and further suggests that political forces alone cannot explain this view’s rise to dominance during the Cold War, since political forces cannot explain why a philosophy of science with liberal democratic, anti-communist aims did not flourish. The paper then argues that if professionalization is understood in the right way, it might point toward an explanation of the apolitical stance of Cold War philosophy of science.
A Logic for Qualified Syllogisms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwartz, Daniel G.
In various works, L.A. Zadeh has introduced fuzzy quantifiers, fuzzy usuality modifiers, and fuzzy likelihood modifiers. This paper provides these notions with a unified semantics and uses this to define a formal logic capable of expressing and validating arguments such as 'Most birds can fly; Tweety is a bird; therefore, it is likely that Tweety can fly'. In effect, these are classical Aristotelean syllogisms that have been "qualified" through the use of fuzzy quantifiers. It is briefly outlined how these, together with some likelihood combination rules, can be used to address some well-known problems in the theory of nonmonotonic reasoning. The work is aimed at future applications in expert systems and robotics, including both hardware and software agents.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jetli, Priyedarshi
Modern logic begins with Boole's The Mathematical Analysis of Logic when the algebra of logic was developed so that classical logic syllogisms were proven as algebraic equations and the turn from the logic of classes to propositional logic was suggested. The emergence was incomplete as Boole algebraised classical logic. Frege in Begriffsschrift replaced Aristotelian subject-predicate propositions by function and argument and displaced syllogisms with an axiomatic propositional calculus using conditionals, modus ponens and the law of substitution. Further Frege provided the breakthrough to lay down the groundwork for the development of quantified logic as well as the logic of relations. He achieved all of this through his innovative formal notations which have remained underrated. Frege hence completed the emergence of modern logic. Both Boole and Frege mathematised logic, but Frege's goal was to logicise mathematics. However the emergence of modern logic in Frege should be detached from his logicism.
Towards bioelectronic logic (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meredith, Paul; Mostert, Bernard; Sheliakina, Margarita; Carrad, Damon J.; Micolich, Adam P.
2016-09-01
One of the critical tasks in realising a bioelectronic interface is the transduction of ion and electron signals at high fidelity, and with appropriate speed, bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio [1]. This is a challenging task considering ions and electrons (or holes) have drastically different physics. For example, even the lightest ions (protons) have mobilities much smaller than electrons in the best semiconductors, effective masses are quite different, and at the most basic level, ions are `classical' entities and electrons `quantum mechanical'. These considerations dictate materials and device strategies for bioelectronic interfaces alongside practical aspects such as integration and biocompatibility [2]. In my talk I will detail these `differences in physics' that are pertinent to the ion-electron transduction challenge. From this analysis, I will summarise the basic categories of device architecture that are possibilities for transducing elements and give recent examples of their realisation. Ultimately, transducing elements need to be combined to create `bioelectronic logic' capable of signal processing at the interface level. In this regard, I will extend the discussion past the single element concept, and discuss our recent progress in delivering all-solids-state logic circuits based upon transducing interfaces. [1] "Ion bipolar junction transistors", K. Tybrandt, K.C. Larsson, A. Richter-Dahlfors and M. Berggren, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci., 107, 9929 (2010). [2] "Electronic and optoelectronic materials and devices inspired by nature", P Meredith, C.J. Bettinger, M. Irimia-Vladu, A.B. Mostert and P.E. Schwenn, Reports on Progress in Physics, 76, 034501 (2013).
Calculator Logic Systems and Mathematical Understandings.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burrows, Enid R.
This monograph is aimed at helping the reader understand the built-in logic of various calculator operating systems. It is an outgrowth of workshop contacts with in-service and pre-service teachers of mathematics and is in response to their request for a book on the subject of calculator logic systems and calculator algorithms. The mathematical…
Natural language understanding and logic programming
Dahl, V.; Saint-Dizier, P.
1985-01-01
Logic programming has been used in many natural language understanding applications, mainly in the areas of analysis, metagrammatical formalisms, logical treatment of linguistic problems, and meaning representations for naturla language. The particular methods and formal systems developed in this context usually exhibit attractive features of logic while remaining in the more pragmatic area of programming: conciseness, modularity, a declarative meaning that is independent from machine behaviour, and logical inference. All of these features, common to logic programming and to logic metagrammars, have been made possible through a chaining of various fundamental ideas. Outstanding among these are the resolution principle. Prolog itself; and interpretation of logic as a programming language. The machines of a relatively near future are likely to incorporate many related capabilities while increasing their speed manyfold. The Japanese Fifth Generation Computer project has triggered efforts towards future generations of computer systems based on these concepts. The potential in understanding natural language through logic programming is growing rapidly, and it might be wise to integrate the various theoretical and practical aspects involved, rather than yielding to the temptation of using all the extra power for programming ad-hoc systems. This conference is an effort toward such an integration.
Fuzzy Logic in Medicine and Bioinformatics
Torres, Angela; Nieto, Juan J.
2006-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to present a general view of the current applications of fuzzy logic in medicine and bioinformatics. We particularly review the medical literature using fuzzy logic. We then recall the geometrical interpretation of fuzzy sets as points in a fuzzy hypercube and present two concrete illustrations in medicine (drug addictions) and in bioinformatics (comparison of genomes). PMID:16883057
Rationality and the Logic of Good Reasons.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fisher, Walter R.
This paper contends that the rationality of the logic of good reasons is constituted in its use. To support this claim, the paper presents an analysis of the relationship between being reasonable and being rational. It then considers how following the logic of good reasons leads to rationality in the behavior of individuals and groups; the latter…
Logic in Educational Research and Policy Making.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Garlikov, Rick
2000-01-01
Analyzes S. Bauer's article on the use of achievement tests to judge school quality to demonstrate the importance of logic, philosophy (especially conceptual analysis), and insights based on anecdotal evidence for educational research and policy making. Emphasizes the place for logical reasoning and anecdotal evidence in the empirical enterprise…
Logic Design Pathology and Space Flight Electronics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, Richard B.; Barto, Rod L.; Erickson, Ken
1999-01-01
This paper presents a look at logic design from early in the US Space Program and examines faults in recent logic designs. Most examples are based on flight hardware failures and analysis of new tools and techniques. The paper is presented in viewgraph form.
Magnetic-field-controlled reconfigurable semiconductor logic.
Joo, Sungjung; Kim, Taeyueb; Shin, Sang Hoon; Lim, Ju Young; Hong, Jinki; Song, Jin Dong; Chang, Joonyeon; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Rhie, Kungwon; Han, Suk Hee; Shin, Kyung-Ho; Johnson, Mark
2013-02-07
Logic devices based on magnetism show promise for increasing computational efficiency while decreasing consumed power. They offer zero quiescent power and yet combine novel functions such as programmable logic operation and non-volatile built-in memory. However, practical efforts to adapt a magnetic device to logic suffer from a low signal-to-noise ratio and other performance attributes that are not adequate for logic gates. Rather than exploiting magnetoresistive effects that result from spin-dependent transport of carriers, we have approached the development of a magnetic logic device in a different way: we use the phenomenon of large magnetoresistance found in non-magnetic semiconductors in high electric fields. Here we report a device showing a strong diode characteristic that is highly sensitive to both the sign and the magnitude of an external magnetic field, offering a reversible change between two different characteristic states by the application of a magnetic field. This feature results from magnetic control of carrier generation and recombination in an InSb p-n bilayer channel. Simple circuits combining such elementary devices are fabricated and tested, and Boolean logic functions including AND, OR, NAND and NOR are performed. They are programmed dynamically by external electric or magnetic signals, demonstrating magnetic-field-controlled semiconductor reconfigurable logic at room temperature. This magnetic technology permits a new kind of spintronic device, characterized as a current switch rather than a voltage switch, and provides a simple and compact platform for non-volatile reconfigurable logic devices.
The Logic of Creative and Critical Thinking.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paul, Richard
This paper explores the intimate connection between creative and critical thinking, by arguing that both are inseparable in everyday reasoning. The details of the relationship between creative and critical thinking are worked out in relation to the processes of: (1) thinking through the logic of things; (2) taking command of reasoning and logic;…
A Device for Logic Information Processing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levinskiy, L. S.; Vissonova, I. A.
Two essential components of the information-logic problem are: (1) choosing some known part of the total information block for parallel review of the entire block and (2) parallel logic processing of a sequence of codes. The described device fulfills these essential components thereby improving information processing and increasing the speed of…
Instruction for Using the PLATO Logic, GENERAL.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lyman, Elisabeth R.
This report contains instructions for the use of GENERAL, a tutorial type teaching logic developed for the PLATO system. The logic of GENERAL is first introduced and diagrammed for the user. Then lesson planning for program authors is discussed in terms of format rules, branching pages, challenge pages, and information retrieval pages. Control…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levin-Rozalis, Miri
2010-01-01
Background: Two kinds of research logic prevail in scientific research: deductive research logic and inductive research logic. However, both fail in the field of evaluation, especially evaluation conducted in unfamiliar environments. Purpose: In this article I wish to suggest the application of a research logic--"abduction"--"the logic of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levin-Rozalis, Miri
2010-01-01
Background: Two kinds of research logic prevail in scientific research: deductive research logic and inductive research logic. However, both fail in the field of evaluation, especially evaluation conducted in unfamiliar environments. Purpose: In this article I wish to suggest the application of a research logic--"abduction"--"the logic of…
Interpreting Quantum Logic as a Pragmatic Structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garola, Claudio
2017-02-01
Many scholars maintain that the language of quantum mechanics introduces a quantum notion of truth which is formalized by (standard, sharp) quantum logic and is incompatible with the classical (Tarskian) notion of truth. We show that quantum logic can be identified (up to an equivalence relation) with a fragment of a pragmatic language LGP of assertive formulas, that are justified or unjustified rather than trueor false. Quantum logic can then be interpreted as an algebraic structure that formalizes properties of the notion of empirical justification according to quantum mechanics rather than properties of a quantum notion of truth. This conclusion agrees with a general integrationist perspective that interprets nonstandard logics as theories of metalinguistic notions different from truth, thus avoiding incompatibility with classical notions and preserving the globality of logic.
Processing device with self-scrubbing logic
Wojahn, Christopher K.
2016-03-01
An apparatus includes a processing unit including a configuration memory and self-scrubber logic coupled to read the configuration memory to detect compromised data stored in the configuration memory. The apparatus also includes a watchdog unit external to the processing unit and coupled to the self-scrubber logic to detect a failure in the self-scrubber logic. The watchdog unit is coupled to the processing unit to selectively reset the processing unit in response to detecting the failure in the self-scrubber logic. The apparatus also includes an external memory external to the processing unit and coupled to send configuration data to the configuration memory in response to a data feed signal outputted by the self-scrubber logic.
Project W-058 monitor and control system logic
ROBERTS, J.B.
1999-05-12
This supporting document contains the printout of the control logic for the Project W-058 Monitor and Control System, as developed by Programmable Control Services, Inc. The logic is arranged in five appendices, one for each programmable logic controller console.
Use of LOGIC to support lidar operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis-Lunde, Kimberley; Jugan, Laurie A.; Shoemaker, J. Todd
1999-10-01
The Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) and Planning Systems INcorporated are developing the Littoral Optics Geospatial Integrated Capability (LOGIC). LOGIC supports NAVOCEANO's directive to assess the impact of the environment on Fleet systems in areas of operational interest. LOGIC is based in the Geographic Information System (GIS) ARC/INFO and offers a method to view and manipulate optics and ancillary data to support emerging Fleet lidar systems. LOGIC serves as a processing (as required) and quality-checking mechanism for data entering NAVOCEANO's Data Warehouse and handles both remotely sensed and in-water data. LOGIC provides a link between these data and the GIS-based Graphical User Interface, allowing the user to select data manipulation routines and/or system support products. The results of individual modules are displayed via the GIS to provide such products as lidar system performance, laser penetration depth, and asset vulnerability from a lidar threat. LOGIC is being developed for integration into other NAVOCEANO programs, most notably for Comprehensive Environmental Assessment System, an established tool supporting sonar-based systems. The prototype for LOGIC was developed for the Yellow Sea, focusing on a diver visibility support product.
Coordination Logic for Repulsive Resolution Maneuvers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Dutle, Aaron M.
2016-01-01
This paper presents an algorithm for determining the direction an aircraft should maneuver in the event of a potential conflict with another aircraft. The algorithm is implicitly coordinated, meaning that with perfectly reliable computations and information, it will in- dependently provide directional information that is guaranteed to be coordinated without any additional information exchange or direct communication. The logic is inspired by the logic of TCAS II, the airborne system designed to reduce the risk of mid-air collisions between aircraft. TCAS II provides pilots with only vertical resolution advice, while the proposed algorithm, using a similar logic, provides implicitly coordinated vertical and horizontal directional advice.
Software Safety Assurance of Programmable Logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berens, Kalynnda
2002-01-01
Programmable Logic (PLC, FPGA, ASIC) devices are hybrids - hardware devices that are designed and programmed like software. As such, they fall in an assurance gray area. Programmable Logic is usually tested and verified as hardware, and the software aspects are ignored, potentially leading to safety or mission success concerns. The objective of this proposal is to first determine where and how Programmable Logic (PL) is used within NASA and document the current methods of assurance. Once that is known, raise awareness of the PL software aspects within the NASA engineering community and provide guidance for the use and assurance of PL form a software perspective.
Bilayer avalanche spin-diode logic
Friedman, Joseph S. Querlioz, Damien; Fadel, Eric R.; Wessels, Bruce W.; Sahakian, Alan V.
2015-11-15
A novel spintronic computing paradigm is proposed and analyzed in which InSb p-n bilayer avalanche spin-diodes are cascaded to efficiently perform complex logic operations. This spin-diode logic family uses control wires to generate magnetic fields that modulate the resistance of the spin-diodes, and currents through these devices control the resistance of cascaded devices. Electromagnetic simulations are performed to demonstrate the cascading mechanism, and guidelines are provided for the development of this innovative computing technology. This cascading scheme permits compact logic circuits with switching speeds determined by electromagnetic wave propagation rather than electron motion, enabling high-performance spintronic computing.
On the complexity of stratified logics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vercelli, Luca
2010-02-01
Our primary motivation is the comparison of two different traditions used in ICC to characterize the class FPTIME of the polynomial time computable functions. On one side, FPTIME can be captured by Intuitionistic Light Affine Logic (ILAL), a logic derived from Linear Logic, characterized by the structural invariant Stratification. On the other side, FPTIME can be captured by Safe Recursion on Notation (SRN), an algebra of functions based on Predicative Recursion, a restriction of the standard recursion schema used to defiine primitive recursive functions. Stratifiication and Predicative Recursion seem to share common underlying principles, whose study is the main subject of this work.
Magnetic logic using nanowires with perpendicular anisotropy.
Jaworowicz, J; Vernier, N; Ferré, J; Maziewski, A; Stanescu, D; Ravelosona, D; Jacqueline, A S; Chappert, C; Rodmacq, B; Diény, B
2009-05-27
In addition to a storage function through the magnetization of nanowires, domain wall propagation can be used to trigger magnetic logic functions. Here, we present a new way to realize a pure magnetic logic operation by using magnetic nanowires with perpendicular anisotropy. Emphasis is given on the generation of the logic function 'NOT' that is based on the dipolar interaction between two neighbouring magnetic wires, which favours the creation of a domain wall. This concept has been validated on several prototypes and the results fit well with the expectations.
Logic model needs for diverse facility types
Wilson, J.R.
1995-10-01
This paper compares the characteristics of fault trees (where initiators are developed within the fault tree) vs. event trees (where the nodes are developed by fault trees). This comparison requires some additional discussion on the subtlety of initiators. Difficulties when analyzing various reactor-type and processing facilities are discussed to illustrate the particular characteristics of each type of logic. The intent is to allow probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) analysts to be {open_quotes}bi-logical,{close_quotes} or equally comfortable with event-tree or fault-tree logic, knowing when to apply each.
Binary logic based purely on Fresnel diffraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamam, H.; de Bougrenet de La Tocnaye, J. L.
1995-09-01
Binary logic operations on two-dimensional data arrays are achieved by use of the self-imaging properties of Fresnel diffraction. The fields diffracted by periodic objects can be considered as the superimposition of weighted and shifted replicas of original objects. We show that a particular spatial organization of the input data can result in logical operations being performed on these data in the considered diffraction planes. Among various advantages, this approach is shown to allow the implementation of dual-track, nondissipative logical operators. Image algebra is presented as an experimental illustration of this principle.
A Logical Analysis of Quantum Voting Protocols
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rad, Soroush Rafiee; Shirinkalam, Elahe; Smets, Sonja
2017-07-01
In this paper we provide a logical analysis of the Quantum Voting Protocol for Anonymous Surveying as developed by Horoshko and Kilin in (Phys. Lett. A 375, 1172-1175 2011). In particular we make use of the probabilistic logic of quantum programs as developed in (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 53, 3628-3647 2014) to provide a formal specification of the protocol and to derive its correctness. Our analysis is part of a wider program on the application of quantum logics to the formal verification of protocols in quantum communication and quantum computation.
Software Safety Assurance of Programmable Logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berens, Kalynnda
2002-01-01
Programmable Logic (PLC, FPGA, ASIC) devices are hybrids - hardware devices that are designed and programmed like software. As such, they fall in an assurance gray area. Programmable Logic is usually tested and verified as hardware, and the software aspects are ignored, potentially leading to safety or mission success concerns. The objective of this proposal is to first determine where and how Programmable Logic (PL) is used within NASA and document the current methods of assurance. Once that is known, raise awareness of the PL software aspects within the NASA engineering community and provide guidance for the use and assurance of PL form a software perspective.
Inference System Integration Via Logic Morphisms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bjorner, Nikolaj S.; Espinosa, David
2000-01-01
This is a final report on the accomplishments during the period of the NASA grant. The work on inference servers accomplished the integration of the SLANG logic (Specware's default specification logic) with a number of inference servers in order to make their complementary strengths available. These inverence servers are (1) SNARK. (2) Gandalf, Setheo, and Spass, (3) the Prototype Verification System (PVS) from SRI. (4) HOL98. We designed and implemented MetaSlang, an ML-like language, which we are using to specify and implement all our logic morphisms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kapit, Eliot
Superconducting qubits are among the most promising platforms for building a quantum computer. However, individual qubit coherence times are not far past the scalability threshold for quantum error correction, meaning that millions of physical devices would be required to construct a useful quantum computer. Consequently, further increases in coherence time are very desirable. In this letter, we blueprint a simple circuit consisting of two transmon qubits and two additional lossy qubits or resonators, which is passively protected against all single qubit quantum error channels through a combination of continuous driving and engineered dissipation. Photon losses are rapidly corrected through two-photon drive fields implemented with driven SQUID couplings, and dephasing from random potential fluctuations is heavily suppressed by the drive fields used to implement the multi-qubit Hamiltonian. Comparing our theoretical model to published noise estimates from recent experiments on flux and transmon qubits, we find that logical state coherence could be improved by a factor of forty or more compared to the individual qubit T1 and T2 using this technique.
Closed terminologies in description logics
Weida, R.A. |
1996-12-31
We introduce a predictive concept recognition methodology for description logics based on a new closed terminology assumption. During knowledge engineering, our system adopts the standard open terminology assumption as it automatically classifies concept descriptions into a taxonomy via subsumption inferences. However, for applications like configuration, the terminology becomes fixed during problem solving. Then, closed terminology reasoning is more appropriate. In our interactive configuration application, a user incrementally specifies an individual computer system in collaboration with a configuration engine. Choices can be made in any order and at any level of abstraction. We distinguish between abstract and concrete concepts to formally define when an individual`s description may be considered finished. We also take advantage of the closed terminology assumption, together with the terminology`s subsumption-based organization, to efficiently track the types of systems and components consistent with current choices, infer additional constraints on current choices, and appropriately guide future choices. Thus, we can help focus the efforts of both user and configuration engine.
Earthquake Archaeology: a logical approach?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stewart, I. S.; Buck, V. A.
2001-12-01
Ancient earthquakes can leave their mark in the mythical and literary accounts of ancient peoples, the stratigraphy of their site histories, and the structural integrity of their constructions. Within this broad cross-disciplinary tramping ground, earthquake geologists have tended to focus on those aspects of the cultural record that are most familiar to them; the physical effects of seismic deformation on ancient constructions. One of the core difficulties with this 'earthquake archaeology' approach is that recent attempts to isolate structural criteria that are diagnostic or strongly suggestive of a seismic origin are undermined by the recognition that signs of ancient seismicity are generally indistinguishable from non-seismic mechanisms (poor construction, adverse geotechnical conditions). We illustrate the difficulties and inconsistencies in current proposed 'earthquake diagnostic' schemes by reference to two case studies of archaeoseismic damage in central Greece. The first concerns fallen columns at various Classical temple localities in mainland Greece (Nemea, Sounio, Olympia, Bassai) which, on the basis of observed structural criteria, are earthquake-induced but which are alternatively explained by archaeologists as the action of human disturbance. The second re-examines the almost type example of the Kyparissi site in the Atalanti region as a Classical stoa offset across a seismic surface fault, arguing instead for its deformation by ground instability. Finally, in highlighting the inherent ambiguity of archaeoseismic data, we consider the value of a logic-tree approach for quantifying and quantifying our uncertainities for seismic-hazard analysis.
Logical gates in actin monomer.
Adamatzky, Andrew
2017-09-18
We evaluate information processing capacity of a single actin molecule by calculating distributions of logical gates implemented by the molecule via propagating patterns of excitation. We represent a filamentous actin molecule as an excitable automaton network (F-actin automaton). where every atom updates its state depending on states of atoms its connected to with chemical bonds (hard neighbours) and atoms being in physical proximity to the atom (soft neighbours). A resting atom excites if a sum of its excited hard neighbours and a weighted sum of its soft neighbours belong to some specified interval. We demonstrate that F-actin automata implement OR, AND, XOR and AND-NOT gates via interacting patterns of excitation. Gate AND is the most common gate and gate XOR is the rarest. Using the architectures of gates discovered we implement one bit half-adder and controlled-not circuits in the F-actin automata. Speed and space values of the F-actin molecular computers are discussed.
The Logic of Reflection: Samuel Taylor Coleridge's "treatise on Logic"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Land, Janet Sanders
Though others discuss Coleridge's interest in science, light imagery, the phenomenon of reflection, and his references to Newton and Opticks,^1 this is the first study to examine Coleridge's art in terms of optics, its developing theories, and the nature-of-light debate. This study examines Coleridge's early predilection for visions, illusions, and the supernatural and demonstrates that he gradually shifts from the supernatural to the scientific aspects of "visions" and "illusions," concentrating on causes of illusions and the effects of their deceptive qualities rather than their mystical features. By the 1820's, his preoccupation with illusions had become an interest in optics, fueled, no doubt, by the increasing controversy of the nature-of-light debate and the number of advances in optics resulting from the efforts of its opponents to prove their theories. Tracing the development of the debate, its escalation in the early nineteenth century, and the formation of Coleridge's opinion concerning key issues of the debate, I outline the evolution of Coleridge's theory of reflection and examine the exposition of that theory in his treatise, Logic (1981). Finally, I analyze the relationship between the advances in optics and Coleridge's concepts of thought and knowledge and his notion of the mind as an instrument of knowledge. These ideas in turn, altered his opinions concerning the validity of knowledge resulting from philosophic debate, scientific experiment, and poetic exploration. ftn^1John Beer, "Coleridge and Wordsworth on Reflection," The Wordsworth Circle 20 (1989): 20-29; Coleridge the Visionary. London: Chatto and Windus, 1959; and Coleridge's Poetic Intelligence. London: Macmillan, 1977 and M. H. Abrams Natural Supernaturalism: Tradition and Revolution in Romantic Literature. New York: Norton, 1971; and "Coleridge's 'A Light in Sound': Science, Metascience, and Poetic Imagination." The Correspondent Breeze: Essays on English Romanticism. Eds. M. H. Abrams
Gate-Controlled BP-WSe2 Heterojunction Diode for Logic Rectifiers and Logic Optoelectronics.
Li, Dong; Wang, Biao; Chen, Mingyuan; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Zengxing
2017-06-01
p-n junctions play an important role in modern semiconductor electronics and optoelectronics, and field-effect transistors are often used for logic circuits. Here, gate-controlled logic rectifiers and logic optoelectronic devices based on stacked black phosphorus (BP) and tungsten diselenide (WSe2 ) heterojunctions are reported. The gate-tunable ambipolar charge carriers in BP and WSe2 enable a flexible, dynamic, and wide modulation on the heterojunctions as isotype (p-p and n-n) and anisotype (p-n) diodes, which exhibit disparate rectifying and photovoltaic properties. Based on such characteristics, it is demonstrated that BP-WSe2 heterojunction diodes can be developed for high-performance logic rectifiers and logic optoelectronic devices. Logic optoelectronic devices can convert a light signal to an electric one by applied gate voltages. This work should be helpful to expand the applications of 2D crystals. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Wei, Hua; Hu, Bo; Tang, Suming; Zhao, Guojie; Guan, Yifu
2016-01-01
Small molecule metabolites and their allosterically regulated repressors play an important role in many gene expression and metabolic disorder processes. These natural sensors, though valuable as good logic switches, have rarely been employed without transcription machinery in cells. Here, two pairs of repressors, which function in opposite ways, were cloned, purified and used to control DNA replication in rolling circle amplification (RCA) in vitro. By using metabolites and repressors as inputs, RCA signals as outputs, four basic logic modules were constructed successfully. To achieve various logic computations based on these basic modules, we designed series and parallel strategies of circular templates, which can further assemble these repressor modules in an RCA platform to realize twelve two-input Boolean logic gates and a three-input logic gate. The RCA-output and RCA-assembled platform was proved to be easy and flexible for complex logic processes and might have application potential in molecular computing and synthetic biology. PMID:27869177
Detection of Floating Inputs in Logic Circuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cash, B.; Thornton, M. G.
1984-01-01
Simple modification of oscilloscope probe allows easy detection of floating inputs or tristate outputs in digital-IC's. Oscilloscope probe easily modified with 1/4 W resistor and switch for detecting floating inputs in CMOS logic circuits.
Understanding of Logical Connectives in History.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wishart, Elizabeth; Smith, J. Lea
1983-01-01
Uses data from high ability students in two comprehensive schools in Britain to show that the use of logical connectives in history texts can be a stumbling block to comprehension. Compares these findings to those generated in Australia. (FL)
Procedural and Logic Programming: A Comparison.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watkins, Will; And Others
1988-01-01
Examines the similarities and fundamental differences between procedural programing and logic programing by comparing LogoWriter and PROLOG. Suggests that PROLOG may be a good first programing language for students to learn. (MVL)
Queuing register uses fluid logic elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1966-01-01
Queuing register /a multistage bit-shifting device/ uses a series of pure fluid elements to perform the required logic operations. The register has several stages of three-state pure fluid elements combined with two-input NOR gates.
Control loop noise rejection using fuzzy logic.
Hay, Glen; Svrcek, William; Ross, Timothy; Young, Brent
2005-10-01
This paper describes an application of fuzzy logic to noise rejection in a control loop. This new use of fuzzy logic solves the problem of sluggish control loop response when using a set-point range to stop constant valve chattering due to noise in the output signal being sent to a control valve. Multiple related variables and a general understanding of their inter-relationship must be available for this method to be successfully applied. An overview of the specific fuzzy logic method used for this application is presented along with guidelines for the practical application. In addition, this paper includes results from the successful implementation of fuzzy logic to a control loop on a pilot plant distillation column.
Implementing neural nets with programmable logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vidal, Jacques J.
1988-01-01
Networks of Boolean programmable logic modules are presented as one purely digital class of artificial neural nets. The approach contrasts with the continuous analog framework usually suggested. Programmable logic networks are capable of handling many neural-net applications. They avoid some of the limitations of threshold logic networks and present distinct opportunities. The network nodes are called dynamically programmable logic modules. They can be implemented with digitally controlled demultiplexers. Each node performs a Boolean function of its inputs which can be dynamically assigned. The overall network is therefore a combinational circuit and its outputs are Boolean global functions of the network's input variables. The approach offers definite advantages for VLSI implementation, namely, a regular architecture with limited connectivity, simplicity of the control machinery, natural modularity, and the support of a mature technology.
Nursing and fuzzy logic: an integrative review.
Jensen, Rodrigo; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes
2011-01-01
This study conducted an integrative review investigating how fuzzy logic has been used in research with the participation of nurses. The article search was carried out in the CINAHL, EMBASE, SCOPUS, PubMed and Medline databases, with no limitation on time of publication. Articles written in Portuguese, English and Spanish with themes related to nursing and fuzzy logic with the authorship or participation of nurses were included. The final sample included 21 articles from eight countries. For the purpose of analysis, the articles were distributed into categories: theory, method and model. In nursing, fuzzy logic has significantly contributed to the understanding of subjects related to: imprecision or the need of an expert; as a research method; and in the development of models or decision support systems and hard technologies. The use of fuzzy logic in nursing has shown great potential and represents a vast field for research.
Using interval logic for order assembly
Cui, Z.
1994-12-31
Temporal logic, in particular, interval logic has been used to represent genome maps and to assist genome map constructions. However, interval logic itself appears to be limited in its expressive power because genome mapping requires various information such as partial order, distance and local orientation. In this paper, we first propose an integrated formalism based on a spatial-temporal logic where the concepts of metric information, local orientation and uncertainty are merged. Then, we present and discuss a deductive and object-oriented data model based on this formalism for a genetic deductive database, and the inference rules required. The formalism supports the maintenance of coarser knowledge of unordered, partially ordered and completely ordered genetic data in a relational hierarchy. We believe that this integrated formalism also provides a formal basis for designing a declarative query language.
Purification of Logic-Qubit Entanglement
Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo
2016-01-01
Recently, the logic-qubit entanglement shows its potential application in future quantum communication and quantum network. However, the entanglement will suffer from the noise and decoherence. In this paper, we will investigate the first entanglement purification protocol for logic-qubit entanglement. We show that both the bit-flip error and phase-flip error in logic-qubit entanglement can be well purified. Moreover, the bit-flip error in physical-qubit entanglement can be completely corrected. The phase-flip in physical-qubit entanglement error equals to the bit-flip error in logic-qubit entanglement, which can also be purified. This entanglement purification protocol may provide some potential applications in future quantum communication and quantum network. PMID:27377165
Detection of Floating Inputs in Logic Circuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cash, B.; Thornton, M. G.
1984-01-01
Simple modification of oscilloscope probe allows easy detection of floating inputs or tristate outputs in digital-IC's. Oscilloscope probe easily modified with 1/4 W resistor and switch for detecting floating inputs in CMOS logic circuits.
Implementing neural nets with programmable logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vidal, Jacques J.
1988-01-01
Networks of Boolean programmable logic modules are presented as one purely digital class of artificial neural nets. The approach contrasts with the continuous analog framework usually suggested. Programmable logic networks are capable of handling many neural-net applications. They avoid some of the limitations of threshold logic networks and present distinct opportunities. The network nodes are called dynamically programmable logic modules. They can be implemented with digitally controlled demultiplexers. Each node performs a Boolean function of its inputs which can be dynamically assigned. The overall network is therefore a combinational circuit and its outputs are Boolean global functions of the network's input variables. The approach offers definite advantages for VLSI implementation, namely, a regular architecture with limited connectivity, simplicity of the control machinery, natural modularity, and the support of a mature technology.
Novel Design for Reversible Arithmetic Logic Unit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Rigui; Li, Yancheng; Zhang, Manqun; Hu, BenQiong
2015-02-01
Reversible logic circuits are of high interests to calculate with minimum energy consumption having applications in low-power CMOS design, optical computing and nanotechnology, especially in quantum computer. Quantum computer requires quantum arithmetic. A new design of a reversible arithmetic logic unit (reversible ALU) for quantum arithmetic has been proposed in this article. As we known, ALU is an important part of central processing unit (CPU) as the execution unit. So this article provides explicit construction of reversible ALU effecting basic arithmetic operations. By provided the corresponding control unit, the proposed reversible ALU can combine the classical arithmetic and logic operation in a reversible integrated system. This article provides a new more powerful ALU which contains more functions and it will make contribute to the realization of reversible Programmable Logic Device (RPLD) in future using reversible ALU.
Procedural and Logic Programming: A Comparison.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watkins, Will; And Others
1988-01-01
Examines the similarities and fundamental differences between procedural programing and logic programing by comparing LogoWriter and PROLOG. Suggests that PROLOG may be a good first programing language for students to learn. (MVL)
Hierarchical structure of the logical Internet graph
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Zihui; Figueiredo, Daniel R.; Jaiswal, Sharad; Gao, Lixin
2001-07-01
The study of the Internet topology has recently received much attention from the research community. In particular, the observation that the network graph has interesting properties, such as power laws, that might be explored in a myriad of ways. Most of the work in characterizing the Internet graph is based on the physical network graph, i.e., the connectivity graph. In this paper we investigate how logical relationships between nodes of the AS graph can be used to gain insight to its structure. We characterize the logical graph using various metrics and identify the presence of power laws in the number of customers that a provider has. Using these logical relationships we define a structural model of the AS graph. The model highlights the hierarchical nature of logical relationships and the preferential connection to larger providers. We also investigate the consistency of this model over time and observe interesting properties of the hierarchical structure.
Application of Fuzzy Logic to Matrix FMECA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shankar, N. Ravi; Prabhu, B. S.
2001-04-01
A methodology combining the benefits of Fuzzy Logic and Matrix FMEA is presented in this paper. The presented methodology extends the risk prioritization beyond the conventional Risk Priority Number (RPN) method. Fuzzy logic is used to calculate the criticality rank. Also the matrix approach is improved further to develop a pictorial representation retaining all relevant qualitative and quantitative information of several FMEA elements relationships. The methodology presented is demonstrated by application to an illustrative example.
Reconfigurable Optical Directed-Logic Circuits
2015-11-20
routing-table lookup. 2. Integrated Photonics for Directed-Logic Circuits As a proof-of-concept demonstration we developed a 2×2-arrayed directed...improved electro-optic directed-logic circuit with increased operational speed by using integrated optical switches based on the carrier depletion effect... circuit . In this project, we will develop a new cellular DL architecture based on large-scale integrated silicon photonic circuits . The circuit is
Firmware Modification Analysis in Programmable Logic Controllers
2014-03-27
MODIFICATION ANALYSIS IN PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS Arturo M. Garcia Jr., B.S.S.E.C.A. Captain, USA Approved: //signed// Robert F. Mills , PhD...Matthew 5:37 v Acknowledgments My sincere gratitude to my committee for their guidance and teamwork which made this thesis possible. Dr. Mills ...2012. 2012. [5] Bolton, William. Programmable logic controllers. Newnes, 2009. [6] Boyer, Stuart . SCADA: Supervisory Control and Data Aquisition 4th
Can fuzzy logic make things more clear?
Hazelzet, Jan A
2009-01-01
Intensive care is a complex environment involving many signals, data and observations. Clinical decision support and artificial intelligence using fuzzy logic and closed loop techniques are methods that might help us to handle this complexity in a safe, effective and efficient way. Merouani and colleagues have performed a study using fuzzy logic and closed loop techniques to more effectively wean patients with sepsis from norepinephrine infusion.
Does logic moderate the fundamental attribution error?
Stalder, D R
2000-06-01
The fundamental attribution error was investigated from an individual difference perspective. Mathematicians were compared with nonmathematicians (Exp. 1; n: 84), and undergraduates who scored high on a test of logical reasoning ability were compared with those who scored low (Exp. 2; n: 62). The mathematicians and those participants scoring higher on logic appeared less prone to the fundamental attribution error, primarily using a measure of confidence in attributions.
Logical and layout structures of documents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eickel, Jürgen
1990-11-01
Document preparation systems are commonly layout oriented in that way that the user interactively creates and modifies frames for text, mathematical formulas, raster or geometric graphics, etc. For batch-oriented systems the user manipulates the process of formatting by inserting control commands into the plain text. These modify the position or graphic aspect of the following text portion. Many systems provide a macro mechanism to combine lengthy and repeatedly used control commands to macros, with the result that the text is interpersed with macrocalls. Macro calls. Macro calls are often logical delimiters. They subdivide the plain text into a linear of document objects, which forms the linear description of the logical document structure similar to a tree. It must be mentioned that in most systems there is no direct support or representation of the logical document structure. The logical structure exists only in the author's mind and the author himself compiles the logical document objects and their hierarchical relationship to physical layout representation. More flexiblw and interactively formatting editors for structured document preparation presuppose a strong distinction of logical and layout structure and incorporate a formal description of the mapping, how the layout is derived from the logical structure. The logical structure is an enriched tree-oriented representation, in which between pbjects are constrained by grammatical specification. The layout structures define the layout relationships on the physical pages of the document and they are also constrained by grammatical spedifications. Another goal is to define the mapping well known as formatting by high-level specification for classes of documents, in order to be able to generate automatically formatting editors by high-level specifications.
Pattern recognition using linguistic fuzzy logic predictors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Habiballa, Hashim
2016-06-01
The problem of pattern recognition has been solved with numerous methods in the Artificial Intelligence field. We present an unconventional method based on Lingustic Fuzzy Logic Forecaster which is primarily used for the task of time series analysis and prediction through logical deduction wtih linguistic variables. This method should be used not only to the time series prediction itself, but also for recognition of patterns in a signal with seasonal component.
Convection automated logic oven control
Boyer, M.A.; Eke, K.I.
1998-03-01
For the past few years, there has been a greater push to bring more automation to the cooling process. There have been attempts at automated cooking using a wide range of sensors and procedures, but with limited success. The authors have the answer to the automated cooking process; this patented technology is called Convection AutoLogic (CAL). The beauty of the technology is that it requires no extra hardware for the existing oven system. They use the existing temperature probe, whether it is an RTD, thermocouple, or thermistor. This means that the manufacturer does not have to be burdened with extra costs associated with automated cooking in comparison to standard ovens. The only change to the oven is the program in the central processing unit (CPU) on the board. As for its operation, when the user places the food into the oven, he or she is required to select a category (e.g., beef, poultry, or casseroles) and then simply press the start button. The CAL program then begins its cooking program. It first looks at the ambient oven temperature to see if it is a cold, warm, or hot start. CAL stores this data and then begins to look at the food`s thermal footprint. After CAL has properly detected this thermal footprint, it can calculate the time and temperature at which the food needs to be cooked. CAL then sets up these factors for the cooking stage of the program and, when the food has finished cooking, the oven is turned off automatically. The total time for this entire process is the same as the standard cooking time the user would normally set. The CAL program can also compensate for varying line voltages and detect when the oven door is opened. With all of these varying factors being monitored, CAL can produce a perfectly cooked item with minimal user input.
Noise-based logic: Binary, multi-valued, or fuzzy, with optional superposition of logic states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kish, Laszlo B.
2009-03-01
A new type of deterministic (non-probabilistic) computer logic system inspired by the stochasticity of brain signals is shown. The distinct values are represented by independent stochastic processes: independent voltage (or current) noises. The orthogonality of these processes provides a natural way to construct binary or multi-valued logic circuitry with arbitrary number N of logic values by using analog circuitry. Moreover, the logic values on a single wire can be made a (weighted) superposition of the N distinct logic values. Fuzzy logic is also naturally represented by a two-component superposition within the binary case ( N=2). Error propagation and accumulation are suppressed. Other relevant advantages are reduced energy dissipation and leakage current problems, and robustness against circuit noise and background noises such as 1/f, Johnson, shot and crosstalk noise. Variability problems are also non-existent because the logic value is an AC signal. A similar logic system can be built with orthogonal sinusoidal signals (different frequency or orthogonal phase) however that has an extra 1/N type slowdown compared to the noise-based logic system with increasing number of N furthermore it is less robust against time delay effects than the noise-based counterpart.
Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore
2001-01-01
We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.
Synchronous universal droplet logic and control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katsikis, Georgios; Cybulski, James S.; Prakash, Manu
2015-07-01
Droplets are versatile digital materials; they can be produced at high throughput, perform chemical reactions as miniature beakers and carry biological entities. Droplets have been manipulated with electric, optical, acoustic and magnetic forces, but all these methods use serial controls to address individual droplets. An alternative is algorithmic manipulation based on logic operations that automatically compute where droplets are stored or directed, thereby enabling parallel control. However, logic previously implemented in low-Reynolds-number droplet hydrodynamics is asynchronous and thus prone to errors that prevent scaling up the complexity of logic operations. Here we present a platform for error-free physical computation via synchronous universal logic. Our platform uses a rotating magnetic field that enables parallel manipulation of arbitrary numbers of ferrofluid droplets on permalloy tracks. Through the coupling of magnetic and hydrodynamic interaction forces between droplets, we developed AND, OR, XOR, NOT and NAND logic gates, fanouts, a full adder, a flip-flop and a finite-state machine. Our platform enables large-scale integration of droplet logic, analogous to the scaling seen in digital electronics, and opens new avenues in mesoscale material processing.
Nonmonotonic Logic for Use in Information Retrieval: An Exploratory Paper.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hurt, C. D.
1998-01-01
Monotonic logic requires reexamination of the entire logic string when there is a contradiction. Nonmonotonic logic allows the user to withdraw conclusions in the face of contradiction without harm to the logic string, which has considerable application to the field of information searching. Artificial intelligence models and neural networks based…
The Temporal Logic of the Tower Chief System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hazelton, Lyman R., Jr.
1990-01-01
The purpose is to describe the logic used in the reasoning scheme employed in the Tower Chief system, a runway configuration management system. First, a review of classical logic is given. Defensible logics, truth maintenance, default logic, temporally dependent propositions, and resource allocation and planning are discussed.
On symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logic of Proofs
Krupski, Vladimir N
2011-05-31
In this paper we define symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logics of Proofs. We prove the soundness and completeness of these logics with respect to the corresponding classes of symbolic models. We apply the semantic methods developed in this paper to justify the use of terms of single-conclusion logic of proofs as notation for derivations in this logic. Bibliography: 17 titles.
Nonmonotonic Logic for Use in Information Retrieval: An Exploratory Paper.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hurt, C. D.
1998-01-01
Monotonic logic requires reexamination of the entire logic string when there is a contradiction. Nonmonotonic logic allows the user to withdraw conclusions in the face of contradiction without harm to the logic string, which has considerable application to the field of information searching. Artificial intelligence models and neural networks based…
The logical interpretation and the measurement problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vuletic, Mark I.
The measurement problem is one of the two key problems in the foundations of quantum mechanics, carrying with it the seeming implication that instead of the familiar definite states of affairs we think we experience, there typically should exist only phenomenologically ill-defined "superpositions" of such states of affairs. Dissatisfaction with this implication has led to the development of many wildly different interpretations of quantum mechanics, positing everything from pilot waves to splitting universes. A recent tradition of interpretation draws heavily upon decoherence and a "consistent histories" formalism to try to resolve the standard conceptual problems of quantum mechanics. Roland Omnes, one physicist in this tradition, argues that his own "logical interpretation" resolves every paradox and conceptual difficulty raised by quantum mechanics, except for what he calls the "objectification problem." Figuring out what relation the objectification problem has to the measurement problem, and, more generally, what the logical interpretation has to say about the measurement problem, turns out to be very difficult, even with the benefit of correspondence. In my dissertation, I have tried to narrow down the possibilities for what Omnes might have in mind with respect to the measurement problem, and considered whether any of these constitutes an advance over what came before. I conclude that there are two plausible possibilities: either (i) an overly aggressive pragmatic spirit has caused Omnes to fail to even realize that a critical part of the measurement problem exists, or (ii) the logical interpretation is best understood as offering a stochastic hidden factor interpretation, with complementarity operating at the level of the hidden factors, even though Omnes himself would resist describing the logical interpretation in this way. I also conclude that the logical interpretation, far from saving classical logic, actually undermines it. While this may not
Advanced logic gates for ultrafast network interchanges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Islam, Mohammed N.
1995-08-01
By overcoming speed bottlenecks from electronic switching as well as optical/electronic conversions, all-optical logic gates can permit further exploitation of the nearly 40 THz of bandwidth available from optical fibers. We focus on the use of optical solitons and all-optical logic gates to implement ultrafast ``interchanges'' or switching nodes on packet networks with speeds of 100 Gbit/s or greater. For example, all-optical logic gates have been demonstrated with speeds up to 200 Gbit/s, and they may be used to decide whether to add or drop a data packet. The overall goal of our effort is to demonstrate the key enabling technologies and their combination for header processing in 100 Gbit/s, time-division-multiplexed, packed switched networks. Soliton-based fiber logic gates are studied with the goal of combining attractive features of soliton-dragging logic gates, nonlinear loop mirrors, and erbium-doped fiber amplifiers to design logic gates with optimum switching energy, contrast ratio, and timing sensitivity. First, the experimental and numerical work studies low-latency soliton logic gates based on frequency shifts associated with cross-phase modulation. In preliminary experiments, switching in 15 m long low-birefringent fibers has been demonstrated with a contrast ratio of 2.73:1. Using dispersion-shifted fiber in the gate should lower the switching energy and improve the contrast ratio. Next, the low-birefringent fiber can be cross-spliced and wrapped into a nonlinear optical loop mirror to take advantage of mechanisms from both soliton dragging and loop mirrors. The resulting device can have low switching energy and a timing window that results from a combination of soliton dragging and the loop mirror mechanisms.
Higgins, J.; Callegari, C.; Reho, J.; Ernst, W.E.; Lehmann, K.K.; Scoles, G.
1996-12-31
High spin (triplet) NaK dimers have been successfully prepared on the surface of helium clusters through a pick-up process in which a He cluster beam passes through two independent alkali pick-up cells, each containing an alkali vapor at pressures around 10{sup -2} Pa. Excitation and emission spectra have been recorded for both the 2{sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}-1{sup 3}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +} and 1{sup 3}{Pi}{sub g}-1{sup 3}{sub u}{sup +} transitions. Comparisons of the experimental spectra with the theoretical calculations of Stevens et al. and of Jeung et al. have been made obtaining information on the potential of the upper 1{sup 3}{Pi}{sub g} state. Similar comparisons with the work of Kowalczyk et al. have been made for the 2{sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}-1{sup 3}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +} transition. Several different emission channels have been detected for each system following excitation, including atomic fluorescence and non-adiabatic crossings into the singlet manifold of the dimer. The emission spectra provide evidence of vibrational relaxation of the dimer on the He surface occurring on a time scale shorter than that of the molecular fluorescence.
Does Logic Feel Good? Testing for Intuitive Detection of Logicality in Syllogistic Reasoning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klauer, Karl Christoph; Singmann, Henrik
2013-01-01
Recent research on syllogistic reasoning suggests that the logical status (valid vs. invalid) of even difficult syllogisms can be intuitively detected via small changes in affective state (Morsanyi & Handley, 2012). In a series of 6 experiments, we replicated effects of logical status on liking ratings of difficult syllogisms (although their…
Chaplin, J C; Russell, N A; Krasnogor, N
2012-07-01
In this paper we detail experimental methods to implement registers, logic gates and logic circuits using populations of photochromic molecules exposed to sequences of light pulses. Photochromic molecules are molecules with two or more stable states that can be switched reversibly between states by illuminating with appropriate wavelengths of radiation. Registers are implemented by using the concentration of molecules in each state in a given sample to represent an integer value. The register's value can then be read using the intensity of a fluorescence signal from the sample. Logic gates have been implemented using a register with inputs in the form of light pulses to implement 1-input/1-output and 2-input/1-output logic gates. A proof of concept logic circuit is also demonstrated; coupled with the software workflow describe the transition from a circuit design to the corresponding sequence of light pulses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhou, Ming; Du, Yan; Chen, Chaogui; Li, Bingling; Wen, Dan; Dong, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang
2010-02-24
This communication demonstrates for the first time the controlled power release of biofuel cells (BFCs) by aptamer logic systems processed according to the Boolean logic operations "programmed" into the biocomputing systems. On the basis of the built-in Boolean NAND logic, the fabricated aptamer-based BFCs logically controlled by biochemical signals enabled us to construct self-powered and intelligent logic aptasensors that can determine whether the two specific targets are both present in a sample.
Uncertainty, energy, and multiple-valued logics
Hayes, J.P.
1986-02-01
The multiple-valued logics obtained by introducing uncertainty and energy considerations into classical switching theory are studied in this paper. First, the nature of uncertain or unknown signals is examined, and two general uncertainty types called U-values and P-values are identified. It is shown that multiple-valued logics composed of U/P-values can be systematically derived from 2-valued Boolean algebra. These are useful for timing and hazard analysis, and provide a rigorous framework for designing gate-level logic simulation programs. Next, signals of the form (..nu..,S) are considered where ..nu.. and S denote logic level and strength, respectively, and the product vs corresponds to energy flow or power. It is shown that these signals from a type of lattice called a Pseudo-Boolean algebra. Such algebras characterize the behavior of digital circuits at a level (the switch level) intermediate between the conventional analog and logical levels. They provide the mathematical basis for an efficient new class of switch-level simulation programs used in MOS VLSI design.
Transforming the dominant logic of hospitals.
White, Kenneth R; Thompson, Steven; Griffith, John R
2011-01-01
Substantial and sustained change is inevitable for U.S. hospitals, driven by the Medicare and Medicaid cost inflation curve and embodied in regulatory initiatives and reforms. This study explores the conception that evidence-based management is necessary but not sufficient for 21st century success in health care organizations. Success will require challenging and changing the organization's dominant logic, substituting a more transformational style of problem analysis and decision making. In order for evidence-based management decisions to transform organizations, the organizational culture must be ready to adopt transformation changes. The outcomes of this shift in management style are dramatic changes in worker engagement and retention and a reinforcing cycle of performance improvement efforts. We use a series of examples to illustrate changes in the dominant logic and to identify how the combination of evidence-based management and a new dominant logic results in a fundamental and highly productive shift in how problems are framed and solved. We conclude with recommendations for changing the dominant logic--such as visioning, sensemaking, process questioning, getting the right people together, rewarding innovation, and overcoming risk aversion--all necessary for transforming the dominant logic, allowing evidence-based management techniques to flourish.
a Logical Account of Quantum Superpositions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krause, Décio Arenhart, Jonas R. Becker
In this paper we consider the phenomenon of superpositions in quantum mechanics and suggest a way to deal with the idea in a logical setting from a syntactical point of view, that is, as subsumed in the language of the formalism, and not semantically. We restrict the discussion to the propositional level only. Then, after presenting the motivations and a possible world semantics, the formalism is outlined and we also consider within this scheme the claim that superpositions may involve contradictions, as in the case of the Schrödinger's cat, which (it is usually said) is both alive and dead. We argue that this claim is a misreading of the quantum case. Finally, we sketch a new form of quantum logic that involves three kinds of negations and present the relationships among them. The paper is a first approach to the subject, introducing some main guidelines to be developed by a `syntactical' logical approach to quantum superpositions.
Logic Design Pathology and Space Flight Electronics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, Richard; Barto, Rod L.; Erickson, K.
1997-01-01
Logic design errors have been observed in space flight missions and the final stages of ground test. The technologies used by designers and their design/analysis methodologies will be analyzed. This will give insight to the root causes of the failures. These technologies include discrete integrated circuit based systems, systems based on field and mask programmable logic, and the use computer aided engineering (CAE) systems. State-of-the-art (SOTA) design tools and methodologies will be analyzed with respect to high-reliability spacecraft design and potential pitfalls are discussed. Case studies of faults from large expensive programs to "smaller, faster, cheaper" missions will be used to explore the fundamental reasons for logic design problems.
A Survey of Memristive Threshold Logic Circuits.
Maan, Akshay Kumar; Jayadevi, Deepthi Anirudhan; James, Alex Pappachen
2017-08-01
In this paper, we review different memristive threshold logic (MTL) circuits that are inspired from the synaptic action of the flow of neurotransmitters in the biological brain. The brainlike generalization ability and the area minimization of these threshold logic circuits aim toward crossing Moore's law boundaries at device, circuits, and systems levels. Fast switching memory, signal processing, control systems, programmable logic, image processing, reconfigurable computing, and pattern recognition are identified as some of the potential applications of MTL systems. The physical realization of nanoscale devices with memristive behavior from materials, such as TiO2, ferroelectrics, silicon, and polymers, has accelerated research effort in these application areas, inspiring the scientific community to pursue the design of high-speed, low-cost, low-power, and high-density neuromorphic architectures.
Logic models used to enhance critical thinking.
Ellermann, Caroline R; Kataoka-Yahiro, Merle R; Wong, Lorrie C
2006-06-01
Over time, various methods have been used to stimulate critical thinking in undergraduate nursing students, and although many have been successful in helping students integrate the essential knowledge, experiences, and clinical reasoning that support practice, it is also useful to explore new methods. Faculty at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, School of Nursing and Dental Hygiene have taken an innovative approach of using logic models to further enhance critical thinking. This article presents an application of varying experiences and methods of using logic models to support the development of critical thinking and reasoning skills in nursing students. The processes in which logic models are used in the curriculum are described. The models are used to connect concepts from concrete to abstract levels in diverse and often nonlinear diagrams, guided discourse, and written assignments. The specific instructional methods used include concept mapping, concept papers, conceptual linking, and substruction.
Molecular implementation of simple logic programs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ran, Tom; Kaplan, Shai; Shapiro, Ehud
2009-11-01
Autonomous programmable computing devices made of biomolecules could interact with a biological environment and be used in future biological and medical applications. Biomolecular implementations of finite automata and logic gates have already been developed. Here, we report an autonomous programmable molecular system based on the manipulation of DNA strands that is capable of performing simple logical deductions. Using molecular representations of facts such as Man(Socrates) and rules such as Mortal(X) <-- Man(X) (Every Man is Mortal), the system can answer molecular queries such as Mortal(Socrates)? (Is Socrates Mortal?) and Mortal(X)? (Who is Mortal?). This biomolecular computing system compares favourably with previous approaches in terms of expressive power, performance and precision. A compiler translates facts, rules and queries into their molecular representations and subsequently operates a robotic system that assembles the logical deductions and delivers the result. This prototype is the first simple programming language with a molecular-scale implementation.
Robust Fuzzy Logic Stabilization with Disturbance Elimination
Danapalasingam, Kumeresan A.
2014-01-01
A robust fuzzy logic controller is proposed for stabilization and disturbance rejection in nonlinear control systems of a particular type. The dynamic feedback controller is designed as a combination of a control law that compensates for nonlinear terms in a control system and a dynamic fuzzy logic controller that addresses unknown model uncertainties and an unmeasured disturbance. Since it is challenging to derive a highly accurate mathematical model, the proposed controller requires only nominal functions of a control system. In this paper, a mathematical derivation is carried out to prove that the controller is able to achieve asymptotic stability by processing state measurements. Robustness here refers to the ability of the controller to asymptotically steer the state vector towards the origin in the presence of model uncertainties and a disturbance input. Simulation results of the robust fuzzy logic controller application in a magnetic levitation system demonstrate the feasibility of the control design. PMID:25177713
Fuzzy logic and neural network technologies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Villarreal, James A.; Lea, Robert N.; Savely, Robert T.
1992-01-01
Applications of fuzzy logic technologies in NASA projects are reviewed to examine their advantages in the development of neural networks for aerospace and commercial expert systems and control. Examples of fuzzy-logic applications include a 6-DOF spacecraft controller, collision-avoidance systems, and reinforcement-learning techniques. The commercial applications examined include a fuzzy autofocusing system, an air conditioning system, and an automobile transmission application. The practical use of fuzzy logic is set in the theoretical context of artificial neural systems (ANSs) to give the background for an overview of ANS research programs at NASA. The research and application programs include the Network Execution and Training Simulator and faster training algorithms such as the Difference Optimized Training Scheme. The networks are well suited for pattern-recognition applications such as predicting sunspots, controlling posture maintenance, and conducting adaptive diagnoses.
Fuzzy logic in autonomous orbital operations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lea, Robert N.; Jani, Yashvant
1991-01-01
Fuzzy logic can be used advantageously in autonomous orbital operations that require the capability of handling imprecise measurements from sensors. Several applications are underway to investigate fuzzy logic approaches and develop guidance and control algorithms for autonomous orbital operations. Translational as well as rotational control of a spacecraft have been demonstrated using space shuttle simulations. An approach to a camera tracking system has been developed to support proximity operations and traffic management around the Space Station Freedom. Pattern recognition and object identification algorithms currently under development will become part of this camera system at an appropriate level in the future. A concept to control environment and life support systems for large Lunar based crew quarters is also under development. Investigations in the area of reinforcement learning, utilizing neural networks, combined with a fuzzy logic controller, are planned as a joint project with the Ames Research Center.
Nanomechanical logic elements based on coupled nanopillars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, S. H.; Hong, S. J.; Rana, A. S.; Kim, H. S.
2014-10-01
We demonstrate the possibility of using coupled nanopillars as nanomechanical logic elements by regulating the flow of electric current between the nanopillars and the source and drain electrodes. The nanopillar, which is fabricated from a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer and is located between two facing electrodes, oscillates with frequencies in the radiofrequency range of 10 - 1000 MHz. Electrons are transported between the nanopillar and the electrodes via an island-like gold layer thermally deposited on the top of the nanopillar in response to externally applied ac and dc biases. Nanomechanical logic gates are designed using the coupled nanopillars and a switched-capacitor model. With this configuration, several logic gates, such as an inverter and NAND, NOR, and XOR gates, can be effectively implemented.
A Logical Characterization of Systolic Languages
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monti, Angelo; Peron, Adriano
In this paper we study, in the framework of mathematical logic, ℒ(SBTA) i.e. the class of languages accepted by Systolic Binary Tree Automata. We set a correspondence (in the style of Büchi Theorem for regular languages) between ℒ(SBTA) and MSO[Sig], i.e. a decidable Monadic Second Order logic over a suitable infinite signature Sig. We also introduce a natural subclass of ℒ(SBTA) which still properly contains the class of regular languages and which is proved to be characterized by Monadic Second Order logic over a finite signature Sig' ⊂ Sig. Finally, in the style of McNaughton Theorem for star free regular languages, we introduce an expression language which precisely denotes the class of languages defined by the first order fragment of MSO[Sig'].
Regulatory motif finding by logic regression.
Keles, Sündüz; van der Laan, Mark J; Vulpe, Chris
2004-11-01
Multiple transcription factors coordinately control transcriptional regulation of genes in eukaryotes. Although many computational methods consider the identification of individual transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs), very few focus on the interactions between these sites. We consider finding TFBSs and their context specific interactions using microarray gene expression data. We devise a hybrid approach called LogicMotif composed of a TFBS identification method combined with the new regression methodology logic regression. LogicMotif has two steps: First, potential binding sites are identified from transcription control regions of genes of interest. Various available methods can be used in this step when the genes of interest can be divided into groups such as up-and downregulated. For this step, we also develop a simple univariate regression and extension method MFURE to extract candidate TFBSs from a large number of genes in the availability of microarray gene expression data. MFURE provides an alternative method for this step when partitioning of the genes into disjoint groups is not preferred. This first step aims to identify individual sites within gene groups of interest or sites that are correlated with the gene expression outcome. In the second step, logic regression is used to build a predictive model of outcome of interest (either gene expression or up- and down-regulation) using these potential sites. This 2-fold approach creates a rich diverse set of potential binding sites in the first step and builds regression or classification models in the second step using logic regression that is particularly good at identifying complex interactions. LogicMotif is applied to two publicly available datasets. A genome-wide gene expression data set of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used for validation. The regression models obtained are interpretable and the biological implications are in agreement with the known resuts. This analysis suggests that Logic
Erratum: Extending States on Finite Concrete Logics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Simone, Anna; Navara, Mirko; Pták, Pavel
2007-08-01
In this note we collect several observations on state extensions. They may be instrumental to anyone who pursues the theory of quantum logics. In particular, we find out when extensions (resp. signed extensions) exist in the “concrete” concrete logic of all even-element subsets of an even-element set (Th. 2.3 and Th. 2.9). We also mildly add to the study of difference-closed logics as initiated in Ovchinnikov (1999) by finding an extension theorem for subadditive states. Our results suplement the research carried on in De Simone (2000), Gudder (1979), Gudder and Marchand (1980), Navara and Pták (1983), Navara (1989), Ovchinnikov (1999), Pták (2000), Pták and Pulmannová (1991), Prather (1980), Sherstnev (1968), Sultanbekov (1992), and Svozil (1998).
Robust fuzzy logic stabilization with disturbance elimination.
Danapalasingam, Kumeresan A
2014-01-01
A robust fuzzy logic controller is proposed for stabilization and disturbance rejection in nonlinear control systems of a particular type. The dynamic feedback controller is designed as a combination of a control law that compensates for nonlinear terms in a control system and a dynamic fuzzy logic controller that addresses unknown model uncertainties and an unmeasured disturbance. Since it is challenging to derive a highly accurate mathematical model, the proposed controller requires only nominal functions of a control system. In this paper, a mathematical derivation is carried out to prove that the controller is able to achieve asymptotic stability by processing state measurements. Robustness here refers to the ability of the controller to asymptotically steer the state vector towards the origin in the presence of model uncertainties and a disturbance input. Simulation results of the robust fuzzy logic controller application in a magnetic levitation system demonstrate the feasibility of the control design.
Policy Transfer via Markov Logic Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torrey, Lisa; Shavlik, Jude
We propose using a statistical-relational model, the Markov Logic Network, for knowledge transfer in reinforcement learning. Our goal is to extract relational knowledge from a source task and use it to speed up learning in a related target task. We show that Markov Logic Networks are effective models for capturing both source-task Q-functions and source-task policies. We apply them via demonstration, which involves using them for decision making in an initial stage of the target task before continuing to learn. Through experiments in the RoboCup simulated-soccer domain, we show that transfer via Markov Logic Networks can significantly improve early performance in complex tasks, and that transferring policies is more effective than transferring Q-functions.
On Logic and Standards for Structuring Documents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eyers, David M.; Jones, Andrew J. I.; Kimbrough, Steven O.
The advent of XML has been widely seized upon as an opportunity to develop document representation standards that lend themselves to automated processing. This is a welcome development and much good has come of it. That said, present standardization efforts may be criticized on a number of counts. We explore two issues associated with document XML standardization efforts. We label them (i) the dynamic point and (ii) the logical point. Our dynamic point is that in many cases experience has shown that the search for a final, or even reasonably permanent, document representation standard is futile. The case is especially strong for electronic data interchange (EDI). Our logical point is that formalization into symbolic logic is materially helpful for understanding and designing dynamic document standards.
Answer Sets in a Fuzzy Equilibrium Logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schockaert, Steven; Janssen, Jeroen; Vermeir, Dirk; de Cock, Martine
Since its introduction, answer set programming has been generalized in many directions, to cater to the needs of real-world applications. As one of the most general “classical” approaches, answer sets of arbitrary propositional theories can be defined as models in the equilibrium logic of Pearce. Fuzzy answer set programming, on the other hand, extends answer set programming with the capability of modeling continuous systems. In this paper, we combine the expressiveness of both approaches, and define answer sets of arbitrary fuzzy propositional theories as models in a fuzzification of equilibrium logic. We show that the resulting notion of answer set is compatible with existing definitions, when the syntactic restrictions of the corresponding approaches are met. We furthermore locate the complexity of the main reasoning tasks at the second level of the polynomial hierarchy. Finally, as an illustration of its modeling power, we show how fuzzy equilibrium logic can be used to find strong Nash equilibria.
Logic integer programming models for signaling networks.
Haus, Utz-Uwe; Niermann, Kathrin; Truemper, Klaus; Weismantel, Robert
2009-05-01
We propose a static and a dynamic approach to model biological signaling networks, and show how each can be used to answer relevant biological questions. For this, we use the two different mathematical tools of Propositional Logic and Integer Programming. The power of discrete mathematics for handling qualitative as well as quantitative data has so far not been exploited in molecular biology, which is mostly driven by experimental research, relying on first-order or statistical models. The arising logic statements and integer programs are analyzed and can be solved with standard software. For a restricted class of problems the logic models reduce to a polynomial-time solvable satisfiability algorithm. Additionally, a more dynamic model enables enumeration of possible time resolutions in poly-logarithmic time. Computational experiments are included.
Development of ferrite logic devices for an arithmetic processor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heckler, C. H., Jr.
1972-01-01
A number of fundamentally ultra-reliable, all-magnetic logic circuits are developed using as a basis a single element ferrite structure wired as a logic delay element. By making minor additions or changes to the basic wiring pattern of the delay element other logic functions such as OR, AND, NEGATION, MAJORITY, EXCLUSIVE-OR, and FAN-OUT are developed. These logic functions are then used in the design of a full-adder, a set/reset flip-flop, and an edge detector. As a demonstration of the utility of all the developed devices, an 8-bit, all-magnetic, logic arithmetic unit capable of controlled addition, subtraction, and multiplication is designed. A new basic ferrite logic element and associated complementary logic scheme with the potential of improved performance is also described. Finally, an improved batch process for fabricating joint-free power drive and logic interconnect conductors for this basic class of all-magnetic logic is presented.
Nonlinear dynamics based digital logic and circuits
Kia, Behnam; Lindner, John. F.; Ditto, William L.
2015-01-01
We discuss the role and importance of dynamics in the brain and biological neural networks and argue that dynamics is one of the main missing elements in conventional Boolean logic and circuits. We summarize a simple dynamics based computing method, and categorize different techniques that we have introduced to realize logic, functionality, and programmability. We discuss the role and importance of coupled dynamics in networks of biological excitable cells, and then review our simple coupled dynamics based method for computing. In this paper, for the first time, we show how dynamics can be used and programmed to implement computation in any given base, including but not limited to base two. PMID:26029096
Nonlinear dynamics based digital logic and circuits.
Kia, Behnam; Lindner, John F; Ditto, William L
2015-01-01
We discuss the role and importance of dynamics in the brain and biological neural networks and argue that dynamics is one of the main missing elements in conventional Boolean logic and circuits. We summarize a simple dynamics based computing method, and categorize different techniques that we have introduced to realize logic, functionality, and programmability. We discuss the role and importance of coupled dynamics in networks of biological excitable cells, and then review our simple coupled dynamics based method for computing. In this paper, for the first time, we show how dynamics can be used and programmed to implement computation in any given base, including but not limited to base two.
Refining fuzzy logic controllers with machine learning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berenji, Hamid R.
1994-01-01
In this paper, we describe the GARIC (Generalized Approximate Reasoning-Based Intelligent Control) architecture, which learns from its past performance and modifies the labels in the fuzzy rules to improve performance. It uses fuzzy reinforcement learning which is a hybrid method of fuzzy logic and reinforcement learning. This technology can simplify and automate the application of fuzzy logic control to a variety of systems. GARIC has been applied in simulation studies of the Space Shuttle rendezvous and docking experiments. It has the potential of being applied in other aerospace systems as well as in consumer products such as appliances, cameras, and cars.
Voltage controlled spintronics device for logic applications.
Bader, S. D.; You, C.-Y.
1999-09-03
We consider logic device concepts based on our previously proposed spintronics device element whose magnetization orientation is controlled by application of a bias voltage instead of a magnetic field. The basic building block is the voltage-controlled rotation (VCR) element that consists of a four-layer structure--two ferromagnetic layers separated by both nanometer-thick insulator and metallic spacer layers. The interlayer exchange coupling between the two ferromagnetic layers oscillates as a function of applied voltage. We illustrate transistor-like concepts and re-programmable logic gates based on VCR elements.
Runtime Analysis of Linear Temporal Logic Specifications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Havelund, Klaus
2001-01-01
This report presents an approach to checking a running program against its Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) specifications. LTL is a widely used logic for expressing properties of programs viewed as sets of executions. Our approach consists of translating LTL formulae to finite-state automata, which are used as observers of the program behavior. The translation algorithm we propose modifies standard LTL to B chi automata conversion techniques to generate automata that check finite program traces. The algorithm has been implemented in a tool, which has been integrated with the generic JPaX framework for runtime analysis of Java programs.
Runtime Analysis of Linear Temporal Logic Specifications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Havelund, Klaus
2001-01-01
This report presents an approach to checking a running program against its Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) specifications. LTL is a widely used logic for expressing properties of programs viewed as sets of executions. Our approach consists of translating LTL formulae to finite-state automata, which are used as observers of the program behavior. The translation algorithm we propose modifies standard LTL to B chi automata conversion techniques to generate automata that check finite program traces. The algorithm has been implemented in a tool, which has been integrated with the generic JPaX framework for runtime analysis of Java programs.
Rebuilding mathematics on a quantum logical foundation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DeJonghe, Richard J., III
We construct a rich first-order quantum logic which generalizes the standard classical predicate logic used in the development of virtually all of modern mathematics, and we use this quantum logic to build the foundations of a new quantum mathematics. First, we prove both soundness and completeness for the quantum logic we develop, and also prove a powerful new completeness result which heretofore had been known to hold for classical, but not quantum, first-order logic. We then use our quantum logic to develop multiple areas of mathematics, including abstract algebra, axiomatic set theory, and arithmetic. In some preliminary investigations into quantum mathematics, Dunn found that the Peano axioms for arithmetic yield the same theorems using either classical or quantum logic. We prove a similar result for certain classes of abstract algebras, and then show that Dunn's result is not generic by presenting examples of quantum monoids, groups, lattices, vector spaces, and operator algebras, all which differ from their classical counterparts. Moreover, we find natural classes of quantum lattices, vector spaces, and operator algebras which all have a beautiful inter-relationship, and make some preliminary investigations into using these structures as a basis for a new mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics. We also develop a quantum set theory (equivalent to ZFC under classical logic) which is far more tractable than quantum set theory previously developed. We then use this set theory to construct a quantum version of the natural numbers, and develop an arithmetic of these numbers based upon an alternative to Peano's axioms (which avoids Dunn's theorem). Surprisingly, we find that these "quantum natural numbers" satisfy our arithmetical axioms if and only if the underlying truth values form a modular lattice, giving a new arithmetical characterization of this important lattice-theoretic property. Finally, we show that these numbers have a natural interpretation as
Fuzzy Logic-Based Audio Pattern Recognition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malcangi, M.
2008-11-01
Audio and audio-pattern recognition is becoming one of the most important technologies to automatically control embedded systems. Fuzzy logic may be the most important enabling methodology due to its ability to rapidly and economically model such application. An audio and audio-pattern recognition engine based on fuzzy logic has been developed for use in very low-cost and deeply embedded systems to automate human-to-machine and machine-to-machine interaction. This engine consists of simple digital signal-processing algorithms for feature extraction and normalization, and a set of pattern-recognition rules manually tuned or automatically tuned by a self-learning process.
Valve system incorporating single failure protection logic
Ryan, Rodger; Timmerman, Walter J. H.
1980-01-01
A valve system incorporating single failure protective logic. The system consists of a valve combination or composite valve which allows actuation or de-actuation of a device such as a hydraulic cylinder or other mechanism, integral with or separate from the valve assembly, by means of three independent input signals combined in a function commonly known as two-out-of-three logic. Using the input signals as independent and redundant actuation/de-actuation signals, a single signal failure, or failure of the corresponding valve or valve set, will neither prevent the desired action, nor cause the undesired action of the mechanism.
The Quantum Logical Challenge: Peter Mittelstaedt's Contributions to Logic and Philosophy of Science
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beltrametti, E.; Dalla Chiara, M. L.; Giuntini, R.
2017-04-01
Peter Mittelstaedt's contributions to quantum logic and to the foundational problems of quantum theory have significantly realized the most authentic spirit of the International Quantum Structures Association: an original research about hard technical problems, which are often "entangled" with the emergence of important changes in our general world-conceptions. During a time where both the logical and the physical community often showed a skeptical attitude towards Birkhoff and von Neumann's quantum logic, Mittelstaedt brought into light the deeply innovating features of a quantum logical thinking that allows us to overcome some strong and unrealistic assumptions of classical logical arguments. Later on his intense research on the unsharp approach to quantum theory and to the measurement problem stimulated the increasing interest for unsharp forms of quantum logic, creating a fruitful interaction between the work of quantum logicians and of many-valued logicians. Mittelstaedt's general views about quantum logic and quantum theory seem to be inspired by a conjecture that is today more and more confirmed: there is something universal in the quantum theoretic formalism that goes beyond the limits of microphysics, giving rise to interesting applications to a number of different fields.
Specifying real-time systems with interval logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rushby, John
1988-01-01
Pure temporal logic makes no reference to time. An interval temporal logic and an extension to that logic which includes real time constraints are described. The application of this logic by giving a specification for the well-known lift (elevator) example is demonstrated. It is shown how interval logic can be extended to include a notion of process. How the specification language and verification environment of EHDM could be enhanced to support this logic is described. A specification of the alternating bit protocol in this extended version of the specification language of EHDM is given.
Optical logic array processor using shadowgrams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanida, J.; Ichioka, Y.
1983-06-01
On the basis of a lensless shadow-casting technique, a new, simple method of optically implementing digital logic gates has been developed. These gates are capable of performimg a complete set of logical operations on a large array of binary variables in parallel, i.e., the pattern logics. A light-emitting diode (LED) array is used as an incoherent light source in the lensless shadow-casting system. Sixteen possible functions of two binary variables are simply realizable with these gates in parallel by controlling the switching modes of the LEDs. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of various gate arrays, such as AND, OR, NOR, XOR, and NAND. As an example of application of the proposed method, an optical logic array processor is constructed that can implement parallel operations of addition or subtraction for two binary variables without considering the carry mechanisms. Use of the light-modulated LED array means that the proposed method can be applied to combinational circuits.
Can Mathematics be Justified by Natural Logic?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schreiber, Lothar; Sommer, Hanns
2010-11-01
Charles Darwin claimed that the forms and the behaviour of living beings can be explained from their will to survive. But what are the consequences of this idea for humans knowledge, their theories of nature and their mathematics?. We discuss the view that even Plato's objective world of mathematical objects does not exist absolutely, without the intentions of mathematicians. Using Husserl's Phenomenological Method, cognition can be understood as a process by which meaning is deduced from empirical data relative to intentions. Thereby the essential structure of any cognition process can be detected and this structure is mirrored in logic. A natural logic becomes the direct result of cognition. Only in a second step, mathematics is obtained by abstraction from natural logic. In this way mathematics gains a well-defined foundation and is no longer part of a dubious 'a-priori knowledge' (Kant). This access to mathematics offers a new look on many old problems, e.g. the Petersburg problem and the problem 'P = NP?'. We demonstrate that this new justification of mathematics has also important applications in Artificial Intelligence. Our method provides a procedure to construct an adequate logic to solve most efficiently the problems of a given problem class. Thus, heuristics can be tailor-made for the necessities of applications.
Young Children's Comprehension of Logical Connectives.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Suppes, Patrick; Feldman, Shirley
To determine to what extent children of preschool age comprehend the meaning of logical connectives, 64 5- and 6-year-olds were told to hand differently colored and shaped wooden blocks to an experimenter. The commands involved various English idioms used for conjunction (e.g. both black and round), disjunction (either black or round), and…
Indexing and Retrieval Performance: The Logical Evidence.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Soergel, Dagobert
1994-01-01
Presents a logical analysis of the characteristics of indexing and their effects on retrieval. The foundational questions of performance evaluation and the basic quantitative performance measures for binary noninteractive retrieval systems are established. The effects of indexing devices, indexing exhaustivity, specificity, correctness, and…
Automatic Configuration of Programmable Logic Controller Emulators
2015-03-01
you for your passionate teaching , advice, and mentorship. I would also like to thank the other members in my committee, LTC Mason Rice and Mr. Juan...Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 3.4 Protocol Informatics In-depth...tree PI Protocol Informatics PLC programmable logic controller PRISMA Protocol Inspection and State Machine Analysis RA Region Analysis RRP request
Giving Programming Students a Logical Step Up.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, David W.
1990-01-01
Presents a method to enhance the teaching of computer programing to secondary students that establishes a connection between logic, truth tables, switching circuits, gating symbols, flow charts, and pseudocode. The author asserts that the method prepares students for thinking processes related to programing. (MDH)
Demonstrating Boolean Logic Using Simple Electrical Circuits
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McElhaney, Kevin W.
2004-01-01
While exploring the subject of geometric proofs, boolean logic operators AND and OR can be used to allow students to visualize their true-or-false patterns. An activity in the form of constructing electrical circuits is illustrated to explain the concept.
Reversible logic circuits made of DNA.
Genot, Anthony J; Bath, Jonathan; Turberfield, Andrew J
2011-12-21
We report reversible logic circuits made of DNA. The circuits are based on an AND gate that is designed to be thermodynamically and kinetically reversible and to respond nonlinearly to the concentrations of its input molecules. The circuits continuously recompute their outputs, allowing them to respond to changing inputs. They are robust to imperfections in their inputs. © 2011 American Chemical Society
Faster Evolution of More Multifunctional Logic Circuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stoica, Adrian; Zebulum, Ricardo
2005-01-01
A modification in a method of automated evolutionary synthesis of voltage-controlled multifunctional logic circuits makes it possible to synthesize more circuits in less time. Prior to the modification, the computations for synthesizing a four-function logic circuit by this method took about 10 hours. Using the method as modified, it is possible to synthesize a six-function circuit in less than half an hour. The concepts of automated evolutionary synthesis and voltage-controlled multifunctional logic circuits were described in a number of prior NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: A circuit is designed to perform one of several different logic functions, depending on the value of an applied control voltage. The circuit design is synthesized following an automated evolutionary approach that is so named because it is modeled partly after the repetitive trial-and-error process of biological evolution. In this process, random populations of integer strings that encode electronic circuits play a role analogous to that of chromosomes. An evolved circuit is tested by computational simulation (prior to testing in real hardware to verify a final design). Then, in a fitness-evaluation step, responses of the circuit are compared with specifications of target responses and circuits are ranked according to how close they come to satisfying specifications. The results of the evaluation provide guidance for refining designs through further iteration.
Evolutionary program induction directed by logic grammars
Wong; Leung
1997-01-01
Program induction generates a computer program that can produce the desired behavior for a given set of situations. Two of the approaches in program induction are inductive logic programming (ILP) and genetic programming (GP). Since their formalisms are so different, these two approaches cannot be integrated easily, although they share many common goals and functionalities. A unification will greatly enhance their problem-solving power. Moreover, they are restricted in the computer languages in which programs can be induced. In this paper, we present a flexible system called LOGENPRO (The LOgic gramar-based GENetic PROgramming system) that uses some of the techniques of GP and ILP. It is based on a formalism of logic grammars. The system applies logic grammars to control the evolution of programs in various programming languages and represent context-sensitive information and domain-dependent knowledge. Experiments have been performed to demonstrate that LOGENPRO can emulate GP and GP with automatically defined functions (ADFs). Moreover, LOGENPRO can employ knowledge such as argument types in a unified framework. The experiments show that LOGENPRO has superior performance to that of GP and GP with ADFs when more domain-dependent knowledge is available. We have applied LOGENPRO to evolve general recursive functions for the even-n-parity problem from noisy training examples. A number of experiments have been performed to determine the impact of domain-specific knowledge and noise in training examples on the speed of learning.
Some Personality Correlates of Logical Reasoning Ability.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ross, G. Robert, Jr.; Fletcher, Harold J.
Four-hundred and nine students (grades 8, 10, 12 and 14) were given logical syllogism problems of the form "If p...then q" along with tests of dogmatism and intolerance of ambiguity. Aptitude scores were also obtained. Major results indicated that expressed dogmatism and intolerance of ambiguity were negatively correlated with syllogistic…
Children's Acquisition of Conditional Logic Structure: Teachable?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Seong-Soo
1985-01-01
To assess the teachability of conditional logic structure, the commonly used syllogistic conditional reasoning task was divided into three main components: (1) inductive rule learning; (2) induction of conditional language; and (3) deductive interpretation. When trained on all components, fifth and seventh graders became very competent in dealing…
Quantum logic gates for superconducting resonator qudits
Strauch, Frederick W.
2011-11-15
We study quantum information processing using superpositions of Fock states in superconducting resonators as quantum d-level systems (qudits). A universal set of single and coupled logic gates is theoretically proposed for resonators coupled by superconducting circuits of Josephson junctions. These gates use experimentally demonstrated interactions and provide an attractive route to quantum information processing using harmonic oscillator modes.
Logic in Everyday Language and in Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zepp, Raymond A.
1987-01-01
Discusses logical errors, such as converse reasoning, that are made by students in mathematics and science courses. States that many students apply incorrect forms of reasoning to concrete mathematical problems. Concludes that material should be taught as concretely as possible, and that mathematics students should be made aware of reasoning…
New Logic Circuit with DC Parametric Excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugahara, Masanori; Kaneda, Hisayoshi
1982-12-01
It is shown that dc parametric excitation is possible in a circuit named JUDO, which is composed of two resistively-connected Josephson junctions. Simulation study proves that the circuit has large gain and properties suitable for the construction of small, high-speed logic circuits.
Logical Access Control Mechanisms in Computer Systems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hsiao, David K.
The subject of access control mechanisms in computer systems is concerned with effective means to protect the anonymity of private information on the one hand, and to regulate the access to shareable information on the other hand. Effective means for access control may be considered on three levels: memory, process and logical. This report is a…
Logical Structure of a Hypermedia Newspaper.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Saarela, Janne; Turpeinen, Marko; Puskala, Tuomas; Korkea-aho, Mari; Sulonen, Reijo
1997-01-01
Describes an object-oriented approach which implements the logical model of a hypermedia newspaper based on experiences with the OtaOnline project at the Helsinki University of Technology (Finland.) Highlights include presentation formats, a semantical rating system, distribution schemes, metadata, and added-value features facilitated by the…
On Logical Error Underlying Classical Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalanov, Temur Z.
2012-03-01
The logical analysis of the general accepted description of mechanical motion of material point M in classical mechanics is proposed. The key idea of the analysis is as follows. Let point M be moved in the positive direction of the axis O 1ptx. Motion is characterized by a change of coordinate x,( t ) -- continuous function of time t(because motion is a change in general). If δ,->;0;δ,;=;0, then δ,;->;0δ,;=;0, i.e., according to practice and formal logic, value of coordinate does not change and, hence, motion does not exist. But, contrary to practice and formal logic, differential calculus and classical mechanics contain the assertion that velocity δ,;->;0;δ,δ,;exists without motion. Then velocity δ,;->;0;δ,δ,;is not real (i.e. not physical) quantity, but fictitious quantity. Therefore, use of non-physical (unreal) quantity (i.e. the first and second derivatives of function) in classical mechanics is a logic error.
Learning Probabilistic Logic Models from Probabilistic Examples
Chen, Jianzhong; Muggleton, Stephen; Santos, José
2009-01-01
Abstract We revisit an application developed originally using abductive Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) for modeling inhibition in metabolic networks. The example data was derived from studies of the effects of toxins on rats using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) time-trace analysis of their biofluids together with background knowledge representing a subset of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). We now apply two Probabilistic ILP (PILP) approaches - abductive Stochastic Logic Programs (SLPs) and PRogramming In Statistical modeling (PRISM) to the application. Both approaches support abductive learning and probability predictions. Abductive SLPs are a PILP framework that provides possible worlds semantics to SLPs through abduction. Instead of learning logic models from non-probabilistic examples as done in ILP, the PILP approach applied in this paper is based on a general technique for introducing probability labels within a standard scientific experimental setting involving control and treated data. Our results demonstrate that the PILP approach provides a way of learning probabilistic logic models from probabilistic examples, and the PILP models learned from probabilistic examples lead to a significant decrease in error accompanied by improved insight from the learned results compared with the PILP models learned from non-probabilistic examples. PMID:19888348
Proof Search in an Authorization Logic
2009-04-14
of the 19th Computer Security Foundations Workshop (CSFW ’06), pages 283–293, Venice, Italy, July 2006. IEEE Computer Society Press. [32] Yuri Gurevich ...21), 2008. [33] Yuri Gurevich and Itay Neeman. The logic of infons. Technical report, Microsoft Research, 2009. [34] Joshua S. Hodas and Dale Miller
Fuzzy logic program at SGS-Thomson
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pagni, Andrea; Poluzzi, Rinaldo; Rizzotto, GianGuido
1993-12-01
From its conception by Professor Lotfi A. Zadeh in the early '60s, Fuzzy Logic has slowly won acceptance, first in the academic world, then in industry. Its success is mainly due to the different perspective with which problems are tackled. Thanks to Fuzzy Logic we have moved from a numerical/analytical description to a quantitative/qualitative one. It is important to stress that this different perspective not only allows us to solve analysis/control problems at lower costs but can also allow otherwise insoluble problems to be solved at acceptable costs. Of course, it must be stressed that Fuzzy Systems cannot match the computational precision of traditional techniques but seek, instead, to find acceptable solutions in shorter times. Recognizing the enormous importance of fuzzy logic in the markets of the future, SGS-THOMSON intends to produce devices belonging to a new class of machines: Fuzzy Computational Machines. For this purpose a major research project has been established considering the architectural aspects and system implications of fuzzy logic, the development of dedicated VLSI components and supporting software.
Indeterminacy, linguistic semantics and fuzzy logic
Novak, V.
1996-12-31
In this paper, we discuss the indeterminacy phenomenon which has two distinguished faces, namely uncertainty modeled especially by the probability theory and vagueness, modeled by fuzzy logic. Other important mathematical model of vagueness is provided by the Alternative Set Theory. We focus on some of the basic concepts of these theories in connection with mathematical modeling of the linguistic semantics.
Fuzzy logic mode switching in helicopters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sherman, Porter D.; Warburton, Frank W.
1993-01-01
The application of fuzzy logic to a wide range of control problems has been gaining momentum internationally, fueled by a concentrated Japanese effort. Advanced Research & Development within the Engineering Department at Sikorsky Aircraft undertook a fuzzy logic research effort designed to evaluate how effective fuzzy logic control might be in relation to helicopter operations. The mode switching module in the advanced flight control portion of Sikorsky's motion based simulator was identified as a good candidate problem because it was simple to understand and contained imprecise (fuzzy) decision criteria. The purpose of the switching module is to aid a helicopter pilot in entering and leaving coordinated turns while in flight. The criteria that determine the transitions between modes are imprecise and depend on the varied ranges of three flight conditions (i.e., simulated parameters): Commanded Rate, Duration, and Roll Attitude. The parameters were given fuzzy ranges and used as input variables to a fuzzy rulebase containing the knowledge of mode switching. The fuzzy control program was integrated into a real time interactive helicopter simulation tool. Optimization of the heading hold and turn coordination was accomplished by interactive pilot simulation testing of the handling quality performance of the helicopter dynamic model. The fuzzy logic code satisfied all the requirements of this candidate control problem.
Demonstrating Boolean Logic Using Simple Electrical Circuits
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McElhaney, Kevin W.
2004-01-01
While exploring the subject of geometric proofs, boolean logic operators AND and OR can be used to allow students to visualize their true-or-false patterns. An activity in the form of constructing electrical circuits is illustrated to explain the concept.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Molnar, Jane
The logical mysteries in this book are designed to develop critical thinking and deductive reasoning skills, motivate children to read carefully, and develop memory skills. The mystery solutions are explained at the end of the book. The first nine mysteries are intended for third grade students to work on with their teacher or parents. The second…
Mapping individual logical processes in information searching
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smetana, F. O.
1974-01-01
An interactive dialog with a computerized information collection was recorded and plotted in the form of a flow chart. The process permits one to identify the logical processes employed in considerable detail and is therefore suggested as a tool for measuring individual thought processes in a variety of situations. A sample of an actual test case is given.
Teleology as Logical Phenomenology: Some Therapeutic Implications.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rychlak, Joseph F.
Phenomenology is an important force in the development of psychological theory, rather than a variant type of counseling method. A distinction must be drawn between the sensory phenomenology in which gestaltists focus on sensory receptors, and logical pheomenology in which the grounding of belief or self-identity is viewed as a prediction or…
Interacting institutional logics in general dental practice☆
Harris, Rebecca; Holt, Robin
2013-01-01
We investigate the organisational field of general dental practice and how agents change or maintain the institution of values associated with the everyday work of health care provision. Our dataset comprise archival literature and policy documents, interview data from field level actors, as well as service delivery level interview data and secondary data gathered (2011–12) from 16 English dental practices. Our analysis provides a typology of institutional logics (prevailing systems of value) experienced in the field of dental practice. Confirming current literature, we find two logics dominate how care is assessed: business-like health care and medical professionalism. We advance the literature by finding the business-like health care logic further distinguished by values of commercialism on the one hand and those of accountability and procedural diligence on the other. The logic of professionalism we also find is further distinguished into a commitment to clinical expertise and independence in delivering patient care on the one hand, and concerns for the autonomy and sustainability of a business enterprise on the other. PMID:23931946
The music of morality and logic
Mesz, Bruno; Rodriguez Zivic, Pablo H.; Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Sigman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos A.
2015-01-01
Musical theory has built on the premise that musical structures can refer to something different from themselves (Nattiez and Abbate, 1990). The aim of this work is to statistically corroborate the intuitions of musical thinkers and practitioners starting at least with Plato, that music can express complex human concepts beyond merely “happy” and “sad” (Mattheson and Lenneberg, 1958). To do so, we ask whether musical improvisations can be used to classify the semantic category of the word that triggers them. We investigated two specific domains of semantics: morality and logic. While morality has been historically associated with music, logic concepts, which involve more abstract forms of thought, are more rarely associated with music. We examined musical improvisations inspired by positive and negative morality (e.g., good and evil) and logic concepts (true and false), analyzing the associations between these words and their musical representations in terms of acoustic and perceptual features. We found that music conveys information about valence (good and true vs. evil and false) with remarkable consistency across individuals. This information is carried by several musical dimensions which act in synergy to achieve very high classification accuracy. Positive concepts are represented by music with more ordered pitch structure and lower harmonic and sensorial dissonance than negative concepts. Music also conveys information indicating whether the word which triggered it belongs to the domains of logic or morality (true vs. good), principally through musical articulation. In summary, improvisations consistently map logic and morality information to specific musical dimensions, testifying the capacity of music to accurately convey semantic information in domains related to abstract forms of thought. PMID:26191020
The music of morality and logic.
Mesz, Bruno; Rodriguez Zivic, Pablo H; Cecchi, Guillermo A; Sigman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos A
2015-01-01
Musical theory has built on the premise that musical structures can refer to something different from themselves (Nattiez and Abbate, 1990). The aim of this work is to statistically corroborate the intuitions of musical thinkers and practitioners starting at least with Plato, that music can express complex human concepts beyond merely "happy" and "sad" (Mattheson and Lenneberg, 1958). To do so, we ask whether musical improvisations can be used to classify the semantic category of the word that triggers them. We investigated two specific domains of semantics: morality and logic. While morality has been historically associated with music, logic concepts, which involve more abstract forms of thought, are more rarely associated with music. We examined musical improvisations inspired by positive and negative morality (e.g., good and evil) and logic concepts (true and false), analyzing the associations between these words and their musical representations in terms of acoustic and perceptual features. We found that music conveys information about valence (good and true vs. evil and false) with remarkable consistency across individuals. This information is carried by several musical dimensions which act in synergy to achieve very high classification accuracy. Positive concepts are represented by music with more ordered pitch structure and lower harmonic and sensorial dissonance than negative concepts. Music also conveys information indicating whether the word which triggered it belongs to the domains of logic or morality (true vs. good), principally through musical articulation. In summary, improvisations consistently map logic and morality information to specific musical dimensions, testifying the capacity of music to accurately convey semantic information in domains related to abstract forms of thought.
The connection between logical and thermodynamic irreversibility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ladyman, James; Presnell, Stuart; Short, Anthony J.; Groisman, Berry
There has recently been a good deal of controversy about Landauer's Principle, which is often stated as follows: the erasure of one bit of information in a computational device is necessarily accompanied by a generation of kT ln 2 heat. This is often generalised to the claim that any logically irreversible operation cannot be implemented in a thermodynamically reversible way. Norton [2005. Eaters of the lotus: Landauer's principle and the return of Maxwell's demon. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 36, 375-411] and Maroney [2005. The (absence of a) relationship between thermodynamic and logical reversibility. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 36, 355-374] both argue that Landauer's Principle has not been shown to hold in general, and Maroney offers a method that he claims instantiates the operation Reset in a thermodynamically reversible way. In this paper we defend the qualitative form of Landauer's Principle, and clarify its quantitative consequences (assuming the second law of thermodynamics). We analyse in detail what it means for a physical system to implement a logical transformation L, and we make this precise by defining the notion of an L-machine. Then we show that logical irreversibility of L implies thermodynamic irreversibility of every corresponding L-machine. We do this in two ways. First, by assuming the phenomenological validity of the Kelvin statement of the second law, and second, by using information-theoretic reasoning. We illustrate our results with the example of the logical transformation 'Reset', and thereby recover the quantitative form of Landauer's Principle.
Exclusive-or logic circuit has useful properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batte, W. G.
1966-01-01
Single, simple exclusive-or logic connective eliminates excessive hardware and the number of interconnections between logic modules. This circuit performs the necessary switching for the exclusive-or operation and amplifies, restores, and inverts the signal.
The Three Rs of Teaching Logic: Revelation, Relevance, and Reinforcement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Covel, Robert C.
2010-01-01
Covel offers a primer on logic and describes how students react when they realize what a useful resource it can be in their real lives. His article includes useful definitions of critical concepts and logical fallacies. (Contains 2 figures.)
Photorefractive optical fuzzy-logic processor based on grating degeneracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Weishu; Yang, Changxi; Campbell, Scott; Yeh, Pochi
1995-04-01
A novel optical fuzzy-logic processor using light-induced gratings in photorefractive crystals is proposed and demonstrated. By exploiting grating degeneracy, one can easily implement parallel fuzzy-logic functions in disjunctive normal form.
The Three Rs of Teaching Logic: Revelation, Relevance, and Reinforcement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Covel, Robert C.
2010-01-01
Covel offers a primer on logic and describes how students react when they realize what a useful resource it can be in their real lives. His article includes useful definitions of critical concepts and logical fallacies. (Contains 2 figures.)
Warnecke, Sascha; Toennies, J. Peter; Tang, K. T.
2015-04-07
The Tang-Toennies potential for the weakly interacting systems H{sub 2} b{sup 3}Σ{sub u}{sup +}, H–He {sup 2}Σ{sup +}, and He{sub 2} {sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +} is extended down to the united atom limit of vanishing internuclear distance. A simple analytic expression connects the united atom limiting potential with the Tang-Toennies potential in the well region. The new potential model is compared with the most recent ab initio calculations for all three systems. The agreement is better than 20% (H{sub 2} and He{sub 2}) or comparable with the differences in the available ab initio calculations (H–He) over six orders of magnitude corresponding to the entire range of internuclear distances.
Castro-Palacio, Juan Carlos; Bemish, Raymond J.; Meuwly, Markus
2015-03-07
The O({sup 3}P) + NO({sup 2}Π) → O{sub 2}(X{sup 3}Σ{sub g}{sup −}) + N({sup 4}S) reaction is among the N- and O- involving reactions that dominate the energetics of the reactive air flow around spacecraft during hypersonic atmospheric re-entry. In this regime, the temperature in the bow shock typically ranges from 1000 to 20 000 K. The forward and reverse rate coefficients for this reaction derived directly from trajectory calculations over this range of temperature are reported in this letter. Results compare well with the established equilibrium constants for the same reaction from thermodynamic quantities derived from spectroscopy in the gas phase which paves the way for large-scale in silico investigations of equilibrium rates under extreme conditions.
Application of temporal LNC logic in artificial intelligence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adamek, Marek; Mulawka, Jan
2016-09-01
This paper presents the temporal logic inference engine developed in our university. It is an attempt to demonstrate implementation and practical application of temporal logic LNC developed in Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw.1 The paper describes the fundamentals of LNC logic, architecture and implementation of inference engine. The practical application is shown by providing the solution for popular in Artificial Intelligence problem of Missionaries and Cannibals in terms of LNC logic. Both problem formulation and inference engine are described in details.
Orbach, Ron; Remacle, Françoise; Levine, R D; Willner, Itamar
2012-12-26
The Toffoli and Fredkin gates were suggested as a means to exhibit logic reversibility and thereby reduce energy dissipation associated with logic operations in dense computing circuits. We present a construction of the logically reversible Toffoli and Fredkin gates by implementing a library of predesigned Mg(2+)-dependent DNAzymes and their respective substrates. Although the logical reversibility, for which each set of inputs uniquely correlates to a set of outputs, is demonstrated, the systems manifest thermodynamic irreversibility originating from two quite distinct and nonrelated phenomena. (i) The physical readout of the gates is by fluorescence that depletes the population of the final state of the machine. This irreversible, heat-releasing process is needed for the generation of the output. (ii) The DNAzyme-powered logic gates are made to operate at a finite rate by invoking downhill energy-releasing processes. Even though the three bits of Toffoli's and Fredkin's logically reversible gates manifest thermodynamic irreversibility, we suggest that these gates could have important practical implication in future nanomedicine.
Orbach, Ron; Remacle, Françoise; Levine, R. D.; Willner, Itamar
2012-01-01
The Toffoli and Fredkin gates were suggested as a means to exhibit logic reversibility and thereby reduce energy dissipation associated with logic operations in dense computing circuits. We present a construction of the logically reversible Toffoli and Fredkin gates by implementing a library of predesigned Mg2+-dependent DNAzymes and their respective substrates. Although the logical reversibility, for which each set of inputs uniquely correlates to a set of outputs, is demonstrated, the systems manifest thermodynamic irreversibility originating from two quite distinct and nonrelated phenomena. (i) The physical readout of the gates is by fluorescence that depletes the population of the final state of the machine. This irreversible, heat-releasing process is needed for the generation of the output. (ii) The DNAzyme-powered logic gates are made to operate at a finite rate by invoking downhill energy-releasing processes. Even though the three bits of Toffoli’s and Fredkin’s logically reversible gates manifest thermodynamic irreversibility, we suggest that these gates could have important practical implication in future nanomedicine. PMID:23236131
A biochemical logic gate using an enzyme and its inhibitor. Part II: The logic gate.
Sivan, Sarit; Tuchman, Samuel; Lotan, Noah
2003-06-01
Enzyme-Based Logic Gates (ENLOGs) are key components in bio-molecular systems for information processing. This report and the previous one in this series address the characterization of two bio-molecular switching elements, namely the alpha-chymotrypsin (alphaCT) derivative p-phenylazobenzoyl-alpha-chymotrypsin (PABalphaCT) and its inhibitor (proflavine), as well as their assembly into a logic gate. The experimental output of the proposed system is expressed in terms of enzymic activity and this was translated into logic output (i.e. "1" or "0") relative to a predetermined threshold value. We have found that an univalent link exists between the dominant isomers of PABalphaCT (cis or trans), the dominant form of either acridine (proflavine) or acridan and the logic output of the system. Thus, of all possible combinations, only the trans-PABalphaCT and the acridan lead to an enzymic activity that can be defined as logic output "1". The system operates under the rules of Boolean algebra and performs as an "AND" logic gate.
Electronics. Module 3: Digital Logic Application. Instructor's Guide.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carter, Ed; Murphy, Mark
This guide contains instructor's materials for a 10-unit secondary school course on digital logic application. The units are introduction to digital, logic gates, digital integrated circuits, combination logic, flip-flops, counters and shift registers, encoders and decoders, arithmetic circuits, memory, and analog/digital and digital/analog…
Electronics. Module 3: Digital Logic Application. Instructor's Guide.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carter, Ed; Murphy, Mark
This guide contains instructor's materials for a 10-unit secondary school course on digital logic application. The units are introduction to digital, logic gates, digital integrated circuits, combination logic, flip-flops, counters and shift registers, encoders and decoders, arithmetic circuits, memory, and analog/digital and digital/analog…
43 CFR 3487.1 - Logical mining units.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Logical mining units. 3487.1 Section 3487..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Logical Mining Unit § 3487.1 Logical mining units. (a) An LMU shall become effective only upon approval of...
43 CFR 3487.1 - Logical mining units.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Logical mining units. 3487.1 Section 3487..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Logical Mining Unit § 3487.1 Logical mining units. (a) An LMU shall become effective only upon approval of...
15 CFR 970.601 - Logical mining unit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Logical mining unit. 970.601 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Resource Development Concepts § 970.601 Logical mining unit. (a) In the case of an exploration license, a logical mining unit is...
15 CFR 970.601 - Logical mining unit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Logical mining unit. 970.601 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Resource Development Concepts § 970.601 Logical mining unit. (a) In the case of an exploration license, a logical mining unit is...
43 CFR 3487.1 - Logical mining units.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Logical mining units. 3487.1 Section 3487..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Logical Mining Unit § 3487.1 Logical mining units. (a) An LMU shall become effective only upon approval of...
43 CFR 3487.1 - Logical mining units.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Logical mining units. 3487.1 Section 3487..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Logical Mining Unit § 3487.1 Logical mining units. (a) An LMU shall become effective only upon approval of...
15 CFR 970.601 - Logical mining unit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Logical mining unit. 970.601 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Resource Development Concepts § 970.601 Logical mining unit. (a) In the case of an exploration license, a logical mining unit is...
15 CFR 970.601 - Logical mining unit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Logical mining unit. 970.601 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Resource Development Concepts § 970.601 Logical mining unit. (a) In the case of an exploration license, a logical mining unit is...
15 CFR 970.601 - Logical mining unit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Resource Development Concepts § 970.601 Logical mining unit. (a) In the case of an exploration license, a logical mining unit is an... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Logical mining unit. 970.601...
A verification logic representation of indeterministic signal states
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.
1991-01-01
The integration of modern CAD tools with formal verification environments require translation from hardware description language to verification logic. A signal representation including both unknown state and a degree of strength indeterminacy is essential for the correct modeling of many VLSI circuit designs. A higher-order logic theory of indeterministic logic signals is presented.
George Pierce Baker's "Principles of Argumentation": "Completely Logical"?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bordelon, Suzanne
2006-01-01
The article contends that previous scholars have misread George Pierce Baker's efforts by focusing primarily on "The Principles of Argumentation" and the role of logic. Baker's view of logic was more complex than scholars have claimed. He challenged traditional concepts of formal logic, highlighting only those aspects that would help students…
Combined And-Or Parallel Execution of Logic Programs,
1988-03-01
siuom on Logic Programming,", Atlantic City, NJ, 1984. pp. 2-11. [BL86] R. Butler, E. L. Lusk, R. Olson and R. Overbeek . -ANLNVA."I A Parallel...80’-88. [DLOS71 T. Disz. E. LDisk, and P. Overbeek , "Experiments with OR-parallel Logic Prograi<’ ,. In 1987 IEEE Inicrnational Symrposium7 in. Logic
Teaching to the Test: A Pragmatic Approach to Teaching Logic
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vannatta, Seth C.
2014-01-01
The proper goal of an introductory logic course, teaching critical thinking, is best achieved by maintaining the principle of continuity between student experiences and the curriculum. To demonstrate this I explain Dewey's naturalistic approach to logic and the process of inquiry, one which presents the elements of traditional logic in the…
Institutional Logics, Indie Software Developers and Platform Governance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Qiu, Yixin
2013-01-01
This two-essay dissertation aims to study institutional logics in the context of Apple's independent third-party software developers. In essay 1, I investigate the embedded agency aspect of the institutional logics theory. It builds on the premise that logics constrain preferences, interests and behaviors of individuals and organizations, thereby…
"Sliders" Android Game - Improving Logical Skills of People with Disabilities.
Guzsvinecz, Tibor; Koszegi-Vigh, David; Szucs, Veronika; Sik Lanyi, Cecilia
2017-01-01
Logic is part of our everyday life. However, there are some cases where people have difficulties using deductive reasoning. The aim of this work is to help people with mild intellectual disability or learning disability to learn the basis of logical thinking. We developed an application on Android operating system to improve logical thinking.
George Pierce Baker's "Principles of Argumentation": "Completely Logical"?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bordelon, Suzanne
2006-01-01
The article contends that previous scholars have misread George Pierce Baker's efforts by focusing primarily on "The Principles of Argumentation" and the role of logic. Baker's view of logic was more complex than scholars have claimed. He challenged traditional concepts of formal logic, highlighting only those aspects that would help students…
Institutional Logics, Indie Software Developers and Platform Governance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Qiu, Yixin
2013-01-01
This two-essay dissertation aims to study institutional logics in the context of Apple's independent third-party software developers. In essay 1, I investigate the embedded agency aspect of the institutional logics theory. It builds on the premise that logics constrain preferences, interests and behaviors of individuals and organizations, thereby…
Logic system aids in evaluation of project readiness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maris, S. J.; Obrien, T. J.
1966-01-01
Measurement Operational Readiness Requirements /MORR/ assignments logic is used for determining the readiness of a complex project to go forward as planned. The system used logic network which assigns qualities to all important criteria in a project and establishes a logical sequence of measurements to determine what the conditions are.
Photonic encryption using all optical logic.
Blansett, Ethan L.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Tang, Jason D.; Robertson, Perry J.; Vawter, Gregory Allen; Tarman, Thomas David; Pierson, Lyndon George
2003-12-01
With the build-out of large transport networks utilizing optical technologies, more and more capacity is being made available. Innovations in Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM) and the elimination of optical-electrical-optical conversions have brought on advances in communication speeds as we move into 10 Gigabit Ethernet and above. Of course, there is a need to encrypt data on these optical links as the data traverses public and private network backbones. Unfortunately, as the communications infrastructure becomes increasingly optical, advances in encryption (done electronically) have failed to keep up. This project examines the use of optical logic for implementing encryption in the photonic domain to achieve the requisite encryption rates. In order to realize photonic encryption designs, technology developed for electrical logic circuits must be translated to the photonic regime. This paper examines two classes of all optical logic (SEED, gain competition) and how each discrete logic element can be interconnected and cascaded to form an optical circuit. Because there is no known software that can model these devices at a circuit level, the functionality of the SEED and gain competition devices in an optical circuit were modeled in PSpice. PSpice allows modeling of the macro characteristics of the devices in context of a logic element as opposed to device level computational modeling. By representing light intensity as voltage, 'black box' models are generated that accurately represent the intensity response and logic levels in both technologies. By modeling the behavior at the systems level, one can incorporate systems design tools and a simulation environment to aid in the overall functional design. Each black box model of the SEED or gain competition device takes certain parameters (reflectance, intensity, input response), and models the optical ripple and time delay characteristics. These 'black box' models are interconnected and cascaded in an
ECO Logic has developed a thermal desorption unit 0"DU) for the treatment of soils contaminated with hazardous organic contaminants. This TDU has been designed to be used in conjunction with Eco Logic's patented gas-phase chemical reduction reactor. The Eco Logic reactor is the s...
Optical design of programmable logic arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murdocca, Miles J.; Huang, Alan; Jahns, Jurgen; Streibl, Norbert
1988-05-01
Regular free-space interconnects such as the perfect shuffle and banyan provided by beam splitters, lenses, and mirrors connect optical logic gates arranged in two-dimensional arrays. An algorithmic design technique transforms arbitrary logic equations into a near-optimal depth circuit. Analysis shows that an arbitrary interconnect makes little or no improvement in circuit depth and can even reduce throughput. Gate count is normally higher with a regular interconnect, and cost bounds are shown. It is concluded that regularly interconnected circuits will have a higher gate count compared with arbitrarily interconnected circuits using the design techniques presented here and that regular free-space interconnects are comparable with arbitrary interconnects in terms of circuit depth and are preferred to arbitrary interconnects for maximizing throughput.
Mathematical logic in the human brain: semantics.
Friedrich, Roland M; Friederici, Angela D
2013-01-01
As a higher cognitive function in humans, mathematics is supported by parietal and prefrontal brain regions. Here, we give an integrative account of the role of the different brain systems in processing the semantics of mathematical logic from the perspective of macroscopic polysynaptic networks. By comparing algebraic and arithmetic expressions of identical underlying structure, we show how the different subparts of a fronto-parietal network are modulated by the semantic domain, over which the mathematical formulae are interpreted. Within this network, the prefrontal cortex represents a system that hosts three major components, namely, control, arithmetic-logic, and short-term memory. This prefrontal system operates on data fed to it by two other systems: a premotor-parietal top-down system that updates and transforms (external) data into an internal format, and a hippocampal bottom-up system that either detects novel information or serves as an access device to memory for previously acquired knowledge.
Enzyme-free nucleic acid logic circuits.
Seelig, Georg; Soloveichik, David; Zhang, David Yu; Winfree, Erik
2006-12-08
Biological organisms perform complex information processing and control tasks using sophisticated biochemical circuits, yet the engineering of such circuits remains ineffective compared with that of electronic circuits. To systematically create complex yet reliable circuits, electrical engineers use digital logic, wherein gates and subcircuits are composed modularly and signal restoration prevents signal degradation. We report the design and experimental implementation of DNA-based digital logic circuits. We demonstrate AND, OR, and NOT gates, signal restoration, amplification, feedback, and cascading. Gate design and circuit construction is modular. The gates use single-stranded nucleic acids as inputs and outputs, and the mechanism relies exclusively on sequence recognition and strand displacement. Biological nucleic acids such as microRNAs can serve as inputs, suggesting applications in biotechnology and bioengineering.
Mathematical Logic in the Human Brain: Semantics
Friedrich, Roland M.; Friederici, Angela D.
2013-01-01
As a higher cognitive function in humans, mathematics is supported by parietal and prefrontal brain regions. Here, we give an integrative account of the role of the different brain systems in processing the semantics of mathematical logic from the perspective of macroscopic polysynaptic networks. By comparing algebraic and arithmetic expressions of identical underlying structure, we show how the different subparts of a fronto-parietal network are modulated by the semantic domain, over which the mathematical formulae are interpreted. Within this network, the prefrontal cortex represents a system that hosts three major components, namely, control, arithmetic-logic, and short-term memory. This prefrontal system operates on data fed to it by two other systems: a premotor-parietal top-down system that updates and transforms (external) data into an internal format, and a hippocampal bottom-up system that either detects novel information or serves as an access device to memory for previously acquired knowledge. PMID:23301101
DNA strand displacement system running logic programs.
Rodríguez-Patón, Alfonso; Sainz de Murieta, Iñaki; Sosík, Petr
2014-01-01
The paper presents a DNA-based computing model which is enzyme-free and autonomous, not requiring a human intervention during the computation. The model is able to perform iterated resolution steps with logical formulae in conjunctive normal form. The implementation is based on the technique of DNA strand displacement, with each clause encoded in a separate DNA molecule. Propositions are encoded assigning a strand to each proposition p, and its complementary strand to the proposition ¬p; clauses are encoded comprising different propositions in the same strand. The model allows to run logic programs composed of Horn clauses by cascading resolution steps. The potential of the model is demonstrated also by its theoretical capability of solving SAT. The resulting SAT algorithm has a linear time complexity in the number of resolution steps, whereas its spatial complexity is exponential in the number of variables of the formula. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Neurocontrol and fuzzy logic: Connections and designs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Werbos, Paul J.
1991-01-01
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) and fuzzy logic are complementary technologies. ANNs extract information from systems to be learned or controlled, while fuzzy techniques mainly use verbal information from experts. Ideally, both sources of information should be combined. For example, one can learn rules in a hybrid fashion, and then calibrate them for better whole-system performance. ANNs offer universal approximation theorems, pedagogical advantages, very high-throughput hardware, and links to neurophysiology. Neurocontrol - the use of ANNs to directly control motors or actuators, etc. - uses five generalized designs, related to control theory, which can work on fuzzy logic systems as well as ANNs. These designs can copy what experts do instead of what they say, learn to track trajectories, generalize adaptive control, and maximize performance or minimize cost over time, even in noisy environments. Design tradeoffs and future directions are discussed throughout.
Logic-controlled occlusive cuff system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, J. T.; Hoffler, G. W. (Inventor); Hursta, W. N.
1981-01-01
An occlusive cuff system comprises a pressure cuff and a source of regulated compressed gas feeding the cuff through an electrically operated fill valve. An electrically operated vent valve vents the cuff to the ambient pressure. The fill valve is normally closed and the vent valve is normally open. In response to an external start signal, a logic network opens the fill valve and closes the vent valve, thereby starting the pressurization cycle and a timer. A pressure transducer continuously monitors the pressure in the cuff. When the transducer's output equals a selected reference voltage, a comparator causes the logic network to close the fill valve. The timer, after a selected time delay, opens the vent valve to the ambient pressure, thereby ending the pressurization cycle.
Active matter logic for autonomous microfluidics
Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn
2017-01-01
Chemically or optically powered active matter plays an increasingly important role in materials design, but its computational potential has yet to be explored systematically. The competition between energy consumption and dissipation imposes stringent physical constraints on the information transport in active flow networks, facilitating global optimization strategies that are not well understood. Here, we combine insights from recent microbial experiments with concepts from lattice-field theory and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics to introduce a generic theoretical framework for active matter logic. Highlighting conceptual differences with classical and quantum computation, we demonstrate how the inherent non-locality of incompressible active flow networks can be utilized to construct universal logical operations, Fredkin gates and memory storage in set–reset latches through the synchronized self-organization of many individual network components. Our work lays the conceptual foundation for developing autonomous microfluidic transport devices driven by bacterial fluids, active liquid crystals or chemically engineered motile colloids. PMID:28440273
Logic gates based on ion transistors.
Tybrandt, Klas; Forchheimer, Robert; Berggren, Magnus
2012-05-29
Precise control over processing, transport and delivery of ionic and molecular signals is of great importance in numerous fields of life sciences. Integrated circuits based on ion transistors would be one approach to route and dispense complex chemical signal patterns to achieve such control. To date several types of ion transistors have been reported; however, only individual devices have so far been presented and most of them are not functional at physiological salt concentrations. Here we report integrated chemical logic gates based on ion bipolar junction transistors. Inverters and NAND gates of both npn type and complementary type are demonstrated. We find that complementary ion gates have higher gain and lower power consumption, as compared with the single transistor-type gates, which imitates the advantages of complementary logics found in conventional electronics. Ion inverters and NAND gates lay the groundwork for further development of solid-state chemical delivery circuits.
Active matter logic for autonomous microfluidics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn
2017-04-01
Chemically or optically powered active matter plays an increasingly important role in materials design, but its computational potential has yet to be explored systematically. The competition between energy consumption and dissipation imposes stringent physical constraints on the information transport in active flow networks, facilitating global optimization strategies that are not well understood. Here, we combine insights from recent microbial experiments with concepts from lattice-field theory and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics to introduce a generic theoretical framework for active matter logic. Highlighting conceptual differences with classical and quantum computation, we demonstrate how the inherent non-locality of incompressible active flow networks can be utilized to construct universal logical operations, Fredkin gates and memory storage in set-reset latches through the synchronized self-organization of many individual network components. Our work lays the conceptual foundation for developing autonomous microfluidic transport devices driven by bacterial fluids, active liquid crystals or chemically engineered motile colloids.
Computing default logic extensions: An implementation
Courtney, A.P.; Foo, N.Y.; Antoniou, G.
1996-12-31
Default logic is a useful formalism for reasoning with incomplete information, its intuitive characteristics making it particularly suited for applications. Exten is a system currently capable of computing first-order Reiter, Justified and Constrained default extensions. It is part of a project to create a full default logic workbench, with future work involving query evaluation, further support for default variants and integration with belief revision. As such, it has been implemented in an object-oriented manner, and is designed to facilitate experimentation. The interface is based around a small language, giving the user flexibility in editing default theories and changing various parameters (such as compute next n extensions or carry out {open_quote}success{close_quote} checks every m steps).
Program Logics for Homogeneous Meta-programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berger, Martin; Tratt, Laurence
A meta-program is a program that generates or manipulates another program; in homogeneous meta-programming, a program may generate new parts of, or manipulate, itself. Meta-programming has been used extensively since macros were introduced to Lisp, yet we have little idea how formally to reason about meta-programs. This paper provides the first program logics for homogeneous meta-programming - using a variant of MiniML_e^{square} by Davies and Pfenning as underlying meta-programming language. We show the applicability of our approach by reasoning about example meta-programs from the literature. We also demonstrate that our logics are relatively complete in the sense of Cook, enable the inductive derivation of characteristic formulae, and exactly capture the observational properties induced by the operational semantics.
Voltage controlled spintronic devices for logic applications
You, Chun-Yeol; Bader, Samuel D.
2001-01-01
A reprogrammable logic gate comprising first and second voltage-controlled rotation transistors. Each transistor comprises three ferromagnetic layers with a spacer and insulating layer between the first and second ferromagnetic layers and an additional insulating layer between the second and third ferromagnetic layers. The third ferromagnetic layer of each transistor is connected to each other, and a constant external voltage source is applied to the second ferromagnetic layer of the first transistor. As input voltages are applied to the first ferromagnetic layer of each transistor, the relative directions of magnetization of the ferromagnetic layers and the magnitude of the external voltage determines the output voltage of the gate. By altering these parameters, the logic gate is capable of behaving as AND, OR, NAND, or NOR gates.
Logic Devices Based on Spin Current
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behin-Aein, Behtash
2011-03-01
The need to find low power alternatives to digital electronics circuits has led to increasing interest in alternative switching schemes like the magnetic quantum cellular automata that store information in nanomagnets which communicate through their magnetic fields. A recent proposal called all spin logic (ASL) proposes to communicate between nanomagnets using spin currents which are spatially localized and can be conveniently routed. In this talk we present a model for ASL devices that is based on established physics and is benchmarked against available experimental data. We investigate switching energy- delay of ASL devices and provide frameworks that allow simple comparisons with charge based devices like CMOS and can help to determine possible use of ASL in future logic implementation. Expected scaling of switching energy-delay of ASL devices as magnets are downscaled while retaining their stability against thermal fluctuations will be presented. This work was supported by Nanoelectronics Research Initiative (NRI) and Network for Computational Nanotechnology (NCN).
Spin wave nonreciprocity for logic device applications
Jamali, Mahdi; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Seo, Soo-Man; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Yang, Hyunsoo
2013-01-01
The utilization of spin waves as eigenmodes of the magnetization dynamics for information processing and communication has been widely explored recently due to its high operational speed with low power consumption and possible applications for quantum computations. Previous proposals of spin wave Mach-Zehnder devices were based on the spin wave phase, a delicate entity which can be easily disrupted. Here, we propose a complete logic system based on the spin wave amplitude utilizing the nonreciprocal spin wave behavior excited by microstrip antennas. The experimental data reveal that the nonreciprocity of magnetostatic surface spin wave can be tuned by the bias magnetic field. Furthermore, engineering of the device structure could result in a high nonreciprocity factor for spin wave logic applications. PMID:24196318
Phase conjugate Michelson interferometer for optical logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khoury, Jed
2017-05-01
The interference theory is developed for of the phase conjugate Michelson interferometer in which its ordinary mirrors are replaced by a single externally pumped phase conjugate mirror. According to the theory, it was found that for an interferometer with two equal arms, the path length difference depends solely on the initial alignment of the two input beams, and the vertical alignment readout. Small vertical misalignments in the readout beam by mrad causes a huge change in the phase difference in the phase between the two interferometer arms beam. The phase difference is proportional to the interferometer arm lengths. The overlap between the phase conjugate beams is not affected by the interferometer beam alignment. The interferometer is proposed for nondestructive testing and the design all optical logic and associated fuzzy logic for ultrafast optical pattern recognition.
Noise-free logical stochastic resonance.
Gupta, Animesh; Sohane, Aman; Kohar, Vivek; Murali, K; Sinha, Sudeshna
2011-11-01
The phenomena of logical stochastic resonance (LSR) was demonstrated recently [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 104101 (2009)]: namely, when a bistable system is driven by two inputs it consistently yields a response mirroring a logic function of the two inputs in an optimal window of moderate noise. Here we examine the intriguing possibility of obtaining dynamical behavior equivalent to LSR in a noise-free bistable system, subjected only to periodic forcing, such as sinusoidal driving or rectangular pulse trains. We find that such a system, despite having no stochastic influence, also yields phenomena analogous to LSR, in an appropriate window of frequency and amplitude of the periodic forcing. The results are corroborated by circuit experiments.
Nanoeletromechanical switch and logic circuits formed therefrom
Nordquist, Christopher D.; Czaplewski, David A.
2010-05-18
A nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch is formed on a substrate with a source electrode containing a suspended electrically-conductive beam which is anchored to the substrate at each end. This beam, which can be formed of ruthenium, bows laterally in response to a voltage applied between a pair of gate electrodes and the source electrode to form an electrical connection between the source electrode and a drain electrode located near a midpoint of the beam. Another pair of gate electrodes and another drain electrode can be located on an opposite side of the beam to allow for switching in an opposite direction. The NEM switch can be used to form digital logic circuits including NAND gates, NOR gates, programmable logic gates, and SRAM and DRAM memory cells which can be used in place of conventional CMOS circuits, or in combination therewith.
Conceptual and logical level of database modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunka, Frantisek; Matula, Jiri
2016-06-01
Conceptual and logical levels form the top most levels of database modeling. Usually, ORM (Object Role Modeling) and ER diagrams are utilized to capture the corresponding schema. The final aim of business process modeling is to store its results in the form of database solution. For this reason, value oriented business process modeling which utilizes ER diagram to express the modeling entities and relationships between them are used. However, ER diagrams form the logical level of database schema. To extend possibilities of different business process modeling methodologies, the conceptual level of database modeling is needed. The paper deals with the REA value modeling approach to business process modeling using ER-diagrams, and derives conceptual model utilizing ORM modeling approach. Conceptual model extends possibilities for value modeling to other business modeling approaches.
Logic circuits based on molecular spider systems.
Mo, Dandan; Lakin, Matthew R; Stefanovic, Darko
2016-08-01
Spatial locality brings the advantages of computation speed-up and sequence reuse to molecular computing. In particular, molecular walkers that undergo localized reactions are of interest for implementing logic computations at the nanoscale. We use molecular spider walkers to implement logic circuits. We develop an extended multi-spider model with a dynamic environment wherein signal transmission is triggered via localized reactions, and use this model to implement three basic gates (AND, OR, NOT) and a cascading mechanism. We develop an algorithm to automatically generate the layout of the circuit. We use a kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm to simulate circuit computations, and we analyze circuit complexity: our design scales linearly with formula size and has a logarithmic time complexity.
The Propositional Logic Induced by Means of Basic Algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chajda, I.
2015-12-01
A propositional logic induced by means of commutative basic algebras was already described by M. Botur and R. Halaš. It turns out that this is a kind of non-associative fuzzy logic which can be used e.g. in expert systems. Unfortunately, there are other important classes of basic algebras which are not commutative, e.g. orthomodular lattices which are used as an axiomatization of the logic of quantum mechanics. This motivated us to develop another axioms and derivation rules which form a propositional logic induced by basic algebras in general. We show that this logic is algebraizable in the sense of W. J. Blok and D. Pigozzi.
Universal Approximation of Mamdani Fuzzy Controllers and Fuzzy Logical Controllers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuan, Bo; Klir, George J.
1997-01-01
In this paper, we first distinguish two types of fuzzy controllers, Mamdani fuzzy controllers and fuzzy logical controllers. Mamdani fuzzy controllers are based on the idea of interpolation while fuzzy logical controllers are based on fuzzy logic in its narrow sense, i.e., fuzzy propositional logic. The two types of fuzzy controllers treat IF-THEN rules differently. In Mamdani fuzzy controllers, rules are treated disjunctively. In fuzzy logic controllers, rules are treated conjunctively. Finally, we provide a unified proof of the property of universal approximation for both types of fuzzy controllers.
A parity checker circuit based on microelectromechanical resonator logic elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Li, Ren; Younis, Mohammad I.; Fariborzi, Hossein
2017-03-01
Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based logic computation has attracted significant attention in recent years due to its dynamic mode of operation, ultra-low power consumption, and potential for reprogrammable and reversible computing. Here we demonstrate a 4-bit parity checker circuit by utilizing recently developed logic gates based on MEMS resonators. Toward this, resonance frequencies of shallow arch shaped micro-resonators are electrothermally tuned by the logic inputs to constitute the required logic gates for the proposed parity checker circuit. This study demonstrates that by utilizing MEMS resonator based logic elements, complex digital circuits can be realized.
The (absence of a) relationship between thermodynamic and logical reversibility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maroney, O. J. E.
Landauer erasure seems to provide a powerful link between thermodynamics and information processing (logical computation). The only logical operations that require a generation of heat are logically irreversible ones, with the minimum heat generation being kT ln 2 per bit of information lost. Nevertheless, it will be shown that logical reversibility neither implies, nor is implied by thermodynamic reversibility. By examining thermodynamically reversible operations which are logically irreversible, it is possible to show that information and entropy, while having the same form, are conceptually different.
An interval logic for higher-level temporal reasoning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwartz, R. L.; Melliar-Smith, P. M.; Vogt, F. H.; Plaisted, D. A.
1983-01-01
Prior work explored temporal logics, based on classical modal logics, as a framework for specifying and reasoning about concurrent programs, distributed systems, and communications protocols, and reported on efforts using temporal reasoning primitives to express very high level abstract requirements that a program or system is to satisfy. Based on experience with those primitives, this report describes an Interval Logic that is more suitable for expressing such higher level temporal properties. The report provides a formal semantics for the Interval Logic, and several examples of its use. A description of decision procedures for the logic is also included.
CMAT non-volatile spintronic computing: complementary MTJ logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedman, Joseph S.
2016-10-01
Magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) have thoroughly demonstrated their utility as a non-volatile memory storage element, inspiring their application to a memory-in-logic computer that would overcome the von Neumann bottleneck. However, MTJ logic gates must be able to cause other MTJs to switch, thus ensuring the cascading capability fundamental to efficient computing. Complementary MTJ logic (CMAT) provides a simple circuit structure through which MTJs can be cascaded directly to perform logic operations. In this novel logic family, charge pulses resulting from MTJ switching create magnetic fields that switch other MTJs, providing impetus for further development of MTJs for computing applications.
The Family of Concurrent Logic Programming Languages
1989-05-01
program) state (i.e., become a different process): A - G B. Become k con current proceses: A - GI BI,..,B Figare S: Clauses as instructions for process...researchers, because it was found that their simplicity and amenability to efficient implementation come at a relatively low cost in expressiveness and...whose head and tail are logical variables. The head may be used to send the current manage. Ito tail is a new variable, shared by the processes
Modeling anatomical spatial relations with description logics.
Schulz, S.; Hahn, U.; Romacker, M.
2000-01-01
Although spatial relations are essential for the anatomy domain, spatial reasoning is only weakly supported by medical knowledge representation systems. To remedy this shortcoming we express spatial relations that can intuitively be applied to anatomical objects (such as 'disconnected', 'externally connected', 'partial overlap' and 'proper part') within the formal framework of description logics. A special encoding of concept descriptions (in terms of SEP triplets) allows us to emulate spatial reasoning by classification-based reasoning. PMID:11079990
Fuzzy logic controller to improve powerline communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tirrito, Salvatore
2015-12-01
The Power Line Communications (PLC) technology allows the use of the power grid in order to ensure the exchange of data information among devices. This work proposes an approach, based on Fuzzy Logic, that dynamically manages the amplitude of the signal, with which each node transmits, by processing the master-slave link quality measured and the master-slave distance. The main objective of this is to reduce both the impact of communication interferences induced and power consumption.
Plastic Logic quits e-reader market
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perks, Simon
2012-07-01
A UK firm spun out from the University of Cambridge that sought to be a world leader in flexible organic electronic circuits and displays has pulled out of the competitive e-reader market as it struggles to find a commercial outlet for its technology. Plastic Logic announced in May that it is to close its development facility in Mountain View, California, with the loss of around 40 jobs.
Recycling troubleshooting experience with fuzzy logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lirov, Yuval
1993-12-01
Increasing complexity of systems requires improved support capabilities. Automation controls the support costs while meeting the growing demands at the same time. Proteus is a firm-wide proactive problem management system with automated advisory capabilities. Proteus non-obtrusively accumulates troubleshooting expertise and quickly recycles it by combining case-based reasoning with text retrieval and fuzzy logic pattern matching. It has linear on-line and sub-quadratic preprocessing computational time complexities.
Simulators' validation study: Problem solution logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schoultz, M. B.
1974-01-01
A study was conducted to validate the ground based simulators used for aircraft environment in ride-quality research. The logic to the approach for solving this problem is developed. The overall problem solution flow chart is presented. The factors which could influence the human response to the environment on board the aircraft are analyzed. The mathematical models used in the study are explained. The steps which were followed in conducting the validation tests are outlined.
Bimetal switches in an AND logic gate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lubrica, Joel V.; Lubrica, Quantum Yuri B.
2016-09-01
In this frontline, we use bimetal switches to provide inputs in an electrical AND logic gate. These switches can be obtained from the pre-heat starters of fluorescent lamps, by safely removing the glass enclosure. They may be activated by small open flames. This frontline has a historical aspect because fluorescent lamps, together with pre-heat starters, are now being replaced by compact fluorescent, halogen, and LED lamps.
Designing for Reuse of Configurable Logic
2005-07-01
include high-level abstractions of " source code " artifacts such as hardware description language rep- resentations (such as VHDL ) and logic/function/state...assist with debugging the resultant FPGA firmware, analogous to the tools that exist for simulating, testing, and debugging software source code . The FPGA ...may be provided as VHDL or Verilog files, enabling their inclusion with the user’s source code . Embedded processors, with their more stringent timing
Logic Functions for Cryptography - A Tutorial
2009-05-01
Logic Functions for Cryptography - A Tutorial Jon T. Butler Tsutomu Sasao Department of Electrical Department of Computer Science and Computer ... of Computer Programming, Vol- ume 4” [9]. Definition 2.1 A linear function is the constant 0 function or the Exclusive OR of one or more variables...S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School,Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,Monterey,CA,93943 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT
The Focused Inverse Method for Linear Logic
2006-12-04
accomplishes this unifying view by providing logical connectives whose behaviour is closely tied to the precise collection of resources. The...interaction of the rules for multiplicative, additive and exponential connectives gives rise to a wide and expressive array of behaviours . This expressivity...also for providing an extraordinarily supportive enviroment where the students can truly pursue their work free of any worries. I would also like to
Fault Analysis-based Logic Encryption (Preprint)
2013-11-01
and Test; Interaction between security and reliability. He is the recipient of NSF CAREER Award and Sir Alexander Von Humboldt Award. 14 ...previously inserted XOR gates in this calculation. This phase terminates on inserting as many key-gates as that of the length of the user-defined en ...While logic en - cryption using XOR/XNOR gates requires additional inverters to create the dilemma, MUXes create that dilemma inherently. Similar to XOR
Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram
Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S.; O`Brien, M.; Rudin, M.; Ferguson, J.; McFee, J.
1994-11-30
The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR).
A Fuzzy Logic Decision Support Tool
1989-10-01
also be improved . The Navy and Air Force have developed expert systems , the Air Strike Plan- ning Advisor (ASPA) and the Knowledge- based Replanning...use of fuzzy logic not only in industrial process con- trol but, more generally, in knowledge- based systems in which the deduction of an answer to a...having to move closer. If not already known, these percentages can be computed based on a number of known parameters and distribution functions. Fuzzy
Quantum Enhanced Inference in Markov Logic Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wittek, Peter; Gogolin, Christian
2017-04-01
Markov logic networks (MLNs) reconcile two opposing schools in machine learning and artificial intelligence: causal networks, which account for uncertainty extremely well, and first-order logic, which allows for formal deduction. An MLN is essentially a first-order logic template to generate Markov networks. Inference in MLNs is probabilistic and it is often performed by approximate methods such as Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Gibbs sampling. An MLN has many regular, symmetric structures that can be exploited at both first-order level and in the generated Markov network. We analyze the graph structures that are produced by various lifting methods and investigate the extent to which quantum protocols can be used to speed up Gibbs sampling with state preparation and measurement schemes. We review different such approaches, discuss their advantages, theoretical limitations, and their appeal to implementations. We find that a straightforward application of a recent result yields exponential speedup compared to classical heuristics in approximate probabilistic inference, thereby demonstrating another example where advanced quantum resources can potentially prove useful in machine learning.
Explicit logic circuits discriminate neural states.
Yoder, Lane
2009-01-01
The magnitude and apparent complexity of the brain's connectivity have left explicit networks largely unexplored. As a result, the relationship between the organization of synaptic connections and how the brain processes information is poorly understood. A recently proposed retinal network that produces neural correlates of color vision is refined and extended here to a family of general logic circuits. For any combination of high and low activity in any set of neurons, one of the logic circuits can receive input from the neurons and activate a single output neuron whenever the input neurons have the given activity state. The strength of the output neuron's response is a measure of the difference between the smallest of the high inputs and the largest of the low inputs. The networks generate correlates of known psychophysical phenomena. These results follow directly from the most cost-effective architectures for specific logic circuits and the minimal cellular capabilities of excitation and inhibition. The networks function dynamically, making their operation consistent with the speed of most brain functions. The networks show that well-known psychophysical phenomena do not require extraordinarily complex brain structures, and that a single network architecture can produce apparently disparate phenomena in different sensory systems.
Logic control of microfluidics with smart colloid.
Wang, Limu; Zhang, Mengying; Li, Jiaxing; Gong, Xiuqing; Wen, Weijia
2010-11-07
We report the successful realization of a microfluidic chip with switching and corresponding inverting functionalities. The chips are identical logic control components incorporating a type of smart colloid, giant electrorheological fluid (GERF), which possesses reversible characteristics via a liquid-solid phase transition under external electric field. Two pairs of electrodes embedded on the sides of two microfluidic channels serve as signal input and output, respectively. One, located in the GERF micro-channel is used to control the flow status of GERF, while another one in the ither micro-fluidic channel is used to detect the signal generated with a passing-by droplet (defined as a signal droplet). Switching of the GERF from the suspended state (off-state) to the flowing state (on-state) or vice versa in the micro-channel is controlled by the appearance of signal droplets whenever they pass through the detection electrode. The output on-off signals can be easily demonstrated, clearly matching with GERF flow status. Our results show that such a logic switch is also a logic IF gate, while its inverter functions as a NOT gate.
Quantitative Pathway Logic for Computational Biology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baggi, Michele; Ballis, Demis; Falaschi, Moreno
This paper presents an extension of Pathway Logic, called Quantitative Pathway Logic (QPL), which allows one to reason about quantitative aspects of biological processes, such as element concentrations and reactions kinetics. Besides, it supports the modeling of inhibitors, that is, chemicals which may block a given reaction whenever their concentration exceeds a certain threshold. QPL models can be specified and directly simulated using rewriting logic or can be translated into Discrete Functional Petri Nets (DFPN) which are a subclass of Hybrid Functional Petri Nets in which only discrete transitions are allowed. Under some constraints over the anonymous variables appearing in the QPL models, the transformation between the two computational models is shown to preserve computations. By using the DFPN representation our models can be graphically visualized and simulated by means of well known tools (e.g. Cell Illustrator); moreover standard Petri net analyses (e.g. topological analysis, forward/backward reachability, etc.) may be performed on the net model. An executable framework for QPL and for the translation of QPL models into DFPNs has been implemented using the rewriting-based language Maude. We have tested this system on several examples.
A Rewriting Logic Approach to Type Inference
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellison, Chucky; Şerbănuţă, Traian Florin; Roşu, Grigore
Meseguer and Roşu proposed rewriting logic semantics (RLS) as a programing language definitional framework that unifies operational and algebraic denotational semantics. RLS has already been used to define a series of didactic and real languages, but its benefits in connection with defining and reasoning about type systems have not been fully investigated. This paper shows how the same RLS style employed for giving formal definitions of languages can be used to define type systems. The same term-rewriting mechanism used to execute RLS language definitions can now be used to execute type systems, giving type checkers or type inferencers. The proposed approach is exemplified by defining the Hindley-Milner polymorphic type inferencer mathcal{W} as a rewrite logic theory and using this definition to obtain a type inferencer by executing it in a rewriting logic engine. The inferencer obtained this way compares favorably with other definitions or implementations of mathcal{W}. The performance of the executable definition is within an order of magnitude of that of highly optimized implementations of type inferencers, such as that of OCaml.
Design of a Ferroelectric Programmable Logic Gate Array
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen
2003-01-01
A programmable logic gate array has been designed utilizing ferroelectric field effect transistors. The design has only a small number of gates, but this could be scaled up to a more useful size. Using FFET's in a logic array gives several advantages. First, it allows real-time programmability to the array to give high speed reconfiguration. It also allows the array to be configured nearly an unlimited number of times, unlike a FLASH FPGA. Finally, the Ferroelectric Programmable Logic Gate Array (FPLGA) can be implemented using a smaller number of transistors because of the inherent logic characteristics of an FFET. The device was only designed and modeled using Spice models of the circuit, including the FFET. The actual device was not produced. The design consists of a small array of NAND and NOR logic gates. Other gates could easily be produced. They are linked by FFET's that control the logic flow. Timing and logic tables have been produced showing the array can produce a variety of logic combinations at a real time usable speed. This device could be a prototype for a device that could be put into imbedded systems that need the high speed of hardware implementation of logic and the complexity to need to change the logic algorithm. Because of the non-volatile nature of the FFET, it would also be useful in situations that needed to program a logic array once and use it repeatedly after the power has been shut off.
Design of a Ferroelectric Programmable Logic Gate Array
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen
2003-01-01
A programmable logic gate array has been designed utilizing ferroelectric field effect transistors. The design has only a small number of gates, but this could be scaled up to a more useful size. Using FFET's in a logic array gives several advantages. First, it allows real-time programmability to the array to give high speed reconfiguration. It also allows the array to be configured nearly an unlimited number of times, unlike a FLASH FPGA. Finally, the Ferroelectric Programmable Logic Gate Array (FPLGA) can be implemented using a smaller number of transistors because of the inherent logic characteristics of an FFET. The device was only designed and modeled using Spice models of the circuit, including the FFET. The actual device was not produced. The design consists of a small array of NAND and NOR logic gates. Other gates could easily be produced. They are linked by FFET's that control the logic flow. Timing and logic tables have been produced showing the array can produce a variety of logic combinations at a real time usable speed. This device could be a prototype for a device that could be put into imbedded systems that need the high speed of hardware implementation of logic and the complexity to need to change the logic algorithm. Because of the non-volatile nature of the FFET, it would also be useful in situations that needed to program a logic array once and use it repeatedly after the power has been shut off.
Logic Models for Program Design, Implementation, and Evaluation: Workshop Toolkit. REL 2015-057
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shakman, Karen; Rodriguez, Sheila M.
2015-01-01
The Logic Model Workshop Toolkit is designed to help practitioners learn the purpose of logic models, the different elements of a logic model, and the appropriate steps for developing and using a logic model for program evaluation. Topics covered in the sessions include an overview of logic models, the elements of a logic model, an introduction to…
Sub-kBT micro-electromechanical irreversible logic gate.
López-Suárez, M; Neri, I; Gammaitoni, L
2016-06-28
In modern computers, computation is performed by assembling together sets of logic gates. Popular gates like AND, OR and XOR, processing two logic inputs and yielding one logic output, are often addressed as irreversible logic gates, where the sole knowledge of the output logic value is not sufficient to infer the logic value of the two inputs. Such gates are usually believed to be bounded to dissipate a finite minimum amount of energy determined by the input-output information difference. Here we show that this is not necessarily the case, by presenting an experiment where a OR logic gate, realized with a micro-electromechanical cantilever, is operated with energy well below the expected limit, provided the operation is slow enough and frictional phenomena are properly addressed.
Sub-kBT micro-electromechanical irreversible logic gate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López-Suárez, M.; Neri, I.; Gammaitoni, L.
2016-06-01
In modern computers, computation is performed by assembling together sets of logic gates. Popular gates like AND, OR and XOR, processing two logic inputs and yielding one logic output, are often addressed as irreversible logic gates, where the sole knowledge of the output logic value is not sufficient to infer the logic value of the two inputs. Such gates are usually believed to be bounded to dissipate a finite minimum amount of energy determined by the input-output information difference. Here we show that this is not necessarily the case, by presenting an experiment where a OR logic gate, realized with a micro-electromechanical cantilever, is operated with energy well below the expected limit, provided the operation is slow enough and frictional phenomena are properly addressed.
Sub-kBT micro-electromechanical irreversible logic gate
López-Suárez, M.; Neri, I.
2016-01-01
In modern computers, computation is performed by assembling together sets of logic gates. Popular gates like AND, OR and XOR, processing two logic inputs and yielding one logic output, are often addressed as irreversible logic gates, where the sole knowledge of the output logic value is not sufficient to infer the logic value of the two inputs. Such gates are usually believed to be bounded to dissipate a finite minimum amount of energy determined by the input–output information difference. Here we show that this is not necessarily the case, by presenting an experiment where a OR logic gate, realized with a micro-electromechanical cantilever, is operated with energy well below the expected limit, provided the operation is slow enough and frictional phenomena are properly addressed. PMID:27350333
Realization of Functional Complete Stateful Boolean Logic in Memristive Crossbar.
Li, Yi; Zhou, Ya-Xiong; Xu, Lei; Lu, Ke; Wang, Zhuo-Rui; Duan, Nian; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Long; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Sun, Hua-Jun; Xue, Kan-Hao; Miao, Xiang-Shui
2016-12-21
Nonvolatile stateful logic computing in memristors is a promising paradigm with which to realize the unity of information storage and processing in the same physical location that has shown great feasibility for breaking the von Neumann bottleneck in traditional computing architecture. How to reduce the computational complexity of memristor-based logic functions is a matter of concern. Here, based on a general logic expression, we proposed a method to implement the arbitrary logic of complete 16 Boolean logic in two steps with one memristor in the crossbar architecture. A representative functional complete NAND logic is successfully experimentally demonstrated in the filamentary Ag-AgGeTe-Ta memristors to prove the validity of our method. We believe our work may promote the development of the revolutionary logic in memory architectures.
Constructing a logical, regular axis topology from an irregular topology
Faraj, Daniel A.
2014-07-01
Constructing a logical regular topology from an irregular topology including, for each axial dimension and recursively, for each compute node in a subcommunicator until returning to a first node: adding to a logical line of the axial dimension a neighbor specified in a nearest neighbor list; calling the added compute node; determining, by the called node, whether any neighbor in the node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line; if a neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line, adding, by the called compute node to the logical line, any neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list for the axial dimension not already added to the logical line; and, if no neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line, returning to the calling compute node.
Constructing a logical, regular axis topology from an irregular topology
Faraj, Daniel A.
2014-07-22
Constructing a logical regular topology from an irregular topology including, for each axial dimension and recursively, for each compute node in a subcommunicator until returning to a first node: adding to a logical line of the axial dimension a neighbor specified in a nearest neighbor list; calling the added compute node; determining, by the called node, whether any neighbor in the node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line; if a neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line, adding, by the called compute node to the logical line, any neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list for the axial dimension not already added to the logical line; and, if no neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line, returning to the calling compute node.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dari, Anna; Kia, Behnam; Bulsara, Adi R.; Ditto, William L.
2011-12-01
Following the advent of synthetic biology, several gene networks have been engineered to emulate digital devices, with the ability to program cells for different applications. In this work, we adapt the concept of logical stochastic resonance to a synthetic gene network derived from a bacteriophage λ. The intriguing results of this study show that it is possible to build a biological logic block that can emulate or switch from the AND to the OR gate functionalities through externally tuning the system parameters. Moreover, this behavior and the robustness of the logic gate are underpinned by the presence of an optimal amount of random fluctuations. We extend our earlier work in this field, by taking into account the effects of correlated external (additive) and internal (multiplicative or state-dependent) noise. Results obtained through analytical calculations as well as numerical simulations are presented.
Delay modeling of bipolar ECL/EFL (Emitter-Coupled Logic/Emitter-Follower-Logic) circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Andrew T.
1986-08-01
This report deals with the development of a delay-time model for timing simulation of large circuits consisting of Bipolar ECL(Emitter-Coupled Logic) and EFL (Emitter-Follower-Logic) networks. This model can provide adequate information on the performance of the circuits with a minimum expenditure of computation time. This goal is achieved by the use of proper circuit transient models on which analytical delay expressions can be derived with accurate results. The delay-model developed in this report is general enough to handle complex digital circuits with multiple inputs or/and multiple levels. The important effects of input slew rate are also included in the model.
Superconductive combinational logic circuit using magnetically coupled SQUID array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamanashi, Y.; Umeda, K.; Sai, K.
2010-11-01
In this paper, we propose the development of superconductive combinational logic circuits. One of the difficulties in designing superconductive single-flux-quantum (SFQ) digital circuits can be attributed to the fundamental nature of the SFQ circuits, in which all logic gates have latching functions and are based on sequential logic. The design of ultralow-power superconductive digital circuits can be facilitated by the development of superconductive combinational logic circuits in which the output is a function of only the present input. This is because superconductive combinational logic circuits do not require determination of the timing adjustment and clocking scheme. Moreover, semiconductor design tools can be used to design digital circuits because CMOS logic gates are based on combinational logic. The proposed superconductive combinational logic circuits comprise a magnetically coupled SQUID array. By adjusting the circuit parameters and coupling strengths between neighboring SQUIDs, fundamental combinational logic gates, including the AND, OR, and NOT gates, can be built. We have verified the accuracy of the operations of the fundamental logic gates by analog circuit simulations.
Operating regimes for multivalued single-electron tunneling phase logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Tan; Kiehl, Richard A.
2003-06-01
The dc bias range and the logic-state lifetime for multivalued single-electron tunneling phase logic are examined in computer simulations. Results for quaternary operation, which is of particular interest for compact logic circuitry, are compared with those for ternary and binary logic. Quaternary logic is shown to exhibit a rotation rule similar to binary and ternary logic and to have an optimized dc bias range of 14%, compared with 20 and 37 % for ternary and binary logic, respectively. The effects of shot noise and Nyquist noise on the logic-state lifetime are strongly influenced by the number of logic states. The ratio of tunnel resistance to series resistance required to suppress the effects of shot noise below those of Nyquist noise depends on the number of logic states. To obtain a lifetime equal to 1000 phase-locked cycles together with a maximum dc bias operating range, the ratio of Coulomb energy to thermal energy Ec/kBT must be 400, 1650, and 2830 for two, three, and four states, respectively. This corresponds to a rapid drop in the maximum operating temperature with the number of states, which can be related to an exponential dependence of lifetime on the activation energy for a thermally activated escape process. The implications of these results on the trade-offs between the operating regimes for dc bias, temperature, and junction size are discussed.
Reliability concerns with logical constants in Xilinx FPGA designs
Quinn, Heather M; Graham, Paul; Morgan, Keith; Ostler, Patrick; Allen, Greg; Swift, Gary; Tseng, Chen W
2009-01-01
In Xilinx Field Programmable Gate Arrays logical constants, which ground unused inputs and provide constants for designs, are implemented in SEU-susceptible logic. In the past, these logical constants have been shown to cause the user circuit to output bad data and were not resetable through off-line rcconfiguration. In the more recent devices, logical constants are less problematic, though mitigation should still be considered for high reliability applications. In conclusion, we have presented a number of reliability concerns with logical constants in the Xilinx Virtex family. There are two main categories of logical constants: implicit and explicit logical constants. In all of the Virtex devices, the implicit logical constants are implemented using half latches, which in the most recent devices are several orders of magnitudes smaller than configuration bit cells. Explicit logical constants are implemented exclusively using constant LUTs in the Virtex-I and Virtex-II, and use a combination of constant LUTs and architectural posts to the ground plane in the Virtex-4. We have also presented mitigation methods and options for these devices. While SEUs in implicit and some types of explicit logical constants can cause data corrupt, the chance of failure from these components is now much smaller than it was in the Virtex-I device. Therefore, for many cases, mitigation might not be necessary, except under extremely high reliability situations.
Exploring the institutional logics of health professions education scholarship units.
Varpio, Lara; O'Brien, Bridget; Hu, Wendy; Ten Cate, Olle; Durning, Steven J; van der Vleuten, Cees; Gruppen, Larry; Irby, David; Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Hamstra, Stanley J
2017-07-01
Although health professions education scholarship units (HPESUs) share a commitment to the production and dissemination of rigorous educational practices and research, they are situated in many different contexts and have a wide range of structures and functions. In this study, the authors explore the institutional logics common across HPESUs, and how these logics influence the organisation and activities of HPESUs. The authors analysed interviews with HPESU leaders in Canada (n = 12), Australia (n = 21), New Zealand (n = 3) and the USA (n = 11). Using an iterative process, they engaged in inductive and deductive analyses to identify institutional logics across all participating HPESUs. They explored the contextual factors that influence how these institutional logics impact each HPESU's structure and function. Participants identified three institutional logics influencing the organisational structure and functions of an HPESU: (i) the logic of financial accountability; (ii) the logic of a cohesive education continuum, and (iii) the logic of academic research, service and teaching. Although most HPESUs embodied all three logics, the power of the logics varied among units. The relative power of each logic influenced leaders' decisions about how members of the unit allocate their time, and what kinds of scholarly contribution and product are valued by the HPESU. Identifying the configuration of these three logics within and across HPESUs provides insights into the reasons why individual units are structured and function in particular ways. Having a common language in which to discuss these logics can enhance transparency, facilitate evaluation, and help leaders select appropriate indicators of HPESU success. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.
Complex cellular logic computation using ribocomputing devices.
Green, Alexander A; Kim, Jongmin; Ma, Duo; Silver, Pamela A; Collins, James J; Yin, Peng
2017-08-03
Synthetic biology aims to develop engineering-driven approaches to the programming of cellular functions that could yield transformative technologies. Synthetic gene circuits that combine DNA, protein, and RNA components have demonstrated a range of functions such as bistability, oscillation, feedback, and logic capabilities. However, it remains challenging to scale up these circuits owing to the limited number of designable, orthogonal, high-performance parts, the empirical and often tedious composition rules, and the requirements for substantial resources for encoding and operation. Here, we report a strategy for constructing RNA-only nanodevices to evaluate complex logic in living cells. Our 'ribocomputing' systems are composed of de-novo-designed parts and operate through predictable and designable base-pairing rules, allowing the effective in silico design of computing devices with prescribed configurations and functions in complex cellular environments. These devices operate at the post-transcriptional level and use an extended RNA transcript to co-localize all circuit sensing, computation, signal transduction, and output elements in the same self-assembled molecular complex, which reduces diffusion-mediated signal losses, lowers metabolic cost, and improves circuit reliability. We demonstrate that ribocomputing devices in Escherichia coli can evaluate two-input logic with a dynamic range up to 900-fold and scale them to four-input AND, six-input OR, and a complex 12-input expression (A1 AND A2 AND NOT A1*) OR (B1 AND B2 AND NOT B2*) OR (C1 AND C2) OR (D1 AND D2) OR (E1 AND E2). Successful operation of ribocomputing devices based on programmable RNA interactions suggests that systems employing the same design principles could be implemented in other host organisms or in extracellular settings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelkar, Nikhal; Samu, Tayib; Hall, Ernest L.
1997-09-01
Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) have many potential applications in manufacturing, medicine, space and defense. The purpose of this paper is to describe exploratory research on the design of a modular autonomous mobile robot controller. The controller incorporates a fuzzy logic approach for steering and speed control, a neuro-fuzzy approach for ultrasound sensing (not discussed in this paper) and an overall expert system. The advantages of a modular system are related to portability and transportability, i.e. any vehicle can become autonomous with minimal modifications. A mobile robot test-bed has been constructed using a golf cart base. This cart has full speed control with guidance provided by a vision system and obstacle avoidance using ultrasonic sensors. The speed and steering fuzzy logic controller is supervised by a 486 computer through a multi-axis motion controller. The obstacle avoidance system is based on a micro-controller interfaced with six ultrasonic transducers. This micro- controller independently handles all timing and distance calculations and sends a steering angle correction back to the computer via the serial line. This design yields a portable independent system in which high speed computer communication is not necessary. Vision guidance is accomplished with a CCD camera with a zoom lens. The data is collected by a vision tracking device that transmits the X, Y coordinates of the lane marker to the control computer. Simulation and testing of these systems yielded promising results. This design, in its modularity, creates a portable autonomous fuzzy logic controller applicable to any mobile vehicle with only minor adaptations.
Efficient dynamic optimization of logic programs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Laird, Phil
1992-01-01
A summary is given of the dynamic optimization approach to speed up learning for logic programs. The problem is to restructure a recursive program into an equivalent program whose expected performance is optimal for an unknown but fixed population of problem instances. We define the term 'optimal' relative to the source of input instances and sketch an algorithm that can come within a logarithmic factor of optimal with high probability. Finally, we show that finding high-utility unfolding operations (such as EBG) can be reduced to clause reordering.
Starting Circuit For Erasable Programmable Logic Device
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cole, Steven W.
1990-01-01
Voltage regulator bypassed to supply starting current. Starting or "pullup" circuit supplies large inrush of current required by erasable programmable logic device (EPLD) while being turned on. Operates only during such intervals of high demand for current and has little effect any other time. Performs needed bypass, acting as current-dependent shunt connecting battery or other source of power more nearly directly to EPLD. Input capacitor of regulator removed when starting circuit installed, reducing probability of damage to transistor in event of short circuit in or across load.
MicroRNA circuits for transcriptional logic.
Leisner, Madeleine; Bleris, Leonidas; Lohmueller, Jason; Xie, Zhen; Benenson, Yaakov
2012-01-01
One of the longstanding challenges in synthetic biology is rational design of complex regulatory circuitry with multiple biological inputs, complex internal processing, and physiologically active outputs. We have previously proposed how to address this challenge in the case of transcription factor inputs. Here we describe the methods used to construct these synthetic circuits, capable of performing logic integration of transcription factor inputs using microRNA expression vectors and RNA interference (RNAi). The circuits operate in mammalian cells and they can serve as starting point for more complex synthetic information processing networks in these cells.
Stochastic p -Bits for Invertible Logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Faria, Rafatul; Sutton, Brian M.; Datta, Supriyo
2017-07-01
Conventional semiconductor-based logic and nanomagnet-based memory devices are built out of stable, deterministic units such as standard metal-oxide semiconductor transistors, or nanomagnets with energy barriers in excess of ≈40 - 60 kT . In this paper, we show that unstable, stochastic units, which we call "p -bits," can be interconnected to create robust correlations that implement precise Boolean functions with impressive accuracy, comparable to standard digital circuits. At the same time, they are invertible, a unique property that is absent in standard digital circuits. When operated in the direct mode, the input is clamped, and the network provides the correct output. In the inverted mode, the output is clamped, and the network fluctuates among all possible inputs that are consistent with that output. First, we present a detailed implementation of an invertible gate to bring out the key role of a single three-terminal transistorlike building block to enable the construction of correlated p -bit networks. The results for this specific, CMOS-assisted nanomagnet-based hardware implementation agree well with those from a universal model for p -bits, showing that p -bits need not be magnet based: any three-terminal tunable random bit generator should be suitable. We present a general algorithm for designing a Boltzmann machine (BM) with a symmetric connection matrix [J ] (Ji j=Jj i) that implements a given truth table with p -bits. The [J ] matrices are relatively sparse with a few unique weights for convenient hardware implementation. We then show how BM full adders can be interconnected in a partially directed manner (Ji j≠Jj i) to implement large logic operations such as 32-bit binary addition. Hundreds of stochastic p -bits get precisely correlated such that the correct answer out of 233 (≈8 ×1 09) possibilities can be extracted by looking at the statistical mode or majority vote of a number of time samples. With perfect directivity (Jj i=0 ) a small
Starting Circuit For Erasable Programmable Logic Device
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cole, Steven W.
1990-01-01
Voltage regulator bypassed to supply starting current. Starting or "pullup" circuit supplies large inrush of current required by erasable programmable logic device (EPLD) while being turned on. Operates only during such intervals of high demand for current and has little effect any other time. Performs needed bypass, acting as current-dependent shunt connecting battery or other source of power more nearly directly to EPLD. Input capacitor of regulator removed when starting circuit installed, reducing probability of damage to transistor in event of short circuit in or across load.
Reactivity measurement using a programmable logic controller
Bobek, L.M.; Miraglia, P.Q.
1995-12-31
The application of digital systems for measuring reactor dynamics has been used at experimental and research reactors for almost 30 yr. At the Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) nuclear reactor facility (NRF), a recent modernization effort included the installation of a programmable logic controller (PLC) and an operator interface terminal (OIT). The PLC systems are increasingly being used to replace relay-based monitoring and control systems at nuclear power plants. At WPI, the PLC and OIT provide a digital reactor monitoring system that is remote from the reactor`s analog control instrumentation. The NRF staff has programmed the monitoring system for several reactor-related applications, including reactivity measurement.
Fuzzy logic control for camera tracking system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lea, Robert N.; Fritz, R. H.; Giarratano, J.; Jani, Yashvant
1992-01-01
A concept utilizing fuzzy theory has been developed for a camera tracking system to provide support for proximity operations and traffic management around the Space Station Freedom. Fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic based reasoning are used in a control system which utilizes images from a camera and generates required pan and tilt commands to track and maintain a moving target in the camera's field of view. This control system can be implemented on a fuzzy chip to provide an intelligent sensor for autonomous operations. Capabilities of the control system can be expanded to include approach, handover to other sensors, caution and warning messages.
Cyclic groups and quantum logic gates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pourkia, Arash; Batle, J.; Raymond Ooi, C. H.
2016-10-01
We present a formula for an infinite number of universal quantum logic gates, which are 4 by 4 unitary solutions to the Yang-Baxter (Y-B) equation. We obtain this family from a certain representation of the cyclic group of order n. We then show that this discrete family, parametrized by integers n, is in fact, a small sub-class of a larger continuous family, parametrized by real numbers θ, of universal quantum gates. We discuss the corresponding Yang-Baxterization and related symmetries in the concomitant Hamiltonian.
Some Lectures on Modal Logic. Supplement
1989-01-01
the true atomic sentences , they are wRy, wRu. With V declared false in all three valuations, we get a model W /vu in which w does not force -ow - o-,op...Gabbay and Guenthner , eds., Handbook of Philosoph ical Logic [1983/5]. J. Hintikka [1962], Knowledge and Belief, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y. C...Intelligence 35, 343-382. D. Kozen and R. Parikh [1982], "An elementary proof of the completeness of PDL", Theor. Comp. Sci. 14 (1981), 113-118. D. Kozen and J
A Logical Model of Private International Law
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dung, Phan Minh; Sartor, Giovanni
We provide a logical analysis of private international law, the body of law establishing when courts of a country should decide a case (jurisdiction) and what legal system they should apply to this purpose (choice of law). A formal model of the resulting interaction among multiple legal systems is proposed based on modular argumentation. It is argued that this model may be useful for understanding this rather esoteric, but increasingly important, domain of the law. Moreover, it might be useful for modelling the way in which interactions between heterogeneous agents, belonging to different and differently regulated virtual societies, can be governed without recourse to a central regulatory agency.
PLAFST Programmable Logic Array from State Table.
1983-12-01
HD -i8 466 PL AFST PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC ARRAY FROM STATE T ABLE(U) AIR /2 FORC INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF UNCLSSIIED...INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio ) A ’J[. .:’,,- oved iot public T.,-].:.,’ 8 4 7 x -;..- APIT/GE/EE/83D-57 Accession For...number of rows with y - 1. Don’t care symbols are denoted by a " x ". The l’s and x’s are grouped together like Karnaugh maps with two exceptions. The
Computer Fiction: ``A Logic Named Joe''
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferro, David; Swedin, Eric
The bulk of Science Fiction (SF) has not predicted the most influential computer technologies of the late 20th century. This paper begins with an exception entitled “A Logic Named Joe” and its accurate description of the contemporary environment of PCs and the World Wide Web. It then proposes the possible historical and cultural value of SF in techno-scientific development - more specifically computer development - in both the U.S. and Finland, and argues that social science approaches to understanding technoscience should take SF into account when describing those communities of practice.
Simulation Approach for Timing Analysis of Genetic Logic Circuits.
Baig, Hasan; Madsen, Jan
2017-07-21
Constructing genetic logic circuits is an application of synthetic biology in which parts of the DNA of a living cell are engineered to perform a dedicated Boolean function triggered by an appropriate concentration of certain proteins or by different genetic components. These logic circuits work in a manner similar to electronic logic circuits, but they are much more stochastic and hence much harder to characterize. In this article, we introduce an approach to analyze the threshold value and timing of genetic logic circuits. We show how this approach can be used to analyze the timing behavior of single and cascaded genetic logic circuits. We further analyze the timing sensitivity of circuits by varying the degradation rates and concentrations. Our approach can be used not only to characterize the timing behavior but also to analyze the timing constraints of cascaded genetic logic circuits, a capability that we believe will be important for design automation in synthetic biology.
Mathematical classification of regulatory logics for compound environmental changes.
Tanaka, Reiko J; Kimura, Hidenori
2008-03-21
This paper is concerned with biological regulatory mechanisms in response to the simultaneous occurrence of a huge number of environmental changes. The restricted resources of cells strictly limit the number of their regulatory methods; hence, cells must adopt, as compensation, special mechanisms to deal with the simultaneous occurrence of environmental changes. We hypothesize that cells use various control logics to integrate information about independent environmental changes related to a cell task and represent the resulting effects of the different ways of integration by logical functions. Using the notion of equivalence classes in set theory, we describe the mathematical classification of the effects into biologically unequivalent ones realized by different control logics. Our purely mathematical and systematic classification of logical functions reveals three elementary control logics with different biological relevance. To better understand their biological significance, we consider examples of biological systems that use these elementary control logics.
Feasible logic Bell-state analysis with linear optics
Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo
2016-01-01
We describe a feasible logic Bell-state analysis protocol by employing the logic entanglement to be the robust concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state. This protocol only uses polarization beam splitters and half-wave plates, which are available in current experimental technology. We can conveniently identify two of the logic Bell states. This protocol can be easily generalized to the arbitrary C-GHZ state analysis. We can also distinguish two N-logic-qubit C-GHZ states. As the previous theory and experiment both showed that the C-GHZ state has the robustness feature, this logic Bell-state analysis and C-GHZ state analysis may be essential for linear-optical quantum computation protocols whose building blocks are logic-qubit entangled state. PMID:26877208
Thermodynamic Study of Energy Dissipation in Adiabatic Superconductor Logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeuchi, Naoki; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki
2015-09-01
Because of its extremely high energy efficiency, adiabatic superconductor logic is one of the most promising candidates for the realization of a practical reversible computer. In a previous study, we proposed a logically and physically reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconductor logic, and numerically demonstrated reversible computing. In the numerical calculation, we assumed that the average energy dissipation at finite temperature corresponds to that at zero temperature. However, how the phase difference of a Josephson junction in adiabatic superconductor logic behaves at finite temperature is not yet well understood, and whether thermal noise can induce a nonadiabatic state change remains unclear. In the present study, we investigate energy dissipation in adiabatic superconductor logic at finite temperature through numerical analyses using the Monte Carlo method. We investigate the average and standard deviation of the energy dissipation through both numerical calculation and analytical estimation. Finally, we discuss the minimum energy dissipation required for adiabatic switching operations.
Designing a Software Tool for Fuzzy Logic Programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abietar, José M.; Morcillo, Pedro J.; Moreno, Ginés
2007-12-01
Fuzzy Logic Programming is an interesting and still growing research area that agglutinates the efforts for introducing fuzzy logic into logic programming (LP), in order to incorporate more expressive resources on such languages for dealing with uncertainty and approximated reasoning. The multi-adjoint logic programming approach is a recent and extremely flexible fuzzy logic paradigm for which, unfortunately, we have not found practical tools implemented so far. In this work, we describe a prototype system which is able to directly translate fuzzy logic programs into Prolog code in order to safely execute these residual programs inside any standard Prolog interpreter in a completely transparent way for the final user. We think that the development of such fuzzy languages and programing tools might play an important role in the design of advanced software applications for computational physics, chemistry, mathematics, medicine, industrial control and so on.
Toward spin-based Magneto Logic Gate in Graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Hua; Dery, Hanan; Amamou, Walid; Zhu, Tiancong; Lin, Zhisheng; Shi, Jing; Zutic, Igor; Krivorotov, Ilya; Sham, Lu; Kawakami, Roland
Graphene has emerged as a leading candidate for spintronic applications due to its long spin diffusion length at room temperature. A universal magnetologic gate (MLG) based on spin transport in graphene has been recently proposed as the building block of a logic circuit which could replace the current CMOS technology. This MLG has five ferromagnetic electrodes contacting a graphene channel and can be considered as two three-terminal XOR logic gates. Here we demonstrate this XOR logic gate operation in such a device. This was achieved by systematically tuning the injection current bias to balance the spin polarization efficiency of the two inputs, and offset voltage in the detection circuit to obtain binary outputs. The output is a current which corresponds to different logic states: zero current is logic `0', and nonzero current is logic `1'. We find improved performance could be achieved by reducing device size and optimizing the contacts.
Logic Brightens My Day: Evidence for Implicit Sensitivity to Logical Validity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Trippas, Dries; Handley, Simon J.; Verde, Michael F.; Morsanyi, Kinga
2016-01-01
A key assumption of dual process theory is that reasoning is an explicit, effortful, deliberative process. The present study offers evidence for an implicit, possibly intuitive component of reasoning. Participants were shown sentences embedded in logically valid or invalid arguments. Participants were not asked to reason but instead rated the…
Educational Software for First Order Logic Semantics in Introductory Logic Courses
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mauco, María Virginia; Ferrante, Enzo; Felice, Laura
2014-01-01
Basic courses on logic are common in most computer science curricula. Students often have difficulties in handling formalisms and getting familiar with them. Educational software helps to motivate and improve the teaching-learning processes. Therefore, incorporating these kinds of tools becomes important, because they contribute to gaining…
Logic Brightens My Day: Evidence for Implicit Sensitivity to Logical Validity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Trippas, Dries; Handley, Simon J.; Verde, Michael F.; Morsanyi, Kinga
2016-01-01
A key assumption of dual process theory is that reasoning is an explicit, effortful, deliberative process. The present study offers evidence for an implicit, possibly intuitive component of reasoning. Participants were shown sentences embedded in logically valid or invalid arguments. Participants were not asked to reason but instead rated the…
Mix-valued logic-based formation control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lequn; Feng, Jun-e.
2013-06-01
The formation control (FC) problem is investigated via a mix-valued logic-based approach. First, a trajectory-tracking algorithm of mix-valued logic control networks is proposed. Then, a new formulation of FC problems is established and a feedback control is designed to solve FC problems. The mathematical description of partial-formation control (PFC) problems is then designed as a structure of logical networks. An interesting practical example of PFC is also presented and discussed in detail.
Partial reconfiguration of concurrent logic controllers implemented in FPGA devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiśniewski, Remigiusz; Grobelna, Iwona; Stefanowicz, Łukasz
2016-12-01
Reconfigurable systems are recently used in many domains. Although the concept of multi-context logic controllers is relatively new, it may be noticed that the subject is receiving a lot of attention, especially in the industry. The work constitutes a stepping stone in design of reconfigurable logic controllers implemented in an FPGA device. An approach of designing of logic controllers oriented for further partial reconfiguration is proposed. A case study of a milling machine is used for an illustration.
Multilevel programmable logic array schemes for microprogrammed automata
Barkalov, A.A.
1995-03-01
Programmable logic arrays (PLAs) provide an efficient tool for implementation of logic schemes of microprogrammed automata (MPA). The number of PLAs in the MPA logic scheme can be minimized by increasing the number of levels. In this paper, we analyze the structures of multilevel schemes of Mealy automata, propose a number of new structures, consider the corresponding correctness conditions, and examine some problems that must be solved in order to satisfy these conditions.
Deduction and Inference Using Conditional Logic and Probability
1991-05-01
Carnap and R. C. Jeffrey [30] & [31], H. Gaifman [32], D. Scott and P. Kraus [33], E. W. Adams [19], and T. Hailperin [8] have all defined the probability...Theories of Logic and Probabilities, Open Court. 30. Carnap , R. (1960; 1st ed., 1950) Logical Foundations of Probability 2nd. ed., Univ. of Chicago...Press. 31. Carnap , R. & Jeffrey, R. C. (1971) Studies in Inductive Logic and Probability, Univ. of California Press. 32. Gaifman, H. (1964) Concerning
Logical fallacies in animal model research.
Sjoberg, Espen A
2017-02-15
Animal models of human behavioural deficits involve conducting experiments on animals with the hope of gaining new knowledge that can be applied to humans. This paper aims to address risks, biases, and fallacies associated with drawing conclusions when conducting experiments on animals, with focus on animal models of mental illness. Researchers using animal models are susceptible to a fallacy known as false analogy, where inferences based on assumptions of similarities between animals and humans can potentially lead to an incorrect conclusion. There is also a risk of false positive results when evaluating the validity of a putative animal model, particularly if the experiment is not conducted double-blind. It is further argued that animal model experiments are reconstructions of human experiments, and not replications per se, because the animals cannot follow instructions. This leads to an experimental setup that is altered to accommodate the animals, and typically involves a smaller sample size than a human experiment. Researchers on animal models of human behaviour should increase focus on mechanistic validity in order to ensure that the underlying causal mechanisms driving the behaviour are the same, as relying on face validity makes the model susceptible to logical fallacies and a higher risk of Type 1 errors. We discuss measures to reduce bias and risk of making logical fallacies in animal research, and provide a guideline that researchers can follow to increase the rigour of their experiments.
Model of Biological Quantum Logic in DNA
Mihelic, F. Matthew
2013-01-01
The DNA molecule has properties that allow it to act as a quantum logic processor. It has been demonstrated that there is coherent conduction of electrons longitudinally along the DNA molecule through pi stacking interactions of the aromatic nucleotide bases, and it has also been demonstrated that electrons moving longitudinally along the DNA molecule are subject to a very efficient electron spin filtering effect as the helicity of the DNA molecule interacts with the spin of the electron. This means that, in DNA, electrons are coherently conducted along a very efficient spin filter. Coherent electron spin is held in a logically and thermodynamically reversible chiral symmetry between the C2-endo and C3-endo enantiomers of the deoxyribose moiety in each nucleotide, which enables each nucleotide to function as a quantum gate. The symmetry break that provides for quantum decision in the system is determined by the spin direction of an electron that has an orbital angular momentum that is sufficient to overcome the energy barrier of the double well potential separating the C2-endo and C3-endo enantiomers, and that enantiomeric energy barrier is appropriate to the Landauer limit of the energy necessary to randomize one bit of information. PMID:25369816
Fuzzy logic control of telerobot manipulators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Franke, Ernest A.; Nedungadi, Ashok
1992-01-01
Telerobot systems for advanced applications will require manipulators with redundant 'degrees of freedom' (DOF) that are capable of adapting manipulator configurations to avoid obstacles while achieving the user specified goal. Conventional methods for control of manipulators (based on solution of the inverse kinematics) cannot be easily extended to these situations. Fuzzy logic control offers a possible solution to these needs. A current research program at SRI developed a fuzzy logic controller for a redundant, 4 DOF, planar manipulator. The manipulator end point trajectory can be specified by either a computer program (robot mode) or by manual input (teleoperator). The approach used expresses end-point error and the location of manipulator joints as fuzzy variables. Joint motions are determined by a fuzzy rule set without requiring solution of the inverse kinematics. Additional rules for sensor data, obstacle avoidance and preferred manipulator configuration, e.g., 'righty' or 'lefty', are easily accommodated. The procedure used to generate the fuzzy rules can be extended to higher DOF systems.
Model of biological quantum logic in DNA.
Mihelic, F Matthew
2013-08-02
The DNA molecule has properties that allow it to act as a quantum logic processor. It has been demonstrated that there is coherent conduction of electrons longitudinally along the DNA molecule through pi stacking interactions of the aromatic nucleotide bases, and it has also been demonstrated that electrons moving longitudinally along the DNA molecule are subject to a very efficient electron spin filtering effect as the helicity of the DNA molecule interacts with the spin of the electron. This means that, in DNA, electrons are coherently conducted along a very efficient spin filter. Coherent electron spin is held in a logically and thermodynamically reversible chiral symmetry between the C2-endo and C3-endo enantiomers of the deoxyribose moiety in each nucleotide, which enables each nucleotide to function as a quantum gate. The symmetry break that provides for quantum decision in the system is determined by the spin direction of an electron that has an orbital angular momentum that is sufficient to overcome the energy barrier of the double well potential separating the C2-endo and C3-endo enantiomers, and that enantiomeric energy barrier is appropriate to the Landauer limit of the energy necessary to randomize one bit of information.
Trimming the UCERF2 hazard logic tree
Porter, Keith A.; Field, Edward H.; Milner, Kevin
2012-01-01
The Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast 2 (UCERF2) is a fully time‐dependent earthquake rupture forecast developed with sponsorship of the California Earthquake Authority (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities [WGCEP], 2007; Field et al., 2009). UCERF2 contains 480 logic‐tree branches reflecting choices among nine modeling uncertainties in the earthquake rate model shown in Figure 1. For seismic hazard analysis, it is also necessary to choose a ground‐motion‐prediction equation (GMPE) and set its parameters. Choosing among four next‐generation attenuation (NGA) relationships results in a total of 1920 hazard calculations per site. The present work is motivated by a desire to reduce the computational effort involved in a hazard analysis without understating uncertainty. We set out to assess which branching points of the UCERF2 logic tree contribute most to overall uncertainty, and which might be safely ignored (set to only one branch) without significantly biasing results or affecting some useful measure of uncertainty. The trimmed logic tree will have all of the original choices from the branching points that contribute significantly to uncertainty, but only one arbitrarily selected choice from the branching points that do not.
Disease concepts and the logic of classes.
Taylor, F K
1981-09-01
Four different disease concepts are examined. In pre-scientific times, diseases were regarded as independent entities outside and inside the body of patients. This view is still alive in such expressions as "disease carrier' and similar idioms. Sydenham's disease entity was akin to a Platonic "idea'; namely as "species', "substantial form' or "essence' which had a singular independent existence in some metaphysical realm. Therefore, the talk at the time was that a patient suffered from, say, "the' pox. Virchow's disease entities were semi-independent parasitic parts in the bodies of different patients. Therefore, patients were said to suffer from, say "a' pneumonia. In modern times diseases are no longer regarded as independent or semi-independent entities. They are merely attribute complexes in patients. As such, they require no grammatical article. Patients are said to suffer from, say, pneumonia. The different views of disease concepts are finally examined within a framework provided by the modern logic of classes. The pre-scientific and Virchowian disease entities are members in a class "extension'. Sydenham's disease entity corresponds to a class entity abstracted from class members. Modern diseases are attributes listed in the class "intension'. The different disease concepts thus have different logical implications.
On the logical structure of Bell theorems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walgate, Jonathan; Broadbent, Anne; Carteret, Hilary; Methot, Andre
2007-03-01
Some specific predictions of quantum mechanics are inconsistent with local realism, a phenomenon known as nonlocality. Despite overwhelming evidence for quantum mechanics, the practical difficulties of detector efficiency and coordinating space-like separated measurements have provided loopholes for a classical worldview. New experiments have been proposed to meet these challenges, based around a new kind of nonlocality proof called an ``EPR Bell inequality''. Much investment is now being made to realize these proofs experimentally. We show all these proposals are fundamentally flawed. We focus on a series of designs that have appeared in PRL and PRA for loophole-free Bell experiments. These experiments use hyperentangled two-photon quantum states to generate experimental data supposedly at odds with local realism. We show how to produce identical results using a single coin, and explain where the logical flaw can be found. To understand our nonclassical world, we must understand precisely the experimental evidence for nonlocality. This tempting shortcut is a logical, theoretical and experimental dead end. http://www.arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0512201.
The Logic of University Students' Misunderstanding of Natural Selection.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greene, Edgar D., Jr.
1990-01-01
Responses of 322 university sophomores (education majors) on an evolution problem "How could the bat have evolved wings?" are analyzed and classified. Concludes that misunderstandings are logical. (PR)
A Sound and Complete Program Logic for Eiffel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nordio, Martin; Calcagno, Cristiano; Müller, Peter; Meyer, Bertrand
Object-oriented languages provide advantages such as reuse and modularity, but they also raise new challenges for program verification. Program logics have been developed for languages such as C# and Java. However, these logics do not cover the specifics of the Eiffel language. This paper presents a program logic for Eiffel that handles exceptions, once routines, and multiple inheritance. The logic is proven sound and complete w.r.t. an operational semantics. Lessons on language design learned from the experience are discussed.
The influence of logical positivism on nursing practice.
Whall, A L
1989-01-01
While logical positivism has been said to have had major influence on the development of nursing theory, whether this influence pervades other aspects of the discipline has not been discussed. One central aspect of logical positivism, the verificationist perspective, was used to examine texts, curricular guides and standards of practice that guided nursing practice in the decades in which logical positivism had influence on nursing theory construction. This review of the literature does not support the influence of logical positivism, as exemplified by the verificationist perspective, on nursing practice guidelines.
Fuzzy logic membership implementation using optical hardware components
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moniem, T. A.; Saleh, M. H.
2012-10-01
Intelligent control techniques consist of knowledge-based expert or fuzzy logic control. One obvious drawback in many such applications is that fuzzy logic memberships are implemented at the lowest level. In high-bandwidth processes, this form of fuzzy logic membership implementation would require high speed and accuracy in the presence of strong nonlinearities and dynamic coupling. This paper presents a novel methodology called the Opto-fuzzy method to design a fuzzy logic membership using an optical hardware component. The proposed scheme is applied to triangular-shaped and half trapezoidal-shaped membership functions.
Modifications in CMOS Dynamic Logic Style: A Review Paper
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meher, Preetisudha; Mahapatra, Kamalakanta
2015-12-01
Dynamic logic style is used in high performance circuit design because of its fast speed and less transistors requirement as compared to CMOS logic style. But it is not widely accepted for all types of circuit implementations due to its less noise tolerance and charge sharing problems. A small noise at the input of the dynamic logic can change the desired output. Domino logic uses one static CMOS inverter at the output of dynamic node which is more noise immune and consuming very less power as compared to other proposed circuit. In this paper, an overview and classification of these techniques are first presented and then compared according to their performance.
LOGIC ANALYSIS: TESTING PROGRAM THEORY TO BETTER EVALUATE COMPLEX INTERVENTIONS
Rey, Lynda; Brousselle, Astrid; Dedobbeleer, Nicole
2016-01-01
Evaluating complex interventions requires an understanding of the program’s logic of action. Logic analysis, a specific type of program theory evaluation based on scientific knowledge, can help identify either the critical conditions for achieving desired outcomes or alternative interventions for that purpose. In this article, we outline the principles of logic analysis and its roots. We then illustrate its use with an actual evaluation case. Finally, we discuss the advantages of conducting logic analysis prior to other types of evaluations. This article will provide evaluators with both theoretical and practical information to help them in conceptualizing their evaluations. PMID:27239095
Block QCA Fault-Tolerant Logic Gates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Firjany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarres, Katayoon
2003-01-01
Suitably patterned arrays (blocks) of quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) have been proposed as fault-tolerant universal logic gates. These block QCA gates could be used to realize the potential of QCA for further miniaturization, reduction of power consumption, increase in switching speed, and increased degree of integration of very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) electronic circuits. The limitations of conventional VLSI circuitry, the basic principle of operation of QCA, and the potential advantages of QCA-based VLSI circuitry were described in several NASA Tech Briefs articles, namely Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots (NPO-20801), Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42; Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots (NPO-20855) Vol. 27, No. 1 (January 2003), page 32; Bit-Serial Adder Based on Quantum Dots (NPO-20869), Vol. 27, No. 1 (January 2003), page 35; and Hybrid VLSI/QCA Architecture for Computing FFTs (NPO-20923), which follows this article. To recapitulate the principle of operation (greatly oversimplified because of the limitation on space available for this article): A quantum-dot cellular automata contains four quantum dots positioned at or between the corners of a square cell. The cell contains two extra mobile electrons that can tunnel (in the quantummechanical sense) between neighboring dots within the cell. The Coulomb repulsion between the two electrons tends to make them occupy antipodal dots in the cell. For an isolated cell, there are two energetically equivalent arrangements (denoted polarization states) of the extra electrons. The cell polarization is used to encode binary information. Because the polarization of a nonisolated cell depends on Coulomb-repulsion interactions with neighboring cells, universal logic gates and binary wires could be constructed, in principle, by arraying QCA of suitable design in suitable patterns. Heretofore, researchers have recognized two major obstacles to realization of QCA
Energy-Efficient Wide Datapath Integer Arithmetic Logic Units Using Superconductor Logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayala, Christopher Lawrence
Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology is currently the most widely used integrated circuit technology today. As CMOS approaches the physical limitations of scaling, it is unclear whether or not it can provide long-term support for niche areas such as high-performance computing and telecommunication infrastructure, particularly with the emergence of cloud computing. Alternatively, superconductor technologies based on Josephson junction (JJ) switching elements such as Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) logic and especially its new variant, Energy-Efficient Rapid Single Flux Quantum (ERSFQ) logic have the capability to provide an ultra-high-speed, low power platform for digital systems. The objective of this research is to design and evaluate energy-efficient, high-speed 32-bit integer Arithmetic Logic Units (ALUs) implemented using RSFQ and ERSFQ logic as the first steps towards achieving practical Very-Large-Scale-Integration (VLSI) complexity in digital superconductor electronics. First, a tunable VHDL superconductor cell library is created to provide a mechanism to conduct design exploration and evaluation of superconductor digital circuits from the perspectives of functionality, complexity, performance, and energy-efficiency. Second, hybrid wave-pipelining techniques developed earlier for wide datapath RSFQ designs have been used for efficient arithmetic and logic circuit implementations. To develop the core foundation of the ALU, the ripple-carry adder and the Kogge-Stone parallel prefix carry look-ahead adder are studied as representative candidates on opposite ends of the design spectrum. By combining the high-performance features of the Kogge-Stone structure and the low complexity of the ripple-carry adder, a 32-bit asynchronous wave-pipelined hybrid sparse-tree ALU has been designed and evaluated using the VHDL cell library tuned to HYPRES' gate-level characteristics. The designs and techniques from this research have been implemented using
Logic: A Unit for 4-8 Graders, Especially Gifted and Talented.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Runkle, Susan; Tansey, Pam
The unit on logic is intended to teach critical thinking for gifted and talented students in grades 4-8. Sections are presented separately for students in grades 4-5 and 6-8. The younger students are instructed in such areas as scientific logic, math logic, spatial reasoning, deductive logic, inductive logic, and reasoning with analogies. The…
Fuzzy Logic: A New Tool for the Analysis and Organization of International Business Communications.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sondak, Norman E.; Sondak, Eileen M.
Classical western logic, built on a foundation of true/false, yes/no, right/wrong statements, leads to many difficulties and inconsistencies in the logical analysis and organization of international business communications. This paper presents the basic principles of classical logic and of fuzzy logic, a type of logic developed to allow for…
NASA Tech Briefs, January 2008
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2008-01-01
Topics covered include: Induction Charge Detector with Multiple Sensing Stages; Generic Helicopter-Based Testbed for Surface Terrain Imaging Sensors; Robot Electronics Architecture; Optimized Geometry for Superconducting Sensing Coils; Sensing a Changing Chemical Mixture Using an Electronic Nose; Inertial Orientation Trackers with Drift Compensation; Microstrip Yagi Antenna with Dual Aperture-Coupled Feed; Patterned Ferroelectric Films for Tunable Microwave Devices; Micron-Accurate Laser Fresnel-Diffraction Ranging System; Efficient G(sup 4)FET-Based Logic Circuits; Web-Enabled Optoelectronic Particle-Fallout Monitor; SiO2/TiO2 Composite for Removing Hg from Combustion Exhaust; Lightweight Tanks for Storing Liquefied Natural Gas; Hybrid Wound Filaments for Greater Resistance to Impacts; Making High-Tensile-Strength Amalgam Components; Bonding by Hydroxide-Catalyzed Hydration and Dehydration; Balanced Flow Meters without Moving Parts; Deflection-Compensating Beam for Use inside a Cylinder; Four-Point-Latching Microactuator; Curved Piezoelectric Actuators for Stretching Optical Fibers; Tunable Optical Assembly with Vibration Dampening; Passive Porous Treatment for Reducing Flap Side-Edge Noise; Cylindrical Piezoelectric Fiber Composite Actuators; Patterning of Indium Tin Oxide Films; Gimballed Shoulders for Friction Stir Welding; Improved Thermal Modulator for Gas Chromatography; Nuclear-Spin Gyroscope Based on an Atomic Co-Magnetometer; Utilizing Ion-Mobility Data to Estimate Molecular Masses; Optical Displacement Sensor for Sub-Hertz Applications; Polarization/Spatial Combining of Laser-Diode Pump Beams; Spatial Combining of Laser-Diode Beams for Pumping an NPRO; Algorithm Optimally Orders Forward-Chaining Inference Rules; Project Integration Architecture; High Power Amplifier and Power Supply; Estimating Mixing Heights Using Microwave Temperature Profiler; and Multiple-Cone Sunshade for a Spaceborne Telescope.
Logic of discovery or psychology of invention?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woodward, James F.
1992-02-01
It is noted that Popper separates the creation of concepts, conjectures, hypotheses and theories—the context of invention—from the testing thereof—the context of justification—arguing that only the latter is susceptible of rigorous logical analysis. Efforts on the part of others to shift or eradicate the demarcation established by this distinction are discussed and the relationship of these considerations to the claims of “strong artificial intelligence” is pointed out. It is argued that the mode of education of scientists, as well as reports of celebrated scientists, support Popper's judgement in this matter. An historical episode from Faraday's later career is used to illustrate the historiographical strength of Lakatos' “methodology of research programs.”
Logic elements for reactor period meter
McDowell, William P.; Bobis, James P.
1976-01-01
Logic elements are provided for a reactor period meter trip circuit. For one element, first and second inputs are applied to first and second chopper comparators, respectively. The output of each comparator is O if the input applied to it is greater than or equal to a trip level associated with each input and each output is a square wave of frequency f if the input applied to it is less than the associated trip level. The outputs of the comparators are algebraically summed and applied to a bandpass filter tuned to f. For another element, the output of each comparator is applied to a bandpass filter which is tuned to f to give a sine wave of frequency f. The outputs of the filters are multiplied by an analog multiplier whose output is 0 if either input is 0 and a sine wave of frequency 2f if both inputs are a frequency f.
Measure Landscape Diversity with Logical Scout Agents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wirth, E.; Szabó, G.; Czinkóczky, A.
2016-06-01
The Common Agricultural Policy reform of the EU focuses on three long-term objectives: viable food production, sustainable management of natural resources and climate action with balanced territorial development. To achieve these goals, the EU farming and subsidizing policies (EEA, 2014) support landscape heterogeneity and diversity. Current paper introduces an agent-based method to calculate the potential of landscape diversity. The method tries to catch the nature of heterogeneity using logic and modelling as opposed to the traditional statistical reasoning. The outlined Random Walk Scouting algorithm registers the land cover crossings of the scout agents to a Monte Carlo integral. The potential is proportional with the composition and the configuration (spatial character) of the landscape. Based on the measured points a potential map is derived to give an objective and quantitative basis to the stakeholders (policy makers, farmers).
Fruit Sorting Using Fuzzy Logic Techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elamvazuthi, Irraivan; Sinnadurai, Rajendran; Aftab Ahmed Khan, Mohamed Khan; Vasant, Pandian
2009-08-01
Fruit and vegetables market is getting highly selective, requiring their suppliers to distribute the goods according to very strict standards of quality and presentation. In the last years, a number of fruit sorting and grading systems have appeared to fulfill the needs of the fruit processing industry. However, most of them are overly complex and too costly for the small and medium scale industry (SMIs) in Malaysia. In order to address these shortcomings, a prototype machine was developed by integrating the fruit sorting, labeling and packing processes. To realise the prototype, many design issues were dealt with. Special attention is paid to the electronic weighing sub-system for measuring weight, and the opto-electronic sub-system for determining the height and width of the fruits. Specifically, this paper discusses the application of fuzzy logic techniques in the sorting process.
Achieving stabilization in interferometric logic operations.
Zavalin, Andrey I; Shamir, Joseph; Vikram, Chandra S; Caulfield, H John
2006-01-10
Interferometric systems with amplitude beam splitters can implement reversible operations that, on detection, become Boolean operators. Being passive, they consume no energy, do not limit the operating bandwidth, and have negligible latency. Unfortunately, conventional interferometric systems are notoriously sensitive to uncontrolled disturbances. Here the use of polarization in a common-path interferometric logic gate with and without polarization beam splitters is explored as an attractive alternative to overcome those difficulties. Two of three device configurations considered offer significant stability and lower drive modulator voltage as advantages over the previous systems. The first experimental tests of such a system are reported. Common-path interferometry lends itself to even more stability and robustness by compatibility with no-air-gap, solid optics.
Prototype Conflict Alerting Logic for Free Flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, Lee C.; Kuchar, James K.
1997-01-01
This paper discusses the development of a prototype alerting system for a conceptual Free Flight environment. The concept assumes that datalink between aircraft is available and that conflicts are primarily resolved on the flight deck. Four alert stages are generated depending on the likelihood of a conflict. If the conflict is not resolved by the flight crews, Air Traffic Control is notified to take over separation authority. The alerting logic is based on probabilistic analysis through modeling of aircraft sensor and trajectory uncertainties. Monte Carlo simulations were used over a range of encounter situations to determine conflict probability. The four alert stages were then defined based on probability of conflict and on the number of avoidance maneuvers available to the flight crew. Preliminary results from numerical evaluations and from a piloted simulator study at NASA Ames Research Center are summarized.
Declarative Debugging of Rewriting Logic Specifications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riesco, Adrian; Verdejo, Alberto; Caballero, Rafael; Martí-Oliet, Narciso
Declarative debugging is a semi-automatic technique that starts from an incorrect computation and locates a program fragment responsible for the error by building a tree representing this computation and guiding the user through it to find the wrong statement. This paper presents the fundamentals for the declarative debugging of rewriting logic specifications, realized in the Maude language, where a wrong computation can be a reduction, a type inference, or a rewrite. We define appropriate debugging trees obtained as the result of collapsing in proof trees all those nodes whose correctness does not need any justification. Since these trees are obtained from a suitable semantic calculus, the correctness and completeness of the debugging technique can be formally proved. We illustrate how to use the debugger by means of an example and succinctly describe its implementation in Maude itself thanks to its reflective and metalanguage features.
Synthesis of logic circuits with evolutionary algorithms
JONES,JAKE S.; DAVIDSON,GEORGE S.
2000-01-26
In the last decade there has been interest and research in the area of designing circuits with genetic algorithms, evolutionary algorithms, and genetic programming. However, the ability to design circuits of the size and complexity required by modern engineering design problems, simply by specifying required outputs for given inputs has as yet eluded researchers. This paper describes current research in the area of designing logic circuits using an evolutionary algorithm. The goal of the research is to improve the effectiveness of this method and make it a practical aid for design engineers. A novel method of implementing the algorithm is introduced, and results are presented for various multiprocessing systems. In addition to evolving standard arithmetic circuits, work in the area of evolving circuits that perform digital signal processing tasks is described.
New elements of the RSFQ logic family
Mukhanov, O.A. ); Polonsky, S.V.; Semenov, V.K. )
1991-03-01
Elements of the RSFQ logic/memory family have already reached operation frequency as large as 100 GHz and have a good chance to enter a sub-terahertz clock frequency range. Their parameter margins are as wide as {plus minus}25 + 30%, even one bit gates posses flip-flop features, and can be naturally self-times. This paper reports on RSFQ elements (OR-AND, NOR-AND), half adder, mutiplexer, demultiplexer, and shift registers are presented. Operation of these gates have been studied with the help of the Personal Superconductor Circuit Analyzer (PSCAN) within the standard RSJ model of Josephson junctions. Parameter margins and other performance limits of the new elements are thoroughly investigated.
Fuzzy Logic Enhanced Digital PIV Processing Software
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wernet, Mark P.
1999-01-01
Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) is an instantaneous, planar velocity measurement technique that is ideally suited for studying transient flow phenomena in high speed turbomachinery. DPIV is being actively used at the NASA Glenn Research Center to study both stable and unstable operating conditions in a high speed centrifugal compressor. Commercial PIV systems are readily available which provide near real time feedback of the PIV image data quality. These commercial systems are well designed to facilitate the expedient acquisition of PIV image data. However, as with any general purpose system, these commercial PIV systems do not meet all of the data processing needs required for PIV image data reduction in our compressor research program. An in-house PIV PROCessing (PIVPROC) code has been developed for reducing PIV data. The PIVPROC software incorporates fuzzy logic data validation for maximum information recovery from PIV image data. PIVPROC enables combined cross-correlation/particle tracking wherein the highest possible spatial resolution velocity measurements are obtained.
Logic and ethics in radiation protection.
Lindell, B
2001-12-01
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) continues to accept the assumption of a linear non-threshold dose-response relationship (LNT) as the most likely one. In that case, basic logic as well as widely accepted ethics require that the full collective dose be used for detriment assessments and in procedures for optimisation of radiation protection. This means that even the smallest doses must be taken into account in the assessment of the global collective dose if they contribute significantly together. However, in calculating collective doses over time, some reasonable restriction of the integration period has to be employed, mainly because of the uncertainties involved in the assessment of future detriment. There are also uncertainties in the LNT assumption, but the precautionary principle would not permit that this is taken as an excuse for neglecting small doses.
Logical reasoning necessary to make line graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wavering, Michael J.
A study was conducted to determine the logical reasoning necessary to construct line graphs. Three types of line graphs were used: a straight line with a positive slope, a straight line with a negative slope, and an exponentially increasing curve. The subjects were students in grades six through twelve enrolled in a laboratory school. The responses were classified into one of nine categories. The categories ranged from no attempt to make a graph to a complete graph with a statement of a relationship between the variables. Subjects in grades six through eight exhibited behaviors mainly in the first four categories, ninth- and tenth-grade subjects scored in the middle categories, and eleventh and twelfth graders scored mainly in the upper categories. These response categories also showed a close fit with Piagetian concrete operational structures for single and double seriation and formal operational structures for proportional reasoning and correlational reasoning.
Mental Models of Invisible Logical Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sanderson, P.
1984-01-01
Subjects were required to discover the structure of a logical network whose links were invisible. Network structure had to be inferred from the behavior of the components after a failure. It was hypothesized that since such failure diagnosis tasks often draw on spatial processes, a good deal of spatial complexity in the network should affect network discovery. Results show that the ability to discover the linkages in the network is directly related to the spatial complexity of the pathway described by the linkages. This effect was generally independent of the amount of evidence available to subjects about the existence of the link. These results raise the question of whether inferences about spatially complex pathways were simply not made, or whether they were made but not retained because of a high load on memory resources.
A hierarchical cellular logic for pyramid computers
Tanimoto, S.L.
1984-11-01
Hierarchical structure occurs in biological vision systems and there is good reason to incorporate it into a model of computation for processing binary images. A mathematical formalism is presented which can describe a wide variety of operations useful in image processing and graphics. The formalism allows for two kinds of simple transformations on the values (called pyramids) of a set of cells called a hierarchical domain: the first are binary operations on boolean values, and the second are neighborhood-matching operations. The implied model of computation is more structured than previously discussed pyramidal models, and is more readily realized in parallel hardware, while it remains sufficiently rich to provide efficient solutions to a wide variety of problems. The model has a simplicity which is due to the restricted nature of the operations and the implied synchronization across the hierarchical domain. A corresponding algebraic simplicity in the logic makes possible the concise representation of many cellular-data operations.
Gallium arsenide processing for gate array logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cole, Eric D.
1989-09-01
The development of a reliable and reproducible GaAs process was initiated for applications in gate array logic. Gallium Arsenide is an extremely important material for high speed electronic applications in both digital and analog circuits since its electron mobility is 3 to 5 times that of silicon, this allows for faster switching times for devices fabricated with it. Unfortunately GaAs is an extremely difficult material to process with respect to silicon and since it includes the arsenic component GaAs can be quite dangerous (toxic) especially during some heating steps. The first stage of the research was directed at developing a simple process to produce GaAs MESFETs. The MESFET (MEtal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) is the most useful, practical and simple active device which can be fabricated in GaAs. It utilizes an ohmic source and drain contact separated by a Schottky gate. The gate width is typically a few microns. Several process steps were required to produce a good working device including ion implantation, photolithography, thermal annealing, and metal deposition. A process was designed to reduce the total number of steps to a minimum so as to reduce possible errors. The first run produced no good devices. The problem occurred during an aluminum etch step while defining the gate contacts. It was found that the chemical etchant attacked the GaAs causing trenching and subsequent severing of the active gate region from the rest of the device. Thus all devices appeared as open circuits. This problem is being corrected and since it was the last step in the process correction should be successful. The second planned stage involves the circuit assembly of the discrete MESFETs into logic gates for test and analysis. Finally the third stage is to incorporate the designed process with the tested circuit in a layout that would produce the gate array as a GaAs integrated circuit.
Gallium arsenide processing for gate array logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cole, Eric D.
1989-01-01
The development of a reliable and reproducible GaAs process was initiated for applications in gate array logic. Gallium Arsenide is an extremely important material for high speed electronic applications in both digital and analog circuits since its electron mobility is 3 to 5 times that of silicon, this allows for faster switching times for devices fabricated with it. Unfortunately GaAs is an extremely difficult material to process with respect to silicon and since it includes the arsenic component GaAs can be quite dangerous (toxic) especially during some heating steps. The first stage of the research was directed at developing a simple process to produce GaAs MESFETs. The MESFET (MEtal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) is the most useful, practical and simple active device which can be fabricated in GaAs. It utilizes an ohmic source and drain contact separated by a Schottky gate. The gate width is typically a few microns. Several process steps were required to produce a good working device including ion implantation, photolithography, thermal annealing, and metal deposition. A process was designed to reduce the total number of steps to a minimum so as to reduce possible errors. The first run produced no good devices. The problem occurred during an aluminum etch step while defining the gate contacts. It was found that the chemical etchant attacked the GaAs causing trenching and subsequent severing of the active gate region from the rest of the device. Thus all devices appeared as open circuits. This problem is being corrected and since it was the last step in the process correction should be successful. The second planned stage involves the circuit assembly of the discrete MESFETs into logic gates for test and analysis. Finally the third stage is to incorporate the designed process with the tested circuit in a layout that would produce the gate array as a GaAs integrated circuit.
Gallium arsenide processing for gate array logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cole, Eric D.
1989-01-01
The development of a reliable and reproducible GaAs process was initiated for applications in gate array logic. Gallium Arsenide is an extremely important material for high speed electronic applications in both digital and analog circuits since its electron mobility is 3 to 5 times that of silicon, this allows for faster switching times for devices fabricated with it. Unfortunately GaAs is an extremely difficult material to process with respect to silicon and since it includes the arsenic component GaAs can be quite dangerous (toxic) especially during some heating steps. The first stage of the research was directed at developing a simple process to produce GaAs MESFETs. The MESFET (MEtal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) is the most useful, practical and simple active device which can be fabricated in GaAs. It utilizes an ohmic source and drain contact separated by a Schottky gate. The gate width is typically a few microns. Several process steps were required to produce a good working device including ion implantation, photolithography, thermal annealing, and metal deposition. A process was designed to reduce the total number of steps to a minimum so as to reduce possible errors. The first run produced no good devices. The problem occurred during an aluminum etch step while defining the gate contacts. It was found that the chemical etchant attacked the GaAs causing trenching and subsequent severing of the active gate region from the rest of the device. Thus all devices appeared as open circuits. This problem is being corrected and since it was the last step in the process correction should be successful. The second planned stage involves the circuit assembly of the discrete MESFETs into logic gates for test and analysis. Finally the third stage is to incorporate the designed process with the tested circuit in a layout that would produce the gate array as a GaAs integrated circuit.
Magnetic logic based on diode-assisted magnetoresistance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Zhaochu; Zhang, Xiaozhong
2017-05-01
Conventional computer suffers from the von Neumann performance bottleneck due to its hardware architecture that non-volatile memory and logic are separated. The new emerging magnetic logic coupling the extra dimension of spin, shows the potential to overcome this performance bottleneck. Here, we propose a novel category of magnetic logic based on diode-assisted magnetoresistance. By coupling Hall effect and nonlinear transport property in silicon, all four basic Boolean logic operations including AND, NAND, OR and NOR, can be programmed at room temperature with high output ratio in one silicon-based device. Further introducing anomalous Hall effect of magnetic material into magnetic logic, we achieve perpendicular magnetic anisotropy-based magnetic logic which combines the advantages of both high output ratio (>103 %) and low work magnetic field (˜1 mT). Integrated with non-volatile magnetic memory, our logic device with unique magnetoelectric properties has the advantages of current-controlled reconfiguration, zero refresh consumption, instant-on performance and would bridge the processor-memory gap. Our findings would pave the way in magnetic logic and offer a feasible platform to build a new kind of magnetic microprocessor with potential of high performance.
Logic. Geometry Module for Use in a Mathematics Laboratory Setting.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brotherton, Sheila; And Others
Within this single module there are two approaches to this brief survey of logic. Since most geometry textbooks fail to give an adequate discussion of logic, a "textbook" treatment of the subject has been included. This is found as explanations interspersed in the exercises and these can be used as a textbook approach. However, also included is an…
Pupils' Understanding of Logical Connectives in Selected Texts in History.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wishart, Elizabeth; Smith, J. Lea
Using a list of 15 logical connectives and a selected sample of 216 students from the higher range of ability in two British comprehensive schools, a study investigated the comprehension of those logical connectives in two contexts, "everyday" and "history." The 15 connectives tested occurred in a chapter of the textbook,…
Evidence that logical reasoning depends on conscious processing.
DeWall, C Nathan; Baumeister, Roy F; Masicampo, E J
2008-09-01
Humans, unlike other animals, are equipped with a powerful brain that permits conscious awareness and reflection. A growing trend in psychological science has questioned the benefits of consciousness, however. Testing a hypothesis advanced by [Lieberman, M. D., Gaunt, R., Gilbert, D. T., & Trope, Y. (2002). Reflection and reflexion: A social cognitive neuroscience approach to attributional inference. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 34, 199-249], four studies suggested that the conscious, reflective processing system is vital for logical reasoning. Substantial decrements in logical reasoning were found when a cognitive load manipulation preoccupied conscious processing, while hampering the nonconscious system with consciously suppressed thoughts failed to impair reasoning (Experiment 1). Nonconscious activation (priming) of the idea of logical reasoning increased the activation of logic-relevant concepts, but failed to improve logical reasoning performance (Experiments 2a-2c) unless the logical conclusions were largely intuitive and thus not reliant on logical reasoning (Experiment 3). Meanwhile, stimulating the conscious goal of reasoning well led to improvements in reasoning performance (Experiment 4). These findings offer evidence that logical reasoning is aided by the conscious, reflective processing system.
Formal logic rewrite system bachelor in teaching mathematical informatics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Habiballa, Hashim; Jendryscik, Radek
2017-07-01
The article presents capabilities of the formal rewrite logic system - Bachelor - for teaching theoretical computer science (mathematical informatics). The system Bachelor enables constructivist approach to teaching and therefore it may enhance the learning process in hard informatics essential disciplines. It brings not only detailed description of formal rewrite process but also it can demonstrate algorithmical principles for logic formulae manipulations.
43 CFR 3483.6 - Special logical mining unit rules.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special logical mining unit rules. 3483.6... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Diligence Requirements § 3483.6 Special logical mining unit rules. (a) Production anywhere...
43 CFR 3475.6 - Logical mining unit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Logical mining unit. 3475.6 Section 3475.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 3475.6 Logical mining unit. (a) Criteria for approving or directing establishment of an LMU shall...
43 CFR 3475.6 - Logical mining unit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Logical mining unit. 3475.6 Section 3475.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 3475.6 Logical mining unit. (a) Criteria for approving or directing establishment of an LMU shall...
43 CFR 3483.6 - Special logical mining unit rules.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special logical mining unit rules. 3483.6... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Diligence Requirements § 3483.6 Special logical mining unit rules. (a) Production anywhere...
43 CFR 3483.6 - Special logical mining unit rules.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special logical mining unit rules. 3483.6... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Diligence Requirements § 3483.6 Special logical mining unit rules. (a) Production anywhere...
43 CFR 3475.6 - Logical mining unit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Logical mining unit. 3475.6 Section 3475.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 3475.6 Logical mining unit. (a) Criteria for approving or directing establishment of an LMU shall...
43 CFR 3475.6 - Logical mining unit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Logical mining unit. 3475.6 Section 3475.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 3475.6 Logical mining unit. (a) Criteria for approving or directing establishment of an LMU shall...
43 CFR 3483.6 - Special logical mining unit rules.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special logical mining unit rules. 3483.6... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Diligence Requirements § 3483.6 Special logical mining unit rules. (a) Production anywhere...
Advanced PID type fuzzy logic power system stabilizer
Hiyama, Takashi; Kugimiya, Masahiko; Satoh, Hironori . Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science)
1994-09-01
An advanced fuzzy logic control scheme has been proposed for a micro-computer based power system stabilizer to enhance the overall stability of power systems. The proposed control scheme utilizes the PID information of the generator speed. The input signal to the stabilizer is the real power output of a study unit. Simulations show the effectiveness of the advanced fuzzy logic control scheme.
Exploring the Common Ground of Rhetoric and Logic.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lamb, Catherine E.
In teaching the principles of rational discourse in advanced expository writing, it is necessary to clarify the similarities and differences between the logic and rhetoric of Aristotle and to identify a common ground between the two. The study of logic within rhetoric focuses on the inductive standards used to support two kinds of argument: the…
The Application of Logic Programming to Communication Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sanford, David L.
Recommending that communication students be required to learn to use computers not merely as number crunchers, word processors, data bases, and graphics generators, but also as logical inference makers, this paper examines the recently developed technology of logical programing in computer languages. It presents two syllogisms and shows how they…
SDLDS--System for Digital Logic Design and Simulation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stanisavljevic, Z.; Pavlovic, V.; Nikolic, B.; Djordjevic, J.
2013-01-01
This paper presents the basic features of a software system developed to support the teaching of digital logic, as well as the experience of using it in the Digital Logic course taught at the School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Serbia. The system has been used for several years, both by students for self-learning and…
Ideal Knowing: Logics of Knowledge in Primary School Curricula
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Macknight, Vicki
2011-01-01
This paper is written to draw attention to the ideal knower and the logic of knowledge embedded in curricula. New logics and new knowers, I argue, are conjured with the hope they will be capable of succeeding in curriculum designers' imagined future. I frame this discussion in terms of debates about the place of knowledge in the sociology of…
"Glitch Logic" and Applications to Computing and Information Security
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stoica, Adrian; Katkoori, Srinivas
2009-01-01
This paper introduces a new method of information processing in digital systems, and discusses its potential benefits to computing and information security. The new method exploits glitches caused by delays in logic circuits for carrying and processing information. Glitch processing is hidden to conventional logic analyses and undetectable by traditional reverse engineering techniques. It enables the creation of new logic design methods that allow for an additional controllable "glitch logic" processing layer embedded into a conventional synchronous digital circuits as a hidden/covert information flow channel. The combination of synchronous logic with specific glitch logic design acting as an additional computing channel reduces the number of equivalent logic designs resulting from synthesis, thus implicitly reducing the possibility of modification and/or tampering with the design. The hidden information channel produced by the glitch logic can be used: 1) for covert computing/communication, 2) to prevent reverse engineering, tampering, and alteration of design, and 3) to act as a channel for information infiltration/exfiltration and propagation of viruses/spyware/Trojan horses.
Logical Reasoning in Science Education [and an Annotated Bibliography].
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Connelly, F. Michael; Binns, Richard W.
This paper on logical reasoning in science education was written from a philosophical, rather than a psychological, orientation within an overall curricular framework. Six areas are treated within this curricular framework: philosophical consideration, logical structure in a field of enquiry, materials development and evaluation, epistemological…
Leveraging Structure: Logical Necessity in the Context of Integer Arithmetic
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bishop, Jessica Pierson; Lamb, Lisa L.; Philipp, Randolph A.; Whitacre, Ian; Schappelle, Bonnie P.
2016-01-01
Looking for, recognizing, and using underlying mathematical structure is an important aspect of mathematical reasoning. We explore the use of mathematical structure in children's integer strategies by developing and exemplifying the construct of logical necessity. Students in our study used logical necessity to approach and use numbers in a…
Logical Reasoning Ability and Student Performance in General Chemistry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bird, Lillian
2010-01-01
Logical reasoning skills of students enrolled in a general chemistry course at the University of Puerto Rico in Rio Piedras were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test. The results were used to determine the students' cognitive level (concrete, transitional, formal) as well as their level of performance by logical…
The Development of Logical Structures for E-Learning Evaluation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tudevdagva, Uranchimeg; Hardt, Wolfram; Dolgor, Jargalmaa
2013-01-01
This paper deals with development of logical structures for e-learning evaluation. Evaluation is a complex task into which many different groups of people are involved. As a rule these groups have different understanding and varying expectations on e-learning evaluation. Using logical structures for e-learning evaluation we can join the different…
Early Learning of Logic and Geometry Using Microcomputers: Final Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Piestrup, Ann M.
This document primarily consists of source code listings for software developed under a grant from the National Science Foundation and the National Institute of Education (NSF/NIE). The code contains the following learning games: (1) Turn and Match; (2) Logic Arcade; and (3) Logic Gates. Also included are an assembler for the 6502 microprocessor…