Efficient G(sup 4)FET-Based Logic Circuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vatan, Farrokh
2008-01-01
A total of 81 optimal logic circuits based on four-gate field-effect transistors (G(sup 4)4FETs) have been designed to implement all Boolean functions of up to three variables. The purpose of this development was to lend credence to the expectation that logic circuits based on G(sup 4)FETs could be more efficient (in the sense that they could contain fewer transistors), relative to functionally equivalent logic circuits based on conventional transistors. A G(sup 4)FET a combination of a junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and a metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) superimposed in a single silicon island and can therefore be regarded as two transistors sharing the same body. A G(sup 4)FET can also be regarded as a single device having four gates: two side junction-based gates, a top MOS gate, and a back gate activated by biasing of a silicon-on-insulator substrate. Each of these gates can be used to control the conduction characteristics of the transistor; this possibility creates new options for designing analog, radio-frequency, mixed-signal, and digital circuitry. One such option is to design a G(sup 4)FET to function as a three-input NOT-majority gate, which has been shown to be a universal and programmable logic gate. Optimal NOT-majority-gate, G(sup 4)FET-based logic-circuit designs were obtained in a comparative study that also included formulation of functionally equivalent logic circuits based on NOR and NAND gates implemented by use of conventional transistors. In the study, the problem of finding the optimal design for each logic function and each transistor type was solved as an integer-programming optimization problem. Considering all 81 non-equivalent Boolean functions included in the study, it was found that in 63% of the cases, fewer logic gates (and, hence, fewer transistors) would be needed in the G(sup 4)FET-based implementations.
G(sup 4)FET Implementations of Some Logic Circuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mojarradi, Mohammad; Akarvardar, Kerem; Cristoleveanu, Sorin; Gentil, Paul; Blalock, Benjamin; Chen, Suhan
2009-01-01
Some logic circuits have been built and demonstrated to work substantially as intended, all as part of a continuing effort to exploit the high degrees of design flexibility and functionality of the electronic devices known as G(sup 4)FETs and described below. These logic circuits are intended to serve as prototypes of more complex advanced programmable-logicdevice-type integrated circuits, including field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). In comparison with prior FPGAs, these advanced FPGAs could be much more efficient because the functionality of G(sup 4)FETs is such that fewer discrete components are needed to perform a given logic function in G(sup 4)FET circuitry than are needed perform the same logic function in conventional transistor-based circuitry. The underlying concept of using G(sup 4)FETs as building blocks of programmable logic circuitry was also described, from a different perspective, in G(sup 4)FETs as Universal and Programmable Logic Gates (NPO-41698), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 7 (July 2007), page 44. A G(sup 4)FET can be characterized as an accumulation-mode silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) featuring two junction field-effect transistor (JFET) gates. The structure of a G(sup 4)FET (see Figure 1) is the same as that of a p-channel inversion-mode SOI MOSFET with two body contacts on each side of the channel. The top gate (G1), the substrate emulating a back gate (G2), and the junction gates (JG1 and JG2) can be biased independently of each other and, hence, each can be used to independently control some aspects of the conduction characteristics of the transistor. The independence of the actions of the four gates is what affords the enhanced functionality and design flexibility of G(sup 4)FETs. The present G(sup 4)FET logic circuits include an adjustable-threshold inverter, a real-time-reconfigurable logic gate, and a dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) cell (see Figure 2). The configuration
Universal programmable logic gate and routing method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fijany, Amir (Inventor); Vatan, Farrokh (Inventor); Akarvardar, Kerem (Inventor); Blalock, Benjamin (Inventor); Chen, Suheng (Inventor); Cristoloveanu, Sorin (Inventor); Kolawa, Elzbieta (Inventor); Mojarradi, Mohammad M. (Inventor); Toomarian, Nikzad (Inventor)
2009-01-01
An universal and programmable logic gate based on G.sup.4-FET technology is disclosed, leading to the design of more efficient logic circuits. A new full adder design based on the G.sup.4-FET is also presented. The G.sup.4-FET can also function as a unique router device offering coplanar crossing of signal paths that are isolated and perpendicular to one another. This has the potential of overcoming major limitations in VLSI design where complex interconnection schemes have become increasingly problematic.
Order g{sup 2} susceptibilities in the symmetric phase of the Standard Model
Bödeker, D.; Sangel, M.
2015-04-23
Susceptibilities of conserved charges such as baryon minus lepton number enter baryogenesis computations, since they provide the relationship between conserved charges and chemical potentials. Their next-to-leading order corrections are of order g, where g is a generic Standard Model coupling. They are due to soft Higgs boson exchange, and have been calculated recently, together with some order g{sup 2} corrections. Here we compute the complete g{sup 2} contributions. Close to the electroweak crossover the soft Higgs contribution is of order g{sup 2}, and is determined by the non-perturbative physics at the magnetic screening scale.
Non-gaussian inflationary shapes in G{sup 3} theories beyond Horndeski
Fasiello, Matteo; Renaux-Petel, Sébastien E-mail: srenaux@lpthe.jussieu.fr
2014-10-01
We consider the possible signatures of a recently introduced class of healthy theories beyond Horndeski models on higher-order correlators of the inflationary curvature fluctuation. Despite the apparent large number and complexity of the cubic interactions, we show that the leading-order bispectrum generated by the Generalized Horndeski (also called G{sup 3}) interactions can be reduced to a linear combination of two well known k-inflationary shapes. We conjecture that said behavior is not an accident of the cubic order but a consequence dictated by the requirements on the absence of Ostrogradski instability, the general covariance and the linear dispersion relation in these theories.
2014-10-03
introduce distributed logics. Distributed logics lift the distribution structure of a distributed system directly into the logic, thereby parameterizing...the logic by the distribution structure itself. Each domain supports a “local modal logic.” The connections between domains are realized as...There are also multi- agent logic systems [12]. What distinguishes distributed logics from these are that the morphisms, i.e., the nbd maps, have
Plotnikov, Mikhail G
2011-02-11
Multiple Walsh series (S) on the group G{sup m} are studied. It is proved that every at most countable set is a uniqueness set for series (S) under convergence over cubes. The recovery problem is solved for the coefficients of series (S) that converge outside countable sets or outside sets of Dirichlet type. A number of analogues of the de la Vallee Poussin theorem are established for series (S). Bibliography: 28 titles.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Le Balleur, J. C.
1988-01-01
The applicability of conventional mathematical analysis (based on the combination of two-valued logic and probability theory) to problems in which human judgment, perception, or emotions play significant roles is considered theoretically. It is shown that dispositional logic, a branch of fuzzy logic, has particular relevance to the common-sense reasoning typical of human decision-making. The concepts of dispositionality and usuality are defined analytically, and a dispositional conjunctive rule and dispositional modus ponens are derived.
Lusk, E.L.; Overbeek, R.A.
1989-01-01
This book contains the proceedings of the 1989 North American Conference on Logic Programming. Included are the following papers: Expanding query power in constrain logic programming languages, Investigating the linguistics of DNA with definite clause grammars, An intermediate language to support prolog's unification.
Efficient Multiplexer FPGA Block Structures Based on G4FETs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vatan, Farrokh; Fijany, Amir
2009-01-01
Generic structures have been conceived for multiplexer blocks to be implemented in field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) based on four-gate field-effect transistors (G(sup 4)FETs). This concept is a contribution to the continuing development of digital logic circuits based on G4FETs and serves as a further demonstration that logic circuits based on G(sup 4)FETs could be more efficient (in the sense that they could contain fewer transistors), relative to functionally equivalent logic circuits based on conventional transistors. Results in this line of development at earlier stages were summarized in two previous NASA Tech Briefs articles: "G(sup 4)FETs as Universal and Programmable Logic Gates" (NPO-41698), Vol. 31, No. 7 (July 2007), page 44, and "Efficient G4FET-Based Logic Circuits" (NPO-44407), Vol. 32, No. 1 ( January 2008), page 38 . As described in the first-mentioned previous article, a G4FET can be made to function as a three-input NOT-majority gate, which has been shown to be a universal and programmable logic gate. The universality and programmability could be exploited to design logic circuits containing fewer components than are required for conventional transistor-based circuits performing the same logic functions. The second-mentioned previous article reported results of a comparative study of NOT-majority-gate (G(sup 4)FET)-based logic-circuit designs and equivalent NOR- and NAND-gate-based designs utilizing conventional transistors. [NOT gates (inverters) were also included, as needed, in both the G(sup 4)FET- and the NOR- and NAND-based designs.] In most of the cases studied, fewer logic gates (and, hence, fewer transistors), were required in the G(sup 4)FET-based designs. There are two popular categories of FPGA block structures or architectures: one based on multiplexers, the other based on lookup tables. In standard multiplexer- based architectures, the basic building block is a tree-like configuration of multiplexers, with possibly a few
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zadeh, Lofti A.
1988-01-01
The author presents a condensed exposition of some basic ideas underlying fuzzy logic and describes some representative applications. The discussion covers basic principles; meaning representation and inference; basic rules of inference; and the linguistic variable and its application to fuzzy control.
Fuzzy logic controller optimization
Sepe, Jr., Raymond B; Miller, John Michael
2004-03-23
A method is provided for optimizing a rotating induction machine system fuzzy logic controller. The fuzzy logic controller has at least one input and at least one output. Each input accepts a machine system operating parameter. Each output produces at least one machine system control parameter. The fuzzy logic controller generates each output based on at least one input and on fuzzy logic decision parameters. Optimization begins by obtaining a set of data relating each control parameter to at least one operating parameter for each machine operating region. A model is constructed for each machine operating region based on the machine operating region data obtained. The fuzzy logic controller is simulated with at least one created model in a feedback loop from a fuzzy logic output to a fuzzy logic input. Fuzzy logic decision parameters are optimized based on the simulation.
Okamoto, Akimitsu; Tanaka, Kazuo; Saito, Isao
2004-08-04
A conceptually new logic gate based on DNA has been devised. Methoxybenzodeazaadenine ((MD)A), an artificial nucleobase which we recently developed for efficient hole transport through DNA, formed stable base pairs with T and C. However, a reasonable hole-transport efficiency was observed in the reaction for the duplex containing an (MD)A/T base pair, whereas the hole transport was strongly suppressed in the reaction using a duplex where the base opposite (MD)A was replaced by C. The influence of complementary pyrimidines on the efficiency of hole transport through (MD)A was quite contrary to the selectivity observed for hole transport through G. The orthogonality of the modulation of these hole-transport properties by complementary pyrimidine bases is promising for the design of a new molecular logic gate. The logic gate system was executed by hole transport through short DNA duplexes, which consisted of the "logic gate strand", containing hole-transporting nucleobases, and the "input strand", containing pyrimidines which modulate the hole-transport efficiency of logic bases. A logic gate strand containing multiple (MD)A bases in series provided the basis for a sharp AND logic action. On the other hand, for OR logic and combinational logic, conversion of Boolean expressions to standard sum-of-product (SOP) expressions was indispensable. Three logic gate strands were designed for OR logic according to each product term in the standard SOP expression of OR logic. The hole-transport efficiency observed for the mixed sample of logic gate strands exhibited an OR logic behavior. This approach is generally applicable to the design of other complicated combinational logic circuits such as the full-adder.
Reversible logic for supercomputing.
DeBenedictis, Erik P.
2005-05-01
This paper is about making reversible logic a reality for supercomputing. Reversible logic offers a way to exceed certain basic limits on the performance of computers, yet a powerful case will have to be made to justify its substantial development expense. This paper explores the limits of current, irreversible logic for supercomputers, thus forming a threshold above which reversible logic is the only solution. Problems above this threshold are discussed, with the science and mitigation of global warming being discussed in detail. To further develop the idea of using reversible logic in supercomputing, a design for a 1 Zettaflops supercomputer as required for addressing global climate warming is presented. However, to create such a design requires deviations from the mainstream of both the software for climate simulation and research directions of reversible logic. These deviations provide direction on how to make reversible logic practical.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Du Fresne, E. R.; Dowler, W. L.
1985-01-01
Logic gates for light signals constructed from combinations of prisms, polarizing plates, and quarterwave plates. Optical logic gate performs elementary logic operation on light signals received along two optical fibers. Whether gate performs OR function or exclusive-OR function depends on orientation of analyzer. Nonbinary truth tables also obtained by rotating polarizer or analyzer to other positions or inserting other quarter-wave plates.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Preston, K., Jr.
1972-01-01
The characteristics of the holographic logic computer are discussed. The holographic operation is reviewed from the Fourier transform viewpoint, and the formation of holograms for use in performing digital logic are described. The operation of the computer with an experiment in which the binary identity function is calculated is discussed along with devices for achieving real-time performance. An application in pattern recognition using neighborhood logic is presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howard, Ayanna
2005-01-01
The Fuzzy Logic Engine is a software package that enables users to embed fuzzy-logic modules into their application programs. Fuzzy logic is useful as a means of formulating human expert knowledge and translating it into software to solve problems. Fuzzy logic provides flexibility for modeling relationships between input and output information and is distinguished by its robustness with respect to noise and variations in system parameters. In addition, linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements allow systems to make decisions based on imprecise and incomplete information. The user of the Fuzzy Logic Engine need not be an expert in fuzzy logic: it suffices to have a basic understanding of how linguistic rules can be applied to the user's problem. The Fuzzy Logic Engine is divided into two modules: (1) a graphical-interface software tool for creating linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements and (2) a fuzzy-logic software library for embedding fuzzy processing capability into current application programs. The graphical- interface tool was developed using the Tcl/Tk programming language. The fuzzy-logic software library was written in the C programming language.
Ferrite logic reliability study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baer, J. A.; Clark, C. B.
1973-01-01
Development and use of digital circuits called all-magnetic logic are reported. In these circuits the magnetic elements and their windings comprise the active circuit devices in the logic portion of a system. The ferrite logic device belongs to the all-magnetic class of logic circuits. The FLO device is novel in that it makes use of a dual or bimaterial ferrite composition in one physical ceramic body. This bimaterial feature, coupled with its potential for relatively high speed operation, makes it attractive for high reliability applications. (Maximum speed of operation approximately 50 kHz.)
Beams, Timothy J.; Whittingham, Ian B.; Peach, Gillian
2006-07-15
The properties of the least-bound vibrational level (v=14) of the {sup 5}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} state formed during the ultracold collision of two spin-polarized metastable 2 {sup 3}S{sub 1} helium atoms are crucial to studies of photoassociation spectroscopy of metastable helium. We report a calculation of the autoionization lifetime {tau}{sub g} of this state induced by spin-dipole coupling of the {sup 5}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} state to the {sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} state from which Penning and associative ionization processes are highly probable. We find {tau}{sub g}{approx_equal}150 {mu}s, significantly larger than the recent experimental estimates of (0.5-3) {mu}s.
Fundamentals of Digital Logic.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noell, Monica L.
This course is designed to prepare electronics personnel for further training in digital techniques, presenting need to know information that is basic to any maintenance course on digital equipment. It consists of seven study units: (1) binary arithmetic; (2) boolean algebra; (3) logic gates; (4) logic flip-flops; (5) nonlogic circuits; (6)…
Programmable Logic Controllers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen
This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Osborne, Alan R.
1973-01-01
This article reports one search for factors or conditions shaping the child's growth in logical ability. The search indicated the existence of a relationship between the quantity of teacher talk that contains the language of logic and the change exhibited by students. Implications for classroom practice are discussed. (JA)
Logic via Computer Programming.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wieschenberg, Agnes A.
This paper proposed the question "How do we teach logical thinking and sophisticated mathematics to unsophisticated college students?" One answer among many is through the writing of computer programs. The writing of computer algorithms is mathematical problem solving and logic in disguise and it may attract students who would otherwise stop…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.
1989-01-01
Provides background material on logic programing and presents PROLOG as a high-level artificial intelligence programing language that borrows its basic constructs from logic. Suggests the language is one which will help the educator to achieve various goals, particularly the promotion of problem solving ability. (MVL)
Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hafiz, M. A. A.; Kosuru, L.; Younis, M. I.
2016-03-01
In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.
Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device
Hafiz, M. A. A.; Kosuru, L.; Younis, M. I.
2016-01-01
In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme. PMID:27021295
Regulatory Conformance Checking: Logic and Logical Form
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dinesh, Nikhil
2010-01-01
We consider the problem of checking whether an organization conforms to a body of regulation. Conformance is studied in a runtime verification setting. The regulation is translated to a logic, from which we synthesize monitors. The monitors are evaluated as the state of an organization evolves over time, raising an alarm if a violation is…
THRESHOLD LOGIC IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
COMPUTER LOGIC, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , BIONICS, GEOMETRY, INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES, LINEAR PROGRAMMING, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC, MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION, NETWORKS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, PROBABILITY, SWITCHING CIRCUITS, SYNTHESIS
1981-01-01
79/7, Imperial College, University of London. [Colmerauer 1973] Colmerauer, A., Un Systeme de Communication Homme - machine Kanoui, H., en Francais...any of the LOGIC interface functions (,-, THE, ALL, ANY, etc.) can be obtained by invoking the command (DOC fn), where "fn" is the name of the function...well as for output) illustrates one more way in which the LOGLISP programmer can fruitfully exploit the interface between LOGIC and LISP. GIVE is just a
2008-07-14
as a basis for Phase II research. 2 Background 2.1 Event logic 2.1.1 Event structures Intuitively, an event structure is an abstract algebraic ...Theoretical Computer Science, 149:257–298, 1995. [2] Uri Abraham. Models for Concurrency, volume 11 of Algebra , Logic and Applications Series. Gordon...the ordering of events in a distributed system. Comms. ACM, 21(7):558–65, 1978. [28] Leslie Lamport. Hybrid systems in TLA+. In Grossman , Nerode, Ravn
Diagnosable structured logic array
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor); Miles, Lowell (Inventor); Gambles, Jody (Inventor); Maki, Gary K. (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A diagnosable structured logic array and associated process is provided. A base cell structure is provided comprising a logic unit comprising a plurality of input nodes, a plurality of selection nodes, and an output node, a plurality of switches coupled to the selection nodes, where the switches comprises a plurality of input lines, a selection line and an output line, a memory cell coupled to the output node, and a test address bus and a program control bus coupled to the plurality of input lines and the selection line of the plurality of switches. A state on each of the plurality of input nodes is verifiably loaded and read from the memory cell. A trusted memory block is provided. The associated process is provided for testing and verifying a plurality of truth table inputs of the logic unit.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Welty, Gordon A.
The logic of the evaluation of educational and other action programs is discussed from a methodological viewpoint. However, no attempt is made to develop methods of evaluating programs. In Part I, the structure of an educational program is viewed as a system with three components--inputs, transformation of inputs into outputs, and outputs. Part II…
Metacomputation and logic programming
Abramov, S.M.
1992-03-01
This paper presents an approach to logic programming based on implementing reverse semantics of programming languages. The interpreter that implements reverse semantics is called a Universal Resolving Algorithm (URA). Implementation and methods for application of a URA are based on methods of metacomputation. 12 refs., 2 figs.
Temporal logics meet telerobotics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rutten, Eric; Marce, Lionel
1989-01-01
The specificity of telerobotics being the presence of a human operator, decision assistance tools are necessary for the operator, especially in hostile environments. In order to reduce execution hazards due to a degraded ability for quick and efficient recovery of unexpected dangerous situations, it is of importance to have the opportunity, amongst others, to simulate the possible consequences of a plan before its actual execution, in order to detect these problematic situations. Hence the idea of providing the operator with a simulator enabling him to verify the temporal and logical coherence of his plans. Therefore, the power of logical formalisms is used for representation and deduction purposes. Starting from the class of situations that are represented, a STRIPS (the STanford Research Institute Problem Solver)-like formalism and its underlying logic are adapted to the simulation of plans of actions in time. The choice of a temporal logic enables to build a world representation, on which the effects of plans, grouping actions into control structures, will be transcribed by the simulation, resulting in a verdict and information about the plan's coherence.
Quantum probabilistic logic programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balu, Radhakrishnan
2015-05-01
We describe a quantum mechanics based logic programming language that supports Horn clauses, random variables, and covariance matrices to express and solve problems in probabilistic logic. The Horn clauses of the language wrap random variables, including infinite valued, to express probability distributions and statistical correlations, a powerful feature to capture relationship between distributions that are not independent. The expressive power of the language is based on a mechanism to implement statistical ensembles and to solve the underlying SAT instances using quantum mechanical machinery. We exploit the fact that classical random variables have quantum decompositions to build the Horn clauses. We establish the semantics of the language in a rigorous fashion by considering an existing probabilistic logic language called PRISM with classical probability measures defined on the Herbrand base and extending it to the quantum context. In the classical case H-interpretations form the sample space and probability measures defined on them lead to consistent definition of probabilities for well formed formulae. In the quantum counterpart, we define probability amplitudes on Hinterpretations facilitating the model generations and verifications via quantum mechanical superpositions and entanglements. We cast the well formed formulae of the language as quantum mechanical observables thus providing an elegant interpretation for their probabilities. We discuss several examples to combine statistical ensembles and predicates of first order logic to reason with situations involving uncertainty.
Programmable Logic Application Notes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, Richard
2000-01-01
This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will start a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issues section discussing worst-case analysis requirements.
Programmable Logic Application Notes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, Richard; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This report will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will continue a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issue's section discussing the use of Root-Sum-Square calculations for digital delays.
Radiation tolerant combinational logic cell
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maki, Gary R. (Inventor); Gambles, Jody W. (Inventor); Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A system has a reduced sensitivity to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transient(s) compared to traditional logic devices. In a particular embodiment, the system includes an input, a logic block, a bias stage, a state machine, and an output. The logic block is coupled to the input. The logic block is for implementing a logic function, receiving a data set via the input, and generating a result f by applying the data set to the logic function. The bias stage is coupled to the logic block. The bias stage is for receiving the result from the logic block and presenting it to the state machine. The state machine is coupled to the bias stage. The state machine is for receiving, via the bias stage, the result generated by the logic block. The state machine is configured to retain a state value for the system. The state value is typically based on the result generated by the logic block. The output is coupled to the state machine. The output is for providing the value stored by the state machine. Some embodiments of the invention produce dual rail outputs Q and Q'. The logic block typically contains combinational logic and is similar, in size and transistor configuration, to a conventional CMOS combinational logic design. However, only a very small portion of the circuits of these embodiments, is sensitive to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transients.
Sandia ATM SONET Interface Logic
Kitta, Joseph P.
1994-07-21
SASIL is used to program the EPLD's (Erasable Programmable Logic Devices) and PAL's (Programmable Array Logic) that make up a large percentage of the Sandia ATM SONET Interface (OC3 version) for the INTEL Paragon.
Vagin, Nikolai P; Ionin, Andrei A; Podmar'kov, Yu P; Frolov, M P; Yuryshev, Nikolai N; Kochetov, Igor' V; Napartovich, A P
2005-04-30
The method of intracavity laser spectroscopy using a Co:MgF{sub 2} laser is applied to record the absorption spectra from the first excited a{sup 1{Delta}}{sub g} state of gaseous molecular oxygen at the a{sup 1{Delta}}{sub g} {yields} b{sup 1{Sigma}}{sub g}{sup +} transition at 1.91 {mu}m. The gas flow from a chemical singlet oxygen generator with a known concentration of singlet oxygen O{sub 2} (a{sup 1{Delta}}{sub g}) was supplied to the cavity of the Co:MgF{sub 2} laser. The absorption line intensities are measured for five spectral lines of the Q-branch of the 0-0 vibrational band for the a{sup 1{Delta}}{sub g} {yields} b{sup 1{Sigma}}{sub g}{sup +} transition. The O{sub 2} (b{sup 1{Sigma}}{sub g}{sup +} {yields} a{sup 1{Delta}}{sub g}) transition probability calculated from these data was (1.20 {+-} 0.25) x 10{sup -3} s{sup -1}. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)
Conceptual Modeling via Logic Programming
1990-01-01
31 2.7 Approaches Other Than Logic Programming ............................. 33 2.7.1 L isp...Development Environment Needs ................................ 84 5.1.4 Alternative Logic Programming Implementation Approaches ......... 85 5.1.5 User... APPROACH and logic programming techniques. Section 2 The CMLP project consisted of three describes the task outputs. interrelated investi ations: 3
Conditional Logic and Primary Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ennis, Robert H.
Conditional logic, as interpreted in this paper, means deductive logic characterized by "if-then" statements. This study sought to investigate the knowledge of conditional logic possessed by primary children and to test their readiness to learn such concepts. Ninety students were designated the experimental group and participated in a…
Pascal, Robert; Pross, Addy
2016-11-01
In this paper we propose a logical connection between the physical and biological worlds, one resting on a broader understanding of the stability concept. We propose that stability manifests two facets - time and energy, and that stability's time facet, expressed as persistence, is more general than its energy facet. That insight leads to the logical formulation of the Persistence Principle, which describes the general direction of material change in the universe, and which can be stated most simply as: nature seeks persistent forms. Significantly, the principle is found to express itself in two mathematically distinct ways: in the replicative world through Malthusian exponential growth, and in the 'regular' physical/chemical world through Boltzmann's probabilistic considerations. By encompassing both 'regular' and replicative worlds, the principle appears to be able to help reconcile two of the major scientific theories of the 19th century - the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Darwin's theory of evolution - within a single conceptual framework.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pascal, Robert; Pross, Addy
2016-11-01
In this paper we propose a logical connection between the physical and biological worlds, one resting on a broader understanding of the stability concept. We propose that stability manifests two facets - time and energy, and that stability's time facet, expressed as persistence, is more general than its energy facet. That insight leads to the logical formulation of the Persistence Principle, which describes the general direction of material change in the universe, and which can be stated most simply as: nature seeks persistent forms. Significantly, the principle is found to express itself in two mathematically distinct ways: in the replicative world through Malthusian exponential growth, and in the `regular' physical/chemical world through Boltzmann's probabilistic considerations. By encompassing both `regular' and replicative worlds, the principle appears to be able to help reconcile two of the major scientific theories of the 19th century - the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Darwin's theory of evolution - within a single conceptual framework.
Programmable Logic Application Notes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, Richard
1998-01-01
This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, and some total dose results.
Programmable Logic Application Notes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, Richard
1998-01-01
This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, heavy ion test results, and some total dose results.
Flexible programmable logic module
Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.
2001-01-01
The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.
Substructural Logical Specifications
2012-11-14
a more natural correspondence with our physical intuitions about consumable resources. Linear conjunction A ⊗ B (“A tensor B”) represents the...sketch a radically different, vaguely Feynman - diagram-inspired, way of presenting traces in Figure 4.14. Resources are the edges in the DAG and steps or...70th Birthday, volume 17 of Studies in Logic. College Publications, 2008. 3.3.3, 4.1.2, 4.7.3 [Pfe12a] Frank Pfenning. Lecture notes on backtracking
Programmable Logic Application Notes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, Richard
1999-01-01
This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter the focus is on some experimental data on low voltage drop out regulators to support mixed 5 and 3.3 volt systems. A discussion of the Small Explorer WIRE spacecraft will also be given. Lastly, we show take a first look at robust state machines in Hardware Description Languages (VHDL) and their use in critical systems. If you have information that you would like to submit or an area you would like discussed or researched, please give me a call or e-mail.
Adaptive parallel logic networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martinez, Tony R.; Vidal, Jacques J.
1988-01-01
Adaptive, self-organizing concurrent systems (ASOCS) that combine self-organization with massive parallelism for such applications as adaptive logic devices, robotics, process control, and system malfunction management, are presently discussed. In ASOCS, an adaptive network composed of many simple computing elements operating in combinational and asynchronous fashion is used and problems are specified by presenting if-then rules to the system in the form of Boolean conjunctions. During data processing, which is a different operational phase from adaptation, the network acts as a parallel hardware circuit.
O{sub 2}(X{sup 3}Σ{sub g}{sup −}) and O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}Δ{sub g}) charge exchange with simple ions
Ziółkowski, Marcin; Schatz, George C.; Viggiano, A. A.; Midey, Anthony; Dotan, Itzhak
2014-06-07
We present theory and experiments which describe charge transfer from the X{sup 3}Σ{sub g}{sup −} and a{sup 1}Δ{sub g} states of molecular oxygen and atomic and molecular cations. Included in this work are new experimental results for O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}Δ{sub g}) and the cations O{sup +}, CO{sup +}, Ar{sup +}, and N{sub 2}{sup +}, and new theory based on complete active space self-consistent field method calculations and an extended Langevin model to calculate rate constants for ground and excited O{sub 2} reacting with the atomic ions Ar{sup +}, Kr{sup +}, Xe{sup +}, Cl{sup +}, and Br{sup +}. The T-shaped orientation of the (X − O{sub 2}){sup +} potential surface is used for the calculations, including all the low lying states up to the second singlet state of the oxygen molecule b{sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +}. The calculated rate constants for both O{sub 2}(X{sup 3}Σ{sub g}{sup −}) and O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}Δ{sub g}) show consistent trends with the experimental results, with a significant dependence of rate constant on charge transfer exothermicity that does not depend strongly on the nature of the cation. The comparisons with theory show that partners with exothermicities of about 1 eV have stronger interactions with O{sub 2}, leading to larger Langevin radii, and also that more of the electronic states are attractive rather than repulsive, leading to larger rate constants. Rate constants for charge transfer involving O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}Δ{sub g}) are similar to those for O{sub 2}(X{sup 3}Σ{sub g}{sup −}) for a given exothermicity ignoring the electronic excitation of the O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}Δ{sub g}) state. This means (and the electronic structure calculations support) that the ground and excited states of O{sub 2} have about the same attractive interactions with ions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canaris, J.
1991-01-01
A new logic family, which is immune to single event upsets, is described. Members of the logic family are capable of recovery, regardless of the shape of the upsetting event. Glitch propagation from an upset node is also blocked. Logic diagrams for an Inverter, Nor, Nand, and Complex Gates are provided. The logic family can be implemented in a standard, commercial CMOS process with no additional masks. DC, transient, static power, upset recovery and layout characteristics of the new family, based on a commercial 1 micron CMOS N-Well process, are described.
Fuzzy logic and coarse coding using programmable logic devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brooks, Geoffrey
2009-05-01
Naturally-occurring sensory signal processing algorithms, such as those that inspired fuzzy-logic control, can be integrated into non-naturally-occurring high-performance technology, such as programmable logic devices, to realize novel bio-inspired designs. Research is underway concerning an investigation into using field programmable logic devices (FPLD's) to implement fuzzy logic sensory processing. A discussion is provided concerning the commonality between bio-inspired fuzzy logic algorithms and coarse coding that is prevalent in naturally-occurring sensory systems. Undergraduate design projects using fuzzy logic for an obstacle-avoidance robot has been accomplished at our institution and other places; numerous other successful fuzzy logic applications can be found as well. The long-term goal is to leverage such biomimetic algorithms for future applications. This paper outlines a design approach for implementing fuzzy-logic algorithms into reconfigurable computing devices. This paper is presented in an effort to connect with others who may be interested in collaboration as well as to establish a starting point for future research.
Parsing with logical variables (logic-based programming systems)
Finin, T.W.; Stone Palmer, M.
1983-01-01
Logic based programming systems have enjoyed an increasing popularity in applied AI work in the last few years. One of the contributions to computational linguistics made by the logic programming paradigm has been the definite clause grammar. In comparing DCGS with previous parsing mechanisms such as ATNS, certain clear advantages are seen. The authors feel that the most important of these advantages are due to the use of logical variables with unification as the fundamental operation on them. To illustrate the power of the logical variable, they have implemented an experimental atn system which treats atn registers as logical variables and provides a unification operation over them. They aim to simultaneously encourage the use of the powerful mechanisms available in DCGS and demonstrate that some of these techniques can be captured without reference to a resolution theorem prover. 14 references.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2005-01-01
A new all-electronic Particle Image Velocimetry technique that can efficiently map high speed gas flows has been developed in-house at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Particle Image Velocimetry is an optical technique for measuring the instantaneous two component velocity field across a planar region of a seeded flow field. A pulsed laser light sheet is used to illuminate the seed particles entrained in the flow field at two instances in time. One or more charged coupled device (CCD) cameras can be used to record the instantaneous positions of particles. Using the time between light sheet pulses and determining either the individual particle displacements or the average displacement of particles over a small subregion of the recorded image enables the calculation of the fluid velocity. Fuzzy logic minimizes the required operator intervention in identifying particles and computing velocity. Using two cameras that have the same view of the illumination plane yields two single exposure image frames. Two competing techniques that yield unambiguous velocity vector direction information have been widely used for reducing the single-exposure, multiple image frame data: (1) cross-correlation and (2) particle tracking. Correlation techniques yield averaged velocity estimates over subregions of the flow, whereas particle tracking techniques give individual particle velocity estimates. For the correlation technique, the correlation peak corresponding to the average displacement of particles across the subregion must be identified. Noise on the images and particle dropout result in misidentification of the true correlation peak. The subsequent velocity vector maps contain spurious vectors where the displacement peaks have been improperly identified. Typically these spurious vectors are replaced by a weighted average of the neighboring vectors, thereby decreasing the independence of the measurements. In this work, fuzzy logic techniques are used to determine the true
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper presents the Logical Process Calculus (LPC), a formalism that supports heterogeneous system specifications containing both operational and declarative subspecifications. Syntactically, LPC extends Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems with operators from the alternation-free linear-time mu-calculus (LT(mu)). Semantically, LPC is equipped with a behavioral preorder that generalizes Hennessy's and DeNicola's must-testing preorder as well as LT(mu's) satisfaction relation, while being compositional for all LPC operators. From a technical point of view, the new calculus is distinguished by the inclusion of: (1) both minimal and maximal fixed-point operators and (2) an unimple-mentability predicate on process terms, which tags inconsistent specifications. The utility of LPC is demonstrated by means of an example highlighting the benefits of heterogeneous system specification.
Borresen, Jon; Lynch, Stephen
2012-01-01
In the 1940s, the first generation of modern computers used vacuum tube oscillators as their principle components, however, with the development of the transistor, such oscillator based computers quickly became obsolete. As the demand for faster and lower power computers continues, transistors are themselves approaching their theoretical limit and emerging technologies must eventually supersede them. With the development of optical oscillators and Josephson junction technology, we are again presented with the possibility of using oscillators as the basic components of computers, and it is possible that the next generation of computers will be composed almost entirely of oscillatory devices. Here, we demonstrate how coupled threshold oscillators may be used to perform binary logic in a manner entirely consistent with modern computer architectures. We describe a variety of computational circuitry and demonstrate working oscillator models of both computation and memory. PMID:23173034
Logic, reasoning, and verbal behavior
Terrell, Dudley J.; Johnston, J. M.
1989-01-01
This paper analyzes the traditional concepts of logic and reasoning from the perspective of radical behaviorism and in the terms of Skinner's treatment of verbal behavior. The topics covered in this analysis include the proposition, premises and conclusions, logicality and rules, and deductive and inductive reasoning. PMID:22478015
Simulated Laboratory in Digital Logic.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cleaver, Thomas G.
Design of computer circuits used to be a pencil and paper task followed by laboratory tests, but logic circuit design can now be done in half the time as the engineer accesses a program which simulates the behavior of real digital circuits, and does all the wiring and testing on his computer screen. A simulated laboratory in digital logic has been…
Zapatrin, R.R.
1992-02-01
Given a finite ortholattice L, the *-semigroup is explicitly built whose annihilator ortholattice is isomorphic to L. Thus, it is shown that any finite quantum logic is the additive part of a binary logic. Some areas of possible applications are outlined. 7 refs.
Programmable Logic Controllers. Teacher Edition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rauh, Bob; Kaltwasser, Stan
These materials were developed for a seven-unit secondary or postsecondary education course on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) that treats most of the skills needed to work effectively with PLCs as programming skills. The seven units of the course cover the following topics: fundamentals of programmable logic controllers; contracts, timers,…
Logic and the National Curriculum.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nelson, David
2000-01-01
Reviews the historic relationship between logic and the mathematics curriculum. Proposes a list of logical elements for modern school mathematics. Checks the current national curriculum against this list and finds it to be deficient, especially in relation to the development of ideas of proof. Presents arguments for reform. (Contains 29…
Weighted Automata and Weighted Logics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Droste, Manfred; Gastin, Paul
In automata theory, a fundamental result of Büchi and Elgot states that the recognizable languages are precisely the ones definable by sentences of monadic second order logic. We will present a generalization of this result to the context of weighted automata. We develop syntax and semantics of a quantitative logic; like the behaviors of weighted automata, the semantics of sentences of our logic are formal power series describing ‘how often’ the sentence is true for a given word. Our main result shows that if the weights are taken in an arbitrary semiring, then the behaviors of weighted automata are precisely the series definable by sentences of our quantitative logic. We achieve a similar characterization for weighted Büchi automata acting on infinite words, if the underlying semiring satisfies suitable completeness assumptions. Moreover, if the semiring is additively locally finite or locally finite, then natural extensions of our weighted logic still have the same expressive power as weighted automata.
Power optimization in logic isomers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panwar, Ramesh; Rennels, David; Alkalaj, Leon
1993-01-01
Logic isomers are labeled, 2-isomorphic graphs that implement the same logic function. Logic isomers may have significantly different power requirements even though they have the same number of transistors in the implementation. The power requirements of the isomers depend on the transition activity of the input signals. The power requirements of isomorphic graph isomers of n-input NAND and NOR gates are shown. Choosing the less power-consuming isomer instead of the others can yield significant power savings. Experimental results on a ripple-carry adder are presented to show that the implementation using the least power-consuming isomers requires approximately 10 percent less power than the implementation using the most power-consuming isomers. Simulations of other random logic designs also confirm that designs using less power-consuming isomers can reduce the logic power demand by approximately 10 percent as compared to designs using more power-consuming isomers.
Nucleic acid based logical systems.
Han, Da; Kang, Huaizhi; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Cuichen; Zhou, Cuisong; You, Mingxu; Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Xiaobing; Tan, Weihong
2014-05-12
Researchers increasingly visualize a significant role for artificial biochemical logical systems in biological engineering, much like digital logic circuits in electrical engineering. Those logical systems could be utilized as a type of servomechanism to control nanodevices in vitro, monitor chemical reactions in situ, or regulate gene expression in vivo. Nucleic acids (NA), as carriers of genetic information with well-regulated and predictable structures, are promising materials for the design and engineering of biochemical circuits. A number of logical devices based on nucleic acids (NA) have been designed to handle various processes for technological or biotechnological purposes. This article focuses on the most recent and important developments in NA-based logical devices and their evolution from in vitro, through cellular, even towards in vivo biological applications.
Computerized logic design of digital circuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gussow, S.; Oglesby, R.
1974-01-01
Procedure performs all work required for logic design of digital counters or sequential circuits and simplification of Boolean expressions. Program provides simple, accurate, and comprehensive logic design capability to users both experienced and totally inexperienced in logic design
Using LogicWorks to Teach Logic Design.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Spoerri, Peter
1988-01-01
Discusses a computer simulation to teach logic design using a Macintosh computer which allows circuits to be built piece by piece. Describes features of the simulation and presents several schematics drawn by the software. (MVL)
Kral, M J
1994-01-01
Although suicide is not viewed as a mental disorder per se, it is viewed by many if not most clinicians, researchers, and lay people as a real or natural symptom of depression. It is at least most typically seen as the unfortunate, severe, yet logical end result of a chain of negative self-appraisals, negative events, and hopelessness. Extending an approach articulated by the early French sociologist Gabriel Tarde, in this paper I argue that suicide is merely an idea, albeit a very bad one, having more in common with societal beliefs and norms regarding such things as divorce, abortion, sex, politics, consumer behavior, and fashion. I make a sharp contrast between perturbation and lethality, concepts central to Edwin S. Shneidman's theory of suicide. Evidence supportive of suicide as an idea is discussed based on what we are learning from the study of history and culture, and about contagion/cluster phenomena, media/communication, and choice of method. It is suggested that certain individuals are more vulnerable to incorporate the idea and act of suicide into their concepts of self, based on the same principles by which ideas are spread throughout society. Just as suicide impacts on society, so does society impact on suicide.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, David E.; Jonsson, Ari K.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
In recent years, Graphplan style reachability analysis and mutual exclusion reasoning have been used in many high performance planning systems. While numerous refinements and extensions have been developed, the basic plan graph structure and reasoning mechanisms used in these systems are tied to the very simple STRIPS model of action. In 1999, Smith and Weld generalized the Graphplan methods for reachability and mutex reasoning to allow actions to have differing durations. However, the representation of actions still has some severe limitations that prevent the use of these techniques for many real-world planning systems. In this paper, we 1) separate the logic of reachability from the particular representation and inference methods used in Graphplan, and 2) extend the notions of reachability and mutual exclusion to more general notions of time and action. As it turns out, the general rules for mutual exclusion reasoning take on a remarkably clean and simple form. However, practical instantiations of them turn out to be messy, and require that we make representation and reasoning choices.
Formalized Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bitbol, Michel
The task of a formal epistemology is defined. It appears that a formal epistemology must be a generalization of "logic" in the sense of Wittgenstein's Tractatus. The generalization is required because, whereas logic presupposes a strict relation between activity and language, this relation may be broken in some domains of experimental enquiry (e.g., in microscopic physics). However, a formal epistemology should also retain a major feature of Wittgenstein's "logic": It must not be a discourse about scientific knowledge, but rather a way of making manifest the structures usually implicit in knowledge-gaining activity. This strategy is applied to the formalism of quantum mechanics.
Digital logic testing and testability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debany, Warren H., Jr.
1991-02-01
Electronic hardware is subject to defects that are introduced at the time of manufacture and failures that occur in the field. Because of the complexity of digital logic circuits, they are difficult to test. This report provides an overview of digital logic testing. It provides access to the literature and unifies terminology and concepts that have evolved in this field. It discusses the types and causes of failures in digital logic. This report presents the topics of logic and fault simulation, fault grading, test generation algorithms, and fault isolation. The discussion of testability measurement is useful for understanding testability requirements and analysis techniques. Design-for-testability and built in test techniques are presented.
Knowledge representation in fuzzy logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zadeh, Lotfi A.
1989-01-01
The author presents a summary of the basic concepts and techniques underlying the application of fuzzy logic to knowledge representation. He then describes a number of examples relating to its use as a computational system for dealing with uncertainty and imprecision in the context of knowledge, meaning, and inference. It is noted that one of the basic aims of fuzzy logic is to provide a computational framework for knowledge representation and inference in an environment of uncertainty and imprecision. In such environments, fuzzy logic is effective when the solutions need not be precise and/or it is acceptable for a conclusion to have a dispositional rather than categorical validity. The importance of fuzzy logic derives from the fact that there are many real-world applications which fit these conditions, especially in the realm of knowledge-based systems for decision-making and control.
Emerging Standards for Medical Logic
Clayton, Paul D.; Hripcsak, George; Pryor, T. Allan
1990-01-01
Sharing medical logic has traditionally occurred in the form of lectures, conversations, books and journals. As knowledge based computer systems have demonstrated their utility in the health care arena, individuals have pondered the best way to transfer knowledge in a computer based representation (1). A simple representation which allows the knowledge to be shared can be constructed when the knowledge base is modular. Within this representation, units have been named Medical Logic Modules (MLM's) and a syntax has emerged which would allow multiple users to create, criticize, and share those types of medical logic which can be represented in this format. In this paper we talk about why standards exist and why they emerge in some areas and not in others. The appropriateness of using the proposed standards for medical logic modules is then examined against this broader context.
Logic, Probability, and Human Reasoning
2015-01-01
logics developed in artificial intelligence, which allow conclusions to be withdrawn [38–42]. Second, conditional assertions (e.g., ‘If she insulted him...N. (2014) Probabilistic single function dual process theory and logic programming as approaches to non- monotonicity in human vs artificial reasoning...How can we solve this crisis? Leibniz dreamed of a calculus that settles any argument. Can cognitive scientists devise such a system? Feature
Heat exchanger expert system logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cormier, R.
1988-01-01
The reduction is described of the operation and fault diagnostics of a Deep Space Network heat exchanger to a rule base by the application of propositional calculus to a set of logic statements. The value of this approach lies in the ease of converting the logic and subsequently implementing it on a computer as an expert system. The rule base was written in Process Intelligent Control software.
Optically controllable molecular logic circuits
Nishimura, Takahiro Fujii, Ryo; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun
2015-07-06
Molecular logic circuits represent a promising technology for observation and manipulation of biological systems at the molecular level. However, the implementation of molecular logic circuits for temporal and programmable operation remains challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate an optically controllable logic circuit that uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for signaling. The FRET-based signaling process is modulated by both molecular and optical inputs. Based on the distance dependence of FRET, the FRET pathways required to execute molecular logic operations are formed on a DNA nanostructure as a circuit based on its molecular inputs. In addition, the FRET pathways on the DNA nanostructure are controlled optically, using photoswitching fluorescent molecules to instruct the execution of the desired operation and the related timings. The behavior of the circuit can thus be controlled using external optical signals. As an example, a molecular logic circuit capable of executing two different logic operations was studied. The circuit contains functional DNAs and a DNA scaffold to construct two FRET routes for executing Input 1 AND Input 2 and Input 1 AND NOT Input 3 operations on molecular inputs. The circuit produced the correct outputs with all possible combinations of the inputs by following the light signals. Moreover, the operation execution timings were controlled based on light irradiation and the circuit responded to time-dependent inputs. The experimental results demonstrate that the circuit changes the output for the required operations following the input of temporal light signals.
Tribotronic Logic Circuits and Basic Operations.
Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Li Min; Tang, Wei; Han, Chang Bao; Wang, Zhong Lin
2015-06-17
A tribotronic logic device is fabricated to convert external mechanical stimuli into logic level signals, and tribotronic logic circuits such as NOT, AND, OR, NAND, NOR, XOR, and XNOR gates are demonstrated for performing mechanical-electrical coupled tribotronic logic operations, which realize the direct interaction between the external environment and the current silicon integrated circuits.
Logic, probability, and human reasoning.
Johnson-Laird, P N; Khemlani, Sangeet S; Goodwin, Geoffrey P
2015-04-01
This review addresses the long-standing puzzle of how logic and probability fit together in human reasoning. Many cognitive scientists argue that conventional logic cannot underlie deductions, because it never requires valid conclusions to be withdrawn - not even if they are false; it treats conditional assertions implausibly; and it yields many vapid, although valid, conclusions. A new paradigm of probability logic allows conclusions to be withdrawn and treats conditionals more plausibly, although it does not address the problem of vapidity. The theory of mental models solves all of these problems. It explains how people reason about probabilities and postulates that the machinery for reasoning is itself probabilistic. Recent investigations accordingly suggest a way to integrate probability and deduction.
Fuzzy logic particle tracking velocimetry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wernet, Mark P.
1993-01-01
Fuzzy logic has proven to be a simple and robust method for process control. Instead of requiring a complex model of the system, a user defined rule base is used to control the process. In this paper the principles of fuzzy logic control are applied to Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). Two frames of digitally recorded, single exposure particle imagery are used as input. The fuzzy processor uses the local particle displacement information to determine the correct particle tracks. Fuzzy PTV is an improvement over traditional PTV techniques which typically require a sequence (greater than 2) of image frames for accurately tracking particles. The fuzzy processor executes in software on a PC without the use of specialized array or fuzzy logic processors. A pair of sample input images with roughly 300 particle images each, results in more than 200 velocity vectors in under 8 seconds of processing time.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ruspini, Enrique H.
1991-01-01
Summarized here are the results of recent research on the conceptual foundations of fuzzy logic. The focus is primarily on the principle characteristics of a model that quantifies resemblance between possible worlds by means of a similarity function that assigns a number between 0 and 1 to every pair of possible worlds. Introduction of such a function permits one to interpret the major constructs and methods of fuzzy logic: conditional and unconditional possibility and necessity distributions and the generalized modus ponens of Zadeh on the basis of related metric relationships between subsets of possible worlds.
Logic programming and metadata specifications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.; Saacks, Marguerite E.
1992-01-01
Artificial intelligence (AI) ideas and techniques are critical to the development of intelligent information systems that will be used to collect, manipulate, and retrieve the vast amounts of space data produced by 'Missions to Planet Earth.' Natural language processing, inference, and expert systems are at the core of this space application of AI. This paper presents logic programming as an AI tool that can support inference (the ability to draw conclusions from a set of complicated and interrelated facts). It reports on the use of logic programming in the study of metadata specifications for a small problem domain of airborne sensors, and the dataset characteristics and pointers that are needed for data access.
Superconducting gates with fluxon logics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nacak, H.; Kusmartsev, F. V.
2010-10-01
We have developed several logic gates (OR, XOR, AND and NAND) made of superconducting Josephson junctions. The gates based of the flux cloning phenomenon and high speed of fluxons moving in Josephson junctions of different shapes. In a contrast with previous design the gates operates extremely fast since fluxons are moving with the speed close to the speed of light. We have demonstrated their operations and indicated several ways to made a more complicated logic elements which have at the same time a compact form.
Dynamic Logic Assigned to Automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chajda, Ivan; Paseka, Jan
2017-02-01
A dynamic logic B can be assigned to every automaton [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] without regard if [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] is deterministic or nondeterministic. This logic enables us to formulate observations on [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] in the form of composed propositions and, due to a transition functor T, it captures the dynamic behaviour of [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.]. There are formulated conditions under which the automaton [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] can be recovered by means of B and T.
A Logical Approach to Entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Abhishek
2016-10-01
In this paper we innovate a logical approach to develop an intuition regarding the phenomenon of quantum entanglement. In the vein of the logic introduced we substantiate that particles that were entangled in the past will be entangled in perpetuity and thereby abide a rule that restricts them to act otherwise. We also introduce a game and by virtue of the concept of Nash equilibrium we have been able to show that entangled particles will mutually correspond to an experiment that is performed on any one of the particle.
Guide on Logical Database Design.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fong, Elizabeth N.; And Others
This report discusses an iterative methodology for logical database design (LDD). The methodology includes four phases: local information-flow modeling, global information-flow modeling, conceptual schema design, and external schema modeling. These phases are intended to make maximum use of available information and user expertise, including the…
Mathematical Induction: Deductive Logic Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dogan, Hamide
2016-01-01
Many studies mentioned the deductive nature of Mathematical Induction (MI) proofs but almost all fell short in explaining its potential role in the formation of the misconceptions reported in the literature. This paper is the first of its kind looking at the misconceptions from the perspective of the abstract of the deductive logic from one's…
Gateways to Writing Logical Arguments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCann, Thomas M.
2010-01-01
Middle school and high school students have a conception of what the basic demands of logic are, and they draw on this understanding in anticipating certain demands of parents and teachers when the adolescents have to defend positions. At the same time, many adolescents struggle to "write" highly elaborated arguments. Teaching students lessons in…
Logical Empiricism, Politics, and Professionalism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edgar, Scott
2009-01-01
This paper considers George A. Reisch's account of the role of Cold War political forces in shaping the apolitical stance that came to dominate philosophy of science in the late 1940s and 1950s. It argues that at least as early as the 1930s, Logical Empiricists such as Rudolf Carnap already held that philosophy of science could not properly have…
Program Theory Evaluation: Logic Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, Francois
2011-01-01
Program theory evaluation, which has grown in use over the past 10 years, assesses whether a program is designed in such a way that it can achieve its intended outcomes. This article describes a particular type of program theory evaluation--logic analysis--that allows us to test the plausibility of a program's theory using scientific knowledge.…
Generic physical protection logic trees
Paulus, W.K.
1981-10-01
Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.
Logic synthesis from DDL description
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shiva, S. G.
1980-01-01
The implementation of DDLTRN and DDLSIM programs on SEL-2 computer system is reported. These programs were tested with DDL descriptions of various complexity. An algorithm to synthesize the combinational logic using the cells available in the standard IC cell library was formulated. The algorithm is implemented as a FORTRAN program and a description of the program is given.
Logic Programming and Knowledge Maintenance.
1987-08-13
the literature , and became convinced that many of the advantages of frames and semantic nets can be captured in logic programming systems by a...consists of: needs(john,money). married_to(john,mary). loves(john,mary). (mary is the dead victim in this thriller .) The victim’s sister sara consists of
Learning fuzzy logic control system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lung, Leung Kam
1994-01-01
The performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Control System (LFLCS), developed in this thesis, has been evaluated. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller (LFLC) learns to control the motor by learning the set of teaching values that are generated by a classical PI controller. It is assumed that the classical PI controller is tuned to minimize the error of a position control system of the D.C. motor. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller developed in this thesis is a multi-input single-output network. Training of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is implemented off-line. Upon completion of the training process (using Supervised Learning, and Unsupervised Learning), the LFLC replaces the classical PI controller. In this thesis, a closed loop position control system of a D.C. motor using the LFLC is implemented. The primary focus is on the learning capabilities of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller. The learning includes symbolic representation of the Input Linguistic Nodes set and Output Linguistic Notes set. In addition, we investigate the knowledge-based representation for the network. As part of the design process, we implement a digital computer simulation of the LFLCS. The computer simulation program is written in 'C' computer language, and it is implemented in DOS platform. The LFLCS, designed in this thesis, has been developed on a IBM compatible 486-DX2 66 computer. First, the performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is evaluated by comparing the angular shaft position of the D.C. motor controlled by a conventional PI controller and that controlled by the LFLC. Second, the symbolic representation of the LFLC and the knowledge-based representation for the network are investigated by observing the parameters of the Fuzzy Logic membership functions and the links at each layer of the LFLC. While there are some limitations of application with this approach, the result of the simulation shows that the LFLC is able to control the angular shaft position of the
SASIL. Sandia ATM SONET Interface Logic
Kitta, J P
1994-07-01
SASIL is used to program the EPLD`s (Erasable Programmable Logic Devices) and PAL`s (Programmable Array Logic) that make up a large percentage of the Sandia ATM SONET Interface (OC3 version) for the INTEL Paragon.
Quantum Logics of Idempotents of Unital Rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bikchentaev, Airat; Navara, Mirko; Yakushev, Rinat
2015-06-01
We introduce some new examples of quantum logics of idempotents in a ring. We continue the study of symmetric logics, i.e., collections of subsets generalizing Boolean algebras and closed under the symmetric difference.
Cybulski, S.M.; Kendall, R.A.; Chalasinski, G.; Severson, M.W.; Szczesniak, M.M.
1997-05-01
A potential energy surface for the Ar({sup 1}S)+O{sub 2}(X{sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup {minus}}) interaction is calculated using the supermolecular unrestricted Mo/ller{endash}Plesset (UMP) perturbation theory and analyzed via the perturbation theory of intermolecular forces. The global minimum occurs for the T-shaped geometry, around 6.7a{sub 0}. Our UMP4 estimate of the well depth of the global minimum is D{sub e}=117cm{sup {minus}1} and the related ground state dissociation energy obtained by diffusion Monte Carlo calculations is 88cm{sup {minus}1}. These values are expected to be accurate to within a few percent. The potential energy surface also reveals a local minimum for the collinear geometry at ca{approximately}7.6a{sub 0}. The well depth for the secondary minimum at the UMP4 level is estimated at D{sub e}=104cm{sup {minus}1}. The minima are separated by a barrier of 23cm{sup {minus}1}. The global minimum is determined by the minimum in the exchange repulsion in the direction perpendicular to the O{endash}O bond. The secondary, linear minimum is enhanced by a slight flattening of the electron density near the ends of the interoxygen axis. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Hagiwara, Yoko; Nishio, Hisahide; Kitoh, Yoshihiko; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Narita, Naoko; Wada, Hiroko; Yokoyama, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Hajime; Matsuo, Masafumi )
1994-01-01
The mutations in one-third of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients remain unknown, as they do not involve gross rearrangements of the dystrophin gene. The authors now report a defect in the splicing of precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA), resulting from a maternally inherited mutation of the dystrophin gene in a patient with Becker muscular dystrophy. This defect results from a G-to-T transversion at the terminal nucleotide of exon 13, within the 5[prime] splice site of intron 13, and causes complete skipping of exon 13 during processing of dystrophin pre-mRNA. The predicted polypeptide encoded by the aberrant mRNA is a truncated dystrophin lacking 40 amino acids from the amino-proximal end of the rod domain. This is the first report of an intraexon point mutation that completely inactivates a 5[prime] splice donor site in dystrophin pre-mRNA. Analysis of the genomic context of the G[sup [minus]1]-to-T mutation at the 5[prime] splice site supports the exon-definition model of pre-mRNA splicing and contributes to the understanding of splice-site selection. 48 refs., 5 figs.
Computerized logic design of digital circuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sussow, S.; Oglesby, R.
1973-01-01
This manual presents a computer program that performs all the work required for the logic design of digital counters or sequential circuits and the simplification of Boolean logic expressions. The program provides both the experienced and inexperienced logic designer with a comprehensive logic design capability. The manual contains Boolean simplification and sequential design theory, detailed instructions for use of the program, a large number of illustrative design examples, and complete program documentation.
An Introduction to Calculator Logic Systems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mitchell, Charles E.; Blume, Glendon W.
1980-01-01
Each of the hand-held calculator logic systems found on the market today is introduced, along with some of the advantages and disadvantages of each. The systems reviewed are: arithmetic logic, algebraic logic-no hierarchy, algebraic operating system, and reverse polish notation. (MP)
Logics of Business Education for Sustainability
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Andersson, Pernilla; Öhman, Johan
2016-01-01
This paper explores various kinds of logics of "business education for sustainability" and how these "logics" position the subject business person, based on eight teachers' reasoning of their own practices. The concept of logics developed within a discourse theoretical framework is employed to analyse the teachers' reasoning.…
Piaget's Logic of Meanings: Still Relevant Today
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wavering, Michael James
2011-01-01
In his last book, "Toward a Logic of Meanings" (Piaget & Garcia, 1991), Jean Piaget describes how thought can be categorized into a form of propositional logic, a logic of meanings. The intent of this article is to offer this analysis by Piaget as a means to understand the language and teaching of science. Using binary propositions, conjunctions,…
Applications of Logic Coverage Criteria and Logic Mutation to Software Testing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kaminski, Garrett K.
2011-01-01
Logic is an important component of software. Thus, software logic testing has enjoyed significant research over a period of decades, with renewed interest in the last several years. One approach to detecting logic faults is to create and execute tests that satisfy logic coverage criteria. Another approach to detecting faults is to perform mutation…
Fuzzy Versions of Epistemic and Deontic Logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gounder, Ramasamy S.; Esterline, Albert C.
1998-01-01
Epistemic and deontic logics are modal logics, respectively, of knowledge and of the normative concepts of obligation, permission, and prohibition. Epistemic logic is useful in formalizing systems of communicating processes and knowledge and belief in AI (Artificial Intelligence). Deontic logic is useful in computer science wherever we must distinguish between actual and ideal behavior, as in fault tolerance and database integrity constraints. We here discuss fuzzy versions of these logics. In the crisp versions, various axioms correspond to various properties of the structures used in defining the semantics of the logics. Thus, any axiomatic theory will be characterized not only by its axioms but also by the set of properties holding of the corresponding semantic structures. Fuzzy logic does not proceed with axiomatic systems, but fuzzy versions of the semantic properties exist and can be shown to correspond to some of the axioms for the crisp systems in special ways that support dependency networks among assertions in a modal domain. This in turn allows one to implement truth maintenance systems. For the technical development of epistemic logic, and for that of deontic logic. To our knowledge, we are the first to address fuzzy epistemic and fuzzy deontic logic explicitly and to consider the different systems and semantic properties available. We give the syntax and semantics of epistemic logic and discuss the correspondence between axioms of epistemic logic and properties of semantic structures. The same topics are covered for deontic logic. Fuzzy epistemic and fuzzy deontic logic discusses the relationship between axioms and semantic properties for these logics. Our results can be exploited in truth maintenance systems.
Nanowire NMOS Logic Inverter Characterization.
Hashim, Yasir
2016-06-01
This study is the first to demonstrate characteristics optimization of nanowire N-Channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor (NW-MOS) logic inverter. Noise margins and inflection voltage of transfer characteristics are used as limiting factors in this optimization. A computer-based model used to produce static characteristics of NW-NMOS logic inverter. In this research two circuit configuration of NW-NMOS inverter was studied, in first NW-NMOS circuit, the noise margin for (low input-high output) condition was very low. For second NMOS circuit gives excellent noise margins, and results indicate that optimization depends on applied voltage to the inverter. Increasing gate to source voltage with (2/1) nanowires ratio results better noise margins. Increasing of applied DC load transistor voltage tends to increasing in decreasing noise margins; decreasing this voltage will improve noise margins significantly.
The logic of medical diagnosis.
Stanley, Donald E; Campos, Daniel G
2013-01-01
Establishing diagnoses is a crucial aspect of medical practice. However, this process has received comparatively little logical and pedagogical attention when compared to statistical methods for evaluating evidence. This article investigates the logic of medical diagnosis in order to fill this void. It is organized in three parts: the first attempts to explain why more attention ought to be paid to diagnosis, at least as much as to evidence; the second calls attention to the method of diagnosis by abductive reasoning developed in the 19th century by Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914); and the third demonstrates the use and pervasiveness of abduction by any other name in clinical diagnosis. We examine six diagnostic strategies in common use that contain most, if not all, of Peirce's structure of inquiry in science.
An Embedded Reconfigurable Logic Module
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tucker, Jerry H.; Klenke, Robert H.; Shams, Qamar A. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
A Miniature Embedded Reconfigurable Computer and Logic (MERCAL) module has been developed and verified. MERCAL was designed to be a general-purpose, universal module that that can provide significant hardware and software resources to meet the requirements of many of today's complex embedded applications. This is accomplished in the MERCAL module by combining a sub credit card size PC in a DIMM form factor with a XILINX Spartan I1 FPGA. The PC has the ability to download program files to the FPGA to configure it for different hardware functions and to transfer data to and from the FPGA via the PC's ISA bus during run time. The MERCAL module combines, in a compact package, the computational power of a 133 MHz PC with up to 150,000 gate equivalents of digital logic that can be reconfigured by software. The general architecture and functionality of the MERCAL hardware and system software are described.
All-optical symmetric ternary logic gate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chattopadhyay, Tanay
2010-09-01
Symmetric ternary number (radix=3) has three logical states (1¯, 0, 1). It is very much useful in carry free arithmetical operation. Beside this, the logical operation using this type of number system is also effective in high speed computation and communication in multi-valued logic. In this literature all-optical circuits for three basic symmetrical ternary logical operations (inversion, MIN and MAX) are proposed and described. Numerical simulation verifies the theoretical model. In this present scheme the different ternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch has been used categorically in this manuscript.
Cosmic logic: a computational model
Vanchurin, Vitaly
2016-02-01
We initiate a formal study of logical inferences in context of the measure problem in cosmology or what we call cosmic logic. We describe a simple computational model of cosmic logic suitable for analysis of, for example, discretized cosmological systems. The construction is based on a particular model of computation, developed by Alan Turing, with cosmic observers (CO), cosmic measures (CM) and cosmic symmetries (CS) described by Turing machines. CO machines always start with a blank tape and CM machines take CO's Turing number (also known as description number or Gödel number) as input and output the corresponding probability. Similarly, CS machines take CO's Turing number as input, but output either one if the CO machines are in the same equivalence class or zero otherwise. We argue that CS machines are more fundamental than CM machines and, thus, should be used as building blocks in constructing CM machines. We prove the non-computability of a CS machine which discriminates between two classes of CO machines: mortal that halts in finite time and immortal that runs forever. In context of eternal inflation this result implies that it is impossible to construct CM machines to compute probabilities on the set of all CO machines using cut-off prescriptions. The cut-off measures can still be used if the set is reduced to include only machines which halt after a finite and predetermined number of steps.
The universal magnetic tunnel junction logic gates representing 16 binary Boolean logic operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Junwoo; Suh, Dong Ik; Park, Wanjun
2015-05-01
The novel devices are expected to shift the paradigm of a logic operation by their own nature, replacing the conventional devices. In this study, the nature of our fabricated magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) that responds to the two external inputs, magnetic field and voltage bias, demonstrated seven basic logic operations. The seven operations were obtained by the electric-field-assisted switching characteristics, where the surface magnetoelectric effect occurs due to a sufficiently thin free layer. The MTJ was transformed as a universal logic gate combined with three supplementary circuits: A multiplexer (MUX), a Wheatstone bridge, and a comparator. With these circuits, the universal logic gates demonstrated 16 binary Boolean logic operations in one logic stage. A possible further approach is parallel computations through a complimentary of MUX and comparator, capable of driving multiple logic gates. A reconfigurable property can also be realized when different logic operations are produced from different level of voltages applying to the same configuration of the logic gate.
Chen, Wang E-mail: okakent@okayama-u.ac.jp Kawaguchi, Kentarou E-mail: okakent@okayama-u.ac.jp Tang, Jian; Bernath, Peter F. E-mail: okakent@okayama-u.ac.jp
2016-02-14
Thirteen bands for the B{sup 1}Δ{sub g}–A{sup 1}Π{sub u} system and eleven bands for the B{sup ′1}Σ{sub g}{sup +}–A{sup 1}Π{sub u} system of C{sub 2} were identified in the Fourier transform infrared emission spectra of hydrocarbon discharges. The B{sup ′1}Σ{sub g}{sup +} v = 4 and the B{sup 1}Δ{sub g} v = 6, 7, and 8 vibrational levels involved in nine bands were studied for the first time. A direct global analysis with Dunham parameters was carried out satisfactorily for the B{sup 1}Δ{sub g}–A{sup 1}Π{sub u} system except for a small perturbation in the B{sup 1}Δ{sub g} v = 6 level. The calculated rovibrational term energies up to B{sup 1}Δ{sub g} v = 12 showed that the level crossing between the B{sup 1}Δ{sub g} and d{sup 3}Π{sub g} states is responsible for many of the prominent perturbations in the Swan system observed previously. Nineteen forbidden transitions of the B{sup 1}Δ{sub g}–a{sup 3}Π{sub u} transition were identified and the off-diagonal spin-orbit interaction constant A{sub dB} between d{sup 3}Π{sub g} and B{sup 1}Δ{sub g} was derived as 8.3(1) cm{sup −1}. For the B{sup ′1}Σ{sub g}{sup +}–A{sup 1}Π{sub u} system, only individual band analyses for each vibrational level in the B′{sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +} state could be done satisfactorily and Dunham parameters obtained from these effective parameters showed that the anharmonic vibrational constant ω{sub e}x{sub e} is anomalously small (nearly zero). Inspection of the RKR (Rydberg-Klein-Rees) potential curves for the B{sup ′1}Σ{sub g}{sup +} and X{sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +} states revealed that an avoided crossing or nearly avoided crossing may occur around 30 000 cm{sup −1}, which is responsible for the anomalous molecular constants in these two states.
Pan, Deng; Wei, Hong; Xu, Hongxing
2013-04-22
Optical interferometric logic gates in metal slot waveguide network are designed and investigated by electromagnetic simulations. The designed logic gates can realize all fundamental logic operations. A single Y-shaped junction can work as logic gate for four logic functions: AND, NOT, OR and XOR. By cascading two Y-shaped junctions, NAND, NOR and XNOR can be realized. The working principle is analyzed in detail. In the simulations, these gates show large intensity contrast for the Boolean logic states of the output. These results can be useful for future integrated optical computing.
Freedman, Michael H.
1998-01-01
We introduce “ultrafilter limits” into the classical Turing model of computation and develop a paradigm for interpreting the problem of distinguishing the class P from NP as a logical problem of decidability. We use P(NP) to denote decision problems which can be solved on a (nondeterministic) Turing machine in polynomial time. The concept is that in an appropriate limit it may be possible to prove that problems in P are still decidable, so a problem whose limit is undecidable would be established as lying outside of P. PMID:9419334
Minuteman Weapon System Test Set logic replacement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Royse, S. D.
In the late 1960s, the Minuteman Weapon System Test Set was constructed as a part of the Minuteman development program. The missile Reentry Vehicle is that portion of the Minuteman missile system which reenters the atmosphere with the nuclear warhead. The test set has the objective to test the electrical/electro-mechanical systems and components of the reentry vehicle at both the repair depot and missile maintenance squadron levels. With the recent advances in semiconductor technologies, the Diode Transistor Logic (DTL) technology used to implement the test set logic became obsolete. The present paper is concerned with efforts to develop a prototype replacement for the test set logic. Attention is given to the functions of the test set, the documentation of existing logic, and the prototype design approach, which involves the subdivision of the logic into three basic functional groups. The logic replacement is based on the utilization of a multiple microprocessor system.
Synthesizing Biomolecule-based Boolean Logic Gates
Miyamoto, Takafumi; Razavi, Shiva; DeRose, Robert; Inoue, Takanari
2012-01-01
One fascinating recent avenue of study in the field of synthetic biology is the creation of biomolecule-based computers. The main components of a computing device consist of an arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, memory, and the input and output devices. Boolean logic gates are at the core of the operational machinery of these parts, hence to make biocomputers a reality, biomolecular logic gates become a necessity. Indeed, with the advent of more sophisticated biological tools, both nucleic acid- and protein-based logic systems have been generated. These devices function in the context of either test tubes or living cells and yield highly specific outputs given a set of inputs. In this review, we discuss various types of biomolecular logic gates that have been synthesized, with particular emphasis on recent developments that promise increased complexity of logic gate circuitry, improved computational speed, and potential clinical applications. PMID:23526588
Electronic logic for enhanced switch reliability
Cooper, J.A.
1984-01-20
A logic circuit is used to enhance redundant switch reliability. Two or more switches are monitored for logical high or low output. The output for the logic circuit produces a redundant and fail-safe representation of the switch outputs. When both switch outputs are high, the output is high. Similarly, when both switch outputs are low, the logic circuit's output is low. When the output states of the two switches do not agree, the circuit resolves the conflict by memorizing the last output state which both switches were simultaneously in and produces the logical complement of this output state. Thus, the logic circuit of the present invention allows the redundant switches to be treated as if they were in parallel when the switches are open and as if they were in series when the switches are closed. A failsafe system having maximum reliability is thereby produced.
[Continuity and transformation of body logic].
Bolens, Guillemette
2003-01-01
This article is concerned with two distinct corporeal logics. In the first, corporeality is founded on joints, tendons, and mobility; in the second, the envelope and its apertures are considered primordial. The first logic is extant in very few works. Although these texts (e.g. The Iliad, Beowulf) clearly share the same, very specific, conception of the body, they belong to different histories. The corporeal logic of the 'jointed body' (corps articulaire) cannot, therefore, be appraised in terms of longue durée. The texts represent, instead, a moment of transition between the psychodynamics of orality and literacy. A problem correlated to this fact is that readers (ancient and modern) no longer think using the same logic as that pertaining to the jointed body. They tend to translate information regarding the logic of the jointed body into data meaningful in their own logic.
People Like Logical Truth: Testing the Intuitive Detection of Logical Value in Basic Propositions
2016-01-01
Recent studies on logical reasoning have suggested that people are intuitively aware of the logical validity of syllogisms or that they intuitively detect conflict between heuristic responses and logical norms via slight changes in their feelings. According to logical intuition studies, logically valid or heuristic logic no-conflict reasoning is fluently processed and induces positive feelings without conscious awareness. One criticism states that such effects of logicality disappear when confounding factors such as the content of syllogisms are controlled. The present study used abstract propositions and tested whether people intuitively detect logical value. Experiment 1 presented four logical propositions (conjunctive, biconditional, conditional, and material implications) regarding a target case and asked the participants to rate the extent to which they liked the statement. Experiment 2 tested the effects of matching bias, as well as intuitive logic, on the reasoners’ feelings by manipulating whether the antecedent or consequent (or both) of the conditional was affirmed or negated. The results showed that both logicality and matching bias affected the reasoners’ feelings, and people preferred logically true targets over logically false ones for all forms of propositions. These results suggest that people intuitively detect what is true from what is false during abstract reasoning. Additionally, a Bayesian mixed model meta-analysis of conditionals indicated that people’s intuitive interpretation of the conditional “if p then q” fits better with the conditional probability, q given p. PMID:28036402
Fuzzy Logic for Incidence Geometry.
Tserkovny, Alex
The paper presents a mathematical framework for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects in the context of Geography, in which all entities and their relationships are described by human language. These entities could be labelled by commonly used names of landmarks, water areas, and so forth. Unlike single points that are given in Cartesian coordinates, these geographic entities are extended in space and often loosely defined, but people easily perform spatial reasoning with extended geographic objects "as if they were points." Unfortunately, up to date, geographic information systems (GIS) miss the capability of geometric reasoning with extended objects. The aim of the paper is to present a mathematical apparatus for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects that is usable in GIS. In the paper we discuss the fuzzy logic (Aliev and Tserkovny, 2011) as a reasoning system for geometry of extended objects, as well as a basis for fuzzification of the axioms of incidence geometry. The same fuzzy logic was used for fuzzification of Euclid's first postulate. Fuzzy equivalence relation "extended lines sameness" is introduced. For its approximation we also utilize a fuzzy conditional inference, which is based on proposed fuzzy "degree of indiscernibility" and "discernibility measure" of extended points.
Logic circuits from zero forcing.
Burgarth, Daniel; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Hogben, Leslie; Severini, Simone; Young, Michael
We design logic circuits based on the notion of zero forcing on graphs; each gate of the circuits is a gadget in which zero forcing is performed. We show that such circuits can evaluate every monotone Boolean function. By using two vertices to encode each logical bit, we obtain universal computation. We also highlight a phenomenon of "back forcing" as a property of each function. Such a phenomenon occurs in a circuit when the input of gates which have been already used at a given time step is further modified by a computation actually performed at a later stage. Finally, we show that zero forcing can be also used to implement reversible computation. The model introduced here provides a potentially new tool in the analysis of Boolean functions, with particular attention to monotonicity. Moreover, in the light of applications of zero forcing in quantum mechanics, the link with Boolean functions may suggest a new directions in quantum control theory and in the study of engineered quantum spin systems. It is an open technical problem to verify whether there is a link between zero forcing and computation with contact circuits.
HDL to verification logic translator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.
1992-01-01
The increasingly higher number of transistors possible in VLSI circuits compounds the difficulty in insuring correct designs. As the number of possible test cases required to exhaustively simulate a circuit design explodes, a better method is required to confirm the absence of design faults. Formal verification methods provide a way to prove, using logic, that a circuit structure correctly implements its specification. Before verification is accepted by VLSI design engineers, the stand alone verification tools that are in use in the research community must be integrated with the CAD tools used by the designers. One problem facing the acceptance of formal verification into circuit design methodology is that the structural circuit descriptions used by the designers are not appropriate for verification work and those required for verification lack some of the features needed for design. We offer a solution to this dilemma: an automatic translation from the designers' HDL models into definitions for the higher-ordered logic (HOL) verification system. The translated definitions become the low level basis of circuit verification which in turn increases the designer's confidence in the correctness of higher level behavioral models.
Fuzzy logic based robotic controller
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Attia, F.; Upadhyaya, M.
1994-01-01
Existing Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) robotic controllers rely on an inverse kinematic model to convert user-specified cartesian trajectory coordinates to joint variables. These joints experience friction, stiction, and gear backlash effects. Due to lack of proper linearization of these effects, modern control theory based on state space methods cannot provide adequate control for robotic systems. In the presence of loads, the dynamic behavior of robotic systems is complex and nonlinear, especially where mathematical modeling is evaluated for real-time operators. Fuzzy Logic Control is a fast emerging alternative to conventional control systems in situations where it may not be feasible to formulate an analytical model of the complex system. Fuzzy logic techniques track a user-defined trajectory without having the host computer to explicitly solve the nonlinear inverse kinematic equations. The goal is to provide a rule-based approach, which is closer to human reasoning. The approach used expresses end-point error, location of manipulator joints, and proximity to obstacles as fuzzy variables. The resulting decisions are based upon linguistic and non-numerical information. This paper presents a solution to the conventional robot controller which is independent of computationally intensive kinematic equations. Computer simulation results of this approach as obtained from software implementation are also discussed.
Fuzzy Logic for Incidence Geometry
2016-01-01
The paper presents a mathematical framework for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects in the context of Geography, in which all entities and their relationships are described by human language. These entities could be labelled by commonly used names of landmarks, water areas, and so forth. Unlike single points that are given in Cartesian coordinates, these geographic entities are extended in space and often loosely defined, but people easily perform spatial reasoning with extended geographic objects “as if they were points.” Unfortunately, up to date, geographic information systems (GIS) miss the capability of geometric reasoning with extended objects. The aim of the paper is to present a mathematical apparatus for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects that is usable in GIS. In the paper we discuss the fuzzy logic (Aliev and Tserkovny, 2011) as a reasoning system for geometry of extended objects, as well as a basis for fuzzification of the axioms of incidence geometry. The same fuzzy logic was used for fuzzification of Euclid's first postulate. Fuzzy equivalence relation “extended lines sameness” is introduced. For its approximation we also utilize a fuzzy conditional inference, which is based on proposed fuzzy “degree of indiscernibility” and “discernibility measure” of extended points. PMID:27689133
Probabilistic and fuzzy logic in clinical diagnosis.
Licata, G
2007-06-01
In this study I have compared classic and fuzzy logic and their usefulness in clinical diagnosis. The theory of probability is often considered a device to protect the classical two-valued logic from the evidence of its inadequacy to understand and show the complexity of world [1]. This can be true, but it is not possible to discard the theory of probability. I will argue that the problems and the application fields of the theory of probability are very different from those of fuzzy logic. After the introduction on the theoretical bases of fuzzy approach to logic, I have reported some diagnostic argumentations employing fuzzy logic. The state of normality and the state of disease often fight their battle on scalar quantities of biological values and it is not hard to establish a correspondence between the biological values and the percent values of fuzzy logic. Accordingly, I have suggested some applications of fuzzy logic in clinical diagnosis and in particular I have utilised a fuzzy curve to recognise subjects with diabetes mellitus, renal failure and liver disease. The comparison between classic and fuzzy logic findings seems to indicate that fuzzy logic is more adequate to study the development of biological events. In fact, fuzzy logic is useful when we have a lot of pieces of information and when we dispose to scalar quantities. In conclusion, increasingly the development of technology offers new instruments to measure pathological parameters through scalar quantities, thus it is reasonable to think that in the future fuzzy logic will be employed more in clinical diagnosis.
Logical Empiricism, Politics, and Professionalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edgar, Scott
2009-02-01
This paper considers George A. Reisch’s account of the role of Cold War political forces in shaping the apolitical stance that came to dominate philosophy of science in the late 1940s and 1950s. It argues that at least as early as the 1930s, Logical Empiricists such as Rudolf Carnap already held that philosophy of science could not properly have political aims, and further suggests that political forces alone cannot explain this view’s rise to dominance during the Cold War, since political forces cannot explain why a philosophy of science with liberal democratic, anti-communist aims did not flourish. The paper then argues that if professionalization is understood in the right way, it might point toward an explanation of the apolitical stance of Cold War philosophy of science.
A Logic for Qualified Syllogisms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwartz, Daniel G.
In various works, L.A. Zadeh has introduced fuzzy quantifiers, fuzzy usuality modifiers, and fuzzy likelihood modifiers. This paper provides these notions with a unified semantics and uses this to define a formal logic capable of expressing and validating arguments such as 'Most birds can fly; Tweety is a bird; therefore, it is likely that Tweety can fly'. In effect, these are classical Aristotelean syllogisms that have been "qualified" through the use of fuzzy quantifiers. It is briefly outlined how these, together with some likelihood combination rules, can be used to address some well-known problems in the theory of nonmonotonic reasoning. The work is aimed at future applications in expert systems and robotics, including both hardware and software agents.
Towards bioelectronic logic (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meredith, Paul; Mostert, Bernard; Sheliakina, Margarita; Carrad, Damon J.; Micolich, Adam P.
2016-09-01
One of the critical tasks in realising a bioelectronic interface is the transduction of ion and electron signals at high fidelity, and with appropriate speed, bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio [1]. This is a challenging task considering ions and electrons (or holes) have drastically different physics. For example, even the lightest ions (protons) have mobilities much smaller than electrons in the best semiconductors, effective masses are quite different, and at the most basic level, ions are `classical' entities and electrons `quantum mechanical'. These considerations dictate materials and device strategies for bioelectronic interfaces alongside practical aspects such as integration and biocompatibility [2]. In my talk I will detail these `differences in physics' that are pertinent to the ion-electron transduction challenge. From this analysis, I will summarise the basic categories of device architecture that are possibilities for transducing elements and give recent examples of their realisation. Ultimately, transducing elements need to be combined to create `bioelectronic logic' capable of signal processing at the interface level. In this regard, I will extend the discussion past the single element concept, and discuss our recent progress in delivering all-solids-state logic circuits based upon transducing interfaces. [1] "Ion bipolar junction transistors", K. Tybrandt, K.C. Larsson, A. Richter-Dahlfors and M. Berggren, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci., 107, 9929 (2010). [2] "Electronic and optoelectronic materials and devices inspired by nature", P Meredith, C.J. Bettinger, M. Irimia-Vladu, A.B. Mostert and P.E. Schwenn, Reports on Progress in Physics, 76, 034501 (2013).
Calculator Logic Systems and Mathematical Understandings.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burrows, Enid R.
This monograph is aimed at helping the reader understand the built-in logic of various calculator operating systems. It is an outgrowth of workshop contacts with in-service and pre-service teachers of mathematics and is in response to their request for a book on the subject of calculator logic systems and calculator algorithms. The mathematical…
A Device for Logic Information Processing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levinskiy, L. S.; Vissonova, I. A.
Two essential components of the information-logic problem are: (1) choosing some known part of the total information block for parallel review of the entire block and (2) parallel logic processing of a sequence of codes. The described device fulfills these essential components thereby improving information processing and increasing the speed of…
The Logic of Creative and Critical Thinking.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paul, Richard
This paper explores the intimate connection between creative and critical thinking, by arguing that both are inseparable in everyday reasoning. The details of the relationship between creative and critical thinking are worked out in relation to the processes of: (1) thinking through the logic of things; (2) taking command of reasoning and logic;…
Logic in Educational Research and Policy Making.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Garlikov, Rick
2000-01-01
Analyzes S. Bauer's article on the use of achievement tests to judge school quality to demonstrate the importance of logic, philosophy (especially conceptual analysis), and insights based on anecdotal evidence for educational research and policy making. Emphasizes the place for logical reasoning and anecdotal evidence in the empirical enterprise…
Logic Design Pathology and Space Flight Electronics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, Richard B.; Barto, Rod L.; Erickson, Ken
1999-01-01
This paper presents a look at logic design from early in the US Space Program and examines faults in recent logic designs. Most examples are based on flight hardware failures and analysis of new tools and techniques. The paper is presented in viewgraph form.
Fuzzy Logic in Medicine and Bioinformatics
Torres, Angela; Nieto, Juan J.
2006-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to present a general view of the current applications of fuzzy logic in medicine and bioinformatics. We particularly review the medical literature using fuzzy logic. We then recall the geometrical interpretation of fuzzy sets as points in a fuzzy hypercube and present two concrete illustrations in medicine (drug addictions) and in bioinformatics (comparison of genomes). PMID:16883057
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jetli, Priyedarshi
Modern logic begins with Boole's The Mathematical Analysis of Logic when the algebra of logic was developed so that classical logic syllogisms were proven as algebraic equations and the turn from the logic of classes to propositional logic was suggested. The emergence was incomplete as Boole algebraised classical logic. Frege in Begriffsschrift replaced Aristotelian subject-predicate propositions by function and argument and displaced syllogisms with an axiomatic propositional calculus using conditionals, modus ponens and the law of substitution. Further Frege provided the breakthrough to lay down the groundwork for the development of quantified logic as well as the logic of relations. He achieved all of this through his innovative formal notations which have remained underrated. Frege hence completed the emergence of modern logic. Both Boole and Frege mathematised logic, but Frege's goal was to logicise mathematics. However the emergence of modern logic in Frege should be detached from his logicism.
Interpreting Quantum Logic as a Pragmatic Structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garola, Claudio
2017-02-01
Many scholars maintain that the language of quantum mechanics introduces a quantum notion of truth which is formalized by (standard, sharp) quantum logic and is incompatible with the classical (Tarskian) notion of truth. We show that quantum logic can be identified (up to an equivalence relation) with a fragment of a pragmatic language LGP of assertive formulas, that are justified or unjustified rather than trueor false. Quantum logic can then be interpreted as an algebraic structure that formalizes properties of the notion of empirical justification according to quantum mechanics rather than properties of a quantum notion of truth. This conclusion agrees with a general integrationist perspective that interprets nonstandard logics as theories of metalinguistic notions different from truth, thus avoiding incompatibility with classical notions and preserving the globality of logic.
Processing device with self-scrubbing logic
Wojahn, Christopher K.
2016-03-01
An apparatus includes a processing unit including a configuration memory and self-scrubber logic coupled to read the configuration memory to detect compromised data stored in the configuration memory. The apparatus also includes a watchdog unit external to the processing unit and coupled to the self-scrubber logic to detect a failure in the self-scrubber logic. The watchdog unit is coupled to the processing unit to selectively reset the processing unit in response to detecting the failure in the self-scrubber logic. The apparatus also includes an external memory external to the processing unit and coupled to send configuration data to the configuration memory in response to a data feed signal outputted by the self-scrubber logic.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levin-Rozalis, Miri
2010-01-01
Background: Two kinds of research logic prevail in scientific research: deductive research logic and inductive research logic. However, both fail in the field of evaluation, especially evaluation conducted in unfamiliar environments. Purpose: In this article I wish to suggest the application of a research logic--"abduction"--"the logic of…
Use of LOGIC to support lidar operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis-Lunde, Kimberley; Jugan, Laurie A.; Shoemaker, J. Todd
1999-10-01
The Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) and Planning Systems INcorporated are developing the Littoral Optics Geospatial Integrated Capability (LOGIC). LOGIC supports NAVOCEANO's directive to assess the impact of the environment on Fleet systems in areas of operational interest. LOGIC is based in the Geographic Information System (GIS) ARC/INFO and offers a method to view and manipulate optics and ancillary data to support emerging Fleet lidar systems. LOGIC serves as a processing (as required) and quality-checking mechanism for data entering NAVOCEANO's Data Warehouse and handles both remotely sensed and in-water data. LOGIC provides a link between these data and the GIS-based Graphical User Interface, allowing the user to select data manipulation routines and/or system support products. The results of individual modules are displayed via the GIS to provide such products as lidar system performance, laser penetration depth, and asset vulnerability from a lidar threat. LOGIC is being developed for integration into other NAVOCEANO programs, most notably for Comprehensive Environmental Assessment System, an established tool supporting sonar-based systems. The prototype for LOGIC was developed for the Yellow Sea, focusing on a diver visibility support product.
Earthquake Archaeology: a logical approach?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stewart, I. S.; Buck, V. A.
2001-12-01
Ancient earthquakes can leave their mark in the mythical and literary accounts of ancient peoples, the stratigraphy of their site histories, and the structural integrity of their constructions. Within this broad cross-disciplinary tramping ground, earthquake geologists have tended to focus on those aspects of the cultural record that are most familiar to them; the physical effects of seismic deformation on ancient constructions. One of the core difficulties with this 'earthquake archaeology' approach is that recent attempts to isolate structural criteria that are diagnostic or strongly suggestive of a seismic origin are undermined by the recognition that signs of ancient seismicity are generally indistinguishable from non-seismic mechanisms (poor construction, adverse geotechnical conditions). We illustrate the difficulties and inconsistencies in current proposed 'earthquake diagnostic' schemes by reference to two case studies of archaeoseismic damage in central Greece. The first concerns fallen columns at various Classical temple localities in mainland Greece (Nemea, Sounio, Olympia, Bassai) which, on the basis of observed structural criteria, are earthquake-induced but which are alternatively explained by archaeologists as the action of human disturbance. The second re-examines the almost type example of the Kyparissi site in the Atalanti region as a Classical stoa offset across a seismic surface fault, arguing instead for its deformation by ground instability. Finally, in highlighting the inherent ambiguity of archaeoseismic data, we consider the value of a logic-tree approach for quantifying and quantifying our uncertainities for seismic-hazard analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kapit, Eliot
Superconducting qubits are among the most promising platforms for building a quantum computer. However, individual qubit coherence times are not far past the scalability threshold for quantum error correction, meaning that millions of physical devices would be required to construct a useful quantum computer. Consequently, further increases in coherence time are very desirable. In this letter, we blueprint a simple circuit consisting of two transmon qubits and two additional lossy qubits or resonators, which is passively protected against all single qubit quantum error channels through a combination of continuous driving and engineered dissipation. Photon losses are rapidly corrected through two-photon drive fields implemented with driven SQUID couplings, and dephasing from random potential fluctuations is heavily suppressed by the drive fields used to implement the multi-qubit Hamiltonian. Comparing our theoretical model to published noise estimates from recent experiments on flux and transmon qubits, we find that logical state coherence could be improved by a factor of forty or more compared to the individual qubit T1 and T2 using this technique.
The Logic of Reflection: Samuel Taylor Coleridge's "treatise on Logic"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Land, Janet Sanders
Though others discuss Coleridge's interest in science, light imagery, the phenomenon of reflection, and his references to Newton and Opticks,^1 this is the first study to examine Coleridge's art in terms of optics, its developing theories, and the nature-of-light debate. This study examines Coleridge's early predilection for visions, illusions, and the supernatural and demonstrates that he gradually shifts from the supernatural to the scientific aspects of "visions" and "illusions," concentrating on causes of illusions and the effects of their deceptive qualities rather than their mystical features. By the 1820's, his preoccupation with illusions had become an interest in optics, fueled, no doubt, by the increasing controversy of the nature-of-light debate and the number of advances in optics resulting from the efforts of its opponents to prove their theories. Tracing the development of the debate, its escalation in the early nineteenth century, and the formation of Coleridge's opinion concerning key issues of the debate, I outline the evolution of Coleridge's theory of reflection and examine the exposition of that theory in his treatise, Logic (1981). Finally, I analyze the relationship between the advances in optics and Coleridge's concepts of thought and knowledge and his notion of the mind as an instrument of knowledge. These ideas in turn, altered his opinions concerning the validity of knowledge resulting from philosophic debate, scientific experiment, and poetic exploration. ftn^1John Beer, "Coleridge and Wordsworth on Reflection," The Wordsworth Circle 20 (1989): 20-29; Coleridge the Visionary. London: Chatto and Windus, 1959; and Coleridge's Poetic Intelligence. London: Macmillan, 1977 and M. H. Abrams Natural Supernaturalism: Tradition and Revolution in Romantic Literature. New York: Norton, 1971; and "Coleridge's 'A Light in Sound': Science, Metascience, and Poetic Imagination." The Correspondent Breeze: Essays on English Romanticism. Eds. M. H. Abrams
Magnetic logic using nanowires with perpendicular anisotropy.
Jaworowicz, J; Vernier, N; Ferré, J; Maziewski, A; Stanescu, D; Ravelosona, D; Jacqueline, A S; Chappert, C; Rodmacq, B; Diény, B
2009-05-27
In addition to a storage function through the magnetization of nanowires, domain wall propagation can be used to trigger magnetic logic functions. Here, we present a new way to realize a pure magnetic logic operation by using magnetic nanowires with perpendicular anisotropy. Emphasis is given on the generation of the logic function 'NOT' that is based on the dipolar interaction between two neighbouring magnetic wires, which favours the creation of a domain wall. This concept has been validated on several prototypes and the results fit well with the expectations.
Bilayer avalanche spin-diode logic
Friedman, Joseph S. Querlioz, Damien; Fadel, Eric R.; Wessels, Bruce W.; Sahakian, Alan V.
2015-11-15
A novel spintronic computing paradigm is proposed and analyzed in which InSb p-n bilayer avalanche spin-diodes are cascaded to efficiently perform complex logic operations. This spin-diode logic family uses control wires to generate magnetic fields that modulate the resistance of the spin-diodes, and currents through these devices control the resistance of cascaded devices. Electromagnetic simulations are performed to demonstrate the cascading mechanism, and guidelines are provided for the development of this innovative computing technology. This cascading scheme permits compact logic circuits with switching speeds determined by electromagnetic wave propagation rather than electron motion, enabling high-performance spintronic computing.
Software Safety Assurance of Programmable Logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berens, Kalynnda
2002-01-01
Programmable Logic (PLC, FPGA, ASIC) devices are hybrids - hardware devices that are designed and programmed like software. As such, they fall in an assurance gray area. Programmable Logic is usually tested and verified as hardware, and the software aspects are ignored, potentially leading to safety or mission success concerns. The objective of this proposal is to first determine where and how Programmable Logic (PL) is used within NASA and document the current methods of assurance. Once that is known, raise awareness of the PL software aspects within the NASA engineering community and provide guidance for the use and assurance of PL form a software perspective.
Coordination Logic for Repulsive Resolution Maneuvers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Dutle, Aaron M.
2016-01-01
This paper presents an algorithm for determining the direction an aircraft should maneuver in the event of a potential conflict with another aircraft. The algorithm is implicitly coordinated, meaning that with perfectly reliable computations and information, it will in- dependently provide directional information that is guaranteed to be coordinated without any additional information exchange or direct communication. The logic is inspired by the logic of TCAS II, the airborne system designed to reduce the risk of mid-air collisions between aircraft. TCAS II provides pilots with only vertical resolution advice, while the proposed algorithm, using a similar logic, provides implicitly coordinated vertical and horizontal directional advice.
Wei, Hua; Hu, Bo; Tang, Suming; Zhao, Guojie; Guan, Yifu
2016-01-01
Small molecule metabolites and their allosterically regulated repressors play an important role in many gene expression and metabolic disorder processes. These natural sensors, though valuable as good logic switches, have rarely been employed without transcription machinery in cells. Here, two pairs of repressors, which function in opposite ways, were cloned, purified and used to control DNA replication in rolling circle amplification (RCA) in vitro. By using metabolites and repressors as inputs, RCA signals as outputs, four basic logic modules were constructed successfully. To achieve various logic computations based on these basic modules, we designed series and parallel strategies of circular templates, which can further assemble these repressor modules in an RCA platform to realize twelve two-input Boolean logic gates and a three-input logic gate. The RCA-output and RCA-assembled platform was proved to be easy and flexible for complex logic processes and might have application potential in molecular computing and synthetic biology. PMID:27869177
Purification of Logic-Qubit Entanglement
Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo
2016-01-01
Recently, the logic-qubit entanglement shows its potential application in future quantum communication and quantum network. However, the entanglement will suffer from the noise and decoherence. In this paper, we will investigate the first entanglement purification protocol for logic-qubit entanglement. We show that both the bit-flip error and phase-flip error in logic-qubit entanglement can be well purified. Moreover, the bit-flip error in physical-qubit entanglement can be completely corrected. The phase-flip in physical-qubit entanglement error equals to the bit-flip error in logic-qubit entanglement, which can also be purified. This entanglement purification protocol may provide some potential applications in future quantum communication and quantum network. PMID:27377165
Detection of Floating Inputs in Logic Circuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cash, B.; Thornton, M. G.
1984-01-01
Simple modification of oscilloscope probe allows easy detection of floating inputs or tristate outputs in digital-IC's. Oscilloscope probe easily modified with 1/4 W resistor and switch for detecting floating inputs in CMOS logic circuits.
Using interval logic for order assembly
Cui, Z.
1994-12-31
Temporal logic, in particular, interval logic has been used to represent genome maps and to assist genome map constructions. However, interval logic itself appears to be limited in its expressive power because genome mapping requires various information such as partial order, distance and local orientation. In this paper, we first propose an integrated formalism based on a spatial-temporal logic where the concepts of metric information, local orientation and uncertainty are merged. Then, we present and discuss a deductive and object-oriented data model based on this formalism for a genetic deductive database, and the inference rules required. The formalism supports the maintenance of coarser knowledge of unordered, partially ordered and completely ordered genetic data in a relational hierarchy. We believe that this integrated formalism also provides a formal basis for designing a declarative query language.
Queuing register uses fluid logic elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1966-01-01
Queuing register /a multistage bit-shifting device/ uses a series of pure fluid elements to perform the required logic operations. The register has several stages of three-state pure fluid elements combined with two-input NOR gates.
Implementing neural nets with programmable logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vidal, Jacques J.
1988-01-01
Networks of Boolean programmable logic modules are presented as one purely digital class of artificial neural nets. The approach contrasts with the continuous analog framework usually suggested. Programmable logic networks are capable of handling many neural-net applications. They avoid some of the limitations of threshold logic networks and present distinct opportunities. The network nodes are called dynamically programmable logic modules. They can be implemented with digitally controlled demultiplexers. Each node performs a Boolean function of its inputs which can be dynamically assigned. The overall network is therefore a combinational circuit and its outputs are Boolean global functions of the network's input variables. The approach offers definite advantages for VLSI implementation, namely, a regular architecture with limited connectivity, simplicity of the control machinery, natural modularity, and the support of a mature technology.
Nursing and fuzzy logic: an integrative review.
Jensen, Rodrigo; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes
2011-01-01
This study conducted an integrative review investigating how fuzzy logic has been used in research with the participation of nurses. The article search was carried out in the CINAHL, EMBASE, SCOPUS, PubMed and Medline databases, with no limitation on time of publication. Articles written in Portuguese, English and Spanish with themes related to nursing and fuzzy logic with the authorship or participation of nurses were included. The final sample included 21 articles from eight countries. For the purpose of analysis, the articles were distributed into categories: theory, method and model. In nursing, fuzzy logic has significantly contributed to the understanding of subjects related to: imprecision or the need of an expert; as a research method; and in the development of models or decision support systems and hard technologies. The use of fuzzy logic in nursing has shown great potential and represents a vast field for research.
Hierarchical structure of the logical Internet graph
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Zihui; Figueiredo, Daniel R.; Jaiswal, Sharad; Gao, Lixin
2001-07-01
The study of the Internet topology has recently received much attention from the research community. In particular, the observation that the network graph has interesting properties, such as power laws, that might be explored in a myriad of ways. Most of the work in characterizing the Internet graph is based on the physical network graph, i.e., the connectivity graph. In this paper we investigate how logical relationships between nodes of the AS graph can be used to gain insight to its structure. We characterize the logical graph using various metrics and identify the presence of power laws in the number of customers that a provider has. Using these logical relationships we define a structural model of the AS graph. The model highlights the hierarchical nature of logical relationships and the preferential connection to larger providers. We also investigate the consistency of this model over time and observe interesting properties of the hierarchical structure.
Procedural and Logic Programming: A Comparison.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watkins, Will; And Others
1988-01-01
Examines the similarities and fundamental differences between procedural programing and logic programing by comparing LogoWriter and PROLOG. Suggests that PROLOG may be a good first programing language for students to learn. (MVL)
Pattern recognition using linguistic fuzzy logic predictors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Habiballa, Hashim
2016-06-01
The problem of pattern recognition has been solved with numerous methods in the Artificial Intelligence field. We present an unconventional method based on Lingustic Fuzzy Logic Forecaster which is primarily used for the task of time series analysis and prediction through logical deduction wtih linguistic variables. This method should be used not only to the time series prediction itself, but also for recognition of patterns in a signal with seasonal component.
Does logic moderate the fundamental attribution error?
Stalder, D R
2000-06-01
The fundamental attribution error was investigated from an individual difference perspective. Mathematicians were compared with nonmathematicians (Exp. 1; n: 84), and undergraduates who scored high on a test of logical reasoning ability were compared with those who scored low (Exp. 2; n: 62). The mathematicians and those participants scoring higher on logic appeared less prone to the fundamental attribution error, primarily using a measure of confidence in attributions.
Application of Fuzzy Logic to Matrix FMECA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shankar, N. Ravi; Prabhu, B. S.
2001-04-01
A methodology combining the benefits of Fuzzy Logic and Matrix FMEA is presented in this paper. The presented methodology extends the risk prioritization beyond the conventional Risk Priority Number (RPN) method. Fuzzy logic is used to calculate the criticality rank. Also the matrix approach is improved further to develop a pictorial representation retaining all relevant qualitative and quantitative information of several FMEA elements relationships. The methodology presented is demonstrated by application to an illustrative example.
Fault Analysis-based Logic Encryption (Preprint)
2013-11-01
work on logic encryption. Section 8 concludes the paper . 2. METRIC FOR LOGIC ENCRYPTION The defender (designer) has to prevent his IP from being...publication of this paper . This material is based on work fund- ed by AFRL under contract No. FA8750-11-2-0274. Received and cleared for public release by...USENIX Se- curity, pp. 291-306, 2007. [4] Defense Science Board (DSB) study on High Performance Microchip Supply. [Online]. http://www.aoq.osd.mil
Firmware Modification Analysis in Programmable Logic Controllers
2014-03-27
MODIFICATION ANALYSIS IN PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS Arturo M. Garcia Jr., B.S.S.E.C.A. Captain, USA Approved: //signed// Robert F. Mills , PhD...Matthew 5:37 v Acknowledgments My sincere gratitude to my committee for their guidance and teamwork which made this thesis possible. Dr. Mills ...2012. 2012. [5] Bolton, William. Programmable logic controllers. Newnes, 2009. [6] Boyer, Stuart . SCADA: Supervisory Control and Data Aquisition 4th
Simplified Quantum Logic with Trapped Ions
2016-06-23
PHYSICAL REVIEW A ATOMIC , MOLECULAR, AND OPTICAL PHYSICS THIRD SERIES, VOLUME 55, NUMBER 4 APRIL 1997Simplified quantum logic with trapped ions C...Received 17 December 1996! We describe a simplified scheme for quantum logic with a collection of laser-cooled trapped atomic ions. Building on the...in a system of laser-cooled trapped atomic ions. In the simplest form of the ion trap quantum computer, two internal electronic levels of each ion in
Synchronous universal droplet logic and control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katsikis, Georgios; Cybulski, James S.; Prakash, Manu
2015-07-01
Droplets are versatile digital materials; they can be produced at high throughput, perform chemical reactions as miniature beakers and carry biological entities. Droplets have been manipulated with electric, optical, acoustic and magnetic forces, but all these methods use serial controls to address individual droplets. An alternative is algorithmic manipulation based on logic operations that automatically compute where droplets are stored or directed, thereby enabling parallel control. However, logic previously implemented in low-Reynolds-number droplet hydrodynamics is asynchronous and thus prone to errors that prevent scaling up the complexity of logic operations. Here we present a platform for error-free physical computation via synchronous universal logic. Our platform uses a rotating magnetic field that enables parallel manipulation of arbitrary numbers of ferrofluid droplets on permalloy tracks. Through the coupling of magnetic and hydrodynamic interaction forces between droplets, we developed AND, OR, XOR, NOT and NAND logic gates, fanouts, a full adder, a flip-flop and a finite-state machine. Our platform enables large-scale integration of droplet logic, analogous to the scaling seen in digital electronics, and opens new avenues in mesoscale material processing.
Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore
2001-01-01
We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.
Noise-based logic: Binary, multi-valued, or fuzzy, with optional superposition of logic states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kish, Laszlo B.
2009-03-01
A new type of deterministic (non-probabilistic) computer logic system inspired by the stochasticity of brain signals is shown. The distinct values are represented by independent stochastic processes: independent voltage (or current) noises. The orthogonality of these processes provides a natural way to construct binary or multi-valued logic circuitry with arbitrary number N of logic values by using analog circuitry. Moreover, the logic values on a single wire can be made a (weighted) superposition of the N distinct logic values. Fuzzy logic is also naturally represented by a two-component superposition within the binary case ( N=2). Error propagation and accumulation are suppressed. Other relevant advantages are reduced energy dissipation and leakage current problems, and robustness against circuit noise and background noises such as 1/f, Johnson, shot and crosstalk noise. Variability problems are also non-existent because the logic value is an AC signal. A similar logic system can be built with orthogonal sinusoidal signals (different frequency or orthogonal phase) however that has an extra 1/N type slowdown compared to the noise-based logic system with increasing number of N furthermore it is less robust against time delay effects than the noise-based counterpart.
The Temporal Logic of the Tower Chief System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hazelton, Lyman R., Jr.
1990-01-01
The purpose is to describe the logic used in the reasoning scheme employed in the Tower Chief system, a runway configuration management system. First, a review of classical logic is given. Defensible logics, truth maintenance, default logic, temporally dependent propositions, and resource allocation and planning are discussed.
Nonmonotonic Logic for Use in Information Retrieval: An Exploratory Paper.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hurt, C. D.
1998-01-01
Monotonic logic requires reexamination of the entire logic string when there is a contradiction. Nonmonotonic logic allows the user to withdraw conclusions in the face of contradiction without harm to the logic string, which has considerable application to the field of information searching. Artificial intelligence models and neural networks based…
On symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logic of Proofs
Krupski, Vladimir N
2011-05-31
In this paper we define symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logics of Proofs. We prove the soundness and completeness of these logics with respect to the corresponding classes of symbolic models. We apply the semantic methods developed in this paper to justify the use of terms of single-conclusion logic of proofs as notation for derivations in this logic. Bibliography: 17 titles.
Advanced logic gates for ultrafast network interchanges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Islam, Mohammed N.
1995-08-01
By overcoming speed bottlenecks from electronic switching as well as optical/electronic conversions, all-optical logic gates can permit further exploitation of the nearly 40 THz of bandwidth available from optical fibers. We focus on the use of optical solitons and all-optical logic gates to implement ultrafast ``interchanges'' or switching nodes on packet networks with speeds of 100 Gbit/s or greater. For example, all-optical logic gates have been demonstrated with speeds up to 200 Gbit/s, and they may be used to decide whether to add or drop a data packet. The overall goal of our effort is to demonstrate the key enabling technologies and their combination for header processing in 100 Gbit/s, time-division-multiplexed, packed switched networks. Soliton-based fiber logic gates are studied with the goal of combining attractive features of soliton-dragging logic gates, nonlinear loop mirrors, and erbium-doped fiber amplifiers to design logic gates with optimum switching energy, contrast ratio, and timing sensitivity. First, the experimental and numerical work studies low-latency soliton logic gates based on frequency shifts associated with cross-phase modulation. In preliminary experiments, switching in 15 m long low-birefringent fibers has been demonstrated with a contrast ratio of 2.73:1. Using dispersion-shifted fiber in the gate should lower the switching energy and improve the contrast ratio. Next, the low-birefringent fiber can be cross-spliced and wrapped into a nonlinear optical loop mirror to take advantage of mechanisms from both soliton dragging and loop mirrors. The resulting device can have low switching energy and a timing window that results from a combination of soliton dragging and the loop mirror mechanisms.
The logical interpretation and the measurement problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vuletic, Mark I.
The measurement problem is one of the two key problems in the foundations of quantum mechanics, carrying with it the seeming implication that instead of the familiar definite states of affairs we think we experience, there typically should exist only phenomenologically ill-defined "superpositions" of such states of affairs. Dissatisfaction with this implication has led to the development of many wildly different interpretations of quantum mechanics, positing everything from pilot waves to splitting universes. A recent tradition of interpretation draws heavily upon decoherence and a "consistent histories" formalism to try to resolve the standard conceptual problems of quantum mechanics. Roland Omnes, one physicist in this tradition, argues that his own "logical interpretation" resolves every paradox and conceptual difficulty raised by quantum mechanics, except for what he calls the "objectification problem." Figuring out what relation the objectification problem has to the measurement problem, and, more generally, what the logical interpretation has to say about the measurement problem, turns out to be very difficult, even with the benefit of correspondence. In my dissertation, I have tried to narrow down the possibilities for what Omnes might have in mind with respect to the measurement problem, and considered whether any of these constitutes an advance over what came before. I conclude that there are two plausible possibilities: either (i) an overly aggressive pragmatic spirit has caused Omnes to fail to even realize that a critical part of the measurement problem exists, or (ii) the logical interpretation is best understood as offering a stochastic hidden factor interpretation, with complementarity operating at the level of the hidden factors, even though Omnes himself would resist describing the logical interpretation in this way. I also conclude that the logical interpretation, far from saving classical logic, actually undermines it. While this may not
Zhou, Ming; Du, Yan; Chen, Chaogui; Li, Bingling; Wen, Dan; Dong, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang
2010-02-24
This communication demonstrates for the first time the controlled power release of biofuel cells (BFCs) by aptamer logic systems processed according to the Boolean logic operations "programmed" into the biocomputing systems. On the basis of the built-in Boolean NAND logic, the fabricated aptamer-based BFCs logically controlled by biochemical signals enabled us to construct self-powered and intelligent logic aptasensors that can determine whether the two specific targets are both present in a sample.
A Logical Characterization of Systolic Languages
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monti, Angelo; Peron, Adriano
In this paper we study, in the framework of mathematical logic, ℒ(SBTA) i.e. the class of languages accepted by Systolic Binary Tree Automata. We set a correspondence (in the style of Büchi Theorem for regular languages) between ℒ(SBTA) and MSO[Sig], i.e. a decidable Monadic Second Order logic over a suitable infinite signature Sig. We also introduce a natural subclass of ℒ(SBTA) which still properly contains the class of regular languages and which is proved to be characterized by Monadic Second Order logic over a finite signature Sig' ⊂ Sig. Finally, in the style of McNaughton Theorem for star free regular languages, we introduce an expression language which precisely denotes the class of languages defined by the first order fragment of MSO[Sig'].
Logic models used to enhance critical thinking.
Ellermann, Caroline R; Kataoka-Yahiro, Merle R; Wong, Lorrie C
2006-06-01
Over time, various methods have been used to stimulate critical thinking in undergraduate nursing students, and although many have been successful in helping students integrate the essential knowledge, experiences, and clinical reasoning that support practice, it is also useful to explore new methods. Faculty at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, School of Nursing and Dental Hygiene have taken an innovative approach of using logic models to further enhance critical thinking. This article presents an application of varying experiences and methods of using logic models to support the development of critical thinking and reasoning skills in nursing students. The processes in which logic models are used in the curriculum are described. The models are used to connect concepts from concrete to abstract levels in diverse and often nonlinear diagrams, guided discourse, and written assignments. The specific instructional methods used include concept mapping, concept papers, conceptual linking, and substruction.
On Logic and Standards for Structuring Documents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eyers, David M.; Jones, Andrew J. I.; Kimbrough, Steven O.
The advent of XML has been widely seized upon as an opportunity to develop document representation standards that lend themselves to automated processing. This is a welcome development and much good has come of it. That said, present standardization efforts may be criticized on a number of counts. We explore two issues associated with document XML standardization efforts. We label them (i) the dynamic point and (ii) the logical point. Our dynamic point is that in many cases experience has shown that the search for a final, or even reasonably permanent, document representation standard is futile. The case is especially strong for electronic data interchange (EDI). Our logical point is that formalization into symbolic logic is materially helpful for understanding and designing dynamic document standards.
Robust fuzzy logic stabilization with disturbance elimination.
Danapalasingam, Kumeresan A
2014-01-01
A robust fuzzy logic controller is proposed for stabilization and disturbance rejection in nonlinear control systems of a particular type. The dynamic feedback controller is designed as a combination of a control law that compensates for nonlinear terms in a control system and a dynamic fuzzy logic controller that addresses unknown model uncertainties and an unmeasured disturbance. Since it is challenging to derive a highly accurate mathematical model, the proposed controller requires only nominal functions of a control system. In this paper, a mathematical derivation is carried out to prove that the controller is able to achieve asymptotic stability by processing state measurements. Robustness here refers to the ability of the controller to asymptotically steer the state vector towards the origin in the presence of model uncertainties and a disturbance input. Simulation results of the robust fuzzy logic controller application in a magnetic levitation system demonstrate the feasibility of the control design.
a Logical Account of Quantum Superpositions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krause, Décio Arenhart, Jonas R. Becker
In this paper we consider the phenomenon of superpositions in quantum mechanics and suggest a way to deal with the idea in a logical setting from a syntactical point of view, that is, as subsumed in the language of the formalism, and not semantically. We restrict the discussion to the propositional level only. Then, after presenting the motivations and a possible world semantics, the formalism is outlined and we also consider within this scheme the claim that superpositions may involve contradictions, as in the case of the Schrödinger's cat, which (it is usually said) is both alive and dead. We argue that this claim is a misreading of the quantum case. Finally, we sketch a new form of quantum logic that involves three kinds of negations and present the relationships among them. The paper is a first approach to the subject, introducing some main guidelines to be developed by a `syntactical' logical approach to quantum superpositions.
Robust Fuzzy Logic Stabilization with Disturbance Elimination
Danapalasingam, Kumeresan A.
2014-01-01
A robust fuzzy logic controller is proposed for stabilization and disturbance rejection in nonlinear control systems of a particular type. The dynamic feedback controller is designed as a combination of a control law that compensates for nonlinear terms in a control system and a dynamic fuzzy logic controller that addresses unknown model uncertainties and an unmeasured disturbance. Since it is challenging to derive a highly accurate mathematical model, the proposed controller requires only nominal functions of a control system. In this paper, a mathematical derivation is carried out to prove that the controller is able to achieve asymptotic stability by processing state measurements. Robustness here refers to the ability of the controller to asymptotically steer the state vector towards the origin in the presence of model uncertainties and a disturbance input. Simulation results of the robust fuzzy logic controller application in a magnetic levitation system demonstrate the feasibility of the control design. PMID:25177713
Fuzzy logic and neural network technologies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Villarreal, James A.; Lea, Robert N.; Savely, Robert T.
1992-01-01
Applications of fuzzy logic technologies in NASA projects are reviewed to examine their advantages in the development of neural networks for aerospace and commercial expert systems and control. Examples of fuzzy-logic applications include a 6-DOF spacecraft controller, collision-avoidance systems, and reinforcement-learning techniques. The commercial applications examined include a fuzzy autofocusing system, an air conditioning system, and an automobile transmission application. The practical use of fuzzy logic is set in the theoretical context of artificial neural systems (ANSs) to give the background for an overview of ANS research programs at NASA. The research and application programs include the Network Execution and Training Simulator and faster training algorithms such as the Difference Optimized Training Scheme. The networks are well suited for pattern-recognition applications such as predicting sunspots, controlling posture maintenance, and conducting adaptive diagnoses.
Fuzzy logic in autonomous orbital operations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lea, Robert N.; Jani, Yashvant
1991-01-01
Fuzzy logic can be used advantageously in autonomous orbital operations that require the capability of handling imprecise measurements from sensors. Several applications are underway to investigate fuzzy logic approaches and develop guidance and control algorithms for autonomous orbital operations. Translational as well as rotational control of a spacecraft have been demonstrated using space shuttle simulations. An approach to a camera tracking system has been developed to support proximity operations and traffic management around the Space Station Freedom. Pattern recognition and object identification algorithms currently under development will become part of this camera system at an appropriate level in the future. A concept to control environment and life support systems for large Lunar based crew quarters is also under development. Investigations in the area of reinforcement learning, utilizing neural networks, combined with a fuzzy logic controller, are planned as a joint project with the Ames Research Center.
Nanomechanical logic elements based on coupled nanopillars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, S. H.; Hong, S. J.; Rana, A. S.; Kim, H. S.
2014-10-01
We demonstrate the possibility of using coupled nanopillars as nanomechanical logic elements by regulating the flow of electric current between the nanopillars and the source and drain electrodes. The nanopillar, which is fabricated from a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer and is located between two facing electrodes, oscillates with frequencies in the radiofrequency range of 10 - 1000 MHz. Electrons are transported between the nanopillar and the electrodes via an island-like gold layer thermally deposited on the top of the nanopillar in response to externally applied ac and dc biases. Nanomechanical logic gates are designed using the coupled nanopillars and a switched-capacitor model. With this configuration, several logic gates, such as an inverter and NAND, NOR, and XOR gates, can be effectively implemented.
Logic Design Pathology and Space Flight Electronics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, Richard; Barto, Rod L.; Erickson, K.
1997-01-01
Logic design errors have been observed in space flight missions and the final stages of ground test. The technologies used by designers and their design/analysis methodologies will be analyzed. This will give insight to the root causes of the failures. These technologies include discrete integrated circuit based systems, systems based on field and mask programmable logic, and the use computer aided engineering (CAE) systems. State-of-the-art (SOTA) design tools and methodologies will be analyzed with respect to high-reliability spacecraft design and potential pitfalls are discussed. Case studies of faults from large expensive programs to "smaller, faster, cheaper" missions will be used to explore the fundamental reasons for logic design problems.
Molecular implementation of simple logic programs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ran, Tom; Kaplan, Shai; Shapiro, Ehud
2009-11-01
Autonomous programmable computing devices made of biomolecules could interact with a biological environment and be used in future biological and medical applications. Biomolecular implementations of finite automata and logic gates have already been developed. Here, we report an autonomous programmable molecular system based on the manipulation of DNA strands that is capable of performing simple logical deductions. Using molecular representations of facts such as Man(Socrates) and rules such as Mortal(X) <-- Man(X) (Every Man is Mortal), the system can answer molecular queries such as Mortal(Socrates)? (Is Socrates Mortal?) and Mortal(X)? (Who is Mortal?). This biomolecular computing system compares favourably with previous approaches in terms of expressive power, performance and precision. A compiler translates facts, rules and queries into their molecular representations and subsequently operates a robotic system that assembles the logical deductions and delivers the result. This prototype is the first simple programming language with a molecular-scale implementation.
Anatomy Ontology Matching Using Markov Logic Networks
Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Pengpeng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming
2016-01-01
The anatomy of model species is described in ontologies, which are used to standardize the annotations of experimental data, such as gene expression patterns. To compare such data between species, we need to establish relationships between ontologies describing different species. Ontology matching is a kind of solutions to find semantic correspondences between entities of different ontologies. Markov logic networks which unify probabilistic graphical model and first-order logic provide an excellent framework for ontology matching. We combine several different matching strategies through first-order logic formulas according to the structure of anatomy ontologies. Experiments on the adult mouse anatomy and the human anatomy have demonstrated the effectiveness of proposed approach in terms of the quality of result alignment. PMID:27382498
Development of ferrite logic devices for an arithmetic processor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heckler, C. H., Jr.
1972-01-01
A number of fundamentally ultra-reliable, all-magnetic logic circuits are developed using as a basis a single element ferrite structure wired as a logic delay element. By making minor additions or changes to the basic wiring pattern of the delay element other logic functions such as OR, AND, NEGATION, MAJORITY, EXCLUSIVE-OR, and FAN-OUT are developed. These logic functions are then used in the design of a full-adder, a set/reset flip-flop, and an edge detector. As a demonstration of the utility of all the developed devices, an 8-bit, all-magnetic, logic arithmetic unit capable of controlled addition, subtraction, and multiplication is designed. A new basic ferrite logic element and associated complementary logic scheme with the potential of improved performance is also described. Finally, an improved batch process for fabricating joint-free power drive and logic interconnect conductors for this basic class of all-magnetic logic is presented.
Refining fuzzy logic controllers with machine learning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berenji, Hamid R.
1994-01-01
In this paper, we describe the GARIC (Generalized Approximate Reasoning-Based Intelligent Control) architecture, which learns from its past performance and modifies the labels in the fuzzy rules to improve performance. It uses fuzzy reinforcement learning which is a hybrid method of fuzzy logic and reinforcement learning. This technology can simplify and automate the application of fuzzy logic control to a variety of systems. GARIC has been applied in simulation studies of the Space Shuttle rendezvous and docking experiments. It has the potential of being applied in other aerospace systems as well as in consumer products such as appliances, cameras, and cars.
Runtime Analysis of Linear Temporal Logic Specifications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Havelund, Klaus
2001-01-01
This report presents an approach to checking a running program against its Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) specifications. LTL is a widely used logic for expressing properties of programs viewed as sets of executions. Our approach consists of translating LTL formulae to finite-state automata, which are used as observers of the program behavior. The translation algorithm we propose modifies standard LTL to B chi automata conversion techniques to generate automata that check finite program traces. The algorithm has been implemented in a tool, which has been integrated with the generic JPaX framework for runtime analysis of Java programs.
Nonlinear dynamics based digital logic and circuits.
Kia, Behnam; Lindner, John F; Ditto, William L
2015-01-01
We discuss the role and importance of dynamics in the brain and biological neural networks and argue that dynamics is one of the main missing elements in conventional Boolean logic and circuits. We summarize a simple dynamics based computing method, and categorize different techniques that we have introduced to realize logic, functionality, and programmability. We discuss the role and importance of coupled dynamics in networks of biological excitable cells, and then review our simple coupled dynamics based method for computing. In this paper, for the first time, we show how dynamics can be used and programmed to implement computation in any given base, including but not limited to base two.
Nonlinear dynamics based digital logic and circuits
Kia, Behnam; Lindner, John. F.; Ditto, William L.
2015-01-01
We discuss the role and importance of dynamics in the brain and biological neural networks and argue that dynamics is one of the main missing elements in conventional Boolean logic and circuits. We summarize a simple dynamics based computing method, and categorize different techniques that we have introduced to realize logic, functionality, and programmability. We discuss the role and importance of coupled dynamics in networks of biological excitable cells, and then review our simple coupled dynamics based method for computing. In this paper, for the first time, we show how dynamics can be used and programmed to implement computation in any given base, including but not limited to base two. PMID:26029096
Rebuilding mathematics on a quantum logical foundation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DeJonghe, Richard J., III
We construct a rich first-order quantum logic which generalizes the standard classical predicate logic used in the development of virtually all of modern mathematics, and we use this quantum logic to build the foundations of a new quantum mathematics. First, we prove both soundness and completeness for the quantum logic we develop, and also prove a powerful new completeness result which heretofore had been known to hold for classical, but not quantum, first-order logic. We then use our quantum logic to develop multiple areas of mathematics, including abstract algebra, axiomatic set theory, and arithmetic. In some preliminary investigations into quantum mathematics, Dunn found that the Peano axioms for arithmetic yield the same theorems using either classical or quantum logic. We prove a similar result for certain classes of abstract algebras, and then show that Dunn's result is not generic by presenting examples of quantum monoids, groups, lattices, vector spaces, and operator algebras, all which differ from their classical counterparts. Moreover, we find natural classes of quantum lattices, vector spaces, and operator algebras which all have a beautiful inter-relationship, and make some preliminary investigations into using these structures as a basis for a new mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics. We also develop a quantum set theory (equivalent to ZFC under classical logic) which is far more tractable than quantum set theory previously developed. We then use this set theory to construct a quantum version of the natural numbers, and develop an arithmetic of these numbers based upon an alternative to Peano's axioms (which avoids Dunn's theorem). Surprisingly, we find that these "quantum natural numbers" satisfy our arithmetical axioms if and only if the underlying truth values form a modular lattice, giving a new arithmetical characterization of this important lattice-theoretic property. Finally, we show that these numbers have a natural interpretation as
Valve system incorporating single failure protection logic
Ryan, Rodger; Timmerman, Walter J. H.
1980-01-01
A valve system incorporating single failure protective logic. The system consists of a valve combination or composite valve which allows actuation or de-actuation of a device such as a hydraulic cylinder or other mechanism, integral with or separate from the valve assembly, by means of three independent input signals combined in a function commonly known as two-out-of-three logic. Using the input signals as independent and redundant actuation/de-actuation signals, a single signal failure, or failure of the corresponding valve or valve set, will neither prevent the desired action, nor cause the undesired action of the mechanism.
Young Children's Comprehension of Logical Connectives.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Suppes, Patrick; Feldman, Shirley
To determine to what extent children of preschool age comprehend the meaning of logical connectives, 64 5- and 6-year-olds were told to hand differently colored and shaped wooden blocks to an experimenter. The commands involved various English idioms used for conjunction (e.g. both black and round), disjunction (either black or round), and…
Indeterminacy, linguistic semantics and fuzzy logic
Novak, V.
1996-12-31
In this paper, we discuss the indeterminacy phenomenon which has two distinguished faces, namely uncertainty modeled especially by the probability theory and vagueness, modeled by fuzzy logic. Other important mathematical model of vagueness is provided by the Alternative Set Theory. We focus on some of the basic concepts of these theories in connection with mathematical modeling of the linguistic semantics.
On Logical Error Underlying Classical Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalanov, Temur Z.
2012-03-01
The logical analysis of the general accepted description of mechanical motion of material point M in classical mechanics is proposed. The key idea of the analysis is as follows. Let point M be moved in the positive direction of the axis O 1ptx. Motion is characterized by a change of coordinate x,( t ) -- continuous function of time t(because motion is a change in general). If δ,->;0;δ,;=;0, then δ,;->;0δ,;=;0, i.e., according to practice and formal logic, value of coordinate does not change and, hence, motion does not exist. But, contrary to practice and formal logic, differential calculus and classical mechanics contain the assertion that velocity δ,;->;0;δ,δ,;exists without motion. Then velocity δ,;->;0;δ,δ,;is not real (i.e. not physical) quantity, but fictitious quantity. Therefore, use of non-physical (unreal) quantity (i.e. the first and second derivatives of function) in classical mechanics is a logic error.
Demonstrating Boolean Logic Using Simple Electrical Circuits
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McElhaney, Kevin W.
2004-01-01
While exploring the subject of geometric proofs, boolean logic operators AND and OR can be used to allow students to visualize their true-or-false patterns. An activity in the form of constructing electrical circuits is illustrated to explain the concept.
Fuzzy logic program at SGS-Thomson
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pagni, Andrea; Poluzzi, Rinaldo; Rizzotto, GianGuido
1993-12-01
From its conception by Professor Lotfi A. Zadeh in the early '60s, Fuzzy Logic has slowly won acceptance, first in the academic world, then in industry. Its success is mainly due to the different perspective with which problems are tackled. Thanks to Fuzzy Logic we have moved from a numerical/analytical description to a quantitative/qualitative one. It is important to stress that this different perspective not only allows us to solve analysis/control problems at lower costs but can also allow otherwise insoluble problems to be solved at acceptable costs. Of course, it must be stressed that Fuzzy Systems cannot match the computational precision of traditional techniques but seek, instead, to find acceptable solutions in shorter times. Recognizing the enormous importance of fuzzy logic in the markets of the future, SGS-THOMSON intends to produce devices belonging to a new class of machines: Fuzzy Computational Machines. For this purpose a major research project has been established considering the architectural aspects and system implications of fuzzy logic, the development of dedicated VLSI components and supporting software.
Logical Structure of a Hypermedia Newspaper.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Saarela, Janne; Turpeinen, Marko; Puskala, Tuomas; Korkea-aho, Mari; Sulonen, Reijo
1997-01-01
Describes an object-oriented approach which implements the logical model of a hypermedia newspaper based on experiences with the OtaOnline project at the Helsinki University of Technology (Finland.) Highlights include presentation formats, a semantical rating system, distribution schemes, metadata, and added-value features facilitated by the…
New Logic Circuit with DC Parametric Excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugahara, Masanori; Kaneda, Hisayoshi
1982-12-01
It is shown that dc parametric excitation is possible in a circuit named JUDO, which is composed of two resistively-connected Josephson junctions. Simulation study proves that the circuit has large gain and properties suitable for the construction of small, high-speed logic circuits.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Molnar, Jane
The logical mysteries in this book are designed to develop critical thinking and deductive reasoning skills, motivate children to read carefully, and develop memory skills. The mystery solutions are explained at the end of the book. The first nine mysteries are intended for third grade students to work on with their teacher or parents. The second…
Logic in Everyday Language and in Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zepp, Raymond A.
1987-01-01
Discusses logical errors, such as converse reasoning, that are made by students in mathematics and science courses. States that many students apply incorrect forms of reasoning to concrete mathematical problems. Concludes that material should be taught as concretely as possible, and that mathematics students should be made aware of reasoning…
Optical logic array processor using shadowgrams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanida, J.; Ichioka, Y.
1983-06-01
On the basis of a lensless shadow-casting technique, a new, simple method of optically implementing digital logic gates has been developed. These gates are capable of performimg a complete set of logical operations on a large array of binary variables in parallel, i.e., the pattern logics. A light-emitting diode (LED) array is used as an incoherent light source in the lensless shadow-casting system. Sixteen possible functions of two binary variables are simply realizable with these gates in parallel by controlling the switching modes of the LEDs. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of various gate arrays, such as AND, OR, NOR, XOR, and NAND. As an example of application of the proposed method, an optical logic array processor is constructed that can implement parallel operations of addition or subtraction for two binary variables without considering the carry mechanisms. Use of the light-modulated LED array means that the proposed method can be applied to combinational circuits.
Logical Access Control Mechanisms in Computer Systems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hsiao, David K.
The subject of access control mechanisms in computer systems is concerned with effective means to protect the anonymity of private information on the one hand, and to regulate the access to shareable information on the other hand. Effective means for access control may be considered on three levels: memory, process and logical. This report is a…
Interacting institutional logics in general dental practice☆
Harris, Rebecca; Holt, Robin
2013-01-01
We investigate the organisational field of general dental practice and how agents change or maintain the institution of values associated with the everyday work of health care provision. Our dataset comprise archival literature and policy documents, interview data from field level actors, as well as service delivery level interview data and secondary data gathered (2011–12) from 16 English dental practices. Our analysis provides a typology of institutional logics (prevailing systems of value) experienced in the field of dental practice. Confirming current literature, we find two logics dominate how care is assessed: business-like health care and medical professionalism. We advance the literature by finding the business-like health care logic further distinguished by values of commercialism on the one hand and those of accountability and procedural diligence on the other. The logic of professionalism we also find is further distinguished into a commitment to clinical expertise and independence in delivering patient care on the one hand, and concerns for the autonomy and sustainability of a business enterprise on the other. PMID:23931946
Can Mathematics be Justified by Natural Logic?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schreiber, Lothar; Sommer, Hanns
2010-11-01
Charles Darwin claimed that the forms and the behaviour of living beings can be explained from their will to survive. But what are the consequences of this idea for humans knowledge, their theories of nature and their mathematics?. We discuss the view that even Plato's objective world of mathematical objects does not exist absolutely, without the intentions of mathematicians. Using Husserl's Phenomenological Method, cognition can be understood as a process by which meaning is deduced from empirical data relative to intentions. Thereby the essential structure of any cognition process can be detected and this structure is mirrored in logic. A natural logic becomes the direct result of cognition. Only in a second step, mathematics is obtained by abstraction from natural logic. In this way mathematics gains a well-defined foundation and is no longer part of a dubious 'a-priori knowledge' (Kant). This access to mathematics offers a new look on many old problems, e.g. the Petersburg problem and the problem 'P = NP?'. We demonstrate that this new justification of mathematics has also important applications in Artificial Intelligence. Our method provides a procedure to construct an adequate logic to solve most efficiently the problems of a given problem class. Thus, heuristics can be tailor-made for the necessities of applications.
Children's Acquisition of Conditional Logic Structure: Teachable?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Seong-Soo
1985-01-01
To assess the teachability of conditional logic structure, the commonly used syllogistic conditional reasoning task was divided into three main components: (1) inductive rule learning; (2) induction of conditional language; and (3) deductive interpretation. When trained on all components, fifth and seventh graders became very competent in dealing…
Evolutionary program induction directed by logic grammars
Wong; Leung
1997-01-01
Program induction generates a computer program that can produce the desired behavior for a given set of situations. Two of the approaches in program induction are inductive logic programming (ILP) and genetic programming (GP). Since their formalisms are so different, these two approaches cannot be integrated easily, although they share many common goals and functionalities. A unification will greatly enhance their problem-solving power. Moreover, they are restricted in the computer languages in which programs can be induced. In this paper, we present a flexible system called LOGENPRO (The LOgic gramar-based GENetic PROgramming system) that uses some of the techniques of GP and ILP. It is based on a formalism of logic grammars. The system applies logic grammars to control the evolution of programs in various programming languages and represent context-sensitive information and domain-dependent knowledge. Experiments have been performed to demonstrate that LOGENPRO can emulate GP and GP with automatically defined functions (ADFs). Moreover, LOGENPRO can employ knowledge such as argument types in a unified framework. The experiments show that LOGENPRO has superior performance to that of GP and GP with ADFs when more domain-dependent knowledge is available. We have applied LOGENPRO to evolve general recursive functions for the even-n-parity problem from noisy training examples. A number of experiments have been performed to determine the impact of domain-specific knowledge and noise in training examples on the speed of learning.
Mapping individual logical processes in information searching
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smetana, F. O.
1974-01-01
An interactive dialog with a computerized information collection was recorded and plotted in the form of a flow chart. The process permits one to identify the logical processes employed in considerable detail and is therefore suggested as a tool for measuring individual thought processes in a variety of situations. A sample of an actual test case is given.
Teleology as Logical Phenomenology: Some Therapeutic Implications.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rychlak, Joseph F.
Phenomenology is an important force in the development of psychological theory, rather than a variant type of counseling method. A distinction must be drawn between the sensory phenomenology in which gestaltists focus on sensory receptors, and logical pheomenology in which the grounding of belief or self-identity is viewed as a prediction or…
The music of morality and logic.
Mesz, Bruno; Rodriguez Zivic, Pablo H; Cecchi, Guillermo A; Sigman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos A
2015-01-01
Musical theory has built on the premise that musical structures can refer to something different from themselves (Nattiez and Abbate, 1990). The aim of this work is to statistically corroborate the intuitions of musical thinkers and practitioners starting at least with Plato, that music can express complex human concepts beyond merely "happy" and "sad" (Mattheson and Lenneberg, 1958). To do so, we ask whether musical improvisations can be used to classify the semantic category of the word that triggers them. We investigated two specific domains of semantics: morality and logic. While morality has been historically associated with music, logic concepts, which involve more abstract forms of thought, are more rarely associated with music. We examined musical improvisations inspired by positive and negative morality (e.g., good and evil) and logic concepts (true and false), analyzing the associations between these words and their musical representations in terms of acoustic and perceptual features. We found that music conveys information about valence (good and true vs. evil and false) with remarkable consistency across individuals. This information is carried by several musical dimensions which act in synergy to achieve very high classification accuracy. Positive concepts are represented by music with more ordered pitch structure and lower harmonic and sensorial dissonance than negative concepts. Music also conveys information indicating whether the word which triggered it belongs to the domains of logic or morality (true vs. good), principally through musical articulation. In summary, improvisations consistently map logic and morality information to specific musical dimensions, testifying the capacity of music to accurately convey semantic information in domains related to abstract forms of thought.
The music of morality and logic
Mesz, Bruno; Rodriguez Zivic, Pablo H.; Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Sigman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos A.
2015-01-01
Musical theory has built on the premise that musical structures can refer to something different from themselves (Nattiez and Abbate, 1990). The aim of this work is to statistically corroborate the intuitions of musical thinkers and practitioners starting at least with Plato, that music can express complex human concepts beyond merely “happy” and “sad” (Mattheson and Lenneberg, 1958). To do so, we ask whether musical improvisations can be used to classify the semantic category of the word that triggers them. We investigated two specific domains of semantics: morality and logic. While morality has been historically associated with music, logic concepts, which involve more abstract forms of thought, are more rarely associated with music. We examined musical improvisations inspired by positive and negative morality (e.g., good and evil) and logic concepts (true and false), analyzing the associations between these words and their musical representations in terms of acoustic and perceptual features. We found that music conveys information about valence (good and true vs. evil and false) with remarkable consistency across individuals. This information is carried by several musical dimensions which act in synergy to achieve very high classification accuracy. Positive concepts are represented by music with more ordered pitch structure and lower harmonic and sensorial dissonance than negative concepts. Music also conveys information indicating whether the word which triggered it belongs to the domains of logic or morality (true vs. good), principally through musical articulation. In summary, improvisations consistently map logic and morality information to specific musical dimensions, testifying the capacity of music to accurately convey semantic information in domains related to abstract forms of thought. PMID:26191020
The connection between logical and thermodynamic irreversibility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ladyman, James; Presnell, Stuart; Short, Anthony J.; Groisman, Berry
There has recently been a good deal of controversy about Landauer's Principle, which is often stated as follows: the erasure of one bit of information in a computational device is necessarily accompanied by a generation of kT ln 2 heat. This is often generalised to the claim that any logically irreversible operation cannot be implemented in a thermodynamically reversible way. Norton [2005. Eaters of the lotus: Landauer's principle and the return of Maxwell's demon. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 36, 375-411] and Maroney [2005. The (absence of a) relationship between thermodynamic and logical reversibility. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 36, 355-374] both argue that Landauer's Principle has not been shown to hold in general, and Maroney offers a method that he claims instantiates the operation Reset in a thermodynamically reversible way. In this paper we defend the qualitative form of Landauer's Principle, and clarify its quantitative consequences (assuming the second law of thermodynamics). We analyse in detail what it means for a physical system to implement a logical transformation L, and we make this precise by defining the notion of an L-machine. Then we show that logical irreversibility of L implies thermodynamic irreversibility of every corresponding L-machine. We do this in two ways. First, by assuming the phenomenological validity of the Kelvin statement of the second law, and second, by using information-theoretic reasoning. We illustrate our results with the example of the logical transformation 'Reset', and thereby recover the quantitative form of Landauer's Principle.
Exclusive-or logic circuit has useful properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batte, W. G.
1966-01-01
Single, simple exclusive-or logic connective eliminates excessive hardware and the number of interconnections between logic modules. This circuit performs the necessary switching for the exclusive-or operation and amplifies, restores, and inverts the signal.
The Three Rs of Teaching Logic: Revelation, Relevance, and Reinforcement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Covel, Robert C.
2010-01-01
Covel offers a primer on logic and describes how students react when they realize what a useful resource it can be in their real lives. His article includes useful definitions of critical concepts and logical fallacies. (Contains 2 figures.)
A biochemical logic gate using an enzyme and its inhibitor. Part II: The logic gate.
Sivan, Sarit; Tuchman, Samuel; Lotan, Noah
2003-06-01
Enzyme-Based Logic Gates (ENLOGs) are key components in bio-molecular systems for information processing. This report and the previous one in this series address the characterization of two bio-molecular switching elements, namely the alpha-chymotrypsin (alphaCT) derivative p-phenylazobenzoyl-alpha-chymotrypsin (PABalphaCT) and its inhibitor (proflavine), as well as their assembly into a logic gate. The experimental output of the proposed system is expressed in terms of enzymic activity and this was translated into logic output (i.e. "1" or "0") relative to a predetermined threshold value. We have found that an univalent link exists between the dominant isomers of PABalphaCT (cis or trans), the dominant form of either acridine (proflavine) or acridan and the logic output of the system. Thus, of all possible combinations, only the trans-PABalphaCT and the acridan lead to an enzymic activity that can be defined as logic output "1". The system operates under the rules of Boolean algebra and performs as an "AND" logic gate.
Application of temporal LNC logic in artificial intelligence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adamek, Marek; Mulawka, Jan
2016-09-01
This paper presents the temporal logic inference engine developed in our university. It is an attempt to demonstrate implementation and practical application of temporal logic LNC developed in Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw.1 The paper describes the fundamentals of LNC logic, architecture and implementation of inference engine. The practical application is shown by providing the solution for popular in Artificial Intelligence problem of Missionaries and Cannibals in terms of LNC logic. Both problem formulation and inference engine are described in details.
Castro-Palacio, Juan Carlos; Bemish, Raymond J.; Meuwly, Markus
2015-03-07
The O({sup 3}P) + NO({sup 2}Π) → O{sub 2}(X{sup 3}Σ{sub g}{sup −}) + N({sup 4}S) reaction is among the N- and O- involving reactions that dominate the energetics of the reactive air flow around spacecraft during hypersonic atmospheric re-entry. In this regime, the temperature in the bow shock typically ranges from 1000 to 20 000 K. The forward and reverse rate coefficients for this reaction derived directly from trajectory calculations over this range of temperature are reported in this letter. Results compare well with the established equilibrium constants for the same reaction from thermodynamic quantities derived from spectroscopy in the gas phase which paves the way for large-scale in silico investigations of equilibrium rates under extreme conditions.
Institutional Logics, Indie Software Developers and Platform Governance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Qiu, Yixin
2013-01-01
This two-essay dissertation aims to study institutional logics in the context of Apple's independent third-party software developers. In essay 1, I investigate the embedded agency aspect of the institutional logics theory. It builds on the premise that logics constrain preferences, interests and behaviors of individuals and organizations, thereby…
Electronics. Module 3: Digital Logic Application. Instructor's Guide.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carter, Ed; Murphy, Mark
This guide contains instructor's materials for a 10-unit secondary school course on digital logic application. The units are introduction to digital, logic gates, digital integrated circuits, combination logic, flip-flops, counters and shift registers, encoders and decoders, arithmetic circuits, memory, and analog/digital and digital/analog…
George Pierce Baker's "Principles of Argumentation": "Completely Logical"?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bordelon, Suzanne
2006-01-01
The article contends that previous scholars have misread George Pierce Baker's efforts by focusing primarily on "The Principles of Argumentation" and the role of logic. Baker's view of logic was more complex than scholars have claimed. He challenged traditional concepts of formal logic, highlighting only those aspects that would help students…
15 CFR 970.601 - Logical mining unit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Resource Development Concepts § 970.601 Logical mining unit. (a) In the case of an exploration license, a logical mining unit is an... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Logical mining unit. 970.601...
43 CFR 3487.1 - Logical mining units.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Logical mining units. 3487.1 Section 3487..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Logical Mining Unit § 3487.1 Logical mining units. (a) An LMU shall become effective only upon approval of...
43 CFR 3487.1 - Logical mining units.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Logical mining units. 3487.1 Section 3487..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Logical Mining Unit § 3487.1 Logical mining units. (a) An LMU shall become effective only upon approval of...
15 CFR 970.601 - Logical mining unit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Logical mining unit. 970.601 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Resource Development Concepts § 970.601 Logical mining unit. (a) In the case of an exploration license, a logical mining unit is...
15 CFR 970.601 - Logical mining unit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Logical mining unit. 970.601 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Resource Development Concepts § 970.601 Logical mining unit. (a) In the case of an exploration license, a logical mining unit is...
43 CFR 3487.1 - Logical mining units.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Logical mining units. 3487.1 Section 3487..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Logical Mining Unit § 3487.1 Logical mining units. (a) An LMU shall become effective only upon approval of...
43 CFR 3487.1 - Logical mining units.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Logical mining units. 3487.1 Section 3487..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Logical Mining Unit § 3487.1 Logical mining units. (a) An LMU shall become effective only upon approval of...
15 CFR 970.601 - Logical mining unit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Logical mining unit. 970.601 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Resource Development Concepts § 970.601 Logical mining unit. (a) In the case of an exploration license, a logical mining unit is...
15 CFR 970.601 - Logical mining unit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Logical mining unit. 970.601 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Resource Development Concepts § 970.601 Logical mining unit. (a) In the case of an exploration license, a logical mining unit is...
Logic system aids in evaluation of project readiness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maris, S. J.; Obrien, T. J.
1966-01-01
Measurement Operational Readiness Requirements /MORR/ assignments logic is used for determining the readiness of a complex project to go forward as planned. The system used logic network which assigns qualities to all important criteria in a project and establishes a logical sequence of measurements to determine what the conditions are.
Photonic encryption using all optical logic.
Blansett, Ethan L.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Tang, Jason D.; Robertson, Perry J.; Vawter, Gregory Allen; Tarman, Thomas David; Pierson, Lyndon George
2003-12-01
With the build-out of large transport networks utilizing optical technologies, more and more capacity is being made available. Innovations in Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM) and the elimination of optical-electrical-optical conversions have brought on advances in communication speeds as we move into 10 Gigabit Ethernet and above. Of course, there is a need to encrypt data on these optical links as the data traverses public and private network backbones. Unfortunately, as the communications infrastructure becomes increasingly optical, advances in encryption (done electronically) have failed to keep up. This project examines the use of optical logic for implementing encryption in the photonic domain to achieve the requisite encryption rates. In order to realize photonic encryption designs, technology developed for electrical logic circuits must be translated to the photonic regime. This paper examines two classes of all optical logic (SEED, gain competition) and how each discrete logic element can be interconnected and cascaded to form an optical circuit. Because there is no known software that can model these devices at a circuit level, the functionality of the SEED and gain competition devices in an optical circuit were modeled in PSpice. PSpice allows modeling of the macro characteristics of the devices in context of a logic element as opposed to device level computational modeling. By representing light intensity as voltage, 'black box' models are generated that accurately represent the intensity response and logic levels in both technologies. By modeling the behavior at the systems level, one can incorporate systems design tools and a simulation environment to aid in the overall functional design. Each black box model of the SEED or gain competition device takes certain parameters (reflectance, intensity, input response), and models the optical ripple and time delay characteristics. These 'black box' models are interconnected and cascaded in an
Mathematical logic in the human brain: semantics.
Friedrich, Roland M; Friederici, Angela D
2013-01-01
As a higher cognitive function in humans, mathematics is supported by parietal and prefrontal brain regions. Here, we give an integrative account of the role of the different brain systems in processing the semantics of mathematical logic from the perspective of macroscopic polysynaptic networks. By comparing algebraic and arithmetic expressions of identical underlying structure, we show how the different subparts of a fronto-parietal network are modulated by the semantic domain, over which the mathematical formulae are interpreted. Within this network, the prefrontal cortex represents a system that hosts three major components, namely, control, arithmetic-logic, and short-term memory. This prefrontal system operates on data fed to it by two other systems: a premotor-parietal top-down system that updates and transforms (external) data into an internal format, and a hippocampal bottom-up system that either detects novel information or serves as an access device to memory for previously acquired knowledge.
Conceptual and logical level of database modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunka, Frantisek; Matula, Jiri
2016-06-01
Conceptual and logical levels form the top most levels of database modeling. Usually, ORM (Object Role Modeling) and ER diagrams are utilized to capture the corresponding schema. The final aim of business process modeling is to store its results in the form of database solution. For this reason, value oriented business process modeling which utilizes ER diagram to express the modeling entities and relationships between them are used. However, ER diagrams form the logical level of database schema. To extend possibilities of different business process modeling methodologies, the conceptual level of database modeling is needed. The paper deals with the REA value modeling approach to business process modeling using ER-diagrams, and derives conceptual model utilizing ORM modeling approach. Conceptual model extends possibilities for value modeling to other business modeling approaches.
Voltage controlled spintronic devices for logic applications
You, Chun-Yeol; Bader, Samuel D.
2001-01-01
A reprogrammable logic gate comprising first and second voltage-controlled rotation transistors. Each transistor comprises three ferromagnetic layers with a spacer and insulating layer between the first and second ferromagnetic layers and an additional insulating layer between the second and third ferromagnetic layers. The third ferromagnetic layer of each transistor is connected to each other, and a constant external voltage source is applied to the second ferromagnetic layer of the first transistor. As input voltages are applied to the first ferromagnetic layer of each transistor, the relative directions of magnetization of the ferromagnetic layers and the magnitude of the external voltage determines the output voltage of the gate. By altering these parameters, the logic gate is capable of behaving as AND, OR, NAND, or NOR gates.
Spin wave nonreciprocity for logic device applications
Jamali, Mahdi; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Seo, Soo-Man; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Yang, Hyunsoo
2013-01-01
The utilization of spin waves as eigenmodes of the magnetization dynamics for information processing and communication has been widely explored recently due to its high operational speed with low power consumption and possible applications for quantum computations. Previous proposals of spin wave Mach-Zehnder devices were based on the spin wave phase, a delicate entity which can be easily disrupted. Here, we propose a complete logic system based on the spin wave amplitude utilizing the nonreciprocal spin wave behavior excited by microstrip antennas. The experimental data reveal that the nonreciprocity of magnetostatic surface spin wave can be tuned by the bias magnetic field. Furthermore, engineering of the device structure could result in a high nonreciprocity factor for spin wave logic applications. PMID:24196318
Optical design of programmable logic arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murdocca, Miles J.; Huang, Alan; Jahns, Jurgen; Streibl, Norbert
1988-05-01
Regular free-space interconnects such as the perfect shuffle and banyan provided by beam splitters, lenses, and mirrors connect optical logic gates arranged in two-dimensional arrays. An algorithmic design technique transforms arbitrary logic equations into a near-optimal depth circuit. Analysis shows that an arbitrary interconnect makes little or no improvement in circuit depth and can even reduce throughput. Gate count is normally higher with a regular interconnect, and cost bounds are shown. It is concluded that regularly interconnected circuits will have a higher gate count compared with arbitrarily interconnected circuits using the design techniques presented here and that regular free-space interconnects are comparable with arbitrary interconnects in terms of circuit depth and are preferred to arbitrary interconnects for maximizing throughput.
Logic gates based on ion transistors.
Tybrandt, Klas; Forchheimer, Robert; Berggren, Magnus
2012-05-29
Precise control over processing, transport and delivery of ionic and molecular signals is of great importance in numerous fields of life sciences. Integrated circuits based on ion transistors would be one approach to route and dispense complex chemical signal patterns to achieve such control. To date several types of ion transistors have been reported; however, only individual devices have so far been presented and most of them are not functional at physiological salt concentrations. Here we report integrated chemical logic gates based on ion bipolar junction transistors. Inverters and NAND gates of both npn type and complementary type are demonstrated. We find that complementary ion gates have higher gain and lower power consumption, as compared with the single transistor-type gates, which imitates the advantages of complementary logics found in conventional electronics. Ion inverters and NAND gates lay the groundwork for further development of solid-state chemical delivery circuits.
Program Logics for Homogeneous Meta-programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berger, Martin; Tratt, Laurence
A meta-program is a program that generates or manipulates another program; in homogeneous meta-programming, a program may generate new parts of, or manipulate, itself. Meta-programming has been used extensively since macros were introduced to Lisp, yet we have little idea how formally to reason about meta-programs. This paper provides the first program logics for homogeneous meta-programming - using a variant of MiniML_e^{square} by Davies and Pfenning as underlying meta-programming language. We show the applicability of our approach by reasoning about example meta-programs from the literature. We also demonstrate that our logics are relatively complete in the sense of Cook, enable the inductive derivation of characteristic formulae, and exactly capture the observational properties induced by the operational semantics.
Neurocontrol and fuzzy logic: Connections and designs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Werbos, Paul J.
1991-01-01
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) and fuzzy logic are complementary technologies. ANNs extract information from systems to be learned or controlled, while fuzzy techniques mainly use verbal information from experts. Ideally, both sources of information should be combined. For example, one can learn rules in a hybrid fashion, and then calibrate them for better whole-system performance. ANNs offer universal approximation theorems, pedagogical advantages, very high-throughput hardware, and links to neurophysiology. Neurocontrol - the use of ANNs to directly control motors or actuators, etc. - uses five generalized designs, related to control theory, which can work on fuzzy logic systems as well as ANNs. These designs can copy what experts do instead of what they say, learn to track trajectories, generalize adaptive control, and maximize performance or minimize cost over time, even in noisy environments. Design tradeoffs and future directions are discussed throughout.
Logic circuits based on molecular spider systems.
Mo, Dandan; Lakin, Matthew R; Stefanovic, Darko
2016-08-01
Spatial locality brings the advantages of computation speed-up and sequence reuse to molecular computing. In particular, molecular walkers that undergo localized reactions are of interest for implementing logic computations at the nanoscale. We use molecular spider walkers to implement logic circuits. We develop an extended multi-spider model with a dynamic environment wherein signal transmission is triggered via localized reactions, and use this model to implement three basic gates (AND, OR, NOT) and a cascading mechanism. We develop an algorithm to automatically generate the layout of the circuit. We use a kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm to simulate circuit computations, and we analyze circuit complexity: our design scales linearly with formula size and has a logarithmic time complexity.
Mathematical Logic in the Human Brain: Semantics
Friedrich, Roland M.; Friederici, Angela D.
2013-01-01
As a higher cognitive function in humans, mathematics is supported by parietal and prefrontal brain regions. Here, we give an integrative account of the role of the different brain systems in processing the semantics of mathematical logic from the perspective of macroscopic polysynaptic networks. By comparing algebraic and arithmetic expressions of identical underlying structure, we show how the different subparts of a fronto-parietal network are modulated by the semantic domain, over which the mathematical formulae are interpreted. Within this network, the prefrontal cortex represents a system that hosts three major components, namely, control, arithmetic-logic, and short-term memory. This prefrontal system operates on data fed to it by two other systems: a premotor-parietal top-down system that updates and transforms (external) data into an internal format, and a hippocampal bottom-up system that either detects novel information or serves as an access device to memory for previously acquired knowledge. PMID:23301101
DNA strand displacement system running logic programs.
Rodríguez-Patón, Alfonso; Sainz de Murieta, Iñaki; Sosík, Petr
2014-01-01
The paper presents a DNA-based computing model which is enzyme-free and autonomous, not requiring a human intervention during the computation. The model is able to perform iterated resolution steps with logical formulae in conjunctive normal form. The implementation is based on the technique of DNA strand displacement, with each clause encoded in a separate DNA molecule. Propositions are encoded assigning a strand to each proposition p, and its complementary strand to the proposition ¬p; clauses are encoded comprising different propositions in the same strand. The model allows to run logic programs composed of Horn clauses by cascading resolution steps. The potential of the model is demonstrated also by its theoretical capability of solving SAT. The resulting SAT algorithm has a linear time complexity in the number of resolution steps, whereas its spatial complexity is exponential in the number of variables of the formula.
Noise-free logical stochastic resonance.
Gupta, Animesh; Sohane, Aman; Kohar, Vivek; Murali, K; Sinha, Sudeshna
2011-11-01
The phenomena of logical stochastic resonance (LSR) was demonstrated recently [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 104101 (2009)]: namely, when a bistable system is driven by two inputs it consistently yields a response mirroring a logic function of the two inputs in an optimal window of moderate noise. Here we examine the intriguing possibility of obtaining dynamical behavior equivalent to LSR in a noise-free bistable system, subjected only to periodic forcing, such as sinusoidal driving or rectangular pulse trains. We find that such a system, despite having no stochastic influence, also yields phenomena analogous to LSR, in an appropriate window of frequency and amplitude of the periodic forcing. The results are corroborated by circuit experiments.
Nanoeletromechanical switch and logic circuits formed therefrom
Nordquist, Christopher D.; Czaplewski, David A.
2010-05-18
A nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch is formed on a substrate with a source electrode containing a suspended electrically-conductive beam which is anchored to the substrate at each end. This beam, which can be formed of ruthenium, bows laterally in response to a voltage applied between a pair of gate electrodes and the source electrode to form an electrical connection between the source electrode and a drain electrode located near a midpoint of the beam. Another pair of gate electrodes and another drain electrode can be located on an opposite side of the beam to allow for switching in an opposite direction. The NEM switch can be used to form digital logic circuits including NAND gates, NOR gates, programmable logic gates, and SRAM and DRAM memory cells which can be used in place of conventional CMOS circuits, or in combination therewith.
Plastic Logic quits e-reader market
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perks, Simon
2012-07-01
A UK firm spun out from the University of Cambridge that sought to be a world leader in flexible organic electronic circuits and displays has pulled out of the competitive e-reader market as it struggles to find a commercial outlet for its technology. Plastic Logic announced in May that it is to close its development facility in Mountain View, California, with the loss of around 40 jobs.
Reconfigurable Optical Directed-Logic Circuits
2015-11-20
advantage of the fast and low-loss propagation of light . DL can enhance the performance of digital systems for real-time applications that are... light . For instance, directed-logic architectures could find applications in packet-switched optical interconnect networks by providing fast...a) The transmission spectra of a switch in block/pass mode for light at working wavelength λL. The red dashed line and the black solid line are the
Logic Functions for Cryptography - A Tutorial
2009-05-01
Logic Functions for Cryptography - A Tutorial Jon T. Butler Tsutomu Sasao Department of Electrical Department of Computer Science and Computer ... of Computer Programming, Vol- ume 4” [9]. Definition 2.1 A linear function is the constant 0 function or the Exclusive OR of one or more variables...S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School,Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,Monterey,CA,93943 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT
Designing for Reuse of Configurable Logic
2005-07-01
include high-level abstractions of " source code " artifacts such as hardware description language rep- resentations (such as VHDL ) and logic/function/state...assist with debugging the resultant FPGA firmware, analogous to the tools that exist for simulating, testing, and debugging software source code . The FPGA ...may be provided as VHDL or Verilog files, enabling their inclusion with the user’s source code . Embedded processors, with their more stringent timing
The Family of Concurrent Logic Programming Languages
1989-05-01
nature , such as the solution of large numerical problems. Following Harel [70], we call concurrent systems that are transforma- tional as a whole parallel...nondeterminitic finite mtompla, and logic programs. Reactive systems are also nondeter- ministic. However, the nature of nondetaminism in the former is very...0l) Im(EXIXs],S) fail Figure 4: Examples of input matching of goals with clause heads The dataflow nature of matching is evident: an "instruction
Modeling anatomical spatial relations with description logics.
Schulz, S.; Hahn, U.; Romacker, M.
2000-01-01
Although spatial relations are essential for the anatomy domain, spatial reasoning is only weakly supported by medical knowledge representation systems. To remedy this shortcoming we express spatial relations that can intuitively be applied to anatomical objects (such as 'disconnected', 'externally connected', 'partial overlap' and 'proper part') within the formal framework of description logics. A special encoding of concept descriptions (in terms of SEP triplets) allows us to emulate spatial reasoning by classification-based reasoning. PMID:11079990
Fuzzy logic controller to improve powerline communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tirrito, Salvatore
2015-12-01
The Power Line Communications (PLC) technology allows the use of the power grid in order to ensure the exchange of data information among devices. This work proposes an approach, based on Fuzzy Logic, that dynamically manages the amplitude of the signal, with which each node transmits, by processing the master-slave link quality measured and the master-slave distance. The main objective of this is to reduce both the impact of communication interferences induced and power consumption.
Simulators' validation study: Problem solution logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schoultz, M. B.
1974-01-01
A study was conducted to validate the ground based simulators used for aircraft environment in ride-quality research. The logic to the approach for solving this problem is developed. The overall problem solution flow chart is presented. The factors which could influence the human response to the environment on board the aircraft are analyzed. The mathematical models used in the study are explained. The steps which were followed in conducting the validation tests are outlined.
Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram
Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S.; O`Brien, M.; Rudin, M.; Ferguson, J.; McFee, J.
1994-11-30
The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR).
The Focused Inverse Method for Linear Logic
2006-12-04
accomplishes this unifying view by providing logical connectives whose behaviour is closely tied to the precise collection of resources. The...interaction of the rules for multiplicative, additive and exponential connectives gives rise to a wide and expressive array of behaviours . This expressivity...also for providing an extraordinarily supportive enviroment where the students can truly pursue their work free of any worries. I would also like to
The Propositional Logic Induced by Means of Basic Algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chajda, I.
2015-12-01
A propositional logic induced by means of commutative basic algebras was already described by M. Botur and R. Halaš. It turns out that this is a kind of non-associative fuzzy logic which can be used e.g. in expert systems. Unfortunately, there are other important classes of basic algebras which are not commutative, e.g. orthomodular lattices which are used as an axiomatization of the logic of quantum mechanics. This motivated us to develop another axioms and derivation rules which form a propositional logic induced by basic algebras in general. We show that this logic is algebraizable in the sense of W. J. Blok and D. Pigozzi.
CMAT non-volatile spintronic computing: complementary MTJ logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedman, Joseph S.
2016-10-01
Magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) have thoroughly demonstrated their utility as a non-volatile memory storage element, inspiring their application to a memory-in-logic computer that would overcome the von Neumann bottleneck. However, MTJ logic gates must be able to cause other MTJs to switch, thus ensuring the cascading capability fundamental to efficient computing. Complementary MTJ logic (CMAT) provides a simple circuit structure through which MTJs can be cascaded directly to perform logic operations. In this novel logic family, charge pulses resulting from MTJ switching create magnetic fields that switch other MTJs, providing impetus for further development of MTJs for computing applications.
An interval logic for higher-level temporal reasoning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwartz, R. L.; Melliar-Smith, P. M.; Vogt, F. H.; Plaisted, D. A.
1983-01-01
Prior work explored temporal logics, based on classical modal logics, as a framework for specifying and reasoning about concurrent programs, distributed systems, and communications protocols, and reported on efforts using temporal reasoning primitives to express very high level abstract requirements that a program or system is to satisfy. Based on experience with those primitives, this report describes an Interval Logic that is more suitable for expressing such higher level temporal properties. The report provides a formal semantics for the Interval Logic, and several examples of its use. A description of decision procedures for the logic is also included.
A parity checker circuit based on microelectromechanical resonator logic elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Li, Ren; Younis, Mohammad I.; Fariborzi, Hossein
2017-03-01
Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based logic computation has attracted significant attention in recent years due to its dynamic mode of operation, ultra-low power consumption, and potential for reprogrammable and reversible computing. Here we demonstrate a 4-bit parity checker circuit by utilizing recently developed logic gates based on MEMS resonators. Toward this, resonance frequencies of shallow arch shaped micro-resonators are electrothermally tuned by the logic inputs to constitute the required logic gates for the proposed parity checker circuit. This study demonstrates that by utilizing MEMS resonator based logic elements, complex digital circuits can be realized.
The (absence of a) relationship between thermodynamic and logical reversibility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maroney, O. J. E.
Landauer erasure seems to provide a powerful link between thermodynamics and information processing (logical computation). The only logical operations that require a generation of heat are logically irreversible ones, with the minimum heat generation being kT ln 2 per bit of information lost. Nevertheless, it will be shown that logical reversibility neither implies, nor is implied by thermodynamic reversibility. By examining thermodynamically reversible operations which are logically irreversible, it is possible to show that information and entropy, while having the same form, are conceptually different.
Design of a Ferroelectric Programmable Logic Gate Array
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen
2003-01-01
A programmable logic gate array has been designed utilizing ferroelectric field effect transistors. The design has only a small number of gates, but this could be scaled up to a more useful size. Using FFET's in a logic array gives several advantages. First, it allows real-time programmability to the array to give high speed reconfiguration. It also allows the array to be configured nearly an unlimited number of times, unlike a FLASH FPGA. Finally, the Ferroelectric Programmable Logic Gate Array (FPLGA) can be implemented using a smaller number of transistors because of the inherent logic characteristics of an FFET. The device was only designed and modeled using Spice models of the circuit, including the FFET. The actual device was not produced. The design consists of a small array of NAND and NOR logic gates. Other gates could easily be produced. They are linked by FFET's that control the logic flow. Timing and logic tables have been produced showing the array can produce a variety of logic combinations at a real time usable speed. This device could be a prototype for a device that could be put into imbedded systems that need the high speed of hardware implementation of logic and the complexity to need to change the logic algorithm. Because of the non-volatile nature of the FFET, it would also be useful in situations that needed to program a logic array once and use it repeatedly after the power has been shut off.
Realization of Functional Complete Stateful Boolean Logic in Memristive Crossbar.
Li, Yi; Zhou, Ya-Xiong; Xu, Lei; Lu, Ke; Wang, Zhuo-Rui; Duan, Nian; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Long; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Sun, Hua-Jun; Xue, Kan-Hao; Miao, Xiang-Shui
2016-12-21
Nonvolatile stateful logic computing in memristors is a promising paradigm with which to realize the unity of information storage and processing in the same physical location that has shown great feasibility for breaking the von Neumann bottleneck in traditional computing architecture. How to reduce the computational complexity of memristor-based logic functions is a matter of concern. Here, based on a general logic expression, we proposed a method to implement the arbitrary logic of complete 16 Boolean logic in two steps with one memristor in the crossbar architecture. A representative functional complete NAND logic is successfully experimentally demonstrated in the filamentary Ag-AgGeTe-Ta memristors to prove the validity of our method. We believe our work may promote the development of the revolutionary logic in memory architectures.
Constructing a logical, regular axis topology from an irregular topology
Faraj, Daniel A.
2014-07-01
Constructing a logical regular topology from an irregular topology including, for each axial dimension and recursively, for each compute node in a subcommunicator until returning to a first node: adding to a logical line of the axial dimension a neighbor specified in a nearest neighbor list; calling the added compute node; determining, by the called node, whether any neighbor in the node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line; if a neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line, adding, by the called compute node to the logical line, any neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list for the axial dimension not already added to the logical line; and, if no neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line, returning to the calling compute node.
Constructing a logical, regular axis topology from an irregular topology
Faraj, Daniel A.
2014-07-22
Constructing a logical regular topology from an irregular topology including, for each axial dimension and recursively, for each compute node in a subcommunicator until returning to a first node: adding to a logical line of the axial dimension a neighbor specified in a nearest neighbor list; calling the added compute node; determining, by the called node, whether any neighbor in the node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line; if a neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line, adding, by the called compute node to the logical line, any neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list for the axial dimension not already added to the logical line; and, if no neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line, returning to the calling compute node.
Sub-kBT micro-electromechanical irreversible logic gate.
López-Suárez, M; Neri, I; Gammaitoni, L
2016-06-28
In modern computers, computation is performed by assembling together sets of logic gates. Popular gates like AND, OR and XOR, processing two logic inputs and yielding one logic output, are often addressed as irreversible logic gates, where the sole knowledge of the output logic value is not sufficient to infer the logic value of the two inputs. Such gates are usually believed to be bounded to dissipate a finite minimum amount of energy determined by the input-output information difference. Here we show that this is not necessarily the case, by presenting an experiment where a OR logic gate, realized with a micro-electromechanical cantilever, is operated with energy well below the expected limit, provided the operation is slow enough and frictional phenomena are properly addressed.
Sub-kBT micro-electromechanical irreversible logic gate
López-Suárez, M.; Neri, I.
2016-01-01
In modern computers, computation is performed by assembling together sets of logic gates. Popular gates like AND, OR and XOR, processing two logic inputs and yielding one logic output, are often addressed as irreversible logic gates, where the sole knowledge of the output logic value is not sufficient to infer the logic value of the two inputs. Such gates are usually believed to be bounded to dissipate a finite minimum amount of energy determined by the input–output information difference. Here we show that this is not necessarily the case, by presenting an experiment where a OR logic gate, realized with a micro-electromechanical cantilever, is operated with energy well below the expected limit, provided the operation is slow enough and frictional phenomena are properly addressed. PMID:27350333
Logic Models for Program Design, Implementation, and Evaluation: Workshop Toolkit. REL 2015-057
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shakman, Karen; Rodriguez, Sheila M.
2015-01-01
The Logic Model Workshop Toolkit is designed to help practitioners learn the purpose of logic models, the different elements of a logic model, and the appropriate steps for developing and using a logic model for program evaluation. Topics covered in the sessions include an overview of logic models, the elements of a logic model, an introduction to…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dari, Anna; Kia, Behnam; Bulsara, Adi R.; Ditto, William L.
2011-12-01
Following the advent of synthetic biology, several gene networks have been engineered to emulate digital devices, with the ability to program cells for different applications. In this work, we adapt the concept of logical stochastic resonance to a synthetic gene network derived from a bacteriophage λ. The intriguing results of this study show that it is possible to build a biological logic block that can emulate or switch from the AND to the OR gate functionalities through externally tuning the system parameters. Moreover, this behavior and the robustness of the logic gate are underpinned by the presence of an optimal amount of random fluctuations. We extend our earlier work in this field, by taking into account the effects of correlated external (additive) and internal (multiplicative or state-dependent) noise. Results obtained through analytical calculations as well as numerical simulations are presented.
Delay modeling of bipolar ECL/EFL (Emitter-Coupled Logic/Emitter-Follower-Logic) circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Andrew T.
1986-08-01
This report deals with the development of a delay-time model for timing simulation of large circuits consisting of Bipolar ECL(Emitter-Coupled Logic) and EFL (Emitter-Follower-Logic) networks. This model can provide adequate information on the performance of the circuits with a minimum expenditure of computation time. This goal is achieved by the use of proper circuit transient models on which analytical delay expressions can be derived with accurate results. The delay-model developed in this report is general enough to handle complex digital circuits with multiple inputs or/and multiple levels. The important effects of input slew rate are also included in the model.
Operating regimes for multivalued single-electron tunneling phase logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Tan; Kiehl, Richard A.
2003-06-01
The dc bias range and the logic-state lifetime for multivalued single-electron tunneling phase logic are examined in computer simulations. Results for quaternary operation, which is of particular interest for compact logic circuitry, are compared with those for ternary and binary logic. Quaternary logic is shown to exhibit a rotation rule similar to binary and ternary logic and to have an optimized dc bias range of 14%, compared with 20 and 37 % for ternary and binary logic, respectively. The effects of shot noise and Nyquist noise on the logic-state lifetime are strongly influenced by the number of logic states. The ratio of tunnel resistance to series resistance required to suppress the effects of shot noise below those of Nyquist noise depends on the number of logic states. To obtain a lifetime equal to 1000 phase-locked cycles together with a maximum dc bias operating range, the ratio of Coulomb energy to thermal energy Ec/kBT must be 400, 1650, and 2830 for two, three, and four states, respectively. This corresponds to a rapid drop in the maximum operating temperature with the number of states, which can be related to an exponential dependence of lifetime on the activation energy for a thermally activated escape process. The implications of these results on the trade-offs between the operating regimes for dc bias, temperature, and junction size are discussed.
Reliability concerns with logical constants in Xilinx FPGA designs
Quinn, Heather M; Graham, Paul; Morgan, Keith; Ostler, Patrick; Allen, Greg; Swift, Gary; Tseng, Chen W
2009-01-01
In Xilinx Field Programmable Gate Arrays logical constants, which ground unused inputs and provide constants for designs, are implemented in SEU-susceptible logic. In the past, these logical constants have been shown to cause the user circuit to output bad data and were not resetable through off-line rcconfiguration. In the more recent devices, logical constants are less problematic, though mitigation should still be considered for high reliability applications. In conclusion, we have presented a number of reliability concerns with logical constants in the Xilinx Virtex family. There are two main categories of logical constants: implicit and explicit logical constants. In all of the Virtex devices, the implicit logical constants are implemented using half latches, which in the most recent devices are several orders of magnitudes smaller than configuration bit cells. Explicit logical constants are implemented exclusively using constant LUTs in the Virtex-I and Virtex-II, and use a combination of constant LUTs and architectural posts to the ground plane in the Virtex-4. We have also presented mitigation methods and options for these devices. While SEUs in implicit and some types of explicit logical constants can cause data corrupt, the chance of failure from these components is now much smaller than it was in the Virtex-I device. Therefore, for many cases, mitigation might not be necessary, except under extremely high reliability situations.
Superconductive combinational logic circuit using magnetically coupled SQUID array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamanashi, Y.; Umeda, K.; Sai, K.
2010-11-01
In this paper, we propose the development of superconductive combinational logic circuits. One of the difficulties in designing superconductive single-flux-quantum (SFQ) digital circuits can be attributed to the fundamental nature of the SFQ circuits, in which all logic gates have latching functions and are based on sequential logic. The design of ultralow-power superconductive digital circuits can be facilitated by the development of superconductive combinational logic circuits in which the output is a function of only the present input. This is because superconductive combinational logic circuits do not require determination of the timing adjustment and clocking scheme. Moreover, semiconductor design tools can be used to design digital circuits because CMOS logic gates are based on combinational logic. The proposed superconductive combinational logic circuits comprise a magnetically coupled SQUID array. By adjusting the circuit parameters and coupling strengths between neighboring SQUIDs, fundamental combinational logic gates, including the AND, OR, and NOT gates, can be built. We have verified the accuracy of the operations of the fundamental logic gates by analog circuit simulations.
Computer Fiction: ``A Logic Named Joe''
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferro, David; Swedin, Eric
The bulk of Science Fiction (SF) has not predicted the most influential computer technologies of the late 20th century. This paper begins with an exception entitled “A Logic Named Joe” and its accurate description of the contemporary environment of PCs and the World Wide Web. It then proposes the possible historical and cultural value of SF in techno-scientific development - more specifically computer development - in both the U.S. and Finland, and argues that social science approaches to understanding technoscience should take SF into account when describing those communities of practice.
Some Lectures on Modal Logic. Supplement
1989-01-01
the true atomic sentences , they are wRy, wRu. With V declared false in all three valuations, we get a model W /vu in which w does not force -ow - o-,op...Gabbay and Guenthner , eds., Handbook of Philosoph ical Logic [1983/5]. J. Hintikka [1962], Knowledge and Belief, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y. C...Intelligence 35, 343-382. D. Kozen and R. Parikh [1982], "An elementary proof of the completeness of PDL", Theor. Comp. Sci. 14 (1981), 113-118. D. Kozen and J
Efficient dynamic optimization of logic programs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Laird, Phil
1992-01-01
A summary is given of the dynamic optimization approach to speed up learning for logic programs. The problem is to restructure a recursive program into an equivalent program whose expected performance is optimal for an unknown but fixed population of problem instances. We define the term 'optimal' relative to the source of input instances and sketch an algorithm that can come within a logarithmic factor of optimal with high probability. Finally, we show that finding high-utility unfolding operations (such as EBG) can be reduced to clause reordering.
Cyclic groups and quantum logic gates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pourkia, Arash; Batle, J.; Raymond Ooi, C. H.
2016-10-01
We present a formula for an infinite number of universal quantum logic gates, which are 4 by 4 unitary solutions to the Yang-Baxter (Y-B) equation. We obtain this family from a certain representation of the cyclic group of order n. We then show that this discrete family, parametrized by integers n, is in fact, a small sub-class of a larger continuous family, parametrized by real numbers θ, of universal quantum gates. We discuss the corresponding Yang-Baxterization and related symmetries in the concomitant Hamiltonian.
PLAFST Programmable Logic Array from State Table.
1983-12-01
HD -i8 466 PL AFST PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC ARRAY FROM STATE T ABLE(U) AIR /2 FORC INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF UNCLSSIIED...INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio ) A ’J[. .:’,,- oved iot public T.,-].:.,’ 8 4 7 x -;..- APIT/GE/EE/83D-57 Accession For...number of rows with y - 1. Don’t care symbols are denoted by a " x ". The l’s and x’s are grouped together like Karnaugh maps with two exceptions. The
Starting Circuit For Erasable Programmable Logic Device
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cole, Steven W.
1990-01-01
Voltage regulator bypassed to supply starting current. Starting or "pullup" circuit supplies large inrush of current required by erasable programmable logic device (EPLD) while being turned on. Operates only during such intervals of high demand for current and has little effect any other time. Performs needed bypass, acting as current-dependent shunt connecting battery or other source of power more nearly directly to EPLD. Input capacitor of regulator removed when starting circuit installed, reducing probability of damage to transistor in event of short circuit in or across load.
Fuzzy logic control for camera tracking system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lea, Robert N.; Fritz, R. H.; Giarratano, J.; Jani, Yashvant
1992-01-01
A concept utilizing fuzzy theory has been developed for a camera tracking system to provide support for proximity operations and traffic management around the Space Station Freedom. Fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic based reasoning are used in a control system which utilizes images from a camera and generates required pan and tilt commands to track and maintain a moving target in the camera's field of view. This control system can be implemented on a fuzzy chip to provide an intelligent sensor for autonomous operations. Capabilities of the control system can be expanded to include approach, handover to other sensors, caution and warning messages.
Reactivity measurement using a programmable logic controller
Bobek, L.M.; Miraglia, P.Q.
1995-12-31
The application of digital systems for measuring reactor dynamics has been used at experimental and research reactors for almost 30 yr. At the Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) nuclear reactor facility (NRF), a recent modernization effort included the installation of a programmable logic controller (PLC) and an operator interface terminal (OIT). The PLC systems are increasingly being used to replace relay-based monitoring and control systems at nuclear power plants. At WPI, the PLC and OIT provide a digital reactor monitoring system that is remote from the reactor`s analog control instrumentation. The NRF staff has programmed the monitoring system for several reactor-related applications, including reactivity measurement.
Designing a Software Tool for Fuzzy Logic Programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abietar, José M.; Morcillo, Pedro J.; Moreno, Ginés
2007-12-01
Fuzzy Logic Programming is an interesting and still growing research area that agglutinates the efforts for introducing fuzzy logic into logic programming (LP), in order to incorporate more expressive resources on such languages for dealing with uncertainty and approximated reasoning. The multi-adjoint logic programming approach is a recent and extremely flexible fuzzy logic paradigm for which, unfortunately, we have not found practical tools implemented so far. In this work, we describe a prototype system which is able to directly translate fuzzy logic programs into Prolog code in order to safely execute these residual programs inside any standard Prolog interpreter in a completely transparent way for the final user. We think that the development of such fuzzy languages and programing tools might play an important role in the design of advanced software applications for computational physics, chemistry, mathematics, medicine, industrial control and so on.
Simulation Approach for Timing Analysis of Genetic Logic Circuits.
Baig, Hasan; Madsen, Jan
2017-02-01
Constructing genetic logic circuits is an application of synthetic biology in which parts of the DNA of a living cell are engineered to perform a dedicated Boolean function triggered by an appropriate concentration of certain proteins or by different genetic components. These logic circuits work in a manner similar to electronic logic circuits, but they are much more stochastic and hence much harder to characterize. In this article, we introduce an approach to analyze the threshold value and timing of genetic logic circuits. We show how this approach can be used to analyze the timing behavior of single and cascaded genetic logic circuits. We further analyze the timing sensitivity of circuits by varying the degradation rates and concentrations. Our approach can be used not only to characterize the timing behavior but also to analyze the timing constraints of cascaded genetic logic circuits, a capability that we believe will be important for design automation in synthetic biology.
Mathematical classification of regulatory logics for compound environmental changes.
Tanaka, Reiko J; Kimura, Hidenori
2008-03-21
This paper is concerned with biological regulatory mechanisms in response to the simultaneous occurrence of a huge number of environmental changes. The restricted resources of cells strictly limit the number of their regulatory methods; hence, cells must adopt, as compensation, special mechanisms to deal with the simultaneous occurrence of environmental changes. We hypothesize that cells use various control logics to integrate information about independent environmental changes related to a cell task and represent the resulting effects of the different ways of integration by logical functions. Using the notion of equivalence classes in set theory, we describe the mathematical classification of the effects into biologically unequivalent ones realized by different control logics. Our purely mathematical and systematic classification of logical functions reveals three elementary control logics with different biological relevance. To better understand their biological significance, we consider examples of biological systems that use these elementary control logics.
Logic Brightens My Day: Evidence for Implicit Sensitivity to Logical Validity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Trippas, Dries; Handley, Simon J.; Verde, Michael F.; Morsanyi, Kinga
2016-01-01
A key assumption of dual process theory is that reasoning is an explicit, effortful, deliberative process. The present study offers evidence for an implicit, possibly intuitive component of reasoning. Participants were shown sentences embedded in logically valid or invalid arguments. Participants were not asked to reason but instead rated the…
Deduction and Inference Using Conditional Logic and Probability
1991-05-01
Carnap and R. C. Jeffrey [30] & [31], H. Gaifman [32], D. Scott and P. Kraus [33], E. W. Adams [19], and T. Hailperin [8] have all defined the probability...Theories of Logic and Probabilities, Open Court. 30. Carnap , R. (1960; 1st ed., 1950) Logical Foundations of Probability 2nd. ed., Univ. of Chicago...Press. 31. Carnap , R. & Jeffrey, R. C. (1971) Studies in Inductive Logic and Probability, Univ. of California Press. 32. Gaifman, H. (1964) Concerning
Multilevel programmable logic array schemes for microprogrammed automata
Barkalov, A.A.
1995-03-01
Programmable logic arrays (PLAs) provide an efficient tool for implementation of logic schemes of microprogrammed automata (MPA). The number of PLAs in the MPA logic scheme can be minimized by increasing the number of levels. In this paper, we analyze the structures of multilevel schemes of Mealy automata, propose a number of new structures, consider the corresponding correctness conditions, and examine some problems that must be solved in order to satisfy these conditions.
Partial reconfiguration of concurrent logic controllers implemented in FPGA devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiśniewski, Remigiusz; Grobelna, Iwona; Stefanowicz, Łukasz
2016-12-01
Reconfigurable systems are recently used in many domains. Although the concept of multi-context logic controllers is relatively new, it may be noticed that the subject is receiving a lot of attention, especially in the industry. The work constitutes a stepping stone in design of reconfigurable logic controllers implemented in an FPGA device. An approach of designing of logic controllers oriented for further partial reconfiguration is proposed. A case study of a milling machine is used for an illustration.
Mix-valued logic-based formation control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lequn; Feng, Jun-e.
2013-06-01
The formation control (FC) problem is investigated via a mix-valued logic-based approach. First, a trajectory-tracking algorithm of mix-valued logic control networks is proposed. Then, a new formulation of FC problems is established and a feedback control is designed to solve FC problems. The mathematical description of partial-formation control (PFC) problems is then designed as a structure of logical networks. An interesting practical example of PFC is also presented and discussed in detail.
On the logical structure of Bell theorems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walgate, Jonathan; Broadbent, Anne; Carteret, Hilary; Methot, Andre
2007-03-01
Some specific predictions of quantum mechanics are inconsistent with local realism, a phenomenon known as nonlocality. Despite overwhelming evidence for quantum mechanics, the practical difficulties of detector efficiency and coordinating space-like separated measurements have provided loopholes for a classical worldview. New experiments have been proposed to meet these challenges, based around a new kind of nonlocality proof called an ``EPR Bell inequality''. Much investment is now being made to realize these proofs experimentally. We show all these proposals are fundamentally flawed. We focus on a series of designs that have appeared in PRL and PRA for loophole-free Bell experiments. These experiments use hyperentangled two-photon quantum states to generate experimental data supposedly at odds with local realism. We show how to produce identical results using a single coin, and explain where the logical flaw can be found. To understand our nonclassical world, we must understand precisely the experimental evidence for nonlocality. This tempting shortcut is a logical, theoretical and experimental dead end. http://www.arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0512201.
Trimming the UCERF2 hazard logic tree
Porter, Keith A.; Field, Edward H.; Milner, Kevin
2012-01-01
The Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast 2 (UCERF2) is a fully time‐dependent earthquake rupture forecast developed with sponsorship of the California Earthquake Authority (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities [WGCEP], 2007; Field et al., 2009). UCERF2 contains 480 logic‐tree branches reflecting choices among nine modeling uncertainties in the earthquake rate model shown in Figure 1. For seismic hazard analysis, it is also necessary to choose a ground‐motion‐prediction equation (GMPE) and set its parameters. Choosing among four next‐generation attenuation (NGA) relationships results in a total of 1920 hazard calculations per site. The present work is motivated by a desire to reduce the computational effort involved in a hazard analysis without understating uncertainty. We set out to assess which branching points of the UCERF2 logic tree contribute most to overall uncertainty, and which might be safely ignored (set to only one branch) without significantly biasing results or affecting some useful measure of uncertainty. The trimmed logic tree will have all of the original choices from the branching points that contribute significantly to uncertainty, but only one arbitrarily selected choice from the branching points that do not.
Fuzzy logic control of telerobot manipulators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Franke, Ernest A.; Nedungadi, Ashok
1992-01-01
Telerobot systems for advanced applications will require manipulators with redundant 'degrees of freedom' (DOF) that are capable of adapting manipulator configurations to avoid obstacles while achieving the user specified goal. Conventional methods for control of manipulators (based on solution of the inverse kinematics) cannot be easily extended to these situations. Fuzzy logic control offers a possible solution to these needs. A current research program at SRI developed a fuzzy logic controller for a redundant, 4 DOF, planar manipulator. The manipulator end point trajectory can be specified by either a computer program (robot mode) or by manual input (teleoperator). The approach used expresses end-point error and the location of manipulator joints as fuzzy variables. Joint motions are determined by a fuzzy rule set without requiring solution of the inverse kinematics. Additional rules for sensor data, obstacle avoidance and preferred manipulator configuration, e.g., 'righty' or 'lefty', are easily accommodated. The procedure used to generate the fuzzy rules can be extended to higher DOF systems.
Block QCA Fault-Tolerant Logic Gates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Firjany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarres, Katayoon
2003-01-01
Suitably patterned arrays (blocks) of quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) have been proposed as fault-tolerant universal logic gates. These block QCA gates could be used to realize the potential of QCA for further miniaturization, reduction of power consumption, increase in switching speed, and increased degree of integration of very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) electronic circuits. The limitations of conventional VLSI circuitry, the basic principle of operation of QCA, and the potential advantages of QCA-based VLSI circuitry were described in several NASA Tech Briefs articles, namely Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots (NPO-20801), Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42; Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots (NPO-20855) Vol. 27, No. 1 (January 2003), page 32; Bit-Serial Adder Based on Quantum Dots (NPO-20869), Vol. 27, No. 1 (January 2003), page 35; and Hybrid VLSI/QCA Architecture for Computing FFTs (NPO-20923), which follows this article. To recapitulate the principle of operation (greatly oversimplified because of the limitation on space available for this article): A quantum-dot cellular automata contains four quantum dots positioned at or between the corners of a square cell. The cell contains two extra mobile electrons that can tunnel (in the quantummechanical sense) between neighboring dots within the cell. The Coulomb repulsion between the two electrons tends to make them occupy antipodal dots in the cell. For an isolated cell, there are two energetically equivalent arrangements (denoted polarization states) of the extra electrons. The cell polarization is used to encode binary information. Because the polarization of a nonisolated cell depends on Coulomb-repulsion interactions with neighboring cells, universal logic gates and binary wires could be constructed, in principle, by arraying QCA of suitable design in suitable patterns. Heretofore, researchers have recognized two major obstacles to realization of QCA
Energy-Efficient Wide Datapath Integer Arithmetic Logic Units Using Superconductor Logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayala, Christopher Lawrence
Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology is currently the most widely used integrated circuit technology today. As CMOS approaches the physical limitations of scaling, it is unclear whether or not it can provide long-term support for niche areas such as high-performance computing and telecommunication infrastructure, particularly with the emergence of cloud computing. Alternatively, superconductor technologies based on Josephson junction (JJ) switching elements such as Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) logic and especially its new variant, Energy-Efficient Rapid Single Flux Quantum (ERSFQ) logic have the capability to provide an ultra-high-speed, low power platform for digital systems. The objective of this research is to design and evaluate energy-efficient, high-speed 32-bit integer Arithmetic Logic Units (ALUs) implemented using RSFQ and ERSFQ logic as the first steps towards achieving practical Very-Large-Scale-Integration (VLSI) complexity in digital superconductor electronics. First, a tunable VHDL superconductor cell library is created to provide a mechanism to conduct design exploration and evaluation of superconductor digital circuits from the perspectives of functionality, complexity, performance, and energy-efficiency. Second, hybrid wave-pipelining techniques developed earlier for wide datapath RSFQ designs have been used for efficient arithmetic and logic circuit implementations. To develop the core foundation of the ALU, the ripple-carry adder and the Kogge-Stone parallel prefix carry look-ahead adder are studied as representative candidates on opposite ends of the design spectrum. By combining the high-performance features of the Kogge-Stone structure and the low complexity of the ripple-carry adder, a 32-bit asynchronous wave-pipelined hybrid sparse-tree ALU has been designed and evaluated using the VHDL cell library tuned to HYPRES' gate-level characteristics. The designs and techniques from this research have been implemented using
NASA Tech Briefs, January 2008
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2008-01-01
Topics covered include: Induction Charge Detector with Multiple Sensing Stages; Generic Helicopter-Based Testbed for Surface Terrain Imaging Sensors; Robot Electronics Architecture; Optimized Geometry for Superconducting Sensing Coils; Sensing a Changing Chemical Mixture Using an Electronic Nose; Inertial Orientation Trackers with Drift Compensation; Microstrip Yagi Antenna with Dual Aperture-Coupled Feed; Patterned Ferroelectric Films for Tunable Microwave Devices; Micron-Accurate Laser Fresnel-Diffraction Ranging System; Efficient G(sup 4)FET-Based Logic Circuits; Web-Enabled Optoelectronic Particle-Fallout Monitor; SiO2/TiO2 Composite for Removing Hg from Combustion Exhaust; Lightweight Tanks for Storing Liquefied Natural Gas; Hybrid Wound Filaments for Greater Resistance to Impacts; Making High-Tensile-Strength Amalgam Components; Bonding by Hydroxide-Catalyzed Hydration and Dehydration; Balanced Flow Meters without Moving Parts; Deflection-Compensating Beam for Use inside a Cylinder; Four-Point-Latching Microactuator; Curved Piezoelectric Actuators for Stretching Optical Fibers; Tunable Optical Assembly with Vibration Dampening; Passive Porous Treatment for Reducing Flap Side-Edge Noise; Cylindrical Piezoelectric Fiber Composite Actuators; Patterning of Indium Tin Oxide Films; Gimballed Shoulders for Friction Stir Welding; Improved Thermal Modulator for Gas Chromatography; Nuclear-Spin Gyroscope Based on an Atomic Co-Magnetometer; Utilizing Ion-Mobility Data to Estimate Molecular Masses; Optical Displacement Sensor for Sub-Hertz Applications; Polarization/Spatial Combining of Laser-Diode Pump Beams; Spatial Combining of Laser-Diode Beams for Pumping an NPRO; Algorithm Optimally Orders Forward-Chaining Inference Rules; Project Integration Architecture; High Power Amplifier and Power Supply; Estimating Mixing Heights Using Microwave Temperature Profiler; and Multiple-Cone Sunshade for a Spaceborne Telescope.
Logic: A Unit for 4-8 Graders, Especially Gifted and Talented.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Runkle, Susan; Tansey, Pam
The unit on logic is intended to teach critical thinking for gifted and talented students in grades 4-8. Sections are presented separately for students in grades 4-5 and 6-8. The younger students are instructed in such areas as scientific logic, math logic, spatial reasoning, deductive logic, inductive logic, and reasoning with analogies. The…
Fuzzy Logic: A New Tool for the Analysis and Organization of International Business Communications.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sondak, Norman E.; Sondak, Eileen M.
Classical western logic, built on a foundation of true/false, yes/no, right/wrong statements, leads to many difficulties and inconsistencies in the logical analysis and organization of international business communications. This paper presents the basic principles of classical logic and of fuzzy logic, a type of logic developed to allow for…
Measure Landscape Diversity with Logical Scout Agents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wirth, E.; Szabó, G.; Czinkóczky, A.
2016-06-01
The Common Agricultural Policy reform of the EU focuses on three long-term objectives: viable food production, sustainable management of natural resources and climate action with balanced territorial development. To achieve these goals, the EU farming and subsidizing policies (EEA, 2014) support landscape heterogeneity and diversity. Current paper introduces an agent-based method to calculate the potential of landscape diversity. The method tries to catch the nature of heterogeneity using logic and modelling as opposed to the traditional statistical reasoning. The outlined Random Walk Scouting algorithm registers the land cover crossings of the scout agents to a Monte Carlo integral. The potential is proportional with the composition and the configuration (spatial character) of the landscape. Based on the measured points a potential map is derived to give an objective and quantitative basis to the stakeholders (policy makers, farmers).
Logic and ethics in radiation protection.
Lindell, B
2001-12-01
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) continues to accept the assumption of a linear non-threshold dose-response relationship (LNT) as the most likely one. In that case, basic logic as well as widely accepted ethics require that the full collective dose be used for detriment assessments and in procedures for optimisation of radiation protection. This means that even the smallest doses must be taken into account in the assessment of the global collective dose if they contribute significantly together. However, in calculating collective doses over time, some reasonable restriction of the integration period has to be employed, mainly because of the uncertainties involved in the assessment of future detriment. There are also uncertainties in the LNT assumption, but the precautionary principle would not permit that this is taken as an excuse for neglecting small doses.
Synthesis of logic circuits with evolutionary algorithms
JONES,JAKE S.; DAVIDSON,GEORGE S.
2000-01-26
In the last decade there has been interest and research in the area of designing circuits with genetic algorithms, evolutionary algorithms, and genetic programming. However, the ability to design circuits of the size and complexity required by modern engineering design problems, simply by specifying required outputs for given inputs has as yet eluded researchers. This paper describes current research in the area of designing logic circuits using an evolutionary algorithm. The goal of the research is to improve the effectiveness of this method and make it a practical aid for design engineers. A novel method of implementing the algorithm is introduced, and results are presented for various multiprocessing systems. In addition to evolving standard arithmetic circuits, work in the area of evolving circuits that perform digital signal processing tasks is described.
Logical reasoning necessary to make line graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wavering, Michael J.
A study was conducted to determine the logical reasoning necessary to construct line graphs. Three types of line graphs were used: a straight line with a positive slope, a straight line with a negative slope, and an exponentially increasing curve. The subjects were students in grades six through twelve enrolled in a laboratory school. The responses were classified into one of nine categories. The categories ranged from no attempt to make a graph to a complete graph with a statement of a relationship between the variables. Subjects in grades six through eight exhibited behaviors mainly in the first four categories, ninth- and tenth-grade subjects scored in the middle categories, and eleventh and twelfth graders scored mainly in the upper categories. These response categories also showed a close fit with Piagetian concrete operational structures for single and double seriation and formal operational structures for proportional reasoning and correlational reasoning.
Prototype Conflict Alerting Logic for Free Flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, Lee C.; Kuchar, James K.
1997-01-01
This paper discusses the development of a prototype alerting system for a conceptual Free Flight environment. The concept assumes that datalink between aircraft is available and that conflicts are primarily resolved on the flight deck. Four alert stages are generated depending on the likelihood of a conflict. If the conflict is not resolved by the flight crews, Air Traffic Control is notified to take over separation authority. The alerting logic is based on probabilistic analysis through modeling of aircraft sensor and trajectory uncertainties. Monte Carlo simulations were used over a range of encounter situations to determine conflict probability. The four alert stages were then defined based on probability of conflict and on the number of avoidance maneuvers available to the flight crew. Preliminary results from numerical evaluations and from a piloted simulator study at NASA Ames Research Center are summarized.
Fruit Sorting Using Fuzzy Logic Techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elamvazuthi, Irraivan; Sinnadurai, Rajendran; Aftab Ahmed Khan, Mohamed Khan; Vasant, Pandian
2009-08-01
Fruit and vegetables market is getting highly selective, requiring their suppliers to distribute the goods according to very strict standards of quality and presentation. In the last years, a number of fruit sorting and grading systems have appeared to fulfill the needs of the fruit processing industry. However, most of them are overly complex and too costly for the small and medium scale industry (SMIs) in Malaysia. In order to address these shortcomings, a prototype machine was developed by integrating the fruit sorting, labeling and packing processes. To realise the prototype, many design issues were dealt with. Special attention is paid to the electronic weighing sub-system for measuring weight, and the opto-electronic sub-system for determining the height and width of the fruits. Specifically, this paper discusses the application of fuzzy logic techniques in the sorting process.
Fuzzy Logic Enhanced Digital PIV Processing Software
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wernet, Mark P.
1999-01-01
Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) is an instantaneous, planar velocity measurement technique that is ideally suited for studying transient flow phenomena in high speed turbomachinery. DPIV is being actively used at the NASA Glenn Research Center to study both stable and unstable operating conditions in a high speed centrifugal compressor. Commercial PIV systems are readily available which provide near real time feedback of the PIV image data quality. These commercial systems are well designed to facilitate the expedient acquisition of PIV image data. However, as with any general purpose system, these commercial PIV systems do not meet all of the data processing needs required for PIV image data reduction in our compressor research program. An in-house PIV PROCessing (PIVPROC) code has been developed for reducing PIV data. The PIVPROC software incorporates fuzzy logic data validation for maximum information recovery from PIV image data. PIVPROC enables combined cross-correlation/particle tracking wherein the highest possible spatial resolution velocity measurements are obtained.
New elements of the RSFQ logic family
Mukhanov, O.A. ); Polonsky, S.V.; Semenov, V.K. )
1991-03-01
Elements of the RSFQ logic/memory family have already reached operation frequency as large as 100 GHz and have a good chance to enter a sub-terahertz clock frequency range. Their parameter margins are as wide as {plus minus}25 + 30%, even one bit gates posses flip-flop features, and can be naturally self-times. This paper reports on RSFQ elements (OR-AND, NOR-AND), half adder, mutiplexer, demultiplexer, and shift registers are presented. Operation of these gates have been studied with the help of the Personal Superconductor Circuit Analyzer (PSCAN) within the standard RSJ model of Josephson junctions. Parameter margins and other performance limits of the new elements are thoroughly investigated.
Logic of discovery or psychology of invention?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woodward, James F.
1992-02-01
It is noted that Popper separates the creation of concepts, conjectures, hypotheses and theories—the context of invention—from the testing thereof—the context of justification—arguing that only the latter is susceptible of rigorous logical analysis. Efforts on the part of others to shift or eradicate the demarcation established by this distinction are discussed and the relationship of these considerations to the claims of “strong artificial intelligence” is pointed out. It is argued that the mode of education of scientists, as well as reports of celebrated scientists, support Popper's judgement in this matter. An historical episode from Faraday's later career is used to illustrate the historiographical strength of Lakatos' “methodology of research programs.”
A hierarchical cellular logic for pyramid computers
Tanimoto, S.L.
1984-11-01
Hierarchical structure occurs in biological vision systems and there is good reason to incorporate it into a model of computation for processing binary images. A mathematical formalism is presented which can describe a wide variety of operations useful in image processing and graphics. The formalism allows for two kinds of simple transformations on the values (called pyramids) of a set of cells called a hierarchical domain: the first are binary operations on boolean values, and the second are neighborhood-matching operations. The implied model of computation is more structured than previously discussed pyramidal models, and is more readily realized in parallel hardware, while it remains sufficiently rich to provide efficient solutions to a wide variety of problems. The model has a simplicity which is due to the restricted nature of the operations and the implied synchronization across the hierarchical domain. A corresponding algebraic simplicity in the logic makes possible the concise representation of many cellular-data operations.
Logic elements for reactor period meter
McDowell, William P.; Bobis, James P.
1976-01-01
Logic elements are provided for a reactor period meter trip circuit. For one element, first and second inputs are applied to first and second chopper comparators, respectively. The output of each comparator is O if the input applied to it is greater than or equal to a trip level associated with each input and each output is a square wave of frequency f if the input applied to it is less than the associated trip level. The outputs of the comparators are algebraically summed and applied to a bandpass filter tuned to f. For another element, the output of each comparator is applied to a bandpass filter which is tuned to f to give a sine wave of frequency f. The outputs of the filters are multiplied by an analog multiplier whose output is 0 if either input is 0 and a sine wave of frequency 2f if both inputs are a frequency f.
Gallium arsenide processing for gate array logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cole, Eric D.
1989-01-01
The development of a reliable and reproducible GaAs process was initiated for applications in gate array logic. Gallium Arsenide is an extremely important material for high speed electronic applications in both digital and analog circuits since its electron mobility is 3 to 5 times that of silicon, this allows for faster switching times for devices fabricated with it. Unfortunately GaAs is an extremely difficult material to process with respect to silicon and since it includes the arsenic component GaAs can be quite dangerous (toxic) especially during some heating steps. The first stage of the research was directed at developing a simple process to produce GaAs MESFETs. The MESFET (MEtal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) is the most useful, practical and simple active device which can be fabricated in GaAs. It utilizes an ohmic source and drain contact separated by a Schottky gate. The gate width is typically a few microns. Several process steps were required to produce a good working device including ion implantation, photolithography, thermal annealing, and metal deposition. A process was designed to reduce the total number of steps to a minimum so as to reduce possible errors. The first run produced no good devices. The problem occurred during an aluminum etch step while defining the gate contacts. It was found that the chemical etchant attacked the GaAs causing trenching and subsequent severing of the active gate region from the rest of the device. Thus all devices appeared as open circuits. This problem is being corrected and since it was the last step in the process correction should be successful. The second planned stage involves the circuit assembly of the discrete MESFETs into logic gates for test and analysis. Finally the third stage is to incorporate the designed process with the tested circuit in a layout that would produce the gate array as a GaAs integrated circuit.
Gallium arsenide processing for gate array logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cole, Eric D.
1989-09-01
The development of a reliable and reproducible GaAs process was initiated for applications in gate array logic. Gallium Arsenide is an extremely important material for high speed electronic applications in both digital and analog circuits since its electron mobility is 3 to 5 times that of silicon, this allows for faster switching times for devices fabricated with it. Unfortunately GaAs is an extremely difficult material to process with respect to silicon and since it includes the arsenic component GaAs can be quite dangerous (toxic) especially during some heating steps. The first stage of the research was directed at developing a simple process to produce GaAs MESFETs. The MESFET (MEtal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) is the most useful, practical and simple active device which can be fabricated in GaAs. It utilizes an ohmic source and drain contact separated by a Schottky gate. The gate width is typically a few microns. Several process steps were required to produce a good working device including ion implantation, photolithography, thermal annealing, and metal deposition. A process was designed to reduce the total number of steps to a minimum so as to reduce possible errors. The first run produced no good devices. The problem occurred during an aluminum etch step while defining the gate contacts. It was found that the chemical etchant attacked the GaAs causing trenching and subsequent severing of the active gate region from the rest of the device. Thus all devices appeared as open circuits. This problem is being corrected and since it was the last step in the process correction should be successful. The second planned stage involves the circuit assembly of the discrete MESFETs into logic gates for test and analysis. Finally the third stage is to incorporate the designed process with the tested circuit in a layout that would produce the gate array as a GaAs integrated circuit.
Leveraging Structure: Logical Necessity in the Context of Integer Arithmetic
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bishop, Jessica Pierson; Lamb, Lisa L.; Philipp, Randolph A.; Whitacre, Ian; Schappelle, Bonnie P.
2016-01-01
Looking for, recognizing, and using underlying mathematical structure is an important aspect of mathematical reasoning. We explore the use of mathematical structure in children's integer strategies by developing and exemplifying the construct of logical necessity. Students in our study used logical necessity to approach and use numbers in a…
Intelligent Vehicle Power Management Using Machine Learning and Fuzzy Logic
2008-06-01
machine learning and fuzzy logic. A machine learning algorithm, LOPPS, has been developed to learn about optimal power source combinations with... machine learning algorithm combined with fuzzy logic is a promising technology for vehicle power management. I. INTRODUCTION ROWING...sources, and the complex configuration and operation modes, the control strategy of a hybrid vehicle is more complicated than that of a conventional
Logical Reasoning in Science Education [and an Annotated Bibliography].
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Connelly, F. Michael; Binns, Richard W.
This paper on logical reasoning in science education was written from a philosophical, rather than a psychological, orientation within an overall curricular framework. Six areas are treated within this curricular framework: philosophical consideration, logical structure in a field of enquiry, materials development and evaluation, epistemological…
"Glitch Logic" and Applications to Computing and Information Security
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stoica, Adrian; Katkoori, Srinivas
2009-01-01
This paper introduces a new method of information processing in digital systems, and discusses its potential benefits to computing and information security. The new method exploits glitches caused by delays in logic circuits for carrying and processing information. Glitch processing is hidden to conventional logic analyses and undetectable by traditional reverse engineering techniques. It enables the creation of new logic design methods that allow for an additional controllable "glitch logic" processing layer embedded into a conventional synchronous digital circuits as a hidden/covert information flow channel. The combination of synchronous logic with specific glitch logic design acting as an additional computing channel reduces the number of equivalent logic designs resulting from synthesis, thus implicitly reducing the possibility of modification and/or tampering with the design. The hidden information channel produced by the glitch logic can be used: 1) for covert computing/communication, 2) to prevent reverse engineering, tampering, and alteration of design, and 3) to act as a channel for information infiltration/exfiltration and propagation of viruses/spyware/Trojan horses.
Logical Reasoning Ability and Student Performance in General Chemistry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bird, Lillian
2010-01-01
Logical reasoning skills of students enrolled in a general chemistry course at the University of Puerto Rico in Rio Piedras were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test. The results were used to determine the students' cognitive level (concrete, transitional, formal) as well as their level of performance by logical…
The Application of Logic Programming to Communication Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sanford, David L.
Recommending that communication students be required to learn to use computers not merely as number crunchers, word processors, data bases, and graphics generators, but also as logical inference makers, this paper examines the recently developed technology of logical programing in computer languages. It presents two syllogisms and shows how they…
Pre-Service Primary School Teachers' Logical Reasoning Skills
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marchis, Iuliana
2013-01-01
Logical reasoning skills are important for a successful mathematical learning and in students' future career. These skills are essential for a primary school teacher, because they need to explain solving methods and solutions to their pupils. In this research we studied pre-service primary school teachers' logical reasoning skills. The results…
The Influence of Fuzzy Logic Theory on Students' Achievement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Semerci, Çetin
2004-01-01
As science and technology develop, the use's areas of Fuzzy Logic Theory develop too. Measurement and evaluation in education is one of these areas. The purpose of this research is to explain the influence of fuzzy logic theory on students' achievement. An experimental method is employed in the research. The traditional achievement marks and The…
The Impact of Fuzzy Logic on Student Press Law.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCool, Lauralee; Plopper, Bruce L.
2001-01-01
Uses the relatively new science of fuzzy logic to review lower court and appellate court decisions from the last four decades regarding free expression in student publications. Finds pronounced effects, showing that fuzzy sets inherently favor administrators, while students show a strikingly high win/loss ratio when courts avoid fuzzy logic. (SR)
Pupils' Understanding of Logical Connectives in Selected Texts in History.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wishart, Elizabeth; Smith, J. Lea
Using a list of 15 logical connectives and a selected sample of 216 students from the higher range of ability in two British comprehensive schools, a study investigated the comprehension of those logical connectives in two contexts, "everyday" and "history." The 15 connectives tested occurred in a chapter of the textbook,…
43 CFR 3483.6 - Special logical mining unit rules.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special logical mining unit rules. 3483.6... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Diligence Requirements § 3483.6 Special logical mining unit rules. (a) Production anywhere...
43 CFR 3475.6 - Logical mining unit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Logical mining unit. 3475.6 Section 3475.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 3475.6 Logical mining unit. (a) Criteria for approving or directing establishment of an LMU shall...
43 CFR 3475.6 - Logical mining unit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Logical mining unit. 3475.6 Section 3475.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 3475.6 Logical mining unit. (a) Criteria for approving or directing establishment of an LMU shall...
43 CFR 3483.6 - Special logical mining unit rules.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special logical mining unit rules. 3483.6... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Diligence Requirements § 3483.6 Special logical mining unit rules. (a) Production anywhere...
43 CFR 3483.6 - Special logical mining unit rules.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special logical mining unit rules. 3483.6... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Diligence Requirements § 3483.6 Special logical mining unit rules. (a) Production anywhere...
43 CFR 3475.6 - Logical mining unit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Logical mining unit. 3475.6 Section 3475.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 3475.6 Logical mining unit. (a) Criteria for approving or directing establishment of an LMU shall...
43 CFR 3475.6 - Logical mining unit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Logical mining unit. 3475.6 Section 3475.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 3475.6 Logical mining unit. (a) Criteria for approving or directing establishment of an LMU shall...
43 CFR 3483.6 - Special logical mining unit rules.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special logical mining unit rules. 3483.6... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Diligence Requirements § 3483.6 Special logical mining unit rules. (a) Production anywhere...
Ideal Knowing: Logics of Knowledge in Primary School Curricula
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Macknight, Vicki
2011-01-01
This paper is written to draw attention to the ideal knower and the logic of knowledge embedded in curricula. New logics and new knowers, I argue, are conjured with the hope they will be capable of succeeding in curriculum designers' imagined future. I frame this discussion in terms of debates about the place of knowledge in the sociology of…
Two Medical Literatures That Are Logically But Not Bibliographically Connected.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Swanson, Don R.
1987-01-01
Describes a study which demonstrates that unintended logical connections within scientific literature, which potentially reveal new knowledge, are unmarked by reference citations or other bibliographic clues. Citation analysis of two separate literatures in biomedicine that have a logical link is used to support this hypothesis. (Author/CLB)
Automated deduction for first-order logic with equality
2001-06-01
Otter 3.2 is the current version of ANL's automated deduction system designed to search for proofs and countermodels of conjectures stated in first-order logic with equality. It is used mostly for research in mathematics and logic and also for various applications requiring deductive data processing.
Automated deduction for first-order logic with equality
2003-09-01
Otter 3.3 is the current version of ANL's automated deduction system designed to search for proofs and countermodels of conjectures stated in first-order logic with equality. It is used mostly for research in mathematics and logic and also for various applications requiring deductive data processing.
Exploring the Common Ground of Rhetoric and Logic.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lamb, Catherine E.
In teaching the principles of rational discourse in advanced expository writing, it is necessary to clarify the similarities and differences between the logic and rhetoric of Aristotle and to identify a common ground between the two. The study of logic within rhetoric focuses on the inductive standards used to support two kinds of argument: the…
Evidence that logical reasoning depends on conscious processing.
DeWall, C Nathan; Baumeister, Roy F; Masicampo, E J
2008-09-01
Humans, unlike other animals, are equipped with a powerful brain that permits conscious awareness and reflection. A growing trend in psychological science has questioned the benefits of consciousness, however. Testing a hypothesis advanced by [Lieberman, M. D., Gaunt, R., Gilbert, D. T., & Trope, Y. (2002). Reflection and reflexion: A social cognitive neuroscience approach to attributional inference. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 34, 199-249], four studies suggested that the conscious, reflective processing system is vital for logical reasoning. Substantial decrements in logical reasoning were found when a cognitive load manipulation preoccupied conscious processing, while hampering the nonconscious system with consciously suppressed thoughts failed to impair reasoning (Experiment 1). Nonconscious activation (priming) of the idea of logical reasoning increased the activation of logic-relevant concepts, but failed to improve logical reasoning performance (Experiments 2a-2c) unless the logical conclusions were largely intuitive and thus not reliant on logical reasoning (Experiment 3). Meanwhile, stimulating the conscious goal of reasoning well led to improvements in reasoning performance (Experiment 4). These findings offer evidence that logical reasoning is aided by the conscious, reflective processing system.
SDLDS--System for Digital Logic Design and Simulation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stanisavljevic, Z.; Pavlovic, V.; Nikolic, B.; Djordjevic, J.
2013-01-01
This paper presents the basic features of a software system developed to support the teaching of digital logic, as well as the experience of using it in the Digital Logic course taught at the School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Serbia. The system has been used for several years, both by students for self-learning and…
Using Letters-to-the-Editor To Uncover Logical Fallacies.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hayward, Pamela A.
When covering persuasion in the basic speech communication course, many textbooks include information on how students can detect logical fallacies in the persuasive attempts of others. It is important to provide students with a hands-on experience that will help them apply their knowledge of logical fallacies so that they can retain and better use…
Fluid logic control circuit operates nutator actuator motor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1966-01-01
Fluid logic control circuit operates a pneumatic nutator actuator motor. It has no moving parts and consists of connected fluid interaction devices. The operation of this circuit demonstrates the ability of fluid interaction devices to operate in a complex combination of series and parallel logic sequence.
Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagrams
Fellows, R.L.
1993-02-26
The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates envirorunental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. This volume, Volume 2, contains logic diagrams with an index. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use.
Logical Modeling and Dynamical Analysis of Cellular Networks
Abou-Jaoudé, Wassim; Traynard, Pauline; Monteiro, Pedro T.; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Helikar, Tomáš; Thieffry, Denis; Chaouiya, Claudine
2016-01-01
The logical (or logic) formalism is increasingly used to model regulatory and signaling networks. Complementing these applications, several groups contributed various methods and tools to support the definition and analysis of logical models. After an introduction to the logical modeling framework and to several of its variants, we review here a number of recent methodological advances to ease the analysis of large and intricate networks. In particular, we survey approaches to determine model attractors and their reachability properties, to assess the dynamical impact of variations of external signals, and to consistently reduce large models. To illustrate these developments, we further consider several published logical models for two important biological processes, namely the differentiation of T helper cells and the control of mammalian cell cycle. PMID:27303434
Synthetic circuits integrating logic and memory in living cells.
Siuti, Piro; Yazbek, John; Lu, Timothy K
2013-05-01
Logic and memory are essential functions of circuits that generate complex, state-dependent responses. Here we describe a strategy for efficiently assembling synthetic genetic circuits that use recombinases to implement Boolean logic functions with stable DNA-encoded memory of events. Application of this strategy allowed us to create all 16 two-input Boolean logic functions in living Escherichia coli cells without requiring cascades comprising multiple logic gates. We demonstrate long-term maintenance of memory for at least 90 cell generations and the ability to interrogate the states of these synthetic devices with fluorescent reporters and PCR. Using this approach we created two-bit digital-to-analog converters, which should be useful in biotechnology applications for encoding multiple stable gene expression outputs using transient inputs of inducers. We envision that this integrated logic and memory system will enable the implementation of complex cellular state machines, behaviors and pathways for therapeutic, diagnostic and basic science applications.
Photonic ququart logic assisted by the cavity-QED system
Luo, Ming-Xing; Deng, Yun; Li, Hui-Ran; Ma, Song-Ya
2015-01-01
Universal quantum logic gates are important elements for a quantum computer. In contrast to previous constructions of qubit systems, we investigate the possibility of ququart systems (four-dimensional states) dependent on two DOFs of photon systems. We propose some useful one-parameter four-dimensional quantum transformations for the construction of universal ququart logic gates. The interface between the spin of a photon and an electron spin confined in a quantum dot embedded in a microcavity is applied to build universal ququart logic gates on the photon system with two freedoms. Our elementary controlled-ququart gates cost no more than 8 CNOT gates in a qubit system, which is far less than the 104 CNOT gates required for a general four-qubit logic gate. The ququart logic is also used to generate useful hyperentanglements and hyperentanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting code, which may be available in modern physical technology. PMID:26272869
Photonic ququart logic assisted by the cavity-QED system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Ming-Xing; Deng, Yun; Li, Hui-Ran; Ma, Song-Ya
2015-08-01
Universal quantum logic gates are important elements for a quantum computer. In contrast to previous constructions of qubit systems, we investigate the possibility of ququart systems (four-dimensional states) dependent on two DOFs of photon systems. We propose some useful one-parameter four-dimensional quantum transformations for the construction of universal ququart logic gates. The interface between the spin of a photon and an electron spin confined in a quantum dot embedded in a microcavity is applied to build universal ququart logic gates on the photon system with two freedoms. Our elementary controlled-ququart gates cost no more than 8 CNOT gates in a qubit system, which is far less than the 104 CNOT gates required for a general four-qubit logic gate. The ququart logic is also used to generate useful hyperentanglements and hyperentanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting code, which may be available in modern physical technology.
Fuzzy forecasting based on fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups.
Chen, Shyi-Ming; Wang, Nai-Yi
2010-10-01
In this paper, we present a new method to predict the Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index (TAIEX) based on fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups (FTLRGs). The proposed method divides fuzzy logical relationships into FTLRGs based on the trend of adjacent fuzzy sets appearing in the antecedents of fuzzy logical relationships. First, we apply an automatic clustering algorithm to cluster the historical data into intervals of different lengths. Then, we define fuzzy sets based on these intervals of different lengths. Then, the historical data are fuzzified into fuzzy sets to derive fuzzy logical relationships. Then, we divide the fuzzy logical relationships into FTLRGs for forecasting the TAIEX. Moreover, we also apply the proposed method to forecast the enrollments and the inventory demand, respectively. The experimental results show that the proposed method gets higher average forecasting accuracy rates than the existing methods.
Coloured Logic Petri Nets and analysis of their reachable trees
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jing; Du, YuYue; Yu, ShuXia
2015-11-01
Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyse the batch processing function and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems, and alleviate the state space explosion problem. However, the indeterminate data of logical output transitions cannot be described explicitly in LPNs. Therefore, Coloured Logic Petri nets (CLPNs) are defined in this paper. It can determine the indeterminate data of logic output transitions in LPNs, i.e., the indeterminate data can be represented definitely in CLPNs. A vector matching method is proposed to judge the enabling transitions and analyse CLPNs. From the marking equation and the proposed reachable tree generation algorithm of CLPNs, a reachable tree can be built, and reachable markings are calculated. The advantage of CLPNs can be shown based on the number of leaf nodes of the reachability tree, and CLPNs can solve the indeterminate data of logical output transitions. Finally, an example shows that CLPNs can further reduce the dimensionality of reachable markings.
Logic as Marr's Computational Level: Four Case Studies.
Baggio, Giosuè; van Lambalgen, Michiel; Hagoort, Peter
2015-04-01
We sketch four applications of Marr's levels-of-analysis methodology to the relations between logic and experimental data in the cognitive neuroscience of language and reasoning. The first part of the paper illustrates the explanatory power of computational level theories based on logic. We show that a Bayesian treatment of the suppression task in reasoning with conditionals is ruled out by EEG data, supporting instead an analysis based on defeasible logic. Further, we describe how results from an EEG study on temporal prepositions can be reanalyzed using formal semantics, addressing a potential confound. The second part of the article demonstrates the predictive power of logical theories drawing on EEG data on processing progressive constructions and on behavioral data on conditional reasoning in people with autism. Logical theories can constrain processing hypotheses all the way down to neurophysiology, and conversely neuroscience data can guide the selection of alternative computational level models of cognition.
Anion Sensors as Logic Gates: A Close Encounter?
Madhuprasad; Bhat, Mahesh P; Jung, Ho-Young; Losic, Dusan; Kurkuri, Mahaveer D
2016-04-25
Computers have become smarter, smaller, and more efficient due to the downscaling of silicon-based components. Top-down miniaturisation of silicon-based computer components is fast reaching its limitations because of physical constraints and economical non-feasibility. Therefore, the possibility of a bottom-up approach that uses molecules to build nano-sized devices has been initiated. As a result, molecular logic gates based on chemical inputs and measurable optical outputs have captured significant attention very recently. In addition, it would be interesting if such molecular logic gates could be developed by making use of ion sensors, which can give significantly sensitive output information. This review provides a brief introduction to anion receptors, molecular logic gates, a comprehensive review on describing recent advances and progress on development of ion receptors for molecular logic gates, and a brief idea about the application of molecular logic gates.
Photonic ququart logic assisted by the cavity-QED system.
Luo, Ming-Xing; Deng, Yun; Li, Hui-Ran; Ma, Song-Ya
2015-08-14
Universal quantum logic gates are important elements for a quantum computer. In contrast to previous constructions of qubit systems, we investigate the possibility of ququart systems (four-dimensional states) dependent on two DOFs of photon systems. We propose some useful one-parameter four-dimensional quantum transformations for the construction of universal ququart logic gates. The interface between the spin of a photon and an electron spin confined in a quantum dot embedded in a microcavity is applied to build universal ququart logic gates on the photon system with two freedoms. Our elementary controlled-ququart gates cost no more than 8 CNOT gates in a qubit system, which is far less than the 104 CNOT gates required for a general four-qubit logic gate. The ququart logic is also used to generate useful hyperentanglements and hyperentanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting code, which may be available in modern physical technology.
A complementary logic partitioning algorithm for a library-free logic synthesis paradigm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Masry, Hisham; Al-Khalili, Dhamin
2007-12-01
This paper presents a novel approach for technology partitioning in a library free paradigm based on the use of virtual cells. Previous methods for library free logic partitioning rely on creating the largest possible partitions from a user defined criteria, predominately the stack length of the transistor level implementation. However, these methods can cause conflicting structures, defying the AND-OR-INVERT (AOI) and OR-AND-INVERT (OAI) representations that are used as templates for the virtual cells. The Complementary Logic Partitioning (CLP) algorithm, defines a partition as consisting of only two hierarchical levels of complementary nodes (AND and OR), as well as using the logical effort model for the migration of inputs to optimize the partitions to meet both the user defined limiting criteria and minimize the delay of the inputs. The CLP algorithm is compared against Synopsys' Design Compiler using Artisan standard cell library for a set of MCNC '91 benchmarks. Preliminary simulation results based on TSMC's 0.18 micron CMOS technology, show a reduction of more than 50% in the critical path delay can be achieved with CLP.
Surface-confined assemblies and polymers for molecular logic.
de Ruiter, Graham; van der Boom, Milko E
2011-08-16
Stimuli responsive materials are capable of mimicking the operation characteristics of logic gates such as AND, OR, NOR, and even flip-flops. Since the development of molecular sensors and the introduction of the first AND gate in solution by de Silva in 1993, Molecular (Boolean) Logic and Computing (MBLC) has become increasingly popular. In this Account, we present recent research activities that focus on MBLC with electrochromic polymers and metal polypyridyl complexes on a solid support. Metal polypyridyl complexes act as useful sensors to a variety of analytes in solution (i.e., H(2)O, Fe(2+/3+), Cr(6+), NO(+)) and in the gas phase (NO(x) in air). This information transfer, whether the analyte is present, is based on the reversible redox chemistry of the metal complexes, which are stable up to 200 °C in air. The concurrent changes in the optical properties are nondestructive and fast. In such a setup, the input is directly related to the output and, therefore, can be represented by one-input logic gates. These input-output relationships are extendable for mimicking the diverse functions of essential molecular logic gates and circuits within a set of Boolean algebraic operations. Such a molecular approach towards Boolean logic has yielded a series of proof-of-concept devices: logic gates, multiplexers, half-adders, and flip-flop logic circuits. MBLC is a versatile and, potentially, a parallel approach to silicon circuits: assemblies of these molecular gates can perform a wide variety of logic tasks through reconfiguration of their inputs. Although these developments do not require a semiconductor blueprint, similar guidelines such as signal propagation, gate-to-gate communication, propagation delay, and combinatorial and sequential logic will play a critical role in allowing this field to mature. For instance, gate-to-gate communication by chemical wiring of the gates with metal ions as electron carriers results in the integration of stand-alone systems: the
Chang, Yih Chung; Xu Yuntao; Lu Zhou; Xu Hong; Ng, C. Y.
2012-09-14
We have developed an ion-molecule reaction apparatus for state-selected absolute total cross section measurements by implementing a high-resolution molecular beam vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser pulsed field ionization-photoion (PFI-PI) ion source to a double-quadrupole double-octopole ion-guide mass spectrometer. Using the total cross section measurement of the state-selected N{sub 2}{sup +}(v{sup +}, N{sup +}) + Ar charge transfer (CT) reaction as an example, we describe in detail the design of the VUV laser PFI-PI ion source used, which has made possible the preparation of reactant N{sub 2}{sup +}(X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}, v{sup +}= 0-2, N{sup +}= 0-9) PFI-PIs with high quantum state purity, high intensity, and high kinetic energy resolution. The PFI-PIs and prompt ions produced in the ion source are shown to have different kinetic energies, allowing the clean rejection of prompt ions from the PFI-PI beam by applying a retarding potential barrier upstream of the PFI-PI source. By optimizing the width and amplitude of the pulsed electric fields employed to the VUV-PFI-PI source, we show that the reactant N{sub 2}{sup +} PFI-PI beam can be formed with a laboratory kinetic energy resolution of {Delta}E{sub lab}={+-} 50 meV. As a result, the total cross section measurement can be conducted at center-of-mass kinetic energies (E{sub cm}'s) down to thermal energies. Absolute total rovibrationally selected cross sections {sigma}(v{sup +}= 0-2, N{sup +}= 0-9) for the N{sub 2}{sup +}(X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}; v{sup +}= 0-2, N{sup +}= 0-9) + Ar CT reaction have been measured in the E{sub cm} range of 0.04-10.0 eV, revealing strong vibrational enhancements and E{sub cm}-dependencies of {sigma}(v{sup +}= 0-2, N{sup +}= 0-9). The thermochemical threshold at E{sub cm}= 0.179 eV for the formation of Ar{sup +} from N{sub 2}{sup +}(X; v{sup +}= 0, N{sup +}) + Ar was observed by the measured {sigma}(v{sup +}= 0), confirming the narrow {Delta}E{sub cm} spread achieved in
Two Influential Primate Classifications Logically Aligned
Franz, Nico M.; Pier, Naomi M.; Reeder, Deeann M.; Chen, Mingmin; Yu, Shizhuo; Kianmajd, Parisa; Bowers, Shawn; Ludäscher, Bertram
2016-01-01
Classifications and phylogenies of perceived natural entities change in the light of new evidence. Taxonomic changes, translated into Code-compliant names, frequently lead to name:meaning dissociations across succeeding treatments. Classification standards such as the Mammal Species of the World (MSW) may experience significant levels of taxonomic change from one edition to the next, with potential costs to long-term, large-scale information integration. This circumstance challenges the biodiversity and phylogenetic data communities to express taxonomic congruence and incongruence in ways that both humans and machines can process, that is, to logically represent taxonomic alignments across multiple classifications. We demonstrate that such alignments are feasible for two classifications of primates corresponding to the second and third MSW editions. Our approach has three main components: (i) use of taxonomic concept labels, that is name sec. author (where sec. means according to), to assemble each concept hierarchy separately via parent/child relationships; (ii) articulation of select concepts across the two hierarchies with user-provided Region Connection Calculus (RCC-5) relationships; and (iii) the use of an Answer Set Programming toolkit to infer and visualize logically consistent alignments of these input constraints. Our use case entails the Primates sec. Groves (1993; MSW2–317 taxonomic concepts; 233 at the species level) and Primates sec. Groves (2005; MSW3–483 taxonomic concepts; 376 at the species level). Using 402 RCC-5 input articulations, the reasoning process yields a single, consistent alignment and 153,111 Maximally Informative Relations that constitute a comprehensive meaning resolution map for every concept pair in the Primates sec. MSW2/MSW3. The complete alignment, and various partitions thereof, facilitate quantitative analyses of name:meaning dissociation, revealing that nearly one in three taxonomic names are not reliable across
A reconfigurable NAND/NOR genetic logic gate
2012-01-01
Background Engineering genetic Boolean logic circuits is a major research theme of synthetic biology. By altering or introducing connections between genetic components, novel regulatory networks are built in order to mimic the behaviour of electronic devices such as logic gates. While electronics is a highly standardized science, genetic logic is still in its infancy, with few agreed standards. In this paper we focus on the interpretation of logical values in terms of molecular concentrations. Results We describe the results of computational investigations of a novel circuit that is able to trigger specific differential responses depending on the input standard used. The circuit can therefore be dynamically reconfigured (without modification) to serve as both a NAND/NOR logic gate. This multi-functional behaviour is achieved by a) varying the meanings of inputs, and b) using branch predictions (as in computer science) to display a constrained output. A thorough computational study is performed, which provides valuable insights for the future laboratory validation. The simulations focus on both single-cell and population behaviours. The latter give particular insights into the spatial behaviour of our engineered cells on a surface with a non-homogeneous distribution of inputs. Conclusions We present a dynamically-reconfigurable NAND/NOR genetic logic circuit that can be switched between modes of operation via a simple shift in input signal concentration. The circuit addresses important issues in genetic logic that will have significance for more complex synthetic biology applications. PMID:22989145
Novel Ferroelectric CMOS Circuits as a Nonvolatile Logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Li, Q.-H.; Wang, S.; Yun, K. Y.; Sakai, S.
2008-03-01
We propose a novel and promising nonvolatile-logic circuit constructed by p channel type (Pch) and n channel type (Nch) ferroelectric gate field effect transistors (FeFETs), which we named a ferroelectric CMOS (FeCMOS) circuit. The circuit works as both logic and memory. We fabricated a NOT logic FeCMOS device which have Pt metal gates and gate oxides of ferroelectric SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) and high-k HfAlO on Si. Key technology was adjusting threshold voltages of the FeFETs as well as preparing those of high quality. We demonstrate basic operations of the NOT-logic response, memory writing, holding and non-destructive reading. The memory writing is done by amplifying the input node voltage to a higher level when the node was logically high and to a lower one when it was logically low just before the writing operation. The data retention was also measured. The retained high and low voltages were almost unchanged for 1.2 days. The idea of this FeCMOS will enhance flexibility of circuit designing by merging logic and memory functions. This work was partially supported by NEDO.
Reversibility and energy dissipation in adiabatic superconductor logic.
Takeuchi, Naoki; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki
2017-12-01
Reversible computing is considered to be a key technology to achieve an extremely high energy efficiency in future computers. In this study, we investigated the relationship between reversibility and energy dissipation in adiabatic superconductor logic. We analyzed the evolution of phase differences of Josephson junctions in the reversible quantum-flux-parametron (RQFP) gate and confirmed that the phase differences can change time reversibly, which indicates that the RQFP gate is physically, as well as logically, reversible. We calculated energy dissipation required for the RQFP gate to perform a logic operation and numerically demonstrated that the energy dissipation can fall below the thermal limit, or the Landauer bound, by lowering operation frequencies. We also investigated the 1-bit-erasure gate as a logically irreversible gate and the quasi-RQFP gate as a physically irreversible gate. We calculated the energy dissipation of these irreversible gates and showed that the energy dissipation of these gate is dominated by non-adiabatic state changes, which are induced by unwanted interactions between gates due to logical or physical irreversibility. Our results show that, in reversible computing using adiabatic superconductor logic, logical and physical reversibility are required to achieve energy dissipation smaller than the Landauer bound without non-adiabatic processes caused by gate interactions.
Devising an unconventional formal logic for bioinspired spacefaring automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santoli, Salvatore
2011-03-01
The field of robotics is increasingly moving from robots confined to factory floors and assembly lines and bound to perform the same tasks over and over in an uncertainty-free, well foreseeable environment, to robots designed for operating in highly dynamic and uncertainty domains, like those of interest in space exploration. According to an idea of a "new system of formal logic less rigid than past and present formal logic" advocated by von Neumann for building a powerful theory of automata, such system should be "closer to another discipline which has been little linked in the past with logic, i.e. thermodynamics, primarily in the form it was received by Boltzmann". Following that idea, which is particularly interesting now with the emerging computational nano-sciences, it is stressed here that a full set of isomorphisms can be established between the fundamental logical principles and the information flows, Hamiltonian or dissipative, in phase space. This form of logic, dubbed here kinetic logic, takes standard formal logic out of the field of combinatorics and into the field of the Boltzmannian form of thermodynamics, i.e. kinetics.
Quantum logic gates from Dirac quasiparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marino, E. C.; Brozeguini, J. C.
2015-03-01
We show that one of the fundamental operations of topological quantum computation, namely the non-Abelian braiding of identical particles, can be physically realized in a general system of Dirac quasiparticles in 1 + 1D. Our method is based on the study of the analytic structure of the different Euclidean correlation functions of Dirac fields, which are conveniently expressed as functions of a complex variable. When the Dirac field is an (Abelian) anyon with statistics parameter s (2s not an integer), we show that the associated Majorana states of such a field present non-Abelian statistics. The explicit form of the unitary, non-commuting (monodromy) matrices generated upon braiding is derived as a function of s and is shown to satisfy the Yang-Baxter algebra. For the special case of s = 1/4, we show that the braiding matrices become the logic gates NOT, CNOT,… required in the algorithms of universal quantum computation. We suggest that maybe polyacetylene, alternately doped with alkali and halogen atoms, is a potential candidate for a physical material realization of the system studied here.
Theorem Proving In Higher Order Logics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carreno, Victor A. (Editor); Munoz, Cesar A.; Tahar, Sofiene
2002-01-01
The TPHOLs International Conference serves as a venue for the presentation of work in theorem proving in higher-order logics and related areas in deduction, formal specification, software and hardware verification, and other applications. Fourteen papers were submitted to Track B (Work in Progress), which are included in this volume. Authors of Track B papers gave short introductory talks that were followed by an open poster session. The FCM 2002 Workshop aimed to bring together researchers working on the formalisation of continuous mathematics in theorem proving systems with those needing such libraries for their applications. Many of the major higher order theorem proving systems now have a formalisation of the real numbers and various levels of real analysis support. This work is of interest in a number of application areas, such as formal methods development for hardware and software application and computer supported mathematics. The FCM 2002 consisted of three papers, presented by their authors at the workshop venue, and one invited talk.
Noisy signaling through promoter logic gates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerstung, Moritz; Timmer, Jens; Fleck, Christian
2009-01-01
We study the influence of noisy transcription factor signals on cis-regulatory promoter elements. These elements process the probability of binary binding events analogous to computer logic gates. At equilibrium, this probability is given by the so-called input function. We show that transcription factor noise causes deviations from the equilibrium value due to the nonlinearity of the input function. For a single binding site, the correction is always negative resulting in an occupancy below the mean-field level. Yet for more complex promoters it depends on the correlation of the transcription factor signals and the geometry of the input function. We present explicit solutions for the basic types of AND and OR gates. The correction size varies among these different types of gates and signal types, mainly being larger in AND gates and for correlated fluctuations. In all cases we find excellent agreement between the analytical results and numerical simulations. We also study the E. coli Lac operon as an example of an AND NOR gate. We present a consistent mathematical method that allows one to separate different sources of noise and quantifies their effect on promoter occupation. A surprising result of our analysis is that Poissonian molecular fluctuations, in contrast to external fluctuations, do no contribute to the correction.
Improvements to the adaptive maneuvering logic program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burgin, George H.
1986-01-01
The Adaptive Maneuvering Logic (AML) computer program simulates close-in, one-on-one air-to-air combat between two fighter aircraft. Three important improvements are described. First, the previously available versions of AML were examined for their suitability as a baseline program. The selected program was then revised to eliminate some programming bugs which were uncovered over the years. A listing of this baseline program is included. Second, the equations governing the motion of the aircraft were completely revised. This resulted in a model with substantially higher fidelity than the original equations of motion provided. It also completely eliminated the over-the-top problem, which occurred in the older versions when the AML-driven aircraft attempted a vertical or near vertical loop. Third, the requirements for a versatile generic, yet realistic, aircraft model were studied and implemented in the program. The report contains detailed tables which make the generic aircraft to be either a modern, high performance aircraft, an older high performance aircraft, or a previous generation jet fighter.
Functional neuroimaging: technical, logical, and social perspectives.
Aguirre, Geoffrey K
2014-01-01
Neuroscientists have long sought to study the dynamic activity of the human brain-what's happening in the brain, that is, while people are thinking, feeling, and acting. Ideally, an inside look at brain function would simultaneously and continuously measure the biochemical state of every cell in the central nervous system. While such a miraculous method is science fiction, a century of progress in neuroimaging technologies has made such simultaneous and continuous measurement a plausible fiction. Despite this progress, practitioners of modern neuroimaging struggle with two kinds of limitations: those that attend the particular neuroimaging methods we have today and those that would limit any method of imaging neural activity, no matter how powerful. In this essay, I consider the liabilities and potential of techniques that measure human brain activity. I am concerned here only with methods that measure relevant physiologic states of the central nervous system and relate those measures to particular mental states. I will consider in particular the preeminent method of functional neuroimaging: BOLD fMRI. While there are several practical limits on the biological information that current technologies can measure, these limits-as important as they are-are minor in comparison to the fundamental logical restraints on the conclusions that can be drawn from brain imaging studies.
The Wave Logic of Consciousness: A Hypothesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orlov, Yuri F.
1982-01-01
A physical model is proposed for volitional decision making. It is postulated that consciousness reduces doubt states of the brain into labels by a quantum-mechanical measurement act of free choice. Elementary doubt states illustrate analogical encodement of information having “insufficient resolution” from a classical viewpoint. Measures of certitude (inner conviction) and doubt are formulated. “Adequate propositions” for nonclassical statements, e.g., Hamlet's soliloquy, are constructed. A role is proposed for the superposition principle in imagination and creativity. Experimental predictions are offered for positive and negative interference of doubts. Necessary criteria are made explicit for doubting sense information. Wholeness of perception is illustrated using irreducible, unitary representations of n-valued logics. The interpreted formalism includes nonclassical features of doubt, e.g., scalor representations for imprecise propositions and state changes due to self-reflection. The “liar paradox” is resolved. An internal origin is suggested for spinor dichotomies, e.g., “true-false” and “good-bad,” analogous to particle production.
Fuzzy logic-based spike sorting system.
Balasubramanian, Karthikeyan; Obeid, Iyad
2011-05-15
We present a new method for autonomous real-time spike sorting using a fuzzy logic inference engine. The engine assigns each detected event a 'spikiness index' from zero to one that quantifies the extent to which the detected event is like an ideal spike. Spikes can then be sorted by simply clustering the spikiness indices. The sorter is defined in terms of natural language rules that, once defined, are static and thus require no user intervention or calibration. The sorter was tested using extracellular recordings from three animals: a macaque, an owl monkey and a rat. Simulation results show that the fuzzy sorter performed equal to or better than the benchmark principal component analysis (PCA) based sorter. Importantly, there was no degradation in fuzzy sorter performance when the spikes were not temporally aligned prior to sorting. In contrast, PCA sorter performance dropped by 27% when sorting unaligned spikes. Since the fuzzy sorter is computationally trivial and requires no spike alignment, it is suitable for scaling into large numbers of parallel channels where computational overhead and the need for operator intervention would preclude other spike sorters.
Astronomical pipeline processing using fuzzy logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shamir, Lior
In the past few years, pipelines providing astronomical data have been becoming increasingly important. The wide use of robotic telescopes has provided significant discoveries, and sky survey projects such as SDSS and the future LSST are now considered among the premier projects in the field astronomy. The huge amount of data produced by these pipelines raises the need for automatic processing. Astronomical pipelines introduce several well-defined problems such as astronomical image compression, cosmic-ray hit rejection, transient detection, meteor triangulation and association of point sources with their corresponding known stellar objects. We developed and applied soft computing algorithms that provide new or improved solutions to these growing problems in the field of pipeline processing of astronomical data. One new approach that we use is fuzzy logic-based algorithms, which enables the automatic analysis of the astronomical pipelines and allows mining the data for not-yet-known astronomical discoveries such as optical transients and variable stars. The developed algorithms have been tested with excellent results on the NightSkyLive sky survey, which provides a pipeline of 150 astronomical pictures per hour, and covers almost the entire global night sky.
Towards woven logic from organic electronic fibres.
Hamedi, Mahiar; Forchheimer, Robert; Inganäs, Olle
2007-05-01
The use of organic polymers for electronic functions is mainly motivated by the low-end applications, where low cost rather than advanced performance is a driving force. Materials and processing methods must allow for cheap production. Printing of electronics using inkjets or classical printing methods has considerable potential to deliver this. Another technology that has been around for millennia is weaving using fibres. Integration of electronic functions within fabrics, with production methods fully compatible with textiles, is therefore of current interest, to enhance performance and extend functions of textiles. Standard polymer field-effect transistors require well defined insulator thickness and high voltage, so they have limited suitability for electronic textiles. Here we report a novel approach through the construction of wire electrochemical transistor (WECT) devices, and show that textile monofilaments with 10-100 mum diameters can be coated with continuous thin films of the conducting polythiophene poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), and used to create micro-scale WECTs on single fibres. We also demonstrate inverters and multiplexers for digital logic. This opens an avenue for three-dimensional polymer micro-electronics, where large-scale circuits can be designed and integrated directly into the three-dimensional structure of woven fibres.
Towards woven logic from organic electronic fibres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamedi, Mahiar; Forchheimer, Robert; Inganäs, Olle
2007-05-01
The use of organic polymers for electronic functions is mainly motivated by the low-end applications, where low cost rather than advanced performance is a driving force. Materials and processing methods must allow for cheap production. Printing of electronics using inkjets or classical printing methods has considerable potential to deliver this. Another technology that has been around for millennia is weaving using fibres. Integration of electronic functions within fabrics, with production methods fully compatible with textiles, is therefore of current interest, to enhance performance and extend functions of textiles. Standard polymer field-effect transistors require well defined insulator thickness and high voltage, so they have limited suitability for electronic textiles. Here we report a novel approach through the construction of wire electrochemical transistor (WECT) devices, and show that textile monofilaments with 10-100μm diameters can be coated with continuous thin films of the conducting polythiophene poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), and used to create micro-scale WECTs on single fibres. We also demonstrate inverters and multiplexers for digital logic. This opens an avenue for three-dimensional polymer micro-electronics, where large-scale circuits can be designed and integrated directly into the three-dimensional structure of woven fibres.
Scaling of pneumatic digital logic circuits.
Duncan, Philip N; Ahrar, Siavash; Hui, Elliot E
2015-03-07
The scaling of integrated circuits to smaller dimensions is critical for achieving increased system complexity and speed. Digital logic circuits composed of pneumatic microfluidic components have to this point been limited to a circuit density of 2-4 gates cm(-2), constraining the complexity of the digital systems that can be achieved. We explored the use of precision machining techniques to reduce the size of pneumatic valves and resistors, and to achieve more accurate and efficient placement of ports and vias. In this way, we attained an order of magnitude increase in circuit density, reaching as high as 36 gates cm(-2). A 12-bit binary counter circuit composed of 96 gates was realized in an area of 360 mm(2). The reduction in size also brought an order of magnitude increase in speed. The frequency of a 13-stage ring oscillator increased from 2.6 Hz to 22.1 Hz, and the maximum clock frequency of a binary counter increased from 1/3 Hz to 6 Hz.
On schemes of combinatorial transcription logic.
Buchler, Nicolas E; Gerland, Ulrich; Hwa, Terence
2003-04-29
Cells receive a wide variety of cellular and environmental signals, which are often processed combinatorially to generate specific genetic responses. Here we explore theoretically the potentials and limitations of combinatorial signal integration at the level of cis-regulatory transcription control. Our analysis suggests that many complex transcription-control functions of the type encountered in higher eukaryotes are already implementable within the much simpler bacterial transcription system. Using a quantitative model of bacterial transcription and invoking only specific protein-DNA interaction and weak glue-like interaction between regulatory proteins, we show explicit schemes to implement regulatory logic functions of increasing complexity by appropriately selecting the strengths and arranging the relative positions of the relevant protein-binding DNA sequences in the cis-regulatory region. The architectures that emerge are naturally modular and evolvable. Our results suggest that the transcription regulatory apparatus is a "programmable" computing machine, belonging formally to the class of Boltzmann machines. Crucial to our results is the ability to regulate gene expression at a distance. In bacteria, this can be achieved for isolated genes via DNA looping controlled by the dimerization of DNA-bound proteins. However, if adopted extensively in the genome, long-distance interaction can cause unintentional intergenic cross talk, a detrimental side effect difficult to overcome by the known bacterial transcription-regulation systems. This may be a key factor limiting the genome-wide adoption of complex transcription control in bacteria. Implications of our findings for combinatorial transcription control in eukaryotes are discussed.
[Logic and analogy in psychiatry. Their "common root"].
Marchais, P; Grize, J B
1994-02-01
Logic and analogy pose a fundamental problem in psychiatry. The latter is at the moment renewed by the existence of fuzzy logics. The authors put forward the hypothesis of a common root using the systemal method, an original strategy and a particular test. Several questions are tackled: definitions, hierarchy, linking, linearity or circularity, closed of open aspect of thought process, integration, separation or continuity, ways of appearance, discrete organization or organization in networks, different or common origin, importance of modal and non monotonous logics. A discussion and the consequences of this hypothesis are specified.
Threshold-Logic Devices Consisting of Subthreshold CMOS Circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogawa, Taichi; Hirose, Tetsuya; Asai, Tetsuya; Amemiya, Yoshihito
A threshold-logic gate device consisting of subthreshold MOSFET circuits is proposed. The gate device performs threshold-logic operation, using the technique of current-mode addition and subtraction. Sample digital subsystems, i.e., adders and morphological operation cells based on threshold logic, are designed using the gate devices, and their operations are confirmed by computer simulation. The device has a simple structure and operates at low power dissipation, so it is suitable for constructing cell-based, parallel processing LSIs such as cellular-automaton and neural-network LSIs.
Logical Form as a Determinant of Cognitive Processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Lambalgen, Michiel
We discuss a research program on reasoning patterns in subjects with autism, showing that they fail to engage in certain forms of non-monotonic reasoning that come naturally to neurotypical subjects. The striking reasoning patterns of autists occur both in verbal and in non-verbal tasks. Upon formalising the relevant non-verbal tasks, one sees that their logical form is the same as that of the verbal tasks. This suggests that logical form can play a causal role in cognitive processes, and we suggest that this logical form is actually embodied in the cognitive capacity called 'executive function'.
Boolean logic gates that use enzymes as input signals.
Strack, Guinevere; Pita, Marcos; Ornatska, Maryna; Katz, Evgeny
2008-05-23
Biochemical systems that demonstrate the Boolean logic operations AND, OR, XOR, and InhibA were developed by using soluble compounds, which represent the chemical "devices", and the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx), glucose dehydrogenase (GDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (AlcDH), and microperoxidase-11 (MP-11), which operated as the input signals that activated the logic gates. The enzymes were used as soluble materials and as immobilized biocatalysts. The studied systems are proposed to be a step towards the construction of "smart" signal-responsive materials with built-in Boolean logic.
Not Available
1993-09-01
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Part A of Vols. 1. and 2 focuses on D&D. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the RA of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. Remedial action is the focus of Vol. 2, Pt. B, which has been divided into the three necessary subelements of the RA: characterization, RA, and robotics and automation. Each of these sections address general ORNL problems, which are then broken down by problem area/constituents and linked to potential remedial technologies. The diagrams also contain summary information about a technology`s status, its science and technology needs, and its implementation needs.
A transition calculus for Boolean functions. [logic circuit analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tucker, J. H.; Bennett, A. W.
1974-01-01
A transition calculus is presented for analyzing the effect of input changes on the output of logic circuits. The method is closely related to the Boolean difference, but it is more powerful. Both differentiation and integration are considered.
OLAS: an optical implementation of logic array structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Robert H.; Hadjinicolaou, Marios G.; Musgrave, G.
1990-07-01
This paper presents a novel approach in the design of Optical Logic Array Structures ( OLAS ) for the implementation of two - level Boolean functions using optical coupling techniques and waveguides. 1.
Fuzzy logic color detection: Blue areas in melanoma dermoscopy images.
Lingala, Mounika; Stanley, R Joe; Rader, Ryan K; Hagerty, Jason; Rabinovitz, Harold S; Oliviero, Margaret; Choudhry, Iqra; Stoecker, William V
2014-07-01
Fuzzy logic image analysis techniques were used to analyze three shades of blue (lavender blue, light blue, and dark blue) in dermoscopic images for melanoma detection. A logistic regression model provided up to 82.7% accuracy for melanoma discrimination for 866 images. With a support vector machines (SVM) classifier, lower accuracy was obtained for individual shades (79.9-80.1%) compared with up to 81.4% accuracy with multiple shades. All fuzzy blue logic alpha cuts scored higher than the crisp case. Fuzzy logic techniques applied to multiple shades of blue can assist in melanoma detection. These vector-based fuzzy logic techniques can be extended to other image analysis problems involving multiple colors or color shades.
Nixie tube display unit employs time-shared logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gray, J.
1966-01-01
Cathodes of display tubes wired in parallel achieve input switching simplification of a Nixie tube display system. Use of time- shared logic energizes the appropriate anode and inhibits all unnecessary cathodes.
Topological computation based on direct magnetic logic communication
Zhang, Shilei; Baker, Alexander A.; Komineas, Stavros; Hesjedal, Thorsten
2015-01-01
Non-uniform magnetic domains with non-trivial topology, such as vortices and skyrmions, are proposed as superior state variables for nonvolatile information storage. So far, the possibility of logic operations using topological objects has not been considered. Here, we demonstrate numerically that the topology of the system plays a significant role for its dynamics, using the example of vortex-antivortex pairs in a planar ferromagnetic film. Utilising the dynamical properties and geometrical confinement, direct logic communication between the topological memory carriers is realised. This way, no additional magnetic-to-electrical conversion is required. More importantly, the information carriers can spontaneously travel up to ~300 nm, for which no spin-polarised current is required. The derived logic scheme enables topological spintronics, which can be integrated into large-scale memory and logic networks capable of complex computations. PMID:26508375
Subnanowatt carbon nanotube complementary logic enabled by threshold voltage control.
Geier, Michael L; Prabhumirashi, Pradyumna L; McMorrow, Julian J; Xu, Weichao; Seo, Jung-Woo T; Everaerts, Ken; Kim, Chris H; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C
2013-10-09
In this Letter, we demonstrate thin-film single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) logic devices with subnanowatt static power consumption and full rail-to-rail voltage transfer characteristics as is required for logic gate cascading. These results are enabled by a local metal gate structure that achieves enhancement-mode p-type and n-type SWCNT thin-film transistors (TFTs) with widely separated and symmetric threshold voltages. These complementary SWCNT TFTs are integrated to demonstrate CMOS inverter, NAND, and NOR logic gates at supply voltages as low as 0.8 V with ideal rail-to-rail operation, subnanowatt static power consumption, high gain, and excellent noise immunity. This work provides a direct pathway for solution processable, large area, power efficient SWCNT advanced logic circuits and systems.
LOGICAL REASONING ABILITY AND STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY
Bird, Lillian
2010-01-01
Logical reasoning skills of students enrolled in General Chemistry at the University of Puerto Rico in Río Piedras were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test. The results were used to determine the students’ cognitive level (concrete, transitional, formal) as well as their level of performance by logical reasoning mode (mass/volume conservation, proportional reasoning, correlational reasoning, experimental variable control, probabilistic reasoning and combinatorial reasoning). This information was used to identify particular deficiencies and gender effects, and to determine which logical reasoning modes were the best predictors of student performance in the general chemistry course. Statistical tests to analyze the relation between (a) operational level and final grade in both semesters of the course; (b) GALT test results and performance in the ACS General Chemistry Examination; and (c) operational level and student approach (algorithmic or conceptual) towards a test question that may be answered correctly using either strategy, were also performed. PMID:21373364
LOGICAL REASONING ABILITY AND STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY.
Bird, Lillian
2010-03-01
Logical reasoning skills of students enrolled in General Chemistry at the University of Puerto Rico in Río Piedras were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test. The results were used to determine the students' cognitive level (concrete, transitional, formal) as well as their level of performance by logical reasoning mode (mass/volume conservation, proportional reasoning, correlational reasoning, experimental variable control, probabilistic reasoning and combinatorial reasoning). This information was used to identify particular deficiencies and gender effects, and to determine which logical reasoning modes were the best predictors of student performance in the general chemistry course. Statistical tests to analyze the relation between (a) operational level and final grade in both semesters of the course; (b) GALT test results and performance in the ACS General Chemistry Examination; and (c) operational level and student approach (algorithmic or conceptual) towards a test question that may be answered correctly using either strategy, were also performed.
Stacked resistive switches for AND/OR logic gates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Myung Ju; Son, Kyung Rock; Park, Ju Hyun; Kim, Tae Geun
2017-06-01
This paper reports the use of stacked resistive switches as logic gates for implementing the ;AND; and ;OR; operations. These stacked resistive switches consist of two resistive switches that share a middle electrode, and they operate based on the difference in resistance between the low and high resistance states indicating the logical states of ;0; and ;1;, respectively. The stacked resistive switches can perform either AND or OR operation, using two read schemes in one device. To perform the AND (or OR) operation, two resistive switches are arranged in a serial (or parallel) connection. AND and OR operations have been successfully demonstrated using the stacked resistive switches. The use of stacked resistive switches as logic gates that utilize the advantages of memristive devices shows the possibility of stateful logic circuits.
An Experiment in Linguistic Synthesis with a Fuzzy Logic Controller
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mamdani, E. H.; Assilian, S.
1975-01-01
This paper describes an experiment on the "linguistic" synthesis of a controller for a model industrial plant (a steam engine). Fuzzy logic is used to convert heuristic control rules stated by a human operator into an automatic control strategy. (Author)
UML activity diagrams in requirements specification of logic controllers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grobelna, Iwona; Grobelny, Michał
2015-12-01
Logic controller specification can be prepared using various techniques. One of them is the wide understandable and user-friendly UML language and its activity diagrams. Using formal methods during the design phase increases the assurance that implemented system meets the project requirements. In the approach we use the model checking technique to formally verify a specification against user-defined behavioral requirements. The properties are usually defined as temporal logic formulas. In the paper we propose to use UML activity diagrams in requirements definition and then to formalize them as temporal logic formulas. As a result, UML activity diagrams can be used both for logic controller specification and for requirements definition, what simplifies the specification and verification process.
Bird's-eye view on noise-based logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kish, Laszlo B.; Granqvist, Claes G.; Horvath, Tamas; Klappenecker, Andreas; Wen, He; Bezrukov, Sergey M.
2014-09-01
Noise-based logic is a practically deterministic logic scheme inspired by the randomness of neural spikes and uses a system of uncorrelated stochastic processes and their superposition to represent the logic state. We briefly discuss various questions such as (i) What does practical determinism mean? (ii) Is noise-based logic a Turing machine? (iii) Is there hope to beat (the dreams of) quantum computation by a classical physical noise-based processor, and what are the minimum hardware requirements for that? Finally, (iv) we address the problem of random number generators and show that the common belief that quantum number generators are superior to classical (thermal) noise-based generators is nothing but a myth.
Organizational coevolutionary classifiers with fuzzy logic used in intrusion detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhenguo
2009-07-01
Intrusion detection is an important technique in the defense-in-depth network security framework and a hot topic in computer security in recent years. To solve the intrusion detection question, we introduce the fuzzy logic into Organization CoEvolutionary algorithm [1] and present the algorithm of Organization CoEvolutionary Classification with Fuzzy Logic. In this paper, we give an intrusion detection models based on Organization CoEvolutionary Classification with Fuzzy Logic. After illustrating our model with a representative dataset and applying it to the real-world network datasets KDD Cup 1999. The experimental result shown that the intrusion detection based on Organizational Coevolutionary Classifiers with Fuzzy Logic can give higher recognition accuracy than the general method.
Research on teacher education programs: logic model approach.
Newton, Xiaoxia A; Poon, Rebecca C; Nunes, Nicole L; Stone, Elisa M
2013-02-01
Teacher education programs in the United States face increasing pressure to demonstrate their effectiveness through pupils' learning gains in classrooms where program graduates teach. The link between teacher candidates' learning in teacher education programs and pupils' learning in K-12 classrooms implicit in the policy discourse suggests a one-to-one correspondence. However, the logical steps leading from what teacher candidates have learned in their programs to what they are doing in classrooms that may contribute to their pupils' learning are anything but straightforward. In this paper, we argue that the logic model approach from scholarship on evaluation can enhance research on teacher education by making explicit the logical links between program processes and intended outcomes. We demonstrate the usefulness of the logic model approach through our own work on designing a longitudinal study that focuses on examining the process and impact of an undergraduate mathematics and science teacher education program.
Gene regulatory logic of dopaminergic neuron differentiation
Flames, Nuria; Hobert, Oliver
2009-01-01
Dopamine signaling regulates a variety of complex behaviors and defects in dopaminergic neuron function or survival result in severe human pathologies, such as Parkinson's disease 1. The common denominator of all dopaminergic neurons is the expression of dopamine pathway genes, which code for a set of phylogenetically conserved proteins involved in dopamine synthesis and transport. Gene regulatory mechanisms that result in the activation of dopamine pathway genes and thereby ultimately determine the identity of dopaminergic neurons are poorly understood in any system studied to date 2. We show here that a simple cis-regulatory element, the DA motif, controls the expression of all dopamine pathway genes in all dopaminergic cell types in C. elegans. The DA motif is activated by the ETS transcription factor, AST-1. Loss of ast-1 results in the failure of all distinct dopaminergic neuronal subtypes to terminally differentiate. Ectopic expression of ast-1 is sufficient to activate the dopamine production pathway in some cellular contexts. Vertebrate dopaminergic pathway genes also contain phylogenetically conserved DA motifs that can be activated by the mouse ETS transcription factor Etv1/ER81 and a specific class of dopaminergic neurons fails to differentiate in mice lacking Etv1/ER81. Moreover, ectopic Etv1/ER81 expression induces dopaminergic fate marker expression in neuronal primary cultures. Mouse Etv1/ER81 can also functionally substitute for ast-1 in C.elegans. Our studies reveal an astoundingly simple and apparently conserved regulatory logic of dopaminergic neuron terminal differentiation and may provide new entry points into the diagnosis or therapy of conditions in which dopamine neurons are defective. PMID:19287374
Nanomagnet Logic: Architectures, design, and benchmarking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurtz, Steven J.
Nanomagnet Logic (NML) is an emerging technology being studied as a possible replacement or supplementary device for Complimentary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) Field-Effect Transistors (FET) by the year 2020. NML devices offer numerous potential advantages including: low energy operation, steady state non-volatility, radiation hardness and a clear path to fabrication and integration with CMOS. However, maintaining both low-energy operation and non-volatility while scaling from the device to the architectural level is non-trivial as (i) nearest neighbor interactions within NML circuits complicate the modeling of ensemble nanomagnet behavior and (ii) the energy intensive clock structures required for re-evaluation and NML's relatively high latency challenge its ability to offer system-level performance wins against other emerging nanotechnologies. Thus, further research efforts are required to model more complex circuits while also identifying circuit design techniques that balance low-energy operation with steady state non-volatility. In addition, further work is needed to design and model low-power on-chip clocks while simultaneously identifying application spaces where NML systems (including clock overhead) offer sufficient energy savings to merit their inclusion in future processors. This dissertation presents research advancing the understanding and modeling of NML at all levels including devices, circuits, and line clock structures while also benchmarking NML against both scaled CMOS and tunneling FETs (TFET) devices. This is accomplished through the development of design tools and methodologies for (i) quantifying both energy and stability in NML circuits and (ii) evaluating line-clocked NML system performance. The application of these newly developed tools improves the understanding of ideal design criteria (i.e., magnet size, clock wire geometry, etc.) for NML architectures. Finally, the system-level performance evaluation tool offers the ability to
Deep Space Network Antenna Logic Controller
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahlstrom, Harlow; Morgan, Scott; Hames, Peter; Strain, Martha; Owen, Christopher; Shimizu, Kenneth; Wilson, Karen; Shaller, David; Doktomomtaz, Said; Leung, Patrick
2007-01-01
The Antenna Logic Controller (ALC) software controls and monitors the motion control equipment of the 4,000-metric-ton structure of the Deep Space Network 70-meter antenna. This program coordinates the control of 42 hydraulic pumps, while monitoring several interlocks for personnel and equipment safety. Remote operation of the ALC runs via the Antenna Monitor & Control (AMC) computer, which orchestrates the tracking functions of the entire antenna. This software provides a graphical user interface for local control, monitoring, and identification of faults as well as, at a high level, providing for the digital control of the axis brakes so that the servo of the AMC may control the motion of the antenna. Specific functions of the ALC also include routines for startup in cold weather, controlled shutdown for both normal and fault situations, and pump switching on failure. The increased monitoring, the ability to trend key performance characteristics, the improved fault detection and recovery, the centralization of all control at a single panel, and the simplification of the user interface have all reduced the required workforce to run 70-meter antennas. The ALC also increases the antenna availability by reducing the time required to start up the antenna, to diagnose faults, and by providing additional insight into the performance of key parameters that aid in preventive maintenance to avoid key element failure. The ALC User Display (AUD) is a graphical user interface with hierarchical display structure, which provides high-level status information to the operation of the ALC, as well as detailed information for virtually all aspects of the ALC via drill-down displays. The operational status of an item, be it a function or assembly, is shown in the higher-level display. By pressing the item on the display screen, a new screen opens to show more detail of the function/assembly. Navigation tools and the map button allow immediate access to all screens.
Fuzzy logic, neural networks, and soft computing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zadeh, Lofti A.
1994-01-01
The past few years have witnessed a rapid growth of interest in a cluster of modes of modeling and computation which may be described collectively as soft computing. The distinguishing characteristic of soft computing is that its primary aims are to achieve tractability, robustness, low cost, and high MIQ (machine intelligence quotient) through an exploitation of the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty. Thus, in soft computing what is usually sought is an approximate solution to a precisely formulated problem or, more typically, an approximate solution to an imprecisely formulated problem. A simple case in point is the problem of parking a car. Generally, humans can park a car rather easily because the final position of the car is not specified exactly. If it were specified to within, say, a few millimeters and a fraction of a degree, it would take hours or days of maneuvering and precise measurements of distance and angular position to solve the problem. What this simple example points to is the fact that, in general, high precision carries a high cost. The challenge, then, is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision by devising methods of computation which lead to an acceptable solution at low cost. By its nature, soft computing is much closer to human reasoning than the traditional modes of computation. At this juncture, the major components of soft computing are fuzzy logic (FL), neural network theory (NN), and probabilistic reasoning techniques (PR), including genetic algorithms, chaos theory, and part of learning theory. Increasingly, these techniques are used in combination to achieve significant improvement in performance and adaptability. Among the important application areas for soft computing are control systems, expert systems, data compression techniques, image processing, and decision support systems. It may be argued that it is soft computing, rather than the traditional hard computing, that should be viewed as the foundation for artificial
Recent Trends in Spintronics-Based Nanomagnetic Logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Jayita; Alam, Syed M.; Bhanja, Sanjukta
2014-09-01
With the growing concerns of standby power in sub-100-nm CMOS technologies, alternative computing techniques and memory technologies are explored. Spin transfer torque magnetoresistive RAM (STT-MRAM) is one such nonvolatile memory relying on magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) to store information. It uses spin transfer torque to write information and magnetoresistance to read information. In 2012, Everspin Technologies, Inc. commercialized the first 64Mbit Spin Torque MRAM. On the computing end, nanomagnetic logic (NML) is a promising technique with zero leakage and high data retention. In 2000, Cowburn and Welland first demonstrated its potential in logic and information propagation through magnetostatic interaction in a chain of single domain circular nanomagnetic dots of Supermalloy (Ni80Fe14Mo5X1, X is other metals). In 2006, Imre et al. demonstrated wires and majority gates followed by coplanar cross wire systems demonstration in 2010 by Pulecio et al. Since 2004 researchers have also investigated the potential of MTJs in logic. More recently with dipolar coupling between MTJs demonstrated in 2012, logic-in-memory architecture with STT-MRAM have been investigated. The architecture borrows the computing concept from NML and read and write style from MRAM. The architecture can switch its operation between logic and memory modes with clock as classifier. Further through logic partitioning between MTJ and CMOS plane, a significant performance boost has been observed in basic computing blocks within the architecture. In this work, we have explored the developments in NML, in MTJs and more recent developments in hybrid MTJ/CMOS logic-in-memory architecture and its unique logic partitioning capability.
FPGA-oriented synthesis of multivalued logical networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deniziak, S.; Wiśniewski, M.; Kurczyna, K.
2016-12-01
Multivalued logical network consists of modules connected by multivalued signals. During synthesis each module is decomposed into smaller ones using the symbolic decomposition. Since the efficiency of the decomposition strongly depends on encoding of multivalued signals, the result of synthesis depends on the order, in which the consecutive modules are implemented. This paper presents the method of FPGA-oriented synthesis of multivalued logical networks. Experimental results showed that our approach significantly reduces the cost of implementation.
Surface confined assemblies and polymers for sensing and molecular logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Ruiter, Graham; Altman, Marc; Motiei, Leila; Lahav, Michal; van der Boom, Milko E.
2013-05-01
Since the development of molecule-based sensors and the introduction of molecules mimicking the behavior of the AND gate in solution by de Silva in 1993, molecular (Boolean) Logic and Computing (MBLC) has become increasingly popular. The molecular approach toward Boolean logic resulted in intriguing proofs of concepts in solution including logic gates, half-adders, multiplexers, and flip-flop logic circuits. Molecular assemblies can perform diverse logic tasks by reconfiguring their inputs. Our recent research activities focus on MBLC with electrochromic polymers and immobilized polypyridyl complexes on solid support. We have designed a series of coordination-based thin films that are formed linearly by stepwise wet-chemical deposition or by self-propagating molecular assembly. The electrochromic properties of these films can be used for (i) detecting various analytes in solution and in the air, (ii) MBLC, (iii) electron-transfer studies, and (iv) interlayers for efficient inverted bulk-heterojunction solar cells. Our concept toward MBLC with functionalized surfaces is applicable to electrochemical and chemical inputs coupled with optical readout. Using this approach, we demonstrated various logic architectures with redox-active functionalized surfaces. Electrochemically operated sequential logic systems (e.g., flip-flops), multi-valued logic, and multi-state memory have been designed, which can improve computational power without increasing spatial requirements. Applying multi-valued digits in data storage and information processing could exponentially increase memory capacity. Our approach is applicable to highly diverse electrochromic thin films that operate at practical voltages (< 1.5 V).
Logic Model Checking of Unintended Acceleration Claims in Toyota Vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gamble, Ed
2012-01-01
Part of the US Department of Transportation investigation of Toyota sudden unintended acceleration (SUA) involved analysis of the throttle control software, JPL Laboratory for Reliable Software applied several techniques including static analysis and logic model checking, to the software; A handful of logic models were build, Some weaknesses were identified; however, no cause for SUA was found; The full NASA report includes numerous other analyses
Behavior of faulty double BJT BiCMOS logic gates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menon, Sankaran M.; Malaiya, Yashwant K.; Jayasumana, Anura P.
1992-01-01
Logic Behavior of a Double BJT BiCMOS device under transistor level shorts and opens is examined. In addition to delay faults, faults that cause the gate to exhibit sequential behavior were observed. Several faults can be detected only by monitoring the current. The faulty behavior of Bipolar (TTL) and CMOS logic families is compared with BiCMOS, to bring out the testability differences.
Dynamical Logic Driven by Classified Inferences Including Abduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sawa, Koji; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio
2010-11-01
We propose a dynamical model of formal logic which realizes a representation of logical inferences, deduction and induction. In addition, it also represents abduction which is classified by Peirce as the third inference following deduction and induction. The three types of inference are represented as transformations of a directed graph. The state of a relation between objects of the model fluctuates between the collective and the distinctive. In addition, the location of the relation in the sequence of the relation influences its state.
Fuzzy logic controllers: A knowledge-based system perspective
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bonissone, Piero P.
1993-01-01
Over the last few years we have seen an increasing number of applications of Fuzzy Logic Controllers. These applications range from the development of auto-focus cameras, to the control of subway trains, cranes, automobile subsystems (automatic transmissions), domestic appliances, and various consumer electronic products. In summary, we consider a Fuzzy Logic Controller to be a high level language with its local semantics, interpreter, and compiler, which enables us to quickly synthesize non-linear controllers for dynamic systems.
Probabilistic logic methods and some applications to biology and medicine.
Sakhanenko, Nikita A; Galas, David J
2012-03-01
For the computational analysis of biological problems-analyzing data, inferring networks and complex models, and estimating model parameters-it is common to use a range of methods based on probabilistic logic constructions, sometimes collectively called machine learning methods. Probabilistic modeling methods such as Bayesian Networks (BN) fall into this class, as do Hierarchical Bayesian Networks (HBN), Probabilistic Boolean Networks (PBN), Hidden Markov Models (HMM), and Markov Logic Networks (MLN). In this review, we describe the most general of these (MLN), and show how the above-mentioned methods are related to MLN and one another by the imposition of constraints and restrictions. This approach allows us to illustrate a broad landscape of constructions and methods, and describe some of the attendant strengths, weaknesses, and constraints of many of these methods. We then provide some examples of their applications to problems in biology and medicine, with an emphasis on genetics. The key concepts needed to picture this landscape of methods are the ideas of probabilistic graphical models, the structures of the graphs, and the scope of the logical language repertoire used (from First-Order Logic [FOL] to Boolean logic.) These concepts are interlinked and together define the nature of each of the probabilistic logic methods. Finally, we discuss the initial applications of MLN to genetics, show the relationship to less general methods like BN, and then mention several examples where such methods could be effective in new applications to specific biological and medical problems.
DNAzyme logic-controlled biofuel cells for self-powered biosensors.
Zhou, Ming; Kuralay, Filiz; Windmiller, Joshua R; Wang, Joseph
2012-04-21
The integration of a biosensor employing a DNAzyme logic system within a biofuel cell is presented. The self-powered DNAzyme logic biosensor conforms with INH logic operation and generates power output in accordance with a truth table. The new concept of logic-activated DNAzyme by the input signals has wide-ranging implications in the self-powered diagnostics domain.
Park, G. Barratt Baraban, Joshua H.; Field, Robert W.
2014-10-07
A full-dimensional Franck-Condon calculation has been applied to the A{sup ~} {sup 1}A{sub u}—X{sup ~1}Σ{sub g}{sup +} transition in acetylene in the harmonic normal mode basis. Details of the calculation are discussed in Part I of this series. To our knowledge, this is the first full-dimensional Franck-Condon calculation on a tetra-atomic molecule undergoing a linear-to-bent geometry change. In the current work, the vibrational intensity factors for levels involving excitation in ungerade vibrational modes are evaluated. Because the Franck-Condon integral accumulates away from the linear geometry, we have been able to treat the out-of-plane component of trans bend (ν{sub 4}{sup ′′}) in the linear X{sup ~} state in the rotational part of the problem, restoring the χ Euler angle and the a-axis Eckart conditions. A consequence of the Eckart conditions is that the out-of-plane component of ν{sub 4}{sup ′′} does not participate in the vibrational overlap integral. This affects the structure of the coordinate transformation and the symmetry of the vibrational wavefunctions used in the overlap integral, and results in propensity rules involving the bending modes of the X{sup ~} state that were not previously understood. We explain the origin of some of the unexpected propensities observed in IR-UV laser-induced fluorescence spectra, and we calculate emission intensities from bending levels of the A{sup ~} state into bending levels of the X{sup ~} state, using normal bending mode and local bending mode basis sets. Our calculations also reveal Franck-Condon propensities for the Cartesian components of the cis bend (ν{sub 5}{sup ′′}), and we predict that the best A{sup ~}-state vibrational levels for populating X{sup ~}-state levels with large amplitude bending motion localized in a single C–H bond (the acetylene↔vinylidene isomerization coordinate) involve a high degree of excitation in ν{sub 6}{sup ′} (cis-bend). Mode ν{sub 4}{sup
Tumescent and syringe liposculpture: a logical partnership.
Hunstad, J P
1995-01-01
, difficulties with under-correction of deformities, and need for reoperation, methods for determining the "end-point" for the procedure, as well as addressing large-volume liposuction problems. The conclusion reached by this study is that combining the tumescent technique and the syringe technique is a logical partnership. Each method complements the other, allowing liposuction to be performed with considerable advantage over traditional methods. These advantages include eliminating the need for general anesthesia, lessening blood loss and postoperative bruising, greater accuracy, precision, and overall high patient satisfaction.
Designing Experiments to Discriminate Families of Logic Models
Videla, Santiago; Konokotina, Irina; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G.; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Schaub, Torsten; Siegel, Anne; Guziolowski, Carito
2015-01-01
Logic models of signaling pathways are a promising way of building effective in silico functional models of a cell, in particular of signaling pathways. The automated learning of Boolean logic models describing signaling pathways can be achieved by training to phosphoproteomics data, which is particularly useful if it is measured upon different combinations of perturbations in a high-throughput fashion. However, in practice, the number and type of allowed perturbations are not exhaustive. Moreover, experimental data are unavoidably subjected to noise. As a result, the learning process results in a family of feasible logical networks rather than in a single model. This family is composed of logic models implementing different internal wirings for the system and therefore the predictions of experiments from this family may present a significant level of variability, and hence uncertainty. In this paper, we introduce a method based on Answer Set Programming to propose an optimal experimental design that aims to narrow down the variability (in terms of input–output behaviors) within families of logical models learned from experimental data. We study how the fitness with respect to the data can be improved after an optimal selection of signaling perturbations and how we learn optimal logic models with minimal number of experiments. The methods are applied on signaling pathways in human liver cells and phosphoproteomics experimental data. Using 25% of the experiments, we obtained logical models with fitness scores (mean square error) 15% close to the ones obtained using all experiments, illustrating the impact that our approach can have on the design of experiments for efficient model calibration. PMID:26389116
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derrouazin, A.; Aillerie, M.; Mekkakia-Maaza, N.; Charles, J. P.
2016-07-01
Several researches for management of diverse hybrid energy systems and many techniques have been proposed for robustness, savings and environmental purpose. In this work we aim to make a comparative study between two supervision and control techniques: fuzzy and classic logics to manage the hybrid energy system applied for typical housing fed by solar and wind power, with rack of batteries for storage. The system is assisted by the electric grid during energy drop moments. A hydrogen production device is integrated into the system to retrieve surplus energy production from renewable sources for the household purposes, intending the maximum exploitation of these sources over years. The models have been achieved and generated signals for electronic switches command of proposed both techniques are presented and discussed in this paper.
Heterogeneous fuzzy logic networks: fundamentals and development studies.
Pedrycz, Witold
2004-11-01
The recent trend in the development of neurofuzzy systems has profoundly emphasized the importance of synergy between the fundamentals of fuzzy sets and neural networks. The resulting frameworks of the neurofuzzy systems took advantage of an array of learning mechanisms primarily originating within the theory of neurocomputing and the use of fuzzy models (predominantly rule-based systems) being well established in the realm of fuzzy sets. Ideally, one can anticipate that neurofuzzy systems should fully exploit the linkages between these two technologies while strongly preserving their evident identities (plasticity or learning abilities to be shared by the transparency and full interpretability of the resulting neurofuzzy constructs). Interestingly, this synergy still becomes a target yet to be satisfied. This study is an attempt to address the fundamental interpretability challenge of neurofuzzy systems. Our underlying conjecture is that the transparency of any neurofuzzy system links directly with the logic fabric of the system so the logic fundamentals of the underlying architecture become of primordial relevance. Having this in mind the development of neurofuzzy models hinges on a collection of logic driven processing units named here fuzzy (logic) neurons. These are conceptually simple logic-oriented elements that come with a well-defined semantics and plasticity. Owing to their diversity, such neurons form essential building blocks of the networks. The study revisits the existing categories of logic neurons, provides with their taxonomy, helps understand their functional features and sheds light on their behavior when being treated as computational components of any neurofuzzy architecture. The two main categories of aggregative and reference neurons are deeply rooted in the fundamental operations encountered in the technology of fuzzy sets (including logic operations, linguistic modifiers, and logic reference operations). The developed heterogeneous networks
Winnicott and Derrida: development of logic-of-play.
Bitan, Shachaf
2012-02-01
In this essay I develop the logic of play from the writings of the British psychoanalyst Donald W. Winnicott and the French philosopher Jacques Derrida. The logic of play serves as both a conceptual framework for theoretical clinical thinking and a space of experiencing in which the therapeutic situation is located and to which it aspires. I argue that both Winnicott and Derrida proposed a playful turn in Western thinking by their attitude towards oppositions, viewing them not as complementary or contradictory, but as 'peacefully-coexisting'. Derrida criticizes the dichotomous structure of Western thought, proposing playful movement as an alternative that does not constitute itself as a mastering construction. I will show that Winnicott, too, proposes playful logic through which he thinks and acts in the therapeutic situation. The therapeutic encounter is understood as a playful space in which analyst and analysand continuously coexist, instead of facing each other as exclusionary oppositions. I therefore propose the logic of play as the basis for the therapeutic encounter. The playful turn, then, is crucial for the thought and praxis expressed by the concept of two-person psychology. I suggest the term playful psychoanalysis to characterize the present perspective of psychoanalysis in the light of the playful turn. I will first present Derrida's playful thought, go on to Winnicott's playful revolutionism, and conclude with an analysis of Winicott's clinical material in the light of the logic of play.
Optical interference logic in silicon-on-insulator waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wheeler, Dana C.; Hall, Douglas C.
2006-02-01
A novel means of realizing optical logic with passive silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide elements is proposed and modeled. Using what we call interference logic (IL), information is encoded and manipulated in the complex domain by properly setting the amplitude and phase of information inputs through specially designed waveguide structures, with the resulting wave interference used to compute the desired function output. We demonstrate that any arbitrary Boolean logic function can be realized in any physical system in which interference occurs. In this work, optical interference logic utilizing constructive and destructive interference of 1.55 micron light waves in multi-mode interference (MMI) couplers fabricated with SOI rib waveguides is described. Defining a vector representation of the complex information, a numerical function minimization algorithm is employed to compute the optimum input vector manipulations needed to realize a given operation's truth table. As such, with the definition of an output amplitude detection threshold separating "0" and "1" results, logic operations can be performed. A digital 2 x 1 multiplexer (MUX) is implemented in a single 4 x 1 MMI coupler where 1 of the 4 inputs serves as a reference input beam. With an input spacing of 40 micron, the 2 x 1 multiplexer has an overall dimension of 160 micron x 2.25 cm. Simple varied-dimension waveguide elements are used to adjust input wave amplitude and phase. To confirm and optimize the designs, device operation is simulated using 2D beam propagation method (BPM).
A single nano cantilever as a reprogrammable universal logic gate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chappanda, K. N.; Ilyas, S.; Kazmi, S. N. R.; Holguin-Lerma, J.; Batra, N. M.; Costa, P. M. F. J.; Younis, M. I.
2017-04-01
The current transistor-based computing circuits use multiple interconnected transistors to realize a single Boolean logic gate. This leads to higher power requirements and delayed computing. Transistors are not suitable for applications in harsh environments and require complicated thermal management systems due to excessive heat dissipation. Also, transistor circuits lack the ability to dynamically reconfigure their functionality in real time, which is desirable for enhanced computing capability. Further, the miniaturization of transistors to improve computational power is reaching its ultimate physical limits. As a step towards overcoming the limitations of transistor-based computing, here we demonstrate a reprogrammable universal Boolean logic gate based on a nanoelectromechanical cantilever (NC) oscillator. The fundamental XOR, AND, NOR, OR and NOT logic gates are condensed in a single NC, thereby reducing electrical interconnects between devices. The device is dynamically switchable between any logic gates at the same drive frequency without the need for any change in the circuit. It is demonstrated to operate at elevated temperatures minimizing the need for thermal management systems. It has a tunable bandwidth of 5 MHz enabling parallel and dynamically reconfigurable logic device for enhanced computing.
N channel JFET based digital logic gate structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krasowski, Michael J. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
A circuit topography is presented which is used to create usable digital logic gates using N (negatively doped) channel Junction Field Effect Transistors (JFETs) and load resistors, level shifting resistors, and supply rails whose values are based on the direct current (DC) parametric distributions of those JFETs. This method has direct application to the current state of the art in high temperature, for example 300.degree. C. to 500.degree. C. and higher, silicon carbide (SiC) device production. The ability to produce inverting and combinatorial logic enables the production of pulse and edge triggered latches. This scale of logic synthesis would bring digital logic and state machine capabilities to devices operating in extremely hot environments, such as the surface of Venus, near hydrothermal vents, within nuclear reactors (SiC is inherently radiation hardened), and within internal combustion engines. The basic logic gate can be configured as a driver for oscillator circuits allowing for time bases and simple digitizers for resistive or reactive sensors. The basic structure of this innovation, the inverter, can be reconfigured into various analog circuit topographies through the use of feedback structures.
Rewriting Logic Semantics of a Plan Execution Language
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dowek, Gilles; Munoz, Cesar A.; Rocha, Camilo
2009-01-01
The Plan Execution Interchange Language (PLEXIL) is a synchronous language developed by NASA to support autonomous spacecraft operations. In this paper, we propose a rewriting logic semantics of PLEXIL in Maude, a high-performance logical engine. The rewriting logic semantics is by itself a formal interpreter of the language and can be used as a semantic benchmark for the implementation of PLEXIL executives. The implementation in Maude has the additional benefit of making available to PLEXIL designers and developers all the formal analysis and verification tools provided by Maude. The formalization of the PLEXIL semantics in rewriting logic poses an interesting challenge due to the synchronous nature of the language and the prioritized rules defining its semantics. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a general procedure for simulating synchronous set relations in rewriting logic that is sound and, for deterministic relations, complete. We also report on the finding of two issues at the design level of the original PLEXIL semantics that were identified with the help of the executable specification in Maude.
Rapidly Reconfigurable All-Optical Universal Logic Gates
Goddard, L L; Kallman, J S; Bond, T C
2006-06-21
We present designs and simulations for a highly cascadable, rapidly reconfigurable, all-optical, universal logic gate. We will discuss the gate's expected performance, e.g. speed, fanout, and contrast ratio, as a function of the device layout and biasing conditions. The gate is a three terminal on-chip device that consists of: (1) the input optical port, (2) the gate selection port, and (3) the output optical port. The device can be built monolithically using a standard multiple quantum well graded index separate confinement heterostructure laser configuration. The gate can be rapidly and repeatedly reprogrammed to perform any of the basic digital logic operations by using an appropriate analog electrical or optical signal at the gate selection port. Specifically, the same gate can be selected to execute one of the 2 basic unary operations (NOT or COPY), or one of the 6 binary operations (OR, XOR, AND, NOR, XNOR, or NAND), or one of the many logic operations involving more than two inputs. The speed of the gate for logic operations as well as for reprogramming the function of the gate is primarily limited to the small signal modulation speed of a laser, which can be on the order of tens of GHz. The reprogrammable nature of the universal gate offers maximum flexibility and interchangeability for the end user since the entire application of a photonic integrated circuit built from cascaded universal logic gates can be changed simply by adjusting the gate selection port signals.
Values beyond value? Is anything beyond the logic of capital?
Skeggs, Bev
2014-03-01
We are living in a time when it is frequently assumed that the logic of capital has subsumed every single aspect of our lives, intervening in the organization of our intimate relations as well as the control of our time, including investments in the future (e.g. via debt). The theories that document the incursion of this logic (often through the terms of neoliberalism and/or governmentality) assume that this logic is internalized, works and organizes everything including our subjectivity. These theories performatively reproduce the very conditions they describe, shrinking the domain of values and making it subject to capital's logic. All values are reduced to value. Yet values and value are always dialogic, dependent and co-constituting. In this paper I chart the history by which value eclipses values and how this shrinks our sociological imagination. By outlining the historical processes that institutionalized different organizations of the population through political economy and the social contract, producing ideas of proper personhood premised on propriety, I detail how forms of raced, gendered and classed personhood was formed. The gaps between the proper and improper generate significant contradictions that offer both opportunities to and limits on capitals' lines of flight. It is the lacks, the residues, and the excess that cannot be captured by capital's mechanisms of valuation that will be explored in order to think beyond the logic of capital and show how values will always haunt value.
Optimization Approaches for Designing Quantum Reversible Arithmetic Logic Unit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haghparast, Majid; Bolhassani, Ali
2016-03-01
Reversible logic is emerging as a promising alternative for applications in low-power design and quantum computation in recent years due to its ability to reduce power dissipation, which is an important research area in low power VLSI and ULSI designs. Many important contributions have been made in the literatures towards the reversible implementations of arithmetic and logical structures; however, there have not been many efforts directed towards efficient approaches for designing reversible Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). In this study, three efficient approaches are presented and their implementations in the design of reversible ALUs are demonstrated. Three new designs of reversible one-digit arithmetic logic unit for quantum arithmetic has been presented in this article. This paper provides explicit construction of reversible ALU effecting basic arithmetic operations with respect to the minimization of cost metrics. The architectures of the designs have been proposed in which each block is realized using elementary quantum logic gates. Then, reversible implementations of the proposed designs are analyzed and evaluated. The results demonstrate that the proposed designs are cost-effective compared with the existing counterparts. All the scales are in the NANO-metric area.
[Political logic and regional integration. Migration to Latin America].
Marmora, L
1995-01-01
Now that a new international order is widening the gap between the developed and developing countries, new migration policies are being created in Latin America. Both conceptually and practically, each policy has its own logic, which the authors attempt to identify. In the past, migration policies were of three main types: a logic based on the recruitment of labor; a logic based on territorial settlement; and a logic that aimed to secure the protection of the existing population. Now that regional economic integration is underway in the three main Latin American areas (the Andean countries, Central America, and the Southern Cone), a new logic is emerging. However, the actual strategies for economic integration in each region have only slowly and hesitantly addressed the problem of the free movement of people. Nevertheless, one can identify three objectives on strategies for the circulation of people in the existing schemas. In order of priority, they are security, development of transportation and tourist industries, and regulation of the labor market.
Reconfigurable Boolean Logic Using Magnetic Single-Electron Transistors
Gonzalez-Zalba, M. Fernando; Ciccarelli, Chiara; Zarbo, Liviu P.; Irvine, Andrew C.; Campion, Richard C.; Gallagher, Bryan L.; Jungwirth, Tomas; Ferguson, Andrew J.; Wunderlich, Joerg
2015-01-01
We propose a novel hybrid single-electron device for reprogrammable low-power logic operations, the magnetic single-electron transistor (MSET). The device consists of an aluminium single-electron transistor with a GaMnAs magnetic back-gate. Changing between different logic gate functions is realized by reorienting the magnetic moments of the magnetic layer, which induces a voltage shift on the Coulomb blockade oscillations of the MSET. We show that we can arbitrarily reprogram the function of the device from an n-type SET for in-plane magnetization of the GaMnAs layer to p-type SET for out-of-plane magnetization orientation. Moreover, we demonstrate a set of reprogrammable Boolean gates and its logical complement at the single device level. Finally, we propose two sets of reconfigurable binary gates using combinations of two MSETs in a pull-down network. PMID:25923789
Completed Optimised Structure of Threonine Molecule by Fuzzy Logic Modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahiner, Ahmet; Ucun, Fatih; Kapusuz, Gulden; Yilmaz, Nurullah
2016-04-01
In this study we applied the fuzzy logic approach in order to model the energy depending on the two torsion angles for the threonine (C4H9NO3) molecule. The model is set up according to theoretical results obtained by the density functional theory (B3LYP) with a 6-31 G(d) basic set on a Gausian program. We aimed to determine the best torsion angle values providing the energy of the molecule minimum by a fuzzy logic approach and to compare them with the density functional theory results. It was concluded that the fuzzy logic approach gives information about the untested data and its best value which are expensive and time-consuming to obtain by other methods and experimentation.
Reconfigurable Complementary Logic Circuits with Ambipolar Organic Transistors
Yoo, Hocheon; Ghittorelli, Matteo; Smits, Edsger C. P.; Gelinck, Gerwin H.; Lee, Han-Koo; Torricelli, Fabrizio; Kim, Jae-Joon
2016-01-01
Ambipolar organic electronics offer great potential for simple and low-cost fabrication of complementary logic circuits on large-area and mechanically flexible substrates. Ambipolar transistors are ideal candidates for the simple and low-cost development of complementary logic circuits since they can operate as n-type and p-type transistors. Nevertheless, the experimental demonstration of ambipolar organic complementary circuits is limited to inverters. The control of the transistor polarity is crucial for proper circuit operation. Novel gating techniques enable to control the transistor polarity but result in dramatically reduced performances. Here we show high-performance non-planar ambipolar organic transistors with electrical control of the polarity and orders of magnitude higher performances with respect to state-of-art split-gate ambipolar transistors. Electrically reconfigurable complementary logic gates based on ambipolar organic transistors are experimentally demonstrated, thus opening up new opportunities for ambipolar organic complementary electronics. PMID:27762321
Boolean and fuzzy logic implemented at the molecular level
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gentili, Pier Luigi
2007-07-01
In this work, it is shown how to implement both hard and soft computing by means of two structurally related heterocyclic compounds: flindersine (FL) and 6(5H)-phenanthridinone (PH). Since FL and PH have a carbonyl group in their molecular skeletons, they exhibit Proximity Effects in their photophysics. In other words, they have an emission power that can be modulated through external inputs such as temperature ( T) and hydrogen-bonding donation (HBD) ability of solvents. This phenomenology can be exploited to implement both crisp and fuzzy logic. Fuzzy Logic Systems (FLSs) wherein the antecedents of the rules are connected through the AND operator, are built by both the Mamdani's and Sugeno's models. Finally, they are adopted as approximators of the proximity effect phenomenon and tested for their prediction capabilities. Moreover, FL as photochromic compound is also a multiply configurable crisp logic molecular element.
A logic model framework for community nutrition education.
Medeiros, Lydia C; Butkus, Sue Nicholson; Chipman, Helen; Cox, Ruby H; Jones, Larry; Little, Deborah
2005-01-01
Logic models are a practical method for systematically collecting impact data for community nutrition efforts, such as the Food Stamp Nutrition Education program. This report describes the process used to develop and test the Community Nutrition Education Logic Model and the results of a pilot study to determine whether national evaluation data could be captured without losing flexibility of programming and evaluation at the state level. The objectives were to develop an evaluation framework based on the Logic Model to include dietary quality, food safety, food security, and shopping behavior/food resource management and to develop a training mechanism for use. The portability feature of the model should allow application to a variety of community education programs.
What conceptual spaces can do for Carnap's late inductive logic.
Sznajder, Marta
2016-04-01
In the last published account of his late inductive logic, the Basic System of Inductive Logic, Rudolf Carnap introduced a new element to the systems of inductive logic, namely the so-called attribute spaces. These geometrical structures model the meanings of the predicates of the object language and have a similar structure as the conceptual spaces employed by cognitive scientists like Peter Gärdenfors. I show how the development of the theory of conceptual spaces helps us to see the addition of attribute spaces as a step forward in explicating the concept of confirmation. I discuss the differences and similarities of the two theories and investigate the possibilities for developing further connections.
Reconfigurable and non-volatile vertical magnetic logic gates
Butler, J. Lee, B.; Shachar, M.; Garcia, D.; Hu, B.; Hong, J.; Amos, N.; Khizroev, S.
2014-04-28
In this paper, we discuss the concept and prototype fabrication of reconfigurable and non-volatile vertical magnetic logic gates. These gates consist of two input layers and a RESET layer. The RESET layer allows the structure to be used as either an AND or an OR gate, depending on its magnetization state. To prove this concept, the gates were fabricated using a multi-layered patterned magnetic media, in which three magnetic layers are stacked and exchange-decoupled via non-magnetic interlayers. We demonstrate the functionality of these logic gates by conducting atomic force microscopy and magnetic force microscopy (MFM) analysis of the multi-layered patterned magnetic media. The logic gates operation mechanism and fabrication feasibility are both validated by the MFM imaging results.
Reasoning about logical propositions and success in science
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piburn, Michael D.
1990-12-01
Students display a number of misconceptions when asked to reason about logical propositions. Rather than being random, these misconceptions are stereotypic, and relate to age, ability, and success in science. The grades in science achieved by tenth-grade general science students from two parochial single-sex schools in Australia correlated with their scores on the Propositional Logic Test. The students' ability level was consistently related to the pattern of errors they committed on that measure. Mean scores were lowest on a subtest of ability to use the biconditional and implication, higher on the disjunction, and highest on the conjunction. Success in science was predicted most strongly by the disjunction and biconditional subtests. Knowledge of the way in which a person reasons about logical propositions provides additional insights into the transformations information is subjected to as it is integrated into mental schemata.
Project Management Plan for the INEL technology logic diagrams
Rudin, M.J.
1992-10-01
This Project Management Plan (PjMP) describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to activities outlined in Technical Task Plan (TTP) ID-121117, ``Technology Logic Diagrams For The INEL.`` The work on this project will be conducted by personnel in EG&G Idaho, Inc.`s Waste Technology Development Program. Technology logic diagrams represent a formal methodology to identify technology gaps or needs within Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Operations, which will focus on Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM-50) research and development, demonstration, test, and evaluation efforts throughout the US Department of Energy complex. This PjMP describes the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, workscope and processes for implementing and managing the technology logic diagram for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory project.
Project Management Plan for the INEL technology logic diagrams
Rudin, M.J.
1992-10-01
This Project Management Plan (PjMP) describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to activities outlined in Technical Task Plan (TTP) ID-121117, Technology Logic Diagrams For The INEL.'' The work on this project will be conducted by personnel in EG G Idaho, Inc.'s Waste Technology Development Program. Technology logic diagrams represent a formal methodology to identify technology gaps or needs within Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Operations, which will focus on Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM-50) research and development, demonstration, test, and evaluation efforts throughout the US Department of Energy complex. This PjMP describes the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, workscope and processes for implementing and managing the technology logic diagram for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory project.
Experiments on neural network architectures for fuzzy logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keller, James M.
1991-01-01
The use of fuzzy logic to model and manage uncertainty in a rule-based system places high computational demands on an inference engine. In an earlier paper, the authors introduced a trainable neural network structure for fuzzy logic. These networks can learn and extrapolate complex relationships between possibility distributions for the antecedents and consequents in the rules. Here, the power of these networks is further explored. The insensitivity of the output to noisy input distributions (which are likely if the clauses are generated from real data) is demonstrated as well as the ability of the networks to internalize multiple conjunctive clause and disjunctive clause rules. Since different rules with the same variables can be encoded in a single network, this approach to fuzzy logic inference provides a natural mechanism for rule conflict resolution.
Logically combined photonic crystal - A Fabry Perot optical cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alagappan, G.; Png, C. E.
2016-11-01
We address the logical combination, as opposed to the linear superposition, of two one - dimensional photonic crystals of slightly different periodicities. The original short range translational symmetry is destroyed in these quasi - periodic system. This induces a strong coupling between Bloch modes of different translational wavevectors, and results in a large number of slow modes in such logically combined photonic crystal. In this article, we show by exploiting the beating feature characteristics of the topology of our system, that these slow modes can be effectively described as modes of a Fabry Perot optical cavity made of a homogenous metamaterial with a dispersive refractive index. The homogenized refractive index of the equivalent metamaterial can be obtained from the band structure calculations, using an extended zone scheme. The density of the slow modes in the logically combined photonic crystal is inversely proportional to the group index of the equivalent metamaterial.
Transverse Domain Wall Profile for Spin Logic Applications
Goolaup, S.; Ramu, M.; Murapaka, C.; Lew, W. S.
2015-01-01
Domain wall (DW) based logic and memory devices require precise control and manipulation of DW in nanowire conduits. The topological defects of Transverse DWs (TDW) are of paramount importance as regards to the deterministic pinning and movement of DW within complex networks of conduits. In-situ control of the DW topological defects in nanowire conduits may pave the way for novel DW logic applications. In this work, we present a geometrical modulation along a nanowire conduit, which allows for the topological rectification/inversion of TDW in nanowires. This is achieved by exploiting the controlled relaxation of the TDW within an angled rectangle. Direct evidence of the logical operation is obtained via magnetic force microscopy measurement. PMID:25900455
Cellular force signal integration through vector logic gates.
Steward, Robert L; Tan, Cheemeng; Cheng, Chao-Min; LeDuc, Philip R
2015-02-26
The multi-signal mechanical environment mammalian cells experience is often unaccounted for in current mechanical stimulation studies. To address this we developed a novel technique to induce dual integrated force inputs, uniaxial stretch and fluid shear stress and present here for the first time a vector logic-gate framework to characterize cellular response as a function of cytoskeletal reorganization. Using this framework we found that under fluid shear stress and uniaxial stretch NIH 3T3 fibroblasts responded by the Stretch OR Shear vector logic-gate and HUVECs responded by the NOT Stretch OR Shear vector logic-gate. We further developed a parsimonious model of cellular response to multiple mechanical stimuli, which provides a unifying model that captured the experimental response of both cell types.
Dynamic positive feedback source-coupled logic (D-PFSCL)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Kirti; Pandey, Neeta; Gupta, Maneesha
2016-10-01
This paper presents dynamic positive feedback source-coupled logic (D-PFSCL) style which is derived from positive feedback source-coupled logic (PFSCL). The proposed logic style uses dynamic current source in contrast to constant current source of PFSCL to attain lower power consumption. Two techniques for D-PFSCL style-based multistage applications are suggested. Several D-PFSCL gates are simulated and compared with the respective PFSCL counterparts through SPICE simulations by using Taiwan semiconductor manufacturing company 0.18 µm CMOS technology parameters. A maximum power reduction of 84% is achieved for D-PFSCL gates. The effect of process variation on the power consumption of the D-PFSCL gates shows a maximum variation factor of 1.5 between the best and the worst cases.
High level modelling and design of asynchronous interface logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yakovlev, A. V.; Koelmans, A. M.; Lavagno, L.
1993-11-01
The authors propose a new methodology to design asynchronous circuits that is divided in two stages: abstract synthesis and logic synthesis. The first state is carried out by refining an abstract model, based on logic predicates describing the correct input-output behavior of the circuit, into a labelled Petri net and then into a formalization of timing diagrams (the Signal Transition Graph). This refinement involves hierarchical decomposition of the initial implementation until its size can be handled by automated logic synthesis tools, as well as replacing symbolic events occurring on the input-output ports of the labelled Petri net with up and down transitions occurring on the input-output wires of a circuit implementation.
The limits on combining recursive horn rules with description logics
Levy, A.Y.; Rousset, M.C.
1996-12-31
Horn rule languages have formed the basis for many Artificial Intelligence application languages, but are not expressive enough to model domains with a rich hierarchical structure. Description logics have been designed especially to model rich hierarchies. Several applications would significantly benefit from combining the expressive power of both formalisms. This paper focuses on combining recursive function-free Horn rules with the expressive description logic ALCNR, and shows exactly when a hybrid language with decidable inference can be obtained. First, we show that several of the core constructors of description logics lead by themselves to undecidability of inference when combined with recursive function-free Horn rules. We then show that without these constructors we obtain a maximal subset of ALCNRR that yields a decidable hybrid language. Finally, we describe a restriction on the Horn rules that guarantees decidable inference when combined with all of ALCNR, and covers many of the common usages of recursive rules.
Boolean logic functions of a synthetic peptide network.
Ashkenasy, Gonen; Ghadiri, M Reza
2004-09-15
Living cells can process rapidly and simultaneously multiple extracellular input signals through the complex networks of evolutionary selected biomolecular interactions and chemical transformations. Recent approaches to molecular computation have increasingly sought to mimic or exploit various aspects of biology. A number of studies have adapted nucleic acids and proteins to the design of molecular logic gates and computational systems, while other works have affected computation in living cells via biochemical pathway engineering. Here we report that de novo designed synthetic peptide networks can also mimic some of the basic logic functions of the more complex biological networks. We show that segments of a small network whose graph structure is composed of five nodes and 15 directed edges can express OR, NOR, and NOTIF logic.
Ultrafast phase-change logic device driven by melting processes.
Loke, Desmond; Skelton, Jonathan M; Wang, Wei-Jie; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Zhao, Rong; Chong, Tow-Chong; Elliott, Stephen R
2014-09-16
The ultrahigh demand for faster computers is currently tackled by traditional methods such as size scaling (for increasing the number of devices), but this is rapidly becoming almost impossible, due to physical and lithographic limitations. To boost the speed of computers without increasing the number of logic devices, one of the most feasible solutions is to increase the number of operations performed by a device, which is largely impossible to achieve using current silicon-based logic devices. Multiple operations in phase-change-based logic devices have been achieved using crystallization; however, they can achieve mostly speeds of several hundreds of nanoseconds. A difficulty also arises from the trade-off between the speed of crystallization and long-term stability of the amorphous phase. We here instead control the process of melting through premelting disordering effects, while maintaining the superior advantage of phase-change-based logic devices over silicon-based logic devices. A melting speed of just 900 ps was achieved to perform multiple Boolean algebraic operations (e.g., NOR and NOT). Ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations and in situ electrical characterization revealed the origin (i.e., bond buckling of atoms) and kinetics (e.g., discontinuouslike behavior) of melting through premelting disordering, which were key to increasing the melting speeds. By a subtle investigation of the well-characterized phase-transition behavior, this simple method provides an elegant solution to boost significantly the speed of phase-change-based in-memory logic devices, thus paving the way for achieving computers that can perform computations approaching terahertz processing rates.
Ultrafast phase-change logic device driven by melting processes
Loke, Desmond; Skelton, Jonathan M.; Wang, Wei-Jie; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Zhao, Rong; Chong, Tow-Chong; Elliott, Stephen R.
2014-01-01
The ultrahigh demand for faster computers is currently tackled by traditional methods such as size scaling (for increasing the number of devices), but this is rapidly becoming almost impossible, due to physical and lithographic limitations. To boost the speed of computers without increasing the number of logic devices, one of the most feasible solutions is to increase the number of operations performed by a device, which is largely impossible to achieve using current silicon-based logic devices. Multiple operations in phase-change–based logic devices have been achieved using crystallization; however, they can achieve mostly speeds of several hundreds of nanoseconds. A difficulty also arises from the trade-off between the speed of crystallization and long-term stability of the amorphous phase. We here instead control the process of melting through premelting disordering effects, while maintaining the superior advantage of phase-change–based logic devices over silicon-based logic devices. A melting speed of just 900 ps was achieved to perform multiple Boolean algebraic operations (e.g., NOR and NOT). Ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations and in situ electrical characterization revealed the origin (i.e., bond buckling of atoms) and kinetics (e.g., discontinuouslike behavior) of melting through premelting disordering, which were key to increasing the melting speeds. By a subtle investigation of the well-characterized phase-transition behavior, this simple method provides an elegant solution to boost significantly the speed of phase-change–based in-memory logic devices, thus paving the way for achieving computers that can perform computations approaching terahertz processing rates. PMID:25197044
Development of a self-tuning fuzzy logic controller
Huang, S.H.; Nelson, R.M.
1999-07-01
To avoid the laborious task of modifying control rule sets for fuzzy logic controllers, a novel model-based self-tuning strategy has been developed. The performance of this advanced fuzzy logic controller is measured and analyzed in a linguistic plane. An optimal performance trajectory functions as the control model. The self-tuning strategy improves the performance automatically until it converges to a predetermined optimal global criterion. The experimental results indicate that the actual performance trajectory of the advanced fuzzy controller with the self-tuning strategy has reached the optimal criterion.
[Classifications in forensic medicine and their logical basis].
Kovalev, A V; Shmarov, L A; Ten'kov, A A
2014-01-01
The objective of the present study was to characterize the main requirements for the correct construction of classifications used in forensic medicine, with special reference to the errors that occur in the relevant text-books, guidelines, and manuals and the ways to avoid them. This publication continues the series of thematic articles of the authors devoted to the logical errors in the expert conclusions. The preparation of further publications is underway to report the results of the in-depth analysis of the logical errors encountered in expert conclusions, text-books, guidelines, and manuals.
[Building questions in forensic medicine and their logical basis].
Kovalev, A V; Shmarov, L A; Ten'kov, A A
2015-01-01
The authors characterize in brief the requirements to the correct formulation of the questions posed to forensic medical experts with special reference to the mistakes made in building the questions and the ways to avoid them. This article actually continues the series of publications of the authors concerned with the major logical errors encountered in expert conclusions. Further publications will be dedicated to the results of the in-depth analysis of the logical errors contained in the questions posed to forensic medical experts and encountered in the expert conclusions.
Modal and temporal logics for abstract space-time structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uckelman, Sara L.; Uckelman, Joel
In the fourth century BC, the Greek philosopher Diodoros Chronos gave a temporal definition of necessity. Because it connects modality and temporality, this definition is of interest to philosophers working within branching time or branching space-time models. This definition of necessity can be formalized and treated within a logical framework. We give a survey of the several known modal and temporal logics of abstract space-time structures based on the real numbers and the integers, considering three different accessibility relations between spatio-temporal points.
The CSM testbed matrix processors internal logic and dataflow descriptions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Regelbrugge, Marc E.; Wright, Mary A.
1988-01-01
This report constitutes the final report for subtask 1 of Task 5 of NASA Contract NAS1-18444, Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM) Research. This report contains a detailed description of the coded workings of selected CSM Testbed matrix processors (i.e., TOPO, K, INV, SSOL) and of the arithmetic utility processor AUS. These processors and the current sparse matrix data structures are studied and documented. Items examined include: details of the data structures, interdependence of data structures, data-blocking logic in the data structures, processor data flow and architecture, and processor algorithmic logic flow.
An Introduction to Logic for Students of Physics and Engineering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kolecki, Joseph C.
2004-01-01
A physicist with an engineering background, the author presents a brief tutorial on logic. In his work at NASA and in his encounters with students, he has often found that a firm grounding in basic logic is lacking - perhaps because there are so many other demands on people that time simply cannot be taken to really examine the roots of human reasoning. This report provides an overview of this all-too-important subject with the dual hope that it will suffice insofar as it goes and that it will spur at least some to further study.
Model checking for linear temporal logic: An efficient implementation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sherman, Rivi; Pnueli, Amir
1990-01-01
This report provides evidence to support the claim that model checking for linear temporal logic (LTL) is practically efficient. Two implementations of a linear temporal logic model checker is described. One is based on transforming the model checking problem into a satisfiability problem; the other checks an LTL formula for a finite model by computing the cross-product of the finite state transition graph of the program with a structure containing all possible models for the property. An experiment was done with a set of mutual exclusion algorithms and tested safety and liveness under fairness for these algorithms.
A logical approach to semantic interoperability in healthcare.
Bird, Linda; Brooks, Colleen; Cheong, Yu Chye; Tun, Nwe Ni
2011-01-01
Singapore is in the process of rolling out a number of national e-health initiatives, including the National Electronic Health Record (NEHR). A critical enabler in the journey towards semantic interoperability is a Logical Information Model (LIM) that harmonises the semantics of the information structure with the terminology. The Singapore LIM uses a combination of international standards, including ISO 13606-1 (a reference model for electronic health record communication), ISO 21090 (healthcare datatypes), and SNOMED CT (healthcare terminology). The LIM is accompanied by a logical design approach, used to generate interoperability artifacts, and incorporates mechanisms for achieving unidirectional and bidirectional semantic interoperability.
A two-sorted logic for structurally modeling systems.
Goranson, H T; Cardier, Beth
2013-09-01
Structural modeling of complex biological systems relies on formalisms inherited from physics. These formalisms scale poorly when dealing with interactions with many variables and agents working in systems that cohere at multiple layers. We propose a two sorted logic that supplements existing formalisms to mitigate these problems. The purpose of this second logic is to track how multiple contexts relate to each other, as well as to the dependent structures they inform: a situating of situations. In this way, we aim to capture the multi-layered and multi-system dynamics that have been elusive in modeling emergent systems. An apoptosis example is explored in the context of mental concepts.
UML activity diagram swimlanes in logic controller design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grobelny, Michał; Grobelna, Iwona
2015-12-01
Logic controller behavior can be specified using various techniques, including UML activity diagrams and control Petri nets. Each technique has its advantages and disadvantages. Application of both specification types in one project allows to take benefits from both of them. Additional elements of UML models make it possible to divide a specification into some parts, considered from other point of view (logic controller, user or system). The paper introduces an idea to use UML activity diagrams with swimlanes to increase the understandability of design models.
The psychobiographer's authority: questions of interpretive scope and logic.
Rosenwald, George C
2012-04-01
Two charges are often raised against psychobiographers' authority (as well as popularized analytic case formulations): reductionism and causal overreach. The first pertains to interpretations that rely exclusively on analytic concepts but ignore the essential contributions made by neighboring disciplines, such as history, to the elucidation of lives lived elsewhere or in the past. The second charge is sometimes stimulated by exaggerated interpretive claims, but often reflects the critic's misunderstanding of the logical structure of genetic explanations. Three case studies illustrate reductionism as well as safeguards against it. They also support a critical discussion of the alleged logical defect.
Neural networks and logical reasoning systems: a translation table.
Martins, J; Mendes, R V
2001-04-01
A correspondence is established between the basic elements of logic reasoning systems (knowledge bases, rules, inference and queries) and the structure and dynamical evolution laws of neural networks. The correspondence is pictured as a translation dictionary which might allow to go back and forth between symbolic and network formulations, a desirable step in learning-oriented systems and multicomputer networks. In the framework of Horn clause logics, it is found that atomic propositions with n arguments correspond to nodes with nth order synapses, rules to synaptic intensity constraints, forward chaining to synaptic dynamics and queries either to simple node activation or to a query tensor dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szczot, Feliks
2005-09-01
The possibilities of development of logical and pseudo-logical optical fibre networks for monitoring and control of equipment and industrial sites are presented. Such networks composed of simple binary attenuation and optical fibre communication lines may also be used as fast and reliable systems developing a final command signal - logical and/or pseudo-logical, depending or the architecture of network and the type of located sensors. They realise the process similar to standard electronic logical sets but use the optical signal directly on the monitored or controlled device. The analysis of serial and parallel networks was carried out in the "dark" mode detection. The examples of networks in power industry were presented where technical and economical merits of logical and pseudo-logical monitoring and controlling networks are clearly visible.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sultan, Labib; Janabi, Talib
1992-01-01
This paper analyses the internal operation of fuzzy logic controllers as referenced to the human cognitive tasks of control and decision making. Two goals are targeted. The first goal focuses on the cognitive interpretation of the mechanisms employed in the current design of fuzzy logic controllers. This analysis helps to create a ground to explore the potential of enhancing the functional intelligence of fuzzy controllers. The second goal is to outline the features of a new class of fuzzy controllers, the Clearness Transformation Fuzzy Logic Controller (CT-FLC), whereby some new concepts are advanced to qualify fuzzy controllers as 'cognitive devices' rather than 'expert system devices'. The operation of the CT-FLC, as a fuzzy pattern processing controller, is explored, simulated, and evaluated.
Noise-Aided Logic in an Electronic Analog of Synthetic Genetic Networks
Hellen, Edward H.; Dana, Syamal K.; Kurths, Jürgen; Kehler, Elizabeth; Sinha, Sudeshna
2013-01-01
We report the experimental verification of noise-enhanced logic behaviour in an electronic analog of a synthetic genetic network, composed of two repressors and two constitutive promoters. We observe good agreement between circuit measurements and numerical prediction, with the circuit allowing for robust logic operations in an optimal window of noise. Namely, the input-output characteristics of a logic gate is reproduced faithfully under moderate noise, which is a manifestation of the phenomenon known as Logical Stochastic Resonance. The two dynamical variables in the system yield complementary logic behaviour simultaneously. The system is easily morphed from AND/NAND to OR/NOR logic. PMID:24124531
Nonvolatile ``AND,'' ``OR,'' and ``NOT'' Boolean logic gates based on phase-change memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Y.; Zhong, Y. P.; Deng, Y. F.; Zhou, Y. X.; Xu, L.; Miao, X. S.
2013-12-01
Electronic devices or circuits that can implement both logic and memory functions are regarded as the building blocks for future massive parallel computing beyond von Neumann architecture. Here we proposed phase-change memory (PCM)-based nonvolatile logic gates capable of AND, OR, and NOT Boolean logic operations verified in SPICE simulations and circuit experiments. The logic operations are parallel computing and results can be stored directly in the states of the logic gates, facilitating the combination of computing and memory in the same circuit. These results are encouraging for ultralow-power and high-speed nonvolatile logic circuit design based on novel memory devices.
Low delay and area efficient soft error correction in arbitration logic
Sugawara, Yutaka
2013-09-10
There is provided an arbitration logic device for controlling an access to a shared resource. The arbitration logic device comprises at least one storage element, a winner selection logic device, and an error detection logic device. The storage element stores a plurality of requestors' information. The winner selection logic device selects a winner requestor among the requestors based on the requestors' information received from a plurality of requestors. The winner selection logic device selects the winner requestor without checking whether there is the soft error in the winner requestor's information.
Understanding of logical necessity: developmental antecedents and cognitive consequences.
Morris, A K; Sloutsky, V M
1998-06-01
Does abstract reasoning develop naturally, and does instruction contribute to its development? In an attempt to answer these questions, this article specifically focuses on effects of prolonged instruction on the development of abstract deductive reasoning and, more specifically, on the development of understanding of logical necessity. It was hypothesized that instructional emphasis on the metalevel of deduction within a knowledge domain can amplify the development of deductive reasoning both within and across this domain. The article presents 2 studies that examine the development of understanding of logical necessity in algebraic and verbal deductive reasoning. In the first study, algebraic and verbal reasoning tasks were administered to 450 younger and older adolescents selected across different instructional settings in England and in Russia. In the second study, algebraic and verbal reasoning tasks were administered to 287 Russian younger and older adolescents selected across different instructional settings. The results support the hypothesis, indicating that prolonged instruction with an emphasis on the metalevel of algebraic deduction contributes to the development of understanding of logical necessity in both algebraic and verbal deductive reasoning. Findings also suggest that many adolescents do not develop an understanding of logical necessity naturally.
Use of fuzzy logic in signal processing and validation
Heger, A.S.; Alang-Rashid, N.K. ); Holbert, K.E. )
1993-01-01
The advent of fuzzy logic technology has afforded another opportunity to reexamine the signal processing and validation process (SPV). The features offered by fuzzy logic can lend themselves to a more reliable and perhaps fault-tolerant approach to SPV. This is particularly attractive to complex system operations, where optimal control for safe operation depends on reliable input data. The reason for the use of fuzzy logic as the tool for SPV is its ability to transform information from the linguistic domain to a mathematical domain for processing and then transformation of its result back into the linguistic domain for presentation. To ensure the safe and optimal operation of a nuclear plant, for example, reliable and valid data must be available to the human and computer operators. Based on these input data, the operators determine the current state of the power plant and project corrective actions for future states. This determination is based on available data and the conceptual and mathematical models for the plant. A fault-tolerant SPV based on fuzzy logic can help the operators meet the objective of effective, efficient, and safe operation of the nuclear power plant. The ultimate product of this project will be a code that will assist plant operators in making informed decisions under uncertain conditions when conflicting signals may be present.
Logic Circuits as a Vehicle for Technological Literacy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hazeltine, Barrett
1985-01-01
Provides basic information on logic circuits, points out that the topic is a good vehicle for developing technological literacy. The subject could be included in such courses as philosophy, computer science, communications, as well as in courses dealing with electronic circuits. (JN)
Terminology and concepts of control and Fuzzy Logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aldridge, Jack; Lea, Robert; Jani, Yashvant; Weiss, Jonathan
1990-01-01
Viewgraphs on terminology and concepts of control and fuzzy logic are presented. Topics covered include: control systems; issues in the design of a control system; state space control for inverted pendulum; proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller; fuzzy controller; and fuzzy rule processing.
Applying Toulmin: Teaching Logical Reasoning and Argumentative Writing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rex, Lesley A.; Thomas, Ebony Elizabeth; Engel, Steven
2010-01-01
To learn to write well-reasoned persuasive arguments, students need in situ help thinking through the complexity and complications of an issue, making inferences based on evidence, and hierarchically grouping and logically sequencing ideas. They rely on teachers to make this happen. In this article, the authors explain the framework they used and…
76 FR 14392 - GeoLogics Corporation; Transfer of Data
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-03-16
... AGENCY GeoLogics Corporation; Transfer of Data AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Requirements Under Contract No. EP10H002173, the contractor will perform the following: The Laboratory Data... identify, evaluate, and write new system software for the modernization of the LDIB data management...
Mechanically Flexible and High-Performance CMOS Logic Circuits
Honda, Wataru; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji; Takei, Kuniharu
2015-01-01
Low-power flexible logic circuits are key components required by the next generation of flexible electronic devices. For stable device operation, such components require a high degree of mechanical flexibility and reliability. Here, the mechanical properties of low-power flexible complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) logic circuits including inverter, NAND, and NOR are investigated. To fabricate CMOS circuits on flexible polyimide substrates, carbon nanotube (CNT) network films are used for p-type transistors, whereas amorphous InGaZnO films are used for the n-type transistors. The power consumption and voltage gain of CMOS inverters are <500 pW/mm at Vin = 0 V (<7.5 nW/mm at Vin = 5 V) and >45, respectively. Importantly, bending of the substrate is not found to cause significant changes in the device characteristics. This is also observed to be the case for more complex flexible NAND and NOR logic circuits for bending states with a curvature radius of 2.6 mm. The mechanical stability of these CMOS logic circuits makes them ideal candidates for use in flexible integrated devices. PMID:26459882
Navigating a Mobile Robot Across Terrain Using Fuzzy Logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seraji, Homayoun; Howard, Ayanna; Bon, Bruce
2003-01-01
A strategy for autonomous navigation of a robotic vehicle across hazardous terrain involves the use of a measure of traversability of terrain within a fuzzy-logic conceptual framework. This navigation strategy requires no a priori information about the environment. Fuzzy logic was selected as a basic element of this strategy because it provides a formal methodology for representing and implementing a human driver s heuristic knowledge and operational experience. Within a fuzzy-logic framework, the attributes of human reasoning and decision- making can be formulated by simple IF (antecedent), THEN (consequent) rules coupled with easily understandable and natural linguistic representations. The linguistic values in the rule antecedents convey the imprecision associated with measurements taken by sensors onboard a mobile robot, while the linguistic values in the rule consequents represent the vagueness inherent in the reasoning processes to generate the control actions. The operational strategies of the human expert driver can be transferred, via fuzzy logic, to a robot-navigation strategy in the form of a set of simple conditional statements composed of linguistic variables. These linguistic variables are defined by fuzzy sets in accordance with user-defined membership functions. The main advantages of a fuzzy navigation strategy lie in the ability to extract heuristic rules from human experience and to obviate the need for an analytical model of the robot navigation process.
103. LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (106), LSB (BLDG. 770): LOGIC CONTROL ...
103. LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (106), LSB (BLDG. 770): LOGIC CONTROL AND MONITOR UNIT FOR BOOSTER AND FUEL SYSTEMS, INCLUDING MISSILE GROUND POWER, HYDRAULICS, PURGE, AND COMMIT - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA
Applications of fuzzy logic to control and decision making
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lea, Robert N.; Jani, Yashvant
1991-01-01
Long range space missions will require high operational efficiency as well as autonomy to enhance the effectivity of performance. Fuzzy logic technology has been shown to be powerful and robust in interpreting imprecise measurements and generating appropriate control decisions for many space operations. Several applications are underway, studying the fuzzy logic approach to solving control and decision making problems. Fuzzy logic algorithms for relative motion and attitude control have been developed and demonstrated for proximity operations. Based on this experience, motion control algorithms that include obstacle avoidance were developed for a Mars Rover prototype for maneuvering during the sample collection process. A concept of an intelligent sensor system that can identify objects and track them continuously and learn from its environment is under development to support traffic management and proximity operations around the Space Station Freedom. For safe and reliable operation of Lunar/Mars based crew quarters, high speed controllers with ability to combine imprecise measurements from several sensors is required. A fuzzy logic approach that uses high speed fuzzy hardware chips is being studied.
A Logical Approach to Multilevel Security of Probabilistic Systems
1998-01-01
theorem of this section. Before doing so, we state and prove a lemma. Lemma 6.8 If TA and TA0 are two trees such thatA andA 0 agree on L behavior (and...Hill, New York. [35] Enrique H. Ruspini. Epistemic logics, probability, and the calculus of evidence. In Proceedings of the 10th International Joint
Science, a Psychological versus a Logical Approach in Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ediger, Marlow
2015-01-01
Under which approach do pupils attain more optimally, a logical versus a psychological procedure of instruction? Pupils do need to achieve well in a world of science. Science is all around us and pupils need to understand various principles and laws of science. Thus, teachers in the school curriculum must choose carefully objectives for pupil…
Fault-tolerant authenticated quantum dialogue using logical Bell states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Tian-Yu
2015-09-01
Two fault-tolerant authenticated quantum dialogue protocols are proposed in this paper by employing logical Bell states as the quantum resource, which combat the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively. The two proposed protocols each can accomplish the mutual identity authentication and the dialogue between two participants simultaneously and securely over one kind of collective noise channels. In each of two proposed protocols, the information transmitted through the classical channel is assumed to be eavesdroppable and modifiable. The key for choosing the measurement bases of sample logical qubits is pre-shared privately between two participants. The Bell state measurements rather than the four-qubit joint measurements are adopted for decoding. The two participants share the initial states of message logical Bell states with resort to the direct transmission of auxiliary logical Bell states so that the information leakage problem is avoided. The impersonation attack, the man-in-the-middle attack, the modification attack and the Trojan horse attacks from Eve all are detectable.
Plausible inference: A multi-valued logic for problem solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Friedman, L.
1979-01-01
A new logic is developed which permits continuously variable strength of belief in the truth of assertions. Four inference rules result, with formal logic as a limiting case. Quantification of belief is defined. Propagation of belief to linked assertions results from dependency-based techniques of truth maintenance so that local consistency is achieved or contradiction discovered in problem solving. Rules for combining, confirming, or disconfirming beliefs are given, and several heuristics are suggested that apply to revising already formed beliefs in the light of new evidence. The strength of belief that results in such revisions based on conflicting evidence are a highly subjective phenomenon. Certain quantification rules appear to reflect an orderliness in the subjectivity. Several examples of reasoning by plausible inference are given, including a legal example and one from robot learning. Propagation of belief takes place in directions forbidden in formal logic and this results in conclusions becoming possible for a given set of assertions that are not reachable by formal logic.
Logic Models: Evaluating Education Doctorates in Educational Administration
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Creighton, Theodore
2008-01-01
The author suggests the Logic Model, used especially in the Health Science field, as a model for evaluating the quality of the educational doctorate (i.e., EdD). The manuscript highlights the newly developed EdD program at Virginia Tech.
Query Expansion and Query Translation as Logical Inference.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nie, Jian-Yun
2003-01-01
Examines query expansion during query translation in cross language information retrieval and develops a general framework for inferential information retrieval in two particular contexts: using fuzzy logic and probability theory. Obtains evaluation formulas that are shown to strongly correspond to those used in other information retrieval models.…
A Logical Approach to the Statement of Cash Flows
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Petro, Fred; Gean, Farrell
2014-01-01
Of the three financial statements in financial reporting, the Statement of Cash Flows (SCF) is perhaps the most challenging. The most difficult aspect of the SCF is in developing an understanding of how previous transactions are finalized in this document. The purpose of this paper is to logically explain the indirect approach of cash flow whereby…
EXPERIMENTAL TEACHING OF MATHEMATICAL LOGIC IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
BINFORD, FREDERICK; SUPPES, PATRICK
STUDY OBJECTIVES WERE DEVELOPED AROUND THE IDEA THAT DELIBERATE AND PLANNED TEACHING OF FORMAL SYMBOLIC LOGIC WILL BENEFIT THE STUDENT AT ANY AGE BY ENLARGING HIS SCOPE AND PROVIDING FOR A DEEPER AND MORE PENETRATING STUDY OF MATHEMATICS AND OTHER DEDUCTIVELY FORMULATED DISCIPLINES. IT WAS HYPOTHESIZED THAT THE ABLE STUDENT IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL IS…
Strategies to Develop Logical Thinking Through Biology Teaching.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Villavicencio, Rosalina R.; Tayko, Perla Rizalina M.
1981-01-01
Investigated relationship of teachers' cognitive levels and cognitive level demand of textbooks in relation to students capability to learn biology. Based on findings, teaching units were designed to help science teachers acquire skills, use innovative formats of instruction for abstract topics, and develop logical thinking skills through biology…
From Visual Reasoning to Logical Necessity through Argumentative Design
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Prusak, Naomi; Hershkowitz, Rina; Schwarz, Baruch B.
2012-01-01
Our main goal in this study is to exemplify that a meticulous design can lead pre-service teachers to engage in productive unguided peer argumentation. By productivity, we mean here a shift from reasoning based on intuitions to reasoning moved by logical necessity. As a subsidiary goal, we aimed at identifying the kinds of reasoning processes…
Interlocked DNA nanostructures controlled by a reversible logic circuit
Li, Tao; Lohmann, Finn; Famulok, Michael
2014-01-01
DNA nanostructures constitute attractive devices for logic computing and nanomechanics. An emerging interest is to integrate these two fields and devise intelligent DNA nanorobots. Here we report a reversible logic circuit built on the programmable assembly of a double-stranded (ds) DNA [3]pseudocatenane that serves as a rigid scaffold to position two separate branched-out head-motifs, a bimolecular i-motif and a G-quadruplex. The G-quadruplex only forms when preceded by the assembly of the i-motif. The formation of the latter, in turn, requires acidic pH and unhindered mobility of the head-motif containing dsDNA nanorings with respect to the central ring to which they are interlocked, triggered by release oligodeoxynucleotides. We employ these features to convert the structural changes into Boolean operations with fluorescence labelling. The nanostructure behaves as a reversible logic circuit consisting of tandem YES and AND gates. Such reversible logic circuits integrated into functional nanodevices may guide future intelligent DNA nanorobots to manipulate cascade reactions in biological systems. PMID:25229207
Logical unit and scene detection: a comparative survey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petersohn, Christian
2008-01-01
Logical units are semantic video segments above the shot level. Depending on the common semantics within the unit and data domain, different types of logical unit extraction algorithms have been presented in literature. Topic units are typically extracted for documentaries or news broadcasts while scenes are extracted for narrative-driven video such as feature films, sitcoms, or cartoons. Other types of logical units are extracted from home video and sports. Different algorithms in literature used for the extraction of logical units are reviewed in this paper based on the categories unit type, data domain, features used, segmentation method, and thresholds applied. A detailed comparative study is presented for the case of extracting scenes from narrative-driven video. While earlier comparative studies focused on scene segmentation methods only or on complete news-story segmentation algorithms, in this paper various visual features and segmentation methods with their thresholding mechanisms and their combination into complete scene detection algorithms are investigated. The performance of the resulting large set of algorithms is then evaluated on a set of video files including feature films, sitcoms, children's shows, a detective story, and cartoons.
Application of Logic Models in a Large Scientific Research Program
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Keefe, Christine M.; Head, Richard J.
2011-01-01
It is the purpose of this article to discuss the development and application of a logic model in the context of a large scientific research program within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). CSIRO is Australia's national science agency and is a publicly funded part of Australia's innovation system. It conducts…
Defending the Logic of Significance Testing: A Response to Gorard
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Neale, Dave
2015-01-01
Recently, Stephen Gorard has outlined strong objections to the use of significance testing in social research. He has argued, first, that as the samples used in social research are almost always non-random it is not possible to use inferential statistical techniques and, second, that even if a truly random sample were achieved, the logic behind…
Professional Learning: A Fuzzy Logic-Based Modelling Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gravani, M. N.; Hadjileontiadou, S. J.; Nikolaidou, G. N.; Hadjileontiadis, L. J.
2007-01-01
Studies have suggested that professional learning is influenced by two key parameters, i.e., climate and planning, and their associated variables (mutual respect, collaboration, mutual trust, supportiveness, openness). In this paper, we applied analysis of the relationships between the proposed quantitative, fuzzy logic-based model and a series of…
[The vigilante, a romantic figure according to paranoid logic].
Carros, Caroline
2012-01-01
When patients "transform" themselves into vigilantes, they respond only to their own law and logic. In two examples taken from fiction, "vigilante" characters have experienced an initial trauma.What is the situation in daily clinical practice and how can we open the treatment door for patients suffering from paranoia?
Majority-voted logic fail-sense circuit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mclyman, W. T.
1977-01-01
Fail-sense circuit has majority-voted logic component which receives three error voltage signals that are sensed at single point by three error amplifiers. If transistor shorts, only one signal is required to operate; if transistor opens, two signals are required.
Logic implementations using a single nanoparticle-protein hybrid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medalsy, Izhar; Klein, Michael; Heyman, Arnon; Shoseyov, Oded; Remacle, F.; Levine, R. D.; Porath, Danny
2010-06-01
A Set-Reset machine is the simplest logic circuit with a built-in memory. Its output is a (nonlinear) function of the input and of the state stored in the machine's memory. Here, we report a nanoscale Set-Reset machine operating at room temperature that is based on a 5-nm silicon nanoparticle attached to the inner pore of a stable circular protein. The nanoparticle-protein hybrid can also function as a balanced ternary multiplier. Conductive atomic force microscopy is used to implement the logic input and output operations, and the processing of the logic Set and Reset operations relies on the finite capacitance of the nanoparticle provided by the good electrical isolation given by the protein, thus enabling stability of the logic device states. We show that the machine can be cycled, such that in every successive cycle, the previous state in the memory is retained as the present state. The energy cost of one cycle of computation is minimized to the cost of charging this state.
Plausibility Versus Logical Necessity in Children's Verbal Reasoning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hidi, Suzanne; Bereiter, Carl
Studies of children's verbal reasoning that are focused on the valid principles of conditional reasoning indicate that young children (1) draw inferences from logically unconnected semantically related statements; (2) arrive at conclusions on the basis of no presented evidence; (3) do not differentiate between definite and indefinite propositions;…
Automatic logic synthesis for parallel alternating latches clocking schemes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guerrero, D.; Bellido, M.; Juan, J.; Millan, A.; Ruiz, P.; Ostua, E.; Viejo, J.
2007-05-01
This paper proposes a VHDL coding technique that allows for the automatic synthesis of digital circuits using the so called Parallel Alternating Latches Clocking Schemes (PALACS). The proposed method greatly improves the applicability of PALACS and its benefits. This technique is verified through design examples in three different CMOS processes and using logic level simulation, with successful results in all the cases.
Logical Demonomy Among the Ewe in West Africa
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dzobo, N. K.
1974-01-01
Examines the indigenous pattern of moral behavior among the Ewe, an ethnic and linguistic group in West Africa, and assesses its role in moral education within the African context. The author develops a conceptual framework he calls "logical demonomy" that he uses to define the Ewe system of moral laws. (JT)
I'll Do It Tomorrow: The Logic of Procrastination
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zarick, Lisa M.; Stonebraker, Robert
2009-01-01
College students seem especially adept at procrastination. Large percents report that it causes lower quality papers and projects, lower exam scores and, to a lesser extent, late or missing assignments. Using survey data collected from a broad cross-section of students and faculty we argue that procrastination can be modeled as a logical, albeit…
Errors of Logic and Scholarship Concerning Dissociative Identity Disorder
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ross, Colin A.
2009-01-01
The author reviewed a two-part critique of dissociative identity disorder published in the "Canadian Journal of Psychiatry". The two papers contain errors of logic and scholarship. Contrary to the conclusions in the critique, dissociative identity disorder has established diagnostic reliability and concurrent validity, the trauma histories of…
Students' Accuracy of Measurement Estimation: Context, Units, and Logical Thinking
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, M. Gail; Gardner, Grant E.; Taylor, Amy R.; Forrester, Jennifer H.; Andre, Thomas
2012-01-01
This study examined students' accuracy of measurement estimation for linear distances, different units of measure, task context, and the relationship between accuracy estimation and logical thinking. Middle school students completed a series of tasks that included estimating the length of various objects in different contexts and completed a test…
Competitive Arenas and Schools' Logics of Action: A European Comparison
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Zanten, Agnes
2009-01-01
This article analyses the impact of competitive arenas on schools' logics of action in six local European contexts (London, Paris, Lille, Charleroi, Budapest and Lisbon). It first examines how competitive processes affect different schools' activities (recruitment, provision of options, promotion, tracking, provision for children with special…
Heuristics and criteria for constructing logical patterns in data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antamoshkin, A. N.; Masich, I. S.; Kuzmich, R. I.
2015-10-01
The article considers various optimization models for constructing patterns in the method of logical analysis of data. Application techniques of the proposed models are specified and comparison of their classification against the accuracy on the task of predicting complications of myocardial infarction is provided
Molecular AND logic gate based on bacterial anaerobic respiration.
Arugula, Mary Anitha; Shroff, Namita; Katz, Evgeny; He, Zhen
2012-10-21
Enzyme coding genes that integrate information for anaerobic respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were used as input for constructing an AND logic gate. The absence of one or both genes inhibited electrochemically-controlled anaerobic respiration, while wild type bacteria were capable of accepting electrons from an electrode for DMSO reduction.
Teaching Logic and Teaching Critical Thinking: Revisiting McPeck
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robinson, Susan Rebecca
2011-01-01
This paper reappraises the view of John McPeck that critical thinking can only be taught within rather than across the disciplines. In particular the paper explores one aspect of McPeck's position: his resistance to teaching informal logic as a means of teaching critical thinking. The paper draws upon the author's experience of teaching critical…
Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Executive Summary
Not Available
1993-06-30
This executive summary contains a description of the logic diagram format; some examples from the diagram (Vol. 2) and associated technology evaluation data sheets (Vol. 3); a complete (albeit condensed) listing of the RA, D&D, and WM problems at ORNL; and a complete listing of the technology rankings for all the areas covered by the diagram.
The Development of a Digital Logic Concept Inventory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Herman, Geoffrey Lindsay
2011-01-01
Instructors in electrical and computer engineering and in computer science have developed innovative methods to teach digital logic circuits. These methods attempt to increase student learning, satisfaction, and retention. Although there are readily accessible and accepted means for measuring satisfaction and retention, there are no widely…
Programming Programmable Logic Controller. High-Technology Training Module.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lipsky, Kevin
This training module on programming programmable logic controllers (PLC) is part of the memory structure and programming unit used in a packaging systems equipment control course. In the course, students assemble, install, maintain, and repair industrial machinery used in industry. The module contains description, objectives, content outline,…
Enrollment Logics and Discourses: Toward Developing an Enrollment Knowledge Framework
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Snowden, Monique L.
2013-01-01
This article brings attention to a typology of enrollment knowledge possessed and enacted by contemporary chief enrollment officers. Interview narratives are used to reveal enrollment principles and associated actions--enrollment logics--that form enrollment discourses, which in turn shape the institutionalized presence of strategic enrollment…
Controlling High Power Devices with Computers or TTL Logic Circuits
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carlton, Kevin
2002-01-01
Computers are routinely used to control experiments in modern science laboratories. This should be reflected in laboratories in an educational setting. There is a mismatch between the power that can be delivered by a computer interfacing card or a TTL logic circuit and that required by many practical pieces of laboratory equipment. One common way…
Extending Bayesian Logic Programs for Plan Recognition and Machine Reading
2011-05-01
involving several objects, their properties, and their relationships with other objects (Russell & Norvig , 2003). A term in first-order logic is a symbol that...Conference on Artificial Intel- ligence (IJCAI-95), pp. 1146–1152, Montreal, Canada. Russell, S., & Norvig , P. (2003). Artificial Intelligence: A Modern
Effect Logical Relatedness and Semantic Overlap on Argument Evaluation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dandotkar, Srikanth; Magliano, Joseph P.; Britt, M. Anne
2016-01-01
In two studies we examined the extent to which skilled and less-skilled reasoners of arguments relied on relevance relations (semantic and logical relatedness) between claims and reasons when evaluating arguments. College students, selected as having high or low analytical reasoning skill, evaluated the quality of a set of two sentence arguments…
Applications of Algebraic Logic and Universal Algebra to Computer Science
1989-06-21
conference, with roughly equal representation from Mathematics and Computer Science . The conference consisted of eight invited lectures (60 minutes...each) and 26 contributed talks (20-40 minutes each). There was also a round-table discussion on the role of algebra and logic in computer science . Keywords
Mechanically Flexible and High-Performance CMOS Logic Circuits.
Honda, Wataru; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji; Takei, Kuniharu
2015-10-13
Low-power flexible logic circuits are key components required by the next generation of flexible electronic devices. For stable device operation, such components require a high degree of mechanical flexibility and reliability. Here, the mechanical properties of low-power flexible complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) logic circuits including inverter, NAND, and NOR are investigated. To fabricate CMOS circuits on flexible polyimide substrates, carbon nanotube (CNT) network films are used for p-type transistors, whereas amorphous InGaZnO films are used for the n-type transistors. The power consumption and voltage gain of CMOS inverters are <500 pW/mm at Vin = 0 V (<7.5 nW/mm at Vin = 5 V) and >45, respectively. Importantly, bending of the substrate is not found to cause significant changes in the device characteristics. This is also observed to be the case for more complex flexible NAND and NOR logic circuits for bending states with a curvature radius of 2.6 mm. The mechanical stability of these CMOS logic circuits makes them ideal candidates for use in flexible integrated devices.
Children's Logical and Mathematical Cognition: Progress in Cognitive Development Research.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brainerd, Charles J., Ed.
The goal of books in this series is to present work that is on the growing tip of research in cognitive development. The theme of this volume is children's logical and mathematical cognition, a field in which Piaget's influence has been extensive. In the first of the six chapters, Acredolo presents a new theory of the cognitive bases for…
Magnonic interferometric switch for multi-valued logic circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balynsky, Michael; Kozhevnikov, Alexander; Khivintsev, Yuri; Bhowmick, Tonmoy; Gutierrez, David; Chiang, Howard; Dudko, Galina; Filimonov, Yuri; Liu, Guanxiong; Jiang, Chenglong; Balandin, Alexander A.; Lake, Roger; Khitun, Alexander
2017-01-01
We investigated a possible use of the magnonic interferometric switches in multi-valued logic circuits. The switch is a three-terminal device consisting of two spin channels where input, control, and output signals are spin waves. Signal modulation is achieved via the interference between the source and gate spin waves. We report experimental data on a micrometer scale prototype based on the Y3Fe2(FeO4)3 structure. The output characteristics are measured at different angles of the bias magnetic field. The On/Off ratio of the prototype exceeds 13 dB at room temperature. Experimental data are complemented by the theoretical analysis and the results of micro magnetic simulations showing spin wave propagation in a micrometer size magnetic junction. We also present the results of numerical modeling illustrating the operation of a nanometer-size switch consisting of just 20 spins in the source-drain channel. The utilization of spin wave interference as a switching mechanism makes it possible to build nanometer-scale logic gates, and minimize energy per operation, which is limited only by the noise margin. The utilization of phase in addition to amplitude for information encoding offers an innovative route towards multi-state logic circuits. We describe possible implementation of the three-value logic circuits based on the magnonic interferometric switches. The advantages and shortcomings inherent in interferometric switches are also discussed.
Photonic encryption : modeling and functional analysis of all optical logic.
Tang, Jason D.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Robertson, Perry J.
2004-10-01
With the build-out of large transport networks utilizing optical technologies, more and more capacity is being made available. Innovations in Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM) and the elimination of optical-electrical-optical conversions have brought on advances in communication speeds as we move into 10 Gigabit Ethernet and above. Of course, there is a need to encrypt data on these optical links as the data traverses public and private network backbones. Unfortunately, as the communications infrastructure becomes increasingly optical, advances in encryption (done electronically) have failed to keep up. This project examines the use of optical logic for implementing encryption in the photonic domain to achieve the requisite encryption rates. This paper documents the innovations and advances of work first detailed in 'Photonic Encryption using All Optical Logic,' [1]. A discussion of underlying concepts can be found in SAND2003-4474. In order to realize photonic encryption designs, technology developed for electrical logic circuits must be translated to the photonic regime. This paper examines S-SEED devices and how discrete logic elements can be interconnected and cascaded to form an optical circuit. Because there is no known software that can model these devices at a circuit level, the functionality of S-SEED devices in an optical circuit was modeled in PSpice. PSpice allows modeling of the macro characteristics of the devices in context of a logic element as opposed to device level computational modeling. By representing light intensity as voltage, 'black box' models are generated that accurately represent the intensity response and logic levels in both technologies. By modeling the behavior at the systems level, one can incorporate systems design tools and a simulation environment to aid in the overall functional design. Each black box model takes certain parameters (reflectance, intensity, input response), and models the optical ripple and time delay
Reasoning with Computer Code: a new Mathematical Logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pissanetzky, Sergio
2013-01-01
A logic is a mathematical model of knowledge used to study how we reason, how we describe the world, and how we infer the conclusions that determine our behavior. The logic presented here is natural. It has been experimentally observed, not designed. It represents knowledge as a causal set, includes a new type of inference based on the minimization of an action functional, and generates its own semantics, making it unnecessary to prescribe one. This logic is suitable for high-level reasoning with computer code, including tasks such as self-programming, objectoriented analysis, refactoring, systems integration, code reuse, and automated programming from sensor-acquired data. A strong theoretical foundation exists for the new logic. The inference derives laws of conservation from the permutation symmetry of the causal set, and calculates the corresponding conserved quantities. The association between symmetries and conservation laws is a fundamental and well-known law of nature and a general principle in modern theoretical Physics. The conserved quantities take the form of a nested hierarchy of invariant partitions of the given set. The logic associates elements of the set and binds them together to form the levels of the hierarchy. It is conjectured that the hierarchy corresponds to the invariant representations that the brain is known to generate. The hierarchies also represent fully object-oriented, self-generated code, that can be directly compiled and executed (when a compiler becomes available), or translated to a suitable programming language. The approach is constructivist because all entities are constructed bottom-up, with the fundamental principles of nature being at the bottom, and their existence is proved by construction. The new logic is mathematically introduced and later discussed in the context of transformations of algorithms and computer programs. We discuss what a full self-programming capability would really mean. We argue that self
G4-FETs as Universal and Programmable Logic Gates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Travis; Fijany, Amir; Mojarradi, Mohammad; Vatan, Farrokh; Toomarian, Nikzad; Kolawa, Elizabeth; Cristoloveanu, Sorin; Blalock, Benjamin
2007-01-01
An analysis of a patented generic silicon- on-insulator (SOI) electronic device called a G4-FET has revealed that the device could be designed to function as a universal and programmable logic gate. The universality and programmability could be exploited to design logic circuits containing fewer discrete components than are required for conventional transistor-based circuits performing the same logic functions. A G4-FET is a combination of a junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and a metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) superimposed in a single silicon island and can therefore be regarded as two transistors sharing the same body. A G4-FET can also be regarded as a single transistor having four gates: two side junction-based gates, a top MOS gate, and a back gate activated by biasing of the SOI substrate. Each of these gates can be used to control the conduction characteristics of the transistor; this possibility creates new options for designing analog, radio-frequency, mixed-signal, and digital circuitry. With proper choice of the specific dimensions for the gates, channels, and ancillary features of the generic G4-FET, the device could be made to function as a three-input, one-output logic gate. As illustrated by the truth table in the top part of the figure, the behavior of this logic gate would be the inverse (the NOT) of that of a majority gate. In other words, the device would function as a NOT-majority gate. By simply adding an inverter, one could obtain a majority gate. In contrast, to construct a majority gate in conventional complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry, one would need four three-input AND gates and a four-input OR gate, altogether containing 32 transistors.
Automated cloud classification with a fuzzy logic expert system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tovinkere, Vasanth; Baum, Bryan A.
1993-01-01
An unresolved problem in current cloud retrieval algorithms concerns the analysis of scenes containing overlapping cloud layers. Cloud parameterizations are very important both in global climate models and in studies of the Earth's radiation budget. Most cloud retrieval schemes, such as the bispectral method used by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), have no way of determining whether overlapping cloud layers exist in any group of satellite pixels. One promising method uses fuzzy logic to determine whether mixed cloud and/or surface types exist within a group of pixels, such as cirrus, land, and water, or cirrus and stratus. When two or more class types are present, fuzzy logic uses membership values to assign the group of pixels partially to the different class types. The strength of fuzzy logic lies in its ability to work with patterns that may include more than one class, facilitating greater information extraction from satellite radiometric data. The development of the fuzzy logic rule-based expert system involves training the fuzzy classifier with spectral and textural features calculated from accurately labeled 32x32 regions of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 1.1-km data. The spectral data consists of AVHRR channels 1 (0.55-0.68 mu m), 2 (0.725-1.1 mu m), 3 (3.55-3.93 mu m), 4 (10.5-11.5 mu m), and 5 (11.5-12.5 mu m), which include visible, near-infrared, and infrared window regions. The textural features are based on the gray level difference vector (GLDV) method. A sophisticated new interactive visual image Classification System (IVICS) is used to label samples chosen from scenes collected during the FIRE IFO II. The training samples are chosen from predefined classes, chosen to be ocean, land, unbroken stratiform, broken stratiform, and cirrus. The November 28, 1991 NOAA overpasses contain complex multilevel cloud situations ideal for training and validating the fuzzy logic expert system.
The Logical Framework as a Tool for Gender Mainstreaming in University.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bishop-Sambrook, Claire
2000-01-01
Shows how the logical framework may be used to provide a structure for gender mainstreaming within organizations. Experiences of Makere University, Uganda, show that the logical framework can be used for planning and for monitoring progress during implementation. (SLD)
Modeling the switching processes in the Josephson AND and OR logic gates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tyhanskyi, M. V.; Krysko, R. R.
2013-02-01
We propose a design principle of digital logic gates based on Josephson cryotrons. The operation mode of digital logic gates AND and OR based on tunnel junctions "superconductor-insulator-superconductor" was described. Mathematical models of the switching processes in the logic elements were developed, the transient characteristics during the logic state change were calculated, and the basic parameters of these models were determined. It was shown that digital logic gates "AND" and "OR" can be realized based on individual Josephson cryotrons and their logic state can be controlled by using current pulses as control inputs. Such logic gates satisfy all the requirements for digital logic elements and have switching time of about 2-3 ps.
Entanglement of Formation for Werner States and Isotropic States via Logical Gates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertini, Cesarino; Chiara, Maria Luisa Dalla; Leporini, Roberto
To what extent is a logical characterization of entanglement possible? We investigate some correlations that hold between the concept of entanglement of formation for Werner states and for isotropic states and the probabilistic behavior of some quantum logical gates.
1994-09-01
The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) problems at Bldg. 9201-4 to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. This TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to D and D and waste management (WM) activities. It is essential that follow-on engineering studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in the TLD and by finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 2 has been divided into five sections: Characterization, Decontamination, Dismantlement, Robotics/Automation, and Waste Management. Each section contains logical breakdowns of the Y-12 D and D problems by subject area and identifies technologies that can be reasonably applied to each D and D challenge.