Science.gov

Sample records for gteborg sweden 24th-29th

  1. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines (2nd), Held in Ranmoor House, Sheffield University on 24th-29th March 1974

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-03-01

    Interface Problems - A. Moore, Rolls-Royce (1971) Ltd., Bristol, UK 30. Film Cooling of Turbine Blades - M. Saarlas, U.S. Naval... passage with increasing cross- section area in order to avoid thermal choking. At higher speeds (Mach 8 to 10) thermal choking is not a problem, and...more rapid heat release in a passage with less Increase in cross-section area can be utilized. One way to provide different heat release

  2. Interpretation in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultman, Sven-G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes some of the interpretive developments underway in Sweden. Discusses some programs in both natural and cultural interpretation. Calls for increasing the purpose and content of heritage preservation and conservation to the general public. (TW)

  3. Linnaeus in Uppsala, Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Paul; Cohen, Brenda

    1997-01-01

    Presents a brief life history of Carl Linnaeus, a professor of medicine and botany in Uppsala, Sweden. Highlights his work in developing a classification system for plants and animals, and his botanical lectures and demonstrations. (JRH)

  4. Adult Education in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Harry; And Others

    Folk high schools, study circles, labor market training, union education, and municipal adult schools are the major providers of adult education in Sweden. For the most part, these programs are financed by the government and are tuition free. Folk high schools, which are the oldest type, were founded to provide young adults with a general civic…

  5. Growing Old in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berglind, Hans

    This document contains the bases of lectures delivered in Florida by a visiting Stockholm University sociology professor. The first chapter, "Growing Old in Sweden," includes information on the income, standard of living, and quality of services available to the elderly in that country. That information is presented within the changing…

  6. [Primary care in Sweden].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-09-01

    Sweden was one of the first European Union countries that saw the opportunity in the free movement of professionals. First offers for jobs were managed in 2000. Since then, a large number of professionals have taken the opportunity of a decent job and have moved from Spain to Sweden. The Swedish health care model belongs to the group of national health systems. The right to health care is linked to legal citizenship. Health is financed through regional taxes, but there is a compulsory co-payment regardless of the financial situation of the patient. The provision of health care is decentralised at a regional level, and there is a mixture of private and public medical centres. Primary care is similar to that in Spain. Health professionals work as a team with a division of tasks. Like in Spain, waiting lists and coordination between primary and specialised care are a great problem. Patients may register with any public or private primary care centre and hospital provider within their region. Access to diagnostic tests and specialists are restricted to those selected by specialists. Doctors are salaried and their job and salary depend on their experience, professional abilities and regional needs. Medicine is curative. General practitioners are the gateway to the system, but they do not act as gatekeeper. Hospitals offer a number of training post, and the access is through an interview. Continuing medical education is encouraged and financed by the health centre in order to increase its revenues.

  7. Feminist Language Planning in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milles, Karin

    2011-01-01

    The international literature has often described linguistic authorities as being opposed to the idea of changing language in the name of feminism. However, in Sweden, many linguistic authorities have been active agents in adopting feminist language reforms. This is probably due to Sweden's long tradition of political feminist efforts and to the…

  8. Porphyria in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Thunell, S; Floderus, Y; Henrichson, A; Harper, P

    2006-01-01

    In a brief survey the work of Swedish porphyrinologists through time is presented, from the organic chemist Jakob Berzelius 1840 to the molecular biologists of today. The building up in Stockholm of a Swedish national competence centre for porphyria is touched upon and the emergence of a computerized national register on the porphyria gene carriers in the country described. Figures for the prevalences of the seven different forms of porphyria diagnosed in Sweden are given. The geographical distribution of gene mutation spectra is shown for the most frequent form, acute intermittent porphyria. The organisation at Porphyria Centre Sweden of its diagnostic and consultative services is described, as is the decentralized model for porphyria care applied in the form of a clinical network covering the long and sparsely populated country. The ideas and activities of the Swedish Porphyria Patients' Association are presented. Its focus on protection-by-information of the porphyria gene carrier against maltreatment in health service contacts, and against other exposures to environmental threats to his or her health, is discussed. The combined efforts of the national porphyria centre and the patients' association have resulted in early and accurate diagnosis of most of the porphyria gene carriers in the country. The information to the carriers and to the health service regarding the mechanisms of the diseases and the importance of avoiding exposure to disease triggering environmental factors have greatly reduced porphyric morbidity. In the case of the acute porphyrias, by this programme and after the introduction of heme arginate in the therapy, mortality in the acute phase has become extremely rare in Sweden. In contrast, probably due to greater awareness of the high risk for liver cancer in acute porphyrias the number of hepatoma cases diagnosed has increased. The current research activities at the Porphyria Centre which aim at finding ways to substitute the mutated gene in

  9. Contraception in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Riphagen, F E; von Schoultz, B

    1989-06-01

    In 1987, a survey of contraceptive use, knowledge and attitudes was conducted in Sweden by the International Health Foundation (IHF) as part of a multi-country study that has so far involved six other countries in Europe. The women involved, who were aged 15-44, completed a standard questionnaire. The overall percentage use of contraceptive methods, especially the reliable ones, was found to be high (95%). Oral contraception was the most frequently used method, followed by barrier methods and the intrauterine device (IUD). Contraceptive methods were chosen or abandoned mainly because of health reasons and better reliability. Knowledge of fertility proved to be generally good. Medical methods such as oral contraceptives and IUDs were associated with health hazards. In the case of the pill, fears of cardiovascular risks, thrombosis and cancer were widespread, while infection risk and menorrhagia were the most frequently quoted perceived disadvantages of the IUD. Indeed, these two methods suffer from a very negative image among Swedish users.

  10. Regional Warning Center Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundstedt, Henrik

    RWC-Sweden is operated by the Lund division of the Swedish Institute of Space Physics located at IDEON, a Science Research Technology Park. The Institute of Technology of Lund and Lund University are just adjacent to IDEON. This creates a lot of synergy effects. Copenhagen, with the Danish National Space Center DNSC), and Atmosphere Space Research Division of Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), is 45 min away via the bridge. The new LOIS Space Centre is located two hours away by car, north of Lund and just outside V¨xj¨. The IRF Lund a o division is aiming at becoming a "Solar and Space Weather Center". We focus on solar magnetic activity, its influence on climate and on space weather effects such the effect of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC). Basic research: A PostDoc position on "Solar Magnetic Activity: Topology and Predictions has recently been created. Research is carried on to improve predictions of solar magnetic activity. Preparations for using upcoming SDO vector magnetic fields are ongoing. Predictions: RWC-Sweden offers real-time forecasts of space weather and space weather effects based on neural networks. We participated in the NASA/NOAA Cycle 24 Prediction Panel. We have also participated in several ESA/EU solar-climate projects New observation facilities: Distributed, wide-area radio facility (LOIS) for solar (and other space physics) observations and a guest prof: Radio facility about 200 km distant, outside V¨xj¨ (Sm˚ a o aland), in Ronneby (Blekinge) and Lund (Sk˚ ane) is planned to be used for tracking of CMEs and basic solar physics studies of the corona. The LOIS station outside V¨xj¨ has a o been up and running for the past three years. Bo Thidé has joined the Lund division e as a guest prof. A new magnetometer at Risinge LOIS station has been installed an calibrated and expected to be operational in March, 2008.

  11. Low Vision Training in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inde, Krister

    1978-01-01

    The article describes the team work approach used in Sweden to provide services to the four main categories of visual impairment: central scotoma, nystagmus, loss of peripheral vision while retaining central vision, and amblyopia. (Author/PHR)

  12. Medical education in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Stefan; Brännström, Thomas; Hanse, Eric; Ledin, Torbjörn; Nilsson, Gunnar; Sandler, Stellan; Tidefelt, Ulf; Donnér, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate medical education in Sweden has moved from nationally regulated, subject-based courses to programmes integrated either around organ systems or physiological and patho-physiological processes, or organised around basic medical science in conjunction with clinical specialities, with individual profiles at the seven medical schools. The national regulations are restricted to overall academic and professional outcomes. The 5½ year long university undergraduate curriculum is followed by a mandatory 18 months internship, delivered by the County Councils. While quality control and accreditation for the university curriculum is provided by the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education, no such formal control exists for the internship; undergraduate medical education is therefore in conflict with EU directives from 2005. The Government is expected to move towards 6 years long university undergraduate programmes, leading to licence, which will facilitate international mobility of both Swedish and foreign medical students and doctors. Ongoing academic development of undergraduate education is strengthened by the Bologna process. It includes outcome (competence)-based curricula, university Masters level complying with international standards, progression of competence throughout the curriculum, student directed learning, active participation and roles in practical clinical education and a national assessment model to assure professional competence. In the near future, the dimensioning of Swedish undergraduate education is likely to be decided more by international demands and aspects of quality than by national demands for doctors.

  13. Conversion program in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Jonsson, E.B.

    1997-08-01

    The conversion of the Swedish 50 MW R2 reactor from HEU to LEU fuel has been successfully accomplished over a 16 cycles long process. The conversion started in January 1991 with the introduction of 6 LEU assemblies in the 8*8 core. The first all LEU core was loaded in March 1993 and physics measurements were performed for the final licensing reports. A total of 142 LEU fuel assemblies have been irradiated up until September 1994 without any fuel incident. The operating licence for the R2 reactor was renewed in mid 1994 taking into account new fuel type. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) pointed out one crucial problem with the LEU operation, that the back end of the LEU fuel cycle has not yet been solved. For the HEU fuel Sweden had the reprocessing alternative. The country is now relying heavily on the success of the USDOEs Off Site Fuels Policy to take back the spent fuel from the research reactors. They have in the meantime increased their intermediate storage facilities. There is, however, a limit both in time and space for storage of MTR-type of assemblies in water. The penalty of the lower thermal neutron flux in LEU cores has been reduced by improvements of the new irradiation rigs and by fine tuning the core calculations. The Studsvik code package, CASMO-SIMULATE, widely used for ICFM in LWRs has been modified to suit the compact MTR type of core.

  14. Family Planning in Sweden. Fact Sheets on Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish Inst., Stockholm.

    This fact sheet explores attitudes in Sweden toward sexuality and childbirth from a historical perspective. After describing the strict social control over abortion and contraception in place 100 years ago, and the gradual easing of those controls in response to the low birth rate, the paper goes on to discuss the 1974 Abortion Act, which…

  15. Labor Relations in Sweden. Fact Sheets on Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish Inst., Stockholm.

    This paper presents an overview of labor relations in Sweden from the mid-19th century until the present. It begins with some basic facts about Swedish history, population, economy, and geography, then describes the historical background of labor union organization in the country. The paper then outlines the various types of trade unions in…

  16. English Language Teaching Profile: Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This profile in outline form of the English language teaching situation in Sweden discusses the role of English within Swedish society and within the Swedish educational system. The status of English as the principal foreign language since 1945 for use in business, the media and tourism is pointed out. The system of English instruction in the…

  17. Children and Massmedia in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schyller, Ingela; And Others

    Focusing mainly on television, this document provides facts about the mass media world of children in Sweden. Contents concern (1) toddlers and television; (2) viewing among 3- to 8-year-olds, including the number of children viewing, television in day care centers, times at which children view television, and viewing with others; (3) viewing…

  18. The Mentally Retarded in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunewald, Karl

    Described are residential and educational services provided for mentally retarded (MC) children and adults in Sweden. Normalization is the focus of the services which make maximum use of mental and physical capacities to reduce the handicap of mental retardation. Described are general principles, and four stages involving development of services…

  19. Nuclear Energy Encore in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishlock, David

    1991-01-01

    This article traces Sweden's decision to indefinitely delay their previous plan to phase out nuclear power generators which had been scheduled for 1995. Discussed as major factors in this delay are the excellent safety record of current reactors and the unacceptable economic, as well as environmental, consequences of switching to other power…

  20. The history of tuberculosis management in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wallstedt, Helen; Maeurer, Markus

    2015-03-01

    We review the history of TB in Sweden beginning in 1800, when 25% of mortality in Sweden was associated with TB. The Royal Family was involved in establishing dedicated sanatoria in Sweden to offer better diagnostics and clinical care. TB has declined in Sweden steadily, with some recent increases due to local spread of TB and challenging international and national socio-economical structures. Improved research and clinical knowledge is needed to diagnose and manage drug-susceptible as well as drug-resistant TB.

  1. How Sweden Saves So Much Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keough, James

    1978-01-01

    Swedens necessity for and present efforts toward energy conservation are discussed. The district system for space heating and certain Swedish laws that promote energy conservation are described. (MDR)

  2. Sweden sees Arctic, subsea challenges

    SciTech Connect

    LeBlanc, L.A.

    1984-02-01

    Marine research organizations in Sweden are developing solutions in three broad areas of maritime research - Artic and sub-Arctic technology, underwater engineerng and marine environment monitoring. One of the Arctic projects already under way is a solution to safe navigation through the Arctic ice pack. Icebergs and deep-keeled ice ridges are imbedded in the ice pack and present a hazard to transiting vessels. Underwater programs are being established to deal with the problem of poor underwater visibilty due to turbid water conditions near the bottom. A device is being tested which will allow a diver or submerged vehicle to be accurately tracked using short-baseline acoustics.

  3. 75 FR 30431 - Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United States... on carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden. SUMMARY: The Commission... carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden would be likely to lead to continuation...

  4. Adolescent sexual health in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Edgardh, K

    2002-10-01

    In Sweden, society's attitudes towards teenage sexual relationships are liberal, and sexual and reproductive health issues are given high priority. Family and sex education has been taught in schools since the 1950s. The age of sexual consent is 15 years. Since 1975, abortion has been free on demand. Contraceptive counselling is free, easily available at family planning and youth health clinics. Screening for genital chlamydial infection is performed at these clinics, thus providing a "one stop shop" service. Condoms and oral contraception are available at low cost, emergency contraception is sold over the counter. Teenage childbearing is uncommon. However, sexual and reproductive health problems are on the increase among young people. During the 1990s, a period of economic stagnation in Sweden, schools have suffered budget cut backs. Sex education is taught less. Social segregation, school non-attendance, smoking, and drug use have increased. Teenage abortion rates have gone up, from 17/1000 in 1995 to 22.5/1000 in 2001. Genital chlamydial infections have increased from 14,000 cases in 1994 to 22,263 cases in 2001, 60% occurring among young people, and with the steepest increase among teenagers. Thus, a question of major concern is whether and how adolescent sexual behaviour has shifted towards more risky practices during the late 1990s.

  5. Inclusive Education in Sweden? A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goransson, Kerstin; Nilholm, Claes; Karlsson, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to pupils in need of special support and pupils with disabilities, Sweden's compulsory school system is sometimes considered a one-track system. This article analyses and critically discusses current policy and practices at various levels of Sweden's compulsory school system for these pupils. The analysis traces three themes at the…

  6. [Asthma and allergic diseases in Sweden].

    PubMed

    Lundbäck, B; Lindström, M; Forsberg, B

    1992-01-01

    Until recently the prevalence of asthma in Sweden was assessed to be 2-3 per cent. An increase in the prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinitis was noted among new conscripts undergoing health work-ups prior to military service with the most marked increase in northern Sweden, were 5 per cent of conscripts were reported to have asthma. In southern Sweden the prevalence remained about 2 per cent. More recent questionnaire studies in mid- and southern Sweden have reported similar rates of respiratory symptoms and use of anti-asthmatic drugs as in northern Sweden, suggesting that there may be no difference in asthma prevalence between the north and the south of the country. The exact prevalence of allergic diseases among Swedish adults is still not clear, but 40 per cent of adults in northern Sweden report that they often have wheezing in the chest, attacks of breathlessness, longstanding cough or sputum production. In questionnaire studies among children about 40 per cent of respondents have reported that they had asthma, allergic rhinitis or other type of hypersensitivity. The absence of generally accepted diagnostic criteria for asthma and allergic disorders in epidemiological studies makes comparison of prevalence difficult. It is thus not possible to be sure that the prevalence of asthma and allergic disorders in Sweden has recently increased. Risk factors for the development of asthma and allergic disorders are under study in Sweden. Several studies report an association in children between urban living and allergic disorders.

  7. Aging in Sweden: local variation, local control.

    PubMed

    Davey, Adam; Malmberg, Bo; Sundström, Gerdt

    2014-08-01

    Aging in Sweden has been uniquely shaped by its history-most notably the long tradition of locally controlled services for older adults. We considered how local variations and local control shape the experience of aging in Sweden and organized the paper into 3 sections. First, we examine aging in Sweden along demography, economy, and housing. Next, we trace the origins and development of the Swedish welfare state to consider formal supports (service provision) and informal supports (caregiving and receipt of care). Finally, we direct researchers to additional data resources for understanding aging in Sweden in greater depth. Sweden was one of the first countries to experience rapid population aging. Quality of life for a majority of older Swedes is high. Local control permits a flexible and adaptive set of services and programs, where emphasis is placed on improving the quality and targeting of services that have already reached a plateau as a function of population and expenditures.

  8. Energy use in Sweden: An international perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Schipper, L. |; Johnson, F.; Howarth, R.; Price, L.; Andersson, B.; Andersson, B.G. |

    1993-12-01

    This report analyzes the evolution of energy use in Sweden since the early 1970s. The purpose of the study, which is sponsored by NUTEK, Department of Energy Efficiency, the Swedish Agency for Technical and Industrial Development, is to shed light on the future path of energy use in Sweden by quantifying and understanding changes in past energy use. Energy efficiency has been identified by Swedish authorities in countless official studies as a key element in Sweden`s efforts to restrain oil imports, reduce reliance on nuclear power, reduce environmental impacts of energy use, and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. To understand the role or performance of energy efficiency in the 1970s and 1980s in Sweden, and what this performance means about the future, the authors seek answers to three broad questions: (1) How has the structure and efficiency of energy use in Sweden evolved since the early 1970s, and where data permit, since even earlier? What caused these changes? (2) How does the structure of energy use in Sweden differ from that of other countries, and how has the evolution of energy use in Sweden differed from developments in other countries? (3) How much energy has Sweden saved, and why? Are these savings permanent? To what extent were they offset by changes in the structure of energy use? And to what extent is the magnitude of these savings dependent upon the way we measure energy use? The report reviews the long-term evolution of Swedish energy use, focusing on developments in five sectors of the economy: residential, service, industrial (manufacturing and {open_quotes}other industry{close_quotes} defined as mining, agriculture, forestry and fisheries, and construction), travel, and freight. The authors then examine Swedish energy use in a broader perspective, drawing detailed comparisons to other nations. Finally, they discuss a series of issues that hover over the future of energy demand in Sweden.

  9. District heating campaign in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Stalebrant, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    During the fall of 1994 a district heating campaign was conducted in Sweden. The campaign was initiated because the Swedish district heating companies agreed that it was time to increase knowledge and awareness of district heating among the general public, especially among potential customers. The campaign involved many district heating companies and was organized as a special project. Advertising companies, media advisers, consultants and investigators were also engaged. The campaign was conducted in two stages, a national campaign followed by local campaign was conducted in two stages, a national campaign followed by local campaigns. The national campaign was conducted during two weeks of November 1994 and comprised advertising on commercial TV and in the press.

  10. Babesia species in questing Ixodes ricinus, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Maria E; Andersson, Martin O

    2016-02-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging tick-transmitted zoonosis in large parts of the world. In Sweden, the occurrence and diversity of Babesia species is largely unknown. In order to estimate the exposure to Babesia from infected ticks, we collected questing Ixodes ricinus from several sites across southern Sweden during two consecutive field seasons and investigated the occurrence of Babesia species. We report for the first time the occurrence of the zoonotic species Babesia venatorum in Swedish ticks, with a prevalence of 1%. We also detected B. microti (prevalence 3.2%) and B. divergens (prevalence 0.2%). The incidence of Babesia in questing ticks is substantially lower than that of several other tick-borne diseases in Sweden. Nevertheless, babesiosis should not be neglected as a possible diagnosis following tick bites in humans and animals in Sweden.

  11. Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian lynx, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Tryland, Morten; Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Af Segerstad, Carl Hård; Mörner, Torsten; Traavik, Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie Pierre

    2011-04-01

    Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway and phylogenetically closer to monkeypox virus than to vaccinia virus and isolates from 2 persons with cowpox virus in Sweden. Prevalence was higher among animals from regions with dense, rather than rural, human populations. Lynx are probably exposed to OPV through predation on small mammal reservoir species. We conclude that OPV is widely distributed in Sweden and may represent a threat to humans. Further studies are needed to verify whether this lynx OPV is cowpox virus.

  12. Mobility of Knowledge as a Recognition Challenge: Experiences from Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Per; Fejes, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the tensions between mobility, knowledge and recognition, and what the impact of migration could be on lifelong education and society. This is discussed with the case of Sweden as the starting point. The main issue in Sweden concerning migration is the admission of refugees. Sweden has had a relatively open policy…

  13. Mathematics Lessons from Finland and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaberg, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    In many ways, mathematics classrooms in Finland and Sweden are very similar to what would be considered traditional classrooms in the United States. Classes begin with checking homework and questions, followed by the teacher giving instruction in the new material, and end with students working on their new assignment. There are also interesting…

  14. Class Size and Student Evaluations in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerlund, Joakim

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of class size on student evaluations of the quality of an introductory mathematics course at Lund University in Sweden. In contrast to much other studies, we find a large negative, and statistically significant, effect of class size on the quality of the course. This result appears to be quite robust, as almost all…

  15. Child Care in Sweden: A Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Kenneth

    This paper describes child care delivery in Sweden, compares aspects of the American and Swedish systems of child care, and identifies what each country can learn from the other. Focusing mainly on the Swedish system, the first section addresses such topics as (1) the role of the State and local districts in program planning and administration,…

  16. Bilingual Education for Deaf Children in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svartholm, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    In 1981, Swedish Sign Language gained recognition by the Swedish Parliament as the language of deaf people, a decision that made Sweden the first country in the world to give a sign language the status of a language. Swedish was designated as a second language for deaf people, and the need for bilingualism among them was officially asserted. This…

  17. Intercultural Education and Teacher Education in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norberg, Katarina

    2000-01-01

    Examines multicultural and intercultural education in Sweden's teacher education and K-12 educational systems, discussing pedagogical strategies in multicultural classrooms and highlighting: Islam in the Swedish classroom; masking differences; focusing on differences; attitudes toward diversity; teachers in multicultural classrooms; and who is…

  18. Atomoxetine's Effect on Societal Costs in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myren, Karl-Johan; Thernlund, Gunilla; Nylen, Asa; Schacht, Alexander; Svanborg, Par

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare societal costs between patients treated with atomoxetine and placebo in Sweden. Method: Ninety-nine pediatric ADHD patients were randomized to a 10-week double-blind treatment with atomoxetine (n = 49) or placebo (n = 50). All parents received four sessions of psycho-education. Parents filled out a resource utilization…

  19. Reconsidering School Politics: Educational Controversies in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredholm, Axel

    2017-01-01

    School politics in Sweden has recently moved in a conservative direction, emphasising the importance of conventional school subjects, stronger teacher authority and more discipline in the classroom. At the same time, consensus on the utility of such measures is lacking in the school debate. The conservative approach is often criticised as…

  20. Geomorphology of intraplate postglacial faults in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ask, M. V. S.; Abdujabbar, M.; Lund, B.; Smith, C.; Mikko, H.; Munier, R.

    2015-12-01

    Melting of the Weichselian ice sheet at ≈10 000 BP is inferred to have induced large to great intraplate earthquakes in northern Fennoscandia. Over a dozen large so-called postglacial faults (PGF) have been found, mainly using aerial photogrammetry, trenching, and recognition of numerous paleolandslides in the vicinity of the faults (e.g. Lagerbäck & Sundh 2008). Recent LiDAR-based mapping led to the extension of known PGFs, the discovery of new segments of existing PGFs, and a number of new suspected PGFs (Smith et al. 2014; Mikko et al. 2015). The PGFs in Fennoscandia occur within 14-25°E and 61-69°N; the majority are within Swedish territory. PGFs generally are prominent features, up to 155 km in length and 30 m maximum surface offset. The most intense microseismic activity in Sweden occurs near PGFs. The seismogenic zone of the longest known PGF (Pärvie fault zone, PFZ) extends to ≈40 km depth. From fault geometry and earthquake scaling relations, the paleomagnitude of PFZ is estimated to 8.0±0.3 (Lindblom et al. 2015). The new high-resolution LiDAR-derived elevation model of Sweden offers an unprecedented opportunity to constrain the surface geometry of the PGFs. The objective is to reach more detailed knowledge of the surface offset across their scarps. This distribution provides a one-dimensional view of the slip distribution during the inferred paleorupture. The second objective is to analyze the pattern of vertical displacement of the hanging wall, to obtain a two-dimensional view of the displaced area that is linked to the fault geometry at depth. The anticipated results will further constrain the paleomagnitude of PGFs and will be incorporated into future modeling efforts to investigate the nature of PGFs. ReferencesLagerbäck & Sundh 2008. Early Holocene faulting and paleoseismicity in northern Sweden. http://resource.sgu.se/produkter/c/c836-rapport.pdf Smith et al. 2014. Surficial geology indicates early Holocene faulting and seismicity

  1. Psychosurgery in Sweden 1944-1964.

    PubMed

    Ogren, Kenneth; Sandlund, Mikael

    2005-12-01

    This study presents results on hitherto unknown data on lobotomies performed at the former State Mental Hospital of Umedalen (from here on called simply "Umedalen") in the north of Sweden. More than 700 operations were carried out from 1947 through 1960, and we calculated the average rate of postoperative mortality to 7.4 percent, and that 63 percent of those who were operated were women. By considering annual hospital reports to the National Board of Health (Medicinalstyrelsen), we also made the first mapping of early psychosurgery in Sweden; approximately 4,500 lobotomies were performed between 1944 and 1966. Statistical analysis, qualitative content analysis, and discourse analysis were used. The study supports earlier findings of female preponderance in the number of lobotomy operations.

  2. REMOVAL OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FROM SWEDEN

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Kerry A.; Bellamy, J. Steve; Chandler, Greg T.; Iyer, Natraj C.; Koenig, Rich E.; Leduc, D.; Hackney, B.; Leduc, Dan R.; McClard, J. W.

    2013-08-18

    U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI) recently removed legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in collaboration with AB SVAFO, Sweden. This paper details the activities undertaken through the U.S. receiving site (Savannah River Site (SRS)) to support the characterization, stabilization, packaging and removal of legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in 2012. This effort was undertaken as part of GTRI’s Gap Materials Program and culminated with the successful removal of plutonium from Sweden as announced at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. The removal and shipment of plutonium materials to the United States was the first of its kind under NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The Environmental Assessment for the U.S. receipt of gap plutonium material was approved in May 2010. Since then, the multi-year process yielded many first time accomplishments associated with plutonium packaging and transport activities including the application of the of DOE-STD-3013 stabilization requirements to treat plutonium materials outside the U.S., the development of an acceptance criteria for receipt of plutonium from a foreign country, the development and application of a versatile process flow sheet for the packaging of legacy plutonium materials, the identification of a plutonium container configuration, the first international certificate validation of the 9975 shipping package and the first intercontinental shipment using the 9975 shipping package. This paper will detail the technical considerations in developing the packaging process flow sheet, defining the key elements of the flow sheet and its implementation, determining the criteria used in the selection of the transport package, developing the technical basis for the package certificate amendment and the reviews with multiple licensing authorities and most importantly integrating the technical activities with the Swedish partners.

  3. Hantavirus in new geographic regions, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Lõhmus, Mare; Verner-Carlsson, Jenny; Borg, Oliva; Albihn, Ann; Lundkvist, Åke

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, human cases of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infections are reported from the northern endemic regions. We found hantavirus-specific antibodies in yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) trapped in human dwellings in the surroundings of the cities of Uppsala and Stockholm, which are situated far south from the traditional endemic areas of PUUV. Because the yellow-necked mouse is the most common rodent in human dwellings, hantaviruses in this rodent species may be important for the public health. PMID:27258208

  4. Future high sea levels in south Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Blomgren, S.H.; Hanson, H.

    1997-12-31

    An estimation of future mean high water levels in Oeresund and the southwest Baltic Sea is presented together with a discussion of probable consequences for Falsterbo Peninsula, a trumpet-shaped sandy formation of some 25 km{sup 2} size situated in the very southwest corner of Sweden. A literature review coupled with sea-level measurements and observations made in the area every four hours since October 1945 are given and comprise the base for the present analysis.

  5. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Börjesson, Stefan; Landén, Annica; Bergström, Martin; Andersson, Ulrika Grönlund

    2012-12-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an opportunistic pathogen that is one of the most frequent causes of infections in dogs. In Europe, there are increasing reports of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP), and in Sweden, MRSP has also been more frequently isolated during recent years. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the epidemiology and genetic relationship among the Swedish isolates. This study therefore investigated the genetic relationship of MRSP isolated from companion animals in Sweden. In the study, MRSP isolates taken in the period January 2008-June 2010 from a total of 226 dogs and cats were characterized by spa typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. In addition, the geographical distribution of the isolates based on year of isolation and genetic typing was determined using a geographical information system. One multiresistant clonal lineage dominated among Swedish MRSP isolates, corresponding to the European winning lineage ST71-J-t02-SCCmec II-III. Furthermore, the geographical dissemination of MRSP corresponded to areas with high dog densities, centered on the three major cities in Sweden where the largest animal hospitals are situated.

  6. Lead poisoning in woodpeckers in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mörner, T; Petersson, L

    1999-10-01

    Lead poisoning was demonstrated in two gray-headed woodpeckers (Picus canus) and one white-backed woodpecker (Dendrocopus leucotos) in Sweden; they had liver lead levels between 9.4 and 26.2 mg(-1) wet weight. At necropsy one gray-headed woodpecker showed signs of emaciation and the other one had severe traumatic injuries, caused by a cat. The white-backed woodpecker died in the transportation box during a translocation program. The source of the lead could not be determined, but it was suspected that it may have originated from lead pellets shot into trees and picked out by the woodpeckers during food search.

  7. 75 FR 57815 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... COMMISSION Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United... antidumping duty orders on purified carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden... antidumping duty orders on purified carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden...

  8. Unintentional firearm hunting deaths in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Junuzovic, Mensura; Eriksson, Anders

    2012-03-10

    This study examined all unintentional firearm fatalities while hunting that occurred in Sweden between 1983 through 2008. The circumstances as well as the impact of the hunter's exam on fatality frequency were analysed. During these 26 years, there were 48 such fatalities, representing 53% of all (n=90) unintentional firearm deaths during the same period. The average annual number of fatalities decreased over the last few decades. Very restrictive firearm legislation in Sweden combined with the introduction of a mandatory hunter's exam since 1985 accounted, at least partly, for this finding. Moose hunting accounted for 46% of the fatalities and small game hunting for the remaining cases. The mean age of the victims was 50 years and 96% of them were males; all shooters were males. During moose hunting, most of the victims were mistaken for game, whereas in small game hunting most of the fatalities were related to falls and improper handling of the weapon. Human error was thus the main cause of these fatalities.

  9. Malthus and neo-Malthusianism in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kalvemark, A S

    1980-01-01

    Focus in this discussion is on Malthus and neo-Malthusianism in Sweden. Neo-Malthusianism arrived in Sweden at the beginning of the 1880s when Knut Wicksell gave a public lecture at a youth meeting of a temperance society in Uppsala. The lecture resulted in public scandal and made neo-Malthusian ideas known overnight in Sweden. Wicksell maintained that poverty was the primary cause of most evils in society, and it was caused by the pressure from population increase on the means of subsistence. In his lecture he referred to Malthus explicitly and gave a summary of the Malthusian principle of population on which he based his reasoning. At the time he only knew of Malthus' ideas indirectly by reading George Drysdale's book, "The Elements of Social Science." The questions that arise are whether Malthus' ideas were only indirectly studied and whether neo-Malthusiansim was just seen as an equivalent of birth control and contraceptives, the very means of preventive checks for population growth that Malthus condemned for moral reasons. Wicksell focused on the causes and consequences of emigration in a lecture in 1881. He again saw rapid population growth as the cause of poverty, which in turn caused emigration. The rapid rise in Swedish emigration in the 1880s created considerable interest. Generally, the common view at the time was that Sweden suffered from a certain population pressure and corresponding underemployment. Johan Leffler, a young economist, had a different opinion. He saw the problem in an outspoken Malthusian way, suggesting that under the prevailing overpopulation in Sweden emigration could not be harmful. At the turn of the centruy Gustav Sundbarg was among those describing emigration as a deadly threat to Swedish society. Sundbarg not only turned against Malthus, but he also condemned neo-Malthusianism for moral reasons. Sundbarg maintained that demographic and economic development over the 19th century did not verify Malthus' assumption that population

  10. Home-School Collaboration in Sweden and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristoffersson, Margaretha; Gu, Limin; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This article is a working paper presenting a network building cooperative project between Umea University in Sweden and Zhejiang University in China. The project focuses on parents' involvement and home-school collaboration in Sweden and China and has an ambition to entail a set of empirical objectives: (1) to map and compare the systems,…

  11. Children's School Achievement and Parental Work: An Analysis for Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norberg-Schonfeldt, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    Data from Statistics Sweden on 70 000 students entering upper secondary school in 1994 are used along with socioeconomic characteristics from the 1990 census to explore the relationship between market work by parents in Sweden and their children's educational achievement, measured as the Grade Point Average. The results show that there is a…

  12. Adjustment Failures in an Immigrant Population: Finns in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarela, Jan; Finnas, Fjalar

    2007-01-01

    Using data sets from both Sweden and Finland, which have been linked at the individual level, we analyse whether Finnish immigrants who lived in Sweden in 1990 were employed, non-employed, return-migrated, or dead by 2001. The aim is to see how they interrelate with socio-demographic characteristics, and to compare Finnish-speaking and…

  13. Selling eugenics: the case of Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bjorkman, Maria; Widmalm, Sven

    2010-12-20

    This paper traces the early (1910s to 1920s) development of Swedish eugenics through a study of the social network that promoted it. The eugenics network consisted mainly of academics from a variety of disciplines, but with medicine and biology dominating; connections with German scientists who would later shape Nazi biopolitics were strong. The paper shows how the network used political lobbying (for example, using contacts with academically accomplished MPs) and various media strategies to gain scientific and political support for their cause, where a major goal was the creation of a eugenics institute (which opened in 1922). It also outlines the eugenic vision of the institute's first director, Herman Lundborg. In effect the network, and in particular Lundborg, promoted the view that politics should be guided by eugenics and by a genetically superior elite. The selling of eugenics in Sweden is an example of the co-production of science and social order.

  14. Explaining trends in teenage childbearing in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Santow, G; Bracher, M

    1999-09-01

    The teenage fertility rate fell precipitately in Sweden after 1966 and is now one of the lowest in Europe. This decline can be seen in the context of major reforms enacted in 1975 whereby the school sex-education curriculum was revised, contraceptive services were improved, and abortion was provided free and on demand. By means of microsimulation, the possible roles of contraception and induced abortion in causing teenage fertility to fall are examined. Before 1975, the decline appears to have been caused primarily by an increase in the number of induced abortions. After that date, however, an increase in the use of highly efficient methods of contraception led to a decline in the pregnancy rate in such a way that, even though the proportion of teenagers who sought abortion increased, the abortion rate declined. Parallels are drawn with the experience of other European countries, and contrasts with that of the United States, where no such developments have occurred, are noted.

  15. Disability pension among immigrants in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Osterberg, Torun; Gustafsson, Björn

    2006-08-01

    Using large samples, disability pensions among foreign-born and native-born women and men living in Sweden is studied here for the period 1981-1999. The results show foreign-born individuals having higher rates of disability pension. The risk of being on disability pension is very low for newly arrived immigrants, but increases rapidly on a yearly basis after immigration. Higher rates of disability pension are reported for persons born in Greece, Yugoslavia, Turkey and Finland. Results from multivariate analysis indicate that factors such as education, country of residence and marital status cannot fully explain the high rates of disability pension observed among many immigrant groups. Future research needs to address which possible causes are most important for policies to address.

  16. Acid rain mitigation strategies in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Bengtsson, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    The methods and costs of measures to restore acidified water areas or prevent further acidification to lakes and streams in Sweden are presented, along with the results of a five-year liming test period. The reduction of sulfur emissions is considered in terms of reducing sulfur content in home heating oils to a 1% maximum, the use of purifiers in industry, and international cooperation to reduce transboundary pollution. A total of over 300 liming projects consuming more than 200,000 tons of liming agents were placed in waters, in bogs and on farms, and on marshes, nominally by use of a centrifugal distributor on land and various spreading methods on water, principally with crushed limestone. Other methods are suggested, and liming results were found to be an improvement of farm soil fertility, a decrease in forest growth, and positive effects on fish populations. Full scale liming is recommended wherever natural buffering has been found to be insufficient.

  17. Landscape Epidemiology of Tularemia Outbreaks in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Kerstin; Bäck, Erik; Eliasson, Henrik; Berglund, Lennart; Granberg, Malin; Karlsson, Linda; Larsson, Pär; Forsman, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Summer outbreaks of tularemia that occurred from 1995 through 2005 in 2 locations in Sweden affected 441 persons. We performed an epidemiologic investigation of these outbreaks using a novel strategy, involving high-resolution genotyping of Francisella tularensis isolates obtained from 136 patients (using 18 genetic markers developed from 6 F. tularensis genome sequences) and interviews with the patients. Strong spatial associations were found between F. tularensis subpopulations and the places of disease transmission; infection by some subpopulations occurred within areas as small as 2 km2, indicating unidentified environmental point sources of tularemia. In both locations, disease clusters were associated with recreational areas beside water, and genetic subpopulations were present throughout the tularemia season and persisted over years. High-resolution genotyping in combination with patients’ statements about geographic places of disease transmission provided valuable indications of likely sources of infection and the causal genotypes during these tularemia outbreaks. PMID:19961673

  18. Physical protection philosophy and techniques in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Dufva, B.

    1988-01-01

    The circumstances for the protection of nuclear power plants are special in Sweden. A very important factor is that armed guards at the facilities are alien to the Swedish society. They do not use them. The Swedish concept of physical protection accepts that the aggressor will get into the facility. With this in mind, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) has established the policy that administrative, technical, and organizational measures will be directed toward preventing an aggressor from damaging the reactor, even if he has occupied the facility. In addition, the best conditions possible shall be established for the operator and the police to reoccupy the plant. The author believes this policy is different from that of many other countries. Therefore, he focusses on the Swedish philosophy and techniques for the physical protection of nuclear power plants.

  19. Endotoxins in urban air in Stockholm, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, S.; Merritt, A. S.; Bellander, T.

    2011-01-01

    Endotoxins, i.e. components originating from the outer membrane in the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, activate the human immune system, which may result in airway symptoms such as shortness of breath and airway inflammation. Endotoxins are present in the environment, both outdoors and indoors, and stay airborne for a long time. In order to investigate the levels of endotoxins in urban air and the influence of traffic and meteorological factors, particles (PM 10 and PM 2.5) were collected at five sites in Stockholm, Sweden on four occasions per site between May and September 2009. Endotoxins were extracted from the filters and analysis was conducted with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL)-assay. Endotoxins were present in urban air in Stockholm, albeit in low levels, and were similar to levels found in urban areas outside Sweden. To our knowledge, this is the northernmost location where endotoxins have been measured. The endotoxin levels found in PM 10 ranged from 0.020 to 0.107 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.050 EU m -3 and the levels found in PM 2.5 ranged from 0.005 to 0.064 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.015 EU m -3. No obvious effects of traffic or meteorological factors on endotoxin levels were observed, although a moderate correlation could be seen with soot. The small number of sampling sites is however a shortcoming of the present study. In future studies, more sites and sampling during all seasons would be preferable in order to get a better picture of the influence of different sources on endotoxin levels.

  20. The red meat allergy syndrome in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Apostolovic, Danijela; Tran, Thi Anh Thu; Starkhammar, Maria; Sánchez-Vidaurre, Sara; Hamsten, Carl; Van Hage, Marianne

    In the last decade, a novel type of food allergy presenting with severe allergic reactions several hours after consumption of red meat has been recognized. The allergic responses are due to IgE antibodies directed against the carbohydrate epitope galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) found in mammalian meat. This review presents the red meat allergy syndrome in Sweden, discusses the features of the immune response to carbohydrates, and highlights the presence of heat stable α-Gal-containing proteins in meat. The number of diagnosed red meat allergy cases in Sweden has increased significantly over the past few years. All patients have been tick bitten. Our recent work has shown that α-Gal is present in the European tick Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus), thus potentially explaining the strong association between anti-α-Gal IgE and tick bites, with development of red meat allergy as a secondary phenomenon. Further studies using immunoproteomics have identified novel α-Gal-containing meat proteins that bound IgE from red meat allergic patients. Four of these proteins were stable to thermal processing pointing to the fact that the allergenicity of red meat proteins is preserved in cooked meat. In keeping with the fact that the α-Gal epitope is structurally related to the blood group B antigen, a positive association with the B-negative blood groups among our red meat allergic patients was noted. A selective IgE reactivity to the pure carbohydrate moiety was observed when investigating the specificity of the α-Gal immune response. IgE from red meat allergic patients does not recognize the other major mammalian carbohydrate, N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), also present in high amounts in red meat. Furthermore, neither common cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) from plants nor venoms are targets of the IgE response in these patients. Taken together, the α-Gal carbohydrate has shown to be a potentially clinically relevant allergen that should be taken into

  1. Sweden's Experiment in Human Sexuality and Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyman, Howard S.; Hoyman, Annelis S.

    1971-01-01

    As a prerequisite to understanding Swedish views about sex education, some background knowledge and insight into Sweden's development as a country in rapid transition is reported. Impressions of Swedish sex education, methods and aids, are related. (BY)

  2. Tardigrades of Sweden; an updated check-list.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Roberto; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Kristensen, Reinhardt Møbjerg

    2015-07-07

    Tardigrades occur worldwide and in a variety of ecosystems and habitats representing an important component of the micrometazoan biodiversity. Several studies documenting the occurrence of tardigrades in Sweden have been published since the first reports in early 1900, but no comprehensive summary of these studies have been published. We compiled the available information on recorded tardigrades from Sweden, using material from published studies and museum and university collections. In total, our review document 101 species of tardigrades that have been recorded from Sweden (an updated checklist of tardigrades from Sweden will be available online), of which 14 species are new records for the country. The highest number of species was recorded in the northernmost province of Lappland and the more southern provinces of Uppland and Skåne, while much lower species numbers are reported from the middle part of Sweden. This pattern probably represents biased sampling activities of biologists rather than real differences in biodiversity of tardigrades. In view of the few studies that have been made on tardigrade biodiversity in Sweden, the relatively high number of tardigrade species recorded, representing almost a tenth of the species recorded worldwide, indicates that many more species remain to be found. In this respect, more studies of the marine ecosystems along the Swedish west coast and the long Baltic Sea coastline would be of particular interest.

  3. [Exile of Czechoslovak physicians to Sweden after 1968].

    PubMed

    Stěpán, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the situation of the Czechoslovak exile, especially the exile of physicians to Sweden. Many of Czechoslovak physicians decided to emigrate due to their political attitudes. Majority of them left Czechoslovakia after the invasion of Warsaw Pact armies in 1968. The top of the exile wave was shortly after August 1968 and during 1969. Most of the people escaped from Czechoslovakia via Austria, where they asked for political asylum. Part of the emigrants had to spend some months in the refugee camps and during this time they tried to get visa to other European or non European countries. One of target countries for medical emigrants was also Sweden. In the 60th Sweden had deficiency in physicians and the wave of Czechoslovak emigration was convenient for Swedish Ministry of Health. The group of emigrants consisted of experts from hospitals or graduated medical students. In Sweden they had to attend special courses of Swedish medical language, Swedish medical law and social medicine. If they had medical training shorter than three years, they had to attend special courses also in internal medicine, surgery and psychiatry. After one year of service in northern part of Sweden, where there was a lack of physicians, they could choose hospital, where they wanted to work. Czechoslovak physicians were very successful in the Swedish medical system and also well accepted in the Swedish society as other exulants from Czechoslovakia. Key words: Czechoslovak exile to Sweden, political asylum 1968-1968.

  4. Social class assignment and mortality in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Erikson, Robert

    2006-05-01

    The earlier practice of assigning all members of a family to the same social class as that of the household head, typically the father, has in recent years been replaced by either basing individual class position on one's own occupation or of one of the family members, not necessarily the father. These various practices have been extensively scrutinised for more than 20 years. The validity of the approaches has chiefly been tested by checking how well they account for the variation in some criteria, mostly class identification, political attitudes and voting behaviour. Here it is shown, using census data from Sweden, that mortality-rate differences between social classes covering the period 1991-1997 are greater for both men and women when both spouses are assigned to the same social class on the basis of the dominance approach, where the labour market position of either spouse may determine the social class of the family. It is suggested that the common observation that class differences are smaller among women than among men may, at least to some extent, be the result of establishing a woman's class position on the basis of her own occupation rather than the labour market position of her spouse.

  5. Increasing incidence of coeliac disease in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Ascher, H; Krantz, I; Kristiansson, B

    1991-01-01

    Changes in the incidence of coelic disease was studied among children born in Göteborg, Sweden, between 1970 and 1988. A total of 188 patients with coeliac disease were found. Of these, 83% were less than 2 years old at the time of their first duodenal biopsy and 74% of them have so far been verified according to the criteria of the European Society for Gastroenterology and Nutrition (ESPGAN). The cumulative incidence at 2 years of age/1000 liveborn infants increased significantly from 0.31 in the first birth cohort to 2.93 in the last. This increase could only partly be explained by improvements in detection. Weight for age at diagnosis was generally considerably below the reference value, but was slightly less affected towards the end of the period. The increase in incidence of coeliac disease is the first reported since the middle 1970s and makes the disease one of the most common chronic diseases among Swedish children. PMID:2039251

  6. Cycling of molecular hydrogen in subarctic Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, V. L.; Varner, R. K.; Steele, K.; Crill, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decade, significant warming has caused organic-rich permafrost to thaw thereby increasing the amount of soil carbon available for decomposition. The release of greenhouse gases, such as methane (CH4), is predicted to also increase, resulting in a positive feedback cycle due to increased thaw caused by higher atmospheric temperatures. Little is known however about the effect of permafrost thaw on the release of molecular hydrogen (H2) from wetland ecosystems. Vegetated surfaces are thought to be sinks for atmospheric H2. However, as permafrost soils thaw and precipitation events become more frequent, resulting in an increase in inundated areas under anoxic conditions, soils could quickly shift from a sink of atmospheric H2 to a source. This project focused on the effect of changes in soil moisture following precipitation events on the consumption or release of H2 in a subarctic mire in the discontinuous permafrost region near Abisko, Sweden during July 2012. Different habitats were sampled using existing soil gas profiling arrays and a sipper device. In addition, soil temperature and pH data were collected as well as autochamber flux measurements of H2, carbon dioxide, and CH4. All sipper and soil gas profiling array samples were analyzed with a reduced gas (HgO) detector for H2 and a flame ionization detector for CH4. Methane data were collected at all sites and depths to better understand the tight coupling between H2 and CH4. On July 14th and 15th, the site received record precipitation for any 48 hour period. In a thawed Carex spp, dominated site, the concentration of H2 in porewater decreased substantially immediately after the precipitation and slightly more throughout the following week indicating a significant dilution event. A similar effect was observed in an Eriophorum dominated site; however, the behavior of CH4 at these two sites differed in that CH4 responded similarly to H2 after the precipitation event at the Carex spp. site, but CH4

  7. A new scientific drilling infrastructure in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosberg, J.-E.; Lorenz, H.

    2012-04-01

    A new scientific drilling infrastructure is currently under commissioning at Lund University in southern Sweden and is intended primarily for Swedish scientific drilling projects. However, it will be available to the scientific community and even industry when not occupied. The drill rig, a crawler mounted Atlas Copco CT20, was funded by the Swedish Research Council (VR) after an application by the Swedish scientific drilling community under the lead of Prof. Leif Bjelm, Lund University. As a national resource it is, together with support of the Swedish Deep Drilling Program (SDDP) and the Swedish membership in ICDP, part of VR's commitment to scientific drilling. The Atlas Copco CT20 is a top modern, versatile diamond wireline core-drilling rig which can handle P, H and N sizes. It can operate on very small drill sites (500-800 m2) and, thus, leaves a minimal environmental footprint. The crawler makes the rig ideal for operations in remote locations. A total of only 3-4 truckloads is necessary for mobilization of the basic drilling equipment. Main technical specifications are: Depth capacity coring, based on vertical water filled hole: P-size to around 1050 m, hole size 123 mm and core size 85 mm. H-size to around 1600 m, hole size 96 mm and core size 63 mm. N-size to around 2500 m, hole size 76 mm and core size 48 mm. Weight: Complete rig including crawler, wet - 23500 kg Dimensions in (length, width, height) transport position: 11560 x 2500 x 3750 mm. Available in-hole equipment: Complete core retrieval system for PQ, HQ and NQ-sizes, including PHD, HRQ (V-Wall) and NRQ (V-Wall) drill rods covering the maximum drilling depth for each size (see rig depth capacity above). Both dual and triple tube for HQ and NQ-sizes. Casing advancers (PW, HW, NW and BW). Casing PWT, HWT, NW and BW. Bits and reamers. Additional equipment: Mud cleaning and mixing system. MWD-system (Measurements While Drilling). Cementing equipment. Fishing tools (Bowen Spear). Blow Out Preventer

  8. Transferrin C subtypes and ethnic heterogeneity in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sikström, C; Nylander, P O

    1990-01-01

    Transferrin (TF) C subtypes were studied in Swedish Lapps (Saami) and in Swedes from northern, central and southern Sweden, and the allele frequencies were compared with those in other European populations. The Swedish Lapps were found to have the lowest frequency of the TF*C3 allele (1-2%) so far observed in Europe. Most European populations have TF*C3 allele frequencies between 5 and 7%. Finns differ by having high TF*C3 frequencies (13-14%). The relatively high TF*C3 frequencies found in northeastern Sweden (13%) and in central Sweden (9%) are most likely due to eastern influence. Unlike other genetic markers of eastern influence (e.g. TF*DCHI), which are of Asiatic Mongoloid origin, TF*C3 appears to originate from Finno-Ugric populations.

  9. Epidemiological events surrounding a paralytic case of poliomyelitis in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Böttiger, M.; Mellin, P.; Romanus, V.; Söderström, H.; Wesslen, T.; von Zeipel, G.

    1979-01-01

    A case of clinical poliomyelitis occurred in Sweden in January 1977; it was the first indigenous case in Sweden since 1962. This incident was of particular interest as it provided an opportunity to study the spread of virus in a cluster of unvaccinated persons and in individuals more or less fully vaccinated with inactivated vaccine. The patient excreted wild type 2 virus and the same type was isolated from 25 other individuals, all of whom were close contacts of virus excretors. Among the close contacts, 14 of 20 unvaccinated preschool children were found to excrete virus, but excretion was not found in any of the 7 vaccinated children examined. PMID:218746

  10. 76 FR 29194 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Mexico and Sweden: Revocation of Antidumping Duty Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... International Trade Administration Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Mexico and Sweden: Revocation of... duty orders on purified carboxymethylcellulose from Mexico and Sweden. Pursuant to section 751(c) of... of the existing antidumping duty orders on purified carboxymethylcellulose from Mexico and...

  11. 78 FR 61981 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Anders Zorn: Sweden's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Anders Zorn: Sweden's Master Painter... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Anders Zorn: Sweden's Master...

  12. 78 FR 37538 - Idaho Irrigation District; New Sweden Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Idaho Irrigation District; New Sweden Irrigation District; Notice of... Competing Applications On April 19, 2013, the Idaho and New Sweden Irrigation Districts, filed a joint... Street, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83404; phone: (208) 522-2356. Mr. Louis Thiel, Chairman, New Sweden...

  13. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may provide...

  14. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may provide...

  15. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may provide...

  16. Ad Hoc Conference on the Education of Migrants. Country Report (Sweden).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing Conference of European Ministers of Education, Strasbourg (France).

    Sweden, like most European countries, never set out to be an immigration country. Since its Government and Parliament have subscribed to the principle of maximum mobility across national frontiers, more than 400,000 foreign citizens and 200,000 former aliens reside in Sweden today. Immigration to Sweden is not completely free, though. A policy of…

  17. Parental Divorce and Union Disruption among Young Adults in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gahler, Michael; Hong, Ying; Bernhardt, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of parental divorce on the disruption of marital and nonmarital unions among young adults in Sweden, using longitudinal data from repeated mail questionnaire surveys (1999 and 2003) with 1,321 respondents (aged 26, 30, and 34 in 2003). The study takes into account several possible mechanisms governing the…

  18. The Utilization of Home Help in Sweden: A Multivariate Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorslund, Mats; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Estimated effect of variety of factors on the utilization of home help among the elderly in Sweden using a sample (n=421) of people 75 years and older. Results indicated physical functioning (instrumental activities of daily living) and living alone were most important. (Author/ABL)

  19. Individualized Mathematics Teaching. Results from the IMU Project in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Inger

    The Individual Mathematics Teaching Project (IMU) has been under development in the upper level (grades 7-9) of the comprehensive school in Sweden since 1964. Its goals are (1) to construct and test self-instruction study material in mathematics, (2) to find suitable teaching methods and work forms for the use of this material, (3) to try out…

  20. Educational Research and Educational Change: The Case of Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundgren, Ulf P.

    In the history of the scientific approach to educational issues in Sweden, educational research has been viewed as a scientific activity either because it is based in scientific institutions, because it uses scientific procedures, or because it is seen as a process of mapping reality. Initially, the creation of a specific discipline of education…

  1. ICOS Sweden - a national infrastructure network for greenhouse gas research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindroth, Anders; Heliasz, Michal; Klemedtsson, Leif; Friborg, Thomas; Nilsson, Mats; Ottosson Löfvenius, Mikaell; Rutgersson, Anna; Stiegler, Christian

    2015-04-01

    ICOS Sweden operates a measurement network consisting of seven field stations representing major Swedish ecosystems (forests, wetlands, crop sites and marine) and climatic conditions. Three sites also host atmospheric measurements in high towers. In addition to ICOS activities, the stations are open to all researchers wishing to perform complementary studies. The ICOS Sweden ecosystem and atmospheric stations are all equipped according to the ICOS "class 1" criteria, and will be fully operational in beginning of 2015. All ICOS Sweden field stations are equipped with mains power, internet, computers and staff meaning that many other projects, both long-term and short-term, can be linked to them - for example, in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, biodiversity, land and soil studies etc. ICOS Sweden is comprised of the following stations; Abisko-Stordalen (subarctic mire), Degerö (boreal mire), Svartberget (boreal pine/spruce forest + atmospheric observations), Norunda (hemi boreal pine/spruce forest + atmospheric observations), Lanna (cropland), Östergarnsholm (marine) and Hyltemossa (southern boreal spruce + atmospheric observations).

  2. "We Are Doing Well on Qae": The Case of Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerholm, Christina

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses quality assurance and evaluation (QAE) policy and activities in mandatory schooling at national level in Sweden. Two studies are reported: a textual analysis of national policy documents concerning QAE, and an interview study conducted with national policy brokers. Questions addressed are: What are the characteristics of Swedish…

  3. Are Teacher Assessments Biased?--Evidence from Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Erica

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates if the probability of being graded up in the school leaving certificates increases if the teacher is of the same gender as the student or if the teacher and the student both have a foreign background. The analysis is based on data on grade 9 students in Mathematics from Sweden. I find that female students and non-native…

  4. Privatizing Education: Free School Policy in Sweden and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiborg, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate why Sweden, the epitome of social democracy, has implemented education reforms leading to an extraordinary growth in Free Schools in contrast to liberal England, where Free School policy has been met with enormous resistance. Conventional wisdom would predict the contrary, but as a matter of fact Sweden…

  5. Students' Perspectives on Raising Achievement through Inclusion in Essunga, Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie; Persson, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    A Swedish municipality that has transformed its position at the bottom of the national school league tables to top within three years--through inclusive education--has attracted much attention both in Sweden and internationally. This article offers the students' perspectives on the transformation and how they have experienced success. A social…

  6. The Role of the School Library: Reflections from Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Libraries are critical learning spaces and may play a significant role in intercultural education initiatives, particularly in Sweden where the national curriculum ascribes central functions to libraries for learning activities. Unfortunately, the ways in which teachers and librarians may collaborate to leverage mutual resources is not fully…

  7. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Sweden: an H-type variant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) had never been detected in Sweden until 2006, when the active surveillance identified a case in a 12-year-old cow. The case was an unusual form since several molecular features of the protease-resistant prion protein (PrP**res) were different from classical BSE...

  8. Constructing Learning Spaces? Videoconferencing at Local Learning Centres in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logdlund, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    This article explores videoconferencing in the context of local learning centres in Sweden. The practice is described as a "learning space" in which adult learners construct socio-spatial relations. The study goes beyond a sociological apprehension of actors and opposes the idea of the material as neutral, passive and conformed by…

  9. The Ultimate in Flexitime: From Sweden, by Way of Volvo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Paul

    1988-01-01

    In the Volvo component plant on Koping, Sweden, an innovative system of multiple shifts and flexible working hours is offered to employees. The system meets the needs of those who are available for work at certain times and helps curtail turnover and absenteeism. (JOW)

  10. Between Empowerment and Powerlessness: Separated Minors in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafsson, Kristina; Fioretos, Ingrid; Norstrom, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the migration experiences of thirteen separated minors who arrived in Sweden between 1943 and 2008. Using the framework of "dislocation" and the "liberated self," this chapter shows that the experiences of separated minors are shaped in the intersection between contexts and conditions of transnational…

  11. Is There Hidden Potential for Rural Population Growth in Sweden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedomysl, Thomas; Amcoff, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Rural depopulation is a concern in many countries, and various policy initiatives have been taken to combat such trends. This article examines whether hidden potential for rural population growth can be found in Sweden. If such potential exists, it implies that the development prospects for many rural areas are not as unpromising as they may seem…

  12. Social Policy and Immigrant Joblessness in Britain, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Christel

    2006-01-01

    I examine patterns of joblessness among immigrant men and women from 33 countries of origin now living in Britain, Germany and Sweden. Access to welfare, access to the labor market, job segregation and institutional support for women's employment define distinct policy configurations in these three destinations. Findings show that gaps in…

  13. National-Scale Professional Development in Sweden: Theory, Policy, Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boesen, J.; Helenius, O.; Johansson, B.

    2015-01-01

    From 2012 to 2016 all teachers of mathematics, in primary through to upper secondary and adult education, in Sweden are to be given the opportunity of receiving state-coordinated professional development (PD), generally involving around one meeting per week for a year. We examine the ways in which this programme and its content are research-based…

  14. Services and Provisions for Persons with Mental Retardation in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melin, Lennar

    1988-01-01

    This paper focuses on recent legislation providing special services and provisions for mentally retarded persons in Sweden. The paper describes the legislation's goal in normalizing their lives, the types of residential placements available, their educational and vocational activities, and their mental health problems. (JDD)

  15. Using MOOCs at Learning Centers in Northern Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norberg, Anders; Händel, Åsa; Ödling, Per

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the use of globally accessible Massive Open Online Courses, MOOCs, for addressing the needs of learners at community learning centers in Northern Sweden. The Scandinavian "study circle" concept is used to facilitate the studying of MOOCs, thereby forming "blended" or "glonacal" courses. Although…

  16. Johanna and Tommy: Two Preschoolers in Sweden with Brittle Bones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millde, Kristina; Brodin, Jane

    Information is presented for caregivers of Swedish children with osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bones) and their families. Approximately five children with brittle bones are born in Sweden annually. Two main types of brittle bone disease have been identified: congenita and tarda. Typical symptoms include numerous and unexpected fractures, bluish…

  17. Expectations and Experiences of Inbound Students: Perspectives from Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Per A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores expectations and outcomes for inbound students at Umeå University, Sweden, comparing their expectations with what they actually experienced. Based on an initial sample of 296 students, 116 answered surveys before and after experiencing of studying abroad. The same individuals have been followed. Most of the respondents'…

  18. The Progressive Development of Environmental Education in Sweden and Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breiting, Soren; Wickenberg, Per

    2010-01-01

    Our paper traces the history and progressive development of environmental education and education for sustainable development (ESD) in Sweden and Denmark. Our main focus is on work in primary and lower secondary schools as part of a search for trends of international interest related to the conceptualisation and practice of environmental education…

  19. Adolescents' attitudes to abortion in samples from Italy and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Agostino, M B; Wahlberg, V

    1991-01-01

    Both Italy and Sweden have legislated abortion without grounds since the 1970s but background conditions in the two countries are bipolar. The overall purpose of the present study was to investigate a sample of adolescents from Italy and Sweden regarding their attitudes towards abortion and their knowledge of family planning and to compare the results from the two countries. A questionnaire was distributed among 400 adolescents, 177 from Stockholm, Sweden and 223 from Rome and Locri, Italy. Whereas Sweden is a relatively homogeneous country. Italy has large regional differences regarding social and other aspects. For this reason two regions of Italy were studied separately. The participants were all secondary school students. The results indicated that nearly all adolescents in both countries were concerned about abortion and its consequences, although their concern was expressed differently, in accordance with their religious and cultural norms and also with their background in sexual education. The present study raises questions concerning the knowledge level as an outcome of sex education programs. In fact comparing the answers between the Italian and the Swedish samples no particular difference, in favour of the Swedish adolescents was noticed.

  20. Struggles for Legitimacy in Mother Tongue Instruction in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganuza, Natalia; Hedman, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the pedagogical beliefs, practices and ideological assumptions of 15 teachers who work with mother tongue instruction in Sweden. Despite support through provisions in Swedish laws, mother tongue instruction is clearly a marginalized subject, not least due to its non-mandatory status, the limited time allocated for it and…

  1. The State and Higher Education: A Sociological Critique from Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Lennart

    1982-01-01

    The social, political, and economic history of Sweden's higher education is outlined from the perspective of various factions trying to maintain control. Decentralization of the traditional power structure and social and technological change pose a challenge for a new educational strategy and policy. (MSE)

  2. Teacher Education in Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostinelli, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a brief analysis of teacher education in five European countries: Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland. In the post-industrial world, the sense of teaching has profoundly changed, influenced by a rapidly evolving socio-economic context. The responses given by each country are different, but two tendencies emerge: on…

  3. Lise Meitner in Sweden 1938-1960: Exile from physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    1994-08-01

    Lise Meitner fled Germany for Sweden in 1938. Her professional difficulties in Stockholm coupled with her exclusion from the discovery of fission diminished her ability to work, damaged her reputation and, in the opinion of many of her contemporaries, kept her from a Nobel prize.

  4. Dental health status in two groups of refugees in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M; Bornstein, R; Martinsson, T

    1988-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine dental health status in two separate groups of Chilean and Polish refugees in Sweden. In Scandinavia, Sweden has the largest number of immigrants--1 million out of a population of 8.3 million. Since 1975, most immigrants have been refugees and their families. During 1978-82 Sweden granted residency to 20,000 refugees, the two largest groups being Chileans and Poles. In 1981-83 a sample of 193 Chilean and 92 Polish refugees in the county of Stockholm were selected for this study. The investigation consisted of a questionnaire followed by clinical examination, including roentgenograms. The average age was 34.0 years in the Chilean group and 34.8 years in the Polish group. The Chileans had been in Sweden for 17.3 months on an average and the Poles for 16.0 months. The Chileans had an average of 10.0 carious surfaces, D(s), and the Poles 11.3. Gingivitis was recorded in 87% of the total number of sites examined in the Chilean group. The corresponding figure in the Polish group was 79%. Of the Chileans 36.5% and of the Poles 32.5% had periodontal pockets measuring more than 5 mm. The results indicate that, when compared with Swedish individuals of a corresponding age, the refugee groups have a high prevalence of caries and periodontal disease.

  5. Everyday Classroom Assessment Practices in Science Classrooms in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez, María del Carmen; Jakobsson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study is to examine to what extent and in what ways science teachers practice assessment during classroom interactions in everyday activities in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. We are science teachers working now with a larger research project on assessment in science education that seeks to examine teachers' assessment…

  6. Chronic hepatitis B in children in Gothenburg, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Söderström, A; Lindh, M; Eriksson, K; Horal, P; Krantz, M; Kristiansson, B; Lindberg, J; Norkrans, G

    1999-01-01

    Sweden is a low prevalence area for hepatitis B, but the number of chronic carriers has increased during the last decade due to immigration. Out of a total of 120 children with identified chronic hepatitis B in Gothenburg, Sweden, 93 were investigated during the 2-year period 1994-95. The children had a mean age of 10.9 years and originated from 21 different countries. Most infections were discovered during various screening programmes after arrival in Sweden. A total of 90 of the 93 children were HBV-DNA positive by Amplicor HBV Monitor (Roche Diagnostics) and 58% (54/93) were HBeAg positive. All children either originated from areas with a high or medium prevalence of HBV infection (81/93, 87%) or were born in Sweden to mothers originating from high or medium prevalence countries (12/93, 13%). Three of these 12 children were vertically infected in spite of adequate immunoprophylaxis and 8 were born to mothers with undiscovered chronic HBV infection. In all, 34 children had mothers who were HBsAg positive. No overt case of transmission was notified in day-care centres or schools, or from a child to a non-immune parent. None of the children reported any symptoms of liver disease, but 38% (35/93) had elevated aminotransferases. Therefore, screening programmes are essential to identify chronic HBV infection in children in order to prevent transmission and to find individuals at risk of progressive liver damage who should be considered for treatment.

  7. Problems in the Relationship Between Education and Employment in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliasson, Kerstin

    Sweden has worked in the last decade to strengthen the connection between education and employment, but still needs to make futher improvements. Recent shifts in the country's labor markets led to more youth unemployment, the displacement of less-educated workers by the more highly educated, and greater problems in the transition from school to…

  8. Exploring Assistance in Sweden and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Dennis; Davey, Adam; Femia, Elia E.; Zarit, Steven H.; Sundstrom, Gerdt; Berg, Stig; Smyer, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Few international comparisons of health services are performed using microlevel data. Using such data, this paper compares the need for and receipt of assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs) in comparable samples in the United States and Sweden, a country with a universal system of community-based services. Design and Methods:…

  9. Pesticide Reduction Programs in Denmark, the Netherlands, and Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Peter

    1992-01-01

    The Netherlands, Denmark, and Sweden are leaders in introducing comprehensive and targeted risk reduction programs for pesticides. Describes these programs and their implementation, incorporating material obtained through interviews with representatives of the main constituencies involved in reduction Tables list pesticides that do not meet the…

  10. Water balance changes across environmental gradients in Sweden.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Velde, Y.; Lyon, S. W.; Vercauteren, N.; Destouni, G.

    2012-04-01

    Climate change, land use change and an increasing use of water for irrigation, industry, hydro power and consumption alter the water balance of many catchments. Such changes affect the water availability for ecosystems and humans but also affect hydrological conditions in downstream lakes and coastal zones. In the Baltic Sea region, for example, an increase in precipitation in Northern Sweden may reduce sea water salinity, while increasing evapotranspiration in the South, which is dominated by agriculture, may reduce nutrient leaching. Both changes will affect the Baltic Sea ecosystem. It thus is important to identify, for each region in Sweden, the dominant drivers for change to understand and anticipate future hydrological conditions in the Baltic Sea. In this study we have analyzed long term changes in the water balance for 250 catchments in Sweden. By quantifying the spatial correlation of these changes between catchments we were able to constrain measurement uncertainty in precipitation, discharge and catchment area. This allowed us to create reliable regional estimates of changes in precipitation, discharge and evapotranspiration for the period 1960-2010. The Bodyko framework was used to translate these water balance changes to water use efficiency trajectories across environmental gradients (latitude, elevation, agriculture and population). These trajectories in Bodyko-space help to identify the contributions of climate change and changes in water use efficiency to observed changes in the water balance. We show that within Sweden distinctly different trajectories of hydrological change occur and that these differences should be accounted for in climate change adaptation strategies.

  11. Delayed HIV diagnosis common in Sweden, 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Skar, Helena; Berglund, Torsten; Kling, Anna-Maria; Tegnell, Anders; Albert, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background Early diagnosis of HIV is important for the prognosis of individual patients, because antiretroviral treatment can be started at the appropriate time, and for public health, because transmission can be prevented. Methods Data were collected from 767 HIV patients who were diagnosed in Sweden during 2003–2010 and were infected in Sweden or born in Sweden and infected abroad. A recent infection testing algorithm (RITA) was applied to BED-EIA test results (OD-n < 0.8), CD4 counts (≥ 200 cells/μl), and clinical information. A recent infection classification was used as indicator for early diagnosis. Time trends in early diagnosis were investigated to detect population changes in HIV testing behavior. Patients with early diagnosis were compared to patients with delayed diagnosis with respect to age, gender, transmission route, and country of infection (Sweden or abroad). Results Early diagnosis was observed in 271 patients (35%). There was no statistically significant time trend in the yearly percentage of patients with early diagnosis in the entire study group (p = 0.836) or in subgroups. Early diagnosis was significantly more common in men who have sex men (MSM) (45%) than in heterosexuals (21%) and injecting drug users (27%) (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively) in both univariate and multivariable analyses. The only other factor that remained associated with early diagnosis in multivariable analysis was young age group. Conclusion Approximately one-third of the study patients were diagnosed early with no significant change over time. Delayed HIV diagnosis is a considerable problem in Sweden, which does not appear to diminish. PMID:25290584

  12. Oral health in groups of refugees in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M

    1993-01-01

    In recent years the impact of ever-increasing numbers of refugees on the resources of the host countries has become a global concern. Health personnel face unanticipated demands complicated by different cultural, ethnic and religious factors and an unfamiliar disease panorama. Sweden today has around 1 million immigrants, 15% of the population. The aim of this thesis was to describe oral status with respect to caries and periodontal conditions, to analyse the need for dental treatment, to evaluate the effect of a preventive dental health programme, to study attitudes and knowledge of preventive dentistry and to describe and analyse utilization of dental services by different groups of adult refugees in Sweden. Three different methods were used: a descriptive clinical survey of a random sample of 193 Chilean and 92 Polish refugees, an experimental survey of a random sample of 159 Chilean refugees and a register survey, using national health statistics, consisting of a random sample of 2,489 refugees arriving in Sweden 1975-1985. The Chilean and Polish refugees had markedly poorer oral status than corresponding Swedish population groups. No association could be found between oral health or estimated treatment need and the length of time in Sweden. The simplified preventive program in the form of group discussion had a lasting effect on improved periodontal conditions and also improved knowledge of dental health care in the group of Chilean refugees. The register survey showed a generally low utilization of dental services but a high dental consumption among adult refugees in Sweden. The total treatment time for a course of treatment showed no marked decrease with subsequent courses of treatment. Immigration may have a profound effect on oral health care needs in a given population by introducing undetermined accumulated needs for oral care, and by stimulating changes in attitudes to and preferences in oral health and care.

  13. Student Essay Sleeping in Snow, Swimming in Ice: Welcom to Sweden--Duchy College, Cornwall, Visits Bollerup College, Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Mark; Petitt, Ed; Thompson, Andy

    2001-01-01

    In Sweden, winter survival is taught to children from age 3 upwards. Bollerup College students learn extreme survival and then teach the skills to children. Two students from Duchy College (Cornwall, England) and their professor describe a week they spent at Bollerup College learning winter survival skills and the effects of winter conditions on…

  14. Public perceptions and acceptance of intensive forestry in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hemström, Kerstin; Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif

    2014-03-01

    The use of intensive forestry on part of the forested area in Sweden increases the production of forest biomass and enables an increased use of such biomass to mitigate climate change. However, with increasing conflicting interests in forests and forestry, the success of such a strategy depends on the public acceptance. In this paper, the results of a mail survey show that although a majority of the general public in Sweden supports measures to increase forest growth, they oppose the use of intensive forestry practices such as the cultivation of exotic tree species, clones, and forest fertilization. The acceptance of such practices is mainly influenced by the perceptions of their environmental consequences. Public acceptance was highest for forest fertilization, whereas clone cultivation was the least accepted practice.

  15. Occupational risks for meningiomas of the CNS in Sweden.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, J K; Thomas, T L; Stone, B J; Blot, W J; Malker, H S; Wiener, J A; Ericsson, J L; Malker, B K

    1987-01-01

    Using the Cancer-Environment Registry of Sweden, which links cancer incidence (1961 to 1979) with census information (1960) for all employed individuals in Sweden, a systematic, population-based assessment was made of the occurrence of meningiomas of the CNS according to industrial and occupational classifications. Statistically significant standardized incidence ratios (SIR) between 5 and 6 for meningioma were observed among glass, porcelain, or ceramic workers of both sexes. SIRs of similar magnitude were also found for men employed in the headwear fabrication and book publishing industries. Significantly elevated two- to three-fold risks were observed for men employed in health care, railroad and trolley construction, sheet and plate metal fabrication, and as moving equipment operators. Some of the findings of this descriptive survey may have arisen as a result of multiple comparisons, but several are consistent with earlier observations for brain cancer from other countries and deserve further study.

  16. Heat Wave-Associated Vibriosis, Sweden and Finland, 2014.

    PubMed

    Baker-Austin, Craig; Trinanes, Joaquin A; Salmenlinna, Saara; Löfdahl, Margareta; Siitonen, Anja; Taylor, Nick G H; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    During summer 2014, a total of 89 Vibrio infections were reported in Sweden and Finland, substantially more yearly infections than previously have been reported in northern Europe. Infections were spread across most coastal counties of Sweden and Finland, but unusually, numerous infections were reported in subarctic regions; cases were reported as far north as 65°N, ≈100 miles (160 km) from the Arctic Circle. Most infections were caused by non-O1/O139 V. cholerae (70 cases, corresponding to 77% of the total, all strains were negative for the cholera toxin gene). An extreme heat wave in northern Scandinavia during summer 2014 led to unprecedented high sea surface temperatures, which appear to have been responsible for the emergence of Vibrio bacteria at these latitudes. The emergence of vibriosis in high-latitude regions requires improved diagnostic detection and clinical awareness of these emerging pathogens.

  17. Genetic diversity of rhizobia nodulating native Vicia spp. in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Huss-Danell, Kerstin

    2016-05-01

    Despite the recognition that Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae is the most common symbiont of Vicia species worldwide, there is no available information on rhizobia nodulating native Vicia species in Sweden. We have therefore studied the genetic diversity and phylogeny of root nodule bacteria isolated from V. cracca, V. hirsuta, V. sepium, V. tetrasperma and V. sylvatica growing in different locations in Sweden as well as an isolate each from V. cracca in Tromsø, Norway, and V. multicaulis in Siberia, Russia. Out of 25 isolates sampled from the six Vicia species in 12 different locations, there were 14 different genotypes based on the atpD, recA and nodA gene phylogenies. All isolates were classified into Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae group based on the concatenated atpD and recA phylogeny and the nodA phylogeny.

  18. Increased occurrence of lightning flashes in Sweden during 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Israelsson, S.; Schuette, T.; Pisler, E.; Lundquist, S.

    1987-09-20

    As a result of the accident in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, USSR, a considerable increase in radioactive background radiation was noted in some regions of Sweden. In areas with high radioactive fallout an increase in the amount of lightning flashes was observed during the 1986 thunderstorm season. A statistical test shows that there is a risk of less than 1% that the observed difference has occurred by mere chance. copyrightAmerican Geophysical Union 1987

  19. A National Survey of Emergency Department Triage in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Göransson, Katarina; Ehrenberg, Anna; Ehnfors, Margareta

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the organisation of and knowledge about triage work in Swedish emergency departments (ED) as a first step to understanding what is necessary for decision support in ED triage systems in Sweden. A national survey using telephone interviews for data collection was used. Results showed great variety in how work regarding ED triage is organised and performed. The variety occurs in several areas including education, personnel performing triage, facilities available and scales used. PMID:14728356

  20. The new gravimetric quasigeoid model KTH08 over Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ågren, Jonas; Sjöberg, Lars E.; Kiamehr, Ramin

    2009-08-01

    The least squares modification of Stokes formula has been developed in a series of papers published in Journal of Geodesy between 1984 and 2008. It consists of a least squares (stochastic) Stokes kernel modification with additive corrections for the topography, downward continuation, the atmosphere and the ellipsoidal shape of the Earth. The method, developed at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) will here be denoted by the abbreviated name the KTH method. This paper presents the computational results of a new gravimetric quasigeoid model over Sweden (the KTH08 model) by employing the KTH method. Traditionally the Nordic Geodetic Commission (NKG) has computed gravimetric quasigeoid models over Sweden and other Nordic countries; the latest model being NKG 2004. Another aim of this paper is therefore to compare KTH08 and NKG 2004 quasigeoid models and to evaluate their accuracies using GNSS/levelling height anomalies. The rms fit of KTH08 in 196 GNSS data points distributed over Sweden by using a 1(4)-parameter transformation is 22 (20) mm. It is concluded that KTH08 is a significant step forward compared to NKG 2004.

  1. The impact of health economic evaluations in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Heintz, Emelie; Arnberg, Karl; Levin, Lars-Åke; Liliemark, Jan; Davidson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The responsibility for healthcare in Sweden is shared by the central government, county councils and municipalities. The counties and municipalities are free to make their own prioritizations within the framework of the state healthcare laws. To guide prioritization of healthcare resources in Sweden, there is consensus that cost-effectiveness constitutes one of the three principles. The objective of this paper is to describe how cost-effectiveness, and hence health economic evaluations (HEE), have a role in pricing decisions, reimbursement of pharmaceuticals as well as the overall prioritization and allocation of resources in the Swedish healthcare system. There are various organizations involved in the processes of implementing health technologies in the Swedish healthcare system, several of which consider or produce HEEs when assessing different technologies: the Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Agency (TLV), the county councils' group on new drug therapies (NLT), the National Board of Health and Welfare, the Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment (SBU), regional HTA agencies and the Public Health Agency of Sweden. The only governmental agency that has official and mandatory guidelines for how to perform HEE is TLV (LFNAR 2003:2). Even though HEEs may seem to have a clear and explicit role in the decision-making processes in the Swedish healthcare system, there are various obstacles and challenges in the use and dissemination of the results.

  2. Immigrants and preterm births: a nationwide epidemiological study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2013-08-01

    To examine, nationwide, if there is an association between country of birth in mothers and preterm birth and to study whether any such association remains in second-generation immigrant women. In this follow-up study, a nationwide research database located at Lund University, Sweden, was used to identify all preterm born singletons in Sweden between January 1, 1982, and December 31, 2006. Incidence ratios were standardized with regard to maternal age at birth, marital status, geographical region, body height, and smoking history as well as period of birth, family income, and gender of the infant. Singletons of mothers born in Sweden were used as the reference group. There were 2,192,843 records for singletons over the study period, of whom 4.9 % were preterm births and 0.8 % were very preterm births. Increased risk of preterm birth was observed for mothers from Austria, Yugoslavia, Romania, Central Europe, and Asia. Increased risk of very preterm birth was observed for mothers from Eastern Europe, Central Europe, Africa, and Asia; these increased risk disappeared, however, in the second-generation female immigrants. Country of birth in mothers affected the risk of preterm birth; maternity care should pay special attention to women from certain population groups.

  3. Plant sterols in vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Normén, L; Johnsson, M; Andersson, H; van Gameren, Y; Dutta, P

    1999-04-01

    Plant sterols are known to have serum cholesterol lowering effects. A high dietary intake might therefore have a positive impact on health. All food items of vegetable origin contain some amount of plant sterols. The aim of this study was to analyse the plant sterol content of vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in Sweden, and to compare fresh and cooked samples of the same items. Altogether 20 different vegetables and 14 fruits were analysed. All vegetables and fruits were purchased in two shops in the city of Gothenburg, Sweden. Lyophilization was performed within one month of the items being purchased. The samples were frozen at -20 (C and analysed within six months, with a GLC method after acid hydrolysis, alkaline hydrolysis and silylation with tri-methylsilylether. The acid hydrolysis was done in order to detect the fraction of glycosylated plant sterols, which are split during boiling with HCl. The median plant sterol content of vegetables was 14 (3.8-50) mg/100 g edible portion. The highest concentrations were found in broccoli. Brussels sprouts, cauliflower and olives. The median plant sterol content of fruits was 16 (3-44) mg/100 g edible portion. The highest concentrations were found in oranges and passion fruits. The plant sterol concentrations were thus low in vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in Sweden. A serum cholesterol lowering effect attributed to the plant sterols in vegetables and fruits would therefore be of limited significance.

  4. Emissions of arsenic in Sweden and their reduction.

    PubMed Central

    Lindau, L

    1977-01-01

    The role of arsenic in Sweden is generally described, including raw materials, exports/imports, products, consumption, etc. An attempt was also made to estimate the transport of arsenic in Sweden. The quantities of arsenic in raw materials, the emissions of arsenic from such processes as copper smelters and chemical industries, and the amounts of products containing arsenic were calculated. The studies show that a copper smelter is the main user of arsenical materials, the very largest emitting source and also the plant which manufacturers most arsenic products. A summary of measurements of arsenic in air, water and soil in Sweden has also been made. The concentrations near a smelter, in the Baltic, in cities and in "clean-air areas" are given. The efforts made to date to reduce the emissions of arsenic and the measures planned for the next few years are described. A reduction has already been achieved and a further rather large decrease will come, especially in arsenic levels in water. The possibilities of minimizing the use of materials and products containing arsenic is also discussed. PMID:908306

  5. Epidemiology of Chronic Pain in Denmark and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Harker, Julie; Reid, Kim J.; Bekkering, Geertruida E.; Kellen, Eliane; Bala, Malgorzata M.; Riemsma, Rob; Worthy, Gill; Misso, Kate; Kleijnen, Jos

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Estimates on the epidemiology of chronic pain vary widely throughout Europe. It is unclear whether this variation reflects true differences between populations or methodological factors. Information on the epidemiology of chronic pain can support decision makers in allocating adequate health care resources. Methods. In order to obtain epidemiological data on chronic pain in Denmark and Sweden, we conducted a literature review of epidemiological data primarily on chronic noncancer pain, prioritising studies of highest quality, recency, and validity by conducting a systematic search for relevant studies. Following quality assessment, data were summarised and assigned to the research questions. Results. The prevalence of moderate to severe noncancer pain was estimated at 16% in Denmark and 18% in Sweden. Chronic pain impacts negatively on perceived health status, quality of life and is associated with increased cost. Despite using pain medications, a large proportion of chronic pain sufferers have inadequate pain control. There was a lack of high-quality and low-bias studies with clear inclusion criteria. Conclusions. In both Denmark and Sweden, chronic pain is a common health problem which is potentially undertreated and warrants attention of health care workers, policy makers and researchers. Future research should utilise clear reporting guidelines to assist decision and policy makers, in this important area. PMID:22693667

  6. Cohort Profile: the National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden and Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden 2.0.

    PubMed

    Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Wigertz, Annette; Sandin, Fredrik; Garmo, Hans; Hellström, Karin; Fransson, Per; Widmark, Anders; Lambe, Mats; Adolfsson, Jan; Varenhorst, Eberhard; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Stattin, Pär

    2013-08-01

    In 1987, the first Regional Prostate Cancer Register was set up in the South-East health-care region of Sweden. Other health-care regions joined and since 1998 virtually all prostate cancer (PCa) cases are registered in the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR) of Sweden to provide data for quality assurance, bench marking and clinical research. NPCR includes data on tumour stage, Gleason score, serum level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and primary treatment. In 2008, the NPCR was linked to a number of other population-based registers by use of the personal identity number. This database named Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden (PCBaSe) has now been extended with more cases, longer follow-up and a selection of two control series of men free of PCa at the time of sampling, as well as information on brothers of men diagnosed with PCa, resulting in PCBaSe 2.0. This extension allows for studies with case-control, cohort or longitudinal case-only design on aetiological factors, pharmaceutical prescriptions and assessment of long-term outcomes. The NPCR covers >96% of all incident PCa cases registered by the Swedish Cancer Register, which has an underreporting of <3.7%. The NPCR is used to assess trends in incidence, treatment and outcome of men with PCa. Since the national registers linked to PCBaSe are complete, studies from PCBaSe 2.0 are truly population based.

  7. Characterization of secondary care for COPD in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sundh, Josefin; Janson, Christer; Johansson, Gunnar; Lindén, Anders; Löfdahl, Claes-Göran; Sandström, Thomas; Larsson, Kjell

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Only a selected proportion of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are managed in secondary care. The aim of this study was to characterize disease severity, treatment and structure of secondary care for COPD in Sweden. Methods: Information was collected from 29 of 33 existing secondary care units of respiratory medicine in Sweden, using both individual data from 373 consecutively enrolled COPD patients with Global initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage III-IV and a structural questionnaire about available resources at the units. Patient data included exacerbations, health status assessed by COPD Assessment Test (CAT), lung function, comorbid conditions, pharmacological treatment and vaccinations. Structural data included available smoking cessation support, multidisciplinary rehabilitation, physical training, patient education and routine follow-up after exacerbations at the respective unit. All patients were reclassified according to the GOLD 2014 group A-D classification. Multiple linear regression investigated associations of available resources with number of exacerbations and CAT score. Results: According to GOLD 2014, 87% of the population were GOLD D and 13% were GOLD C. Triple inhaled therapy were prescribed in 88% of the patients. Over 75% of the units had resources for smoking cessation, multidisciplinary rehabilitation, physical training and patient education. Routine follow-up after exacerbations was available in 35% of the units. Being managed at units with access to structured patient education was associated with statistically significantly fewer exacerbations (adjusted regression coefficient (95% confidence interval) -0.79 (-1.39 to -0.19), p = 0.010). Conclusion: Most stage III-IV COPD patients managed at secondary care respiratory units in Sweden have maximized inhaled therapy and high risk disease even when reclassified according to GOLD 2014. Most units have access to smoking cessation

  8. Surficial geology indicates early Holocene faulting and seismicity, central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Colby A.; Sundh, Martin; Mikko, Henrik

    2014-09-01

    In Sweden, knowledge of the location and timing of glacially induced faulting and seismicity is critical to effective engineering of a long-term nuclear disposal facility. To improve understanding and modeling of the complex ice-induced and tectonic stresses associated with glacially induced faulting, field studies detailing the location and timing of movement of such structures are required. Although the fault has not been confirmed in the bedrock, multi-proxy surficial geologic evidence indicates that the recently discovered scarp in Bollnäs is such a structure. Machine-excavated trenches across the scarp reveal landsliding down the scarp and, in one location, faulted and vertically offset fine-grained glacial sediments. The presence of water-escape structures in trenches excavated on a topographic high strongly suggests a co-seismic origin derived from earthquake magnitudes >5.5. Numerous landslides in till exist in the region as well. Four slopes with landslides were examined in detail, and the factors of safety for these slopes indicate stable conditions and suggest a seismic trigger. Basal radiocarbon dates from peat bogs located stratigraphically above the landslides provide minimum limiting ages for the co-seismic landslides. The oldest date indicates sliding prior to 10,180 calendar years before the present. The proposed Bollnäs Fault is 400 km south of the so called Lapland Fault Province. To date, it is the southernmost confirmed glacially induced fault in Sweden. The results of this study are consistent with existing modeling results that indicate fault instability in this region of central Sweden following deglaciation.

  9. Gout in immigrant groups: a cohort study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wändell, Per; Carlsson, Axel C; Li, Xinjun; Gasevic, Danijela; Ärnlöv, Johan; Holzmann, Martin J; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2017-01-13

    Our aim was to study the association between country of birth and incidence of gout in different immigrant groups in Sweden. The study population included the whole population of Sweden. Gout was defined as having at least one registered diagnosis in the National Patient Register. The association between incidence of gout and country of birth was assessed by Cox regression, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), using Swedish-born individuals as referents. All models were conducted in both men and women, and the full model was adjusted for age, place of residence in Sweden, educational level, marital status, neighbourhood socio-economic status and co-morbidities. The risk of gout varied by country of origin, with highest estimates, compared to Swedish born, in fully adjusted models among men from Iraq (HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.54-2.16), and Russia (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.26-2.27), and also high among men from Austria, Poland, Africa and Asian countries outside the Middle East; and among women from Africa (HR 2.23, 95% CI 1.50-3.31), Hungary (HR 1.98, 95% CI 1.45-2.71), Iraq (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.13-2.74) and Austria (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.07-2.70), and also high among women from Poland. The risk of gout was lower among men from Greece, Spain, Nordic countries (except Finland) and Latin America and among women from Southern Europe, compared to their Swedish counterparts. The increased risk of gout among several immigrant groups is likely explained by a high cardio-metabolic risk factor pattern needing attention.

  10. Characterization of secondary care for COPD in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Sundh, Josefin; Janson, Christer; Johansson, Gunnar; Lindén, Anders; Löfdahl, Claes-Göran; Sandström, Thomas; Larsson, Kjell

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Only a selected proportion of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are managed in secondary care. The aim of this study was to characterize disease severity, treatment and structure of secondary care for COPD in Sweden. Methods: Information was collected from 29 of 33 existing secondary care units of respiratory medicine in Sweden, using both individual data from 373 consecutively enrolled COPD patients with Global initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage III–IV and a structural questionnaire about available resources at the units. Patient data included exacerbations, health status assessed by COPD Assessment Test (CAT), lung function, comorbid conditions, pharmacological treatment and vaccinations. Structural data included available smoking cessation support, multidisciplinary rehabilitation, physical training, patient education and routine follow-up after exacerbations at the respective unit. All patients were reclassified according to the GOLD 2014 group A–D classification. Multiple linear regression investigated associations of available resources with number of exacerbations and CAT score. Results: According to GOLD 2014, 87% of the population were GOLD D and 13% were GOLD C. Triple inhaled therapy were prescribed in 88% of the patients. Over 75% of the units had resources for smoking cessation, multidisciplinary rehabilitation, physical training and patient education. Routine follow-up after exacerbations was available in 35% of the units. Being managed at units with access to structured patient education was associated with statistically significantly fewer exacerbations (adjusted regression coefficient (95% confidence interval) −0.79 (−1.39 to −0.19), p = 0.010). Conclusion: Most stage III–IV COPD patients managed at secondary care respiratory units in Sweden have maximized inhaled therapy and high risk disease even when reclassified according to GOLD 2014. Most units have access to smoking

  11. Uranium in the Upper Cambrian black shale of Sweden

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKelvey, Vincent Ellis

    1955-01-01

    The Peltura zone of the Upper Cambrian black shales of Sweden contains about 0.02 percent uranium. Maximum amounts are present in rocks deposited in an embayment in the sea and in rocks in or closely adjacent to that part of the vertical sequence that contains maximum amounts of distillable oil, total organic matter, pyrite, and a black highly uraniferous kerogen called "kolm". Available data suggest that the precipitation of uranium is favored by a low redox potential and that the uranium in the shale matrix may be in fine-grained kolm.

  12. Between empowerment and powerlessness: separated minors in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Kristina; Fioretos, Ingrid; Norström, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the migration experiences of thirteen separated minors who arrived in Sweden between 1943 and 2008. Using the framework of "dislocation" and the "liberated self," this chapter shows that the experiences of separated minors are shaped in the intersection between contexts and conditions of transnational migration and the Swedish reception system. Their efforts to continue living based on the past and building a new life during a period of transition between different countries and between childhood and adulthood can be described as "a life on hold." The paradox that migration serves simultaneously to empower and render children powerless is discussed.

  13. Gender and Cooperation in Children: Experiments in Colombia and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas, Juan-Camilo; Dreber, Anna; von Essen, Emma; Ranehill, Eva

    2014-01-01

    In this article we compare cooperation among Colombian and Swedish children aged 9–12. We illustrate the dynamics of the prisoner's dilemma in a new task that is easily understood by children and performed during a physical education class. We find no robust evidence of a difference in cooperation between Colombia and Sweden overall. However, Colombian girls cooperate less than Swedish girls. We also find indications that girls in Colombia are less cooperative than boys. Finally, there is also a tendency for children to be more cooperative with boys than with girls on average. PMID:24614513

  14. Sweden beyond oil: nuclear commitments and solar options.

    PubMed

    Lönnroth, M; Johansson, T B; Steen, P

    1980-05-09

    The project "Energy and Society," sponsored by the Swedish Secretariat for Futures Studies, has studied different indigenous energy sources as alternatives to imported oil in Sweden. One alternative is nuclear energy, antoer is renewable energy. Large uncertainties are associated with both alternatives today. The main characteristics of an energy policy for the rest of the century that does not foreclose either of these options have been identified. Such a policy will have to be based on an understanding of similarities and differences between the alternatives. A nuclear and a solar energy system have been outlined as a basis for an analysis of technical, economic, and institutional issues.

  15. Epidemiology and Ecology of Tularemia in Sweden, 1984–2012

    PubMed Central

    Desvars, Amélie; Furberg, Maria; Hjertqvist, Marika; Vidman, Linda; Sjöstedt, Anders; Rydén, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    The zoonotic disease tularemia is endemic in large areas of the Northern Hemisphere, but research is lacking on patterns of spatial distribution and connections with ecologic factors. To describe the spatial epidemiology of and identify ecologic risk factors for tularemia incidence in Sweden, we analyzed surveillance data collected over 29 years (1984–2012). A total of 4,830 cases were notified, of which 3,524 met all study inclusion criteria. From the first to the second half of the study period, mean incidence increased 10-fold, from 0.26/100,000 persons during 1984–1998 to 2.47/100,000 persons during 1999–2012 (p<0.001). The incidence of tularemia was higher than expected in the boreal and alpine ecologic regions (p<0.001), and incidence was positively correlated with the presence of lakes and rivers (p<0.001). These results provide a comprehensive epidemiologic description of tularemia in Sweden and illustrate that incidence is higher in locations near lakes and rivers. PMID:25529978

  16. Science in Transit: Enlightenment Research Policy and Astronomy in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widmalm, Sven

    2013-05-01

    Swedish participation in the international efforts to measure the transits of Venus in the 1760s was impressive considering the size and the relative youth of the mathematical and astronomical community in the country. In this paper it is argued that the relative success of the Swedish contribution may be seen as the result of an early-modern form of research policy. This policy was promoted by the progressive so-called Hat Party that came into power in the late 1730s, an event that coincided with the creation of the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, soon to emerge as an organizational hub of astronomical research in Sweden and to some extent also on the European level. The close connection between the scientific and political elites in Enlightenment Sweden made possible the creation and international integration of a Swedish research community, not least in astronomy under the leadership of the Academy's perpetual secretary and astronomer Pehr Wargentin. The fact that these elites shared a common fate is also illustrated by their simultaneous decline from around 1770.

  17. Work-related health factors for female immigrants in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Sharareh; Bildt, Carina; Wamala, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Work-related health has been a focus of research since the rate of sickness-related absences began to increase in Sweden. The incidence of sickness-related absences and early retirement is higher among female immigrants than among others in the total population. This study is based on a questionnaire survey which was conducted in a municipality in Sweden. The study population consisted of 2 429 native and immigrant female employees. The aim was to study work-related health factors for female immigrants. The results of this study show that about 20% of female immigrants who participate in the survey have temporary employment while the proportion is 8% for native women. The perception of ethnic discrimination among female immigrants was three times as much as among native females. The results also show that 69% of female immigrants report having received no opportunity to discuss their wages with managers, in comparison to 63% of native females. About 40% of female immigrants and 35% of native women report that they do not get opportunities to upgrade their skills. Female immigrants over the age of 50 experience gender and ethnic discrimination and lack of access to skills training programs more often than younger immigrants. They also participate in health-care activities more often.

  18. SWEDEN--RECENT CHANGES IN WELFARE STATE ARRANGEMENTS.

    PubMed

    Burström, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish welfare state, once developed to create a new society based on social equality and universal rights, has taken on a partly new direction. Extensive choice reforms have been implemented in social services and an increasing proportion of tax-funded social services, including child day care, primary and secondary schools, health care, and care of the elderly, is provided by private entrepreneurs, although funded by taxes. Private equity firms have gained considerable profits from the welfare services. The changes have taken place over a 20-year period, but at an accelerated pace in the last decade. Sweden previously had very generous sickness and unemployment insurance, in terms of both duration and benefit levels, but is falling behind in terms of generosity, as indicated by increasing levels of relative poverty among those who depend on benefits and transfers. Increasing income inequality over the past 20 years further adds to increasing the gaps between population groups. In some respects, Sweden is becoming similar to other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. The article describes some of the changes that have occurred. However, there is still widespread popular support for the publicly provided welfare state services.

  19. History of psychiatry in Sweden during a millennium.

    PubMed

    Wetterberg, Lennart

    2012-03-01

    This report covers a millennium, from year 1000 when Sweden had only 0.4 million people until today's 9.4 million. In the 13th century, the first Swedish legal text about the mentally ill and the first hospital to treat them are documented. Control, care and cure of the ill have been shaped by social and cultural changes from time to time, e.g. King Gustav Vasa introduced a paradigm shift of care after the Reformation, when he altered Catholic buildings into state hospitals. He also ordered that medical texts should no longer be written in Latin but in Swedish. The first book dealing with mental illnesses was published in 1578. Laypersons ran the mental hospitals for centuries until the medical perspective and doctors were engaged in the 1800 s. To advance the hospital doctors' competence and skill, a Swedish Psychiatric Association was established in 1905. Severely psychotic patients could not be effectively treated until the introduction of chlorpromazine in the 1950s and there is still no cure available. Following the deinstitutionalization, from more than 35,000 beds 50 years ago down to about 4500 today, the request for outpatient treatment increased. Mandatory training in psychotherapies for all psychiatrists started in the 1970s. A major "psychiatry reform", with the hope of improving the situation for the mentally ill, and to reduce the stigma, was introduced in Sweden in 1995. The historic long-term effect of the reform cannot yet be fully evaluated.

  20. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Inkoo Virus in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Evander, Magnus; Putkuri, Niina; Eliasson, Mats; Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Vapalahti, Olli; Ahlm, Clas

    2016-01-01

    The mosquito-borne Inkoo virus (INKV) is a member of the California serogroup in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus. These viruses are associated with fever and encephalitis, although INKV infections are not usually reported and the incidence is largely unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of anti-INKV antibodies and associated risk factors in humans living in northern Sweden. Seroprevalence was investigated using the World Health Organization Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease study, where a randomly selected population aged between 25 and 74 years (N = 1,607) was invited to participate. The presence of anti-INKV IgG antibodies was determined by immunofluorescence assay. Seropositivity for anti-INKV was significantly higher in men (46.9%) than in women (34.8%; P < 0.001). In women, but not in men, the prevalence increased somewhat with age (P = 0.06). The peak in seropositivity was 45–54 years for men and 55–64 years for women. Living in rural areas was associated with a higher seroprevalence. In conclusion, the prevalence of anti-INKV antibodies was high in northern Sweden and was associated with male sex, older age, and rural living. The age distribution indicates exposure to INKV at a relatively early age. These findings will be important for future epidemiological and clinical investigations of this relatively unknown mosquito-borne virus. PMID:26928830

  1. Electricity savings from residential appliance standards in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.; Lebot, B.

    1993-04-01

    This paper discusses the energy savings that could be obtained in Sweden by instituting specific standards for five appliances: Refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. At the present time, Sweden has no minimum energy efficiency standards for residential appliances. This paper discusses the energy savings that could be obtained by instituting specific standards for five product types (refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and dryers) starting in 1995. A methodology similar to that used in analyses for the European Community was employed in this study. In the Swedish study, we used appliance test data developed by the Swedish consumer agency, Konsument Verket, to estimate new unit energy consumption for each product type. Shipments, saturations, energy use, and demographic data were input to a spreadsheet model that sums energy consumption for each product type over the period 1990--2010. Both a base case and a standards case scenario are simulated for each of the five appliance types. It was found that electricity use for these five products can be reduced by 12% over the time period from 1990--2010. Most of the energy savings come from instituting efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. For each product class type, the impact on manufacturer offerings is discussed. For example, for simple refrigerators, eleven 1990 models meet the 1995 standard and six models meet the 2000 standard out of a total of 63 models.

  2. Epidemiology and ecology of tularemia in Sweden, 1984-2012.

    PubMed

    Desvars, Amélie; Furberg, Maria; Hjertqvist, Marika; Vidman, Linda; Sjöstedt, Anders; Rydén, Patrik; Johansson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The zoonotic disease tularemia is endemic in large areas of the Northern Hemisphere, but research is lacking on patterns of spatial distribution and connections with ecologic factors. To describe the spatial epidemiology of and identify ecologic risk factors for tularemia incidence in Sweden, we analyzed surveillance data collected over 29 years (1984-2012). A total of 4,830 cases were notified, of which 3,524 met all study inclusion criteria. From the first to the second half of the study period, mean incidence increased 10-fold, from 0.26/100,000 persons during 1984-1998 to 2.47/100,000 persons during 1999-2012 (p<0.001). The incidence of tularemia was higher than expected in the boreal and alpine ecologic regions (p<0.001), and incidence was positively correlated with the presence of lakes and rivers (p<0.001). These results provide a comprehensive epidemiologic description of tularemia in Sweden and illustrate that incidence is higher in locations near lakes and rivers.

  3. Creating Policy from Discursive Exchanges on Compulsory Education and Schooling in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villalba, Cynthia M.

    2003-01-01

    The paper first introduces the national and local framework for compulsory-level "undervisning pa annat satt" [teaching/education otherwise than in school] education in Sweden. According to national statistics in Sweden, every year an average of 100 children are registered as receiving their education at home, arranged in some cases by…

  4. Discourses about School-Based Mathematics Teacher Education in Finland and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryve, Andreas; Hemmi, Kirsti; Borjesson, Mats

    2013-01-01

    In this cross-case study we focus on school-based teacher education in Sweden and Finland. Through the use of focus-group interviews with mathematics teacher educators in Finland and Sweden, the study shows that there are substantial differences in how school-based teacher education is introduced and portrayed in the discourse about teacher…

  5. Children's Rights and Children's Voices in Contested Custody and Visitation Cases in Sweden and the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pranzo, Diane

    2013-01-01

    These research notes look at the differing ways in which the basis for including a criterion regarding children's opinions in disputed custody and visitation processes, in the US as compared with Sweden, impacts on the role and place that children's opinions and wishes will have on the process. Sweden's rationale for including children's…

  6. Students' Perceptions of Assessment: A Comparative Analysis between Portugal and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Diana; Niklasson, Laila; Flores, Maria Assunção

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating students' perceptions about assessment, especially the ways in which it is put into practice. Data were collected through questionnaires in different programmes in Portugal and Sweden. In total, 173 students from Portugal and 72 from Sweden participated in the study. Findings showed that students had similar ideas…

  7. Second Chance Education Matters! Income Trajectories of Poorly Educated Non-Nordics in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Madelene; Bonfanti, Sara; Strandh, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine the long-term impact of second chance education (SCE) on incomes of poorly educated individuals who live in Sweden but were not born in a Nordic country, using data on income changes from 1992 to 2003 compiled by Statistics Sweden. Ordinary Least Squares regression analyses show that participation in SCE increased the work…

  8. 76 FR 23321 - New Sweden Irrigation District, ID; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission New Sweden Irrigation District, ID; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, New Sweden Irrigation District filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the New...

  9. Consultation in Special Needs Education in Sweden and Finland: A Comparative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundqvist, Christel; von Ahlefeld Nisser, Désirée; Ström, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    The article compares the conditions and implementation of special education professionals' consulting task in Sweden and Finland. The article first describes the background of the consulting teacher role and special education in Sweden and in Finland. Two different perspectives in the continuum on consultation are presented, followed by a…

  10. Investigating Architectural Quality Theories for School Evaluation: A Critical Review of Evaluation Instruments in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flygt, Erland

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a critical review of instruments used to evaluate compulsory schools in Sweden and is part of a doctoral programme project investigating the relationship between school architecture and learning. In Sweden, as in many countries, evaluation instruments are used both to improve school quality and as a means to provide…

  11. Bilateral Vision: Gender and Education in the United Kingdom and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Gaby

    2005-01-01

    This paper is the sum of the author's experience when she moved from England to Sweden four years ago. Sweden's international reputation for gender equality is unparalleled and therefore she expected to be part of a different gender order than that in the United Kingdom. However, she finds that at the level of everyday experience, gender relations…

  12. "Working Harder to Be the Same": Everyday Racism among Young Men and Women in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallgren, Camilla

    2005-01-01

    Despite Sweden's international reputation for human rights and democratic values, racism within Swedish schools is a relatively new issue, emerging only with the increased ethnic diversity of Swedish schools in recent years. This paper is thus one of the first Swedish interview studies on the perceptions of young men and women in Sweden from both…

  13. A Step towards Clerical Preferment: Secondary School Teachers' Careers in Early Modern Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindmark, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the function served by embarking on a teaching career in the Latin school system for recruitment to the clergy in early modern Sweden. The study is restricted to the eighty-nine teachers serving at Pitea Grammar School in Northern Sweden in the period from 1650 to 1849. The investigation pays considerable attention to the…

  14. The Narrative of Special Education in Sweden: History and Trends in Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjörne, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Access to public education that provides equal opportunities for all is a democratic right for every person living in Sweden. In addition, every child should as far as possible be included in the mainstream school. An official story that is taken for granted in Sweden is that an extremely low proportion of children are in need of special support,…

  15. Children's Perspective on Learning: An International Study in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Broström, Stig; Johansson, Inge; Frøkjaer, Thorleif; Kieferle, Christa; Seifert, Anja; Roth, Angela; Tuul, Maire; Ugaste, Aino; Laan, Meeli

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how some children in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden describe their perspective on learning. The aim of the international study is to gain knowledge of how preschool children in Sweden, Denmark, Estonia and Germany reflect and perceive their learning in preschool and other surrounding social contexts. The results are…

  16. Adolescents with Turkish background in Norway and Sweden: a comparative study of their psychological adaptation.

    PubMed

    Virta, Erkki; Sam, David L; Westin, Charles

    2004-02-01

    Using a questionnaire survey, this study compared psychological adaptation (self-esteem, life satisfaction, and mental health problems) of Turkish adolescents in Norway and Sweden, and examined to what extent ethnic and majority identities, acculturation strategies, and perceived discrimination accounted for adaptation among Turkish adolescents. The samples consisted of 407 Turks (111 in Norway and 296 in Sweden) with a mean age of 15.2 years and 433 host adolescents (207 in Norway, 226 in Sweden) with a mean age of 15.6 years. Turks in Norway reported poorer psychological adaptation than Turks in Sweden. Predictors of good adaptation were Turkish identity and integration, whereas poor adaptation was related to marginalization and perceived discrimination. The results indicated that the poorer adaptation of Turks in Norway compared to that of Turks in Sweden could be due to lower degree of Turkish identity and higher degree of perceived discrimination.

  17. Teaching efforts to spread TME surgery in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Påhlman, Lars; Karlbom, Urban

    2005-01-01

    The whole infrastructure of rectal cancer treatment in Sweden has changed dramatically due to the awareness of the local recurrence rate, good surgical technique, and selective use of radiotherapy. Surgeons have been trained in a proper way, and it has been proven that the outcome has improved enormously in our country [14]. Due to repeated reports from the SRCR to each unit, it is possible for every surgeon to follow the process. It has been shown that the outcome for not only colon cancer but also rectal cancer has improved dramatically during the last 40 years, and there is a marked improvement in survival from approximately 40% in the early 1960s to almost 60% in the late 1990s [15]. An interesting phenomenon is that the relative 5-year survival rate has, during the 5-year cohort, been better for patients with colon cancer compared to those with rectal cancer. For the last two 5-year cohorts in Sweden, 1990-1995 and 1996-2000, the results for rectal cancer patients have improved, and in the most recent cohort, rectal cancer patients are actually doing better than colon cancer patients in terms of relative survival [16]. This increase has been interpreted to be a result of much better surgery, a more selective use of radiotherapy, but most of all an awareness of the results and focus on good auditing. This quality assurance and quality control of rectal cancer surgery is important and will be mandatory in the future for all units to not only know the results but also be able to present them in a way that patients can understand. We are facing a new generation of young patients who are familiar with the Internet and find all types of information before having surgery. It is obvious that only the best units will survive in such a competition, and the only way to be able to compete is to show good results within a good and validated population-based quality registration, as is the situation for many different diseases in Sweden today. A tremendous change has been

  18. The Dala (Älvdalen) Porphyries from Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wikström, Anders; Pereira, Lola; Lundqvist, Thomas; Cooper, Barry

    2014-05-01

    The Dala (Älvdalen) Porphyries from Sweden Anders Wikström (retired from Geological Survey of Sweden) Lola Pereira (University of Salamanca, Spain) Thomas Lundqvist (retired from Geological Survey of Sweden) Barry Cooper (University of South Australia) The commercial stone industry in Älvdalen, about 350 km northwest of Stockholm, commenced in the second half of the 18th century, as a consequence of social need. The region had been plagued by severe famine and there was an urgent need for additional wealth-generating industry. At that time it was already known that the porphyry in the area was similar to the "porfido rosso antico" from Egypt which had played an important role in the Roman culture. Many ups and downs followed. During one period in the 19th century, the Swedish Royal family owned the industry. At the same time, several "porphyry" objects were presented to different courts around Europe (e.g. a 4 metre tall vase to the Russian czar, although of a more granitic variety). Otherwise most products have been smaller objects like urns, vases, candelabras, etc. The very hard stone (with variable red or black colours) can be highly polished. Many of the porphyry varieties were sourced from glacial boulders. These had been "mechanically tested" by nature and were free from joints which otherwise was a problem in the associated quarries. Comagmatic granites also occur. The porphyries and granites have an age around 1700 Ma, and the former are amazingly well preserved with magnificent volcanic textures. The porphyries and granites occupy a vast area and are in part covered with red, continental sandstones (which are quarried to-day). In the middle of the 20th century, the ignimbritic character of the porphyry was discovered. Previously, the flattened "fiamme" (collapsed pumice) had been interpreted as some kind of flow structure in a lava. The porphyry manufacturing plants in Älvdalen are a part of the Swedish industrial history. Over a significant

  19. Overview of the Scientific Balloon Activity in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamsson, Mattias; Kemi, Stig; Lockowandt, Christian; Andersson, Kent

    SSC, formerly known as Swedish Space Corporation, is a Swedish state-owned company working in several different space related fields, including scientific stratospheric balloon launches. Esrange Space Centre (Esrange in short) located in the north of Sweden is the launch facility of SSC, where both sounding rocket launches and stratospheric balloon launches are conducted. At Esrange there are also facilities for satellite communication, including one of the largest civilian satellite data reception stations in the world. Stratospheric balloons have been launched from Esrange since 1974, when the first flights were performed together with the French space agency CNES. These balloon flights have normally flown eastward either only over Sweden or into Finland. Some flights have also had permission to fly into Russia, as far as the Ural Mountains. Normal flight times are from 4 to 12 hours. These eastward flights are conducted during the winter months (September to May). Long duration flights have been flown from ESC since 2005, when NASA flew the BLAST payload from Sweden to north Canada. The prevailing westerly wind pattern is very advantageous for trans-Atlantic flights during summer (late May to late July). The long flight times are very beneficial for astronomical payloads, such as telescopes that need long observation times. In 2013 two such payloads were flown, the first called SUNRISE was a German/US solar telescope, and the other called PoGOLite with a Swedish gamma-ray telescope. In 14 days PoGOLite, which had permission to fly over Russia, made an almost complete circumpolar flight. Typical scientific balloon payload fields include atmospheric research, including research on ozone depletion, astronomical and cosmological research, and research in technical fields such as aerodynamics. University students from all over Europe are involved in flights from Esrange under a Swedish/German programme called BEXUS. Two stratospheric balloons are flown with student

  20. 78 FR 73562 - Non-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Germany, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and Taiwan; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... COMMISSION Non-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Germany, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and Taiwan..., Sweden, and Taiwan of non-oriented electrical steel, provided for in subheadings 7225.19.00 and 7226.19... Taiwan and LTFV imports of non-oriented electrical steel from China, Germany, Japan, Korea, Sweden,...

  1. Recurrent education policy in Sweden: A moving target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubenson, Kjell

    1994-05-01

    The initiative to establish a programme of recurrent education in Sweden arose from a government commission appointed in 1968. The idea received strong support from certain sections of the Swedish trade union movement, who saw it as a way of sharing the benefits of education more equitably among the population. The scheme, however, ran into opposition and was never implemented as a comprehensive strategy. In the 1980s, with the shift of emphasis towards the private sector and the rapid development of information technology, the idea of recurrent education reappeared, although not explicitly acknowledged as official policy. During this period there was a rapid expansion of courses sponsored by employers. Under the present government, recurrent education has ceased to play an important role in education policy. The author argues that these shifts in priorities illustrate how education, and especially adult and recurring education, acts as an arena for ideological struggle.

  2. Fracture and hydrology data from field studies at Stripa, Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, J.E.

    1981-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the basic fracture and hydrology data collected as part of the joint LBL-KBS fracture hydrology program at Stripa, Sweden. A detailed description of the fracture-core logging and hydrology borehole testing procedures is included as well as a description of how the fracture and hydrology data were coded and organized. Based on this coding a series of computer data files for the fracture and hydrology borehole data have been constructed and these are described in detail. The fracture data file for one borehole is presented as an example in an appendix along with all of the raw and some partially processed and analyzed fracture hydrology data files. A detailed description of how this data will be analyzed to develop a thorough understanding of the fracture system and hydrogeologic characteristics of the Stripa site is presented.

  3. Nursing students' views on promoting successful breastfeeding in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Pajalic, Zada

    2014-05-09

    Promoting breastfeeding is important work for health-care personnel in the Swedish context. This promotion is multifaceted and demands the ongoing development of knowledge and competence among both health-care personnel and patients. The aim of the present study was to describe the nursing students' perspectives on breastfeeding in Sweden. Data were obtained in the form of written reflections from nursing students (n=65) and examined using manifest content analysis. The results show that the factors of importance in promoting successful breastfeeding are information about breastfeeding's benefits, traditions and cultural acceptance of the practice, and by government prohibition of infant formula. We conclude that knowledge about the benefits of breastfeeding needs to be prioritized continuously during education.

  4. Use of creative activities in occupational therapy practice in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Müllersdorf, Maria; Ivarsson, Ann Britt

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of creative activities in occupational therapy in Sweden and how often Swedish occupational therapists use creative activities as a means of intervention. A web-mail survey was sent to 2975 Swedish occupational therapists working in health care at regional, county council or primary health care level, and those working in vocational rehabilitation. A total of 1867 (63%) answered the questionnaire and showed that 44% did use creative activities as a means of intervention and most often by practitioners working in psychiatric health care. The most commonly used form of creative activity was arts and crafts followed by gardening. This web-mail survey was based on a limited amount of items regarding creative activities. Further research should focus on in-depth inquiries about how occupational therapists and their patients perceive the use of creative activities as a means of treatment in occupational therapy.

  5. Mobility disability among elderly men and women in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lundgren-Lindquist, B; Jette, A M

    1990-01-01

    This paper draws on a unique longitudinal study, '70-year-old people in Gothenburg, Sweden', to augment available knowledge of the incidence of physical disability in an ageing cohort. Among women the incidence of mobility disability was 0.12 between age 70 and 75 years, and 0.19 from age 75 to 79 years. One in 10 males became mobility disabled from age 70 to 75 years while the risk increased to 0.18 between age 75 and 79 years. Cohort members disabled at age 70 years were at significantly increased risk of dying by age 79 years compared with their non-disabled counterparts. The data were consistent with other research revealing a substantial annual risk of disability or death for people in their eighth decade of life.

  6. Fast Breeder Reactors in Sweden: Vision and Reality.

    PubMed

    Fjaestad, Maja

    2015-01-01

    The fast breeder is a type of nuclear reactor that aroused much attention in the 1950s and '60s. Its ability to produce more nuclear fuel than it consumes offered promises of cheap and reliable energy. Sweden had advanced plans for a nuclear breeder program, but canceled them in the middle of the 1970s with the rise of nuclear skepticism. The article investigates the nuclear breeder as a technological vision. The nuclear breeder reactor is an example of a technological future that did not meet its industrial expectations. But that does not change the fact that the breeder was an influential technology. Decisions about the contemporary reactors were taken with the idea that in a foreseeable future they would be replaced with the efficient breeder. The article argues that general themes in the history of the breeder reactor can deepen our understanding of the mechanisms behind technological change.

  7. Understanding intraplate earthquakes in Sweden: the where and why

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Björn; Tryggvason, Ari; Chan, NeXun; Högdahl, Karin; Buhcheva, Darina; Bödvarsson, Reynir

    2016-04-01

    The Swedish National Seismic Network (SNSN) underwent a rapid expansion and modernization between the years 2000 - 2010. The number of stations increased from 6 to 65, all broadband or semi-broadband with higher than standard sensitivity and all transmitting data in real-time. This has lead to a significant increase in the number of detected earthquakes, with the magnitude of completeness being approximately ML 0.5 within the network. During the last 15 years some 7,300 earthquakes have been detected and located, which can be compared to the approximately 1,800 earthquakes in the Swedish catalog from 1375 to 1999. We have used the recent earthquake catalog and various antropogenic sources (e.g. mine blasts, quarry blasts and infrastructure construction blast) to derive low resolution 3D P- and S-wave velocity models for entire Sweden. Including the blasts provides a more even geographical distribution of sources as well as good constraints on the locations. The resolution of the derived velocity models is in the 20 km range in the well resolved areas. A fairly robust feature observed in the Vp/Vs ratio of the derived models is a difference between the Paleoproterozoic rocks belonging to the TIB (Transscanidinavian Igneous Belt) and the Svecofennian rocks east and north of this region (a Vp/Vs ratio about 1.72 prevail in the former compared to a value below 1.70 in the latter) at depths down to 15 km. All earthquakes occurring since 2000 have been relocated in the 3D velocity model. The results show very clear differences in how earthquakes occur in different parts of Sweden. In the north, north of approximately 64 degrees latitude, most earthquakes occur on or in the vicinity of the Holocene postglacial faults. From 64N to approximately 60N earthquake activity is concentrated along the northeast coast line, with some relation to the offset in the bedrock from the onshore area to the offshore Bay of Bothnia. In southern Sweden earthquake activity is more widely

  8. The use of obstetric analgesia in Sweden 1983-1986.

    PubMed

    Gerdin, E; Cnattingius, S

    1990-09-01

    The use of obstetric analgesia was investigated in a Swedish population-based prospective study of 335,207 births, which represents almost all women who had vaginal deliveries in Sweden between 1983 and 1986. Lumbar epidural analgesia (EDA) was used in 16%, paracervical block (PCB) in 12%, pethidine or morphine in 49% and pudendal block in 62%. All four types of analgesia were much more commonly used by nulliparae than multiparae. Variables such as maternal age, smoking, nationality, relationship with the infant's father and gestational age had only moderate influence on the rates of different types of analgesia. EDA and PCB were more frequently used in larger than in smaller hospitals and in the daytime than at night. No such differences were found for pethidine or morphine, or pudendal block, which were administered routinely by midwives.

  9. Emerging Genotype (GGIIb) of Norovirus in Drinking Water, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Nygård, Karin; Torvén, Maria; Ancker, Camilla; Knauth, Siv Britt; Hedlund, Kjell-Olof; Giesecke, Johan; Andersson, Yvonne

    2003-01-01

    From May through June 2001, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis that affected at least 200 persons occurred in a combined activity camp and conference center in Stockholm County. The source of illness was contaminated drinking water obtained from private wells. The outbreak appears to have started with sewage pipeline problems near the kitchen, which caused overflow of the sewage system and contaminated the environment. While no pathogenic bacteria were found in water or stools specimens, norovirus was detected in 8 of 11 stool specimens and 2 of 3 water samples by polymerase chain reaction. Nucleotide sequencing of amplicons from two patients and two water samples identified an emerging genotype designated GGIIb, which was circulating throughout several European countries during 2000 and 2001. This investigation documents the first waterborne outbreak of viral gastroenteritis in Sweden, where nucleotide sequencing showed a direct link between contaminated water and illness. PMID:14720394

  10. Quality and efficiency of solar collectors in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wennerholm, H.

    Transparent or translucent insulation materials (TIM's) represent a new class of materials with a high potential for increasing the efficiency of solar thermal conversion systems. A large number of materials have been subjected to theoretical and experimental investigation. If materials that suppress heat losses are transparent to solar radiation, vacuum, certain gases, convection barriers, etc., then they can be regarded as TIM's. Exploratory field and laboratory studies of degraded FEP-film convection barriers in flat plate thermal solar collectors are described. The study related to collectors that had been operating in Sweden for periods of one year to ten years. Both physical, functional (thermal) and chemical aspects of degradation were considered. The report identifies the mistakes made so that they need not be repeated by the solar collector manufacturers in the future.

  11. Pathological withdrawl of refugee children seeking asylum in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hacking, Ian

    2010-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2006 there was an 'epidemic' of complete withdrawal from daily life among numerous children in refugee families seeking asylum in Sweden. It became embedded in many distinct controversies, including the politics of immigration, and acrimonious disagreements between pediatricians dealing with individual families, and government-employed sociologists commissioned to report on what was going on. Most of the cases resolved themselves when an amnesty was agreed in 2006, although there remain many doubts about the statistics. After describing this phenomenon, the paper proposes a (non-exclusive) model called Imitation & Internalisation. Most of the children may have begun by imitating others who had fallen ill, but soon internalized it to the extent that it became an integral part of their psychophysical and social constitution. The model can be applied to phenomena as diverse as hypnotism, the placebo effect, and catching faith by association with believers (Pascal's wager).

  12. Natural stones of historic and future importance in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Andersson, Jenny; Göransson, Mattias

    2013-04-01

    Several activities and responsibilities of the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) are related to the work of the newly formed international Heritage Stone Task Group (HSTG) for designating historically important stones. SGU is among other things a referral organization, frequently dealing with the preparation of statements in connection with the quarrying permit applications of stone producers. When preparing these statements, SGU takes into account a number of parameters, e.g. the importance for local and regional business development, historic importance, area of occurrence, quality of the geological documentation of the stone type, peculiarities of the stone types and technical properties relevant for the intended use. Traditionally, SGU has not worked with bedrock mapping looking at the potential of natural stones production but more commonly looking at the potential production of aggregates, industrial minerals and metals. The competence is, therefore, presently being built up with new databases over important natural stone types and definition of criteria for their selection etc. In this respect the criteria defined by the HSTG provide important help. This work goes hand in hand with the task of proposing stone-deposits and quarries of "national interest". The criteria for selection of a stone type, quarry etc as one of national interest are currently being revised. SGU plays an important role in this work. However, the final decision and appointment lies in the hands of the Swedish Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Boverket), an authority dealing with sustainable land use and regional development, town and country planning. Boverket supervises how the planning legislation is handled by the municipal authorities and the county administrative boards. The two latter organizations are those in charge of giving extraction permits for stone quarrying. The "Hallandia gneiss", of SW Sweden, is described as a case story and presented in this paper. Keywords

  13. Trends in diabetes in pregnancy in Sweden 1998–2012

    PubMed Central

    Fadl, Helena E; Simmons, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective Diabetes in pregnancy has been shown to increase in parallel with the increasing prevalence of obesity. In this national population-based study, we analyzed the trends for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), type 1 diabetes in pregnancy, and type 2 diabetes in pregnancy in Sweden between 1998 and 2012. Research design and methods A population-based cohort study using the Swedish national medical birth registry data. The time periods were categorized into 3-year intervals and adjusted for maternal body mass index (BMI), ethnicity, and age in a logistic regression. Results Each type of diabetes increased over the studied 15-year period. Type 1 diabetes increased by 33.2% (22.2–45.3) and type 2 diabetes by 111% (62.2–174.4) in the adjusted model. Nordic women had the highest prevalence of type 1 diabetes (0·47%) compared with other ethnic groups. The increase in GDM and, to a lesser extent, type 2 diabetes was explained by country of birth, BMI, and maternal age. The prevalence of GDM in Nordic women (0.7–0.8%) did not increase significantly over the time period. Conclusions All types of diabetes in pregnancy increased over the 15-year time period in Sweden. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI remains the key factor explaining the increase in GDM/type 2 diabetes. How to turn around the growing prevalence of diabetes in pregnancy, with its short-term and long-term health effects on both mother and child, requires population-based interventions that reduce the likelihood of entering pregnancy with a raised BMI. PMID:27547412

  14. Nutrient trends through time in Sweden's Baltic Drainage Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, I.; Destouni, G.; Prieto, C.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in climate and land-use have and will continue to modify regional hydrology, in turn impacting environmental health, agricultural productivity and water resource quality and availability. The Baltic region is an area of interest as the coast spans nine countries- serving over 100 million people. The Baltic Sea contains one of the largest human caused hypoxic dead zones due to eutrophication driven by anthropogenic excess loading of nutrients. Policies to reduce these loads include also international directives and agreements, such as the EU Water Framework Directive, adopted in 2000 to protect and improve water quality throughout the European Union, and the Baltic Sea Action Plan under the Helsinki Commission aimed specifically at reducing the nutrient loading to and mitigating the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea. In light of these policies and amidst the number of studies on the Baltic Sea we ask, using the accessible nutrient and discharge data what does nutrient loading look like today? Are the most excessive loads going down? Observed nutrient and flow time series across Sweden allow for answering these questions, by spatial and temporal trend analysis of loads from various parts of Sweden to the Baltic Sea. Analyzing these observed time series in conjunction with the ecological health status classifications of the EU Water Framework Directive, allows in particular for answering the question if the loads into the water bodies with the poorest water quality, and from those to the Baltic Sea, are improving, being maintained or deteriorating. Such insight is required to contribute to relevant and efficient water and nutrient load management. Furthermore, empirically calculating nutrient loads, rather than only modeling, reveals that the water body health classification may not reflect what water bodies actually contribute the heaviest loads to the Baltic Sea. This work also underscores the importance of comprehensive analysis of all available data from

  15. Socioeconomic differences in the burden of disease in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Ljung, Rickard; Peterson, Stefan; Hallqvist, Johan; Heimerson, Inger; Diderichsen, Finn

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to analyse how much of the total burden of disease in Sweden, measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), is a result of inequalities in health between socioeconomic groups. We also sought to determine how this unequal burden is distributed across different disease groups and socioeconomic groups. METHODS: Our analysis used data from the Swedish Burden of Disease Study. We studied all Swedish men and women in three age groups (15-44, 45-64, 65-84) and five major socioeconomic groups. The 18 disease and injury groups that contributed to 65% of the total burden of disease were analysed using attributable fractions and the slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality. FINDINGS: About 30% of the burden of disease among women and 37% of the burden among men is a differential burden resulting from socioeconomic inequalities in health. A large part of this unequally distributed burden falls on unskilled manual workers. The largest contributors to inequalities in health for women are ischaemic heart disease, depression and neurosis, and stroke. For men, the largest contributors are ischaemic heart disease, alcohol addiction and self-inflicted injuries. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to use socioeconomic differences, measured by socioeconomic position, to assess the burden of disease using DALYs. We found that in Sweden one-third of the burden of the diseases we studied is unequally distributed. Studies of socioeconomic inequalities in the burden of disease that take both mortality and morbidity into account can help policy-makers understand the magnitude of inequalities in health for different disease groups. PMID:15744401

  16. Discontinued dental attendance among elderly people in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Grönbeck-Linden, Ingela; Hägglin, Catharina; Petersson, Anita; Linander, Per O.; Gahnberg, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Our objective was to study the loss of dental attendance and a possible age trend among patients aged ≥65 years in Sweden. Regular dental check-ups are considered to be an important factor in maintaining oral health. Approximately 80% of the adult population in Sweden are enrolled in a regular check-up system; however, dental practitioners often find that older patients attend fewer check-ups. Old people may naturally lose contact with dental services as they move to special housing or die. In this systematic study, these factors were investigated and used as exclusion criteria. Materials and Methods: Data were collected for all patients (n = 4759) aged 65 or older from the electronic journal system in 3 large public dental clinics in 3 communities. Their dental records for the years 2004–2009 were studied longitudinally by 1 person at each clinic; 1111 patients were excluded (patients died during study period, wanted emergency care only, obtained special dental care allowance, moved from the community or moved to special housing, or left the clinic for another caregiver). The statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21 (IBM). Results: Of the 3648 patients (1690 men and 1958 women) included in the study, 13% lost contact with their dental service over the course of the study (10% of those were aged 65–79 and 21% ≥80). The decrease in regular dental contact had a statistically significant association with increasing age (P < 0.001). Conclusion: A considerable number of older people living independently or with moderate supportive care in their own homes lost contact with dental service despite enrolment in a recall system. PMID:27382538

  17. Pharmaceutical management through environmental product labeling in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wennmalm, Ake; Gunnarsson, Bo

    2009-07-01

    There is an increased awareness that medicinal products for human use may cause negative effects in the environment. In Sweden a voluntary environmental classification system for drugs has been established in collaboration between producers, authorities and the public health care, and used for five years. The idea is to enhance the market demand for medicines with less environmental impact, which in turn will stimulate the producers to design future medicines to be more environmentally friendly. The system is open to the public and based on assessment of the active ingredient in the medicinal product into several classes of risk and hazard, respectively. It is closely related to the EMEA guidelines. Risk is expressed as the ratio between the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) of the active ingredient (AI) and its predicted no effect concentration (PNEC). The hazard is expressed in terms of the AI's persistence, potential to bioaccumulation, and eco-toxicity. Drug data for the classification are delivered by the respective producers. Hitherto more than 300 AI, representing more than 50% of the Swedish volume of drug use, have been classified. Data for risk assessment were missing in 47% of AI. Among drugs with data 7% had a PEC/PNEC ratio >1, and another 7% had a ratio between 0.1 and 1. The AIs with highest ratio (>10) were two estrogens. Data for hazard assessment were lacking in 16% of the AI. Among drugs with environmental data 92% were not ready biodegradable, 23% had potential to bioaccumulation, and 61% were toxic to aquatic organisms at a concentration below 1 mg/l. These data are utilized by regional pharmaceutical expert groups when selecting substances to be recommended in public health care in Sweden. They may also be used by prescribing doctors who want to identify the environmentally most favourable substance among several with equivalent medical effect. We conclude that environmental data on human medicinal products are often missing, or

  18. Transmission patterns of Fasciola hepatica to ruminants in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Novobilský, Adam; Engström, Annie; Sollenberg, Sofia; Gustafsson, Katarina; Morrison, David A; Höglund, Johan

    2014-07-14

    Transmission patterns of Fasciola hepatica were investigated on beef cattle (n=3) and sheep (n=3) farms in Sweden between 2011 and 2012. The dynamics of fluke infection, particularly estimated time of infection, were screened each grazing season by ELISA detection of antibodies in lambs (n=94) and first grazing season calves (n=61). Colostral transfer of F. hepatica antibodies from seropositive ewes was detected in sheep up to 11 weeks of age. In sheep, the estimated time of infection differed significantly between herds and years. Typical 'winter infection' was observed on two sheep farms in 2012, but the most prevalent transmission pattern was found to be 'summer infection', characterised by infection of animals in late summer by F. hepatica originating from overwintered and/or spring-excreted eggs. In contrast, beef calves were infected mainly in September-October ('summer infection'). Furthermore, lymnaeid and succineid snails were collected on the pastures used by these animals both in spring and in the autumn each year. In total, 1726, 588, 138, 130, 93 and 42 specimens of Galba truncatula, Lymnaea palustris, Lymnaea glabra, Lymnaea fuscus, Radix peregra and Succinea putris, respectively, were collected and identified. These were subsequently examined for the presence of F. hepatica DNA by species-specific PCR and the findings compared against mean monthly rainfall and temperature data for each farm. The main intermediate host of the liver fluke was G. truncatula, with a prevalence range of F. hepatica infection from 0% to 82%. Only 1 out of 42 terrestrial S. putris tested positive for F. hepatica, casting doubt on the role of this species in transmission of F. hepatica in Sweden. In conclusion, two main peak periods of infection were observed: May-June (from overwintered infected snails='winter infection') and August-September (from metacercariae developed and produced by snails during summer='summer infection'). The occurrence and frequency of 'winter

  19. 76 FR 3159 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject reviews. DATES:...

  20. Enabling Housing Cooperatives: policy lessons from Sweden, India and the United States.

    PubMed

    Ganapati, Sukumar

    2010-01-01

    Housing cooperatives became active in urban areas in Sweden, India and the United States during the interwar period. Yet, after the second world war, while housing cooperatives grew phenomenally nationwide in Sweden and India, they did not do so in the United States. This article makes a comparative institutional analysis of the evolution of housing cooperatives in these three countries. The analysis reveals that housing cooperatives' relationship with the state and the consequent support structures explain the divergent evolution. Although the relationships between cooperatives and the state evolved over time, they can be characterized as embedded autonomy, overembeddedness and disembeddedness in Sweden, India and the United States respectively. Whereas the consequent support structures for housing cooperatives became well developed in Sweden and India, such structures have been weak in the United States. The article highlights the need for embedded autonomy and the need for supportive structures to enable the growth of housing cooperatives.

  1. Respiratory diphtheria in an asylum seeker from Afghanistan arriving to Finland via Sweden, December 2015.

    PubMed

    Sane, Jussi; Sorvari, Tiina; Widerström, Micael; Kauma, Heikki; Kaukoniemi, Ulla; Tarkka, Eveliina; Puumalainen, Taneli; Kuusi, Markku; Salminen, Mika; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2016-01-01

    In December 2015, an asylum seeker originating from Afghanistan was diagnosed with respiratory diphtheria in Finland. He arrived in Finland from Sweden where he had already been clinically suspected and tested for diphtheria. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was confirmed in Sweden and shown to be genotypically and phenotypically toxigenic. The event highlights the importance of early case detection, rapid communication within the country and internationally as well as preparedness plans of diphtheria antitoxin availability.

  2. Germ-cell testicular cancer in offspring of Finnish immigrants to Sweden.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Scott M; Granath, Fredrik; Ehlin, Anna; Sparén, Pär; Ekbom, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Variation in testicular cancer incidence can be used to assist in identification of risks. Finland has a significantly lower germ-cell testicular cancer risk than Sweden. Finns who immigrate to Sweden maintain their lower risk irrespective of age at immigration. We investigated difference in risk between Finland and Sweden by examining germ-cell testicular cancer incidence in males born in Sweden to Finnish immigrant parents. Swedish general population registers were used to identify 11,662 males born in Sweden where both Finnish parents immigrated to Sweden from Finland from 1969 or afterward. All of these offspring were at least 15 years old by final follow-up in 2001. Some six offspring (all diagnosed between ages 20 and 24 years) had a diagnosis of germ-cell testicular cancer. Comparison with the Swedish population rate produced standardized incidence ratios [SIR (95% confidence interval)] of 0.85 (0.31-1.84) for all the men and 1.75 (0.64-3.81) for the 20- to 24-year age group. SIRs calculated using the Finnish population rates produced an overall SIR (95% confidence interval) of 1.11 (0.41-2.41) and 2.95 (1.08-6.42) for the 20- to 24-year age group. Although the substantially reduced risk of testicular cancer previously observed in Finnish immigrant to Sweden was not found, this study had insufficient statistical power to conclude that environmental exposures explain the difference in germ-cell testicular cancer risk between Finland and Sweden.

  3. Upstream silver source mapping - a case study in Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Amneklev, Jennie; Bergbäck, Bo; Sörme, Louise; Lagerkvist, Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Silver (Ag) can be a problem for wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and their capability to use sewage sludge as a soil fertilizer. Due to a high accumulation rate in soils, the levels of Ag in the incoming water at the WWTP must be reduced. This study aims to identify major diffuse emission sources in the technosphere through a comprehensive substance flow analysis of Ag in Stockholm, Sweden. Large inflows and stocks of Ag were present in electrical and electronic goods and appliances as well as in jewellery and silverware. The total inflow was 3.2 tonnes (4.2 g/person), the total stock was 100 tonnes (140 g/person) and the total outflow was 330 kg (430 mg/person). Major identified Ag sources with emissions ending up in the WWTP (total 26 kg, 34 mg/person) were food, amalgam and beauty products (via urine and faeces, 12 mg/person or 11% of incoming amount), and textiles (via washing, 17 mg/person or 16% of incoming amount). This study explains approximately 35% of the total 80 kg Ag in the incoming water at Henriksdal WWTP in Stockholm. Plastic, photography and beauty products were identified as possible sources of Ag that need to be examined further.

  4. Petrographic classification of Middle Ordovician fossil meteorites from Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, J. C.; Schmitz, B.; Hutchison, R.; Greenwood, R. C.; Tassinari, M.; Franchi, I. A.

    The maximum diameter of chromite (FeCr2O4) grains within L chondrites reflects the petrographic type of the sample. On the basis of our measurements of nine recent L chondrites, L3 chromite Dmax = 34-50 μm, L4 = 87-150 μm, L5 = 76-158 μm, and L6 = 253-638 μm. This variation reflects the crystallization of the chromite grains during parent body thermal metamorphism. We use this calibration to classify six fossil meteorites from the Middle Ordovician in Sweden as type 3 (or 4) to 6. The high flux of L chondrites at 470 Ma contained a range of petrographic types and may have had a higher proportion of lower petrographic type meteorites than are found in recent L chondrite falls. The fossil meteorites have in places preserved recognizable chondrule textures, including porphyritic olivine, barred olivine, and radiating pyroxene. A large relict clast and fusion crust have also been tentatively identified in one fossil meteorite. Apart from chromite, all of the original meteorite minerals have been replaced by carbonate (and sheet silicate and sulfate) during diagenesis within the limestone host. The preservation of chondrule definition has allowed us to measure the mean diameters of relict chondrules. The range (0.4-0.6 mm) is consistent with measurements made in the same way on recent L chondrites.

  5. Accidental deaths caused by electricity in Sweden, 1975-2000.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Richard; Bylund, Per-Olof; Eriksson, Anders

    2006-11-01

    This study analyzes accidental fatalities caused by electricity--at work and during leisure time--to evaluate risk factors, the role of alcohol, and to identify possible preventive strategies. In Sweden, data on fatalities by electrocution from 1975 through 2000 were collected from the National Cause-of-Death Register. Additional cases were found in the archives of The Swedish National Electrical Safety Board. Suicides and deaths by lightning were excluded. Two hundred and eighty-five deaths were found, including occupational (n=132), leisure time (n=151), and unknown (n=2). Most deaths were caused by aerial power lines, and the most common place for an electrical injury was a railway area or residential property. Postmortem blood from 20% (n=47) of the tested cases was found positive for alcohol, and these persons were killed mainly during leisure time. During the study period, the overall incidence of electricity-related fatalities has decreased, in spite of increased use of electricity. This indicates that safety improvements have been successful.

  6. Flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Finnveden, Goeran Bjoerklund, Anna; Reich, Marcus Carlsson; Eriksson, Ola; Soerbom, Adrienne

    2007-07-01

    Treatment of solid waste continues to be on the political agenda. Waste disposal issues are often viewed from an environmental perspective, but economic and social aspects also need to be considered when deciding on waste strategies and policy instruments. The aim of this paper is to suggest flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden, and to discuss different policy instruments. Emphasis is on environmental aspects, but social and economic aspects are also considered. The results show that most waste treatment methods have a role to play in a robust and flexible integrated waste management system, and that the waste hierarchy is valid as a rule of thumb from an environmental perspective. A review of social aspects shows that there is a general willingness among people to source separate wastes. A package of policy instruments can include landfill tax, an incineration tax which is differentiated with respect to the content of fossil fuels and a weight based incineration tax, as well as support to the use of biogas and recycled materials.

  7. The current debate on cultural diversity in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hamde, Kiflemariam

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the conceptual context of cultural diversity in Sweden. It describes the background in which the former Social Democratic Government declared 2006 as the Year for Cultural Diversity. A related concern is scrutinizing whether in fact this year would be a starting point for more deeply engaged diversity programs or if such policy definitions remain mere symbolic acts of window dressing. The study is based on analysis of official documents, diversity events and agendas, and interviews with different actors and diversity consultants, and participation in seminars and conferences on the topic of diversity and integration as the main topics. A major concern is whether the current interest on cultural diversity may lead to its institutionalization in the Swedish cultural and social organizations (Hamde, 2002a) and address the virtues of diversity, such as diversity for profitability and competence in workplaces, social justice concerns, and finally, societal cohesion. Alternatively, the paper explores if the debate on diversity merely remains a 'traveling' idea to appear occasionally and then occur in fashion-like manner as many management ideas do, leaving little traces on peoples' lives.

  8. Bartonella infection in sylvatic small mammals of central Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, M.; Mills, J. N.; McGill, S.; Benjamin, G.; Ellis, B. A.

    2003-01-01

    Sylvatic small mammals were captured in rural habitats near Uppsala, Sweden, to measure the prevalence of bartonella infections, characterize bacterial isolates and identify their host range, and increase our understanding of host-pathogen ecology. During 7 nights of trapping at 3 localities, 236 small mammals were captured (trap success 30%). Bartonella were isolated from bloods of Apodemus flavicollis (19 of 110 tested), Apodemus sylvaticus (6/25), Clethrionomys glareolus (9/60), Microtus agrestis (1/3), Mus musculus (1/18), and Sorex araneus (3/20). Nucleotide sequencing (a 338 bp fragment of the gltA gene) of 40 isolates yielded 6 unique genotypes. Five of the 6 genotypes were most similar to other known bartonella isolated from Old World small-mammal hosts. The most frequent genotype (83%) was isolated from A. flavicollis and M. musculus and was identical to Bartonella grahamii, a recently demonstrated human pathogen. These two hosts were most frequently captured in and around human structures and work places, thus providing conditions that could potentially lead to frequent human infections. PMID:12613756

  9. Risk of cancer of unknown primary among immigrants to Sweden.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xiaochen; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Incidence of cancer of unknown primary (CUP) varies globally, and environmental factors are suspected to be related to its development. Immigrant studies offer insights into disease etiology, but no studies have been published on CUP. We investigated CUP risk in immigrants to Sweden to search for etiological clues. The nationwide Swedish Family Cancer Database was used to calculate standardized incidence ratios for CUP in the first-generation immigrants compared with native Swedes from 1958 to 2008. A total of 2340 patients with CUP were identified among immigrants during a follow-up of 23 million person-years compared with 30 507 patients with CUP identified in native Swedes who were followed for 260 million person-years, showing an overall standardized incidence ratio of 0.88 (95% confidence interval: 0.85-0.93). The median age at immigration was 28 years for men and 27 for women. Significantly lower CUP risks, ranging from 0.18 to 0.89, were mainly observed among Finnish, German, and Asian immigrants. The decreased risks tended to be lower for women compared with men. Danes of both sexes had an increased risk. The increased or decreased CUP risks observed in this novel study suggested that early life environmental risk factors or genetic factors influence the development of CUP. The risk patterns were modified by sex. The observed differences may give clues about incidence rates in countries of origin for which incidence data are lacking.

  10. Same-gender stalking in Sweden and Australia.

    PubMed

    Strand, Susanne; McEwan, Troy E

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the phenomenon of same-gender stalking and sought to identify differences between same- and opposite-gender stalking cases. Ninety-four same-gender and 160 opposite-gender stalking cases from Sweden and Australia were compared on demographic, offense, clinical, and behavioral characteristics. The groups were largely similar, differing mainly in the nature of the prior relationship between stalker and victim and the stalker's motivation. The most notable distinction was the significantly greater prevalence of ex-intimate partner stalkers in the opposite-gender group (65%) versus the same-gender group (32%), leading to the exclusion of ex-intimates from the subsequent analysis to remove this potentially confounding variable. Amongst non-ex-intimates, same-gender stalkers were significantly more likely to be female and to stalk out of a sense of resentment and grievance. The results showed that the gender of the victim and perpetrator was less important to the course and conduct of a stalking episode than were the stalker's motivation and the nature of the prior relationship to the victim.

  11. Geohydrological data from the macropermeability experiment at Stripa, Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.R.; Long, J.C.S.; Galbraith, R.M.; Karasaki, K.; Endo, H.K.; DuBois, A.O.; McPherson, M.J.; Ramqvist, G.

    1981-03-01

    The Macropermeability Experiment was conducted in a granite body adjacent to a recently abandoned iron ore mine at Stripa, Sweden. This experiment was conducted to measure the permeability of a large volume of low permeability, fractured rock. The experiment was conducted over 11 months in an approximately 4m x 4m x 33m drift at the 335 m level of the mine. Groundwater seepage into the drift was measured as the net moisture pickup of the ventilation system. Water pressure and temperature were monitored at 95 locations in the rock surrounding the drift. The data collection system was designed to provide in-situ averaging of the measured parameters, to ultimately estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the rock as if it were a porous medium. This report is limited to data presentation. It describes the types of data collected, the methods of measurement, and procedures used for data collection, storage, and reduction. Experimental errors are reviewed for all principal types of data. The data presented are sufficient to estimate (1) the rate of seepage of moisture into the drift; (2) the three-dimensional distribution of hydraulic head in the rock mass to a radial distance of 30 m from the drift; and (3) the three-dimensional distribution of temperature in the rock mass, also to a radial distance of 30 m. These data can in turn be used to estimate the intrinsic permeability of the monitored rock mass. Analysis and interpretation of these results will be presented in subsequent reports.

  12. Effects of Compulsory Schooling on Mortality: Evidence from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Martin; Karlsson, Martin; Nilsson, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Theoretically, there are several reasons to expect education to have a positive effect on health. Empirical research suggests that education can be an important health determinant. However, it has not yet been established whether education and health are indeed causally related, and the effects found in previous studies may be partially attributable to methodological weaknesses. Moreover, existing evidence on the education-health relationship generally uses information of fairly recent schooling reforms, implying that health outcomes are observed only over a limited time period. This paper examines the effect of education on mortality using information on a national roll-out of a reform leading to one extra year of compulsory schooling in Sweden. In 1936, the national government made a seventh school year compulsory; however, the implementation was decided at the school district level, and the reform was implemented over 12 years. Taking advantage of the variation in the timing of the implementation across school districts, by using county-level proportions of reformed districts, census data and administrative mortality data, we find that the extra compulsory school year reduced mortality. In fact, the mortality reduction is discernible already before the age of 30 and then grows in magnitude until the age of 55–60. PMID:23945539

  13. Diabetes and glucose disturbances in patients with psychosis in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Eric; Westman, Jeanette; Sudic Hukic, Dzana; Eriksson, Sven V; Edman, Gunnar; Bodén, Robert; Jedenius, Erik; Reutfors, Johan; Berntsson, Anders; Hilding, Agneta; Schalling, Martin; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Ösby, Urban

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objectives of this study were to (1) analyze the prevalence of diabetes, prediabetes, and antidiabetic medication in patients with psychosis compared with control subjects and (2) determine what factors in patients with psychosis were associated with antidiabetic medication. Method We studied 977 patients with psychosis recruited from outpatient clinics in Stockholm County, Sweden, and they were compared with 3908 non-psychotic control subjects for fasting plasma glucose levels; prevalence of diabetes, prediabetes, antidiabetic treatment, and tobacco use; and blood pressure, weight, height, and waist circumference. Group differences were evaluated with analysis of variance and χ2 test, and factors associated with antidiabetic treatment were evaluated with logistic regression. Results Diabetes was observed in 94 (10%) patients with psychosis, 2.7 times the prevalence observed in control subjects. Among patients with psychosis, 87 (10%) had prediabetes (fasting glucose, 6.1–6.9 mmol/L) compared with 149 (3.8%) control subjects. Most patients with psychosis (77%) who had prediabetes fulfilled criteria for metabolic syndrome. In patients with psychosis, both lipid-lowering medication and fasting glucose were significantly associated with antidiabetic treatment. There was no significant relation between antidiabetic treatment and lifestyle factors such as smoking or degree of psychiatric illness. Conclusions The high prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and metabolic syndrome in patients with psychosis warrants further clinical research in preventing or delaying the onset of diabetes in these patients by pharmacotherapy and/or lifestyle intervention. PMID:26468398

  14. Pollen Season Trends (1973-2013) in Stockholm Area, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Tomas; Ekebom, Agneta; Alm Kübler, Kerstin; Östensson, Pia; Bellander, Tom

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the phenological and quantitative changes in the pollen seasons between 1973 and 2013 in the Stockholm region of Sweden were studied for nine types of pollen (hazel, alder, elm, birch, oak, grass, mugwort, willow and pine). Linear regression models were used to estimate the long term trends in duration, start- and end-dates, peak-values and the yearly accumulated pollen sums of the pollen seasons. The pollen seasons of several arboreal plant species (e.g. birch, oak and pine) were found to start significantly earlier today compared to 41 years earlier, and have an earlier peak-date, while the season of other species seemed largely unaffected. However, the long term trends in the end-dates of pollen seasons differed between arboreal and herbaceous species. For herbaceous species (grass and mugwort), a significant change towards later end-dates was observed and the duration of season was found to have increased. A significant trend towards an earlier end-date was found in the majority of the arboreal plant species (i.e. elm, oak, pine and birch), but the length of the season seemed unaffected. A trend towards an increase in yearly concentrations of pollen was observed for several species; however the reasons for this phenomenon cannot be explained unambiguously by the present study design. The trend of increasing yearly mean air temperatures in the Stockholm area may be the reason to changed phenological patterns of pollen seasons. PMID:27898718

  15. Burns in Sweden: temporal trends from 1987 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Svee, A.; Jonsson, A.; Sjöberg, F.; Huss, F.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Our aim was to investigate the epidemiology of burned patients admitted to hospitals in Sweden, and to examine temporal trends during the last three decades. Our hypothesis was that there has been an appreciable decline in the number of patients admitted. Retrospective data about burned patients treated at Swedish hospitals 1987 – 2010 were obtained from the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. Patients with primary or secondary ICD diagnoses of burns were included, reviewed and statistically interpreted in terms of sex, age, incidence, mortality in hospital and duration of stay. A total of 30,478 patients were admitted to hospitals with burns. The absolute number of admissions declined by 42% (95% CI 39 to 44). There was a highly significant reduction of 45% (95% CI: 38 to 51) in the ageadjusted incidence (admissions/million population) over the years, and the reduction was significant for both sexes. Children aged 0-4 years (n=8308) were most likely to be admitted to hospital (27%). The median duration of stay shortened over time (p < 0.0001). There was an overall significant reduction in deaths at hospital/100 admissions over time (p <0.0001). We think that the improvements are the result of a combination of preventive measures, improved treatments and greater use of outpatient facilities. If we understand these trends and the relations between age-adjusted incidence and actual number of admissions, we can gain insight into what is needed for future provision of emergency health care. PMID:28149226

  16. How Do Teacher Students for Compulsory School Learn Compared to Music Teacher Students in Sweden? A Comparative Study of Two Different Student Teacher Groups in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostrom, Lena

    2011-01-01

    The teaching profession has been continually challenged to provide evidence of the effectiveness of teaching and learning methods. The teacher education systems are currently undergoing reforms in Sweden. Hence, it is importance for educational institutions to be aware of the different ways that their student teachers learn and it is importance…

  17. Organic matter loss from cultivated peat soils in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglund, Örjan; Berglund, Kerstin

    2015-04-01

    The degradation of drained peat soils in agricultural use is an underestimated source of loss of organic matter. Oxidation (biological degradation) of agricultural peat soils causes a loss of organic matter (OM) of 11 - 22 t ha-1 y-1 causing a CO2 emission of 20 - 40 t ha-1 y-1. Together with the associated N2O emissions from mineralized N this totals in the EU to about 98.5 Mton CO2 eq per year. Peat soils are very prone to climate change and it is expected that at the end of this century these values are doubled. The degradation products pollute surface waters. Wind erosion of peat soils in arable agriculture can cause losses of 3 - 30 t ha-1 y-1 peat also causing air pollution (fine organic particles). Subsidence rates are 1 - 2 cm per year which leads to deteriorating drainage effect and make peat soils below sea or inland water levels prone to flooding. Flooding agricultural peat soils is in many cases not possible without high costs, high GHG emissions and severe water pollution. Moreover sometimes cultural and historic landscapes are lost and meadow birds areas are lost. In areas where the possibility to regulate the water table is limited the mitigation options are either to increase biomass production that can be used as bioenergy to substitute some fossil fuel, try to slow down the break-down of the peat by different amendments that inhibit microbial activity, or permanent flooding. The negative effects of wind erosion can be mitigated by reducing wind speed or different ways to protect the soil by crops or fiber sheets. In a newly started project in Sweden a typical peat soil with and without amendment of foundry sand is cropped with reed canary grass, tall fescue and timothy to investigate the yield and greenhouse gas emissions from the different crops and how the sand effect the trafficability and GHG emissions.

  18. Residential radon exposure and lung cancer in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Pershagen, G.; Akerblom, G.; Axelson, O.; Clavensjoe, B.D.; Damber, L.; Desai, G.; Enflo, A.; Lagarde, F.; Mellander, H.; Svartengren, M. )

    1994-01-20

    BACKGROUND. Residential radon is the principal source of exposure to ionizing radiation in most countries. To determine the implications for the risk of lung cancer, we performed a nationwide case-control study in Sweden. METHODS. The study included 586 women and 774 men 35 to 74 years of age with lung cancer that was diagnosed between 1980 and 1984. For comparison, 1380 female and 1467 male controls were studied. Radon was measured in 8992 dwellings occupied by the study subjects at some time since 1947. Information on smoking habits and other risk factors for lung cancer was obtained from questionnaires. RESULTS. Radon levels followed a log-normal distribution, with geometric and arithmetic means of 1.6 and 2.9 pCi per liter (60.5 and 106.5 Bq per cubic meter), respectively. The risk of lung cancer increased in relation to both estimated cumulative and time-weighted exposure to radon. In comparison with time-weighted average radon concentrations up to 1.4 pCi per liter (50 Bq per cubic meter), the relative risk was 1.3 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.6) for average radon concentrations of 3.8 to 10.8 pCi per liter (140 to 400 Bq per cubic meter), and it was 1.8 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 2.9) at concentrations exceeding 10.8 pCi per liter. The estimates of risk were in the same range as those projected from data in miners. The interaction between radon exposure and smoking with regard to lung cancer exceeded additivity and was closer to a multiplicative effect. CONCLUSIONS. Residential exposure to radon is an important cause of lung cancer in the general population. The risks appear consistent with earlier estimates based on data in miners.

  19. Stomach cancer and occupation in Sweden: 1971–89

    PubMed Central

    Aragones, N; Pollan, M; Gustavsson, P

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relation between gastric cancer and occupation among men and women gainfully employed in 1970 in Sweden for the period 1971–89 and, more specifically, to evaluate whether any excess of incidence of gastric cancer had also occurred among the subcohort of people reporting the same occupation in 1960 and 1970. Methods: In both sexes and cohorts, relative risks adjusted for age, period of diagnosis, and geographical risk area were computed for occupational codes specified at one, two, or three level (occupational sector, occupational group, and occupation, respectively). Relative risks were calculated with all other occupations as reference and then, to take socioeconomic status into account, solely other occupations within the same occupational sector were used. Results: Among men, occupations with increased risk included miners and quarrymen, construction and metal processing workers, supporting the possible causative role of dusty environments in stomach cancer. In men, the results also provide support for increased risks among electrical and mechanical engineers, fishermen, petrol station workers, motor vehicle drivers, butchers and meat preparers, dockers, freight handlers, launderers and dry cleaners. Furthermore, it is worth noting interesting results for women, whose occupational risks have been studied less. Excess risks were found for practical nurses, cashiers, bank employees, engineering and electronic industry workers, food industry, housekeeping and cleaning workers. Due to the many occupations studied, several significant associations may be expected by chance. Conclusions: The study is explorative but provides support for the relations suggested previously between occupational exposure to dusty environments and stomach cancer, together with some new high risk occupations which should be further studied. PMID:11983848

  20. Does social capital protect mental health among migrants in Sweden?

    PubMed

    Lecerof, Susanne Sundell; Stafström, Martin; Westerling, Ragnar; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2016-09-01

    Poor mental health is common among migrants. This has been explained by migration-related and socio-economic factors. Weak social capital has also been related to poor mental health. Few studies have explored factors that protect mental health of migrants in the post-migration phase. Such knowledge could be useful for health promotion purposes. Therefore, this study aimed to analyse associations between financial difficulties, housing problems and experience of discrimination and poor mental health; and to detect possible effect modification by social capital, among recently settled Iraqi migrants in Sweden. A postal questionnaire in Arabic was sent to recently settled Iraqi citizens. The response rate was 51% (n = 617). Mental health was measured by the GHQ-12 instrument and social capital was defined as social participation and trust in others. Data were analysed by means of logistic regression. Poor mental health was associated with experience of discrimination (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.73-4.79), housing problems (OR 2.79, 95% CI 1.84-4.22), and financial difficulties (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.44-3.19), after adjustments. Trust in others seemed to have a protective effect for mental health when exposed to these factors. Social participation had a protective effect when exposed to experience of discrimination. Social determinants and social capital in the host country play important roles in the mental health of migrants. Social capital modifies the effect of risk factors and might be a fruitful way to promote resilience to factors harmful to mental health among migrants, but must be combined with policy efforts to reduce social inequities.

  1. Growth & development of Indian children adopted in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Proos, Lemm A

    2009-11-01

    More than 6800 children from India have been adopted in Sweden over the last four decades. At arrival many were undernourished and suffered from infectious diseases. Catch-up growth was common. Unexpectedly, cases of early pubertal development were subsequently reported. In order to investigate the growth and development of adopted children more in detail we studied 114 children adopted from India prospectively during two years. The majority were stunted at arrival and caught up in height and weight after two years. Psychomotor retardation and common infections diminished fairly soon. Those that were stunted did not attain the higher catch-up levels of those not stunted at arrival. Low birthweight also limited the degree of catch-up growth. 107 girls were analysed retrospectively in another study. The median menarcheal age was 11.6 yr (range 7.3-14.6 yr) which is significantly earlier than the mean in Swedish and privileged Indian girls (13.0 and 12.4-12.9 yr, respectively). The pubertal linear growth component was normal in duration and magnitude but likewise started 1.5 yr earlier. The final height/age was 154 cm (-1.4 SDS) and the weight/age 46.9 kg (-1.1 SDS) 8 per cent were 145 cm or shorter. Stunting limited catch-up growth and final height. Those that were most stunted at arrival, and had the fastest catch-up growth, had the earliest menarche. Good maternal and child nutrition is necessary for full expression of a child's growth potential. What is lost in growth early in life can only partially be recovered by catch-up growth. Such growth is associated with risk for early pubertal development which abbreviates the childhood growth period and limits final height. The mechanism underlying the early pubertal development, and the optimal management of nutrition rehabilitation after chronic malnutrition, need to be clarified by further studies.

  2. Environmental issues in Sweden 1973 1989: Science and policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwgren, Marianne; Segrell, Björn

    1991-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the environmental agenda in Sweden during the last two decades. A content analysis was made of all articles in a Swedish journal, Miljö-Aktuellt. Further, to elucidate the evolutionary process of problem formulation and reformulation, two cases were investigated, dealing with the impact of plant nutrients and mercury on surface water quality. The transport of heavy metals is an essential component of the ecological process and problem of acidification, and similarly, plant nutrients are part of the concept of eutrophication. Two concepts, the research cycle and the policy cycle, are tentatively applied to the conceptualizations of acidification and eutrophication. Additional data for the latter part of the study is supplied from parliamentary motions during 1973 1989. The substance/media focus of the 1970s was connected to a point-source abatement strategy, which mainly aimed at removing negative effects at a local level. The development of a national preventive strategy is traced in problem formulations related to “processes” going on in the technosphere: wastes, noise, energy production, traffic, and toxic substances. This period lasted from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s, and the need for improved resource management as a means to control environmental problems has been a generally accepted idea. However, this does not mean that measures actually taken are sufficient in a material balance perspective. Further, in the 1980s there was a strong emphasis upon processes in the ecosphere. This focus also implies source-related policies. To a certain extent, the remedies are within the scope of national capabilities, but the international dimension is becoming increasingly important. Scientific proofs of resource and environment degradation are essential to induce political action and to stimulate international cooperation. From this study, however, it is not possible to assess the existence of any particular policy

  3. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Sweden: an H-type variant.

    PubMed

    Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Nöremark, Maria; Langeveld, Jan P M; Stack, Mick; Biacabe, Anne-Gaëlle; Vulin, Johann; Chaplin, Melanie; Richt, Jürgen A; Jacobs, Jorg; Acín, Cristina; Monleón, Eva; Renström, Lena; Klingeborn, Berndt; Baron, Thierry G M

    2008-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) had never been detected in Sweden until 2006, when the active surveillance identified a case in a 12-year-old cow. The case was an unusual form, because several molecular features of the protease-resistant prion protein (PrP(res)) were different from classical BSE. The differences included higher susceptibility for proteinase K, higher molecular weight of the PrP(res) bands, affinity to the N-terminus-specific antibodies 12B2 and P4, and peculiar banding pattern with antibody SAF84 showing an additional band at the 14 kDa position. The molecular characteristics were in accordance to previous descriptions of H-type BSE. This report shows that a range of Western blot techniques and antibodies can be applied to confirm H-type BSE and further describes that the ratio of the amounts of PrPres#1 and PrPres#2, after deglycosylation, depends on the antibody used during processing. Immunohistochemistry on sections of medulla at the level of the obex applying antibodies with epitopes covering a broad range of the PrP sequence showed accumulation of disease-specific PrP (PrP(d)) in the gray matter. Fine punctate deposition in the neuropil was the most predominant type and was more severe in BSE target nuclei. The types of PrP(d) deposition are described in comparison with classical BSE. PrP-gene sequencing showed 6 copy octarepeat alleles and no abnormalities. It is postulated that the disease had a spontaneous origin, rather than having had been acquired in the BSE epidemic.

  4. Evaluation of a tobacco prevention programme among teenagers in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Hedman, Linnéa; Andersson, Martin; Stridsman, Caroline; Rönmark, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence of tobacco use among teenagers, to evaluate a tobacco prevention programme and to study factors related to participation in the prevention programme. Design and setting Population-based prospective cohort study. Method Within the Obstructive Lung disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) studies, a cohort study about asthma in schoolchildren started in 2006. All children aged 7–8 years in three municipalities were invited to a questionnaire survey and 2585 (96%) participated. The cohort was followed up at age 11–12 years (n=2612, 95% of invited) and 14–15 years (n=2345, 88% of invited). In 2010, some of the children in the OLIN cohort (n=447) were invited to a local tobacco prevention programme and 224 (50%) chose to participate. Results At the age of 14–15 years, the prevalence of daily smoking was 3.5%. Factors related to smoking were female sex, having a smoking mother, participation in sports and lower parental socioeconomic status (SES). The prevalence of using snus was 3.3% and risk factors were male sex, having a smoking mother, having a snus-using father and non-participation in the prevention programme. In the prevention programme, the prevalence of tobacco use was significantly lower among the participants compared with the controls in the cohort. Factors related to non-participation were male sex, having a smoking mother, lower parental SES and participation in sports. Conclusions The prevalence of tobacco use was lower among the participants in the tobacco prevention programme compared with the non-participants as well as with the controls in the cohort. However, the observed benefit of the intervention may be overestimated as participation was biased by selection. PMID:25976765

  5. Recommodification, Unemployment, and Health Inequalities: Trends in England and Sweden 1991-2011.

    PubMed

    Farrants, Kristin; Bambra, Clare; Nylen, Lotta; Kasim, Adetayo; Burstrom, Bo; Hunter, David

    2016-01-01

    Recommodification, the withdrawal of social welfare, has been going on for some decades in both Sweden and England. Recommodification disproportionately affects the unemployed because of their weak market position. We investigated the impact recommodification has had on health inequalities between the employed and unemployed in Sweden and England. Using national surveys, odds ratios for the likelihood of reporting less than good health between the employed and unemployed were computed annually between 1991 and 2011. The correlation between these odds ratios and net replacement rates was then examined. Health inequalities between the employed and unemployed were greater in 2011 than in 1991 in both countries. Sweden began with smaller health inequalities, but by 2011, they were in line with those in England. Sweden experienced more recommodification than England during this period, although it started from a much less commodified position. Correspondingly, correlation between unemployment benefit generosity and health inequalities was stronger in Sweden than in England. Recommodification is linked to ill health among the unemployed and to the health gap between the employed and unemployed. We propose that further recommodification will be associated with increased health inequalities between the employed and unemployed.

  6. The impact of a deregulated European electricity market on Volvo in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Dag, S.

    1998-07-01

    The member countries within the European Union (EU) have agreed to open all national electricity markets for competition, starting January 1, 1999. The electricity market in Sweden is deregulated since January 1, 1996. The deregulation of the electricity markets will gradually shift the electricity price levels in different countries towards an equal price level, which will most likely be close to the levels on the Continental Europe. A deregulated European electricity market may change the competition situation for Swedish industries dramatically. The capacity in electric generation with low operating costs in Sweden has led to very low electricity prices and high usage level compared to other EU countries. The consumption level of electric energy per capita is nearly three times higher in Sweden than the average per capita EU usage. The high level of electricity consumption is typical also of industrial customers in Sweden. Studies of Volvo Car Corporation have shown that the Volvo car plant in Torslanda, Sweden utilizes substantially more electric energy per manufactured car than the Volvo car plant in Gent, Belgium. A method is developed to transform the Torslanda plant from a low energy efficiency state to a higher energy efficiency state by modeling. The method is based on the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) concept and includes optimization models of the two plants with mixed integer linear programming (MILP).

  7. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Ticks from Migrating Birds in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Labbé Sandelin, Lisa; Tolf, Conny; Larsson, Sara; Wilhelmsson, Peter; Salaneck, Erik; Jaenson, Thomas G T; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Olsen, Björn; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (CNM; family Anaplasmataceae) was recently recognized as a potential tick-borne human pathogen. The presence of CNM in mammals, in host-seeking Ixodes ticks and in ticks attached to mammals and birds has been reported recently. We investigated the presence of CNM in ornithophagous ticks from migrating birds. A total of 1,150 ticks (582 nymphs, 548 larvae, 18 undetermined ticks and two adult females) collected from 5,365 birds captured in south-eastern Sweden was screened for CNM by molecular methods. The birds represented 65 different species, of which 35 species were infested with one or more ticks. Based on a combination of morphological and molecular species identification, the majority of the ticks were identified as Ixodes ricinus. Samples were initially screened by real-time PCR targeting the CNM 16S rRNA gene, and confirmed by a second real-time PCR targeting the groEL gene. For positive samples, a 1260 base pair fragment of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. Based upon bacterial gene sequence identification, 2.1% (24/1150) of the analysed samples were CNM-positive. Twenty-two out of 24 CNM-positive ticks were molecularly identified as I. ricinus nymphs, and the remaining two were identified as I. ricinus based on morphology. The overall CNM prevalence in I. ricinus nymphs was 4.2%. None of the 548 tested larvae was positive. CNM-positive ticks were collected from 10 different bird species. The highest CNM-prevalences were recorded in nymphs collected from common redpoll (Carduelis flammea, 3/7), thrush nightingale (Luscinia luscinia, 2/29) and dunnock (Prunella modularis, 1/17). The 16S rRNA sequences obtained in this study were all identical to each other and to three previously reported European strains, two of which were obtained from humans. It is concluded that ornithophagous ticks may be infected with CNM and that birds most likely can disperse CNM-infected ticks over large geographical areas.

  8. Everyday classroom assessment practices in science classrooms in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, María del Carmen; Jakobsson, Anders

    2014-12-01

    The focus of this study is to examine to what extent and in what ways science teachers practice assessment during classroom interactions in everyday activities in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. We are science teachers working now with a larger research project on assessment in science education that seeks to examine teachers' assessment practices in the upper-secondary school. Framing questions include: are teachers performing an integrated assessment of students' skills as the national curriculum mandates? If so, what do the instructional discourses look like in those situations and what are students' experiences regarding their agency on learning and assessment? We emphasize the social, cultural and historic character of assessment and sustain a situated character of learning instead of the notion that learning is "stored inside the head". Teacher led lessons in three science classrooms were video-recorded and analyzed by combining ethnographic and discourse methods of analysis. Both methods are appropriate to the theoretical foundation of our approach on learning and can give some answers to questions about how individuals interact socially, how their experience is passed on to next generations through language and how language use may reveal cultural changes in the studied context. Making the study of action in a classroom the focal point of sociocultural analysis supports the examination of assessment processes and identification of the social roles in which teachers and students are immersed. Such an approach requires observations of how teachers act in authentic teaching situations when they interact with their students in classroom making possible to observe negotiation processes, agencies when both teachers and students are involved in every-day activities. Our study showed that teachers mostly ignored students' questions and that students solved their own problems by helping each other. Teachers did not provide opportunities for students to discuss

  9. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Ticks from Migrating Birds in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Labbé Sandelin, Lisa; Tolf, Conny; Larsson, Sara; Wilhelmsson, Peter; Salaneck, Erik; Jaenson, Thomas G. T.; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Olsen, Björn; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (CNM; family Anaplasmataceae) was recently recognized as a potential tick-borne human pathogen. The presence of CNM in mammals, in host-seeking Ixodes ticks and in ticks attached to mammals and birds has been reported recently. We investigated the presence of CNM in ornithophagous ticks from migrating birds. A total of 1,150 ticks (582 nymphs, 548 larvae, 18 undetermined ticks and two adult females) collected from 5,365 birds captured in south-eastern Sweden was screened for CNM by molecular methods. The birds represented 65 different species, of which 35 species were infested with one or more ticks. Based on a combination of morphological and molecular species identification, the majority of the ticks were identified as Ixodes ricinus. Samples were initially screened by real-time PCR targeting the CNM 16S rRNA gene, and confirmed by a second real-time PCR targeting the groEL gene. For positive samples, a 1260 base pair fragment of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. Based upon bacterial gene sequence identification, 2.1% (24/1150) of the analysed samples were CNM-positive. Twenty-two out of 24 CNM-positive ticks were molecularly identified as I. ricinus nymphs, and the remaining two were identified as I. ricinus based on morphology. The overall CNM prevalence in I. ricinus nymphs was 4.2%. None of the 548 tested larvae was positive. CNM-positive ticks were collected from 10 different bird species. The highest CNM-prevalences were recorded in nymphs collected from common redpoll (Carduelis flammea, 3/7), thrush nightingale (Luscinia luscinia, 2/29) and dunnock (Prunella modularis, 1/17). The 16S rRNA sequences obtained in this study were all identical to each other and to three previously reported European strains, two of which were obtained from humans. It is concluded that ornithophagous ticks may be infected with CNM and that birds most likely can disperse CNM-infected ticks over large geographical areas. PMID:26207834

  10. Trace elements in PM 2.5 in Gothenburg, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boman, Johan; Wagner, Annemarie; Gatari, Michael J.

    2010-06-01

    Ambient aerosol particles smaller than 2.5 µm (PM 2.5) are getting more and more attention worldwide. While legal focus is mainly on sample mass, the composition of the particles is an important research field gaining increased interest. The interest is not only connected to possible health effects of the elemental content of the particles, but the elemental determination can also add valuable information for source apportionment. Samples were collected during 20 days in November 2007 at the campus of the Chemistry Department, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. The particles were collected using a cyclone that separates the PM 2.5 particles from the air stream and impacts them on polycarbonate filters. Filters were changed at early afternoon. The samples were analyzed for particulate mass, black carbon (BC) and the elements S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, As, Br, Cd and Pb. Several of the elements were above detection limit in only a few of the samples. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer based on the Wobi TXRF module supplied by the International Atom Energy Agency (IAEA) has been used for the determination of most trace elements in the samples. A Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (GF-AAS) was used for complementary trace element analysis and a reflectometer was used to analyze black carbon. Before elemental analysis the filters were digested using a microwave digestion system with temperature and pressure control. The results showed a large variation in sample mass, BC and analyzed elemental concentrations. The variation of the different constituents did not show the same pattern. This added to the picture of different sources for different pollutants. The highest S concentration was noted on a day when the air masses were determined to come from the southeast, i.e. Poland and some other Eastern European countries. From the results it can be concluded that more work is needed on the TXRF spectrometer to optimize

  11. 137Cs in a raised bog in central Sweden.

    PubMed

    Rosén, K; Vinichuk, M; Johanson, K J

    2009-07-01

    The vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity in peat soil profiles and (137)Cs activity concentration in plants of various species was studied in samples collected at two sites on a raised bog in central Sweden. One site (open bog) was in an area with no trees and only a few sparsely growing plant species, while the other (low pine) was less than 100 m from the open bog site and had slowly growing Scots pine, a field layer dominated by some ericaceous plants and ground well-covered by plants. The plant samples were collected in 2004-2007 and were compared with samples collected in 1989 from the same open bog and low pine sites. Ground deposition of (137)Cs in 2005 was similar at both sites, 23,000 Bq m(-2). In the open bog peat profile it seems to be an upward transport of caesium since a clear peak of (137)Cs activity was found in the uppermost 1-4 cm of Sphagnum layers, whereas at the low pine site (137)Cs was mainly found in deeper (10-12 cm) layers. The migration rate was 0.57 cm yr(-1) at the open bog site and the migration centre of (137)Cs was at a depth of 10.7, while the rate at the low pine site was 0.78 cm yr(-1) and the migration centre was at 14.9 cm. Heather (Calluna vulgaris) was the plant species with the highest (137)Cs activity concentrations at both sites, 43.5 k Bq(-1) DM in 1989 decreasing to 20.4 in 2004-2007 on open bog and 22.3 k Bq kg(-1) DM in 1989 decreasing to 11.2 k Bq(-1) DM by the period 2004-2007 on the low pine site. (137)Cs transfer factors in plants varied between 0.88 and 1.35 on the open bog and between 0.48 and 0.69 m(2)kg(-1) DM at the low pine site.

  12. Sustained yield forestry in Sweden and Russia: how does it correspond to sustainable forest management policy?

    PubMed

    Elbakidze, Marine; Andersson, Kjell; Angelstam, Per; Armstrong, Glen W; Axelsson, Robert; Doyon, Frederik; Hermansson, Martin; Jacobsson, Jonas; Pautov, Yurij

    2013-03-01

    This paper analyzes how sustained yield (SY) forestry is defined and implemented in Sweden and Russia, two countries with different forest-industrial regimes. We first compare definitions of SY forestry in national legislation and policies. Then we study forest management planning in two large forest management units with respect to: delivered forest products and values, how the harvest level of timber is defined, where the harvest takes place, and what treatments are used to sustain desired forest products and values. In Sweden SY forestry is maximum yield based on high-input forest management, and in Russia it is forestry based on natural regeneration with minimum investments in silviculture. We conclude that how SY forestry contributes to SFM depends on the context. Finally, we discuss the consequences of SY forestry as performed in Sweden and Russia related to its ability to support diverse forest functions, as envisioned in sustainable forest management policy.

  13. Molecular epidemiological studies of Mycobacterium bovis infections in humans and animals in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Szewzyk, R; Svenson, S B; Hoffner, S E; Bölske, G; Wahlström, H; Englund, L; Engvall, A; Källenius, G

    1995-01-01

    Forty-nine isolates of Mycobacterium bovis from humans and animals in Sweden were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns probed by the insertion element IS6110. Most isolates had patterns indicating the presence of only one or two genomic copies of the IS6110 insertion element. This simple type of pattern was found in all human isolates. In contrast, isolates from M. bovis infections in five herds of farmed deer in Sweden showed a specific RFLP pattern with seven bands, indicating seven copies of the IS6110 sequence. In 1958, Sweden was declared free from M. bovis in cattle. However, in 1987, M. bovis was reintroduced with imported farmed deer, and since 1991, 11 outbreaks in deer herds, but not in other livestock or wildlife, have been diagnosed. Continued RFLP studies of the new Swedish M. bovis isolates can reveal possible transmission of this deer strain to other animals or humans. PMID:8586698

  14. Salmonella Isolated from Animals and Feed Production in Sweden Between 1993 and 1997

    PubMed Central

    Boqvist, S; Hansson, I; Nord Bjerselius, U; Hamilton, C; Wahlström, H; Noll, B; Tysen, E; Engvall, A

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents Salmonella data from animals, feedstuffs and feed mills in Sweden between 1993 and 1997. During that period, 555 isolates were recorded from animals, representing 87 serotypes. Of those, 30 serotypes were found in animals in Sweden for the first time. The majority of all isolates from animals were S. Typhimurium (n = 91), followed by S. Dublin (n = 82). There were 115 isolates from cattle, 21 from broilers, 56 from layers and 18 from swine. The majority of these isolates were from outbreaks, although some were isolated at the surveillance at slaughterhouses. The number of isolates from the feed industry was similar to that of the previous 5-year period. Most of those findings were from dust and scrapings from feed mills, in accordance with the HACCP programme in the feed control programme. It can be concluded that the occurrence of Salmonella in animals and in the feed production in Sweden remained favourable during 1993–97. PMID:15074631

  15. Eugenics and racial biology in Sweden and the USSR: contacts across the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rudling, Per Anders

    2014-01-01

    The 1920s saw a significant exchange between eugenicists in Sweden and the young Soviet state. Sweden did not take part in World War I, and during the years following immediately upon the Versailles peace treaty, Swedish scholars came to serve as an intermediary link between, on the one hand, Soviet Russia and Weimar Germany, and, on the other hand, Western powers. Swedish eugenicists organized conferences, lecture tours, visits, scholarly exchanges, and transfers and translation of eugenic research. Herman Lundborg, the director of the world's first State Institute of Racial Biology, was an old-fashioned, deeply conservative, and anti-communist "scientific" racist, who somewhat paradoxically came to serve as something of a Western liaison for Soviet eugenicists. Whereas the contacts were disrupted in 1930, Swedish eugenicists had a lasting impact on Soviet physical anthropologists, who cited their works well into the 1970s, long after they had been discredited in Sweden.

  16. Historical reflections on mental health care in Sweden: the welfare state and cultural diversity.

    PubMed

    Bäärnhielm, Sofie; Ekblad, Solvig; Ekberg, Jan; Ginsburg, Bengt Erik

    2005-09-01

    This article discusses historical reflections on the response of Swedish mental health care to cultural diversity and immigration and our views regarding future directions for clinical care, research and training. Sweden has become increasingly multicultural through immigration. Mental health care in Sweden faces the challenges of encountering cultural diversity and the mental health consequences of forced immigration, acculturation, and refugee trauma. In our view, Swedish mental health care is at a crossroads: either it takes up the challenge raised by immigration of an increasing cultural diversity or it satisfies itself with rhetoric, thus leaving reality at the margins. Equity regarding access to mental health care in Sweden today must include an acceptance of, and interest for, the diversity of the population.

  17. Cancer mortality by country of birth, sex, and socioeconomic position in Sweden, 1961-2009.

    PubMed

    Abdoli, Gholamreza; Bottai, Matteo; Moradi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, cancer deaths accounted for more than 15% of all deaths worldwide, and this fraction is estimated to rise in the coming years. Increased cancer mortality has been observed in immigrant populations, but a comprehensive analysis by country of birth has not been conducted. We followed all individuals living in Sweden between 1961 and 2009 (7,109,327 men and 6,958,714 women), and calculated crude cancer mortality rates and age-standardized rates (ASRs) using the world population for standardization. We observed a downward trend in all-site ASRs over the past two decades in men regardless of country of birth but no such trend was found in women. All-site cancer mortality increased with decreasing levels of education regardless of sex and country of birth (p for trend <0.001). We also compared cancer mortality rates among foreign-born (13.9%) and Sweden-born (86.1%) individuals and determined the effect of education level and sex estimated by mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using multivariable Poisson regression. All-site cancer mortality was slightly higher among foreign-born than Sweden-born men (MRR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.07), but similar mortality risks was found among foreign-born and Sweden-born women. Men born in Angola, Laos, and Cambodia had the highest cancer mortality risk. Women born in all countries except Iceland, Denmark, and Mexico had a similar or smaller risk than women born in Sweden. Cancer-specific mortality analysis showed an increased risk for cervical and lung cancer in both sexes but a decreased risk for colon, breast, and prostate cancer mortality among foreign-born compared with Sweden-born individuals. Further studies are required to fully understand the causes of the observed inequalities in mortality across levels of education and countries of birth.

  18. New Provider Models for Sweden and Spain: Public, Private or Non-profit?

    PubMed Central

    Jeurissen, Patrick P.T.; Maarse, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Sweden and Spain experiment with different provider models to reform healthcare provision. Both models have in common that they extend the role of the for-profit sector in healthcare. As the analysis of Saltman and Duran demonstrates, privatisation is an ambiguous and contested strategy that is used for quite different purposes. In our comment, we emphasize that their analysis leaves questions open on the consequences of privatisation for the performance of healthcare and the role of the public sector in healthcare provision. Furthermore, we briefly address the absence of the option of healthcare provision by not-for-profit providers in the privatisation strategy of Sweden and Spain. PMID:28005552

  19. Foreign-born women's experiences of Community-Based Doulas in Sweden--a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Sharareh; Edge, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    In this study our aim was to explore the experiences of doula support among foreign-born women in Sweden in the context of a "Community-Based Doula" (CBD) intervention project. We conducted interviews with 10 women and analyzed the data using content analysis. Participating women reported that, in addition to support during labor, doulas provided important information and continuity of care, which apparently increased their satisfaction with and trust in maternity health care. Training of CBDs, therefore, has implications for the delivery of equitable maternity care, which applies not only to Sweden and other European countries but wherever there are increasingly diverse populations.

  20. Standardisation and "Quick Languages": The Shape-Shifting of Standardised Measurement of Pupil Achievement in Sweden and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundahl, Christian; Waldow, Florian

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the entry of standardised measurement into the educational systems of Sweden and Germany and the processes of shape-shifting associated with this process. In the first part of the article, we investigate how standardised measurement challenged existing ways of conceiving education in Sweden and Germany during the first half…

  1. How the Girl Choosing Technology Became the Symbol of the Non-Traditional Pupil's Choice in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlin, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to elucidate how the girl who chooses technology came to be the symbol of the non-traditional pupil's choice in Sweden. In the early 1960s it was hoped that girls would enter workshop training and then commit themselves to engineering mechanics jobs at a time when Sweden was characterised by economic growth which was…

  2. Constructing or Rejecting the Notion of the Other in University Management: The Cases of Ireland and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Pat; Goransson, Anita

    2015-01-01

    We focus on gender stereotypes in West European university management by comparing two countries: Sweden and Ireland. In secular Sweden there are strong policies that are implemented at all political levels supported by the public discourse; while in Ireland such measures are few and the equality infrastructures and discourse have been weakened by…

  3. A well-preserved Cambrian impact exposed in Central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindström, Maurits; Ekvall, Johan; Hagenfeldt, Stefan E.; Säwe, Brigitta; Sturkell, Erik F. F.

    1991-02-01

    The Lockne impact crater south of Östersund formed in the early Middle Cambrian with a diameter of 7 km. It is identified by its rim wall of crushed Precambrian basement granite, by fragments of impact melt, and by grains of shocked quartz. The exceptional preservation, in particular of the rim wall, is due to a complicated geological history, the first stage of which consisted of burial by marine sediments. This stage lasted until the Middle Ordovician, or over 50 million years. An early Caradoc lowering of the sea-level may have induced debris flows that stripped the rim wall of much of its sedimentary cover. Because normal marine sedimentation recommenced soon after this event, the structure was not seriously damaged, as it was buried again. The Caledonian orogeny emplaced an overthrust nappe as ultimate protection, which was removed by a recent erosion episode from all but the center of the structure. Structures formed by the impact of extraterrestrial bodies are very rare throughout much of Europe, because such structures are neither well preserved nor displayed in young mountain belts or sedimentary basins. However, northern Europe has several ascertained structures of this kind ( Svensson & Wickman, 1965; Svensson, 1968; Bruun & Dahlman, 1982; Kala et al., 1984; Flodén et al., 1986; Wickman, 1988). Unfortunately, the hitherto known structures are either poorly preserved or hidden by younger deposits. We are reporting the discovery of a well-preserved exposed and accessible impact structure that has escaped the notice of geologists although important features of it have been described and puzzled over by generations of researchers ( Wiman, 1900; Hadding, 1927; Thorslund, 1940; Lindström et al., 1983). The structure is located in the Lockne area to the south of Östersund in central Sweden. It has a diameter of 7 km and its center is near Tramsta on the northwest shore of Lake Locknesjön (Fig. 1). Its middle is covered by folded Lower to Middle Ordovician

  4. Seismic signature of the Lake Mien impact structure, southern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åström, Kjell

    1998-10-01

    The EUGENO-S seismic profile IV in southern Sweden crossed Lake Mien, a confirmed heavily eroded 121 Ma impact structure. The Lake Mien structure has a pre-erosion rim diameter of about 9 km. It is located within the Transscandinavian Granite Porphyry Belt (TGPB) near the border between Blekinge and Småland. The compressional- and shear-velocity structure of the upper kilometre of crust in the Lake Mien area was determined using short-period fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave dispersion and independent P- and S-wave data in a simultaneous inversion. A notable result was the low shear velocities of about 2.65 km s-1 in the upper 0.5 km of crust of the disruption zone (DZ) surrounding the former, now completely eroded crater rim. The disruption diameter was found to be about 17 km along the profile. The normal value of the S-wave velocity in the TGPB and the upper 0.5 km is 3.2 +/- 0.1 km s-1. Inside the crater rim, the shear velocity was about normal, 3.3 +/- 0.1 km s-1. However, the ratio of P velocity to S velocity, α/β ~ 1.66 +/- 0.04, was significantly lower than normal. In the 0.5-2 km layers, the shear velocity was, as expected, lower than normal and α/β was about normal. Known geophysical results were compiled and included in this study (Henkel 1992). The above normal shear velocity and low ratio of α/β were found in the presence of a magnetic anomaly characterized by a central strongly variable field with about normal average, surrounded by a magnetic low. The Bouguer anomaly was characterized by a distinct gravity low of -5 mGal. The source of the gravity low was concentrated close to the centre of the impact within a diameter of about 2 km. It had little influence (less than one standard error) on the average shear velocity across the crater. An explanation of the observed normal S velocity and the low value of α/β within the crater rim and the upper 0.5 km required consideration of the thermal effects of the impact. The results of the geophysical

  5. Hydrogen soil dynamics in northern boreal and subarctic Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, K. J.; Crill, P. M.; Oquist, M. G.; Varner, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    Wetland ecosystems store a large amount of organic carbon in the form of peat and are the largest natural source of CH4. Thawing of northern wetland permafrost results in an increase in the pool of soil carbon that is made available for decomposition processes and CH4 production. Some subarctic mire sites are also getting wetter as the climate warms. An increase in inundated areas in conjunction with increased amounts of organic matter could give rise to potential feedbacks to warming temperatures via increased emissions of reduced trace gases, such as CH4 and H2, to the atmosphere. H2 soil dynamics in peatlands and forests are complex because of the many microbial-mediated reactions driving H2 production and consumption. H2 couples oxidative and reductive processes in anaerobic environments. The aim of this project was to determine if high-latitude boreal and subarctic soils can change from a sink to a source of H2 to the atmosphere by identifying the microbial processes controlling the production and consumption of H2. Does H2 production and emissions to the atmosphere occur under temporary anoxia in organic -rich soils and soil horizons and do episodic weather events, particularly rain and freeze-thaw cycles, drive H2 production and release from natural soils due to the release of labile organic material and anaerobic conditions. Porewater soil gas profiles from different sub-habitats were determined in Stordalen mire in subarctic Sweden using buried ePTFE tubing and samples manually obtained using a stainless steel sipper. Trends in H2 concentration between the microporous tubing and sipper samples generally agree. The H2 concentration is higher in the tubing possibly due to preferential diffusion into the air-filled tubing by H2, which has a low solubility in water. The wettest site dominated by Eriophorum had the highest concentration of H2 with a maximum of 39.3 ppmv H2 at a depth of 30 cm. A mesic site dominated by Sphagnum had the next highest H2

  6. The Fate of Hydrocarbon Pollution in Kebnekaise, Arctic Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosqvist, G. N.; Jarjso, J.; Clason, C.; Jansson, P.; Karlin, T.

    2013-12-01

    A C-130J-30 Super Hercules plane crashed into the west-facing wall of the Kebnekaise mountain (2103 m), Arctic Sweden, on March 15th 2012. When starting from Evenes, Narvik, Norway, the aircraft had 14100 l fuel, 50 l hydraulic oil and 170 l motor oil onboard. Best estimates are that at least 12 000 l of fuel was sprayed over the mountain most of which was buried together with the wreck in a huge snow avalanche that was triggered by the impact in a NW facing cirque on Rabots glacier between ca 1600 and 2000 m. Fuel decontamination was not possible because of the extreme impact site conditions. The Hercules airplane was fueled with JET A-1 which is a hydrocarbon product in the Kerosene/Jet Fuel category consisting of sweetened kerosene and hydrotreated light distillates. The major components of all 'kerosene's' are branched- and straight-chain paraffins and naphthenes (cycloparaffins or cycloalkanes), which normally account for 70% by volume. Aromatic hydrocarbons, such as alkyl benzenes (single ring) and alkylnaphthalenes (double ring) do not exceed 25 % by volume of kerosene. The fuel also contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), but in very small volumes compared to the major components. The physical and chemical properties of each component (or block) of the hydrocarbon mixture influence its migration rate and fate. Some components of the fuel will volatilize, some are soluble in water but the vast majority are non-soluble. Although the solubility of these so called Light Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPL) in water is small they are highly toxic. We need to consider transport of the soluble components of the LNAPL in the melt-water, and transport of the non-soluble components with the melt-water system. Transport and storage can occur through and in snow (or firn), crevasses, and cavities on, in or under the glacier. Storage in, and contamination of, basal sediments, located below the glacier, or pro-glacial sediments, in front of the glacier are also

  7. A Study of Commitment and Relationship Quality in Sweden and Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiik, Kenneth Aarskaug; Bernhardt, Eva; Noack, Turid

    2009-01-01

    The Scandinavian countries are often cited as examples of countries where cohabitation is largely indistinguishable from marriage. Using survey data from Norway and Sweden (N = 2,923) we analyzed differences between cohabitors and married individuals in relationship seriousness, relationship satisfaction, and dissolution plans. Our analyses reveal…

  8. Music Teacher Educators' Visions of Music Teacher Preparation in Finland, Norway and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorgersen, Cecilia Ferm; Johansen, Geir; Juntunen, Marja-Leena

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the visions of 12 music teacher educators who teach pedagogical courses called instrumental pedagogy and classroom music pedagogy in three music academies in Finland, Norway and Sweden. The data were collected through individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews. Drawing on Hammerness' concept of "teachers'…

  9. Comparing Hong Kong and Sweden ICT Policy in Education; Reaching the Third Phase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, W. Craig

    2005-01-01

    In this study I address the problem of the implementation and the foreseeable success of the July 2004 document from the Education and Manpower Bureau of Hong Kong, "Empowering Learning and Teaching with Information Technology" (EMB 2004). The statements in this policy will be compared to Sweden's ICT policy and a report completed by…

  10. Mathematics in VET Programmes: The Tensions Associated with Reforms in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Lisbeth; Grevholm, Barbro

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, a new curriculum and set of school organisational structures were introduced in Sweden. One consequence is a much stronger separation of the theoretical and vocational programmes in the upper secondary school. The paper explores the nature of the changes that have occurred particularly in relation to mathematics studies, the background…

  11. Speculative Pedagogy: Education, Entrepreneurialism and the Politics of Inclusion in Contemporary Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlstedt, Magnus; Tesfahuney, Mekonnen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the authors focus on the consequences of economies and cultures of speculation in the field of education. Education is one of the arenas where the logics of speculation are being played out. It is argued that the major shifts in educational policy over the past decades in Sweden derive from what Ian Baucom aptly called…

  12. Exposure and accumulation of cadmium in populations from Japan, the United States, and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Kjellström, Tord

    1979-01-01

    Studies were carried out in Japan, United States, and Sweden regarding comparability of analytical methods for cadmium, daily intake of cadmium via food, daily amount of cadmium in feces, concentrations of cadmium in different tissues and the body burden of cadmium, urinary excretion of cadmium and cadmium concentrations in blood. It was found that the cadmium intake via food among adults is about 35 μg/day in Japan (Tokyo) and about 17 μg/day in the U.S. (Dallas) and Sweden (Stockholm). It varies with age in a way similar to calorie intake. Body burden increases rapidly with age. The half-time of cadmium is longer in muscles than in liver or kidneys. In the cross-sectional population samples studied (smokers and nonsmokers mixed) the average cadmium body burden at age 45 was about 21 mg in Japan, 9 mg in the U.S., and 6 mg in Sweden. Among nonsmokers in the U.S. and Sweden the body burden at age 45 was about 5–6 mg. The difference in average body burden for smokers and nonsmokers is explained by differences in smoking habits. Cadmium excretion in urine was closely correlated with body burden and about 0.005–0.01% of body burden is excreted daily in urine. Cadmium concentration in the blood was a good indicator of average recent intake over a 3-month period. Neither blood cadmium nor urine cadmium changed immediately after an increase of exposure level. PMID:226355

  13. Continuing Professional Development in Context: Teachers' Continuing Professional Development Culture in Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wermke, Wieland

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the continuing professional development (CPD) culture of teachers, and asks how it is influenced by properties of the school system. It reports the results of a questionnaire study with 418 secondary teachers from Sweden and Germany. The results show highly significant differences between Swedish and German teachers'…

  14. The Compleat University: Break from Tradition in Germany, Sweden and the U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermanns, Harry, Ed.; And Others

    Different models of integrated education in the United States, Sweden, and Germany, including open admissions systems, are discussed in 16 conference papers. Titles include the following: "Opportunity and Achievement: An Analysis of Labor Market Experiences among Recent Graduates from the City University of New York" (James Murtha, Barry…

  15. How Does Medical Care in Sweden Compare with that in the United States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puretz, Donald H.

    1976-01-01

    While comparisons are difficult, Sweden's socialized health care delivery system produces superior health results when compared with the United States, and its concentration on optimization of cost-benefit ratios, with centralized research, planning, and resource aid, presents concepts the U.S. could adopt while maintaining free-enterprise…

  16. Educational Research: The State of Sweden and the Australian 2.2 World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foss Lindblad, Rita; Lindblad, Sverker

    2013-01-01

    Current tendencies in educational research in Sweden are presented and compared to Australia. We here refer to; organization of research, research allocation, publication patterns, and assessments of research qualities. Different trajectories of educational research were identified, where Australian research was organized as a field of study,…

  17. Investment in Second-Chance Education for Adults and Income Development in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Madelene; Stehlik, Tom; Strandh, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the relation between the second chance of increase in formal education amongst low-educated adults in Sweden and long-term wage development. Despite the awareness of the role of education for employability and individuals' overall life chances, surprisingly few studies have investigated the wage effects of Second-Chance…

  18. The Preparation of School Psychologists and Specialists in Educational Psychology in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schad, Elinor

    2014-01-01

    School psychologists have a new and stronger position in Sweden's educational system than earlier. For example, as of July 2011, all Swedish students ages 6 through 18 have guaranteed access to school psychology services. The school psychologists' roles are to be active participants and coworkers in the student health service team, working to…

  19. Vocational Didactics: Core Assumptions and Approaches from Denmark, Germany, Norway, Spain and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gessler, Michael; Moreno Herrera, Lázaro

    2015-01-01

    The design of vocational didactics has to meet special requirements. Six core assumptions are identified: outcome orientation, cultural-historical embedding, horizontal structure, vertical structure, temporal structure, and the changing nature of work. Different approaches and discussions from school-based systems (Spain and Sweden) and dual…

  20. Teacher Change and Development during Training in Social and Emotional Learning Programs in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimber, Birgitta; Skoog, Therése; Sandell, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results from a thematic analysis of the process diaries of teachers involved in teacher training in social and emotional learning (SEL) in Sweden. Twenty-nine out of the 122 diaries available were analyzed until saturation was reached. The following themes and sub-themes were extracted: development (professional and…

  1. Development of Plurilingual Competencies through Vocationally Oriented Language Learning in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Movchan, Larysa

    2014-01-01

    The article tackles the problem of developing plurilingual competencies through vocationally oriented foreign language in Sweden. The author analyses the pedagogical conditions of realization of plurilingual education at upper-secondary schools, vocational and higher education establishments and the aspects of teacher education for this purpose.…

  2. Causes of Educational Segregation in Sweden--School Choice or Residential Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang Hansen, Kajsa; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the study were to examine changes in school segregation across different types of municipalities between 1998 and 2011 in Sweden, and to explore the extent to which these changes are the consequences of school choice. Multilevel models were applied to register data using a counterfactual approach. The results showed that school…

  3. First report of dollar spot disease, caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, of Agrostis stolonifera in Sweden

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dollar spot is a destructive and widespread disease affecting most grass species grown as turf, but until recently it has been absent from the Scandinavian countries of northern Europe. In the fall of 2014, disease symptoms consistent with dollar spot were observed on a golf course fairway in Sweden...

  4. Intercultural Education in Sweden through the Lenses of the National Minorities and of Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Bromssen, Kerstin; Olgac, Christina Rodell

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss two perspectives in relation to intercultural education and diversity in Sweden. One of the perspectives concerns the historical and current situation of the five Swedish national minorities with a special focus on education. The second perspective is related to religious diversity and education, as connected to…

  5. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' associated with psyllid-affected carrots in Sweden

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) plants with symptoms resembling those of the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis and “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” damage were observed in 70% of commercial fields in southern Sweden in August 2011; all cultivars grown were affected, at about 1 to 45% symptomatic plants pe...

  6. Canons and Communities: Children and Social Cohesion in Sweden and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoltz, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    In this article I compare the lines of argumentation that are used in two public debates about the introduction of national canons in Sweden and the Netherlands. These arguments illustrate how different political actors understand the balance they think should be struck between the interests of individual children and society in obtaining social…

  7. Clinical Physiology: A Successful Academic and Clinical Discipline is Threatened in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arheden, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    Clinical physiologists in Sweden are physicians (the majority with a PhD degree) with thorough training in system physiology and pathophysiology. They investigate patients in a functional approach and are engaged in basic and applied physiology teaching and research. In 1954, clinical physiology was founded as an independent academic and clinical…

  8. The Financing of Vocational Education and Training in Sweden. Financing Portrait. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Ronnie

    This publication charts and analyzes vocational education and training (VET) funding in Sweden in 1997 with some comparisons back to the late 1980s. Description of the Swedish system for vocational education and training (VET) is complicated, since there is no natural distinction between VET and general education. All initial vocational training…

  9. Music Education--A Personal Matter? Examining the Current Discourses of Music Education in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgii-Hemming, Eva; Westvall, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The embedding of informal practices in music education in school relates to significant issues concerning students' engagement, participation, inclusion and the role of the teacher. This article addresses these issues by presenting and discussing current music education in compulsory comprehensive schooling in Sweden. It does so by drawing upon…

  10. The Silenced Discourse: Students with Intellectual Disabilities at the Academy of Music in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Marie-Helene Zimmerman; Ericsson, Claes

    2012-01-01

    In this article, based on a larger research project, the ambition is to critically discuss the first collaboration between students with intellectual disabilities and the Academy of Music in Sweden. The article presents an analysis of video observations of lessons in rhythmics, related to an encounter between the students with intellectual…

  11. Ethnic Environment during Childhood and the Educational Attainment of Immigrant Children in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bygren, Magnus; Szulkin, Ryszard

    2010-01-01

    We ask whether ethnic residential segregation influences the future educational careers of children of immigrants in Sweden. We use a dataset comprising a cohort of children who finished compulsory school in 1995 (n = 6,560). We follow these children retrospectively to 1990 to measure neighborhood characteristics during late childhood, and…

  12. "We Are Like Orphans": Exploring Narratives of Lao Doctoral Alumni Educated in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silfver, Ann-Louise; Berge, Britt-Marie

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore the narratives of 10 doctoral alumni from Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) who underwent graduate training in Sweden. The narratives identify challenges encountered by the alumni but more importantly reveal the agency by which these challenges were overcome. The most important strategy was that of collaborative…

  13. An Inevitable Progress? Educational Restructuring in Finland, Iceland, and Sweden at the Turn of the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannesson, Ingolfur Asgeir; Lindblad, Sverker; Simola, Hannu

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how current changes in the system of reasoning about education in Finland, Iceland, and Sweden are characterized by culturally woven patterns in high marketization strategies are introduced as technically effective devices both for educating the best and to increase inclusion. The system of reason presupposes that the neo-liberalist…

  14. Beyond Self-Rated Health: The Adolescent Girl's Lived Experience of Health in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this phenomenological study was to describe the phenomenon of health as experienced by adolescent girls in Sweden. Fifteen adolescent girls were interviewed with a focus on what made them feel well in their everyday life. This study reveals that the adolescent girl's health is a complex phenomenon interwoven with their lives. Health…

  15. Is It Ever Too Late to Study? The Economic Returns on Late Tertiary Degrees in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallsten, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the economic returns on tertiary degrees obtained in ages above 30 for individuals with upper-secondary schooling in light of current ideas on lifelong learning. Sweden is a case in point: Swedish tertiary education is open to older students, and labor market legislation supports employees who take a leave to study. The…

  16. Youth Policy and the Welfare State: Sweden and Australia in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapferer, Judith L.

    1988-01-01

    Focuses on Australian educational policy-making, arguing that economic and employment considerations have dominated traditional education concerns. Examines reasons why Australian cultural borrowing has been unsuccessful. Suggests cultural successes in Sweden might be better models for education reform than those from economically successful…

  17. Slippage and/or Symbolism: Gender, Policy and Educational Governance in Scotland and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Joan; Ohrn, Elisabet; Weiner, Gaby

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview and analysis of the relationship between gender, educational policy, and governance in Scotland and Sweden and the two countries' response to European Union and global legislative and policy change. In Scotland, gender is mainly invisible in recent policies on inclusion, achievement beyond academic attainment, and…

  18. Successful School Leadership in Sweden and the US: Contexts of Social Responsibility and Individualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Betty; Arlestig, Helene; Garza, Encarnacion; Johansson, Olof; Murakami-Ramalho, Elizabeth; Tornsren, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this cross-cultural study of schools in Sweden and Texas is to examine the cultural contexts of schools in both settings, and the leadership role of principals in creating and sustaining inclusive schools for diverse populations. Design/methodology/approach: The data were drawn from two studies; the first involving school…

  19. Struggling for Integration: Universalist and Separatist Discourses within El Sistema Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Åsa; Lindgren, Monica; Saether, Eva

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the El Sistema programme, which started up in Sweden in 2010 with the objective to deal with segregation problems typical for Swedish urban areas. The purpose of the article is to examine how promoting integration through music and music education is constructed within El Sistema as a way to help children growing up in…

  20. Further Education and Training of the Labour Force. Country Report: Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Education is the strategic instrument for the overriding aim of Sweden's economic policy--full employment. The fundamental idea of the Swedish school system is to include all citizens. Youth education is intended to take the form of comprehensive, integrated schooling with no dead ends. Adult education occupies a strong position by international…

  1. Better Homes and Families: Housing Markets and Young Couple Stability in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauster, Nathanael T.

    2008-01-01

    I model the relationship between aspects of the housing market influenced by housing policy and couple stability for cohabiting couples in Sweden. Using data on 3,851 cohabiting couples obtained from the Swedish Family Survey of 1992, I examine the effects of housing market characteristics on couple outcomes. I focus on three housing variables,…

  2. Lessons from a Concurrent Evaluation of Eight Antibullying Programs Used in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flygare, Erik; Gill, Peter Edward; Johansson, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    Sweden has a low prevalence of bullying and Swedish schools are legally obliged to have anti-bullying policies. Many commercial programs are available. A mixed methods, quasi-experimental, concurrent evaluation of 8 programs, chosen from a pool of 21 widely used anti-bullying programs, was planned. Preliminary data, based on 835 stakeholder…

  3. Psst, Have You Ever Cheated? A Study of Academic Dishonesty in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trost, Kari

    2009-01-01

    It has been reported that academic dishonesty is a prevalent problem that crosses all disciplines at the university level. But, how prevalent is it in Sweden? Little is published in the literature about lying, cheating, and plagiarism amongst Swedish university students. This paper focuses on the frequency of past specific academically dishonest…

  4. Social Capital and the Educational Achievement of Young People in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behtoui, Alireza; Neergaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Based on Bourdieu's conceptualization of social capital (the social stratification perspective), this study examines the impact of social capital on the educational outcomes of young people in Sweden, with a focus on the extra-familial aspect of social capital -- that is, social capital generated by parental networks and active membership in…

  5. Reading Achievement and Social Selection in Independent Schools in Sweden: Results from IEA PIRLS 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrberg, Eva; Rosen, Monica

    2006-01-01

    The study investigates the mean difference in reading achievement between third-graders in public and independent schools in Sweden. The data come from the Swedish participation in PIRLS 2001 conducted by IEA. Variables from the home questionnaire mainly indicating possession of cultural capital are used as independent variables. A total IRT score…

  6. Alcohol Consumption and Harm among Adolescents in Sweden: Is Smuggled Alcohol More Harmful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of Sweden joining the European Union, privately imported alcohol is increasingly sold within illegal contexts (i.e., smuggled alcohol). One implication of the smuggled alcohol is that alcohol becomes more available to underage drinkers. In the Swedish debate, smuggled alcohol has been formulated as a youth problem. The aim of this…

  7. Toward an Equal Level of Educational Attainment between Deaf and Hearing People in Sweden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rydberg, Emelie; Gellerstedt, Lotta C.; Danermark, Berth

    2009-01-01

    Various educational reforms in Sweden have resulted in a formally equivalent educational system for deaf and hearing pupils. Has this resulted in equal levels of educational attainment? This article compares 2,144 people born between 1941 and 1980 who attended a special education program for the deaf and 100,000 randomly chosen individuals from…

  8. Educational Organization, School Localization and the Process of Urbanization in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrae, Annika

    Traditionally Sweden's educational system has been highly centralized; physical characteristics, administrative factors, and teacher qualifications have been generally standardized as have curriculums, though local implementation has been afforded considerable freedom. In 1971 the upper secondary school (9-12) consolidated three previously…

  9. Sweden Faces Zero Population Growth. Population Bulletin, Vol. 35, No. 2, June, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gendell, Murray

    This bulletin examines the causes of the fertility decline in Sweden and the concerns and ambivalence of Swedes about zero population growth (ZPG). The fertility decline is attributed to many causes. In recent years there has been a drop in marriage rates and a sharp increase in non-marital cohabitation. The decline is also related to the…

  10. Performativity as Pretence: A Study of Testing Practices in a Compulsory School in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunneblad, Johannes; Carlsson, Maj Asplund

    2012-01-01

    Our aim in this article is to analyse the impact of the standardised test on classroom practices in grade 5 in a compulsory school in western Sweden. In our analysis, the use of the concept of the pedagogical device (Bernstein 1996) provides a framework for understanding how high-stakes, standardised testing regulates classroom discourse and…

  11. "Special Support" in Preschools in Sweden: Preschool Staff's Definition of the Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Lillvist, Anne; Eriksson, Lilly; Bjorck-Akesson, Eva; Granlund, Mats

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the definitions of the construct "young children in need of special support" given by preschool staff in Sweden in 540 preschool units. The study has a mixed-methods design based on qualitative analysis of an open-ended question and quantitative analysis of questionnaire responses. The results reveal two general…

  12. Perspectives of Play in Three Nations: A Comparative Study in Japan, the United States, and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling; Rogers, Cosby Steele

    2010-01-01

    This reflective paper discusses findings about differences and similarities in perspectives on play among early childhood educators in Japan, the United States, and Sweden. Analysis of survey data collected from educators in those nations yielded six themes regarding the meanings and uses of play: (1) process of learning, (2) source of…

  13. Learning Style Differences between Nursing and Teaching Students in Sweden: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boström, Lena; Hallin, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The teaching profession has been continually challenged to provide evidence of the effectiveness of teaching and learning methods. Teacher education, as well as nursing education, is currently undergoing reforms in Sweden. At the university where the research was conducted, teaching and nursing programs are two priority educational programs and…

  14. School Jailhouse: Discipline, Space and the Materiality of School Morale in Early-Modern Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norlin, Björn

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses a specific phenomenon of early-modern education in Sweden, the school jail, as a point of departure for a broader analysis of educational policy in the areas of discipline and moral instruction. The paper demonstrates how the jail evolved as a part of a wider network of objects, pedagogical technologies and social routines in this…

  15. Educating the Old and Newcomers: Perspectives of Teachers on Teaching in Multicultural Schools in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obondo, Margaret A.; Lahdenperä, Pirjo; Sandevärn, Pia

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on teachers in schools with large numbers of new arrival immigrant pupils in a provincial school district in mid-Sweden. Drawing from focus group interviews and examples from the teachers' lessons, we examined the views of the teachers regarding the challenges experienced in responding to the pedagogical needs of new arrival…

  16. Situation Report - Bulgaria, Greece, Finland, Hungary, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bulgaria, Greece, Finland, Hungary, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia. Information is provided in the following areas where appropriate and if it is available: (1) statistics on population, birth…

  17. Voices of Special Educators in Sweden: A Total-Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Göransson, Kerstin; Lindqvist, Gunilla; Nilholm, Claes

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are two occupational groups in Sweden that are expected to have significant impact on educational work related to children in need of special support. These two groups are special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs) and special education teachers. In this paper, we use the collective name "special educators" to…

  18. Framework for Optimizing the Evaluation of Data From Contaminated Soil in Sweden

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Swedish guidelines for the evaluation of data for the purpose of a risk assessment at contaminated sites are of a qualitative character, as opposed to the USEPA’s Data Quality Objective Process. In Sweden, this can sometimes be a problem because the demands on data quality ar...

  19. Language-Related Computer Use: Focus on Young L2 English Learners in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundqvist, Pia; Sylvén, Liss Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study investigating young English language learners (YELLs) in Sweden in 4th grade (N = 76, aged 10-11). Data were collected with the help of a questionnaire and a one-week language diary. The main purpose was to examine the learners' L2 English language-related activities outside of school in general, and their…

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of One Marine and One Clinical Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strain, Both Isolated in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Pinnell, Lee J.; Tallman, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading bacterial pathogen associated with seafood consumption. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of one marine and one clinical strain, both isolated in Sweden. These sequences will inform future comparative analysis of V. parahaemolyticus in northern Europe. PMID:27789643

  1. Youth Athletes, Bodies and Gender: Gender Constructions in Textbooks Used in Coaching Education Programmes in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grahn, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on analyses of ideas about girls and boys in sports as they are presented in textbooks used in coaching education programmes in Sweden. Specifically, it explores gender in relation to descriptions of girls' and boys' bodies and bodily development during puberty. Texts construct gender differences. Masculinity is shaped around…

  2. Antibiotic prescription preferences in paediatric outpatient setting in Estonia and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lass, Jana; Odlind, Viveca; Irs, Alar; Lutsar, Irja

    2013-12-01

    Aims of the study were to compare the paediatric outpatient antibiotic use in two countries with low overall antibiotic consumption and antibacterial resistance levels - Sweden and Estonia - and to describe the adherence to Estonian treatment guideline. All prescriptions for systemic antibiotics for children less than 18 years during 2007 from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register and Estonian Health Insurance Fund database were identified to conduct a descriptive drug utilisation study. The total paediatric antibiotic use was 616 and 353 per 1000 in Estonia and Sweden, respectively. The greatest between country differences occurred in the age group 2 to 6 years -Estonian children received 1184 and Swedish children 528 prescriptions per 1000. Extended spectrum penicillin amoxicillin (189 per 1000) or its combination with beta-lactamase inhibitor (81 per 1000) and a newer macrolide clarithromycin (127 per 1000) were prescribed most often in Estonia whereas narrow spectrum penicillin phenoxymethylpenicillin (169 per 1000) and older generation macrolide erythromycin (21 per 1000) predominated in Sweden. For acute bronchitis, 17 different antibiotics (most commonly clarithromycin) were prescribed in Estonia despite the guideline recommendation not to use antibiotics. The higher rate of antibiotic use especially of extended spectrum antibiotics in Estonia compared to Sweden emphasizes the need for national activities to promote appropriate use of antibiotics while treating children, even when the overall antibiotic consumption is low.

  3. Mother Tongue Tuition in Sweden--Curriculum Analysis and Classroom Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reath Warren, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The model of Mother Tongue Tuition (MTT) which has developed in Sweden since the 1970's offers speakers of languages other than Swedish the opportunity to request tuition in their mother tongue, from kindergarten through to year 12. It is unique among the major immigrant-receiving countries of the world yet little is known about MTT and its…

  4. A Quest for Legitimacy: On the Professionalization Policies of Sweden's Teachers' Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilja, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to contribute to the ongoing discussion on teacher professionalism by analyzing the professional strategies of Sweden's two teachers' unions from an organizational perspective. Drawing on institutional theory, the article argues that the teachers' unions' focus on strategies of professionalization has as much to do with…

  5. Bridging Marketing Theory and Practice for Consumer Behaviour Master's Students: A Case Study from Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundstrom, Malin; Hagberg, Johan

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the planning, implementation and outcome of a graduate-level consumer behaviour course taught in autumn 2008 at the University of Boras in Sweden. The course was jointly developed by marketing academics and business representatives in order to combine research-oriented studies with practical experience in a retail context. The…

  6. 76 FR 27663 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands and Sweden

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1084-1087 (Review) Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico..., Netherlands, and Sweden: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1084-1087(Review). By order of the Commission. Issued:...

  7. OER, Resources for Learning--Experiences from an OER Project in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ossiannilsson, Ebba S. I.; Creelman, Alastair M.

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to share experience from a Swedish project on the introduction and implementation of Open Educational Resources (OER) in higher education with both national and international perspectives. The project, "OER--resources for learning", was part of the National Library of Sweden Open Access initiative and aimed at exploring, raising…

  8. Neighborhood Social Influence and Welfare Receipt in Sweden: A Panel Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mood, Carina

    2010-01-01

    This article places the choice to claim welfare benefits in a social context by studying how neighborhood welfare receipt affects welfare receipt among couples in Stockholm, Sweden. It is expected that the propensity to claim welfare should increase with welfare use in the neighborhood, primarily through stigma reduction and increasing…

  9. Inheritance of Welfare Recipiency: An Intergenerational Study of Social Assistance Recipiency in Postwar Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenberg, Sten-Ake

    2000-01-01

    Study utilizes a longitudinal data set from Sweden to test hypotheses on the inheritance of welfare benefit recipiency as indicated by reliance on means-tested social assistance. A clear intergenerational effect was observed. Effect reflects a combination of social assistance in the family of origin, children's school adjustment, and parental…

  10. HIV-Infected African Parents Living in Stockholm, Sweden: Disclosure and Planning for Their Children's Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asander, Ann-Sofie; Bjorkman, Anders; Belfrage, Erik; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    In Sweden, most HIV-infected parents are of African origin. The present study explored the frequency of HIV-infected African parents' disclosure of their status to their children and custody planning for their children's future to identify support needs among these families. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 47 parents (41 families).…

  11. Effectiveness of Sweden's Contact Family/Person Program for Older Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brännström, Lars; Vinnerljung, Bo; Hjern, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the impacts of Sweden's Contact Family/Person Program (CFPP) for older children on participants' long-term outcomes related to mental health problems, illicit drug use, public welfare receipt, placement in out-of-home care, educational achievement, and offending. Method: We analyzed longitudinal register data on more than…

  12. First identification of Echinococcus multilocularis in rodent intermediate hosts in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Andrea L.; Olsson, Gert E.; Walburg, Marion R.; Sollenberg, Sofia; Skarin, Moa; Ley, Cecilia; Wahlström, Helene; Höglund, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is a zoonotic tapeworm with a sylvatic lifecycle and an expanding range in Europe. Monitoring efforts following its first identification in 2011 in Sweden have focused on the parasite's definitive host, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). However, identifying rodent intermediate hosts is important to recognize opportunities for parasite transmission. During 2013–2015, livers from a total of 1566 rodents from four regions in Sweden were examined for E. multilocularis metacestode lesions. Species identity of suspect parasite lesions was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. E. multilocularis positive lesions >6 mm in diameter were also examined histologically. One Microtus agrestis out of 187 (0.5%, 95%CI: 0–2.9%), 8/439 (1.8%, 95%CI: 0.8–3.6%) Arvicola amphibius, 0/655 (0%, 95%CI: 0–0.6%) Myodes glareolus, and 0/285 (0%, 95%CI: 0–1.3%) Apodemus spp. contained E. multilocularis metacestode lesions. Presence of protoscoleces was confirmed in the infected M. agrestis and in three of eight infected A. amphibius. Six of the nine positive rodents were captured from the same field. This is the first report of E. multilocularis in intermediate hosts in Sweden. The cluster of positive rodents in one field shows that local parasite prevalence can be high in Sweden despite overall low national prevalence in foxes (<0.1%). The presence of protoscoleces in infected M. agrestis and A. amphibius indicate these species can serve as competent intermediate hosts in Sweden. However, their relative importance for E. multilocularis transmission in the Swedish environment is not yet possible to assess. In contrast, the negative findings in all M. glareolus and Apodemus spp. suggest that these species are of no importance. PMID:27054089

  13. Estimating the budget impact of orphan drugs in Sweden and France 2013–2020

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The growth in expenditure on orphan medicinal products (OMP) across Europe has been identified as a concern. Estimates of future expenditure in Europe have suggested that OMPs could account for a significant proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure in some countries, but few of these forecasts have been well validated. This analysis aims to establish a robust forecast of the future budget impact of OMPs on the healthcare systems in Sweden and France. Methods A dynamic forecasting model was created to estimate the budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France between 2013 and 2020. The model used historical data on OMP designation and approval rates to predict the number of new OMPs coming to the market. Average OMP sales were estimated for each year post-launch by regression analysis of historical sales data. Total forecast sales were compared with expected sales of all pharmaceuticals in each country to quantify the relative budget impact. Results The model predicts that by 2020, 152 OMPs will have marketing authorization in Europe. The base case OMP budget impacts are forecast to grow from 2.7% in Sweden and 3.2% in France of total drug expenditure in 2013 to 4.1% in Sweden and 4.9% in France by 2020. The principal driver of expenditure growth is the number of new OMPs obtaining OMP designation. This is tempered by the slowing success rate for new approvals and the loss of intellectual property protection on existing orphan medicines. Given the forward-looking nature of the analysis, uncertainty exists around model parameters and sensitivity analysis found peak year budget impact varying between 2% and 11%. Conclusion The budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France is likely to remain sustainable over time and a relatively small proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure. This forecast could be affected by changes in the success rate for OMP approvals, average cost of OMPs, and the type of companies developing OMPs. PMID:24524281

  14. Hospital-based pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD in Sweden--a national survey.

    PubMed

    Wadell, K; Janaudis Ferreira, T; Arne, M; Lisspers, K; Ställberg, B; Emtner, M

    2013-08-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is an evidence-based, multidisciplinary and cost-effective intervention that leads to improved health in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD. However, the availability of PR programs varies between and within different countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the availability and content of hospital-based PR programs in patients with COPD in Sweden. A cross-sectional descriptive design was applied using a web-based questionnaire which was sent out to all hospitals in Sweden. The questionnaire consisted of 32 questions that concerned availability and content of PR in patients with COPD during 2011. Seventy out of 71 hospitals responded the electronic survey. Forty-six (66%) hospitals offered PR for patients with COPD. Around 75% of the hospitals in southern and middle parts of Sweden and 33% of the hospitals in the northern part offered PR. Thirty-four percent of the patients declined participation. A total number of 1355 patients participated in PR which represents 0.2% of the COPD population in Sweden. All hospitals had exercise training as major component and 76% offered an educational program. Not even half a percent of the patients with COPD in Sweden took part in a hospital-based PR program during 2011. There was a considerable geographic discrepancy in availability over the country. To enable a greater part of the increasing number of patients with COPD to take part in this evidence-based treatment, there is a need of evaluating other settings of PR programs; in primary care, at home and/or over the internet.

  15. Clinical routines and management of suspected child abuse or neglect in public dental service in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kvist, Therese; Malmberg, Fredrik; Boovist, Anna-Karin; Larheden, Hanna; Dahllöf, Göran

    2012-01-01

    Mandatory reporting to the social services is required by dental professionals when suspicion of child abuse or neglect occurs. The objective of this study was to analyze the recommendations previously made by the Ombudsman for Children in Sweden. The aim was to study the association between having guidelines and the inclination to report to the social services and also the association between management of multiple missed appointmens and reports to the social service. A web-based questionnaire was sent to the clinical department heads (CDH) of all PDS in Sweden, distributed and authorized by The Ombudsman for Children in Sweden. The response frequency was 95% and all county councils of Sweden were represented. The results showed regional differences regarding management of suspected child abuse, neglect and dental neglect. Clinical department heads that had reported to the social services more often had guidelines on child abuse and neglect (p < 0.000). Management of repeated missed appointments varied between clinics. Those who never had made a report to the social services more often stated that the reason for missed appointments was parental negligence (p = 0.004) and less often thought it was an actual maltreatment (p = 0.003), and they more often rescheduled when a child repeatedly missed an appointment (p = 0.013). Sixty-four percent of the clinical department heads requested additional support in this matter. In conclusion, public dental service clinics in Sweden are significantly more likely to report to the social services if guidelines regarding child abuse and neglect are available.

  16. Y-chromosome diversity in Sweden - a long-time perspective.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Andreas O; Wallerström, Thomas; Götherström, Anders; Holmlund, Gunilla

    2006-08-01

    Sixteen Y-chromosomal binary markers and nine Y-chromosome short tandem repeats were analyzed in a total of 383 unrelated males from seven different Swedish regions, one Finnish region and a Swedish Saami population in order to address questions about the origin and genetic structure of the present day population in Sweden. Haplogroup I1a* was found to be the most common haplogroup in Sweden and accounted, together with haplogroups R1b3, R1a1 and N3, for over 80% of the male lineages. Within Sweden, a minor stratification was found in which the northern region Västerbotten differed significantly (P < 0.05) from the other Swedish regions. A flow of N3 chromosomes into Västerbotten mainly from Saami and Finnish populations could be one explanation for this stratification. However, the demographic history of Västerbotten involving a significant male absence during the 17th Century may also have had a large impact. Immigration of young men from elsewhere to Värmland at the same time, can be responsible for a similar deviation with I1a* haplotypes. Y chromosomes within haplogroup R1b3 were found to have the highest STR variation among all haplogroups and could thus be considered to be one of the earliest major male lineages present in Sweden. Regional haplotype variation, within R1b3, also showed a difference between two regions in the south of Sweden. This can also be traced from historical time and is visible in archaeological material. Overall this Y chromosome study provides interesting information about the genetic patterns and demographic events in the Swedish population.

  17. Surface expression of intraplate postglacial faults in Sweden: from LiDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abduljabbar, Mawaheb; Ask, Maria; Bauer, Tobias; Lund, Björn; Smith, Colby; Mikko, Henrik; Munier, Raymond

    2016-04-01

    Large intraplate earthquakes, up to magnitude 8.0±0.3 (Lindblom et al. 2015) are inferred to have occurred in northern Fennoscandia at the end of, or just after the Weichselian deglaciation. More than a dozen large so-called postglacial faults (PGF) have been found in the region. The present-day microseismic activity is rather high in north Sweden, and there is a correlation between microseismicity and mapped PGF scarps: 71% of the observed earthquakes north of 66°N locate within 30 km to the southeast and 10 km to the northwest of PGFs (Lindblom et al., 2015). Surface expressions of PGFs in Sweden have mainly been mapped using aerial photogrammetry and trenching (e.g. Lagerbäck & Sundh 2008). Their detailed surface geometry may be investigated using the new high-resolution elevation model of Sweden (NNH) that has a vertical- and lateral resolution of 2 m and 0.25 m, respectively. With NNH data, known PGFs have been modified, and a number of new potential PGFs have been identified (Smith et al. 2014; Mikko et al. 2015). However, the detailed variation of their surface expression remains to be determined. Our main objective is to constrain the strike and surface offset (i.e., apparent vertical throw because of soil cover overlays the bedrock) across the PGF scarps. We anticipate using the results to constrain direction of fault motion and paleomagnitudes of PGFs, and in numerical analyzes to investigate the nature of PGFs. We have developed a methodology for analyzing PGF-geomorphology from LiDAR data using two main software platforms (Ask et al. 2015): (1) Move2015 by Midland Valley has been used for constructing 3D models of the surface traces of the PGFs to determine apparent vertical throw. The apparent hanging- and footwall cut off lines are digitized, and subsequent computation of coordinates is rather time efficient and provide continuous data of fault and soil geomorphology that can be statistically analyzed; and (2) ArcGIS 10.3 by Esri has mostly been

  18. DC-8 and ER-2 in Sweden for the Sage III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 48 second video shows Dryden's Airborne Science aircraft in Kiruna Sweden in January 2000. The DC-8 and ER-2 conducted atmospheric studies for the Sage III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE).

  19. A review of contamination of surface-, ground-, and drinking water in Sweden by perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs).

    PubMed

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Filipovic, Marko; Lewis, Jeffrey; Sparrenbom, Charlotte J; Barthel, Roland

    2017-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are found in aquatic systems, flora, and fauna worldwide. These potentially harmful compounds are also frequently detected in Sweden and have already resulted in severe problems for public drinking water supply, i.e., some wells had to be closed due to high PFAS concentrations both in raw water and produced drinking water. Knowledge on PFAS occurrence in Sweden is still quite low, although monitoring is currently ongoing. This work describes potential sources for PFASs to enter the drinking water supply in Sweden and compares different occurrences of PFASs in raw and drinking water in the country. Moreover, the monitoring history, the legal situation, and remediation actions taken are presented. Finally, future challenges and the way forward in Sweden are discussed.

  20. Poor self-reported health and sleeping difficulties among Kurdish immigrant men in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Taloyan, Marina; Johansson, Leena Maria; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Jan; Koctürk, Tahire O

    2006-09-01

    This study explores the association between ethnicity and poor self-reported health and psychological distress, sleeping difficulties, and use of psychotropic drugs among immigrant Kurdish men and native Swedish men, based on data from the first Swedish National Survey of Immigrants and the Swedish Level-of-Living Surveys collected in 1996 by Statistics Sweden. The age-adjusted odds of poor self-reported health and sleeping difficulties among Kurdish men was about 3.5 times higher than among Swedish men. The odds ratio decreased to 2.1 and 2.7 respectively in a model adjusted for age and the other explanatory variables. Yearning for the home country, perceived discrimination and unemployment in the host country seem to be possible explanations for the higher levels of distress among Kurdish immigrants to Sweden.

  1. Recycling behaviour of householders living in multicultural urban area: a case study of Jarva, Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Miafodzyeva, Sviatlana; Brandt, Nils; Andersson, Mari

    2013-05-01

    The recycling behaviour of multicultural householders was investigated in the urban area of Järva, northwest Stockholm, Sweden, which is home to a significant proportion of immigrants from different parts of the world. Different ethnic minorities currently make up an important proportion of the urban population in Sweden, but little is known about their recycling behaviour and attitudes. Using quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (interviews) methodology, possible determinants of recycling behaviour were investigated among Järva householders. It was found that attitude toward the importance of recycling had a positive correlation and was the main determinant of recycling behaviour among these householders. In contrast, environmental concern, satisfaction with the facilities provided, recycling confidence, community identity and socio-demographical factors showed no correlation with their recycling behaviour. Other results of the study indicated a need to investigate the specific behaviour of multicultural householders regarding source-separated collection and the recycling of hazardous, electronic and bulky wastes.

  2. A roadmap for climate change adaptation in Sweden's forests: addressing wicked problems using adaptive management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rist, L.; Felton, A.; Samuelsson, L.; Marald, E.; Karlsson, B.; Johansson, U.; Rosvall, O.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have significant direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems. Forests will have to adapt not only to changes in mean climate variables but also to increased climatic variability and altered disturbance regimes. Rates of change will likely exceed many forests capabilities to naturally adapt and many of today's trees will be exposed to the climates of 2090. In Sweden the effects are already being seen and more severe impacts are expected in the future. Exacerbating the challenge posed by climate change, a large proportion of Sweden's forests are, as a consequence of dominant production goals, greatly simplified and thus potentially more vulnerable to the uncertainties and risks associated with climate change. This simplification also confers reduced adaptive capacity to respond to potential impacts. Furthermore, many adaptation measures themselves carry uncertainties and risks. Future changes and effects are thus uncertain, yet forest managers, policymakers, scientists and other stakeholders must act. Strategies that build social and ecological resilience in the face of multiple interacting unknowns and surprises are needed. Adaptive management aims to collect and integrate knowledge about how a managed system is likely to respond to alternative management schemes and changing environmental conditions within a continuous decision process. There have been suggestions that adaptive management is not well suited to the large complex uncertainties associated with climate change and associated adaptation measures. However, more recently it has been suggested that adaptive management can handle such wicked problems, given adequate resources and a suitable breakdown of the targeted uncertainties. Here we test this hypothesis by evaluating how an adaptive management process could be used to manage the uncertainties and risks associated with securing resilient, biodiverse and productive forests in Sweden in the face of climate change. We

  3. Driving forces for import of waste for energy recovery in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Mattias; Sahlin, Jenny; Ekvall, Tomas; Sundberg, Johan

    2005-02-01

    Between 1996 and 2002, the Swedish import of so-called yellow waste for energy recovery increased. The import mainly consisted of separated wood waste and mixes of used wood and paper and/or plastics that was combusted in district heat production plants (DHPPs). Some mixed waste was imported to waste incineration plants for energy recovery (10% of the import of yellow waste for energy recovery in 2002). The import came primarily from Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Denmark and Finland. We identified six underlying driving forces for this recent increase of imported waste which are outlined and their interactive issues discussed. --The energy system infrastructure, which enables high energy recovery in Sweden. --The energy taxation, where high Swedish taxes on fossil fuels make relatively expensive solid biofuels the main alternative for base load production of district heat. --The quality of the waste-derived fuels, which has been higher in the exporting countries than in Sweden. --The bans on landfilling within Europe and the shortage of waste treatment capacity. --Taxes on waste management in Europe. --Gate fee differences between exporting countries and Sweden. In the future, the overall strength of these driving forces will probably be weakened. A Swedish tax on waste incineration is being investigated. In other European countries, the ambition to reach the Kyoto targets and increase the renewable electricity production could improve the competitiveness of waste-derived fuels in comparison with fossil fuels. Swedish DHPPs using waste-derived fuels will experience higher costs after the Waste Incineration Directive is fully implemented. The uncertainty about European waste generation and treatment capacity, however, might have a large influence on the future gate fees and thus also on the yellow waste import into Sweden.

  4. Astronomical journey to the Skåne district in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Tsuko

    2006-09-01

    In September of 2005, we had a chance to travel to the Skåe district of Sweden. This short paper briefly reports what we saw there, along with historical episodes relating to Lund Observatory, the medieval astronomical clock preserved at the Lund Cathedral, and the Hven island where Tycho Brahe constructed in the late 16th century the first modern astronomical observatory called Uraniborg.

  5. Evolution of Minimum Mortality Temperature in Stockholm, Sweden, 1901–2009

    PubMed Central

    Åström, Daniel Oudin; Tornevi, Andreas; Ebi, Kristie L.; Rocklöv, Joacim; Forsberg, Bertil

    2015-01-01

    Background: The mortality impacts of hot and cold temperatures have been thoroughly documented, with most locations reporting a U-shaped relationship with a minimum mortality temperature (MMT) at which mortality is lowest. How MMT may have evolved over previous decades as the global mean surface temperature has increased has not been thoroughly explored. Objective: We used observations of daily mean temperatures to investigate whether MMT changed in Stockholm, Sweden, from the beginning of the 20th century until 2009. Methods: Daily mortality and temperature data for the period 1901–2009 in Stockholm, Sweden, were used to model the temperature–mortality relationship. We estimated MMT using distributed lag nonlinear Poisson regression models considering lags up to 21 days of daily mean temperature as the exposure variable. To avoid large influences on the MMT from intra- and interannual climatic variability, we estimated MMT based on 30-year periods. Furthermore, we investigated whether there were trends in the absolute value of the MMT and in the relative value of the MMT (the corresponding percentile of the same-day temperature distribution) over the study period. Results: Our findings suggest that both the absolute MMT and the relative MMT increased in Stockholm, Sweden, over the course of the 20th century. Conclusions: The increase in the MMT over the course of the 20th century suggests autonomous adaptation within the context of the large epidemiological, demographical, and societal changes that occurred. Whether the rate of increase will be sustained with climate change is an open question. Citation: Oudin Åström D, Tornevi A, Ebi KL, Rocklöv J, Forsberg B. 2016. Evolution of minimum mortality temperature in Stockholm, Sweden, 1901–2009. Environ Health Perspect 124:740–744; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509692 PMID:26566270

  6. How Do Preschool Children Engage Each Other in Dialogue in Finland, Estonia and Sweden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryggvason, Marja-Terttu; Tulviste, Tiia; De Geer, Boel

    2008-01-01

    The present study compares preschool children in Finland, Estonia and Sweden regarding linguistic structures with which children in dyads elicited talk from each other in a naturalistic play activity. Nineteen Finnish (mean age 5.1), 19 Estonian (mean age 5.4) and 17 Swedish (mean age 5.1) same-sex pairs were video-recorded by a native researcher.…

  7. Adolescent Perceptions of Parenting Styles in Sweden, Italy and Greece: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Olivari, Maria Giulia; Hertfelt Wahn, Elisabeth; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Katerina; Antonopoulou, Katerina; Confalonieri, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Comparative research on parenting styles among Nordic and Mediterranean countries is still missing, despite the increasing number of studies on parenting styles in adolescence. This study explores similarities and differences in adolescents’ retrospective perceptions of parenting styles, for both parents, in Sweden, Italy and Greece, using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. In particular, it examines the relation between parental role, adolescent gender, country of origin, SES and these perceptions. Swedish, Italian and Greek adolescents (N = 702; 30.9% Swedish, 39.6% Italian and 29.5% Greek) participated in the study. To test the principal effects three mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVAs were conducted separately for each parenting style. To verify the interaction effects, a mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVA was tested on authoritative style. Regarding authoritarian and permissive two mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece) ANOVAs were tested. Mothers, as compared to fathers, were perceived as more authoritative, authoritarian and permissive. Moreover, boys perceived their parents as more authoritarian and more permissive than girls. Swedish parents were perceived as significantly less authoritarian than Italian and Greek parents and more permissive than Italian parents; Greek parents were perceived as less authoritarian and more permissive than Italian parents. The study provides an interesting contribution to parenting styles literature, showing how country legislation concerning family matters and SES are related the perception of parenting behaviours. PMID:27247655

  8. Iranian refugee children in Sweden: effects of organized violence and forced migration on preschool children.

    PubMed

    Almqvist, K; Brandell-Forsberg, M

    1995-04-01

    Using play techniques, individual assessments were made of 50 preschool children from 47 Iranian refugee families living in Sweden, while their parents were interviewed about the children's exposure to violence and separation. Reenacting play involving war and persecution was performed by 19 of the children, most of them eyewitnesses to violence. The study demonstrated ways of obtaining information directly from young children to supplement parental reports.

  9. Adolescent Perceptions of Parenting Styles in Sweden, Italy and Greece: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Olivari, Maria Giulia; Hertfelt Wahn, Elisabeth; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Katerina; Antonopoulou, Katerina; Confalonieri, Emanuela

    2015-05-01

    Comparative research on parenting styles among Nordic and Mediterranean countries is still missing, despite the increasing number of studies on parenting styles in adolescence. This study explores similarities and differences in adolescents' retrospective perceptions of parenting styles, for both parents, in Sweden, Italy and Greece, using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. In particular, it examines the relation between parental role, adolescent gender, country of origin, SES and these perceptions. Swedish, Italian and Greek adolescents (N = 702; 30.9% Swedish, 39.6% Italian and 29.5% Greek) participated in the study. To test the principal effects three mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVAs were conducted separately for each parenting style. To verify the interaction effects, a mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVA was tested on authoritative style. Regarding authoritarian and permissive two mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece) ANOVAs were tested. Mothers, as compared to fathers, were perceived as more authoritative, authoritarian and permissive. Moreover, boys perceived their parents as more authoritarian and more permissive than girls. Swedish parents were perceived as significantly less authoritarian than Italian and Greek parents and more permissive than Italian parents; Greek parents were perceived as less authoritarian and more permissive than Italian parents. The study provides an interesting contribution to parenting styles literature, showing how country legislation concerning family matters and SES are related the perception of parenting behaviours.

  10. Area Report. Developments in Microwave Antennas and Applications in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-31

    if by block nimber) Denmark anechoic chamber near field testing Norway microwaves phased arrays Sweden industrial application radiometer antennas of...Stockholm. At the University of Gothenburg, phased - array technology is being developed for relative- ly small and simple systems and specific...whether to investigate some microwave antenna systems, for example, phased arrays . The main efforts in Norway are found at the Technical University of

  11. Why community compulsion became the solution - Reforming mental health law in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sjöström, Stefan; Zetterberg, Liv; Markström, Urban

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to understand how compulsory community care (CCC) has become a solution in mental health policy in so many different legal and social contexts during the last 20 years. The recent introduction of CCC in Sweden is used as a case in point, which is then contrasted against the processes in Norway, England/Wales and New York State. In Sweden, the issue of CCC was initiated following high-profile acts of violence. Contrary to several other states, there was agreement about the (lack of) evidence about its effectiveness. Rather than focusing on dangerousness, the government proposal about CCC was framed within an ideology of integrating the disabled. The new legislation allowed for a broad range of measures to control patients at the same time as it was presented as a means to protect positive rights for patients. Compared to previous legislation in Sweden, the scope of social control has remained largely the same, although the rationale has changed - from medical treatment via community treatment and rehabilitation, to reducing the risk of violence, and then shifting back to rehabilitation in the community. The Swedish approach to CCC is similar to Norway, while New York and England/Wales have followed different routes. Differences in ideology, social control and rights orientations can be understood with reference to the general welfare and care regimes that characterize the four states.

  12. A comparative analysis of coverage decisions for outpatient pharmaceuticals: evidence from Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Grepstad, Mari; Kanavos, Panos

    2015-02-01

    This study analyses the reasons for differences and similarities in coverage recommendations for outpatient pharmaceuticals in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, following HTA appraisals. A comparative analysis of all outpatient drug appraisals carried out between January 2009 and December 2012, including an analysis of divergent coverage recommendations made by all three countries was performed. Agreement levels between HTA agencies were measured using kappa scores. Consultations with stakeholders in the three countries were carried out to complement the discussion on HTA processes and reimbursement outcomes. Nineteen outpatient drug-indication pairs appraised in each of the three countries were identified, of which 6 pairs (32%) had divergent coverage recommendations. An uneven distribution of coverage recommendations was observed, with the highest overlap in appraisals between Norway and Sweden (free-marginal kappa 0.89). Similarities were found in priority setting principles, mode of appraisal and reasoning for coverage recommendations. The study shows that health economic evaluation is less prominent or explicit in outpatient drug appraisals in Denmark than in Norway and Sweden, that all three countries could benefit from improved communication between appraisers and manufacturers, and that final coverage recommendations rely on factors other than safety, comparative efficacy or cost-effectiveness.

  13. A snapshot of illicit drug use in Sweden acquired through sewage water analysis.

    PubMed

    Ostman, Marcus; Fick, Jerker; Näsström, Elin; Lindberg, Richard H

    2014-02-15

    Analytical measurements of sewage water have been used many times to estimate the consumption of specific drugs in an area. This study measured a large number of illicit drugs and metabolites (>30) at a large number of sewage treatment plants (STPs) distributed across Sweden. Twenty-four illicit and prescription drugs, classified as narcotic substances in Sweden, and seven selected metabolites were included in the study. A 24 hour composite sample of incoming sewage water was collected from 33 different municipalities at various geographic locations across Sweden. Species were analyzed using an on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method. The method proved to be rapid with minimum need for sample work up and was able to detect 13 compounds above their respective limits of quantification. The results for all compounds were presented as per capita loads. Multivariate data analysis was used to relate drug consumption to geographical location and/or population of cities. The results showed that geographical differences in drug consumption were apparent across the country. For the narcotic pharmaceuticals, the geographical differences suggested by the multivariate model were supported by prescription statistics.

  14. Genome characterisation of two Ljungan virus isolates from wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus) in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Pounder, Kieran C; Watts, Phillip C; Niklasson, Bo; Kallio, Eva R K; Marston, Denise A; Fooks, Anthony R; Begon, Michael; McElhinney, Lorraine M

    2015-12-01

    Ljungan virus (LV) (family Picornaviridae, genus Parechovirus) is a suspected zoonotic pathogen with associations to human disease in Sweden. LV is a single-stranded RNA virus with a positive sense genome. There are five published Ljungan virus strains, three isolated from Sweden and two from America, and are classified into four genotypes. A further two strains described here were isolated from wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus) caught in Västmanlands county, Sweden in 1994. These strains were sequenced using next generation pyrosequencing technology on the GS454flx platform. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of the obtained genomes confirms isolates LV340 and LV342 as two new putative members of genotype 2 along with LV145SL, with 92% and 99% nucleotide identities respectively. Only two codon sites throughout the entire genome were identified as undergoing positive selection, both situated within the VP3 structural region, in or near to major antigenic sites. Whilst these two strains do not constitute new genotypes they provide evidence, though weakly supported, which suggests the evolution of Ljungan viruses to be relatively slow, a characteristic unlike other picornaviruses. Additional genomic sequences are urgently required for Ljungan virus strains, particularly from different locations or hosts, to fully understand the evolutionary and epidemiological properties of this potentially zoonotic virus.

  15. Career choice and attitudes towards dental education amongst dental students in Japan and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Karibe, H; Kawakami, T; Suzuki, A; Warita, S; Ogata, K; Aoyagi, K; Agholme, M B; Dahllöf, G

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the perspectives of dental students towards their career choice and dental education in Japan and Sweden. One hundred and fourteen dental students from the Nippon Dental University, Japan and 43 dental students from the Karolinska Institutet, Sweden participated in this study. Information was derived from a self-answered questionnaire consisting of five items for career choice and six items for dental education. Chi-square test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used for comparison. Significant differences were detected for 10 questionnaire items between the two countries. Regarding motivation towards the career choice, 44% of Swedish students indicated interpersonal motives related to helping other people, whereas 32% of Japanese students indicated expectations of their family in the dental profession. As future career options, 64% of Japanese and 47% of Swedish students planned to work as general dentists. More Swedish students (37%) preferred specialisation than Japanese students (17%). Nearly three-quarters of the Swedish students were satisfied with the teaching faculty of their school, whilst only 32% of the Japanese students indicated content. The perspectives of dental students were different in Japan and Sweden. This study provides a description of the perspectives of Japanese and Swedish dental students and enables better understanding of career decision and dental curriculum issues.

  16. HIV testing for HIV prevention: a comparative analysis of policies in Britain, Hungary and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Danziger, R

    1998-10-01

    This paper compares policies on named HIV testing in the context of HIV prevention in Britain, Hungary and Sweden, and considers the extent to which these policies are based on evidence of effectiveness or on other, more contextual, factors. In Britain, testing has not featured significantly as a prevention strategy, and named testing has generally been carried out only with the voluntary, informed consent of individuals. In Hungary, testing is central to HIV prevention, and is required by law of certain groups. HIV testing is carried out mainly on a voluntary basis in Sweden, but, unlike in Britain, it has been actively promoted by public health authorities. The paper contrasts the 'right not to know' one's HIV status which is widely respected in Britain, with the 'responsibility to find out' which is more pervasive in Hungary and Sweden. Although policy makers in all three countries appear convinced that their's is the right approach, there appears to be as yet a dearth of convincing evidence to support their arguments.

  17. Factors associated with birth weight in Sweden: the study of men born in 1913.

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, M; Cnattingius, S; Svärdsudd, K; Tibblin, G

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To analyse factors associated with birth weight and to evaluate the validity of obstetrical data. DESIGN: Obstetrical data were retrieved for singleton men born in 1913 and living in Gothenburg, Sweden in 1963. Information on birth weight, maternal age, marital status, parity, social class, proteinuria, gestational age, and place of birth (home or hospital) was obtained from these birth records. SETTING: Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty year old men living in Gothenburg, Sweden, in 1963. MAIN RESULTS: Obstetrical records were obtained for 524 men (65%). Place of birth, gestational age, maternal age, parity, proteinuria, and marital status were all significantly correlated to birth weight. In multivariate analyses, place of birth, gestational age, parity, and proteinuria influenced birth weight. There was a substantial difference in mean birth weight between hospital deliveries (3352 g) and home deliveries (3817 g), which could be explained only partly by sociodemographic variables. Birth weight increased with parity and gestational age in home delivered babies as well as those delivered in a hospital. CONCLUSIONS: The validity of obstetrical records from 1913 was good. The place of birth (home or hospital) is strongly associated with birth weight and may be a confounding factor in studies of the implications of birth weight for future risk of disease or death. Images PMID:9135783

  18. Effect of smokeless tobacco (snus) on smoking and public health in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Foulds, J; Ramstrom, L; Burke, M; Fagerstrom, K

    2003-01-01

    Method: Narrative review of published papers and other data sources (for example, conference abstracts and internet based information) on snus use, use of other tobacco products, and changes in health status in Sweden. Results: Snus is manufactured and stored in a manner that causes it to deliver lower concentrations of some harmful chemicals than other tobacco products, although it can deliver high doses of nicotine. It is dependence forming, but does not appear to cause cancer or respiratory diseases. It may cause a slight increase in cardiovascular risks and is likely to be harmful to the unborn fetus, although these risks are lower than those caused by smoking. There has been a larger drop in male daily smoking (from 40% in 1976 to 15% in 2002) than female daily smoking (34% in 1976 to 20% in 2002) in Sweden, with a substantial proportion (around 30%) of male ex-smokers using snus when quitting smoking. Over the same time period, rates of lung cancer and myocardial infarction have dropped significantly faster among Swedish men than women and remain at low levels as compared with other developed countries with a long history of tobacco use. Conclusions: Snus availability in Sweden appears to have contributed to the unusually low rates of smoking among Swedish men by helping them transfer to a notably less harmful form of nicotine dependence. PMID:14660766

  19. Energy use in cultural context: an ethnographic comparison of households in Minnesota and Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Sweden's reputation for energy efficiency caught the attention of the US as it sought to cope with the oil crisis of 1973 and subsequent energy problems. How did the Swedes enjoy an affluent way of life while using only 60% as much energy as the Americans. Was lesser residential energy consumption in Sweden due primarily to superior technology or to a more-conserving way of life there. In the absence of detailed household data, such questions were treated summarily, with references to the vague notion of lifestyle and with stereotypes about temperate Swedes and gluttonous Americans. This study addresses the questions of the relative roles of technology and behavior and of the veracity of such popular stereotypes. An ethnographic and holistic approach is taken to the comparison of household energy use lifestyle, and cultural context in the towns of Foley, Minnesota and Munka Ljungby, Skane, Sweden. The unit of research is the single family dwelling. The economic, energetic, and political contexts of the households are compared, and the relationships of residents to their larger societies are contrasted, especially with regard to information and support for energy conservation.

  20. Temporal Variation in Sindbis Virus Antibody Prevalence in Bird Hosts in an Endemic Area in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Lundström, Jan O.; Tok, Atalay; Östman, Örjan; Lundkvist, Åke

    2016-01-01

    Sindbis virus (SINV) is a mosquito-borne bird virus that occasionally causes human disease in Fennoscandia, suggested to have cyclic 7-year intervals between outbreaks. Reliable data on human infections in Sweden is however lacking. Here we investigated the SINV antibody prevalence among birds in a Swedish area endemic to SINV to scrutinize if a cyclic variation in antibody prevalence is present in the natural host of SINV. Serum from birds were sampled in the summers of 2002–2004 and 2009 in the floodplains of the River Dalälven in central Sweden, with 2002 and 2009 representing hypothesized years of SINV outbreaks. A total of 963 birds from 52 species (mainly passerines) were tested for the presence of SINV antibodies using a plaque reduction neutralization test. The highest SINV antibody prevalence was found in Turdidae species, specifically Fieldfare, Redwing and Song thrush in which more than 70% of sampled individuals had antibodies to SINV in 2009. The SINV antibody prevalence significantly varied between years with 2% in 2002, 8% in 2003, 14% in 2004 and 37% in 2009. Antibodies were found equally often in hatchlings and in adults and increased from early to late in the season. Clearly, the SINV antibody prevalence was not elevated in the bird hosts in the predicted outbreak year 2002, thus solid evidence of a cyclic occurrence of SINV in Sweden is still lacking. PMID:27579607

  1. Family background buys an education in Minnesota but not in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

    2010-09-01

    Educational attainment, the highest degree or level of schooling obtained, is associated with important life outcomes, at both the individual level and the group level. Because of this, and because education is expensive, the allocation of education across society is an important social issue. A dynamic quantitative environmental-genetic model can help document the effects of social allocation patterns. We used this model to compare the moderating effect of general intelligence on the environmental and genetic factors that influence educational attainment in Sweden and the U.S. state of Minnesota. Patterns of genetic influence on educational outcomes were similar in these two regions, but patterns of shared environmental influence differed markedly. In Sweden, shared environmental influence on educational attainment was particularly important for people of high intelligence, whereas in Minnesota, shared environmental influences on educational attainment were particularly important for people of low intelligence. This difference may be the result of differing access to education: state-supported access (on the basis of ability) to a uniform higher-education system in Sweden versus family-supported access to a more diverse higher-education system in the United States.

  2. Population structure in contemporary Sweden--a Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Lappalainen, T; Hannelius, U; Salmela, E; von Döbeln, U; Lindgren, C M; Huoponen, K; Savontaus, M-L; Kere, J; Lahermo, P

    2009-01-01

    A population sample representing the current Swedish population was analysed for maternally and paternally inherited markers with the aim of characterizing genetic variation and population structure. The sample set of 820 females and 883 males were extracted and amplified from Guthrie cards of all the children born in Sweden during one week in 2003. 14 Y-chromosomal and 34 mitochondrial DNA SNPs were genotyped. The haplogroup frequencies of the counties closest to Finland, Norway, Denmark and the Saami region in the north exhibited similarities to the neighbouring populations, resulting from the formation of the Swedish nation during the past millennium. Moreover, the recent immigration waves of the 20th century are visible in haplogroup frequencies, and have led to increased diversity and divergence of the major cities. Signs of genetic drift can be detected in several counties in northern as well as in southern Sweden. With the exception of the most drifted subpopulations, the population structure in Sweden appears mostly clinal. In conclusion, our study yielded valuable information of the structure of the Swedish population, and demonstrated the usefulness of biobanks as a source of population genetic research. Our sampling strategy, nonselective on the current population rather than stratified according to ancestry, is informative for capturing the contemporary variation in the increasingly panmictic populations of the world.

  3. Comparison of airborne and terrestrial gamma spectrometry measurements - evaluation of three areas in southern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kock, Peder; Samuelsson, Christer

    2011-06-01

    The Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) has been conducting airborne gamma spectrometry measurements of natural radioactivity in Sweden for more than 40 years. Today, the database covers about 80% of the country's land surface. This article explores the first step of putting this data into use in radioactive source search at ground level. However, in order to be able to use the airborne background measurements at ground level, SGU data must be validated against terrestrial data. In this work, we compare the SGU data with data measured by a portable backpack system. This is done for three different areas in southern Sweden. The statistical analysis shows that a linear relationship and a positive correlation exist between the air and ground data. However, this linear relationship could be revealed only when the region possessed large enough variations in areal activity. Furthermore, the activity distributions measured show good agreement to those of SGU. We conclude that the SGU database could be used for terrestrial background assessment, given that a linear transfer function is established.

  4. GPs opinions and perceptions of chiropractic in Sweden and Norway: a descriptive survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Sweden, chiropractic is not included in mainstream health care. In Norway chiropractic is a recognized health care profession. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of chiropractic among Swedish and Norwegian General Practitioners (GPs). Methods Eight hundred surveys in each country were distributed randomly by post to Swedish and Norwegian GPs offices. The survey contained two main sections: Experiences and opinions about chiropractic and referral patterns. The data were then described and compared between the countries. Results In Sweden the response rate was 44.8% and in Norway 45.3%. More than half of the Swedish GPs participating in this study stated that they had poor knowledge about chiropractic, while just a tenth of Norwegian GPs stated the same. Nearly all Norwegian GPs had some experience of chiropractic treatment whilst a fairly large number of the Swedish GPs said that they had no experience at all of chiropractic. It was twice as common for GPs in Norway to refer patients to a chiropractor as compared to Sweden. However, Swedish and Norwegian GPs agreed that chiropractors were competent to treat musculo-skeletal conditions with an adequate education to be part of mainstream medicine. Conclusions Swedish and Norwegian GPs agree that chiropractors are competent to treat musculoskeletal conditions. However, there are many differences in GPs perceptions of chiropractic between the two countries and the overall picture indicates that chiropractic is more accepted and recognised as a health care profession in Norway. PMID:24128386

  5. Human isolates of Listeria monocytogenes in Sweden during half a century (1958-2010).

    PubMed

    Lopez-Valladares, G; Tham, W; Parihar, V Singh; Helmersson, S; Andersson, B; Ivarsson, S; Johansson, C; Ringberg, H; Tjernberg, I; Henriques-Normark, B; Danielsson-Tham, M-L

    2014-11-01

    Isolates of Listeria monocytogenes (n = 932) isolated in Sweden during 1958-2010 from human patients with invasive listeriosis were characterized by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) (AscI). Of the 932 isolates, 183 different PFGE types were identified, of which 83 were each represented by only one isolate. In all, 483 serovar 1/2a isolates were distributed over 114 PFGE types; 90 serovar 1/2b isolates gave 32 PFGE types; 21 serovar 1/2c isolates gave nine PFGE types; three serovar 3b isolates gave one PFGE type; and, 335 serovar 4b isolates gave 31 PFGE types. During the 1980s in Sweden, several serovar 4b cases were associated with the consumption of European raw soft cheese. However, as cheese-production hygiene has improved, the number of 4b cases has decreased. Since 1996, serovar 1/2a has been the dominant L. monocytogenes serovar in human listeriosis in Sweden. Therefore, based on current serovars and PFGE types, an association between human cases of listeriosis and the consumption of vacuum-packed gravad and cold-smoked salmon is suggested.

  6. An estimation of dental treatment needs in two groups of refugees in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M; Bornstein, R; Martinsson, T

    1990-06-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate dental treatment need in groups of Chilean and Polish refugees in Sweden. Of the Nordic countries, Sweden accepts the greatest number of refugees. An average of 5000 refugees arrived annually in 1981-85, increasing to 15,000 during 1986-87. Refugees and their families now comprise 93% of non-Nordic immigration. In 1981-83 a sample of 193 Chilean and 92 Polish refugees in the county of Stockholm was selected for this study. Dental treatment needs were calculated in accordance with CPITN and the working study of Swedish dentistry, which formed the basis for the Swedish scale of dental fees for the National Dental Insurance Scheme. The estimated mean treatment time (+/- SD) in the Chilean sample was 6.9 +/- 2.3 h and in the Polish group 8.4 +/- 3.0; in comparison with estimated treatment needs in a Swedish material, both would be classified as extreme risk groups. There was no correlation between the number of months in Sweden and the estimated treatment needs. The results indicate a cumulative, unmet need for dental care in these groups. Barriers to ensuring adequate health care for immigrants persist; special outreach programmes, conducted by dental health personnel, may be an effective means of introducing immigrants to the Swedish dental care system.

  7. Hemiarthroplasties after hip fractures in Norway and Sweden: a collaboration between the Norwegian and Swedish national registries.

    PubMed

    Gjertsen, Jan-Erik; Fenstad, Anne Marie; Leonardsson, Olof; Engesæter, Lars Birger; Kärrholm, Johan; Furnes, Ove; Garellick, Göran; Rogmark, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    National registration of hemiarthroplasties after hip fractures has been established in both Norway and Sweden. We aimed to investigate differences in demographics, choice of implant selection, surgical approaches, and reoperations between the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register (NHFR) and the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register (SHAR). As part of the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) project a common hemiarthroplasty dataset has been established. 36,989 primary hemiarthroplasties (HAs) for acute hip fractures reported to NHFR (n = 12,761) and SHAR (n = 24,228) for the period 2005-2010 were included. Cemented prostheses were used in 78% of the operations in Norway and in 95% of the patients in Sweden. In Norway HAs almost exclusively had bipolar design (98%), whereas in Sweden HAs with unipolar design were used in 42% of the cases. Monoblock (non-modular) prostheses were uncommon, but still more frequently used in Sweden than in Norway (6.9% and 2.1% respectively). The lateral approach was more common in Norway (83%) than in Sweden (52%), where the posterior approach was used in 42% of the cases. The five-year survival of all HAs was 95.5% (95% CI: 94.8-96.2) in Norway and 94.8% (95% CI: 94.4-95.3) in Sweden. We concluded that surprisingly large differences between the two countries in demographics, implant design, and surgical technique had been revealed. This common dataset enables further investigations of the impact of these differences on revision rates and mortality.

  8. Heart Failure Telemonitoring in Japan and Sweden: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Peter; Okada, Ikuko; de Vries, Arjen E; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Strömberg, Anna; Jaarsma, Tiny

    2015-01-01

    Background Telemonitoring of heart failure (HF) patients is increasingly discussed at conferences and addressed in research. However, little is known about actual use in specific countries. Objective We aimed to (1) describe the use of non-invasive HF telemonitoring, (2) clarify expectations of telemonitoring among cardiologists and nurses, and (3) describe barriers to the implementation of telemonitoring in Japan and Sweden. Methods This study used a cross-sectional survey of non-invasive HF telemonitoring. A total of 378 Japanese (120 cardiologists, 258 nurses) and 120 Swedish (39 cardiologists, 81 nurses) health care professionals from 165 Japanese and 61 Swedish hospitals/clinics nationwide participated in the study (210 in Japan and 98 in Sweden were approached). Data were collected between November 2013 and May 2014 with a questionnaire that was adapted from a previous Dutch study on telemonitoring. Results The mean age of the cardiologists and nurses was 47 years and 41 years, respectively. Experience at the current position caring for HF patients was 19 years among the physicians and 15 years among the nurses. In total, 7 Japanese (4.2%) and none of the Swedish health care institutions used telemonitoring. One fourth (24.0%, 118/498) of the health care professionals were familiar with the technology (in Japan: 21.6%, 82/378; in Sweden: 30.0%, 36/120). The highest expectations of telemonitoring (rated on a scale from 0-10) were reduced hospitalizations (8.3 in Japan and 7.5 in Sweden), increased patient self-care (7.8 and 7.4), and offering high-quality care (7.8 and 7.0). The major goal for introducing telemonitoring was to monitor physical condition and recognize signs of worsening HF in Japan (94.1%, 352/374) and Sweden (88.7%, 102/115). The following reasons were also high in Sweden: to monitor effects of treatment and adjust it remotely (86.9%, 100/115) and to do remote drug titration (79.1%, 91/115). Just under a quarter of Japanese (22.4%, 85/378) and

  9. Suicide in married couples in Sweden: Is the risk greater in same-sex couples?

    PubMed

    Björkenstam, Charlotte; Andersson, Gunnar; Dalman, Christina; Cochran, Susan; Kosidou, Kyriaki

    2016-07-01

    Minority sexual orientation is a predictor of suicide ideation and attempts, though its association with suicide mortality is less clear. We capitalize on Sweden's extensively linked databases, to investigate whether, among married individuals, same-sex marriage is associated with suicide. Using a population-based register design, we analyzed suicide risk among same-sex married women and men (n = 6456), as compared to different-sex married women and men (n = 1181723) in Sweden. We selected all newly partnered or married individuals in the intervening time between 1/1/1996 and 12/31/2009 and followed them with regard to suicide until 12/31/2011. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to calculate adjusted incidence risk ratios (IRR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). The risk of suicide was higher among same-sex married individuals as compared to different-sex married individuals (IRR 2.7, 95 % CI 1.5-4.8), after adjustment for time at risk and socioeconomic confounding. Sex-stratified analyses showed a tentatively elevated risk for same-sex married women (IRR 2.5, 95 % CI 0.8-7.7) as compared to different-sex married women. Among same-sex married men the suicide risk was nearly three-fold greater as compared to different-sex married (IRR 2.895 % CI 1.5-5.5). This holds true also after adjustment for HIV status. Even in a country with a comparatively tolerant climate regarding homosexuality such as Sweden, same-sex married individuals evidence a higher risk for suicide than other married individuals.

  10. Detection of Sindbis and Inkoo Virus RNA in Genetically Typed Mosquito Larvae Sampled in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Tingström, Olov; Wesula Lwande, Olivia; Näslund, Jonas; Spyckerelle, Iris; Engdahl, Cecilia; Von Schoenberg, Pontus; Ahlm, Clas; Evander, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Mosquito-borne viruses have a widespread distribution across the globe and are known to pose serious threats to human and animal health. The maintenance and dissemination of these viruses in nature are driven through horizontal and vertical transmission. In the temperate climate of northern Sweden, there is a dearth of knowledge on whether mosquito-borne viruses that occur are transmitted transovarially. To gain a better understanding of mosquito-borne virus circulation and maintenance, mosquito larvae were sampled in northern Sweden during the first and second year after a large outbreak of Ockelbo disease in 2013 caused by Sindbis virus (SINV). Materials and Methods: A total of 3123 larvae were sampled during the summers of 2014 and 2015 at multiple sites in northern Sweden. The larvae were homogenized and screened for viruses using RT-PCR and sequencing. Species identification of selected larvae was performed by genetic barcoding targeting the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene. Results and Discussion: SINV RNA was detected in mosquito larvae of three different species, Ochlerotatus (Oc.) communis, Oc. punctor, and Oc. diantaeus. Inkoo virus (INKV) RNA was detected in Oc. communis larvae. This finding suggested that these mosquitoes could support transovarial transmission of SINV and INKV. Detection of virus in mosquito larva may serve as an early warning for emerging arboviral diseases and add information to epidemiological investigations before, during, and after outbreaks. Furthermore, our results demonstrated the relevance of genetic barcoding as an attractive and effective method for mosquito larva typing. However, further mosquito transmission studies are needed to ascertain the possible role of different mosquito species and developmental stages in the transmission cycle of arboviruses. PMID:27159120

  11. Intimate partner violence and poor mental health among Thai women residing in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Fernbrant, Cecilia; Emmelin, Maria; Essén, Birgitta; Östergren, Per-Olof; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The current aim is to examine the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among Thai women residing in Sweden and its association with mental health. We also investigate the potential influence of social isolation and social capital regarding the association between IPV and mental health outcome. Design A public health questionnaire in Thai was distributed by post to the entire population of Thai women, aged 18–64, residing in two regions in Sweden since 2006. Items included aspects related to IPV (physical/sexual/emotional), sociodemographic background, physical health, mental health (GHQ-12), social isolation, and social capital (i.e. social trust/participation). Results The response rate was 62.3% (n=804). Prevalence of lifetime reported IPV was 22.1%, with 20.5% by a previous partner and 6.7% by a current partner. Previous IPV exposure was significantly related to current IPV exposure, and all IPV exposure measures were significantly related to poor mental health. However, Thai women experiencing IPV by a current partner were more at risk for poor mental health than Thai women with previous or without any experience of IPV. Also, among all women exposed to IPV, those with trust in others and without exposure to social isolation seemed to have partial protection against the adverse mental health consequences associated with IPV. Conclusions Most Thai women had never been exposed to IPV, and after migrating to Sweden, women had lower IPV exposure than in Thailand. However, the increased risk for poor mental health among those Thai women exposed to IPV suggests the need for supportive measures and targeted interventions to prevent further injuries and adverse health consequences. Although poor mental health in Thai women represents an obstacle for integration, the potential resilience indicated in the group with high social trust and without exposure to social isolation suggests that such aspects be included in the program designed to facilitate

  12. Regional variation in use of exogenous and endogenous glomerular filtration rate (GFR) markers in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Vilhelmsdotter Allander, Susanne; Marké, Lars-Åke; Wihlen, Björn; Svensson, Maria; Elinder, Carl-Gustaf

    2012-01-01

    Background Markers of renal function (glomerular filtration rate (GFR)) are frequently used in the Swedish health care. GFR is usually estimated based on plasma creatinine concentration, but plasma cystatin C concentration, creatinine clearance, iohexol clearance, and 51Cr-EDTA clearance are also used. These markers are all part of the daily patient care, but there is little specific information on the clinical use of these markers. The aim of this study was to compare the use of these various GFR markers in different parts of Sweden and potential changes over time. Methods Retrospective study using questionnaires to collect information for the years 2006–2009 divided per county on the specific use of GFR markers with type of test reports. Results Plasma/serum creatinine concentration (96%) is by far the dominating GFR marker in Sweden, while cystatin C concentration (3.5%), creatinine clearance (0.1%), iohexol clearance (0.1%), and 51Cr-EDTA clearance (0.1%) are less frequently used. The use of GFR markers, including creatinine, continues to increase on a national level with the exception of creatinine clearance and 51Cr-EDTA clearance. There were considerable variations between different counties in the use of GFR markers and the type of test reports that the laboratories provided. Conclusions The inter-county variations of GFR markers used in Sweden are large and indicate that savings associated with optimized test utilization in this regard could be substantial. Regional habits and traditions are likely to influence the variations in GFR marker use. PMID:22401136

  13. Natural fluoride in drinking water and myocardial infarction: A cohort study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Näsman, Peggy; Granath, Fredrik; Ekstrand, Jan; Ekbom, Anders; Sandborgh-Englund, Gunilla; Fored, C Michael

    2016-08-15

    Large geographical variation in the coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence is seen worldwide and only a part of this difference is attributed to the classic risk factors. Several environmental factors, such as trace elements in the drinking water have been implicated in the pathogenesis of CHD. The objective was to assess the association between drinking water fluoride exposure and myocardial infarction in Sweden using nationwide registers. This large cohort consisted of 455,619 individuals, born in Sweden between January 1, 1900 and December 31, 1919, alive and living in their municipality of birth at the time of start of follow-up. Estimated individual drinking water fluoride exposure was stratified into four categories: very low (<0.3mg/l), low (0.3-<0.7mg/l), medium (0.7-<1.5mg/l) and high (≥1.5mg/l). In Cox regression analyses, compared to the very low fluoride group, the adjusted Hazard Ratio for the low fluoride group was 0.99 (95% confidence interval, 0.98-1.00), for the medium fluoride group 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.03) and 0.98 (95% confidence interval, 0.96-1.01) for the highest fluoride group. Adding water hardness to the model did not change the results. We conclude that the investigated levels of natural drinking water fluoride content does not appear to be associated with myocardial infarction, nor related to the geographic myocardial infarction risk variation in Sweden. Potential misclassification of exposure and unmeasured confounding may have influenced the results.

  14. Aleutian mink disease virus in free-ranging mink from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Persson, Sara; Jensen, Trine H; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Appelberg, Mia Tjernström; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a chronic viral disease in farmed mink and the virus (AMDV) has been found in many free-ranging mink (Neovison vison) populations in Europe and North America. In this study, AMDV DNA and AMDV antibodies were analysed in 144 free-ranging mink hunted in Sweden. Associations between being AMDV infected (defined as positive for both viral DNA and antibodies) and the weight of the spleen, liver, kidneys, adrenal glands and body condition were calculated and the sequences of ten AMDV isolates were analysed in order to characterize the genetic relationships. In total, 46.1% of the mink were positive for AMDV antibodies and 57.6% were positive for AMDV DNA. Twenty-two percent of the mink tested on both tests (n = 133) had dissimilar results. The risk of having AMDV antibodies or being positive for AMDV DNA clearly increased with age and the majority of the mink that were two years or older were infected. Few macroscopic changes were found upon necropsy. However, the relative weight of the spleen was sexually dimorphic and was found to be slightly, but significantly (p = 0.006), heavier in AMDV infected male mink than uninfected. No association between AMDV infection and body condition, weight of the kidneys, liver or adrenal glands were found. Several different strains of AMDV were found across the country. Two of the AMDV sequences from the very north of Sweden did not group with any of the previously described groups of strains. In summary, AMDV seems to be prevalent in wild mink in Sweden and may subtly influence the weight of the spleen.

  15. Aleutian Mink Disease Virus in Free-Ranging Mink from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Sara; Jensen, Trine H.; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Appelberg, Mia Tjernström; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a chronic viral disease in farmed mink and the virus (AMDV) has been found in many free-ranging mink (Neovison vison) populations in Europe and North America. In this study, AMDV DNA and AMDV antibodies were analysed in 144 free-ranging mink hunted in Sweden. Associations between being AMDV infected (defined as positive for both viral DNA and antibodies) and the weight of the spleen, liver, kidneys, adrenal glands and body condition were calculated and the sequences of ten AMDV isolates were analysed in order to characterize the genetic relationships. In total, 46.1% of the mink were positive for AMDV antibodies and 57.6% were positive for AMDV DNA. Twenty-two percent of the mink tested on both tests (n = 133) had dissimilar results. The risk of having AMDV antibodies or being positive for AMDV DNA clearly increased with age and the majority of the mink that were two years or older were infected. Few macroscopic changes were found upon necropsy. However, the relative weight of the spleen was sexually dimorphic and was found to be slightly, but significantly (p = 0.006), heavier in AMDV infected male mink than uninfected. No association between AMDV infection and body condition, weight of the kidneys, liver or adrenal glands were found. Several different strains of AMDV were found across the country. Two of the AMDV sequences from the very north of Sweden did not group with any of the previously described groups of strains. In summary, AMDV seems to be prevalent in wild mink in Sweden and may subtly influence the weight of the spleen. PMID:25822750

  16. The value of a statistical life in Sweden: a review of the empirical literature.

    PubMed

    Hultkrantz, Lars; Svensson, Mikael

    2012-12-01

    Recent focus on cost-benefit/socio-economic assessment of government "life-saving" programmes within public health, pharmaceutics, transport, and civil contingencies has spurred a wave of empirical research on the value of a statistical life (VSL) in Sweden. This paper provides an overview of the received evidence from a range of studies in one country and over a relatively short time period. A literature search was conducted in Econlit, Pubmed, Google Scholar and in bibliographies of published papers. Twelve studies on VSL with a total of 48 VSL estimates, published with data from Sweden from 1996 onwards, were identified. Among all estimates VSL varies from 9 to 1121 million SEK (€0.9-121 million). Based on a set of additional quality inclusion criteria, as used also in a recent global review of VSL studies, the sample is restricted to 9 studies with a total of 29 VSL estimates with VSL varying from 9 to 98 million SEK (€0.9-10.6 million). The raw mean among these estimates is 34.6 million SEK (€3.7 million) and the median is 23 million SEK (€2.5 million). Currently, official authorities in Sweden recommend a VSL of 22 million Swedish kronor (€2.4 million). We also point out important concerns regarding validity of these estimates: primarily the problem that VSL is significantly related to the size of the mortality risk reduction showing significant scale insensitivity, in contrast to theoretical assumptions but in line with previous empirical findings.

  17. Health inequalities by wage income in Sweden: the role of work environment.

    PubMed

    Hemström, Orjan

    2005-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to explore the mediating role made by work environment to health inequalities by wage income in Sweden. Gender differences were also analysed. Data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions for the years 1998 and 1999 were analysed. Employed 20-64-year olds with a registered wage were included (nearly 6000 respondents). Sex-specific logistic regressions in relation to global self-rated health were applied. Those in the lowest income quintile had 2.4 times (men) and 4.3 times (women) higher probability of less than good health than did those in the highest quintile (adjusted for age, family status, country of birth, education level, smoking and full-time work). The mediating contribution of work environment factors to the health gradient by income was 25 per cent (men) and 29 per cent (women), respectively. This contribution was observed mainly from ergonomic and physical exposure, decision authority and skill discretion. Psychological demands did not contribute to such inequalities because mentally demanding work tasks are more common in high income as compared with low income jobs. Using sex-specific income quintiles, instead of income quintiles for the entire sample, gave very similar results. In conclusion, work environment factors can be seen as important mediators for the association between wage income and ill health in Sweden. A larger residual effect of income on health for women as compared with men suggests that one's own income from work is a more important determinant of women's than men's ill health in Sweden.

  18. Study on a hypothetical replacement of nuclear electricity by wind power in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, F.; Rachlew, E.

    2016-05-01

    The Swedish electricity supply system benefits strongly from the natural conditions which allow a high share of hydroelectricity. A complete supply is, however, not possible. Up to now, nuclear power is the other workhorse to serve the country with electricity. Thus, electricity production of Sweden is basically CO2 -free and Sweden has reached an environmental status which others in Europe plan to reach in 2050. Furthermore, there is an efficient exchange within the Nordic countries, Nordpol, which can ease possible capacity problems during dry cold years. In this study we investigate to what extent and with what consequences the base load supply of nuclear power can be replaced by intermittent wind power. Such a scenario leads unavoidably to high wind power installations. It is shown that hydroelectricity cannot completely smooth out the fluctuations of wind power and an additional back-up system using fossil fuel is necessary. From the operational dynamics, this system has to be based on gas. The back-up system cannot be replaced by a storage using surplus electricity from wind power. The surplus is too little. To overcome this, further strong extension of wind power is necessary which leads, however, to a reduction of the use of hydroelectricity if the annual consumption is kept constant. In this case one fossil-free energy form is replaced by another, however, more complex one. A mix of wind power at 22.3GW plus a gas based back-up system with 8.6GW producing together 64.8TWh would replace the present infrastructure with 9GW nuclear power producing 63.8TWh electricity. The specific CO2 -emission increases to the double in this case. Pumped storage for the exclusive supply of Sweden does not seem to be a meaningful investment.-1

  19. Analyses of SRS waste glass buried in granite in Sweden and salt in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.P.; Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Lodding, A.R.

    1991-12-31

    Simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste glass forms have been buried in the granite geology of the Stirpa mine in Sweden for two years. Analyses of glass surfaces provided a measure of the performance of the waste glasses as a function of time. Similar SRS waste glass compositions have also been buried in salt at the WIPP facility in Carlsbad, New Mexico for a similar time period. Analyses of the SRS waste glasses buried in-situ in granite will be presented and compared to the performance of these same compositions buried in salt at WIPP.

  20. Analyses of SRS waste glass buried in granite in Sweden and salt in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.P. ); Wicks, G.G. ); Clark, D.E. ); Lodding, A.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste glass forms have been buried in the granite geology of the Stirpa mine in Sweden for two years. Analyses of glass surfaces provided a measure of the performance of the waste glasses as a function of time. Similar SRS waste glass compositions have also been buried in salt at the WIPP facility in Carlsbad, New Mexico for a similar time period. Analyses of the SRS waste glasses buried in-situ in granite will be presented and compared to the performance of these same compositions buried in salt at WIPP.

  1. The Use of Coarse Resolution Satellite Imagery to Predict Human Puumala Virus Epidemics in Sweden.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-11

    M, Vaheri A, Hovi T, Lahdevirta J, et al. Nephropathia epidemica: detection of antibody in bank voles and serologic diagnosis of human infection. J...prevalence of endemic benign (epidemic) nephropathy in AC County, Sweden, in relation to population density and prevalence in small rodents. Acda Med Scand... DIAGNOSIS CONTROL contact w/ 3-9d fv, GI, Hem, IFA,EM body fluids Lv, Jaundice +aerosol * 2-21d " lab p to p & 6-21d flu+ fever lab rodent(? contact wI hem

  2. Volcanic ash and daily mortality in Sweden after the Icelandic volcano eruption of May 2011.

    PubMed

    Oudin, Anna; Carlsen, Hanne K; Forsberg, Bertil; Johansson, Christer

    2013-12-10

    In the aftermath of the Icelandic volcano Grimsvötn's eruption on 21 May 2011, volcanic ash reached Northern Europe. Elevated levels of ambient particles (PM) were registered in mid Sweden. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the Grimsvötn eruption had an effect on mortality in Sweden. Based on PM measurements at 16 sites across Sweden, data were classified into an ash exposed data set (Ash area) and an unexposed data set (No ash area). Data on daily all-cause mortality were obtained from Statistics Sweden for the time period 1 April through 31 July 2011. Mortality ratios were calculated as the ratio between the daily number of deaths in the Ash area and the No ash area. The exposure period was defined as the week following the days with elevated particle concentrations, namely 24 May through 31 May. The control period was defined as 1 April through 23 May and 1 June through 31 July. There was no absolute increase in mortality during the exposure period. However, during the exposure period the mean mortality ratio was 2.42 compared with 2.17 during the control period, implying a relatively higher number of deaths in the Ash area than in the No ash area. The differences in ratios were mostly due to a single day, 31 May, and were not statistically significant when tested with a Mann-Whitney non-parametric test (p > 0.3). The statistical power was low with only 8 days in the exposure period (24 May through 31 May). Assuming that the observed relative differences were not due to chance, the results would imply an increase of 128 deaths during the exposure period 24-31 May. If 31 May was excluded, the number of extra deaths was reduced to 20. The results of the present study are contradicting and inconclusive, but may indicate that all-cause mortality was increased by the ash-fall from the Grimsvötn eruption. Meta-analysis or pooled analysis of data from neighboring countries might make it possible to reach sufficient statistical power to study effects

  3. Volcanic Ash and Daily Mortality in Sweden after the Icelandic Volcano Eruption of May 2011

    PubMed Central

    Oudin, Anna; Carlsen, Hanne K.; Forsberg, Bertil; Johansson, Christer

    2013-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Icelandic volcano Grimsvötn’s eruption on 21 May 2011, volcanic ash reached Northern Europe. Elevated levels of ambient particles (PM) were registered in mid Sweden. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the Grimsvötn eruption had an effect on mortality in Sweden. Based on PM measurements at 16 sites across Sweden, data were classified into an ash exposed data set (Ash area) and an unexposed data set (No ash area). Data on daily all-cause mortality were obtained from Statistics Sweden for the time period 1 April through 31 July 2011. Mortality ratios were calculated as the ratio between the daily number of deaths in the Ash area and the No ash area. The exposure period was defined as the week following the days with elevated particle concentrations, namely 24 May through 31 May. The control period was defined as 1 April through 23 May and 1 June through 31 July. There was no absolute increase in mortality during the exposure period. However, during the exposure period the mean mortality ratio was 2.42 compared with 2.17 during the control period, implying a relatively higher number of deaths in the Ash area than in the No ash area. The differences in ratios were mostly due to a single day, 31 May, and were not statistically significant when tested with a Mann-Whitney non-parametric test (p > 0.3). The statistical power was low with only 8 days in the exposure period (24 May through 31 May). Assuming that the observed relative differences were not due to chance, the results would imply an increase of 128 deaths during the exposure period 24–31 May. If 31 May was excluded, the number of extra deaths was reduced to 20. The results of the present study are contradicting and inconclusive, but may indicate that all-cause mortality was increased by the ash-fall from the Grimsvötn eruption. Meta-analysis or pooled analysis of data from neighboring countries might make it possible to reach sufficient statistical power to study

  4. Highly polluted larval habitats of the Culex pipiens complex in central Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, T.; Sohn, S.R.

    1987-06-01

    Larvae of the Culex pipiens complex (Cx. pipiens and Cx. torrentium) were abundant in two highly polluted pools receiving sewage sludge in Uppsala, Sweden (early August through late September 1985). The water was characterized by high BOD, and high ion concentration of Cu, Fe, Al and much suspended matter. Maximum larval number at the pool surface area was 26.1/ml. The ratio between species was studied and Cx. torrentium comprised ca. 20% at the peak of abundance. Some egg rafts showed no embryogeny.

  5. Cultural dissimilarity and intermarriage. a longitudinal study of immigrants in Sweden, 1990–2005.

    PubMed

    Dribe, Martin; Lundh, Christer

    2011-01-01

    Intermarriage with natives is a key indicator of immigrant integration. This article studies intermarriage for 138 immigrant groups in Sweden, using longitudinal individual level data. It shows great variation in marriage patterns across immigrant populations, ranging from over 70 percent endogamy in some immigrants groups to below 5 percent in other groups. Although part of this variation is explained by human capital and the structure of the marriage market, cultural factors (values, religion, and language) play an important role as well. Immigrants from culturally more dissimilar countries are less likely to intermarry with natives, and instead more prone to endogamy.

  6. The 1948 international congress of genetics in Sweden: people and politics.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Bengt O; Tunlid, Anna

    2010-07-01

    The International Congresses have played an important role in the history of genetics. The Eighth International Congress, which in 1948 was held in Sweden, celebrated the conclusion of the war against Nazism and many new decisive scientific advances. It also signaled a hardening of the fight against Lysenkoism, which was growing in strength in the Soviet Union. A rare document is available from the Congress--an amateur film made by a young delegate, Nils Nybom. With its help a living description can be given of the scientific and political melees in which the delegates were involved.

  7. Age at immigration and duration of stay in relation to risk for testicular cancer among Finnish immigrants in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ekbom, Anders; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Akre, Olof; Montgomery, Scott M; Sparén, Pär

    2003-08-20

    Although the incidence of testicular cancer is increasing, substantial differences in incidence between countries and populations exist. These differences cannot be explained solely by genetic differences, but environmental exposures, particularly early exposures, have been implicated in the etiology of testicular cancer. To assess whether early exposures contribute to the incidence of testicular cancer, we identified 93 172 Finnish men who immigrated to Sweden between 1969 and 1996 and followed them for the occurrence of testicular cancer. The risk of testicular cancer was lower for Finnish immigrants to Sweden than for the Swedish general population (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.21 to 0.53). The reduced risk was associated with both seminomas and non-seminomas. Neither age at immigration nor duration of stay in Sweden had any impact on the reduced risk. Although the type of environmental exposures remains unknown, the results strongly indicate that early exposures are major determinants for testicular cancer.

  8. Legal framework for biosphere reserves as learning sites for sustainable development: a comparative analysis of Ukraine and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Elbakidze, Marine; Hahn, Thomas; Mauerhofer, Volker; Angelstam, Per; Axelsson, Robert

    2013-03-01

    The Biosphere Reserve (BR) concept aims at encouraging sustainable development (SD) towards sustainability on the ground by promoting three core functions: conservation, development, and logistic support. Sweden and Ukraine exemplify the diverse governance contexts that BRs need to cope with. We assessed how the BR concept and its core functions are captured in national legislations. The results show that the core functions are in different ways reflected in legal documents in both countries. While in Ukraine the BR concept is incorporated into legislation, in Sweden the concept is used as a soft law. In Ukraine managers desired stronger legal enforcement, while in Sweden managers avoided emphasis on legislation when collaborating with local stakeholders. Hence, BR implementation have adapted to different political cultures by development of diverse approaches. We conclude that a stronger legal support might not be needed for BRs, rather SD needs to be recognized as an integrated place-based process at multiple levels.

  9. Unheard voices, unmapped terrain: care work in long-term residential care for older people in Canada and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Tamara; Szebehely, Marta

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to comparative welfare state research by analysing the everyday work life of long-term care facility workers in Canada and Sweden. The study’s empirical base was a survey of fixed and open-ended questions; this article presents results from a subset of respondents (Care Aides and Assistant Nurses) working in facilities in three Canadian provinces (n=557) and across Sweden (n=292). The workers’ experiences were linked to the broader economic and organisational contexts of residential care in the two jurisdictions. We found a high degree of country-specific differentiation of work organisation: Canada follows a model of highly differentiated task–oriented work, whereas Sweden represents an integrated relational care work model. Reflecting differences in the vertical division of labour, the Canadian Care Aides had more demanding working conditions than their Swedish colleagues. The consequences of these models for care workers, for elderly people and for their families are discussed. PMID:24999303

  10. Burn injury during long-term oxygen therapy in Denmark and Sweden: the potential role of smoking

    PubMed Central

    Tanash, Hanan A; Ringbaek, Thomas; Huss, Fredrik; Ekström, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Background Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) increases life expectancy in patients with COPD and severe hypoxemia. Smoking is the main cause of burn injury during LTOT. Policy regarding smoking while on LTOT varies between countries. In this study, we compare the incidence of burn injury that required contact with a health care specialist, between Sweden (a country with a strict policy regarding smoking while on LTOT) and Denmark (a country with less strict smoking policy). Methods This was a population-based, cohort study of patients initiating LTOT due to any cause in Sweden and Denmark. Data on diagnoses, external causes, and procedures were obtained from the Swedish and Danish National Patient Registers for inpatient and outpatient care. Patients were followed from January 1, 2000, until the first of the following: LTOT withdrawal, death, or study end (December 31, 2009). The primary end point was burn injury during LTOT. Results A total of 23,741 patients received LTOT in Denmark and 7,754 patients in Sweden. Most patients started LTOT due to COPD, both in Sweden (74%) and in Denmark (62%). The rate of burn injury while on LTOT was higher in Denmark than in Sweden; 170 (95% confidence interval [CI], 126–225) vs 85 (95% CI, 44–148) per 100,000 person-years; rate ratio 2.0 (95% CI, 1.0–4.1). The risk remained higher after adjustment for gender, age, and diagnosis in multivariate Cox regression, hazard ratio 1.8 (95% CI, 1.0−3.5). Thirty-day mortality after burn injury was 8% in both countries. Conclusion Compared to Sweden, the rate of burn injury was twice as high in Denmark where smoking is not a contraindication for prescribing LTOT. PMID:28123292

  11. Meanings and practices of health among married Thai immigrant women in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, P C

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore and explain the meanings and practices of health among Thai immigrant women in Sweden with Swedish husbands. In agreement with Leininger's theory of cultural care, data were collected through observation-participation and ethnographic interviews with 10 key informants and 16 general informants living in Uppsala. The principal meanings of health of the Thai immigrant women were abstracted from the raw data using structural analysis. They were found to be (a) state of well-being, (b) absence of illness, (c) ability to perform daily role activities, and (d) adaptation to their new life situation. The principal factors for the promotion of health among these women were (a) mental support from family, (b) nutrition, (c) physical exercise, (d) no smoking, and (e) modest drinking. Knowledge among health care professionals of meanings and practices of health, such as those found here, is vital for the provision of culturally congruent care in a multicultural society such as Sweden.

  12. Records of larentiine moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) collected at the Station Linné in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The island of Öland, at the southeast of Sweden, has unique geological and environmental features. The Station Linné is a well-known Öland research station which provides facilities for effective studies and attracts researchers from all over the world. Moreover, the station remains a center for ecotourism due to extraordinary biodiversity of the area. The present paper is aimed to support popular science activities carried out on the island and to shed light on diverse geometrid moth fauna of the Station Linné. New information As an outcome of several research projects, including the Swedish Malaise Trap Project (SMTP) and the Swedish Taxonomy Initiative (STI) conducted at the Station Linné, a list of larentiine moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) collected on the territory of the station is presented. Images of moths from above and underside are shown. Of the totally 192 species registered for Sweden, 41 species (more than 21%) were collected in close proximity to the main building of the Station Linné. Malaise trap sampling of Lepidoptera is discussed. PMID:26929714

  13. Tiered environmental risk assessment of methyltins from heat stabilizers in rigid PVC in Sweden.

    PubMed

    van Dokkum, Henno P; Huwer, Sherri L

    2005-02-01

    The methyltins, methyltin 2-ethylhexyl mercaptoacetate and methyltin-2-mercaptoethyloleate sulfide, are used as heat stabilizers in rigid PVC. The degradation products monomethyltintrichloride (MMTTC) and dimethyltindichloride (DMTDC) may leach from the PVC, and enter the environment. A risk assessment was executed for the use of these products in Sweden, with the double aim to (a) assess the potential environmental risks, and (b) explore the possibilities of a tiered risk assessment. An initial assessment was executed with EUSES 1.0. The initial assessment showed no significant environmental risks on a regional scale. On a local scale however, emissions from a sewage treatment plant to the surface water pose a potential risk for the near proximity. In a second tier, this critical exposure route was studied in more detail; an improved exposure scenario was drawn up; and an additional sorption experiment was performed. This refinement resulted in much lower predicted environmental concentrations (Sweden are of no concern.

  14. LAS degradability by marine biofilms derived from seawater in Spain and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mauffret, A; Gillan, D C; Eriksson, K M; Rottiers, A; Blasco, J; Temara, A

    2011-07-01

    Marine biofilms were established on glass beads with or without deliberate pre-exposure to LAS (20 μg/L) in Spain (Cadiz) and Sweden (Kristineberg). The ability of each community to mineralize LAS (100 μg/L) was then assessed in biometers at four experimental temperatures (between 6 and 21°C). Genetic diversity and biomass of the biofilms were assessed by genetic fingerprinting (DGGE) and direct bacterial counts. With biofilms from Sweden, where LAS was not detected in seawater (n = 3), deliberate pre-exposure to LAS resulted in lower genetic diversity and higher mineralization rate constant; however, with biofilms from Spain, where 6.4 ± 3.9 μgLAS/L (n = 3) was measured during the colonization, pre-exposure did not affect the bacterial community. Bacterial acclimation therefore appeared to have been induced at environmental concentrations < 6 μgLAS/L. Environmental pre-exposure was not a pre-requisite for featuring the full consortia of LAS degraders in the biometers. The mineralization rate was described using an Arrhenius equation at experimental temperatures within the typical annual range; however, they departed from this model below this range.

  15. Time trends in peptic ulcer surgery, 1956 to 1986. A nation-wide survey in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Gustavsson, S; Nyrén, O

    1989-01-01

    To establish time trends in surgical rates for peptic ulcer disease, all surgical departments in Sweden were requested to complete a questionnaire regarding elective operations for gastric and duodenal ulcers and emergency operations for ulcer perforations performed in 1956, 1966, 1976, and 1986. A total of 8558 operations were reported for these years. The incidence of elective surgery declined steadily, the rates being 72.1, 45.0, 31.9, and 10.7 per 100,000 inhabitants. The male:female ratio fell from 4.2 to 1.5:1, while the duodenal/gastric ulcer ratio remained virtually unchanged. The operation rate for perforation decreased by 50%, from 12.8 to 6.4 per 100,000 inhabitants. We conclude that there has been a dramatic decline in elective peptic ulcer surgery in Sweden that began long before the advent of fiberoptic endoscopy, highly selective vagotomy, or H2-receptor antagonists. The comparable decline in emergency procedures suggests that true changes in the incidence or severity of the disease have occurred. In the future the few patients still needing elective surgery for peptic ulcer may have to be served by a small number of specialized centers. PMID:2589883

  16. Standards, calibration and quality assurance of 222Rn measurements in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, R.; Hagberg, N.; Mjönes, L.; Möre, H.; Nyblom, L.; Swedjemark, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    Inhaled decay products of 222Rn are the dominant components of the natural radiation exposure to the general population. Limits have been introduced in Sweden, and recommendations were made in 1980 for decreasing indoor 222Rn concentration. The need for the coordinated calibration of measuring instruments as well as for quality assurance was obvious for both health and economic reasons. 222Rn measurements in Sweden are based on standards traceable to the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) through the use of standard reference material 226Ra. Standards for both 222Rn and short-lived 222Rn progeny are described together with the reference instrument adopted for these studies. The calibration of field instruments was performed in a "radon room", a climate chamber in which it is possible to vary and monitor the concentration of 222Rn as well as other characteristics of the indoor air such as temperature, humidity, ventilation rate and aerosol concentration. The rules and regulations for field measurements imply a calibration of the instruments yearly, as well as accreditation and training for the companies that carry out the measurements. Examples are given of the official measurement protocols used for the different types of instruments.

  17. Stapes surgery in Sweden: evaluation of a national-based register.

    PubMed

    Strömbäck, Karin; Lundman, Lars; Bjorsne, Andreas; Grendin, Joakim; Stjernquist-Desatnik, Anna; Dahlin-Redfors, Ylva

    2017-03-11

    The aim of the National Quality Registries is to monitor the outcome of healthcare given to patients. The Swedish Quality register for otosclerosis surgery is one of the nine official national registers for ear, nose and throat diseases in Sweden. Since 2004, surgical and audiological results and patient satisfaction scores have been systematically collected from a majority of the ear, nose and throat clinics performing stapes surgery in Sweden. The results of 1688 patients who underwent primary operations for otosclerosis were evaluated for 24 out of totally 26 clinics performing stapes surgery, between 2004 and 2010. The most common surgical technique reported was stapedotomy accomplished in an overnight stay. A majority of patients experienced improved hearing, and were satisfied with the preoperative counselling. Successful surgery, defined as an ABG closure ≤10 dB HL, was achieved in 69%, improvement in AC by ≥20 dB in 63% and BC not worsened by more than ≥5 dB in 93% of the patients. An overall low incidence of postoperative complications was reported. The outcome for ABG and BC was demonstrated to be independent of the number of operations performed by each clinic. An evaluation of the register and the results from the SQOS revealed that stapes surgery is a safe procedure with good hearing outcomes, low complication rates and a high rate of patient's satisfaction on a national level.

  18. Magmatic origin of giant ‘Kiruna-type’ apatite-iron-oxide ores in Central Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Erik; Troll, Valentin R.; Högdahl, Karin; Harris, Chris; Weis, Franz; Nilsson, Katarina P.; Skelton, Alasdair

    2013-01-01

    Iron is the most important metal for modern industry and Sweden is by far the largest iron-producer in Europe, yet the genesis of Sweden's main iron-source, the ‘Kiruna-type’ apatite-iron-oxide ores, remains enigmatic. We show that magnetites from the largest central Swedish ‘Kiruna-type’ deposit at Grängesberg have δ18O values between −0.4 and +3.7‰, while the 1.90−1.88 Ga meta-volcanic host rocks have δ18O values between +4.9 and +9‰. Over 90% of the magnetite data are consistent with direct precipitation from intermediate to felsic magmas or magmatic fluids at high-temperature (δ18Omgt > +0.9‰, i.e. ortho-magmatic). A smaller group of magnetites (δ18Omgt ≤ +0.9‰), in turn, equilibrated with high-δ18O, likely meteoric, hydrothermal fluids at low temperatures. The central Swedish ‘Kiruna-type’ ores thus formed dominantly through magmatic iron-oxide precipitation within a larger volcanic superstructure, while local hydrothermal activity resulted from low-temperature fluid circulation in the shallower parts of this system. PMID:23571605

  19. Children’s experiences of family disruption in Sweden: Differentials by parent education over three decades

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Sheela; Thomson, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the living arrangements of Swedish children from 1970 through 1999 using the Level of Living Survey. Sweden, with low levels of economic inequality and a generous welfare state, provides an important context for studying socioeconomic differentials in family structure. We find that, although differences by parent education in non-marital childbearing are substantial and persistent, cohabiting childbearing is common even among highly educated Swedish parents. Educational differences in family instability were small during the 1970s, but increased over time as a result of rising union disruption among less-educated parents (secondary graduates or less). Children in more advantaged families experienced substantially less change in family structure and instability over the study period. Although cohabiting parents were more likely to separate than parents married at the child’s birth, differences were greater for the less-educated. Data limitations precluded investigating these differences across time. We conclude that educational differences in children’s living arrangements in Sweden have grown, but remain small in international comparisons. PMID:21113397

  20. Sustainability concept for a newly built urban area in Malmö, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gruvberger, C; Aspegren, H; Andersson, B; la Cour Jansen, J

    2003-01-01

    National goals regarding sustainable development from the Swedish government were decisive in the planning process when the newly built city district Western Harbour was established in the city of Malmö, Sweden. A systems analysis was used as a tool for evaluating different collection and treatment systems. This type of analysis does not include more subjective factors such as acceptance of organic fertilizers based on human waste and user acceptance of collection schemes. These aspects, however, will often determine the success of a technical solution. When the system for collection and treatment of old organic waste and wastewater was designed, both subjective and objective factors were considered. This meant that a centralised solution for wastewater treatment was selected. In order to facilitate a more sustainable solution for sludge management a treatment process with recovery of phosphorus will have to be introduced. Organic waste is sorted out and treated in an anaerobic digestion process. Source sorting of solid organic waste has been difficult to implement in Sweden due to inadequate sorting discipline. As a consequence two relatively new systems are tested in the area. A comprehensive evaluation will be carried out during a period of two years.

  1. Secular Slowing of Auditory Simple Reaction Time in Sweden (1959–1985)

    PubMed Central

    Madison, Guy; Woodley of Menie, Michael A.; Sänger, Justus

    2016-01-01

    There are indications that simple reaction time might have slowed in Western populations, based on both cohort- and multi-study comparisons. A possible limitation of the latter method in particular is measurement error stemming from methods variance, which results from the fact that instruments and experimental conditions change over time and between studies. We therefore set out to measure the simple auditory reaction time (SRT) of 7,081 individuals (2,997 males and 4,084 females) born in Sweden 1959–1985 (subjects were aged between 27 and 54 years at time of measurement). Depending on age cut-offs and adjustment for aging related slowing of SRT, the data indicate that SRT has increased by between 3 and 16 ms in the 27 birth years covered in the present sample. This slowing is unlikely to be explained by attrition, which was evaluated by comparing the general intelligence × birth-year interactions and standard deviations for both male participants and dropouts, utilizing military conscript cognitive ability data. The present result is consistent with previous studies employing alternative methods, and may indicate the operation of several synergistic factors, such as recent micro-evolutionary trends favoring lower g in Sweden and the effects of industrially produced neurotoxic substances on peripheral nerve conduction velocity. PMID:27588000

  2. Evaluations of the effects of Sweden's spanking ban on physical child abuse rates: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Larzelere, R E; Johnson, B

    1999-10-01

    Sweden's 1979 law banning corporal punishment by parents was welcomed by many as a needed policy to help reduce physical abuse of children. This study reviews the published empirical evidence relevant to that goal. Only seven journal articles with pertinent data were located. One study reported that the rate of physical child abuse was 49% higher in Sweden than in the USA, comparing its 1980 Swedish national survey with the average rates from two national surveys in the United States in 1975 and 1985. In contrast, a 1981 retrospective survey of university students suggested that the Swedish abuse rate had been 79% less than the American rate prior to the Swedish spanking ban. Some unpublished evidence suggests that Swedish rates of physical child abuse have remained high, although child abuse mortality rates have stayed low there. A recent Swedish report suggested that the spanking ban has made little change in problematic forms of physical punishment. The conclusion calls for more timely and rigorous evaluations of similar social experiments in the future.

  3. The Role of Large Carnivore Committees in Legitimising Large Carnivore Management in Finland and Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellikka, Jani; Sandström, Camilla

    2011-07-01

    Many countries, including Sweden and Finland, are decentralizing the management of large carnivore species within their borders and emphasizing the role of stakeholder participation in legitimizing formal policy. Regional large carnivore committees (RLCCs), including representatives of authorities and non-governmental organizations, are essential to these endeavors. These committees are formally constituted in Sweden, whereas in Finland, they are informally developed from the bottom-up. In both countries, the declared roles of these committees are consultative. A comparative study based on survey data is described here, which address the question of how procedural legitimacy is shaped and maintained in institutional settings with different origins, such as top-down or bottom-up. The results indicate no clear difference in the representatives' general satisfaction with the country-specific arrangements. Notable differences were found in specific perceptions of the clarity and purposes of the RLCCs. In both countries, the perceived rationale for the establishment of RLCCs emphasized the knowledge and expertise of the represented interest groups and authorities. Between the countries, similarities were also found in the strong links between overall satisfaction and personally perceived success and progress in communication and information exchange, i.e., deliberative processes. The capacity of the RLCCs to improve trust and acceptability with regard to different opinions was viewed as a key element underlying satisfactory RLCC activities, irrespective of the institutional settings.

  4. The DECIDE evidence to recommendation framework adapted to the public health field in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Guldbrandsson, Karin; Stenström, Nils; Winzer, Regina

    2016-12-01

    Organizations worldwide compile results from scientific studies, and grade the evidence of interventions, in order to assist policy makers. However, quality of evidence alone is seldom sufficient to make a recommendation. The Developing and Evaluating Communication Strategies to Support Informed Decisions and Practice Based on Evidence (DECIDE) framework aims to facilitate decision making and to improve dissemination and implementation of recommendations in the healthcare and public health sector. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the DECIDE framework is applicable in the public health field in Sweden. The DECIDE framework was presented and discussed in interviews with stakeholders and governmental organizations and tested in panels. Content analyses were performed. In general, the informants were positive to the DECIDE framework. However, two questions, the first regarding individual autonomy and the second regarding method sustainability, were by the stakeholders felt to be missing in the framework. The importance of the composition of the DECIDE stakeholder panel was lifted by the informants, as was the significant role of the chair. Further, the informants raised concerns about the general lack of research evidence based on RCT design regarding universal methods in the public health sector. Finally, the local, regional and national levels' responsibility for dissemination and implementation of recommendations were lifted by the informants. The DECIDE framework might be useful as a tool for dissemination and implementation of recommendations in the public health field in Sweden. Important questions for further research are whether these findings are suitable for other public health topics and in other public health settings.

  5. The role of energy forestry in alternative energy planning, waste recycling and agriculture in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Sennerby-Forsse, L.; Christersson, L. . Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research)

    1994-09-01

    In Sweden, 15 years of research and development within the National Swedish Energy Forestry Programme (NSEFP) have resulted in a new agricultural crop with a high potential for sound ecological and economic outcome. Commercialization of energy plantations is in progress and about 10,000 ha of energy plantations have been established on private farm land. To replace the part of the imported oil used for heating purposes, approximately 200,000 ha of energy forests are needed. Thus, in the near future, bioenergy could constitute one-third of Sweden's total annual energy need which illustrates the potential of bioenergy as an important part of the energy supply. The further utilization of biomass plantations for environmental clean-up programs and waste cycling is now developing on a regional and local basis. As a complement to intensively cultivated pure energy plantations, mixed forest stands are of interest as multipurpose production systems for wood chips, short fiber and veneer. Economic calculations concerning natively produced bioenergy, from conventional forestry as well as from bioenergy plantations, are mostly positive today. Considering different environmental as well as the low profitability of agriculture, the waste mountain and the requirement for energy.

  6. Morphometry and core type of streamlined bedforms in southern Sweden from high resolution LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, Thomas P. F.; Spagnolo, Matteo; Möller, Per

    2015-05-01

    This paper generates a new data set of streamlined glacial bedforms in southern Sweden, which is used both to test conclusions from previous work on streamlined bedform morphometrics and to advance our knowledge of streamlined bedforms on the Scandinavian Shield. The data set consists of streamlined glacial bedforms in southeast Sweden mapped from the new LiDAR-derived Swedish National Height Model, which has a pixel resolution of 2.0 m with a vertical resolution of 1 cm. We have mapped 10,311 features; of the mapped features, 135 are known to have an unconsolidated sediment core, 2120 a bedrock component, and 8055 whose core composition is unknown. The extracted morphological variables are then subjected to a univariate and bivariate analysis. We find that the extracted characteristics broadly fit into the lower end of the modal and median value spectrum of similar bedforms from around the world. The distribution of the variables is found to be log-normal to a first-order approximation. The covariant relationships between height and length, width and area are examined after the variables have been log-transformed and are found to be significant, if not particularly strong. Rock-cored features are found to have a longer modal length than soft-cored features, which suggests that reconstructions of past flow velocities from streamlined landforms need to closely consider core-type. Additionally, we find no support for a derived scaling law for streamlined features by plotting length, width, and elongation ratio against one another.

  7. Pleural mesothelioma in Sweden: an analysis of the incidence according to the use of asbestos

    PubMed Central

    Jarvholm, B.; Englund, A.; Albin, M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if the preventive measures taken to reduce the occupational exposure to asbestos have resulted in a decreased incidence of pleural mesothelioma in Sweden. METHODS: The incidence of pleural mesothelioma between 1958 and 1995 for birth cohorts born between 1885 and 1964 was investigated. The cases of pleural mesothelioma were identified through the Swedish Cancer Register. RESULTS: In 1995, around 80 cases of pleural mesothelioma could be attributed to occupational exposure to asbestos. There is an increasing incidence in more recent birth cohorts in men. The incidence was considerably higher in the male cohort born between 1935 and 1944 than in men born earlier. CONCLUSIONS: The annual incidence of pleural mesothelioma attributable to occupational exposure to asbestos is today larger than all fatal occupational accidents in Sweden. The first asbestos regulation was adopted in 1964 and in the mid 1970s imports of raw asbestos decreased drastically. Yet there is no obvious indication that the preventive measures have decreased the risk of pleural mesothelioma. The long latency indicates that the effects of preventive measures in the 1970s could first be evaluated around 2005.   PMID:10448315

  8. Determination and distribution of diesel components in igneous rock surrounding underground diesel storage facilities in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Loren, A; Hallbeck, L; Pedersen, K; Abrahamsson, K

    2001-01-15

    In Sweden, a preliminary investigation of the contamination situation of igneous rock surrounding underground storage facilities of diesel showed that the situation was severe. The diesel was believed to have penetrated into the rock as far as 50 m from the walls of the vaults. Consequently, the risk for contamination of groundwater and recipients could not be neglected. To be able to assess the fate of diesel components in rock, both a suitable drilling method and a method for the determination of a wide range of diesel components were needed. The analytical method presented made it possible to quantify a number of hydrocarbons in rock samples collected with triple-tube core drilling. The samples were dissolved in hydrofluoric acid (HF) with hexane in Teflon centrifuge tubes. After digestion of the rock, extraction of the analytes with hexane was performed. Determination of the individual hydrocarbons present was done with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The method was used to study the environmental impact of the underground storage of diesel. The drilling method enabled sampling without contamination risks. Our data show that the major transport of diesel components in rock occurs through fracture systems and that diffusion of diesel through the rock is of minor importance. The results have drastically changed the view of the contamination situation of diesel in the vicinity of storage facilities in hard rock in Sweden.

  9. A 'civic turn' in Scandinavian family migration policies? Comparing Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bech, Emily Cochran; Borevi, Karin; Mouritsen, Per

    2017-01-01

    Family migration policy, once basing citizens and resident foreigners' possibilities to bring in foreign family members mainly on the right to family life, is increasingly a tool states use to limit immigration and to push newcomers to integrate into civic and economic life. The family migration policies of Denmark, Norway and Sweden range widely - from more minimal support and age requirements to high expectations of language skills, work records and even income levels. While in Denmark and increasingly in Norway growing sets of requirements have been justified on the need to protect the welfare state and a Nordic liberal way of life, in Sweden more minimal requirements have been introduced in the name of spurring immigrants' labor market integration even as rights-based reasoning has continued to dominate. In all three countries, new restrictions have been introduced in the wake of the refugee crisis. These cases show how prioritizations of the right to family life vis-à-vis welfare-state sustainability have produced different rules for family entry, and how family migration policies are used to different extents to push civic integration of both new and already settled immigrants.

  10. Dietary habits related to caries development and immigrant status in infants and toddlers living in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wendt, L K; Birkhed, D

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the dietary habits of infants and toddlers living in Sweden with special reference to caries prevalence at 2 and 3 years of age and to immigrant status. The study was designed as a prospective, longitudinal study starting with 671 children aged 1 year. At 3 years, all children were invited to a further examination. A total of 298 individuals, randomly selected from the original group, were also examined at 2 years. The accompanying parent was interviewed about the child's dietary habits. Children with caries at 2 and 3 years of age and immigrant children had, when they were 1 year old, consumed caries-risk products and been given nocturnal meals and sweetened liquid in a feeding bottle more often than caries-free 2- and 3-year-olds and non-immigrant children. Although a great variation in dietary habits was found in infants and toddlers, the use of sugar-containing products is widespread in Sweden even in early childhood.

  11. Magmatic origin of giant 'Kiruna-type' apatite-iron-oxide ores in central Sweden.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Erik; Troll, Valentin R; Högdahl, Karin; Harris, Chris; Weis, Franz; Nilsson, Katarina P; Skelton, Alasdair

    2013-01-01

    Iron is the most important metal for modern industry and Sweden is by far the largest iron-producer in Europe, yet the genesis of Sweden's main iron-source, the 'Kiruna-type' apatite-iron-oxide ores, remains enigmatic. We show that magnetites from the largest central Swedish 'Kiruna-type' deposit at Grängesberg have δ(18)O values between -0.4 and +3.7‰, while the 1.90-1.88 Ga meta-volcanic host rocks have δ(18)O values between +4.9 and +9‰. Over 90% of the magnetite data are consistent with direct precipitation from intermediate to felsic magmas or magmatic fluids at high-temperature (δ(18)Omgt > +0.9‰, i.e. ortho-magmatic). A smaller group of magnetites (δ(18)Omgt ≤ +0.9‰), in turn, equilibrated with high-δ(18)O, likely meteoric, hydrothermal fluids at low temperatures. The central Swedish 'Kiruna-type' ores thus formed dominantly through magmatic iron-oxide precipitation within a larger volcanic superstructure, while local hydrothermal activity resulted from low-temperature fluid circulation in the shallower parts of this system.

  12. Attitudes and knowledge about preventive dental care in Chilean refugees in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M; Bornstein, R; Martinsson, T

    1993-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a simplified oral health programme on attitudes to and knowledge of preventive dentistry. The subjects were Chilean refugees and the programme was delivered at one or two sessions in the form of group information/discussion. Because of increasing immigration, Sweden has become a multicultural society. The number of non-Nordic immigrants has doubled in the past decade. The major refugee groups have come from Iran, Chile and Poland. The subjects comprised 193 Chilean refugees: 106 in a single-visit group and 87 in a two-visit group. The oral health programme was completed by 94 and 65 subjects respectively and was evaluated after 6 months. Positive effects were discernible in attitudes to and knowledge of preventive dentistry, particularly with respect to oral hygiene. A key to success may have been group discussion in which the refugees could relate oral health problems to their own ethnic group. This could have an important function in bridging cultural, linguistic and situational barriers. Different forms of outreach programmes for oral health via groups, organisations or authorities in close contact with refugees shortly after arrival in Sweden are proposed. This approach may be particularly effective in a multicultural society and also in the context of the turbulent conditions the newly-arrived refugee experiences.

  13. Hepatitis B seroprevalence in persons attending youth clinics in Stockholm, Sweden in 2008.

    PubMed

    Stenkvist, J; Lidbrink, P; Olofsson, I; von Sydow, M; Lindh, G

    2012-11-01

    Sweden is a low endemicity country for hepatitis B virus (HBV). The previously reported prevalence of chronic HBV is <1% and of overall markers <5%. HBV is not included in the universal childhood vaccination programme. Instead, selected high-risk groups are targeted. Our aim was to examine the HBV seroprevalence in youth clinic clients in Stockholm and identify if this population might be a new target group for vaccination. In total, 515 clients aged 18-22 years were recruited. They completed a risk-assessment questionnaire and 464 (90%) had a serum specimen tested for HBV serology. Chronic HBV was found in 0.6% and 0.9% had previously been infected with HBV. A seroprevalence of 1.8% HBV markers was found among non-vaccinated persons. This is lower than reported from other countries and not different from the general population in Sweden. However, in persons originating from HBV endemic countries (n = 123), the prevalence was higher, 6.5%. Only 14% were vaccinated and the majority hence susceptible to HBV. The target groups are not reached by the present vaccination strategy. Youth clinics are ideal settings for catch-up vaccination.

  14. Designing rites to re-enchant secularized society: new varieties of spiritualized therapy in contemporary Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hornborg, Anne-Christine

    2012-06-01

    Detraditionalization in late modernity in Western society has affected the domains of both traditional religion and clinical psychotherapy. Sweden, which is said to be one of the most secularized societies in the world, instead, has allowed the public domain to be colonized by new, spiritualized practices. Sold as therapy, the services of new spiritual leaders offer anti-stress techniques to prevent burnout, or leaders are trained to develop their leadership in coaching activities. New varieties of spiritualized therapy are rapidly increasing in contemporary Sweden, typical of which is to have added healing rhetoric to their agenda, such as "find your inner self" or "develop your inner potential." Four common denominators seem to guide these practices: self-appointed leaders, individual-centered rites, realization of one's Self, and intense emotions. We might also add a fifth aspect: profit. Rites have become a commodity and are sold as liberating practices for burnt-out souls or for people in pursuit of self-realization.

  15. Complete coding sequences of European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) strains isolated in 1982 in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana M; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Le Gall-Reculé, Ghislaine; Esteves, Pedro J; Abrantes, Joana

    2013-10-01

    European brown hare syndrome (EBHS) is characterised by high mortality of European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) and mountain hares (Lepus timidus). European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and the closely related rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) comprise the genus Lagovirus, family Caliciviridae. In contrast to RHDV, which is well studied, with more than 30 complete genome sequences available, the only complete genome sequence available for EBHSV was obtained from a strain isolated in 1989 in France. EBHS was originally diagnosed in Sweden in 1980. Here, we report the complete coding sequences of two EBHSV strains isolated from European brown hares that died with liver lesions characteristic of EBHS in Sweden in 1982. These sequences represent the oldest complete coding sequences of EBHSV isolated from the original area of virus diagnosis. The genomic organisation is similar to that of the published French sequence. Comparison with this sequence revealed several nucleotide substitutions, corresponding to 6 % divergence. At the amino acid level, the Swedish strains are 2 % different from the French strain. Most amino acid substitutions were located within the major capsid protein VP60, but when considering the amino acid sequence length of each protein, VP10 is the protein with the highest percentage of amino acid differences. The same result was obtained when Swedish strains were compared. This evolutionary pattern has not been described previously for members of the genus Lagovirus.

  16. "Never my daughters": a qualitative study regarding attitude change toward female genital cutting among Ethiopian and Eritrean families in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Johnsdotter, Sara; Moussa, Kontie; Carlbom, Aje; Aregai, Rishan; Essén, Birgitta

    2009-01-01

    To explore attitudes toward female genital cutting (FGC) in a migration perspective, qualitative interviews were conducted with men and women from Ethiopia and Eritrea in Sweden. We found firm rejection of all forms of FGC and absence of a guiding motive. Informants failed to see any meaning in upholding the custom. We conclude that children of Ethiopian or Eritrean parents resident in Sweden run little risk of being subjected to FGC. A societal structure prepared to deal with suspected cases of FGC with a high level of alertness should be combined with a healthy sceptical attitude toward exaggerations of risk estimates.

  17. Lack of correlation between hepatitis B virus infection and the increasing incidence of primary liver cancer in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kaczynski, J; Hansson, G; Norkrans, G; Wallerstedt, S

    1991-01-01

    The incidence of primary carcinoma of the liver in Sweden has been reported to increase. In order to study the role of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection for liver cancer development 40 cases with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were examined for the presence of HBV surface antigen and HBV core antigen in the cancer and in the surrounding non-neoplastic liver tissue. It was not possible to demonstrate a single case with tissue HBV antigen, indicating that HBV plays a minor role in the etiology of HCC in Sweden and thus does not seem to be responsible for the increasing incidence of this cancer.

  18. PFAS - A threat for groundwater and drinking water supply in Sweden?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Jeffrey; Banzhaf, Stefan; Ahlkrona, Malva; Arnheimer, Berit; Barthel, Roland; Bergvall, Martin; Blomquist, Niklas; Jacks, Gunnar; Jansson, Cecilia; Lissel, Patrik; Marklund, Lars; Olofsson, Bo; Persson, Kenneth M.; Sjöström, Jan; Sparrenbom, Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of anthropogenic environmental pollutants that are widely distributed in the global environment. They have multiple industrial uses, including water repellents in clothing, paper coatings and firefighting foam. According to a study released by the Environmental Directorate of the OECD, they are persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic to mammalian species (OECD, 2002). In some municipal drinking water wells in Sweden, measured concentrations of PFAS found to be several hundred times higher than the allowed threshold values. This has created a huge public concern and has recently attracted much media attention in Sweden (e.g. Afzelius et al., 2014; Bergman et al., 2014; Lewis et al., 2014). PFAS findings raised questions such as "What can we do to solve the problem?" When it comes to drinking water, there are a number of techniques that can ensure that PFAS levels are reduced to acceptable levels. This may be a costly challenge, but from a technical point of view it is possible. To ensure the safety of drinking water from a public health perspective is obviously a top priority. However, international experience shows that the cost of cleaning up PFAS in groundwater may be significantly higher than continuously treat drinking water in water works. Approximately fifty percent of Sweden's drinking water comes from groundwater. As a result, there are several ongoing and planned PFAS-related environmental and drinking-water investigations in Sweden. Many aquifers that supply municipal water plants are located in areas of sand and gravel deposits. Such soils have relatively high permeabilities, which permits extraction of large volumes of water. However, the downside to high permeabilities is that they also allow dissolved contaminants as PFAS to spread over large areas. If one disregards the health risks linked to its presence in drinking water, PFAS have an impact on three of Sweden's national environmental quality objectives

  19. Institutional Governance in Higher Education: Public Policy in France, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Yale Higher Education Research Group Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Premfors, Rune

    Major public policies for institutional governance in France, Sweden, and the United Kingdom over the past two decades are reviewed, and factors that may account for differences in policy developments in the three countries are considered. In France and (although only recently) in Sweden, politics have aimed at increasing institutional autonomy in…

  20. Veiki-moraine-like landforms in Nereidum Montes on Mars: Insights from analogues in northern Sweden.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsson, Andreas; Reiss, Dennis; Hauber, Ernst; Johnson, Mark D.; Olvmo, Mats; Hiesinger, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Mars is a cold hyper-arid planet where liquid water is extremely rare [1]. The observable water budget is instead found in a number of frozen reservoirs such as the polar caps, near surface ground ice and as glacier ice. Previously, numerous studies reported on glacier landforms such as viscous flow features and lobate debris aprons where water-ice is believed to be present under insulating debris cover [2]. This notion was confirmed by SHARAD measurements [3]. However, very little is known about glacial landforms in which water is an important factor. Most studies have focused on moraine-like ridges that are associated to gully systems [4], glacial landforms at the equatorial volcanic province [5] and possible drop-moraines from CO2 glaciers [6]. Here we report on an unusual lobate assemblage of irregular ring-shaped landforms within a mountain complex in Nereidum Montes, Mars. These landforms are well-preserved and may suggest recent ablation of a debris-covered glacier. These martian ring-shaped landforms show a striking morphological resemblance to the Veiki moraine in northern Sweden. Veiki moraines are believed to have formed at the lobate margins of a stagnant ice-sheet during the first Weichselian glaciation [7]. As it sharply ends to the east it may represent the maximum extent of this former ice sheet. The Veiki moraine is characterized by ridged plateaus that are more or less circular and surrounded by a rim ridge. The newly acquired national LiDAR data over Sweden enable us studying these landforms in unprecedented detail. They also enable us exploring geomorphological similarities between Earth and Mars in large spatial contexts. This study aims to increase our understanding of glacial landforms on Mars by comparison to terrestrial analogues. Questions addressed are: (1) How morphological similar are the Martian landforms to the Veiki moraine of Sweden? (2) How does the ring-shaped landforms relate to other possible glacial landforms within the

  1. Biomarkers from varved lake sediments: evidence for the 8.2 ka climate event in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S. K.; Bendle, J. A.; Snowball, I.; Seki, O.; Zillin Snowball, L.; Stanton, T.

    2009-12-01

    In order to quantify the variability of Holocene climate fluctuations in northern Europe a multi-proxy biomarker (inter alia: n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkanols) analyses were carried out on a continuous varved sediment sequence from Lake Kälksjön in west-central Sweden. The most extreme Holocene climate anomaly in northern hemisphere is considered as a cold event that took place at c. 8200 cal. yr BP (Grootes et al. 1993; Alley et al. 1997). Interestingly, winter snow accumulation is reportedly enhanced in Sweden in between 8100 and 7750 cal. yr BP (Zillén and Snowball, 2009). This study investigates the sedimentary record of this rapid climate change event as recorded by the biomarkers incorporated into one a long, continuous Holocene varve sequence. Our data reveal enhanced catchment erosion between 8100 and 8000 cal. yr BP peaking at c. 8050 cal. yr BP. This is evident from the higher input of land plant derived biomarkers, which is the major source of organic matter in the lake sediment. The enhanced erosion is interpreted as the catchment response to the colder winters and increased accumulation of snow that led to more intense spring discharge from melting snowpack. This finding is consistent with similar finding in other Swedish lakes (Zillén and Snowball, 2009) and most likely represent the geomorphic response to a multi-centennial scale climatic cooling that occurred between 8500 and 7500 cal. yr BP (Zillén and Snowball, 2009). In addition, we present new analyses of bacterial branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (br-GDGTs), and the compound specific hydrogen (δD) isotopic composition of lake macrophyte biomarkers. Br-GDGTs record changes in the temperature and pH of catchment and lake sediments. The δD in plant lipids includes a strong signal incorporated from environmental water during growth, thus such data can record histories of changing lake water δD, which itself is a function of changes in lake temperature and moisture

  2. Frankly, None of Us Know What Dementia Is: Dementia Caregiving Among Iranian Immigrants Living in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Antelius, Eleonor; Kiwi, Mahin

    2015-01-01

    In quite a short amount of time, Sweden has gone from being a relatively homogeneous society to a multicultural one, with a rapid expansion of immigrants having culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds growing old in Sweden. This is particularly interesting in relation to studying age-related dementia diseases. Research shows that not only do CALD persons with dementia diseases tend to mix languages, have difficulties with separation of languages, or revert to speaking only their native tongue as the disease progresses, but they also show tendencies to experience that they live in the cultural environment in which they were brought up, rather than in the current Swedish one. In this article, we explore findings in relation to one such CALD group in Sweden, Iranians. The article is empirically driven and based on data gathered in 2 separate settings with specific ethnocultural profiles, offering dementia care with Middle Eastern, Arab, and/or Persian profile. Observations were carried out in combination with semistructured in-depth interviews (n = 66). By using a combination of content and ethnographic analysis, 4 main findings related to ethnocultural dementia care were elucidated. These include (a) a wider recognition of people from different CALD backgrounds possibly having different perceptions of what dementia is, (b) a possibility that such ascribed meaning of dementia has a bearing on health maintenance and health-seeking behavior as well as the inclination to use formal services or not, (c) choosing to use formal service in the forms of ethnoculturally profiled dementia care facility seems to relate to being able to "live up to ideals of Iranian culture," and (d) "culture," however ambiguous and hotly debated a concept it is, appears to be a relevant aspect of people's lives, an aspect that is both acquired as well as ascribed to oneself and to others. As such, we argue that culture needs to be further addressed in relation to dementia care

  3. Environment Climate Data Sweden - Facilitating a wider sharing of environment and climate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, T.; Langner, J.; Broman, B.; Svensson, J.; Frankenberg, B.; Langborg, T.; Bennet, C.

    2012-04-01

    The global society is facing significant challenges. Earth is a complex system of systems, where humankind's activities have become a critical parameter, as is demonstrated by global environmental and climate change. Full and open sharing of environment and climate data is a critical prerequisite to advance the scientific understanding of environment and climate and the connections to humankind's socioeconomic activities. In addition, data sharing is vital for the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of environmental policies, informed decision making and, eventually, sustainable development. Full and open data access facilitates new ways to analyze, integrate and combine data from many different sources. This is in particular evident in the geosciences, where the complexity and level of integration of Earth system models is advancing rapidly. At the same time, many research communities are lacking resources, knowledge and in some cases motivation to allow for a professional stewardship of data. Insufficient coordination and a low priority of tasks such as data collection, storage and documentation put many important research data at risk of being lost. A recent hearing of Swedish environment and climate researchers found that researchers often have difficulties to get a good overview of relevant data within and beyond their field of study. Furthermore, it can be difficult to access and integrate relevant data. As a consequence, Sweden is establishing a new research infrastructure for environment and climate data called ECDS (Environment Climate Data Sweden, www.ecds.se). ECDS is a joint undertaking of the Swedish Research Council and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, in collaboration with the National Supercomputer Centre of Linköping University, Sweden. ECDS aims to facilitate the search, publication and long-term accessibility of data for research. The ECDS-infrastructure consists of a clearinghouse mechanism, allowing for the

  4. Overview Of The Scientific Balloon Activity in Sweden 2014-2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamsson, Mattias; Lockowandt, Christian; Andersson, Kent

    2016-07-01

    SSC, formerly known as Swedish Space Corporation, is a Swedish state-owned company working in several different space related fields, including scientific stratospheric balloon launches. Esrange Space Centre (Esrange in short) located in the north of Sweden is the launch facility of SSC, where both sounding rocket launches and stratospheric balloon launches are conducted. At Esrange there are also facilities for satellite communication, including one of the largest civilian satellite data reception stations in the world. Stratospheric balloons have been launched from Esrange since 1974, when the first flights were performed together with the French space agency CNES. These balloon flights have normally flown eastward either only over Sweden or into Finland. Some flights have also had permission to fly into Russia, as far as the Ural Mountains. Normal flight times are from 4 to 12 hours. These eastward flights are conducted during the winter months (September to May). Long duration flights have been flown from Esrange since 2005, when NASA flew the BLAST payload from Sweden to north Canada. The prevailing westerly wind pattern is very advantageous for trans-Atlantic flights during summer (late May to late July). The long flight times of 4-5 days are very beneficial for astronomical payloads, such as telescopes that need long observation times. Circumpolar flights of more than two weeks are possible if Russian overflight permission exists. Typical scientific balloon payload fields include atmospheric research, including research on ozone depletion, astronomical and cosmological research, and research in technical fields such as aerodynamics. Since last COSPAR a number of interesting balloon flights have been performed from Esrange. In late 2014 parachute tests for the ExoMars programme was performed by drop-test from balloons. This was followed up on in the summer of 2015 with full end-to-end dynamic stability tests of Earth re-entry capsule shapes. Several balloon

  5. Microearthquakes illuminate the deep structure of the endglacial Pärvie fault, northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindblom, Eva; Lund, Björn; Tryggvason, Ari; Uski, Marja; Bödvarsson, Reynir; Juhlin, Christopher; Roberts, Roland

    2015-06-01

    At 155 km, the Pärvie fault is the world's longest known endglacial fault (EGF). It is located in northernmost Sweden in a region where several kilometre-scale EGFs have been identified. Based on studies of Quaternary deposits, landslides and liquefaction structures, these faults are inferred to have ruptured as large earthquakes when the latest ice sheet disappeared from the region, some 9500 yr ago. The EGFs still exhibit relatively high seismic activity, and here we present new earthquake data from northern Sweden in general and the Pärvie fault in particular. More than 1450 earthquakes have been recorded in Sweden north of 66° latitude in the years 2000-2013. There is a remarkable correlation between this seismicity and the mapped EGF scarps. We find that 71 per cent of the observed earthquakes north of 66° locate within 30 km to the southeast and 10 km to the northwest of the EGFs, which is consistent with the EGFs' observed reverse faulting mechanisms, with dips to the southeast. In order to further investigate the seismicity along the Pärvie fault we installed a temporary seismic network in the area between 2007 and 2010. In addition to the routine automatic detection and location algorithm, we devised a waveform cross-correlation technique which resulted in a 50 per cent increase of the catalogue and a total of 1046 events along the Pärvie fault system between 2003 and 2013. The earthquakes were used to establish an improved velocity model for the area, using 3-D local earthquake tomography. The resulting 3-D velocity model shows smooth, minor velocity variations in the area. All events were relocated in this new 3-D model. A tight cluster on the central part of the Pärvie fault, where the rate of seismicity is the highest, could be relocated with high precision relative location. We performed depth phase analysis on 40 of the larger events to further constrain the hypocentral locations. We find that the seismicity on the Pärvie fault correlates

  6. School District Administrators' Perspectives on the Professional Activities and Influence of Special Educators in Norway and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, David Lansing; Lindqvist, Gunilla

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate school district administrators' perspectives concerning the professional activities and influence of special educators in Norway (n?=?266) and Sweden (n?=?290). We examine three themes drawn from a survey of practices and policies in each country: (a) the organisational arrangements in which special…

  7. How Are Conditions for Participation Expressed in Education Policy Documents? A Review of Documents in Scotland and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Gregor; Granlund, Mats

    2011-01-01

    This study approaches inclusive schools by looking at how conditions for participation are expressed for pupils with additional support needs in education policy documents in Sweden and Scotland. By using five dimensions of the environment--availability, accessibility, affordability, accommodability and acceptability--expressions of conditions for…

  8. "Practiced" Linguistic-Cultural Ideologies and Educational Policies: A Case Study of a "Bilingual Sweden Finnish School"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gynne, Annaliina; Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta; Lainio, Jarmo

    2016-01-01

    This article explores linguistic-cultural ideologies and educational policies as they emerge and are negotiated in everyday life in a bilingual school setting located in the geopolitical spaces of Sweden. Taking sociocultural theory and discourse analysis as points of departure, we focus on empirical examples of classroom interaction and locally…

  9. The Part Played by Popular Education in Local Development Processes in Suburban and Rural Areas of Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Lisbeth; Forsberg, Anette

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of a three-year study of the role of popular education in local development processes in Sweden (2006-2008), this paper sets out to outline the role of popular education as a development actor in rural and urban contexts. Two different scenarios and approaches are discussed. One is the role of popular education in rural areas, which…

  10. Is Education the Pathway to Success? A Comparison of Second Generation Turkish Professionals in Sweden, France, Germany and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crul, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Education is often seen as the most important mobility channel for children of immigrants. To what extent is this true? In this article, we look at successful second generation Turkish professionals in Sweden, France, Germany and The Netherlands. What kind of pathways did they take to become a professional? Based on the large quantitative…

  11. Why Do Student Teachers Enrol for a Teaching Degree? A Study of Teacher Recruitment in Portugal and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Maria Assunção; Niklasson, Laila

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from an exploratory study carried out in Portugal and Sweden, concerning student teacher recruitment to Initial Teacher Education (ITE) programmes. It addresses issues such as the motivations and expectations of the student teachers regarding the teaching profession. Drawing upon existing related literature, a…

  12. An "Appropriate" Test Taker: The Everyday Classroom during the National Testing Period in School Year Three in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silfver, Eva; Sjöberg, Gunnar; Bagger, Anette

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on data from a bigger project where we explore what is taking place in the daily life of classrooms during the national testing period in mathematics for 9-10-year-old children in Sweden. Data were produced by observations, video-recordings and interviews with children. The article shows on a micro level how assessment trends,…

  13. Neo-Liberalism and Universal State Education: The Cases of Denmark, Norway and Sweden 1980-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiborg, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates neo-liberal policy on education in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Traditionally, the edifice of the education system in these Scandinavian countries has been built on egalitarian values, but over the last 20 years they have increasingly adopted market-led reforms of education. The extent of neo-liberal policy varies between…

  14. The Link between Classroom Ethnic Diversity and Civic Attitudes in England, Sweden and Germany. Research Briefing No. 75

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2014-01-01

    There is a widespread belief in educational circles that ethnically mixed schools contribute to inter-ethnic tolerance and community cohesion by making sustained inter-ethnic contact possible. This research explores the relation between classroom ethno-racial diversity and civic attitudes in England, Sweden and Germany using data from the…

  15. History, Nation and School Inspections: The Introduction of Citizenship Education in Elementary Schools in Late Nineteenth-Century Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evertsson, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    It was in the late nineteenth century that teaching in Sweden's elementary schools began its transformation from a religious education to a broader, national citizenship education that included history and geography. International research has pointed to a connection between the introduction of school inspections and the reform of public education…

  16. Inclusive Education and Perceptions of Learning Facilitators of Children with Special Needs in a School in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meynert, Mariam John

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the concept of inclusion and the degree to which it is being practiced in Swedish municipality schools and tries to draw some conclusions about the nature of pedagogy practiced in Sweden. This is a qualitative case study where primary data are collected from only five facilitators of children of special needs in one school in…

  17. Educational Ideas in Geography Education in Sweden during the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries: The Relationship between Maps and Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennerdal, Pontus

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of the geography education of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in Sweden are typically offered to contrast with current ideas in geography education, and the content of geography textbooks is the focus of this comparison. The role of maps and visual pedagogy are ignored, and the educational ideas developed from regional…

  18. Ethnic Inequality in Choice-Driven Education Systems: A Longitudinal Study of Performance and Choice in England and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Michelle; Jonsson, Jan O.; Rudolphi, Frida

    2012-01-01

    The authors ask whether choice-driven education systems, with comprehensive schools and mass education at the secondary and tertiary level, represented in this article by England and Sweden, provide educational opportunities for ethnic minorities. In studying educational attainment, the authors make a theoretical distinction between mechanisms…

  19. Assessment Procedures of Norwegian PhD Theses as Viewed by Examiners from the USA, the UK and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyvik, Svein

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the assessment procedures of Norwegian PhD theses as viewed by external members of evaluation committees from three countries with different examination systems; the USA, the UK and Sweden. Their viewpoints give useful information not only on the pros and cons with the Norwegian system, but also on the strengths and…

  20. What Are We Aiming For?--A Delphi Study on the Development of Civic Scientific Literacy in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu; Rundgren, Carl-Johan

    2017-01-01

    Based on the EU FP 7 project, PROFILES, this article presents our findings from a three-round Delphi study conducted in Sweden that aimed at establishing a consensus on how science education should be developed for citizens to enhance civic scientific literacy. A total of 100 stakeholders (9th graders, school teachers, scientists, and science…

  1. America in World War II: An Analysis of History Textbooks from England, Japan, Sweden, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Stuart; Nicholls, Jason

    2005-01-01

    This study examined how textbooks from England, Japan, Sweden, and the United States portray America's role in World War II. Analysis of the central story lines revealed that historical information purveyed to students in different nations varies considerably. Accordingly, U.S. textbooks emphasize the significant and pre-eminent role that the…

  2. "If We Just Knew Who Should Do It", or the Social Organization of the Archiving of Archaeology in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huvila, Isto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This paper analyses the work practices and perspectives of professionals working with archaeological archives and the social organization of archaeological archiving and information management in Sweden. Method: The paper is based on an interview study of Swedish actors in the field of archaeological archiving (N = 16). Analysis: The…

  3. Is There a Career Penalty for Mothers' Time Out? A Comparison of Germany, Sweden and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aisenbrey, Silke; Evertsson, Marie; Grunow, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on three countries with distinct policies toward motherhood and work: Germany, Sweden and the United States. We analyze the length of mothers' time out of paid work after childbirth and the short-term career consequences for mothers. In the United States, we identify a career punishment even for short time-out periods; long…

  4. Providing Transportation for the Elderly and Handicapped in Sweden: Experiences Gained and Future Trends. TFB-Report 1991:17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Agneta

    This report summarizes results of research and development projects concerning disabled and elderly people and transportation services carried out at the Department of Traffic Planning and Engineering in Lund, Sweden. This summary is based on 12 previous reports. The first section examines Swedish policy which stresses enabling elderly and…

  5. Managing Multilingualism in a European Nation-State: Challenges for Sweden. Current Issues in Language and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Sally, Ed.; Huss, Leena, Ed.

    This collection of papers presents a range of views about the three-layered language situation in Sweden, a situation not unlike that in many other countries worldwide. The papers include the following: "Introduction" (Sally Boyd and Leena Huss); "Swedish, English, and the European Union" (Bjorn Melander), which summarizes…

  6. Is the Grass Always Greener? The Effect of the PISA Results on Education Debates in Sweden and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringarp, Johanna; Rothland, Martin

    2010-01-01

    What does a country do when its schools and educational system in general do not produce the results the country believes they are capable of? This article describes the political debates that comparative international studies such as the Programme for International Student Assessment have given rise to in Germany and Sweden. As a result of the…

  7. Stereotypes at Work in Classroom Interactions: Pupils Talk about the Police in School Cinema Activities in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Anne-Li

    2015-01-01

    The empirical investigation in this paper develops the perspective of media in education by focusing on how the use of film in education stimulates the production of cultural, societal and social values and norms in school when pupils talk about "the police" in school cinema activities in Sweden. "Police" is regarded as a…

  8. Ethnic differences in social participation and social capital in Malmö, Sweden: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Martin

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate ethnic differences in different aspects of social participation in Malmö, Sweden. The public health survey in Malmö 1994 is a cross-sectional study. A total of 5600 randomly chosen individuals aged 20-80 years were asked to complete a postal questionnaire. The participation rate was 71%. The population was divided into categories born in Sweden, Denmark/Norway, other Western countries, former Yugoslavia, Poland, Arabic speaking countries and all other countries. The age-adjusted and multivariate analyses were performed using a logistic regression model in order to investigate the importance of possible confounders (age, education, economic stress and unemployment) on the differences by country of origin in different aspects of social participation. Men and women born in Arabic speaking countries and other countries (Iran, Turkey, Vietnam, Chile and subsaharan Africa) participate to a significantly lower extent in a variety of civic and social activities when compared to the reference population born in Sweden. The differences in participation in these groups compared to the group born in Sweden are observed both for social participation items at the core of the definition of social capital and cultural and other activities unrelated to social capital. This pattern is particularly pronounced for women born in Arabic speaking countries. These women even sharply differ from the participation rates of men born in Arabic speaking countries. The ethnic differences in most cases do not seem to be explained satisfactorily by education, economic stress or possibly unemployment.

  9. Policies for Minority Education. A Comparative Study of Britain and Sweden. Studies in Comparative and International Education, No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fris, Ann-Margret

    This document examines and compares how policies for minority education in Great Britain and Sweden have developed over the last 25 years. The term "policy" is used here broadly and includes not only central but also regional decisions, and written documents as well as administration, interpretation, and application of policies. The…

  10. Stimulus or Impediment? The Impact of Matching Grants on the Funding of Elementary Schools in Sweden during the Nineteenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westberg, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    What was the impact of government grants on the emerging national elementary school systems of the nineteenth century? This article deals with this question through a study of the introduction of matching government grants in Sweden during the latter part of the nineteenth century. The analysis shows that, although the government grants increased…

  11. Students' Accounts of School-Performance Stress: A Qualitative Analysis of a High-Achieving Setting in Stockholm, Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Låftman, Sara Brolin; Almquist, Ylva B.; Östberg, Viveca

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine students' experiences of school performance as a stressor. Accounts of school-performance stress at both the individual level and in relation to group mechanisms are studied through qualitative interviews with eighth-grade students in a high-performing school in Stockholm, Sweden (n = 49). Using qualitative…

  12. CLIL in Sweden--Why Does It Not Work? A Metaperspective on CLIL across Contexts in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylven, Liss Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Many studies show positive correlations between content and language integrated learning (CLIL) and the learning of English as a foreign language. However, findings from CLIL research in Sweden do not match those obtained elsewhere. The aim of this article is to show that some explanations for discrepancies in results obtained across CLIL contexts…

  13. Discursive Discrimination against the "Deaf-Mute"/"Deaf" and the Importance of Categorization in 20th Century Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boreus, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    This article sheds light on issues concerning discrimination in the history of deaf people in Sweden in the 20th century. With the help of a specific typology of concepts for analysing discrimination exercised through the use of language, it is shown how the categorization of the hearing impaired has changed over time and how, in this process of…

  14. Review of Recent Applied Linguistics Research in Finland and Sweden, with Specific Reference to Foreign Language Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringbom, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    This review covers recent applied linguistic research in Finland and Sweden during the years 2006-2011, with particular emphasis on foreign language learning and teaching. Its primary aim is to inform the international research community on the type of research that is going on in these countries. Special attention is given to topics which have…

  15. Human Resources and Corporate Strategy. Technological Change in Banks and Insurance Companies: France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Olivier; Noyelle, Thierry

    Twelve financial institutions (nine banks and three insurance companies) from five countries (France, West Germany, Japan, Sweden, and the United States) were studied to determine the directions in which financial service markets and firms are moving as a result of increasing competition and technological change. Data were collected from…

  16. KAMEDO Report No. 91: 2004 tsunami disaster in Asia--home transport and emergency care in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Brokopp, Tom; Brändström, Helge; Edsander-Nord, Asa; Hedelin, Annika; Johansen, Lars; Lundin, Tom; Nyström, Robert; Riddez, Louis; Ortenwall, Per

    2008-01-01

    This is a descriptive report of the Swedish authorities' responses to the tsunami that affected Southeast Asia in December 2004. The main focus is the care of survivors and the injured during their transportation from Thailand and their return to Sweden. The psychological and physical after-effects also are presented based on a poll conducted one year after the tsunami.

  17. Classes in Themselves and for Themselves: The Practice of Monitorial Education for Different Social Classes in Sweden, 1820-1843

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Esbjörn

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the monitorial system of education in Sweden between 1820 and 1843. In contrast to previous research, which has emphasised monitorial education as a method for disciplining poor children, this article compares the use of the method in schools for the working classes and in academic schools. Using concepts such as…

  18. The First Sourcebook on Nordic Research in Mathematics Education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and Contributions from Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriraman, Bharath, Ed.; Bergsten, Christer, Ed.; Goodchild, Simon, Ed.; Palsdottir, Gudbjorg, Ed.; Sondergaard, Bettina Dahl, Ed.; Haapasalo, Lenni, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The First Sourcebook on Nordic Research in Mathematics Education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and contributions from Finland provides the first comprehensive and unified treatment of historical and contemporary research trends in mathematics education in the Nordic world. The book is organized in sections co-ordinated by active researchers in…

  19. Inclusion and Deaf Education: The Perceptions and Experiences of Young Deaf People in Northern Ireland and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Marie Therese

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine what the concept of inclusion means and how it relates to children who are deaf. The paper begins with a background to deaf education, followed by specific reference to how inclusion is perceived in Northern Ireland and in Sweden. It investigates the experiences and opinions of deaf pupils in Schools…

  20. Antibiotic prescribing in relation to diagnoses and consultation rates in Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden: use of European quality indicators

    PubMed Central

    Tyrstrup, Mia; van der Velden, Alike; Engstrom, Sven; Goderis, Geert; Molstad, Sigvard; Verheij, Theo; Coenen, Samuel; Adriaenssens, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the quality of antibiotic prescribing in primary care in Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden using European disease-specific antibiotic prescribing quality indicators (APQI) and taking into account the threshold to consult and national guidelines. Design A retrospective observational database study. Setting Routine primary health care registration networks in Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden. Subjects All consultations for one of seven acute infections [upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), sinusitis, tonsillitis, otitis media, bronchitis, pneumonia and cystitis] and the antibiotic prescriptions in 2012 corresponding to these diagnoses. Main outcome measures Consultation incidences for these diagnoses and APQI values (a) the percentages of patients receiving an antibiotic per diagnosis, (b) the percentages prescribed first-choice antibiotics and (c) the percentages prescribed quinolones. Results The consultation incidence for respiratory tract infection was much higher in Belgium than in the Netherlands and Sweden. Most of the prescribing percentage indicators (a) were outside the recommended ranges, with Belgium deviating the most for URTI and bronchitis, Sweden for tonsillitis and the Netherlands for cystitis. The Netherlands and Sweden prescribed the recommended antibiotics (b) to a higher degree and the prescribing of quinolones exceeded the proposed range for most diagnoses (c) in Belgium. The interpretation of APQI was found to be dependent on the consultation incidences. High consultation incidences were associated with high antibiotic prescription rates. Taking into account the recommended treatments from national guidelines improved the results of the APQI values for sinusitis in the Netherlands and cystitis in Sweden. Conclusion Quality assessment using European disease-specific APQI was feasible and their inter-country comparison can identify opportunities for quality improvement. Their interpretation, however, should take

  1. Content and Presentation of Content in Parental Education Groups in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Anita; Törnkvist, Lena; Barimani, Mia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study investigated parents’ experiences of parental education groups at antenatal and child health care centers, including content, presentation of content, the leader’s role, and the importance of other participating parents. Twenty-one interviews with 26 parents from 6 cities across Sweden were analyzed with 3 content analysis approaches. Parents expressed both satisfaction and dissatisfaction with the content, presentation of content, and the leader’s role. They reported that social contact with other parents was important, that parenthood topics were covered less frequently than child and childbirth-related topics, and that group activities were less frequent than lectures. When designing future parental education groups, it is important to consider expanding parenthood topics and group activities because this structure is considered to provide support to parents. PMID:27445446

  2. Comparison of carbon balances between continuous-cover and clear-cut forestry in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lundmark, Tomas; Bergh, Johan; Nordin, Annika; Fahlvik, Nils; Poudel, Bishnu Chandra

    2016-02-01

    Continuous-cover forestry (CCF) has been recognized for the production of multiple ecosystem services, and is seen as an alternative to clear-cut forestry (CF). Despite the increasing interest, it is still not well described how CCF would affect the carbon balance and the resulting climate benefit from the forest in relation to CF. This study compares carbon balances of CF and CCF, applied as two alternative land-use strategies for a heterogeneous Norway spruce (Picea abies) stand. We use a set of models to analyze the long-term effects of different forest management and wood use strategies in Sweden on carbon dioxide emissions and carbon stock changes. The results show that biomass growth and yield is more important than the choice of silvicultural system per se. When comparing CF and CCF assuming similar growth, extraction and product use, only minor differences in long-term climate benefit were found between the two principally different silvicultural systems.

  3. Cancer incidence in northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Tondel, Martin; Walinder, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Sweden received about 5 % of the total release of (137)Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. The distribution of the fallout mainly affected northern Sweden, where some parts of the population could have received an estimated annual effective dose of 1-2 mSv per year. It is disputed whether an increased incidence of cancer can be detected in epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident outside the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In the present paper, a possible exposure-response pattern between deposition of (137)Cs and cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was investigated in the nine northernmost counties of Sweden (2.2 million inhabitants in 1986). The activity of (137)Cs from the fallout maps at 1986 was used as a proxy for the received dose of ionizing radiation. Diagnoses of cancer (ICD-7 code 140-209) from 1980 to 2009 were received from the Swedish Cancer Registry (273,222 cases). Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios, stratified by gender, were calculated with Poisson regression in two closed cohorts of the population in the nine counties 1980 and 1986, respectively. The follow-up periods were 1980-1985 and 1986-2009, respectively. The average surface-weighted deposition of (137)Cs at three geographical levels; county (n = 9), municipality (n = 95) and parish level (n = 612) was applied for the two cohorts to study the pre- and the post-Chernobyl periods separately. To analyze time trends, the age-standardized total cancer incidence was calculated for the general Swedish population and the population in the nine counties. Joinpoint regression was used to compare the average annual percent change in the general population and the study population within each gender. No obvious exposure-response pattern was seen in the age-adjusted total cancer incidence rate ratios. A spurious association between fallout and cancer incidence was present, where areas with the

  4. Radioactive disequilibria in mineralised fracture samples from two uranium occurrences in northern Sweden

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smellie, John A.T.; Rosholt, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    Mineralised fractures from two uranium occurrences in northern Sweden were examined mineralogically and isotopically to establish the presence or absence of radioactive equilibrium that may indicate recent rock-water interaction processes based on the natural mobility of uranium (i.e.; during the last 0.5 Ma). The results show evidence of radioactive disequilibrium in six of the nine samples investigated. Disequilibria are attributable to solution to solid 234U recoil gain (weakly mineralised zones adjacent to the main mineralisation) and solid to solution 234U recoil loss (moderate to highly mineralised zones). The absence of significant 238U loss in the samples emphasises the reducing conditions at the sampled depths. ?? 1984.

  5. Cold summer weather, constrained restoration, and very low birth weight in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hartig, Terry; Catalano, Ralph

    2013-07-01

    In higher latitudes, relatively cold summer weather may constrain outdoor activities that provide relief from chronic stress. Chronic stress can affect human birth outcomes, including the length of gestation and so the birth weight of the infant. We tested the hypothesis that, in Sweden, the odds of very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500g) vary inversely with mean monthly temperature for the summer months. We applied time-series modeling methods to nationally aggregated data on singleton births during the 456 months from January, 1973, through December, 2010. We found elevated odds of VLBW among male infants for relatively cold June and August temperatures. Unpleasant weather may figure in stress-related health outcomes, not only as a stressor, but also as a constraint on restoration.

  6. Labeling the good: alternative visions and organic branding in Sweden in the late twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Broberg, Oskar

    2010-01-01

    The past decade's rapid expansion of a global market for organic food has set powerful economic and political forces in motion. The most important dividing line is whether organic food production should be an alternative to or a niche within a capitalist mode of production. To explore this conflict the article analyzes the formation of a market for eco-labeled milk in Sweden. The analysis draws on three aspects: the strategy of agri-business, the role of eco-labeling, and the importance of inter-organizational dynamics. Based on archival studies, daily press, and interviews, three processes are emphasized: the formative years of the alternative movement in the 1970s, the founding of an independent eco-label (KRAV) in the 1980s, and a discursive shift from alternative visions to organic branding in the early 1990s following the entry of agri-business.

  7. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence against Women in Healthcare Sweden: Prevalence and Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Lawoko, Stephen; Sanz, Sören; Helström, Lotti; Castren, Maaret

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the extent to which healthcare providers at a large healthcare facility in Sweden screen for intimate partner violence against women and the determinants of such screening. Data on frequency of screening, readiness to screen on many dimensions (using the Domestic Violence Healthcare Provider Survey Scale), demographic and occupational characteristics were administered electronically to 217 healthcare providers. We found that only 50% of participants had during the past 3 month screened for IPV at least once, and screening activity was marked with inequalities in measured individual characteristics. Participants of female gender and of doctor/nurse occupation were more likely to screen than male and midwife peers, respectively. Healthcare providers who perceived high efficacy in handling IPV issues, low fears of offending clients, professional preparedness, and with availability of support networks for IPV victims were more likely to screen for IPV. Implications of these findings for interventions are discussed. PMID:22254143

  8. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence against Women in Healthcare Sweden: Prevalence and Determinants.

    PubMed

    Lawoko, Stephen; Sanz, Sören; Helström, Lotti; Castren, Maaret

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the extent to which healthcare providers at a large healthcare facility in Sweden screen for intimate partner violence against women and the determinants of such screening. Data on frequency of screening, readiness to screen on many dimensions (using the Domestic Violence Healthcare Provider Survey Scale), demographic and occupational characteristics were administered electronically to 217 healthcare providers. We found that only 50% of participants had during the past 3 month screened for IPV at least once, and screening activity was marked with inequalities in measured individual characteristics. Participants of female gender and of doctor/nurse occupation were more likely to screen than male and midwife peers, respectively. Healthcare providers who perceived high efficacy in handling IPV issues, low fears of offending clients, professional preparedness, and with availability of support networks for IPV victims were more likely to screen for IPV. Implications of these findings for interventions are discussed.

  9. The decline in maternal mortality in Sweden: the role of community midwifery.

    PubMed

    Högberg, Ulf

    2004-08-01

    The maternal mortality rate in Sweden in the early 20th century was one third that in the United States. This rate was recognized by American visitors as an achievement of Swedish maternity care, in which highly competent midwives attend home deliveries. The 19th century decline in maternal mortality was largely caused by improvements in obstetric care, but was also helped along by the national health strategy of giving midwives and doctors complementary roles in maternity care, as well as equal involvement in setting public health policy. The 20th century decline in maternal mortality, seen in all Western countries, was made possible by the emergence of modern medicine. However, the contribution of the mobilization of human resources should not be underestimated, nor should key developments in public health policy.

  10. New species and records of freshwater Chaetonotus (Gastrotricha: Chaetonotidae) from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kånneby, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Chaetonotus is the most speciose genus of the family Chaetonotidae within Gastrotricha, a small phylum of aquatic acoelomate invertebrates. The freshwater gastrotrich fauna of Sweden has been studied during the last five years and so far 44 species have been reported in the literature from the country. This study describes the new species, Chaetonotus (Primochaetus) veronicae n. sp., and reports 9 species new to the Swedish fauna raising the known number of freshwater species from the country to 54. Some records stand out from a biogeographic point of view: Chaetonotus (Primochaetus) soberanus is reported for the first time from Europe and Chaetonotus (Chaetonotus) arethusae, Chaetonotus (Chaetonotus) naiadis and Chaetonotus (Hystricochaetonotus) euhystrix are reported for the first time outside the countries from which they were originally described.

  11. Large outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis infection transmitted through the public water supply, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Widerström, Micael; Schönning, Caroline; Lilja, Mikael; Lebbad, Marianne; Ljung, Thomas; Allestam, Görel; Ferm, Martin; Björkholm, Britta; Hansen, Anette; Hiltula, Jari; Långmark, Jonas; Löfdahl, Margareta; Omberg, Maria; Reuterwall, Christina; Samuelsson, Eva; Widgren, Katarina; Wallensten, Anders; Lindh, Johan

    2014-04-01

    In November 2010, ≈27,000 (≈45%) inhabitants of Östersund, Sweden, were affected by a waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis. The outbreak was characterized by a rapid onset and high attack rate, especially among young and middle-aged persons. Young age, number of infected family members, amount of water consumed daily, and gluten intolerance were identified as risk factors for acquiring cryptosporidiosis. Also, chronic intestinal disease and young age were significantly associated with prolonged diarrhea. Identification of Cryptosporidium hominis subtype IbA10G2 in human and environmental samples and consistently low numbers of oocysts in drinking water confirmed insufficient reduction of parasites by the municipal water treatment plant. The current outbreak shows that use of inadequate microbial barriers at water treatment plants can have serious consequences for public health. This risk can be minimized by optimizing control of raw water quality and employing multiple barriers that remove or inactivate all groups of pathogens.

  12. Revision of the Palaearctic Gasteruption assectator aggregate, with special reference to Sweden (Hymenoptera, Gasteruptiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Niklas; van Achterberg, Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Palaearctic species of the Gasteruption assectator aggregate (Hymenoptera, Gasteruptiidae) are revised and three species are recognised. Two species are re-instated: Gasteruption boreale (Thomson, 1883), stat. n. and Gasteruption nigritarse (Thomson, 1883), stat. n., and both are excluded from the synonymy with Gasteruption assectator (Linnaeus, 1758). The general distribution of both species is given for Europe and in detail for Sweden. A key to the valid Palaearctic species of the Gasteruption assectator aggregate is given; key characters and primary types are illustrated. Four new synonyms are listed: Foenus fumipennis Thomson, 1883, Trichofoenus breviterebrae Watanabe, 1934, and Gasteruption margotae Madl, 1987, are synonymized with Gasteruption boreale (Thomson, 1883) and Gasteruption brevicauda Kieffer, 1904, with Gasteruption undulatum (Abeille de Perrin, 1879). PMID:27667942

  13. National Human Research Ethics: A Preliminary Comparative Case Study of Germany, Great Britain, Romania, and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Bernard; Berman, Anne H.; Bieganski, Justyna; Jones, Adele D.; Foca, Liliana; Raikes, Ben; Schiratzki, Johanna; Urban, Mirjam; Ullman, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Although international research is increasing in volume and importance, there remains a dearth of knowledge on similarities and differences in “national human research ethics” (NHREs), that is, national ethical guidelines (NEGs), Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), and research stakeholder’ ethical attitudes and behaviors (EABs). We begin to address this situation by reporting upon our experiences in conducting a multinational study into the mental health of children who had a parent/carer in prison. The study was conducted in 4 countries: Germany, Great Britain, Romania, and Sweden. Data on NHREs were gathered via a questionnaire survey, two ethics-related seminars, and ongoing contact between members of the research consortium. There was correspondence but even more so divergence between countries in the availability of NEGs and IRBs and in researcher’ EABs. Differences in NHREs have implications particularly in terms of harmonization but also for ethical philosophy and practice and for research integrity. PMID:27746664

  14. Waterborne norovirus outbreak in a municipal drinking-water supply in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Riera-Montes, M; Brus Sjölander, K; Allestam, G; Hallin, E; Hedlund, K-O; Löfdahl, M

    2011-12-01

    During Easter 2009, almost 200 people resident in a small Swedish village fell ill with gastrointestinal symptoms. We conducted a retrospective cohort study and a molecular investigation in order to identify the source of the outbreak. Residents living in households connected to the public water network were at an increased risk of developing disease (relative risk 4·80, 95% confidence interval 1·68-13·73) compared to those with no connection to the public network. Norovirus genotype GI.3 was identified in stool samples from six patients and in a sample from the public water network. Contamination of one of the wells supplying the public water network was thought to be the source of the outbreak. This is a description of a norovirus outbreak linked to a municipal drinking-water supply in Sweden. Information from epidemiological and molecular investigations is of utmost importance to guide outbreak control measures and to prevent future outbreaks.

  15. Swine influenza viruses isolated in 1983, 2002 and 2009 in Sweden exemplify different lineages.

    PubMed

    Kiss, István; Bálint, Adám; Metreveli, Giorgi; Emmoth, Eva; Widén, Frederik; Belák, Sándor; Wallgren, Per

    2010-12-14

    Swine influenza virus isolates originating from outbreaks in Sweden from 1983, 2002 and 2009 were subjected to nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The aim of the studies was to obtain an overview on their potential relatedness as well as to provide data for broader scale studies on swine influenza epidemiology. Nonetheless, analyzing archive isolates is justified by the efforts directed to the comprehension of the appearance of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. Interestingly, this study illustrates the evolution of swine influenza viruses in Europe, because the earliest isolate belonged to 'classical' swine H1N1, the subsequent ones to Eurasian 'avian-like' swine H1N1 and reassortant 'avian-like' swine H1N2 lineages, respectively. The latter two showed close genetic relatedness regarding their PB2, HA, NP, and NS genes, suggesting common ancestry. The study substantiates the importance of molecular surveillance for swine influenza viruses.

  16. Myocardial infarction among male bus, taxi, and lorry drivers in middle Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Gustavsson, P; Alfredsson, L; Brunnberg, H; Hammar, N; Jakobsson, R; Reuterwall, C; Ostlin, P

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present case-referent study was to investigate the incidence of myocardial infarction among male professional drivers, taking the type of vehicles and area of residence into account. METHODS: The study base comprised all men aged 30-74 in five counties in middle Sweden during 1976-81 or 1976-84. Incident cases of the first episode of myocardial infarction were identified from registers of hospital admissions and causes of deaths. Referents were selected randomly from the study base. Information about occupation was obtained from the national censuses in 1970 and 1975. The possible impact from tobacco smoking and overweight were evaluated by simulations in combination with indirect data on these factors. RESULTS: The incidence of myocardial infarction was increased among bus drivers in Stockholm (relative risk (RR) = 1.53, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.15-2.05), and among taxi drivers both in Stockholm (RR 1.65, 95% CI 1.30-2.11) and in the surrounding rural counties (RR 1.82, 95% CI 1.17-2.82). A smaller increase was found among long distance lorry drivers, whereas the relative risk among short distance lorry drivers was close to unity. Indirect comparisons make it unlikely that the excess among bus drivers in Stockholm could be explained by uncontrolled confounding from tobacco smoking or overweight. A very high proportion (more than 80%) of urban bus drivers in Sweden report a combination of high psychological demands and low control at work. CONCLUSIONS: Different types of drivers are at different risk of myocardial infarction. Bus drivers in urban areas seem to be at an increased risk, which is unlikely to be explained by uncontrolled confounding from tobacco smoking or overweight. Psychosocial work conditions may play a part in the increased incidence of myocardial infarction among urban bus drivers and should be investigated further. PMID:8664960

  17. Home care for older people in Sweden: a universal model in transition.

    PubMed

    Szebehely, Marta; Trydegård, Gun-Britt

    2012-05-01

    One aspect of universalism in Swedish eldercare services is that publicly financed and publicly provided services have been both affordable for the poor and attractive enough to be preferred by the middle class. This article identifies two trends in home care for older people in Sweden: a decline in the coverage of publicly funded services and their increasing marketisation. We explore the mechanisms behind these trends by reviewing policy documents and official reports, and discuss the distributional consequences of the changes by analysing two data sets from Statistics Sweden: the Swedish Level of Living surveys from 1988/1989 and 2004/2005 and a database on all users of tax deductions on household and care services in 2009. The analysis shows that the decline of tax-funded home care is not the result of changing eldercare legislation and was not intended by national policy-makers. Rather the decline was caused by a complex interplay of decision-making at central and local levels, resulting in stricter municipal targeting. The trend towards marketisation has been more clearly intended by national policy-makers. Legislative changes have opened up tax-funded services to private provision, and a customer-choice (voucher) model and a tax deduction for household- and care services have been introduced. As a result of declining tax-funded home-care services, older persons with lower education increasingly receive family care, while those with higher education are more likely to buy private services. The combination of income-related user fees, customer-choice models and the tax deduction has created an incentive for high-income older persons to turn to the market instead of using public home-care services. Thus, Swedish home care, as a universal welfare service, is now under threat and may become increasingly dominated by groups with less education and lower income which, in turn, could jeopardise the quality of care.

  18. Misleading Advertising for Antidepressants in Sweden: A Failure of Pharmaceutical Industry Self-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Zetterqvist, Anna V.; Mulinari, Shai

    2013-01-01

    Background The alleged efficacy of pharmaceutical industry self-regulation has been used to repudiate increased government oversight over promotional activity. European politicians and industry have cited Sweden as an excellent example of self-regulation based on an ethical code. This paper considers antidepressant advertising in Sweden to uncover the strengths and weaknesses of self-regulation. Methodology We analyzed all antidepressant advertisements in the Swedish Medical Journal, 1994–2003. The regulation of these advertisements was analyzed using case reports from self-regulatory bodies. The authors independently reviewed this material to investigate: (1) extent of violative advertising; (2) pattern of code breaches; (3) rate at which the system reacted to violative advertising; (4) prevalence of and oversight over claims regarding antidepressant efficacy and disease causality, and (5) costs for manufactures associated with violative advertising. Principal Findings Self-regulatory bodies identified numerous code breaches. Nonetheless, they failed to protect doctors from unreliable information on antidepressants, since as many as 247 of 722 (34%) advertisements breached the industry code. Self-regulatory bodies repeatedly failed to challenge inflated claims of antidepressant efficacy, lending evidence of lax oversight. On average, 15 weeks elapsed between printing and censure of a wrongful claim, and in 25% of cases 47 weeks or more elapsed. Industry paid roughly €108000 in fines for violative advertising, adding an estimated additional average cost of 11% to each purchased violative advertisement, or amounting to as little as 0.009% of total antidepressant sales of around €1.2 billion. Conclusions Lax oversight, combined with lags in the system and low fines for violations, may explain the Swedish system’s failure to pressure companies into providing reliable antidepressants information. If these shortcomings prove to be consistent across self

  19. Communicable Diseases Prioritized According to Their Public Health Relevance, Sweden, 2013.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Viktor; Tegnell, Anders; Wallensten, Anders

    2015-01-01

    To establish strategic priorities for the Public Health Agency of Sweden we prioritized pathogens according to their public health relevance in Sweden in order to guide resource allocation. We then compared the outcome to ongoing surveillance. We used a modified prioritization method developed at the Robert Koch Institute in Germany. In a Delphi process experts scored pathogens according to ten variables. We ranked the pathogens according to the total score and divided them into four priority groups. We then compared the priority groups to self-reported time spent on surveillance by epidemiologists and ongoing programmes for surveillance through mandatory and/or voluntary notifications and for surveillance of typing results. 106 pathogens were scored. The result of the prioritization process was similar to the outcome of the prioritization in Germany. Common pathogens such as calicivirus and Influenza virus as well as blood-borne pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C virus, gastro-intestinal infections such as Campylobacter and Salmonella and vector-borne pathogens such as Borrelia were all in the highest priority group. 63% of time spent by epidemiologists on surveillance was spent on pathogens in the highest priority group and all pathogens in the highest priority group, except for Borrelia and varicella-zoster virus, were under surveillance through notifications. Ten pathogens in the highest priority group (Borrelia, calicivirus, Campylobacter, Echinococcus multilocularis, hepatitis C virus, HIV, respiratory syncytial virus, SARS- and MERS coronavirus, tick-borne encephalitis virus and varicella-zoster virus) did not have any surveillance of typing results. We will evaluate the possibilities of surveillance for the pathogens in the highest priority group where we currently do not have any ongoing surveillance and evaluate the need of surveillance for the pathogens from the low priority group where there is ongoing surveillance in

  20. Suicide after release from prison - a population-based cohort study from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Haglund, Axel; Tidemalm, Dag; Jokinen, Jussi; Långström, Niklas; Liechtenstein, Paul; Fazel, Seena; Runeson, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Objective Released prisoners have high suicide rates compared with the general population, but little is known about risk factors and possible causal pathways. We conducted a population-based cohort study to investigate rates and risk factors for suicide in people previously imprisoned. Methods We identified individuals released from prison in Sweden between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2009 through linkage of national population-based registers. Released prisoners were followed from the day of release until death, emigration, new incarceration, or December 31, 2009. Survival analyses were conducted to compare incidence rates and psychiatric morbidity with non-convicted population controls matched on gender and year of birth. Results We identified 38,995 releases among 26,953 prisoners (7.6% females) during 2005-2009. Overall, 127 suicides occurred, accounting for 14% of all deaths after release (n=920). The mean suicide rate was 204 per 100,000 person years yielding an incidence rate ratio of 18.2 (95% CI 13.9-23.8) compared with general population controls. Previous substance use disorder (Hazard Ratio [HR]=2.1, 1.4-3.2), suicide attempt (HR=2.5, 1.7-3.7), and being born in Sweden vs. abroad (HR=2.1, 1.2-3.6) were independent risk factors for suicide after release. Conclusions Released prisoners are at high suicide risk and with a slightly different pattern of psychiatric risk factors for suicide compared with the general population. Results suggest appropriate allocation of resources to facilitate transition to life outside prison and increased attention to prisoners with both a previous suicide attempt and substance use disorder. PMID:25373114

  1. Boron neutron capture therapy for glioblastoma multiforme: clinical studies in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Capala, Jacek; Stenstam, Britta H; Sköld, Kurt; Munck af Rosenschöld, Per; Giusti, Valerio; Persson, Charlotta; Wallin, Eva; Brun, Arne; Franzen, Lars; Carlsson, Jörgen; Salford, Leif; Ceberg, Crister; Persson, Bertil; Pellettieri, Luigi; Henriksson, Roger

    2003-01-01

    A boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility has been constructed at Studsvik, Sweden. It includes two filter/moderator configurations. One of the resulting neutron beams has been optimized for clinical irradiations with a filter/moderator system that allows easy variation of the neutron spectrum from the thermal to the epithermal energy range. The other beam has been designed to produce a large uniform field of thermal neutrons for radiobiological research. Scientific operations of the Studsvik BNCT project are overseen by the Scientific Advisory Board comprised of representatives of major universities in Sweden. Furthermore, special task groups for clinical and preclinical studies have been formed to facilitate collaboration with academia. The clinical Phase II trials for glioblastoma are sponsored by the Swedish National Neuro-Oncology Group and, presently, involve a protocol for BNCT treatment of glioblastoma patients who have not received any therapy other than surgery. In this protocol, p-boronophenylalanine (BPA), administered as a 6-h intravenous infusion, is used as the boron delivery agent. As of January 2002, 17 patients were treated. The 6-h infusion of 900 mg BPA/kg body weight was shown to be safe and resulted in the average blood-boron concentration of 24 microg/g (range: 15-32 microg/g) at the time of irradiation (approximately 2-3 h post-infusion). Peak and average weighted radiation doses to the brain were in the ranges of 8.0-15.5 Gy(W) and 3.3-6.1 Gy(W), respectively. So far, no severe BNCT-related acute toxicities have been observed. Due to the short follow-up time, it is too early to evaluate the efficacy of these studies.

  2. Pattern of microbial translocation in patients living with HIV-1 from Vietnam, Ethiopia and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Abdurahman, Samir; Barqasho, Babilonia; Nowak, Piotr; Cuong, Do Duy; Amogne, Wondwossen; Larsson, Mattias; Lindquist, Lars; Marrone, Gaetano; Sönnerborg, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The role of microbial translocation (MT) in HIV patients living with HIV from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is not fully known. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the patterns of MT in patients from Vietnam, Ethiopia and Sweden. Methods Cross-sectional samples were obtained from treatment-naïve patients living with HIV-1 and healthy controls from Vietnam (n=83; n=46), Ethiopia (n=9492; n=50) and Sweden (n=51; n=19). Longitudinal samples were obtained from a subset of the Vietnamese (n=24) in whom antiretroviral therapy (ART) and tuberculostatics were given. Plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS), sCD14 and anti-flagellin IgG were determined by the endpoint chromogenic Limulus Amebocyte Assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results All three biomarkers were significantly increased in patients living with HIV-1 from all countries as compared to controls. No differences were found between males and females. Vietnamese and Ethiopian patients had significantly higher levels of anti-flagellin IgG and LPS, as compared to Swedes. ART reduced these levels for the Vietnamese. Vietnamese patients given tuberculostatics at initiation of ART had significantly lower levels of anti-flagellin IgG and higher sCD14. The biomarkers were lower in Vietnamese who did not develop opportunistic infection. Conclusions Higher MT is common in patients living with HIV compared to healthy individuals, and in patients from LMICs compared to patients from a high-income country. Treatment with tuberculostatics decreased MT while higher levels of MT are associated with a poorer clinical outcome. PMID:24461466

  3. Evaluation of "Live for Life", a health promotion programme in the County of Skaraborg, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Lingfors, H; Lindstrom, K; Persson, L; Bengtsson, C; Lissner, L

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To evaluate a health promotion programme, combining a population and individual based strategy, in the County of Skaraborg, Sweden, with special attention to outcome.
DESIGN—The evaluation was subdivided into structure, process and outcome. The evaluation procedure as a total is described here, but the results presented refer only to outcome. In order to study the potential effect of the individually based health examination, 35 year old subjects who had participated five years previously were in 1994-1996 compared with 35 year old subjects who had not participated before, and compared with their own values five years earlier. The results during 1995-1996 were compared with those of 1989-1990 for corresponding ages in order to study the effect of, particularly, the population based strategy.
SETTING—The County of Skaraborg in the south western part of Sweden with about 270 000 inhabitants. In addition to population strategy, involving the total county, men and women aged 30 and 35 years were invited to an individually based examination.
MAIN RESULTS—Factors related to body weight increased during the study period, while other factors mostly changed in the direction wanted. As a whole the changes were rather modest. There were favourable changes in lifestyle variables, for example, concerning smoking and dietary habits.
CONCLUSIONS—There were beneficial effects from the health promotion programme, but there is a need for continuous improvement of methods of intervention referred to lifestyle.


Keywords: evaluation; screening; prevention; primary health care; ischaemic heart disease PMID:11238584

  4. Relative sea level changes in southeastern Sweden the last 6ka mapped by paleo-shorelines.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, N. O.

    2015-12-01

    Emerged Holocene paleo-shorelines, formed during sea level high-stand periods are mostly morphological prominent and thus relatively easily identified in the field. In the study area of southeastern Sweden sediment stratigraphic investigations were used to identify and define the vertical extent of two Baltic Sea transgressive events. In-between these geographically spread study areas, the paleo-shorelines of these transgressive stages were mapped at places they were distinct, well developed and believed to be closely related to paleo sea level. The main factors determining formation of distinct shore-lines is exposure to the open sea and ample supply of erodible coarse grained minerogenic material. The paleo-shorelines were traced and their absolute elevation established with the help of detailed LIDAR based shaded digital terrain models. These models were derived from the detailed LIDAR point cloud recently made available by the National Land Survey of Sweden. Additionally the paleo-shorelines were confirmed during field visits and details such as sedimentary composition were noted. One of the more difficult variable to determine, the paleo-sea level stand in relation to the shoreline were accessed also in field and related ground surfaces without tree canopies were GPS mapped. The absolute paleo sea level was later derived from the LIDAR ground surface model for these spots. The c. 6ka shoreline, which is not fully synchronous throughout the whole study area, shows a rather smooth rise from c. 7 m a.s.l. in the south to more than 30 m a.s.l. in the north. Comparison between the 6 ka and the 10.5 ka paleo-shoreline, formed in the Ancylus Lake, further emphasize the glacioisostatic imprint of the Scandinavian ice sheet, but also reveals uplift irregularities, probably of neo tectonic origin.

  5. Communicable Diseases Prioritized According to Their Public Health Relevance, Sweden, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Viktor; Tegnell, Anders; Wallensten, Anders

    2015-01-01

    To establish strategic priorities for the Public Health Agency of Sweden we prioritized pathogens according to their public health relevance in Sweden in order to guide resource allocation. We then compared the outcome to ongoing surveillance. We used a modified prioritization method developed at the Robert Koch Institute in Germany. In a Delphi process experts scored pathogens according to ten variables. We ranked the pathogens according to the total score and divided them into four priority groups. We then compared the priority groups to self-reported time spent on surveillance by epidemiologists and ongoing programmes for surveillance through mandatory and/or voluntary notifications and for surveillance of typing results. 106 pathogens were scored. The result of the prioritization process was similar to the outcome of the prioritization in Germany. Common pathogens such as calicivirus and Influenza virus as well as blood-borne pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C virus, gastro-intestinal infections such as Campylobacter and Salmonella and vector-borne pathogens such as Borrelia were all in the highest priority group. 63% of time spent by epidemiologists on surveillance was spent on pathogens in the highest priority group and all pathogens in the highest priority group, except for Borrelia and varicella-zoster virus, were under surveillance through notifications. Ten pathogens in the highest priority group (Borrelia, calicivirus, Campylobacter, Echinococcus multilocularis, hepatitis C virus, HIV, respiratory syncytial virus, SARS- and MERS coronavirus, tick-borne encephalitis virus and varicella-zoster virus) did not have any surveillance of typing results. We will evaluate the possibilities of surveillance for the pathogens in the highest priority group where we currently do not have any ongoing surveillance and evaluate the need of surveillance for the pathogens from the low priority group where there is ongoing surveillance in

  6. What supports physiotherapists’ use of research in clinical practice? A qualitative study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence-based practice has increasingly been recognized as a priority by professional physiotherapy organizations and influential researchers and clinicians in the field. Numerous studies in the past decade have documented that physiotherapists hold generally favorable attitudes to evidence-based practice and recognize the importance of using research to guide their clinical practice. Research has predominantly investigated barriers to research use. Less is known about the circumstances that actually support use of research by physiotherapists. This study explores the conditions at different system levels that physiotherapists in Sweden perceive to be supportive of their use of research in clinical practice. Methods Patients in Sweden do not need a referral from a physician to consult a physiotherapist and physiotherapists are entitled to choose and perform any assessment and treatment technique they find suitable for each patient. Eleven focus group interviews were conducted with 45 physiotherapists, each lasting between 90 and 110 minutes. An inductive approach was applied, using topics rather than questions to allow the participants to generate their own questions and pursue their own priorities within the framework of the aim. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Analysis of the data yielded nine favorable conditions at three system levels supporting the participant’s use of research in clinical practice: two at the individual level (attitudes and motivation concerning research use; research-related knowledge and skills), four at the workplace level (leadership support; organizational culture; research-related resources; knowledge exchange) and three at the extra-organizational level (evidence-based practice guidelines; external meetings, networks, and conferences; academic research and education). Conclusions Supportive conditions for physiotherapists’ use of research exist at multiple interdependent levels

  7. Patterns of Smoking and Snus Use in Sweden: Implications for Public Health.

    PubMed

    Ramström, Lars; Borland, Ron; Wikmans, Tom

    2016-11-09

    There has been concern that the availability of alternative less harmful forms of nicotine might inhibit smoking cessation and/or encourage those who would not otherwise have smoked to do so. The plausibility of such effects can be best assessed by looking at population trends in use of smoking in relation to alternatives. This paper looks at the relationships between snus use and smoking in Sweden. Analyses are based on a data set for the period January 2003 to February 2011 from a long-term study covering nationally representative samples of the Swedish population aged 18-79, with a total study population of 60,675 individuals. Questionnaires made it possible to identify detailed tobacco use categories and use trajectories. The results showed that uptake of snus use is much more common in males than females. Those who began daily tobacco use using snus were much less likely to subsequently take up smoking than those who had not, both among males (17.6% vs. 45.9%), and females (8.2% vs. 40.2%). Further, among those who started using snus after starting as smokers, 76.3% of men and 71.6% of women had stopped smoking completely, including 31.5% of the men and 28.6% of the women who had quit all forms of tobacco. Indeed, those who were primary snus users were also more likely to have quit altogether than those who only ever smoked. Snus was also reported as the most common smoking cessation aid among men and yielded higher success rates than nicotine replacement therapy and other alternatives. As conclusions, snus has both contributed to decreasing initiation of smoking and, when used subsequent to smoking, appears to facilitate smoking cessation. All these effects suggest that the availability and use of snus has been a major factor behind Sweden's record-low prevalence of smoking and the lowest level of tobacco-related mortality among men in Europe.

  8. Prevalence and incidence of gout in southern Sweden from the socioeconomic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kapetanovic, Meliha C; Hameed, Mohaned; Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Saxne, Tore; Jacobsson, Lennart; Englund, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and cumulative incidence of gout in southern Sweden with respect to socioeconomic status. Methods Among residents of Skåne region in the year 2013 (total population 1.3 million), adult persons (age 18 years +) who between 1998 and 2013 received a diagnosis of gout (International Classification of Disease 10th Edition (ICD-10) code M10) by any physician were identified using the Skåne Healthcare Register. We calculated the point prevalence by end of 2013 and annual cumulative incidence in 2013 standardised to the whole Skåne population according to sex, individual information on occupation (white collar/blue collar), income (low/middle/high) and level of education (primary school/high school/university). Results The crude 2013 point prevalence of gout and 2013 cumulative incidence (95% CI) were 1.69% (1.66% to 1.71%) and 24 cases per 10 000 persons (23–25), respectively. Compared to women, men had higher point prevalence (2.44% (2.40% to 2.49%) vs 0.96% (0.93% to 0.98%)) and higher annual cumulative incidence (33 cases per 10 000 (32–35)) versus 15 (14–16)). These figures increased with higher age but decreased with higher level of education, being the lowest in individuals with a university degree. Persons with middle income had highest point prevalence and cumulative incidence of gout, while those with white collar occupations had the lowest. Conclusions Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis in southern Sweden with a prevalence of ∼1.7% in the adult population. There is a socioeconomic gradient with more gout present in the lower level of education and with more manual labour. PMID:27933209

  9. Characterization of Lyme borreliosis isolates from patients with erythema migrans and neuroborreliosis in southern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ornstein, K; Berglund, J; Nilsson, I; Norrby, R; Bergström, S

    2001-04-01

    Southern Sweden is an area of Lyme borreliosis (LB) endemicity, with an incidence of 69 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The most frequent clinical manifestations are erythema migrans (77%) and neuroborreliosis (16%). There was no record of human Borrelia strains being isolated from patients in this region before the prospective study reported here. Borrelia spirochetes were isolated from skin and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from LB patients living in the region. A total of 39 strains were characterized by OspA serotype analysis, species-specific PCR, and signature nucleotide analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Of 33 skin isolates, 31 (93.9%) were Borrelia afzelii strains and 2 (6.1%) were Borrelia garinii strains. Of six CSF isolates, five (83.3%) were B. garinii and one (16.7%) was B. afzelii. Neither Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains nor multiple infections were observed. The B. afzelii isolates were of OspA serotype 2. Three B. garinii strains were of OspA serotype 5, and the remaining four strains were of OspA serotype 6. All of the B. garinii strains belonged to the same 16S ribosomal DNA ribotype class. Our findings agree with earlier findings from other geographic regions in Europe where B. afzelii and B. garinii have been recovered predominantly from skin and CSF cultures, respectively. To further study the possible presence in Sweden of the genotype B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, which is known to be present in Europe and to occur predominantly in patients with Lyme arthritis, molecular detection of Borrelia-specific DNA in synovial samples from Lyme arthritis patients should be performed.

  10. The effect of latitude on the risk and seasonal variation in hip fracture in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Odén, Anders; Kanis, John A; McCloskey, Eugene V; Johansson, Helena

    2014-10-01

    Although the optimal requirement of vitamin D for skeletal health in the general community is controversial, vitamin D deficiency impairs bone mineralization and increases bone turnover via secondary hyperparathyroidism, thus accelerating bone loss and increasing fracture risk. Support for a role of vitamin D deficiency in the epidemiology of hip fracture is found in the seasonal variation of hip fracture incidence that is reported in several studies. If the association were causal, then the incidence and amplitude of the seasonal variation in hip fracture risk should vary by latitude. We addressed this hypothesis by examining the incidence of hip fracture in men and women aged 50 years or more from Sweden (latitudes 55 to 69°) between 1987 and 2009. In order to reduce double counting, only one fracture in a period of a year was counted per individual. Men contributed 104,888 fractures in 33,313,065 person years and women 264,362 fractures in 38,387,660 person years. The effects of season and latitude were examined by Poisson regression. As expected, hip fracture rates were higher in women than in men. After adjustment for age, season and population density, hip fracture incidence increased by 3.0% (95% CI: 2.7-3.2%) per degree increase in latitude for men and by 1.9% (95% CI: 1.8-2.1%) for women. There was a marked seasonal variation of hip fracture with the highest risk in February and lower by 37.5% in men and by 23.5% women during the summer. There were significant interactions of amplitude of the seasonal variation with latitude (p < 0.001 for both men and women), indicating that seasonal variation during the year was more pronounced in the north of Sweden than in the south. The associations found with latitude and season is consistent with a role of vitamin D in hip fracture causation.

  11. Time trends in burdens of cadmium, lead, and mercury in the population of northern Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Wennberg, Maria . E-mail: miawennberg@skehus19.ac; Lundh, Thomas; Bergdahl, Ingvar A.; Hallmans, Goeran; Jansson, Jan-Hakan; Stegmayr, Birgitta; Custodio, Hipolito M.; Skerfving, Staffan

    2006-03-15

    The time trends of exposure to heavy metals are not adequately known. This is a worldwide problem with regard to the basis for preventive actions and evaluation of their effects. This study addresses time trends for the three toxic elements cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb). Concentrations in erythrocytes (Ery) were determined in a subsample of the population-based MONICA surveys from 1990, 1994, and 1999 in a total of 600 men and women aged 25-74 years. The study took place in the two northernmost counties in Sweden. To assess the effect of changes in the environment, adjustments were made for life-style factors that are determinants of exposure. Annual decreases of 5-6% were seen for Ery-Pb levels (adjusted for age and changes in alcohol intake) and Ery-Hg levels (adjusted for age and changes in fish intake). Ery-Cd levels (adjusted for age) showed a similar significant decrease in smoking men. It is concluded that for Pb and maybe also Hg the actions against pollution during recent decades have caused a rapid decrease of exposure; for Hg the decreased use of dental amalgam may also have had an influence. For Cd, the decline in Ery-Cd was seen only in smokers, indicating that Cd exposure from tobacco has decreased, while other environmental sources of Cd have not changed significantly. To further improve the health status in Sweden, it is important to decrease the pollution of Cd, and actions against smoking in the community are important.

  12. Work practices relating to intubation and associated procedures in intensive care units in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mehta, S; Mickiewicz, M

    1986-11-01

    A survey into the current usage of tracheal tubes and associated procedures, such as various sedation regimes and antacid therapy, in intensive care units was carried out in Sweden by sending a questionnaire to physicians in charge of intensive care units in 70 acute hospitals which included seven main teaching hospitals. The purpose of the survey was to see how far the recent advances in tube and cuff design and awareness of the problems caused by prolonged therapeutic paralysis in intensive care units have influenced the attitudes and work practices of physicians in Sweden. Forty-nine replies were received (a 70% response rate). All hospitals used polyvinyl chloride tubes of Magill design, with high residual volume, low pressure cuffs. Intensive care units in 85.7% of teaching hospitals and 47.6% of non-teaching hospitals preferred the nasal route for intubation. Most non-teaching hospitals used a size 7 tube in both adult male and female patients for nasal intubation. The majority of units changed from tracheal tubes to tracheostomy after a period of 1-2 weeks. 85% of all hospitals monitored intracuff pressure as a routine, and in most intensive care units the cuff was inflated to no-leak ventilation. The majority of units rarely used muscle relaxants. Phenoperidine and diazepam were the most popular drugs used for the sedation technique. 71.4% of teaching hospitals and 40.9% of non-teaching hospitals used antacids routinely in patients on intermittent positive pressure respiration. The results are discussed.

  13. Atypical Fractures are Mainly Subtrochanteric in Singapore and Diaphyseal in Sweden: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Schilcher, Jörg; Howe, Tet Sen; Png, Meng Ai; Aspenberg, Per; Koh, Joyce S B

    2015-11-01

    We have previously noted a dichotomy in the location of atypical fractures along the femoral shaft in Swedish patients, and a mainly subtrochanteric location of atypical fractures in descriptions of patients from Singapore. These unexpected differences were now investigated by testing the following hypotheses in a cross-sectional study: first, that there is a dichotomy also in Singapore; second, that the relation between subtrochanteric and diaphyseal location is different between the two countries; third, that the location is related to femoral bow. The previously published Swedish sample (n = 151) was re-measured, and a new Singaporean sample (n = 75) was established. Both samples were based on radiographic classification of all femoral fractures in women above 55 years of age. The distance between the fracture line and the lesser trochanter was measured. Femoral bow was classified as present or absent on frontal radiographs. Frequency distribution of the measured distances was analyzed using the Bayesian information criterion to choose the best description of the observed variable distribution in terms of a compilation of normally distributed subgroups. The analysis showed a clear dichotomy of the fracture location: either subtrochanteric or diaphyseal. Subtrochanteric fractures comprised 48% of all fractures in Singapore, and 17% in Sweden (p = 0.0001). In Singapore, femoral bow was associated with more fractures in the diaphyseal subgroup (p = 0.0001). This was not seen in Sweden. A dichotomous location of atypical fractures was confirmed, because it was found also in Singapore. The fractures showed a different localization pattern in the two countries. This difference may be linked to anatomical variations, but might also be related to cultural differences between the two populations that influence physical activity.

  14. Incidence of hereditary amyloidosis and autoinflammatory diseases in Sweden: endemic and imported diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Amyloidoses are a heterogeneous group of progressive diseases caused by tissue deposition of misfolded proteins. According to the International Classification of Diseases, hereditary amyloidosis is divided into neuropathic and non-neuropathic forms. In Sweden, neuropathic heredofamilial amyloidosis has been identified as familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP), a fatal disease that is treated by liver transplantation. The non-neuropathic form includes familial autoinflammatory diseases. As no incidence data on these hereditary diseases are available and as even diagnostic data on non-neuropathic forms are lacking we determined the incidence of these diseases and characterized non-neuropathic conditions. Methods Patients were identified using data from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register and from the Outpatient Register for 2001 through 2008. All patients discharged with hereditary amyloidosis diagnoses were included and standardized incidence rates were calculated. Results Non-neuropathic disease was diagnosed in 210 patients, with an incidence of 2.83 per million. FAP was diagnosed in 221 patients, with an incidence of 2.02 per million. Two northern provinces that are home to 5% of the Swedish population accounted for 77% of FAP cases; the incidence in one of them, West Bothnia, was 100 times that in the rest of Sweden. Approximately 98% of non-neuropathic disease patients were immigrants, most of whom were from the Eastern Mediterranean area. Young Syrian descendants had the highest incidence rate, which was over 500-fold higher than that in individuals with Swedish parents. Even the early onset of these conditions identified them as familial autoinflammatory diseases. Conclusions FAP cases were highly concentrated in the two northernmost provinces. Non-neuropathic familial autoinflammatory diseases were of early-onset and immigrant origin most likely related to periodic fever syndromes. Paradoxically, FAP has remained endemic, in spite of

  15. Awareness of cancer symptoms and anticipated patient interval for healthcare seeking. A comparative study of Denmark and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hvidberg, Line; Lagerlund, Magdalena; Pedersen, Anette F; Hajdarevic, Senada; Tishelman, Carol; Vedsted, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Background Recent epidemiologic data show that Denmark has considerably poorer survival from common cancers than Sweden. This may be related to a lower awareness of cancer symptoms and longer patient intervals in Denmark than in Sweden. The aims of this study were to: 1) compare population awareness of three possible symptoms of cancer (unexplained lump or swelling, unexplained bleeding and persistent cough or hoarseness); 2) compare anticipated patient interval when noticing any breast changes, rectal bleeding and persistent cough; and 3) examine whether potential differences were noticeable in particular age groups or at particular levels of education in a Danish and Swedish population sample. Method Data were derived from Module 2 of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. Telephone interviews using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure were conducted in 2011 among 3000 adults in Denmark and 3070 adults in Sweden. Results Danish respondents reported a higher awareness of two of three symptoms (i.e. unexplained lump or swelling and persistent cough or hoarseness) and a shorter anticipated patient interval for two of three symptoms studied (i.e. any breast changes and rectal bleeding) than Swedish respondents. Differences in symptom awareness and anticipated patient interval between these countries were most pronounced in highly educated respondents. Conclusion Somewhat paradoxically, the highest awareness of symptoms of cancer and the shortest anticipated patient intervals were found in Denmark, where cancer survival is lower than in Sweden. Thus, it appears that these differences in symptom awareness and anticipated patient interval do not help explain the cancer survival disparity between Denmark and Sweden.

  16. Acute myocardial infarction incidence in immigrants to Sweden. Country of birth, time since immigration, and time trends over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Ebba; Lange, Anders; Hammar, Niklas

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates incidence of first acute myocardial infarction (MI) among foreign born persons in Sweden using case control methods, taking into consideration country of birth, gender, socio-economic group and time since immigration and evaluates if the decreasing incidence of MI in Sweden during the study period was also present in immigrants. The study base consisted of persons 30-74 years of age in Stockholm County 1977-96. All incident cases of first acute MI in the study population were identified using registers of hospital discharges and deaths. Controls were selected randomly from the study base and the sampling fractions were known, enabling estimates of person time at risk. Foreign born subjects had a higher incidence of MI than subjects born in Sweden (men RR[Relative risk]=1,17; 95% CI 1,13-1,21; women RR = 1,15; 95% CI 1,09-1,21) after adjustment for calendar year, age and socio-economic group. An increased incidence was present primarily in subjects born in Finland, other Nordic countries, Poland, Turkey, Syria and South Asia in both genders, from the Netherlands among men and from Iraq among women and was still present after more than 20 years in Sweden. The incidence rate of MI 1977-96 among foreign born persons followed the general decline in the Swedish population. We conclude that foreign born persons in Sweden have an increased incidence of first MI which persists several years after immigration and is not explained by socio-economic differences. It is likely that this to an important extent has a background in factors in the country of origin.

  17. Low Prevalence of Transmitted Drug Resistance in Patients Newly Diagnosed with HIV-1 Infection in Sweden 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Annika; Björkman, Per; Bratt, Göran; Ekvall, Håkan; Gisslén, Magnus; Sönnerborg, Anders; Mild, Mattias; Albert, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is a clinical and epidemiological problem because it may contribute to failure of antiretroviral treatment. The prevalence of TDR varies geographically, and its prevalence in Sweden during the last decade has not been reported. Plasma samples from 1,463 patients newly diagnosed with HIV-1 infection between 2003 and 2010, representing 44% of all patients diagnosed in Sweden during this period, were analyzed using the WHO 2009 list of mutations for surveillance of TDR. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses were used to determine genetic subtype and to investigate the relatedness of the sequences. Eighty-two patients showed evidence of TDR, representing a prevalence of 5.6% (95% CI: 4.5%–6.9%) without any significant time trends or differences between patients infected in Sweden or abroad. Multivariable logistic regression showed that TDR was positively associated with men who have sex with men (MSM) and subtype B infection and negatively associated with CD4 cell counts. Among patients with TDR, 54 (68%) had single resistance mutations, whereas five patients had multi-drug resistant HIV-1. Phylogenetic analyses identified nine significantly supported clusters involving 29 of the patients with TDR, including 23 of 42 (55%) of the patients with TDR acquired in Sweden. One cluster contained 18 viruses with a M41L resistance mutation, which had spread among MSM in Stockholm over a period of at least 16 years (1994–2010). Another cluster, which contained the five multidrug resistant viruses, also involved MSM from Stockholm. The prevalence of TDR in Sweden 2003–2010 was lower than in many other European countries. TDR was concentrated among MSM, where clustering of TDR strains was observed, which highlights the need for continued and improved measures for targeted interventions. PMID:22448246

  18. Stable Isotope Analysis of Reindeer Diet in Northern Sweden and Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Hobbie, E. A.; Steele, K.; Lucas, R. W.; Varner, R. K.

    2012-12-01

    Shrub expansion in the Scandinavian Arctic has been recorded through ground observations and remote sensing techniques; however its effect on local mammalian ecology has yet to be fully understood. Warming in these subarctic ecosystems has been correlated with this increase in vascular plant production, which in turn has been correlated with a decline in lichen biomass. Our study examined δ13C and δ15N values in reindeer tissue to determine whether such biomass changes in northern Norway and Sweden have been substantial enough to affect the summer forage composition of reindeer. Hair and antler samples dating from 1909 to present day were collected from members of the Sámi community, museums, grazing areas near Abisko National Park, and Norwegian slaughterhouses. δ13C and δ15N values of hair and antler samples were compared to previously reported δ13C and δ15N values of potential reindeer forage species. This allowed for the prediction of the proportion of lichen versus graminoids, forbs, fungi and shrubs each reindeer consumed the summer before the sample was collected. Recent reindeer samples would be expected have lower δ13C and δ15N values, as compared to older specimens, if observed biomass changes had led to a decrease in reindeer summer lichen consumption in exchange for an increase in vascular plant consumption. After correcting δ13C data for the ongoing depletion of δ13C in the atmosphere due to combustion of fossil fuels (the Suess effect), no significant change of δ13C values in relation to age of sample was found. There was also no correlation between the age of the reindeer sample and δ15N values. These results indicate that summer diet composition of reindeer in northern Sweden and Norway has not notably changed since the early 1900s, regardless of potential vegetation changes. Further studies are needed to determine the extent to which reindeer will be able to selectively feed rather than change diet composition, where vascular plants

  19. Summary of project TOR: delineation of a stepwise, sharp, deep lithosphere transition across Germany Denmark Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregersen, S.; Voss, P.; TOR Working Group

    2002-12-01

    Project Tor ( Teleseismic Tomography across the Tornquist Zone in Germany-Denmark-Sweden) is now producing results. We are able to detect very significant deep lithosphere differences, and we can now discuss the sharpness laterally. In 1996-1997, our 120 seismographs constituted the largest seismic antenna ever in Europe. The Tor area was chosen along a well-studied crustal profile of an earlier project, and the inversion efforts are concentrated on the deep lithosphere and asthenosphere differences to depths around 300 km. The Tor investigation can be called two-and-a-half-dimensional, as it has a 900-km profile length with 100 km width plus a few seismographs off the profile. The Tor data have been subjected to P-wave travel time tomography, surface wave and receiver function analysis as well as anisotropy and scattering measurements. Through ray tracing in a compiled crustal model and subtraction of the modelled travel time anomalies, the influence of the lower lithosphere/asthenosphere on the seismic rays from distant earthquakes is being established. Travel time tomography results confirm very large lateral lithosphere differences of 4-6% in P-wave velocity. For several events of the large data base, it is demonstrated that the observed P-wave travel time anomalies of 1-2 s can be divided almost equally between known crustal effects and lower lithosphere/asthenosphere differences, which then must account for about 1 s of the travel time differences. The transition is interpreted to be sharp and steep in two places. It goes all the way through the lithosphere at the northern rim of the Tornquist Zone near the border between Sweden and Denmark, and here the lithosphere difference is large. A smaller lithosphere difference is found near the southern edge of the Ringkøbing-Fyn High just north of the border between Denmark and Germany. Also, this transition is sharp and steep, and goes all through the lithosphere. These two sharp transitions divide the Tor region

  20. A temporal study of permafrost thaw for a subarctic peatland in northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, John; Persson, Andreas; Giljum, Marco; Crill, Patrick; Roulet, Nigel; Eklundh, Lars; Pilesjö, Petter

    2014-05-01

    Peatlands or mires contain about one third of the global terrestrial carbon pool and are located on between 3-6% of the global land area. In boreal and sub-arctic regions peatland cover about 3.5 million km2 and are underlain with continuous, discontinuous, sporadic and isolated patches of permafrost. In these areas the soil organic carbon (SOC) pools are stable and decomposition is suspended only as long as the soil is frozen or in an anaerobic state. Climate warming is projected to be greater in the high latitudes where most northern peatlands are found. Observed mean annual air temperatures in northern Sweden have increased by 2-3oC since the 1950s. This is causing permafrost thaw and increasing the vulnerability of peatland C, especially in discontinuous and sporadic permafrost area. A growing number of studies have examined the impact of climate-induced thaw and the potential vulnerability of carbon stored in frozen peatlands. Thawing permafrost leads to changes in the form and function of northern peatlands. This is characterised by the transition of dry palsa mires to wetter peatland pits, depressions and pools. These new hydrological regimes also lead to increased production of methane through subsequent decomposition of plant material. Increases in temperature therefore leads to changes in permafrost distribution, receding palsa areas, geomorphology (thermokarst terrain), hydrology (thus affecting plant community structure, productivity, increased wetter vegetation communities) and C efflux. An increasing number of studies examining the impact of climate change on peatlands in these regions and measurement of CO2 and CH4 fluxes occurs at several discrete peatland sites across the sub-Arctic. However, regional estimations of these fluxes are limited. Geospatial technologies may be used to aid the understanding of the patterns and processes that are occurring in these transition mires over space and time. Several satellite and airborne images have been

  1. The Siljan Ring in central Sweden - a window into the Palaeozoic history of Baltoscandia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, O.; Meinhold, G.; Bergström, S. M.; Calner, M.; Ebbestad, J. O. R.; Egenhoff, S.; Frisk, Å. M.; Högström, A. E. S.; Maletz, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Siljan meteorite crater, the largest known impact crater in Europe, is a main target of the research project 'Concentric Impact Structures in the Palaeozoic (CISP)', an integral of the Swedish Deep Drilling Program (SDDP). A set of new drillcores now provides possibilities to document the associated Early Palaeozoic sedimentary strata that form the crater ring-structure. In 2011 our research team has sampled the core sections for carbon isotope chemostratigraphy, thermal maturity analysis, sediment provenance, facies and microfacies studies. A dug trench at Nittsjö in the south-eastern part of the ring-structure forms complement to the drillcores and the total data set will allow intra- and intercontinental correlation of the succession and help to reconstruct Caledonian tectonic movements in the region. Based on initial analysis of the core sections, the Palaeozoic succession starts with the Tremadocian Obolus conglomerate whereas the youngest pre-Caledonian strata are Mid-Silurian shales of the Nederberga Formation. Our first preliminary studies show that different, and yet undefined, facies belts are preserved in the Siljan District. This part of Sweden, previously regarded to represent a stable cratonic area unaffected by the Caledonian collision between Baltica and Laurentia, locally has a complex tectonic history. In the western part of the crater, the Lower to Middle Ordovician carbonate succession is about 21 m thick, with a sharp flooding surface on top of the Mid-Ordovician Holen Formation. The immediately overlying shales are of upper Llandovery age based on graptolite data and comprises a minimum thickness of about 224 m. The erosional unconformity and substantial hiatus between these units suggest an extended period of uplift and erosion, presumably related to forebulge migration towards the east due to tectonic loading by the Caledonian nappes to the west. Megaslumps, debris flows, turbidites and several synsedimentary tectonic features in the

  2. Criminal homicide in northern Sweden 1970-1981: alcohol intoxication, alcohol abuse and mental disease.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, P

    1986-01-01

    All cases of criminal homicide in northern Sweden between 1970-81 were studied, 71 cases altogether (64 offenders). Homicide was a rare event and more infrequent compared with Sweden as a whole. The offenders were predominantly males, ages 20 to 40. Half of the victims were females. Mutual intoxication was a feature in 44% of the cases and in 34% both participants were sober. The majority of the victims were related by blood or marriage to the offender. Sharp instruments, blunt instruments and use of firearms were, in this order, the most common methods of killing. Almost one-third of the offenders had no former conviction, minor trespasses excluded. Sixty-three percent of the offenders had previously been subjected to psychiatric care, 31% were considered mentally diseased at the trial and another 22% had also a coexisting abuse or personality disorder. Three-quarters of the offenders were transferred to closed psychiatric care. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism were prevalent among 30% of the offenders and another 27% were also mentally diseased or had a personality disorder. The shares of mentally diseased and abusers/alcoholics outnumbered the prevalence of these conditions in the general population as well as in many international studies. Ten subjects committed suicide before trial; these persons were relatively more often sober at the act and fewer were alcoholics. Eight had previously received psychiatric treatment. They were more prone to kill a member of their nuclear family. Only two subjects had a previous criminal record; both concerned convictions of manslaughter. Nineteen offenders were sober at the act; 15 of these were mentally diseased. The sober offenders hardly ever attacked a person outside their family. Their motives were frequently premeditated. The killings were usually by quick, certain methods, such as firearms. No sober offender attacked an intoxicated person. The sober offenders usually had no criminal records and the homicides were often

  3. From Shock to Impact-Metamorphism — Discovery of Melt-Bearing Breccias and Impact Melt Veins at the Hummeln Impact Structure (Sweden)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrière, L.; Holm-Alwmark, S.; Alwmark, C.; Stehlik, H.

    2016-08-01

    For the first time melt-bearing breccias and impact melt veins have been found at the Hummeln impact structure (Sweden). Macroscopic and petrographic observations as well as the future possibilities this discovery allows, will be presented.

  4. A food-borne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis among guests and staff at a hotel restaurant in Stockholm county, Sweden, September 2008.

    PubMed

    Insulander, M; de Jong, B; Svenungsson, B

    2008-12-18

    In September 2008, 21 cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred among guests and staff at a wedding reception in a hotel restaurant in Stockholm county, Sweden. The most probable source of the outbreak was bearnaise sauce containing chopped fresh parsley.

  5. No covariation between the geomagnetic activity and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in the polar area of northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Messner, T; Häggström, I; Sandahl, I; Lundberg, V

    2002-05-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether there was any relation between the aurora borealis (measured as the geomagnetic activity) and the number of acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) in the northern, partly polar, area of Sweden. The AMI cases were collected from The Northern Sweden MONICA (multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants of CArdiovascular disease) AMI registry between 1985 and 1998, inclusive, and the information on the geomagnetic activity from continuous measurements at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna. In the analyses, both the relation between the individual AMI case and ambient geomagnetic activity, and the relation between the mean daily K index and the daily number of AMI cases were tested. We found no statistically significant relation between the number of fatal or non-fatal AMI cases, the number of sudden deaths or the number of patients with chest pain without myocardial damage, and geomagnetic activity. Our data do not support a relation between the geomagnetic activity and AMI.

  6. No covariation between the geomagnetic activity and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in the polar area of northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messner, T.; Häggström, I.; Sandahl, I.; Lundberg, V.

    2002-05-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether there was any relation between the aurora borealis (measured as the geomagnetic activity) and the number of acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) in the northern, partly polar, area of Sweden. The AMI cases were collected from The Northern Sweden MONICA (multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants of CArdiovascular disease) AMI registry between 1985 and 1998, inclusive, and the information on the geomagnetic activity from continuous measurements at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna. In the analyses, both the relation between the individual AMI case and ambient geomagnetic activity, and the relation between the mean daily K index and the daily number of AMI cases were tested. We found no statistically significant relation between the number of fatal or non-fatal AMI cases, the number of sudden deaths or the number of patients with chest pain without myocardial damage, and geomagnetic activity. Our data do not support a relation between the geomagnetic activity and AMI.

  7. How can family policies reconcile fertility and women’s employment? Comparisons between South Korea and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Soomi; DUVANDER, Ann-Zofie; ZARIT, Steven H.

    2017-01-01

    South Korea has extremely low rates of fertility and labor force participation by women during their childbearing years, whereas Sweden has high rates for both. Variations in family policy models may explain differences in fertility and women’s employment between the two countries. Drawing upon literature that examines the effects of family policies on fertility and women’s employment, this paper compares childcare support for very young children and parental leave policies in South Korea and Sweden. Thereafter, we discuss the importance of providing stronger support for dual-earner rather than single-earner families to reconcile the two objectives of increasing fertility and women’s workforce participation. Specifically, it is critical to: (a) enhance the quantity and quality of childcare services for very young children, (b) achieve gender equality in parental leave policies, and (c) reduce gaps in the accessibility and utilization of family benefits by working parents from different social classes. PMID:28163567

  8. The National Resource Library for Science and Technology in Sweden: A Nordic model of cooperating technology libraries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagar, Gunnar

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this presentation is to give a state-of-the-art report on the present situation of Nordic technology libraries, to elaborate on a plan for national resource libraries in Sweden, and to share how the Royal Institute of Technology Library in Stockholm (KTHB) has fostered a network of cooperating libraries in order to optimize government funding for the system of resource libraries.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of a Sapporo Virus GV.2 Variant from a 2016 Outbreak of Gastroenteritis in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Hallström, Björn; Lagerqvist, Nina; Lind-Karlberg, Maria; Helgesson, Sofia; Follin, Per; Hergens, Maria-Pia; Nederby-Öhd, Joanna; Tolfvenstam, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT During an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in Sweden when laboratory routine diagnostics failed to detect a causative agent, Sapporo virus was detected in stool specimens using electron microscopy (M.-P. Hergens, J. Nederby Öhd, E. Alm, H. Hervius Askling, S. Helgesson, M. Insulander, N. Lagerkvist, B. Svennungsson, M. Tihane, T. Tolfvenstam, P. Follin, unpublished data). Whole-genome sequencing revealed a Sapporo virus variant clustering with genogroup V. PMID:28153884

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of a Sapporo Virus GV.2 Variant from a 2016 Outbreak of Gastroenteritis in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hallström, Björn; Lagerqvist, Nina; Lind-Karlberg, Maria; Helgesson, Sofia; Follin, Per; Hergens, Maria-Pia; Nederby-Öhd, Joanna; Tolfvenstam, Thomas; Alm, Erik

    2017-02-02

    During an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in Sweden when laboratory routine diagnostics failed to detect a causative agent, Sapporo virus was detected in stool specimens using electron microscopy (M.-P. Hergens, J. Nederby Öhd, E. Alm, H. Hervius Askling, S. Helgesson, M. Insulander, N. Lagerkvist, B. Svennungsson, M. Tihane, T. Tolfvenstam, P. Follin, unpublished data). Whole-genome sequencing revealed a Sapporo virus variant clustering with genogroup V.

  11. User Acceptance of a Software Tool for Decision Making in IT Outsourcing: A Qualitative Study in Large Companies from Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, Christoffer; Hodosi, Georg; Saprykina, Irina; Rusu, Lazar

    Decisions for IT outsourcing are very complex and needs to be supported by considerations based on many (multiple) criteria. In order to facilitate the use of a specific tool by a decision-maker in IT outsourcing, we need to find out whether such a tool for this purpose will be accepted or rejected or what improvements must be added to this tool to be accepted by some IT decision makers in large companies from Sweden.

  12. A cross-cultural examination of use of corporal punishment on children: a focus on Sweden and the United States.

    PubMed

    Solheim, J S

    1982-01-01

    It appears that Sweden and the United States may be a study in contrasts regarding the sanction and use of corporal punishment on children. A 1979 study of American parents noted that 81% of them employed corporal punishment with children. A different study done in Sweden in 1978 noted that only 26% of parents used corporal punishment with children. What points to the differences in these parenting patterns within the two countries? In addition, a 1977 U.S. Supreme Court case entitled Ingraham vs. Wright ruled that "schools are empowered to carry out corporal punishment." This court case involved two high school boys in Florida who had been repeatedly struck with wooden paddles. In contrast, Sweden had statutes which prohibited corporal punishment of children in their secondary schools as early as the 1920s. In 1957, the country passed a law which defined corporal punishment as unacceptable for small children in the schools. Then, in 1979, the Swedish government passed a statute prohibiting corporal punishment by parents. Are there differences in the way the two countries view law and its uses? Or, do the cultures sanction violence in general or just violence against children in different ways? This article examines some of the similarities and differences found in American and Swedish treatment of children and proposes what appear to be extreme differences in the way the countries and their people approach corporal punishment.

  13. Life situation and posttraumatic symptoms: a follow-up study of refugees from the former Yugoslavia living in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kivling-Bodén, G; Sundbom, E

    2001-01-01

    Posttraumatic symptoms were assessed by means of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire among 27 severely traumatized refugees from the former Yugoslavia in psychiatric treatment and then 3 years later, after an average of 5.5 years in Sweden. At follow-up the subjects also answered a questionnaire about their life situations. No significant change in average symptom level had taken place at follow-up. Seventeen subjects met the DSM IV criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at both times. However, five subjects who met the PTSD criteria in the first study did not at follow-up, and the opposite was true for another five subjects. Fifteen subjects reported contact with psychiatric care during the past year. Unemployment and dependence on social welfare were high at follow-up. The unemployment rate of 32% was almost six times greater than that for the regular Swedish labor force but comparable to that of the whole Bosnian labor force in Sweden. Social contacts with the majority population were as common as with compatriots, but two-thirds of the subjects expressed a wish for more social contacts outside the family. Positive factors in the subjects' life situations were the housing situation and the fact that most subjects had at least reasonable knowledge of the majority language. However, a minority of the group still had no formal competence in Swedish, with negative consequences for labor market integration and social contact with Swedes. Two-thirds of the group had made no definite decision to stay in Sweden.

  14. Synoptic weather types and long-range transport patterns for ozone precursors during high-ozone events in southern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lin; Karlsson, Per Erik; Gu, Yongfeng; Chen, Deliang; Grennfelt, Peringe

    2009-12-01

    We studied long-range transport patterns and related weather types in relation to high-ozone events in southern Sweden. The aim was to deepen the understanding of the relationship between Lamb-Jenkinson weather types and surface ozone concentration variation, thus widening the application of the weather type analysis of air quality at 4 sites in this region. The long-range transport patterns associated with high-ozone events were classified into trajectories from Western Europe, Eastern Europe, and in the vicinity of southern Sweden (VIC). The VIC type, characterized by short and whirling curves, represented more than 40% of the high-ozone events at the studied rural sites. More than half of the high-ozone events occurred under high-pressure conditions, belonging to weather type A (anticyclones). The high correlation coefficient between annual counts of weather type A and those of long-range transport pattern VIC confirmed the strong link between stagnant weather conditions and high-ozone events, especially during the summer. Furthermore, a strong linear anticorrelation was detected between high-ozone events and annual counts of weather type C (cyclones) during the summer. This relationship implies that the frequency of weather type C is a useful indicator for low risk of summertime high-ozone events in southern Sweden. Moreover, the relationship between the weather type and high ozone risk may be useful in examining the potential effect of climate change on the regional air quality.

  15. Emerging evidence that the ban on asbestos use is reducing the occurrence of pleural mesothelioma in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Järvholm, Bengt; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Several countries have banned the use of asbestos. The future health impacts of previous use have been modeled but there are to our knowledge no convincing studies showing a decreased occurrence of asbestos-related diseases due to a ban. The aim of our study was to estimate the effects of the ban and other measures to decrease the use of asbestos in Sweden. Methods: The effect was measured through comparing the incidence of pleural malignant mesothelioma in birth cohorts who started to work before and after the decrease in the use of asbestos, i.e. in mid-1970s. Cases were identified through the Swedish Cancer Registry and the analysis was restricted to persons born in Sweden. Results: Men and women born 1955–79 had a decreased risk of malignant pleural mesothelioma compared to men and women born 1940–49 (RR 0.16, 95% CI 0.11–0.25; and RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.23–0.97 respectively). The decreased use of asbestos prevented each year about 10 cases in men and two cases in women below the age of 57 years in 2012. Conclusions: The ban and decreased use of asbestos in Sweden can be measured today in birth cohorts that started their working career after the decrease. PMID:26194352

  16. Real-world traffic emission factors of gases and particles measured in a road tunnel in Stockholm, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensson, Adam; Johansson, Christer; Westerholm, Roger; Swietlicki, Erik; Gidhagen, Lars; Wideqvist, Ulla; Vesely, Vaclav

    Measurements in a road tunnel in Stockholm, Sweden give the real-world traffic emission factors for a number of gaseous and particle pollutants. These include 49 different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), CO, NO X, benzene, toluene, xylenes, aldehydes, elements and inorganic/organic carbon contained in particles, the sub-micrometer aerosol number size distribution, PM 2.5 and PM 10. The exhaust pipe emission factors are divided with the help of automated traffic counts into the two pollutant sources, the heavy-duty vehicles (HDV) and light-duty vehicles (LDV). The LDV fleet contains 95% petrol cars and the total fleet contains about 5% HDV. When data permitted, the emission factors were further calculated at different vehicle speeds. The current work shows that average CO, NO X and benzene emission factors amounted to 5.3, 1.4 and 0.017 g veh -1 km -1, respectively. Since the mid-90s CO and benzene decreased by about 15%, carbonyls by about a factor 2, whereas NO X did not change much. PAH emission factors were 2-15 times higher than found during dynamometer tests. Most particles are distributed around 20 nm diameter and the LDV fleet contributes to about 65% of both PM and particle number. In general, the gaseous emissions are higher in Sweden than in USA and Switzerland, foremost due to the lower fraction catalytic converters in Sweden. The PM and number emissions of particles are also slightly higher in the Swedish tunnel.

  17. Landowners' incentives for constructing wetlands in an agricultural area in south Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Anna; Pedersen, Eja; Weisner, Stefan E B

    2012-12-30

    Eutrophication of the Baltic Sea has in Sweden led to the initiation of government schemes aiming to increase wetland areas in agricultural regions and thereby reduce nutrient transport to the sea. Landowners play a significant role as providers of this ecosystem service and are currently offered subsidies to cover their costs for constructing and maintaining wetlands. We undertook a grounded theory study, in which landowners were interviewed, aiming at identifying landowners' incentives for constructing wetlands on their land. The study showed that adequate subsidies, additional services that the wetland could provide to the landowner, local environmental benefits, sufficient knowledge, and peers' good experiences could encourage landowners to construct wetlands. Perceived hindrances were burdensome management, deficient knowledge, time-consuming application procedures and unclear effectiveness of nutrient reduction. The main reason for not creating a wetland, however, was that the land was classified as productive by the landowner, i.e., suitable for food production. Current schemes are directed toward landowners as individuals and based on subsidies to cover costs. We propose that landowners instead are approached as ecosystem service entrepreneurs and contracted after a tendering process based on nutrient reduction effects. This would lead to new definitions of production and may stimulate improved design and placement of wetlands.

  18. Environmental assessment of energy production based on long term commercial willow plantations in Sweden.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Mola-Yudego, Blas; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Aronsson, Pär; Murphy, Richard

    2012-04-01

    The present paper analyzed the environmental assessment of short rotation willow plantations in Sweden based on the standard framework of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) from the International Standards Organisation. The analysis is focused on two alternative management regimes for willow plantations dedicated to biomass production for energy purposes. The data used included the averages of a large sample of commercial plantations. One of the scenarios is carried out under nitrogen based fertilized conditions and the other under non-fertilized management with total biomass yields (dry weight) of 140t/ha and 86t/ha over a 21 and 22-year life time respectively. The environmental profile was analyzed in terms of the potentials for abiotic depletion, acidification, eutrophication, global warming, ozone layer depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, human toxicity, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, marine aquatic ecotoxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. In addition, an energy analysis was performed using the cumulative energy demand method (CED). The application of nitrogen based fertilizers allows an increase in the biomass yield per ha of up to 40% although the contributions to almost all impact categories, particularly the eutrophication potential and toxicity potential impact categories are also considerably higher. Conversely, due to the higher biomass yields achieved with fertilization of these willow plantations, that regime presents a better overall environmental profile in terms of energy yield and global warming potential.

  19. Technology Foresight For Youth: A Project For Science and Technology Education in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendal, Anne Louise

    "Technology Foresight for Youth" is a project run by two science museums, two science centres and "Technology Foresight (Sweden)" an organization in which both business and scientists are represented. The project is designed to strengthen young people's interest in ongoing technological work, research and education. It should give them confidence in their own ability both to understand today's techniques including its influence on people's daily lives, and to influence future developments. One part of the project is aimed at school teachers, teacher cooperation groups and students in the age group 12 to 18 years. A second part encourages dialog and meetings by arranging debates, seminars, theatre, science demonstrations in cooperation with business representatives and scientists. A third important part of the project is a special exhibition to be shown at the four cooperating institutions: "To be where I am not - young people's dreams about the future". The exhibition is meant to be sensual, interactive and partly virtual. It will change and grow with time as young people contribute with their thoughts, visions and challenges. Young people in different parts of the country will be able to interact electronically with each other and with the virtual part of the exhibition. The main aim of the project is to develop new interactive pedagogic methods for science and technology based on young people's own visions about the future.

  20. Yearly trend of dicarboxylic acids in organic aerosols from south of Sweden and source attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyder, Murtaza; Genberg, Johan; Sandahl, Margareta; Swietlicki, Erik; Jönsson, Jan Åke

    2012-09-01

    Seven aliphatic dicarboxylic acids (C3-C9) along with phthalic acid, pinic acid and pinonic acid were determined in 35 aerosol (PM10) samples collected over the year at Vavihill sampling station in south of Sweden. Mixture of dichloromethane and methanol (ratio 1:3) was preferred over water for extraction of samples and extraction was assisted by ultrasonic agitation. Analytes were derivatized using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) containing 1% trimethylsilyl chloride and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Among studied analytes, azelaic acid was found maximum with an average concentration of 6.0 ± 3.6 ng m-3 and minimum concentration was found for pimelic acid (1.06 ± 0.63 ng m-3). A correlation coefficients analysis was used for defining the possible sources of analytes. Higher dicarboxylic acids (C7-C9) showed a strong correlation with each other (correlation coefficients (r) range, 0.96-0.97). Pinic and pinonic acids showed an increase in concentration during summer. Lower carbon number dicarboxylic acids (C3-C6) and phthalic acid were found strongly correlated, but showed a poor correlation with higher carbon number dicarboxylic acids (C7-C9), suggesting a different source for them. Biomass burning, vehicle exhaust, photo-oxidation of volatile organic compounds (natural and anthropogenic emissions) were possible sources for dicarboxylic acids.

  1. Spinal cord injuries in ice hockey in Finland and Sweden from 1980 to 1996.

    PubMed

    Mölsä, J J; Tegner, Y; Alaranta, H; Myllynen, P; Kujala, U M

    1999-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) in the cervical or thoracic region is one of the most catastrophic types of sport injuries. This study was designed to determine incidence and mechanisms of major SCI in ice hockey in Finland and Sweden from 1980 to 1996 in order to find possibilities for prevention. Retrospective analysis of injury occurrence were carried out. Medical case records were reviewed and injured players were interviewed to complete the data. From 1980 to 1996, there were 16 accidents involving spinal cord injury with permanent disability. All players were male. The mean age was 21.1 years (range = 14 to 33 yr). In 50% of the cases the mechanism was body checking from behind and a blow to the head from the boards. In 69% of the cases the vertebral injury was fracture or/and luxation between C5 and C7. The neurological endstate was tetraplegia/paresis in 10 cases and paraplegia/paresis of the lower extremities in 6 cases. Ice hockey is one of the most popular sports in Europe, and the number of participants is still increasing. The typical mechanism in SCI is body checking from behind, falling down and a head-first blow from the boards. These serious injuries may be prevented by changing the rules (banning body checking near the boards) with strict refereeing and education of trainers and players.

  2. Soil Microbial Activity Provides Insight to Carbon Cycling in Shrub Ecotones of Sub-Arctic Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, E.; Kashi, N. N.; Chen, J.; Hobbie, E. A.; Schwan, M. R.; Varner, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Shrubs are expanding in Arctic and sub-Arctic regions due to rising atmospheric temperatures. Microbial activity increases as growing temperatures cause permafrost warming and subsequent thaw, leading to a greater resource of soil nutrients enabling shrub growth. Increased carbon inputs from shrubs is predicted to result in faster carbon turnover by microbial decomposition. Further understanding of microbial activity underneath shrubs could uncover how microbes and soil processes interact to promote shrub expansion and carbon cycling. To address how higher soil carbon input from shrubs influences decomposition, soil samples were taken across a heath, shrub, and forest ecotone gradient at two sites near Abikso, Sweden. Samples were analyzed for soluble carbon and nitrogen, microbial abundance, and microbial activity of chitinase, glucosidase, and phosphatase to reflect organic matter decomposition and availability of nitrogen, carbon, and phosphate respectively. Chitinase activity positively correlated with shrub cover, suggesting microbial demands for nitrogen increase with higher shrub cover. Glucosidase activity negatively correlated with shrub cover and soluble carbon, suggesting decreased microbial demand for carbon as shrub cover and carbon stores increase. Lower glucosidase activity in areas with high carbon input from shrubs implies that microbes are decomposing carbon less readily than carbon is being put into the soil. Increasing soil carbon stores in shrub covered areas can lead to shrubs becoming a net carbon sink and a negative feedback to changing climate.

  3. Retrospective incremental cost analysis of a hospital-based COPD Disease Management Programme in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Tunsäter, Alf; Moutakis, Mikael; Borg, Sixten; Persson, Ulf; Strömberg, Leif; Nielsen, Anders Lassen

    2007-05-01

    This paper reports on a retrospective analysis of hospital-based healthcare costs associated with the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). During the second half of 2001, Simrishamn Hospital, Sweden, implemented a structured Disease Management Programme (DMP) for COPD and a total of 784 patients with COPD, enrolled in the DMP, were included in the analysis. The goal was to reduce the number of clinical events, such as severe exacerbations by early intervention, aggressive drug treatment, specialists easy available for advice, improved support for smoking cessation, increased number of scheduled follow-ups and closer tracking of high-risk COPD patients. The hospital administrative system provided data on resource consumption, such as outpatient care, inpatient care and drugs and unit cost, used in the economic analysis. The total cost of COPD drugs doubled (from euro 14,133 to euro 30,855 per year) as did the total number of outpatient visits (from 580 to 996 visits per year). The number of hospitalizations for acute COPD exacerbations and COPD with acute lower respiratory infection decreased from 67 to 25 per year. Total COPD-related healthcare costs decreased. The results presented here support the hypothesis that a COPD DMP can offer substantial overall direct cost savings.

  4. Column measurements of stratospheric trace species over Are, Sweden in the winter of 1991-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, W.; Martin, N. A.; Gardiner, T. D.; Swann, N. R.; Woods, P. T.; Fogal, P. F.; Waters, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    Total vertical column amounts of stratospheric HCl, HF, ClONO2 and HNO3 are reported from high resolution infrared solar absorption spectra taken during the European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment (EASOE) in the winter of 1991-1992. These ground based measurements were made near Are in North Sweden (63.4 deg N, 13.1 deg E) at an altitude of 800 m using a Fourier transform spectrometer and tunable diode laser heterodyne spectrometer. On 9th January 1992 the HCl vertical column dropped to 1.2 x 10(exp 15) molecules/sq cm from a November average of 3.6 x 10(exp 15) molecules/sq cm. The HCl drop occurred at a time when Are was below the polar vortex and the lower stratospheric ClO column above Are was elevated to approximately 2 x 10(exp 15) molecules/sq cm as measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder experiment on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. These measurements indicate conversion of lower stratospheric chlorine from reservoir to chemically active forms.

  5. Increased introduction, advertising, and sales of preventive drugs during 1986-2002 in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, J Lars G; Melander, Arne

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to survey how introduction of new drugs and promotional activities influence drug sales in Sweden. All drugs on the Swedish market were categorized as curative, symptom-alleviating, substitutive, or preventive. The number of new drugs introduced, drug sales in volume and value, and the number of drug advertisements appearing in the major Swedish medical journal during 1986-2002 were determined for each of the 4 drug categories. Between 1986 and 1998, the relative shares of the 4 drug categories were relatively constant. From 1998 to 2002, the share of new preventive drugs increased from 24% to 30%, their share of advertisements increased from 20% to 35%, and their sales value increased from 25% to 30%. During the same period, the shares of other drugs decreased correspondingly. Pharmaceutical companies have shifted their attention to the introduction, advertising, and sales of preventive drugs in an attempt to exploit preventive medicine. This might lead to waste of resources when expensive preventive drugs are used by numerous patients over many years, as the benefit of preventive drugs for the individual patient cannot be judged easily.

  6. Risk factors for domestic sporadic campylobacteriosis among young children in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Carrique-Mas, Juan; Andersson, Yvonne; Hjertqvist, Marika; Svensson, Ake; Torner, Anna; Giesecke, Johan

    2005-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted in Sweden to study risk factors for domestically acquired Campylobacter jejuni/coli infections among children aged less than 6 y. A total of 126 cases, reported to the national surveillance system were recruited over 1 y. Controls, selected from the population register, were matched to the cases by age, gender, place of residence and time of infection of the case. Information was gathered by posted questionnaires. Two separate conditional regression models were developed including and excluding 'protective' factors. Two of the factors significantly associated with Campylobacter infection were water-related: having a well in the household (OR=2.6) and drinking water from a lake/river (OR=7.4; 6.0). Other exposures associated with increased risk were: having a dog (OR=8.4; 3.8) and eating grilled meat (OR=5.5; 2.1). Drinking unpasteurized milk was borderline significant in 1 model (OR=3.7). Eating sausage was protective (OR=0.05). Eating chicken was not a significant risk. Exposures such as eating grilled meat and drinking water from a lake or a river were more common in the warm months, a factor that may partly explain the observed seasonality. The authors suggest that differences between risk factors across studies may reflect geographical and age-specific differences in the sources of infection.

  7. Seasonal Pattern in the Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Southern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Claesson, Rickard; Shaat, Nael

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to examine seasonal patterns in glucose tolerance and in the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods. Altogether, 11 538 women underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in the twenty-eighth week of pregnancy during the years 2003–2005 in southern Sweden. GDM was defined by the 2-h capillary glucose concentration in the OGTT (≥8.9 mmol/L). Chi-squared test, analysis of variance, and regression analyses were used for statistical evaluations. Results. The seasonal frequency of GDM ranged from 3.3% in spring to 5.5% in summer (p < 0.0001). Mean 2-h glucose concentrations followed the same seasonal trend, with a difference of 0.15 mmol/L between winter and summer (p < 0.0001). The 2-h glucose level increased by 0.009 mmol/L for every degree increase in temperature (p < 0.0001). In regression analysis, summer (June–August) was associated with increased 2-h glucose level (p < 0.001) and increased frequency of GDM compared to the other seasons (odds ratio 1.51, 95% confidence interval 1.24–1.83, and p < 0.001). Conclusions. Our findings suggest seasonal variation in the 2-h glucose concentration in the OGTT and in the proportion of women diagnosed with GDM, with a peak in the summer. PMID:28105444

  8. [Courses in basic research methodology a valuable asset for clinicians. Twelve years' experiences in southern Sweden].

    PubMed

    Håkansson, Anders; Lindberg, Eva Pettersson; Henriksson, Karin

    2002-03-07

    At the Department of Community Medicine at Lund University we have given courses in basic research methodology since 1989. The course has yielded 20 points of university credit, the equivalent of one full-time semester of studies, and it has been run part-time, covering one and a half years. Our aim has been to provide a large number of physicians with basic training in research methods, and to stimulate the engagement of new scientific students from the whole Southern Health Care Region. During the first ten years, 138 general practitioners (20% of the GPs of the region) and 202 specialists completed our courses. Up till now, 19 GPs (14%) and 19 specialists (9%) have begun PhD studies. During the last two years, another 100 physicians from southern Sweden have attended our courses, as well as GPs from Zealand in Denmark. We have been developing our course in basic research methods during a twelve-year period, and it is now well established in our health care region. We feel that we have succeeded in reaching the two goals we had set up: to give a large number of physicians a fundamental knowledge of research methods and to recruit and increase the number of PhD students. We believe that medical research and development must flourish also outside the traditional university settings.

  9. Magma transport in sheet intrusions of the Alnö carbonatite complex, central Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Magnus; Almqvist, Bjarne S. G.; Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R.; Malehmir, Alireza; Snowball, Ian; Kübler, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Magma transport through the Earth’s crust occurs dominantly via sheet intrusions, such as dykes and cone-sheets, and is fundamental to crustal evolution, volcanic eruptions and geochemical element cycling. However, reliable methods to reconstruct flow direction in solidified sheet intrusions have proved elusive. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in magmatic sheets is often interpreted as primary magma flow, but magnetic fabrics can be modified by post-emplacement processes, making interpretation of AMS data ambiguous. Here we present AMS data from cone-sheets in the Alnö carbonatite complex, central Sweden. We discuss six scenarios of syn- and post-emplacement processes that can modify AMS fabrics and offer a conceptual framework for systematic interpretation of magma movements in sheet intrusions. The AMS fabrics in the Alnö cone-sheets are dominantly oblate with magnetic foliations parallel to sheet orientations. These fabrics may result from primary lateral flow or from sheet closure at the terminal stage of magma transport. As the cone-sheets are discontinuous along their strike direction, sheet closure is the most probable process to explain the observed AMS fabrics. We argue that these fabrics may be common to cone-sheets and an integrated geology, petrology and AMS approach can be used to distinguish them from primary flow fabrics. PMID:27282420

  10. Coronary Angioplasty and Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Lambe, M. Hall, P.; Granath, F.; Azodi, O. Sadr; Nilsson, T.

    2005-01-15

    Background. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) has become the reperfusion method of choice in patients with coronary artery disease. This sometimes complicated and lengthy procedure is performed using fluoroscopy and cineradiography or digital imaging, which may result in considerable exposure to ionizing radiation. Possible cancer risks in PTCA patients have been discussed, but never before examined in a population-based setting. Objective. To assess the cancer risks following PTCA. Methods. A cohort study was carried out based on nationwide registration of all coronary angioplasty procedures in Sweden between 1989 and 1998. The study encompassed a total of 23,097 PTCA patients followed up for cancer outcomes in the Swedish Cancer Register until December 31, 2000. The mean and median follow-up times were 4.8 and 4.5 years, respectively. The main outcome measures were standardized incidence ratios of cancer. Results. Except for a transient excess of lung cancers, observed number of cancers in patients who had undergone coronary angioplasty did not differ from those expected in the general population. If anything, the overall cancer risk was lower in the PTCA group (SIR 0.94; 95% CI 0.88-0.99). In particular, no increased risks were detected for leukemias or thyroid cancer. Conclusion. There was no indication of increased risks of leukemia or cancers overall in PTCA patients.

  11. Forest Fragmentation and Landscape Transformation in a Reindeer Husbandry Area in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivinen, Sonja; Berg, Anna; Moen, Jon; Östlund, Lars; Olofsson, Johan

    2012-02-01

    Reindeer husbandry and forestry are two main land users in boreal forests in northern Sweden. Modern forestry has numerous negative effects on the ground-growing and arboreal lichens that are crucial winter resources for reindeer husbandry. Using digitized historical maps, we examined changes in the forest landscape structure during the past 100 years, and estimated corresponding changes in suitability of forest landscape mosaics for the reindeer winter grazing. Cover of old coniferous forests, a key habitat type of reindeer herding system, showed a strong decrease during the study period, whereas clear-cutting and young forests increased rapidly in the latter half of the 20th century. The dominance of young forests and fragmentation of old-growth forests (decreased patch sizes and increased isolation) reflect decreased amount of arboreal lichens as well as a lowered ability of the landscape to sustain long-term persistence of lichens. The results further showed that variation in ground lichen cover among sites was mainly related to soil moisture conditions, recent disturbances, such as soil scarification and prescribed burning, and possibly also to forest history. In general, the results suggest that the composition and configuration of the forest landscape mosaic has become less suitable for sustainable reindeer husbandry.

  12. Forest fragmentation and landscape transformation in a reindeer husbandry area in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kivinen, Sonja; Berg, Anna; Moen, Jon; Ostlund, Lars; Olofsson, Johan

    2012-02-01

    Reindeer husbandry and forestry are two main land users in boreal forests in northern Sweden. Modern forestry has numerous negative effects on the ground-growing and arboreal lichens that are crucial winter resources for reindeer husbandry. Using digitized historical maps, we examined changes in the forest landscape structure during the past 100 years, and estimated corresponding changes in suitability of forest landscape mosaics for the reindeer winter grazing. Cover of old coniferous forests, a key habitat type of reindeer herding system, showed a strong decrease during the study period, whereas clear-cutting and young forests increased rapidly in the latter half of the 20th century. The dominance of young forests and fragmentation of old-growth forests (decreased patch sizes and increased isolation) reflect decreased amount of arboreal lichens as well as a lowered ability of the landscape to sustain long-term persistence of lichens. The results further showed that variation in ground lichen cover among sites was mainly related to soil moisture conditions, recent disturbances, such as soil scarification and prescribed burning, and possibly also to forest history. In general, the results suggest that the composition and configuration of the forest landscape mosaic has become less suitable for sustainable reindeer husbandry.

  13. Exotic trilobites from the uppermost Cambrian Series 3 and lower Furongian of Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żylińska, Anna; Weidner, Thomas; Ahlgren, John; Ahlberg, Per

    2015-03-01

    Seventeen taxa of exotic trilobites representing eight families are described from the olenid- and agnostoid-dominated strata of the uppermost Cambrian Series 3 and lower Furongian alum shale facies of Sweden and from glacial erratic boulders of Denmark. Only five taxa are assigned to species level, i.e., Maladioidella abdita (Salter, 1866), Olentella rara (Westergard, 1922), Pedinocephalus peregrinus (Henningsmoen, 1957), Ptychoparia pusilla (Westergard, 1922), and Westergaardella olenorum (Westergard, 1922), whereas the others are left under open nomenclature or remain unrecognized. Most are described for the first time from the Cambrian of Scandinavia. Their affinities point to a strong connection with East Gondwana, Laurentia, Kazakhstania and Siberia. Exotic trilobites appear in the succession directly after periods of very low oxygen concentration in the Alum Shale Sea; their occurrences correspond to the ranges of agnostoid arthropods in the succession and seem to be linked to global transgressive events causing an influx of cool and/or oxygen-depleted waters onto the shelf of the Baltica palaeocontinent.

  14. Attitudes Regarding Participation in a Diabetes Screening Test among an Assyrian Immigrant Population in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Veronika; Bennet, Louise; Hellgren, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Immigrants from the Middle East have higher prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared with native Swedes. The aim of the study was to describe and understand health beliefs in relation to T2D as well as attitudes regarding participation in a screening process in a local group of Assyrian immigrants living in Sweden. A qualitative and quantitative method was chosen in which 43 individuals participated in a health check-up and 13 agreed to be interviewed. Interviews were conducted, anthropometric measurements and blood tests were collected, and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. In total, 13 of the 43 participants were diagnosed with impaired glucose metabolism, 4 of these 13 had TD2. The interviewed participants perceived that screening was an opportunity to discover more about their health and to care for themselves and their families. Nevertheless, they were not necessarily committed to taking action as a consequence of the screening. Instead, they professed that their health was not solely in their own hands and that they felt safe that God would provide for them. Assyrians' background and religion affect their health beliefs and willingness to participate in screening for TD2. PMID:28083149

  15. Alcohol and drugs in fatally and non-fatally injured motor vehicle drivers in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ahlm, Kristin; Björnstig, Ulf; Oström, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol and drugs are important risk factors for traffic injuries, a major health problem worldwide. This prospective study investigated the epidemiology and the presence of alcohol and drugs in fatally and hospitalized non-fatally injured drivers of motor vehicles in northern Sweden. During a 2-year study period, blood from fatally and hospitalized non-fatally injured drivers was tested for alcohol and drugs. The study subjects were recruited from well-defined geographical areas with known demographics. Autopsy reports, medical journals, police reports, and toxicological analyses were evaluated. Of the fatally injured, 38% tested positive for alcohol and of the non-fatally 21% tested positive; 7% and 13%, respectively, tested positive for pharmaceuticals with a warning for impaired driving; 9% and 4%, respectively, tested positive for illicit drugs. The most frequently detected pharmaceuticals were benzodiazepines, opiates, and antidepressants. Tetrahydrocannabinol was the most frequently detected illicit substance. No fatally injured women had illegal blood alcohol concentration. The relative proportion of positively tested drivers has increased and was higher than in a similar study 14 years earlier. This finding indicates that alcohol and drugs merit more attention in future traffic safety work.

  16. Sediment evidence of early eutrophication and heavy metal pollution of Lake Mälaren, central Sweden.

    PubMed

    Renberg, I; Bindler, R; Bradshaw, E; Emteryd, O; McGowan, S

    2001-12-01

    Lake Mälaren is the water supply and recreation area for more than 1 million people in central Sweden and subject to considerable environmental concern. To establish background data for assessments of contemporary levels of trophy and heavy metal pollution, sediment cores from the lake were analyzed. Diatom-inferred lake-water phosphorus concentrations suggest that pre-20th century nutrient levels in Södra Björkfjärden, a basin in the eastern part of Mälaren, were higher (c. 10-20 micrograms TP L-1) than previously assumed (c. 6 micrograms TP L-1). Stable lead isotope and lead concentration analyses from 3 basins (S. Björkfjärden, Gisselfjärden and Asköfjärden) show that the lake was polluted in the 19th century and earlier from extensive metal production and processing in the catchment, particularly in the Bergslagen region. The lake has experienced a substantial improvement of the lead pollution situation in the 20th century following closure of the mining and metal industry. The lead pollution from the old mining industry was large compared to late-20th century pollution from car emissions, burning of fossil fuels and modern industries.

  17. Utilization of dental health services among middle-aged people in Sweden and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Kronström, Mats; Palmqvist, Sigvard; Söderfeldt, Björn; Vigild, Merete

    2002-10-01

    In 1999, questionnaires were sent to random samples of 1001 Swedish citizens aged 55-79 years and 1175 Danish citizens aged 45-69 years. Various questions were asked concerning dental conditions, dental visit frequency per year, and money spent annually on dental care, etc. The objectives were to assess differences in the utilization of dental services and to compare out-of-pocket costs for dental care in Sweden and Denmark with control for age, gender, dental conditions and income. More than 80% of the subjects reported that a dentist had examined them less than 1 year previously. However, 77% of the Danes reported dental visits twice a year or more compared to 28% of the Swedes. Although the Danes reported a more frequent use of dental services, they had poorer dental conditions compared to the Swedes. Even though the Swedes used dental services less often than the Danes did, more subjects reported high 12-month out-of-pocket costs. In the present study, separate models were constructed for the two countries because there could be different mechanisms at play, as indicated by the results. The different insurance systems along with different degrees of commercialization in the two countries might be the most decisive factors in this context.

  18. Gastric cancer survival in Sweden. Lack of improvement in 19 years.

    PubMed Central

    Lundegårdh, G; Adami, H O; Malker, B

    1986-01-01

    A total of 34,549 patients constituting 87.0% of all patients with gastric cancer diagnosed in Sweden in 1960-1978 and reported to the National Cancer Registry were included in a complete follow-up over a period of 1-20 years. The poor outcome in this disease was again established in this unselected material. Thus, the 5-year relative survival rate (with 95% confidence limits) was 12.7% (12.1-13.2%) among the men and 14.1% (13.4-14.9%) among the women, without any long-term difference between the sexes. The annual hazard rates in male and female patients were still 11.0% (8.3-13.7%) and 9.0% (7.1-10.9%), respectively, after 5 years and did not approach zero until 10 years after the diagnosis. Men older than 75 showed a slightly higher mortality during the first year, but there were seemingly no relationships of tumor-biological or clinical significance between age at diagnosis and long-term relative survival. The overall prognosis remained unchanged during the 19 years of the study, whereas the incidence was reduced by about 40% in the whole Swedish population. PMID:3767487

  19. Client experiences in work rehabilitation in Sweden: a one-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Wallstedt-Paulsson, Eva; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Eklund, Mona

    2007-01-01

    This study, carried out in a work rehabilitation unit in Sweden, investigated how clients perceived their work experiences after a one-year follow up. A semi-structured interview was administered to 14 former clients and a content analysis was applied. Seven categories were derived from the results: 'Expectations of the rehabilitation process'; 'Social relationships'; 'Client influences on the rehabilitation process'; 'Occupations engaged in during the rehabilitation programme'; 'Perceived outcome'; 'Current occupations'; and 'Future aspirations'. The dominating expectations were to find a job, with an overall desire for change. The social relationships with the staff and other clients were of great importance. The positive outcome of the rehabilitation was described as feeling better or having new skills. The perceived negative outcome was that the rehabilitation programme had not turned out as the client expected. The clients reported varying daily occupations after the rehabilitation experience and a majority were contented and optimistic about their future. The main conclusions of the study are that when planning a work rehabilitation programme, efforts have to be made to examine clients' interests and skills, and to develop a dialogue between clients and staff. Further research is needed to evaluate the work rehabilitation experience from the clients' perspective.

  20. The organizational pendulum--healthcare management in Sweden 1865-1998.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, R

    2000-03-01

    In recent years, there have been a number of large-scale changes in the organization of healthcare in Sweden, as in many other countries. From a longer time perspective, however, there has been a more or less permanent oscillation between centralization and decentralization, and also between competition and co-operation, in Swedish healthcare organizations. In fact, there seems to be something like a pendulum moving all the time between opposite forms of organization. The frequency of these changes has been increasing during the last fifteen years, as different organizational models have replaced each other at shorter and shorter intervals. This development is partly due to the increasing rate of change in modern society, but partly also due to an element of fashion in the area of management. There is, however, a growing change fatigue in many healthcare organizations, and also increasing demands for empirical evidence on the efficiency and effectiveness of different organizational models before they are introduced into the healthcare system.