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Sample records for gtp binding affects

  1. Partial characterization of GTP-binding proteins in Neurospora

    SciTech Connect

    Hasunuma, K.; Miyamoto-Shinohara, Y.; Furukawa, K.

    1987-08-14

    Six fractions of GTP-binding proteins separated by gel filtration of a mycelial extract containing membrane components of Neurospora crassa were partially characterized. (/sup 35/S)GTP gamma S bound to GTP-binding protein was assayed by repeated treatments with a Norit solution and centrifugation. The binding of (/sup 35/S)GTP gamma S to GTP-binding proteins was competitively prevented in the presence of 0.1 to 1 mM GTP but not in the presence of ATP. These GTP-binding proteins fractionated by the gel column had Km values of 20, 7, 4, 4, 80 and 2 nM. All six fractions of these GTP-binding proteins showed the capacity to be ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin.

  2. GTP binding to the ROC domain of DAP-kinase regulates its function through intramolecular signalling.

    PubMed

    Carlessi, Rodrigo; Levin-Salomon, Vered; Ciprut, Sara; Bialik, Shani; Berissi, Hanna; Albeck, Shira; Peleg, Yoav; Kimchi, Adi

    2011-09-01

    Death-associated protein kinase (DAPk) was recently suggested by sequence homology to be a member of the ROCO family of proteins. Here, we show that DAPk has a functional ROC (Ras of complex proteins) domain that mediates homo-oligomerization and GTP binding through a defined P-loop motif. Upon binding to GTP, the ROC domain negatively regulates the catalytic activity of DAPk and its cellular effects. Mechanistically, GTP binding enhances an inhibitory autophosphorylation at a distal site that suppresses kinase activity. This study presents a new mechanism of intramolecular signal transduction, by which GTP binding operates in cis to affect the catalytic activity of a distal domain in the protein.

  3. Altering the GTP binding site of the DNA/RNA-binding protein, Translin/TB-RBP, decreases RNA binding and may create a dominant negative phenotype.

    PubMed

    Chennathukuzhi, V M; Kurihara, Y; Bray, J D; Yang, J; Hecht, N B

    2001-11-01

    The DNA/RNA-binding protein, Translin/Testis Brain RNA-binding protein (Translin/TB-RBP), contains a putative GTP binding site in its C-terminus which is highly conserved. To determine if guanine nucleotide binding to this site functionally alters nucleic acid binding, electrophoretic mobility shift assays were performed with RNA and DNA binding probes. GTP, but not GDP, reduces RNA binding by approximately 50% and the poorly hydrolyzed GTP analog, GTPgammaS, reduces binding by >90% in gel shift and immunoprecipitation assays. No similar reduction of DNA binding is seen. When the putative GTP binding site of TB-RBP, amino acid sequence VTAGD, is altered to VTNSD by site directed mutagenesis, GTP will no longer bind to TB-RBP(GTP) and TB-RBP(GTP) no longer binds to RNA, although DNA binding is not affected. Yeast two-hybrid assays reveal that like wild-type TB-RBP, TB-RBP(GTP) will interact with itself, with wild-type TB-RBP and with Translin associated factor X (Trax). Transfection of TB-RBP(GTP) into NIH 3T3 cells leads to a marked increase in cell death suggesting a dominant negative function for TB-RBP(GTP) in cells. These data suggest TB-RBP is an RNA-binding protein whose activity is allosterically controlled by nucleotide binding.

  4. Ligand binding to the inhibitory and stimulatory GTP cyclohydrolase I/GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, T; Hatakeyama, K

    2001-04-01

    GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein (GFRP) mediates feedback inhibition of GTP cyclohydrolase I activity by 6R-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), which is an essential cofactor for key enzymes producing catecholamines, serotonin, and nitric oxide as well as phenylalanine hydroxylase. GFRP also mediates feed-forward stimulation of GTP cyclohydrolase I activity by phenylalanine at subsaturating GTP levels. These ligands, BH4 and phenylalanine, induce complex formation between one molecule of GTP cyclohydrolase I and two molecules of GFRP. Here, we report the analysis of ligand binding using the gel filtration method of Hummel and Dreyer. BH4 binds to the GTP cyclohydrolase I/GFRP complex with a Kd of 4 microM, and phenylalanine binds to the protein complex with a Kd of 94 microM. The binding of BH4 is enhanced by dGTP. The binding stoichiometrics of BH4 and phenylalanine were estimated to be 10 molecules of each per protein complex, in other words, one molecule per subunit of protein, because GTP cyclohydrolase I is a decamer and GFRP is a pentamer. These findings were corroborated by data from equilibrium dialysis experiments. Regarding ligand binding to free proteins, BH4 binds weakly to GTP cyclohydrolase I but not to GFRP, and phenylalanine binds weakly to GFRP but not to GTP cyclohydrolase I. These results suggest that the overall structure of the protein complex contributes to binding of BH4 and phenylalanine but also that each binding site of BH4 and phenylalanine may be primarily composed of residues of GTP cyclohydrolase I and GFRP, respectively.

  5. Uncoupling of gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptors from GTP-binding proteins by N-ethylmaleimide: effect of N-ethylmaleimide on purified GTP-binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Asano, T.; Ogasawara, N.

    1986-03-01

    Treatment of membranes from bovine cerebral cortex with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) resulted in inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binding to GABAB receptors. The binding curve for increasing concentrations of agonist was shifted to the right by NEM treatment. Guanine nucleotide had little effect on the binding of GABA to NEM-treated membranes. The addition of purified GTP-binding proteins, which were the substrates of islet-activating protein (IAP), pertussis toxin, to the NEM-treated membranes caused a shift of the binding curve to the left, suggesting modification of GTP-binding proteins rather than receptors by NEM. The effect of NEM on two purified GTP-binding proteins, Gi (composed of three subunits with molecular weight of alpha, 41,000; beta, 35,000; gamma, 10,000) and Go (alpha, 39,000; beta, 35,000; gamma, 10,000) was studied. NEM did not significantly change guanosine 5'-(3-O-thio)triphosphate (GTP gamma S) binding and GTPase activity of these two proteins. NEM-treated Gi and Go were not ADP-ribosylated by IAP and did not increase GABA binding to NEM-treated membranes. When alpha and beta gamma subunits were treated with NEM and then mixed with nontreated alpha and beta gamma to form Gi or Go, respectively, both oligomers with NEM-treated alpha-subunits lost their abilities to be IAP substrates and to couple to receptors. Results indicate that NEM uncoupled GTP-binding proteins from receptors by modifying alpha-subunits of GTP-binding proteins, and the site seemed to be on or near the site of ADP-ribosylation by IAP. When alpha and beta gamma subunits were treated with NEM and then mixed to form Gi or Go, GTP gamma S binding in the absence of Mg2+ and GTPase activity were changed, although they were not affected when oligomers were treated with NEM. Results suggest the existence of another sulfhydryl group which is protected from NEM by the association of subunits.

  6. LRRK2 kinase activity is dependent on LRRK2 GTP binding capacity but independent of LRRK2 GTP binding.

    PubMed

    Taymans, Jean-Marc; Vancraenenbroeck, Renée; Ollikainen, Petri; Beilina, Alexandra; Lobbestael, Evy; De Maeyer, Marc; Baekelandt, Veerle; Cookson, Mark R

    2011-01-01

    Leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a Parkinson's disease (PD) gene that encodes a large multidomain protein including both a GTPase and a kinase domain. GTPases often regulate kinases within signal transduction cascades, where GTPases act as molecular switches cycling between a GTP bound "on" state and a GDP bound "off" state. It has been proposed that LRRK2 kinase activity may be increased upon GTP binding at the LRRK2 Ras of complex proteins (ROC) GTPase domain. Here we extensively test this hypothesis by measuring LRRK2 phosphorylation activity under influence of GDP, GTP or non-hydrolyzable GTP analogues GTPγS or GMPPCP. We show that autophosphorylation and lrrktide phosphorylation activity of recombinant LRRK2 protein is unaltered by guanine nucleotides, when co-incubated with LRRK2 during phosphorylation reactions. Also phosphorylation activity of LRRK2 is unchanged when the LRRK2 guanine nucleotide binding pocket is previously saturated with various nucleotides, in contrast to the greatly reduced activity measured for the guanine nucleotide binding site mutant T1348N. Interestingly, when nucleotides were incubated with cell lysates prior to purification of LRRK2, kinase activity was slightly enhanced by GTPγS or GMPPCP compared to GDP, pointing to an upstream guanine nucleotide binding protein that may activate LRRK2 in a GTP-dependent manner. Using metabolic labeling, we also found that cellular phosphorylation of LRRK2 was not significantly modulated by nucleotides, although labeling is significantly reduced by guanine nucleotide binding site mutants. We conclude that while kinase activity of LRRK2 requires an intact ROC-GTPase domain, it is independent of GDP or GTP binding to ROC.

  7. Blue News Update: BODIPY-GTP Binds to the Blue-Light Receptor YtvA While GTP Does Not

    PubMed Central

    Schmieder, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Light is an important environmental factor for almost all organisms. It is mainly used as an energy source but it is also a key factor for the regulation of multiple cellular functions. Light as the extracellular stimulus is thereby converted into an intracellular signal by photoreceptors that act as signal transducers. The blue-light receptor YtvA, a bacterial counterpart of plant phototropins, is involved in the stress response of Bacillus subtilis. The mechanism behind its activation, however, remains unknown. It was suggested based on fluorescence spectroscopic studies that YtvA function involves GTP binding and that this interaction is altered by absorption of light. We have investigated this interaction by several biophysical methods and show here using fluorescence spectroscopy, ITC titrations, and three NMR spectroscopic assays that while YtvA interacts with BODIPY-GTP as a fluorescent GTP analogue originally used for the detection of GTP binding, it does not bind GTP. PMID:22247770

  8. Immunochemical similarity of GTP-binding proteins from different systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinina, S.N.

    1986-06-20

    It was found that antibodies against the GTP-binding proteins of bovine retinal photoreceptor membranes blocked the inhibitory effect of estradiol on phosphodiesterase from rat and human uterine cytosol and prevented the cumulative effect of catecholamines and guanylyl-5'-imidodiphosphate on rat skeletal muscle adenylate cyclase. It was established by means of double radial immunodiffusion that these antibodies form a precipitating complex with purified bovine brain tubulin as well as with retinal preparations obtained from eyes of the bull, pig, rat, frog, some species of fish, and one reptile species. Bands of precipitation were not observed with these antibodies when retinal preparations from invertebrates (squid and octopus) were used as the antigens. The antibodies obtained interacted with the ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-subunits of GTP-binding proteins from bovine retinal photoreceptor membranes.

  9. GEFs: structural basis for their activation of small GTP-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Cherfils, J; Chardin, P

    1999-08-01

    Small GTP-binding proteins of the Ras superfamily function as molecular switches in fundamental events such as signal transduction, cytoskeleton dynamics and intracellular trafficking. Guanine-nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs) positively regulate these GTP-binding proteins in response to a variety of signals. GEFs catalyze the dissociation of GDP from the inactive GTP-binding proteins. GTP can then bind and induce structural changes that allow interaction with effectors. Representative structures of four main classes of exchange factors have been described recently and, in two cases, structures of the GTP-binding protein-GEF complex have been solved. These structures, together with biochemical studies, have allowed a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of activation of Ras-like GTP-binding proteins and suggested how they might represent targets for therapeutic intervention.

  10. Discovery of widespread GTP-binding motifs in genomic DNA and RNA.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Edward A; Liu, David R

    2013-04-18

    Biological RNAs that bind small molecules have been implicated in a variety of regulatory and catalytic processes. Inspired by these examples, we used in vitro selection to search a pool of genome-encoded RNA fragments for naturally occurring GTP aptamers. Several aptamer classes were identified, including one (the "G motif") with a G-quadruplex structure. Further analysis revealed that most RNA and DNA G-quadruplexes bind GTP. The G motif is abundant in eukaryotes, and the human genome contains ~75,000 examples with dissociation constants comparable to the GTP concentration of a eukaryotic cell (~300 μM). G-quadruplexes play roles in diverse cellular processes, and our findings raise the possibility that GTP may play a role in the function of these elements. Consistent with this possibility, the sequence requirements of several classes of regulatory G-quadruplexes parallel those of GTP binding.

  11. Phytochrome regulates GTP-binding protein activity in the envelope of pea nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, G. B.; Memon, A. R.; Thompson, G. A. Jr; Roux, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    Three GTP-binding proteins with apparent molecular masses of 27, 28 and 30 kDa have been detected in isolated nuclei of etiolated pea plumules. After LDS-PAGE and transfer to nitrocellulose these proteins bind [32P]GTP in the presence of excess ATP, suggesting that they are monomeric G proteins. When nuclei are disrupted, three proteins co-purify with the nuclear envelope fraction and are highly enriched in this fraction. The level of [32P]GTP-binding for all three protein bands is significantly increased when harvested pea plumules are irradiated by red light, and this effect is reversed by far-red light. The results indicate that GTP-binding activity associated with the nuclear envelope of plant cells is photoreversibly regulated by the pigment phytochrome.

  12. GTP-blot analysis of small GTP-binding proteins. The C-terminus is involved in renaturation of blotted proteins.

    PubMed

    Klinz, F J

    1994-10-01

    Recombinant c-Ha-ras, ralA and rap2, but not rap1A or rap1B proteins retained their ability to bind [alpha-32P]GTP after SDS/PAGE and transfer to nitrocellulose. Recombinant c-Has-ras missing the C-terminal 23 amino acid residues failed to bind [alpha-32P]GTP after the blot, and the ability of recombinant ralA missing the C-terminal 28 amino acid residues to bind [alpha-32P]GTP was decreased many-fold. The presence of nonionic detergents of the polyoxyethylene type such as Tween 20, Triton X-100, Nonidet P40 or Lubrol PX in the incubation buffer was necessary to induce renaturation of blotted recombinant c-Ha-ras protein, whereas other types of detergents were ineffective. We propose that detergents of the polyoxyethylene type induce the refolding of some types of blotted small GTP-binding proteins and that the C-terminus is involved in the refolding process. Membranes from NIH3T3 fibroblasts overexpressing c-Ha-ras protein showed much weaker binding of [alpha-32P]GTP as expected from the level of ras immunoreactivity. Treatment of fibroblasts with lovastatin, an inhibitor of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, caused the accumulation of the unfarnesylated form of c-Ha-ras in the cytosol. Examination of [alpha-32P]GTP-binding and immunoreactivity for cytosolic and membrane-bound c-Ha-ras revealed that binding of [alpha-32P]GTP to unprocessed c-Ha-ras was increased about threefold compared to the same amount of processed c-Ha-ras. Our results demonstrate that detection and quantification of small GTP-binding proteins in eukaryotic cells by GTP-blot analysis is hampered by the fact that these proteins differ strongly in their ability to renature after blotting to nitrocellulose.

  13. Characterization of GTP-binding proteins in Golgi-associated membrane vesicles from rat adipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Schürmann, A; Rosenthal, W; Schultz, G; Joost, H G

    1992-01-01

    We have previously reported that guanine nucleotides inhibit glucose transport activity reconstituted from adipocyte membrane fractions. In order to further investigate the hypothetical involvement of guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins (GTP-binding proteins) in the regulation of insulin-sensitive glucose transport activity, we studied their subcellular distribution in adipocytes treated or not with insulin. Adipocytes were homogenized and fractionated to yield plasma membranes (PM) and a Golgi-enriched fraction of intracellular membranes (low-density microsomes, LDM). In these membrane fractions, total guanosine 5'-[gamma-[35S]thio]triphosphate ([35S]GTP[S]) binding, alpha- and beta-subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins, proto-oncogenes Ha-ras and K-ras, and 23-28 kDa GTP-binding proteins were assayed. The levels of alpha s and alpha i (the alpha-subunits of Gs and Gi) were approx. 8-fold lower in LDM than in PM; beta-subunits, Ha-ras and K-ras were not detectable in LDM. Total GTP[S]-binding sites and 23-28 kDa GTP-binding proteins were present in LDM in approximately the same concentrations as in PM. Insulin gave rise to the characteristic translocation of glucose transporters, but failed to alter the subcellular distribution of any of the GTP-binding proteins. Fractionation of the LDM on a discontinuous sucrose gradient revealed that alpha s and alpha i, as detected with antiserum against a common peptide sequence (alpha common), and the bulk of the 23-28 kDa G-proteins sedimented at different sucrose densities. None of the GTP-binding proteins co-sedimented with glucose transporters. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of GTP[S] on the reconstituted transport activity was lost in the peak fractions of glucose transporters partially purified on the sucrose gradient. These data indicate that LDM from adipocytes contain several GTP-binding proteins in discrete vesicle populations. However, the intracellular GTP-binding proteins are not tightly associated with the

  14. How guanylate-binding proteins achieve assembly-stimulated processive cleavage of GTP to GMP.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Agnidipta; Praefcke, Gerrit J K; Renault, Louis; Wittinghofer, Alfred; Herrmann, Christian

    2006-03-02

    Interferons are immunomodulatory cytokines that mediate anti-pathogenic and anti-proliferative effects in cells. Interferon-gamma-inducible human guanylate binding protein 1 (hGBP1) belongs to the family of dynamin-related large GTP-binding proteins, which share biochemical properties not found in other families of GTP-binding proteins such as nucleotide-dependent oligomerization and fast cooperative GTPase activity. hGBP1 has an additional property by which it hydrolyses GTP to GMP in two consecutive cleavage reactions. Here we show that the isolated amino-terminal G domain of hGBP1 retains the main enzymatic properties of the full-length protein and can cleave GDP directly. Crystal structures of the N-terminal G domain trapped at successive steps along the reaction pathway and biochemical data reveal the molecular basis for nucleotide-dependent homodimerization and cleavage of GTP. Similar to effector binding in other GTP-binding proteins, homodimerization is regulated by structural changes in the switch regions. Homodimerization generates a conformation in which an arginine finger and a serine are oriented for efficient catalysis. Positioning of the substrate for the second hydrolysis step is achieved by a change in nucleotide conformation at the ribose that keeps the guanine base interactions intact and positions the beta-phosphates in the gamma-phosphate-binding site.

  15. Involvement of a small GTP binding protein in HIV-1 release

    PubMed Central

    Audoly, Gilles; Popoff, Michel R; Gluschankof, Pablo

    2005-01-01

    Background There is evidence suggesting that actin binding to HIV-1 encoded proteins, or even actin dynamics themselves, might play a key role in virus budding and/or release from the infected cell. A crucial step in the reorganisation of the actin cytoskeleton is the engagement of various different GTP binding proteins. We have thus studied the involvement of GTP-binding proteins in the final steps of the HIV-1 viral replication cycle. Results Our results demonstrate that virus production is abolished when cellular GTP binding proteins involved in actin polymerisation are inhibited with specific toxins. Conclusion We propose a new HIV budding working model whereby Gag interactions with pre-existing endosomal cellular tracks as well as with a yet non identified element of the actin polymerisation pathway are required in order to allow HIV-1 to be released from the infected cell. PMID:16080789

  16. Importin {beta}-type nuclear transport receptors have distinct binding affinities for Ran-GTP

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Silvia; Schlenstedt, Gabriel

    2011-03-18

    Highlights: {yields} Determination of binding properties of nuclear transport receptor/Ran-GTP complexes. {yields} Biosensor measurements provide constants for dissociation, on-rates, and off-rates. {yields} The affinity of receptors for Ran-GTP is widely divergent. {yields} Dissociation constants differ for three orders of magnitude. {yields} The cellular concentration of yeast Ran is not limiting. -- Abstract: Cargos destined to enter or leave the cell nucleus are typically transported by receptors of the importin {beta} family to pass the nuclear pore complex. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprises 14 members of this protein family, which can be divided in importins and exportins. The Ran GTPase regulates the association and dissociation of receptors and cargos as well as the transport direction through the nuclear pore. All receptors bind to Ran exclusively in its GTP-bound state and this event is restricted to the nuclear compartment. We determined the Ran-GTP binding properties of all yeast transport receptors by biosensor measurements and observed that the affinity of importins for Ran-GTP differs significantly. The dissociation constants range from 230 pM to 270 nM, which is mostly based on a variability of the off-rate constants. The divergent affinity of importins for Ran-GTP suggests the existence of a novel mode of nucleocytoplasmic transport regulation. Furthermore, the cellular concentration of {beta}-receptors and of other Ran-binding proteins was determined. We found that the number of {beta}-receptors altogether about equals the amounts of yeast Ran, but Ran-GTP is not limiting in the nucleus. The implications of our results for nucleocytoplasmic transport mechanisms are discussed.

  17. A family of ras-like GTP-binding proteins expressed in electromotor neurons.

    PubMed

    Ngsee, J K; Elferink, L A; Scheller, R H

    1991-02-05

    The cDNAs encoding seven low molecular weight (LMW) GTP-binding proteins were isolated from an electrode lobe library of the marine ray Discopyge ommata. Four were assigned as the ray homologues of previously identified LMW GTP-binding proteins rab1, ral, Krev, and rho. Three others showed unique sequences, including two exhibiting significant similarity to the yeast SEC4 protein. Northern analysis indicated that several of the transcripts are enriched in neural tissues with a moderate level of expression in cardiac muscle. This tissue distribution was corroborated with affinity purified antibodies against the LMW GTP-binding proteins. Subcellular fractionation revealed that the proteins co-purify with cholinergic synaptic vesicles. Immunohistochemical analysis confirms this localization. At least two of the proteins, oral and o-rho, are localized to the pre-synaptic terminals.

  18. A neutrophil GTP-binding protein that regulates cell free NADPH oxidase activation is located in the cytosolic fraction.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G; Eklund, E A; Potter, G B; Dykes, J R

    1990-08-01

    The dormant O2(-)-generating oxidase in plasma membranes from unstimulated neutrophils becomes activated in the presence of arachidonate and a multicomponent cytosolic fraction. This process is stimulated by nonhydrolyzable GTP analogues and may involve a pertussis toxin insensitive GTP-binding protein. Our studies were designed to characterize the putative GTP-binding protein, localizing it to either membrane or cytosolic fraction in this system. Exposure of the isolated membrane fraction to guanosine-5'-(3-O-thio)triphosphate (GTP gamma S), with or without arachidonate, had no effect on subsequent NADPH oxidase activation by the cytosolic fraction. Preexposure of the cytosolic fraction to GTP gamma S alone did not enhance activation of the membrane oxidase. However, preexposure of the cytosol to GTP gamma S then arachidonate caused a four-fold enhancement of its ability to activate the membrane oxidase. This enhancement was evident after removal of unbound GTP gamma S and arachidonate, and was not augmented by additional GTP gamma S during membrane activation. A reconstitution assay was developed for cytosolic component(s) responsible for the GTP gamma S effect. Cytosol preincubated with GTP gamma 35S then arachidonate was fractionated by anion exchange chromatography. A single peak of protein-bound GTP gamma 35S was recovered that had reconstitutive activity. Cytosol preincubated with GTP gamma 35S alone was similarly fractionated and the same peak of protein-bound GTP gamma 35S was observed. However, this peak had no reconstitutive activity. We conclude that the GTP-binding protein regulating this cellfree system is located in the cytosolic fraction. The GTP gamma S-liganded form of this protein may be activated or stabilized by arachidonate.

  19. GTP binding to the. beta. -subunit of tubulin is greatly reduced in Alzheimers disease

    SciTech Connect

    Khatoon, S.; Slevin, J.T.; Haley, B.E.

    1987-05-01

    A decrease occurs (80-100%) in the (/sup 32/P)8N/sub 3/GTP photoinsertion into a cytosolic protein (55K M/sub r/) of Alzheimer's (AD) brain, tentatively identified as the ..beta..-subunit of tubulin (co-migration with purified tubulin, concentration dependence of interaction with GTP, ATP and their 8-azido photoprobes, and similar effects of Ca/sup 2 +/ and EDTA on photoinsertion). This agrees with prior observations of (/sup 32/P)8N/sub 3/GTP interactions with brain tubulin and a recent report on faulty microtubular assembly in AD brain. The decrease in (/sup 32/P)8N/sub 3/GTP photoinsertion into the 55K M/sub r/ protein of AD brain was in contrast with other photolabeled proteins, which remained at equal levels in AD and age-matched normal brain tissues. The 55K and 45K M/sub r/ were the two major (/sup 32/P)8N/sub 3/GTP photoinsertion species in non-AD brain. Of 5 AD brains, the photoinsertion of (/sup 32/P)8N/sub 3/GTP into the 55K M/sub r/ region was low or absent in 4 (55K/45K=0.1); one was 75% below normals (55K/45K=0.24). Total protein migrating at 55K M/sub r/ was similar in AD and controls. AD brain tubulin, while present, has its exchangeable GTP binding site on ..beta..-tubulin blocked/modified such that (/sup 32/P)8N/sub 3/GTP cannot interact normally with this site.

  20. Crystal structure of transglutaminase 2 with GTP complex and amino acid sequence evidence of evolution of GTP binding site.

    PubMed

    Jang, Tae-Ho; Lee, Dong-Sup; Choi, Kihang; Jeong, Eui Man; Kim, In-Gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Chun, Jung Nyeo; Jeon, Ju-Hong; Park, Hyun Ho

    2014-01-01

    Transglutaminase2 (TG2) is a multi-functional protein involved in various cellular processes, including apoptosis, differentiation, wound healing, and angiogenesis. The malfunction of TG2 causes many human disease including inflammatory disease, celiac disease, neurodegenerative diseases, tissue fibrosis, and cancers. Protein cross-linking activity, which is representative of TG2, is activated by calcium ions and suppressed by GTP. Here, we elucidated the structure of TG2 in complex with its endogenous inhibitor, GTP. Our structure showed why GTP is the optimal nucleotide for interacting with and inhibiting TG2. In addition, sequence comparison provided information describing the evolutionary scenario of GTP usage for controlling the activity of TG2.

  1. Characterization of GTP binding and hydrolysis in plasma membranes of zucchini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perdue, D. O.; Lomax, T. L.

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility that G-protein-like entities may be present in the plasma membrane (PM) of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) hypocotyls by examining a number of criteria common to animal and yeast G-proteins. The GTP binding and hydrolysis characteristics of purified zucchini PM are similar to the characteristics of a number of known G-proteins. Our results demonstrate GTP binding to a single PM site having a Kd value between 16-31 nM. This binding has a high specificity for guanine nucleotides, and is stimulated by Mg2+, detergents, and fluoride or aluminium ions. The GTPase activity (Km = 0.49 micromole) of zucchini PM shows a sensitivity to NaF similar to that seen for other G-proteins. Localization of GTP mu 35S binding to nitrocellulose blots of proteins separated by SDS-PAGE indicates a 30-kDa protein as the predominant GTP-binding species in zucchini PM. Taken together, these data indicate that plant PM contains proteins which are biochemically similar to previously characterized G-proteins.

  2. GTP binding controls complex formation by the human ROCO protein MASL1.

    PubMed

    Dihanich, Sybille; Civiero, Laura; Manzoni, Claudia; Mamais, Adamantios; Bandopadhyay, Rina; Greggio, Elisa; Lewis, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    The human ROCO proteins are a family of multi-domain proteins sharing a conserved ROC-COR supra-domain. The family has four members: leucine-rich repeat kinase 1 (LRRK1), leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) and malignant fibrous histiocytoma amplified sequences with leucine-rich tandem repeats 1 (MASL1). Previous studies of LRRK1/2 and DAPK1 have shown that the ROC (Ras of complex proteins) domain can bind and hydrolyse GTP, but the cellular consequences of this activity are still unclear. Here, the first biochemical characterization of MASL1 and the impact of GTP binding on MASL1 complex formation are reported. The results demonstrate that MASL1, similar to other ROCO proteins, can bind guanosine nucleotides via its ROC domain. Furthermore, MASL1 exists in two distinct cellular complexes associated with heat shock protein 60, and the formation of a low molecular weight pool of MASL1 is modulated by GTP binding. Finally, loss of GTP enhances MASL1 toxicity in cells. Taken together, these data point to a central role for the ROC/GTPase domain of MASL1 in the regulation of its cellular function.

  3. Hypocretin stimulates [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding in Hcrtr 2-transfected cell lines and in brain homogenate.

    PubMed

    Shiba, T; Ozu, M; Yoshida, Y; Mignot, E; Nishino, S

    2002-06-14

    In vitro functional analyses of hypocretin/orexin receptor systems were performed using [(125)I]hypocretin radioreceptor and hypocretin-stimulated [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding assay in cell lines expressing human or canine (wild-type and narcoleptic-mutation) hypocretin receptor 2 (Hcrtr 2). Hypocretin-2 stimulated [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding in human and canine Hcrtr 2 expressing cell lines, while cell lines expressing the mutated canine Hcrtr 2 did not exhibit specific binding for [(125)I]hypocretin or hypocretin-stimulated [(35)S]GTP gamma S. In rat brain homogenates, regional specific hypocretin-stimulated [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding was also observed. Hypocretin-stimulated [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding, may thus be a useful functional assay for hypocretin receptors in both cell lines and brain tissue homogenates.

  4. Free energy simulations of a GTPase: GTP and GDP binding to archaeal initiation factor 2.

    PubMed

    Satpati, Priyadarshi; Clavaguéra, Carine; Ohanessian, Gilles; Simonson, Thomas

    2011-05-26

    Archaeal initiation factor 2 (aIF2) is a protein involved in the initiation of protein biosynthesis. In its GTP-bound, "ON" conformation, aIF2 binds an initiator tRNA and carries it to the ribosome. In its GDP-bound, "OFF" conformation, it dissociates from tRNA. To understand the specific binding of GTP and GDP and its dependence on the ON or OFF conformational state of aIF2, molecular dynamics free energy simulations (MDFE) are a tool of choice. However, the validity of the computed free energies depends on the simulation model, including the force field and the boundary conditions, and on the extent of conformational sampling in the simulations. aIF2 and other GTPases present specific difficulties; in particular, the nucleotide ligand coordinates a divalent Mg(2+) ion, which can polarize the electronic distribution of its environment. Thus, a force field with an explicit treatment of electronic polarizability could be necessary, rather than a simpler, fixed charge force field. Here, we begin by comparing a fixed charge force field to quantum chemical calculations and experiment for Mg(2+):phosphate binding in solution, with the force field giving large errors. Next, we consider GTP and GDP bound to aIF2 and we compare two fixed charge force fields to the recent, polarizable, AMOEBA force field, extended here in a simple, approximate manner to include GTP. We focus on a quantity that approximates the free energy to change GTP into GDP. Despite the errors seen for Mg(2+):phosphate binding in solution, we observe a substantial cancellation of errors when we compare the free energy change in the protein to that in solution, or when we compare the protein ON and OFF states. Finally, we have used the fixed charge force field to perform MDFE simulations and alchemically transform GTP into GDP in the protein and in solution. With a total of about 200 ns of molecular dynamics, we obtain good convergence and a reasonable statistical uncertainty, comparable to the force

  5. Actin filament organization in activated mast cells is regulated by heterotrimeric and small GTP-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Rat peritoneal mast cells, both intact and permeabilized, have been used widely as model secretory cells. GTP-binding proteins and calcium play a major role in controlling their secretory response. Here we have examined changes in the organization of actin filaments in intact mast cells after activation by compound 48/80, and in permeabilized cells after direct activation of GTP-binding proteins by GTP-gamma-S. In both cases, a centripetal redistribution of cellular F-actin was observed: the content of F-actin was reduced in the cortical region and increased in the cell interior. The overall F-actin content was increased. Using permeabilized cells, we show that AIF4-, an activator of heterotrimeric G proteins, induces the disassembly of F-actin at the cortex, while the appearance of actin filaments in the interior of the cell is dependent on two small GTPases, rho and rac. Rho was found to be responsible for de novo actin polymerization, presumably from a membrane-bound monomeric pool, while rac was required for an entrapment of the released cortical filaments. Thus, a heterotrimeric G-protein and the small GTPases, rho and rac, participate in affecting the changes in the actin cytoskeleton observed after activation of mast cells. PMID:8051203

  6. Identification of residues in the human guanylate-binding protein 1 critical for nucleotide binding and cooperative GTP hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Praefcke, Gerrit J K; Kloep, Stephan; Benscheid, Utz; Lilie, Hauke; Prakash, Balaji; Herrmann, Christian

    2004-11-12

    The guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) form a group of interferon-gamma inducible GTP-binding proteins which belong to the family of dynamin-related proteins. Like other members of this family, human guanylate-binding protein 1 (hGBP1) shows nucleotide-dependent oligomerisation that stimulates the GTPase activity of the protein. A unique feature of the GBPs is their ability to hydrolyse GTP to GDP and GMP. In order to elucidate the relationship between these findings, we designed point mutants in the phosphate-binding loop (P-loop) as well as in the switch I and switch II regions of the protein based on the crystal structure of hGBP1. These mutant proteins were analysed for their interaction with guanine nucleotides labeled with a fluorescence dye and for their ability to hydrolyse GTP in a cooperative manner. We identified mutations of amino acid residues that decrease GTPase activity by orders of magnitude a part of which are conserved in GTP-binding proteins. In addition, mutants in the P-loop were characterized that strongly impair binding of nucleotide. In consequence, together with altered GTPase activity and given cellular nucleotide concentrations this results in hGBP1 mutants prevailingly resting in the nucleotide-free (K51A and S52N) or the GTP bound form (R48A), respectively. Using size-exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation we addressed the impact on protein oligomerisation. In summary, mutants of hGBP1 were identified and biochemically characterized providing hGBP1 locked in defined states in order to investigate their functional role in future cell biology studies.

  7. The RGK family: a regulatory tail of small GTP-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kathleen

    2005-12-01

    RGK proteins are small Ras-related GTP-binding proteins that function as potent inhibitors of voltage-dependent calcium channels, and two members of the family, Gem and Rad, modulate Rho-dependent remodeling of the cytoskeleton. Within the Ras superfamily, RGK proteins have distinct structural and regulatory characteristics. It is an open question as to whether RGK proteins catalyze GTP hydrolysis in vivo. Binding of calmodulin and the 14-3-3 protein to RGK proteins controls downstream pathways. Here, we discuss the structural and functional properties of RGK proteins and highlight recent work by Beguin and colleagues addressing the mechanism of Gem regulation by calmodulin and 14-3-3.

  8. Multiple GTP-binding proteins regulate vesicular transport from the ER to Golgi membranes

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Using indirect immunofluorescence we have examined the effects of reagents which inhibit the function of ras-related rab small GTP- binding proteins and heterotrimeric G alpha beta gamma proteins in ER to Golgi transport. Export from the ER was inhibited by an antibody towards rab1B and an NH2-terminal peptide which inhibits ARF function (Balch, W. E., R. A. Kahn, and R. Schwaninger. 1992. J. Biol. Chem. 267:13053-13061), suggesting that both of these small GTP-binding proteins are essential for the transport vesicle formation. Export from the ER was also potently inhibited by mastoparan, a peptide which mimics G protein binding regions of seven transmembrane spanning receptors activating and uncoupling heterotrimeric G proteins from their cognate receptors. Consistent with this result, purified beta gamma subunits inhibited the export of VSV-G from the ER suggesting an initial event in transport vesicle assembly was regulated by a heterotrimeric G protein. In contrast, incubation in the presence of GTP gamma S or AIF(3-5) resulted in the accumulation of transported protein in different populations of punctate pre-Golgi intermediates distributed throughout the cytoplasm of the cell. Finally, a peptide which is believed to antagonize the interaction of rab proteins with putative downstream effector molecules inhibited transport at a later step preceding delivery to the cis Golgi compartment, similar to the site of accumulation of transported protein in the absence of NSF or calcium (Plutner, H., H. W. Davidson, J. Saraste, and W. E. Balch. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 119:1097-1116). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that multiple GTP-binding proteins including a heterotrimeric G protein(s), ARF and rab1 differentially regulate steps in the transport of protein between early compartments of the secretory pathway. The concept that G protein-coupled receptors gate the export of protein from the ER is discussed. PMID:1447289

  9. Synthetic inhibitors of bacterial cell division targeting the GTP-binding site of FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Avila, Laura B; Huecas, Sonia; Artola, Marta; Vergoñós, Albert; Ramírez-Aportela, Erney; Cercenado, Emilia; Barasoain, Isabel; Vázquez-Villa, Henar; Martín-Fontecha, Mar; Chacón, Pablo; López-Rodríguez, María L; Andreu, José M

    2013-09-20

    Cell division protein FtsZ is the organizer of the cytokinetic Z-ring in most bacteria and a target for new antibiotics. FtsZ assembles with GTP into filaments that hydrolyze the nucleotide at the association interface between monomers and then disassemble. We have replaced FtsZ's GTP with non-nucleotide synthetic inhibitors of bacterial division. We searched for these small molecules among compounds from the literature, from virtual screening (VS), and from our in-house synthetic library (UCM), employing a fluorescence anisotropy primary assay. From these screens we have identified the polyhydroxy aromatic compound UCM05 and its simplified analogue UCM44 that specifically bind to Bacillus subtilis FtsZ monomers with micromolar affinities and perturb normal assembly, as examined with light scattering, polymer sedimentation, and negative stain electron microscopy. On the other hand, these ligands induce the cooperative assembly of nucleotide-devoid archaeal FtsZ into distinct well-ordered polymers, different from GTP-induced filaments. These FtsZ inhibitors impair localization of FtsZ into the Z-ring and inhibit bacterial cell division. The chlorinated analogue UCM53 inhibits the growth of clinical isolates of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. We suggest that these interfacial inhibitors recapitulate binding and some assembly-inducing effects of GTP but impair the correct structural dynamics of FtsZ filaments and thus inhibit bacterial division, possibly by binding to a small fraction of the FtsZ molecules in a bacterial cell, which opens a new approach to FtsZ-based antibacterial drug discovery.

  10. A novel GTP-binding protein hGBP3 interacts with NIK/HGK.

    PubMed

    Luan, Zhidong; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Aihua; Man, Yunfang; Cheng, Lu; Hu, Gengxi

    2002-10-23

    A novel human guanylate-binding protein (GBP) hGBP3 was identified and characterized. Similar as the two human guanylate-binding proteins hGBP1 and hGBP2, hGBP3 has the first two motifs of the three classical guanylate-binding motifs, GXXXXGKS (T) and DXXG, but lacks the N (T) KXD motif. Escherichia coli-expressed hGBP3 protein specifically binds to guanosine triphosphate (GTP). Using a yeast two-hybrid system, it was revealed that the N-terminal region of hGBP3 binds to the C-terminal regulatory domain of NIK/HGK, a member of the group I GCK (germinal center kinase) family. This interaction was confirmed by in vitro glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays.

  11. Activation of a GTP-binding protein and a GTP-binding-protein-coupled receptor kinase (beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase-1) by a muscarinic receptor m2 mutant lacking phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, K; Haga, K; Haga, T; Moro, O; Sadée, W

    1994-12-01

    A mutant of the human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor m2 subtype (m2 receptor), lacking a large part of the third intracellular loop, was expressed and purified using the baculovirus/insect cell culture system. The mutant was not phosphorylated by beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase, as expected from the previous assignment of phosphorylation sites to the central part of the third intracellular loop. However, the m2 receptor mutant was capable of stimulating beta-adrenergic-receptor-kinase-1-mediated phosphorylation of a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein containing the m2 phosphorylation sites in an agonist-dependent manner. Both mutant and wild-type m2 receptors reconstituted with the guanine-nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G protein), G(o) and G(i)2, displayed guanine-nucleotide-sensitive high-affinity agonist binding, as assessed by displacement of [3H]quinuclidinyl-benzilate binding with carbamoylcholine, and both stimulated guanosine 5'-3-O-[35S]thiotriphosphate ([35S]GTP[S]) binding in the presence of carbamoylcholine and GDP. The Ki values of carbamoylcholine effects on [3H]quinuclidinyl-benzilate binding were indistinguishable for the mutant and wild-type m2 receptors. Moreover, the phosphorylation of the wild-type m2 receptor by beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase-1 did not affect m2 interaction with G proteins as assessed by the binding of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate or [35S]GTP[S]. These results indicate that (a) the m2 receptor serves both as an activator and as a substrate of beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase, and (b) a large part of the third intracellular loop of the m2 receptor does not contribute to interaction with G proteins and its phosphorylation by beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase does not uncouple the receptor and G proteins in reconstituted lipid vesicles.

  12. Structure and Mutational Analysis of the Archaeal GTP:AdoCbi-P Guanylyltransferase (CobY) from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii: Insights into GTP Binding and Dimerization

    SciTech Connect

    Newmister, Sean A.; Otte, Michele M.; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.; Rayment, Ivan

    2012-02-08

    In archaea and bacteria, the late steps in adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) biosynthesis are collectively known as the nucleotide loop assembly (NLA) pathway. In the archaeal and bacterial NLA pathways, two different guanylyltransferases catalyze the activation of the corrinoid. Structural and functional studies of the bifunctional bacterial guanylyltransferase that catalyze both ATP-dependent corrinoid phosphorylation and GTP-dependent guanylylation are available, but similar studies of the monofunctional archaeal enzyme that catalyzes only GTP-dependent guanylylation are not. Herein, the three-dimensional crystal structure of the guanylyltransferase (CobY) enzyme from the archaeon Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (MjCobY) in complex with GTP is reported. The model identifies the location of the active site. An extensive mutational analysis was performed, and the functionality of the variant proteins was assessed in vivo and in vitro. Substitutions of residues Gly8, Gly153, or Asn177 resulted in {ge}94% loss of catalytic activity; thus, variant proteins failed to support AdoCbl synthesis in vivo. Results from isothermal titration calorimetry experiments showed that MjCobY{sup G153D} had 10-fold higher affinity for GTP than MjCobY{sup WT} but failed to bind the corrinoid substrate. Results from Western blot analyses suggested that the above-mentioned substitutions render the protein unstable and prone to degradation; possible explanations for the observed instability of the variants are discussed within the framework of the three-dimensional crystal structure of MjCobY{sup G153D} in complex with GTP. The fold of MjCobY is strikingly similar to that of the N-terminal domain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis GlmU (MtbGlmU), a bifunctional acetyltransferase/uridyltransferase that catalyzes the formation of uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc).

  13. Membrane-associated 41-kDa GTP-binding protein in collagen-induced platelet activation

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, G.; Bourguignon, L.Y. )

    1990-08-01

    Initially we established that the binding of collagen to human blood platelets stimulates both the rapid loss of PIP2 and the generation of inositol-4,5-bisphosphate (IP2) and inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3). These results indicate that the binding of collagen stimulates inositol phospholipid-specific phospholipase C during platelet activation. The fact that GTP or GTP-gamma-S augments, and pertussis toxin inhibits, collagen-induced IP3 formation suggests that a GTP-binding protein or (or proteins) may be directly involved in the regulation of phospholipase C-mediated phosphoinositide turnover in human platelets. We have used several complementary techniques to isolate and characterize a platelet 41-kDa polypeptide (or polypeptides) that has a number of structural and functional similarities to the regulatory alpha i subunit of the GTP-binding proteins isolated from bovine brain. This 41-kDa polypeptide (or polypeptides) is found to be closely associated with at least four membrane glycoproteins (e.g., gp180, gp110, gp95, and gp75) in a 330-kDa complex that can be dissociated by treatment with high salt plus urea. Most important, we have demonstrated that antilymphoma 41-kDa (alpha i subunit of GTP-binding proteins) antibody cross-reacts with the platelet 41-kDa protein (or proteins) and the alpha i subunit of bovine brain Gi alpha proteins, and blocks GTP/collagen-induced IP3 formation. These data provide strong evidence that the 41-kDa platelet GTP-binding protein (or proteins) is directly involved in collagen-induced signal transduction during platelet activation.

  14. Association of the GTP-binding protein Rab3A with bovine adrenal chromaffin granules

    SciTech Connect

    Darchen, F.; Hammel, F.; Monteils, M.P.; Scherman, D. ); Zahraoui, A.; Tavitian, A. )

    1990-08-01

    The Rab3A protein belongs to a large family of small GTP-binding proteins that are present in eukaryotic cells and that share amino acid identities with the Ras proteins (products of the ras protooncogenes). Rab3A, which is specifically located in nervous and endocrine tissues, is suspected to play a key role in secretion. Its localization was investigated in bovine adrenal gland by using a polyclonal antibody. Rab3A was detected in adrenal medulla but not in adrenal cortex. In cultured adrenal medulla cells, Rab3A was specifically expressed in the catecholamine-secreting chromaffin cells. Subcellular fractionation suggested that Rab3A is about 30% cytosolic and that particulate Rab3A is associated with the membrane of chromaffin granules (the catecholamine storage organelles) and with a second compartment likely to be the plasma membrane. The Rab3A localization on chromaffin granule membranes was confirmed by immunoadsorption with an antibody against dopamine {beta}-hydroxylase. Rab3A was not extracted from this membrane by NaCl or KBr but was partially extracted by urea and totally solubilized by Triton X-100, suggesting either an interaction with an intrinsic protein or a membrane association through fatty acid acylation. This study suggests that Rab3A, which may also be located on other secretory vesicles containing noncharacterized small GTP-binding proteins, is involved in their biogenesis or in the regulated secretion process.

  15. Structure of human guanylate-binding protein 1 representing a unique class of GTP-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Prakash, B; Praefcke, G J; Renault, L; Wittinghofer, A; Herrmann, C

    2000-02-03

    Interferon-gamma is an immunomodulatory substance that induces the expression of many genes to orchestrate a cellular response and establish the antiviral state of the cell. Among the most abundant antiviral proteins induced by interferon-gamma are guanylate-binding proteins such as GBP1 and GBP2. These are large GTP-binding proteins of relative molecular mass 67,000 with a high-turnover GTPase activity and an antiviral effect. Here we have determined the crystal structure of full-length human GBP1 to 1.8 A resolution. The amino-terminal 278 residues constitute a modified G domain with a number of insertions compared to the canonical Ras structure, and the carboxy-terminal part is an extended helical domain with unique features. From the structure and biochemical experiments reported here, GBP1 appears to belong to the group of large GTP-binding proteins that includes Mx and dynamin, the common property of which is the ability to undergo oligomerization with a high concentration-dependent GTPase activity.

  16. Small GTP-binding proteins of the ras family: a conserved functional mechanism?

    PubMed

    Chardin, P

    1991-04-01

    Mutated ras genes can acquire a transforming potential and are frequently detected in human tumors. The mammalian ras gene family includes at least 35 distinct members that can be divided into three main groups on the basis of their sequence similarity to ras, rho, or rab genes. All these genes encode small GTP-binding proteins. Rho proteins are implicated in actin organization and control of cell shape, probably by interacting with the cytoskeleton and intracellular membranes. Rab proteins are involved in vesicular traffic, and appear to control the translocation of vesicles from donor to acceptor membranes. The precise function of ras proteins is unknown, although the prevailing view is that they act as transducers of mitogenic signals. We propose that ras proteins, by analogy with rho and rab, are involved in the lateral segregation of multi-protein complexes at the plasma membrane, and we suggest how this process may be important for mitogenic signal transduction.

  17. Dephosphorylation of cofilin in stimulated platelets: roles for a GTP-binding protein and Ca2+.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, M M; Haslam, R J

    1994-01-01

    In human platelets, thrombin not only stimulates the phosphorylation of pleckstrin (P47) and of myosin P-light chains, but also induces the dephosphorylation of an 18-19 kDa phosphoprotein (P18) [Imaoka, Lynham and Haslam (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 11404-11414]. We have now studied this protein in detail. The thrombin-induced dephosphorylation reaction did not begin until the phosphorylation of myosin P-light chains and the secretion of dense-granule 5-hydroxytryptamine were nearly complete, but did parallel the later stages of platelet aggregation. Experiments with ionophore A23187 and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate indicated that dephosphorylation of P18 was stimulated by Ca2+, but not by protein kinase C. Two-dimensional analysis of platelet proteins, using non-equilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis followed by SDS/PAGE, showed that thrombin decreased the amount of phosphorylated P18 in platelets by up to 70% and slightly increased the amount of a more basic unlabelled protein that was present in 3-fold excess of P18 in unstimulated platelets. These two proteins were identified as the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of the pH-sensitive actin-depolymerizing protein, cofilin, by sequencing of peptide fragments and immunoblotting with a monoclonal antibody specific for cofilin. The molar concentration of cofilin in platelets was approx. 10% that of actin. Platelet cofilin was phosphorylated exclusively on serine. Experiments with electropermeabilized platelets showed that dephosphorylation of cofilin could be stimulated by guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) in the absence of Ca2+ or by a free Ca2+ concentration of 10 microM. This GTP[S]-induced dephosphorylation reaction was inhibited by 1-naphthyl phosphate, but not by okadaic acid. Our results add cofilin to the actin-binding proteins that may regulate the platelet cytoskeleton, and suggest that platelet cofilin can be activated by dephosphorylation reactions initiated either by a GTP-binding

  18. ADP-ribosylation factor, a small GTP-binding protein, is required for binding of the coatomer protein beta-COP to Golgi membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, J G; Cassel, D; Kahn, R A; Klausner, R D

    1992-01-01

    The coatomer is a cytosolic protein complex that reversibly associates with Golgi membranes and is implicated in modulating Golgi membrane transport. The association of beta-COP, a component of coatomer, with Golgi membranes is enhanced by guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[gamma S]), a nonhydrolyzable analogue of GTP, and by a mixture of aluminum and fluoride ions (Al/F). Here we show that the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) is required for the binding of beta-COP. Thus, beta-COP contained in a coatomer fraction that has been resolved from ARF does not bind to Golgi membranes, whereas binding can be reconstituted by the addition of recombinant ARF. Furthermore, an N-terminal peptide of ARF, which blocks ARF binding to Golgi membranes, inhibits GTP[gamma S]- as well as the Al/F-enhanced binding of beta-COP. We show that Golgi coat protein binding involves a sequential reaction where an initial interaction of ARF and GTP[gamma S] with the membrane allows subsequent binding of beta-COP to take place in the absence of free ARF and GTP[gamma S]. The fungal metabolite brefeldin A, which is known to prevent the association of coat proteins with Golgi membrane, is shown to exert this effect by interfering with the initial ARF-membrane interaction step. Images PMID:1631136

  19. Interferon-induced guanylate-binding proteins lack an N(T)KXD consensus motif and bind GMP in addition to GDP and GTP.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y S; Patterson, C E; Staeheli, P

    1991-09-01

    The primary structures of interferon (IFN)-induced guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) were deduced from cloned human and murine cDNAs. These proteins contained only two of the three sequence motifs typically found in GTP/GDP-binding proteins. The N(T)KXD motif, which is believed to confer guanine specificity in other nucleotide-binding proteins, was absent. Nevertheless, the IFN-induced GBPs exhibited a high degree of selectivity for binding to agarose-immobilized guanine nucleotides. An interesting feature of IFN-induced GBPs is that they strongly bound to GMP agarose in addition to GDP and GTP agaroses but failed to bind to ATP agarose and all other nucleotide agaroses tested. Both GTP and GMP, but not ATP, competed for binding of murine GBP-1 to agarose-immobilized GMP. The IFN-induced GBPs thus define a distinct novel family of proteins with GTP-binding activity. We further demonstrate that human and murine cells contain at least two genes encoding IFN-induced GBPs. The cloned murine cDNA codes for GBP-1, an IFN-induced protein previously shown to be absent from mice of Gbp-1b genotype.

  20. Pertussis toxin modifies the characteristics of both the inhibitory GTP binding proteins and the somatostatin receptor in anterior pituitary tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mahy, N.; Woolkalis, M.; Thermos, K.; Carlson, K.; Manning, D.; Reisine, T.

    1988-08-01

    The effects of pertussis toxin treatment on the characteristics of somatostatin receptors in the anterior pituitary tumor cell line AtT-20 were examined. Pertussis toxin selectively catalyzed the ADP ribosylation of the alpha subunits of the inhibitory GTP binding proteins in AtT-20 cells. Toxin treatment abolished somatostatin inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity and somatostatin stimulation of GTPase activity. To examine the effects of pertussis toxin treatment on the characteristics of the somatostatin receptor, the receptor was labeled by the somatostatin analog (125I)CGP 23996. (125I)CGP 23996 binding to AtT-20 cell membranes was saturable and within a limited concentration range was to a single high affinity site. Pertussis toxin treatment reduced the apparent density of the high affinity (125I)CGP 23996 binding sites in AtT-20 cell membranes. Inhibition of (125I)CGP 23996 binding by a wide concentration range of CGP 23996 revealed the presence of two binding sites. GTP predominantly reduced the level of high affinity sites in control membranes. Pertussis toxin treatment also diminished the amount of high affinity sites. GTP did not affect (125I)CGP 23996 binding in the pertussis toxin-treated membranes. The high affinity somatostatin receptors were covalently labeled with (125I) CGP 23996 and the photoactivated crosslinking agent n-hydroxysuccinimidyl-4-azidobenzoate. No high affinity somatostatin receptors, covalently bound to (125I)CGP 23996, were detected in the pertussis toxin-treated membranes. These results are most consistent with pertussis toxin uncoupling the inhibitory G proteins from the somatostatin receptor thereby converting the receptor from a mixed population of high and low affinity sites to only low affinity receptors.

  1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ski7 Is a GTP-Binding Protein Adopting the Characteristic Conformation of Active Translational GTPases.

    PubMed

    Kowalinski, Eva; Schuller, Anthony; Green, Rachel; Conti, Elena

    2015-07-07

    Ski7 is a cofactor of the cytoplasmic exosome in budding yeast, functioning in both mRNA turnover and non-stop decay (NSD), a surveillance pathway that degrades faulty mRNAs lacking a stop codon. The C-terminal region of Ski7 (Ski7C) shares overall sequence similarity with the translational GTPase (trGTPase) Hbs1, but whether Ski7 has retained the properties of a trGTPase is unclear. Here, we report the high-resolution structures of Ski7C bound to either intact guanosine triphosphate (GTP) or guanosine diphosphate-Pi. The individual domains of Ski7C adopt the conformation characteristic of active trGTPases. Furthermore, the nucleotide-binding site of Ski7C shares similar features compared with active trGTPases, notably the presence of a characteristic monovalent cation. However, a suboptimal polar residue at the putative catalytic site and an unusual polar residue that interacts with the γ-phosphate of GTP distinguish Ski7 from other trGTPases, suggesting it might function rather as a GTP-binding protein than as a GTP-hydrolyzing enzyme.

  2. 6-Acetyldihydrohomopterin and sepiapterin affect some GTP cyclohydrolase I's and not others

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, K.B.; Manos, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The first enzyme in pteridine biosynthesis, GTP cyclohydrolase I, is a likely site for regulation of pteridine biosynthesis to occur. GTP cyclohydrolase I responds to hormonal treatment and is found altered in a variety of mice with genetically based neurological and immunological disorders. Genetic loci can greatly modify the activity of GTP cyclohydrolase: Punch mutant in Drosophila hph-1 in mouse and atypical phenylketonuria in human. This report examines the ability of Ahp and sepiapterin to alter the activity of GTP cyclohydrolase I from mouse liver, rat liver and Drosophila head. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Myristoylation of an inhibitory GTP-binding protein. alpha. subunit is essential for its membrane attachment

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.L.Z.; Simonds, W.F.; Merendino, J.J. Jr.; Brann, M.R.; Spiegel, A.M. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors transfected COS cells with cDNAs for the {alpha} subunits of stimulatory and inhibitory GTP-binding proteins, {alpha}{sub s} and {alpha}{sub i1}, respectively, and immunoprecipitated the metabolically labeled products with specific peptide antibodies. Cells were separated into particulate and soluble fractions before immunoprecipitation; ({sup 35}S)methionine-labeled {alpha}{sub s} and {alpha}{sub i} were both found primarily in the particulate fraction. ({sup 3}H)Myristate was incorporated into endogenous and transfected {alpha}{sub i} but could not be detected in {alpha}{sub s} even when it was overexpressed. They converted the second residue, glycine, of {alpha}{sub i1} into alanine by site-directed mutagenesis. Upon transfection of the mutant {alpha}{sub i1} into COS cells, the ({sup 35}S)methionine-labeled product was localized primarily to the soluble fraction, and, also unlike normal {alpha}{sub i1}, the mutant failed to incorporate ({sup 3}H)myristate. The unmyristoylated mutant {alpha}{sub i1} could still interact with the {beta}-{gamma} complex, since purified {beta}{gamma} subunits promoted pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of both the normal and mutant {alpha}{sub i1} subunits. These results indicate that myristoylation is critical for membrane attachment of {alpha}{sub i} but not {alpha}{sub s} subunits.

  4. Inhibitory GTP binding protein G/sub i/ regulates US -adrenoceptor affinity towards US -agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Marbach, I.; Levitzki, A.

    1987-05-01

    Treatment of S-49 lymphoma cell membranes with pertussis toxin (PT) causes a three-fold reduction of US -adrenoceptor (US AR) affinity towards isoproterenol. A similar treatment with cholera toxin (CT) does not cause such a modulation. The effects were studied by the detailed analysis of SVI-cyanopindolol (CYP) binding curves in the absence and presence of increasing agonist concentrations. Thus, the authors were able to compare in detail the effects of G/sub s/ and G/sub i/ on the agonist-associated state of the US AR. In contrast to these findings, PT treatment does not have any effect on the displacement of SVI-CYP by (-)isoproterenol. These results demonstrate that the inhibitory GTP protein G/sub i/ modulates the US AR affinity towards US -agonists. This might be due to the association of G/sub i/ with the agonist-bound US AR x G/sub s/ x C complex within the membrane. This hypothesis, as well as others, is under investigation.

  5. Pheromone signalling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the small GTP-binding protein Cdc42p and its activator CDC24.

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Z S; Leung, T; Manser, E; Lim, L

    1995-01-01

    Pheromone signalling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mediated by the STE4-STE18 G-protein beta gamma subunits. A possible target for the subunits is Ste20p, whose structural homolog, the serine/threonine kinase PAK, is activated by GTP-binding p21s Cdc42 and Rac1. The putative Cdc42p-binding domain of Ste20p, expressed as a fusion protein, binds human and yeast GTP-binding Cdc42p. Cdc42p is required for alpha-factor-induced activation of FUS1.cdc24ts strains defective for Cdc42p GDP/GTP exchange show no pheromone induction at restrictive temperatures but are partially rescued by overexpression of Cdc42p, which is potentiated by Cdc42p12V mutants. Epistatic analysis indicates that CDC24 and CDC42 lie between STE4 and STE20 in the pathway. The two-hybrid system revealed that Ste4p interacts with Cdc24p. We propose that Cdc42p plays a pivotal role both in polarization of the cytoskeleton and in pheromone signalling. PMID:7565673

  6. Molecular cloning of the gene for the human placental GTP-binding protein Gp (G25K): identification of this GTP-binding protein as the human homolog of the yeast cell-division-cycle protein CDC42.

    PubMed Central

    Shinjo, K; Koland, J G; Hart, M J; Narasimhan, V; Johnson, D I; Evans, T; Cerione, R A

    1990-01-01

    We have isolated cDNA clones from a human placental library that code for a low molecular weight GTP-binding protein originally designated Gp (also called G25K). This identification is based on comparisons with the available peptide sequences for the purified human Gp protein and the use of two highly specific anti-peptide antibodies. The predicted amino acid sequence of the protein is very similar to those of various members of the ras superfamily of low molecular weight GTP-binding proteins, including the N-, Ki-, and Ha-ras proteins (30-35% identical), the rho proteins (approximately 50% identical), and the rac proteins (approximately 70% identical). The highest degree of sequence identity (80%) is found with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell-division-cycle protein CDC42. The human placental gene, which we designate CDC42Hs, complements the cdc42-1 mutation in S. cerevisiae, which suggests that this GTP-binding protein is the human homolog of the yeast protein. Images PMID:2124704

  7. Molecular cloning of the gene for the human placental GTP-binding protein Gp (G25K): identification of this GTP-binding protein as the human homolog of the yeast cell-division-cycle protein CDC42.

    PubMed

    Shinjo, K; Koland, J G; Hart, M J; Narasimhan, V; Johnson, D I; Evans, T; Cerione, R A

    1990-12-01

    We have isolated cDNA clones from a human placental library that code for a low molecular weight GTP-binding protein originally designated Gp (also called G25K). This identification is based on comparisons with the available peptide sequences for the purified human Gp protein and the use of two highly specific anti-peptide antibodies. The predicted amino acid sequence of the protein is very similar to those of various members of the ras superfamily of low molecular weight GTP-binding proteins, including the N-, Ki-, and Ha-ras proteins (30-35% identical), the rho proteins (approximately 50% identical), and the rac proteins (approximately 70% identical). The highest degree of sequence identity (80%) is found with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell-division-cycle protein CDC42. The human placental gene, which we designate CDC42Hs, complements the cdc42-1 mutation in S. cerevisiae, which suggests that this GTP-binding protein is the human homolog of the yeast protein.

  8. Molecular cloning of the gene for the human placental GTP-binding protein G sub p (G25K): Identification of this GTP-binding protein as the human homolog of the yeast cell-division-cycle protein CDC42

    SciTech Connect

    Shinjo, K.; Koland, J.G.; Hart, M.J.; Narasimhan, V.; Cerione, R.A. ); Johnson, D.I. ); Evans, T. )

    1990-12-01

    The authors have isolated cDNA clones from a human placental library that code for a low molecular weight GTP-binding protein originally designated G{sub p} (also called G25K). This identification is based on comparisons with the available peptide sequences for the purified human G{sub p} protein and the use of two highly specific anti-peptide antibodies. The predicted amino acid sequence of the protein is very similar to those of various members of the ras superfamily of low molecular weight GTP-binding proteins, including the N-, Ki-, and Ha-ras proteins (30-35% identical), the rho proteins and the rac proteins. The highest degree of sequence identity (80%) is found with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell division-cycle protein CDC42. The human placental gene, which they designate CDC42Hs, complements the cdc42-1 mutation in S. cerevisiae, which suggests that this GTP-binding protein is the human homolog of the yeast protein.

  9. A putative GTP binding protein homologous to interferon-inducible Mx proteins performs an essential function in yeast protein sorting.

    PubMed

    Rothman, J H; Raymond, C K; Gilbert, T; O'Hara, P J; Stevens, T H

    1990-06-15

    Members of the Mx protein family promote interferon-inducible resistance to viral infection in mammals and act by unknown mechanisms. We identified an Mx-like protein in yeast and present genetic evidence for its cellular function. This protein, the VPS1 product, is essential for vacuolar protein sorting, normal organization of intracellular membranes, and growth at high temperature, implying that Mx-like proteins are engaged in fundamental cellular processes in eukaryotes. Vps1p contains a tripartite GTP binding motif, which suggests that binding to GTP is essential to its role in protein sorting. Vps1p-specific antibody labels punctate cytoplasmic structures that condense to larger structures in a Golgi-accumulating sec7 mutant; thus, Vps1p may associate with an intermediate organelle of the secretory pathway.

  10. Distribution of adenylate cyclase and GTP-binding proteins in hepatic plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Dixon, B S; Sutherland, E; Alexander, A; Nibel, D; Simon, F R

    1993-10-01

    Hepatic membrane subfractions prepared from control rats demonstrated forskolin (FSK)-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in the basolateral (sinusoidal) but not apical (canalicular) plasma membrane. After bile duct ligation (BDL) for 12 or 24 h, there was an increase in FSK-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in the apical membrane (54.2 +/- 3.9 pmol.mg-1 x min-1). The mechanism for this increase was explored further. ATP hydrolysis was found to be much higher in the apical than the basolateral membrane. Increasing the ATP levels in the assay enhanced apical membrane adenylate cyclase activity (10.5 +/- 0.2 pmol.mg-l.min-1); however, total adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) activity was not altered after BDL. Extraction of the apical membrane with bile acids or other detergents resulted in a two- to threefold increase in adenylate cyclase activity (30.6 +/- 3.6 pmol.mg-1 x min-1; detergent C12E8) This suggested that bile duct ligation was acting via the detergent-like action of bile acids to uncover latent adenylate cyclase activity on apical membranes. Further studies demonstrated that both BDL and detergent extraction also enhanced toxin-directed ADP-ribosylation of Gs alpha (cholera toxin) and Gi alpha (pertussis toxin) in the apical but not the basolateral membrane. After BDL, Gi alpha was found to be twofold greater in the apical membrane than the basolateral membrane. Immunoblotting using specific G protein antibodies further confirmed that apical membranes from control rats had a higher concentration of Gi1, 2 alpha and beta and slightly elevated levels of Gi3 alpha and Gs alpha compared with the basolateral membrane. The results demonstrate that adenylate cyclase and heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins are present on the apical membrane, but measurement of their functional activity requires detergent permeabilization of apical membrane vesicles and is limited by the presence of high ATPase activity.

  11. Ultrastructural localization of the small GTP-binding protein Rap1 in human platelets and megakaryocytes.

    PubMed

    Berger, G; Quarck, R; Tenza, D; Levy-Toledano, S; de Gunzburg, J; Cramer, E M

    1994-10-01

    Several functions have been proposed for Rap1B in human platelets, including the regulation of phospholipase (PL) C gamma and Ca2+ ATPase. However, its localization is largely unknown. In the present study we have investigated the subcellular distribution of Rap1 by immunocytochemical techniques using affinity purified polyclonal antibodies raised against residues 121-137 common to the 95% homologous Rap1A and Rap1B proteins. By immunofluorescence, a positive labelling was obtained on intact resting platelets and was abolished after adsorption of the antibodies with the control peptide. Immunoelectron microscopy was then used to further define the subcellular localization of Rap1B in platelets and megakaryocytes (MK). In resting cells, immunolabelling for Rap1B was associated with the plasma membrane, mostly at its inner face, and lined the membrane of the open canalicular system (OCS). Some labelling was also found outlining the alpha-granules, identified as such by a double labelling with an anti-GPIIb-IIIa. On thrombasthenic platelets the same localization was observed. When platelets were stimulated by thrombin, immunolabelling for Rap1B was redistributed to the zones of fusion of the granules with the OCS, and to the plasma membrane with a higher concentration on pseudopods. Human MK expressed Rap1 and the staining revealed the association of the protein with the demarcation membranes and alpha-granules. This study presents a first approach to the localization of a small GTP binding-protein Rap1B in whole platelets and MK, and shows its association with both the plasma and OCS membranes, as well as with the alpha-granule membranes.

  12. A recombinant inwardly rectifying potassium channel coupled to GTP- binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    GTP-binding (G) proteins have been shown to mediate activation of inwardly rectifying potassium (K+) channels in cardiac, neuronal and neuroendocrine cells. Here, we report functional expression of a recombinant inwardly rectifying channel which we call KGP (or hpKir3.4), to signify that it is K+ selective, G-protein-gated and isolated from human pancreas. KGP expression in Xenopus oocytes resulted in sizeable basal (or agonist-independent) currents while coexpression with a G-protein-linked receptor, yielded additional agonist-induced currents. Coexpression of KGP and hGIRK1 (a human brain homolog of GIRK1/Kir3.1) produced much larger basal currents than those observed with KGP or hGIRK1 alone, and upon coexpression with receptor, similarly large agonist-induced currents could be obtained. Pertussis toxin treatment significantly diminished agonist-dependent currents due to either KGP or KGP/hGIRK1 expression. Interestingly, PTX also significantly reduced basal KGP or KGP/hGIRK1 currents, suggesting that basal activity is largely the result of G-protein gating as well. When the two channels were coexpressed with receptor, the relative increase in current elicited by agonist was similar whether KGP and hGIRK1 were expressed alone or together. When in vitro translated or when expressed in Xenopus oocytes or CHO mammalian cells, KGP gave rise to a nonglycosylated 45-kD protein. Antibodies directed against either KGP or hGIRK1 coprecipitated both proteins coexpressed in oocytes, providing evidence for the heteromeric assembly of the two channels and suggesting that the current potentiation seen with coexpression of the two channel subunits is due to specific interactions between them. An endogenous oocyte protein similar in size to KGP was also coprecipitated with hGIRK1. PMID:8868049

  13. Mutational analysis of op18/stathmin-tubulin-interacting surfaces. Binding cooperativity controls tubulin GTP hydrolysis in the ternary complex.

    PubMed

    Segerman, B; Larsson, N; Holmfeldt, P; Gullberg, M

    2000-11-17

    Oncoprotein 18 (Op18) is a microtubule regulator that forms a ternary complex with two tubulin heterodimers. Dispersed regions of Op18 are involved in two-site cooperative binding and subsequent modulation of tubulin GTPase activity. Here we have analyzed specific determinants of Op18 that govern both stoichiometry and positive cooperativity in tubulin binding and consequent stimulatory and inhibitory effects on tubulin GTPase activity. The data revealed that the central and C-terminal regions of Op18 contain overlapping binding-motifs contacting both tubulin heterodimers, suggesting that these regions of Op18 are wedged into the previously noted 1-nm gap between the two longitudinally arranged tubulin heterodimers. Both the N- and C-terminal flanks adjacent to the central region are involved in stabilizing the ternary complex, but only the C-terminal flank does so by imposing positive binding cooperativity. Within the C-terminal flank, deletion of a 7-amino acid region attenuated positive binding cooperativity and resulted in a switch from stimulation to inhibition of tubulin GTP hydrolysis. This switch can be explained by attenuated binding cooperativity, because Op18 under these conditions may block longitudinal contact surfaces of single tubulins with consequent interference of tubulin-tubulin interaction-dependent GTP hydrolysis. Together, our results suggest that Op18 links two tubulin heterodimers via longitudinal contact surfaces to form a ternary GTPase productive complex.

  14. Prenylation of an interferon-gamma-induced GTP-binding protein: the human guanylate binding protein, huGBP1.

    PubMed

    Nantais, D E; Schwemmle, M; Stickney, J T; Vestal, D J; Buss, J E

    1996-09-01

    Interferons (IFN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) cause multiple changes in isoprenoid-modified proteins in murine macrophages, the most dramatic being the expression of a prenyl protein of 65 kDa. The guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) are IFN-inducible GTP-binding proteins of approximately 65 kDa that possess a CaaX motif at their C-terminus, indicating that they might be substrates for prenyltransferases. The human GBP1 protein, when expressed in transfected COS-1 cells, incorporates radioactivity from the isoprenoid precursor [3H]mevalonate. In addition, huGBPs expressed from the endogenous genes in IFN-gamma-treated human fibroblasts or monocytic cells were also found to be isoprenoid modified. IFN-gamma-induced huGBPs in HL-60 cells were not labeled by the specific C20 isoprenoid, [3H]geranylgeraniol, but did show decreased isoprenoid incorporation in cells treated with the farnesyl transferase inhibitor BZA-5B, indicating that huGBPs in HL-60 cells are probably modified by a C15 farnesyl rather than the more common C20 lipid. Differentiated HL-60 cells treated with IFN-gamma/LPS showed no change in the profile of constitutive isoprenylated proteins and the IFN-gamma/LPS-induced huGBPs remained prenylated. Despite being prenylated, huGBP1 in COS cells and endogenous huGBPs in HL-60 cells were primarily (approximately 85%) cytosolic. Human GBPs are thus among the select group of prenyl proteins whose synthesis is tightly regulated by a cytokine. HuGBP1 is an abundant protein whose prenylation may be vulnerable to farnesyl transferase inhibitors that are designed to prevent farnesylation of Ras proteins.

  15. A host small GTP-binding protein ARL8 plays crucial roles in tobamovirus RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Nishikiori, Masaki; Mori, Masashi; Dohi, Koji; Okamura, Hideyasu; Katoh, Etsuko; Naito, Satoshi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2011-12-01

    Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), like other eukaryotic positive-strand RNA viruses, replicates its genomic RNA in replication complexes formed on intracellular membranes. Previous studies showed that a host seven-pass transmembrane protein TOM1 is necessary for efficient ToMV multiplication. Here, we show that a small GTP-binding protein ARL8, along with TOM1, is co-purified with a FLAG epitope-tagged ToMV 180K replication protein from solubilized membranes of ToMV-infected tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells. When solubilized membranes of ToMV-infected tobacco cells that expressed FLAG-tagged ARL8 were subjected to immunopurification with anti-FLAG antibody, ToMV 130K and 180K replication proteins and TOM1 were co-purified and the purified fraction showed RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity that transcribed ToMV RNA. From uninfected cells, TOM1 co-purified with FLAG-tagged ARL8 less efficiently, suggesting that a complex containing ToMV replication proteins, TOM1, and ARL8 are formed on membranes in infected cells. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ARL8 consists of four family members. Simultaneous mutations in two specific ARL8 genes completely inhibited tobamovirus multiplication. In an in vitro ToMV RNA translation-replication system, the lack of either TOM1 or ARL8 proteins inhibited the production of replicative-form RNA, indicating that TOM1 and ARL8 are required for efficient negative-strand RNA synthesis. When ToMV 130K protein was co-expressed with TOM1 and ARL8 in yeast, RNA 5'-capping activity was detected in the membrane fraction. This activity was undetectable or very weak when the 130K protein was expressed alone or with either TOM1 or ARL8. Taken together, these results suggest that TOM1 and ARL8 are components of ToMV RNA replication complexes and play crucial roles in a process toward activation of the replication proteins' RNA synthesizing and capping functions.

  16. Nucleotide binding interactions modulate dNTP selectivity and facilitate 8-oxo-dGTP incorporation by DNA polymerase lambda

    PubMed Central

    Burak, Matthew J.; Guja, Kip E.; Garcia-Diaz, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    8-Oxo-7,8,-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine triphosphate (8-oxo-dGTP) is a major product of oxidative damage in the nucleotide pool. It is capable of mispairing with adenosine (dA), resulting in futile, mutagenic cycles of base excision repair. Therefore, it is critical that DNA polymerases discriminate against 8-oxo-dGTP at the insertion step. Because of its roles in oxidative DNA damage repair and non-homologous end joining, DNA polymerase lambda (Pol λ) may frequently encounter 8-oxo-dGTP. Here, we have studied the mechanisms of 8-oxo-dGMP incorporation and discrimination by Pol λ. We have solved high resolution crystal structures showing how Pol λ accommodates 8-oxo-dGTP in its active site. The structures indicate that when mispaired with dA, the oxidized nucleotide assumes the mutagenic syn-conformation, and is stabilized by multiple interactions. Steady-state kinetics reveal that two residues lining the dNTP binding pocket, Ala510 and Asn513, play differential roles in dNTP selectivity. Specifically, Ala510 and Asn513 facilitate incorporation of 8-oxo-dGMP opposite dA and dC, respectively. These residues also modulate the balance between purine and pyrimidine incorporation. Our results shed light on the mechanisms controlling 8-oxo-dGMP incorporation in Pol λ and on the importance of interactions with the incoming dNTP to determine selectivity in family X DNA polymerases. PMID:26220180

  17. Role of GTP-binding proteins in the regulation of mammalian cardiac chloride conductance

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Beta-Adrenoceptor agonists activate a time- and voltage-independent Cl- conductance in mammalian cardiac myocytes. To characterize the cellular signaling pathways underlying its regulation, wide-tipped pipettes fitted with a pipette perfusion device were used to record whole-cell current and to introduce nucleotides to the interior of guinea pig ventricular myocytes. Replacement of pipette GTP with GDP beta S prevented activation of the Cl- conductance by Iso, suggesting a requirement for G protein turnover. With GTP in the pipette, the effect of Iso could be abolished by the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, and mimicked by histamine or forskolin. These actions of Iso and forskolin are mediated exclusively via cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), because (a) maximal activation of the Cl- conductance by forskolin or pipette cAMP occluded the effect of Iso, and (b) switching to pipette solution containing a synthetic peptide inhibitor (PKI) of PKA completely abolished the Cl- conductance activated by Iso and prevented the action of forskolin, but had no further effect. These results argue against basal activation of the Cl- conductance, and make it extremely unlikely that the stimulatory G protein, Gs, has any direct, phosphorylation-independent influence. The muscarinic receptor agonists acetylcholine (ACh) and carbachol diminished, in a reversible manner, Cl- conductance activated by Iso or forskolin, but not that elicited by cAMP. The muscarinic inhibition was abolished by replacing pipette GTP with GDP beta S, or by preincubating cells with pertussis toxin (PTX), and was therefore mediated by an inhibitory G protein, presumably Gi, influencing adenylyl cyclase activity. Nonhydrolyzable GTP analogues (GTP gamma S or GppNHp) applied via the pipette did not themselves activate Cl- conductance, but rendered Cl- current activation by brief exposures to Iso or histamine, but not to forskolin, irreversible. The Cl- conductance persistently activated by Iso was

  18. Identification and biochemical characterization of Rap2C, a new member of the Rap family of small GTP-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Paganini, Simona; Guidetti, Gianni Francesco; Catricalà, Silvia; Trionfini, Piera; Panelli, Simona; Balduini, Cesare; Torti, Mauro

    2006-01-01

    The Rap family of small GTP-binding proteins is composed by four different members: Rap1A, Rap1B, Rap2A and Rap2B. In this work we report the identification and characterization of a fifth member of this family of small GTPases. This new protein is highly homologous to Rap2A and Rap2B, binds labeled GTP on nitrocellulose, and is recognized by a specific anti-Rap2 antibody, but not by an anti-Rap1 antibody. The protein has thus been named Rap2C. Binding of GTP to recombinant purified Rap2C was Mg(2+)-dependent. However, accurate comparison of the kinetics of nucleotide binding and release revealed that Rap2C bound GTP less efficiently and possessed slower rate of GDP release compared to the highly homologous Rap2B. Moreover, in the presence of Mg(2+), the relative affinity of Rap2C for GTP was only about twofold higher than that for GDP, while, under the same conditions, Rap2B was able to bind GTP with about sevenfold higher affinity than GDP. When expressed in eukaryotic cells, Rap2C localized at the plasma membrane, as dictated by the presence of a CAAX motif at the C-terminus. We found that Rap2C represented the predominant Rap2 protein expressed in circulating mononuclear leukocytes, but was not present in platelets. Importantly, Rap2C was found to be expressed in human megakaryocytes, suggesting that the protein may be down-regulated during platelets generation. This work demonstrates that Rap2C is a new member of the Rap2 subfamily of proteins, able to bind guanine nucleotides with peculiar properties, and differently expressed by various hematopoietic subsets. This new protein may therefore contribute to the still poorly clarified cellular events regulated by this subfamily of GTP-binding proteins.

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a GTP-binding protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hao; Sun, Lei; Brouns, Stan J. J.; Fu, Sheng; Akerboom, Jasper; Li, Xuemei; Oost, John van der

    2007-03-01

    A GTP-binding protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus has been crystallized. Combined with biochemical analyses, it is expected that the structure of this protein will give insight in the function of a relatively unknown subfamily of the GTPase superfamily. A predicted GTP-binding protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, termed SsGBP, has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique in the presence of 0.05 M cadmium sulfate and 0.8 M sodium acetate pH 7.5. A single-wavelength anomalous dispersion data set was collected to a maximum resolution of 2.0 Å using a single cadmium-incorporated crystal. The crystal form belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with approximate unit-cell parameters a = 65.0, b = 72.6, c = 95.9 Å and with a monomer in the asymmetric unit.

  20. RanGTP-Binding Protein NXT1 Facilitates Nuclear Export of Different Classes of RNA In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ossareh-Nazari, Batool; Maison, Christèle; Black, Ben E.; Lévesque, Lyne; Paschal, Bryce M.; Dargemont, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    To better characterize the mechanisms responsible for RNA export from the nucleus, we developed an in vitro assay based on the use of permeabilized HeLa cells. This new assay supports nuclear export of U1 snRNA, tRNA, and mRNA in an energy- and Xenopus extract-dependent manner. U1 snRNA export requires a 5′ monomethylated cap structure, the nuclear export signal receptor CRM1, and the small GTPase Ran. In contrast, mRNA export does not require the participation of CRM1. We show here that NXT1, an NTF2-related protein that binds directly to RanGTP, strongly stimulates export of U1 snRNA, tRNA, and mRNA. The ability of NXT1 to promote export is dependent on its capacity to bind RanGTP. These results support the emerging view that NXT1 is a general export factor, functioning on both CRM1-dependent and CRM1-independent pathways of RNA export. PMID:10848583

  1. GABAB receptor GTP-binding is decreased in the prefrontal cortex but not the hippocampus of aged rats

    PubMed Central

    McQuail, Joseph A.; Bañuelos, Cristina; LaSarge, Candi L.; Nicolle, Michelle M.; Bizon, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    GABAB receptors (GABABRs) have been linked to a wide range of physiological and cognitive processes and are of interest for treating a number of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. As many of these diseases are associated with advanced age, it is important to understand how the normal aging process impacts GABABR expression and signaling. Thus, we investigated GABABR expression and function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus of young and aged rats characterized in a spatial learning task. Baclofen-stimulated GTP-binding and GABABR1 and GABABR2 proteins were reduced in the PFC of aged rats but these reductions were not associated with spatial learning abilities. In contrast, hippocampal GTP-binding was comparable between young and aged rats but reduced hippocampal GABABR1 expression was observed in aged rats with spatial learning impairment. These data demonstrate marked regional differences in GABABR complexes in the adult and aged brain and could have implications for both understanding the role of GABAergic processes in normal brain function and the development of putative interventions that target this system. PMID:22169202

  2. Effect of mutational alteration of Asn-128 in the putative GTP-binding domain of tetracycline resistance determinant Tet(O) from Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, J; Manavathu, E K; Taylor, D E

    1993-01-01

    The deduced amino acid sequence of Campylobacter jejuni Tet(O), cloned in Escherichia coli, has shown that it contains the five highly conserved sequences of the GTP-binding domain found in other GTPases. Asn-128 belongs to the G4 motif of such a domain and is involved in hydrogen bonding with the guanine ring of the nucleotide. Substitution of Asn-128 by 11 other amino acids resulted in a decrease in tetracycline resistance, indicating that tetracycline resistance conferred by Tet(O) is related to GTP binding. The effect of the mutations on the GTP-binding domain is discussed with the EF-Tu-GDP complex as a model. PMID:8109930

  3. Rho-associated kinase, a novel serine/threonine kinase, as a putative target for small GTP binding protein Rho.

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, T; Amano, M; Yamamoto, T; Chihara, K; Nakafuku, M; Ito, M; Nakano, T; Okawa, K; Iwamatsu, A; Kaibuchi, K

    1996-01-01

    The small GTP binding protein Rho is implicated in cytoskeletal responses to extracellular signals such as lysophosphatidic acid to form stress fibers and focal contacts. Here we have purified a Rho-interacting protein with a molecular mass of approximately 164 kDa (p164) from bovine brain. This protein bound to GTPgammaS (a non-hydrolyzable GTP analog).RhoA but not to GDP.RhoA or GTPgammaS.RhoA with a mutation in the effector domain (RhoAA37).p164 had a kinase activity which was specifically stimulated by GTPgammaS.RhoA. We obtained the cDNA encoding p164 on the basis of its partial amino acid sequences and named it Rho-associated kinase (Rho-kinase). Rho-kinase has a catalytic domain in the N-terminal portion, a coiled coil domain in the middle portion and a zinc finger-like motif in the C-terminal portion. The catalytic domain shares 72% sequence homology with that of myotonic dystrophy kinase and the coiled coil domain contains a Rho-interacting interface. When COS7 cells were cotransfected with Rho-kinase and activated RhoA, some Rho-kinase was recruited to membranes. Thus it is likely that Rho-kinase is a putative target serine/threonine kinase for Rho and serves as a mediator of the Rho-dependent signaling pathway. Images PMID:8641286

  4. A novel member of the rho family of small GTP-binding proteins is specifically required for cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Several members of the rho/rac family of small GTP-binding proteins are known to regulate the distribution of the actin cytoskeleton in various subcellular processes. We describe here a novel rac protein, racE, which is specifically required for cytokinesis, an actomyosin-mediated process. The racE gene was isolated in a molecular genetic screen devised to isolate genes required for cytokinesis in Dictyostelium. Phenotypic characterization of racE mutants revealed that racE is not essential for any other cell motility event, including phagocytosis, chemotaxis, capping, or development. Our data provide the first genetic evidence for the essential requirement of a rho-like protein, specifically in cytokinesis, and suggest a role for these proteins in coordinating cytokinesis with the mitotic events of the cell cycle. PMID:8682867

  5. Glucose- and GTP-dependent stimulation of the carboxyl methylation of CDC42 in rodent and human pancreatic islets and pure beta cells. Evidence for an essential role of GTP-binding proteins in nutrient-induced insulin secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Kowluru, A; Seavey, S E; Li, G; Sorenson, R L; Weinhaus, A J; Nesher, R; Rabaglia, M E; Vadakekalam, J; Metz, S A

    1996-01-01

    Several GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins) undergo post-translational modifications (isoprenylation and carboxyl methylation) in pancreatic beta cells. Herein, two of these were identified as CDC42 and rap 1, using Western blotting and immunoprecipitation. Confocal microscopic data indicated that CDC42 is localized only in islet endocrine cells but not in acinar cells of the pancreas. CDC42 undergoes a guanine nucleotide-specific membrane association and carboxyl methylation in normal rat islets, human islets, and pure beta (HIT or INS-1) cells. GTPgammaS-dependent carboxyl methylation of a 23-kD protein was also demonstrable in secretory granule fractions from normal islets or beta cells. AFC (a specific inhibitor of prenyl-cysteine carboxyl methyl transferases) blocked the carboxyl methylation of CDC42 in five types of insulin-secreting cells, without blocking GTPgammaS-induced translocation, implying that methylation is a consequence (not a cause) of transfer to membrane sites. High glucose (but not a depolarizing concentration of K+) induced the carboxyl methylation of CDC42 in intact cells, as assessed after specific immunoprecipitation. This effect was abrogated by GTP depletion using mycophenolic acid and was restored upon GTP repletion by coprovision of guanosine. In contrast, although rap 1 was also carboxyl methylated, it was not translocated to the particulate fraction by GTPgammaS; furthermore, its methylation was also stimulated by 40 mM K+ (suggesting a role which is not specific to nutrient stimulation). AFC also impeded nutrient-induced (but not K+-induced) insulin secretion from islets and beta cells under static or perifusion conditions, whereas an inactive structural analogue of AFC failed to inhibit insulin release. These effects were reproduced not only by S-adenosylhomocysteine (another methylation inhibitor), but also by GTP depletion. Thus, the glucose- and GTP-dependent carboxyl methylation of G-proteins such as CDC42 is an obligate step in

  6. Septin6 and Septin7 GTP Binding Proteins Regulate AP-3- and ESCRT-Dependent Multivesicular Body Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Traikov, Sofia; Stange, Christoph; Wassmer, Thomas; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Salamero, Jean; Raposo, Graça; Hoflack, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Septins (SEPTs) form a family of GTP-binding proteins implicated in cytoskeleton and membrane organization, cell division and host/pathogen interactions. The precise function of many family members remains elusive. We show that SEPT6 and SEPT7 complexes bound to F-actin regulate protein sorting during multivesicular body (MVB) biogenesis. These complexes bind AP-3, an adapter complex sorting cargos destined to remain in outer membranes of maturing endosomes, modulate AP-3 membrane interactions and the motility of AP-3-positive endosomes. These SEPT-AP interactions also influence the membrane interaction of ESCRT (endosomal-sorting complex required for transport)-I, which selects ubiquitinated cargos for degradation inside MVBs. Whereas our findings demonstrate that SEPT6 and SEPT7 function in the spatial, temporal organization of AP-3- and ESCRT-coated membrane domains, they uncover an unsuspected coordination of these sorting machineries during MVB biogenesis. This requires the E3 ubiquitin ligase LRSAM1, an AP-3 interactor regulating ESCRT-I sorting activity and whose mutations are linked with Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies. PMID:25380047

  7. Autophosphorylation in the Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) GTPase Domain Modifies Kinase and GTP-Binding Activities

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Philip J.; Smith, Archer D.; Sen, Saurabh; Renfrow, Matthew B.; Mobley, James A.; West, Andrew B.

    2011-01-01

    The LRRK2 protein has both GTPase and kinase activities and mutation in either enzymatic domain can cause late-onset Parkinson’s disease (PD). Nucleotide binding in the GTPase domain may be required for kinase activity and residues in the GTPase domain are potential sites for autophosphorylation, suggesting a complex mechanism of intrinsic regulation. To further define the effects of LRRK2 autophosphorylation, we applied a technique optimal for detection of protein phosphorylation, electron transfer dissociation (ETD), and identified autophosphorylation events exclusively nearby the nucleotide binding pocket in the GTPase domain. PD-linked mutations alter kinase activity but did not alter autophosphorylation site specificity or sites of phosphorylation in a robust in vitro substrate myelin basic protein. Amino-acid substitutions in the GTPase domain have large effects on kinase activity, as insertion of the GTPase-associated R1441C pathogenic mutation together with the G2019S kinase-domain mutation resulted in a multiplicative increase (~7-fold) in activity. Removal of a conserved autophosphorylation site (T1503) by mutation to an alanine residue resulted in greatly decreased GTP-binding and kinase activity. While autophosphorylation likely serves to potentiate kinase activity, we find that oligomerization and loss of the active dimer species occurs in an ATP and autophosphorylation independent manner. LRRK2 autophosphorylation sites are overall robustly protected from dephosphorylation in vitro, suggesting tight control over activity in vivo. We developed highly specific antibodies targeting pT1503 but failed to detect endogenous autophosphorylation in protein derived from transgenic mice and cell lines. LRRK2 activity in vivo is unlikely to be constitutive but rather refined to specific responses. PMID:21806997

  8. GTP-Binding Proteins Inhibit cAMP Activation of Chloride Channels in Cystic Fibrosis Airway Epithelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwiebert, Erik M.; Kizer, Neil; Gruenert, Dieter C.; Stanton, Bruce A.

    1992-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease characterized, in part, by defective regulation of Cl^- secretion by airway epithelial cells. In CF, cAMP does not activate Cl^- channels in the apical membrane of airway epithelial cells. We report here whole-cell patch-clamp studies demonstrating that pertussis toxin, which uncouples heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) from their receptors, and guanosine 5'-[β-thio]diphosphate, which prevents G proteins from interacting with their effectors, increase Cl^- currents and restore cAMP-activated Cl^- currents in airway epithelial cells isolated from CF patients. In contrast, the G protein activators guanosine 5'-[γ-thio]triphosphate and AlF^-_4 reduce Cl^- currents and inhibit cAMP from activating Cl^- currents in normal airway epithelial cells. In CF cells treated with pertussis toxin or guanosine 5'-[β-thio]diphosphate and in normal cells, cAMP activates a Cl^- conductance that has properties similar to CF transmembrane-conductance regulator Cl^- channels. We conclude that heterotrimeric G proteins inhibit cAMP-activated Cl^- currents in airway epithelial cells and that modulation of the inhibitory G protein signaling pathway may have the therapeutic potential for improving cAMP-activated Cl^- secretion in CF.

  9. A small nuclear GTP-binding protein from tomato suppresses a Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell-cycle mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Ach, R A; Gruissem, W

    1994-01-01

    Ran is a 25-kDa Ras-related nuclear GTP-binding protein which is very highly conserved in humans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Ran has been found to form a stable, noncovalent complex with the chromatin-associated protein RCC1, a negative regulator of mitosis. In Sch. pombe, a temperature-sensitive mutation in the RCC1 homolog encoded by the pim1 gene causes premature induction of mitosis, and this mutation can be suppressed by overexpression of the Ran homolog encoded by spi1. We report here the cloning of three Ran cDNAs from tomato. The Ran protein is very highly conserved among plants, animals, and fungi. In tomato, Ran mRNA is expressed in all tissues examined, even those with little or no cell division, indicating that Ran in plants may have functions other than just control of mitosis. We have found that the tomato Ran protein can direct a beta-glucuronidase reporter protein to the plant cell nucleus, confirming that Ran is a nuclear protein in plants. We show that the tomato Ran protein can suppress the Sch. pombe pim1 mutation, indicating that the tomato Ran protein and the Sch. pombe spi1 protein are functionally homologous. Images PMID:8016079

  10. Deletion mutants of Harvey ras p21 protein reveal the absolute requirement of at least two distant regions for GTP-binding and transforming activities.

    PubMed Central

    Lacal, J C; Anderson, P S; Aaronson, S A

    1986-01-01

    Deletions of small sequences from the viral Harvey ras gene have been generated, and resulting ras p21 mutants have been expressed in Escherichia coli. Purification of each deleted protein allowed the in vitro characterization of GTP-binding, GTPase and autokinase activity of the proteins. Microinjection of the highly purified proteins into quiescent NIH/3T3 cells, as well as transfection experiments utilizing a long terminal repeat (LTR)-containing vector, were utilized to analyze the biological activity of the deleted proteins. Two small regions located at 6-23 and 152-165 residues are shown to be absolutely required for in vitro and in vivo activities of the ras product. By contrast, the variable region comprising amino acids 165-184 was shown not to be necessary for either in vitro or in vivo activities. Thus, we demonstrate that: (i) amino acid sequences at positions 5-23 and 152-165 of ras p21 protein are probably directly involved in the GTP-binding activity; (ii) GTP-binding is required for the transforming activity of ras p21 and by extension for the normal function of the proto-oncogene product; and (iii) the variable region at the C-terminal end of the ras p21 molecule from amino acids 165 to 184 is not required for transformation. Images Fig.2. Fig.4. PMID:3011420

  11. Identification of a prostacyclin receptor coupled to the adenylate cyclase system via a stimulatory GTP-binding protein in mouse mastocytoma P-815 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, H.; Negishi, M.; Ichikawa, A. )

    1990-11-01

    A stable analogue of prostacyclin, iloprost, specifically bound to 30,000 x g pellet (the membrane fraction) prepared from mouse mastocytoma P-815 cells. The binding was dependent on time, temperature and pH, and absolutely required a divalent cation. The equilibrium dissociation constant and the maximal concentration of the binding site as determined by Scatchard plot analysis were 10.4 nM and 1.12 pmol/mg of protein, respectively. The Hill coefficient was 1.0, indicating a single entity of binding site and no cooperativity. The binding site was highly specific for iloprost among PGs tested (iloprost much greater than PGE1 greater than carbacyclin greater than PGE2). In contrast, the membrane fraction had the binding site specific for PGE2 and PGE1, which was distinct from the prostacyclin receptor. The dissociation of bound (3H)iloprost from the membrane fraction was specifically enhanced by guanine nucleotides. Furthermore, iloprost dose-dependently enhanced the activity of adenylate cyclase in a GTP-dependent manner. These results indicate that a specific prostacyclin receptor is coupled to the adenylate cyclase system via a stimulatory GTP-binding protein in mastocytoma cells.

  12. Functional polymorphism of the GTP cyclohydrolase 1 gene affects the personality trait of novelty seeking in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Shibuya, Naoshi; Enokido, Masanori; Kamata, Mitsuhiro; Goto, Kaoru; Otani, Koichi

    2011-10-10

    GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin, which is an essential cofactor for biosynthetic enzymes of dopamine, serotonin, and nitric oxide. In the present study, the association of functional polymorphism of the GCH1 gene (C+243T, rs841) with personality traits was examined in 902 healthy Japanese subjects. Personality traits were assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and the GCH1 genotype was detected by a PCR-RFLP method. There were no significant main effects of the GCH1 genotype on the seven TCI dimension scores, but significant interaction effects between the GCH1 genotype and gender were found on the scores of novelty seeking. Post-hoc analysis revealed that males with the C/C genotype had higher scores of novelty seeking than those with the C/T genotype or those with the T/T genotype, while in females the scores of novelty seeking were not different among the genotype groups. The present study thus suggests that the C+243T polymorphism of the GCH1 gene affects the personality trait of novelty seeking in males.

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel type of regulatory protein (GDI) for smg p25A, a ras p21-like GTP-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Y; Kikuchi, A; Araki, S; Hata, Y; Kondo, J; Teranishi, Y; Takai, Y

    1990-01-01

    We recently purified to near homogeneity a novel type of regulatory protein for smg p25A, a ras p21-like GTP-binding protein, from bovine brain cytosol. This regulatory protein, named smg p25A GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI), regulates the GDP-GTP exchange reaction of smg p25A by inhibiting dissociation of GDP from and subsequent binding of GTP to it. In the present studies, we isolated and sequenced the cDNA of smg p25A GDI from a bovine brain cDNA library by using an oligonucleotide probe designed from the partial amino acid sequence of purified smg p25A GDI. The cDNA has an open reading frame that encodes a protein of 447 amino acids with a calculated Mr of 50,565. This Mr is similar to those of the purified smg p25A GDI estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation, which are about 54,000 and 65,000, respectively. The isolated cDNA is expressed in Escherichia coli, and the encoded protein exhibits GDI activity. smg p25A GDI is hydrophilic overall, except for one hydrophobic region near the N terminus. smg p25A GDI shares low amino acid sequence homology with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC25-encoded protein, which has been suggested to serve as a factor that regulates the GDP-GTP exchange reaction of the yeast RAS2-encoded protein, but not with the beta gamma subunits of GTP-binding proteins having an alpha beta gamma subunit structure, such as Gs and Gi. The smg p25A GDI mRNA was present in various tissues, including not only tissues in which smg p25A was detectable but also tissues in which it was not detectable. This fact has raised the possibility that smg p25A GDI interacts with another G protein in tissues in which smg p25A is absent. Images PMID:2115118

  14. Inositol phospholipids regulate the guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor Tiam1 by facilitating its binding to the plasma membrane and regulating GDP/GTP exchange on Rac1

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Binding of the Rac1-specific guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor, Tiam1, to the plasma membrane requires the N-terminal pleckstrin homology domain. In the present study, we show that membrane-association is mediated by binding of PtdIns(4,5)P2 to the pleckstrin homology domain. Moreover, in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells, translocation of Tiam1 to the cytosol, following receptor-mediated stimulation of PtdIns(4,5)P2 breakdown, correlates with decreased Rac1-GTP levels, indicating that membrane-association is required for GDP/GTP exchange on Rac1. In addition, we show that platelet-derived growth factor activates Rac1 in vivo by increasing PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 concentrations, rather than the closely related lipid, PtdIns(3,4)P2. Finally, the data demonstrate that PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 bind to the same pleckstrin homology domain in Tiam1 and that soluble inositol phosphates appear to compete with lipids for this binding. Together, these novel observations provide strong evidence that distinct phosphoinositides regulate different functions of this enzyme, indicating that local concentrations of signalling lipids and the levels of cytosolic inositol phosphates will play crucial roles in determining its activity in vivo. PMID:15242348

  15. Inositol phospholipids regulate the guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor Tiam1 by facilitating its binding to the plasma membrane and regulating GDP/GTP exchange on Rac1.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Ian N; Batty, Ian H; Prescott, Alan R; Gray, Alex; Kular, Gursant S; Stewart, Hazel; Downes, C Peter

    2004-09-15

    Binding of the Rac1-specific guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor, Tiam1, to the plasma membrane requires the N-terminal pleckstrin homology domain. In the present study, we show that membrane-association is mediated by binding of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) to the pleckstrin homology domain. Moreover, in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells, translocation of Tiam1 to the cytosol, following receptor-mediated stimulation of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) breakdown, correlates with decreased Rac1-GTP levels, indicating that membrane-association is required for GDP/GTP exchange on Rac1. In addition, we show that platelet-derived growth factor activates Rac1 in vivo by increasing PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) concentrations, rather than the closely related lipid, PtdIns(3,4)P(2). Finally, the data demonstrate that PtdIns(4,5)P(2) and PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) bind to the same pleckstrin homology domain in Tiam1 and that soluble inositol phosphates appear to compete with lipids for this binding. Together, these novel observations provide strong evidence that distinct phosphoinositides regulate different functions of this enzyme, indicating that local concentrations of signalling lipids and the levels of cytosolic inositol phosphates will play crucial roles in determining its activity in vivo.

  16. Farnesylcysteine analogues inhibit store-regulated Ca2+ entry in human platelets: evidence for involvement of small GTP-binding proteins and actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, J A; Sage, S O

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanism of Ca(2+) entry into fura-2-loaded human platelets by preventing the prenylation of proteins such as small GTP-binding proteins. The farnesylcysteine analogues farnesylthioacetic acid (FTA) and N-acetyl-S-geranylgeranyl-L-cysteine (AGGC), which are inhibitors of the methylation of prenylated and geranylgeranylated proteins respectively, significantly decreased thrombin-evoked increases in intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in the presence, but not in the absence, of external Ca(2+), suggesting a relatively selective inhibition of Ca(2+) entry over internal release. Both these compounds and N-acetyl-S-farnesyl-L-cysteine, which had similar effects to those of FTA, also decreased Ca(2+) entry evoked by the depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores with thapsigargin. The inactive control N-acetyl-S-geranyl-L-cysteine was without effect. Patulin, an inhibitor of prenylation that is inert with respect to methyltransferases, also decreased store-regulated Ca(2+) entry. Cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, significantly decreased store-regulated Ca(2+) entry in a time-dependent manner. Both cytochalasin D and the farnesylcysteine analogues FTA and AGGC inhibited actin polymerization; however, when evoking the same extent of decrease in actin filament formation, FTA and AGGC showed greater inhibitory effects on Ca(2+) entry, indicating a cytoskeleton-independent component in the regulation of Ca(2+) entry by small GTP-binding-protein. These findings suggest that prenylated proteins such as small GTP-binding proteins are involved in store-regulated Ca(2+) entry through actin cytoskeleton-dependent and cytoskeleton-independent mechanisms in human platelets. PMID:10727417

  17. The N-terminal peptide of mammalian GTP cyclohydrolase I is an autoinhibitory control element and contributes to binding the allosteric regulatory protein GFRP.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Christina E; Gross, Steven S

    2011-04-08

    GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) is the rate-limiting enzyme for biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an obligate cofactor for NO synthases and aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. BH4 can limit its own synthesis by triggering decameric GTPCH to assemble in an inhibitory complex with two GTPCH feedback regulatory protein (GFRP) pentamers. Subsequent phenylalanine binding to the GTPCH·GFRP inhibitory complex converts it to a stimulatory complex. An N-terminal inhibitory peptide in GTPCH may also contribute to autoregulation of GTPCH activity, but mechanisms are undefined. To characterize potential regulatory actions of the N-terminal peptide in rat GTPCH, we expressed, purified, and characterized a truncation mutant, devoid of 45 N-terminal amino acids (Δ45-GTPCH) and contrasted its catalytic and GFRP binding properties to wild type GTPCH (wt-GTPCH). Contrary to prior reports, we show that GFRP binds wt-GTPCH in the absence of any small molecule effector, resulting in allosteric stimulation of GTPCH activity: a 20% increase in Vmax, 50% decrease in KmGTP, and increase in Hill coefficient to 1.6, from 1.0. These features of GFRP-stimulated wt-GTPCH activity were phenocopied by Δ45-GTPCH in the absence of bound GFRP. Addition of GFRP to Δ45-GTPCH failed to elicit complex formation or a substantial further increase in GTPCH catalytic activity. Expression of Δ45-GTPCH in HEK-293 cells elicited 3-fold greater BH4 accumulation than an equivalent of wt-GTPCH. Together, results indicate that the N-terminal peptide exerts autoinhibitory control over rat GTPCH and is required for GFRP binding on its own. Displacement of the autoinhibitory peptide provides a molecular mechanism for physiological up-regulation of GTPCH activity.

  18. Bni1p implicated in cytoskeletal control is a putative target of Rho1p small GTP binding protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Kohno, H; Tanaka, K; Mino, A; Umikawa, M; Imamura, H; Fujiwara, T; Fujita, Y; Hotta, K; Qadota, H; Watanabe, T; Ohya, Y; Takai, Y

    1996-01-01

    The RHO1 gene encodes a homolog of mammalian RhoA small GTP binding protein in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Rho1p is localized at the growth sites, including the bud tip and the cytokinesis site, and is required for bud formation. We have recently shown that Pkc1p, a yeast homolog of mammalian protein kinase C, and glucan synthase are targets of Rho1p. Using the two-hybrid screening system, we cloned a gene encoding a protein which interacted with the GTP-bound form of Rho1p. This gene was identified as BNI1, known to be implicated in cytokinesis or establishment of cell polarity in S.cerevisiae. Bni1p shares homologous domains (FH1 and FH2 domains) with proteins involved in cytokinesis or establishment of cell polarity, including formin of mouse, capu and dia of Drosophila and FigA of Aspergillus. A temperature-sensitive mutation in which the RHO1 gene was replaced by the mammalian RhoA gene showed a synthetically lethal interaction with the bni1 mutation and the RhoA bni1 mutant accumulated cells with a deficiency in cytokinesis. Furthermore, this synthetic lethality was caused by the incapability of RhoA to activate Pkc1p, but not glucan synthase. These results suggest that Rho1p regulates cytoskeletal reorganization at least through Bni1p and Pkc1p. Images PMID:8947028

  19. Characterization of a small GTP-binding protein gene TaRab18 from wheat involved in the stripe rust resistance.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhengning; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Guoqin; Zhao, Renhui; Bie, Tongde; Zhang, Ruiqi; Gao, Derong; Xing, Liping; Cao, Aizhong

    2017-04-01

    The stripe rust resistance gene, Yr26, is commonly used in wheat production. Identification of Yr26 resistance related genes is important for better understanding of the resistance mechanism. TaRab18, a putative small GTP-binding protein, was screened as a resistance regulated gene as it showed differential expression between the Yr26-containing resistant wheat and the susceptible wheat at different time points after Pst inoculation. TaRab18 contains four typical domains (GI to GIV) of the small GTP-binding proteins superfamily and five domains (RabF1 to RabF5) specific to the Rab subfamily. From the phylogenetic tree that TaRab18 was identified as belonging to the RABC1 subfamily. Chromosome location analysis indicated that TaRab18 and its homeoalles were on the homeologous group 7 chromosomes, and the Pst induced TaRab18 was on the 7 B chromosome. Functional analysis by virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) indicated that TaRab18 was positively involved in the stripe rust resistance through regulating the hypersensitive response, and Pst can develop on the leaves of TaRab18 silenced 92R137. However, over-expression of TaRab18 in susceptible Yangmai158 did not enhance its resistance dramatically, only from 9 grade in Yangmai158 to 8 grade in the transgenic plant. However, histological observation indicated that the transgenic plants with over-expressed TaRab18 showed a strong hypersensitive response at the early infection stage. The research herein, will improve our understanding of the roles of Rab in wheat resistance.

  20. Differential regulation of serotonin-1A receptor-stimulated [35S]GTP gamma S binding in the dorsal raphe nucleus by citalopram and escitalopram.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Dania V; Burke, Teresa F; Hensler, Julie G

    2008-03-31

    The effect of chronic citalopram or escitalopram administration on 5-HT1A receptor function in the dorsal raphe nucleus was determined by measuring [35S]GTP gamma S binding stimulated by the 5-HT1A receptor agonist (R)-(+)-8-OH-DPAT (1nM-10 microM). Although chronic administration of citalopram or escitalopram has been shown to desensitize somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors, we found that escitalopram treatment decreased the efficacy of 5-HT1A receptors to activate G proteins, whereas citalopram treatment did not. The binding of [3H]8-OH-DPAT to the coupled, high affinity agonist state of the receptor was not altered by either treatment. Interestingly, escitalopram administration resulted in greater occupancy of serotonin transporter sites as measured by the inhibition of [3H]cyanoimipramine binding. As the binding and action of escitalopram is limited by the inactive enantiomer R-citalopram present in racemic citalopram, we propose that the regulation of 5-HT1A receptor function in the dorsal raphe nucleus at the level of receptor-G protein interaction may be a result of greater inhibition of the serotonin transporter by escitalopram.

  1. Tandem duplications of a degenerated GTP-binding domain at the origin of GTPase receptors Toc159 and thylakoidal SRP

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez Torres, Jorge Maldonado, Monica Alexandra Arias; Chomilier, Jacques

    2007-12-14

    The evolutionary origin of some nuclear encoded proteins that translocate proteins across the chloroplast envelope remains unknown. Therefore, sequences of GTPase proteins constituting the Arabidopsis thaliana translocon at the outer membrane of chloroplast (atToc) complexes were analyzed by means of HCA. In particular, atToc159 and related proteins (atToc132, atToc120, and atToc90) do not have proven homologues of prokaryotic or eukaryotic ancestry. We established that the three domains commonly referred to as A, G, and M originate from the GTPase G domain, tandemly repeated, and probably evolving toward an unstructured conformation in the case of the A domain. It resulted from this study a putative common ancestor for these proteins and a new domain definition, in particular the splitting of A into three domains (A1, A2, and A3), has been proposed. The family of Toc159, previously containing A. thaliana and Pisum sativum, has been extended to Medicago truncatula and Populus trichocarpa and it has been revised for Oryza sativa. They have also been compared to GTPase subunits involved in the cpSRP system. A distant homology has been revealed among Toc and cpSRP GTP-hydrolyzing proteins of A. thaliana, and repetitions of a GTPase domain were also found in cpSRP protein receptors, by means of HCA analysis.

  2. The structure of the pleiotropic transcription regulator CodY provides insight into its GTP-sensing mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ah-reum; Kang, Hye-Ri; Son, Jonghyeon; Kwon, Do Hoon; Kim, Sulhee; Lee, Woo Cheol; Song, Hyun Kyu; Song, Moon Jung; Hwang, Kwang Yeon

    2016-01-01

    GTP and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are metabolic sensors that are indispensable for the determination of the metabolic status of cells. However, their molecular sensing mechanism remains unclear. CodY is a unique global transcription regulator that recognizes GTP and BCAAs as specific signals and affects expression of more than 100 genes associated with metabolism. Herein, we report the first crystal structures of the full-length CodY complex with sensing molecules and describe their functional states. We observed two different oligomeric states of CodY: a dimeric complex of CodY from Staphylococcus aureus with the two metabolites GTP and isoleucine, and a tetrameric form (apo) of CodY from Bacillus cereus. Notably, the tetrameric state shows in an auto-inhibitory manner by blocking the GTP-binding site, whereas the binding sites of GTP and isoleucine are clearly visible in the dimeric state. The GTP is located at a hinge site between the long helical region and the metabolite-binding site. Together, data from structural and electrophoretic mobility shift assay analyses improve understanding of how CodY senses GTP and operates as a DNA-binding protein and a pleiotropic transcription regulator. PMID:27596595

  3. A SelB/EF-Tu/aIF2γ-like protein from Methanosarcina mazei in the GTP-bound form binds cysteinyl-tRNA(Cys.).

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Tatsuo; Ishii, Ryohei; Hikida, Yasushi; Fukunaga, Ryuya; Sengoku, Toru; Sekine, Shun-ichi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-03-01

    The putative translation elongation factor Mbar_A0971 from the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina barkeri was proposed to be the pyrrolysine-specific paralogue of EF-Tu ("EF-Pyl"). In the present study, the crystal structures of its homologue from Methanosarcina mazei (MM1309) were determined in the GMPPNP-bound, GDP-bound, and apo forms, by the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing method. The three MM1309 structures are quite similar (r.m.s.d. < 0.1 Å). The three domains, corresponding to domains 1, 2, and 3 of EF-Tu/SelB/aIF2γ, are packed against one another to form a closed architecture. The MM1309 structures resemble those of bacterial/archaeal SelB, bacterial EF-Tu in the GTP-bound form, and archaeal initiation factor aIF2γ, in this order. The GMPPNP and GDP molecules are visible in their co-crystal structures. Isothermal titration calorimetry measurements of MM1309·GTP·Mg(2+), MM1309·GDP·Mg(2+), and MM1309·GMPPNP·Mg(2+) provided dissociation constants of 0.43, 26.2, and 222.2 μM, respectively. Therefore, the affinities of MM1309 for GTP and GDP are similar to those of SelB rather than those of EF-Tu. Furthermore, the switch I and II regions of MM1309 are involved in domain-domain interactions, rather than nucleotide binding. The putative binding pocket for the aminoacyl moiety on MM1309 is too small to accommodate the pyrrolysyl moiety, based on a comparison of the present MM1309 structures with that of the EF-Tu·GMPPNP·aminoacyl-tRNA ternary complex. A hydrolysis protection assay revealed that MM1309 binds cysteinyl (Cys)-tRNA(Cys) and protects the aminoacyl bond from non-enzymatic hydrolysis. Therefore, we propose that MM1309 functions as either a guardian protein that protects the Cys moiety from oxidation or an alternative translation factor for Cys-tRNA(Cys).

  4. Interaction of the GTP-binding and GTPase-activating domains of ARD1 involves the effector region of the ADP-ribosylation factor domain.

    PubMed

    Vitale, N; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1997-02-14

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are a family of approximately 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins and members of the Ras superfamily, originally identified and purified by their ability to enhance the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera toxin and more recently recognized as critical participants in vesicular trafficking pathways and phospholipase D activation. ARD1 is a 64-kDa protein with an 18-kDa carboxyl-terminal ARF domain (p3) and a 46-kDa amino-terminal extension (p5) that is widely expressed in mammalian tissues. Using recombinant proteins, we showed that p5, the amino-terminal domain of ARD1, stimulates the GTPase activity of p3, the ARF domain, and appears to be the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) component of this bifunctional protein, whereas in other members of the Ras superfamily a separate GAP molecule interacts with the effector region of the GTP-binding protein. p5 stimulated the GTPase activity of p3 but not of ARF1, which differs from p3 in several amino acids in the effector domain. After substitution of 7 amino acids from p3 in the appropriate position in ARF1, the chimeric protein ARF1(39-45p3) bound to p5, which increased its GTPase activity. Specifically, after Gly40 and Thr45 in the putative effector domain of ARF1 were replaced with the equivalent Asp and Pro, respectively, from p3, functional interaction of the chimeric ARF1 with p5 was increased. Thus, Asp25 and Pro30 of the ARF domain (p3) of ARD1 are involved in its functional and physical interaction with the GTPase-activating (p5) domain of ARD1. After deletion of the amino-terminal 15 amino acids from ARF1(39-45p3), its interaction with p5 was essentially equivalent to that of p3, suggesting that the amino terminus of ARF1(39-45p3) may interfere with binding to p5. These results are consistent with the conclusion that the GAP domain of ARD1 interacts with the effector region of the ARF domain and thereby stimulates GTP hydrolysis.

  5. The small G-protein Arf6GTP recruits the AP-2 adaptor complex to membranes.

    PubMed

    Paleotti, Olivia; Macia, Eric; Luton, Frederic; Klein, Stephanie; Partisani, Mariagrazia; Chardin, Pierre; Kirchhausen, Tom; Franco, Michel

    2005-06-03

    The small GTP-binding protein ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is involved in plasma membrane/endosomes trafficking. However, precisely how the activation of Arf6 regulates vesicular transport is still unclear. Here, we show that, in vitro, recombinant Arf6GTP recruits purified clathrin-adaptor complex AP-2 (but not AP-1) onto phospholipid liposomes in the absence of phosphoinositides. We also show that phosphoinositides and Arf6 tightly cooperate to translocate AP-2 to the membrane. In vivo, Arf6GTP (but not Arf6GDP) was found associated to AP-2. The expression of the GTP-locked mutant of Arf6 leads to the plasma membrane redistribution of AP-2 in Arf6GTP-enriched areas. Finally, we demonstrated that the expression of the GTP-locked mutant of Arf6 inhibits transferrin receptor internalization without affecting its recycling. Altogether, our results demonstrated that Arf6GTP interacts specifically with AP-2 and promotes its membrane recruitment. These findings strongly suggest that Arf6 plays a major role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis by directly controlling the assembly of the AP-2/clathrin coat.

  6. GTP-specific fab fragment-based GTPase activity assay.

    PubMed

    Kopra, Kari; Rozwandowicz-Jansen, Anita; Syrjänpää, Markku; Blaževitš, Olga; Ligabue, Alessio; Veltel, Stefan; Lamminmäki, Urpo; Abankwa, Daniel; Härmä, Harri

    2015-03-17

    GTPases are central cellular signaling proteins, which cycle between a GDP-bound inactive and a GTP-bound active conformation in a controlled manner. Ras GTPases are frequently mutated in cancer and so far only few experimental inhibitors exist. The most common methods for monitoring GTP hydrolysis rely on luminescent GDP- or GTP-analogs. In this study, the first GTP-specific Fab fragment and its application are described. We selected Fab fragments using the phage display technology. Six Fab fragments were found against 2'/3'-GTP-biotin and 8-GTP-biotin. Selected antibody fragments allowed specific detection of endogenous, free GTP. The most potent Fab fragment (2A4(GTP)) showed over 100-fold GTP-specificity over GDP, ATP, or CTP and was used to develop a heterogeneous time-resolved luminescence based assay for the monitoring of GTP concentration. The method allows studying the GEF dependent H-Ras activation (GTP binding) and GAP-catalyzed H-Ras deactivation (GTP hydrolysis) at nanomolar protein concentrations.

  7. Digital expression analysis of the genes associated with salinity resistance after overexpression of a stress-responsive small GTP-binding RabG protein in peanut.

    PubMed

    Sui, J M; Li, G; Chen, G X; Yu, M Y; Ding, S T; Wang, J S; Qiao, L X

    2017-03-08

    The Rab protein family is the largest family of the small GTP-binding proteins. Among them, the RabG genes are known to be responsive to abiotic stresses, but the molecular mechanisms of the stress responses mediated by RabG genes in plants is poorly understood. To investigate the molecular mechanism of AhRabG gene in peanut, transgenic plants overexpressing the AhRabG gene (S6) with relatively higher salinity resistance than the non-transgenic plants (S7) were obtained. Digital gene expression (DGE) sequencing was performed with the leaves of S6 and S7 plants before and after salinity-stress treatment. The AhRabG gene in peanut was found to be involved in a few pathways such as "photosynthesis", "oxidative phosphorylation", "AMPK signaling pathway", "plant hormone signal transduction", etc. A total of 298 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found to be upregulated or downregulated at five sampling time points based on the comparison between S6 and S7 plants. Among them, 132 DEGs were responsive to salinity stress in S6 and/or S7 after salinity-stress treatment. These 132 DEGs included genes encoding various transcription factors and proteins involved in resistance to salinity stress such as MYB, AP2, RING-H2 zinc finger proteins, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, dehydration-responsive protein RD22, peroxidases, CBL-interacting protein kinases, calcium-binding proteins, and others. The information from this study will be useful for further studies on elucidating the mechanism of salinity resistance conferred by RabG genein peanut.

  8. The GTP-binding protein RhoA localizes to the cortical granules of Strongylocentrotus purpuratas sea urchin egg and is secreted during fertilization.

    PubMed

    Cuéllar-Mata, P; Martínez-Cadena, G; López-Godínez, J; Obregón, A; García-Soto, J

    2000-02-01

    The sea urchin egg has thousands of secretory vesicles known as cortical granules. Upon fertilization, these vesicles undergo a Ca2+-dependent exocytosis. G-protein-linked mechanisms may take place during the egg activation. In somatic cells from mammals, GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family regulate a number of cellular processes, including organization of the actin cytoskeleton. We report here that a crude membrane fraction from homogenates of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus sea urchin eggs, incubated with C3 (which ADP-ribosylates specifically Rho proteins) and [32P]NAD, displayed an [32P]ADP-ribosylated protein of 25 kDa that had the following characteristics: i) identical electrophoretic mobility in SDS-PAGE gels as the [32P]ADP-ribosylated Rho from sea urchin sperm; ii) identical mobility in isoelectro focusing gels as human RhoA; iii) positive cross-reactivity by immunoblotting with an antibody against mammalian RhoA. Thus, unfertilized S. purpuratus eggs contain a mammalian RhoA-like protein. Immunocytochemical analyses indicated that RhoA was localized preferentially to the cortical granules; this was confirmed by experiments of [32P]ADP-ribosylation with C3 in isolated cortical granules. Rho was secreted and retained in the fertilization membrane after insemination or activation with A23187. It was observed that the Rho protein present in the sea urchin sperm acrosome was also secreted during the exocytotic acrosome reaction. Thus, Rho could participate in those processes related to the cortical granules, i.e., in the Ca2+-regulated exocytosis or actin reorganization that accompany the egg activation.

  9. Hydrolysis of bound GTP by ARF protein triggers uncoating of Golgi- derived COP-coated vesicles

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The cycle of nucleotide exchange and hydrolysis by a small GTP-binding protein, ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF), helps to provide vectoriality to vesicle transport. Coat assembly is triggered when ARF binds GTP, initiating transport vesicle budding, and coat disassembly is triggered when ARF hydrolyzes GTP, allowing the uncoated vesicle to fuse. PMID:8253837

  10. Direct binding of translation initiation factor eIF2gamma-G domain to its GTPase-activating and GDP-GTP exchange factors eIF5 and eIF2B epsilon.

    PubMed

    Alone, Pankaj V; Dever, Thomas E

    2006-05-05

    The GTP-binding eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF2 delivers initiator methionyl-tRNA to the 40 S ribosomal subunit. The factor eIF5 stimulates hydrolysis of GTP by eIF2 upon AUG codon recognition, whereas the factor eIF2B promotes guanine nucleotide exchange on eIF2 to recycle the factor for additional rounds of translation initiation. The GTP-binding (G) domain resides in the gamma subunit of the heterotrimeric eIF2; however, only eIF2beta, and not eIF2gamma, has been reported to directly bind to eIF5 or eIF2B. Using proteins expressed in yeast or recombinant systems we show that full-length yeast eIF2gamma, as well as its isolated G domain, binds directly to eIF5 and the epsilon subunit of eIF2B, and we map the interaction sites to the catalytically important regions of these factors. Consistently, an internal deletion of residues 50-100 of yeast eIF5 impairs the interaction with recombinant eIF2gamma-G domain and abolishes the ability of eIF5 to stimulate eIF2 GTPase activity in translation initiation complexes in vitro. Thus, rather than allosterically regulating eIF2gamma-G domain function via eIF2beta, our data support a model in which the GTPase-activating factor eIF5 and the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor eIF2B modulate eIF2 function through direct interactions with the eIF2gamma-G domain.

  11. The myristoylated amino terminus of ADP-ribosylation factor 1 is a phospholipid- and GTP-sensitive switch.

    PubMed

    Randazzo, P A; Terui, T; Sturch, S; Fales, H M; Ferrige, A G; Kahn, R A

    1995-06-16

    ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1) is an essential N-myristoylated 21-kDa GTP-binding protein with activities that include the regulation of membrane traffic and phospholipase D activity. Both the N terminus of the protein and the N-myristate bound to glycine 2 have previously been shown to be essential to the function of Arf in cells. We show that the bound nucleotide affects the conformation of either the N terminus or residues of Arf1 that are in direct contact with the N terminus. This was demonstrated by examining the effects of mutations in this N-terminal domain on guanosine 5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate (GTP gamma S) and GDP binding and dissociation kinetics. Arf1 mutants, lacking 13 or 17 residues from the N terminus or mutated at residues 3-7, had a greater affinity for GTP gamma S and a lower affinity for GDP than did the wild-type protein. As the N terminus is required for interactions with target proteins, we conclude that the N terminus of Arf1 is a GTP-sensitive effector domain. When Arf1 was acylated, the GTP-dependent conformational changes were codependent on added phospholipids. In the absence of phospholipids, myristoylated Arf1 has a lower affinity for GTP gamma S than for GDP, and in the presence of phospholipids, the myristoylated protein has a greater affinity for GTP gamma S than for GDP. Thus, N-myristoylation is a critical component in the construction of this phospholipid- and GTP-dependent switch.

  12. Decameric GTP cyclohydrolase I forms complexes with two pentameric GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory proteins in the presence of phenylalanine or of a combination of tetrahydrobiopterin and GTP.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, T; Hatakeyama, K

    1998-08-07

    The activity of GTP cyclohydrolase I is inhibited by (6R)-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and stimulated by phenylalanine through complex formation with GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein (GFRP). Gel filtration experiments as well as enzyme activity measurements showed that the number of subunits of GFRP in both the inhibitory and stimulatory complexes is equal to that of GTP cyclohydrolase I. Because GFRP is a pentamer and GTP cyclohydrolase I was shown here by cross-linking experiments to be a decamer, the results indicate that two molecules of a pentameric GFRP associate with one molecule of GTP cyclohydrolase I. Gel filtration analysis suggested that the complex has a radius of gyration similar to that of the enzyme itself. These observations support our model that one molecule of GFRP binds to each of the two outer faces of the torus-shaped GTP cyclohydrolase I. For formation of the inhibitory protein complex, both BH4 and GTP were required; the median effective concentrations of BH4 and GTP were 2 and 26 microM, respectively. BH4 was the most potent of biopterins with different oxidative states. Among GTP analogues, dGTP as well as guanosine 5'-O-(3'-thiotriphosphate) exhibited similar inducibility compared with GTP, whereas other nucleotide triphosphates had no effect. On the other hand, phenylalanine alone was enough for formation of the stimulatory protein complex, and positive cooperativity was found for the phenylalanine-induced protein complex formation. Phenylalanine was the most potent of the aromatic amino acids.

  13. GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein-dependent and -independent inhibitors of GTP cyclohydrolase I.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, T; Wilson, L M; Hatakeyama, K

    2001-04-01

    GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein (GFRP) mediates the feedback inhibition of GTP cyclohydrolase I activity by (6R)-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) through protein complex formation. Since guanine and BH4 have a common pyrimidine ring structure, we examined the inhibitory effect of guanine and its analogs on the enzyme activity. Guanine, 8-hydroxyguanine, 8-methylguanine, and 8-bromoguanine inhibited the enzyme activity in a GFRP-dependent and pH-dependent manner and induced complex formation between GTP cyclohydrolase I and GFRP. The type of inhibition by this group is a mixed type. All these properties were shared with BH4. In striking contrast, inhibition by 8-azaguanine and 8-mercaptoguanine was GFRP-independent and pH-independent. The type of inhibition by 8-azaguanine and 8-mercaptoguanine was a competitive type. The two compounds did not induce complex formation between the enzyme and GFRP. These results demonstrate that guanine compounds of the first group bind to the BH4-binding site of the GTP cyclohydrolase I/GFRP complex, whereas 8-azaguanine and 8-mercaptoguanine bind to the active site of the enzyme. Finally, the possible implications in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and Parkinson diseases of the inhibition of GTP cyclohydrolase I by guanine and 8-hydroxyguanine are discussed.

  14. Exportin 5 is a RanGTP-dependent dsRNA-binding protein that mediates nuclear export of pre-miRNAs.

    PubMed

    Bohnsack, Markus T; Czaplinski, Kevin; Gorlich, Dirk

    2004-02-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are widespread among eukaryotes, and studies in several systems have revealed that miRNAs can regulate expression of specific genes. Primary miRNA transcripts are initially processed to approximately 70-nucleotide (nt) stem-loop structures (pre-miRNAs), exported to the cytoplasm, further processed to yield approximately 22-nt dsRNAs, and finally incorporated into ribonucleoprotein particles, which are thought to be the active species. Here we study nuclear export of pre-miRNAs and show that the process is saturable and thus carrier-mediated. Export is sensitive to depletion of nuclear RanGTP and, according to this criterion, mediated by a RanGTP-dependent exportin. An unbiased affinity chromatography approach with immobilized pre-miRNAs identified exportin 5 as the pre-miRNA-specific export carrier. We have cloned exportin 5 from Xenopus and demonstrate that antibodies raised against the Xenopus receptor specifically block pre-miRNA export from nuclei of Xenopus oocytes. We further show that exportin 5 interacts with double-stranded RNA in a sequence-independent manner.

  15. Proteins that interact with GTP during sporulation of Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, C.; Vary, J.C. )

    1989-06-01

    During sporulation of Bacillus subtilis, several proteins were shown to interact with GTP in specific ways. UV light was used to cross-link ({alpha}-{sup 32}P)GTP to proteins in cell extracts at different stages of growth. After electrophoresis, 11 bands of radioactivity were found in vegetative cells, 4 more appeared during sporulation, and only 9 remained in mature spores. Based on the labeling pattern with or without UV light to cross-link either ({alpha}-{sup 32}P)GTP or ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)GTP, 11 bands of radioactivity were apparent guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, and 5 bands appeared to be phosphorylated and/or guanylated. Similar results were found with Bacillus megaterium. Assuming the GTP might be a type of signal for sporulation, it could interact with and regulate proteins by at least three mechanisms.

  16. Human Gpn1 purified from bacteria binds guanine nucleotides and hydrolyzes GTP as a protein dimer stabilized by its C-terminal tail.

    PubMed

    González-González, Rogelio; Guerra-Moreno, José A; Cristóbal-Mondragón, Gema R; Romero, Violeta; Peña-Gómez, Sonia G; Montero-Morán, Gabriela M; Lara-González, Samuel; Hernández-Arana, Andrés; Fernández-Velasco, Daniel A; Calera, Mónica R; Sánchez-Olea, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    The essential GTPase Gpn1 mediates RNA polymerase II nuclear targeting and controls microtubule dynamics in yeast and human cells by molecular mechanisms still under investigation. Here, we purified human HisGpn1 expressed as a recombinant protein in bacteria E. coli BL-21 (DE3). Affinity purified HisGpn1 eluted from a size exclusion column as a protein dimer, a state conserved after removing the hexa-histidine tail and confirmed by separating HisGpn1 in native gels, and in dynamic light scattering experiments. Human HisGpn1 purity was higher than 95%, molecularly monodisperse and could be concentrated to more than 10 mg/mL without aggregating. Circular dichroism spectra showed that human HisGpn1 was properly folded and displayed a secondary structure rich in alpha helices. HisGpn1 effectively bound GDP and the non-hydrolyzable GTP analogue GMPPCP, and hydrolyzed GTP. We next tested the importance of the C-terminal tail, present in eukaryotic Gpn1 but not in the ancestral archaeal Gpn protein, on HisGpn1 dimer formation. C-terminal deleted human HisGpn1 (HisGpn1ΔC) was also purified as a protein dimer, indicating that the N-terminal GTPase domain contains the interaction surface needed for dimer formation. In contrast to HisGpn1, however, HisGpn1ΔC dimer spontaneously dissociated into monomers. In conclusion, we have developed a method to purify properly folded and functionally active human HisGpn1 from bacteria, and showed that the C-terminal tail, universally conserved in all eukaryotic Gpn1 orthologues, stabilizes the GTPase domain-mediated Gpn1 protein dimer. The availability of recombinant human Gpn1 will open new research avenues to unveil the molecular and pharmacological properties of this essential GTPase.

  17. Rheb protein binds CAD (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase) protein in a GTP- and effector domain-dependent manner and influences its cellular localization and carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase (CPSase) activity.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tatsuhiro; Akasu, Hitomi; Shimono, Wataru; Matsu, Chisa; Fujiwara, Yuki; Shibagaki, Yoshio; Heard, Jeffrey J; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko; Hattori, Seisuke

    2015-01-09

    Rheb small GTPases, which consist of Rheb1 and Rheb2 (also known as RhebL1) in mammalian cells, are unique members of the Ras superfamily and play central roles in regulating protein synthesis and cell growth by activating mTOR. To gain further insight into the function of Rheb, we carried out a search for Rheb-binding proteins and found that Rheb binds to CAD protein (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase), a multifunctional enzyme required for the de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. CAD binding is more pronounced with Rheb2 than with Rheb1. Rheb binds CAD in a GTP- and effector domain-dependent manner. The region of CAD where Rheb binds is located at the C-terminal region of the carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase domain and not in the dihydroorotase and aspartate transcarbamoylase domains. Rheb stimulated carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase activity of CAD in vitro. In addition, an elevated level of intracellular UTP pyrimidine nucleotide was observed in Tsc2-deficient cells, which was attenuated by knocking down of Rheb. Immunostaining analysis showed that expression of Rheb leads to increased accumulation of CAD on lysosomes. Both a farnesyltransferase inhibitor that blocks membrane association of Rheb and knockdown of Rheb mislocalized CAD. These results establish CAD as a downstream effector of Rheb and suggest a possible role of Rheb in regulating de novo pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis.

  18. Selective Impairment of a Subset of Ran-GTP-binding Domains of Ran-binding Protein 2 (Ranbp2) Suffices to Recapitulate the Degeneration of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) Triggered by Ranbp2 Ablation*

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Hemangi; Saha, Arjun; Senda, Eugene; Cho, Kyoung-in; Haque, MdEmdadul; Yu, Minzhong; Qiu, Sunny; Yoon, Dosuk; Hao, Ying; Peachey, Neal S.; Ferreira, Paulo A.

    2014-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) degeneration underpins diseases triggered by disparate genetic lesions, noxious insults, or both. The pleiotropic Ranbp2 controls the expression of intrinsic and extrinsic pathological stressors impinging on cellular viability. However, the physiological targets and mechanisms controlled by Ranbp2 in tissue homeostasis, such as RPE, are ill defined. We show that mice, RPE-cre::Ranbp2−/−, with selective Ranbp2 ablation in RPE develop pigmentary changes, syncytia, hypoplasia, age-dependent centrifugal and non-apoptotic degeneration of the RPE, and secondary leakage of choriocapillaris. These manifestations are accompanied by the development of F-actin clouds, metalloproteinase-11 activation, deregulation of expression or subcellular localization of critical RPE proteins, atrophic cell extrusions into the subretinal space, and compensatory proliferation of peripheral RPE. To gain mechanistic insights into what Ranbp2 activities are vital to the RPE, we performed genetic complementation analyses of transgenic lines of bacterial artificial chromosomes of Ranbp2 harboring loss of function of selective Ranbp2 domains expressed in a Ranbp2−/− background. Among the transgenic lines produced, only TgRBD2/3*-HA::RPE-cre::Ranbp2−/−-expressing mutations, which selectively impair binding of RBD2/3 (Ran-binding domains 2 and 3) of Ranbp2 to Ran-GTP, recapitulate RPE degeneration, as observed with RPE-cre::Ranbp2−/−. By contrast, TgRBD2/3*-HA expression rescues the degeneration of cone photoreceptors lacking Ranbp2. The RPE of RPE-cre::Ranbp2−/− and TgRBD2/3*-HA::RPE-cre::Ranbp2−/− share proteostatic deregulation of Ran GTPase, serotransferrin, and γ-tubulin and suppression of light-evoked electrophysiological responses. These studies unravel selective roles of Ranbp2 and its RBD2 and RBD3 in RPE survival and functions. We posit that the control of Ran GTPase by Ranbp2 emerges as a novel therapeutic target in diseases

  19. A polymorphism of the GTP-cyclohydrolase I feedback regulator gene alters transcriptional activity and may affect response to SSRI antidepressants.

    PubMed

    McHugh, P C; Joyce, P R; Deng, X; Kennedy, M A

    2011-06-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) is an essential cofactor for synthesis of many neurotransmitters including serotonin. In serotonergic neurons, BH(4) is tightly regulated by GTP-cyclohydrolase I feedback regulator (GFRP). Given the pivotal role of the serotonergic system in mood disorders and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) antidepressant function, we tested the hypothesis that GFRP gene (GCHFR) variants would modify response to antidepressants in subjects with major depression. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs7164342 and rs7163862) in the GCHFR promoter were identified and occurred as two haplotypes (GA or TT). A multiple regression analysis revealed that homozygous individuals for the TT haplotype were less likely to respond to the SSRI fluoxetine than to the tricyclic antidepressant nortriptyline (P = 0.037). Moreover, the TT haplotype showed a reduced transcription rate in luciferase reporter gene assays, which may impact on BH(4)-mediated neurotransmitter production, thus suggesting a biological process through which GCHFR promoter variants might influence antidepressant response.

  20. Tyr39 of ran preserves the Ran.GTP gradient by inhibiting GTP hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Sven; Gerwert, Klaus; Kötting, Carsten

    2010-08-06

    Ran is a member of the superfamily of small GTPases, which cycle between a GTP-bound "on" and a GDP-bound "off" state. Ran regulates nuclear transport. In order to maintain a gradient of excess Ran.GTP within the nucleoplasm and excess Ran.GDP within the cytoplasm, the hydrolysis of Ran.GTP in the nucleoplasm should be prevented, whereas in the cytoplasm, hydrolysis is catalyzed by Ran.GAP (GTPase-activating protein). In this article, we investigate the GTPase reaction of Ran in complex with its binding protein Ran-binding protein 1 by time-resolved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: We show that the slowdown of the intrinsic hydrolysis of RanGTP is accomplished by tyrosine 39, which is probably misplacing the attacking water. We monitored the interaction of Ran with RanGAP, which reveals two reactions steps. By isotopic labeling of Ran and RanGAP, we were able to assign the first step to a small conformational change within the catalytic site. The following bond breakage is the rate-limiting step of hydrolysis. An intermediate of protein-bound phosphate as found for Ras or Rap systems is kinetically unresolved. This demonstrates that despite the structural similarity among the G-domain of the GTPases, different reaction mechanisms are utilized.

  1. Initiation factor eIF2γ promotes eIF2-GTP-Met-tRNAi(Met) ternary complex binding to the 40S ribosome.

    PubMed

    Shin, Byung-Sik; Kim, Joo-Ran; Walker, Sarah E; Dong, Jinsheng; Lorsch, Jon R; Dever, Thomas E

    2011-10-16

    In contrast to prokaryotic elongation factor EF-Tu, which delivers aminoacyl-tRNAs to the ribosomal A-site, eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2 binds methionyl initiator transfer RNA (Met-tRNA(i)(Met)) to the P-site of the 40S ribosomal subunit. The results of directed hydroxyl radical probing experiments to map binding of Saccharomyces cerevisiae eIF2 on the ribosome and on Met-tRNA(i)(Met) revealed that eIF2γ primarily contacts the acceptor stem of Met-tRNA(i)(Met) and identified a key binding interface between domain III of eIF2γ and 18S rRNA helix h44 on the 40S subunit. Whereas the analogous domain III of EF-Tu contacts the T stem of tRNAs, biochemical analyses demonstrated that eIF2γ domain III is important for ribosome, not Met-tRNA(i)(Met). Thus, despite their structural similarity, eIF2 and EF-Tu bind tRNAs in substantially different manners, and we propose that the tRNA-binding domain III of EF-Tu has acquired a new ribosome-binding function in eIF2γ.

  2. Physical factors affecting chloroquine binding to melanin.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, R L; Pendleton, P; Gerber, J P

    2015-10-01

    Chloroquine is an antimalarial drug but is also prescribed for conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Long-term users risk toxic side effects, including retinopathy, thought to be caused by chloroquine accumulation on ocular melanin. Although the binding potential of chloroquine to melanin has been investigated previously, our study is the first to demonstrate clear links between chloroquine adsorption by melanin and system factors including temperature, pH, melanin type, and particle size. In the current work, two Sepia melanins were compared with bovine eye as a representative mammalian melanin. Increasing the surface anionic character due to a pH change from 4.7 to 7.4 increased each melanin's affinity for chloroquine. Although the chloroquine isotherms exhibited an apparently strong interaction with each melanin, isosteric heat analysis indicated a competitive interaction. Buffer solution cations competed effectively at low surface coverage; chloroquine adsorption occurs via buffer cation displacement and is promoted by temperature-influenced secondary structure swelling.

  3. Cleavage of the sarcin–ricin loop of 23S rRNA differentially affects EF-G and EF-Tu binding

    PubMed Central

    García-Ortega, Lucía; Álvarez-García, Elisa; Gavilanes, José G.; Martínez-del-Pozo, Álvaro; Joseph, Simpson

    2010-01-01

    Ribotoxins are potent inhibitors of protein biosynthesis and inactivate ribosomes from a variety of organisms. The ribotoxin α-sarcin cleaves the large 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) at the universally conserved sarcin–ricin loop (SRL) leading to complete inactivation of the ribosome and cellular death. The SRL interacts with translation factors that hydrolyze GTP, and it is important for their binding to the ribosome, but its precise role is not yet understood. We studied the effect of α-sarcin on defined steps of translation by the bacterial ribosome. α-Sarcin-treated ribosomes showed no defects in mRNA and tRNA binding, peptide-bond formation and sparsomycin-dependent translocation. Cleavage of SRL slightly affected binding of elongation factor Tu ternary complex (EF-Tu•GTP•tRNA) to the ribosome. In contrast, the activity of elongation factor G (EF-G) was strongly impaired in α-sarcin-treated ribosomes. Importantly, cleavage of SRL inhibited EF-G binding, and consequently GTP hydrolysis and mRNA–tRNA translocation. These results suggest that the SRL is more critical in EF-G than ternary complex binding to the ribosome implicating different requirements in this region of the ribosome during protein elongation. PMID:20215430

  4. Inhibitory heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins inhibit hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis by up-regulation of Bcl-2 via NF-{kappa}B in H1299 human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Mi Ran; Nam, Hyo-Jung; Kim, So-Young; Juhnn, Yong-Sung

    2009-04-03

    Inhibitory heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (Gi proteins) mediate a variety of signaling pathways by coupling receptors and effectors to regulate cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, the role of Gi proteins in the modulation of hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis is not clearly understood. Thus, we investigated the effect of Gi proteins on hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms in H1299 human lung cancer cells. The stable expression of constitutively active alpha subunits of Gi1 (G{alpha}i1QL), Gi2, or Gi3 inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis. The expression of G{alpha}i1QL up-regulated Bcl-2 expression, and the knockdown of Bcl-2 with siRNA abolished the anti-apoptotic effect of G{alpha}i1QL. G{alpha}i1 induced the transcription of Bcl-2 by activation of NF-{kappa}B, which resulted from an increase in NF-{kappa}B p50 protein. We conclude that G{alpha}i1 inhibits hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis of H1299 lung cancer cells by up-regulating the transcription of Bcl-2 through a p50-mediated NF-{kappa}B activation.

  5. Inhibitory heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins inhibit hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis by up-regulation of Bcl-2 via NF-kappaB in H1299 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Miran; Nam, Hyo-Jung; Kim, So-Young; Juhnn, Yong-Sung

    2009-04-03

    Inhibitory heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (Gi proteins) mediate a variety of signaling pathways by coupling receptors and effectors to regulate cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, the role of Gi proteins in the modulation of hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis is not clearly understood. Thus, we investigated the effect of Gi proteins on hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms in H1299 human lung cancer cells. The stable expression of constitutively active alpha subunits of Gi1 (Galphai1QL), Gi2, or Gi3 inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis. The expression of Galphai1QL up-regulated Bcl-2 expression, and the knockdown of Bcl-2 with siRNA abolished the anti-apoptotic effect of Galphai1QL. Galphai1 induced the transcription of Bcl-2 by activation of NF-kappaB, which resulted from an increase in NF-kappaB p50 protein. We conclude that Galphai1 inhibits hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis of H1299 lung cancer cells by up-regulating the transcription of Bcl-2 through a p50-mediated NF-kappaB activation.

  6. Molecular cloning of the microtubule-associated mechanochemical enzyme dynamin reveals homology with a new family of GTP-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Obar, R A; Collins, C A; Hammarback, J A; Shpetner, H S; Vallee, R B

    1990-09-20

    A complementary DNA encoding the D100 polypeptide of rat brain dynamin--a force-producing, microtubule-activated nucleotide triphosphatase--has been cloned and sequenced. The predicted amino acid sequence includes a guanine nucleotide-binding domain that is homologous with those of a family of antiviral factors, inducible by interferon and known as Mx proteins, and with the product of the essential yeast vacuolar protein sorting gene VPS1. These relationships imply the existence of a new family of GTPases with physiological roles that may include microtubule-based motility and protein sorting.

  7. Structure of the human gene and two rat cDNAs encoding the alpha chain of GTP-binding regulatory protein Go: two different mRNAs are generated by alternative splicing.

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, T; Toyama, R; Itoh, H; Kozasa, T; Matsuoka, M; Kaziro, Y

    1991-01-01

    Go is a specific class ("other") of signal-transducing heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) that is expressed in high levels in mammalian brain. We have cloned two different rat cDNAs encoding the alpha subunit of Go (Go alpha-1 and Go alpha-2) and a human Go alpha chromosomal gene. The human Go alpha gene spans more than 100 kilobases and contains 11 exons, including one noncoding exon in the 3' flanking region. The 5' flanking region is highly G + C-rich and contains five G.C boxes (Sp1 binding sites) but no TATA box. Exons 7 and 8 coding for amino acid residues 242-354 of Go alpha protein are duplicated (referred to as exons 7A, 7B, 8A, and 8B). It was found that exons 7A and 8A code for Go alpha-1, and 7B and 8B code for Go alpha-2. This indicates that two different Go alpha mRNAs may be generated by alternative splicing of a single Go alpha gene. The splice sites of the Go alpha-1 and Go alpha-2 genes are completely identical with those encoding human inhibitory G protein alpha subunits Gi2 alpha and Gi3 alpha [Itoh, H., Toyama, R., Kozasa, T., Tsukamoto, T., Matsuoka, M. & Kaziro, Y. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 6656-6664] and also transducin G protein alpha subunit Gt1 alpha [Raport, C. J., Dere, B. & Hurley, J. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 7122-7128]. Sequence homology and conservation of the exon-intron organization indicate that the genes coding for Go alpha, Gi2 alpha, Gi3 alpha, Gt1 alpha, and probably Gi1 alpha may be evolved from a common progenitor. Like Go alpha-1, Go alpha-2 is expressed mainly in brain. Images PMID:1901650

  8. Identification of a GTP-binding protein. cap alpha. subunit that lacks an apparent ADP-ribosylation site for pertussis toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, H.K.W.; Yoshimoto, K.K.; Eversole-Cire, P.; Simon, M.I.

    1988-05-01

    Recent molecular cloning of cDNA for the ..cap alpha.. subunit of bovine transducin (a guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein, or G protein) has revealed the presence of two retinal-specific transducins, called T/sub r/ and T/sub c/, which are expressed in rod or cone photoreceptor cells. In a further study of G-protein diversity and signal transduction in the retina, the authors have identified a G-protein ..cap alpha.. subunit, which they refer to as G/sub z/..cap alpha.., by isolating a human retinal cDNA clone that cross-hybridizes at reduced stringency with bovine T/sub r/ ..cap alpha..-subunit cDNA. The deduced amino acid sequence of G/sub z/..cap alpha.. is 41-67% identical with those of other known G-protein ..cap alpha.. subunits. However, the 355-residue G/sub z/..cap alpha.. lacks a consensus site for ADP-ribosylation by pertussis toxin, and its amino acid sequence varies within a number of regions that are strongly conserved among all of the other G-protein ..cap alpha.. subunits. They suggest that G/sub z/..cap alpha.., which appears to be highly expressed in neural tissues, represents a member of a subfamily of G proteins that mediate signal transduction in pertussis toxin-insensitive systems.

  9. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation by synthetic peptides mapping within the carboxyl-terminal domain of small GTP-binding proteins. Lack of amino acid sequence specificity and importance of polybasic motif.

    PubMed

    Joseph, G; Gorzalczany, Y; Koshkin, V; Pick, E

    1994-11-18

    The small GTP-binding protein (G protein) Rac1 is an obligatory participant in the assembly of the superoxide (O2-.)-generating NADPH oxidase complex of macrophages. We investigated the effect of synthetic peptides, mapping within the near carboxyl-terminal domains of Rac1 and of related G proteins, on the activity of NADPH oxidase in a cell-free system consisting of solubilized guinea pig macrophage membrane, a cytosolic fraction enriched in p47phox and p67phox (or total cytosol), highly purified Rac1-GDP dissociation inhibitor for Rho (Rho GDI) complex, and the activating amphiphile, lithium dodecyl sulfate. Peptides Rac1-(178-188) and Rac1-(178-191), but not Rac2-(178-188), inhibited NADPH oxidase activity in a Rac1-dependent system when added prior to or simultaneously with the initiation of activation. However, undecapeptides corresponding to the near carboxyl-terminal domains of RhoA and RhoC and, most notably, a peptide containing the same amino acids as Rac1-(178-188), but in reversed orientation, were also inhibitory. Surprisingly, O2-. production in a Rac2-dependent cell-free system was inhibited by Rac1-(178-188) but not by Rac2-(178-188). Finally, basic polyamino acids containing lysine, histidine, or arginine, also inhibited NADPH oxidase activation. We conclude that inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation by synthetic peptides mapping within the carboxyl-terminal domain of certain small G proteins is not amino acid sequence-specific but related to the presence of a polybasic motif. It has been proposed that such a motif serves as a plasma membrane targeting signal for a number of small G proteins (Hancock, J.F., Paterson, H., and Marshall, C.J. (1990) Cell 63, 133-139).

  10. Mechanisms of calcium release induced by GTP and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, D.L.; Chueh, S.H.; Mullaney, J.M.; Mallet, M.K.

    1987-05-01

    Recent studies show that Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux from ER is controlled by a sensitive and specific guanine nucleotide regulatory mechanism. Using microsomes of permeabilized cells derived from N1E-115 neuroblastoma or DDT/sub 1/MF-2 smooth muscle cell lines, both GTP and IP/sub 3/ effect Ca/sup 2 +/ release from a common intracellular pool; however, the mechanisms of activation of Ca/sup 2 +/ release by the two agents appear distinct with regard to several parameters. Studies using liver microsomes are currently investigating whether similar distinctions between the actions of IP/sub 3/ and GTP exist in other cell types. At present it is unknown if GTP-activated Ca/sup 2 +/ release is mediated by a G-protein-like activity. Studies indicate that such release is not altered by pertussis toxin. Since GTP..gamma..S is inactive and blocks the action of GTP, a modified G-protein activation process must be invoked. Current investigations are attempting to identify the protein(s) involved in GTP-mediated Ca/sup 2 +/ release by direct photo-crosslinking experiments using (..cap alpha..-/sup 32/P)GTP. Successful labeling of many nucleotide-binding proteins has been accomplished; most but not all labeling is displaced by ATP. GTP-specifically labeled proteins are being assessed as candidates for the GTP-mediated release process.

  11. Invited review: Activation of G proteins by GTP and the mechanism of Gα-catalyzed GTP hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Sprang, Stephen R

    2016-08-01

    This review addresses the regulatory consequences of the binding of GTP to the alpha subunits (Gα) of heterotrimeric G proteins, the reaction mechanism of GTP hydrolysis catalyzed by Gα and the means by which GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) stimulate the GTPase activity of Gα. The high energy of GTP binding is used to restrain and stabilize the conformation of the Gα switch segments, particularly switch II, to afford stable complementary to the surfaces of Gα effectors, while excluding interaction with Gβγ, the regulatory binding partner of GDP-bound Gα. Upon GTP hydrolysis, the energy of these conformational restraints is dissipated and the two switch segments, particularly switch II, become flexible and are able to adopt a conformation suitable for tight binding to Gβγ. Catalytic site pre-organization presents a significant activation energy barrier to Gα GTPase activity. The glutamine residue near the N-terminus of switch II (Glncat ) must adopt a conformation in which it orients and stabilizes the γ phosphate and the water nucleophile for an in-line attack. The transition state is probably loose with dissociative character; phosphoryl transfer may be concerted. The catalytic arginine in switch I (Argcat ), together with amide hydrogen bonds from the phosphate binding loop, stabilize charge at the β-γ bridge oxygen of the leaving group. GAPs that harbor "regulator of protein signaling" (RGS) domains, or structurally unrelated domains within G protein effectors that function as GAPs, accelerate catalysis by stabilizing the pre-transition state for Gα-catalyzed GTP hydrolysis, primarily by restraining Argcat and Glncat to their catalytic conformations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 449-462, 2016.

  12. Dynamic structure of membrane-anchored Arf•GTP

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yizhou; Kahn, Richard A.; Prestegard, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Arfs (ADP ribosylation factors) are N-myristoylated GTP/GDP switch proteins playing key regulatory roles in vesicle transport in eukaryotic cells. ARFs execute their roles by anchoring to membrane surfaces where they interact with other proteins to initiate budding and maturation of transport vesicles. However, existing structures of Arf•GTP are limited to non-myristoylated and truncated forms with impaired membrane binding. We report a high resolution NMR structure for full-length myristoylated yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Arf1 in complex with a membrane mimic. The two domain structure, in which the myristoylated N-terminal helix is separated from the C-terminal domain by a flexible linker, suggests a level of adaptability in binding modes for the myriad of proteins with which Arf interacts, and allows predictions of specific lipid binding sites on some of these proteins. PMID:20601958

  13. Nucleotide binding affects intrinsic dynamics and structural communication in Ras GTPases.

    PubMed

    Fanelli, Francesca; Raimondi, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The Ras superfamily comprises many guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) that are essential to intracellular signal transduction. These proteins act biologically as molecular switches, which, cycling between OFF and ON states, play fundamental role in cell biology. This review article summarizes the inferences from the widest computational analyses done so far on Ras GTPases aimed at providing a comprehensive structural/dynamic view of the trans-family and family-specific functioning mechanisms. These variegated comparative analyses could infer the evolutionary and intrinsic flexibilities as well as the structural communication features in the most representative G protein families in different functional states. In spite of the low sequence similarities, the members of the Ras superfamily share the topology of the Ras-like domain, including the nucleotide binding site. GDP and GTP make very similar interactions in all GTPases and differences in their binding modes are localized around the γ-phosphate of GTP. Remarkably, such subtle local differences result in significant differences in the functional dynamics and structural communication features of the protein. In Ras GTPases, the nucleotide plays a central and active role in dictating functional dynamics, establishing the major structure network, and mediating the communication paths instrumental in function retention and specialization. Collectively, the results of these studies support the speculation that an "extended conformational selection model" that embraces a repertoire of selection and adjustment processes is likely more suitable to describe the nucleotide behavior in these important molecular switches.

  14. Obligatory role in GTP hydrolysis for the amide carbonyl oxygen of the Mg(2+)-coordinating Thr of regulatory GTPases.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Adolfo; Zhang, Yinghao; Pedersen, Lee; Darden, Tom; Birnbaumer, Lutz

    2010-05-25

    When G-protein alpha subunits binds GTP and Mg(2+), they transition from their inactive to their active conformation. This transition is accompanied by completion of the coordination shell of Mg(2+) with electrons from six oxygens: two water molecules, the ss and gamma phosphoryls of GTP, a helix-alpha1 Ser, and a switch I domain (SWI) Thr, and the repositioning of SWI and SWII domains. SWII binds and regulates effector enzymes and facilitates GTP hydrolysis by repositioning the gamma-carbonyl of a Gln. Mutating the Ser generates regulatory GTPases that cannot lock Mg(2+) into its place and are locked in their inactive state with dominant negative properties. Curiously, mutating the Thr appears to reduce GTP hydrolysis. The reason for this difference is not known because it is also not known why removal of the Thr should affect the overall GTPase cycle differently than removal of the Ser. Working with recombinant Gsalpha, we report that mutating its SWI-Thr to either Ala, Glu, Gln, or Asp results not only in diminished GTPase activity but also in spontaneous activation of the SWII domain. Upon close examination of existing alpha subunit crystals, we noted the oxygen of the backbone carbonyl of SWI-Thr and of the gamma-carbonyl of SWII Gln to be roughly equidistant from the oxygen of the hydrolytic H(2)O. Our observations indicate that the Gln and Thr carbonyls play equihierarchical roles in the GTPase process and provide the mechanism that explains why mutating the Thr mimics mutating the Gln and not that of the Ser.

  15. GDP-to-GTP exchange on the microtubule end can contribute to the frequency of catastrophe

    PubMed Central

    Piedra, Felipe-Andrés; Kim, Tae; Garza, Emily S.; Geyer, Elisabeth A.; Burns, Alexander; Ye, Xuecheng; Rice, Luke M.

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules are dynamic polymers of αβ-tubulin that have essential roles in chromosome segregation and organization of the cytoplasm. Catastrophe—the switch from growing to shrinking—occurs when a microtubule loses its stabilizing GTP cap. Recent evidence indicates that the nucleotide on the microtubule end controls how tightly an incoming subunit will be bound (trans-acting GTP), but most current models do not incorporate this information. We implemented trans-acting GTP into a computational model for microtubule dynamics. In simulations, growing microtubules often exposed terminal GDP-bound subunits without undergoing catastrophe. Transient GDP exposure on the growing plus end slowed elongation by reducing the number of favorable binding sites on the microtubule end. Slower elongation led to erosion of the GTP cap and an increase in the frequency of catastrophe. Allowing GDP-to-GTP exchange on terminal subunits in simulations mitigated these effects. Using mutant αβ-tubulin or modified GTP, we showed experimentally that a more readily exchangeable nucleotide led to less frequent catastrophe. Current models for microtubule dynamics do not account for GDP-to-GTP exchange on the growing microtubule end, so our findings provide a new way of thinking about the molecular events that initiate catastrophe. PMID:27146111

  16. GDP-to-GTP exchange on the microtubule end can contribute to the frequency of catastrophe.

    PubMed

    Piedra, Felipe-Andrés; Kim, Tae; Garza, Emily S; Geyer, Elisabeth A; Burns, Alexander; Ye, Xuecheng; Rice, Luke M

    2016-11-07

    Microtubules are dynamic polymers of αβ-tubulin that have essential roles in chromosome segregation and organization of the cytoplasm. Catastrophe-the switch from growing to shrinking-occurs when a microtubule loses its stabilizing GTP cap. Recent evidence indicates that the nucleotide on the microtubule end controls how tightly an incoming subunit will be bound (trans-acting GTP), but most current models do not incorporate this information. We implemented trans-acting GTP into a computational model for microtubule dynamics. In simulations, growing microtubules often exposed terminal GDP-bound subunits without undergoing catastrophe. Transient GDP exposure on the growing plus end slowed elongation by reducing the number of favorable binding sites on the microtubule end. Slower elongation led to erosion of the GTP cap and an increase in the frequency of catastrophe. Allowing GDP-to-GTP exchange on terminal subunits in simulations mitigated these effects. Using mutant αβ-tubulin or modified GTP, we showed experimentally that a more readily exchangeable nucleotide led to less frequent catastrophe. Current models for microtubule dynamics do not account for GDP-to-GTP exchange on the growing microtubule end, so our findings provide a new way of thinking about the molecular events that initiate catastrophe.

  17. Light- and GTP-activated hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate in squid photoreceptor membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, K.M.; Saibil, H.R.

    1988-01-05

    Light stimulates the hydrolysis of exogenous, (/sup 3/H)inositol-labeled phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PtdInsP2) added to squid photoreceptor membranes, releasing inositol trisphosphate (InsP3). At free calcium levels of 0.05 microM or greater, hydrolysis of the labeled lipid is stimulated up to 4-fold by GTP and light together, but not separately. This activity is the biochemical counterpart of observations on intact retina showing that a rhodopsin-activated GTP-binding protein is involved in visual transduction in invertebrates, and that InsP3 release is correlated with visual excitation and adaptation. Using an in vitro assay, we investigated the calcium and GTP dependence of the phospholipase activity. At calcium concentrations between 0.1 and 0.5 microM, some hydrolysis occurs independently of GTP and light, with a light- and GTP-activated component superimposed. At 1 microM calcium there is no background activity, and hydrolysis absolutely requires both GTP and light. Ion exchange chromatography on Dowex 1 (formate form) of the water-soluble products released at 1 microM calcium reveals that the product is almost entirely InsP3. Invertebrate rhodopsin is homologous in sequence and function to vertebrate visual pigment, which modulates the concentration of cyclic GMP through the mediation of the GTP-binding protein transducin. While there is some evidence that light also modulates PtdInsP2 content in vertebrate photoreceptors, the case for its involvement in phototransduction is stronger for the invertebrate systems. The results reported here support the scheme of rhodopsin----GTP-binding protein----phospholipase C activation in invertebrate photoreceptors.

  18. The pretranslocation ribosome is targeted by GTP-bound EF-G in partially activated form

    PubMed Central

    Hauryliuk, Vasili; Mitkevich, Vladimir A.; Eliseeva, Natalia A.; Petrushanko, Irina Yu.; Ehrenberg, Måns; Makarov, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    Translocation of the tRNA·mRNA complex through the bacterial ribosome is driven by the multidomain guanosine triphosphatase elongation factor G (EF-G). We have used isothermal titration calorimetry to characterize the binding of GDP and GTP to free EF-G at 4°C, 20°C, and 37°C. The binding affinity of EF-G is higher to GDP than to GTP at 4°C, but lower at 37°C. The binding enthalpy and entropy change little with temperature in the case of GDP binding but change greatly in the case of GTP binding. These observations are compatible with a large decrease in the solvent-accessible hydrophobic surface area of EF-G on GTP, but not GDP, binding. The explanation we propose is the locking of the switch 1 and switch 2 peptide loops in the G domain of EF-G to the γ-phosphate of GTP. From these data, in conjunction with previously reported structural data on guanine nucleotide-bound EF-G, we suggest that EF-G enters the pretranslocation ribosome as an “activity chimera,” with the G domain activated by the presence of GTP but the overall factor conformation in the inactive form typical of a GDP-bound multidomain guanosine triphosphatase. We propose that the active overall conformation of EF-G is attained only in complex with the ribosome in its “ratcheted state,” with hybrid tRNA binding sites. PMID:18836081

  19. Regulation of cytoplasmic division of Xenopus embryo by rho p21 and its inhibitory GDP/GTP exchange protein (rho GDI)

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that the rho family, a member of the ras p21- related small GTP-binding protein superfamily, regulates cell morphology, cell motility, and smooth muscle contraction through the actomyosin system. The actomyosin system is also known to be essential for cytoplasmic division of cells (cytokinesis). In this study, we examined the action of rho p21, its inhibitory GDP/GTP exchange protein, named rho GDI, its stimulatory GDP/GTP exchange protein, named smg GDS, and botulinum ADP-ribosyltransferase C3, known to selectively ADP-ribosylate rho p21 and to impair its function, in the cytoplasmic division using Xenopus embryos. The sperm-induced cytoplasmic division of Xenopus embryos was not affected by microinjection into the embryos of either smg GDS or the guanosine-5'-(3-O-thio)triphosphate (GTP gamma S)-bound form of rhoA p21, one member of the rho family, but completely inhibited by microinjection of rho GDI or C3. Under these conditions, nuclear division occurred normally but the furrow formation, which was induced by the contractile ring consisting of actomyosin just beneath the plasma membrane, was impaired. Comicroinjection of rho GDI with the GTP gamma S-bound form of rhoA p21 prevented the rho GDI action. Moreover, the sperm-induced cytoplasmic division of Xenopus embryos was inhibited by microinjection into the embryos of the rhoA p21 pre-ADP- ribosylated by C3 which might serve as a dominant negative inhibitor of endogenous rho p21. These results indicate that rho p21 together with its regulatory proteins regulates the cytoplasmic division through the actomyosin system. PMID:8436590

  20. Analysis of GTPases carrying hydrophobic amino acid substitutions in lieu of the catalytic glutamine: implications for GTP hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rajeev; Gara, Sudheer Kumar; Mishra, Shambhavi; Prakash, Balaji

    2005-05-01

    Ras superfamily GTP-binding proteins regulate important signaling events in the cell. Ras, which often serves as a prototype, efficiently hydrolyzes GTP in conjunction with its regulator GAP. A conserved glutamine plays a vital role in GTP hydrolysis in most GTP-binding proteins. Mutating this glutamine in Ras has oncogenic effects, since it disrupts GTP hydrolysis. The analysis presented here is of GTP-binding proteins that are a paradox to oncogenic Ras, since they have the catalytic glutamine (Glncat) substituted by a hydrophobic amino acid, yet can hydrolyze GTP efficiently. We term these proteins HAS-GTPases. Analysis of the amino acid sequences of HAS-GTPases reveals prominent presence of insertions around the GTP-binding pocket. Homology modeling studies suggest an interesting means to achieve catalysis despite the drastic hydrophobic substitution replacing the key Glncat of Ras-like GTPases. The substituted hydrophobic residue adopts a "retracted conformation," where it is positioned away from the GTP, as its role in catalysis would be unproductive. This conformation is further stabilized by interactions with hydrophobic residues in its vicinity. These interacting residues are strongly conserved and hydrophobic in all HAS-GTPases, and correspond to residues Asp92 and Tyr96 of Ras. An experimental support for the "retracted conformation" of Switch II arises from the crystal structures of Ylqf and hGBP1. This conformation allows us to hypothesize that, unlike in classical GTPases, catalytic residues could be supplied by regions other than the Switch II (i.e., either the insertions or a neighboring domain).

  1. Invited review: Mechanisms of GTP hydrolysis and conformational transitions in the dynamin superfamily

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dynamin superfamily proteins are multidomain mechano‐chemical GTPases which are implicated in nucleotide‐dependent membrane remodeling events. A prominent feature of these proteins is their assembly‐ stimulated mechanism of GTP hydrolysis. The molecular basis for this reaction has been initially clarified for the dynamin‐related guanylate binding protein 1 (GBP1) and involves the transient dimerization of the GTPase domains in a parallel head‐to‐head fashion. A catalytic arginine finger from the phosphate binding (P‐) loop is repositioned toward the nucleotide of the same molecule to stabilize the transition state of GTP hydrolysis. Dynamin uses a related dimerization‐dependent mechanism, but instead of the catalytic arginine, a monovalent cation is involved in catalysis. Still another variation of the GTP hydrolysis mechanism has been revealed for the dynamin‐like Irga6 which bears a glycine at the corresponding position in the P‐loop. Here, we highlight conserved and divergent features of GTP hydrolysis in dynamin superfamily proteins and show how nucleotide binding and hydrolysis are converted into mechano‐chemical movements. We also describe models how the energy of GTP hydrolysis can be harnessed for diverse membrane remodeling events, such as membrane fission or fusion. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 580–593, 2016. PMID:27062152

  2. Invited review: Mechanisms of GTP hydrolysis and conformational transitions in the dynamin superfamily.

    PubMed

    Daumke, Oliver; Praefcke, Gerrit J K

    2016-08-01

    Dynamin superfamily proteins are multidomain mechano-chemical GTPases which are implicated in nucleotide-dependent membrane remodeling events. A prominent feature of these proteins is their assembly- stimulated mechanism of GTP hydrolysis. The molecular basis for this reaction has been initially clarified for the dynamin-related guanylate binding protein 1 (GBP1) and involves the transient dimerization of the GTPase domains in a parallel head-to-head fashion. A catalytic arginine finger from the phosphate binding (P-) loop is repositioned toward the nucleotide of the same molecule to stabilize the transition state of GTP hydrolysis. Dynamin uses a related dimerization-dependent mechanism, but instead of the catalytic arginine, a monovalent cation is involved in catalysis. Still another variation of the GTP hydrolysis mechanism has been revealed for the dynamin-like Irga6 which bears a glycine at the corresponding position in the P-loop. Here, we highlight conserved and divergent features of GTP hydrolysis in dynamin superfamily proteins and show how nucleotide binding and hydrolysis are converted into mechano-chemical movements. We also describe models how the energy of GTP hydrolysis can be harnessed for diverse membrane remodeling events, such as membrane fission or fusion. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 580-593, 2016.

  3. Intermembrane contact affects calcium binding to phospholipid vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Ekerdt, R; Papahadjopoulos, D

    1982-01-01

    Binding of Ca2+ to liposomes composed of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) was analyzed by potentiometric titrations. Ca2+ binding to large unilamellar PtdSer vesicles was saturable at a stoichiometry of 1:2 (Ca2+/PtdSer). At approximately 6 X 10(-4) M [Ca2+]free, the binding curve exhibited a discontinuity that can be attributed to the formation of a Ca2+/PtdSer complex with a higher affinity. When both Ca2+ and Mg2+ are present, depending on the relative concentrations, Mg2+ can either complete or can enhance Ca2+ binding. Concomitant to the enhanced binding, the vesicle suspension was found to aggregate, suggesting that close contact of membranes is a prerequisite for the abrupt change in affinity. This concept was tested by binding studies with liposomes of mixed composition. It was found that the incorporation of 50 mol% phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) into PtdSer liposomes produced a similar binding pattern to that of pure PtdSer with a saturable stoichiometry of 1:2 (Ca2+/PtdSer). However, incorporation of 50 mol% phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) completely abolished the discontinuous shift in affinity and apparent saturation was reached at a stoichiometry of 1:4 (Ca2+/PtdSer). In addition, Ca2+ binding to PtdSer liposomes with 10 mol% galactosylcerebroside was not altered when compared to pure PtdSer, whereas 10 mol% of the glycolipid GL-4 abolished the increased binding. The results are closely correlated with recent findings on the role of the membrane composition in Ca2+-induced fusion of liposomes and argue in favor of a specific Ca2+/PtdSer complex (with 1:2 stoichiometry) forming only at points of close contact between membranes and serving as the trigger for membrane fusion. PMID:6954538

  4. Interaction of a novel fluorescent GTP analogue with the small G-protein K-Ras.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Seigo; Masuhara, Kaori; Umeki, Nobuhisa; Sako, Yasushi; Maruta, Shinsaku

    2016-01-01

    A novel fluorescent guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) analogue, 2'(3')-O-{6-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-l,3-diazol-4-yl)amino) hexanoic}-GTP (NBD-GTP), was synthesized and utilized to monitor the effect of mutations in the functional region of mouse K-Ras. The effects of the G12S, A59T and G12S/A59T mutations on GTPase activity, nucleotide exchange rates were compared with normal Ras. Mutation at A59T resulted in reduction of the GTPase activity by 0.6-fold and enhancement of the nucleotide exchange rate by 2-fold compared with normal Ras. On the other hand, mutation at G12S only slightly affected the nucleotide exchange rate and did not affect the GTPase activity. We also used NBD-GTP to study the effect of these mutations on the interaction between Ras and SOS1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor. The mutation at A59T abolished the interaction with SOS1. The results suggest that the fluorescent GTP analogue, NBD-GTP, is applicable to the kinetic studies for small G-proteins.

  5. Radioiodination of chicken luteinizing hormone without affecting receptor binding potency

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, M.; Ishii, S. )

    1989-12-01

    By improving the currently used lactoperoxidase method, we were able to obtain radioiodinated chicken luteinizing hormone (LH) that shows high specific binding and low nonspecific binding to a crude plasma membrane fraction of testicular cells of the domestic fowl and the Japanese quail, and to the ovarian granulosa cells of the Japanese quail. The change we made from the original method consisted of (1) using chicken LH for radioiodination that was not only highly purified but also retained a high receptor binding potency; (2) controlling the level of incorporation of radioiodine into chicken LH molecules by employing a short reaction time and low temperature; and (3) fractionating radioiodinated chicken LH further by gel filtration using high-performance liquid chromatography. Specific radioactivity of the final {sup 125}I-labeled chicken LH preparation was 14 microCi/micrograms. When specific binding was 12-16%, nonspecific binding was as low as 2-4% in the gonadal receptors. {sup 125}I-Labeled chicken LH was displaced by chicken LH and ovine LH but not by chicken follicle-stimulating hormone. The equilibrium association constant of quail testicular receptor was 3.6 x 10(9) M-1. We concluded that chicken LH radioiodinated by the present method is useful for studies of avian LH receptors.

  6. Aminoglycoside 2′′-Phosphotransferase IIIa (APH(2′′)-IIIa) Prefers GTP over ATP

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Clyde A.; Toth, Marta; Frase, Hilary; Byrnes, Laura J.; Vakulenko, Sergei B.

    2012-01-01

    Contrary to the accepted dogma that ATP is the canonical phosphate donor in aminoglycoside kinases and protein kinases, it was recently demonstrated that all members of the bacterial aminoglycoside 2′′-phosphotransferase IIIa (APH(2′′)) aminoglycoside kinase family are unique in their ability to utilize GTP as a cofactor for antibiotic modification. Here we describe the structural determinants for GTP recognition in these enzymes. The crystal structure of the GTP-dependent APH(2′′)-IIIa shows that although this enzyme has templates for both ATP and GTP binding superimposed on a single nucleotide specificity motif, access to the ATP-binding template is blocked by a bulky tyrosine residue. Substitution of this tyrosine by a smaller amino acid opens access to the ATP template. Similar GTP binding templates are conserved in other bacterial aminoglycoside kinases, whereas in the structurally related eukaryotic protein kinases this template is less conserved. The aminoglycoside kinases are important antibiotic resistance enzymes in bacteria, whose wide dissemination severely limits available therapeutic options, and the GTP binding templates could be exploited as new, previously unexplored targets for inhibitors of these clinically important enzymes. PMID:22367198

  7. Neutron Crystal Structure of RAS GTPase Puts in Question the Protonation State of the GTP γ-Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Knihtila, Ryan; Holzapfel, Genevieve; Weiss, Kevin; Meilleur, Flora; Mattos, Carla

    2015-12-25

    RAS GTPase is a prototype for nucleotide-binding proteins that function by cycling between GTP and GDP, with hydrogen atoms playing an important role in the GTP hydrolysis mechanism. It is one of the most well studied proteins in the superfamily of small GTPases, which has representatives in a wide range of cellular functions. These proteins share a GTP-binding pocket with highly conserved motifs that promote hydrolysis to GDP. The neutron crystal structure of RAS presented here strongly supports a protonated γ-phosphate at physiological pH. This counters the notion that the phosphate groups of GTP are fully deprotonated at the start of the hydrolysis reaction, which has colored the interpretation of experimental and computational data in studies of the hydrolysis mechanism. The neutron crystal structure presented here puts in question our understanding of the pre-catalytic state associated with the hydrolysis reaction central to the function of RAS and other GTPases.

  8. Neutron Crystal Structure of RAS GTPase Puts in Question the Protonation State of the GTP γ-Phosphate*

    PubMed Central

    Knihtila, Ryan; Holzapfel, Genevieve; Weiss, Kevin; Meilleur, Flora; Mattos, Carla

    2015-01-01

    RAS GTPase is a prototype for nucleotide-binding proteins that function by cycling between GTP and GDP, with hydrogen atoms playing an important role in the GTP hydrolysis mechanism. It is one of the most well studied proteins in the superfamily of small GTPases, which has representatives in a wide range of cellular functions. These proteins share a GTP-binding pocket with highly conserved motifs that promote hydrolysis to GDP. The neutron crystal structure of RAS presented here strongly supports a protonated γ-phosphate at physiological pH. This counters the notion that the phosphate groups of GTP are fully deprotonated at the start of the hydrolysis reaction, which has colored the interpretation of experimental and computational data in studies of the hydrolysis mechanism. The neutron crystal structure presented here puts in question our understanding of the pre-catalytic state associated with the hydrolysis reaction central to the function of RAS and other GTPases. PMID:26515069

  9. Neutron crystal structure of RAS GTPase puts in question the protonation state of the GTP γ-phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Knihtila, Ryan; Holzapfel, Genevieve; Weiss, Kevin; Meilleur, Flora; Mattos, Carla

    2015-10-29

    RAS GTPase is a prototype for nucleotide-binding proteins that function by cycling between GTP and GDP, with hydrogen atoms playing an important role in the GTP hydrolysis mechanism. It is one of the most well studied proteins in the superfamily of small GTPases, which has representatives in a wide range of cellular functions. These proteins share a GTP-binding pocket with highly conserved motifs that promote hydrolysis to GDP. The neutron crystal structure of RAS presented here strongly supports a protonated gamma-phosphate at physiological pH. This counters the notion that the phosphate groups of GTP are fully deprotonated at the start of the hydrolysis reaction, which has colored the interpretation of experimental and computational data in studies of the hydrolysis mechanism. As a result, the neutron crystal structure presented here puts in question our understanding of the pre-catalytic state associated with the hydrolysis reaction central to the function of RAS and other GTPases.

  10. Factors affecting binding of galacto ligands to Actinomyces viscosus lectin.

    PubMed Central

    Heeb, M J; Marini, A M; Gabriel, O

    1985-01-01

    The specificity requirements for the binding of Actinomyces viscosus T14V were examined by testing simple sugars, oligopeptides, and glycoproteins as inhibitors of the aggregation of glycoprotein-coated latex beads and washed A. viscosus cells. Lactose was the most inhibitory simple sugar; D-fucose and D-galactose were equally inhibitory, methyl-alpha-D-fucoside was slightly less inhibitory, and L-fucose and raffinose were not inhibitory. The concentration of galactose residues required for 50% inhibition of aggregation was 15 times higher in the form of lactose than in the form of asialoglycoprotein, suggesting an enhancement of lectin binding when galactose residues are clustered. However, when the inhibitory power of bi-, tri-, and tetraantennary asialooligopeptides of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein was compared with that of equivalent concentrations of galactose in the form of lactose, the biantennary form was slightly less effective than lactose, the triantennary form was approximately as effective as lactose, and the tetraantennary form was slightly more effective than lactose. Steric interference may prevent this type of clustering from enhancing lectin binding. The O-linked asialooligopeptides of asialofetuin were 10 times more inhibitory than an equivalent concentration of galactose in the form of N-linked asialooligopeptides. Thus, galactose beta-1----3 linked to N-acetylgalactosamine exhibits greater specificity for the A. viscosus lectin than does galactose beta-1----4 linked to N-acetylglucosamine. These results, taken together with previously reported data, are consistent with a lectin of low affinity, binding enhanced by multivalency, and specificity for beta-linked galactose. PMID:2578122

  11. Crystal structure of the stimulatory complex of GTP cyclohydrolase I and its feedback regulatory protein GFRP.

    PubMed

    Maita, Nobuo; Okada, Kengo; Hatakeyama, Kazuyuki; Hakoshima, Toshio

    2002-02-05

    In the presence of phenylalanine, GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein (GFRP) forms a stimulatory 360-kDa complex with GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCHI), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin. The crystal structure of the stimulatory complex reveals that the GTPCHI decamer is sandwiched by two GFRP homopentamers. Each GFRP pentamer forms a symmetrical five-membered ring similar to beta-propeller. Five phenylalanine molecules are buried inside each interface between GFRP and GTPCHI, thus enhancing the binding of these proteins. The complex structure suggests that phenylalanine-induced GTPCHI x GFRP complex formation enhances GTPCHI activity by locking the enzyme in the active state.

  12. Effect of thiostrepton and 3'-terminal fragments of aminoacyl-tRNA on EF-Tu and ribosome-dependent GTP hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Bhuta, P; Chládek, S

    1982-08-30

    The effect of the antibiotics thiostrepton and micrococcin on EF-Tu-catalyzed (ribosome-dependent) GTP hydrolysis in the presence of A-Phe, C-A-Phe, or C-C-A-Phe (related to the sequence of the 3'-terminus of aminoacyl-tRNA)(System I) or by methanol ('uncoupled GTPase', System II) was investigated. In System I, thiostrepton increases the binding affinities of the effectors to the EF-Tu.GTP.70 S ribosome complex, as well as the extent of the GTP hydrolysis, while the KmGTP is virtually unchanged. Similarly, in the uncoupled system (System II) and in the absence of effectors, thiostrepton significantly increases VmaxGTP, whereas KmGTP remains unaffected. Micrococcin is without any effect in both systems. The 'uncoupled GTPase' (in System II) is also strongly inhibited by C-A-Phe. The results indicate the crucial role of the EF-Tu site which binds the aminoacylated C-C-A terminus of aminoacyl-tRNA in promoting GTP hydrolysis. It follows that the binding of the model effectors (such as C-C-A-Phe) to that site is favorably influenced by the interaction of thiostrepton with the 50 S ribosomal subunit, whereas thiostrepton, per se, does not influence the affinity of EF-Tu for GTP.

  13. Mechanism and catalytic strategy of the prokaryotic specific GTP cyclohydrolase IB.

    PubMed

    Paranagama, Naduni; Bonnett, Shilah A; Alvarez, Jonathan; Luthra, Amit; Stec, Boguslaw; Gustafson, Andrew; Iwata-Reuyl, Dirk; Swairjo, Manal

    2017-01-26

    GTP cyclohydrolase I catalyzes the first step in folic acid biosynthesis in bacteria and plants, biopterin biosynthesis in mammals, and the biosynthesis of 7-deazaguanosine modified tRNA nucleosides in bacteria and archaea.  The type IB GTP cyclohydrolase (GCYH-IB) is a prokaryotic-specific enzyme found in a number of pathogens. GCYH-IB is structurally distinct from the canonical type IA GTP cyclohydrolase involved in biopterin biosynthesis in humans and animals, and thus is of interest as a potential antibacterial drug target.  We report kinetic and inhibition data of Neisseria gonorrhoeae GCYH-IB, and two high-resolution crystal structures of the enzyme; one in complex with the reaction intermediate analog and competitive inhibitor 8-oxo-GTP, and one with a TRIS molecule bound in the active site and mimicking another reaction intermediate. Comparison with the type IA enzyme bound to 8-oxo-GTP reveals an inverted mode of binding of the inhibitor ribosyl moiety and, together with site-directed mutagenesis data, shows that the two enzymes utilize different strategies for catalysis. Notably, the inhibitor interacts with a conserved active site Cys149, and this residue is S-nitrosylated in the structures. This is the first structural characterization of a biologically S-nitrosylated bacterial protein. Mutagenesis and biochemical analyses demonstrate that Cys149 is essential for the cyclohydrolase reaction, and S-nitrosylation maintains enzyme activity, suggesting a potential role of the S-nitrosothiol in catalysis.

  14. Initiation factor IF2, thiostrepton and micrococcin prevent the binding of elongation factor G to the Escherichia coli ribosome.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Dale M; Thompson, Jill; March, Paul E; Dahlberg, Albert E

    2002-05-24

    The bacterial translational GTPases (initiation factor IF2, elongation factors EF-G and EF-Tu and release factor RF3) are involved in all stages of translation, and evidence indicates that they bind to overlapping sites on the ribosome, whereupon GTP hydrolysis is triggered. We provide evidence for a common ribosomal binding site for EF-G and IF2. IF2 prevents the binding of EF-G to the ribosome, as shown by Western blot analysis and fusidic acid-stabilized EF-G.GDP.ribosome complex formation. Additionally, IF2 inhibits EF-G-dependent GTP hydrolysis on 70 S ribosomes. The antibiotics thiostrepton and micrococcin, which bind to part of the EF-G binding site and interfere with the function of the factor, also affect the function of IF2. While thiostrepton is a strong inhibitor of EF-G-dependent GTP hydrolysis, GTP hydrolysis by IF2 is stimulated by the drug. Micrococcin stimulates GTP hydrolysis by both factors. We show directly that these drugs act by destabilizing the interaction of EF-G with the ribosome, and provide evidence that they have similar effects on IF2.

  15. Nonconsensus Protein Binding to Repetitive DNA Sequence Elements Significantly Affects Eukaryotic Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Barber-Zucker, Shiran; Gordân, Raluca; Lukatsky, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Recent genome-wide experiments in different eukaryotic genomes provide an unprecedented view of transcription factor (TF) binding locations and of nucleosome occupancy. These experiments revealed that a large fraction of TF binding events occur in regions where only a small number of specific TF binding sites (TFBSs) have been detected. Furthermore, in vitro protein-DNA binding measurements performed for hundreds of TFs indicate that TFs are bound with wide range of affinities to different DNA sequences that lack known consensus motifs. These observations have thus challenged the classical picture of specific protein-DNA binding and strongly suggest the existence of additional recognition mechanisms that affect protein-DNA binding preferences. We have previously demonstrated that repetitive DNA sequence elements characterized by certain symmetries statistically affect protein-DNA binding preferences. We call this binding mechanism nonconsensus protein-DNA binding in order to emphasize the point that specific consensus TFBSs do not contribute to this effect. In this paper, using the simple statistical mechanics model developed previously, we calculate the nonconsensus protein-DNA binding free energy for the entire C. elegans and D. melanogaster genomes. Using the available chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) results on TF-DNA binding preferences for ~100 TFs, we show that DNA sequences characterized by low predicted free energy of nonconsensus binding have statistically higher experimental TF occupancy and lower nucleosome occupancy than sequences characterized by high free energy of nonconsensus binding. This is in agreement with our previous analysis performed for the yeast genome. We suggest therefore that nonconsensus protein-DNA binding assists the formation of nucleosome-free regions, as TFs outcompete nucleosomes at genomic locations with enhanced nonconsensus binding. In addition, here we perform a new, large-scale analysis using

  16. Nuclear Ras2-GTP Controls Invasive Growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Broggi, Serena; Martegani, Enzo; Colombo, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Using an eGFP-RBD3 probe, which specifically binds Ras-GTP, we recently showed that the fluorescent probe was localized to the plasma membrane and to the nucleus in wild type cells growing exponentially on glucose medium, indicating the presence of active Ras in these cellular compartments. To investigate the nuclear function of Ras-GTP, we generated a strain where Ras2 is fused to the nuclear export signal (NES) from the HIV virus, in order to exclude this protein from the nucleus. Our results show that nuclear active Ras2 is required for invasive growth development in haploid yeast, while the expression of the NES-Ras2 protein does not cause growth defects either on fermentable or non-fermentable carbon sources and does not influence protein kinase A (PKA) activity related phenotypes analysed. Moreover, we show that the cAMP/PKA pathway controls invasive growth influencing the localization of active Ras. In particular, we show that PKA activity plays a role in the localization of active Ras and influences the ability of the cells to invade the agar: high PKA activity leads to a predominant nuclear accumulation of active Ras and induces invasive growth, while low PKA activity leads to plasma membrane localization of active Ras and to a defective invasive growth phenotype. PMID:24244466

  17. Protein-Binding RNA Aptamers Affect Molecular Interactions Distantly from Their Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Daniel M.; Thuesen, Cathrine K.; Bøtkjær, Kenneth A.; Behrens, Manja A.; Dam, Karen; Sørensen, Hans P.; Pedersen, Jan S.; Ploug, Michael; Jensen, Jan K.; Andreasen, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acid aptamer selection is a powerful strategy for the development of regulatory agents for molecular intervention. Accordingly, aptamers have proven their diligence in the intervention with serine protease activities, which play important roles in physiology and pathophysiology. Nonetheless, there are only a few studies on the molecular basis underlying aptamer-protease interactions and the associated mechanisms of inhibition. In the present study, we use site-directed mutagenesis to delineate the binding sites of two 2´-fluoropyrimidine RNA aptamers (upanap-12 and upanap-126) with therapeutic potential, both binding to the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). We determine the subsequent impact of aptamer binding on the well-established molecular interactions (plasmin, PAI-1, uPAR, and LRP-1A) controlling uPA activities. One of the aptamers (upanap-126) binds to the area around the C-terminal α-helix in pro-uPA, while the other aptamer (upanap-12) binds to both the β-hairpin of the growth factor domain and the kringle domain of uPA. Based on the mapping studies, combined with data from small-angle X-ray scattering analysis, we construct a model for the upanap-12:pro-uPA complex. The results suggest and highlight that the size and shape of an aptamer as well as the domain organization of a multi-domain protein such as uPA, may provide the basis for extensive sterical interference with protein ligand interactions considered distant from the aptamer binding site. PMID:25793507

  18. Role of GTP-CHI links PAH and TH in melanin synthesis in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; Wang, Jiying; Li, Haiyin; Li, Yan; Chen, Peng; Li, Tian; Chen, Xi; Xiao, Junjie; Zhang, Liang

    2015-08-10

    In insects, pigment patterns are formed by melanin, ommochromes, and pteridines. Here, the effects of pteridine synthesis on melanin formation were studied using 4th instar larvae of a wild-type silkworm strain, dazao (Bombyx mori), with normal color and markings. Results from injected larvae and in vitro integument culture indicated that decreased activity of guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I (GTP-CH I, a rate-limiting enzyme for pteridine synthesis), lowers BH4 (6R-l-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin, a production correlated with GTP-CH I activity) levels and eliminates markings and coloration. The conversion of phenylalanine and tyrosine to melanin was prevented when GTP-CH I was inhibited. When BH4 was added, phenylalanine was converted to tyrosine, and the tyrosine concentration increased. Tyrosine was then converted to melanin to create normal markings and coloration. Decreasing GTP-CH I activity did not affect L-DOPA (3,4-l-dihydroxyphenylalanine). GTP-CH I affected melanin synthesis by generating the BH4 used in two key reaction steps: (1) conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine by PAH (phenylalanine hydroxylase) and (2) conversion of tyrosine to L-DOPA by TH (tyrosine hydroxylase). Expression profiles of BmGTPCH Ia, BmGTPCH Ib, BmTH, and BmPAH in the integument were consistent with the current findings.

  19. Mannose-binding lectin may affect pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Çalkavur, Şebnem; Erdemir, Gülin; Onay, Hüseyin; Altun Köroğlu, Özge; Yalaz, Mehmet; Zekioğlu, Osman; Aksu, Güzide; Özkınay, Ferda; Akercan, Fuat; Kültürsay, Nilgün

    2015-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a component of the innate immune system and acts as a complement activator through the lectin pathway. Genetic variations of MBL and low MBL levels cause several infection problems, which may also be related to pregnancy problems. We aimed to investigate the role of MBL gene codon 54 polymorphism and serum MBL levels in pregnancy problems and premature delivery. In this prospective study, MBL gene codon 54 polymorphism and serum MBL levels were studied in 45 mothers who delivered earlier than 35 gestational weeks. The frequency of MBL gene codon 54 variant allele B was much higher (homozygous 4.4% and heterozygous 33.3%) in the study group mothers than the previously reported frequency in the healthy Turkish population (homozygous 2-6%, heterozygous 12-20%). MBL variant allele B frequency was closely related to low MBL levels (<0.1 μg/ml), vaginitis and increased IL-6 levels. The median MBL levels were lower than the critical level of 0.1 μg/ ml in study mothers who had recurrent miscarriage, infertility, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm premature rupture of membranes with duration of longer than 72 hours, tocolysis, histological chorioamnionitis, urinary tract infection and vaginitis. MBL gene codon 54 variant allele B is related to low serum MBL levels, increased IL-6 levels, genitourinary infections and may cause pregnancy-related problems such as infertility, recurrent miscarriage and preterm delivery.

  20. Measuring Ras-family GTP levels in vivo--running hot and cold.

    PubMed

    Castro, Ariel F; Rebhun, John F; Quilliam, Lawrence A

    2005-10-01

    The detection of Ras-family GTPase activity is important in the determination of cell signaling events elicited by numerous ligands and cellular processes. This has been made much easier in recent years by the use of glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fused Ras binding domains. These domains from downstream effectors such as Raf and RalGDS preferentially bind the GTP-bound Ras proteins enabling their extraction and subsequent quantification by immunoblotting. Despite this advance, effectors that efficiently discriminate between GTP- and GDP-bound states are not available for many Ras-family members. While this hampers the ability to detect activity in tissue specimens, it is still possible to metabolically label cells with (32)Pi to load the GTP/GDP pool with labeled nucleotides, immunoprecipitate the Ras protein and detect the bound label following thin layer chromatographic separation and exposure to film or a phosphorimager. Using a transfection system and antibodies that recognize epitope tags one can test the ability of a protein to work as a GEF or GAP for a certain GTPase. Alternatively, if an immunoprecipitating antibody is available to the target GTPase, then analysis of endogenous GTP/GDP ratio is possible. Here we describe the detection of M-Ras and Rap1 activity by GST-RBD pull-down as well as that of Rheb and epitope-tagged R-Ras by classical metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation.

  1. The RanGTP Pathway: From Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Transport to Spindle Assembly and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Cavazza, Tommaso; Vernos, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPase Ran regulates the interaction of transport receptors with a number of cellular cargo proteins. The high affinity binding of the GTP-bound form of Ran to import receptors promotes cargo release, whereas its binding to export receptors stabilizes their interaction with the cargo. This basic mechanism linked to the asymmetric distribution of the two nucleotide-bound forms of Ran between the nucleus and the cytoplasm generates a switch like mechanism controlling nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. Since 1999, we have known that after nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) Ran and the above transport receptors also provide a local control over the activity of factors driving spindle assembly and regulating other aspects of cell division. The identification and functional characterization of RanGTP mitotic targets is providing novel insights into mechanisms essential for cell division. Here we review our current knowledge on the RanGTP system and its regulation and we focus on the recent advances made through the characterization of its mitotic targets. We then briefly review the novel functions of the pathway that were recently described. Altogether, the RanGTP system has moonlighting functions exerting a spatial control over protein interactions that drive specific functions depending on the cellular context. PMID:26793706

  2. Diethyl pyrocarbonate reaction with the lactose repressor protein affects both inducer and DNA binding

    SciTech Connect

    Sams, C.F.; Matthews, K.S.

    1988-04-05

    Modification of the lactose repressor protein of Escherichia coli with diethyl pyrocarbonate (DPC) results in decreased inducer binding as well as operator and nonspecific DNA binding. Spectrophotometric measurements indicated a maximum of three histidines per subunit was modified, and quantitation of lysine residues with trinitrobenzenesulfonate revealed the modification of one lysine residue. The loss of DNA binding, both operator and nonspecific, was correlated with histidine modification; removal of the carbethoxy groups from the histidines by hydroxylamine was accompanied by significant recovery of DNA binding function. The presence of inducing sugars during the DPC reaction had no effect on histidine modification or the loss of DNA binding activity. In contrast, inducer binding was not recovered upon reversal of the histidine modification. However, the presence of inducer during reaction protected lysine from reaction and also prevented the decrease in inducer binding; these results indicate that reaction of the lysine residue(s) may correlate to the loss of sugar binding activity. Since no difference in incorporation of radiolabeled carbethoxy was observed following reaction with diethyl pyrocarbonate in the presence or absence of inducer, the reagent appears to function as a catalyst in the modification of the lysine. The formation of an amide bond between the affected lysine and a nearby carboxylic acid moiety provides a possible mechanism for the activity loss. Reaction of the isolated NH2-terminal domain resulted in loss of DNA binding with modification of the single histidine at position 29. Results from the modification of core domain paralleled observations with intact repressor.

  3. Identification of cDNA encoding an additional. alpha. subunit of a human GTP-binding protein: Expression of three. alpha. sub i subtypes in human tissues and cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Ang, S.L.; Bloch, D.B.; Bloch, K.D.; Kawahara, Y.; Tolman, C.; Lee, R.; Seidman, J.G.; Neer, E.J. )

    1988-06-01

    The guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which mediate hormonal regulation of many membrane functions, are composed of {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} subunits. The authors have cloned and characterized cDNA from a human T-cell library encoding a form of {alpha}{sub i} that is different from the human {alpha}{sub i} subtypes previously reported. {alpha}{sub i} is the {alpha} subunit of a class of G proteins that inhibits adenylate cyclase and regulates other enzymes and ion channels. This cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 354 amino acids and is assigned to encode the {alpha}{sub i-3} subtype of G proteins on the basis of its similarity to other {alpha}{sub i}-like cDNAs and the presence of a predicted site for ADP ribosylation by pertussis toxin. They have determined the expression of mRNA for this and two other subtypes of human {alpha}{sub i} ({alpha}{sub i-1} and {alpha}{sub i-2}) in a variety of human fetal tissues and in human cell lines. All three {alpha}{sub i} subtypes were present in the tissues tested. However, analysis of individual cell types reveals specificity of {alpha}{sub i-1} expression. mRNA for {alpha}{i-1} is absent in T cells, B cells, and monocytes but is present in other cell lines. The finding of differential expression of {alpha}{sub i-1} genes may permit characterization of distinct physiological roles for this {alpha}{sub i} subunit. mRNA for {alpha}{sub i-2} and {alpha}{sub i-3} was found in all the primary and transformed cell lines tested. Thus, some cells contain all three {alpha}{sub i} subtypes. This observation raises the question of how cells prevent cross talk among receptors that are coupled to effectors through such similar {alpha} proteins.

  4. Platelet (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding in affective disorders: trait versus state characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, M.; Barkai, A.; Gruen, R.; Peselow, E.; Fieve, R.R.; Quitkin, F.

    1986-06-01

    Platelet (3H)imipramine binding (Bmax) was determined in 67 patients with major affective illness (33 euthymic bipolar, 34 depressed unipolar) and 58 normal control subjects. Bipolar patients had significantly lower Bmax values than did control subjects. The mean Bmax in the unipolar patients was lower than in the control subjects, but the difference was not statistically significant. Dissociation constant (Kd) values did not distinguish patients in either category from control subjects. The significantly lower Bmax in euthymic bipolar patients and the apparent state independence of Bmax in some but not all unipolar patients suggest that platelet imipramine binding may be a trait marker in a subset of affective disorders.

  5. Structural basis unifying diverse GTP hydrolysis mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Anand, Baskaran; Majumdar, Soneya; Prakash, Balaji

    2013-02-12

    Central to biological processes is the regulation rendered by GTPases. Until recently, the GTP hydrolysis mechanism, exemplified by Ras-family (and G-α) GTPases, was thought to be universal. This mechanism utilizes a conserved catalytic Gln supplied "in cis" from the GTPase and an arginine finger "in trans" from a GAP (GTPase activating protein) to stabilize the transition state. However, intriguingly different mechanisms are operative in structurally similar GTPases. MnmE and dynamin like cation-dependent GTPases lack the catalytic Gln and instead employ a Glu/Asp/Ser situated elsewhere and in place of the arginine finger use a K(+) or Na(+) ion. In contrast, Rab33 possesses the Gln but does not utilize it for catalysis; instead, the GAP supplies both a catalytic Gln and an arginine finger in trans. Deciphering the underlying principles that unify seemingly unrelated mechanisms is central to understanding how diverse mechanisms evolve. Here, we recognize that steric hindrance between active site residues is a criterion governing the mechanism employed by a given GTPase. The Arf-ArfGAP structure is testimony to this concept of spatial (in)compatibility of active site residues. This understanding allows us to predict an as yet unreported hydrolysis mechanism and clarifies unexplained observations about catalysis by Rab11 and the need for HAS-GTPases to employ a different mechanism. This understanding would be valuable for experiments in which abolishing GTP hydrolysis or generating constitutively active forms of a GTPase is important.

  6. Integration of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Steady-state Kinetics and Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Gαi1 Distinguishes between the GTP Hydrolysis and GDP Release Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Schröter, Grit; Mann, Daniel; Kötting, Carsten; Gerwert, Klaus

    2015-07-10

    Gα subunits are central molecular switches in cells. They are activated by G protein-coupled receptors that exchange GDP for GTP, similar to small GTPase activation mechanisms. Gα subunits are turned off by GTP hydrolysis. For the first time we employed time-resolved FTIR difference spectroscopy to investigate the molecular reaction mechanisms of Gαi1. FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful tool that monitors reactions label free with high spatio-temporal resolution. In contrast to common multiple turnover assays, FTIR spectroscopy depicts the single turnover GTPase reaction without nucleotide exchange/Mg(2+) binding bias. Global fit analysis resulted in one apparent rate constant of 0.02 s(-1) at 15 °C. Isotopic labeling was applied to assign the individual phosphate vibrations for α-, β-, and γ-GTP (1243, 1224, and 1156 cm(-1), respectively), α- and β-GDP (1214 and 1134/1103 cm(-1), respectively), and free phosphate (1078/991 cm(-1)). In contrast to Ras · GAP catalysis, the bond breakage of the β-γ-phosphate but not the Pi release is rate-limiting in the GTPase reaction. Complementary common GTPase assays were used. Reversed phase HPLC provided multiple turnover rates and tryptophan fluorescence provided nucleotide exchange rates. Experiments were complemented by molecular dynamics simulations. This broad approach provided detailed insights at atomic resolution and allows now to identify key residues of Gαi1 in GTP hydrolysis and nucleotide exchange. Mutants of the intrinsic arginine finger (Gαi1-R178S) affected exclusively the hydrolysis reaction. The effect of nucleotide binding (Gαi1-D272N) and Ras-like/all-α interface coordination (Gαi1-D229N/Gαi1-D231N) on the nucleotide exchange reaction was furthermore elucidated.

  7. Fluoroaluminate treatment of rat liver microsomes inhibits GTP-dependent vesicle fusion.

    PubMed Central

    Comerford, J G; Dawson, A P

    1991-01-01

    1. Inhibition of GTP-dependent membrane fusion of rat liver microsomes requires preincubation of the membranes with GDP (17 microM) and relatively high Mg2+ concentration (0.5 mM) as well as AlCl3 (30 microM) and KF (5 mM). Preincubation is required for maximal inhibition (75%). 2. Vesicle fusion in rat liver microsomes has been demonstrated in the absence of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Further, inhibition by AlF4- of GTP-dependent vesicle fusion in the absence of PEG has been demonstrated. 3. Under similar preincubation conditions AlF4- can bring about inhibition (80%) of the high-affinity PEG-stimulated GTPase activity in rat liver microsomes, previously described by Nicchitta, Joseph & Williamson [(1986) FEBS Lett. 209, 243-248]. 4. Preincubation of small-Mr GTP-binding proteins (Gn proteins) on nitrocellulose strips with GDP (20 pM), AlCl3 (30 microM) and KF (5 mM) results in inhibition of binding of guanosine 5'-[gamma-[35S]thio]triphosphate to Gn proteins. The extent of inhibition of this binding differs for different Gn proteins. PMID:1747106

  8. Over-expression of GTP-cyclohydrolase 1 feedback regulatory protein attenuates LPS and cytokine-stimulated nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Manasi; Kelly, Peter; Vallance, Patrick; Leiper, James

    2008-02-01

    GTP-cyclohydrolase 1 (GTP-CH1) catalyses the first and rate-limiting step for the de novo production of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)), an essential cofactor for nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The GTP-CH1-BH(4) pathway is emerging as an important regulator in a number of pathologies associated with over-production of nitric oxide (NO) and hence a more detailed understanding of this pathway may lead to novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of certain vascular diseases. GTP-CH1 activity can be inhibited by BH(4) through its protein-protein interactions with GTP-CH1 regulatory protein (GFRP), and transcriptional and post-translational modification of both GTP-CH1 and GFRP have been reported in response to proinflammatory stimuli. However, the functional significance of GFRP/GTP-CH1 interactions on NO pathways has not yet been demonstrated. We aimed to investigate whether over-expression of GFRP could affect NO production in living cells. Over-expression of N-terminally Myc-tagged recombinant human GFRP in the murine endothelial cell line sEnd 1 resulted in no significant effect on basal BH(4) nor NO levels but significantly attenuated the rise in BH(4) and NO observed following lipopolysaccharide and cytokine stimulation of cells. This study demonstrates that GFRP can play a direct regulatory role in iNOS-mediated NO synthesis and suggests that the allosteric regulation of GTP-CH1 activity by GFRP may be an important mechanism regulating BH(4) and NO levels in vivo.

  9. Feature binding and affect: emotional modulation of visuo-motor integration.

    PubMed

    Colzato, Lorenza S; van Wouwe, Nelleke C; Hommel, Bernhard

    2007-01-28

    The primate cortex represents the external world in a distributed fashion, which calls for a mechanism that integrates and binds the features of a perceived or processed event. Animal and patients studies provide evidence that feature binding in the visual cortex is driven by the muscarinic-cholinergic system, whereas visuo-motor integration may be under dopaminergic control. Consistent with this scenario, we present indication that the binding of visual and action features is modulated by emotions through the probable stimulation of the dopaminergic system. Interestingly, the impact of emotions on binding was restricted to tasks in which shape was task-relevant, suggesting that extracting affective information is not automatic but requires attention to shape.

  10. GTP cyclohydrolase I inhibition by the prototypic inhibitor 2, 4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine. Mechanisms and unanticipated role of GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein.

    PubMed

    Xie, L; Smith, J A; Gross, S S

    1998-08-14

    2,4-Diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP) is considered to be a selective and direct-acting inhibitor of GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH), the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the pathway for synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). Accordingly, DAHP has been widely employed to distinguish whether de novo BH4 synthesis is required in a given biological system. Although it has been assumed that DAHP inhibits GTPCH by direct competition with substrate GTP, this has never been formally demonstrated. In view of apparent structural homology between DAHP and BH4, we questioned whether DAHP may mimic BH4 in its inhibition of GTPCH by an indirect mechanism, involving interaction with a recently cloned 9.5-kDa protein termed GTPCH Feedback Regulatory Protein (GFRP). We show by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction that GFRP mRNA is constitutively expressed in rat aortic smooth muscle cells and further induced by treatment with immunostimulants. Moreover, functional GFRP is expressed and immunostimulant-induced BH4 accumulates in sufficient quantity to trigger feedback inhibition of GTPCH. Studies with DAHP reveal that GFRP is also essential to achieve potent inhibition of GTPCH. Indeed, DAHP inhibits GTPCH by dual mechanisms. At a relatively low concentration, DAHP emulates BH4 and engages the GFRP-dependent feedback inhibitory system; at higher concentrations, DAHP competes directly for binding with GTP substrate. This knowledge predicts that DAHP would preferably target GTPCH in tissues with abundant GFRP.

  11. Seasonal difference in brain serotonin transporter binding predicts symptom severity in patients with seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie B; Madsen, Martin K; Hjordt, Liv V; Hageman, Ida; Dam, Henrik; Svarer, Claus; da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Baaré, William; Madsen, Jacob; Hasholt, Lis; Holst, Klaus; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2016-05-01

    Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies in non-depressed individuals have demonstrated an inverse relationship between daylight minutes and cerebral serotonin transporter; this relationship is modified by serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region short allele carrier status. We here present data from the first longitudinal investigation of seasonal serotonin transporter fluctuations in both patients with seasonal affective disorder and in healthy individuals. Eighty (11)C-DASB positron emission tomography scans were conducted to quantify cerebral serotonin transporter binding; 23 healthy controls with low seasonality scores and 17 patients diagnosed with seasonal affective disorder were scanned in both summer and winter to investigate differences in cerebral serotonin transporter binding across groups and across seasons. The two groups had similar cerebral serotonin transporter binding in the summer but in their symptomatic phase during winter, patients with seasonal affective disorder had higher serotonin transporter than the healthy control subjects (P = 0.01). Compared to the healthy controls, patients with seasonal affective disorder changed their serotonin transporter significantly less between summer and winter (P < 0.001). Further, the change in serotonin transporter was sex- (P = 0.02) and genotype- (P = 0.04) dependent. In the patients with seasonal affective disorder, the seasonal change in serotonin transporter binding was positively associated with change in depressive symptom severity, as indexed by Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression - Seasonal Affective Disorder version scores (P = 0.01). Our findings suggest that the development of depressive symptoms in winter is associated with a failure to downregulate serotonin transporter levels appropriately during exposure to the environmental stress of winter, especially in individuals with high predisposition to affective disorders.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww043_video_abstractaww043_video_abstract.

  12. Mechanism of muscarinic receptor-induced K+ channel activation as revealed by hydrolysis-resistant GTP analogues

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The role of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (Gk) in the coupling between muscarinic receptor activation and opening of an inwardly rectifying K+ channel [IK(M)] was examined in cardiac atrial myocytes, using hydrolysis-resistant GTP analogues. In the absence of muscarinic agonist, GTP analogues produced a membrane current characteristic of IK(M). The initial rate of appearance of this receptor-independent IK(M) was measured for the various analogues in order to explore the kinetic properties of IK(M) activation. We found that IK(M) activation is controlled solely by the intracellular analogue/GTP ratio and not by the absolute concentrations of the nucleotides. Analogues competed with GTP for binding to Gk with the following relative affinities: GTP gamma S greater than GTP greater than GppNHp greater than GppCH2p. At sufficiently high intracellular concentrations, however, all GTP analogues produced the same rate of IK(M) activation. This analogue- independent limiting rate is likely to correspond to the rate of GDP release from inactive, GDP-bound Gk. Muscarinic receptor stimulation by nanomolar concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh), which do not elicit IK(M) under control conditions, catalyzed IK(M) activation in the presence of GTP analogues. The rate of Gk activation by ACh (kACh) was found to be described by the simple relationship kACh = 8.4 X 10(8) min- 1 M-1.[ACh] + 0.44 min-1, the first term of which presumably reflects the agonist-catalyzed rate of GDP release from the Gk.GDP complex, while the second term corresponds to the basal rate of receptor- independent GDP release. Combined with the estimated K0.5 of the IK(M)- [ACh] dose-effect relationship, 160 nM, this result also allowed us to estimate the rate of Gk.GTP hydrolysis, kcat, to be near 135 min-1. These results provide, for the first time, a quantitative description of the salient features of G-protein function in vivo. PMID:2455765

  13. The constant region affects antigen binding of antibodies to DNA by altering secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yumin; Janda, Alena; Eryilmaz, Ertan; Casadevall, Arturo; Putterman, Chaim

    2013-11-01

    We previously demonstrated an important role of the constant region in the pathogenicity of anti-DNA antibodies. To determine the mechanisms by which the constant region affects autoantibody binding, a panel of isotype-switch variants (IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b) was generated from the murine PL9-11 IgG3 autoantibody. The affinity of the PL9-11 antibody panel for histone was measured by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Tryptophan fluorescence was used to determine wavelength shifts of the antibody panel upon binding to DNA and histone. Finally, circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to measure changes in secondary structure. SPR analysis revealed significant differences in histone binding affinity between members of the PL9-11 panel. The wavelength shifts of tryptophan fluorescence emission were found to be dependent on the antibody isotype, while circular dichroism analysis determined that changes in antibody secondary structure content differed between isotypes upon antigen binding. Thus, the antigen binding affinity is dependent on the particular constant region expressed. Moreover, the effects of antibody binding to antigen were also constant region dependent. Alteration of secondary structures influenced by constant regions may explain differences in fine specificity of anti-DNA antibodies between antibodies with similar variable regions, as well as cross-reactivity of anti-DNA antibodies with non-DNA antigens.

  14. Ras-GTP dimers activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway

    DOE PAGES

    Nan, Xiaolin; Tamgüney, Tanja M.; Collisson, Eric A.; ...

    2015-06-16

    Rat sarcoma (Ras) GTPases regulate cell proliferation and survival through effector pathways including Raf-MAPK, and are the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer. Although it is well established that Ras activity requires binding to both GTP and the membrane, details of how Ras operates on the cell membrane to activate its effectors remain elusive. Efforts to target mutant Ras in human cancers to therapeutic benefit have also been largely unsuccessful. Here we show that Ras-GTP forms dimers to activate MAPK. We used quantitative photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) to analyze the nanoscale spatial organization of PAmCherry1-tagged KRas 4B (hereafter referredmore » to KRas) on the cell membrane under various signaling conditions. We found that at endogenous expression levels KRas forms dimers, and KRasG12D, a mutant that constitutively binds GTP, activates MAPK. Overexpression of KRas leads to formation of higher order Ras nanoclusters. Conversely, at lower expression levels, KRasG12D is monomeric and activates MAPK only when artificially dimerized. Moreover, dimerization and signaling of KRas are both dependent on an intact CAAX (C, cysteine; A, aliphatic; X, any amino acid) motif that is also known to mediate membrane localization. These results reveal a new, dimerization-dependent signaling mechanism of Ras, and suggest Ras dimers as a potential therapeutic target in mutant Ras-driven tumors.« less

  15. Ras-GTP dimers activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Nan, Xiaolin; Tamgüney, Tanja M.; Collisson, Eric A.; Lin, Li -Jung; Pitt, Cameron; Galeas, Jacqueline; Lewis, Sophia; Gray, Joe W.; McCormick, Frank; Chu, Steven

    2015-06-16

    Rat sarcoma (Ras) GTPases regulate cell proliferation and survival through effector pathways including Raf-MAPK, and are the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer. Although it is well established that Ras activity requires binding to both GTP and the membrane, details of how Ras operates on the cell membrane to activate its effectors remain elusive. Efforts to target mutant Ras in human cancers to therapeutic benefit have also been largely unsuccessful. Here we show that Ras-GTP forms dimers to activate MAPK. We used quantitative photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) to analyze the nanoscale spatial organization of PAmCherry1-tagged KRas 4B (hereafter referred to KRas) on the cell membrane under various signaling conditions. We found that at endogenous expression levels KRas forms dimers, and KRasG12D, a mutant that constitutively binds GTP, activates MAPK. Overexpression of KRas leads to formation of higher order Ras nanoclusters. Conversely, at lower expression levels, KRasG12D is monomeric and activates MAPK only when artificially dimerized. Moreover, dimerization and signaling of KRas are both dependent on an intact CAAX (C, cysteine; A, aliphatic; X, any amino acid) motif that is also known to mediate membrane localization. These results reveal a new, dimerization-dependent signaling mechanism of Ras, and suggest Ras dimers as a potential therapeutic target in mutant Ras-driven tumors.

  16. Affect influences feature binding in memory: Trading between richness and strength of memory representations.

    PubMed

    Spachtholz, Philipp; Kuhbandner, Christof; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    Research has shown that long-term memory representations of objects are formed as a natural product of perception even without any intentional memorization. It is not known, however, how rich these representations are in terms of the number of bound object features. In particular, because feature binding rests on resource-limited processes, there may be a context-dependent trade-off between the quantity of stored features and their memory strength. The authors examined whether affective state may bring about such a trade-off. Participants incidentally encoded pictures of real-world objects while experiencing positive or negative affect, and the authors later measured memory for 2 features. Results showed that participants traded between richness and strength of memory representations as a function of affect, with positive affect tuning memory formation toward richness and negative affect tuning memory formation toward strength. These findings demonstrate that memory binding is a flexible process that is modulated by affective state. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Mutations in arrestin-3 differentially affect binding to neuropeptide Y receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Luis E; Babilon, Stefanie; Wanka, Lizzy; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Gurevich, Vsevolod V

    2014-07-01

    Based on the identification of residues that determine receptor selectivity in arrestins and the phylogenetic analysis of the arrestin (arr) family, we introduced fifteen mutations of receptor-discriminator residues in arr-3, which were identified previously using mutagenesis, in vitro binding, and BRET-based recruitment assay in intact cells. The effects of these mutations were tested using neuropeptide Y receptors Y1R and Y2R. NPY-elicited arr-3 recruitment to Y1R was not affected by these mutations, or even alanine substitution of all ten residues (arr-3-NCA), which prevented arr-3 binding to other receptors tested so far. However, NCA and two other mutations prevented agonist-independent arr-3 pre-docking to Y1R. In contrast, eight out of 15 mutations significantly reduced agonist-dependent arr-3 recruitment to Y2R. NCA eliminated arr-3 binding to active Y2R, whereas Tyr239Thr reduced it ~7-fold. Thus, manipulation of key residues on the receptor-binding surface generates arr-3 with high preference for Y1R over Y2R. Several mutations differentially affect arr-3 pre-docking and agonist-induced recruitment. Thus, arr-3 recruitment to the receptor involves several mechanistically distinct steps. Targeted mutagenesis can fine-tune arrestins directing them to specific receptors and particular activation states of the same receptor.

  18. Mutations in arrestin-3 differentially affect binding to neuropeptide Y receptor subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez, Luis E.; Babilon, Stefanie; Wanka, Lizzy; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G.; Gurevich, Vsevolod V.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the identification of residues that determine receptor selectivity in arrestins and the phylogenetic analysis of the arrestin (arr) family, we introduced fifteen mutations of receptor-discriminator residues in arr-3, which were identified previously using mutagenesis, in vitro binding, and BRET-based recruitment assay in intact cells. The effects of these mutations were tested using neuropeptide Y receptors Y1R and Y2R. NPY-elicited arr-3 recruitment to Y1R was not affected by these mutations, or even alanine substitution of all ten residues (arr-3-NCA), which prevented arr-3 binding to other receptors tested so far. However, NCA and two other mutations prevented agonist-independent arr-3 pre-docking to Y1R. In contrast, eight out of 15 mutations significantly reduced agonist-dependent arr-3 recruitment to Y2R. NCA eliminated arr-3 binding to active Y2R, whereas Tyr239Thr reduced it ~7-fold. Thus, manipulation of key residues on the receptor-binding surface generates arr-3 with high preference for Y1R over Y2R. Several mutations differentially affect arr-3 pre-docking and agonist-induced recruitment. Thus, arr-3 recruitment to the receptor involves several mechanistically distinct steps. Targeted mutagenesis can fine-tune arrestins directing them to specific receptors and particular activation states of the same receptor. PMID:24686081

  19. Formation of a Trimeric Xpo1-Ran[GTP]-Ded1 Exportin Complex Modulates ATPase and Helicase Activities of Ded1.

    PubMed

    Hauk, Glenn; Bowman, Gregory D

    2015-01-01

    The DEAD-box RNA helicase Ded1, which is essential in yeast and known as DDX3 in humans, shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm and takes part in several basic processes including RNA processing and translation. A key interacting partner of Ded1 is the exportin Xpo1, which together with the GTP-bound state of the small GTPase Ran, facilitates unidirectional transport of Ded1 out of the nucleus. Here we demonstrate that Xpo1 and Ran[GTP] together reduce the RNA-stimulated ATPase and helicase activities of Ded1. Binding and inhibition of Ded1 by Xpo1 depend on the affinity of the Ded1 nuclear export sequence (NES) for Xpo1 and the presence of Ran[GTP]. Association with Xpo1/Ran[GTP] reduces RNA-stimulated ATPase activity of Ded1 by increasing the apparent KM for the RNA substrate. Despite the increased KM, the Ded1:Xpo1:Ran[GTP] ternary complex retains the ability to bind single stranded RNA, suggesting that Xpo1/Ran[GTP] may modulate the substrate specificity of Ded1. These results demonstrate that, in addition to transport, exportins such as Xpo1 also have the capability to alter enzymatic activities of their cargo.

  20. Binding of ATP by pertussis toxin and isolated toxin subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Hausman, S.Z.; Manclark, C.R.; Burns, D.L. )

    1990-07-03

    The binding of ATP to pertussis toxin and its components, the A subunit and B oligomer, was investigated. Whereas, radiolabeled ATP bound to the B oligomer and pertussis toxin, no binding to the A subunit was observed. The binding of ({sup 3}H)ATP to pertussis toxin and the B oligomer was inhibited by nucleotides. The relative effectiveness of the nucleotides was shown to be ATP > GTP > CTP > TTP for pertussis toxin and ATP > GTP > TTP > CTP for the B oligomer. Phosphate ions inhibited the binding of ({sup 3}H)ATP to pertussis toxin in a competitive manner; however, the presence of phosphate ions was essential for binding of ATP to the B oligomer. The toxin substrate, NAD, did not affect the binding of ({sup 3}H)ATP to pertussis toxin, although the glycoprotein fetuin significantly decreased binding. These results suggest that the binding site for ATP is located on the B oligomer and is distinct from the enzymatically active site but may be located near the eukaryotic receptor binding site.

  1. SNP2TFBS – a database of regulatory SNPs affecting predicted transcription factor binding site affinity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Ambrosini, Giovanna; Bucher, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    SNP2TFBS is a computational resource intended to support researchers investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying regulatory variation in the human genome. The database essentially consists of a collection of text files providing specific annotations for human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely whether they are predicted to abolish, create or change the affinity of one or several transcription factor (TF) binding sites. A SNP's effect on TF binding is estimated based on a position weight matrix (PWM) model for the binding specificity of the corresponding factor. These data files are regenerated at regular intervals by an automatic procedure that takes as input a reference genome, a comprehensive SNP catalogue and a collection of PWMs. SNP2TFBS is also accessible over a web interface, enabling users to view the information provided for an individual SNP, to extract SNPs based on various search criteria, to annotate uploaded sets of SNPs or to display statistics about the frequencies of binding sites affected by selected SNPs. Homepage: http://ccg.vital-it.ch/snp2tfbs/. PMID:27899579

  2. SNP2TFBS - a database of regulatory SNPs affecting predicted transcription factor binding site affinity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Ambrosini, Giovanna; Bucher, Philipp

    2017-01-04

    SNP2TFBS is a computational resource intended to support researchers investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying regulatory variation in the human genome. The database essentially consists of a collection of text files providing specific annotations for human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely whether they are predicted to abolish, create or change the affinity of one or several transcription factor (TF) binding sites. A SNP's effect on TF binding is estimated based on a position weight matrix (PWM) model for the binding specificity of the corresponding factor. These data files are regenerated at regular intervals by an automatic procedure that takes as input a reference genome, a comprehensive SNP catalogue and a collection of PWMs. SNP2TFBS is also accessible over a web interface, enabling users to view the information provided for an individual SNP, to extract SNPs based on various search criteria, to annotate uploaded sets of SNPs or to display statistics about the frequencies of binding sites affected by selected SNPs. Homepage: http://ccg.vital-it.ch/snp2tfbs/.

  3. Neutron crystal structure of RAS GTPase puts in question the protonation state of the GTP γ-phosphate

    DOE PAGES

    Knihtila, Ryan; Holzapfel, Genevieve; Weiss, Kevin; ...

    2015-10-29

    RAS GTPase is a prototype for nucleotide-binding proteins that function by cycling between GTP and GDP, with hydrogen atoms playing an important role in the GTP hydrolysis mechanism. It is one of the most well studied proteins in the superfamily of small GTPases, which has representatives in a wide range of cellular functions. These proteins share a GTP-binding pocket with highly conserved motifs that promote hydrolysis to GDP. The neutron crystal structure of RAS presented here strongly supports a protonated gamma-phosphate at physiological pH. This counters the notion that the phosphate groups of GTP are fully deprotonated at the startmore » of the hydrolysis reaction, which has colored the interpretation of experimental and computational data in studies of the hydrolysis mechanism. As a result, the neutron crystal structure presented here puts in question our understanding of the pre-catalytic state associated with the hydrolysis reaction central to the function of RAS and other GTPases.« less

  4. Live-cell imaging of endogenous Ras-GTP illustrates predominant Ras activation at the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Augsten, Martin; Pusch, Rico; Biskup, Christoph; Rennert, Knut; Wittig, Ute; Beyer, Katja; Blume, Alfred; Wetzker, Reinhard; Friedrich, Karlheinz; Rubio, Ignacio

    2006-01-01

    Ras-GTP imaging studies using the Ras-binding domain (RBD) of the Ras effector c-Raf as a reporter for overexpressed Ras have produced discrepant results about the possible activation of Ras at the Golgi apparatus. We report that RBD oligomerization provides probes for visualization of endogenous Ras-GTP, obviating Ras overexpression and the side effects derived thereof. RBD oligomerization results in tenacious binding to Ras-GTP and interruption of Ras signalling. Trimeric RBD probes fused to green fluorescent protein report agonist-induced endogenous Ras activation at the plasma membrane (PM) of COS-7, PC12 and Jurkat cells, but do not accumulate at the Golgi. PM illumination is exacerbated by Ras overexpression and its sensitivity to dominant-negative RasS17N and pharmacological manipulations matches Ras-GTP formation assessed biochemically. Our data illustrate that endogenous Golgi-located Ras is not under the control of growth factors and argue for the PM as the predominant site of agonist-induced Ras activation. PMID:16282985

  5. RF3:GTP promotes rapid dissociation of the class 1 termination factor.

    PubMed

    Koutmou, Kristin S; McDonald, Megan E; Brunelle, Julie L; Green, Rachel

    2014-05-01

    Translation termination is promoted by class 1 and class 2 release factors in all domains of life. While the role of the bacterial class 1 factors, RF1 and RF2, in translation termination is well understood, the precise contribution of the bacterial class 2 release factor, RF3, to this process remains less clear. Here, we use a combination of binding assays and pre-steady state kinetics to provide a kinetic and thermodynamic framework for understanding the role of the translational GTPase RF3 in bacterial translation termination. First, we find that GDP and GTP have similar affinities for RF3 and that, on average, the t1/2 for nucleotide dissociation from the protein is 1-2 min. We further show that RF3:GDPNP, but not RF3:GDP, tightly associates with the ribosome pre- and post-termination complexes. Finally, we use stopped-flow fluorescence to demonstrate that RF3:GTP enhances RF1 dissociation rates by over 500-fold, providing the first direct observation of this step. Importantly, catalytically inactive variants of RF1 are not rapidly dissociated from the ribosome by RF3:GTP, arguing that a rotated state of the ribosome must be sampled for this step to efficiently occur. Together, these data define a more precise role for RF3 in translation termination and provide insights into the function of this family of translational GTPases.

  6. Ribosome-induced tuning of GTP hydrolysis by a translational GTPase.

    PubMed

    Maracci, Cristina; Peske, Frank; Dannies, Ev; Pohl, Corinna; Rodnina, Marina V

    2014-10-07

    GTP hydrolysis by elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), a translational GTPase that delivers aminoacyl-tRNAs to the ribosome, plays a crucial role in decoding and translational fidelity. The basic reaction mechanism and the way the ribosome contributes to catalysis are a matter of debate. Here we use mutational analysis in combination with measurements of rate/pH profiles, kinetic solvent isotope effects, and ion dependence of GTP hydrolysis by EF-Tu off and on the ribosome to dissect the reaction mechanism. Our data suggest that--contrary to current models--the reaction in free EF-Tu follows a pathway that does not involve the critical residue H84 in the switch II region. Binding to the ribosome without a cognate codon in the A site has little effect on the GTPase mechanism. In contrast, upon cognate codon recognition, the ribosome induces a rearrangement of EF-Tu that renders GTP hydrolysis sensitive to mutations of Asp21 and His84 and insensitive to K(+) ions. We suggest that Asp21 and His84 provide a network of interactions that stabilize the positions of the γ-phosphate and the nucleophilic water, respectively, and thus play an indirect catalytic role in the GTPase mechanism on the ribosome.

  7. Mechanism of activation of elongation factor Tu by ribosome: catalytic histidine activates GTP by protonation.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrov, Alexey; Field, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) is central to prokaryotic protein synthesis as it has the role of delivering amino-acylated tRNAs to the ribosome. Release of EF-Tu, after correct binding of the EF-Tu:aa-tRNA complex to the ribosome, is initiated by GTP hydrolysis. This reaction, whose mechanism is uncertain, is catalyzed by EF-Tu, but requires activation by the ribosome. There have been a number of mechanistic proposals, including those spurred by a recent X-ray crystallographic analysis of a ribosome:EF-Tu:aa-tRNA:GTP-analog complex. In this work, we have investigated these and alternative hypotheses, using high-level quantum chemical/molecular mechanical simulations for the wild-type protein and its His85Gln mutant. For both proteins, we find previously unsuggested mechanisms as being preferred, in which residue 85, either His or Gln, directly assists in the reaction. Analysis shows that the RNA has a minor catalytic effect in the wild-type reaction, but plays a significant role in the mutant by greatly stabilizing the reaction's transition state. Given the similarity between EF-Tu and other members of the translational G-protein family, it is likely that these mechanisms of ribosome-activated GTP hydrolysis are pertinent to all of these proteins.

  8. Isolation of a gene encoding a developmentally regulated T cell-specific protein with a guanine nucleotide triphosphate-binding motif

    SciTech Connect

    Carlow, D.A.; Teh, H.S.; Marth, J.

    1995-02-15

    In this study, we describe a novel full length cDNA clone designated Tgtp that encodes a predicted 415-amino acid a T cell-specific guanine nucleotide triphosphate-binding protein (TGTP) bearing the characteristic motifs of a guanine nucleotide triphosphate (GTP) binding protein. Tgtp is expressed preferentially, if not exclusively, in T cells, and is up-regulated in both unfractionated and in purified CD4{sup +}8{sup +} thymocytes upon TCR cross-linking. In contrast, expression of Tgtp in peripheral T cells is maintained at relatively high levels and is not grossly affected by TCR cross-linking. Antiserum generated against synthetic peptides from the predicted TGTP amino acid sequence recognized a single protein with a molecular mass of {approx}50 kDa, corresponding well with the computed molecular mass of 47 kDa. The only known relative of Tgtp is MUSGTP, which is reportedly expressed in B cells and bears a GTP binding motif. Thus, the discovery of Tgtp resolves a subfamily of molecules with GTP binding motifs and apparent lymphoid lineage-restricted expression. Given the restricted expression pattern in T cells, the up-regulated expression observed in response to TCR signaling in immature thymocytes, and the presence of the motifs characteristic of GTP binding proteins, we suggest that TGTP may have an important function in T cell development and/or T cell activation. 51 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Intracellular GTP level determines cell's fate toward differentiation and apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Meshkini, Azadeh; Yazdanparast, Razieh Nouri, Kazem

    2011-06-15

    Since the adequate supply of guanine nucleotides is vital for cellular activities, limitation of their syntheses would certainly result in modulation of cellular fate toward differentiation and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to set a correlation between the intracellular level of GTP and the induction of relevant signaling pathways involved in the cell's fate toward life or death. In that regard, we measured the GTP level among human leukemia K562 cells exposed to mycophenolic acid (MPA) or 3-hydrogenkwadaphnin (3-HK) as two potent inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors. Our results supported the maturation of the cells when the intracellular GTP level was reduced by almost 30-40%. Under these conditions, 3-HK and/or MPA caused up-regulation of PKC{alpha} and PI3K/AKT pathways. Furthermore, co-treatment of cells with hypoxanthine plus 3-HK or MPA, which caused a reduction of about 60% in the intracellular GTP levels, led to apoptosis and activation of mitochondrial pathways through inverse regulation of Bcl-2/Bax expression and activation of caspase-3. Moreover, our results demonstrated that attenuation of GTP by almost 60% augmented the intracellular ROS and nuclear localization of p21 and subsequently led to cell death. These results suggest that two different threshold levels of GTP are needed for induction of differentiation and/or ROS-associated apoptosis. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted

  10. RhoGDIα Acetylation at K127 and K141 Affects Binding toward Nonprenylated RhoA.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, Nora; Wroblowski, Sarah; Scislowski, Lukas; Lammers, Michael

    2016-01-19

    Rho proteins are major regulators of the cytoskeleton. As most Ras-related proteins, they switch between an active, GTP-bound and an inactive, GDP-bound conformation. Rho proteins are targeted to the plasma membrane via a polybasic region and a prenyl group attached to a C-terminal cysteine residue. To distribute Rho proteins in the cell, the molecular chaperone RhoGDIα binds to the prenylated Rho proteins forming a cytosolic pool of mainly GDP-loaded Rho. Most studies characterized the interaction of prenylated Rho proteins and RhoGDIα. However, RhoGDIα was also shown to bind to nonprenylated Rho proteins with physiologically relevant micomolar affinities. Recently, it was discovered that RhoGDIα is targeted by post-translational lysine acetylation. For one site, K141, it was hypothesized that acetylation might lead to increased levels of formation of filamentous actin and filopodia in mammalian cells. The functional consequences of lysine acetylation for the interplay with nonprenylated RhoA have not been investigated. Here, we report that lysine acetylation at lysines K127 and K141 in the RhoGDIα immunoglobulin domain interferes with the interaction toward nonprenylated RhoA using a combined biochemical and biophysical approach. We determined the first crystal structure of a doubly acetylated protein, RhoGDIα, in complex with RhoA·GDP. We discover that the C-terminus of RhoA adopts a different conformation forming an intermolecular β-sheet with the RhoGDIα immunoglobulin domain.

  11. Biochemical and functional characterization of the ROC domain of DAPK establishes a new paradigm of GTP regulation in ROCO proteins.

    PubMed

    Bialik, Shani; Kimchi, Adi

    2012-10-01

    DAPK (death-associated protein kinase) is a newly recognized member of the mammalian family of ROCO proteins, characterized by common ROC (Ras of complex proteins) and COR (C-terminal of ROC) domains. In the present paper, we review our recent work showing that DAPK is functionally a ROCO protein; its ROC domain binds and hydrolyses GTP. Furthermore, GTP binding regulates DAPK catalytic activity in a novel manner by enhancing autophosphorylation on inhibitory Ser308, thereby promoting the kinase 'off' state. This is a novel mechanism for in cis regulation of kinase activity by the distal ROC domain. The functional similarities between DAPK and the Parkinson's disease-associated protein LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat protein kinase 2), another member of the ROCO family, are also discussed.

  12. Unique 5′-P recognition and basis for dG:dGTP misincorporation of ASFV DNA polymerase X

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiqing; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Hehua; Gao, Yanqing; Li, Xuhang; Zheng, Lina; Cui, Ruixue; Yao, Qingqing; Rong, Liang; Li, Jixi; Huang, Zhen; Ma, Jinbiao; Gan, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) can cause highly lethal disease in pigs and is becoming a global threat. ASFV DNA Polymerase X (AsfvPolX) is the most distinctive DNA polymerase identified to date; it lacks two DNA-binding domains (the thumb domain and 8-KD domain) conserved in the homologous proteins. AsfvPolX catalyzes the gap-filling reaction during the DNA repair process of the ASFV virus genome; it is highly error prone and plays an important role during the strategic mutagenesis of the viral genome. The structural basis underlying the natural substrate binding and the most frequent dG:dGTP misincorporation of AsfvPolX remain poorly understood. Here, we report eight AsfvPolX complex structures; our structures demonstrate that AsfvPolX has one unique 5′-phosphate (5′-P) binding pocket, which can favor the productive catalytic complex assembly and enhance the dGTP misincorporation efficiency. In combination with mutagenesis and in vitro catalytic assays, our study also reveals the functional roles of the platform His115-Arg127 and the hydrophobic residues Val120 and Leu123 in dG:dGTP misincorporation and can provide information for rational drug design to help combat ASFV in the future. PMID:28245220

  13. Mutations in the putative calcium-binding domain of polyomavirus VP1 affect capsid assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, J. I. 2nd; Chang, D.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Calcium ions appear to play a major role in maintaining the structural integrity of the polyomavirus and are likely involved in the processes of viral uncoating and assembly. Previous studies demonstrated that a VP1 fragment extending from Pro-232 to Asp-364 has calcium-binding capabilities. This fragment contains an amino acid stretch from Asp-266 to Glu-277 which is quite similar in sequence to the amino acids that make up the calcium-binding EF hand structures found in many proteins. To assess the contribution of this domain to polyomavirus structural integrity, the effects of mutations in this region were examined by transfecting mutated viral DNA into susceptible cells. Immunofluorescence studies indicated that although viral protein synthesis occurred normally, infective viral progeny were not produced in cells transfected with polyomavirus genomes encoding either a VP1 molecule lacking amino acids Thr-262 through Gly-276 or a VP1 molecule containing a mutation of Asp-266 to Ala. VP1 molecules containing the deletion mutation were unable to bind 45Ca in an in vitro assay. Upon expression in Escherichia coli and purification by immunoaffinity chromatography, wild-type VP1 was isolated as pentameric, capsomere-like structures which could be induced to form capsid-like structures upon addition of CaCl2, consistent with previous studies. However, although VP1 containing the point mutation was isolated as pentamers which were indistinguishable from wild-type VP1 pentamers, addition of CaCl2 did not result in their assembly into capsid-like structures. Immunogold labeling and electron microscopy studies of transfected mammalian cells provided in vivo evidence that a mutation in this region affects the process of viral assembly.

  14. High-Density Lipoprotein Binds to Mycobacterium avium and Affects the Infection of THP-1 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ichimura, Naoya; Sato, Megumi; Yoshimoto, Akira; Yano, Kouji; Ohkawa, Ryunosuke; Kasama, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is involved in innate immunity toward various infectious diseases. Concerning bacteria, HDL is known to bind to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to neutralize its physiological activity. On the other hand, cholesterol is known to play an important role in mycobacterial entry into host cells and in survival in the intracellular environment. However, the pathogenicity of Mycobacterium avium (M. avium) infection, which tends to increase worldwide, remains poorly studied. Here we report that HDL indicated a stronger interaction with M. avium than that with other Gram-negative bacteria containing abundant LPS. A binding of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, the main protein component of HDL, with a specific lipid of M. avium might participate in this interaction. HDL did not have a direct bactericidal activity toward M. avium but attenuated the engulfment of M. avium by THP-1 macrophages. HDL also did not affect bacterial killing after ingestion of live M. avium by THP-1 macrophage. Furthermore, HDL strongly promoted the formation of lipid droplets in M. avium-infected THP-1 macrophages. These observations provide new insights into the relationship between M. avium infection and host lipoproteins, especially HDL. Thus, HDL may help M. avium to escape from host innate immunity. PMID:27516907

  15. The CREB-binding protein affects the circadian regulation of behaviour.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Christian; Winter, Tobias; Chen, Siwei; Hung, Hsiu-Cheng; Weber, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Rhythmic changes in light and temperature conditions form the primary environmental cues that synchronize the molecular circadian clock of most species with the external cycles of day and night. Previous studies established a role for the CREB-binding protein (CBP) in molecular clock function by coactivation of circadian transcription. Here, we report that moderately increased levels of CBP strongly dampen circadian behavioural rhythms without affecting molecular oscillations of circadian transcription. Interestingly, light-dark cycles as well as high temperature facilitated a circadian control of behavioural activity. Based on these observations we propose that in addition to its coactivator function for circadian transcription, CBP is involved in the regulation of circadian behaviour down-stream of the circadian clock.

  16. Transcriptome Analysis of Escherichia coli during dGTP Starvation

    PubMed Central

    Itsko, Mark

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Our laboratory recently discovered that Escherichia coli cells starved for the DNA precursor dGTP are killed efficiently (dGTP starvation) in a manner similar to that described for thymineless death (TLD). Conditions for specific dGTP starvation can be achieved by depriving an E. coli optA1 gpt strain of the purine nucleotide precursor hypoxanthine (Hx). To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying dGTP starvation, we conducted genome-wide gene expression analyses of actively growing optA1 gpt cells subjected to hypoxanthine deprivation for increasing periods. The data show that upon Hx withdrawal, the optA1 gpt strain displays a diminished ability to derepress the de novo purine biosynthesis genes, likely due to internal guanine accumulation. The impairment in fully inducing the purR regulon may be a contributing factor to the lethality of dGTP starvation. At later time points, and coinciding with cell lethality, strong induction of the SOS response was observed, supporting the concept of replication stress as a final cause of death. No evidence was observed in the starved cells for the participation of other stress responses, including the rpoS-mediated global stress response, reinforcing the lack of feedback of replication stress to the global metabolism of the cell. The genome-wide expression data also provide direct evidence for increased genome complexity during dGTP starvation, as a markedly increased gradient was observed for expression of genes located near the replication origin relative to those located toward the replication terminus. IMPORTANCE Control of the supply of the building blocks (deoxynucleoside triphosphates [dNTPs]) for DNA replication is important for ensuring genome integrity and cell viability. When cells are starved specifically for one of the four dNTPs, dGTP, the process of DNA replication is disturbed in a manner that can lead to eventual death. In the present study, we investigated the transcriptional changes in the

  17. CTCF-mediated reduction of vigilin binding affects the binding of HP1α to the satellite 2 locus.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wen-Yan; Liu, Qiu-Ying; Wei, Ling; Yu, Xiao-Qin; Li, Ran; Yang, Wen-Li; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Wen-Quan; Huang, Yuan; Qin, Yang

    2014-05-02

    CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) has been implicated in numerous aspects of chromosome biology, and vigilin, a multi-KH-domain protein, participates in heterochromatin formation and chromosome segregation. We previously showed that CTCF interacts with vigilin. Here, we show that human vigilin, but not CTCF, colocalizes with HP1α on heterochromatic satellite 2 and β-satellite repeats. CTCF up-regulates the transcription of satellite 2, while vigilin down-regulates it. Vigilin depletion or CTCF overexpression reduces the binding of HP1α on the satellite 2 locus. Furthermore, overexpression of CTCF resists the loading of vigilin onto the satellite 2 locus. Thus CTCF may regulate vigilin behavior and thus indirectly influence the binding of HP1α to the satellite 2 locus.

  18. Mutant Huntingtin Impairs BDNF Release from Astrocytes by Disrupting Conversion of Rab3a-GTP into Rab3a-GDP

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yan; Zhao, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for neuronal differentiation and survival. We know that BDNF levels decline in the brains of patients with Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disease caused by the expression of mutant huntingtin protein (mHtt), and furthermore that administration of BDNF in HD mice is protective against HD neuropathology. BDNF is produced in neurons, but astrocytes are also an important source of BDNF in the brain. Nonetheless, whether mHtt affects astrocytic BDNF in the HD brain remains unknown. Here we investigated astrocytes from HD140Q knock-in mice and uncovered evidence that mHtt decreases BDNF secretion from astrocytes, which is mediated by exocytosis in astrocytes. Our results demonstrate that mHtt associates with Rab3a, a small GTPase localized on membranes of dense-core vesicles, and prevents GTP-Rab3a from binding to Rab3-GAP1, disrupting the conversion of GTP-Rab3a into GDP-Rab3a and thus impairing the docking of BDNF vesicles on plasma membranes of astrocytes. Importantly, overexpression of Rab3a rescues impaired BDNF vesicle docking and secretion from HD astrocytes. Moreover, ATP release and the number of ATP-containing dense-core vesicles docking are decreased in HD astrocytes, suggesting that the exocytosis of dense-core vesicles is impaired by mHtt in HD astrocytes. Further, Rab3a overexpression reduces reactive astrocytes in the striatum of HD140Q knock-in mice. Our results indicate that compromised exocytosis of BDNF in HD astrocytes contributes to the decreased BDNF levels in HD brains and underscores the importance of improving glial function in the treatment of HD. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder that affects one in every 10,000 Americans. To date, there is no effective treatment for HD, in part because the pathogenic mechanism driving the disease is not fully understood. The dysfunction of astrocytes is known to contribute to the

  19. Thiostrepton inhibits stable 70S ribosome binding and ribosome-dependent GTPase activation of elongation factor G and elongation factor 4

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Justin D.; Hunter, Margaret; Cobb, Melanie; Traeger, Geoff; Spiegel, P. Clint

    2012-01-01

    Thiostrepton, a macrocyclic thiopeptide antibiotic, inhibits prokaryotic translation by interfering with the function of elongation factor G (EF-G). Here, we have used 70S ribosome binding and GTP hydrolysis assays to study the effects of thiostrepton on EF-G and a newly described translation factor, elongation factor 4 (EF4). In the presence of thiostrepton, ribosome-dependent GTP hydrolysis is inhibited for both EF-G and EF4, with IC(50) values equivalent to the 70S ribosome concentration (0.15 µM). Further studies indicate the mode of thiostrepton inhibition is to abrogate the stable binding of EF-G and EF4 to the 70S ribosome. In support of this model, an EF-G truncation variant that does not possess domains IV and V was shown to possess ribosome-dependent GTP hydrolysis activity that was not affected by the presence of thiostrepton (>100 µM). Lastly, chemical footprinting was employed to examine the nature of ribosome interaction and tRNA movements associated with EF4. In the presence of non-hydrolyzable GTP, EF4 showed chemical protections similar to EF-G and stabilized a ratcheted state of the 70S ribosome. These data support the model that thiostrepton inhibits stable GTPase binding to 70S ribosomal complexes, and a model for the first step of EF4-catalyzed reverse-translocation is presented. PMID:21908407

  20. SR-like RNA-binding protein Slr1 affects Candida albicans filamentation and virulence.

    PubMed

    Ariyachet, Chaiyaboot; Solis, Norma V; Liu, Yaoping; Prasadarao, Nemani V; Filler, Scott G; McBride, Anne E

    2013-04-01

    Candida albicans causes both mucosal and disseminated infections, and its capacity to grow as both yeast and hyphae is a key virulence factor. Hyphal formation is a type of polarized growth, and members of the SR (serine-arginine) family of RNA-binding proteins influence polarized growth of both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus nidulans. Therefore, we investigated whether SR-like proteins affect filamentous growth and virulence of C. albicans. BLAST searches with S. cerevisiae SR-like protein Npl3 (ScNpl3) identified two C. albicans proteins: CaNpl3, an apparent ScNpl3 ortholog, and Slr1, another SR-like RNA-binding protein with no close S. cerevisiae ortholog. Whereas ScNpl3 was critical for growth, deletion of NPL3 in C. albicans resulted in few phenotypic changes. In contrast, the slr1Δ/Δ mutant had a reduced growth rate in vitro, decreased filamentation, and impaired capacity to damage epithelial and endothelial cells in vitro. Mice infected intravenously with the slr1Δ/Δ mutant strain had significantly prolonged survival compared to that of mice infected with the wild-type or slr1Δ/Δ mutant complemented with SLR1 (slr1Δ/Δ+SLR1) strain, without a concomitant decrease in kidney fungal burden. Histopathology, however, revealed differential localization of slr1Δ/Δ hyphal and yeast morphologies within the kidney. Mice infected with slr1Δ/Δ cells also had an increased brain fungal burden, which correlated with increased invasion of brain, but not umbilical vein, endothelial cells in vitro. The enhanced brain endothelial cell invasion was likely due to the increased surface exposure of the Als3 adhesin on slr1Δ/Δ cells. Our results indicate that Slr1 is an SR-like protein that influences C. albicans growth, filamentation, host cell interactions, and virulence.

  1. Proteome-wide Discovery and Characterizations of Nucleotide-binding Proteins with Affinity-labeled Chemical Probes

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yongsheng; Guo, Lei; Jiang, Xinning; Wang, Yinsheng

    2013-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding proteins play pivotal roles in many cellular processes including cell signaling. However, targeted study of sub-proteome of nucleotide-binding proteins, especially protein kinases and GTP-binding proteins, remained challenging. Here, we reported a general strategy in using affinity-labeled chemical probes to enrich, identify, and quantify ATP- and GTP-binding proteins in the entire human proteome. Our results revealed that the ATP/GTP affinity probes facilitated the identification of 100 GTP-binding proteins and 206 kinases with the use of low mg quantities of lysate of HL-60 cells. In combination with the use of SILAC-based quantitative proteomics method, we assessed the ATP/GTP binding selectivities of nucleotide-binding proteins at the global proteome scale. Our results confirmed known and, more importantly, unveiled new ATP/GTP-binding preferences of hundreds of nucleotide-binding proteins. Additionally, our strategy led to the identification of three and one unique nucleotide-binding motifs for kinases and GTP-binding proteins, respectively, and the characterizations of the nucleotide binding selectivities of individual motifs. Our strategy for capturing and characterizing ATP/GTP-binding proteins should be generally applicable for those proteins that can interact with other nucleotides. PMID:23413923

  2. Higher-order septin assembly is driven by GTP-promoted conformational changes: evidence from unbiased mutational analysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Weems, Andrew D; Johnson, Courtney R; Argueso, Juan Lucas; McMurray, Michael A

    2014-03-01

    Septin proteins bind GTP and heterooligomerize into filaments with conserved functions across a wide range of eukaryotes. Most septins hydrolyze GTP, altering the oligomerization interfaces; yet mutations designed to abolish nucleotide binding or hydrolysis by yeast septins perturb function only at high temperatures. Here, we apply an unbiased mutational approach to this problem. Mutations causing defects at high temperature mapped exclusively to the oligomerization interface encompassing the GTP-binding pocket, or to the pocket itself. Strikingly, cold-sensitive defects arise when certain of these same mutations are coexpressed with a wild-type allele, suggestive of a novel mode of dominance involving incompatibility between mutant and wild-type molecules at the septin-septin interfaces that mediate filament polymerization. A different cold-sensitive mutant harbors a substitution in an unstudied but highly conserved region of the septin Cdc12. A homologous domain in the small GTPase Ran allosterically regulates GTP-binding domain conformations, pointing to a possible new functional domain in some septins. Finally, we identify a mutation in septin Cdc3 that restores the high-temperature assembly competence of a mutant allele of septin Cdc10, likely by adopting a conformation more compatible with nucleotide-free Cdc10. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that GTP binding and hydrolysis promote, but are not required for, one-time events--presumably oligomerization-associated conformational changes--during assembly of the building blocks of septin filaments. Restrictive temperatures impose conformational constraints on mutant septin proteins, preventing new assembly and in certain cases destabilizing existing assemblies. These insights from yeast relate directly to disease-causing mutations in human septins.

  3. Structural model of FeoB, the iron transporter from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, predicts a cysteine lined, GTP-gated pore

    PubMed Central

    Seyedmohammad, Saeed; Fuentealba, Natalia Alveal; Marriott, Robert A.J.; Goetze, Tom A.; Edwardson, J. Michael; Barrera, Nelson P.; Venter, Henrietta

    2016-01-01

    Iron is essential for the survival and virulence of pathogenic bacteria. The FeoB transporter allows the bacterial cell to acquire ferrous iron from its environment, making it an excellent drug target in intractable pathogens. The protein consists of an N-terminal GTP-binding domain and a C-terminal membrane domain. Despite the availability of X-ray crystal structures of the N-terminal domain, many aspects of the structure and function of FeoB remain unclear, such as the structure of the membrane domain, the oligomeric state of the protein, the molecular mechanism of iron transport, and how this is coupled to GTP hydrolysis at the N-terminal domain. In the present study, we describe the first homology model of FeoB. Due to the lack of sequence homology between FeoB and other transporters, the structures of four different proteins were used as templates to generate the homology model of full-length FeoB, which predicts a trimeric structure. We confirmed this trimeric structure by both blue-native-PAGE (BN-PAGE) and AFM. According to our model, the membrane domain of the trimeric protein forms a central pore lined by highly conserved cysteine residues. This pore aligns with a central pore in the N-terminal GTPase domain (G-domain) lined by aspartate residues. Biochemical analysis of FeoB from Pseudomonas aeruginosa further reveals a putative iron sensor domain that could connect GTP binding/hydrolysis to the opening of the pore. These results indicate that FeoB might not act as a transporter, but rather as a GTP-gated channel. PMID:26934982

  4. Water molecules inside protein structure affect binding of monosaccharides with HIV-1 antibody 2G12.

    PubMed

    Ueno-Noto, Kaori; Takano, Keiko

    2016-10-05

    Water molecules inside biomolecules constitute integral parts of their structure and participate in the functions of the proteins. Some of the X-ray crystallographic data are insufficient for analyzing a series of ligand-protein complexes in the same condition. We theoretically investigated antibody binding abilities of saccharide ligands and the effects of the inner water molecules of ligand-antibody complexes. Classical molecular dynamics and quantum chemical simulations using a model with possible water molecules inside the protein were performed with saccharide ligands and Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 neutralizing antibody 2G12 complexes to estimate how inner water molecules of the protein affect the dynamics of the complexes as well as the ligand-antibody interaction. Our results indicate the fact that d-fructose's strong affinity to the antibody was partly due to the good retentiveness of solvent water molecules of the ligand and its stability of the ligand's conformation and relative position in the active site. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Nanog RNA-binding proteins YBX1 and ILF3 affect pluripotency of embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chuanliang; Xue, Yan; Yang, Guanheng; Yin, Shang; Shi, Wansheng; Cheng, Yan; Yan, Xiaoshuang; Fan, Shuyue; Zhang, Huijun; Zeng, Fanyi

    2016-08-01

    Nanog is a well-known transcription factor that plays a fundamental role in stem cell self-renewal and the maintenance of their pluripotent cell identity. There remains a large data gap with respect to the spectrum of the key pluripotency transcription factors' interaction partners. Limited information is available concerning Nanog-associated RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), and the intrinsic protein-RNA interactions characteristic of the regulatory activities of Nanog. Herein, we used an improved affinity protocol to purify Nanog-interacting RBPs from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and 49 RBPs of Nanog were identified. Among them, the interaction of YBX1 and ILF3 with Nanog mRNA was further confirmed by in vitro assays, such as Western blot, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), and ex vivo methods, such as immunofluorescence staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), MS2 in vivo biotin-tagged RNA affinity purification (MS2-BioTRAP). Interestingly, RNAi studies revealed that YBX1 and ILF3 positively affected the expression of Nanog and other pluripotency-related genes. Particularly, downregulation of YBX1 or ILF3 resulted in high expression of mesoderm markers. Thus, a reduction in the expression of YBX1 and ILF3 controls the expression of pluripotency-related genes in ESCs, suggesting their roles in further regulation of the pluripotent state of ESCs.

  6. Cellular glycosylation affects Herceptin binding and sensitivity of breast cancer cells to doxorubicin and growth factors

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, Diluka; Spector, Alexander F.; Lomax-Browne, Hannah; Azimi, Tayebeh; Ramesh, Bala; Loizidou, Marilena; Welch, Hazel; Dwek, Miriam V.

    2017-01-01

    Alterations in protein glycosylation are a key feature of oncogenesis and have been shown to affect cancer cell behaviour perturbing cell adhesion, favouring cell migration and metastasis. This study investigated the effect of N-linked glycosylation on the binding of Herceptin to HER2 protein in breast cancer and on the sensitivity of cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (DXR) and growth factors (EGF and IGF-1). The interaction between Herceptin and recombinant HER2 protein and cancer cell surfaces (on-rate/off-rate) was assessed using a quartz crystal microbalance biosensor revealing an increase in the accessibility of HER2 to Herceptin following deglycosylation of cell membrane proteins (deglycosylated cells Bmax: 6.83 Hz; glycosylated cells Bmax: 7.35 Hz). The sensitivity of cells to DXR and to growth factors was evaluated using an MTT assay. Maintenance of SKBR-3 cells in tunicamycin (an inhibitor of N-linked glycosylation) resulted in an increase in sensitivity to DXR (0.1 μM DXR P < 0.001) and a decrease in sensitivity to IGF-1 alone and to IGF-1 supplemented with EGF (P < 0.001). This report illustrates the importance of N-linked glycosylation in modulating the response of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic and biological treatments and highlights the potential of glycosylation inhibitors as future combination treatments for breast cancer. PMID:28223691

  7. Bile acid salt binding with colesevelam HCl is not affected by suspension in common beverages.

    PubMed

    Hanus, Martin; Zhorov, Eugene

    2006-12-01

    It has been previously reported that anions in common beverages may bind to bile acid sequestrants (BAS), reducing their capacity for binding bile acid salts. This study examined the ability of the novel BAS colesevelam hydrochloride (HCl), in vitro, to bind bile acid sodium salts following suspension in common beverages. Equilibrium binding was evaluated under conditions of constant time and varying concentrations of bile acid salts in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). A stock solution of sodium salts of glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC), and glycocholic acid (GC), was added to each prepared sample of colesevelam HCl. Bile acid salt binding was calculated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Kinetics experiments were conducted using constant initial bile acid salt concentrations and varying binding times. The affinity, capacity, and kinetics of colesevelam HCl binding for GCDC, TDC, and GC were not significantly altered after suspension in water, carbonated water, Coca-Cola, Sprite, grape juice, orange juice, tomato juice, or Gatorade. The amount of bile acid sodium salt bound as a function of time was unchanged by pretreatment with any beverage tested. The in vitro binding characteristics of colesevelam HCl are unchanged by suspension in common beverages.

  8. The pebble GTP exchange factor and the control of cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, L; Somers, W G; Harley, A; Saint, R

    2001-12-01

    Several G proteins of the Rho family have been shown to be required for cytokinesis. The activity of these proteins is regulated by GTP exchange factors (GEFs), which stimulate GDP/GTP exchange, and by GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), which suppress activity by stimulating the intrinsic GTPase activity. The role of Rho family members during cytokinesis is likely to be determined by their spatial and temporal interactions with these factors. Here we focus on the role of the pebble (pbl) gene of Drosophila melanogaster, a RhoGEF that is required for cytokinesis. We summarise the evidence that the primary target of PBL is Rho1 and describe genetic approaches to elucidating the function of PBL and identifying other components of the PBL-activated Rho signalling pathway.

  9. Stability of the Octameric Structure Affects Plasminogen-Binding Capacity of Streptococcal Enolase

    PubMed Central

    Law, Ruby H. P.; Casey, Lachlan W.; Valkov, Eugene; Bertozzi, Carlo; Stamp, Anna; Jovcevski, Blagojce; Aquilina, J. Andrew; Whisstock, James C.; Walker, Mark J.; Kobe, Bostjan

    2015-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human pathogen that has the potential to cause invasive disease by binding and activating human plasmin(ogen). Streptococcal surface enolase (SEN) is an octameric α-enolase that is localized at the GAS cell surface. In addition to its glycolytic role inside the cell, SEN functions as a receptor for plasmin(ogen) on the bacterial surface, but the understanding of the molecular basis of plasmin(ogen) binding is limited. In this study, we determined the crystal and solution structures of GAS SEN and characterized the increased plasminogen binding by two SEN mutants. The plasminogen binding ability of SENK312A and SENK362A is ~2- and ~3.4-fold greater than for the wild-type protein. A combination of thermal stability assays, native mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography approaches shows that increased plasminogen binding ability correlates with decreased stability of the octamer. We propose that decreased stability of the octameric structure facilitates the access of plasmin(ogen) to its binding sites, leading to more efficient plasmin(ogen) binding and activation. PMID:25807546

  10. A potential link between insulin signaling and GLUT4 translocation: Association of Rab10-GTP with the exocyst subunit Exoc6/6b

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, Hiroyuki; Peck, Grantley R.; Blachon, Stephanie; Lienhard, Gustav E.

    2015-09-25

    Insulin increases glucose transport in fat and muscle cells by stimulating the exocytosis of specialized vesicles containing the glucose transporter GLUT4. This process, which is referred to as GLUT4 translocation, increases the amount of GLUT4 at the cell surface. Previous studies have provided evidence that insulin signaling increases the amount of Rab10-GTP in the GLUT4 vesicles and that GLUT4 translocation requires the exocyst, a complex that functions in the tethering of vesicles to the plasma membrane, leading to exocytosis. In the present study we show that Rab10 in its GTP form binds to Exoc6 and Exoc6b, which are the two highly homologous isotypes of an exocyst subunit, that both isotypes are found in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and that knockdown of Exoc6, Exoc6b, or both inhibits GLUT4 translocation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These results suggest that the association of Rab10-GTP with Exoc6/6b is a molecular link between insulin signaling and the exocytic machinery in GLUT4 translocation. - Highlights: • Insulin stimulates the fusion of vesicles containing GLUT4 with the plasma membrane. • This requires vesicular Rab10-GTP and the exocyst plasma membrane tethering complex. • We find that Rab10-GTP associates with the Exoc6 subunit of the exocyst. • We find that knockdown of Exoc6 inhibits fusion of GLUT4 vesicles with the membrane. • The interaction of Rab10-GTP with Exoc6 potentially links signaling to exocytosis.

  11. Biochemical and functional characterization of Plasmodium falciparum GTP cyclohydrolase I

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antifolates are currently in clinical use for malaria preventive therapy and treatment. The drugs kill the parasites by targeting the enzymes in the de novo folate pathway. The use of antifolates has now been limited by the spread of drug-resistant mutations. GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCH1) is the first and the rate-limiting enzyme in the folate pathway. The amplification of the gch1 gene found in certain Plasmodium falciparum isolates can cause antifolate resistance and influence the course of antifolate resistance evolution. These findings showed the importance of P. falciparum GCH1 in drug resistance intervention. However, little is known about P. falciparum GCH1 in terms of kinetic parameters and functional assays, precluding the opportunity to obtain the key information on its catalytic reaction and to eventually develop this enzyme as a drug target. Methods Plasmodium falciparum GCH1 was cloned and expressed in bacteria. Enzymatic activity was determined by the measurement of fluorescent converted neopterin with assay validation by using mutant and GTP analogue. The genetic complementation study was performed in ∆folE bacteria to functionally identify the residues and domains of P. falciparum GCH1 required for its enzymatic activity. Plasmodial GCH1 sequences were aligned and structurally modeled to reveal conserved catalytic residues. Results Kinetic parameters and optimal conditions for enzymatic reactions were determined by the fluorescence-based assay. The inhibitor test against P. falciparum GCH1 is now possible as indicated by the inhibitory effect by 8-oxo-GTP. Genetic complementation was proven to be a convenient method to study the function of P. falciparum GCH1. A series of domain truncations revealed that the conserved core domain of GCH1 is responsible for its enzymatic activity. Homology modelling fits P. falciparum GCH1 into the classic Tunnelling-fold structure with well-conserved catalytic residues at the active site. Conclusions

  12. Histamine H3-receptor activation augments voltage-dependent Ca2+ current via GTP hydrolysis in rabbit saphenous artery.

    PubMed

    Oike, M; Kitamura, K; Kuriyama, H

    1992-03-01

    1. Actions of histamine on the voltage-dependent Ba2+(Ca2+) currents (IBa, ICa) were investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique on dispersed smooth muscle cells from the rabbit saphenous artery. 2. Histamine (half-maximal dose, EC50 = 530 nM) augmented the IBa evoked by a brief depolarizing pulse (100 ms duration; to +10 mV from a holding potential of -80 mV) in a concentration-dependent manner. The maximum augmentation was obtained with 30 microM-histamine (1.29 times control). This augmentation of IBa was inhibited by the H3-antagonist, thioperamide (Ki = 30 nM, slope of the Schild plot = 1.0), but not by H1- or H2-antagonists (mepyramine or diphenhydramine, or cimetidine, respectively). 3. An H3-agonist, R alpha-methylhistamine (EC50 = 93 nM), also augmented IBa in a concentration-dependent manner at a holding potential of -80 mV and the maximum augmentation (1.25 times control) was obtained with 10 microM. This augmentation was also inhibited by thioperamide, but not by the above H1- and H2- antagonists. 4. Intracellularly applied 500 microM-guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) enhanced, but 1 mM-guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDP beta S) abolished, the histamine-induced augmentation of IBa. When one of the non-hydrolysable GTP analogues, guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP gamma S; greater than 5 microM), guanylyl-imidodiphosphate (GMP-PNP; 200 microM) or guanylyl (beta, gamma-methylene)-diphosphonate (GMP-PCP; 1 mM) was intracellularly applied, the IBa amplitude evoked without the application of histamine was not affected, but the excitatory effect of histamine on IBa was reversed to an inhibition. Pre-treatment with pertussis toxin (PTX: 300 ng/ml and 3 micrograms/ml) did not modify the histamine-induced responses in the absence or presence of GTP gamma S. 5. 4 beta-Phorbol 12,13-dibutylate (PDBu) increased the amplitude of IBa. However, this action of PDBu was not enhanced by the application of GTP (500 microM) in the pipette, but

  13. Phosphorylation states of translational initiation factors affect mRNA cap binding in wheat.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mateen A; Goss, Dixie J

    2004-07-20

    Phosphorylation of eukaryotic translational initiation factors (eIFs) has been shown to be an important means of regulating protein synthesis. Plant initiation factors undergo phosphorylation/dephosphorylation under a variety of stress and growth conditions. We have shown that recombinant wheat cap-binding protein, eIF(iso)4E, produced from E. coli can be phosphorylated in vitro. Phosphorylation of eIF(iso)4E has effects on m(7)G cap-binding affinity similar to those of phosphorylation of mammalian eIF4E even though eIF(iso)4E lacks an amino acid that can be phosphorylated at the residue corresponding to Ser-209, the phosphorylation site in mammalian eIF4E. The cap-binding affinity was reduced 1.2-2.6-fold when eIF(iso)4E was phosphorylated. The in vitro phosphorylation site for wheat eIF(iso)4E was identified as Ser-207. Addition of eIF(iso)4G and eIF4B that had also been phosphorylated in vitro further reduced cap-binding affinity. Temperature-dependent studies showed that DeltaH(degrees) was favorable for cap binding regardless of the phosphorylation state of the initiation factors. The entropy, however, was unfavorable (negative) except when eIF(iso)4E was phosphorylated and interacting with eIF(iso)4G. Phosphorylation may modulate not only cap-binding activity, but other functions of eukaryotic initiation factors as well.

  14. Identification of Residues in Domain III of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac Toxin That Affect Binding and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Kyong; You, Taek H.; Gould, Fred L.; Dean, Donald H.

    1999-01-01

    Alanine substitution mutations in the Cry1Ac domain III region, from amino acid residues 503 to 525, were constructed to study the functional role of domain III in the toxicity and receptor binding of the protein to Lymantria dispar, Manduca sexta, and Heliothis virescens. Five sets of alanine block mutants were generated at the residues 503SS504, 506NNI508, 509QNR511, 522ST523, and 524ST525. Single alanine substitutions were made at the residues 509Q, 510N, 511R, and 513Y. All mutant proteins produced stable toxic fragments as judged by trypsin digestion, midgut enzyme digestion, and circular dichroism spectrum analysis. The mutations, 503SS504-AA, 506NNI508-AAA, 522ST523-AA, 524ST525-AA, and 510N-A affected neither the protein’s toxicity nor its binding to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) prepared from these insects. Toward L. dispar and M. sexta, the 509QNR511-AAA, 509Q-A, 511R-A, and 513Y-A mutant toxins showed 4- to 10-fold reductions in binding affinities to BBMV, with 2- to 3-fold reductions in toxicity. Toward H. virescens, the 509QNR511-AAA, 509Q-A, 511R-A, and 513Y-mutant toxins showed 8- to 22-fold reductions in binding affinities, but only 509QNR511-AAA and 511R-A mutant toxins reduced toxicity by approximately three to four times. In the present study, greater loss in binding affinity relative to toxicity has been observed. These data suggest that the residues 509Q, 511R, and 513Y in domain III might be only involved in initial binding to the receptor and that the initial binding step becomes rate limiting only when it is reduced more than fivefold. PMID:10508083

  15. Intrinsic GTP hydrolysis is observed for a switch 1 variant of Cdc42 in the presence of a specific GTPase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Kyla M.; Henderson, Rory; Suresh Kumar, Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy; Heyes, Colin D.; Adams, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Ras-related protein Cell division cycle 42 (Cdc42) is important in cell-signaling processes. Protein interactions involving Cdc42 occur primarily in flexible “Switch” regions that help regulate effector binding. We studied the kinetics of intrinsic GTP hydrolysis reaction in the absence and presence of a biologically active peptide derivative of a p21-activated kinase effector (PBD46) for wt Cdc42 and compared it to the Switch 1 variant Cdc42(T35A). While the binding of PBD46 to wt Cdc42 results in complete inhibition of GTP hydrolysis, this interaction in Cdc42(T35A) does not. Comparison of the crystal structure of wt Cdc42 in the absence of effector (1AN0.pdb), as well as the NMR structure of wt Cdc42 bound to an effector in the Switch 1 region (1CF4.pdb) (www.rcsb.org) suggests that the orientation of T35 with bound Mg2+ changes in the presence of effector, resulting in movement of GTP away from the catalytic box leading to the inhibition of GTP hydrolysis. For Cdc42(T35A), molecular dynamics simulations and structural analyses suggest that the nucleotide does not undergo the conformational shift observed for the wt Cdc42-effector interaction. Our data suggest that change in dynamics in the Switch 1 region of Cdc42 caused by the T35A mutation (Chandrashekar, et al. 2011, Biochemistry, 50, p. 6196) fosters a conformation for this Cdc42 variant that allows hydrolysis of GTP in the presence of PBD46, and that alteration of the conformational dynamics could potentially modulate Ras-related over-activity. PMID:26828437

  16. Intrinsic GTP hydrolysis is observed for a switch 1 variant of Cdc42 in the presence of a specific GTPase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Morris, Kyla M; Henderson, Rory; Suresh Kumar, Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy; Heyes, Colin D; Adams, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    The Ras-related protein Cell division cycle 42 (Cdc42) is important in cell-signaling processes. Protein interactions involving Cdc42 occur primarily in flexible "Switch" regions that help regulate effector binding. We studied the kinetics of intrinsic GTP hydrolysis reaction in the absence and presence of a biologically active peptide derivative of a p21-activated kinase effector (PBD46) for wt Cdc42 and compared it to the Switch 1 variant Cdc42(T35A). While the binding of PBD46 to wt Cdc42 results in complete inhibition of GTP hydrolysis, this interaction in Cdc42(T35A) does not. Comparison of the crystal structure of wt Cdc42 in the absence of effector (1AN0.pdb), as well as the NMR structure of wt Cdc42 bound to an effector in the Switch 1 region (1CF4.pdb) ( www.rcsb.org ) suggests that the orientation of T(35) with bound Mg(2+) changes in the presence of effector, resulting in movement of GTP away from the catalytic box leading to the inhibition of GTP hydrolysis. For Cdc42(T35A), molecular dynamics simulations and structural analyses suggest that the nucleotide does not undergo the conformational shift observed for the wt Cdc42-effector interaction. Our data suggest that change in dynamics in the Switch 1 region of Cdc42 caused by the T35A mutation (Chandrashekar, et al. 2011, Biochemistry, 50, p. 6196) fosters a conformation for this Cdc42 variant that allows hydrolysis of GTP in the presence of PBD46, and that alteration of the conformational dynamics could potentially modulate Ras-related over-activity.

  17. The Binding Ring Illusion: assimilation affects the perceived size of a circular array

    PubMed Central

    Caplovitz, Gideon P

    2013-01-01

    Our perception of an object’s size arises from the integration of multiple sources of visual information including retinal size, perceived distance and its size relative to other objects in the visual field. This constructive process is revealed through a number of classic size illusions such as the Delboeuf Illusion, the Ebbinghaus Illusion and others illustrating size constancy. Here we present a novel variant of the Delbouef and Ebbinghaus size illusions that we have named the Binding Ring Illusion. The illusion is such that the perceived size of a circular array of elements is underestimated when superimposed by a circular contour – a binding ring – and overestimated when the binding ring slightly exceeds the overall size of the array. Here we characterize the stimulus conditions that lead to the illusion, and the perceptual principles that underlie it. Our findings indicate that the perceived size of an array is susceptible to the assimilation of an explicitly defined superimposed contour. Our results also indicate that the assimilation process takes place at a relatively high level in the visual processing stream, after different spatial frequencies have been integrated and global shape has been constructed. We hypothesize that the Binding Ring Illusion arises due to the fact that the size of an array of elements is not explicitly defined and therefore can be influenced (through a process of assimilation) by the presence of a superimposed object that does have an explicit size. PMID:24555042

  18. A new locus affects cell motility, cellulose binding, and degradation by Cytophaga hutchinsonii.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaofei; Xu, Yuanxi; Zhang, Cong; Chen, Ning; Lu, Xuemei

    2012-10-01

    Cytophaga hutchinsonii is a Gram-negative gliding bacterium, which can rapidly degrade crystalline cellulose via a novel strategy without any recognizable processive cellulases. Its mechanism of cellulose binding and degradation is still a mystery. In this study, the mutagenesis of C. hutchinsonii with the mariner-based transposon HimarEm3 and gene complementation with the oriC-based plasmid carrying the antibiotic resistance gene cfxA or tetQ were reported for the first time to provide valuable tools for mutagenesis and genetic manipulation of the bacterium. Mutant A-4 with a transposon mutation in gene CHU_0134, which encodes a putative thiol-disulfide isomerase exhibits defects in cell motility and cellulose degradation. The cellulose binding ability of A-4 was only half of that of the wild-type strain, while the endo-cellulase activity of the cell-free supernatants and on the intact cell surface of A-4 decreased by 40%. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteins binding to cellulose in the outer membrane showed that most of them were significantly decreased or disappeared in A-4 including some Gld proteins and hypothetical proteins, indicating that these proteins might play an important role in cell motility and cellulose binding and degradation by the bacterium.

  19. CacyBP/SIP binds ERK1/2 and affects transcriptional activity of Elk-1.

    PubMed

    Kilanczyk, Ewa; Filipek, Slawomir; Jastrzebska, Beata; Filipek, Anna

    2009-02-27

    In this work we showed for the first time that mouse CacyBP/SIP interacts with extracellular signal regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). We also established that a calcium binding protein, S100A6, competes for this interaction. Moreover, the E217K mutant of CacyBP/SIP does not bind significantly to ERK1/2 although it retains the ability to interact with S100A6. Molecular modeling shows that the E217K mutation in the 189-219 CacyBP/SIP fragment markedly changes its electrostatic potential, suggesting that the binding with ERK1/2 might have an electrostatic character. We also demonstrate that CacyBP/SIP-ERK1/2 interaction inhibits phosphorylation of the Elk-1 transcription factor in vitro and in the nuclear fraction of NB2a cells. Altogether, our data suggest that the binding of CacyBP/SIP with ERK1/2 might regulate Elk-1 phosphorylation/transcriptional activity and that S100A6 might further modulate this effect via Ca(2+)-dependent interaction with CacyBP/SIP and competition with ERK1/2.

  20. The Binding Ring Illusion: assimilation affects the perceived size of a circular array.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, J Daniel; Kupitz, Colin; Caplovitz, Gideon P

    2013-01-01

    Our perception of an object's size arises from the integration of multiple sources of visual information including retinal size, perceived distance and its size relative to other objects in the visual field. This constructive process is revealed through a number of classic size illusions such as the Delboeuf Illusion, the Ebbinghaus Illusion and others illustrating size constancy. Here we present a novel variant of the Delbouef and Ebbinghaus size illusions that we have named the Binding Ring Illusion. The illusion is such that the perceived size of a circular array of elements is underestimated when superimposed by a circular contour - a binding ring - and overestimated when the binding ring slightly exceeds the overall size of the array. Here we characterize the stimulus conditions that lead to the illusion, and the perceptual principles that underlie it. Our findings indicate that the perceived size of an array is susceptible to the assimilation of an explicitly defined superimposed contour. Our results also indicate that the assimilation process takes place at a relatively high level in the visual processing stream, after different spatial frequencies have been integrated and global shape has been constructed. We hypothesize that the Binding Ring Illusion arises due to the fact that the size of an array of elements is not explicitly defined and therefore can be influenced (through a process of assimilation) by the presence of a superimposed object that does have an explicit size.

  1. CacyBP/SIP binds ERK1/2 and affects transcriptional activity of Elk-1

    SciTech Connect

    Kilanczyk, Ewa; Filipek, Slawomir; Jastrzebska, Beata; Filipek, Anna

    2009-02-27

    In this work we showed for the first time that mouse CacyBP/SIP interacts with extracellular signal regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). We also established that a calcium binding protein, S100A6, competes for this interaction. Moreover, the E217K mutant of CacyBP/SIP does not bind significantly to ERK1/2 although it retains the ability to interact with S100A6. Molecular modeling shows that the E217K mutation in the 189-219 CacyBP/SIP fragment markedly changes its electrostatic potential, suggesting that the binding with ERK1/2 might have an electrostatic character. We also demonstrate that CacyBP/SIP-ERK1/2 interaction inhibits phosphorylation of the Elk-1 transcription factor in vitro and in the nuclear fraction of NB2a cells. Altogether, our data suggest that the binding of CacyBP/SIP with ERK1/2 might regulate Elk-1 phosphorylation/transcriptional activity and that S100A6 might further modulate this effect via Ca{sup 2+}-dependent interaction with CacyBP/SIP and competition with ERK1/2.

  2. Odorant-binding protein (OBP) genes affect host specificity in a fig-pollinator mutualistic system.

    PubMed

    Wang, N; Wang, N X; Niu, L M; Bian, S N; Xiao, J H; Huang, D W

    2014-10-01

    The interaction between figs and their pollinating wasps is regarded as a model system for studying specialized co-evolved mutualism. Chemoreception of fig wasps plays an important role in this interaction, and odorant-binding proteins (OBP) function in the first step of odorant detection. The OBP repertoire of the fig wasp Ceratosolen solmsi is reported to be one of the smallest among insects; however, it is unknown how these OBPs are related to the complicated mating process occurring within the fig cavity and the extreme host specificity of the species. In the present study, we combined a structural analysis of the conserved cysteine pattern and motif order, a phylogenetic analysis, and previous studies on ligand-binding assays to deduce the function of OBPs. We also quantified the expression of OBP genes in different life stages of female and male fig wasps by using real-time quantitative PCR, which can help to predict the function of these genes. The results indicated that CsolOBP1 and CsolOBP2 (or CsolOBP5) in males may bind to pheromones and play important roles in mate choice, whereas CsolOBP4 and CsolOBP5 may primarily function in host localization by females through binding of volatile compounds emitted by receptive figs.

  3. Specific Fluorine Labeling of the HyHEL10 Antibody Affects Antigen Binding and Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Acchione, Mauro; Lee, Yi-Chien; DeSantis, Morgan E.; Lipschultz, Claudia A.; Wlodawer, Alexander; Li, Mi; Shanmuganathan, Aranganathan; Walter, Richard L.; Smith-Gill, Sandra; Barchi, Jr., Joseph J.

    2012-10-16

    To more fully understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for variations in binding affinity with antibody maturation, we explored the use of site specific fluorine labeling and {sup 19}F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Several single-chain (scFv) antibodies, derived from an affinity-matured series of anti-hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) mouse IgG1, were constructed with either complete or individual replacement of tryptophan residues with 5-fluorotryptophan ({sup 5F}W). An array of biophysical techniques was used to gain insight into the impact of fluorine substitution on the overall protein structure and antigen binding. SPR measurements indicated that {sup 5F}W incorporation lowered binding affinity for the HEL antigen. The degree of analogue impact was residue-dependent, and the greatest decrease in affinity was observed when {sup 5F}W was substituted for residues near the binding interface. In contrast, corresponding crystal structures in complex with HEL were essentially indistinguishable from the unsubstituted antibody. {sup 19}F NMR analysis showed severe overlap of signals in the free fluorinated protein that was resolved upon binding to antigen, suggesting very distinct chemical environments for each {sup 5F}W in the complex. Preliminary relaxation analysis suggested the presence of chemical exchange in the antibody-antigen complex that could not be observed by X-ray crystallography. These data demonstrate that fluorine NMR can be an extremely useful tool for discerning structural changes in scFv antibody-antigen complexes with altered function that may not be discernible by other biophysical techniques.

  4. A wheat embryo cell-free protein synthesis system not requiring an exogenous supply of GTP.

    PubMed

    Koga, Hirohisa; Misawa, Satoru; Shibui, Tatsuro

    2009-01-01

    Most in vitro protein synthesis systems require a supply of GTP for the formation of translation initiation complexes, with two GTP molecules per amino acid needed as an energy source for a peptide elongation reaction. In order to optimize protein synthesis reactions in a continuous-flow wheat embryo cell-free system, we have examined the influence of adding GTP and found that the system does not require any supply of GTP. We report here the preparation of a wheat embryo extract from which endogenous GTP was removed by gel filtration, and the influence of adding GTP to the system on protein synthesis reactions. Using Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) as a reporter, higher levels of production were observed at lower concentrations of GTP, with the optimal level of production obtained with no supply of GTP. A HPLC-based analysis of the extract and the translation mixture containing only ATP as an energy source revealed that GTP was not detectable in the extract, however, 35 microM of GTP was found in the translation mixture. This result suggests that GTP could be generated from other compounds, such as GDP and GMP, using ATP. A similar experiment with a C-terminally truncated form of human protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (hPTP1B(1-320)) gave almost the same result. The wheat embryo cell-free translation system worked most efficiently without exogenous GTP, producing 3.5 mg/mL of translation mixture over a 48-h period at 26 degrees C.

  5. Mutagenesis in the switch IV of the helical domain of the human Gsalpha reduces its GDP/GTP exchange rate.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, V; Hinrichs, M V; Torrejón, M; Ropero, S; Martinez, J; Toro, M J; Olate, J

    2000-01-01

    The Galpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins are constituted by a conserved GTPase "Ras-like" domain (RasD) and by a unique alpha-helical domain (HD). Upon GTP binding, four regions, called switch I, II, III, and IV, have been identified as undergoing structural changes. Switch I, II, and III are located in RasD and switch IV in HD. All Galpha known functions, such as GTPase activity and receptor, effector, and Gbetagamma interaction sites have been found to be localized in RasD, but little is known about the role of HD and its switch IV region. Through the construction of chimeras between human and Xenopus Gsalpha we have previously identified a HD region, encompassing helices alphaA, alphaB, and alphaC, that was responsible for the observed functional differences in their capacity to activate adenylyl cyclase (Antonelli et al. [1994]: FEBS Lett 340:249-254). Since switch IV is located within this region and contains most of the nonconservative amino acid differences between both Gsalpha proteins, in the present work we constructed two human Gsalpha mutant proteins in which we have changed four and five switch IV residues for the ones present in the Xenopus protein. Mutants M15 (hGsalphaalphaS133N, M135P, P138K, P143S) and M17 (hGsalphaalphaS133N, M135P, V137Y, P138K, P143S) were expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized by their ability to bind GTPgammaS, dissociate GDP, hydrolyze GTP, and activate adenylyl cyclase. A decreased rate of GDP release, GTPgammaS binding, and GTP hydrolysis was observed for both mutants, M17 having considerably slower kinetics than M15 for all functions tested. Reconstituted adenylyl cyclase activity with both mutants showed normal activation in the presence of AlF(4)(-), but a decreased activation with GTPgammaS, which is consistent with the lower GDP dissociating rate they displayed. These data provide new evidence on the role that HD is playing in modulating the GDP/GTP exchange of the Gsalpha subunit.

  6. Cell surface sialylation affects binding of enterovirus 71 to rhabdomyosarcoma and neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), and infection of EV71 to central nerve system (CNS) may result in a high mortality in children less than 2 years old. Although there are two highly glycosylated membrane proteins, SCARB2 and PSGL-1, which have been identified as the cellular and functional receptors of EV71, the role of glycosylation in EV71 infection is still unclear. Results We demonstrated that the attachment of EV71 to RD and SK-N-SH cells was diminished after the removal of cell surface sialic acids by neuraminidase. Sialic acid specific lectins, Maackia amurensis (MAA) and Sambucus Nigra (SNA), could compete with EV71 and restrained the binding of EV71 significantly. Preincubation of RD cells with fetuin also reduced the binding of EV71. In addition, we found that SCARB2 was a sialylated glycoprotein and interaction between SCARB2 and EV71 was retarded after desialylation. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrated that cell surface sialic acids assist in the attachment of EV71 to host cells. Cell surface sialylation should be a key regulator that facilitates the binding and infection of EV71 to RD and SK-N-SH cells. PMID:22853823

  7. The neurofibromin recruitment factor Spred1 binds to the GAP related domain without affecting Ras inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Dunzendorfer-Matt, Theresia; Mercado, Ellen L.; Maly, Karl; McCormick, Frank; Scheffzek, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and Legius syndrome are related diseases with partially overlapping symptoms caused by alterations of the tumor suppressor genes NF1 (encoding the protein neurofibromin) and SPRED1 (encoding sprouty-related, EVH1 domain-containing protein 1, Spred1), respectively. Both proteins are negative regulators of Ras/MAPK signaling with neurofibromin functioning as a Ras-specific GTPase activating protein (GAP) and Spred1 acting on hitherto undefined components of the pathway. Importantly, neurofibromin has been identified as a key protein in the development of cancer, as it is genetically altered in a large number of sporadic human malignancies unrelated to NF1. Spred1 has previously been demonstrated to interact with neurofibromin via its N-terminal Ena/VASP Homology 1 (EVH1) domain and to mediate membrane translocation of its target dependent on its C-terminal Sprouty domain. However, the region of neurofibromin required for the interaction with Spred1 has remained unclear. Here we show that the EVH1 domain of Spred1 binds to the noncatalytic (GAPex) portion of the GAP-related domain (GRD) of neurofibromin. Binding is compatible with simultaneous binding of Ras and does not interfere with GAP activity. Our study points to a potential targeting function of the GAPex subdomain of neurofibromin that is present in all known canonical RasGAPs. PMID:27313208

  8. Amino acid polymorphisms in the fibronectin-binding repeats of fibronectin-binding protein A affect bond strength and fibronectin conformation.

    PubMed

    Casillas-Ituarte, Nadia N; Cruz, Carlos H B; Lins, Roberto D; DiBartola, Alex C; Howard, Jessica; Liang, Xiaowen; Höök, Magnus; Viana, Isabelle F T; Sierra-Hernández, M Roxana; Lower, Steven K

    2017-04-11

    The Staphylococcus aureus cell surface contains cell wall-anchored proteins such as fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA) that bind to host ligands (e.g. fibronectin; Fn) present in the extracellular matrix of tissue or coatings on cardiac implants. Recent clinical studies have found a correlation between cardiovascular infections caused by S. aureus and nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FnBPA. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and molecular simulations were used to investigate interactions between Fn and each of eight, 20-mer peptide variants containing amino acids A, H, I, K, N, and Q at positions equivalent to 782 and/or 786 in Fn-binding repeat-9 (FnBR-9) of FnBPA. Experimentally measured bond lifetimes (1/koff ) and dissociation constants (Kd = koff / kon ), determined by mechanically dissociating the Fn-peptide complex at loading rates relevant to the cardiovascular system varied from the lowest-affinity H782A+K786A peptide (0.011 sec, 747 µM) to the highest-affinity H782Q+K786N peptide (0.192 sec, 15.7 µM). These AFM results tracked remarkably well to metadynamics simulations in which peptide detachment was defined solely by the free-energy landscape. Simulations and SPR experiments suggested that an Fn conformational change may enhance the stability of the binding complex for peptides with K786I or H782Q+K786I (Kd(app) = 0.2 to 0.5 µM. as determined by SPR) compared with the lowest-affinity double alanine peptide (Kd(app) = 3.8 µM). Together, these findings demonstrate that amino acid substitutions in FnBR-9 can significantly affect bond strength and influence the conformation of Fn upon binding. They provide a mechanistic explanation for the observation of nonsynonymous SNPs in fnbA) among clinical isolates of S. aureus that cause endovascular infections.

  9. Crystal structure of rat GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein, GFRP.

    PubMed

    Bader, G; Schiffmann, S; Herrmann, A; Fischer, M; Gütlich, M; Auerbach, G; Ploom, T; Bacher, A; Huber, R; Lemm, T

    2001-10-05

    Tetrahydrobiopterin, the cofactor required for hydroxylation of aromatic amino acids regulates its own synthesis in mammals through feedback inhibition of GTP cyclohydrolase I. This mechanism is mediated by a regulatory subunit called GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein (GFRP). The 2.6 A resolution crystal structure of rat GFRP shows that the protein forms a pentamer. This indicates a model for the interaction of mammalian GTP cyclohydrolase I with its regulator, GFRP. Kinetic investigations of human GTP cyclohydrolase I in complex with rat and human GFRP showed similar regulatory effects of both GFRP proteins.

  10. The Protein Partners of GTP Cyclohydrolase I in Rat Organs

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jianhai; Teng, Ru-Jeng; Lawrence, Matt; Guan, Tongju; Xu, Hao; Ge, Ying; Shi, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Objective GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCH1) is the rate-limiting enzyme for tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis and has been shown to be a promising therapeutic target in ischemic heart disease, hypertension, atherosclerosis and diabetes. The endogenous GCH1-interacting partners have not been identified. Here, we determined endogenous GCH1-interacting proteins in rat. Methods and Results A pulldown and proteomics approach were used to identify GCH1 interacting proteins in rat liver, brain, heart and kidney. We demonstrated that GCH1 interacts with at least 17 proteins including GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein (GFRP) in rat liver by affinity purification followed by proteomics and validated six protein partners in liver, brain, heart and kidney by immunoblotting. GCH1 interacts with GFRP and very long-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase in the liver, tubulin beta-2A chain in the liver and brain, DnaJ homolog subfamily A member 1 and fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase in the liver, heart and kidney and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit I (EIF3I) in all organs tested. Furthermore, GCH1 associates with mitochondrial proteins and GCH1 itself locates in mitochondria. Conclusion GCH1 interacts with proteins in an organ dependant manner and EIF3I might be a general regulator of GCH1. Our finding indicates GCH1 might have broader functions beyond tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis. PMID:22479495

  11. Rice LGD1 containing RNA binding activity affects growth and development through alternative promoters.

    PubMed

    Thangasamy, Saminathan; Chen, Pei-Wei; Lai, Ming-Hsing; Chen, Jychian; Jauh, Guang-Yuh

    2012-07-01

    Tiller initiation and panicle development are important agronomical traits for grain production in Oryza sativa L. (rice), but their regulatory mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In this study, T-DNA mutant and RNAi transgenic approaches were used to functionally characterize a unique rice gene, LAGGING GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 1 (LGD1). The lgd1 mutant showed slow growth, reduced tiller number and plant height, altered panicle architecture and reduced grain yield. The fewer unelongated internodes and cells in lgd1 led to respective reductions in tiller number and to semi-dwarfism. Several independent LGD1-RNAi lines exhibited defective phenotypes similar to those observed in lgd1. Interestingly, LGD1 encodes multiple transcripts with different transcription start sites (TSSs), which were validated by RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of 5' and 3' cDNA ends (RLM-RACE). Additionally, GUS assays and a luciferase promoter assay confirmed the promoter activities of LGD1.1 and LGD1.5. LGD1 encoding a von Willebrand factor type A (vWA) domain containing protein is a single gene in rice that is seemingly specific to grasses. GFP-tagged LGD1 isoforms were predominantly detected in the nucleus, and weakly in the cytoplasm. In vitro northwestern analysis showed the RNA-binding activity of the recombinant C-terminal LGD1 protein. Our results demonstrated that LGD1 pleiotropically regulated rice vegetative growth and development through both the distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns of its multiple transcripts and RNA binding activity. Hence, the study of LGD1 will strengthen our understanding of the molecular basis of the multiple transcripts, and their corresponding polypeptides with RNA binding activity, that regulate pleiotropic effects in rice.

  12. Special AT-rich Binding Protein-2 (SATB2) Differentially Affects Disease-causing p63 Mutant Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jacky; Grant, R. Ian; Kaplan, David R.; Irwin, Meredith S.

    2011-01-01

    p63, a p53 family member, is critical for proper skin and limb development and directly regulates gene expression in the ectoderm. Mice lacking p63 exhibit skin and craniofacial defects including cleft palate. In humans p63 mutations are associated with several distinct developmental syndromes. p63 sterile-α-motif domain, AEC (ankyloblepharon-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting)-associated mutations are associated with a high prevalence of orofacial clefting disorders, which are less common in EEC (ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting) patients with DNA binding domain p63 mutations. However, the mechanisms by which these mutations differentially influence p63 function remain unclear, and interactions with other proteins implicated in craniofacial development have not been identified. Here, we show that AEC p63 mutations affect the ability of the p63 protein to interact with special AT-rich binding protein-2 (SATB2), which has recently also been implicated in the development of cleft palate. p63 and SATB2 are co-expressed early in development in the ectoderm of the first and second branchial arches, two essential sites where signaling is required for craniofacial patterning. SATB2 attenuates p63-mediated gene expression of perp (p53 apoptosis effector related to PMP-22), a critical downstream target gene during development, and specifically decreases p63 perp promoter binding. Interestingly, AEC but not EEC p63 mutations affect the ability of p63 to interact with SATB2 and the inhibitory effects of SATB2 on p63 transactivation of perp are most pronounced for AEC-associated p63 mutations. Our findings reveal a novel gain-of-function property of AEC-causing p63 mutations and identify SATB2 as the first p63 binding partner that differentially influences AEC and EEC p63 mutant proteins. PMID:21965674

  13. How hormone receptor-DNA binding affects nucleosomal DNA: the role of symmetry.

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, T C; Kosztin, D; Schulten, K

    1997-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been employed to determine the optimal conformation of an estrogen receptor DNA binding domain dimer bound to a consensus response element, ds(AGGTCACAGTGACCT), and to a nonconsensus response element, ds(AGAACACAGTGACCT). The structures simulated were derived from a crystallographic structure and solvated by a sphere (45-A radius) of explicit water and counterions. Long-range electrostatic interactions were accounted for during 100-ps simulations by means of a fast multipole expansion algorithm combined with a multiple time-step scheme in the molecular dynamics package NAMD. The simulations demonstrate that the dimer induces a bent and underwound (10.7 bp/turn) conformation in the DNA. The bending reflects the dyad symmetry of the receptor dimer and can be described as an S-shaped curve in the helical axis of DNA when projected onto a plane. A similar bent and underwound conformation is observed for nucleosomal DNA near the nucleosome's dyad axis that reflects the symmetry of the histone octamer. We propose that when a receptor dimer binds to a nucleosome, the most favorable dimer-DNA and histone-DNA interactions are achieved if the respective symmetry axes are aligned. Such positioning of a receptor dimer over the dyad of nucleosome B in the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter is in agreement with experiment. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 11 PMID:9129808

  14. Mutations that affect coenzyme binding and dimer formation of fungal 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Brunskole, Mojca; Kristan, Katja; Stojan, Jure; Rizner, Tea Lanisnik

    2009-03-25

    The 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from the fungus Cochliobolus lunatus (17beta-HSDcl) is an NADPH-dependent member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily, and it functions as a dimer that is composed of two identical subunits. By constructing the appropriate mutants, we have examined the M204 residue that is situated in the coenzyme binding pocket, for its role in the binding of the coenzyme NADP(H). We have also studied the importance of hydrophobic interactions through F124, F132, F133 and F177 for 17beta-HSDcl dimer formation. The M204G substitution decreased the catalytic efficiency of 17beta-HSDcl, suggesting that M204 sterically coerces the nicotinamide moiety of the coenzyme into the appropriate position for further hydride transfer. Phenylalanine substitutions introduced at the dimer interface produced inactive aggregates and oligomers with high molecular masses, suggesting that these hydrophobic interactions have important roles in the formation of the active dimer.

  15. A dispensable peptide from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase affects tRNA binding.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga, Roberto; Salazar, Juan; Canales, Mauricio; Orellana, Omar

    2002-12-18

    The activation domain of class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, which contains the Rossmann fold and the signature sequences HIGH and KMSKS, is generally split into two halves by the connective peptides (CP1, CP2) whose amino acid sequences are idiosyncratic. CP1 has been shown to participate in the binding of tRNA as well as the editing of the reaction intermediate aminoacyl-AMP or the aminoacyl-tRNA. No function has been assigned to CP2. The amino acid sequence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans TrpRS was predicted from the genome sequence. Protein sequence alignments revealed that A. ferrooxidans TrpRS contains a 70 amino acids long CP2 that is not found in any other bacterial TrpRS. However, a CP2 in the same relative position was found in the predicted sequence of several archaeal TrpRSs. A. ferrooxidans TrpRS is functional in vivo in Escherichia coli. A deletion mutant of A. ferrooxidans trpS lacking the coding region of CP2 was constructed. The in vivo activity of the mutant TrpRS in E. coli, as well as the kinetic parameters of the in vitro activation of tryptophan by ATP, were not altered by the deletion. However, the K(m) value for tRNA was seven-fold higher upon deletion, reducing the efficiency of aminoacylation. Structural modeling suggests that CP2 binds to the inner corner of the L shape of tRNA.

  16. Simplified /sup 14/CO/sub 2/-trapping microassay for GTP cyclohydrolases I and II

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, R.S.; Abell, C.W.

    1986-05-01

    GTP cyclohydrolases (GTP-CH) I and II catalyze the removal of the C/sub 8/ atom from GTP as formate. The reaction product of GTP-CH I is D-erythro-7,8-dihydroneopterin triphosphate, a key intermediate leading to the biosynthesis of folic acid in microorganisms and of tetrahydrobiopterin in mammals and microorganisms, and that of GTP-CH II is 2,5-diamino-6-hydroxy-4-(ribosylamino)pyrimidine 5'-phosphate, a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of riboflavin in microorganisms. They have simplified the /sup 14/CO/sub 2/-trapping assay of Burg and Brown for determining GTP-CH I and II activities. The assay consists of two consecutive steps which are carried out in a 2 ml tube. The first reaction yields formate from GTP (37/sup 0/C, 10 min). The reaction mixture contains 1 mM (8-/sup 14/C)-GTP (0.5 ..mu..Ci/..mu..mol), 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.2 for GTP-CH II and 7.7 for GTP-CH I), 0.2 M MgCl/sub 2/ for GTP-CH II or 0.3 M KCl and 1 mM EDTA for GTP-CH I, and enzyme in a final volume of 0.2 ml. The second reaction is the oxidation of /sup 14/C-formate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ (95/sup 0/C, 20 min) in the presence of 5% TCA and 1 mM formate (final volume 0.3 ml). Liberated /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ is trapped by the folded filter paper strip (1 x 4 cm), that has been placed inside the top of each tube and impregnated with 30 ..mu..l Protosol. This method is fast, comparable to the HPLC-fluorometric method for the assay of GTP-CH I activity, and ideal for performing a large number of determinations. Human and rat liver express both GTP-CH I and II activities. GTP-CH II is the predominant enzyme in both tissues and exists in multiple forms.

  17. SVOP Is a Nucleotide Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jia; Bajjalieh, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Synaptic Vesicle Protein 2 (SV2) and SV2-related protein (SVOP) are transporter-like proteins that localize to neurotransmitter-containing vesicles. Both proteins share structural similarity with the major facilitator (MF) family of small molecule transporters. We recently reported that SV2 binds nucleotides, a feature that has also been reported for another MF family member, the human glucose transporter 1 (Glut1). In the case of Glut1, nucleotide binding affects transport activity. In this study, we determined if SVOP also binds nucleotides and assessed its nucleotide binding properties. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed in vitro photoaffinity labeling experiments with the photoreactive ATP analogue, 8-azido-ATP[γ] biotin and purified recombinant SVOP-FLAG fusion protein. We found that SVOP is a nucleotide-binding protein, although both its substrate specificity and binding site differ from that of SV2. Within the nucleotides tested, ATP, GTP and NAD show same level of inhibition on SVOP-FLAG labeling. Dose dependent studies indicated that SVOP demonstrates the highest affinity for NAD, in contrast to SV2, which binds both NAD and ATP with equal affinity. Mapping of the binding site revealed a single region spanning transmembrane domains 9–12, which contrasts to the two binding sites in the large cytoplasmic domains in SV2A. Conclusions/Significance SVOP is the third MF family member to be found to bind nucleotides. Given that the binding sites are unique in SVOP, SV2 and Glut1, this feature appears to have arisen separately. PMID:19390693

  18. Characterization of How DNA Modifications Affect DNA Binding by C2H2 Zinc Finger Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Patel, A.; Hashimoto, H.; Zhang, X.; Cheng, X.

    2016-01-01

    Much is known about vertebrate DNA methylation and oxidation; however, much less is known about how modified cytosine residues within particular sequences are recognized. Among the known methylated DNA-binding domains, the Cys2-His2 zinc finger (ZnF) protein superfamily is the largest with hundreds of members, each containing tandem ZnFs ranging from 3 to >30 fingers. We have begun to biochemically and structurally characterize these ZnFs not only on their sequence specificity but also on their sensitivity to various DNA modifications. Rather than following published methods of refolding insoluble ZnF arrays, we have expressed and purified soluble forms of ZnFs, ranging in size from a tandem array of two to six ZnFs, from seven different proteins. We also describe a fluorescence polarization assay to measure ZnFs affinity with oligonucleotides containing various modifications and our approaches for cocrystallization of ZnFs with oligonucleotides. PMID:27372763

  19. TANK-binding kinase-1 broadly affects oyster immune response to bacteria and viruses.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xueying; Huang, Baoyu; Zhang, Linlin; Li, Li; Zhang, Guofan

    2016-09-01

    As a benthic filter feeder of estuaries, the immune system of oysters provides one of the best models for studying the genetic and molecular basis of the innate immune pathway in marine invertebrates and examining the influence of environmental factors on the immune system. Here, the molecular function of molluscan TANK-binding kinase-1 (TBK1) (which we named CgTBK1) was studied in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Compared with known TBK1 proteins in other model organisms, CgTBK1 contains a conserved S-TKc domain and a coiled coil domain at the N- and C-terminals but lacks an important ubiquitin domain. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of CgTBK1 was ubiquitous in all selected tissues, with highest expression in the gills. CgTBK1 expression was significantly upregulated in response to infections with Vibrio alginolyticus, ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1 reference strain and μvar), and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid sodium salt, suggesting its broad function in immune response. Subcellular localization showed the presence of CgTBK1 in the cytoplasm of HeLa cells, suggesting its potential function as the signal transducer between the receptor and transcription factor. We further demonstrated that CgTBK1 interacted with CgSTING in HEK293T cells, providing evidence that CgTBK1 could be activated by direct binding to CgSTING. In summary, we characterized the TBK1 gene in C. gigas and demonstrated its role in the innate immune response to pathogen infections.

  20. Rhes: A GTP–Binding Protein Integral to Striatal Physiology and Pathology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Rhes, the Ras Homolog Enriched in Striatum, is a GTP binding protein whose gene was discovered during a screen for mRNAs preferentially expressed in rodent striatum. This 266 amino acid protein is intermediate in size between small Ras-like GTP binding proteins and α-subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. It is most closely related to another Ras-like GTP binding protein termed Dexras1 or AGS1. Although subsequent studies have shown that the rhes gene is expressed in other brain areas in addition to striatum, the striatal expression level is relatively high, and Rhes protein is likely to play a vital role in striatal physiology and pathology. Indeed, it has recently been shown to interact with the huntingtin protein and play a pivotal role in the selective vulnerability of striatum in Huntington’s Disease. Not surprisingly, Rhes can interact with multiple proteins to affect striatal physiology at multiple levels. Functional studies have indicated that Rhes plays a role in signaling by striatal G protein–coupled receptors (GPCR), although the details of the mechanism remain to be determined. Rhes has been shown to bind to both α- and β-subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins and to affect signaling by both Gi/o- and Gs/olf-coupled receptors. In this context, Rhes can be classified as a member of the family of accessory proteins to GPCR signaling. With documented effects in dopamine- and opioid-mediated behaviors, an interaction with thyroid hormone systems, and a role in Huntington’s Disease pathology, Rhes is emerging as an important protein in striatal physiology and pathology. PMID:22450871

  1. Mutations that affect phosphorylation of the adenovirus DNA-binding protein alter its ability to enhance its own synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Morin, N; Delsert, C; Klessig, D F

    1989-01-01

    The multifunctional adenovirus single-strand DNA-binding protein (DBP) is highly phosphorylated. Its phosphorylation sites are located in the amino-terminal domain of the protein, and its DNA- and RNA-binding activity resides in the carboxy-terminal half of the polypeptide. We have substituted cysteine or alanine for up to 10 of these potential phosphorylation sites by using oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. Alteration of one or a few of these sites had little effect on the viability of virus containing the mutated DBP. However, when eight or more sites were altered, viral growth decreased significantly. This suggests that the overall phosphorylation state of the protein was more important than whether any particular site was modified. The reduction in growth correlated with both depressed DNA replication and expression of late genes. This reduction was probably the result of lower DBP accumulation in mutant-infected cells. Interestingly, although the stability of the mutated DBP was not affected, DBP synthesis and the level of its mRNA were depressed 5- to 10-fold for the underphosphorylated protein. These results suggest that DBP enhances its own expression and imply that phosphorylation of the DBP may be important for this function. Similarities to several eucaryotic transcriptional activators, which are composed of negatively charged activating domains and separate binding domains, are discussed. Images PMID:2585602

  2. Developmental changes affecting lectin binding in the vomeronasal organ of domestic pigs, Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Park, Junwoo; Lee, Wonho; Jeong, Chanwoo; Kim, Hwangryong; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Shin, Taekyun

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the developmental changes of glycoconjugate patterns in the porcine vomeronasal organs (VNOs) and associated glands (Jacobson's glands) from prenatal (9 weeks of gestation) and postnatal (2 days after birth) to the sexually mature stage (6 months old). The VNO of pigs (Sus scrofa) was examined using the following: Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia agglutinin isolectin B4 (BSI-B4), Triticum vulgaris agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), and soybean agglutinin (SBA). At the fetal stage, all lectins examined were detected mainly in the free border of the vomeronasal epithelium, but few (WGA and UEA-I) and or absent in the VNO cell bodies. At the postnatal and sexually mature stages, the reactivity of some lectins, including WGA, UEA-I, DBA and SBA, were shown to increase in the VNO sensory epithelium as well as the free border. The increased reactivity of lectins as development progressed was also observed in Jacobson's gland acini. These findings suggest that binding sites of lectins, including those of WGA, UEA-I, DBA, and SBA, increase during development from fetal to postnatal growth, possibly contributing to the increased ability of chemoreception in the pig.

  3. Starch-binding domain affects catalysis in two Lactobacillus alpha-amylases.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sanoja, R; Ruiz, B; Guyot, J P; Sanchez, S

    2005-01-01

    A new starch-binding domain (SBD) was recently described in alpha-amylases from three lactobacilli (Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus manihotivorans). Usually, the SBD is formed by 100 amino acids, but the SBD sequences of the mentioned lactobacillus alpha-amylases consist of almost 500 amino acids that are organized in tandem repeats. The three lactobacillus amylase genes share more than 98% sequence identity. In spite of this identity, the SBD structures seem to be quite different. To investigate whether the observed differences in the SBDs have an effect on the hydrolytic capability of the enzymes, a kinetic study of L. amylovorus and L. plantarum amylases was developed, with both enzymes acting on several starch sources in granular and gelatinized forms. Results showed that the amylolytic capacities of these enzymes are quite different; the L. amylovorus alpha-amylase is, on average, 10 times more efficient than the L. plantarum enzyme in hydrolyzing all the tested polymeric starches, with only a minor difference in the adsorption capacities.

  4. Proteinase 3 Is a Phosphatidylserine-binding Protein That Affects the Production and Function of Microvesicles.

    PubMed

    Martin, Katherine R; Kantari-Mimoun, Chahrazade; Yin, Min; Pederzoli-Ribeil, Magali; Angelot-Delettre, Fanny; Ceroi, Adam; Grauffel, Cédric; Benhamou, Marc; Reuter, Nathalie; Saas, Philippe; Frachet, Philippe; Boulanger, Chantal M; Witko-Sarsat, Véronique

    2016-05-13

    Proteinase 3 (PR3), the autoantigen in granulomatosis with polyangiitis, is expressed at the plasma membrane of resting neutrophils, and this membrane expression increases during both activation and apoptosis. Using surface plasmon resonance and protein-lipid overlay assays, this study demonstrates that PR3 is a phosphatidylserine-binding protein and this interaction is dependent on the hydrophobic patch responsible for membrane anchorage. Molecular simulations suggest that PR3 interacts with phosphatidylserine via a small number of amino acids, which engage in long lasting interactions with the lipid heads. As phosphatidylserine is a major component of microvesicles (MVs), this study also examined the consequences of this interaction on MV production and function. PR3-expressing cells produced significantly fewer MVs during both activation and apoptosis, and this reduction was dependent on the ability of PR3 to associate with the membrane as mutating the hydrophobic patch restored MV production. Functionally, activation-evoked MVs from PR3-expressing cells induced a significantly larger respiratory burst in human neutrophils compared with control MVs. Conversely, MVs generated during apoptosis inhibited the basal respiratory burst in human neutrophils, and those generated from PR3-expressing cells hampered this inhibition. Given that membrane expression of PR3 is increased in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis, MVs generated from neutrophils expressing membrane PR3 may potentiate oxidative damage of endothelial cells and promote the systemic inflammation observed in this disease.

  5. A functional MiR-124 binding-site polymorphism in IQGAP1 affects human cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lixin; Zhang, Rui; Li, Ming; Wu, Xujun; Wang, Jianhong; Huang, Lin; Shi, Xiaodong; Li, Qingwei; Su, Bing

    2014-01-01

    As a product of the unique evolution of the human brain, human cognitive performance is largely a collection of heritable traits. Rather surprisingly, to date there have been no reported cases to highlight genes that underwent adaptive evolution in humans and which carry polymorphisms that have a marked effect on cognitive performance. IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1), a scaffold protein, affects learning and memory in a dose-dependent manner. Its expression is regulated by miR-124 through the binding sites in the 3'UTR, where a SNP (rs1042538) exists in the core-binding motif. Here we showed that this SNP can influence the miR-target interaction both in vitro and in vivo. Individuals carrying the derived T alleles have higher IQGAP1 expression in the brain as compared to the ancestral A allele carriers. We observed a significant and male-specific association between rs1042538 and tactile performances in two independent cohorts. Males with the derived allele displayed higher tactual performances as compared to those with the ancestral allele. Furthermore, we found a highly diverged allele-frequency distribution of rs1042538 among world human populations, likely caused by natural selection and/or recent population expansion. These results suggest that current human populations still carry sequence variations that affect cognitive performances and that these genetic variants may likely have been subject to comparatively recent natural selection.

  6. Specific interaction between EF-G and RRF and its implication for GTP-dependent ribosome splitting into subunits

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ning; Zavialov, Andrey V.; Ehrenberg, Måns; Frank, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Summary After termination of protein synthesis, the bacterial ribosome is split into its 30S and 50S subunits by the action of ribosome recycling factor (RRF) and elongation factor G (EF-G) in a GTP-hydrolysis dependent manner. Based on a previous cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) study of ribosomal complexes, we have proposed that the binding of EF-G to an RRF containing post-termination ribosome triggers an inter-domain rotation of RRF, which destabilizes two strong intersubunit bridges (B2a and B3) and, ultimately, separates the two subunits. Here, we present a 9 Å (FSC at 0.5 cutoff) cryo-EM map of a 50S EFG GDPNP RRF complex and a quasi-atomic model derived from it, showing the interaction between EF-G and RRF on the 50S subunit in the presence of the non-cleavable GTP analogue GDPNP. The detailed information in this model and a comparative analysis of EF-G structures in various nucleotide- and ribosome-bound states show how rotation of the RRF head domain may be triggered by various domains of EF-G. For validation of our structural model, all known mutations in EF-G and RRF that relate to ribosome recycling have been taken into account. More importantly, our results indicate a substantial conformational change in the Switch I region of EF-G, suggesting that a conformational signal transduction mechanism, similar to that employed in tRNA translocation on the ribosome by EF-G, translates a large-scale movement of EF-G’s domain IV, induced by GTP hydrolysis, into the domain rotation of RRF that eventually splits the ribosome into subunits. PMID:17996252

  7. A novel domain in translational GTPase BipA mediates interaction with the 70S ribosome and influences GTP hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    deLivron, Megan A; Makanji, Heeren S; Lane, Maura C; Robinson, Victoria L

    2009-11-10

    BipA is a universally conserved prokaryotic GTPase that exhibits differential ribosome association in response to stress-related events. It is a member of the translation factor family of GTPases along with EF-G and LepA. BipA has five domains. The N-terminal region of the protein, consisting of GTPase and beta-barrel domains, is common to all translational GTPases. BipA domains III and V have structural counterparts in EF-G and LepA. However, the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the protein is unique to the BipA family. To investigate how the individual domains of BipA contribute to the biological properties of the protein, deletion constructs were designed and their GTP hydrolysis and ribosome binding properties assessed. Data presented show that removal of the CTD abolishes the ability of BipA to bind to the ribosome and that ribosome complex formation requires the surface provided by domains III and V and the CTD. Additional mutational analysis was used to outline the BipA-70S interaction surface extending across these domains. Steady state kinetic analyses revealed that successive truncation of domains from the C-terminus resulted in a significant increase in the intrinsic GTP hydrolysis rate and a loss of ribosome-stimulated GTPase activity. These results indicate that, similar to other translational GTPases, the ribosome binding and GTPase activities of BipA are tightly coupled. Such intermolecular regulation likely plays a role in the differential ribosome binding by the protein.

  8. A Novel Domain in Translational GTPase BipA Mediates Interaction with the 70S Ribosome and Influences GTP Hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    deLivron, M.; Makanji, H; Lane, M; Robinson, V

    2009-01-01

    BipA is a universally conserved prokaryotic GTPase that exhibits differential ribosome association in response to stress-related events. It is a member of the translation factor family of GTPases along with EF-G and LepA. BipA has five domains. The N-terminal region of the protein, consisting of GTPase and {beta}-barrel domains, is common to all translational GTPases. BipA domains III and V have structural counterparts in EF-G and LepA. However, the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the protein is unique to the BipA family. To investigate how the individual domains of BipA contribute to the biological properties of the protein, deletion constructs were designed and their GTP hydrolysis and ribosome binding properties assessed. Data presented show that removal of the CTD abolishes the ability of BipA to bind to the ribosome and that ribosome complex formation requires the surface provided by domains III and V and the CTD. Additional mutational analysis was used to outline the BipA-70S interaction surface extending across these domains. Steady state kinetic analyses revealed that successive truncation of domains from the C-terminus resulted in a significant increase in the intrinsic GTP hydrolysis rate and a loss of ribosome-stimulated GTPase activity. These results indicate that, similar to other translational GTPases, the ribosome binding and GTPase activities of BipA are tightly coupled. Such intermolecular regulation likely plays a role in the differential ribosome binding by the protein.

  9. Insights into the GTP/GDP cycle of RabX3, a novel GTPase from Entamoeba histolytica with tandem G-domains.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Mintu; Mukherjee, Madhumita; Srivastava, Vijay Kumar; Saito-Nakano, Yumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Datta, Sunando

    2014-02-25

    Members of the small GTPase Ras superfamily regulate a host of systems through their ability to catalyze the GTP/GDP cycle. All family members reported thus far possess a single GTPase domain with a P-loop containing a nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase fold. Here for the first time we report a novel member from Entamoeba histolytica, EhRabX3, which harbors two GTPase domains in tandem and exhibits unique biochemical properties. A combination of biochemical and microcalorimetric studies revealed that EhRabX3 binds to a single guanine nucleotide through its N-terminal domain. Unlike most of the members of the Ras superfamily, the dissociation of the nucleotide from EhRabX3 is independent of Mg(2+), perhaps indicating a novel mechanism of nucleotide exchange by this protein. We found that EhRabX3 is extremely sluggish in hydrolyzing GTP, and that could be attributed to its atypical nucleotide binding pocket. It harbors substitutions at two positions that confer oncogenicity to Ras because of impaired GTP hydrolysis. Engineering these residues into the conserved counterparts enhanced their GTPase activity by at least 20-fold. In contrast to most of the members of the Ras superfamily, EhRabX3 lacks the prenylation motif. Using indirect immunofluorescence and biochemical fractionation, we demonstrated that the protein is distributed all over the cytosol in amoebic trophozoites. Collectively, this unique ancient GTPase exhibits a striking evolutionary divergence from the other members of the superfamily.

  10. An alternative domain near the nucleotide-binding site of Drosophila muscle myosin affects ATPase kinetics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Becky M; Zhang, Shuxing; Suggs, Jennifer A; Swank, Douglas M; Littlefield, Kimberly P; Knowles, Aileen F; Bernstein, Sanford I

    2005-10-14

    In Drosophila melanogaster expression of muscle myosin heavy chain isoforms occurs by alternative splicing of transcripts from a single gene. The exon 7 domain is one of four variable regions in the catalytic head and is located near the nucleotide-binding site. To ascribe a functional role to this domain, we created two chimeric myosin isoforms (indirect flight isoform-exon 7a and embryonic-exon 7d) that differ from the native indirect flight muscle and embryonic body-wall muscle isoforms only in the exon 7 region. Germline transformation and subsequent expression of the chimeric myosins in the indirect flight muscle of myosin-null Drosophila allowed us to purify the myosin for in vitro studies and to assess in vivo structure and function of transgenic muscles. Intriguingly, in vitro experiments show the exon 7 domain modulates myosin ATPase activity but has no effect on actin filament velocity, a novel result compared to similar studies with other Drosophila variable exons. Transgenic flies expressing the indirect flight isoform-exon 7a have normal indirect flight muscle structure, and flight and jump ability. However, expression of the embryonic-exon 7d chimeric isoform yields flightless flies that show improvements in both the structural stability of the indirect flight muscle and in locomotor abilities as compared to flies expressing the embryonic isoform. Overall, our results suggest the exon 7 domain participates in the regulation of the attachment of myosin to actin in order to fine-tune the physiological properties of Drosophila myosin isoforms.

  11. Hormonal and nonhormonal factors affecting sex hormone-binding globulin levels in blood.

    PubMed

    Thijssen, J H

    1988-01-01

    Researchers in Utrecht, the Netherlands have studied the effects of different factors, such as oral contraceptives (OCs), on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels in blood. The SHBG levels in women who continuously used OCs consisting only of .05 mg of ethinyl estradiol (EE2) rose as high as 260% + or - 25% of those in women not using OCs. Further, mean SHBG levels of women using combination OCs of EE2 and levonorgestrel were 10-60% higher than women not using OCs. SHBG levels were significantly higher than the use of a sequential OC containing decreasing amounts of EE2 and increasing amounts of levonorgestrel than those cause by use of a continuous combined OC with .03 mg and .15 mg respectively. As the dosage of EE2 increased in combination OCs with 2.5 mg lynestrenol, the SHBG increased from 20% (.05 mg EE2) to 150% (.75 mg EE2). SHBG levels after taking EE2 and cyproterone acetate increased significantly more (240%) than levels after EE2 and desogestrel (170%), or after EE2 and gestoden (140%) [p.001]. SHBG levels of women who took OCs containing only .03 mg of levonorgestrel daily decreased 35% (p.01). These levels fell by 30% in women who received 150 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate intramuscularly every 3 months (p.001). SHBG concentrations increased when estrogens were taken orally for noncontraceptive purposes, but they did not change when they were administered percutaneously. As body weight increased the SHBG levels decreased despite hormonal status or sex. Further, the lower the fat content of one's diet the higher the SHBG levels and vice versa. SHBG levels are higher in males with flaccid lungs than they are in males with healthy lungs.

  12. GTP cyclohydrolase I expression, protein, and activity determine intracellular tetrahydrobiopterin levels, independent of GTP cyclohydrolase feedback regulatory protein expression.

    PubMed

    Tatham, Amy L; Crabtree, Mark J; Warrick, Nicholas; Cai, Shijie; Alp, Nicholas J; Channon, Keith M

    2009-05-15

    GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a required cofactor for nitricoxide synthases and aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. Alterations of GTPCH activity and BH4 availability play an important role in human disease. GTPCH expression is regulated by inflammatory stimuli, in association with reduced expression of GTP cyclohydrolase feedback regulatory protein (GFRP). However, the relative importance of GTPCH expression versus GTPCH activity and the role of GFRP in relation to BH4 bioavailability remain uncertain. We investigated these relationships in a cell line with tet-regulated GTPCH expression and in the hph-1 mouse model of GTPCH deficiency. Doxycycline exposure resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in GTPCH protein and activity, with a strong correlation between GTPCH expression and BH4 levels (r(2) = 0.85, p < 0.0001). These changes in GTPCH and BH4 had no effect on GFRP expression or protein levels. GFRP overexpression and knockdown in tet-GCH cells did not alter GTPCH activity or BH4 levels, and GTPCH-specific knockdown in sEnd.1 endothelial cells had no effect on GFRP protein. In mouse liver we observed a graded reduction of GTPCH expression, protein, and activity, from wild type, heterozygote, to homozygote littermates, with a striking linear correlation between GTPCH expression and BH4 levels (r(2) = 0.82, p < 0.0001). Neither GFRP expression nor protein differed between wild type, heterozygote, nor homozygote mice, despite the substantial differences in BH4. We suggest that GTPCH expression is the primary regulator of BH4 levels, and changes in GTPCH or BH4 are not necessarily accompanied by changes in GFRP expression.

  13. Distinct roles for the two Rho GDP/GTP exchange factor domains of kalirin in regulation of neurite growth and neuronal morphology.

    PubMed

    Penzes, P; Johnson, R C; Kambampati, V; Mains, R E; Eipper, B A

    2001-11-01

    The actin cytoskeleton, essential for neuronal development, is regulated in part by small GTP binding proteins of the Rho subfamily. Kalirin-9, with two Rho subfamily-specific GDP/GTP exchange factor (GEF) domains, localizes to neurites and growth cones of primary cortical neurons. Kalirin-9 overexpression in cultured cortical neurons induces longer neurites and altered neuronal morphology. Expression of the first GEF domain alone results in drastically shortened axons and excessive growth cones, mediated by Rac1. Expression of the second GEF domain alone induces axonal over-elongation and abundant filopodial neurites, mediated by RhoA. Coordination of the actions of the individual GEF domains through their presence in Kalirin-9, with its Sec14p, spectrin, and Src homology domain 3 motifs, is essential for regulating neurite extension and neuronal morphology.

  14. Post-translational phosphorylation affects the IgE binding capacity of caseins.

    PubMed

    Bernard, H; Meisel, H; Creminon, C; Wal, J M

    2000-02-11

    IgE response specific to those molecular regions of casein that contain a major phosphorylation site was analyzed using native and modified caseins and derived peptides. This study included (i) the naturally occurring common variants A1 and A from beta- and alphas2-caseins, respectively, which were purified in the native form and then dephosphorylated, (ii) a purified rare variant D of alphas2-casein which lacks one major phosphorylation site, and (iii) the native and dephosphorylated tryptic fragment f(1-25) from beta-casein. Direct and indirect ELISA using sera from patients allergic to milk showed that the IgE response to caseins is affected by modifying or eliminating the major phosphorylation site.

  15. Four novel cystic fibrosis mutations in splice junction sequences affecting the CFTR nucleotide binding folds

    SciTech Connect

    Doerk, T.; Wulbrand, U.; Tuemmler, B. )

    1993-03-01

    Single cases of the four novel splice site mutations 1525[minus]1 G [r arrow] A (intron 9), 3601[minus]2 A [r arrow] G (intron 18), 3850[minus]3 T [r arrow] G (intron 19), and 4374+1 G [r arrow] T (intron 23) were detected in the CFTR gene of cystic fibrosis patients of Indo-Iranian, Turkish, Polish, and Germany descent. The nucleotide substitutions at the +1, [minus]1, and [minus]2 positions all destroy splice sites and lead to severe disease alleles associated with features typical of gastrointestinal and pulmonary cystic fibrosis disease. The 3850[minus]3 T-to-G change was discovered in a very mildly affected 33-year-old [Delta]F508 compound heterozygote, suggesting that the T-to-G transversion at the less conserved [minus]3 position of the acceptor splice site may retain some wildtype function. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Purification and cloning of the GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein, GFRP.

    PubMed

    Milstien, S; Jaffe, H; Kowlessur, D; Bonner, T I

    1996-08-16

    The activity of GTP cyclohydrolase I, the initial enzyme of the de novo pathway for biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin, the cofactor required for aromatic amino acid hydroxylations and nitric oxide synthesis, is sensitive to end-product feedback inhibition by tetrahydrobiopterin. This inhibition by tetrahydrobiopterin is mediated by the GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein GFRP, previously named p35 (Harada, T., Kagamiyama, H., and Hatakeyama, K. (1993) Science 260, 1507-1510), and -phenylalanine specifically reverses the tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent inhibition. As a first step in the investigation of the physiological role of this unique mechanism of regulation, a convenient procedure has been developed to co-purify to homogeneity both GTP cyclohydrolase I and GFRP from rat liver. GTP cyclohydrolase I and GFRP exist in a complex which can be bound to a GTP-affinity column from which GTP cyclohydrolase I and GFRP are separately and selectively eluted. GFRP is dissociated from the GTP agarose-bound complex with 0.2 NaCl, a concentration of salt which also effectively blocks the tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent inhibitory activity of GFRP. GTP cyclohydrolase I is then eluted from the GTP-agarose column with GTP. Both GFRP and GTP cyclohydrolase I were then purified separately to near homogeneity by sequential high performance anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. GFRP was found to have a native molecular mass of 20 kDa and consist of a homodimer of 9.5-kDa subunits. Based on peptide sequences obtained from purified GFRP, oligonucleotides were synthesized and used to clone a cDNA from a rat liver cDNA library by polymerase chain reaction-based methods. The cDNA contained an open reading frame that encoded a novel protein of 84 amino acids (calculated molecular mass 9665 daltons). This protein when expressed in Escherichia coli as a thioredoxin fusion protein had tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent GTP cyclohydrolase I inhibitory activity. Northern

  17. The ties that bind: perceived social support, stress, and IBS in severely affected patients

    PubMed Central

    LACKNER, J. M.; BRASEL, A. M.; QUIGLEY, B M.; KEEFER, L.; KRASNER, S. S.; POWELL, C.; KATZ, L. A.; SITRIN, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study assessed the association between social support and the severity of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms in a sample of severely affected IBS patients recruited to an NIH-funded clinical trial. In addition, we examined if the effects of social support on IBS pain are mediated through the effects on stress. Methods Subjects were 105 Rome II diagnosed IBS patients (F = 85%) who completed seven questionnaires which were collected as part of a pretreatment baseline assessment. Key Results Partial correlations were conducted to clarify the relationships between social support and clinically relevant variables with baseline levels of psychopathology, holding constant number of comorbid medical diseases, age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, and education. Analyses indicated that social support was inversely related to IBS symptom severity. Social support was positively related with less severe pain. A similar pattern of data was found for perceived stress but not quality of life impairment. Regression analyses examined if the effects of social support on pain are mediated by stress. The effects of social support on bodily pain were mediated by stress such that the greater the social support the less stress and the less pain. This effect did not hold for symptom severity, quality of life, or psychological distress. Conclusions & Inferences This study links the perceived adequacy of social support to the global severity of symptoms of IBS and its cardinal symptom (pain). It also suggests that the mechanism by which social support alleviates pain is through a reduction in stress levels. PMID:20465594

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of agonist and antagonist binding to the chicken brain melatonin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Chong, N. W.; Sugden, D.

    1994-01-01

    1. The binding of 2-[125I]-iodomelatonin to chicken brain membranes, and the inhibition of binding by melatonin, N-acetyltryptamine and luzindole, were examined at temperatures between 4 degrees C and 37 degrees C. 2. At all temperatures studied, the binding affinity (Kd or Ki) for 2-[125I]-iodomelatonin, melatonin (both agonists) and, to a lesser extent, N-acetyltryptamine (a partial agonist) was reduced by inclusion of guanosine triphosphate (GTP, 1 mM) in the assay. GTP did not affect the Ki for luzindole, a melatonin receptor antagonist. 3. The maximal density of binding sites (Bmax) was not affected by temperature but the Kd showed a peak at 21 degrees C with lower values at both higher and lower temperatures giving curvilinear van't Hoff plots (lnKA vs l/temperature). 4. Derived changes in entropy (delta S degree) and enthalpy (delta H degree) of binding for all of the melatonin ligands decreased as temperature increased. 5. The affinity, and thus the free energy of binding, delta G degree, of these ligands at the melatonin receptor have identical values at several temperatures yet at these temperatures delta S degree and delta H degree were very different, implying that more than one intermolecular force must be involved in the binding of ligand and receptor. 6. Conceivably, the large positive delta S degree observed at low temperatures, perhaps as a result of hydrophobic interactions, is compensated by a corresponding, but opposite, change in enthalpy at higher temperatures. However, it is not clear what type of binding force(s) would show such a temperature-dependence. 7. These studies suggest that caution must be exercised in the molecular interpretation of derived measures of delta S degree and delta H degree obtained from direct measurements of delta G degree. PMID:8012710

  19. "DNA Binding Region" of BRCA1 Affects Genetic Stability through modulating the Intra-S-Phase Checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Takaaki; Xu, Xiaoling; Dimitriadis, Emilios K; Lahusen, Tyler; Deng, Chu-Xia

    2016-01-01

    The breast cancer associated gene 1 (BRCA1) contains 3 domains: an N-terminal RING domain with ubiquitin E3 ligase activity, C-terminal BRCT protein interaction domain and a central region. RING and BRCT domains are well characterized, yet the function of the central region remains unclear. In this study, we identified an essential DNA binding region (DBR: 421-701 amino acids) within the central region of human BRCA1, and found that BRCA1 brings DNA together and preferably binds to splayed-arm DNA in a sequence-independent manner. To investigate the biological role of the DBR, we generated mouse ES cells, which lack the DBR (ΔDBR) by using the TALEN method. The ΔDBR cells exhibited decreased survival as compared to the wild type (WT) cells treated with a PARP inhibitor, however they have an intact ability to conduct DNA repair mediated by homologous recombination (HR). The ΔDBR cells continued to incorporate more EdU in the presence of hydroxyurea (HU), which causes replication stress and exhibited reduced viability than the WT cells. Moreover, phosphorylation of CHK1, which regulates the intra-S phase checkpoint, was moderately decreased in ΔDBR cells. These data suggest that DNA binding by BRCA1 affects the stability of DNA replication folks, resulting in weakened intra-S-phase checkpoint control in the ΔDBR cells. The ΔDBR cells also exhibited an increased number of abnormal chromosome structures as compared with WT cells, indicating that the ΔDBR cells have increased genetic instability. Thus, we demonstrated that the DBR of BRCA1 modulates genetic stability through the intra-S-phase checkpoint activated by replication stress.

  20. “DNA Binding Region” of BRCA1 Affects Genetic Stability through modulating the Intra-S-Phase Checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Takaaki; Xu, Xiaoling; Dimitriadis, Emilios K.; Lahusen, Tyler; Deng, Chu-Xia

    2016-01-01

    The breast cancer associated gene 1 (BRCA1) contains 3 domains: an N-terminal RING domain with ubiquitin E3 ligase activity, C-terminal BRCT protein interaction domain and a central region. RING and BRCT domains are well characterized, yet the function of the central region remains unclear. In this study, we identified an essential DNA binding region (DBR: 421-701 amino acids) within the central region of human BRCA1, and found that BRCA1 brings DNA together and preferably binds to splayed-arm DNA in a sequence-independent manner. To investigate the biological role of the DBR, we generated mouse ES cells, which lack the DBR (ΔDBR) by using the TALEN method. The ΔDBR cells exhibited decreased survival as compared to the wild type (WT) cells treated with a PARP inhibitor, however they have an intact ability to conduct DNA repair mediated by homologous recombination (HR). The ΔDBR cells continued to incorporate more EdU in the presence of hydroxyurea (HU), which causes replication stress and exhibited reduced viability than the WT cells. Moreover, phosphorylation of CHK1, which regulates the intra-S phase checkpoint, was moderately decreased in ΔDBR cells. These data suggest that DNA binding by BRCA1 affects the stability of DNA replication folks, resulting in weakened intra-S-phase checkpoint control in the ΔDBR cells. The ΔDBR cells also exhibited an increased number of abnormal chromosome structures as compared with WT cells, indicating that the ΔDBR cells have increased genetic instability. Thus, we demonstrated that the DBR of BRCA1 modulates genetic stability through the intra-S-phase checkpoint activated by replication stress. PMID:26884712

  1. Polymorphisms in microRNA target sites modulate risk of lymphoblastic and myeloid leukemias and affect microRNA binding

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background MicroRNA dysregulation is a common event in leukemia. Polymorphisms in microRNA-binding sites (miRSNPs) in target genes may alter the strength of microRNA interaction with target transcripts thereby affecting protein levels. In this study we aimed at identifying miRSNPs associated with leukemia risk and assessing impact of these miRSNPs on miRNA binding to target transcripts. Methods We analyzed with specialized algorithms the 3′ untranslated regions of 137 leukemia-associated genes and identified 111 putative miRSNPs, of which 10 were chosen for further investigation. We genotyped patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, n = 87), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, n = 140), childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, n = 101) and healthy controls (n = 471). Association between SNPs and leukemia risk was calculated by estimating odds ratios in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. For miRSNPs that were associated with leukemia risk we performed luciferase reporter assays to examine whether they influence miRNA binding. Results Here we show that variant alleles of TLX1_rs2742038 and ETV6_rs1573613 were associated with increased risk of childhood ALL (OR (95% CI) = 3.97 (1.43-11.02) and 1.9 (1.16-3.11), respectively), while PML_rs9479 was associated with decreased ALL risk (OR = 0.55 (0.36-0.86). In adult myeloid leukemias we found significant associations between the variant allele of PML_rs9479 and decreased AML risk (OR = 0.61 (0.38-0.97), and between variant alleles of IRF8_ rs10514611 and ARHGAP26_rs187729 and increased CML risk (OR = 2.4 (1.12-5.15) and 1.63 (1.07-2.47), respectively). Moreover, we observed a significant trend for an increasing ALL and CML risk with the growing number of risk genotypes with OR = 13.91 (4.38-44.11) for carriers of ≥3 risk genotypes in ALL and OR = 4.9 (1.27-18.85) for carriers of 2 risk genotypes in CML. Luciferase reporter assays revealed that the C allele of ARHGAP

  2. Lin28a uses distinct mechanisms of binding to RNA and affects miRNA levels positively and negatively.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Jakub Stanislaw; Hobor, Fruzsina; Downie Ruiz Velasco, Angela; Choudhury, Nila Roy; Heikel, Gregory; Kerr, Alastair; Ramos, Andres; Michlewski, Gracjan

    2017-03-01

    Lin28a inhibits the biogenesis of let-7 miRNAs by triggering the polyuridylation and degradation of their precursors by terminal uridylyltransferases TUT4/7 and 3'-5' exoribonuclease Dis3l2, respectively. Previously, we showed that Lin28a also controls the production of neuro-specific miRNA-9 via a polyuridylation-independent mechanism. Here we reveal that the sequences and structural characteristics of pre-let-7 and pre-miRNA-9 are eliciting two distinct modes of binding to Lin28a. We present evidence that Dis3l2 controls miRNA-9 production. Finally, we show that the constitutive expression of untagged Lin28a during neuronal differentiation in vitro positively and negatively affects numerous other miRNAs. Our findings shed light on the role of Lin28a in differentiating cells and on the ways in which one RNA-binding protein can perform multiple roles in the regulation of RNA processing.

  3. Lin28a uses distinct mechanisms of binding to RNA and affects miRNA levels positively and negatively

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Jakub Stanislaw; Hobor, Fruzsina; Downie Ruiz Velasco, Angela; Choudhury, Nila Roy; Heikel, Gregory; Kerr, Alastair; Ramos, Andres; Michlewski, Gracjan

    2017-01-01

    Lin28a inhibits the biogenesis of let-7 miRNAs by triggering the polyuridylation and degradation of their precursors by terminal uridylyltransferases TUT4/7 and 3′-5′ exoribonuclease Dis3l2, respectively. Previously, we showed that Lin28a also controls the production of neuro-specific miRNA-9 via a polyuridylation-independent mechanism. Here we reveal that the sequences and structural characteristics of pre-let-7 and pre-miRNA-9 are eliciting two distinct modes of binding to Lin28a. We present evidence that Dis3l2 controls miRNA-9 production. Finally, we show that the constitutive expression of untagged Lin28a during neuronal differentiation in vitro positively and negatively affects numerous other miRNAs. Our findings shed light on the role of Lin28a in differentiating cells and on the ways in which one RNA-binding protein can perform multiple roles in the regulation of RNA processing. PMID:27881476

  4. A RanGTP-independent mechanism allows ribosomal protein nuclear import for ribosome assembly

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, Sabina; Fischer, Ute; Altvater, Martin; Nerurkar, Purnima; Peña, Cohue; Gerber, Michaela; Chang, Yiming; Caesar, Stefanie; Schubert, Olga T; Schlenstedt, Gabriel; Panse, Vikram G

    2014-01-01

    Within a single generation time a growing yeast cell imports ∼14 million ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) into the nucleus for ribosome production. After import, it is unclear how these intrinsically unstable and aggregation-prone proteins are targeted to the ribosome assembly site in the nucleolus. Here, we report the discovery of a conserved nuclear carrier Tsr2 that coordinates transfer of the r-protein eS26 to the earliest assembling pre-ribosome, the 90S. In vitro studies revealed that Tsr2 efficiently dissociates importin:eS26 complexes via an atypical RanGTP-independent mechanism that terminates the import process. Subsequently, Tsr2 binds the released eS26, shields it from proteolysis, and ensures its safe delivery to the 90S pre-ribosome. We anticipate similar carriers—termed here escortins—to securely connect the nuclear import machinery with pathways that deposit r-proteins onto developing pre-ribosomal particles. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03473.001 PMID:25144938

  5. Synthesis of a fluorescent 7-methylguanosine analog and a fluorescence spectroscopic study of its reaction with wheatgerm cap binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Ren, J; Goss, D J

    1996-01-01

    In the initiation of protein synthesis, the mRNA 5'-terminal 7-methylguanosine cap structure and several recognition proteins play a pivotal role. For the study of this cap binding reaction, one approach is to use fluorescence spectroscopy. A ribose diol-modified fluorescent cap analog, anthraniloyl-m7GTP (Ant-m7GTP), was designed and synthesized for this purpose. This fluorescent cap analog was found to have a high quantum yield, resistance to photobleaching and avoided overlap of excitation and emission wavelengths with those of proteins. The binding of Ant-m7GTP with wheatgerm initiation factors elF-4F and elF-(iso)4F was determined. The fluorescent cap analog and m7GTP had similar interactions with both cap binding proteins. Fluorescence quenching experiments showed that the microenvironment of Ant-m7GTP when bound to protein was hydrophobic. PMID:8836193

  6. Arabidopsis acyl-CoA-binding protein ACBP6 localizes in the phloem and affects jasmonate composition.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zi-Wei; Lung, Shiu-Cheung; Hu, Tai-Hua; Chen, Qin-Fang; Suen, Yung-Lee; Wang, Mingfu; Hoffmann-Benning, Susanne; Yeung, Edward; Chye, Mee-Len

    2016-12-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana ACYL-COA-BINDING PROTEIN6 (AtACBP6) encodes a cytosolic 10-kDa AtACBP. It confers freezing tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis, possibly by its interaction with lipids as indicated by the binding of acyl-CoA esters and phosphatidylcholine to recombinant AtACBP6. Herein, transgenic Arabidopsis transformed with an AtACBP6 promoter-driven β-glucuronidase (GUS) construct exhibited strong GUS activity in the vascular tissues. Immunoelectron microscopy using anti-AtACBP6 antibodies showed AtACBP6 localization in the phloem especially in the companion cells and sieve elements. Also, the presence of gold grains in the plasmodesmata indicated its potential role in systemic trafficking. The AtACBP6 protein, but not its mRNA, was found in phloem exudate of wild-type Arabidopsis. Fatty acid profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed an increase in the jasmonic acid (JA) precursor, 12-oxo-cis,cis-10,15-phytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA), and a reduction in JA and/or its derivatives in acbp6 phloem exudates in comparison to the wild type. Quantitative real-time PCR showed down-regulation of COMATOSE (CTS) in acbp6 rosettes suggesting that AtACBP6 affects CTS function. AtACBP6 appeared to affect the content of JA and/or its derivatives in the sieve tubes, which is consistent with its role in pathogen-defense and in its wound-inducibility of AtACBP6pro::GUS. Taken together, our results suggest the involvement of AtACBP6 in JA-biosynthesis in Arabidopsis phloem tissues.

  7. The interaction of RNA helicase DDX3 with HIV-1 Rev-CRM1-RanGTP complex during the HIV replication cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Mahboobi, Seyed Hanif; Javanpour, Alex A.; Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.

    2015-02-27

    Molecular traffic between the nucleus and the cytoplasm is regulated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC), which acts as a highly selective channel perforating the nuclear envelope in eukaryotic cells. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exploits the nucleocytoplasmic pathway to export its RNA transcripts across the NPC to the cytoplasm. Despite extensive study on the HIV life cycle and the many drugs developed to target this cycle, no current drugs have been successful in targeting the critical process of viral nuclear export, even though HIV’s reliance on a single host protein, CRM1, to export its unspliced and partially spliced RNA transcripts makes it a tempting target. Due to recent findings implicating a DEAD-box helicase, DDX3, in HIV replication and a member of the export complex, it has become an appealing target for anti-HIV drug inhibition. In the present research, we have applied a hybrid computational protocol to analyze protein-protein interactions in the HIV mRNA export cycle. This method is based on molecular docking followed by molecular dynamics simulation and accompanied by approximate free energy calculation (MM/GBSA), computational alanine scanning, clustering, and evolutionary analysis. We highlight here some of the most likely binding modes and interfacial residues between DDX3 and CRM1 both in the absence and presence of RanGTP. This work shows that although DDX3 can bind to free CRM1, addition of RanGTP leads to more concentrated distribution of binding modes and stronger binding between CRM1 and RanGTP.

  8. The interaction of RNA helicase DDX3 with HIV-1 Rev-CRM1-RanGTP complex during the HIV replication cycle

    DOE PAGES

    Mahboobi, Seyed Hanif; Javanpour, Alex A.; Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.

    2015-02-27

    Molecular traffic between the nucleus and the cytoplasm is regulated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC), which acts as a highly selective channel perforating the nuclear envelope in eukaryotic cells. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exploits the nucleocytoplasmic pathway to export its RNA transcripts across the NPC to the cytoplasm. Despite extensive study on the HIV life cycle and the many drugs developed to target this cycle, no current drugs have been successful in targeting the critical process of viral nuclear export, even though HIV’s reliance on a single host protein, CRM1, to export its unspliced and partially spliced RNAmore » transcripts makes it a tempting target. Due to recent findings implicating a DEAD-box helicase, DDX3, in HIV replication and a member of the export complex, it has become an appealing target for anti-HIV drug inhibition. In the present research, we have applied a hybrid computational protocol to analyze protein-protein interactions in the HIV mRNA export cycle. This method is based on molecular docking followed by molecular dynamics simulation and accompanied by approximate free energy calculation (MM/GBSA), computational alanine scanning, clustering, and evolutionary analysis. We highlight here some of the most likely binding modes and interfacial residues between DDX3 and CRM1 both in the absence and presence of RanGTP. This work shows that although DDX3 can bind to free CRM1, addition of RanGTP leads to more concentrated distribution of binding modes and stronger binding between CRM1 and RanGTP.« less

  9. The Interaction of RNA Helicase DDX3 with HIV-1 Rev-CRM1-RanGTP Complex during the HIV Replication Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Mahboobi, Seyed Hanif; Javanpour, Alex A.; Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular traffic between the nucleus and the cytoplasm is regulated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC), which acts as a highly selective channel perforating the nuclear envelope in eukaryotic cells. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exploits the nucleocytoplasmic pathway to export its RNA transcripts across the NPC to the cytoplasm. Despite extensive study on the HIV life cycle and the many drugs developed to target this cycle, no current drugs have been successful in targeting the critical process of viral nuclear export, even though HIV’s reliance on a single host protein, CRM1, to export its unspliced and partially spliced RNA transcripts makes it a tempting target. Due to recent findings implicating a DEAD-box helicase, DDX3, in HIV replication and a member of the export complex, it has become an appealing target for anti-HIV drug inhibition. In the present research, we have applied a hybrid computational protocol to analyze protein-protein interactions in the HIV mRNA export cycle. This method is based on molecular docking followed by molecular dynamics simulation and accompanied by approximate free energy calculation (MM/GBSA), computational alanine scanning, clustering, and evolutionary analysis. We highlight here some of the most likely binding modes and interfacial residues between DDX3 and CRM1 both in the absence and presence of RanGTP. This work shows that although DDX3 can bind to free CRM1, addition of RanGTP leads to more concentrated distribution of binding modes and stronger binding between CRM1 and RanGTP. PMID:25723178

  10. A yeast 2-hybrid analysis of human GTP cyclohydrolase I protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Swick, Lance; Kapatos, Gregory

    2006-06-01

    The yeast 2-hybrid system was used to identify protein domains involved in the oligomerization of human guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) Cyclohydrolase I (GCH1) and the interaction of GCH1 with its regulatory partner, GCH1 feedback regulatory protein (GFRP). When interpreted within the structural framework derived from crystallography, our results indicate that the GCH1 N-terminal alpha-helices are not the only domains involved in the formation of dimers from monomers and also suggest an important role for the C-terminal alpha-helix in the assembly of dimers to form decamers. Moreover, a previously unknown role of the extended N-terminal alpha-helix in the interaction of GCH1 and GFRP was revealed. To discover novel GCH1 protein binding partners, we used the yeast 2-hybrid system to screen a human brain library with GCH1 N-terminal amino acids 1-96 as prey. This protruding extension of GCH1 contains two canonical Type-I Src homology-3 (SH3) ligand domains located within amino acids 1-42. Our screen yielded seven unique clones that were subsequently shown to require amino acids 1-42 for binding to GCH1. The interaction of one of these clones, Activator of Heat Shock 90 kDa Protein (Aha1), with GCH1 was validated by glutathione-s-transferase (GST) pull-down assay. Although the physiological relevance of the Aha1-GCH1 interaction requires further study, Aha1 may recruit GCH1 into the endothelial nitric oxide synthase/heat shock protein (eNOS/Hsp90) complex to support changes in endothelial nitric oxide production through the local synthesis of BH4.

  11. A potential link between insulin signaling and GLUT4 translocation: Association of Rab10-GTP with the exocyst subunit Exoc6/6b.

    PubMed

    Sano, Hiroyuki; Peck, Grantley R; Blachon, Stephanie; Lienhard, Gustav E

    2015-09-25

    Insulin increases glucose transport in fat and muscle cells by stimulating the exocytosis of specialized vesicles containing the glucose transporter GLUT4. This process, which is referred to as GLUT4 translocation, increases the amount of GLUT4 at the cell surface. Previous studies have provided evidence that insulin signaling increases the amount of Rab10-GTP in the GLUT4 vesicles and that GLUT4 translocation requires the exocyst, a complex that functions in the tethering of vesicles to the plasma membrane, leading to exocytosis. In the present study we show that Rab10 in its GTP form binds to Exoc6 and Exoc6b, which are the two highly homologous isotypes of an exocyst subunit, that both isotypes are found in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and that knockdown of Exoc6, Exoc6b, or both inhibits GLUT4 translocation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These results suggest that the association of Rab10-GTP with Exoc6/6b is a molecular link between insulin signaling and the exocytic machinery in GLUT4 translocation.

  12. A potential link between insulin signaling and GLUT4 translocation: association of Rab10-GTP with the exocyst subunit Exoc6/6b

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Hiroyuki; Peck, Grantley R.; Blachon, Stephanie; Lienhard, Gustav E.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin increases glucose transport in fat and muscle cells by stimulating the exocytosis of specialized vesicles containing the glucose transporter GLUT4. This process, which is referred to as GLUT4 translocation, increases the amount of GLUT4 at the cell surface. Previous studies have provided evidence that insulin signaling increases the amount of Rab10-GTP in the GLUT4 vesicles and that GLUT4 translocation requires the exocyst, a complex that functions in the tethering of vesicles to the plasma membrane, leading to exocytosis. In the present study we show that Rab10 in its GTP form binds to Exoc6 and Exoc6b, which are the two highly homologous isotypes of an exocyst subunit, that both isotypes are found in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and that knockdown of Exoc6, Exoc6b, or both inhibits GLUT4 translocation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These results suggest that the association of Rab10-GTP with Exoc6/6b is a molecular link between insulin signaling and the exocytic machinery in GLUT4 translocation. PMID:26299925

  13. Structural Insights into a Unique Legionella pneumophila Effector LidA Recognizing Both GDP and GTP Bound Rab1 in Their Active State

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Defen; Li, Bingqing; Zhu, Deyu; Chen, Yuzhen; Zhang, Hao; Xu, Sujuan; Chai, Jijie; Gu, Lichuan

    2012-01-01

    The intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila hijacks the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived vesicles to create an organelle designated Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) required for bacterial replication. Maturation of the LCV involved acquisition of Rab1, which is mediated by the bacterial effector protein SidM/DrrA. SidM/DrrA is a bifunctional enzyme having the activity of both Rab1-specific GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) displacement factor (GDF) and guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). LidA, another Rab1-interacting bacterial effector protein, was reported to promote SidM/DrrA-mediated recruitment of Rab1 to the LCV as well. Here we report the crystal structures of LidA complexes with GDP- and GTP-bound Rab1 respectively. Structural comparison revealed that GDP-Rab1 bound by LidA exhibits an active and nearly identical conformation with that of GTP-Rab1, suggesting that LidA can disrupt the switch function of Rab1 and render it persistently active. As with GTP, LidA maintains GDP-Rab1 in the active conformation through interaction with its two conserved switch regions. Consistent with the structural observations, biochemical assays showed that LidA binds to GDP- and GTP-Rab1 equally well with an affinity approximately 7.5 nM. We propose that the tight interaction with Rab1 allows LidA to facilitate SidM/DrrA-catalyzed release of Rab1 from GDIs. Taken together, our results support a unique mechanism by which a bacterial effector protein regulates Rab1 recycling. PMID:22416225

  14. Identification of a second GTP-bound magnesium ion in archaeal initiation factor 2.

    PubMed

    Dubiez, Etienne; Aleksandrov, Alexey; Lazennec-Schurdevin, Christine; Mechulam, Yves; Schmitt, Emmanuelle

    2015-03-11

    Eukaryotic and archaeal translation initiation processes involve a heterotrimeric GTPase e/aIF2 crucial for accuracy of start codon selection. In eukaryotes, the GTPase activity of eIF2 is assisted by a GTPase-activating protein (GAP), eIF5. In archaea, orthologs of eIF5 are not found and aIF2 GTPase activity is thought to be non-assisted. However, no in vitro GTPase activity of the archaeal factor has been reported to date. Here, we show that aIF2 significantly hydrolyses GTP in vitro. Within aIF2γ, H97, corresponding to the catalytic histidine found in other translational GTPases, and D19, from the GKT loop, both participate in this activity. Several high-resolution crystal structures were determined to get insight into GTP hydrolysis by aIF2γ. In particular, a crystal structure of the H97A mutant was obtained in the presence of non-hydrolyzed GTP. This structure reveals the presence of a second magnesium ion bound to GTP and D19. Quantum chemical/molecular mechanical simulations support the idea that the second magnesium ion may assist GTP hydrolysis by helping to neutralize the developing negative charge in the transition state. These results are discussed in light of the absence of an identified GAP in archaea to assist GTP hydrolysis on aIF2.

  15. pH-sensitive residues in the p19 RNA silencing suppressor protein from carnation Italian ringspot virus affect siRNA binding stability

    PubMed Central

    Law, Sean M; Zhang, Bin W; Brooks, Charles L

    2013-01-01

    Tombusviruses, such as Carnation Italian ringspot virus (CIRV), encode a protein homodimer called p19 that is capable of suppressing RNA silencing in their infected hosts by binding to and sequestering short-interfering RNA (siRNA) away from the RNA silencing pathway. P19 binding stability has been shown to be sensitive to changes in pH but the specific amino acid residues involved have remained unclear. Using constant pH molecular dynamics simulations, we have identified key pH-dependent residues that affect CIRV p19–siRNA binding stability at various pH ranges based on calculated changes in the free energy contribution from each titratable residue. At high pH, the deprotonation of Lys60, Lys67, Lys71, and Cys134 has the largest effect on the binding stability. Similarly, deprotonation of several acidic residues (Asp9, Glu12, Asp20, Glu35, and/or Glu41) at low pH results in a decrease in binding stability. At neutral pH, residues Glu17 and His132 provide a small increase in the binding stability and we find that the optimal pH range for siRNA binding is between 7.0 and 10.0. Overall, our findings further inform recent experiments and are in excellent agreement with data on the pH-dependent binding profile. PMID:23450521

  16. pH-sensitive residues in the p19 RNA silencing suppressor protein from carnation Italian ringspot virus affect siRNA binding stability.

    PubMed

    Law, Sean M; Zhang, Bin W; Brooks, Charles L

    2013-05-01

    Tombusviruses, such as Carnation Italian ringspot virus (CIRV), encode a protein homodimer called p19 that is capable of suppressing RNA silencing in their infected hosts by binding to and sequestering short-interfering RNA (siRNA) away from the RNA silencing pathway. P19 binding stability has been shown to be sensitive to changes in pH but the specific amino acid residues involved have remained unclear. Using constant pH molecular dynamics simulations, we have identified key pH-dependent residues that affect CIRV p19-siRNA binding stability at various pH ranges based on calculated changes in the free energy contribution from each titratable residue. At high pH, the deprotonation of Lys60, Lys67, Lys71, and Cys134 has the largest effect on the binding stability. Similarly, deprotonation of several acidic residues (Asp9, Glu12, Asp20, Glu35, and/or Glu41) at low pH results in a decrease in binding stability. At neutral pH, residues Glu17 and His132 provide a small increase in the binding stability and we find that the optimal pH range for siRNA binding is between 7.0 and 10.0. Overall, our findings further inform recent experiments and are in excellent agreement with data on the pH-dependent binding profile.

  17. Fluctuating capacity and advance decision-making in Bipolar Affective Disorder — Self-binding directives and self-determination

    PubMed Central

    Gergel, Tania; Owen, Gareth S.

    2015-01-01

    For people with Bipolar Affective Disorder, a self-binding (advance) directive (SBD), by which they commit themselves to treatment during future episodes of mania, even if unwilling, can seem the most rational way to deal with an imperfect predicament. Knowing that mania will almost certainly cause enormous damage to themselves, their preferred solution may well be to allow trusted others to enforce treatment and constraint, traumatic though this may be. No adequate provision exists for drafting a truly effective SBD and efforts to establish such provision are hampered by very valid, but also paralysing ethical, clinical and legal concerns. Effectively, the autonomy and rights of people with bipolar are being ‘protected’ through being denied an opportunity to protect themselves. From a standpoint firmly rooted in the clinical context and experience of mania, this article argues that an SBD, based on a patient-centred evaluation of capacity to make treatment decisions (DMC-T) and grounded within the clinician–patient relationship, could represent a legitimate and ethically coherent form of self-determination. After setting out background information on fluctuating capacity, mania and advance directives, this article proposes a framework for constructing such an SBD, and considers common objections, possible solutions and suggestions for future research. PMID:25939286

  18. Glycosylation changes in the globular head of H3N2 influenza hemagglutinin modulate receptor binding without affecting virus virulence

    PubMed Central

    Alymova, Irina V.; York, Ian A.; Air, Gillian M.; Cipollo, John F.; Gulati, Shelly; Baranovich, Tatiana; Kumar, Amrita; Zeng, Hui; Gansebom, Shane; McCullers, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the emergence of human H3N2 influenza A viruses in the pandemic of 1968, these viruses have become established as strains of moderate severity. A decline in virulence has been accompanied by glycan accumulation on the hemagglutinin globular head, and hemagglutinin receptor binding has changed from recognition of a broad spectrum of glycan receptors to a narrower spectrum. The relationship between increased glycosylation, binding changes, and reduction in H3N2 virulence is not clear. We evaluated the effect of hemagglutinin glycosylation on receptor binding and virulence of engineered H3N2 viruses. We demonstrate that low-binding virus is as virulent as higher binding counterparts, suggesting that H3N2 infection does not require either recognition of a wide variety of, or high avidity binding to, receptors. Among the few glycans recognized with low-binding virus, there were two structures that were bound by the vast majority of H3N2 viruses isolated between 1968 and 2012. We suggest that these two structures support physiologically relevant binding of H3N2 hemagglutinin and that this physiologically relevant binding has not changed since the 1968 pandemic. Therefore binding changes did not contribute to reduced severity of seasonal H3N2 viruses. This work will help direct the search for factors enhancing influenza virulence. PMID:27796371

  19. Peptide Chain Termination: Effect of Protein S on Ribosomal Binding of Release Factors

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, J. L.; Caskey, C. T.

    1970-01-01

    The protein factor S, previously shown to stimulate polypeptide chain termination in bacterial extracts, has two effects upon the complex formed between ribosomes, release factor, and terminator (trinucleotide) codon: (1) in the absence of GTP or GDP, S stimulates formation of an [R·UAA·ribosome] intermediate, and (2) in the presence of GTP or GDP, S participates in dissociation of this intermediate. Factor S can stimulate fMet release from [fMet-tRNAf·AUG·ribosome] intermediates in either the presence or absence of GTP or GDP. A model is proposed which relates the in vitro effects of S ± GTP (or GDP) on fMet release to the effects of S ± GTP (or GDP) on the binding and dissociation of R factor from ribosomes. PMID:5289007

  20. The structure of YqeH: An AtNOS1/AtNOA1 ortholog that couples GTP hydrolysis to molecular recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Sudhamsu, J.; Lee, G.I.; Klessig, D.F.; Crane, B.R.

    2009-03-27

    AtNOS1/AtNOA1 was identified as a nitric oxide-generating enzyme in plants, but that function has recently been questioned. To resolve issues surrounding AtNOA1 activity, we report the biochemical properties and a 2.36 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of a bacterial AtNOA1 ortholog (YqeH). Geobacillus YqeH fused to a putative AtNOA1 leader peptide complements growth and morphological defects of Atnoa1 mutant plants. YqeH does not synthesize nitric oxide from L-arginine but rather hydrolyzes GTP. The YqeH structure reveals a circularly permuted GTPase domain and an unusual C-terminal {beta}-domain. A small N-terminal domain, disordered in the structure, binds zinc. Structural homology among the C-terminal domain, the RNA-binding regulator TRAP, and the hypoxia factor pVHL define a recognition module for peptides and nucleic acids. TRAP residues important for RNA binding are conserved by the YqeH C-terminal domain, whose positioning is coupled to GTP hydrolysis. YqeH and AtNOA1 probably act as G-proteins that regulate nucleic acid recognition and not as nitric-oxide synthases.

  1. A novel GTP-dependent mechanism of ileal muscarinic metabotropic channel desensitization.

    PubMed Central

    Zholos, A. V.; Bolton, T. B.

    1996-01-01

    1. Cationic current (Icat) was evoked in single isolated smooth muscle cells either by activating muscarinic receptors with the stable muscarinic agonist, carbachol (CCh), or by dialysing cells with GTP-gamma S. It was studied using patch-clamp recording techniques in cells obtained by enzymatic digestion from the longitudinal muscle layer of the guinea-pig small intestine. 2. Icat appears only when muscarinic receptors or G-proteins are activated, but it is strongly voltage-dependent. Its activation could be described by the Boltzmann equation. During desensitization of Icat evoked by 50 microM CCh, the slope factor, k, remained constant whereas the maximal conductance, Gmax, slowly decreased and the potential of half-maximal activation, V1/2, shifted positively by 32 mV during 4 min. 3. At peak response either to extracellular application of CCh (GTP-free, or 1 mM GTP-containing, pipette solution) or to intracellular application of GTP-gamma S (no CCh), the size and voltage-dependent properties of Icat were similar. However, Icat desensitization was slower in the presence of GTP (CCh applied) in the pipette solution and much slower with GTP-gamma S in the pipette (no CCh) compared to GTP-free pipette solution (CCh applied); the decrease in Gmax with time was much delayed and the positive shift of the activation curve was inhibited. GDP-beta S added to the pipette solution at 2 mM abolished Icat in response to applied CCh; 50 microM did not prevent Icat generation but significantly accelerated desensitization. 4. It was concluded that the rate of desensitization of the carbachol-evoked cationic current was due to a decline in the concentration of activated G-protein in the cell, which reduced the maximum number of channels which could be opened and shifted their activation range to less negative potentials. PMID:8922752

  2. Assay for Arf GTP-binding Proteins | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute's Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize an antibody-based proteomics assay.

  3. Guanine nucleotide binding proteins in zucchini seedlings: Characterization and interactions with the NPA receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Lindeberg, M.; Jacobs, M. )

    1989-04-01

    A microsomal membrane preparation from hypocotyls of dark-grown Cucurbita pepo L. seedlings contains specific high-affinity binding sites for the non-hydrolyzable GTP analog guanosine 5{prime}-({gamma}-thio) triphosphate (GTP-{gamma}-S). Both the binding affinity and the pattern of binding specificity for GTP and GTP analogs are similar to animal G-proteins, and two zucchini membrane proteins are recognized in western blots by antiserum specific for the {sigma} subunit of platelet G{sub s} protein. GTP-{gamma}-S can increase specific naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) binding in zucchini microsomal membrane preparations, with its stimulation increasing with large tissue age. Al{sup +3} and F{sup {minus}} agents known to activate G-proteins - decreased NPA specific binding by ca. 15%. In tests of in vitro auxin transport employing zucchini plasma membrane vesicles, AlF{sup {minus}}{sub 4} strongly inhibited {sup 3}H-indoleacetic acid nor accumulation; GTP-{gamma}-S effects on this system will be discussed.

  4. Point mutations in Staphylococcus aureus PBP 2 gene affect penicillin-binding kinetics and are associated with resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Hackbarth, C J; Kocagoz, T; Kocagoz, S; Chambers, H F

    1995-01-01

    In Staphylococcus aureus, penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP 2) has been implicated in non-PBP 2a-mediated methicillin resistance. The PBP 2 gene (pbpB) was cloned from an expression library of a methicillin-susceptible strain of S. aureus (209P), and its entire sequence was compared with that of the pbpB gene from strains BB255, BB255R, and CDC6. Point mutations that resulted in amino acid substitutions near the conserved penicillin-binding motifs were detected in BB255R and CDC6, two low-level methicillin-resistant strains. Penicillin binding to PBP 2 in both BB255R and CDC6 is altered, and kinetic analysis indicated that altered binding of PBP 2 by penicillin was due to both lower binding affinity and more rapid release of bound drug. These structural and biochemical changes may contribute to the strains' resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. PMID:7695289

  5. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide down-regulates expression of GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein.

    PubMed

    Werner, Ernst R; Bahrami, Soheyl; Heller, Regine; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele

    2002-03-22

    GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein (GFRP) is a 9.7-kDa protein regulating GTP cyclohydrolase I activity in dependence of tetrahydrobiopterin and phenylalanine concentrations, thus enabling stimulation of tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis by phenylalanine to ensure its efficient metabolism by phenylalanine hydroxylase. Here, we were interested in regulation of GFRP expression by proinflammatory cytokines and stimuli, which are known to induce GTP cyclohydrolase I expression. Recombinant human GFRP stimulated recombinant human GTP cyclohydrolase I in the presence of phenylalanine and mediated feedback inhibition by tetrahydrobiopterin. Levels of GFRP mRNA in human myelomonocytoma (THP-1) cells remained unaltered by treatment of cells with interferon-gamma or interleukin-1beta, but were significantly down-regulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 microg/ml), without or with cotreatment by interferon-gamma, which strongly up-regulated GTP cyclohydrolase I expression and activity. GFRP expression was also suppressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with 1 microg/ml LPS, as well as in rat tissues 7 h post intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg LPS. THP-1 cells stimulated with interferon-gamma alone showed increased pteridine synthesis by addition of phenylalanine to the culture medium. Cells stimulated with interferon-gamma plus LPS, in contrast, showed phenylalanine-independent pteridine synthesis. These results demonstrate that LPS down-regulates expression of GFRP, thus rendering pteridine synthesis independent of metabolic control by phenylalanine.

  6. The lipid kinase PI5P4Kβ is an intracellular GTP sensor for metabolism and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sumita, Kazutaka; Lo, Yu-Hua; Takeuchi, Koh; Senda, Miki; Kofuji, Satoshi; Ikeda, Yoshiki; Terakawa, Jumpei; Sasaki, Mika; Yoshino, Hirofumi; Majd, Nazanin; Zheng, Yuxiang; Kahoud, Emily Rose; Yokota, Takehiro; Emerling, Brooke M.; Asara, John M.; Ishida, Tetsuo; Locasale, Jason W.; Daikoku, Takiko; Anastasiou, Dimitrios; Senda, Toshiya; Sasaki, Atsuo T.

    2016-01-01

    Summary While cellular GTP concentration dramatically changes in response to an organism’s cellular status, whether it serves as a metabolic cue for biological signaling remains elusive due to the lack of molecular identification of GTP sensors. Here we report that PI5P4Kβ, a phosphoinositide kinase that regulates PI(5)P levels, detects GTP concentration and converts them into lipid second messenger signaling. Biochemical analyses show that PI5P4Kβ preferentially utilizes GTP, rather than ATP, for PI(5)P phosphorylation and its activity reflects changes in direct proportion to the physiological GTP concentration. Structural and biological analyses reveal that the GTP-sensing activity of PI5P4Kβ is critical for metabolic adaptation and tumorigenesis. These results demonstrate that PI5P4Kβ is the missing GTP sensor and that GTP concentration functions as a metabolic cue via PI5P4Kβ. The critical role of the GTP-sensing activity of PI5P4Kβ in cancer signifies this lipid kinase as a cancer therapeutic target. PMID:26774281

  7. Phosphorylation of CREB affects its binding to high and low affinity sites: implications for cAMP induced gene transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, M; Weih, F; Schmid, W; DeVack, C; Kowenz-Leutz, E; Luckow, B; Boshart, M; Schütz, G

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic AMP treatment of hepatoma cells leads to increased protein binding at the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) of the tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) gene in vivo, as revealed by genomic footprinting, whereas no increase is observed at the CRE of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene. Several criteria establish that the 43 kDa CREB protein is interacting with both of these sites. Two classes of CRE with different affinity for CREB are described. One class, including the TATCRE, is characterized by asymmetric and weak binding sites (CGTCA), whereas the second class containing symmetrical TGACGTCA sites shows a much higher binding affinity for CREB. Both classes show an increase in binding after phosphorylation of CREB by protein kinase A (PKA). An in vivo phosphorylation-dependent change in binding of CREB increases the occupancy of weak binding sites used for transactivation, such as the TATCRE, while high affinity sites may have constitutive binding of transcriptionally active and inactive CREB dimers, as demonstrated by in vivo footprinting at the PEPCK CRE. Thus, lower basal level and higher relative stimulation of transcription by cyclic AMP through low affinity CREs should result, allowing finely tuned control of gene activation. Images PMID:1354612

  8. Post-translational modification and conformational state of Heat Shock Protein 90 differentially affect binding of chemically diverse small molecule inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Kristin; Mollapour, Mehdi; Scroggins, Bradley; Prodromou, Chrisostomos; Xu, Wanping; Tokita, Mari; Taldone, Tony; Pullen, Lester; Zierer, Bettina K.; Lee, Min-Jung; Trepel, Jane; Buchner, Johannes; Bolon, Daniel; Chiosis, Gabriela; Neckers, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an essential molecular chaperone in eukaryotes that facilitates the conformational maturation and function of a diverse protein clientele, including aberrant and/or over-expressed proteins that are involved in cancer growth and survival. A role for Hsp90 in supporting the protein homeostasis of cancer cells has buoyed interest in the utility of Hsp90 inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs. Despite the fact that all clinically evaluated Hsp90 inhibitors target an identical nucleotide-binding pocket in the N domain of the chaperone, the precise determinants that affect drug binding in the cellular environment remain unclear, and it is possible that chemically distinct inhibitors may not share similar binding preferences. Here we demonstrate that two chemically unrelated Hsp90 inhibitors, the benzoquinone ansamycin geldanamycin and the purine analog PU-H71, select for overlapping but not identical subpopulations of total cellular Hsp90, even though both inhibitors bind to an amino terminal nucleotide pocket and prevent N domain dimerization. Our data also suggest that PU-H71 is able to access a broader range of N domain undimerized Hsp90 conformations than is geldanamycin and is less affected by Hsp90 phosphorylation, consistent with its broader and more potent anti-tumor activity. A more complete understanding of the impact of the cellular milieu on small molecule inhibitor binding to Hsp90 should facilitate their more effective use in the clinic. PMID:23867252

  9. Low concentrations of ethanol do not affect radioligand binding to the delta-subunit-containing GABAA receptors in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Ashok K; Marutha Ravindran, C R; Ticku, Maharaj K

    2007-08-24

    In the present study, we investigated the co-localization pattern of the delta subunit with other subunits of GABA(A) receptors in the rat brain using immunoprecipitation and Western blotting techniques. Furthermore, we investigated whether low concentrations of ethanol affect the delta-subunit-containing GABA(A) receptor assemblies in the rat brain using radioligand binding to the rat brain membrane homogenates as well as to the immunoprecipitated receptor assemblies. Our results revealed that delta subunit is not co-localized with gamma(2) subunit but it is associated with the alpha(1), alpha(4) or alpha(6), beta(2) and/or beta(3) subunit(s) of GABA(A) receptors in the rat brain. Ethanol (1-50 mM) neither affected [(3)H]muscimol (3 nM) binding nor diazepam-insensitive [(3)H]Ro 15-4513 (2 nM) binding in the rat cerebellum and cerebral cortex membranes. However, a higher concentration of ethanol (500 mM) inhibited the binding of these radioligands to the GABA(A) receptors partially in the rat cerebellum and cerebral cortex. Similarly, ethanol (up to 50 mM) did not affect [(3)H]muscimol (15 nM) binding to the immunoprecipitated delta-subunit-containing GABA(A) receptor assemblies in the rat cerebellum and hippocampus but it inhibited the binding partially at a higher concentration (500 mM). These results suggest that the native delta-subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors do not play a major role in the pharmacology of clinically relevant low concentrations of ethanol.

  10. Phase changes at the end of a microtubule with a GTP cap.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, T L; Chen, Y

    1984-01-01

    Examination of Monte Carlo kinetic simulations, based on a realistic set of microscopic rate constants that apply to the end of a microtubule with a GTP cap, suggests that the end of a microtubule alternates between two quasimacroscopic phases. In one phase, the microtubule end has a GTP cap that fluctuates in size; in the other phase, the GTP cap has been lost. These repeated phase changes take place at any given tubulin concentration in a wide range of concentrations. While in the first phase, the microtubule grows slowly; while in the second phase, it shortens rapidly and may disappear completely. These results are closely related to the recent experimental work of Mitchison and Kirschner [Mitchison, T. & Kirschner, M.W. (1984) Nature (London), in press]. PMID:6592585

  11. Structure of the Branched-chain Amino Acid and GTP-sensing Global Regulator, CodY, from Bacillus subtilis*

    PubMed Central

    Levdikov, Vladimir M.; Blagova, Elena; Young, Vicki L.; Belitsky, Boris R.; Lebedev, Andrey; Sonenshein, Abraham L.

    2017-01-01

    CodY is a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) and GTP sensor and a global regulator of transcription in low G + C Gram-positive bacteria. It controls the expression of over 100 genes and operons, principally by repressing during growth genes whose products are required for adaptations to nutrient limitation. However, the mechanism by which BCAA binding regulates transcriptional changes is not clear. It is known that CodY consists of a GAF (cGMP-stimulated phosphodiesterases, adenylate cyclases, FhlA) domain that binds BCAAs and a winged helix-turn-helix (wHTH) domain that binds to DNA, but the way in which these domains interact and the structural basis of the BCAA dependence of this interaction are unknown. To gain new insights, we determined the crystal structure of unliganded CodY from Bacillus subtilis revealing a 10-turn α-helix linking otherwise discrete GAF and wHTH domains. The structure of CodY in complex with isoleucine revealed a reorganized GAF domain. In both complexes CodY was tetrameric. Size exclusion chromatography with multiangle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) experiments showed that CodY is a dimer at concentrations found in bacterial cells. Comparison of structures of dimers of unliganded CodY and CodY-Ile derived from the tetramers showed a splaying of the wHTH domains when Ile was bound; splaying is likely to account for the increased affinity of Ile-bound CodY for DNA. Electrophoretic mobility shift and SEC-MALLS analyses of CodY binding to 19–36-bp operator fragments are consistent with isoleucine-dependent binding of two CodY dimers per duplex. The implications of these observations for effector control of CodY activity are discussed. PMID:28011634

  12. Imipramine treatment differentially affects platelet /sup 3/H-imipramine binding and serotonin uptake in depressed patients

    SciTech Connect

    Suranyi-Cadotte, B.E.; Quirion, R.; Nair, N.P.V.; Lafaille, F.; Schwartz, G.

    1985-02-25

    Uptake of serotonin and /sup 3/H-imipramine binding in platelets of depressed patients were investigated simultaneously with changes in clinical state. Both V/sub max/ for serotonin uptake and B/sub max/ for /sup 3/H-imipramine binding were significantly lower in unmedicated depressed patients with respect to normal subjects. Successful treatment with imipramine led to a significant increase in B/sub max/ for /sup 3/H-imipramine binding, without significant change in V/sub max/ for serotonin uptake. B/sub max/ values increased to the normal range following complete, rather than partial clinical improvement. These data indicate that successful antidepressant treatment may increase the density of /sup 3/H-imipramine binding sites on platelets by a process which is independent of the uptake of serotonin. 29 references, 1 table.

  13. Current Metabolic Status Affects Urinary Liver-Type Fatty-Acid Binding Protein in Normoalbuminuric Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Hitomi; Nakashima, Mina; Takaki, Akifusa; Yukawa, Chiduko; Matsumoto, Suzuko; Omoto, Takashi; Shinozaki, Masahiro; Nishio, Shinya; Abe, Mariko; Antoku, Shinichi; Mifune, Mizuo; Togane, Michiko

    2017-01-01

    Background We aimed to study the association between urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), a biomarker of tubulointerstitial injury, and the clinical characteristics of normoalbuminuric and albuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes in order to detect the factors affecting urinary L-FABP. Methods Urinary L-FABP levels were measured in 788 patients with type 2 diabetes and again in 666 patients at 6 months after the initial measurement. The association between the urinary L-FABP level and the clinical parameters was investigated in a retrospective cross-sectional study and a subsequent observation. Results The HbA1c (odds ratio (OR): 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11 - 1.79; P < 0.01), systolic blood pressure (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01 - 1.05; P < 0.01) levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate (OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96 - 1.00; P = 0.01) were significantly associated with the high levels of urinary L-FABP (> 8.4 μg/gCr) in normoalbuminuric patients. However, a logistic regression analysis revealed that use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors (OR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.16 - 4.89; P = 0.02), urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) (OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.01; P < 0.01) and serum HDL-cholesterol concentration (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.11 - 0.89; P = 0.03) were significantly associated in albuminuric patients. In the follow-up observation, the change in urinary L-FABP was found to be significantly (P < 0.01) influenced by the change in the HbA1c level in both the normoalbuminuric and albuminuric patients. Conclusions High urinary L-FABP is associated with part of the current metabolic abnormalities, including high levels of HbA1c and systolic blood pressure among normoalbuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:28270898

  14. The Mn-binding proteins of the photosystem II oxygen-evolving complex are decreased in date palms affected by brittle leaf disease.

    PubMed

    Marqués, Jorge; Duran-Vila, Nuria; Daròs, José-Antonio

    2011-04-01

    Brittle leaf disease or maladie des feuilles cassantes (MFC) is a disorder affecting date palms (Phoenix dactylifera L.) which after a long declining process eventually leads to the death of the plant. No causal agent for the disease has been found so far but leaflets of affected palms are Mn-deficient despite the existence of adequate exchangeable Mn in the soils in which affected palms grow. The disease is specifically associated with an increase in a series of chloroplastic RNAs. A proteomic analysis of leaflets of affected and unaffected date palms showed differences in quantities of several proteins. Mn-binding PSBO and PSBP proteins, components of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II, were decreased in affected tissue, reinforcing the relation between MFC and Mn deficiency. The quantities of other proteins were increased by disease suggesting a response to stress.

  15. The fatty acid amide hydrolase C385A variant affects brain binding of the positron emission tomography tracer [11C]CURB.

    PubMed

    Boileau, Isabelle; Tyndale, Rachel F; Williams, Belinda; Mansouri, Esmaeil; Westwood, Duncan J; Le Foll, Bernard; Rusjan, Pablo M; Mizrahi, Romina; De Luca, Vincenzo; Zhou, Qian; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Kish, Stephen J; Tong, Junchao

    2015-08-01

    The common functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs324420, C385A) of the endocannabinoid inactivating enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) has been associated with anxiety disorder relevant phenotype and risk for addictions. Here, we tested whether the FAAH polymorphism affects in vivo binding of the FAAH positron emission tomography (PET) probe [(11)C]CURB ([(11)C-carbonyl]-6-hydroxy-[1,10-biphenyl]-3-yl cyclohexylcarbamate (URB694)). Participants (n=24) completed one [(11)C]CURB/PET scan and were genotyped for rs324420. Relative to C/C (58%), A-allele carriers (42%) had 23% lower [(11)C]CURB binding (λk3) in brain. We report evidence that the genetic variant rs324420 in FAAH is associated with measurable differences in brain FAAH binding as per PET [(11)C]CURB measurement.

  16. The fatty acid amide hydrolase C385A variant affects brain binding of the positron emission tomography tracer [11C]CURB

    PubMed Central

    Boileau, Isabelle; Tyndale, Rachel F; Williams, Belinda; Mansouri, Esmaeil; Westwood, Duncan J; Foll, Bernard Le; Rusjan, Pablo M; Mizrahi, Romina; De Luca, Vincenzo; Zhou, Qian; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Kish, Stephen J; Tong, Junchao

    2015-01-01

    The common functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs324420, C385A) of the endocannabinoid inactivating enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) has been associated with anxiety disorder relevant phenotype and risk for addictions. Here, we tested whether the FAAH polymorphism affects in vivo binding of the FAAH positron emission tomography (PET) probe [11C]CURB ([11C-carbonyl]-6-hydroxy-[1,10-biphenyl]-3-yl cyclohexylcarbamate (URB694)). Participants (n=24) completed one [11C]CURB/PET scan and were genotyped for rs324420. Relative to C/C (58%), A-allele carriers (42%) had 23% lower [11C]CURB binding (λk3) in brain. We report evidence that the genetic variant rs324420 in FAAH is associated with measurable differences in brain FAAH binding as per PET [11C]CURB measurement. PMID:26036940

  17. ATP binding and hydrolysis steps of the uni-site catalysis by the mitochondrial F(1)-ATPase are affected by inorganic phosphate.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Yakov M

    2010-10-01

    The effect of inorganic phosphate (P(i)) on uni-site ATP binding and hydrolysis by the nucleotide-depleted F(1)-ATPase from beef heart mitochondria (ndMF(1)) has been investigated. It is shown for the first time that P(i) decreases the apparent rate constant of uni-site ATP binding by ndMF(1) 3-fold with the K(d) of 0.38+/-0.14mM. During uni-site ATP hydrolysis, P(i) also shifts equilibrium between bound ATP and ADP+P(i) in the direction of ATP synthesis with the K(d) of 0.17+/-0.03mM. However, 10mM P(i) does not significantly affect ATP binding during multi-site catalysis.

  18. Structural basis of biopterin-induced inhibition of GTP cyclohydrolase I by GFRP, its feedback regulatory protein.

    PubMed

    Maita, Nobuo; Hatakeyama, Kazuyuki; Okada, Kengo; Hakoshima, Toshio

    2004-12-03

    GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCHI) is the rate-limiting enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin, a key cofactor necessary for nitric oxide synthase and for the hydroxylases that are involved in the production of catecholamines and serotonin. In animals, the GTPCHI feedback regulatory protein (GFRP) binds GTPCHI to mediate feed-forward activation of GTPCHI activity in the presence of phenylalanine, whereas it induces feedback inhibition of enzyme activity in the presence of biopterin. Here, we have reported the crystal structure of the biopterin-induced inhibitory complex of GTPCHI and GFRP and compared it with the previously reported phenylalanine-induced stimulatory complex. The structure reveals five biopterin molecules located at each interface between GTPCHI and GFRP. Induced fitting structural changes by the biopterin binding expand large conformational changes in GTPCHI peptide segments forming the active site, resulting in inhibition of the activity. By locating 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine-responsive dystonia mutations in the complex structure, we found mutations that may possibly disturb the GFRP-mediated regulation of GTPCHI.

  19. Oxidation of 5'-dGMP, 5'-dGDP, and 5'-dGTP by a platinum(IV) complex.

    PubMed

    Kipouros, Ioannis; Fica-Contreras, Sebastian Matias; Bowe, Gregory Joon Kee; Choi, Sunhee

    2015-12-01

    We previously reported that a Pt(IV) complex, [Pt(IV)(dach)Cl4] [trans-d,l-1,2-diaminocyclohexanetetrachloroplatinum(IV)] binds to the N7 of 5'-dGMP (deoxyguanosine-5'-monophosphate) at a relatively fast rate and oxidizes it to 8-oxo-5'-dGMP. Here, we further studied the kinetics of the oxidation of 5'-dGMP by the Pt(IV) complex. The electron transfer rate constants between 5'-dGMP and Pt(IV) in [H8-5'-dGMP-Pt(IV)] and [D8-5'-dGMP-Pt(IV)] were similar, giving a small value of the kinetic isotope effect (KIE: 1.2 ± 0.2). This small KIE indicates that the deprotonation of H8 in [H8-5'-dGMP-Pt(IV)] is not involved in the rate-determining step in the electron transfer between guanine (G) and Pt(IV). We also studied the reaction of 5'-dGDP (deoxyguanosine-5'-diphosphate) and 5'-dGTP (deoxyguanosine-5'-triphosphate) with the Pt(IV) complex. Our results showed that [Pt(IV)(dach)Cl4] oxidized 5'-dGDP and 5'-dGTP to 8-oxo-5'-dGDP and 8-oxo-5'-dGTP, respectively, by the same mechanism and kinetics as for 5'-dGMP. The Pt(IV) complex binds to N7 followed by a two-electron inner sphere electron transfer from G to Pt(IV). The reaction was catalyzed by Pt(II) and occurred faster at higher pH. The electron transfer was initiated by either an intramolecular nucleophilic attack by any of the phosphate groups or an intermolecular nucleophilic attack by free OH(-) in the solution. The rates of reactions for the three nucleotides followed the order: 5'-dGMP > 5'-dGDP > 5'-dGTP, indicating that the bulkier the phosphate groups are, the slower the reaction is, due to the larger steric hindrance and rotational barrier of the phosphate groups.

  20. Occurrence and Ecological Significance of GTP in the Ocean and in Microbial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Karl, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison between the ATP concentrations based on peak height light emission values (0 to 3 s) and integrated light flux determinations (15 to 75 s) for a variety of seawater samples revealed that the integrated method of light detection consistently yielded higher ATP concentrations, ranging from 1.38 to 2.35 times larger than the corresponding peak ATP values. A significant correlation (r = 0.923) was observed for a plot of ΔADP (i.e., integrated ATP - peak ATP) versus GTP + UTP, suggesting that the analytical interference on the ATP assay was the result of the presence of non-adenine nucleotide triphosphates. Size-fractionation studies revealed an enrichment of the non-adenine nucleotide triphosphates, relative to ATP, in the smallest size fraction analyzed (<10 μm). Investigations were conducted with 20 species of unicellular marine algae to determine their intracellular nucleotide concentrations, and these determinations were compared to the levels measured in lab cultures of the marine bacterium Serratia marinorubra. These results indicated that the intracellular GTP/ATP ratios in S. marinorubra increase in direct proportion to the rate of cell growth, and that the GTP/ATP ratios in bacteria are much greater than in growing algae, presumably due to the differences in rates of cellular biosynthesis. It is concluded that quantitative determinations of GTP/ATP ratios in environmental sample extracts may be useful for measuring microbial growth. PMID:16345313

  1. Isolation of cDNAs encoding GTP cyclohydrolase II from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, M; Sugiyama, M; Yamamoto, K

    1995-07-28

    A GTP cyclohydrolase II-encoding gene from Arabidopsis thaliana was isolated through functional complementation of a mutant of Escherichia coli, BSV18, deficient in this protein. The derived amino-acid sequence constitutes a polypeptide of 27 kDa and shows 37-58% identity with previously published sequences of Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Photobacterium leiognathi and P. phosphoreum.

  2. Hydrophobic Peptides Affect Binding of Calmodulin and Ca2+ as Explored by H/D Amide Exchange and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sperry, Justin B.; Huang, Richard Y-C.; Zhu, Mei M.; Rempel, Don L.; Gross, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM), a ubiquitous intracellular sensor protein, binds Ca2+ and interacts with various targets as part of signal transduction. Using hydrogen/deuterium exchange (H/DX) and a high resolution PLIMSTEX (Protein-Ligand Interactions by Mass Spectrometry, Titration, and H/D Exchange) protocol, we examined five different states of calmodulin: calcium-free, calcium-loaded, and three states of calcium-loaded in the presence of either melittin, mastoparan, or skeletal myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK). When CaM binds Ca2+, the extent of HDX decreased, consistent with the protein becoming stabilized upon binding. Furthermore, Ca2+-saturated calmodulin exhibits increased protection when bound to the peptides, forming high affinity complexes. The protocol reveals significant changes in EF hands 1, 3, and 4 with saturating levels of Ca2+. Titration of the protein using PLIMSTEX provides the binding affinity of Ca2+ to calmodulin within previously reported values. The affinities of calmodulin to Ca2+ increase by factors of 300 and 1000 in the presence of melittin and mastoparan, respectively. A modified PLIMSTEX protocol whereby the protein is digested to component peptides gives a region-specific titration. The titration data taken in this way show a decrease in the root mean square fit of the residuals, indicating a better fit of the data. The global H/D exchange results and those obtained in a region-specific way provide new insight into the Ca2+-binding properties of this well-studied protein. PMID:21765646

  3. Fine mapping of inhibitory anti-alpha5 monoclonal antibody epitopes that differentially affect integrin-ligand binding.

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, L; Clark, K; Mould, A P; Humphries, M J

    1999-01-01

    The high-affinity interaction of integrin alpha5beta1 with the central cell-binding domain of fibronectin requires both the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence (in the tenth type III repeat) and a second site Pro-His-Ser-Arg-Asn (PHSRN) in the adjacent ninth type III repeat, which synergizes with RGD. Arg-Arg-Glu-Thr-Ala-Trp-Ala (RRETAWA) is a novel peptidic ligand for alpha5beta1, identified by phage display, which blocks alpha5beta1-mediated cell adhesion to fibronectin. A key question is the location of the binding sites for these ligand sequences within the integrin. In this study we have identified residues that form part of the epitopes of three inhibitory anti-alpha5 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs): 16, P1D6 and SNAKA52. These mAbs have distinct functional properties. mAb 16 blocks the recognition of RGD and RRETAWA, whereas P1D6 blocks binding to the synergy sequence. The binding of SNAKA52 is inhibited by anti-beta1 mAbs, indicating that its epitope is close to the interface between the alpha and beta subunits. Residues in human alpha5 were replaced with the corresponding residues in mouse alpha5 by site-directed mutagenesis; wild-type or mutant human alpha5 was expressed on the surface of alpha5-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells. mAb binding was assessed by flow cytometry and by adhesion to the central cell-binding domain of fibronectin or RRETAWA by cell attachment assay. All three epitopes were located to different putative loops in the N-terminal domain of alpha5. As expected, disruption of these epitopes had no effect on ligand recognition by alpha5beta1. The locations of these epitopes are consistent with the beta-propeller model for integrin alpha-subunit structure and allow us to propose a topological image of the integrin-ligand complex. PMID:10567237

  4. Specific binding of /sup 125/I-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin to gonadal tissue: comparison of limited-point saturation analyses to Scatchard analyses for determining binding capacities and factors affecting estimates of binding capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, L.J.; Ireland, J.J.

    1986-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare gonadotropin binding capacity calculated from limited-point saturation analyses to those obtained from Scatchard analyses, and to test the effects of membrane purity and source of gonadotropin receptors on determining the maximum percentage of radioiodinated hormone bound to receptors (maximum bindability). One- to four-point saturation analyses gave results comparable to results by Scatchard analyses when examining relative binding capacities of receptors. Crude testicular homogenates had lower estimates of maximum bindability of /sup 125/I-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin than more purified gonadotropin receptor preparations. Under similar preparation techniques, some gonadotropin receptor sources exhibited low maximum bindability.

  5. Phosphorylation Affects DNA-Binding of the Senescence-Regulating bZIP Transcription Factor GBF1

    PubMed Central

    Smykowski, Anja; Fischer, Stefan M.; Zentgraf, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Massive changes in the transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana during onset and progression of leaf senescence imply a central role for transcription factors. While many transcription factors are themselves up- or down-regulated during senescence, the bZIP transcription factor G-box-binding factor 1 (GBF1/bZIP41) is constitutively expressed in Arabidopsis leaf tissue but at the same time triggers the onset of leaf senescence, suggesting posttranscriptional mechanisms for senescence-specific GBF1 activation. Here we show that GBF1 is phosphorylated by the threonine/serine CASEIN KINASE II (CKII) in vitro and that CKII phosphorylation had a negative effect on GBF1 DNA-binding to G-boxes of two direct target genes, CATALASE2 and RBSCS1a. Phosphorylation mimicry at three serine positions in the basic region of GBF1 also had a negative effect on DNA-binding. Kinase assays revealed that CKII phosphorylates at least one serine in the basic domain but has additional phosphorylation sites outside this domain. Two different ckII α subunit1 and one α subunit2 T-DNA insertion lines showed no visible senescence phenotype, but in all lines the expression of the senescence marker gene SAG12 was remarkably diminished. A model is presented suggesting that senescence-specific GBF1 activation might be achieved by lowering the phosphorylation of GBF1 by CKII. PMID:27135347

  6. Genetic variation at the 8q24.21 renal cancer susceptibility locus affects HIF binding to a MYC enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Grampp, Steffen; Platt, James L.; Lauer, Victoria; Salama, Rafik; Kranz, Franziska; Neumann, Viviana K.; Wach, Sven; Stöhr, Christine; Hartmann, Arndt; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Ratcliffe, Peter J.; Mole, David R.; Schödel, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by loss of function of the von Hippel–Lindau tumour suppressor (VHL) and unrestrained activation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs). Genetic and epigenetic determinants have an impact on HIF pathways. A recent genome-wide association study on renal cancer susceptibility identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in an intergenic region located between the oncogenes MYC and PVT1. Here using assays of chromatin conformation, allele-specific chromatin immunoprecipitation and genome editing, we show that HIF binding to this regulatory element is necessary to trans-activate MYC and PVT1 expression specifically in cells of renal tubular origins. Moreover, we demonstrate that the risk-associated polymorphisms increase chromatin accessibility and activity as well as HIF binding to the enhancer. These findings provide further evidence that genetic variation at HIF-binding sites modulates the oncogenic transcriptional output of the VHL–HIF axis and provide a functional explanation for the disease-associated effects of SNPs in ccRCC. PMID:27774982

  7. Poly(A) binding protein C1 is essential for efficient L1 retrotransposition and affects L1 RNP formation.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lixin; Taylor, Martin S; O'Donnell, Kathryn A; Boeke, Jef D

    2012-11-01

    Poly(A) binding proteins (PABPs) specifically bind the polyadenosine tail of mRNA and have been shown to be important for RNA polyadenylation, translation initiation, and mRNA stability. Using a modified L1 retrotransposition vector, we examined the effects of two PABPs (encoded by PABPN1 and PABPC1) on the retrotransposition activity of the L1 non-long-terminal-repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposon in both HeLa and HEK293T cells. We demonstrated that knockdown of these two genes by RNA interference (RNAi) effectively reduced L1 retrotransposition by 70 to 80% without significantly changing L1 transcription or translation or the status of the poly(A) tail. We identified that both poly(A) binding proteins were associated with the L1 ribonucleoprotein complex, presumably through L1 mRNA. Depletion of PABPC1 caused a defect in L1 RNP formation. Knockdown of the PABPC1 inhibitor PAIP2 increased L1 retrotransposition up to 2-fold. Low levels of exogenous overexpression of PABPN1 and PABPC1 increased L1 retrotransposition, whereas unregulated overexpression of these two proteins caused pleiotropic effects, such as hypersensitivity to puromycin and decreased L1 activity. Our data suggest that PABPC1 is essential for the formation of L1 RNA-protein complexes and may play a role in L1 RNP translocation in the host cell.

  8. Kinetics of binding of dihydropyridine calcium channel ligands to skeletal muscle membranes: Evidence for low-affinity sites and for the involvement of G proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, S.M.J.; Bladen, C. )

    1991-06-11

    Detailed kinetic studies of the binding of the calcium channel antagonist (+)-({sup 3}H)PN200-110 to membrane preparations form rabbit skeletal muscle have demonstrated that, in addition to the high-affinity sites that are readily measured in equilibrium and kinetic experiments, there are also dihydropyridine binding sites with much lower affinities. These sites were detected by the ability of micromolar concentrations of several dihydropyridines to accelerate the rate of dissociation of (+)-({sup 3}H)PN200-110 from its high-affinity sites. The observed increase in rate was dependent on the concentration of competing ligand, and half-maximal effects occurred at approximately 10 {mu}M for the agonist ({plus minus})-Bay K8644 and for the antagonists nifedipine, ({plus minus})-nitrendipine, and (+)-PN200-110. The low-affinity sites appear to be stereospecific since ({minus})-PN200-110 (1-200 {mu}M) did not affect the dissociation rate. The possible involvement of guanine nucleotide binding proteins in dihydropyridine binding has been investigated by studying the effects of guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP{gamma}S) and guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDP{beta}S) on binding parameters. GTP{gamma}S did increase the ability of ({plus minus})-({sup 3}H)PN200-110. These results suggest that skeletal muscle dihydropyridine receptors have low-affinity binding sites that may be involved in the regulation of calcium channel function and that activation of a guanine nucleotide binding protein may modulate the binding of agonists but not of antagonists to these sites.

  9. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase interferes with GTP. gamma. S stimulated IP sub 3 formation in differentiated HL-60 cell membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Misaki, Naoyuki; Imaizumi, Taro; Watanabe, Yashuiro )

    1989-01-01

    The effects of addition of activated cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) on the function of islet-activating protein (IAP)-sensitive GTP-binding (G) protein were studied in the plasma membranes of {sup 3}H-inositol-labeled differentiated human leukemic (HL-60) cells. Pretreatment of the membranes with activated PKA in the presence of MgATP for 15 min. at 37{degree}C decreased GTP {gamma}S-stimulated inositol trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) formation by about 30%, but had no influence on Ca{sup 2+}-stimulated IP{sub 3} formation. And autoradiography in the phosphorylation experiments of solubilized HL-60 cell membranes by PKA showed some {sup 32}P incorporated bands, and among them one of the major bands showed the migration at 40 kDa supporting that the G protein coupling with PI response was phosphorylated by PKA. These results showed that pretreatment with activated PKA inhibited the mediating function of the G protein between the fMLP receptor and phospholipase C by its phosphorylation.

  10. NLRP7 affects trophoblast lineage differentiation, binds to overexpressed YY1 and alters CpG methylation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal-effect mutations in NLRP7 cause rare biparentally inherited hydatidiform moles (BiHMs), abnormal pregnancies containing hypertrophic vesicular trophoblast but no embryo. BiHM trophoblasts display abnormal DNA methylation patterns affecting maternally methylated germline differentially methy...

  11. Glycosylation of Skp1 affects its conformation and promotes binding to a model f-box protein.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, M Osman; Schafer, Christopher M; Powell, John T; Rodgers, Karla K; Mooers, Blaine H M; West, Christopher M

    2014-03-18

    In the social amoeba Dictyostelium, Skp1 is hydroxylated on proline 143 and further modified by three cytosolic glycosyltransferases to yield an O-linked pentasaccharide that contributes to O2 regulation of development. Skp1 is an adapter in the Skp1/cullin1/F-box protein family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that targets specific proteins for polyubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. To investigate the biochemical consequences of glycosylation, untagged full-length Skp1 and several of its posttranslationally modified isoforms were expressed and purified to near homogeneity using recombinant and in vitro strategies. Interaction studies with the soluble mammalian F-box protein Fbs1/Fbg1/OCP1 revealed preferential binding to the glycosylated isoforms of Skp1. This difference correlated with the increased α-helical and decreased β-sheet content of glycosylated Skp1s based on circular dichroism and increased folding order based on small-angle X-ray scattering. A comparison of the molecular envelopes of fully glycosylated Skp1 and the apoprotein indicated that both isoforms exist as an antiparallel dimer that is more compact and extended in the glycosylated state. Analytical gel filtration and chemical cross-linking studies showed a growing tendency of less modified isoforms to dimerize. Considering that regions of free Skp1 are intrinsically disordered and Skp1 can adopt distinct folds when bound to F-box proteins, we propose that glycosylation, which occurs adjacent to the F-box binding site, influences the spectrum of energetically similar conformations that vary inversely in their propensity to dock with Fbs1 or another Skp1. Glycosylation may thus influence Skp1 function by modulating F-box protein binding in cells.

  12. Conformational states of Ras complexed with the GTP analogue GppNHp or GppCH2p: implications for the interaction with effector proteins.

    PubMed

    Spoerner, Michael; Nuehs, Andrea; Ganser, Petra; Herrmann, Christian; Wittinghofer, Alfred; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert

    2005-02-15

    The guanine nucleotide-binding protein Ras occurs in solution in two different states, state 1 and state 2, when the GTP analogue GppNHp is bound to the active center as detected by (31)P NMR spectroscopy. Here we show that Ras(wt).Mg(2+).GppCH(2)p also exists in two conformational states in dynamic equilibrium. The activation enthalpy DeltaH(++)(12) and the activation entropy DeltaS(++)(12) for the transition from state 1 to state 2 are 70 kJ mol(-1) and 102 J mol(-1) K(-1), within the limits of error identical to those determined for the Ras(wt).Mg(2+).GppNHp complex. The same is true for the equilibrium constants K(12) = [2]/[1] of 2.0 and the corresponding DeltaG(12) of -1.7 kJ mol(-1) at 278 K. This excludes a suggested specific effect of the NH group of GppNHp on the equilibrium. The assignment of the phosphorus resonance lines of the bound analogues has been done by two-dimensional (31)P-(31)P NOESY experiments which lead to a correction of the already reported assignments of bound GppNHp. Mutation of Thr35 in Ras.Mg(2+).GppCH(2)p to serine leads to a shift of the conformational equilibrium toward state 1. Interaction of the Ras binding domain (RBD) of Raf kinase or RalGDS with Ras(wt) or Ras(T35S) shifts the equilibrium completely to state 2. The (31)P NMR experiments suggest that, besides the type of the side chain of residue 35, a main contribution to the conformational equilibrium in Ras complexes with GTP and GTP analogues is the effective acidity of the gamma-phosphate group of the bound nucleotide. A reaction scheme for the Ras-effector interaction is presented which includes the existence of two conformations of the effector loop and a weak binding state.

  13. Simultaneous prenatal ethanol and nicotine exposure affect ethanol consumption, ethanol preference and oxytocin receptor binding in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sarah K; Cox, Elizabeth T; McMurray, Matthew S; Fay, Emily E; Jarrett, Thomas M; Walker, Cheryl H; Overstreet, David H; Johns, Josephine M

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol consumption and smoking during pregnancy are common, despite the known adverse effects on the fetus. The teratogenicity of each drug independently is well established; however, the effects of concurrent exposure to ethanol and nicotine in preclinical models remain unclear. This study examined the impact of simultaneous prenatal exposure to both ethanol and nicotine on offspring ethanol preference behaviors and oxytocin system dynamics. Rat dams were given liquid diet (17% ethanol derived calories (EDC)) on gestational day (GD) 5 and 35% EDC from GD 6-20 and concurrently an osmotic minipump delivered nicotine (3-6mg/kg/day) from GD 4-postpartum day 10. Offspring were tested for ethanol preference during adolescence (postnatal day (PND) 30-43) and again at adulthood (PND 60-73), followed by assays for oxytocin mRNA expression and receptor binding in relevant brain regions. Prenatal exposure decreased ethanol preference in males during adolescence, and decreased consumption and preference in females during adulthood compared to controls. Oxytocin receptor binding in the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus was increased in adult prenatally exposed males only. Prenatal exposure to these drugs sex-specifically decreased ethanol preference behavior in offspring unlike reports for either drug separately. The possible role of oxytocin in reduction of ethanol consumption behavior is highlighted.

  14. Human cytokines interleukin (IL)-3 and IL-6 affect the growth and insulin binding of the unicellular organism Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Csaba, G; Kovács, P; Falus, A

    1995-11-01

    Interleukin (IL)-3 and IL-6 significantly increase the growth rate of the unicellular organism, Tetrahymena. The effect elicited by IL-3 is long lasting as it was also detectable after 20 generations. Effect of IL-6 was detectable as long as the substance was present in the cell culture. Pretreatment with IL-3 did not enhance the proliferative response to subsequent IL-3 treatment, but the second exposure to IL-3 considerably depressed the active proliferation of Tetrahymena cells. However, a positive 'priming effect' elicited by IL-6 resulted in an increased growth rate following repeated IL-6 stimulation. Insulin binding to the plasma membrane of Tetrahymena was increased by IL-6 but not by IL-3 after 24 hours, and this enhancement appeared even after one hour incubation. If the cells were pretreated with insulin, IL-6 did not influence insulin binding, while an inhibition by IL-3 was observed. These results direct attention to the similarities of actions induced by IL-3 and IL-6 at different levels of phylogeny probably due to the presence of cytokine receptor-like structures on this unicellular organism.

  15. How conformational changes can affect catalysis, inhibition and drug resistance of enzymes with induced-fit binding mechanism such as the HIV-1 protease.

    PubMed

    Weikl, Thomas R; Hemmateenejad, Bahram

    2013-05-01

    A central question is how the conformational changes of proteins affect their function and the inhibition of this function by drug molecules. Many enzymes change from an open to a closed conformation upon binding of substrate or inhibitor molecules. These conformational changes have been suggested to follow an induced-fit mechanism in which the molecules first bind in the open conformation in those cases where binding in the closed conformation appears to be sterically obstructed such as for the HIV-1 protease. In this article, we present a general model for the catalysis and inhibition of enzymes with induced-fit binding mechanism. We derive general expressions that specify how the overall catalytic rate of the enzymes depends on the rates for binding, for the conformational changes, and for the chemical reaction. Based on these expressions, we analyze the effect of mutations that mainly shift the conformational equilibrium on catalysis and inhibition. If the overall catalytic rate is limited by product unbinding, we find that mutations that destabilize the closed conformation relative to the open conformation increase the catalytic rate in the presence of inhibitors by a factor exp(ΔΔGC/RT) where ΔΔGC is the mutation-induced shift of the free-energy difference between the conformations. This increase in the catalytic rate due to changes in the conformational equilibrium is independent of the inhibitor molecule and, thus, may help to understand how non-active-site mutations can contribute to the multi-drug-resistance that has been observed for the HIV-1 protease. A comparison to experimental data for the non-active-site mutation L90M of the HIV-1 protease indicates that the mutation slightly destabilizes the closed conformation of the enzyme. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The emerging dynamic view of proteins: Protein plasticity in allostery, evolution and self-assembly.

  16. Amino Acid Substitutions That Affect Receptor Binding and Stability of the Hemagglutinin of Influenza A/H7N9 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Schrauwen, Eefje J. A.; Burke, David F.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Herfst, Sander; Fouchier, Ron A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Receptor-binding preference and stability of hemagglutinin have been implicated as crucial determinants of airborne transmission of influenza viruses. Here, amino acid substitutions previously identified to affect these traits were tested in the context of an A/H7N9 virus. Some combinations of substitutions, most notably G219S and K58I, resulted in relatively high affinity for α2,6-linked sialic acid receptor and acid and temperature stability. Thus, the hemagglutinin of the A/H7N9 virus may adopt traits associated with airborne transmission. PMID:26792744

  17. Differential dynamics of RAS isoforms in GDP- and GTP-bound states.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Abhijeet; Travesset, Alex

    2015-06-01

    RAS subfamily proteins regulates cell growth promoting signaling processes by cycling between active (GTP-bound) and inactive (GDP-bound) states. Different RAS isoforms, though structurally similar, exhibit functional specificity and are associated with different types of cancers and developmental disorders. Understanding the dynamical differences between the isoforms is crucial for the design of inhibitors that can selectively target a particular malfunctioning isoform. In this study, we provide a comprehensive comparison of the dynamics of all the three RAS isoforms (HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS) using extensive molecular dynamics simulations in both the GDP- (total of 3.06 μs) and GTP-bound (total of 2.4 μs) states. We observed significant differences in the dynamics of the isoforms, which rather interestingly, varied depending on the type of the nucleotide bound and the simulation temperature. Both SwitchI (Residues 25-40) and SwitchII (Residues 59-75) differ significantly in their flexibility in the three isoforms. Furthermore, Principal Component Analysis showed that there are differences in the conformational space sampled by the GTP-bound RAS isoforms. We also identified a previously unreported pocket, which opens transiently during MD simulations, and can be targeted to regulate nucleotide exchange reaction or possibly interfere with membrane localization. Further, we present the first simulation study showing GDP destabilization in the wild-type RAS protein. The destabilization of GDP/GTP occurred only in 1/50 simulations, emphasizing the need of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) to accelerate such an extremely unfavorable process. This observation along with the other results presented in this article further support our previously hypothesized mechanism of GEF-assisted nucleotide exchange.

  18. Shift in the Equilibrium between On and Off States of the Allosteric Switch in Ras-GppNHp Affected by Small Molecules and Bulk Solvent Composition

    SciTech Connect

    Holzapfel, Genevieve; Buhrman, Greg; Mattos, Carla

    2012-08-31

    Ras GTPase cycles between its active GTP-bound form promoted by GEFs and its inactive GDP-bound form promoted by GAPs to affect the control of various cellular functions. It is becoming increasingly apparent that subtle regulation of the GTP-bound active state may occur through promotion of substates mediated by an allosteric switch mechanism that induces a disorder to order transition in switch II upon ligand binding at an allosteric site. We show with high-resolution structures that calcium acetate and either dithioerythritol (DTE) or dithiothreitol (DTT) soaked into H-Ras-GppNHp crystals in the presence of a moderate amount of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) can selectively shift the equilibrium to the 'on' state, where the active site appears to be poised for catalysis (calcium acetate), or to what we call the 'ordered off' state, which is associated with an anticatalytic conformation (DTE or DTT). We also show that the equilibrium is reversible in our crystals and dependent on the nature of the small molecule present. Calcium acetate binding in the allosteric site stabilizes the conformation observed in the H-Ras-GppNHp/NOR1A complex, and PEG, DTE, and DTT stabilize the anticatalytic conformation observed in the complex between the Ras homologue Ran and Importin-{beta}. The small molecules are therefore selecting biologically relevant conformations in the crystal that are sampled by the disordered switch II in the uncomplexed GTP-bound form of H-Ras. In the presence of a large amount of PEG, the ordered off conformation predominates, whereas in solution, in the absence of PEG, switch regions appear to remain disordered in what we call the off state, unable to bind DTE.

  19. Mitochondrial GTP Insensitivity Contributes to Hypoglycemia in Hyperinsulinemia Hyperammonemia by Inhibiting Glucagon Release

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Cheol Soo; Lee, Hui-Young; Cabrera, Over; Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Zhao, Xiaojian; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Li, Changhong; Berggren, Per-Olof; Stanley, Charles; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial GTP (mtGTP)-insensitive mutations in glutamate dehydrogenase (GDHH454Y) result in fasting and amino acid–induced hypoglycemia in hyperinsulinemia hyperammonemia (HI/HA). Surprisingly, hypoglycemia may occur in this disorder despite appropriately suppressed insulin. To better understand the islet-specific contribution, transgenic mice expressing the human activating mutation in β-cells (H454Y mice) were characterized in vivo. As in the humans with HI/HA, H454Y mice had fasting hypoglycemia, but plasma insulin concentrations were similar to the controls. Paradoxically, both glucose- and glutamine-stimulated insulin secretion were severely impaired in H454Y mice. Instead, lack of a glucagon response during hypoglycemic clamps identified impaired counterregulation. Moreover, both insulin and glucagon secretion were impaired in perifused islets. Acute pharmacologic inhibition of GDH restored both insulin and glucagon secretion and normalized glucose tolerance in vivo. These studies support the presence of an mtGTP-dependent signal generated via β-cell GDH that inhibits α-cells. As such, in children with activating GDH mutations of HI/HA, this insulin-independent glucagon suppression may contribute importantly to symptomatic hypoglycemia. The identification of a human mutation causing congenital hypoglucagonemic hypoglycemia highlights a central role of the mtGTP–GDH–glucagon axis in glucose homeostasis. PMID:25024374

  20. A naturally occurring, noncanonical GTP aptamer made of simple tandem repeats

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Edward A; Liu, David R

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we used in vitro selection to identify a new class of naturally occurring GTP aptamer called the G motif. Here we report the discovery and characterization of a second class of naturally occurring GTP aptamer, the “CA motif.” The primary sequence of this aptamer is unusual in that it consists entirely of tandem repeats of CA-rich motifs as short as three nucleotides. Several active variants of the CA motif aptamer lack the ability to form consecutive Watson-Crick base pairs in any register, while others consist of repeats containing only cytidine and adenosine residues, indicating that noncanonical interactions play important roles in its structure. The circular dichroism spectrum of the CA motif aptamer is distinct from that of A-form RNA and other major classes of nucleic acid structures. Bioinformatic searches indicate that the CA motif is absent from most archaeal and bacterial genomes, but occurs in at least 70 percent of approximately 400 eukaryotic genomes examined. These searches also uncovered several phylogenetically conserved examples of the CA motif in rodent (mouse and rat) genomes. Together, these results reveal the existence of a second class of naturally occurring GTP aptamer whose sequence requirements, like that of the G motif, are not consistent with those of a canonical secondary structure. They also indicate a new and unexpected potential biochemical activity of certain naturally occurring tandem repeats. PMID:24824832

  1. Activation of GTP hydrolysis in mRNA-tRNA translocation by elongation factor G

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen; Liu, Zheng; Koripella, Ravi Kiran; Langlois, Robert; Sanyal, Suparna; Frank, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    During protein synthesis, elongation of the polypeptide chain by each amino acid is followed by a translocation step in which mRNA and transfer RNA (tRNA) are advanced by one codon. This crucial step is catalyzed by elongation factor G (EF-G), a guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase), and accompanied by a rotation between the two ribosomal subunits. A mutant of EF-G, H91A, renders the factor impaired in guanosine triphosphate (GTP) hydrolysis and thereby stabilizes it on the ribosome. We use cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) at near-atomic resolution to investigate two complexes formed by EF-G H91A in its GTP state with the ribosome, distinguished by the presence or absence of the intersubunit rotation. Comparison of these two structures argues in favor of a direct role of the conserved histidine in the switch II loop of EF-G in GTPase activation, and explains why GTP hydrolysis cannot proceed with EF-G bound to the unrotated form of the ribosome. PMID:26229983

  2. Relationship between a point mutation S97C in CK1δ protein and its affect on ATP-binding affinity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ambuj; Rajendran, Vidya; Sethumadhavan, Rao; Purohit, Rituraj

    2014-01-01

    CK1δ (Casein kinase I isoform delta) is a member of CK1 kinase family protein that mediates neurite outgrowth and the function as brain-specific microtubule-associated protein. ATP binding kinase domain of CK1δ is essential for regulating several key cell cycle signal transduction pathways. Mutation in CK1δ protein is reported to cause cancers and affects normal brain development. S97C mutation in kinase domain of CK1δ protein has been involved to induce breast cancer and ductal carcinoma. We performed molecular docking studies to examine the effect of this mutation on its ATP-binding affinity. Further, we conducted molecular dynamics simulations to understand the structural consequences of S97C mutation over the kinase domain of CK1δ protein. Docking results indicated the loss of ATP-binding affinity of mutant structure, which were further rationalized by molecular dynamics simulations, where a notable loss in 3-D conformation of CK1δ kinase domain was observed in mutant as compared to native. Our results explained the underlying molecular mechanism behind the observed cancer associated phenotype caused by S97C mutation in CK1δ protein.

  3. Validating the GTP-cyclohydrolase 1-feedback regulatory complex as a therapeutic target using biophysical and in vivo approaches

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, D; Starr, A; Heikal, L; McNeill, E; Channon, K M; Brown, P R; Sutton, B J; McDonnell, J M; Nandi, M

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose 6R-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for nitric oxide biosynthesis. Substantial clinical evidence indicates that intravenous BH4 restores vascular function in patients. Unfortunately, oral BH4 has limited efficacy. Therefore, orally bioavailable pharmacological activators of endogenous BH4 biosynthesis hold significant therapeutic potential. GTP-cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1), the rate limiting enzyme in BH4 synthesis, forms a protein complex with GCH1 feedback regulatory protein (GFRP). This complex is subject to allosteric feed-forward activation by L-phenylalanine (L-phe). We investigated the effects of L-phe on the biophysical interactions of GCH1 and GFRP and its potential to alter BH4 levels in vivo. Experimental Approach Detailed characterization of GCH1–GFRP protein–protein interactions were performed using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) with or without L-phe. Effects on systemic and vascular BH4 biosynthesis in vivo were investigated following L-phe treatment (100 mg·kg−1, p.o.). Key Results GCH1 and GFRP proteins interacted in the absence of known ligands or substrate but the presence of L-phe doubled maximal binding and enhanced binding affinity eightfold. Furthermore, the complex displayed very slow association and dissociation rates. In vivo, L-phe challenge induced a sustained elevation of aortic BH4, an effect absent in GCH1(fl/fl)-Tie2Cre mice. Conclusions and Implications Biophysical data indicate that GCH1 and GFRP are constitutively bound. In vivo, data demonstrated that L-phe elevated vascular BH4 in an endothelial GCH1 dependent manner. Pharmacological agents which mimic the allosteric effects of L-phe on the GCH1–GFRP complex have the potential to elevate endothelial BH4 biosynthesis for numerous cardiovascular disorders. PMID:26014146

  4. Single amino acid changes in domain II of Bacillus thuringiensis CryIAb delta-endotoxin affect irreversible binding to Manduca sexta midgut membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Rajamohan, F; Alcantara, E; Lee, M K; Chen, X J; Curtiss, A; Dean, D H

    1995-01-01

    Deletion of amino acid residues 370 to 375 (D2) and single alanine substitutions between residues 371 and 375 (FNIGI) of lepidopteran-active Bacillus thuringiensis CryIAb delta-endotoxin were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis techniques. All mutants, except that with the I-to-A change at position 373 (I373A), produced delta-endotoxin as CryIAb and were stable upon activation either by Manduca sexta gut enzymes or by trypsin. Mutants D2, F371A, and G374A lost most of the toxicity (400 times less) for M. sexta larvae, whereas N372A and I375A were only 2 times less toxic than CryIAb. The results of homologous and heterologous competition binding assays to M. sexta midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) revealed that the binding curves for all mutant toxins were similar to those for the wild-type toxin. However, a significant difference in irreversible binding was observed between the toxic (CryIAb, N372A, and I375A) and less-toxic (D2, F371A, and G374A) proteins. Only 20 to 25% of bound, radiolabeled CryIAb, N372A, and I375A toxins was dissociated from BBMV, whereas about 50 to 55% of the less-toxic mutants, D2, F371A, and G374A, was dissociated from their binding sites by the addition of excess nonlabeled ligand. Voltage clamping experiments provided further evidence that the insecticidal property (inhibition of short-circuit current across the M. sexta midgut) was directly correlated to irreversible interaction of the toxin with the BBMV. We have also shown that CryIAb and mutant toxins recognize 210- and 120-kDa peptides in ligand blotting. Our results imply that mutations in residues 370 to 375 of domain II of CrylAb do not affect overall binding but do affect the irreversible association of the toxin to the midgut columnar epithelial cells of M. sexta. PMID:7730254

  5. Binding of the wheat germ lectin to Cryptococcus neoformans chitooligomers affects multiple mechanisms required for fungal pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Fernanda L.; Guimarães, Allan J.; Kmetzsch, Lívia; Dutra, Fabianno F.; Silva, Fernanda D.; Taborda, Carlos P.; Araujo, Glauber de S.; Frases, Susana; Staats, Charley C.; Bozza, Marcelo T.; Schrank, Augusto; Vainstein, Marilene H.; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Casadevall, Arturo; Rodrigues, Marcio L.

    2015-01-01

    The principal capsular component of Cryptococcus neoformans, glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), interacts with surface glycans, including chitin-like oligomers. Although the role of GXM in cryptococcal infection has been well explored, there is no information on how chitooligomers affect fungal pathogenesis. In this study, surface chitooligomers of C. neoformans were blocked through the use of the wheat germ lectin (WGA) and the effects on animal pathogenesis, interaction with host cells, fungal growth and capsule formation were analyzed. Treatment of C. neoformans cells with WGA followed by infection of mice delayed mortality relative to animals infected with untreated fungal cells. This observation was associated with reduced brain colonization by lectin-treated cryptococci. Blocking chitooligomers also rendered yeast cells less efficient in their ability to associate with phagocytes. WGA did not affect fungal viability, but inhibited GXM release to the extracellular space and capsule formation. In WGA-treated yeast cells, genes that are involved in capsule formation and GXM traffic had their transcription levels decreased in comparison with untreated cells. Our results suggest that cellular pathways required for capsule formation and pathogenic mechanisms are affected by blocking chitin-derived structures at the cell surface of C. neoformans. Targeting chitooligomers with specific ligands may reveal new therapeutic alternatives to control cryptococcosis. PMID:23608320

  6. Combining dehydration, construct optimization and improved data collection to solve the crystal structure of a CRM1-RanGTP-SPN1-Nup214 quaternary nuclear export complex.

    PubMed

    Monecke, Thomas; Dickmanns, Achim; Weiss, Manfred S; Port, Sarah A; Kehlenbach, Ralph H; Ficner, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    High conformational flexibility is an intrinsic and indispensable property of nuclear transport receptors, which makes crystallization and structure determination of macromolecular complexes containing exportins or importins particularly challenging. Here, the crystallization and structure determination of a quaternary nuclear export complex consisting of the exportin CRM1, the small GTPase Ran in its GTP-bound form, the export cargo SPN1 and an FG repeat-containing fragment of the nuclear pore complex component nucleoporin Nup214 fused to maltose-binding protein is reported. Optimization of constructs, seeding and the development of a sophisticated protocol including successive PEG-mediated crystal dehydration as well as additional post-mounting steps were essential to obtain well diffracting crystals.

  7. Redistribution of the Lamin B1 genomic binding profile affects rearrangement of heterochromatic domains and SAHF formation during senescence

    PubMed Central

    Sadaie, Mahito; Salama, Rafik; Carroll, Thomas; Tomimatsu, Kosuke; Chandra, Tamir; Young, Andrew R.J.; Narita, Masako; Pérez-Mancera, Pedro A.; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Chong, Heung; Kimura, Hiroshi; Narita, Masashi

    2013-01-01

    Senescence is a stress-responsive form of stable cell cycle exit. Senescent cells have a distinct gene expression profile, which is often accompanied by the spatial redistribution of heterochromatin into senescence-associated heterochromatic foci (SAHFs). Studying a key component of the nuclear lamina lamin B1 (LMNB1), we report dynamic alterations in its genomic profile and their implications for SAHF formation and gene regulation during senescence. Genome-wide mapping reveals that LMNB1 is depleted during senescence, preferentially from the central regions of lamina-associated domains (LADs), which are enriched for Lys9 trimethylation on histone H3 (H3K9me3). LMNB1 knockdown facilitates the spatial relocalization of perinuclear H3K9me3-positive heterochromatin, thus promoting SAHF formation, which could be inhibited by ectopic LMNB1 expression. Furthermore, despite the global reduction in LMNB1 protein levels, LMNB1 binding increases during senescence in a small subset of gene-rich regions where H3K27me3 also increases and gene expression becomes repressed. These results suggest that LMNB1 may contribute to senescence in at least two ways due to its uneven genome-wide redistribution: first, through the spatial reorganization of chromatin and, second, through gene repression. PMID:23964094

  8. Aromatic amino acid mutagenesis at the substrate binding pocket of Yarrowia lipolytica lipase Lip2 affects its activity and thermostability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guilong; Liu, Zimin; Xu, Li; Yan, Yunjun

    2014-01-01

    The lipase2 from Yarrowia lipolytica (YLLip2) is a yeast lipase exhibiting high homologous to filamentous fungal lipase family. Though its crystal structure has been resolved, its structure-function relationship has rarely been reported. By contrast, there are two amino acid residues (V94 and I100) with significant difference in the substrate binding pocket of YLLip2; they were subjected to site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) to introduce aromatic amino acid mutations. Two mutants (V94W and I100F) were created. The enzymatic properties of the mutant lipases were detected and compared with the wild-type. The activities of mutant enzymes dropped to some extent towards p-nitrophenyl palmitate (pNPC16) and their optimum temperature was 35°C, which was 5°C lower than that of the wild-type. However, the thermostability of I100F increased 22.44% after incubation for 1 h at 40°C and its optimum substrate shifted from p-nitrophenyl laurate (pNPC12) to p-nitrophenyl caprate (pNPC10). The above results demonstrated that the two substituted amino acid residuals have close relationship with such enzymatic properties as thermostability and substrate selectivity.

  9. SpyB, a Small Heme-Binding Protein, Affects the Composition of the Cell Wall in Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Rebecca J.; Chen, Jing; Kant, Sashi; Rechkina, Elena; Rush, Jeffrey S.; Forsberg, Lennart S.; Jaehrig, Bernhard; Azadi, Parastoo; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Sokurenko, Evgeni V.; Zhu, Haining; Korotkov, Konstantin V.; Pancholi, Vijay; Korotkova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus or GAS) is a hemolytic human pathogen associated with a wide variety of infections ranging from minor skin and throat infections to life-threatening invasive diseases. The cell wall of GAS consists of peptidoglycan sacculus decorated with a carbohydrate comprising a polyrhamnose backbone with immunodominant N-acetylglucosamine side-chains. All GAS genomes contain the spyBA operon, which encodes a 35-amino-acid membrane protein SpyB, and a membrane-bound C3-like ADP-ribosyltransferase SpyA. In this study, we addressed the function of SpyB in GAS. Phenotypic analysis of a spyB deletion mutant revealed increased bacterial aggregation, and reduced sensitivity to β-lactams of the cephalosporin class and peptidoglycan hydrolase PlyC. Glycosyl composition analysis of cell wall isolated from the spyB mutant suggested an altered carbohydrate structure compared with the wild-type strain. Furthermore, we found that SpyB associates with heme and protoporphyrin IX. Heme binding induces SpyB dimerization, which involves disulfide bond formation between the subunits. Thus, our data suggest the possibility that SpyB activity is regulated by heme. PMID:27790410

  10. Dihydrotanshinone-I interferes with the RNA-binding activity of HuR affecting its post-transcriptional function

    PubMed Central

    D’Agostino, Vito Giuseppe; Lal, Preet; Mantelli, Barbara; Tiedje, Christopher; Zucal, Chiara; Thongon, Natthakan; Gaestel, Matthias; Latorre, Elisa; Marinelli, Luciana; Seneci, Pierfausto; Amadio, Marialaura; Provenzani, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation is an essential determinant of gene expression programs in physiological and pathological conditions. HuR is a RNA-binding protein that orchestrates the stabilization and translation of mRNAs, critical in inflammation and tumor progression, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). We identified the low molecular weight compound 15,16-dihydrotanshinone-I (DHTS), well known in traditional Chinese medicine practice, through a validated high throughput screening on a set of anti-inflammatory agents for its ability to prevent HuR:RNA complex formation. We found that DHTS interferes with the association step between HuR and the RNA with an equilibrium dissociation constant in the nanomolar range in vitro (Ki = 3.74 ± 1.63 nM). In breast cancer cell lines, short term exposure to DHTS influences mRNA stability and translational efficiency of TNF in a HuR-dependent manner and also other functional readouts of its post-transcriptional control, such as the stability of selected pre-mRNAs. Importantly, we show that migration and sensitivity of breast cancer cells to DHTS are modulated by HuR expression, indicating that HuR is among the preferential intracellular targets of DHTS. Here, we disclose a previously unrecognized molecular mechanism exerted by DHTS, opening new perspectives to therapeutically target the HuR mediated, post-transcriptional control in inflammation and cancer cells. PMID:26553968

  11. Cu(2+) affects amyloid-β (1-42) aggregation by increasing peptide-peptide binding forces.

    PubMed

    Hane, Francis; Tran, Gary; Attwood, Simon J; Leonenko, Zoya

    2013-01-01

    The link between metals, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its implicated protein, amyloid-β (Aβ), is complex and highly studied. AD is believed to occur as a result of the misfolding and aggregation of Aβ. The dyshomeostasis of metal ions and their propensity to interact with Aβ has also been implicated in AD. In this work, we use single molecule atomic force spectroscopy to measure the rupture force required to dissociate two Aβ (1-42) peptides in the presence of copper ions, Cu(2+). In addition, we use atomic force microscopy to resolve the aggregation of Aβ formed. Previous research has shown that metal ions decrease the lag time associated with Aβ aggregation. We show that with the addition of copper ions the unbinding force increases notably. This suggests that the reduction of lag time associated with Aβ aggregation occurs on a single molecule level as a result of an increase in binding forces during the very initial interactions between two Aβ peptides. We attribute these results to copper ions acting as a bridge between the two peptide molecules, increasing the stability of the peptide-peptide complex.

  12. Identification of a Ubiquinone-binding Site That Affects Autophosphorylation of the Sensor Kinase RegB*S

    PubMed Central

    Swem, Lee R.; Gong, Xing; Yu, Chang-An; Bauer, Carl E.

    2009-01-01

    Rhodobacter capsulatus regulates many metabolic processes in response to the level of environmental oxygen and the energy state of the cell. One of the key global redox regulators of the cell’s metabolic physiology is the sensor kinase RegB that controls the synthesis of numerous energy generation and utilization processes. In this study, we have succeeded in purifying full-length RegB containing six transmembrane-spanning elements. Exogenous addition of excess oxidized coenzyme Q1 is capable of inhibiting RegB autophosphorylation ~6-fold. However, the addition of reduced coenzyme Q1 exhibits no inhibitory effect on kinase activity. A ubiquinone-binding site, as defined by azidoquinone photo affinity cross-linking, was determined to lie within a periplasmic loop between transmembrane helices 3 and 4 that contains a fully conserved heptapeptide sequence of GGXXNPF. Mutation of the phenylalanine in this heptapeptide renders RegB constitutively active in vivo, indicating that this domain is responsible for sensing the redox state of the ubiquinone pool and subsequently controlling RegB autophosphorylation. PMID:16407278

  13. Flow cytometry for real-time measurement of guanine nucleotide binding and exchange by Ras-like GTPases.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Samantha L; Tessema, Mathewos; Buranda, Tione; Pylypenko, Olena; Rak, Alexey; Simons, Peter C; Surviladze, Zurab; Sklar, Larry A; Wandinger-Ness, Angela

    2008-10-15

    Ras-like small GTPases cycle between GTP-bound active and GDP-bound inactive conformational states to regulate diverse cellular processes. Despite their importance, detailed kinetic or comparative studies of family members are rarely undertaken due to the lack of real-time assays measuring nucleotide binding or exchange. Here we report a bead-based flow cytometric assay that quantitatively measures the nucleotide binding properties of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) chimeras for prototypical Ras family members Rab7 and Rho. Measurements are possible in the presence or absence of Mg(2+), with magnesium cations principally increasing affinity and slowing nucleotide dissociation rates 8- to 10-fold. GST-Rab7 exhibited a 3-fold higher affinity for guanosine diphosphate (GDP) relative to guanosine triphosphate (GTP) that is consistent with a 3-fold slower dissociation rate of GDP. Strikingly, GST-Rab7 had a marked preference for GTP with ribose ring-conjugated BODIPY FL. The more commonly used gamma-NH-conjugated BODIPY FL GTP analogue failed to bind to GST-Rab7. In contrast, both BODIPY analogues bound equally well to GST-RhoA and GST-RhoC. Comparisons of the GST-Rab7 and GST-RhoA GTP binding pockets provide a structural basis for the observed binding differences. In sum, the flow cytometric assay can be used to measure nucleotide binding properties of GTPases in real time and to quantitatively assess differences between GTPases.

  14. Tree species affect cation exchange capacity (CEC) and cation binding properties of organic matter in acid forest soils.

    PubMed

    Gruba, Piotr; Mulder, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) in forest soil is of major importance for cation binding and acid buffering, but its characteristics may differ among soils under different tree species. We investigated acidity, cation exchange properties and Al bonding to SOM in stands of Scots pine, pedunculate oak, Norway spruce, European beech and common hornbeam in southern Poland. The content of total carbon (Ct) was by far the major contributor to total cation exchange capacity (CECt) even in loamy soils and a strong relationship between Ct and CECt was found. The slope of the regression of CECt to Ct increased in the order hornbeam≈oak

  15. Mutations affecting the BHLHA9 DNA-binding domain cause MSSD, mesoaxial synostotic syndactyly with phalangeal reduction, Malik-Percin type.

    PubMed

    Malik, Sajid; Percin, Ferda E; Bornholdt, Dorothea; Albrecht, Beate; Percesepe, Antonio; Koch, Manuela C; Landi, Antonio; Fritz, Barbara; Khan, Rizwan; Mumtaz, Sara; Akarsu, Nurten A; Grzeschik, Karl-Heinz

    2014-12-04

    Mesoaxial synostotic syndactyly, Malik-Percin type (MSSD) (syndactyly type IX) is a rare autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic digit anomaly with only two affected families reported so far. We previously showed that the trait is genetically distinct from other syndactyly types, and through autozygosity mapping we had identified a locus on chromosome 17p13.3 for this unique limb malformation. Here, we extend the number of independent pedigrees from various geographic regions segregating MSSD to a total of six. We demonstrate that three neighboring missense mutations affecting the highly conserved DNA-binding region of the basic helix-loop-helix A9 transcription factor (BHLHA9) are associated with this phenotype. Recombinant BHLHA9 generated by transient gene expression is shown to be located in the cytoplasm and the cell nucleus. Transcription factors 3, 4, and 12, members of the E protein (class I) family of helix-loop-helix transcription factors, are highlighted in yeast two-hybrid analysis as potential dimerization partners for BHLHA9. In the presence of BHLHA9, the potential of these three proteins to activate expression of an E-box-regulated target gene is reduced considerably. BHLHA9 harboring one of the three substitutions detected in MSSD-affected individuals eliminates entirely the transcription activation by these class I bHLH proteins. We conclude that by dimerizing with other bHLH protein monomers, BHLHA9 could fine tune the expression of regulatory factors governing determination of central limb mesenchyme cells, a function made impossible by altering critical amino acids in the DNA binding domain. These findings identify BHLHA9 as an essential player in the regulatory network governing limb morphogenesis in humans.

  16. Sequences near the Active Site in Chimeric Penicillin Binding Proteins 5 and 6 Affect Uniform Morphology of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anindya S.; Young, Kevin D.

    2003-01-01

    Penicillin binding protein (PBP) 5, a dd-carboxypeptidase that removes the terminal d-alanine from peptide side chains of peptidoglycan, plays an important role in creating and maintaining the uniform cell shape of Escherichia coli. PBP 6, a highly similar homologue, cannot substitute for PBP 5 in this respect. Previously, we localized the shape-maintaining characteristics of PBP 5 to the globular domain that contains the active site (domain I), where PBPs 5 and 6 share substantial identity. To identify the specific segment of domain I responsible for shape control, we created a set of hybrids and determined which ones complemented the aberrant morphology of a misshapen PBP mutant, E. coli CS703-1. Fusion proteins were constructed in which 47, 199 and 228 amino-terminal amino acids of one PBP were fused to the corresponding carboxy-terminal amino acids of the other. The morphological phenotype was reversed only by hybrid proteins containing PBP 5 residues 200 to 228, which are located next to the KTG motif of the active site. Because residues 220 to 228 were identical in these proteins, the morphological effect was determined by alterations in amino acids 200 to 219. To confirm the importance of this segment, we constructed mosaic proteins in which these 20 amino acids were grafted from PBP 5 into PBP 6 and vice versa. The PBP 6/5/6 mosaic complemented the aberrant morphology of CS703-1, whereas PBP 5/6/5 did not. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that the Asp218 and Lys219 residues were important for shape maintenance by these mosaic PBPs, but the same mutations in wild-type PBP 5 did not eliminate its shape-promoting activity. Homologous enzymes from five other bacteria also complemented the phenotype of CS703-1. The overall conclusion is that creation of a bacterial cell of regular diameter and uniform contour apparently depends primarily on a slight alteration of the enzymatic activity or substrate accessibility at the active site of E. coli PBP 5. PMID

  17. Characterization of cerebral microvasculature in transgenic mice with endothelium targeted over-expression of GTP-cyclohydrolase I

    PubMed Central

    Santhanam, Anantha Vijay R.; d’Uscio, Livius V.; Katusic, Zvonimir S.

    2015-01-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a critical determinant of nitric oxide (NO) production by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the vascular endothelium and its biosynthesis is regulated by the enzymatic activity of GTP-cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH I). The present study was designed to determine the effects of endothelium-targeted overexpression of GTPCH I (eGCH-Tg) on murine cerebral vascular function. Endothelium targeted over-expression of GTPCH I was associated with a significant increase in levels of BH4, as well as its oxidized product, 7,8-dihydrobiopterin (7,8-BH2) in cerebral microvessels. Importantly, ratio of BH4 to 7,8-BH2, indicative of BH4 available for eNOS activation, was significantly increased in eGCH-Tg mice. However, expression of endothelial NOS, levels of nitrate/nitrite - indicative of NO production - remained unchanged between cerebral microvessels of wild-type and eGCH-Tg mice. Furthermore, increased BH4 biosynthesis neither affected production of superoxide anion nor expression of antioxidant proteins. Moreover, endothelium-specific GTPCH I overexpression did not alter intracellular levels of cGMP, reflective of NO signaling in cerebral microvessels. The obtained results suggest that, despite a significant increase in BH4 bioavailability, generation of endothelial NO in cerebral microvessels remained unchanged in eGCH-Tg mice. We conclude that under physiological conditions the levels of BH4 in the cerebral microvessels are optimal for activation of endothelial NOS and NO/cGMP signaling. PMID:26343845

  18. Discovery of common human genetic variants of GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) governing nitric oxide, autonomic activity, and cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lian; Rao, Fangwen; Zhang, Kuixing; Khandrika, Srikrishna; Das, Madhusudan; Vaingankar, Sucheta M.; Bao, Xuping; Rana, Brinda K.; Smith, Douglas W.; Wessel, Jennifer; Salem, Rany M.; Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L.; Mahata, Sushil K.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Ziegler, Michael G.; O’Connor, Daniel T.

    2007-01-01

    GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) is rate limiting in the provision of the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin for biosynthesis of catecholamines and NO. We asked whether common genetic variation at GCH1 alters transmitter synthesis and predisposes to disease. Here we undertook a systematic search for polymorphisms in GCH1, then tested variants’ contributions to NO and catecholamine release as well as autonomic function in twin pairs. Renal NO and neopterin excretions were significantly heritable, as were baroreceptor coupling (heart rate response to BP fluctuation) and pulse interval (1/heart rate). Common GCH1 variant C+243T in the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTRs) predicted NO excretion, as well as autonomic traits: baroreceptor coupling, maximum pulse interval, and pulse interval variability, though not catecholamine secretion. In individuals with the most extreme BP values in the population, C+243T affected both diastolic and systolic BP, principally in females. In functional studies, C+243T decreased reporter expression in transfected 3′-UTRs plasmids. We conclude that human NO secretion traits are heritable, displaying joint genetic determination with autonomic activity by functional polymorphism at GCH1. Our results document novel pathophysiological links between a key biosynthetic locus and NO metabolism and suggest new strategies for approaching the mechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of risk predictors for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. PMID:17717598

  19. Do ATP-binding cassette transporters cause pharmacoresistance in epilepsy? Problems and approaches in determining which antiepileptic drugs are affected.

    PubMed

    Löscher, Wolfgang; Luna-Tortós, Carlos; Römermann, Kerstin; Fedrowitz, Maren

    2011-01-01

    Resistance to multiple antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is a common problem in epilepsy, affecting at least 30% of patients. One prominent hypothesis to explain this resistance suggests an inadequate penetration or excess efflux of AEDs across the blood - brain barrier (BBB) as a result of overexpressed efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp), the encoded product of the multidrug resistance- 1 (MDR1, ABCB1) gene. Pgp and MDR1 are markedly increased in epileptogenic brain tissue of patients with AED-resistant partial epilepsy and following seizures in rodent models of partial epilepsy. In rodent models, AED-resistant rats exhibit higher Pgp levels than responsive animals; increased Pgp expression is associated with lower brain levels of AEDs; and, most importantly, co-administration of Pgp inhibitors reverses AED resistance. Thus, it is reasonable to conclude that Pgp plays a significant role in mediating resistance to AEDs in rodent models of epilepsy - however, whether this phenomenon extends to at least some human refractory epilepsy remains unclear, particularly because it is still a matter of debate which AEDs, if any, are transported by human Pgp. The difficulty in determining which AEDs are substrates of human Pgp is mainly a consequence of the fact that AEDs are highly permeable compounds, which are not easily identified as Pgp substrates in in vitro models of the BBB, such as monolayer (Transwell(®)) efflux assays. By using a modified assay (concentration equilibrium transport assay; CETA), which minimizes the influence of high transcellular permeability, two groups have recently demonstrated that several major AEDs are transported by human Pgp. Importantly, it was demonstrated in these studies that Pgp-mediated transport highly depends on the AED concentration and may not be identified if concentrations below or above the therapeutic range are used. In addition to the efflux transporters, seizure-induced alterations in BBB integrity and activity of

  20. Molecular crowding affects diffusion and binding of nuclear proteins in heterochromatin and reveals the fractal organization of chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Bancaud, Aurélien; Huet, Sébastien; Daigle, Nathalie; Mozziconacci, Julien; Beaudouin, Joël; Ellenberg, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The nucleus of eukaryotes is organized into functional compartments, the two most prominent being heterochromatin and nucleoli. These structures are highly enriched in DNA, proteins or RNA, and thus thought to be crowded. In vitro, molecular crowding induces volume exclusion, hinders diffusion and enhances association, but whether these effects are relevant in vivo remains unclear. Here, we establish that volume exclusion and diffusive hindrance occur in dense nuclear compartments by probing the diffusive behaviour of inert fluorescent tracers in living cells. We also demonstrate that chromatin-interacting proteins remain transiently trapped in heterochromatin due to crowding induced enhanced affinity. The kinetic signatures of these crowding consequences allow us to derive a fractal model of chromatin organization, which explains why the dynamics of soluble nuclear proteins are affected independently of their size. This model further shows that the fractal architecture differs between heterochromatin and euchromatin, and predicts that chromatin proteins use different target-search strategies in the two compartments. We propose that fractal crowding is a fundamental principle of nuclear organization, particularly of heterochromatin maintenance. PMID:19927119

  1. Binding intensity and metal partitioning in soils affected by mining and smelting activities in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, G; Costa, E T S; Penido, E S; Sparks, D L; Guilherme, L R G

    2015-09-01

    Mining and smelting activities are potential sources of heavy metal contamination, which pose a threat to human health and ecological systems. This study investigated single and sequential extractions of Zn, Pb, and Cd in Brazilian soils affected by mining and smelting activities. Soils from a Zn mining area (soils A, B, C, D, E, and the control soil) and a tailing from a smelting area were collected in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The samples were subjected to single (using Mehlich I solution) and sequential extractions. The risk assessment code (RAC), the redistribution index (U ts ), and the reduced partition index (I R ) have been applied to the sequential extraction data. Zinc and Cd, in soil samples from the mining area, were found mainly associated with carbonate forms. This same pattern did not occur for Pb. Moreover, the Fe-Mn oxides and residual fractions had important contributions for Zn and Pb in those soils. For the tailing, more than 70 % of Zn and Cd were released in the exchangeable fraction, showing a much higher mobility and availability of these metals at this site, which was also supported by results of RAC and I R . These differences in terms of mobility might be due to different chemical forms of the metals in the two sites, which are attributable to natural occurrence as well as ore processing.

  2. The affective tie that binds: Examining the contribution of positive emotions and anxiety to relationship formation in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Charles T; Pearlstein, Sarah L; Stein, Murray B

    2017-03-31

    Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) have difficulty forming social relationships. The prevailing clinical perspective is that negative emotions such as anxiety inhibit one's capacity to develop satisfying social connections. However, empirical findings from social psychology and affective neuroscience suggest that positive emotional experiences are fundamental to establishing new social bonds. To reconcile these perspectives, we collected repeated measurements of anxiety, positive emotions (pleasantness), and connectedness over the course of a controlled relationship formation encounter in 56 participants diagnosed with SAD (64% female; Mage=23.3, SD=4.7). Participants experienced both increases in positive emotions and decreases in anxiety throughout the interaction. Change in positive emotions was the most robust predictor of subsequent increases in connectedness, as well as a greater desire to engage one's partner in future social activities, above and beyond reductions in anxiety (medium to large sized effects). Those findings suggest that anxiety-based models alone may not fully explain difficulties in relationship formation in SAD, and underscore the potential value of considering positive emotional experiences in conceptual and treatment models of SAD.

  3. Molecular crowding affects diffusion and binding of nuclear proteins in heterochromatin and reveals the fractal organization of chromatin.

    PubMed

    Bancaud, Aurélien; Huet, Sébastien; Daigle, Nathalie; Mozziconacci, Julien; Beaudouin, Joël; Ellenberg, Jan

    2009-12-16

    The nucleus of eukaryotes is organized into functional compartments, the two most prominent being heterochromatin and nucleoli. These structures are highly enriched in DNA, proteins or RNA, and thus thought to be crowded. In vitro, molecular crowding induces volume exclusion, hinders diffusion and enhances association, but whether these effects are relevant in vivo remains unclear. Here, we establish that volume exclusion and diffusive hindrance occur in dense nuclear compartments by probing the diffusive behaviour of inert fluorescent tracers in living cells. We also demonstrate that chromatin-interacting proteins remain transiently trapped in heterochromatin due to crowding induced enhanced affinity. The kinetic signatures of these crowding consequences allow us to derive a fractal model of chromatin organization, which explains why the dynamics of soluble nuclear proteins are affected independently of their size. This model further shows that the fractal architecture differs between heterochromatin and euchromatin, and predicts that chromatin proteins use different target-search strategies in the two compartments. We propose that fractal crowding is a fundamental principle of nuclear organization, particularly of heterochromatin maintenance.

  4. Analysis of polyglutamine-coding repeats in the TATA-binding protein in different human populations and in patients with schizophrenia an bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinsztein, D.C.; Leggo, J.; Crow, T.J.

    1996-09-20

    A new class of disease (including Huntington disease, Kennedy disease, and spinocerebellar ataxias types 1 and 3) results from abnormal expansions of CAG trinucleotides in the coding regions of genes. In all of these diseases the CAG repeats are thought to be translated into polyglutamine tracts. There is accumulating evidence arguing for CAG trinucleotide expansions as one of the causative disease mutations in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. We and others believe that the TATA-binding protein (TBP) is an important candidate to investigate in these diseases as it contains a highly polymorphic stretch of glutamine codons, which are close to the threshold length where the polyglutamine tracts start to be associated with disease. Thus, we examined the lengths of this polyglutamine repeat in normal unrelated East Anglians, South African Blacks, sub-Saharan Africans mainly from Nigeria, and Asian Indians. We also examined 43 bipolar affective disorder patients and 65 schizophrenic patients. The range of polyglutamine tract-lengths that we found in humans was from 26-42 codons. No patients with bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia had abnormal expansions at this locus. 22 refs., 1 tab.

  5. How Hinge Positioning in Cross-Country Ski Bindings Affect Exercise Efficiency, Cycle Characteristics and Muscle Coordination during Submaximal Roller Skiing

    PubMed Central

    Bolger, Conor M.; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Ettema, Gertjan; Federolf, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of the current study were to 1) test if the hinge position in the binding of skating skis has an effect on gross efficiency or cycle characteristics and 2) investigate whether hinge positioning affects synergistic components of the muscle activation in six lower leg muscles. Eleven male skiers performed three 4-min sessions at moderate intensity while cross-country ski-skating and using a klapskate binding. Three different positions were tested for the binding’s hinge, ranging from the front of the first distal phalange to the metatarsal-phalangeal joint. Gross efficiency and cycle characteristics were determined, and the electromyographic (EMG) signals of six lower limb muscles were collected. EMG signals were wavelet transformed, normalized, joined into a multi-dimensional vector, and submitted to a principle component analysis (PCA). Our results did not reveal any changes to gross efficiency or cycle characteristics when altering the hinge position. However, our EMG analysis found small but significant effects of hinge positioning on muscle coordinative patterns (P < 0.05). The changed patterns in muscle activation are in alignment with previously described mechanisms that explain the effects of hinge positioning in speed-skating klapskates. Finally, the within-subject results of the EMG analysis suggested that in addition to the between-subject effects, further forms of muscle coordination patterns appear to be employed by some, but not all participants. PMID:27203597

  6. Role of a ribosomal RNA phosphate oxygen during the EF-G-triggered GTP hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Koch, Miriam; Flür, Sara; Kreutz, Christoph; Ennifar, Eric; Micura, Ronald; Polacek, Norbert

    2015-05-19

    Elongation factor-catalyzed GTP hydrolysis is a key reaction during the ribosomal elongation cycle. Recent crystal structures of G proteins, such as elongation factor G (EF-G) bound to the ribosome, as well as many biochemical studies, provide evidence that the direct interaction of translational GTPases (trGTPases) with the sarcin-ricin loop (SRL) of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is pivotal for hydrolysis. However, the precise mechanism remains elusive and is intensively debated. Based on the close proximity of the phosphate oxygen of A2662 of the SRL to the supposedly catalytic histidine of EF-G (His87), we probed this interaction by an atomic mutagenesis approach. We individually replaced either of the two nonbridging phosphate oxygens at A2662 with a methyl group by the introduction of a methylphosphonate instead of the natural phosphate in fully functional, reconstituted bacterial ribosomes. Our major finding was that only one of the two resulting diastereomers, the SP methylphosphonate, was compatible with efficient GTPase activation on EF-G. The same trend was observed for a second trGTPase, namely EF4 (LepA). In addition, we provide evidence that the negative charge of the A2662 phosphate group must be retained for uncompromised activity in GTP hydrolysis. In summary, our data strongly corroborate that the nonbridging proSP phosphate oxygen at the A2662 of the SRL is critically involved in the activation of GTP hydrolysis. A mechanistic scenario is supported in which positioning of the catalytically active, protonated His87 through electrostatic interactions with the A2662 phosphate group and H-bond networks are key features of ribosome-triggered activation of trGTPases.

  7. The integrated global temperature change potential (iGTP) and relationships between emission metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Glen P.; Aamaas, Borgar; Berntsen, Terje; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.

    2011-12-01

    The Kyoto Protocol compares greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) using the global warming potential (GWP) with a 100 yr time-horizon. The GWP was developed, however, to illustrate the difficulties in comparing GHGs. In response, there have been many critiques of the GWP and several alternative emission metrics have been proposed. To date, there has been little focus on understanding the linkages between, and interpretations of, different emission metrics. We use an energy balance model to mathematically link the absolute GWP, absolute global temperature change potential (AGTP), absolute ocean heat perturbation (AOHP), and integrated AGTP. For pulse emissions, energy conservation requires that AOHP = AGWP - iAGTP/λ and hence AGWP and iAGTP are closely linked and converge as AOHP decays to zero. When normalizing the metrics with CO2 (GWP, GTP, and iGTP), we find that the iGTP and GWP are similar numerically for a wide range of GHGs and time-horizons, except for very short-lived species. The similarity between the iGTPX and GWPX depends on how well a pulse emission of CO2 can substitute for a pulse emission of X across a range of time-horizons. The ultimate choice of emission metric(s) and time-horizon(s) depends on policy objectives. To the extent that limiting integrated temperature change over a specific time-horizon is consistent with the broader objectives of climate policy, our analysis suggests that the GWP represents a relatively robust, transparent and policy-relevant emission metric.

  8. Reconstitution of constitutive secretion using semi-intact cells: regulation by GTP but not calcium

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Regulated exocytosis in many permeabilized cells can be triggered by calcium and nonhydrolyzable GTP analogues. Here we examine the role of these effectors in exocytosis of constitutive vesicles using a system that reconstitutes transport between the trans-Golgi region and the plasma membrane. Transport is assayed by two independent methods: the movement of a transmembrane glycoprotein (vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein [VSV G protein]) to the cell surface; and the release of a soluble marker, sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, that have been synthesized and radiolabeled in the trans-Golgi. The plasma membrane of CHO cells was selectively perforated with the bacterial cytolysin streptolysin-O. These perforated cells allow exchange of ions and cytosolic proteins but retain intracellular organelles and transport vesicles. Incubation of the semi-intact cells with ATP and a cytosolic fraction results in transport of VSV G protein and GAG chains to the cell surface. The transport reaction is temperature dependent, requires hydrolyzable ATP, and is inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide. Nonhydrolyzable GTP analogs such as GTP gamma S, which stimulate the fusion of regulated secretory granules, completely abolish constitutive secretion. The rate and extent of constitutive transport between the trans-Golgi and the plasma membrane is independent of free Ca2+ concentrations. This is in marked contrast to fusion of regulated secretory granules with the plasma membrane, and transport between the ER and the cis-Golgi (Beckers, C. J. M., and W. E. Balch. 1989. J. Cell Biol. 108:1245-1256; Baker, D., L. Wuestehube, R. Schekman, and D. Botstein. 1990. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 87:355-359). PMID:1986006

  9. Clostridium botulinum type C hemagglutinin affects the morphology and viability of cultured mammalian cells via binding to the ganglioside GM3.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Yo; Iwamori, Masao; Matsumura, Takuhiro; Yutani, Masahiro; Amatsu, Sho; Fujinaga, Yukako

    2015-09-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin is conventionally divided into seven serotypes, designated A-G, and is produced as large protein complexes through associations with non-toxic components, such as hemagglutinin (HA) and non-toxic non-HA. These non-toxic proteins dramatically enhance the oral toxicity of the toxin complex. HA is considered to have a role in toxin transport through the intestinal epithelium by carbohydrate binding and epithelial barrier-disrupting activity. Type A and B HAs disrupt E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion, and, in turn, the intercellular epithelial barrier. Type C HA (HA/C) disrupts the barrier function by affecting cell morphology and viability, the mechanism of which remains unknown. In this study, we identified GM3 as the target molecule of HA/C. We found that sialic acid binding of HA is essential for the activity. It was abolished when cells were pre-treated with an inhibitor of ganglioside synthesis. Consistent with this, HA/C bound to a-series gangliosides in a glycan array. In parallel, we isolated clones resistant to HA/C activity from a susceptible mouse fibroblast strain. These cells lacked expression of ST-I, the enzyme that transfers sialic acid to lactosylceramide to yield GM3. These clones became sensitive to HA/C activity when GM3 was expressed by transfection with the ST-I gene. The sensitivity of fibroblasts to HA/C was reduced by expressing ganglioside synthesis genes whose products utilize GM3 as a substrate and consequently generate other a-series gangliosides, suggesting a GM3-specific mechanism. Our results demonstrate that HA/C affects cells in a GM3-dependent manner.

  10. TET2 mutations affect non-CpG island DNA methylation at enhancers and transcription factor binding sites in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Jumpei; Jelinek, Jaroslav; Lu, Yue; Cesaroni, Matteo; Madzo, Jozef; Neumann, Frank; He, Rong; Taby, Rodolphe; Vasanthakumar, Aparna; Macrae, Trisha; Ostler, Kelly R.; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Liang, Shoudan; Estecio, Marcos R.; Godley, Lucy A.; Issa, Jean-Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    TET2 enzymatically converts 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine as well as other covalently-modified cytosines and its mutations are common in myeloid leukemia. However, the exact mechanism and the extent to which TET2 mutations affect DNA methylation remain in question. Here we report on DNA methylomes in TET2 wild type (TET2-WT) and mutant (TET2-MT) cases of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). We analyzed 85,134 CpG sites (28,114 sites in CpG islands (CGIs) and 57,020 in non-CpG islands (NCGIs)). TET2 mutations do not explain genome-wide differences in DNA methylation in CMML, and we found few and inconsistent differences at CGIs between TET2-WT and TET2-MT cases. By contrast, we identified 409 (0.71%) TET2-specific differentially methylated CpGs (tet2-DMCs) in NCGIs, 86% of which were hypermethylated in TET2-MT cases, suggesting a strikingly different biology of the effects of TET2 mutations at CGIs and NCGIs. DNA methylation of tet2-DMCs at promoters and non-promoters repressed gene expression. Tet2-DMCs showed significant enrichment at hematopoietic-specific enhancers marked by H3K4me1, and at binding sites for the transcription factor p300. Tet2-DMCs showed significantly lower 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in TET2-MT cases. We conclude that leukemia-associated TET2 mutations affect DNA methylation at NCGI regions containing hematopoietic-specific enhancers and transcription factor binding sites. PMID:25972343

  11. Characterization of a labile naloxone binding site (lambda site) in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Grevel, J; Yu, V; Sadée, W

    1985-05-01

    A high-affinity binding site selective for naloxone and other 4,5-epoxymorphinans (lambda site) has been previously described in rat brain. Following homogenization of freshly dissected brain, the lambda sites convert from a high-affinity to a low-affinity state. When measured with [3H]naloxone, the decay is very rapid at 20 degrees C (t 1/2 less than 2 min), whereas it is progressively slowed at lower temperatures. Proteinase inhibitors, antoxidants, and sulfhydryl group-protecting agents failed to prevent this conversion. Kinetic measurements of mu and lambda binding at varying temperatures demonstrated that the decrease in lambda binding does not coincide with the concurrent increase in mu binding and that the loss of high-affinity lambda binding at 20 degrees C can be partially restored when the temperature is lowered to 0 degrees C. The low-affinity state of the lambda site is rather stable in the Tris buffer homogenates and is susceptible to digestion by a protease. The (-)-isomer of WIN 44,441, a benzomorphan drug, binds to lambda sites with moderate affinity (dissociation constant, KD = 63 nM), whereas the (+)-isomer does not (KD greater than 10,000 nM), thus establishing stereoselectivity of the binding process. Neither the high-affinity nor the low-affinity state of lambda binding is significantly affected by the presence of 100 mM sodium chloride or 50 microM Gpp(NH)p, (a GTP analog), which is in contrast to the dramatic effect of these agents on the established opioid receptor system. Naltrexone, naloxone, nalorphine, and morphine (in this order of decreasing potency) bind to the lambda site in vivo in intact rat brain over dosage ranges that are commonly employed in pharmacological studies.

  12. A mechanism of catalyzed GTP hydrolysis by Ras protein through magnesium ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qiang; Nassar, Nicolas; Wang, Jin

    2011-11-01

    The hydrolysis by Ras plays pivotal roles in the activation of signaling pathways that lead to cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Despite their significant role in human cancer, the hydrolysis mechanism remains unclear. In the present Letter, we propose a GTP hydrolysis mechanism in which the γ phosphate is cut off primarily by magnesium ion. We studied both normal and mutated Ras and the cause of the malfunction of these mutants, compared the effect of Mg2+ and Mn2+. The simulation results are consistent with the experiments and support the new hydrolysis mechanism. This work will benefit both GTPases and ATPases hydrolysis studies.

  13. Two stage binding of glucagon to receptors in rat liver plasma membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Wyborski, R.J.; Horwitz, E.M.; Gurd, R.S.

    1986-03-05

    A homogeneous class of noncooperative receptors in isolated rat hepatocytes undergoes a time- and temperature-dependent conformation change with glucagon binding. A comparable system exists in rat liver plasma membranes. Dissociation assays (30/sup 0/C) quantify the number of receptors in each conformational state. Membranes incubated without GTP demonstrated two dissociation rates. The fraction of hormone bound to the high affinity state increases with incubation time to a limiting value. With isolated membranes and a concentration of 0.2 nM ((/sup 125/I)Iodotyrosyl/sup 10/)glucagon, the fraction of the high affinity form is significantly greater than that found in isolated hepatocytes. Previous work without GTP indicated that a lack of cooperativity characterized the liver membrane system. Incubation of membranes with 0.1 mM GTP increases the K/sub D/ as determined by competition assays while the slope factor (.98 +/- 0.04) indicated noncooperativity. Furthermore, in the presence of GTP a significantly greater proportion of receptors is in the low affinity state while in the absence of GTP more are in the high affinity state. The data are consistent with a mechanism by which GTP diminishes the conversion of the low affinity state to the high affinity state.

  14. Serotonin-induced muscle contraction in rat stomach fundus is mediated by a G alpha z-like guanine nucleotide binding protein.

    PubMed

    Wang, H Y; Eberle-Wang, K; Simansky, K J; Friedman, E

    1993-11-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) potently contracts the fundus of the rat stomach; however, the associated transduction pathway has not been described fully. Experiments were performed in an attempt to gain insight into the coupling mechanism associated with this fundal 5-HT receptor. 5-HT-stimulated [35S]GTP gamma S binding to a protein which was recognized by anti-G alpha Z antiserum in a Mg(++)-dependent fashion. 5-HT increased [35S]GTP gamma S binding in the fundus, but not in the corpus of the rat stomach. 5-HT also enhanced the binding of [alpha-32P]GTP to the fundal protein and increased the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP in fundal membranes. The fundal protein which binds GTP is 25 to 29 kDa in size whereas the brain G alpha Z protein which is recognized by the anti-G alpha Z antibody is a 41 kDa protein. Mixing experiments revealed that the fundal guanine nucleotide binding protein does not appear to be a proteolytic product of the 41 kDa G alpha Z protein. Activating protein kinase C with phorbol-12-myristate, 13-acetate induced a concentration-dependent, noncompetitive inhibition of [35S]GTP gamma S binding to the fundal protein, and of 5-HT-induced contraction of fundal strips. Phorbol-12-myristate, 13-acetate did not alter carbachol- or KCl-mediated fundus contraction. Furthermore, the activation of [35S]GTP gamma S binding by serotonergic agonists and its inhibition by pharmacological antagonists corresponded to the known actions of these agents on contraction of fundal muscle. The results provide evidence that the 5-HT receptor in the rat stomach fundus is coupled directly or indirectly to a G alpha z-like protein which may mediate 5-HT-induced contraction in this tissue.

  15. Chromosomal gain promotes formation of a steep RanGTP gradient that drives mitosis in aneuploid cells

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Keisuke; Ryu, Sung Jin

    2013-01-01

    Many mitotic factors were shown to be activated by Ran guanosine triphosphatase. Previous studies in Xenopus laevis egg extracts and in highly proliferative cells showed that mitotic chromosomes were surrounded by steep Ran guanosine triphosphate (GTP) concentration gradients, indicating that RanGTP-activated factors promote spindle assembly around chromosomes. However, the mitotic role of Ran in normal differentiated cells is not known. In this paper, we show that although the steep mitotic RanGTP gradients were present in rapidly growing cell lines and were required for chromosome congression in mitotic HeLa cells, the gradients were strongly reduced in slow-growing primary cells, such as HFF-1 fibroblasts. The overexpression of RCC1, the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ran, induced steeper mitotic RanGTP gradients in HFF-1 cells, showing the critical role of RCC1 levels in the regulation of mitosis by Ran. Remarkably, in vitro fusion of HFF-1 cells produced cells with steep mitotic RanGTP gradients comparable to HeLa cells, indicating that chromosomal gain can promote mitosis in aneuploid cancer cells via Ran. PMID:23319601

  16. The gene transcription factor cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein: role in positive and negative affective states of alcohol addiction.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Subhash C

    2004-10-01

    The gene transcription factor cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-responsive element binding (CREB) protein is a nuclear protein that regulates synaptic plasticity via modulating the expression of several (cAMP)-inducible genes. Alcohol addiction is a complex psychiatric disorder and is characterized by a compulsive and uncontrolled pattern of alcohol drinking by an individual in spite of the adverse consequences of its abuse. Ethanol produces both euphoric (reward and reinforcing) and dysphoric (negative withdrawal reactions) effects and these are most likely involved in the initiation and maintenance of alcohol use and abuse. Several neurotransmitter systems in the brain might be involved in the effects of alcohol but the exact molecular mechanisms of both the positive and negative affective states of alcohol abuse are still unclear. Recent research in molecular neurosciences using animal models have identified the role of extended amygdaloid (shell structures of nucleus accumbens [NAc] and central and medial amygdaloid nuclei) CREB signaling in positive and negative affective states of alcohol drinking behaviors. This review article highlights the current findings on the role of nucleus accumbal and amygdaloid CREB signaling in behavioral consequences of alcohol use and abuse.

  17. The Rho GTP exchange factor Lfc promotes spindle assembly in early mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Bakal, Christopher J.; Finan, Dina; LaRose, José; Wells, Clark D.; Gish, Gerald; Kulkarni, Sarang; DeSepulveda, Paulo; Wilde, Andrew; Rottapel, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Rho GTPases regulate reorganization of actin and microtubule cytoskeletal structures during both interphase and mitosis. The timing and subcellular compartment in which Rho GTPases are activated is controlled by the large family of Rho GTP exchange factors (RhoGEFs). Here, we show that the microtubule-associated RhoGEF Lfc is required for the formation of the mitotic spindle during prophase/prometaphase. The inability of cells to assemble a functioning spindle after Lfc inhibition resulted in a delay in mitosis and an accumulation of prometaphase cells. Inhibition of Lfc's primary target Rho GTPase during prophase/prometaphase, or expression of a catalytically inactive mutant of Lfc, also prevented normal spindle assembly and resulted in delays in mitotic progression. Coinjection of constitutively active Rho GTPase rescued the spindle defects caused by Lfc inhibition, suggesting the requirement of RhoGTP in regulating spindle assembly. Lastly, we implicate mDia1 as an important effector of Lfc signaling. These findings demonstrate a role for Lfc, Rho, and mDia1 during mitosis. PMID:15976019

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the human GTP fucose pyrophosphorylase

    SciTech Connect

    Quirk, Stephen; Seley-Radtke, Katherine L.

    2006-04-01

    The human GTP fucose pyrophosphohydrolase protein has been crystallized via the hanging-drop technique over a reservoir of polyethylene glycol (MW 8000) and ethylene glycol. The orthorhombic crystals diffract to 2.8 Å resolution. The human nucleotide-sugar metabolizing enzyme GTP fucose pyrophosphorylase (GFPP) has been purified to homogeneity by an affinity chromatographic procedure that utilizes a novel nucleoside analog. This new purification regime results in a protein preparation that produces significantly better crystals than traditional purification methods. The purified 66.6 kDa monomeric protein has been crystallized via hanging-drop vapor diffusion at 293 K. Crystals of the native enzyme diffract to 2.8 Å and belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. There is a single GFPP monomer in the asymmetric unit, giving a Matthews coefficient of 2.38 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 48.2%. A complete native data set has been collected as a first step in determining the three-dimensional structure of this enzyme.

  19. Structure of BipA in GTP form bound to the ratcheted ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Veerendra; Chen, Yun; Ero, Rya; Ahmed, Tofayel; Tan, Jackie; Li, Zhe; Wong, Andrew See Weng; Bhushan, Shashi; Gao, Yong-Gui

    2015-01-01

    BPI-inducible protein A (BipA) is a member of the family of ribosome-dependent translational GTPase (trGTPase) factors along with elongation factors G and 4 (EF-G and EF4). Despite being highly conserved in bacteria and playing a critical role in coordinating cellular responses to environmental changes, its structures (isolated and ribosome bound) remain elusive. Here, we present the crystal structures of apo form and GTP analog, GDP, and guanosine-3′,5′-bisdiphosphate (ppGpp)-bound BipA. In addition to having a distinctive domain arrangement, the C-terminal domain of BipA has a unique fold. Furthermore, we report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of BipA bound to the ribosome in its active GTP form and elucidate the unique structural attributes of BipA interactions with the ribosome and A-site tRNA in the light of its possible function in regulating translation. PMID:26283392

  20. Ribosome-induced changes in elongation factor Tu conformation control GTP hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Elizabeth; Sengupta, Jayati; Trabuco, Leonardo G.; LeBarron, Jamie; Baxter, William T.; Shaikh, Tanvir R.; Grassucci, Robert A.; Nissen, Poul; Ehrenberg, Måns; Schulten, Klaus; Frank, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    In translation, elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) molecules deliver aminoacyl-tRNAs to the mRNA-programmed ribosome. The GTPase activity of EF-Tu is triggered by ribosome-induced conformational changes of the factor that play a pivotal role in the selection of the cognate aminoacyl-tRNAs. We present a 6.7-Å cryo-electron microscopy map of the aminoacyl-tRNA·EF-Tu·GDP·kirromycin-bound Escherichia coli ribosome, together with an atomic model of the complex obtained through molecular dynamics flexible fitting. The model reveals the conformational changes in the conserved GTPase switch regions of EF-Tu that trigger hydrolysis of GTP, along with key interactions, including those between the sarcin-ricin loop and the P loop of EF-Tu, and between the effector loop of EF-Tu and a conserved region of the 16S rRNA. Our data suggest that GTP hydrolysis on EF-Tu is controlled through a hydrophobic gate mechanism. PMID:19122150

  1. GTPase properties of the interferon-induced human guanylate-binding protein 2.

    PubMed

    Neun, R; Richter, M F; Staeheli, P; Schwemmle, M

    1996-07-15

    Guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) were originally described as proteins that are strongly induced by interferons and are capable of binding to agarose-immobilized guanine nucleotides. hGBP1, the first of two members of this protein family in humans, was recently shown to represent a novel type of GTPase that hydrolyzes GTP predominantly to GMP. We now report that purified recombinant hGBP2 also hydrolyzes GTP very efficiently, although GDP rather than GMP was the major reaction product. The biochemical parameters of this reaction were as follows: Km = 313 microM, turnover number = 22 min-1. Both hGBP1 and hGBP2 failed to hydrolyze GDP, however, GDP was an effective inhibitor of the hGBP2- but not the hGBP1-catalyzed GTP hydrolysis reaction. Thus, hGBP1 and hGBP2 have similar biochemical properties, but show pronounced differences in product specificity.

  2. The mechanism of potent GTP cyclohydrolase I inhibition by 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine: requirement of the GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein.

    PubMed

    Kolinsky, Monica A; Gross, Steven S

    2004-09-24

    Inhibition of GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) has been used as a selective tool to assess the role of de novo synthesis of (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-L-biopterin (BH4) in a biological system. Toward this end, 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP) has been used as the prototypical GTPCH inhibitor. Using a novel real-time kinetic microplate assay for GTPCH activity and purified prokaryote-expressed recombinant proteins, we show that potent inhibition by DAHP is not the result of a direct interaction with GTPCH. Rather, inhibition by DAHP in phosphate buffer occurs via an indirect mechanism that requires the presence of GTPCH feedback regulatory protein (GFRP). Notably, GFRP was previously discovered as the essential factor that reconstitutes inhibition of pure recombinant GTPCH by the pathway end product BH4. Thus, DAHP inhibits GTPCH by engaging the endogenous feedback inhibitory system. We further demonstrate that L-Phe fully reverses the inhibition of GTPCH by DAHP/GFRP, which is also a feature in common with inhibition by BH4/GFRP. These findings suggest that DAHP is not an indiscriminate inhibitor of GTPCH in biological systems; instead, it is predicted to preferentially attenuate GTPCH activity in cells that most abundantly express GFRP and/or contain the lowest levels of L-Phe.

  3. Further characterization of the red beet plasma membrane Ca sup 2+ -ATPase using GTP as an alternative substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, L.E.; Schueler, S.B.; Briskin, D.P. )

    1990-03-01

    The GTP-driven component of Ca{sup 2+} uptake in red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plasma membrane vesicles was further characterized to confirm its association with the plasma membrane Ca{sup 2+}-translocating ATPase and assess its utility as a probe for this transport system. Uptake of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} in the presence of GTP demonstrated similar properties to those previously observed for red beet plasma membrane vesicles utilizing ATP with respect to pH optimum sensitivity to orthovanadate, dependence on Mg:substrate concentration and dependence on Ca{sup 2+} concentration. Calcium uptake in the presence of GTP was also strongly inhibited by erythrosin B, a potent inhibitor of the plant plasma membrane Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase. Furthermore, after treatment with EGTA to remove endogenous calmodulin, the stimulation of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+}-uptake by exogeneous calmodulin was nearly equivalent in the presence of either ATP or GTP. Taken together these results support the proposal that GTP-driven {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} uptake represents the capacity of the plasma membrane Ca{sup 2+}-translocating ATPase to utilize this nucleoside triphosphate as an alternative substrate. When plasma membrane vesicles were phosphorylated with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)GTP, a rapidly turning over, 100 kilodalton phosphorylated peptide was observed which contained an acyl-phosphate linkage. While it is proposed that this peptide could represent the catalytic subunit of the plasma membrane Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase, it is noted that this molecular weight is considerably lower than the 140 kilodalton size generally observed for plasma membrane Ca{sup 2+}-ATPases present in animal cells.

  4. Functional SNPs of INCENP Affect Semen Quality by Alternative Splicing Mode and Binding Affinity with the Target Bta-miR-378 in Chinese Holstein Bulls

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Qiang; Huang, Jinming; Ju, Zhihua; Wang, Xiuge; Zhong, Jifeng; Wang, Changfa

    2016-01-01

    Inner centromere protein (INCENP) plays an important role in mitosis and meiosis as the main member of chromosomal passenger protein complex (CPC). To investigate the functional markers of the INCENP gene associated with semen quality, the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) g.19970 A>G and g.34078 T>G were identified and analyzed. The new splice variant INCENP-TV is characterized by the deletion of exon 12. The g.19970 A>G in the exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) motif region results in an aberrant splice variant by constructing two minigene expression vectors using the pSPL3 exon capturing vector and transfecting vectors into MLTC-1 cells. INCENP-TV was more highly expressed than INCENP-reference in adult bull testes. The g.34078 T>G located in the binding region of bta-miR-378 could affect the expression of INCENP, which was verified by luciferase assay. To analyze comprehensively the correlation of SNPs with sperm quality, haplotype combinations constructed by g.19970 A>G and g.34078 T>G, as well as g.-692 C>T and g.-556 G>T reported in our previous studies, were analyzed. The bulls with H1H12 and H2H2 exhibited a higher ejaculate volume than those with H2H10 and H9H12, respectively (P < 0.05). Bulls with H11H11 and H2H10 exhibited higher initial sperm motility than those with H2H2 (P < 0.05). The expression levels of INCENP in bulls with H1H12 and H11H11 were significantly higher than those in bulls with H9H12 (P < 0.05), as determined by qRT-PCR. Findings suggest that g.19970 A>G and g.34078 T>G in INCENP both of which appear to change the molecular and biological characteristics of the mRNA transcribed from the locus may serve as a biomarkers of male bovine fertility by affecting alternative splicing mode and binding affinity with the target bta-miR-378. PMID:27669152

  5. Structural changes accompanying GTP hydrolysis in microtubules: information from a slowly hydrolyzable analogue guanylyl-(alpha,beta)- methylene-diphosphonate

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    We have used cryoelectron microscopy to try to understand the structural basis for the role of GTP hydrolysis in destabilizing the microtubule lattice. We have measured a structural difference introduced into microtubules by replacing GTP with guanylyl- (alpha,beta)-methylene-diphosphonate (GMPCPP). In a stable GMPCPP microtubule lattice, the moire patterns change and the tubulin subunits increase in size by 1.5 A. This information provides a clue to the role of hydrolysis in inducing the structural change at the end of a microtubule during the transition from a growing to a shrinking phase. PMID:7822409

  6. Recruitment of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 into specific intranuclear compartments depends on tyrosine phosphorylation that affects its DNA-binding and transactivation potential.

    PubMed Central

    Ktistaki, E; Ktistakis, N T; Papadogeorgaki, E; Talianidis, I

    1995-01-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF-4) is a prominent member of the family of liver-enriched transcription factors, playing a role in the expression of a large number of liver-specific genes. We report here that HNF-4 is a phosphoprotein and that phosphorylation at tyrosine residue(s) is important for its DNA-binding activity and, consequently, for its transactivation potential both in cell-free systems and in cultured cells. Tyrosine phosphorylation did not affect the transport of HNF-4 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus but had a dramatic effect on its subnuclear localization. HNF-4 was concentrated in distinct nuclear compartments, as evidenced by in situ immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. This compartmentalization disappeared when tyrosine phosphorylation was inhibited by genistein. The correlation between the intranuclear distribution of HNF-4 and its ability to activate endogenous target genes demonstrates a phosphorylation signal-dependent pathway in the regulation of transcription factor activity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7568236

  7. The Staphylococcus aureus Chaperone PrsA Is a New Auxiliary Factor of Oxacillin Resistance Affecting Penicillin-Binding Protein 2A.

    PubMed

    Jousselin, Ambre; Manzano, Caroline; Biette, Alexandra; Reed, Patricia; Pinho, Mariana G; Rosato, Adriana E; Kelley, William L; Renzoni, Adriana

    2015-12-28

    Expression of the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) phenotype results from the expression of the extra penicillin-binding protein 2A (PBP2A), which is encoded by mecA and acquired horizontally on part of the SCCmec cassette. PBP2A can catalyze dd-transpeptidation of peptidoglycan (PG) because of its low affinity for β-lactam antibiotics and can functionally cooperate with the PBP2 transglycosylase in the biosynthesis of PG. Here, we focus upon the role of the membrane-bound PrsA foldase protein as a regulator of β-lactam resistance expression. Deletion of prsA altered oxacillin resistance in three different SCCmec backgrounds and, more importantly, caused a decrease in PBP2A membrane amounts without affecting mecA mRNA levels. The N- and C-terminal domains of PrsA were found to be critical features for PBP2A protein membrane levels and oxacillin resistance. We propose that PrsA has a role in posttranscriptional maturation of PBP2A, possibly in the export and/or folding of newly synthesized PBP2A. This additional level of control in the expression of the mecA-dependent MRSA phenotype constitutes an opportunity to expand the strategies to design anti-infective agents.

  8. Mutations within the LINC-HELLP non-coding RNA differentially bind ribosomal and RNA splicing complexes and negatively affect trophoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Marie; Visser, Allerdien; Buabeng, Kwadwo M L; Poutsma, Ankie; van der Schors, Roel C; Oudejans, Cees B M

    2015-10-01

    LINC-HELLP, showing chromosomal linkage with the pregnancy-specific HELLP syndrome in Dutch families, reduces differentiation from a proliferative to an invasive phenotype of first-trimester extravillous trophoblasts. Here we show that mutations in LINC-HELLP identified in HELLP families negatively affect this trophoblast differentiation either by inducing proliferation rate or by causing cell cycle exit as shown by a decrease in both proliferation and invasion. As LincRNAs predominantly function through interactions with proteins, we identified the directly interacting proteins using chromatin isolation by RNA purification followed by protein mass spectrometry. We found 22 proteins predominantly clustering in two functional networks, i.e. RNA splicing and the ribosome. YBX1, PCBP1, PCBP2, RPS6 and RPL7 were validated, and binding to these proteins was influenced by the HELLP mutations carried. Finally, we show that the LINC-HELLP transcript levels are significantly upregulated in plasma of women in their first trimester of pregnancy compared with non-pregnant women, whereas this upregulation seems absent in a pilot set of patients later developing pregnancy complications, indicative of its functional significance in vivo.

  9. Octamer-binding protein 4 affects the cell biology and phenotypic transition of lung cancer cells involving β-catenin/E-cadherin complex degradation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong-Shu; Ling, Dong-Jin; Zhang, Yang-De; Feng, Jian-Xiong; Zhang, Xue-Yu; Shi, Tian-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Clinical studies have reported evidence for the involvement of octamer‑binding protein 4 (Oct4) in the tumorigenicity and progression of lung cancer; however, the role of Oct4 in lung cancer cell biology in vitro and its mechanism of action remain to be elucidated. Mortality among lung cancer patients is more frequently due to metastasis rather than their primary tumors. Epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a prominent biological event for the induction of epithelial cancer metastasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Oct4 had the capacity to induce lung cancer cell metastasis via the promoting the EMT in vitro. Moreover, the effect of Oct4 on the β‑catenin/E‑cadherin complex, associated with EMT, was examined using immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation assays as well as western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that Oct4 enhanced cell invasion and adhesion accompanied by the downregulation of epithelial marker cytokeratin, and upregulation of the mesenchymal markers vimentin and N‑cadherin. Furthermore, Oct4 induced EMT of lung cancer cells by promoting β‑catenin/E‑cadherin complex degradation and regulating nuclear localization of β‑catenin. In conclusion, the present study indicated that Oct4 affected the cell biology of lung cancer cells in vitro through promoting lung cancer cell metastasis via EMT; in addition, the results suggested that the association and degradation of the β‑catenin/E‑cadherin complex was regulated by Oct4 during the process of EMT.

  10. Reduction of GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulating protein expression by hydrogen peroxide in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Masakazu; Shimizu, Shunichi; Wajima, Teruaki; Hagiwara, Tamio; Negoro, Takaharu; Miyazaki, Akira; Tobe, Takashi; Kiuchi, Yuji

    2005-02-01

    We examined the effect of H(2)O(2) on the expression of GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) feedback regulating protein (GFRP). Addition of H(2)O(2) to endothelial cells decreased GFRP mRNA levels, in contrast to the increase of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) content and GTPCH mRNA levels. The inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) synthase and GTPCH had no influence on the decrease of GFRP mRNA levels in H(2)O(2)-treated cells. It is suggested that H(2)O(2) induces BH(4) synthesis through not only induction of GTPCH but also reduction of GFRP. The decrease of GFRP mRNA level appears to be independent of the produced NO and BH(4).

  11. AMPD2 Regulates GTP Synthesis and is Mutated in a Potentially-Treatable Neurodegenerative Brainstem Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Akizu, Naiara; Cantagrel, Vincent; Schroth, Jana; Cai, Na; Vaux, Keith; McCloskey, Douglas; Naviaux, Robert K.; Vleet, Jeremy Van; Fenstermaker, Ali G.; Silhavy, Jennifer L.; Scheliga, Judith S.; Toyama, Keiko; Morisaki, Hiroko; Sonmez, Fatma Mujgan; Celep, Figen; Oraby, Azza; Zaki, Maha S.; Al-Baradie, Raidah; Faqeih, Eissa; Saleh, Mohammad; Spencer, Emily; Rosti, Rasim Ozgur; Scott, Eric; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Gabriel, Stacey; Morisaki, Takayuki; Holmes, Edward W.; Gleeson, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    Purine biosynthesis and metabolism, conserved in all living organisms, is essential for cellular energy homeostasis and nucleic acids synthesis. The de novo synthesis of purine precursors is under tight negative feedback regulation mediated by adenosine and guanine nucleotides. We describe a new distinct early-onset neurodegenerative condition resulting from mutations in the adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2 gene (AMPD2). Patients have characteristic brain imaging features of pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH), due to loss of brainstem and cerebellar parenchyma. We found that AMPD2 plays an evolutionary conserved role in the maintenance of cellular guanine nucleotide pools by regulating the feedback inhibition of adenosine derivatives on de novo purine synthesis. AMPD2 deficiency results in defective GTP-dependent initiation of protein translation, which can be rescued by administration of purine precursors. These data suggest AMPD2-related PCH as a new, potentially treatable early-onset neurodegenerative disease. PMID:23911318

  12. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition of the Drosophila mesoderm requires the Rho GTP exchange factor Pebble.

    PubMed

    Smallhorn, Masha; Murray, Michael J; Saint, Robert

    2004-06-01

    Drosophila pebble (pbl) encodes a Rho-family GTP exchange factor (GEF) required for cytokinesis. The accumulation of high levels of PBL protein during interphase and the developmentally regulated expression of pbl in mesodermal tissues suggested that the primary cytokinetic mutant phenotype might be masking other roles. Using various muscle differentiation markers, we found that Even skipped (EVE) expression in the dorsal mesoderm is greatly reduced in pbl mutant embryos. EVE expression in the dorsalmost mesodermal cells is induced in response to DPP secreted by the dorsal epidermal cells. Further analysis revealed that this phenotype is likely to be a consequence of an earlier defect. pbl mutant mesodermal cells fail to undergo the normal epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and dorsal migration that follows ventral furrow formation. This phenotype is not a secondary consequence of failed cytokinesis, as it is rescued by a mutant form of pbl that does not rescue the cytokinetic defect. In wild-type embryos, newly invaginated cells at the lateral edges of the mesoderm extend numerous protrusions. In pbl mutant embryos, however, cells appear more tightly adhered to their neighbours and extend very few protrusions. Consistent with the dependence of the mesoderm EMT and cytokinesis on actin organisation, the GTP exchange function of the PBL RhoGEF is required for both processes. By contrast, the N-terminal BRCT domains of PBL are required only for the cytokinetic function of PBL. These studies reveal that a novel PBL-mediated intracellular signalling pathway operates in mesodermal cells during the transition from an epithelial to migratory mesenchymal morphology during gastrulation.

  13. Ethylene oxide inhalation at different exposure-rates affects binding levels in mouse germ cells and hemoglobin. Possible explanation for the effect.

    PubMed

    Sega, G A; Brimer, P A; Generoso, E E

    1991-08-01

    Male mice were exposed to [3H]EtO by inhalation at different exposure rates (300 parts per million (ppm) of EtO for 1 h: 150 ppm for 2 h: 75 ppm for 4 h). The total exposure was fixed at 300 ppm-h. The amount of EtO binding to developing spermatogenic stages, to sperm DNA, to testis DNA and to hemoglobin was then measured as a function of the EtO exposure rate. Generally, as the exposure rate increased there was an increase in the amount of EtO binding to the targets. For example, alkylation of sperm from the caudal epididymides 6 d posttreatment, of DNA from the vas sperm (averaged over 4 time points), of testis DNA (90 min posttreatment), and of hemoglobin (averaged over 4 time points), was 2.0 +/- 0.2 (SD), 1.8 +/- 0.4, 2.9 +/- 0.3, and 1.5 +/- 0.1 times greater, respectively, after an exposure to 300 ppm for 1 h than after an exposure to 75 ppm for 4 h. The testicular DNA from animals exposed to 300 ppm of [3H]EtO for 1 h was also analyzed for the presence of N7-hydroxyethylguanine (N7HEG) and O6-hydroxyethylguanine (O6HEG). The half-life (T1 2) of the N7HEG in the testis DNA was calculated to be 2.8 d. This lesion was removed relatively rapidly from the testis DNA and was probably excised by enzymatic repair. No formation of O6HEG was detected in any of the testis DNA samples analyzed. Additional experiments showed that the exposure rate effect was the result of less total EtO being taken in by the mice over long exposure times compared to that taken in during shorter exposure times at higher concentrations. This result argues against the idea that the exposure rate effect is the result of physiological/enzymological changes affecting transport or metabolism of the chemical within the animals under different exposure rate conditions.

  14. Membrane tethering by the atlastin GTPase depends on GTP hydrolysis but not on forming the cross-over configuration.

    PubMed

    Saini, Simran G; Liu, Chuang; Zhang, Peijun; Lee, Tina H

    2014-12-01

    The membrane-anchored atlastin GTPase couples nucleotide hydrolysis to the catalysis of homotypic membrane fusion to form a branched endoplasmic reticulum network. Trans dimerization between atlastins anchored in opposing membranes, accompanied by a cross-over conformational change, is thought to draw the membranes together for fusion. Previous studies on the conformational coupling of atlastin to its GTP hydrolysis cycle have been carried out largely on atlastins lacking a membrane anchor. Consequently, whether fusion involves a discrete tethering step and, if so, the potential role of GTP hydrolysis and cross-over in tethering remain unknown. In this study, we used membrane-anchored atlastins in assays that separate tethering from fusion to dissect the requirements for each. We found that tethering depended on GTP hydrolysis, but, unlike fusion, it did not depend on cross-over. Thus GTP hydrolysis initiates stable head-domain contact in trans to tether opposing membranes, whereas cross-over formation plays a more pivotal role in powering the lipid rearrangements for fusion.

  15. Membrane tethering by the atlastin GTPase depends on GTP hydrolysis but not on forming the cross-over configuration

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Simran G.; Liu, Chuang; Zhang, Peijun; Lee, Tina H.

    2014-01-01

    The membrane-anchored atlastin GTPase couples nucleotide hydrolysis to the catalysis of homotypic membrane fusion to form a branched endoplasmic reticulum network. Trans dimerization between atlastins anchored in opposing membranes, accompanied by a cross-over conformational change, is thought to draw the membranes together for fusion. Previous studies on the conformational coupling of atlastin to its GTP hydrolysis cycle have been carried out largely on atlastins lacking a membrane anchor. Consequently, whether fusion involves a discrete tethering step and, if so, the potential role of GTP hydrolysis and cross-over in tethering remain unknown. In this study, we used membrane-anchored atlastins in assays that separate tethering from fusion to dissect the requirements for each. We found that tethering depended on GTP hydrolysis, but, unlike fusion, it did not depend on cross-over. Thus GTP hydrolysis initiates stable head-domain contact in trans to tether opposing membranes, whereas cross-over formation plays a more pivotal role in powering the lipid rearrangements for fusion. PMID:25253720

  16. Mutations within the mepA operator affect binding of the MepR regulatory protein and its induction by MepA substrates in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Bryan D; Seo, Susan M; Birukou, Ivan; Brennan, Richard G; Kaatz, Glenn W

    2015-03-01

    The expression of mepA, encoding the Staphylococcus aureus MepA multidrug efflux protein, is repressed by the MarR homologue MepR. Repression occurs through binding of two MepR dimers to an operator with two homologous and closely approximated pseudopalindromic binding sites (site 1 [S1] and site 2 [S2]). MepR binding is impeded in the presence of pentamidine, a MepA substrate. The effects of various mepA operator mutations on MepR binding were determined using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and isothermal titration calorimetry, and an in vivo confirmation of the effects observed was established for a fully palindromic operator mutant. Altering the S1-S2 spacing by 1 to 4 bp severely impaired S2 binding, likely due to a physical collision between adjacent MepR dimers. Extension of the spacing to 9 bp eliminated the S1 binding-mediated DNA allostery required for efficient S2 binding, consistent with positive cooperative binding of MepR dimers. Binding of a single dimer to S1 was maintained when S2 was disrupted, whereas disruption of S1 eliminated any significant binding to S2, also consistent with positive cooperativity. Palindromization of binding sites, especially S2, enhanced MepR affinity for the mepA operator and reduced MepA substrate-mediated MepR induction. As a result, the on-off equilibrium between MepR and its binding sites was shifted toward the on state, resulting in less free MepR being available for interaction with inducing ligand. The selective pressure(s) under which mepA expression is advantageous likely contributed to the accumulation of mutations in the mepA operator, resulting in the current sequence from which MepR is readily induced by MepA substrates.

  17. The GTP binding protein-dependent activation and deactivation of cGMP phosphodiesterase in rod photoreceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, Akio.

    1989-01-01

    Cyclic GMP (cGMP) has a crucial role in visual transduction. Recent electrophysiological studies clearly indicate the existence of cGMP-activated conductance in photoreceptor plasma membranes. In darkness, Na{sup +}, Ca{sup ++}, and Mg{sup ++} enter rod outer segments (ROS) through cGMP-activated channels while light closes channels by lowering cGMP concentrations through activation of cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE). Many excellent reviews reference the mechanism of PDE activation in photoreceptors. However, recent progress in understanding the mechanisms regulating cGMP hydrolysis has raised an important question in the PDE-regulation: how does the three-dimensional movement of a subunit of transducin (retinal G protein) relate to the PDE activation Associated with that question, the mechanism of PDE regulation appears to vary at different stages of evolution, for example, frog and bovine photoreceptors. This review examines recent progress of the cGMP hydrolysis mechanism by focusing on the subunit interactions between transducin and PDE. 36 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of a GTP-binding protein (MiRab5) in Mangifera indica.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao-liang; Luo, Cong; Dong, Long; Van Toan, Can; Wei, Peng-xiao; He, Xin-hua

    2014-04-25

    The Rab family, the largest branch of Ras small GTPases, plays a crucial role in the vesicular transport in plants. The members of Rab family act as molecular switches that regulate the fusion of vesicles with target membranes through conformational changes. However, little is known about the Rab5 gene involved in fruit ripening and stress response. In this study, the MiRab5 gene was isolated from stress-induced Mangifera indica. The full-length cDNA sequence was 984bp and contained an open reading frame of 600bp, which encoded a 200 amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 21.83kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 6.99. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited high homology with tomato (91% similarity) and contains all five characteristic Rab motifs. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that MiRab5 was ubiquitously expressed in various mango tree tissues at different levels. The expression of MiRab5 was up-regulated during later stages of fruit ripening. Moreover, MiRab5 was generally up-regulated in response to various abiotic stresses (cold, salinity, and PEG treatments). Recombinant MiRab5 protein was successfully expressed and purified. SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis indicated that the expressed protein was recognized by the anti-6-His antibody. These results provide insights into the role of the MiRab5 gene family in fruit ripening and stress responses in the mango plant.

  19. Multiple receptors mobilize calcium through a pertussis toxin (PT) sensitive GTP-binding protein in human neutrophils (PMN's)

    SciTech Connect

    Lad, P.M.; Olson, C.V.; Grewal, I.S.; Frolich, M.; Scott, S.J.

    1986-03-05

    Treatment of PMN's with PT causes an abolition of chemotaxis, enzyme release, superoxide generation and aggregation caused by f-met-leu-phe (FMLP),C5a and platelet activating factor (PAF). Lectin (Con-A) induced capping and receptor induced shape change are abolished, but phagocytosis is unaltered. In whole cells, calcium mobilization induced by FMLP, PAF and Con-A inhibited by PT although the FMLP-mediated effect is more susceptible to PT's effects. Treatment of PMN's with phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate (PMA) causes an abolition of calcium mobilization by all agents in a range which also inhibits cap formation. Investigation of calcium uptake reveals PT sensitive and insensitive components. Reciprocal interactions between Ns and Ni proteins are also observed since pretreatment with FMLP and PAF causes a stimulation of Ns-mediated cyclic AMP enhancement while pretreatment with Ns linked receptors (PGE/sub 1/ and beta receptor agonists) inhibits calcium mobilization. Comparative peptide mapping studies indicate substantial similarity between Ni proteins in PMN's, platelets and human erythrocytes. The authors results suggest that the Ni linked calcium mobilization sensitive to PMA is important to the regulation of the human neutrophil.

  20. Assessment of the Activation State of Rho Family GTP-Binding Proteins in Breast Cancer Cells and Specimens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    with the yeast cell division cycle protein Caenorhabditis elegans , 23 in Drosophila Cdc24 and the human break point cluster region melanogaster and 46...Graf fused to MLL Abbreviations: C. elegans , Caenorhabditis elegans ; FAK, focal-adhesion kinase; GAP, GTPase-activating protein; MAP, mitogen...suppressors are the prominent ones. Overexpression or mutation of these receptors and many signal transducers downstream of these receptors, as well as genetic

  1. Assessment of the Activation of Rho Family GTP-Binding Proteins in Breast Cancer Cells and Specimens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    cells by Na,K-ATPase. The mechanism by which the formation of tight junctions and desmosomes are regulated in polarized epithelial cells are not well...laboratory (UCLA), we have investigated the involvement of RhoA GTPase in Na,K-ATPase mediated assembly of tight junctions and desmosomes in MDCK cells...16). We found that an increased sodium level caused by the inhibition of Na,K-ATPase prevents the formation of tight junctions and desmosomes and

  2. Enrichment of distinct microfilament-associated and GTP-binding-proteins in membrane/microvilli fractions from lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jian-Jiang; Wang, Guanghui; Pisitkun, Trairak; Patino-Lopez, Genaro; Nagashima, Kunio; Knepper, Mark A.; Shen, Rong-Fong; Shaw, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Summary Lymphocyte microvilli mediate initial adhesion to endothelium during lymphocyte transition from blood into tissue but their molecular organization is incompletely understood. We modified a shear-based procedure to prepare biochemical fractions enriched for membrane/microvilli (MMV) from both human peripheral blood T-lymphocytes (PBT) and a mouse pre-B lymphocyte line (300.19). Enrichment of proteins in MMV relative to post nuclear lysate was determined by LC/MS/MS analysis and label-free quantitation. Subsequent analysis emphasized the 291 proteins shared by PBT and 300.19 and estimated by MS peak area to be highest abundance. Validity of the label-free quantitation was confirmed by many internal consistencies and by comparison with Western blot analyses. The MMV fraction was enriched primarily for subsets of cytoskeletal proteins, transmembrane proteins and G-proteins, with similar patterns in both lymphoid cell types. The most enriched cytoskeletal proteins were microfilament-related proteins NHERF1, Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin (ERMs), ADF/cofilin and Myosin1G. Other microfilament proteins such as talin, gelsolin, myosin II and profilin were markedly reduced in MMV, as were intermediate filament- and microtubule-related proteins. Heterotrimeric G-proteins and some small G-proteins (especially Ras and Rap1) were enriched in the MMV preparation. Two notable general observations also emerged. There was less overlap between the two cells in their transmembrane proteins than in other classes of proteins, consistent with a special role of plasma membrane proteins in differentiation. Second, unstimulated primary T-lymphocytes have an unusually high concentration of actin and other microfilament related proteins, consistent with the singular role of actin-mediated motility in the immunological surveillance performed by these primary cells. Lymphocyte microvilli initiate adhesion to endothelium during movement from blood into tissue. Using LC/MS/MS and label-free quantitation, we identify proteins enriched in membrane/microvilli (MMV) fractions from lymphocytes (primary human T-lymphocytes and mouse pre-B lymphocyte line). The cytoskeletal proteins most enriched in both lymphocyte types are microfilament-related proteins NHERF1, Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin (ERMs), ADF/cofilin and Myosin1G. Heterotrimeric G-proteins and some small G-proteins (especially Ras and Rap1) are also enriched. Complementary approaches provide confirmation. PMID:18505283

  3. Polarization of Diploid Daughter Cells Directed by Spatial Cues and GTP Hydrolysis of Cdc42 in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Monisha; Chou, Ching-Shan; Park, Hay-Oak

    2013-01-01

    Cell polarization occurs along a single axis that is generally determined by a spatial cue. Cells of the budding yeast exhibit a characteristic pattern of budding, which depends on cell-type-specific cortical markers, reflecting a genetic programming for the site of cell polarization. The Cdc42 GTPase plays a key role in cell polarization in various cell types. Although previous studies in budding yeast suggested positive feedback loops whereby Cdc42 becomes polarized, these mechanisms do not include spatial cues, neglecting the normal patterns of budding. Here we combine live-cell imaging and mathematical modeling to understand how diploid daughter cells establish polarity preferentially at the pole distal to the previous division site. Live-cell imaging shows that daughter cells of diploids exhibit dynamic polarization of Cdc42-GTP, which localizes to the bud tip until the M phase, to the division site at cytokinesis, and then to the distal pole in the next G1 phase. The strong bias toward distal budding of daughter cells requires the distal-pole tag Bud8 and Rga1, a GTPase activating protein for Cdc42, which inhibits budding at the cytokinesis site. Unexpectedly, we also find that over 50% of daughter cells lacking Rga1 exhibit persistent Cdc42-GTP polarization at the bud tip and the distal pole, revealing an additional role of Rga1 in spatiotemporal regulation of Cdc42 and thus in the pattern of polarized growth. Mathematical modeling indeed reveals robust Cdc42-GTP clustering at the distal pole in diploid daughter cells despite random perturbation of the landmark cues. Moreover, modeling predicts different dynamics of Cdc42-GTP polarization when the landmark level and the initial level of Cdc42-GTP at the division site are perturbed by noise added in the model. PMID:23437206

  4. Mutations proximal to the minor groove-binding track of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase differentially affect utilization of RNA versus DNA as template.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Timothy S; Darden, Tom; Prasad, Vinayaka R

    2003-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT), like all retroviral RTs, is a versatile DNA polymerase that can copy both RNA and DNA templates. In spite of extensive investigations into the structure-function of this enzyme, the structural basis for this dual template specificity is poorly understood. Biochemical studies with two mutations in HIV-1 RT that affect residues contacting the template-primer now provide some insight into this specialized property. The mutations are N255D and N265D, both adjoining the minor groove-binding track, in the thumb region. The N265D substitution led to a loss of processive polymerization on DNA but not on RNA, whereas N255D drastically reduced processive synthesis on both templates. This differential template usage was accompanied by a rapid dissociation of the N265D variant on DNA but not RNA templates, whereas the N255D variant rapidly dissociated from both templates. Molecular dynamics modeling suggested that N265D leads to a loss of template strand-specific hydrogen bonding, indicating that this is a key determinant of the differential template affinity. The N255D substitution caused local changes in conformation and a consequent loss of interaction with the primer, leading to a loss of processive synthesis with both templates. We conclude that N265 is part of a subset of template-enzyme contacts that enable RT to utilize DNA templates in addition to RNA templates and that such residues play an important role in facilitating processive DNA synthesis on both RNA and DNA templates.

  5. Sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 expression and genetic polymorphism significantly affect intramuscular fat deposition in the longissimus muscle of Erhualian and Sutai pigs.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Yang, X J; Xia, D; Chen, J; Wegner, J; Jiang, Z; Zhao, R Q

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to elucidate the role of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) in i.m. fat (IMF) deposition in pigs. In Exp. 1, LM samples were removed from 4 male and 4 female Erhualian piglets at 3, 20, and 45 d of age, and SREBF1 mRNA expression level and IMF content were measured. Intramuscular fat content and expression of SREBF1 mRNA was greater (P < 0.05) in females than males at all 3 stages of age, providing initial evidence that the level of SREBF1 mRNA expression is related to IMF deposition in muscle of suckling pigs. Additionally, in Exp. 2 there was a positive correlation between the SREBF1 mRNA level and IMF content (r = 0.67, P < 0.01) in 100 Sutai finishing pigs, a synthetic line produced by crossing Erhualian and Duroc pigs. Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the reverse transcription PCR products of the SREBF1 gene revealed 3 genotypes in Sutai pigs with frequencies of 50% for AA, 36% for AB, and 14% for BB, respectively. Both SREBF1 mRNA level and IMF content in muscle were greater (P < 0.05) in AB and BB animals than in AA animals, whereas no difference in backfat thickness was observed among the 3 genotypes. Sequencing analysis identified 2 SNP at T1006C and C1033T within the open reading frame of the SREBF1 gene (NM_214157). Although both are silent mutations, they affected the secondary structure of SREBF1 mRNA. These results suggest that SREBF1 might play an important role in regulation of muscle fat deposition during postnatal growth of pigs. The SNP identified in the SREBF1 gene suggest that it could be used as a genetic marker to improve IMF content in pigs.

  6. Sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1 expression in brain is affected by age but not by hormones or metabolic changes.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kenjirou; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Fukuchi, Satoshi; Masaki, Takayuki; Sakata, Toshiie; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu

    2006-04-07

    Sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1 is a membrane-bound transcription factor that regulates the expression of several genes involved in cellular fatty acid synthesis in the peripheral tissues, including liver. Although SREBP-1 is expressed in brain, little is known about its function. The aim of the present study was to clarify the characteristics of SREBP-1 mRNA expression in rat brain under various nutritional and hormonal conditions. In genetically obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats, expression of SREBP-1 mRNA was greater in liver than in hypothalamus or cerebrum compared to the lean littermates of these rats. Fasting for 45 h and refeeding for 3 h did not affect expression in brains of Wistar rats of SREBP-1 mRNA or the mRNAs of lipogenic enzymes that are targets of SREBP-1, i.e., fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). Infusion of 2.0 mIU insulin or 3.0 microg leptin into the third cerebroventricle did not affect SREBP-1 mRNA expression in either hypothalamus or cerebrum. SREBP-1 mRNA expression in brains of transgenic mice that overexpressed leptin did not differ from that of wild-type mice. However, we observed a unique age-related alteration in SREBP-1 mRNA expression in brains of Sprague-Dawley rats. Specifically, SREBP-1 mRNA expression increased between 1 and 20 months of age, while there was no such change in the expression of FAS or ACC. This raises the possibility that increased SREBP-1 expression secondary to aging-related decline of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) might compensate for the reduction of FAS expression in brain. These findings suggest that the expression of SREBP-1 and downstream lipogenic enzymes in brain is probably not regulated by peripheral nutritional conditions or humoral factors. Aging-related changes in SREBP-1 mRNA expression may be involved in developmental changes in brain lipid metabolism.

  7. Action at a distance: amino acid substitutions that affect binding of the phosphorylated CheY response regulator and catalysis of dephosphorylation can be far from the CheZ phosphatase active site.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Ashalla M; Mole, Beth M; Silversmith, Ruth E; Bourret, Robert B

    2011-09-01

    Two-component regulatory systems, in which phosphorylation controls the activity of a response regulator protein, provide signal transduction in bacteria. For example, the phosphorylated CheY response regulator (CheYp) controls swimming behavior. In Escherichia coli, the chemotaxis phosphatase CheZ stimulates the dephosphorylation of CheYp. CheYp apparently binds first to the C terminus of CheZ and then binds to the active site where dephosphorylation occurs. The phosphatase activity of the CheZ(2) dimer exhibits a positively cooperative dependence on CheYp concentration, apparently because the binding of the first CheYp to CheZ(2) is inhibited compared to the binding of the second CheYp. Thus, CheZ phosphatase activity is reduced at low CheYp concentrations. The CheZ21IT gain-of-function substitution, located far from either the CheZ active site or C-terminal CheY binding site, enhances CheYp binding and abolishes cooperativity. To further explore mechanisms regulating CheZ activity, we isolated 10 intragenic suppressor mutations of cheZ21IT that restored chemotaxis. The suppressor substitutions were located along the central portion of CheZ and were not allele specific. Five suppressor mutants tested biochemically diminished the binding of CheYp and/or the catalysis of dephosphorylation, even when the suppressor substitutions were distant from the active site. One suppressor mutant also restored cooperativity to CheZ21IT. Consideration of results from this and previous studies suggests that the binding of CheYp to the CheZ active site (not to the C terminus) is rate limiting and leads to cooperative phosphatase activity. Furthermore, amino acid substitutions distant from the active site can affect CheZ catalytic activity and CheYp binding, perhaps via the propagation of structural or dynamic perturbations through a helical bundle.

  8. Regulation of formyl peptide receptor binding to rabbit neutrophil plasma membranes. Use of monovalent cations, guanine nucleotides, and bacterial toxins to discriminate among different states of the receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Feltner, D.E.; Marasco, W.A.

    1989-06-01

    The regulation by monovalent cations, guanine nucleotides, and bacterial toxins of (3H)FMLP binding to rabbit neutrophil plasma membranes was studied by using dissociation techniques to identify regulatory effects on separate receptor states. Under conditions of low receptor occupancy (1 nM (3H)FMLP) and in both Na+ and K+ buffers, dissociation is heterogenous, displaying two distinct, statistically significant off rates. (3H)FMLP binding was enhanced by substituting other monovalent cations for Na+. In particular, enhanced binding in the presence of K+ relative to Na+ was caused by additional binding to both rapidly and slowly dissociating receptors. Three receptor dissociation rates, two of which appear to correspond to the two affinity states detected in equilibrium binding studies, were defined by specific GTP and pertussis toxin (PT) treatments. Neither GTP, nor PT or cholera toxins (CT) had an effect on the rate of dissociation of (3H)FMLP from the rapidly dissociating form of the receptor. Both 100 microM GTP and PT treatments increased the percentage of rapidly dissociating receptors, correspondingly decreasing the percentage of slowly dissociating receptors. The observed changes in the rapidly and slowly dissociating receptors after GTP, PT, and CT treatments were caused by an absolute decrease in the amount of binding to the slowly dissociating receptors. However, complete inhibition of slowly dissociating receptor binding by GTP, PT, or both was never observed. Both GTP and PT treatments, but not CT treatment, increased by two-fold the rate of dissociation of 1 nM (3H)FMLP from the slowly dissociating form of the receptor, resulting in a third dissociation rate. Thus, slowly dissociating receptors comprise two different receptor states, a G protein-associated guanine nucleotide and PT-sensitive state and a guanine nucleotide-insensitive state.

  9. Modification of opiate agonist binding by pertussis toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Abood, M.E.; Lee, N.M.; Loh, H.H.

    1986-03-05

    Opiate agonist binding is decreased by GTP, suggesting the possible involvement of GTP binding proteins in regulation of opiate receptor binding. This possibility was addressed by asking whether pertussis toxin treatment, which results in ADP-ribosylation and modification of G proteins, would alter opiate agonist binding. The striatum was chosen for the initial brain area to be studied, since regulation of opiate action in this area had been shown to be modified by pertussis toxin. Treatment of striatal membranes with pertussis toxin results in up to a 55% decrease in /sup 3/(H)-DADLE binding as compared with membranes treated identically without toxin. This corresponds to a near complete ADP-ribosylation of both G proteins in the striatal membrane. The decrease in agonist binding appears to be due to an altered affinity of the receptor for agonist as opposed to a decrease in the number of sites. This effect of pertussis toxin on opiate agonist binding demonstrates the actual involvement of G proteins in regulation of opiate receptor binding.

  10. Guanine nucleotide-binding protein regulation of melatonin receptors in lizard brain

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkees, S.A.; Carlson, L.L.; Reppert, S.M. )

    1989-05-01

    Melatonin receptors were identified and characterized in crude membrane preparations from lizard brain by using {sup 125}I-labeled melatonin ({sup 125}I-Mel), a potent melatonin agonist. {sup 125}I-Mel binding sites were saturable; Scatchard analysis revealed high-affinity and lower affinity binding sites, with apparent K{sub d} of 2.3 {plus minus} 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} M and 2.06 {plus minus} 0.43 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} M, respectively. Binding was reversible and inhibited by melatonin and closely related analogs but not by serotonin or norepinephrine. Treatment of crude membranes with the nonhydrolyzable GTP analog guanosine 5{prime}-({gamma}-thio)triphosphate (GTP({gamma}S)), significantly reduced the number of high-affinity receptors and increased the dissociation rate of {sup 125}I-Mel from its receptor. Furthermore, GTP({gamma}S) treatment of ligand-receptor complexes solubilized by Triton X-100 also led to a rapid dissociation of {sup 125}I-Mel from solubilized ligand-receptor complexes. Gel filtration chromatography of solubilized ligand-receptor complexes revealed two major peaks of radioactivity corresponding to M{sub r} > 400,000 and M{sub r} ca. 110,000. This elution profile was markedly altered by pretreatment with GTP({gamma}S) before solubilization; only the M{sub r} 110,000 peak was present in GTP({gamma}S)-pretreated membranes. The results strongly suggest that {sup 125}I-mel binding sites in lizard brain are melatonin receptors, with agonist-promoted guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) coupling and that the apparent molecular size of receptors uncoupled from G proteins is about 110,000.

  11. GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein is expressed in serotonin neurons and regulates tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kapatos, G; Hirayama, K; Shimoji, M; Milstien, S

    1999-02-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin, the coenzyme required for hydroxylation of phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, regulates its own synthesis through feedback inhibition of GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) mediated by a regulatory subunit, the GTP cyclohydrolase feedback regulatory protein (GFRP). In the liver, L-phenylalanine specifically stimulates tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis by displacing tetrahydrobiopterin from the GTPCH-GFRP complex. To explore the role of this regulatory system in rat brain, we examined the localization of GFRP mRNA using double-label in situ hybridization. GFRP mRNA expression was abundant in serotonin neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus but was undetectable in dopamine neurons of the midbrain or norepinephrine neurons of the locus coeruleus. Simultaneous nuclease protection assays for GFRP and GTPCH mRNAs showed that GFRP mRNA is most abundant within the brainstem and that the ratio of GFRP to GTPCH mRNA is much higher than in the ventral midbrain. Two species of GFRP mRNA differing by approximately 20 nucleotides in length were detected in brainstem but not in other tissues, with the longer, more abundant form being common to other brain regions. It is interesting that the pineal and adrenal glands did not contain detectable levels of GFRP mRNA, although GTPCH mRNA was abundant in both. Primary neuronal cultures were used to examine the role of GFRP-mediated regulation of GTPCH on tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis within brainstem serotonin neurons and midbrain dopamine neurons. L-Phenylalanine increased tetrahydrobiopterin levels in serotonin neurons to a maximum of twofold in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas D-phenylalanine and L-tryptophan were without effect. In contrast, tetrahydrobiopterin levels within cultured dopamine neurons were not altered by L-phenylalanine. The time course of this effect was very rapid, with a maximal response observed within 60 min. Inhibitors of tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis prevented the L

  12. Reconstitution of high-affinity opioid agonist binding in brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Remmers, A.E.; Medzihradsky, F. )

    1991-03-15

    In synaptosomal membranes from rat brain cortex, the {mu} selective agonist ({sup 3}H)dihydromorphine in the absence of sodium, and the nonselective antagonist ({sup 3}H)naltrexone in the presence of sodium, bound to two populations of opioid receptor sites with K{sub d} values of 0.69 and 8.7 nM for dihydromorphine, and 0.34 and 5.5 nM for naltrexone. The addition of 5 {mu}M guanosine 5{prime}-({gamma}-thio)triphosphate (GTP({gamma}S)) strongly reduced high-affinity agonist but not antagonist binding. Exposure of the membranes to high pH reduced the number of GTP({gamma}-{sup 35}S) binding sites by 90% and low K{sub m}, opioid-sensitive GTPase activity by 95%. In these membranes, high-affinity agonist binding was abolished and modulation of residual binding by GTP({gamma}S) was diminished. Alkali treatment of the glioma cell membranes prior to fusion inhibited most of the low K{sub m} GTPase activity and prevented the reconstitution of agonist binding. The results show that high-affinity opioid agonist binding reflects the ligand-occupied receptor - guanine nucleotide binding protein complex.

  13. Characterization of [35S]-ATP alpha S and [3H]-alpha, beta-MeATP binding sites in rat brain cortical synaptosomes: regulation of ligand binding by divalent cations.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, R; Reiser, G

    1997-07-01

    1. We made a comparative analysis of the binding characteristics of the radioligands [35S]-ATP alpha S and [3H]-alpha, beta-MeATP in order to test whether these ligands can be used to analyse P2-purinoceptors in synaptosomal membranes from rat brain cortex. 2. Synaptosomes possess sites with high affinity for [35S]-ATP alpha S (Kd = 22.2 +/- 9.1 nM, Bmax = 14.8 pmol mg-1 protein). The rank order of the competition potency of the different compounds (ATP alpha S, ATP, ATP gamma S > ADP beta S, 2-MeSATP > deoxyATP, ADP > > UTP, alpha, beta-MeATP, AMP, Reactive Blue-2, suramin, isoPPADS) is consistent with pharmacological properties of P2Y-purinoceptors. 3. Under identical conditions [35S]-ATP alpha S and [3H]-alpha, beta-MeATP bind to different binding sites at synaptosomal membranes from rat brain cortex. The affinity of the [3H]-alpha, beta-MeATP binding sites (Kd = 13.7 +/- 1.8 nM, Bmax = 6.34 +/- 0.28 pmol mg-1 protein) was 38 fold higher than the potency of alpha, beta-MeATP to displace [35S]-ATP alpha S binding (Ki = 0.52 microM). ATP and ADP beta S competed at both binding sites with different affinities, 60 fold and 175 fold, respectively. The other agonists tested (2-MeSATP, UTP, GTP) did not affect specific [35H]-alpha, beta-MeATP binding at concentrations up to 100 microM. The antagonists (suramin, isoPPADS, Evan's Blue) showed completely different affinities for both binding sites. 4. Binding of [35S]-ATP alpha S on synaptosomes was regulated by GTP, which is indicative for G-protein coupled receptors. The Kd value for the high affinity binding site was reduced in the presence of GTP about 5 fold (from 1.8 nM to 8.6 nM). In the presence of Mg2+ the affinity was increased (Kd 1.8 nM versus 22 nM in the absence of Mg2+). 5. The binding of both radioligands was regulated in an opposite manner by physiological concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Binding of [3H]-alpha, beta-MeATP to synaptosomal membranes was increased 3 fold by raising the Ca2+ concentration

  14. Mutation analysis of inhibitory guanine nucleotide binding protein alpha (GNAI) loci in young and familial pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Demir, Hande; Donner, Iikki; Kivipelto, Leena; Kuismin, Outi; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; De Menis, Ernesto; Karhu, Auli

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are neoplasms of the anterior pituitary lobe and account for 15-20% of all intracranial tumors. Although most pituitary tumors are benign they can cause severe symptoms related to tumor size as well as hypopituitarism and/or hypersecretion of one or more pituitary hormones. Most pituitary adenomas are sporadic, but it has been estimated that 5% of patients have a familial background. Germline mutations of the tumor suppressor gene aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) predispose to hereditary pituitary neoplasia. Recently, it has been demonstrated that AIP mutations predispose to pituitary tumorigenesis through defective inhibitory GTP binding protein (Gαi) signaling. This finding prompted us to examine whether germline loss-of-function mutations in inhibitory guanine nucleotide (GTP) binding protein alpha (GNAI) loci are involved in genetic predisposition of pituitary tumors. To our knowledge, this is the first time GNAI genes are sequenced in order to examine the occurrence of inactivating germline mutations. Thus far, only somatic gain-of-function hot-spot mutations have been studied in these loci. Here, we have analyzed the coding regions of GNAI1, GNAI2, and GNAI3 in a set of young sporadic somatotropinoma patients (n = 32; mean age of diagnosis 32 years) and familial index cases (n = 14), thus in patients with a disease phenotype similar to that observed in AIP mutation carriers. In addition, expression of Gαi proteins was studied in human growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting and non-functional pituitary tumors. No pathogenic germline mutations affecting the Gαi proteins were detected. The result suggests that loss-of-function mutations of GNAI loci are rare or nonexistent in familial pituitary adenomas.

  15. Role of the Arf6 GDP/GTP cycle and Arf6 GTPase-activating proteins in actin remodeling and intracellular transport.

    PubMed

    Klein, Stéphanie; Franco, Michel; Chardin, Pierre; Luton, Frédéric

    2006-05-05

    We have analyzed both biochemically and functionally a series of Arf6 mutants, providing new insights into the molecular mode of action of the small G protein Arf6. First, by comparing a fast-cycling mutant (Arf6(T157N)) and a GTPase-deficient mutant (Arf6(Q67L)), we established the necessity for completion of the Arf6 GDP/GTP cycle for recycling of major histocompatibility complex molecules to the plasma membrane. Second, we found that aluminum fluoride (AlF), known for inducing membrane protrusion in cells expressing exogenous wild-type Arf6, stabilized a functional wild-type Arf6.AlF(x) . GTPase-activating protein (GAP) complex in vitro and in vivo. We also found that the tandem mutation Q37E/S38I prevented the binding of two Arf GAPs, but not the effector ARHGAP10, and blocked the formation of membrane protrusion and actin reorganization. Together, our results with AlF(x) and Arf6(Q37E/S38I) demonstrate the critical role of the Arf6 GAPs as effectors for Arf6-regulated actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Finally, competition experiments conducted in vivo suggest the existence of a membrane receptor for GDP-bound Arf6.

  16. GTP cyclohydrolase feedback regulatory protein controls cofactor 6-tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis in the cytosol and in the nucleus of epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Bhaven; Gillbro, Johanna M; Rokos, Hartmut; Schallreuter, Karin U

    2006-11-01

    (6R)-L-erythro 5,6,7,8 tetrahydrobiopterin (6BH4) is crucial in the hydroxylation of L-phenylalanine-, L-tyrosine-, and L-tryptophan-regulating catecholamine and serotonin synthesis as well as tyrosinase in melanogenesis. The rate-limiting step of 6BH4 de novo synthesis is controlled by guanosine triphosphate (GTP) cyclohydrolase I (GTPCHI) and its feedback regulatory protein (GFRP), where binding of L-phenylalanine to GFRP increases enzyme activities, while 6BH4 exerts the opposite effect. Earlier it was demonstrated that the human epidermis holds the full capacity for autocrine 6BH4 de novo synthesis and recycling. However, besides the expression of epidermal mRNA for GFRP, the presence of a functioning GFRP feedback has never been shown. Therefore, it was tempting to investigate whether this important mechanism is present in epidermal cells. Our results identified indeed a functioning GFRP/GTPCHI axis in epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes in the cytosol, adding the missing link for 6BH4 de novo synthesis which in turn controls cofactor supply for catecholamine and serotonin biosynthesis as well as melanogenesis in the human epidermis. Moreover, GFRP expression and GTPCHI activities have been found in the nucleus of both cell types. The significance of this result warrants further investigation.

  17. PET Studies on P-glycoprotein function in the blood-brain barrier: how it affects uptake and binding of drugs within the CNS.

    PubMed

    Elsinga, Philip H; Hendrikse, N Harry; Bart, Joost; Vaalburg, Willem; van Waarde, Aren

    2004-01-01

    Permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is one of the factors determining the bioavailability of therapeutic drugs. The BBB only allows entry of lipophilic compounds with low molecular weights by passive diffusion. However, many lipophilic drugs show negligible brain uptake. They are substrates for transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug-resistance associated protein (MRP) and organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs). The action of these carrier systems results in rapid efflux of xenobiotics from the central nervous system (CNS). Classification of candidate drugs as substrates or inhibitors of such carrier proteins is of crucial importance in drug development. Positron emission tomography (PET) can play an important role in the screening process by providing in vivo information, after the putative drug has passed in vitro tests. Although radiolabeled probes for MRP and OATP function are not yet available, many radiotracers have been prepared to study P-glycoprotein function in vivo with PET. These include alkaloids ((11)C-colchicine), antineoplastic agents ((11)C-daunorubicin, (18)F-paclitaxel), modulators of L-type calcium channels ((11)C-(+/-)verapamil, (11)C-R(+)-verapamil), beta-adrenoceptor antagonists ((11)C-(S)-carazolol, (18)F-(S)-1'-fluorocarazolol, (11)C-carvedilol), serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists ((18)F-MPPF), opioid receptor antagonists ((11)C-loperamide, (11)C-carfentanyl), and various (64)Cu-labeled copper complexes. Studies in experimental animals have indicated that it is possible to assess P-glycoprotein function in the BBB and its effect on the uptake and binding of drugs within the intact CNS, using suitable P-gp modulators labeled with positron emitters. Provided that radiopharmaceuticals (and P-gp modulators) can be developed for human use, several exciting fields of study may be explored, viz. (i) direct evaluation of the effect of modulators on the cerebral uptake of therapeutic drugs; (ii) assessment of

  18. Inhibition by Elongation Factor EF G of Aminoacyl-tRNA Binding to Ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Cabrer, Bartolomé; Vázquez, David; Modolell, Juan

    1972-01-01

    Elongation factor G (EF G), bound to ribosomes either with GMPPCP or with fusidic acid and GDP, inhibits elongation factor Tu (EF Tu)-dependent binding of Phe-tRNA on the ribosome-poly(U) complex and binding of Ala-tRNA on the initiation complex formed with RNA from bacteriophage R17; GTP hydrolysis associated with Phe-tRNA binding is also inhibited. Moreover, nonenzymic binding of Phe-tRNA at high Mg++ concentration is completely blocked by EF G. Thus, EF G appears to bind at a site that overlaps or interacts with the ribosomal A-site. PMID:4551985

  19. A New Use for a Familiar Fold: the X-Ray Crystal Structure of GTP-Bound GTP Cyclohydrolase III From Methanocaldococcus Jannaschii Reveals a Two Metal Ion Catalytic Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, S.D.; Roberts, S.A.; Zegeer, A.M.; Montfort, W.R.; Bandarian, V.

    2009-05-26

    GTP cyclohydrolase (GCH) III from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, which catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 2-amino-5-formylamino-6-ribosylamino-4(3H)-pyrimidinone 5'-phosphate (FAPy), has been shown to require Mg{sup 2+} for catalytic activity and is activated by monovalent cations such as K{sup +} and ammonium [Graham, D. E., Xu, H., and White, R. H. (2002) Biochemistry 41, 15074-15084]. The reaction is formally identical to that catalyzed by a GCH II ortholog (SCO 6655) from Streptomyces coelicolor; however, SCO 6655, like other GCH II proteins, is a zinc-containing protein. The structure of GCH III complexed with GTP solved at 2 {angstrom} resolution clearly shows that GCH III adopts a distinct fold that is closely related to the palm domains of phosphodiesterases, such as DNA polymerase I. GCH III is a tetramer of identical subunits; each monomer is composed of an N- and a C-terminal domain that adopt nearly superimposible structures, suggesting that the protein has arisen by gene duplication. Three metal ions were located in the active site, two of which occupy positions that are analogous to those occupied by divalent metal ions in the structures of a number of palm domain containing proteins, such as DNA polymerase I. Two conserved Asp residues that coordinate the metal ions, which are also found in palm domain containing proteins, are observed in GCH III. Site-directed variants (Asp{yields}Asn) of these residues in GCH III are less active than wild-type. The third metal ion, most likely a potassium ion, is involved in substrate recognition through coordination of O6 of GTP. The arrangement of the metal ions in the active site suggests that GCH III utilizes two metal ion catalysis. The structure of GCH III extends the repertoire of possible reactions with a palm fold to include cyclohydrolase chemistry.

  20. Increased expression of latent TGF-β-binding protein 4 affects the fibrotic process in scleroderma by TGF-β/SMAD signaling.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiaying; Liu, Qingmei; Wang, Lei; Tu, Wenzhen; Chu, Haiyan; Ding, Weifeng; Jiang, Shuai; Ma, Yanyun; Shi, Xiangguang; Pu, Weilin; Zhou, Xiaodong; Jin, Li; Wang, Jiucun; Wu, Wenyu

    2017-03-06

    Scleroderma is a fibrosis-related disorder characterized by cutaneous and internal organ fibrosis, and excessive collagen deposition in extracellular matrix (ECM) is a major cause of fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/SMAD signaling has a central role in the pathogenesis of fibrosis by inducing abnormal collagen accumulation in ECM, and latent TGF-β-binding protein 4 (LTBP-4) affects the secretion of latent TGF-β to ECM. A previous study indicated that bleomycin (BLM) treatment increased LTBP-4 expression in lung fibroblasts of Thy-1 knockout mice with lung fibrosis, and LTBP-4 further promoted TGF-β bioavailability as well as SMAD3 phosphorylation. However, the expression and function of LTBP-4 in human scleroderma remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the potential role of LTBP-4 in scleroderma through clinical, in vivo and in vitro studies. LTBP-4 and TGF-β expressions were significantly upregulated in systemic scleroderma (SSc) patients' plasma compared with normal controls (LTBP-4, 1,215±100.2 vs 542.8±41.7 ng/ml, P<0.0001; TGF-β, 1.5±0.2 vs 0.7±0.1 ng/ml, P=0.0031), while no significant difference was found between localized scleroderma (LSc) and normal controls. The plasma concentrations of LTBP-4 and TGF-β were even higher in SSc patients with lung fibrosis (LTBP-4, 1462± 137.3 vs 892.8±113.4 ng/ml, P=0.0037; TGF-β, 2.0±0.4 vs 0.9±0.2 ng/ml, P=0.0212) and esophagus involvement (1390±134.4 vs 940.7±127.0 ng/ml, P=0.0269; TGF-β, 1.9±0.3 vs 0.9±0.2 ng/ml, P=0.0426). The area under receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve of LTBP-4 was 0.86. Immunohistochemistry measurement also demonstrated a higher LTBP-4 expression in sclerotic skin tissue of LSc and SSc compared with normal controls. More positive fibroblasts were also found in BLM-induced scleroderma mouse model than the saline-treated group. In in vitro studies, knockdown of LTBP-4 in SSc skin fibroblasts prominently reduced downstream COL1A1, COL1A2

  1. Control of lymphocyte shape and the chemotactic response by the GTP exchange factor Vav.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Manzanares, Miguel; Cruz-Adalia, Aranzazu; Martín-Cófreces, Noa B; Cabrero, José R; Dosil, Mercedes; Alvarado-Sánchez, Brenda; Bustelo, Xosé R; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2005-04-15

    Rho GTPases control many facets of cell polarity and migration; namely, the reorganization of the cellular cytoskeleton to extracellular stimuli. Rho GTPases are activated by GTP exchange factors (GEFs), which induce guanosine diphosphate (GDP) release and the stabilization of the nucleotide-free state. Thus, the role of GEFs in the regulation of the cellular response to extracellular cues during cell migration is a critical step of this process. In this report, we have analyzed the activation and subcellular localization of the hematopoietic GEF Vav in human peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated with the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1alpha). We show a robust activation of Vav and its redistribution to motility-associated subcellular structures, and we provide biochemical evidence of the recruitment of Vav to the membrane of SDF-1alpha-activated human lymphocytes, where it transiently interacts with the SDF-1alpha receptor CXCR4. Overexpression of a dominant negative form of Vav abolished lymphocyte polarization, actin polymerization, and migration. SDF-1alpha-mediated cell polarization and migration also were impaired by overexpression of an active, oncogenic Vav, although the mechanism appears to be different. Together, our data postulate a pivotal role for Vav in the transmission of the migratory signal through the chemokine receptor CXCR4.

  2. Phenylalanine improves dilation and blood pressure in GTP cyclohydrolase inhibition-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Brett M; Dorrance, Anne M; Webb, R Clinton

    2004-06-01

    GTP cyclohydrolase (GTPCH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of the nitric oxide synthase cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), is partly regulated by the GTPCH feedback regulatory protein (GFRP). GFRP can inhibit GTPCH by end-product negative feedback, and L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) reverses this inhibition and increases BH4 biosynthesis in vitro. We hypothesized that L-Phe would increase endothelium-dependent relaxation and decrease blood pressure in rats made hypertensive by GTPCH inhibition. Di-amino-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP, 10 mmol/L), a known inhibitor of GTPCH, was given with or without L-Phe or D-Phe (2 mmol/L) in the drinking water of rats for 3 days and blood pressure was measured via tail-cuff. Endothelium-intact aortic segments were hung in organ chambers for measurement of isometric force generation. Systolic blood pressure was increased significantly in DAHP-treated rats compared with controls. The addition of L-Phe attenuated the hypertensive effect, whereas D-Phe had no effect. Acetylcholine- and A23187-induced relaxation was decreased in aortas from DAHP-treated rats compared with controls, but was restored in aortas from DAHP+L-Phe-treated rats. Following NOS inhibition, sensitivity to sodium nitroprusside was increased in aortas from DAHP-treated rats, but restored in DAHP+L-Phe-treated rats. These results suggest that L-Phe can reverse GTPCH inhibition in vivo leading to increased vasodilation and decreased blood pressure.

  3. Preparation and crystallization of the stimulatory and inhibitory complexes of GTP cyclohydrolase I and its feedback regulatory protein GFRP.

    PubMed

    Maita, N; Okada, K; Hirotsu, S; Hatakeyama, K; Hakoshima, T

    2001-08-01

    Mammalian GTP cyclohydrolase I is a decameric enzyme in the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin, which is an essential cofactor for enzymes producing neurotransmitters such as catecholamines and for nitric oxide synthases. The enzyme is dually regulated by its feedback regulatory protein GFRP in the presence of its stimulatory effector phenylalanine and its inhibitory effector biopterin. Here, both the stimulatory and inhibitory complexes of rat GTP cyclohydrolase I bound to GFRP were crystallized by vapour diffusion. Diffraction data sets at resolutions of 3.0 and 2.64 A were collected for the stimulatory and inhibitory complexes, respectively. Each complex consists of two GTPCHI pentamer rings and two GFRP pentamer rings, with pseudo-52 point-group symmetry.

  4. Depletion of GTP pool is not the predominant mechanism by which ribavirin exerts its antiviral effect on Lassa virus.

    PubMed

    Ölschläger, Stephan; Neyts, Johan; Günther, Stephan

    2011-08-01

    Ribavirin (1-β-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide) is the standard treatment for Lassa fever, though its mode of action is unknown. One possibility is depletion of the intracellular GTP pool via inhibition of the cellular enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH). This study compared the anti-arenaviral effect of ribavirin with that of two other IMPDH inhibitors, mycophenolic acid (MPA) and 5-ethynyl-1-β-d-ribofuranosylimidazole-4-carboxamide (EICAR). All three compounds were able to inhibit Lassa virus replication by ≥2 log units in cell culture. Restoring the intracellular GTP pool by exogenous addition of guanosine reversed the inhibitory effects of MPA and EICAR, while ribavirin remained fully active. Analogous experiments performed with Zaire Ebola virus showed that IMPDH inhibitors are also active against this virus, although to a lesser extent than against Lassa virus. In conclusion, the experiments with MPA and EICAR indicate that replication of Lassa and Ebola virus is sensitive to depletion of the GTP pool mediated via inhibition of IMPDH. However, this is not the predominant mechanism by which ribavirin exerts its in-vitro antiviral effect on Lassa virus.

  5. GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein is a pentamer of identical subunits. Purification, cDNA cloning, and bacterial expression.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, T; Brewer, J M; Hatakeyama, K

    1997-04-11

    GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein (GFRP) mediates feedback inhibition of GTP cyclohydrolase I activity by tetrahydrobiopterin and also mediates the stimulatory effect of phenylalanine on the enzyme activity. To characterize the molecular structure of GFRP, we have purified it from rat liver using an efficient step of affinity chromatography and isolated cDNA clones, based on partial amino acid sequences of peptides derived from purified GFRP. Comparison between the amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA and the N-terminal amino acid sequence of purified GFRP showed that the mature form of GFRP consists of 83 amino acid residues with a calculated Mr of 9,542. The isolated GFRP cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with six consecutive histidine residues at its N terminus. The fusion protein was affinity-purified and digested with thrombin to remove the histidine tag. The resulting recombinant GFRP showed kinetic properties similar to those of GFRP purified from rat liver. Cross-linking experiments using dimethyl suberimidate indicated that GFRP was a pentamer of 52 kDa. Sedimentation equilibrium measurements confirmed the pentameric structure of GFRP by giving an average Mr of 49,734, which is 5 times the calculated molecular weight of the recombinant GFRP polypeptide. Based on the pentameric structure of GFRP, we have proposed a model for the quaternary structure of GFRP and GTP cyclohydrolase I complexes.

  6. Translation initiation factor 2gamma mutant alters start codon selection independent of Met-tRNA binding.

    PubMed

    Alone, Pankaj V; Cao, Chune; Dever, Thomas E

    2008-11-01

    Selection of the AUG start codon for translation in eukaryotes is governed by codon-anticodon interactions between the initiator Met-tRNA(i)(Met) and the mRNA. Translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) binds Met-tRNA(i)(Met) to the 40S ribosomal subunit, and previous studies identified Sui(-) mutations in eIF2 that enhanced initiation from a noncanonical UUG codon, presumably by impairing Met-tRNA(i)(Met) binding. Consistently, an eIF2gamma-N135D GTP-binding domain mutation impairs Met-tRNA(i)(Met) binding and causes a Sui(-) phenotype. Intragenic A208V and A382V suppressor mutations restore Met-tRNA(i)(Met) binding affinity and cell growth; however, only A208V suppresses the Sui(-) phenotype associated with the eIF2gamma-N135D mutation. An eIF2gamma-A219T mutation impairs Met-tRNA(i)(Met) binding but unexpectedly enhances the fidelity of initiation, suppressing the Sui(-) phenotype associated with the eIF2gamma-N135D,A382V mutant. Overexpression of eIF1, which is thought to monitor codon-anticodon interactions during translation initiation, likewise suppresses the Sui(-) phenotype of the eIF2gamma mutants. We propose that structural alterations in eIF2gamma subtly alter the conformation of Met-tRNA(i)(Met) on the 40S subunit and thereby affect the fidelity of start codon recognition independent of Met-tRNA(i)(Met) binding affinity.

  7. Rejection of tmRNA·SmpB after GTP hydrolysis by EF-Tu on ribosomes stalled on intact mRNA.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Daisuke; Miller, Mickey R; Muto, Akira; Buskirk, Allen R; Himeno, Hyouta

    2014-11-01

    Messenger RNAs lacking a stop codon trap ribosomes at their 3' ends, depleting the pool of ribosomes available for protein synthesis. In bacteria, a remarkable quality control system rescues and recycles stalled ribosomes in a process known as trans-translation. Acting as a tRNA, transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) is aminoacylated, delivered by EF-Tu to the ribosomal A site, and accepts the nascent polypeptide. Translation then resumes on a reading frame within tmRNA, encoding a short peptide tag that targets the nascent peptide for degradation by proteases. One unsolved issue in trans-translation is how tmRNA and its protein partner SmpB preferentially recognize stalled ribosomes and not actively translating ones. Here, we examine the effect of the length of the 3' extension of mRNA on each step of trans-translation by pre-steady-state kinetic methods and fluorescence polarization binding assays. Unexpectedly, EF-Tu activation and GTP hydrolysis occur rapidly regardless of the length of the mRNA, although the peptidyl transfer to tmRNA decreases as the mRNA 3' extension increases and the tmRNA·SmpB binds less tightly to the ribosome with an mRNA having a long 3' extension. From these results, we conclude that the tmRNA·SmpB complex dissociates during accommodation due to competition between the downstream mRNA and the C-terminal tail for the mRNA channel. Rejection of the tmRNA·SmpB complex during accommodation is reminiscent of the rejection of near-cognate tRNA from the ribosome in canonical translation.

  8. Formation of. beta. ,. gamma. -methylene-7,8-dihydroneopterin 3'-triphosphate from. beta. ,. gamma. -methyleneguanosine 5'-triphosphate by GTP cyclohydrolase I of Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Ferre, J.; Jacobson, K.B.

    1984-01-01

    GTP cyclohydrolase I of Escherichia coli converts (..beta..,..gamma..-methylene)GTP to a fluorescent product that is characterized as (..beta..,..gamma..-methylene)dihydroneopterin triphosphate. Interaction between the GTP analog and the enzyme gave a K/sub i/ of 3.0 ..mu..M, which may be compared to the K/sub m/ of 0.1 ..mu..M for GTP. This new analog of dihydroneopterin triphosphate may, in turn, be converted to the same greenish-yellow pteridines (compounds X, X1, and X2) that are obtained from dihydroneopterin triphosphate. Because of its stability to phosphatase action, this analog may be useful for studies in pteridine metabolism. 14 references, 5 figures.

  9. GTP gamma S causes contraction of skinned frog skeletal muscle via the DHP-sensitive Ca2+ channels of sealed T-tubules.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, B; Tregear, R T; Trentham, D R

    1991-03-01

    We have investigated the involvement of G-proteins in excitation-contraction coupling of fast-twitch skeletal muscle, using a fibre preparation designed to retain intact T-tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. The nonhydrolysable analogue of guanosine triphosphate, GTP gamma S (50-500 microM) caused a strong, transient isometric contraction in this preparation. Reduction of ethylene-bis(oxonitrilo)tetraacete (EGTA) in the sealed T-tubules from 5 mM to 0.1 mM lowered the threshold to GTP gamma S and removal of sodium reversibly raised it. The dihydropyridine (DHP) calcium channel antagonists nicardipine and nifedipine allowed a first contraction and then blocked subsequent GTP gamma S action. The phenylalkylamine methoxyverapamil (D-600) did likewise, reversibly, at 10 degrees C. The guanosine diphosphate analogue, GDP beta S, and procaine reversibly blocked the action of GTP gamma S; pertussis toxin also blocked it. Photolytic release of 40-100 microM GTP gamma S within 0.1 s from S-caged GTP gamma S caused contraction after a latent period of 0.3-20 s. We conclude that GTP gamma S can activate contraction in frog skeletal muscle via a route requiring both the integrity of the T-tubular DHP-sensitive calcium channel (DHPr) and the presence of sodium in the sealed T-tubules. We propose that in this preparation GTP gamma S activates a G-protein, which in turn activates the DHPr as a calcium channel and releases stored calcium from within the sealed T-tubule. Implications of these results for the excitation-contraction coupling mechanism in skeletal muscle are discussed.

  10. Copper(I) and nickel(II) complexes with 1:1 vs. 1:2 coordination of ferrocenyl hydrazone ligands: do the geometry and composition of complexes affect DNA binding/cleavage, protein binding, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities?

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Paramasivam; Sathyadevi, Palanisamy; Butorac, Rachel R; Cowley, Alan H; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai S P; Dharmaraj, Nallasamy

    2012-04-21

    A new series of geometrically different complexes containing ferrocenyl hydrazone ligands were synthesised by reacting suitable precursor complex [MCl(2)(PPh(3))(2)] with the ligands HL(1) or HL(2) (where M = Cu(II) or Ni(II); HL(1) = [Cp(2)Fe(CH=N-NH-CO-C(6)H(5))] (1) and HL(2) = [Cp(2)Fe(CH=N-NH-CO-C(5)H(4)N)]) (2). The new complexes of the composition [Cu(L(1))(PPh(3))(2)], (3) [Cu(L(2))(PPh(3))(2)] (4), [Ni(L(1))(2)] (5) and [Ni(L(2))(2)] (6) were characterised by various spectral studies. Among them, complexes 3 and 5 characterised by single crystal X-ray diffraction showed a distorted tetrahedral structure for the former with 1:1 metal-ligand stoichiometry, but a distorted square planar geometry with 1:2 metal-ligand stoichiometry in the case of the latter. Systematic biological investigations like DNA binding, DNA cleavage, protein binding, free radical scavenging and cytotoxicity activities were carried out using all the synthesised compounds and the results obtained were explained on the basis of structure-activity relationships. The binding constant (K(b)) values of the synthesised compounds are found to be in the order of magnitude 10(3)-10(5) M(-1) and also they exhibit significant cleavage of supercoiled (SC) pUC19 DNA in the presence of H(2)O(2) as co-oxidant. The conformational changes of bovine serum albumin (BSA) upon binding with the above complexes were also studied. In addition, concentration dependent free radical scavenging potential of all the synthesised compounds (1-6) was also carried out under in vitro conditions. Assays on the cytotoxicity of the above complexes against HeLa and A431 tumor cells and NIH 3T3 normal cells were also carried out.

  11. Identification of specific residues of human interleukin 2 that affect binding to the 70-kDa subunit (p70) of the interleukin 2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Collins, L; Tsien, W H; Seals, C; Hakimi, J; Weber, D; Bailon, P; Hoskings, J; Greene, W C; Toome, V; Ju, G

    1988-10-01

    Analogs of interleukin 2 containing defined amino acid substitutions and deletions were assayed for bioactivity and for competitive binding to the high-affinity human interleukin 2 receptor complex and its two component subunits, a 55-kDa subunit (p55 or TAC) and a 70-kDa subunit (p70). Substitution of Asp20 or deletion of Phe124 resulted in inactive analog proteins that were unable to interact with the high-affinity p55/p70 complex or the intermediate-affinity p70 subunit of the interleukin 2 receptor. These analogs, however, retained the capacity to compete for binding to the low-affinity p55 subunit. The presence of the carboxylic acid in the side chain of Asp20 was necessary for effective binding to the p70 protein. In contrast, substitution of Trp121 and Leu17 created analogs that were inactive in the bioassay and all three binding assays. The effects of these mutations on protein conformation were assessed by circular dichroism. These results demonstrate that specific residues in the NH2 and COOH termini of interleukin 2 are crucial for its structure and activity.

  12. Identification of specific residues of human interleukin 2 that affect binding to the 70-kDa subunit (p70) of the interleukin 2 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, L; Tsien, W H; Seals, C; Hakimi, J; Weber, D; Bailon, P; Hoskings, J; Greene, W C; Toome, V; Ju, G

    1988-01-01

    Analogs of interleukin 2 containing defined amino acid substitutions and deletions were assayed for bioactivity and for competitive binding to the high-affinity human interleukin 2 receptor complex and its two component subunits, a 55-kDa subunit (p55 or TAC) and a 70-kDa subunit (p70). Substitution of Asp20 or deletion of Phe124 resulted in inactive analog proteins that were unable to interact with the high-affinity p55/p70 complex or the intermediate-affinity p70 subunit of the interleukin 2 receptor. These analogs, however, retained the capacity to compete for binding to the low-affinity p55 subunit. The presence of the carboxylic acid in the side chain of Asp20 was necessary for effective binding to the p70 protein. In contrast, substitution of Trp121 and Leu17 created analogs that were inactive in the bioassay and all three binding assays. The effects of these mutations on protein conformation were assessed by circular dichroism. These results demonstrate that specific residues in the NH2 and COOH termini of interleukin 2 are crucial for its structure and activity. PMID:3051003

  13. Cloning of the major histocompatibility complex class II promoter binding protein affected in a hereditary defect in class II gene regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Reith, W; Barras, E; Satola, S; Kobr, M; Reinhart, D; Sanchez, C H; Mach, B

    1989-01-01

    The regulation of major histocompatibility complex class II gene expression is directly involved in the control of normal and abnormal immune responses. In humans, HLA-DR, -DQ, and -DP class II heterodimers are encoded by a family of alpha- and beta-chain genes clustered in the major histocompatibility complex. Their expression is developmentally controlled and normally restricted to certain cell types. This control is mediated by cis-acting sequences in class II promoters and by trans-acting regulatory factors. Several nuclear proteins bind to class II promoter sequences. In a form of hereditary immunodeficiency characterized by a defect in a trans-acting regulatory factor controlling class II gene transcription, we have observed that one of these nuclear factors (RF-X) does not bind to its target sequence (the class II X box). A cDNA encoding RF-X was isolated by screening a phage expression library with an X-box binding-site probe. The recombinant protein has the binding specificity of RF-X, including a characteristic gradient of affinity for the X boxes of HLA-DR, -DP, and -DQ promoters. RF-X mRNA is present in the regulatory mutants, indicating a defect in the synthesis of a functional form of the RF-X protein. Images PMID:2498880

  14. How Do Structure and Charge Affect Metal-Complex Binding to DNA? An Upper-Division Integrated Laboratory Project Using Cyclic Voltammetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulczynska, Agnieszka; Johnson, Reed; Frost, Tony; Margerum, Lawrence D.

    2011-01-01

    An advanced undergraduate laboratory project is described that integrates inorganic, analytical, physical, and biochemical techniques to reveal differences in binding between cationic metal complexes and anionic DNA (herring testes). Students were guided to formulate testable hypotheses based on the title question and a list of different metal…

  15. PRESERVING MITOCHONDRIAL FUNCTION PREVENTS THE PROTEASOMAL DEGRADATION OF GTP CYCLOHYDROLASE I

    PubMed Central

    SHARMA, SHRUTI; SUN, XUTONG; KUMAR, SANJIV; RAFIKOV, RUSLAN; ARAMBURO, ANGELA; KALKAN, GOKHAN; TIAN, JING; REHMANI, IMRAN; KALLARACKAL, SUPHIN; FINEMAN, JEFFERY R.; BLACK, STEPHEN M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of pulmonary hypertension is a common accompaniment of congenital heart disease (CHD) with increased pulmonary blood flow. Our recent evidence suggests that asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction causes endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling secondary to a proteasome-dependent degradation of GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCH1) that results in a decrease in the NOS co-factor, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). Decreases in NO signaling are thought to be an early hallmark of endothelial dysfunction. As L-carnitine plays an important role in maintaining mitochondrial function in this study we examined the protective mechanisms and the therapeutic potential of L-carnitine on NO signaling in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAEC) and in a lamb model of CHD and increased pulmonary blood flow (Shunt). Acetyl L-carnitine (ALC) attenuated the ADMA-mediated proteasomal degradation of GCH1. This preservation was associated with a decrease in the association of GCH1 with the Hsp70 and the C-terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) and a decrease in its ubiquitination. This in turn prevented the decrease in BH4 levels induced by ADMA and preserved NO signaling. Treatment of Shunt lambs with L-carnitine also reduced GCH1/CHIP interactions, attenuated the ubiquitination and degradation of GCH1, and increased BH4 levels compared to vehicle treated Shunt lambs. The increases in BH4 were associated with decreased NOS uncoupling and enhanced NO generation. Thus, we conclude that L-carnitine may have a therapeutic potential in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in children with CHD with increased pulmonary blood flow. PMID:22583703

  16. Rap1-GTP-interacting Adaptor Molecule (RIAM) Protein Controls Invasion and Growth of Melanoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Varas, Pablo; Coló, Georgina P.; Bartolomé, Ruben A.; Paterson, Andrew; Medraño-Fernández, Iria; Arellano-Sánchez, Nohemí; Cabañas, Carlos; Sánchez-Mateos, Paloma; Lafuente, Esther M.; Boussiotis, Vassiliki A.; Strömblad, Staffan; Teixidó, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    The Mig-10/RIAM/lamellipodin (MRL) family member Rap1-GTP-interacting adaptor molecule (RIAM) interacts with active Rap1, a small GTPase that is frequently activated in tumors such as melanoma and prostate cancer. We show here that RIAM is expressed in metastatic human melanoma cells and that both RIAM and Rap1 are required for BLM melanoma cell invasion. RIAM silencing in melanoma cells led to inhibition of tumor growth and to delayed metastasis in a severe combined immunodeficiency xenograft model. Defective invasion of RIAM-silenced melanoma cells arose from impairment in persistent cell migration directionality, which was associated with deficient activation of a Vav2-RhoA-ROCK-myosin light chain pathway. Expression of constitutively active Vav2 and RhoA in cells depleted for RIAM partially rescued their invasion, indicating that Vav2 and RhoA mediate RIAM function. These results suggest that inhibition of cell invasion in RIAM-silenced melanoma cells is likely based on altered cell contractility and cell polarization. Furthermore, we show that RIAM depletion reduces β1 integrin-dependent melanoma cell adhesion, which correlates with decreased activation of both Erk1/2 MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, two central molecules controlling cell growth and cell survival. In addition to causing inhibition of cell proliferation, RIAM silencing led to higher susceptibility to cell apoptosis. Together, these data suggest that defective activation of these kinases in RIAM-silenced cells could account for inhibition of melanoma cell growth and that RIAM might contribute to the dissemination of melanoma cells. PMID:21454517

  17. Regulation of Drosophila mesoderm migration by phosphoinositides and the PH domain of the Rho GTP exchange factor Pebble.

    PubMed

    Murray, Michael J; Ng, Michelle M; Fraval, Hamilton; Tan, Julie; Liu, Wenjie; Smallhorn, Masha; Brill, Julie A; Field, Seth J; Saint, Robert

    2012-12-01

    The Drosophila RhoGEF Pebble (Pbl) is required for cytokinesis and migration of mesodermal cells. In a screen for genes that could suppress migration defects in pbl mutants we identified the phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PtdInsP) regulator pi5k59B. Genetic interaction tests with other PtdInsP regulators suggested that PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels are important for mesoderm migration when Pbl is depleted. Consistent with this, the leading front of migrating mesodermal cells was enriched for PtdIns(4,5)P2. Given that Pbl contains a Pleckstrin Homology (PH) domain, a known PtdInsP-binding motif, we examined PtdInsP-binding of Pbl and the importance of the PH domain for Pbl function. In vitro lipid blot assays showed that Pbl binds promiscuously to PtdInsPs, with binding strength associated with the degree of phosphorylation. Pbl was also able to bind lipid vesicles containing PtdIns(4,5)P2 but binding was strongly reduced upon deletion of the PH domain. Similarly, in vivo, loss of the PH domain prevented localisation of Pbl to the cell cortex and severely affected several aspects of early mesoderm development, including flattening of the invaginated tube onto the ectoderm, extension of protrusions, and dorsal migration to form a monolayer. Pbl lacking the PH domain could still localise to the cytokinetic furrow, however, and cytokinesis failure was reduced in pbl(ΔPH) mutants. Taken together, our results support a model in which interaction of the PH-domain of Pbl with PtdIns(4,5)P2 helps localise it to the plasma membrane which is important for mesoderm migration.

  18. Purification and characterization of mRNA cap-binding protein from Drosophila melanogaster embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Maroto, F G; Sierra, J M

    1989-01-01

    A protein with specific affinity for the mRNA cap structure was purified both from the postribosomal supernatant and from the ribosomal high-salt wash of Drosophila melanogaster embryos by m7GTP-Sepharose chromatography. This protein had an apparent molecular mass of 35 kilodaltons (kDa) in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, a size very different from those of the cap-binding proteins that have been characterized thus far. Drosophila 35-kDa cap-binding protein (CBP) could also be isolated from the ribosomal high-salt wash as part of a salt-stable protein complex consisting of polypeptides of 35, 72, and 140 to 180 kDa. Polyclonal antibodies against Drosophila 35-kDa CBP neither reacted with eucaryotic initiation factor 4E from rabbit reticulocytes nor affected mRNA translation in a rabbit reticulocyte cell-free system. However, in a cell-free system from Drosophila embryos, mRNA translation was specifically inhibited by these antibodies. The requirement of 35-kDa CBP for mRNA translation in Drosophila was diminished under ionic conditions in which the importance of mRNA cap structure recognition was reduced. Despite the structural differences between Drosophila 35-kDa CBP and mammalian initiation factor 4E, both proteins were functionally interchangeable in the in vitro translation system from Drosophila embryos. Images PMID:2501660

  19. ATP binding by the P-loop NTPase OsYchF1 (an unconventional G protein) contributes to biotic but not abiotic stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Ming-Yan; Li, Xiaorong; Miao, Rui; Fong, Yu-Hang; Li, Kwan-Pok; Yung, Yuk-Lin; Yu, Mei-Hui; Wong, Kam-Bo; Lam, Hon-Ming

    2016-01-01

    G proteins are involved in almost all aspects of the cellular regulatory pathways through their ability to bind and hydrolyze GTP. The YchF subfamily, interestingly, possesses the unique ability to bind both ATP and GTP, and is possibly an ancestral form of G proteins based on phylogenetic studies and is present in all kingdoms of life. However, the biological significance of such a relaxed ligand specificity has long eluded researchers. Here, we have elucidated the different conformational changes caused by the binding of a YchF homolog in rice (OsYchF1) to ATP versus GTP by X-ray crystallography. Furthermore, by comparing the 3D relationships of the ligand position and the various amino acid residues at the binding sites in the crystal structures of the apo-bound and ligand-bound versions, a mechanism for the protein’s ability to bind both ligands is revealed. Mutation of the noncanonical G4 motif of the OsYchF1 to the canonical sequence for GTP specificity precludes the binding/hydrolysis of ATP and prevents OsYchF1 from functioning as a negative regulator of plant-defense responses, while retaining its ability to bind/hydrolyze GTP and its function as a negative regulator of abiotic stress responses, demonstrating the specific role of ATP-binding/hydrolysis in disease resistance. This discovery will have a significant impact on our understanding of the structure–function relationships of the YchF subfamily of G proteins in all kingdoms of life. PMID:26912459

  20. A Single Amino Acid Change in Turnip Crinkle Virus Movement Protein p8 Affects RNA Binding and Virulence on Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Wobbe, Kristin K.; Akgoz, Muslum; Dempsey, D’Maris Amick; Klessig, Daniel F.

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of the symptoms caused by turnip crinkle virus strain M (TCV-M) and TCV-B infection of a resistant Arabidopsis thaliana line termed Di-17 demonstrates that TCV-B has a greater ability to spread in planta. This ability is due to a single amino acid change in the viral movement protein p8 and inversely correlates with p8 RNA binding affinity. PMID:9621099

  1. The RNA-binding protein quaking maintains endothelial barrier function and affects VE-cadherin and β-catenin protein expression

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, Ruben G.; van der Veer, Eric P.; Prins, Jurriën; Lee, Dae Hyun; Dane, Martijn J. C.; Zhang, Huayu; Roeten, Marko K.; Bijkerk, Roel; de Boer, Hetty C.; Rabelink, Ton J.; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; van Gils, Janine M.

    2016-01-01

    Proper regulation of endothelial cell-cell contacts is essential for physiological functioning of the endothelium. Interendothelial junctions are actively involved in the control of vascular leakage, leukocyte diapedesis, and the initiation and progression of angiogenesis. We found that the RNA-binding protein quaking is highly expressed by endothelial cells, and that its expression was augmented by prolonged culture under laminar flow and the transcription factor KLF2 binding to the promoter. Moreover, we demonstrated that quaking directly binds to the mRNA of VE-cadherin and β-catenin and can induce mRNA translation mediated by the 3′UTR of these genes. Reduced quaking levels attenuated VE-cadherin and β-catenin expression and endothelial barrier function in vitro and resulted in increased bradykinin-induced vascular leakage in vivo. Taken together, we report that quaking is essential in maintaining endothelial barrier function. Our results provide novel insight into the importance of post-transcriptional regulation in controlling vascular integrity. PMID:26905650

  2. The size, shape and specificity of the sugar-binding site of the jacalin-related lectins is profoundly affected by the proteolytic cleavage of the subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Houlès Astoul, Corinne; Peumans, Willy J; van Damme, Els J M; Barre, Annick; Bourne, Yves; Rougé, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Mannose-specific lectins with high sequence similarity to jacalin and the Maclura pomifera agglutinin have been isolated from species belonging to the families Moraceae, Convolvulaceae, Brassicaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae and Musaceae. Although these novel mannose-specific lectins are undoubtedly related to the galactose-specific Moraceae lectins there are several important differences. Apart from the obvious differences in specificity, the mannose- and galactose-specific jacalin-related lectins differ in what concerns their biosynthesis and processing, intracellular location and degree of oligomerization of the protomers. Taking into consideration that the mannose-specific lectins are widely distributed in higher plants, whereas their galactose-specific counterparts are confined to a subgroup of the Moraceae sp. one can reasonably assume that the galactose-specific Moraceae lectins are a small-side group of the main family. The major change that took place in the structure of the binding site of the diverging Moraceae lectins concerns a proteolytic cleavage close to the N-terminus of the protomer. To corroborate the impact of this change, the specificity of jacalin was re-investigated using surface plasmon resonance analysis. This approach revealed that in addition to galactose and N -acetylgalactosamine, the carbohydrate-binding specificity of jacalin extends to mannose, glucose, N -acetylmuramic acid and N -acetylneuraminic acid. Owing to this broad carbohydrate-binding specificity, jacalin is capable of recognizing complex glycans from plant pathogens or predators. PMID:12169094

  3. Arabidopsis acyl-CoA-binding proteins ACBP4 and ACBP5 are subcellularly localized to the cytosol and ACBP4 depletion affects membrane lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shi; Li, Hong-Ye; Zhang, Jiao-Ping; Chan, Suk-Wah; Chye, Mee-Len

    2008-12-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) are encoded by six genes, and they display varying affinities for acyl-CoA esters. Recombinant ACBP4 and ACBP5 have been shown to bind oleoyl-CoA esters in vitro. In this study, the subcellular localizations of ACBP4 and ACBP5 were determined by biochemical fractionation followed by western blot analyses using anti-ACBP4 and anti-ACBP5 antibodies and immuno-electron microscopy. Confocal microscopy of autofluorescence-tagged ACBP4 and ACBP5, expressed transiently in onion epidermal cells and in transgenic Arabidopsis, confirmed their expression in the cytosol. Taken together, ACBP4 and ACBP5 are available in the cytosol to bind and transfer cytosolic oleoyl-CoA esters. Lipid profile analysis further revealed that an acbp4 knockout mutant showed decreases in membrane lipids (digalactosyldiacylglycerol, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol) while acbp4-complemented lines attained levels similar to wild type, suggesting that ACBP4 plays a role in the biosynthesis of membrane lipids including galactolipids and phospholipids.

  4. Neisseria gonorrhoeae MutS Affects Pilin Antigenic Variation through Mismatch Correction and Not by pilE Guanine Quartet Binding

    PubMed Central

    Rotman, Ella

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many pathogens use homologous recombination to vary surface antigens to avoid immune surveillance. Neisseria gonorrhoeae achieves this in part by changing the properties of its surface pili in a process called pilin antigenic variation (AV). Pilin AV occurs by high-frequency gene conversion reactions that transfer silent pilS sequences into the expressed pilE locus and requires the formation of an upstream guanine quartet (G4) DNA structure to initiate this process. The MutS and MutL proteins of the mismatch correction (MMC) system act to correct mismatches after replication and prevent homeologous (i.e., partially homologous) recombination, but MutS orthologs can also bind to G4 structures. A previous study showed that mutation of MutS resulted in a 3-fold increase in pilin AV, which could be due to the loss of MutS antirecombination properties or loss of G4 binding. We tested two site-directed separation-of-function MutS mutants that are both predicted to bind to G4s but are not able to perform MMC. Pilus phase variation assays and DNA sequence analysis of pilE variants produced in these mutants showed that all three mutS mutants and a mutL mutant had similar increased frequencies of pilin AV. Moreover, the mutS mutants all showed similar increased levels of pilin AV-dependent synthetic lethality. These results show that antirecombination by MMC is the reason for the effect that MutS has on pilin AV and is not due to pilE G4 binding by MutS. IMPORTANCE Neisseria gonorrhoeae continually changes its outer surface proteins to avoid recognition by the immune system. N. gonorrhoeae alters the antigenicity of the pilus by directed recombination between partially homologous pilin copies in a process that requires a guanine quartet (G4) structure. The MutS protein of the mismatch correction (MMC) system prevents recombination between partially homologous sequences and can also bind to G4s. We confirmed that loss of MMC increases the frequency of pilin antigenic

  5. Aspartic Acid 397 in Subunit B of the Na+-pumping NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase from Vibrio cholerae Forms Part of a Sodium-binding Site, Is Involved in Cation Selectivity, and Affects Cation-binding Site Cooperativity

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Michael E.; Juárez, Oscar; Cho, Jonathan; Barquera, Blanca

    2013-01-01

    The Na+-pumping NADH:quinone complex is found in Vibrio cholerae and other marine and pathogenic bacteria. NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase oxidizes NADH and reduces ubiquinone, using the free energy released by this reaction to pump sodium ions across the cell membrane. In a previous report, a conserved aspartic acid residue in the NqrB subunit at position 397, located in the cytosolic face of this protein, was proposed to be involved in the capture of sodium. Here, we studied the role of this residue through the characterization of mutant enzymes in which this aspartic acid was substituted by other residues that change charge and size, such as arginine, serine, lysine, glutamic acid, and cysteine. Our results indicate that NqrB-Asp-397 forms part of one of the at least two sodium-binding sites and that both size and charge at this position are critical for the function of the enzyme. Moreover, we demonstrate that this residue is involved in cation selectivity, has a critical role in the communication between sodium-binding sites, by promoting cooperativity, and controls the electron transfer step involved in sodium uptake (2Fe-2S → FMNC). PMID:24030824

  6. Mapping structural landmarks, ligand binding sites, and missense mutations to the collagen IV heterotrimers predicts major functional domains, novel interactions, and variation in phenotypes in inherited diseases affecting basement membranes.

    PubMed

    Parkin, J Des; San Antonio, James D; Pedchenko, Vadim; Hudson, Billy; Jensen, Shane T; Savige, Judy

    2011-02-01

    Collagen IV is the major protein found in basement membranes. It comprises three heterotrimers (α1α1α2, α3α4α5, and α5α5α6) that form distinct networks, and are responsible for membrane strength and integrity.We constructed linear maps of the collagen IV heterotrimers ("interactomes") that indicated major structural landmarks, known and predicted ligand-binding sites, and missense mutations, in order to identify functional and disease-associated domains, potential interactions between ligands, and genotype–phenotype relationships. The maps documented more than 30 known ligand-binding sites as well as motifs for integrins, heparin, von Willebrand factor (VWF), decorin, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). They predicted functional domains for angiogenesis and haemostasis, and disease domains for autoimmunity, tumor growth and inhibition, infection, and glycation. Cooperative ligand interactions were indicated by binding site proximity, for example, between integrins, matrix metalloproteinases, and heparin. The maps indicated that mutations affecting major ligand-binding sites, for example, for Von Hippel Lindau (VHL) protein in the α1 chain or integrins in the α5 chain, resulted in distinctive phenotypes (Hereditary Angiopathy, Nephropathy, Aneurysms, and muscle Cramps [HANAC] syndrome, and early-onset Alport syndrome, respectively). These maps further our understanding of basement membrane biology and disease, and suggest novel membrane interactions, functions, and therapeutic targets.

  7. Salicylic acid binding of mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase E2 affects mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport chain components and plays a role in basal defense against tobacco mosaic virus in tomato.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yangwenke; Tian, Miaoying; Zhang, Huan; Li, Xin; Wang, Yu; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Jie; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai; Klessig, Daniel F

    2015-02-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in plant defense against pathogen invasion. SA-induced viral defense in plants is distinct from the pathways mediating bacterial and fungal defense and involves a specific pathway mediated by mitochondria; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. The SA-binding activity of the recombinant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (Slα-kGDH) E2 subunit of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was characterized. The biological role of this binding in plant defenses against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was further investigated via Slα-kGDH E2 silencing and transient overexpression in plants. Slα-kGDH E2 was found to bind SA in two independent assays. SA treatment, as well as Slα-kGDH E2 silencing, increased resistance to TMV. SA did not further enhance TMV defense in Slα-kGDH E2-silenced tomato plants but did reduce TMV susceptibility in Nicotiana benthamiana plants transiently overexpressing Slα-kGDH E2. Furthermore, Slα-kGDH E2-silencing-induced TMV resistance was fully blocked by bongkrekic acid application and alternative oxidase 1a silencing. These results indicated that binding by Slα-kGDH E2 of SA acts upstream of and affects the mitochondrial electron transport chain, which plays an important role in basal defense against TMV. The findings of this study help to elucidate the mechanisms of SA-induced viral defense.

  8. Characterization of binding sites for /sup 3/H-spiroperidol in human retina

    SciTech Connect

    McGonigle, P.; Wax, M.B.; Molinoff, P.B.

    1988-05-01

    Binding sites for the D-2-selective antagonist (/sup 3/H)-spiroperidol were characterized in human retina. Nonspecific binding, measured in the presence of 2 microM (+)-butaclamol, made up 20% of total binding. Scatchard analysis of the binding of (/sup 3/H)-spiroperidol resulted in linear plots and yielded a Kd value of 87 pM and a Bmax value of 1500 fmol/mg protein. In studies of the inhibition of the binding of (/sup 3/H)-spiroperidol, (+)-butaclamol was approximately 1000-fold more potent than the (-)-stereoisomer. The inhibition curve for dopamine was shifted to the right and the Hill coefficient was increased by the addition of 300 microM GTP. This effect was agonist-specific and suggests that some of the receptors are coupled to stimulation or inhibition of the enzyme adenylate cyclase. The inhibition curves for most of the antagonists had Hill coefficients between 0.6 and 0.8. Hill coefficients were also consistently less than 1.0 for agonists even in the presence of GTP. Nonlinear regression analysis of untransformed data revealed that these shallow inhibition curves were best explained by the presence of two populations of binding sites, 40% of the sites having a high affinity for dopamine in the presence of GTP and domperidone and the remaining 60% having a lower affinity for these ligands. The larger population of sites had a higher affinity for sulpiride, fluphenazine, and N-propylnorapomorphine in the presence of GTP. The possibility that either of these classes of sites consisted of serotonin receptors was ruled out by the finding that the 5-HT2 antagonist ketanserin had a low affinity for both classes of sites.

  9. Characterization of binding sites for 3H-spiroperidol in human retina.

    PubMed

    McGonigle, P; Wax, M B; Molinoff, P B

    1988-05-01

    Binding sites for the D-2-selective antagonist (3H)-spiroperidol were characterized in human retina. Nonspecific binding, measured in the presence of 2 microM (+)-butaclamol, made up 20% of total binding. Scatchard analysis of the binding of (3H)-spiroperidol resulted in linear plots and yielded a Kd value of 87 pM and a Bmax value of 1500 fmol/mg protein. In studies of the inhibition of the binding of (3H)-spiroperidol, (+)-butaclamol was approximately 1000-fold more potent than the (-)-stereoisomer. The inhibition curve for dopamine was shifted to the right and the Hill coefficient was increased by the addition of 300 microM GTP. This effect was agonist-specific and suggests that some of the receptors are coupled to stimulation or inhibition of the enzyme adenylate cyclase. The inhibition curves for most of the antagonists had Hill coefficients between 0.6 and 0.8. Hill coefficients were also consistently less than 1.0 for agonists even in the presence of GTP. Nonlinear regression analysis of untransformed data revealed that these shallow inhibition curves were best explained by the presence of two populations of binding sites, 40% of the sites having a high affinity for dopamine in the presence of GTP and domperidone and the remaining 60% having a lower affinity for these ligands. The larger population of sites had a higher affinity for sulpiride, fluphenazine, and N-propylnorapomorphine in the presence of GTP. The possibility that either of these classes of sites consisted of serotonin receptors was ruled out by the finding that the 5-HT2 antagonist ketanserin had a low affinity for both classes of sites.

  10. Potassium Acts as a GTPase-Activating Element on Each Nucleotide-Binding Domain of the Essential Bacillus subtilis EngA

    PubMed Central

    Foucher, Anne-Emmanuelle; Reiser, Jean-Baptiste; Ebel, Christine; Housset, Dominique; Jault, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    EngA proteins form a unique family of bacterial GTPases with two GTP-binding domains in tandem, namely GD1 and GD2, followed by a KH (K-homology) domain. They have been shown to interact with the bacterial ribosome and to be involved in its biogenesis. Most prokaryotic EngA possess a high GTPase activity in contrast to eukaryotic GTPases that act mainly as molecular switches. Here, we have purified and characterized the GTPase activity of the Bacillus subtilis EngA and two shortened EngA variants that only contain GD1 or GD2-KH. Interestingly, the GTPase activity of GD1 alone is similar to that of the whole EngA, whereas GD2-KH has a 150-fold lower GTPase activity. At physiological concentration, potassium strongly stimulates the GTPase activity of each protein construct. Interestingly, it affects neither the affinities for nucleotides nor the monomeric status of EngA or the GD1 domain. Thus, potassium likely acts as a chemical GTPase-activating element as proposed for another bacterial GTPase like MnmE. However, unlike MnmE, potassium does not promote dimerization of EngA. In addition, we solved two crystal structures of full-length EngA. One of them contained for the first time a GTP-like analogue bound to GD2 while GD1 was free. Surprisingly, its overall fold was similar to a previously solved structure with GDP bound to both sites. Our data indicate that a significant structural change must occur upon K+ binding to GD2, and a comparison with T. maritima EngA and MnmE structures allowed us to propose a model explaining the chemical basis for the different GTPase activities of GD1 and GD2. PMID:23056455

  11. The Era GTPase recognizes the GAUCACCUCC sequence and binds helix 45 near the 3; end of 16S rRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Chao; Zhou, Xiaomei; Tarasov, Sergey G.; Tropea, Joseph E.; Austin, Brian P.; Waugh, David S.; Court, Donald L.; Ji, Xinhua

    2012-03-26

    Era, composed of a GTPase domain and a K homology domain, is essential for bacterial cell viability. It is required for the maturation of 16S rRNA and assembly of the 30S ribosomal subunit. We showed previously that the protein recognizes nine nucleotides (1531{sup AUCACCUCC}1539) near the 3{prime} end of 16S rRNA, and that this recognition stimulates GTP-hydrolyzing activity of Era. In all three kingdoms of life, the 1530{sup GAUCA}1534 sequence and helix 45 (h45) (nucleotides 1506-1529) are highly conserved. It has been shown that the 1530{sup GA}1531 to 1530{sup AG}1531 double mutation severely affects the viability of bacteria. However, whether Era interacts with G1530 and/or h45 and whether such interactions (if any) contribute to the stimulation of Era's GTPase activity were not known. Here, we report two RNA structures that contain nucleotides 1506-1542 (RNA301), one in complex with Era and GDPNP (GNP), a nonhydrolysable GTP-analogue, and the other in complex with Era, GNP, and the KsgA methyltransferase. The structures show that Era recognizes 10 nucleotides, including G1530, and that Era also binds h45. Moreover, GTPase assay experiments show that G1530 does not stimulate Era's GTPase activity. Rather, A1531 and A1534 are most important for stimulation and h45 further contributes to the stimulation. Although G1530 does not contribute to the intrinsic GTPase activity of Era, its interaction with Era is important for binding and is essential for the protein to function, leading to the discovery of a new cold-sensitive phenotype of Era.

  12. Opioid binding sites in the guinea pig and rat kidney: Radioligand homogenate binding and autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Dissanayake, V.U.; Hughes, J.; Hunter, J.C. )

    1991-07-01

    The specific binding of the selective {mu}-, {delta}-, and {kappa}-opioid ligands (3H)(D-Ala2,MePhe4,Gly-ol5)enkephalin ((3H) DAGOL), (3H)(D-Pen2,D-Pen5)enkephalin ((3H)DPDPE), and (3H)U69593, respectively, to crude membranes of the guinea pig and rat whole kidney, kidney cortex, and kidney medulla was investigated. In addition, the distribution of specific 3H-opioid binding sites in the guinea pig and rat kidney was visualized by autoradiography. Homogenate binding and autoradiography demonstrated the absence of {mu}- and {kappa}-opioid binding sites in the guinea pig kidney. No opioid binding sites were demonstrable in the rat kidney. In the guinea pig whole kidney, cortex, and medulla, saturation studies demonstrated that (3H)DPDPE bound with high affinity (KD = 2.6-3.5 nM) to an apparently homogeneous population of binding sites (Bmax = 8.4-30 fmol/mg of protein). Competition studies using several opioid compounds confirmed the nature of the {delta}-opioid binding site. Autoradiography experiments demonstrated that specific (3H)DPDPE binding sites were distributed radially in regions of the inner and outer medulla and at the corticomedullary junction of the guinea pig kidney. Computer-assisted image analysis of saturation data yielded KD values (4.5-5.0 nM) that were in good agreement with those obtained from the homogenate binding studies. Further investigation of the {delta}-opioid binding site in medulla homogenates, using agonist ((3H)DPDPE) and antagonist ((3H)diprenorphine) binding in the presence of Na+, Mg2+, and nucleotides, suggested that the {delta}-opioid site is linked to a second messenger system via a GTP-binding protein. Further studies are required to establish the precise localization of the {delta} binding site in the guinea pig kidney and to determine the nature of the second messenger linked to the GTP-binding protein in the medulla.

  13. Ras and GTPase-activating protein (GAP) drive GTP into a precatalytic state as revealed by combining FTIR and biomolecular simulations.

    PubMed

    Rudack, Till; Xia, Fei; Schlitter, Jürgen; Kötting, Carsten; Gerwert, Klaus

    2012-09-18

    Members of the Ras superfamily regulate many cellular processes. They are down-regulated by a GTPase reaction in which GTP is cleaved into GDP and P(i) by nucleophilic attack of a water molecule. Ras proteins accelerate GTP hydrolysis by a factor of 10(5) compared to GTP in water. GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) accelerate hydrolysis by another factor of 10(5) compared to Ras alone. Oncogenic mutations in Ras and GAPs slow GTP hydrolysis and are a factor in many cancers. Here, we elucidate in detail how this remarkable catalysis is brought about. We refined the protein-bound GTP structure and protein-induced charge shifts within GTP beyond the current resolution of X-ray structural models by combining quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics simulations with time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The simulations were validated by comparing experimental and theoretical IR difference spectra. The reactant structure of GTP is destabilized by Ras via a conformational change from a staggered to an eclipsed position of the nonbridging oxygen atoms of the γ- relative to the β-phosphates and the further rotation of the nonbridging oxygen atoms of α- relative to the β- and γ-phosphates by GAP. Further, the γ-phosphate becomes more positive although two of its oxygen atoms remain negative. This facilitates the nucleophilic attack by the water oxygen at the phosphate and proton transfer to the oxygen. Detailed changes in geometry and charge distribution in the ligand below the resolution of X-ray structure analysis are important for catalysis. Such high resolution appears crucial for the understanding of enzyme catalysis.

  14. Irreversible stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity of fat cell membranes of phosphoramidate and phosphonate analogs of GTP.

    PubMed

    Cuatrecasas, P; Bennett, V; Jacobs, S

    1975-01-01

    The ability of 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) to stimulate irreversibly the adenylate cyclease activity of fat cell membranes has been studied by preincubating the membranes with this or related analogs followed by assaying after thoroughly washing the membranes. Activation can occur in a simple Tris-HCl buffer, in the absence of added divalent cations and in the presence of EDTA. Dithiothreitol enhances the apparent degree of activation, perhaps by stabilization. The importance of utilizing optimal conditions for stabilizing enzyme activity, and of measuring the simultaneous changes in the control enzyme, is illustrated. The organomercurial, p-aminophenylmercuric acetate, inhibits profoundly the activity of the native as well as the Gpp(NH)p-stimulated adenylate cyclase, but in both cases subsequent exposure to dithiothreitol restores fully the original enzyme activity. However, the mercurial-inactivated enzyme does not react with Gpp(NP)p, as evidenced by the subsequent restoration of only the control enzyme activity upon exposure to dithiothreitol. Thus, reaction with Gpp(NH)p requires intact sulfhydryl groups, but the activated state is not irreversibly destroyed by the inactivation caused by sulfhydryl blockade. GTP and, less effectively, GDP and ATP inhibit activation by Gpp(NH)p, but interpretations are complicated by the facts that this inhibition is overcome with time and that GTP and ATP can protect potently from spontaneous inactivation. These two nucleotides can be used in the Gpp(NH)p preincubation to stabilize the enzyme. The Gpp(NH)p-activated enzyme cannot be reversed spontaneously during prolonged incubation at 30 degrees C in the absence or presence of GTP, ATP, MgCl2, glycine, dithiothreitol, NaF or EDTA. The strong nucleophile, neutral hydroxylamine, decreases the Gpp(NH)p-activated enzyme activity and no subsequent activation is detected upon re-exposure to the nucleotide.

  15. An Arabidopsis Ran-binding protein, AtRanBP1c, is a co-activator of Ran GTPase-activating protein and requires the C-terminus for its cytoplasmic localization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Soo-Hwan; Roux, Stanley J.

    2003-01-01

    Ran-binding proteins (RanBPs) are a group of proteins that bind to Ran (Ras-related nuclear small GTP-binding protein), and thus either control the GTP/GDP-bound states of Ran or help couple the Ran GTPase cycle to a cellular process. AtRanBP1c is a Ran-binding protein from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. that was recently shown to be critically involved in the regulation of auxin-induced mitotic progression [S.-H. Kim et al. (2001) Plant Cell 13:2619-2630]. Here we report that AtRanBP1c inhibits the EDTA-induced release of GTP from Ran and serves as a co-activator of Ran-GTPase-activating protein (RanGAP) in vitro. Transient expression of AtRanBP1c fused to a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter reveals that the protein localizes primarily to the cytosol. Neither the N- nor C-terminus of AtRanBP1c, which flank the Ran-binding domain (RanBD), is necessary for the binding of PsRan1-GTP to the protein, but both are needed for the cytosolic localization of GUS-fused AtRanBP1c. These findings, together with a previous report that AtRanBP1c is critically involved in root growth and development, imply that the promotion of GTP hydrolysis by the Ran/RanGAP/AtRanBP1c complex in the cytoplasm, and the resulting concentration gradient of Ran-GDP to Ran-GTP across the nuclear membrane could be important in the regulation of auxin-induced mitotic progression in root tips of A. thaliana.

  16. A mutation in the Arabidopsis HYL1 gene encoding a dsRNA binding protein affects responses to abscisic acid, auxin, and cytokinin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, C.; Fedoroff, N.

    2000-01-01

    Both physiological and genetic evidence indicate interconnections among plant responses to different hormones. We describe a pleiotropic recessive Arabidopsis transposon insertion mutation, designated hyponastic leaves (hyl1), that alters the plant's responses to several hormones. The mutant is characterized by shorter stature, delayed flowering, leaf hyponasty, reduced fertility, decreased rate of root growth, and an altered root gravitropic response. It also exhibits less sensitivity to auxin and cytokinin and hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). The auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid normalizes the mutant phenotype somewhat, whereas another auxin transport inhibitor, N-(1-naph-thyl)phthalamic acid, exacerbates the phenotype. The gene, designated HYL1, encodes a 419-amino acid protein that contains two double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding motifs, a nuclear localization motif, and a C-terminal repeat structure suggestive of a protein-protein interaction domain. We present evidence that the HYL1 gene is ABA-regulated and encodes a nuclear dsRNA binding protein. We hypothesize that the HYL1 protein is a regulatory protein functioning at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level.

  17. Differential methylation status of IGF2-H19 locus does not affect the fertility of crossbred bulls but some of the CTCF binding sites could be potentially important.

    PubMed

    Jena, Subas C; Kumar, Sandeep; Rajput, Sandeep; Roy, Bhaskar; Verma, Arpana; Kumaresan, Arumugam; Mohanty, Tushar K; De, Sachinandan; Kumar, Rakesh; Datta, Tirtha K

    2014-04-01

    Associations between abnormal methylation of spermatozoan DNA with male infertility have been sought in recent years to identify a molecular explanation of differential spermatozoan function. The present work was undertaken to investigate the methylation profile of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in the IGF2-H19 locus of Bos taurus X Bos indicus crossbred bull spermatozoa. Bulls having more than at least 100 insemination records over a period of 12 years were classified into two groups of five bulls each belonging to low- and high-fertility groups. The IGF2 and H19 DMR sequences in B. indicus cattle were observed to be in absolute homology with B. taurus cattle. The DNA of crossbred bull spermatozoa was isolated, bisulfite treated, and amplified for specific DMR regions using methylation-change-specific primers. The overall degree of methylation at IGF2-H19 DMRs was not found to be significantly different among two groups of bulls. The sixth CTCF binding site (CCCTC) identified in H19 DMR, however, had a significant methylation difference between the high- and low-fertility bulls. It was concluded that alteration of the methylation levels at IGF2-H19 DMRs might not be responsible for the fertility difference of crossbred bulls, although the role played by the specific CTCF binding sites at this locus, which could influence IGF2 expression during spermatogenesis and early embryonic development, deserves further attention.

  18. Brain transplantation of human neural stem cells transduced with tyrosine hydroxylase and GTP cyclohydrolase 1 provides functional improvement in animal models of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung U; Park, In H; Kim, Tae H; Kim, Kwang S; Choi, Hyun B; Hong, Seok H; Bang, Jung H; Lee, Myung A; Joo, In S; Lee, Chong S; Kim, Yong S

    2006-04-01

    Parkinson disease is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons resulting in movement disorder. Neural stem cells (NSC) of the CNS have recently aroused a great deal of interest, not only because of their importance in basic research of neural development, but also for their therapeutic potential in neurological disorders. We have recently generated an immortalized human NSC cell line, HB1.F3, via retrovirus-mediated v-myc transfer. This line is capable of self-renewal, is multipotent, and expresses cell specific markers for NSC, ATP-binding cassettes transporter (ABCG2) and nestin. Next, we co-transduced the F3 NSC line with genes encoding tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1) in order to generate dopamine-producing NSC. The F3.TH.GTPCH human NSC line expresses TH and GTPCH phenotypes as determined by RT-PCR, western blotting and immunocytochemistry, and shows a 800 to 2000-fold increase in production of L-dihydroxyphenyl alanine in HPLC analysis. A marked improvement in amphetamine-induced turning behavior was observed in parkinsonian rats implanted with F3.TH.GTPCH cells, but not in control rats receiving F3 NSC. In the animals showing functional improvement, a large number of TH-positive F3.TH.GTPCH NSC were found at injection sites. These results indicate that human NSC, genetically transduced with TH and GTPCH1 genes, have great potential in clinical utility for cell replacement therapy in patients suffering from Parkinson disease.

  19. Rapid kinetics of 2-adrenergic agonist binding and inhibition of adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Thomsen, W.; Neubig, R.R.

    1987-05-01

    Activation of 2-adrenergic receptors in human platelets results in inhibition of adenylate cyclase (AC). To elucidate the relation between agonist binding and response, the authors have used a novel rapid-mix quench method to compare the kinetics of binding and response. At functionally effective concentrations, the time course of binding of the full 2-agonist, (TH)UK14,304 (UK), to purified platelet membranes was faster than could be measured manually. Using the rapid-mix quench method, agonist binding was quantitated for times for 0.3 to 60 seconds. UK binding exhibited biexponential kinetics. The rate constant of the fast binding component increases linearly with agonist concentration from 1 to 100 nM with a second order rate constant and 7 x 10WM s (at 25C). The slow rate constant was nearly independent of agonist concentration. The half times of the fast and slow components of binding for 100 nM UK are 1.5 seconds and approximately 2 minutes respectively. The rate and magnitude of the fast binding was unaffected by 10 M GTP whereas the magnitude of the slow phase was markedly reduced. Inhibition of forskolin stimulated AC by 100 M epinephrine occurs with a lag of 5-10 seconds in the presence of 10 M GTP. At lower GTP concentrations, this lag is prolonged. The observation that the fast component of agonist binding precedes inhibition even at agonist concentrations 20-fold lower than the EC40 for responses indicates that the rate limiting step in inhibition of AC is distal to the binding of agonist.

  20. Alpha-hederin, but not hederacoside C and hederagenin from Hedera helix, affects the binding behavior, dynamics, and regulation of beta 2-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Sieben, Anne; Prenner, Lars; Sorkalla, Thomas; Wolf, Anne; Jakobs, Daniel; Runkel, Frank; Häberlein, Hanns

    2009-04-21

    Hederacoside C, alpha-hederin, and hederagenin are saponins of dry extracts obtained from the leaves of ivy (Hedera helix L.). Internalization of beta(2)-adrenergic receptor-GFP fusion proteins after stimulation with 1 microM terbutaline was inhibited by preincubation of stably transfected HEK293 cells with 1 microM alpha-hederin for 24 h, whereas neither hederacoside C nor hederagenin (1 microM each) influenced this receptor regulation. After incubation of A549 cells with 5 nM Alexa532-NA, two different diffusion time constants were found for beta(2)AR-Alexa532-NA complexes by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Evaluation of the autocorrelation curve revealed diffusion time constants: tau(bound1) = 1.4 +/- 1.1 ms (n = 6) found for receptor-ligand complexes with unrestricted lateral mobility, and tau(bound2) = 34.7 +/- 14.1 ms (n = 6) for receptor-ligand complexes with hindered mobility. The distribution of diffusion time constants was 24.3 +/- 2.5% for tau(bound1) and 8.7 +/- 4.3% for tau(bound2) (n = 6). A549 cells pretreated with 1 microM alpha-hederin for 24 h showed dose-dependent alterations in this distribution with 37.1 +/- 5.5% for tau(bound1) and 4.1 +/- 1.1% for tau(bound2). Simultaneously, the level of Alexa532-NA binding was significantly increased from 33.0 +/- 6.8 to 41.2 +/- 4.6%. In saturation experiments, alpha-hederin did not influence the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor density (B(max)), whereas the K(D) value for Alexa532-NA binding decreased from 36.1 +/- 9.2 to 24.3 +/- 11.1 nM. Pretreatment of HASM cells with alpha-hederin (1 microM, 24 h) revealed an increased intracellular cAMP level of 13.5 +/- 7.0% under stimulating conditions. Remarkably, structure-related saponins like hederacoside C and hederagenin did not influence either the binding behavior of beta(2)AR or the intracellular cAMP level.

  1. [Mg2+ ions affect the structure of the central domain of the 18S rRNA in the vicinity of the ribosomal protein S13 binding site].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A V; Malygin, A A; Karpova, G G

    2013-01-01

    It is known that Mg2+ ions at high concentrations stabilize the structure of the 16S rRNA in a conformation favorable for binding to the ribosomal proteins in the course of the eubacterial 30S ribosomal subunits assembly in vitro. Effect of Mg2+ on the formation of the 18S rRNA structure at the 40S subunit assembly remains poorly explored. In this paper, we show that the sequentional increase of the Mg2+ concentration from 0.5 mM to 20 mM leads to a significant decrease of the affinity of recombinant human ribosomal protein S13 (rpS13e) to a RNA transcript corresponding to the central domain fragment of the 18S rRNA (18SCD). The regions near the rpS13e binding site in 18SCD (including the nucleotides of helices H20 and H22), whose availabilities to hydroxyl radicals were dependent on the Mg2+ concentration, were determined. It was found that increase of the concentrations of Mg2+ results in the enhanced accessibilities of nucleotides G933-C937 and C1006-A1009 in helix H22 and reduces those of nucleotides A1023, A1024, and A1028-S1026 in the helix H20. Comparison of the results obtained with the crystallographic data on the structure of the central domain of 18S rRNA in the 40S ribosomal subunit led to conclusion that increase of Mg2+ concentrations results in the reorientation of helices H20 and H24 relatively helices H22 and H23 to form a structure, in which these helices are positioned the same way as in 40S subunits. Hence, saturation of the central domain of 18S rRNA with coordinated Mg2+ ions causes the same changes in its structure as rpS13e binding does, and leads to decreasing of this domain affinity to the protein.

  2. NDK Interacts with FtsZ and Converts GDP to GTP to Trigger FtsZ Polymerisation - A Novel Role for NDK

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Saurabh; Jakkala, Kishor; Srinivasan, Ramanujam; Arumugam, Muthu; Ranjeri, Raghavendra; Gupta, Prabuddha; Rajeswari, Haryadi; Ajitkumar, Parthasarathi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), conserved across bacteria to humans, synthesises NTP from NDP and ATP. The eukaryotic homologue, the NDPK, uses ATP to phosphorylate the tubulin-bound GDP to GTP for tubulin polymerisation. The bacterial cytokinetic protein FtsZ, which is the tubulin homologue, also uses GTP for polymerisation. Therefore, we examined whether NDK can interact with FtsZ to convert FtsZ-bound GDP and/or free GDP to GTP to trigger FtsZ polymerisation. Methods Recombinant and native NDK and FtsZ proteins of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used as the experimental samples. FtsZ polymersation was monitored using 90° light scattering and FtsZ polymer pelleting assays. The γ32P-GTP synthesised by NDK from GDP and γ32P-ATP was detected using thin layer chromatography and quantitated using phosphorimager. The FtsZ bound 32P-GTP was quantitated using phosphorimager, after UV-crosslinking, followed by SDS-PAGE. The NDK-FtsZ interaction was determined using Ni2+-NTA-pulldown assay and co-immunoprecipitation of the recombinant and native proteins in vitro and ex vivo, respectively. Results NDK triggered instantaneous polymerisation of GDP-precharged recombinant FtsZ in the presence of ATP, similar to the polymerisation of recombinant FtsZ (not GDP-precharged) upon the direct addition of GTP. Similarly, NDK triggered polymerisation of recombinant FtsZ (not GDP-precharged) in the presence of free GDP and ATP as well. Mutant NDK, partially deficient in GTP synthesis from ATP and GDP, triggered low level of polymerisation of MsFtsZ, but not of MtFtsZ. As characteristic of NDK’s NTP substrate non-specificity, it used CTP, TTP, and UTP also to convert GDP to GTP, to trigger FtsZ polymerisation. The NDK of one mycobacterial species could trigger the polymerisation of the FtsZ of another mycobacterial species. Both the recombinant and the native NDK and FtsZ showed interaction with each other in vitro and ex vivo, alluding

  3. RNA-binding protein Hermes/RBPMS inversely affects synapse density and axon arbor formation in retinal ganglion cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hörnberg, Hanna; Horck, Francis Wollerton-van; Maurus, Daniel; Zwart, Maarten; Svoboda, Hanno; Harris, William A.; Holt, Christine E.

    2015-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein, Hermes (RBPMS), is expressed exclusively in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the CNS, but its function in these cells is not known. Here we show that Hermes protein translocates in granules from RGC bodies down the growing axons. Hermes loss-of-function in both Xenopus laevis and zebrafish embryos leads to a significant reduction in retinal axon arbor complexity in the optic tectum, and expression of a dominant acting mutant Hermes protein, defective in RNA-granule localisation, causes similar defects in arborisation. Time-lapse analysis of branch dynamics reveals that the decrease in arbor complexity is caused by a reduction in new branches rather than a decrease in branch stability. Surprisingly, Hermes depletion also leads to enhanced early visual behaviour and an increase in the density of pre-synaptic puncta suggesting that reduced arborisation is accompanied by increased synaptogenesis to maintain synapse number. PMID:23785151

  4. EGFR kinase possesses a broad specificity for ErbB phosphorylation sites, and ligand increases catalytic-centre activity without affecting substrate binding affinity

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    We previously found that EGF (epidermal growth factor) increases the EGFR (EGF receptor) kinase-binding affinity towards the major tyrosine phosphorylation sites in downstream adaptor proteins such as Gab1 (Grb2-associated binding protein 1) and Shc [Src homology 2 (SH2) domain and collagen containing protein], but not that towards EGFR autophosphorylation sites [Fan, Wong, Deb and Johnson (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 38143–38150]. EGFR activation can also result in transphosphorylation of tyrosine resides in the C-terminal region of the related receptors ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4 in heterodimers which are formed upon ligand stimulation. In the present study, we investigated the specificity of EGFR kinase by comparing the steady state kinetic parameters for peptides derived from all four ErbBs in the absence or presence of EGF. Our results demonstrated that (i) EGFR kinase can efficiently phosphorylate a broad range of diverse peptide sequences representing ErbB sites; (ii) certain ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4 sites had higher specificity constants than any EGFR sequence and (iii) EGF stimulation consistently increases the kcat approx. 5-fold, but does not significantly alter the Km for any ErbB peptides. Furthermore, peptides containing lysine at position −2 or −3 N-terminal to the target tyrosine were found to be poor EGFR kinase substrates, and substitution of these lysines with glutamine decreased the Km and increased the kcat for these substrates. We conclude that EGFR kinase-mediated ErbB transphosphorylations are mostly controlled at the level of oligomerization, and not by a preference of the EGFR kinase for phosphorylation sites in any particular ErbB. The results also demonstrated that, unlike phosphorylation sites in select downstream targets, EGF does not regulate the recognition of phosphorylation sites in the C-terminal region of any of the ErbBs. PMID:16122376

  5. Dynamic mechanisms for pre-miRNA binding and export by Exportin-5.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Xu, Xue; Ma, Zhi; Huo, Yingqiu; Xiao, Zhengtao; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua

    2011-08-01

    The biogenesis and function of mature microRNAs (miRNAs) is dependent on the nuclear export of miRNA precursors (pre-miRNA) by Exportin-5 (Exp5). To characterize the molecular mechanisms of how pre-miRNA is recognized and transported by Exp5, we have performed 21 molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of RNA-bound Exp5 (Exp5-RanGTP-premiRNA, Exp5-RanGDP-premiRNA, Exp5-premiRNA), RNA-unbound Exp5 (Exp5-RanGTP, Exp5-RanGDP, apo-Exp5), and pre-miRNA. Our simulations with standard MD, steered molecular dynamics (SMD), and energy analysis have shown that (1) Free Exp5 undergoes extensive opening motion, and in this way facilitates the RanGTP binding. (2) RanGTP efficiently regulates the association/dissociation of pre-miRNA to its complex by inducing conformational changes in the HEAT-repeat helix stacking of Exp5. (3) The GTP hydrolysis prevents Ran from rebinding to Exp5 by regulating the hydrophobic interfaces and salt bridges between Ran and Exp5. (4) The transition from the A'-form to the A-form of the pre-miRNA modulates the structural complementarities between the protein and the pre-miRNA, thus promoting efficient assembly of the complex. (5) The base-flipping process (from the closed to the fully flipped state) of the 2-nt 3' overhang is a prerequisite for the pre-miRNA recognition by Exp5, which occurs in a sequence-independent manner as evidenced by the fact that different 2-nt 3' overhangs bind to Exp5 in essentially the same way. And finally, a plausible mechanism of the pre-miRNA export cycle has been proposed explaining how the protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions are coordinated in physiological conditions.

  6. Hepatitis B virus HBx protein activates Ras-GTP complex formation and establishes a Ras, Raf, MAP kinase signaling cascade.

    PubMed Central

    Benn, J; Schneider, R J

    1994-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus produces a small (154-amino acid) transcriptional transactivating protein, HBx, which is required for viral infection and has been implicated in virus-mediated liver oncogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism for HBx activity and its possible influence on cell proliferation have remained obscure. A number of studies suggest that HBx may stimulate transcription by indirectly activating transcription factors, possibly by influencing cell signaling pathways. We now present biochemical evidence that HBx activates Ras and rapidly induces a cytoplasmic signaling cascade linking Ras, Raf, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase), leading to transcriptional transactivation. HBx strongly elevates levels of GTP-bound Ras, activated and phosphorylated Raf, and tyrosine-phosphorylated and activated MAP kinase. Transactivation of transcription factor AP-1 by HBx is blocked by inhibition of Ras or Raf activities but not by inhibition of Ca(2+)- and diacylglycerol-dependent protein kinase C. HBx was also found to stimulate DNA synthesis in serum-starved cells. The hepatitis B virus HBx protein therefore stimulates Ras-GTP complex formation and promotes downstream signaling through Raf and MAP kinases, and may influence cell proliferation. Images PMID:7937954

  7. Amylase-binding proteins A (AbpA) and B (AbpB) differentially affect colonization of rats' teeth by Streptococcus gordonii.

    PubMed

    Tanzer, J M; Grant, L; Thompson, A; Li, L; Rogers, J D; Haase, E M; Scannapieco, F A

    2003-09-01

    Streptococcus gordonii produces two alpha-amylase-binding proteins, AbpA and AbpB, that have been extensively studied in vitro. Little is known, however, about their significance in oral colonization and cariogenicity (virulence). To clarify these issues, weanling specific pathogen-free Osborne-Mendel rats, TAN : SPFOM(OM)BR, were inoculated either with wild-type strains FAS4-S or Challis-S or with strains having isogenic mutations of abpA, abpB, or both, to compare their colonization abilities and persistence on the teeth. Experiments were done with rats fed a sucrose-rich diet containing low amounts of starch or containing only starch. The mutants and wild-types were quantified in vivo and carious lesions were scored. In 11 experiments, S. gordonii was a prolific colonizer of the teeth when rats were fed the sucrose (with low starch)-supplemented diet, often dominating the flora. Sucrose-fed rats had several-fold higher recoveries of inoculants than those eating the sucrose-free, starch-supplemented diet, regardless of inoculant type. The strain defective in AbpB could not colonize teeth of starch-only-eating rats, but could colonize rats if sucrose was added to the diet. Strains defective in AbpA surprisingly colonized better than their wild-types. A double mutant deficient in both AbpA and AbpB (abpA/abpB) colonized like its wild-type. Wild-types FAS4-S and Challis-S had no more than marginal cariogenicity. Notably, in the absence of AbpA, cariogenicity was slightly augmented. Both the rescue of colonization by the AbpB- mutant and the augmentation of colonization by AbpA- mutant in the presence of dietary sucrose suggested additional amylase-binding protein interactions relevant to colonization. Glucosyltransferase activity was greater in mutants defective in abpA and modestly increased in the abpB mutant. It was concluded that AbpB is required for colonization of teeth of starch-eating rats and its deletion is partially masked if rats eat a sucrose

  8. Guanine nucleotide binding to the Bateman domain mediates the allosteric inhibition of eukaryotic IMP dehydrogenases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buey, Rubén M.; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Balsera, Mónica; Chagoyen, Mónica; de Pereda, José M.; Revuelta, José L.

    2015-11-01

    Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) plays key roles in purine nucleotide metabolism and cell proliferation. Although IMPDH is a widely studied therapeutic target, there is limited information about its physiological regulation. Using Ashbya gossypii as a model, we describe the molecular mechanism and the structural basis for the allosteric regulation of IMPDH by guanine nucleotides. We report that GTP and GDP bind to the regulatory Bateman domain, inducing octamers with compromised catalytic activity. Our data suggest that eukaryotic and prokaryotic IMPDHs might have developed different regulatory mechanisms, with GTP/GDP inhibiting only eukaryotic IMPDHs. Interestingly, mutations associated with human retinopathies map into the guanine nucleotide-binding sites including a previously undescribed non-canonical site and disrupt allosteric inhibition. Together, our results shed light on the mechanisms of the allosteric regulation of enzymes mediated by Bateman domains and provide a molecular basis for certain retinopathies, opening the door to new therapeutic approaches.

  9. Guanine nucleotide binding to the Bateman domain mediates the allosteric inhibition of eukaryotic IMP dehydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Buey, Rubén M.; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Balsera, Mónica; Chagoyen, Mónica; de Pereda, José M.; Revuelta, José L.

    2015-01-01

    Inosine-5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) plays key roles in purine nucleotide metabolism and cell proliferation. Although IMPDH is a widely studied therapeutic target, there is limited information about its physiological regulation. Using Ashbya gossypii as a model, we describe the molecular mechanism and the structural basis for the allosteric regulation of IMPDH by guanine nucleotides. We report that GTP and GDP bind to the regulatory Bateman domain, inducing octamers with compromised catalytic activity. Our data suggest that eukaryotic and prokaryotic IMPDHs might have developed different regulatory mechanisms, with GTP/GDP inhibiting only eukaryotic IMPDHs. Interestingly, mutations associated with human retinopathies map into the guanine nucleotide-binding sites including a previously undescribed non-canonical site and disrupt allosteric inhibition. Together, our results shed light on the mechanisms of the allosteric regulation of enzymes mediated by Bateman domains and provide a molecular basis for certain retinopathies, opening the door to new therapeutic approaches. PMID:26558346

  10. Does Fluoride Affect Serum Testosterone and Androgen Binding Protein with Age-Specificity? A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Chinese Male Farmers.

    PubMed

    Duan, Leizhen; Zhu, Jingyuan; Wang, Keyan; Zhou, Guoyu; Yang, Yuejin; Cui, Liuxin; Huang, Hui; Cheng, Xuemin; Ba, Yue

    2016-12-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that exposure to excess fluoride was associated with a variety of diseases. Little is known about the variation of testosterone (T) levels caused by fluoride exposure. The aim of this study is to explore the association of fluoride exposure and age with serum T and androgen-binding protein (ABP) levels in male farmers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a county of Henan Province, China, including high fluoride exposure from drinking water villages and control villages. Male farmers aged 18-55 years old who lived in these villages were recruited by cluster sampling and divided into a higher fluoride exposure group (HFG) and a lower fluoride exposure group (LFG) according to the level of urinary fluoride. Levels of T and ABP in serum were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) respectively. Markedly lower T levels were observed in male farmers from the HFG than in those from the LFG (t = 2.496, P < 0.05). Furthermore, younger farmers, 18-29 and 30-39 years old, may be the most likely to have lower T levels when exposed to fluoride (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in serum ABP levels in all male farmers between the two groups with different fluoride exposure. These results supported that excess fluoride exposure decreased serum T levels of male farmers with age-specificity.

  11. Odorant-binding proteins OBP57d and OBP57e affect taste perception and host-plant preference in Drosophila sechellia.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Takashi; Sugaya, Shigeru; Yasukawa, Jyunichiro; Aigaki, Toshiro; Fuyama, Yoshiaki

    2007-05-01

    Despite its morphological similarity to the other species in the Drosophila melanogaster species complex, D. sechellia has evolved distinct physiological and behavioral adaptations to its host plant Morinda citrifolia, commonly known as Tahitian Noni. The odor of the ripe fruit of M. citrifolia originates from hexanoic and octanoic acid. D. sechellia is attracted to these two fatty acids, whereas the other species in the complex are repelled. Here, using interspecies hybrids between D. melanogaster deficiency mutants and D. sechellia, we showed that the Odorant-binding protein 57e (Obp57e) gene is involved in the behavioral difference between the species. D. melanogaster knock-out flies for Obp57e and Obp57d showed altered behavioral responses to hexanoic acid and octanoic acid. Furthermore, the introduction of Obp57d and Obp57e from D. simulans and D. sechellia shifted the oviposition site preference of D. melanogaster Obp57d/e(KO) flies to that of the original species, confirming the contribution of these genes to D. sechellia's specialization to M. citrifolia. Our finding of the genes involved in host-plant determination may lead to further understanding of mechanisms underlying taste perception, evolution of plant-herbivore interactions, and speciation.

  12. Maternal deprivation and early handling affect density of calcium binding protein-containing neurons in selected brain regions and emotional behavior in periadolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Giachino, C; Canalia, N; Capone, F; Fasolo, A; Alleva, E; Riva, M A; Cirulli, F; Peretto, P

    2007-03-16

    Adverse early life experiences can induce neurochemical changes that may underlie modifications in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness, emotionality and cognition. Here, we investigated the expression of the calcium binding proteins (CBPs) calretinin, calbindin and parvalbumin, which identify subpopulations of GABAergic neurons and serve important functional roles by buffering intracellular calcium levels, following brief (early handling) and long (maternal deprivation) periods of maternal separation, as compared with non-handled controls. CBP-expressing neurons were analyzed in brain regions related to stress and anxiety. Emotionality was assessed in parallel using the social interaction test. Analyses were carried out at periadolescence, an important phase for the development of brain areas involved in stress responses. Our results indicate that density of CBP-immunoreactive neurons decreases in the paraventricular region of deprived rats but increases in the hippocampus and lateral amygdala of both early-handled and deprived rats when compared with controls. Emotionality is reduced in both early-handled and deprived animals. In conclusion, early handling and deprivation led to neurochemical and behavioral changes linked to stress-sensitive brain regions. These data suggest that the effects of early experiences on CBP containing neurons might contribute to the functional changes of neuronal circuits involved in emotional response.

  13. Odorant-Binding Proteins OBP57d and OBP57e Affect Taste Perception and Host-Plant Preference in Drosophila sechellia

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Takashi; Sugaya, Shigeru; Yasukawa, Jyunichiro; Aigaki, Toshiro; Fuyama, Yoshiaki

    2007-01-01

    Despite its morphological similarity to the other species in the Drosophila melanogaster species complex, D. sechellia has evolved distinct physiological and behavioral adaptations to its host plant Morinda citrifolia, commonly known as Tahitian Noni. The odor of the ripe fruit of M. citrifolia originates from hexanoic and octanoic acid. D. sechellia is attracted to these two fatty acids, whereas the other species in the complex are repelled. Here, using interspecies hybrids between D. melanogaster deficiency mutants and D. sechellia, we showed that the Odorant-binding protein 57e (Obp57e) gene is involved in the behavioral difference between the species. D. melanogaster knock-out flies for Obp57e and Obp57d showed altered behavioral responses to hexanoic acid and octanoic acid. Furthermore, the introduction of Obp57d and Obp57e from D. simulans and D. sechellia shifted the oviposition site preference of D. melanogaster Obp57d/eKO flies to that of the original species, confirming the contribution of these genes to D. sechellia's specialization to M. citrifolia. Our finding of the genes involved in host-plant determination may lead to further understanding of mechanisms underlying taste perception, evolution of plant–herbivore interactions, and speciation. PMID:17456006

  14. Starvation and diet composition affect mRNA levels of the high density-lipoprotein-beta glucan binding protein in the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Muhlia-Almazán, Adriana; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo; García-Carreño, Fernando; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma Beatriz; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2005-10-01

    A high density lipoprotein-beta glucan binding protein (HDL-BGBP) is synthesized in the hepatopancreas of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and secreted to the hemolymph. Recently, we reported the HDL-BGBP full length cDNA sequence and found that the predicted polypeptide is larger than the mature protein and also, that it contains a long 5'- and 3'-UTRs that may be involved in transcript level regulation. To test whether starvation and feeding may play a role in regulating HDL-BGBP mRNA levels, two different stimuli were evaluated: starvation and composition of diets. After 24 h, the steady state HDL-BGBP mRNA levels of starved shrimp decreased, suggesting that synthesis of the lipoprotein is less required in the absence of food. When shrimp were fed with diets containing different concentrations of protein and lipids, changes in HDL-BGBP mRNA levels were also detected. Shrimp fed the lower concentration of protein and lipid feed accumulated higher levels of HDL-BGBP mRNA. These results indicate that feeding influences HDL-BGBP transcript levels in the hepatopancreas.

  15. Inhibition of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK)-interacting Kinase (MNK) Preferentially Affects Translation of mRNAs Containing Both a 5'-Terminal Cap and Hairpin.

    PubMed

    Korneeva, Nadejda L; Song, Anren; Gram, Hermann; Edens, Mary Ann; Rhoads, Robert E

    2016-02-12

    The MAPK-interacting kinases 1 and 2 (MNK1 and MNK2) are activated by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) or p38 in response to cellular stress and extracellular stimuli that include growth factors, cytokines, and hormones. Modulation of MNK activity affects translation of mRNAs involved in the cell cycle, cancer progression, and cell survival. However, the mechanism by which MNK selectively affects translation of these mRNAs is not understood. MNK binds eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) and phosphorylates the cap-binding protein eIF4E. Using a cell-free translation system from rabbit reticulocytes programmed with mRNAs containing different 5'-ends, we show that an MNK inhibitor, CGP57380, affects translation of only those mRNAs that contain both a cap and a hairpin in the 5'-UTR. Similarly, a C-terminal fragment of human eIF4G-1, eIF4G(1357-1600), which prevents binding of MNK to intact eIF4G, reduces eIF4E phosphorylation and inhibits translation of only capped and hairpin-containing mRNAs. Analysis of proteins bound to m(7)GTP-Sepharose reveals that both CGP and eIF4G(1357-1600) decrease binding of eIF4E to eIF4G. These data suggest that MNK stimulates translation only of mRNAs containing both a cap and 5'-terminal RNA duplex via eIF4E phosphorylation, thereby enhancing the coupled cap-binding and RNA-unwinding activities of eIF4F.

  16. Promiscuous modification of the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein by multiple protein-arginine methyltransferases does not affect the aggregation behavior.

    PubMed

    Fronz, Katharina; Otto, Silke; Kölbel, Knut; Kühn, Uwe; Friedrich, Henning; Schierhorn, Angelika; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Ostareck-Lederer, Antje; Wahle, Elmar

    2008-07-18

    The mammalian nuclear poly(A)-binding protein, PABPN1, carries 13 asymmetrically dimethylated arginine residues in its C-terminal domain. By fractionation of cell extracts, we found that protein-arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs)-1, -3, and -6 are responsible for the modification of PABPN1. Recombinant PRMT1, -3, and -6 also methylated PABPN1. Our data suggest that these enzymes act on their own, and additional polypeptides are not involved in recognizing PABPN1 as a substrate. PRMT1 is the predominant methyltransferase acting on PABPN1. Nevertheless, PABPN1 was almost fully methylated in a Prmt1(-/-) cell line; thus, PRMT3 and -6 suffice for methylation. In contrast to PABPN1, the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) K is selectively methylated only by PRMT1. Efficient methylation of synthetic peptides derived from PABPN1 or hnRNP K suggested that PRMT1, -3, and -6 recognize their substrates by interacting with local amino acid sequences and not with additional domains of the substrates. However, the use of fusion proteins suggested that the inability of PRMT3 and -6 to modify hnRNP K is because of structural masking of the methyl-accepting amino acid sequences by neighboring domains. Mutations leading to intracellular aggregation of PABPN1 cause the disease oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. The C-terminal domain containing the methylated arginine residues is known to promote PAPBN1 self-association, and arginine methylation has been reported to inhibit self-association of an orthologous protein. Thus, arginine methylation might be relevant for oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. However, in two different types of assays we have been unable to detect any effect of arginine methylation on the aggregation of bovine PABPN1.

  17. Sodium diacetate and sodium lactate affect microbiology and sensory and objective characteristics of a restructured turkey breast product formulated with a fibrin cold-set binding system.

    PubMed

    Mohammed Shafit, H; Williams, S K

    2010-03-01

    Research was conducted to manufacture and evaluate a restructured turkey breast product using the Fibrimex cold-set binding system, sodium diacetate (NaD), and sodium lactate (NaL) and to ascertain effects of the treatments on proximate composition, pH, psychrotrophic organisms, water activity, onset of rancidity (TBA), thaw loss, cooking yields, and objective color, and sensory characteristics. Whole turkey breasts were cut into 5-cm-thick strips; treated with either water only (control), 1.5% NaL, 2.0% NaL, 0.1% NaD, 1.5% NaL + 0.1% NaD, or 2.0% NaL + 0.1% NaD; blended with Fibrimex ingredients; stuffed into casings; and stored at -30 degrees C for 0, 1, 2, and 3 mo. After each storage period, frozen chubs were tempered at 4 degrees C, sliced into 1-cm-thick steaks, packaged in retail trays, stored at 0 degrees C to simulate retail storage, and analyzed after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 d. Sodium diacetate used alone or in combination with NaL reduced (P < 0.05) growth of psychrotrophic organisms and had no adverse effects on water activity, pH, cooking yield, fat, moisture, protein, objective color, onset of rancidity, and sensory characteristics (juiciness, turkey flavor intensity, and tenderness). Panelists reported slight off-flavor in all steaks treated with NaL. Treating steaks with NaL alone or in combination with NaD resulted in increased (P < 0.05) ash content. Sodium lactate also functioned to minimize thaw loss in the frozen restructured turkey product.

  18. The polypyrimidine tract-binding protein affects coronavirus RNA accumulation levels and relocalizes viral RNAs to novel cytoplasmic domains different from replication-transcription sites.

    PubMed

    Sola, Isabel; Galán, Carmen; Mateos-Gómez, Pedro A; Palacio, Lorena; Zúñiga, Sonia; Cruz, Jazmina L; Almazán, Fernando; Enjuanes, Luis

    2011-05-01

    The coronavirus (CoV) discontinuous transcription mechanism is driven by long-distance RNA-RNA interactions between transcription-regulating sequences (TRSs) located at the 5' terminal leader (TRS-L) and also preceding each mRNA-coding sequence (TRS-B). The contribution of host cell proteins to CoV transcription needs additional information. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) was reproducibly identified in association with positive-sense RNAs of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) TRS-L and TRS-B by affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. A temporal regulation of PTB cytoplasmic levels was observed during infection, with a significant increase from 7 to 16 h postinfection being inversely associated with a decrease in viral replication and transcription. Silencing the expression of PTB with small interfering RNA in two cell lines (Huh7 and HEK 293T) led to a significant increase of up to 4-fold in mRNA levels and virus titer, indicating a negative effect of PTB on CoV RNA accumulation. During CoV infection, PTB relocalized from the nucleus to novel cytoplasmic structures different from replication-transcription sites in which stress granule markers T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) and TIA-1-related protein (TIAR) colocalized. PTB was detected in these modified stress granules in TGEV-infected swine testis cells but not in stress granules induced by oxidative stress. Furthermore, viral genomic and subgenomic RNAs were detected in association with PTB and TIAR. These cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes might be involved in posttranscriptional regulation of virus gene expression.

  19. The guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs): proinflammatory cytokine-induced members of the dynamin superfamily with unique GTPase activity.

    PubMed

    Vestal, Deborah J

    2005-08-01

    The guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) were first identified in the late 1970s, and within a short period of time, investigators were aware that GBPs possessed unique properties, in particular the ability to bind GMP agarose. Since then, much study has gone into understanding their mechanism of induction by interferons (IFNs) and other cytokines, and they have been used extensively as markers for IFN responsiveness in both cells and organisms. In time, we learned that GBPs had the unusual ability to hydrolyze GTP to both GDP and GMP. More recently, we have begun to appreciate their novel structure, one that suggests unique mechanisms of GTP binding and hydrolysis and unique forms of regulation. In addition, we have begun to unravel some of their functions and to separate these function into those functions that do and those that do not require GTPase activity.

  20. Transportin acts to regulate mitotic assembly events by target binding rather than Ran sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Bernis, Cyril; Swift-Taylor, Beth; Nord, Matthew; Carmona, Sarah; Chook, Yuh Min; Forbes, Douglass J.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear import receptors importin β and transportin play a different role in mitosis: both act phenotypically as spatial regulators to ensure that mitotic spindle, nuclear membrane, and nuclear pore assembly occur exclusively around chromatin. Importin β is known to act by repressing assembly factors in regions distant from chromatin, whereas RanGTP produced on chromatin frees factors from importin β for localized assembly. The mechanism of transportin regulation was unknown. Diametrically opposed models for transportin action are as follows: 1) indirect action by RanGTP sequestration, thus down-regulating release of assembly factors from importin β, and 2) direct action by transportin binding and inhibiting assembly factors. Experiments in Xenopus assembly extracts with M9M, a superaffinity nuclear localization sequence that displaces cargoes bound by transportin, or TLB, a mutant transportin that can bind cargo and RanGTP simultaneously, support direct inhibition. Consistently, simple addition of M9M to mitotic cytosol induces microtubule aster assembly. ELYS and the nucleoporin 107–160 complex, components of mitotic kinetochores and nuclear pores, are blocked from binding to kinetochores in vitro by transportin, a block reversible by M9M. In vivo, 30% of M9M-transfected cells have spindle/cytokinesis defects. We conclude that the cell contains importin β and transportin “global positioning system”or “GPS” pathways that are mechanistically parallel. PMID:24478460

  1. Transportin acts to regulate mitotic assembly events by target binding rather than Ran sequestration.

    PubMed

    Bernis, Cyril; Swift-Taylor, Beth; Nord, Matthew; Carmona, Sarah; Chook, Yuh Min; Forbes, Douglass J

    2014-04-01

    The nuclear import receptors importin β and transportin play a different role in mitosis: both act phenotypically as spatial regulators to ensure that mitotic spindle, nuclear membrane, and nuclear pore assembly occur exclusively around chromatin. Importin β is known to act by repressing assembly factors in regions distant from chromatin, whereas RanGTP produced on chromatin frees factors from importin β for localized assembly. The mechanism of transportin regulation was unknown. Diametrically opposed models for transportin action are as follows: 1) indirect action by RanGTP sequestration, thus down-regulating release of assembly factors from importin β, and 2) direct action by transportin binding and inhibiting assembly factors. Experiments in Xenopus assembly extracts with M9M, a superaffinity nuclear localization sequence that displaces cargoes bound by transportin, or TLB, a mutant transportin that can bind cargo and RanGTP simultaneously, support direct inhibition. Consistently, simple addition of M9M to mitotic cytosol induces microtubule aster assembly. ELYS and the nucleoporin 107-160 complex, components of mitotic kinetochores and nuclear pores, are blocked from binding to kinetochores in vitro by transportin, a block reversible by M9M. In vivo, 30% of M9M-transfected cells have spindle/cytokinesis defects. We conclude that the cell contains importin β and transportin "global positioning system"or "GPS" pathways that are mechanistically parallel.

  2. Multiple sup 3 H-oxytocin binding sites in rat myometrial plasma membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Crankshaw, D.; Gaspar, V.; Pliska, V. )

    1990-01-01

    The affinity spectrum method has been used to analyse binding isotherms for {sup 3}H-oxytocin to rat myometrial plasma membranes. Three populations of binding sites with dissociation constants (Kd) of 0.6-1.5 x 10(-9), 0.4-1.0 x 10(-7) and 7 x 10(-6) mol/l were identified and their existence verified by cluster analysis based on similarities between Kd, binding capacity and Hill coefficient. When experimental values were compared to theoretical curves constructed using the estimated binding parameters, good fits were obtained. Binding parameters obtained by this method were not influenced by the presence of GTP gamma S (guanosine-5'-O-3-thiotriphosphate) in the incubation medium. The binding parameters agree reasonably well with those found in uterine cells, they support the existence of a medium affinity site and may allow for an explanation of some of the discrepancies between binding and response in this system.

  3. One motif to bind them: A small-XXX-small motif affects transmembrane domain 1 oligomerization, function, localization, and cross-talk between two yeast GPCRs.

    PubMed

    Lock, Antonia; Forfar, Rachel; Weston, Cathryn; Bowsher, Leo; Upton, Graham J G; Reynolds, Christopher A; Ladds, Graham; Dixon, Ann M

    2014-12-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of cell-surface receptors in mammals and facilitate a range of physiological responses triggered by a variety of ligands. GPCRs were thought to function as monomers, however it is now accepted that GPCR homo- and hetero-oligomers also exist and influence receptor properties. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe GPCR Mam2 is a pheromone-sensing receptor involved in mating and has previously been shown to form oligomers in vivo. The first transmembrane domain (TMD) of Mam2 contains a small-XXX-small motif, overrepresented in membrane proteins and well-known for promoting helix-helix interactions. An ortholog of Mam2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ste2, contains an analogous small-XXX-small motif which has been shown to contribute to receptor homo-oligomerization, localization and function. Here we have used experimental and computational techniques to characterize the role of the small-XXX-small motif in function and assembly of Mam2 for the first time. We find that disruption of the motif via mutagenesis leads to reduction of Mam2 TMD1 homo-oligomerization and pheromone-responsive cellular signaling of the full-length protein. It also impairs correct targeting to the plasma membrane. Mutation of the analogous motif in Ste2 yielded similar results, suggesting a conserved mechanism for assembly. Using co-expression of the two fungal receptors in conjunction with computational models, we demonstrate a functional change in G protein specificity and propose that this is brought about through hetero-dimeric interactions of Mam2 with Ste2 via the complementary small-XXX-small motifs. This highlights the potential of these motifs to affect a range of properties that can be investigated in other GPCRs.

  4. GTP depletion synergizes the anti-proliferative activity of chemotherapeutic agents in a cell type-dependent manner

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Tao; Meng, Lingjun; Tsai, Robert Y.L.

    2011-10-22

    Highlights: {yields} Strong synergy between mycophenolic acid (MPA) and 5-FU in MDA-MB-231 cells. {yields} Cell type-dependent synergy between MPA and anti-proliferative agents. {yields} The synergy of MPA on 5-FU is recapitulated by RNA polymerase-I inhibition. {yields} The synergy of MPA on 5-FU requires the expression of nucleostemin. -- Abstract: Mycophenolic acid (MPA) depletes intracellular GTP by blocking de novo guanine nucleotide synthesis. GTP is used ubiquitously for DNA/RNA synthesis and as a signaling molecule. Here, we made a surprising discovery that the anti-proliferative activity of MPA acts synergistically with specific chemotherapeutic agents in a cell type-dependent manner. In MDA-MB-231 cells, MPA shows an extremely potent synergy with 5-FU but not with doxorubicin or etoposide. The synergy between 5-FU and MPA works most effectively against the highly tumorigenic mammary tumor cells compared to the less tumorigenic ones, and does not work in the non-breast cancer cell types that we tested, with the exception of PC3 cells. On the contrary, MPA shows the highest synergy with paclitaxel but not with 5-FU in SCC-25 cells, derived from oral squamous cell carcinomas. Mechanistically, the synergistic effect of MPA on 5-FU in MDA-MB-231 cells can be recapitulated by inhibiting the RNA polymerase-I activity and requires the expression of nucleostemin. This work reveals that the synergy between MPA and anti-proliferative agents is determined by cell type-dependent factors.

  5. Conserved arginine residues in the carboxyl terminus of the equine arteritis virus E protein may play a role in heparin binding but may not affect viral infectivity in equine endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhengchun; Sarkar, Sanjay; Zhang, Jianqiang; Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2016-04-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV), the causative agent of equine viral arteritis, has relatively broad cell tropism in vitro. In horses, EAV primarily replicates in macrophages and endothelial cells of small blood vessels. Until now, neither the cellular receptor(s) nor the mechanism(s) of virus attachment and entry have been determined for this virus. In this study, we investigated the effect of heparin on EAV infection in equine endothelial cells (EECs). Heparin, but not other glycosaminoglycans, could reduce EAV infection up to 93 %. Sequence analysis of the EAV E minor envelope protein revealed a conserved amino acid sequence (52 RSLVARCSRGARYR 65) at the carboxy terminus of the E protein, which was predicted to be the heparin-binding domain. The basic arginine (R) amino acid residues were subsequently mutated to glycine by site-directed mutagenesis of ORF2a in an E protein expression vector and an infectious cDNA clone of EAV. Two single mutations in E (R52G and R57G) did not affect the heparin-binding capability, whereas the E double mutation (R52,60G) completely eliminated the interaction between the E protein and heparin. Although the mutant R52,60G EAV did not bind heparin, the mutations did not completely abolish infectivity, indicating that heparin is not the only critical factor for EAV infection. This also suggested that other viral envelope protein(s) might be involved in attachment through heparin or other cell-surface molecules, and this warrants further investigation.

  6. The R215W mutation in NBS1 impairs {gamma}-H2AX binding and affects DNA repair: molecular bases for the severe phenotype of 657del5/R215W Nijmegen breakage syndrome patients

    SciTech Connect

    Masi, Alessandra di Viganotti, Mara; Polticelli, Fabio; Ascenzi, Paolo; Tanzarella, Caterina; Antoccia, Antonio

    2008-05-09

    Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is a genetic disorder characterized by chromosomal instability and hypersensitivity to ionising radiation. Compound heterozygous 657del5/R215W NBS patients display a clinical phenotype more severe than the majority of NBS patients homozygous for the 657del5 mutation. The NBS1 protein, mutated in NBS patients, contains a FHA/BRCT domain necessary for the DNA-double strand break (DSB) damage response. Recently, a second BRCT domain has been identified, however, its role is still unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the R215W mutation in NBS1 impairs histone {gamma}-H2AX binding after induction of DNA damage, leading to a delay in DNA-DSB rejoining. Molecular modelling reveals that the 215 residue of NBS1 is located between the two BRCT domains, affecting their relative orientation that appears critical for {gamma}-H2AX binding. Present data represent the first evidence for the role of NBS1 tandem BRCT domains in {gamma}-H2AX recognition, and could explain the severe phenotype observed in 657del5/R215W NBS patients.

  7. Activation of SIRT1 by resveratrol represses transcription of the gene for the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) by deacetylating hepatic nuclear factor 4alpha

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cytosolic isoform of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) (PEPCK-C) is a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis and glyceroneogenesis. While this enzyme is often over-expressed in diabetes and obesity, studies showed that decrease in its expression results in lessening the diseases condition in animal...

  8. Reduction of exportin 6 activity leads to actin accumulation via failure of RanGTP restoration and NTF2 sequestration in the nuclei of senescent cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Su Hyun; Park, Tae Jun; Lim, In Kyoung

    2011-04-15

    We have previously reported that G-actin accumulation in nuclei is a universal phenomenon of cellular senescence. By employing primary culture of human diploid fibroblast (HDF) and stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS), we explored whether the failure of actin export to cytoplasm is responsible for actin accumulation in nuclei of senescent cells. Expression of exportin 6 (Exp6) and small G-protein, Ran, was significantly reduced in the replicative senescence, but not yet in SIPS, whereas nuclear import of actin by cofilin was already increased in SIPS. After treatment of young HDF cells with H(2)O(2), rapid reduction of nuclear RanGTP was observed along with cytoplasmic increase of RanGDP. Furthermore, significantly reduced interaction of Exp6 with RanGTP was found by GST-Exp6 pull-down analysis. Failure of RanGTP restoration was accompanied with inhibition of ATP synthesis and NTF2 sequestration in the nuclei along with accordant change of senescence morphology. Indeed, knockdown of Exp6 expression significantly increased actin molecule in the nuclei of young HDF cells. Therefore, actin accumulation in nuclei of senescent cells is most likely due to the failure of RanGTP restoration with ATP deficiency and NTF2 accumulation in nuclei, which result in the decrease of actin export via Exp6 inactivation, in addition to actin import by cofilin activation.

  9. Reduction of exportin 6 activity leads to actin accumulation via failure of RanGTP restoration and NTF2 sequestration in the nuclei of senescent cells

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Su Hyun; Park, Tae Jun; Lim, In Kyoung

    2011-04-15

    We have previously reported that G-actin accumulation in nuclei is a universal phenomenon of cellular senescence. By employing primary culture of human diploid fibroblast (HDF) and stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS), we explored whether the failure of actin export to cytoplasm is responsible for actin accumulation in nuclei of senescent cells. Expression of exportin 6 (Exp6) and small G-protein, Ran, was significantly reduced in the replicative senescence, but not yet in SIPS, whereas nuclear import of actin by cofilin was already increased in SIPS. After treatment of young HDF cells with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, rapid reduction of nuclear RanGTP was observed along with cytoplasmic increase of RanGDP. Furthermore, significantly reduced interaction of Exp6 with RanGTP was found by GST-Exp6 pull-down analysis. Failure of RanGTP restoration was accompanied with inhibition of ATP synthesis and NTF2 sequestration in the nuclei along with accordant change of senescence morphology. Indeed, knockdown of Exp6 expression significantly increased actin molecule in the nuclei of young HDF cells. Therefore, actin accumulation in nuclei of senescent cells is most likely due to the failure of RanGTP restoration with ATP deficiency and NTF2 accumulation in nuclei, which result in the decrease of actin export via Exp6 inactivation, in addition to actin import by cofilin activation.

  10. H(2)O(2) increases de novo synthesis of (6R)-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin via GTP cyclohydrolase I and its feedback regulatory protein in vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Chavan, B; Beazley, W; Wood, J M; Rokos, H; Ichinose, H; Schallreuter, K U

    2009-02-01

    Patients with vitiligo accumulate up to 10(-3) mol/L concentrations of H(2)O(2) in their epidermis, which in turn affects many metabolic pathways in this compartment, including the synthesis and recycling of the cofactor (6R)-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (6BH(4)). De novo synthesis of 6BH(4) is dependent on the rate-limiting enzyme GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCHI) together with its feedback regulatory protein (GFRP). This step is controlled by 6BH(4) and the essential amino acid L-phenylalanine. In the study presented here we wanted to investigate whether H(2)O(2) affects the GTPCHI/GFRP cascade in these patients. Our results demonstrated concentration-dependent regulation of rhGTPCHI where 100 micromol/L H(2)O(2) was the optimum concentration for the activation of the enzyme and >300 micromol/L resulted in a decrease in activity. Oxidation of GFRP and GTPCHI does not affect feedback regulation via L-phenylalanine and 6BH(4). In vitiligo a constant upregulation of 6BH(4) de novo synthesis results from epidermal build up of L-phenylalanine that is not controlled by H(2)O(2). Taking the results together, 6BH(4) de novo synthesis is controlled by H(2)O(2) in a concentration-dependent manner, but H(2)O(2)-mediated oxidation does not affect the functionality of the GTPCHI/GFRP complex.

  11. Chemical binding affinity estimation using MSB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, John B.; Rauwerdink, Adam M.

    2011-03-01

    Binding affinity can be estimated in several ways in the laboratory but there is no viable way to estimate binding affinity in vivo without assumptions on the number of binding sites. Magnetic spectroscopy of nanoparticle Brownian motion, MSB, measures the rotational Brownian motion. The MSB signal is affected by nanoparticle binding affinity so it provides a mechanism to measure the chemical binding affinity. We present a possible mechanism to quantify the binding affinity and test that mechanism using viscous solutions.

  12. Pathogenic mutations associated with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy differently affect Ja