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Sample records for guanylate cyclase sgc

  1. Identification of bacterial guanylate cyclases.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Min-Hyung; Youn, Hwan; Kang, In-Hye; Gomelsky, Mark

    2015-05-01

    The ability of bacteria to use cGMP as a second messenger has been controversial for decades. Recently, nucleotide cyclases from Rhodospirillum centenum, GcyA, and Xanthomonas campestris, GuaX, have been shown to possess guanylate cyclase activities. Enzymatic activities of these guanylate cyclases measured in vitro were low, which makes interpretation of the assays ambiguous. Protein sequence analysis at present is insufficient to distinguish between bacterial adenylate and guanylate cyclases, both of which belong to nucleotide cyclases of type III. We developed a simple method for discriminating between guanylate and adenylate cyclase activities in a physiologically relevant bacterial system. The method relies on the use of a mutant cAMP receptor protein, CRPG , constructed here. While wild-type CRP is activated exclusively by cAMP, CRPG can be activated by either cAMP or cGMP. Using CRP- and CRPG -dependent lacZ expression in two E. coli strains, we verified that R. centenum GcyA and X. campestris GuaX have primarily guanylate cyclase activities. Among two other bacterial nucleotide cyclases tested, one, GuaA from Azospillrillum sp. B510, proved to have guanylate cyclase activity, while the other one, Bradyrhizobium japonicum CyaA, turned out to function as an adenylate cyclase. The results obtained with this reporter system were in excellent agreement with direct measurements of cyclic nucleotides secreted by E. coli expressing nucleotide cyclase genes. The simple genetic screen developed here is expected to facilitate identification of bacterial guanylate cyclases and engineering of guanylate cyclases with desired properties.

  2. Nitric Oxide-Induced Conformational Changes in Soluble Guanylate Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Underbakke, Eric S.; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Chalmers, Michael J.; Pascal, Bruce D.; Novick, Scott; Griffin, Patrick R.; Marletta, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is the primary mediator of nitric oxide (NO) signaling. NO binds the sGC heme cofactor stimulating synthesis of the second messenger cyclic-GMP (cGMP). As the central hub of NO/cGMP signaling pathways, sGC is important in diverse physiological processes such as vasodilation and neurotransmission. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying NO-induced cyclase activation in sGC remain unclear. Here, hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) was employed to probe the NO-induced conformational changes of sGC. HDX-MS revealed NO-induced effects in several discrete regions. NO binding to the heme-NO/O2-binding (H-NOX) domain perturbs a signaling surface implicated in Per/Arnt/Sim (PAS) domain interactions. Furthermore, NO elicits striking conformational changes in the junction between the PAS and helical domains that propagate as perturbations throughout the adjoining helices. Ultimately, NO-binding stimulates the catalytic domain by contracting the active site pocket. Together, these conformational changes delineate an allosteric pathway linking NO-binding to activation of the catalytic domain. PMID:24560804

  3. Bioelectrochemical monitoring of soluble guanylate cyclase inhibition by the natural β-carboline canthin-6-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doménech-Carbó, Antonio; Rodrigo, Regina; Maréchal, Jean-Didier; Poupon, Erwan; Fournet, Alain; Figadère, Bruno; Cebrián-Torrejón, Gerardo

    2017-04-01

    The inhibition of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) by canthin-6-one alkaloid (L1) is presented and the mechanism of deactivation is studied using solution phase and voltammetry of microparticles methodologies. Possible inhibition pathways: oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+ coupled to reduction of the naphthyridone motif present by the canthin-6-one and coordinating or reacting of L1 with cysteine units of sGC, are balanced.

  4. In vivo control of soluble guanylate cyclase activation by nitric oxide: a kinetic analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, P; George, S C

    2001-01-01

    Free nitric oxide (NO) activates soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), an enzyme, within both pulmonary and vascular smooth muscle. sGC catalyzes the cyclization of guanosine 5'-triphosphate to guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). Binding rates of NO to the ferrous heme(s) of sGC have been measured in vitro. However, a missing link in our understanding of the control mechanism of sGC by NO is a comprehensive in vivo kinetic analysis. Available literature data suggests that NO dissociation from the heme center of sGC is accelerated by its interaction with one or more cofactors in vivo. We present a working model for sGC activation and NO consumption in vivo. Our model predicts that NO influences the cGMP formation rate over a concentration range of approximately 5-100 nM (apparent Michaelis constant approximately 23 nM), with Hill coefficients between 1.1 and 1.5. The apparent reaction order for NO consumption by sGC is dependent on NO concentration, and varies between 0 and 1.5. Finally, the activation of sGC (half-life approximately 1-2 s) is much more rapid than deactivation (approximately 50 s). We conclude that control of sGC in vivo is most likely ultra-sensitive, and that activation in vivo occurs at lower NO concentrations than previously reported. PMID:11325714

  5. Heme-assisted S-Nitrosation Desensitizes Ferric Soluble Guanylate Cyclase to Nitric Oxide*

    PubMed Central

    Fernhoff, Nathaniel B.; Derbyshire, Emily R.; Underbakke, Eric S.; Marletta, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) signaling regulates key processes in cardiovascular physiology, specifically vasodilation, platelet aggregation, and leukocyte rolling. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), the mammalian NO sensor, transduces an NO signal into the classical second messenger cyclic GMP (cGMP). NO binds to the ferrous (Fe2+) oxidation state of the sGC heme cofactor and stimulates formation of cGMP several hundred-fold. Oxidation of the sGC heme to the ferric (Fe3+) state desensitizes the enzyme to NO. The heme-oxidized state of sGC has emerged as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Here, we investigate the molecular mechanism of NO desensitization and find that sGC undergoes a reductive nitrosylation reaction that is coupled to the S-nitrosation of sGC cysteines. We further characterize the kinetics of NO desensitization and find that heme-assisted nitrosothiol formation of β1Cys-78 and β1Cys-122 causes the NO desensitization of ferric sGC. Finally, we provide evidence that the mechanism of reductive nitrosylation is gated by a conformational change of the protein. These results yield insights into the function and dysfunction of sGC in cardiovascular disease. PMID:23093402

  6. Modulation of soluble guanylate cyclase for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lasker, George F; Pankey, Edward A; Kadowitz, Philip J

    2013-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is the principal mediator of penile erection, and PDE-5 inhibitors are the first-line agents used to treat erectile dysfunction (ED). When NO formation or bioavailability is decreased by oxidative stress and PDE-5 inhibitors are no longer effective, a new class of agents called soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulators like BAY 41-8543 will induce erection. sGC stimulators bind to the normally reduced, NO-sensitive form of sGC to increase cGMP formation and promote erection. The sGC stimulators produce normal erectile responses when NO formation is inhibited and the nerves innervating the corpora cavernosa are damaged. However, with severe oxidative stress, the heme iron on sGC can be oxidized, rendering the enzyme unresponsive to NO or sGC stimulators. In this pathophysiological situation, another newly developed class of agents called sGC activators can increase the catalytic activity of the oxidized enzyme, increase cGMP formation, and promote erection. The use of newer agents that stimulate or activate sGC to promote erection and treat ED is discussed in this brief review article.

  7. The guanylate cyclase signaling system in zebrafish photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Koch, Karl-Wilhelm

    2013-06-27

    Zebrafish express in the retina a large variety of three different membrane-bound guanylate cyclases and six different guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (zGCAPs) belonging to the family of neuronal calcium sensor proteins. Although these proteins are predominantly localized in rod and cone photoreceptor cells of the retina, they differ in their spatial-temporal expression profiles. Further, each zGCAP has a different affinity for Ca(2+) and displays different Ca(2+)-sensitivities of guanylate cyclase activation. Thus, zGCAPs operate as cytoplasmic Ca(2+)-sensors that sense incremental changes of cytoplasmic Ca(2+)-concentration in rod and cone cells and control the activity of their target guanylate cyclases in a Ca(2+)-relay mode fashion. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Control of guanylate cyclase activity in the rod outer segment.

    PubMed

    Pannbacker, R G

    1973-12-14

    Mammalian photoreceptors contain a guanylate cyclase which has a high specific activity and is inhibited by exposure of the rod outer segment to light. Several minutes are required for this inhibition to take effect, indicating that it is not a step in visual excitation. The activity of the enzyme is sensitive to the concentration of calcium ion in the medium, suggesting that light-induced changes in calcium distribution in the photoreceptor could control guanylate cyclase activity.

  9. Immunohistochemical Localization of Guanylate Cyclase within Neurons of Rat Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariano, Marjorie A.; Lewicki, John A.; Brandwein, Harvey J.; Murad, Ferid

    1982-02-01

    The immunohistochemical localization of guanylate cyclase [GTP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.2] has been examined in rat neocortex, caudate-putamen, and cerebellum by using specific monoclonal antibodies. Immunofluorescence could be seen within somata and proximal dendrites of neurons in these regions. A nuclear immunofluorescence reaction to guanylate cyclase was characteristically absent. The staining pattern for guanylate cyclase was coincident with previously described localizations of cyclic GMP immunofluorescence within medium spiny neurons of the caudate-putamen and pyramidal cells of the neocortex. Cerebellar guanylate cyclase immunoreactivity was primarily confined to Purkinje cells and their primary dendrites, similar to the pattern reported for cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase localization. Guanylate cyclase immunofluorescence was abolished when the monoclonal antibodies were exposed to purified enzyme prior to incubation of the tissue slices or when control antibody was substituted for the primary antibody. Immunohistochemical localization of cyclic AMP in these same tissues was readily distinguished from that of guanylate cyclase or cyclic GMP, showing uniform fluorescence throughout the cell bodies of neurons and glial elements.

  10. Plant growth-promoting hormones activate mammalian guanylate cyclase activity.

    PubMed

    Vesely, D L; Hudson, J L; Pipkin, J L; Pack, L D; Meiners, S E

    1985-05-01

    In vivo injections of plant growth-promoting hormones increase the growth of animals as well as plants. Plant growth-promoting hormones and positive plant growth regulators are known to increase RNA and protein synthesis. Since cyclic GMP also increases RNA and protein synthesis, the object of the present investigation was to determine whether physiological levels of plant growth-promoting hormones and positive plant growth regulators have part of their mechanism(s) of action through stimulation of the guanylate cyclase (EC 4.6.1.2)-cyclic GMP system. Representatives of the three classes of growth-promoting hormones were investigated. Thus, auxins (indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, beta-naphthoxyacetic acid, and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid), gibberellins (gibberellic acid), and cytokinins [N6-benzyl adenine, kinetin (6-furfuryl aminopurine), and beta-(2-furyl) acrylic acid] all increased rat lung, small intestine, liver, and renal cortex guanylate cyclase activity 2- to 4-fold at the 1 microM concentration. Dose response curves revealed that maximal stimulation of guanylate cyclase by these plant growth regulators was at 1 microM; there was no augmented cyclase activity at 1 nM. The guanylate cyclase cationic cofactor manganese was not essential for augmentation of guanylate cyclase by these plant growth-promoting regulators. The antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene did not block the enhancement of guanylate cyclase by these plant growth-promoting factors. These data suggest that guanylate cyclase may play a role in the mechanism of action of plant growth-promoting hormones and even of positive plant regulators at the cellular level.

  11. Soluble guanylate cyclase as an alternative target for bronchodilator therapy in asthma

    PubMed Central

    Koziol-White, Cynthia J.; Asosingh, Kewal; Cheng, Georgina; Ruple, Lisa; Groneberg, Dieter; Friebe, Andreas; Comhair, Suzy A. A.; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Panettieri, Reynold A.; Aronica, Mark A.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Stuehr, Dennis J.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is defined by airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness, and contributes to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although bronchodilation is a cornerstone of treatment, current bronchodilators become ineffective with worsening asthma severity. We investigated an alternative pathway that involves activating the airway smooth muscle enzyme, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). Activating sGC by its natural stimulant nitric oxide (NO), or by pharmacologic sGC agonists BAY 41–2272 and BAY 60–2770, triggered bronchodilation in normal human lung slices and in mouse airways. Both BAY 41–2272 and BAY 60–2770 reversed airway hyperresponsiveness in mice with allergic asthma and restored normal lung function. The sGC from mouse asthmatic lungs displayed three hallmarks of oxidative damage that render it NO-insensitive, and identical changes to sGC occurred in human lung slices or in human airway smooth muscle cells when given chronic NO exposure to mimic the high NO in asthmatic lung. Our findings show how allergic inflammation in asthma may impede NO-based bronchodilation, and reveal that pharmacologic sGC agonists can achieve bronchodilation despite this loss. PMID:27071111

  12. Characterization and expression of soluble guanylate cyclase in skins and melanocytes of sheep.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shanshan; Zhang, Junzhen; Ji, Kaiyuan; Jiao, Dingxing; Fan, Ruiwen; Dong, Changsheng

    2016-04-01

    The study reported the characterization of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) with the size of CDS of 1860bp, encoding a protein of 620 amino acids and containing several conserved functional domains including HNOB, HNOBA, and CHD. Quantitative real time PCR analysis of sGC showed that the expression of sGC mRNA is higher (∼5 fold) in white sheep skin relative to black sheep skin with significant difference (P<0.01). Using a rabbit polyclonal anti-sGC antibody, an immune reactive band corresponding to sheep sGC protein was detected in the skin samples by Western blotting analysis, and the expression of sGC protein was significantly higher in white sheep skin compared to black sheep skin (P<0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that sGC protein was localized in cytoplasm and intercellular substance of upper hair papilla in hair follicles of white sheep skin, but the protein was localized in cytoplasm and intercellular substance of lower hair bulb and outer root sheath cells in hair follicles of black sheep skin. The immunocytochemical analysis revealed that sGC was expressed in melanocytes in vitro of sheep skin. Over expression of sGC in melanocytes resulted in decreased expression of key melanogenic genes including microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase related protein 1(TYRTP1), and tyrosinase related protein 2(TYRP2) both at mRNA and protein level. Moreover, the melanocytes was capable of producing cGMP and cAMP. The observed differential expression and localization of sGC in sheep skins and melanocytes and the capability of producing cGMP and cAMP, which suggested a potential role for this gene in hair color regulation.

  13. Alterations in soluble guanylate cyclase content and modulation by nitric oxide in liver disease.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Regina; Montoliu, Carmina; Chatauret, Nicolas; Butterworth, Roger; Behrends, Soenke; Del Olmo, Juan A; Serra, Miguel A; Rodrigo, José M; Erceg, Slaven; Felipo, Vicente

    2004-11-01

    Hyperammonemia is the main responsible for the neurological alterations in hepatic encephalopathy in patients with liver failure. We studied the function of the glutamate-nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway in brain in animal models of hyperammonemia and liver failure and in patients died with liver cirrhosis. Activation of glutamate receptors increases intracellular calcium that binds to calmodulin and activates neuronal nitric oxide synthase, increasing nitric oxide, which activates soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), increasing cGMP. This glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway modulates cerebral processes such as circadian rhythms, the sleep-waking cycle, and some forms of learning and memory. These processes are impaired in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Activation of sGC by NO is significantly increased in cerebral cortex and significantly reduced in cerebellum from cirrhotic patients died in hepatic coma. Portacaval anastomosis in rats, an animal model of liver failure, reproduces the effects of liver failure on modulation of sGC by NO both in cerebral cortex and cerebellum. In vivo brain microdialisis studies showed that sGC activation by NO is also reduced in vivo in cerebellum in hyperammonemic rats with or without liver failure. The content of alpha but not beta subunits of sGC are increased both in frontal cortex and cerebellum from patients died due to liver disease and from rats with portacaval anastomosis. We assessed whether determination of activation of sGC by NO-generating agent SNAP in lymphocytes could serve as a peripheral marker for the impairment of sGC activation by NO in brain. Chronic hyperammonemia and liver failure also alter sGC activation by NO in lymphocytes from rats or patients. These findings show that the content and modulation by NO of sGC are strongly altered in brain of patients with liver disease. These alterations could be responsible for some of the neurological alterations in hepatic encephalopathy such as sleep disturbances and

  14. Soluble guanylate cyclase stimulators increase sensitivity to cisplatin in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, Traci R; Takiar, Vinita; Kumar, Bhavna; Kumar, Pawan; Ben-Jonathan, Nira

    2017-03-28

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is an aggressive and often fatal disease. Cisplatin is the most common chemotherapeutic drug in the treatment of HNSCC, but intrinsic and acquired resistance are frequent, and severe side effects occur at high doses. The second messenger cyclic GMP (cGMP) is produced by soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). We previously reported that activation of the cGMP signaling cascade caused apoptosis in HNSCC cells, while others found that this pathway enhances cisplatin efficacy in some cell types. Here we found that sGC stimulators reduced HNSCC cell viability synergistically with cisplatin, and enhanced apoptosis by cisplatin. Moreover, the sGC stimulators effectively reduced viability in cells with acquired cisplatin resistance, and were synergistic with cisplatin. The sGC stimulator BAY 41-2272 reduced expression of the survival proteins EGFR and β-catenin, and increased pro-apoptotic Bax, suggesting a potential mechanism for the anti-tumorigenic effects of these drugs. The sGC stimulator Riociguat is FDA-approved to treat pulmonary hypertension, and others are being studied for therapeutic use in several diseases. These drugs could provide valuable addition or alternative to cisplatin in the treatment of HNSCC.

  15. Cardiovascular and pharmacological implications of haem-deficient NO-unresponsive soluble guanylate cyclase knock-in mice.

    PubMed

    Thoonen, Robrecht; Cauwels, Anje; Decaluwe, Kelly; Geschka, Sandra; Tainsh, Robert E; Delanghe, Joris; Hochepied, Tino; De Cauwer, Lode; Rogge, Elke; Voet, Sofie; Sips, Patrick; Karas, Richard H; Bloch, Kenneth D; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Van de Voorde, Johan; Buys, Emmanuel S; Brouckaert, Peter

    2015-10-07

    Oxidative stress, a central mediator of cardiovascular disease, results in loss of the prosthetic haem group of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), preventing its activation by nitric oxide (NO). Here we introduce Apo-sGC mice expressing haem-free sGC. Apo-sGC mice are viable and develop hypertension. The haemodynamic effects of NO are abolished, but those of the sGC activator cinaciguat are enhanced in apo-sGC mice, suggesting that the effects of NO on smooth muscle relaxation, blood pressure regulation and inhibition of platelet aggregation require sGC activation by NO. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-induced hypotension and mortality are preserved in apo-sGC mice, indicating that pathways other than sGC signalling mediate the cardiovascular collapse in shock. Apo-sGC mice allow for differentiation between sGC-dependent and -independent NO effects and between haem-dependent and -independent sGC effects. Apo-sGC mice represent a unique experimental platform to study the in vivo consequences of sGC oxidation and the therapeutic potential of sGC activators.

  16. Cardiovascular and pharmacological implications of haem-deficient NO-unresponsive soluble guanylate cyclase knock-in mice

    PubMed Central

    Thoonen, Robrecht; Cauwels, Anje; Decaluwe, Kelly; Geschka, Sandra; Tainsh, Robert E.; Delanghe, Joris; Hochepied, Tino; De Cauwer, Lode; Rogge, Elke; Voet, Sofie; Sips, Patrick; Karas, Richard H.; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Van de Voorde, Johan; Buys, Emmanuel S.; Brouckaert, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress, a central mediator of cardiovascular disease, results in loss of the prosthetic haem group of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), preventing its activation by nitric oxide (NO). Here we introduce Apo-sGC mice expressing haem-free sGC. Apo-sGC mice are viable and develop hypertension. The haemodynamic effects of NO are abolished, but those of the sGC activator cinaciguat are enhanced in apo-sGC mice, suggesting that the effects of NO on smooth muscle relaxation, blood pressure regulation and inhibition of platelet aggregation require sGC activation by NO. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-induced hypotension and mortality are preserved in apo-sGC mice, indicating that pathways other than sGC signalling mediate the cardiovascular collapse in shock. Apo-sGC mice allow for differentiation between sGC-dependent and -independent NO effects and between haem-dependent and -independent sGC effects. Apo-sGC mice represent a unique experimental platform to study the in vivo consequences of sGC oxidation and the therapeutic potential of sGC activators. PMID:26442659

  17. Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Agonists Inhibit Expression and Procoagulant Activity of Tissue Factor

    PubMed Central

    Sovershaev, Mikhail A.; Egorina, Elena M.; Hansen, John-Bjarne; Østerud, Bjarne; Pacher, Pál; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Evgenov, Oleg V.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Tissue factor (TF), a major initiator of blood coagulation, contributes to inflammation, atherosclerosis, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling. Pharmacological agonists of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) attenuate systemic and pulmonary hypertension, vascular remodeling, and platelet aggregation. However, the influence of these novel pharmacophores on TF is unknown. Methods and Results We evaluated effects of BAY 41-2272 and BAY 58-2667 on expression and activity of TF in human monocytes and umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Both compounds reduced expression of active TF protein in monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, as demonstrated by immunoblotting and a TF procoagulant activity assay. In-cell Western assay revealed that this effect was associated with a marked reduction of total and surface TF presentation. Furthermore, BAY 41-2272 and BAY 58-2667 decreased TF protein expression and the TF-dependent procoagulant activity in HUVECs stimulated with TNF-α. The sGC agonists also suppressed transcriptional activity of NF-κB. A siRNA-mediated knockdown of the α1-subunit of sGC in monocytes and HUVECs confirmed that the inhibitory effect of BAY 41-2272 and BAY 58-2667 on TF expression is mediated through the sGC-dependent mechanisms. Conclusions Inhibition of TF expression and activity by sGC agonists might provide therapeutic benefits in cardiovascular diseases associated with enhanced procoagulant and inflammatory response. PMID:19592462

  18. Redox Regulation of Guanylate Cyclase and Protein Kinase G in Vascular Responses to Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Neo, Boon Hwa; Kandhi, Sharath; Ahmad, Mansoor; Wolin, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    The production of cGMP by the soluble form of guanylate cyclase (sGC) in bovine pulmonary arteries (BPA) is controlled by cytosolic NADPH maintaining reduced thiol and heme sites on sGC needed for activation by NO, and the levels of Nox oxidase-derived superoxide and peroxide that influence pathways regulating sGC activity. Our recent studies in BPA suggest that the activities of peroxide metabolizing pathways in vascular smooth muscle potentially determine the balance between sGC stimulation by peroxide and a cGMP-independent activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) by a disulfide-mediated subunit dimerization. Cytosolic NADPH oxidation also appears to function in BPA through its influence on protein thiol redox control as an additional mechanism promoting vascular relaxation through PKG activation. These processes regulating PKG may participate in decreases in peroxide and increases in NADPH associated with contraction of BPA to hypoxia and in cytosolic NADPH oxidation potentially mediating bovine coronary artery relaxation to hypoxia. PMID:20831906

  19. Probing the Molecular Mechanism of Human Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Activation by NO in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jie; Yuan, Hong; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Huijuan; Xu, Qiming; Zhou, Yajun; Tan, Li; Nagawa, Shingo; Huang, Zhong-Xian; Tan, Xiangshi

    2017-01-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is a heme-containing metalloprotein in NO-sGC-cGMP signaling. NO binds to the heme of sGC to catalyze the synthesis of the second messenger cGMP, which plays a critical role in several physiological processes. However, the molecular mechanism for sGC to mediate the NO signaling remains unclear. Here fluorophore FlAsH-EDT2 and fluorescent proteins were employed to study the NO-induced sGC activation. FlAsH-EDT2 labeling study revealed that NO binding to the H-NOX domain of sGC increased the distance between H-NOX and PAS domain and the separation between H-NOX and coiled-coil domain. The heme pocket conformation changed from “closed” to “open” upon NO binding. In addition, the NO-induced conformational change of sGC was firstly investigated in vivo through fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. The results both in vitro and in vivo indicated the conformational change of the catalytic domain of sGC from “open” to “closed” upon NO binding. NO binding to the heme of H-NOX domain caused breaking of Fe-N coordination bond, initiated the domain moving and conformational change, induced the allosteric effect of sGC to trigger the NO-signaling from H-NOX via PAS & coiled-coil to the catalytic domain, and ultimately stimulates the cyclase activity of sGC. PMID:28230071

  20. Decreased Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Contributes to Cardiac Dysfunction Induced by Chronic Doxorubicin Treatment in Mice.

    PubMed

    Vandenwijngaert, Sara; Swinnen, Melissa; Walravens, Ann-Sophie; Beerens, Manu; Gillijns, Hilde; Caluwé, Ellen; Tainsh, Robert E; Nathan, Daniel I; Allen, Kaitlin; Brouckaert, Peter; Bartunek, Jozef; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Bloch, Kenneth D; Bloch, Donald B; Janssens, Stefan P; Buys, Emmanuel S

    2017-02-01

    The use of doxorubicin, a potent chemotherapeutic agent, is limited by cardiotoxicity. We tested the hypothesis that decreased soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) enzyme activity contributes to the development of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Doxorubicin administration (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [IP]) reduced cardiac sGC activity in wild-type (WT) mice. To investigate whether decreased sGC activity contributes to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, we studied mice with cardiomyocyte-specific deficiency of the sGC α1-subunit (mice with cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of exon 6 of the sGCα1 allele [sGCα1(-/-CM)]). After 12 weeks of doxorubicin administration (2 mg/kg/week IP), left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction was greater in sGCα1(-/-CM) than WT mice. To further assess whether reduced sGC activity plays a pathogenic role in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, we studied a mouse model in which decreased cardiac sGC activity was induced by cardiomyocyte-specific expression of a dominant negative sGCα1 mutant (DNsGCα1) upon doxycycline removal (Tet-off). After 8 weeks of doxorubicin administration, DNsGCα1(tg/+), but not WT, mice displayed LV systolic dysfunction and dilatation. The difference in cardiac function and remodeling between DNsGCα1(tg/+) and WT mice was even more pronounced after 12 weeks of treatment. Further impairment of cardiac function was attenuated when DNsGCα1 gene expression was inhibited (beginning at 8 weeks of doxorubicin treatment) by administering doxycycline. Furthermore, doxorubicin-associated reactive oxygen species generation was higher in sGCα1-deficient than WT hearts. Innovation and Conclusion: These data demonstrate that a reduction in cardiac sGC activity worsens doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice and identify sGC as a potential therapeutic target. Various pharmacological sGC agonists are in clinical development or use and may represent a promising approach to limit doxorubicin

  1. Decreased Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Contributes to Cardiac Dysfunction Induced by Chronic Doxorubicin Treatment in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vandenwijngaert, Sara; Swinnen, Melissa; Walravens, Ann-Sophie; Beerens, Manu; Gillijns, Hilde; Caluwé, Ellen; Tainsh, Robert E.; Nathan, Daniel I.; Allen, Kaitlin; Brouckaert, Peter; Bartunek, Jozef; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Bloch, Donald B.; Janssens, Stefan P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The use of doxorubicin, a potent chemotherapeutic agent, is limited by cardiotoxicity. We tested the hypothesis that decreased soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) enzyme activity contributes to the development of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Results: Doxorubicin administration (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [IP]) reduced cardiac sGC activity in wild-type (WT) mice. To investigate whether decreased sGC activity contributes to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, we studied mice with cardiomyocyte-specific deficiency of the sGC α1-subunit (mice with cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of exon 6 of the sGCα1 allele [sGCα1−/−CM]). After 12 weeks of doxorubicin administration (2 mg/kg/week IP), left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction was greater in sGCα1−/−CM than WT mice. To further assess whether reduced sGC activity plays a pathogenic role in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, we studied a mouse model in which decreased cardiac sGC activity was induced by cardiomyocyte-specific expression of a dominant negative sGCα1 mutant (DNsGCα1) upon doxycycline removal (Tet-off). After 8 weeks of doxorubicin administration, DNsGCα1tg/+, but not WT, mice displayed LV systolic dysfunction and dilatation. The difference in cardiac function and remodeling between DNsGCα1tg/+ and WT mice was even more pronounced after 12 weeks of treatment. Further impairment of cardiac function was attenuated when DNsGCα1 gene expression was inhibited (beginning at 8 weeks of doxorubicin treatment) by administering doxycycline. Furthermore, doxorubicin-associated reactive oxygen species generation was higher in sGCα1-deficient than WT hearts. Innovation and Conclusion: These data demonstrate that a reduction in cardiac sGC activity worsens doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice and identify sGC as a potential therapeutic target. Various pharmacological sGC agonists are in clinical development or use and may represent a promising approach to limit doxorubicin

  2. Dephosphorylation of sperm guanylate cyclase during sea urchin fertilization

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    When intact Arbacia punctulata spermatozoa are exposed to solubilized egg jelly, the electrophoretic mobility of an abundant sperm flagellar membrane protein changes from an apparent molecular mass of 160 kDa to 150 kDa. A. punctulata spermatozoa can be labeled in vivo with /sup 32/P-labeled cells it was demonstrated that the mobility shift of the 160-kDa protein is due to dephosphorylation. The peptide resact (Cys-Val-Thr-Gly-Ala-Pro-Gly-Cys-Val-Gly-Gly-Gly-Arg-Leu-NH/sub 2/) is the component of egg jelly which is responsible for inducing the dephosphorylation. The 160/150-kdal sperm membrane protein has been purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-agarose, and identified as sperm guanylate cyclase. The enzymatic activity of the guanylate cyclase is tightly coupled to its phosphorylation state. Resact has been shown to act as a potent chemoattractant for A. punctulata spermatozoa. The chemotactic response is concentration-dependent, is abolished by pretreatment of the spermatozoa with resact, and shows an absolute requirement for external calcium. This work represents the first demonstration of animal sperm chemotaxis in response to a precisely-defined molecule of egg origin. The results established a new, biologically meaningful function for resact, and may implicate sperm guanylate cyclase and cGMP in flagellar function and the chemotactic response.

  3. Stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase prevents cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary hypertension and emphysema.

    PubMed

    Weissmann, Norbert; Lobo, Borja; Pichl, Alexandra; Parajuli, Nirmal; Seimetz, Michael; Puig-Pey, Raquel; Ferrer, Elisabet; Peinado, Víctor I; Domínguez-Fandos, David; Fysikopoulos, Athanasios; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Ghofrani, Hossein A; Coll-Bonfill, Núria; Frey, Reiner; Schermuly, Ralph T; García-Lucio, Jéssica; Blanco, Isabel; Bednorz, Mariola; Tura-Ceide, Olga; Tadele, Elsa; Brandes, Ralf P; Grimminger, Jan; Klepetko, Walter; Jaksch, Peter; Rodriguez-Roisin, Robert; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich; Barberà, Joan A

    2014-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of death worldwide. No therapy stopping progress of the disease is available. To investigate the role of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)-cGMP axis in development of lung emphysema and pulmonary hypertension (PH) and to test whether the sGC-cGMP axis is a treatment target for these conditions. Investigations were performed in human lung tissue from patients with COPD, healthy donors, mice, and guinea pigs. Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) for 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for up to 6 months and treated with BAY 63-2521. Guinea pigs were exposed to CS from six cigarettes per day for 3 months, 5 days per week and treated with BAY 41-2272. Both BAY compounds are sGC stimulators. Gene and protein expression analysis were performed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Lung compliance, hemodynamics, right ventricular heart mass alterations, and alveolar and vascular morphometry were performed, as well as inflammatory cell infiltrate assessment. In vitro assays of cell adhesion, proliferation, and apoptosis have been done. The functionally essential sGC β1-subunit was down-regulated in patients with COPD and in CS-exposed mice. sGC stimulators prevented the development of PH and emphysema in the two different CS-exposed animal models. sGC stimulation prevented peroxynitrite-induced apoptosis of alveolar and endothelial cells, reduced CS-induced inflammatory cell infiltrate in lung parenchyma, and inhibited adhesion of CS-stimulated neutrophils. The sGC-cGMP axis is perturbed by chronic exposure to CS. Treatment of COPD animal models with sGC stimulators can prevent CS-induced PH and emphysema.

  4. Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulators: a Novel Treatment Option for Heart Failure Associated with Cardiorenal Syndromes?

    PubMed

    Dubin, Ruth F; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2016-06-01

    Heart failure in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasingly common scenario and carries a poor prognosis. Clinicians lack tools for primary or secondary heart failure prevention in patients with cardiorenal syndromes. In patients without CKD, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) and statins mitigate cardiovascular risk in large part due to salutary effects on the endothelium. In the setting of CKD, use of these therapies is limited by adverse effects of hyperkalemia in pre-dialysis CKD (ACE-I/ARB), or potential increased risk of stroke in end-stage renal disease (statins). The soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulators are a novel class of medications that promote endothelial and myocardial function with no known risk of hyperkalemia or stroke. In this review, we discuss the evidence emerging from recent clinical trials of sGC stimulators in pulmonary hypertension and heart failure, the diseased pathways involved in cardiorenal syndromes likely to be restored by sGC stimulators, and several strategies for designing future clinical trials of cardiorenal syndromes that might shorten the timeline for discovery and approval of effective cardiovascular therapies in these high-risk patients.

  5. Zebrafish Guanylate Cyclase Type 3 Signaling in Cone Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Fries, Ramona; Scholten, Alexander; Säftel, Werner; Koch, Karl-Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish guanylate cyclase type 3 (zGC3) is specifically expressed in cone cells. A specifc antibody directed against zGC3 revealed expression at the protein level at 3.5 dpf in outer and inner retinal layers, which increased in intensity between 3.5 and 7 dpf. This expression pattern differed from sections of the adult retina showing strong immunostaining in outer segments of double cones and short single cones, less intense immunoreactivity in long single cones, but no staining in the inner retina. Although transcription and protein expression levels of zGC3 are similar to that of the cyclase regulator guanylate cyclase-activating protein 3 (zGCAP3), we surprisingly found that zGCAP3 is present in a 28-fold molar excess over zGC3 in zebrafish retinae. Further, zGCAP3 was an efficient regulator of guanylate cyclases activity in native zebrafish retinal membrane preparations. Therefore, we investigated the physiological function of zGCAP3 by two different behavioral assays. Using the morpholino antisense technique, we knocked down expression of zGCAP3 and recorded the optokinetic and optomotor responses of morphants, control morphants, and wild type fish at 5–6 dpf. No significant differences in behavioral responses among wild type, morphants and control morphants were found, indicating that a loss of zGCAP3 has no consequences in primary visual processing in the larval retina despite its prominent expression pattern. Its physiological function is therefore compensated by other zGCAP isoforms. PMID:23940527

  6. Chronic Activation of Heme Free Guanylate Cyclase Leads to Renal Protection in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Linda S.; Kretschmer, Axel; Lawrenz, Bettina; Hocher, Berthold; Stasch, Johannes-Peter

    2015-01-01

    The nitric oxide (NO)/soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)/cyclic guanosine monophasphate (cGMP)-signalling pathway is impaired under oxidative stress conditions due to oxidation and subsequent loss of the prosthetic sGC heme group as observed in particular in chronic renal failure. Thus, the pool of heme free sGC is increased under pathological conditions. sGC activators such as cinaciguat selectively activate the heme free form of sGC and target the disease associated enzyme. In this study, a therapeutic effect of long-term activation of heme free sGC by the sGC activator cinaciguat was investigated in an experimental model of salt-sensitive hypertension, a condition that is associated with increased oxidative stress, heme loss from sGC and development of chronic renal failure. For that purpose Dahl/ss rats, which develop severe hypertension upon high salt intake, were fed a high salt diet (8% NaCl) containing either placebo or cinaciguat for 21 weeks. Cinaciguat markedly improved survival and ameliorated the salt-induced increase in blood pressure upon treatment with cinaciguat compared to placebo. Renal function was significantly improved in the cinaciguat group compared to the placebo group as indicated by a significantly improved glomerular filtration rate and reduced urinary protein excretion. This was due to anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects of the cinaciguat treatment. Taken together, this is the first study showing that long-term activation of heme free sGC leads to renal protection in an experimental model of hypertension and chronic kidney disease. These results underline the promising potential of cinaciguat to treat renal diseases by targeting the disease associated heme free form of sGC. PMID:26717150

  7. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency leads to alteration of soluble guanylate cyclase redox regulation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Allan W; Durante, William; Korthuis, Ronald J

    2010-10-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 knockout, H(mox)1(-/-), mice exhibit exacerbated vascular lesions after ischemia-reperfusion and mechanical injury. Surprisingly, we found no studies that reported contractile responses and sensitivity to vasorelaxants in H(mox)1(-/-) mice. The contractile responses [superior mesenteric arteries (SMA), from female H(mox)1(-/-) mice] exhibited increased sensitivity to phenylephrine (p < 0.001). Cumulative addition of acetylcholine relaxed SMA, with the residual contraction remaining 2 times higher in H(mox)1(-/-) mice (p < 0.001). Sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO donor) and 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole [YC-1; acts directly on soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)] led to further relaxation, yet the residual contraction remained 2 to 3 times higher in H(mox)1(-/-) than H(mox)1(+/+) mice (p < 0.001). Branches from H(mox)1(-/-) mesenteric and renal arteries also showed reduced relaxation (p < 0.025). Relaxation of SMA was measured to 4-({(4-carboxybutyl) [2-(5-fluoro-2-{[4'-(trifluoromethyl) biphenyl-4-yl] methoxy}phenyl)ethyl]amino}benzoic acid (BAY 60-2770), which is a more effective activator of oxidized/heme-free sGC; and to 5-cyclopropyl-2-{1-(2-fluoro-benzyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-yl}-pyrimidin-4-ylamine (BAY 41-2272), a more effective stimulator of reduced sGC. H(mox)1(-/-) arteries were 15 times more sensitive to BAY 60-2770 (p < 0.025) than were H(mox)1(+/+) arteries. Pretreatment with 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[3,4-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), an oxidizer of sGC, predictably shifted the BAY 60-2770 response of H(mox)1(+/+) to the left (p < 0.01) and BAY 41-2272 response to the right (p < 0.01). ODQ had little effect on the responses of H(mox)1(-/-) arteries, indicating that much of sGC was oxidized/heme-free. Western analyses of sGC in SMA indicated that both α1 and β1 subunit levels were reduced to <50% of H(mox)1(+/+) level (p < 0.025). These findings support the hypothesis that the antioxidant function of H(mox)1 plays a

  8. Soluble guanylate cyclase modulators blunt hyperoxia effects on calcium responses of developing human airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Britt, Rodney D; Thompson, Michael A; Kuipers, Ine; Stewart, Alecia; Vogel, Elizabeth R; Thu, James; Martin, Richard J; Pabelick, Christina M; Prakash, Y S

    2015-09-15

    Exposure to moderate hyperoxia in prematurity contributes to subsequent airway dysfunction and increases the risk of developing recurrent wheeze and asthma. The nitric oxide (NO)-soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)-cyclic GMP (cGMP) axis modulates airway tone by regulating airway smooth muscle (ASM) intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) and contractility. However, the effects of hyperoxia on this axis in the context of Ca(2+)/contractility are not known. In developing human ASM, we explored the effects of novel drugs that activate sGC independent of NO on alleviating hyperoxia (50% oxygen)-induced enhancement of Ca(2+) responses to bronchoconstrictor agonists. Treatment with BAY 41-2272 (sGC stimulator) and BAY 60-2770 (sGC activator) increased cGMP levels during exposure to 50% O2. Although 50% O2 did not alter sGCα1 or sGCβ1 expression, BAY 60-2770 did increase sGCβ1 expression. BAY 41-2272 and BAY 60-2770 blunted Ca(2+) responses to histamine in cells exposed to 50% O2. The effects of BAY 41-2272 and BAY 60-2770 were reversed by protein kinase G inhibition. These novel data demonstrate that BAY 41-2272 and BAY 60-2770 stimulate production of cGMP and blunt hyperoxia-induced increases in Ca(2+) responses in developing ASM. Accordingly, sGC stimulators/activators may be a useful therapeutic strategy in improving bronchodilation in preterm infants.

  9. Neurons detect increases and decreases in oxygen levels using distinct guanylate cyclases.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Manuel; Gray, Jesse M; Pokala, Navin; Chang, Andy J; Karow, David S; Marletta, Michael A; Hudson, Martin L; Morton, David B; Chronis, Nikos; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2009-03-26

    Homeostatic sensory systems detect small deviations in temperature, water balance, pH, and energy needs to regulate adaptive behavior and physiology. In C. elegans, a homeostatic preference for intermediate oxygen (O2) levels requires cGMP signaling through soluble guanylate cyclases (sGCs), proteins that bind gases through an associated heme group. Here we use behavioral analysis, functional imaging, and genetics to show that reciprocal changes in O2 levels are encoded by sensory neurons that express alternative sets of sGCs. URX sensory neurons are activated by increases in O2 levels, and require the sGCs gcy-35 and gcy-36. BAG sensory neurons are activated by decreases in O2 levels, and require the sGCs gcy-31 and gcy-33. The sGCs are instructive O2 sensors, as forced expression of URX sGC genes causes BAG neurons to detect O2 increases. Both sGC expression and cell-intrinsic dynamics contribute to the differential roles of URX and BAG in O2-dependent behaviors.

  10. The Function of Guanylate Cyclase 1 and Guanylate Cyclase 2 in Rod and Cone Photoreceptors*S

    PubMed Central

    Baehr, Wolfgang; Karan, Sukanya; Maeda, Tadao; Luo, Dong-Gen; Li, Sha; Darin Bronson, J.; Watt, Carl B.; Yau, King-Wai; Frederick, Jeanne M.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    Retinal guanylate cyclases 1 and 2 (GC1 and GC2) are responsible for synthesis of cyclic GMP in rods and cones, but their individual contributions to phototransduction are unknown. We report here that the deletion of both GC1 and GC2 rendered rod and cone photoreceptors nonfunctional and unstable. In the rod outer segments of GC double knock-out mice, guanylate cyclase-activating proteins 1 and 2, and cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase were undetectable, although rhodopsin and transducin α-subunit were mostly unaffected. Outer segment membranes of GC1−/− and GC double knock-out cones were destabilized and devoid of cone transducin (α- and γ-subunits), cone phosphodiesterase, and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1, whereas cone pigments were present at reduced levels. Real time reverse transcription-PCR analyses demonstrated normal RNA transcript levels for the down-regulated proteins, indicating that down-regulation is posttranslational. We interpret these results to demonstrate an intrinsic requirement of GCs for stability and/or transport of a set of membrane-associated phototransduction proteins. PMID:17255100

  11. Motion of proximal histidine and structural allosteric transition in soluble guanylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Byung-Kuk; Lamarre, Isabelle; Martin, Jean-Louis; Rappaport, Fabrice; Negrerie, Michel

    2015-04-07

    We investigated the changes of heme coordination in purified soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) by time-resolved spectroscopy in a time range encompassing 11 orders of magnitude (from 1 ps to 0.2 s). After dissociation, NO either recombines geminately to the 4-coordinate (4c) heme (τG1 = 7.5 ps; 97 ± 1% of the population) or exits the heme pocket (3 ± 1%). The proximal His rebinds to the 4c heme with a 70-ps time constant. Then, NO is distributed in two approximately equal populations (1.5%). One geminately rebinds to the 5c heme (τG2 = 6.5 ns), whereas the other diffuses out to the solution, from where it rebinds bimolecularly (τ = 50 μs with [NO] = 200 μM) forming a 6c heme with a diffusion-limited rate constant of 2 × 10(8) M(-1)⋅s(-1). In both cases, the rebinding of NO induces the cleavage of the Fe-His bond that can be observed as an individual reaction step. Saliently, the time constant of bond cleavage differs depending on whether NO binds geminately or from solution (τ5C1 = 0.66 μs and τ5C2 = 10 ms, respectively). Because the same event occurs with rates separated by four orders of magnitude, this measurement implies that sGC is in different structural states in both cases, having different strain exerted on the Fe-His bond. We show here that this structural allosteric transition takes place in the range 1-50 μs. In this context, the detection of NO binding to the proximal side of sGC heme is discussed.

  12. Motion of proximal histidine and structural allosteric transition in soluble guanylate cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Byung-Kuk; Lamarre, Isabelle; Martin, Jean-Louis; Rappaport, Fabrice; Negrerie, Michel

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the changes of heme coordination in purified soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) by time-resolved spectroscopy in a time range encompassing 11 orders of magnitude (from 1 ps to 0.2 s). After dissociation, NO either recombines geminately to the 4-coordinate (4c) heme (τG1 = 7.5 ps; 97 ± 1% of the population) or exits the heme pocket (3 ± 1%). The proximal His rebinds to the 4c heme with a 70-ps time constant. Then, NO is distributed in two approximately equal populations (1.5%). One geminately rebinds to the 5c heme (τG2 = 6.5 ns), whereas the other diffuses out to the solution, from where it rebinds bimolecularly (τ = 50 μs with [NO] = 200 μM) forming a 6c heme with a diffusion-limited rate constant of 2 × 108 M−1⋅s−1. In both cases, the rebinding of NO induces the cleavage of the Fe-His bond that can be observed as an individual reaction step. Saliently, the time constant of bond cleavage differs depending on whether NO binds geminately or from solution (τ5C1 = 0.66 μs and τ5C2 = 10 ms, respectively). Because the same event occurs with rates separated by four orders of magnitude, this measurement implies that sGC is in different structural states in both cases, having different strain exerted on the Fe-His bond. We show here that this structural allosteric transition takes place in the range 1–50 μs. In this context, the detection of NO binding to the proximal side of sGC heme is discussed. PMID:25831539

  13. Soluble Guanylate Cyclase as a Novel Treatment Target for Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Joshua, Jisha; Schwaerzer, Gerburg K.; Kalyanaraman, Hema; Cory, Esther; Sah, Robert L.; Li, Mofei; Vaida, Florin; Boss, Gerry R.

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem leading to fractures that cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Current osteoporosis therapies have significant drawbacks, creating a need for novel bone-anabolic agents. We previously showed that the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP (cGMP)/protein kinase G pathway mediates some of the anabolic effects of estrogens and mechanical stimulation in osteoblasts and osteocytes, leading us to hypothesize that cGMP-elevating agents may have bone-protective effects. We tested cinaciguat, a prototype of a novel class of soluble guanylate cyclase activators, in a mouse model of estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis. Compared with sham-operated mice, ovariectomized mice had lower serum cGMP concentrations, which were largely restored to normal by treatment with cinaciguat or low-dose 17β-estradiol. Microcomputed tomography of tibiae showed that cinaciguat significantly improved trabecular bone microarchitecture in ovariectomized animals, with effect sizes similar to those obtained with estrogen replacement therapy. Cinaciguat reversed ovariectomy-induced osteocyte apoptosis as efficiently as estradiol and enhanced bone formation parameters in vivo, consistent with in vitro effects on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Compared with 17β-estradiol, which completely reversed the ovariectomy-induced increase in osteoclast number, cinaciguat had little effect on osteoclasts. Direct guanylate cyclase stimulators have been extremely well tolerated in clinical trials of cardiovascular diseases, and our findings provide proof-of-concept for this new class of drugs as a novel, anabolic treatment strategy for postmenopausal osteoporosis, confirming an important role of nitric oxide/cGMP/protein kinase G signaling in bone. PMID:25188528

  14. Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulation Prevents Fibrotic Tissue Remodeling and Improves Survival in Salt-Sensitive Dahl Rats

    PubMed Central

    Geschka, Sandra; Kretschmer, Axel; Sharkovska, Yuliya; Evgenov, Oleg V.; Lawrenz, Bettina; Hucke, Andreas; Hocher, Berthold; Stasch, Johannes-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background A direct pharmacological stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is an emerging therapeutic approach to the management of various cardiovascular disorders associated with endothelial dysfunction. Novel sGC stimulators, including riociguat (BAY 63-2521), have a dual mode of action: They sensitize sGC to endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO) and also directly stimulate sGC independently of NO. Little is known about their effects on tissue remodeling and degeneration and survival in experimental malignant hypertension. Methods and Results Mortality, hemodynamics and biomarkers of tissue remodeling and degeneration were assessed in Dahl salt-sensitive rats maintained on a high salt diet and treated with riociguat (3 or 10 mg/kg/d) for 14 weeks. Riociguat markedly attenuated systemic hypertension, improved systolic heart function and increased survival from 33% to 85%. Histological examination of the heart and kidneys revealed that riociguat significantly ameliorated fibrotic tissue remodeling and degeneration. Correspondingly, mRNA expression of the pro-fibrotic biomarkers osteopontin (OPN), tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in the myocardium and the renal cortex was attenuated by riociguat. In addition, riociguat reduced plasma and urinary levels of OPN, TIMP-1, and PAI-1. Conclusions Stimulation of sGC by riociguat markedly improves survival and attenuates systemic hypertension and systolic dysfunction, as well as fibrotic tissue remodeling in the myocardium and the renal cortex in a rodent model of pressure and volume overload. These findings suggest a therapeutic potential of sGC stimulators in diseases associated with impaired cardiovascular and renal functions. PMID:21789188

  15. [Soluble guanylate cyclase in the molecular mechanism underlying the therapeutic action of drugs].

    PubMed

    Piatakova, N V; Severina, I S

    2012-01-01

    The influence of ambroxol--a mucolytic drug--on the activity of human platelet soluble guanylate cyclase and rat lung soluble guanylate cyclase and activation of both enzymes by NO-donors (sodium nitroprusside and Sin-1) were investigated. Ambroxol in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10 microM had no effect on the basal activity of both enzymes. Ambroxol inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the sodium nitroprusside-induced human platelet soluble guanylate cyclase and rat lung soluble guanylate cyclase with the IC50 values 3.9 and 2.1 microM, respectively. Ambroxol did not influence the stimulation of both enzymes by protoporphyrin IX. The influence of artemisinin--an antimalarial drug--on human platelet soluble guanylate cyclase activity and the enzyme activation by NO-donors were investigated. Artemisinin (0.1-100 microM) had no effect on the basal activity of the enzyme. Artemisinin inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the sodium nitroprusside-induced activation of human platelet guanylate cyclase with an IC50 value 5.6 microM. Artemisinin (10 microM) also inhibited (by 71 +/- 4.0%) the activation of the enzyme by thiol-dependent NO-donor the derivative of furoxan, 3,4-dicyano-1,2,5-oxadiazolo-2-oxide (10 microM), but did not influence the stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase by protoporphyrin IX. It was concluded that the sygnalling system NO-soluble guanylate cyclase-cGMP is involved in the molecular mechanism of the therapeutic action of ambroxol and artemisinin.

  16. Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to Soluble Rat Lung Guanylate Cyclase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandwein, Harvey; Lewicki, John; Murad, Ferid

    1981-07-01

    Four monoclonal antibodies to rat lung soluble guanylate cyclase [GTP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing) EC 4.6.1.2] have been produced by fusing spleen cells from immunized BALB/c mice with SP-2/0 myeloma cells. The antibodies were detected by their ability to bind immobilized guanylate cyclase and by immunoprecipitation of purified enzyme in the presence of second (rabbit anti-mouse) antibody. After subcloning by limiting dilution, hybridomas were injected intraperitoneally into mice to produce ascitic fluid containing 2-5 mg of antibody per ml. The four antibodies obtained had titers of between 1:1580 and 1:3160 but were detectable at dilutions greater than 1:20,000. Soluble guanylate cyclase from several rat tissues were crossreactive with the four monoclonal antibodies, suggesting that the soluble enzyme from different rat tissues is antigenically similar. The antibodies also recognized soluble lung enzyme from rat, beef, and pig, while enzyme from rabbit was not crossreactive and mouse enzyme was recognized by only one of the antibodies. Particulate guanylate cyclase from a number of tissues had only minimal crossreactivity with the antibodies. Immunoprecipitated guanylate cyclase retained catalytic activity, could be activated with sodium nitroprusside, and was inhibited by cystamine. None of the antibodies were inhibitory under the conditions examined. These antibodies will be useful probes for the study of guanylate cyclase regulation and function under a variety of physiological conditions.

  17. Probing Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Activation by CO and YC-1 using Resonance Raman Spectroscopy†

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohammed; Derbyshire, Emily R.; Marletta, Michael A.; Spiro, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is weakly activated by CO but is significantly activated by the binding of YC-1 to the sGC-CO complex. In this report resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy was used to study selected sGC variants. Addition of YC-1 to the sGC-CO complex alters the intensity pattern of RR bands assigned to the vinyl and propionate heme substituents, suggesting changes in the tilting of the pyrrole rings to which they are attached. YC-1 also shifts the RR intensity of the νFeC and νCO bands from 473 and 1985 cm−1 to 487 and 1969 cm−1, respectively, and induces an additional νFeC band, at 521 cm−1, assigned to 5-coordinate heme-CO. Site-directed variants in the proximal heme pocket (P118A) or in the distal heme pocket (V5Y and I149Y) reduce the extent of YC-1 activation, along with the 473 cm−1 band intensity. These lower activity sGC variants display another νFeC band at 493 cm−1 which is insensitive to YC-1 addition and is attributed to protein that cannot be activated by the allosteric activator. The results are consistent with a model in which YC-1 binding to sGC-CO results in a conformational change that activates the protein. Specifically, YC-1 binding alters the heme geometry via peripheral non-bonded contacts, and also relieves an intrinsic electronic effect that diminishes FeCO backbonding in the native, YC-1 responsive protein. This electronic effect might involve neutralization of the heme propionates via H-bond contacts, or negative polarization by a distal cysteine residue. YC-1 binding also strains the Fe-histidine bond, leading to a population of 5-coordinate sGC-CO in addition to a conformationally distinct population of 6-coordinate sGC-CO. The loss of YC-1 activation in the sGC variants might involve a weakening of the heme-protein contacts which are thought to be critical to a YC-1-induced conformational change. PMID:20353168

  18. Guanylate cyclase inhibition by methylene blue as an option in the treatment of vasoplegia after a severe burn. A medical hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Jayme A.; Celotto, Andrea Carla; da Silva, Marcelo Felix; Evora, Paulo Roberto B.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Today it is known that severe burns can be accompanied by the phenomenon of vasoplegic syndrome (VS), which is manifested by persistent and diffuse vasodilation, hypotension and low vascular resistance, resulting in circulatory and respiratory failure. The decrease in systemic vascular resistance observed in VS is associated with excessive production of nitric oxide (NO). In the last 2 decades, studies have reported promising results from the administration of an NO competitor, methylene blue (MB), which is an inhibitor of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), in the treatment of refractory cases of vasoplegia. This medical hypothesis rationale is focused on the tripod of burns/vasoplegia catecholamine resistant/methylene blue. This article has 3 main objectives: 1) to study the guanylate cyclase inhibition by MB in burns; 2) to suggest MB as a viable, safe and useful co-adjuvant therapeutic tool of fluid resuscitation, and; 3) to suggest MB as burns hypotensive vasoplegia amine-resistant treatment. PMID:22534716

  19. Downregulation of vascular soluble guanylate cyclase induced by high salt intake in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Kagota, Satomi; Tamashiro, Akiko; Yamaguchi, Yu; Sugiura, Reiko; Kuno, Takayoshi; Nakamura, Kazuki; Kunitomo, Masaru

    2001-01-01

    Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP)-mediated mechanism plays an important role in vasodilatation and blood pressure regulation. We investigated the effects of high salt intake on the nitric oxide (NO) – cyclic GMP signal transduction pathway regulating relaxation in aortas of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).Four-week-old SHR and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) received a normal salt diet (0.3% NaCl) or a high salt diet (8% NaCl) for 4 weeks.In aortic rings from SHR, endothelium-dependent relaxations in response to acetylcholine (ACh), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and calcium ionophore A23187 were significantly impaired by the high salt intake. The endothelium-independent relaxations in response to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and nitroglycerin were also impaired, but that to 8-bromo-cyclic GMP remained unchanged. On the other hand, high salt diet had no significant effects on the relaxations of aortic rings from WKY.In aortas from SHR, the release of NO stimulated by ACh was significantly enhanced, whereas the production of cyclic GMP induced by either ACh or SNP was decreased by the high salt intake.Western blot analysis showed that the protein level of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) was slightly increased, whereas that of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) was dramatically reduced by the high salt intake.These results indicate that in SHR, excessive dietary salt can result in downregulation of sGC followed by decreased cyclic GMP production, which leads to impairment of vascular relaxation in responses to NO. It is notable that chronic high salt intake impairs the sGC/cyclic GMP pathway but not the eNOS/NO pathway. PMID:11606313

  20. Integrative Signaling Networks of Membrane Guanylate Cyclases: Biochemistry and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rameshwar K.; Duda, Teresa; Makino, Clint L.

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a historical perspective of cornerstone developments on the biochemistry and physiology of mammalian membrane guanylate cyclases (MGCs), highlighting contributions made by the authors and their collaborators. Upon resolution of early contentious studies, cyclic GMP emerged alongside cyclic AMP, as an important intracellular second messenger for hormonal signaling. However, the two signaling pathways differ in significant ways. In the cyclic AMP pathway, hormone binding to a G protein coupled receptor leads to stimulation or inhibition of an adenylate cyclase, whereas the cyclic GMP pathway dispenses with intermediaries; hormone binds to an MGC to affect its activity. Although the cyclic GMP pathway is direct, it is by no means simple. The modular design of the molecule incorporates regulation by ATP binding and phosphorylation. MGCs can form complexes with Ca2+-sensing subunits that either increase or decrease cyclic GMP synthesis, depending on subunit identity. In some systems, co-expression of two Ca2+ sensors, GCAP1 and S100B with ROS-GC1 confers bimodal signaling marked by increases in cyclic GMP synthesis when intracellular Ca2+ concentration rises or falls. Some MGCs monitor or are modulated by carbon dioxide via its conversion to bicarbonate. One MGC even functions as a thermosensor as well as a chemosensor; activity reaches a maximum with a mild drop in temperature. The complexity afforded by these multiple limbs of operation enables MGC networks to perform transductions traditionally reserved for G protein coupled receptors and Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channels and to serve a diverse array of functions, including control over cardiac vasculature, smooth muscle relaxation, blood pressure regulation, cellular growth, sensory transductions, neural plasticity and memory. PMID:27695398

  1. Bicarbonate Modulates Photoreceptor Guanylate Cyclase (ROS-GC) Catalytic Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Teresa; Wen, Xiao-Hong; Isayama, Tomoki; Sharma, Rameshwar K.; Makino, Clint L.

    2015-01-01

    By generating the second messenger cGMP in retinal rods and cones, ROS-GC plays a central role in visual transduction. Guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) link cGMP synthesis to the light-induced fall in [Ca2+]i to help set absolute sensitivity and assure prompt recovery of the response to light. The present report discloses a surprising feature of this system: ROS-GC is a sensor of bicarbonate. Recombinant ROS-GCs synthesized cGMP from GTP at faster rates in the presence of bicarbonate with an ED50 of 27 mm for ROS-GC1 and 39 mm for ROS-GC2. The effect required neither Ca2+ nor use of the GCAPs domains; however, stimulation of ROS-GC1 was more powerful in the presence of GCAP1 or GCAP2 at low [Ca2+]. When applied to retinal photoreceptors, bicarbonate enhanced the circulating current, decreased sensitivity to flashes, and accelerated flash response kinetics. Bicarbonate was effective when applied either to the outer or inner segment of red-sensitive cones. In contrast, bicarbonate exerted an effect when applied to the inner segment of rods but had little efficacy when applied to the outer segment. The findings define a new regulatory mechanism of the ROS-GC system that affects visual transduction and is likely to affect the course of retinal diseases caused by cGMP toxicity. PMID:25767116

  2. Bicarbonate Modulates Photoreceptor Guanylate Cyclase (ROS-GC) Catalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Duda, Teresa; Wen, Xiao-Hong; Isayama, Tomoki; Sharma, Rameshwar K; Makino, Clint L

    2015-04-24

    By generating the second messenger cGMP in retinal rods and cones, ROS-GC plays a central role in visual transduction. Guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) link cGMP synthesis to the light-induced fall in [Ca(2+)]i to help set absolute sensitivity and assure prompt recovery of the response to light. The present report discloses a surprising feature of this system: ROS-GC is a sensor of bicarbonate. Recombinant ROS-GCs synthesized cGMP from GTP at faster rates in the presence of bicarbonate with an ED50 of 27 mM for ROS-GC1 and 39 mM for ROS-GC2. The effect required neither Ca(2+) nor use of the GCAPs domains; however, stimulation of ROS-GC1 was more powerful in the presence of GCAP1 or GCAP2 at low [Ca(2+)]. When applied to retinal photoreceptors, bicarbonate enhanced the circulating current, decreased sensitivity to flashes, and accelerated flash response kinetics. Bicarbonate was effective when applied either to the outer or inner segment of red-sensitive cones. In contrast, bicarbonate exerted an effect when applied to the inner segment of rods but had little efficacy when applied to the outer segment. The findings define a new regulatory mechanism of the ROS-GC system that affects visual transduction and is likely to affect the course of retinal diseases caused by cGMP toxicity.

  3. Soluble guanylate cyclase is required for systemic vasodilation but not positive inotropy induced by nitroxyl in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guangshuo; Groneberg, Dieter; Sikka, Gautam; Hori, Daijiro; Ranek, Mark J; Nakamura, Taishi; Takimoto, Eiki; Paolocci, Nazareno; Berkowitz, Dan E; Friebe, Andreas; Kass, David A

    2015-02-01

    Nitroxyl (HNO), the reduced and protonated form of nitric oxide (NO·), confers unique physiological effects including vasorelaxation and enhanced cardiac contractility. These features have spawned current pharmaceutical development of HNO donors as heart failure therapeutics. HNO interacts with selective redox sensitive cysteines to effect signaling but is also proposed to activate soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) in vitro to induce vasodilation and potentially enhance contractility. Here, we tested whether sGC stimulation is required for these HNO effects in vivo and if HNO also modifies a redox-sensitive cysteine (C42) in protein kinase G-1α to control vasorelaxation. Intact mice and isolated arteries lacking the sGC-β subunit (sGCKO, results in full sGC deficiency) or expressing solely a redox-dead C42S mutant protein kinase G-1α were exposed to the pure HNO donor, CXL-1020. CXL-1020 induced dose-dependent systemic vasodilation while increasing contractility in controls; however, vasodilator effects were absent in sGCKO mice whereas contractility response remained. The CXL-1020 dose reversing 50% of preconstricted force in aortic rings was ≈400-fold greater in sGCKO than controls. Cyclic-GMP and cAMP levels were unaltered in myocardium exposed to CXL-1020, despite its inotropic-vasodilator activity. In protein kinase G-1α(C42S) mice, CXL-1020 induced identical vasorelaxation in vivo and in isolated aortic and mesenteric vessels as in littermate controls. In both groups, dilation was near fully blocked by pharmacologically inhibiting sGC. Thus, sGC and cGMP-dependent signaling are necessary and sufficient for HNO-induced vasodilation in vivo but are not required for positive inotropic action. Redox modulation of protein kinase G-1α is not a mechanism for HNO-mediated vasodilation. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Formycin triphosphate as a probe for the ATP binding site involved in the activation of guanylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Chang, C H; Yu, Z N; Song, D L

    1992-10-01

    Formycin A triphosphate (FTP), a fluorescent analog of ATP, slightly increased basal guanylate cyclase activity, but significantly potentiated guanylate cyclase activity stimulated by atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in rat lung membranes. FTP potentiated ANF-stimulated guanylate cyclase activity with an EC50 at about 90 microM and inhibited ATP-stimulated guanylate cyclase activity with an IC50 at about 100 microM. These results indicate that FTP binds more tightly than ATP for the same binding site. Therefore, FTP would be an excellent tool for studying the ATP binding site.

  5. Stimulation of human platelet guanylate cyclase by unsaturated fatty acid peroxides.

    PubMed Central

    Hidaka, H; Asano, T

    1977-01-01

    Guanylate cyclase [GTP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.2] activity of human platelet homogenates was stimulated by the addition of phospholipase A2 or unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic, vaccenic, linoleic, linolenic, eicosenoic, eicosadienoic, and arachidonic acids. The addition of lipoxidase potentiated the fatty acid-induced stimulation of guanylate cyclase purified by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The extent of the stimulation was dependent on the concentration of the oxidized form of these fatty acids (peroxides). Saturated fatty acids such as stearic and arachidic acids had no effect on the guanylate cyclase activity in the presence or absence of lipoxidase, indicating that human plateletguanylate cyclase is stimulated by unsaturated fatty acid peroxides rather than by fatty acids.Hemoglobin prevented the enzyme stimulation produced by low concentrations of fatty acid peroxides, but enhanced stimulation of the enzyme activity with high concentrations of fatty acid peroxides. 2-Mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol, and N-ethylmaleimide inhibited the guanylate cyclase activities both in the presence and absence of unsaturated fatty acidperoxide. The stimulation of guanylate cyclase activity by unsaturated fatty acid peroxidesis attributed to oxidation of sulfhydryl residues of the enzyme protein. PMID:20630

  6. Localization of soluble guanylate cyclase activity in the guinea pig cochlea suggests involvement in regulation of blood flow and supporting cell physiology.

    PubMed

    Fessenden, J D; Schacht, J

    1997-10-01

    Although the nitric oxide/cGMP pathway has many important roles in biology, studies of this system in the mammalian cochlea have focused on the first enzyme in the pathway, nitric oxide synthase (NOS). However, characterization of the NO receptor, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), is crucial to determine the cells targeted by NO and to develop rational hypotheses of the function of this pathway in auditory processing. In this study we characterized guinea pig cochlear sGC by determining its enzymatic activity and cellular localization. In cytosolic fractions of auditory nerve, lateral wall tissues, and cochlear neuroepithelium, addition of NO donors resulted in three- to 15-fold increases in cGMP formation. NO-stimulated sGC activity was not detected in particulate fractions. We also localized cochlear sGC activity through immunocytochemical detection of NO-stimulated cGMP. sGC activity was detected in Hensen's and Deiters' cells of the organ of Corti, as well as in vascular pericytes surrounding small capillaries in the lateral wall tissues and sensory neuroepithelium. sGC activity was not observed in sensory cells. Using NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry, NOS was localized to pillar cells and nerve fibers underlying hair cells. These results indicate that the NO/cGMP pathway may influence diverse elements of the auditory system, including cochlear blood flow and supporting cell physiology.

  7. Modulation of soluble guanylate cyclase activity by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Karnam S

    2004-11-01

    The levels of the cGMP in smooth muscle of the gut reflect continued synthesis by soluble guanylate cyclase (GC) and breakdown by phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5). Soluble GC is a haem-containing, heterodimeric protein consisting alpha- and beta-subunits: each subunit has N-terminal regulatory domain and a C-terminal catalytic domain. The haem moiety acts as an intracellular receptor for nitric oxide (NO) and determines the ability of NO to activate the enzyme and generate cGMP. In the present study the mechanism by which protein kinases regulate soluble GC in gastric smooth muscle was examined. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) acting as a NO donor stimulated soluble GC activity and increased cGMP levels. SNP induced soluble GC phosphorylation in a concentration-dependent fashion. SNP-induced soluble GC phosphorylation was abolished by the selective cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitors, Rp-cGMPS and KT-5823. In contrast, SNP-stimulated soluble GC activity and cGMP levels were significantly enhanced by Rp-cGMPS and KT-5823. Phosphorylation and inhibition of soluble GC were PKG specific, as selective activator of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, Sp-5, 6-DCl-cBiMPS had no effect on SNP-induced soluble GC phosphorylation and activity. The ability of PKG to stimulate soluble GC phosphorylation was demonstrated in vitro by back phosphorylation technique. Addition of purified phosphatase 1 inhibited soluble GC phosphorylation in vitro, and inhibition was reversed by a high concentration (10 microM) of okadaic acid. In gastric smooth muscle cells, inhibition of phosphatase activity by okadaic acid increased soluble GC phosphorylation in a concentration-dependent fashion. The increase in soluble GC phosphorylation inhibited SNP-stimulated soluble GC activity and cGMP formation. The results implied the feedback inhibition of soluble GC activity by PKG-dependent phosphorylation impeded further formation of cGMP.

  8. Erectile Dysfunction in Heme-Deficient Nitric Oxide-Unresponsive Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Knock-In Mice.

    PubMed

    Decaluwé, Kelly; Pauwels, Bart; Boydens, Charlotte; Thoonen, Robrecht; Buys, Emmanuel S; Brouckaert, Peter; Van de Voorde, Johan

    2017-02-01

    The nitric oxide (NO), soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway is the leading pathway in penile erection. To assess erectile function in a mouse model in which sGC is deficient in heme (apo-sGC) and unresponsive to NO. Mutant mice (sGCβ1(ki/ki)) that express an sGC enzyme that retains basal activity but fails to respond to NO because of heme deficiency (apo-sGC) were used. Isolated corpora cavernosa from sGCβ1(ki/ki) and wild-type mice were mounted in vitro for isometric tension recordings in response to sGC-dependent and -independent vasorelaxant agents. In addition, the erectile effects of some of these agents were tested in vivo at intracavernosal injection. In vitro and in vivo recordings of erectile responses in sGCβ1(ki/ki) and wild-type mice after stimulation with sGC-dependent and -independent vasorelaxant agents. NO-induced responses were abolished in sGCβ1(ki/ki) mice in vitro and in vivo. The ability of the heme-dependent, NO-independent sGC stimulator BAY 41-2272 to relax the corpora cavernosa was markedly attenuated in sGCβ1(ki/ki) mice. In contrast, the relaxation response to the heme- and NO-independent sGC activator BAY 58-2667 was significantly enhanced in sGCβ1(ki/ki) mice. The relaxing effect of sGC-independent vasorelaxant agents was similar in wild-type and sGCβ1(ki/ki) mice, illustrating that the observed alterations in vasorelaxation are limited to NO-sGC-cGMP-mediated processes. Our results suggest that sGC is the sole target of NO in erectile physiology. Furthermore, this study provides indirect evidence that, in addition to sGCα1β1, sGCα2β1 is important for erectile function. In addition, the significant relaxation observed in sGCβ1(ki/ki) mice with the cumulative addition of the sGC activator BAY 58-2667 indicates that sGC activators might offer value in treating erectile dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  9. Preconditioning with soluble guanylate cyclase activation prevents postischemic inflammation and reduces nitrate tolerance in heme oxygenase-1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Walter Z.; Wang, Meifang; Durante, William; Korthuis, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    Previously we have shown that, unlike wild-type mice (WT), heme oxygenase-1 knockout (HO-1−/−) mice developed nitrate tolerance and were not protected from inflammation caused by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) when preconditioned with a H2S donor. We hypothesized that stimulation (with BAY 41-2272) or activation (with BAY 60-2770) of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) would precondition HO-1−/− mice against an inflammatory effect of I/R and increase arterial nitrate responses. Intravital fluorescence microscopy was used to visualize leukocyte rolling and adhesion to postcapillary venules of the small intestine in anesthetized mice. Relaxation to ACh and BAY compounds was measured on superior mesenteric arteries isolated after I/R protocols. Preconditioning with either BAY compound 10 min (early phase) or 24 h (late phase) before I/R reduced postischemic leukocyte rolling and adhesion to sham control levels and increased superior mesenteric artery responses to ACh, sodium nitroprusside, and BAY 41-2272 in WT and HO-1−/− mice. Late-phase preconditioning with BAY 60-2770 was maintained in HO-1−/− and endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice pretreated with an inhibitor (dl-propargylglycine) of enzymatically produced H2S. Pretreatment with BAY compounds also prevented the I/R increase in small intestinal TNF-α. We speculate that increasing sGC activity and related PKG acts downstream to H2S and disrupts signaling processes triggered by I/R in part by maintaining low cellular Ca2+. In addition, BAY preconditioning did not increase sGC levels, yet increased the response to agents that act on reduced heme-containing sGC. Collectively these actions would contribute to increased nitrate sensitivity and vascular function. PMID:23771693

  10. Activation of soluble guanylate cyclase by NO donors--S-nitrosothiols, and dinitrosyl-iron complexes with thiol-containing ligands.

    PubMed

    Severina, Irina S; Bussygina, Olga G; Pyatakova, Natalya V; Malenkova, Irina V; Vanin, Anatoly F

    2003-05-01

    We studied the capability of dimeric forms of dinitrosyl-iron complexes and S-nitrosothiols to activate soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) from human platelet cytosol. The dinitrosyl-iron complexes had the ligands glutathione (DNIC-GS) or N-acetylcysteine (DNIC-NAC). The S-nitrosothiols were S-nitrosoglutathione (GS-NO) or S-nitrosoacetylcysteine (SNAC). For both glutathione and N-acetylcysteine, the DNIC and S-nitrosothiol forms are equally effective activators of sGC. The activation mechanism is strongly affected by the presence of intrinsic metal ions. Pretreatment with the potent iron chelator, disodium salt of bathophenanthroline disulfonic acid (BPDS), suppressed sGC activation by GS-NO: the concentration of GS-NO producing maximal sGC activation was increased by two orders of magnitude. In contrast, activation by DNIC-GS is strongly enhanced by BPDS. When BPDS was added 10 min after supplementation of DNIC-GS or GS-NO at 4 degrees C, it exerted a similar effect on sGC activation by either NO donor: BPDS only enhanced the sGC stimulation at low concentrations of the NO donors. Our experiments demonstrated that both Fe(2+) and Cu(2+) ions contribute to the decomposition of GS-NO in the presence of ascorbate. The decomposition of GS-NO induced by Fe(2+) ions was accompanied by formation of DNIC. BPDS protected GS-NO against the destructive action of Fe(2+) but not Cu(2+) ions. Additionally, BPDS is a sufficiently strong chelator to remove the iron from DNIC-GS complexes. Based on our data, we propose that S-nitrosothiols activate sGC via a two-step iron-mediated process: In the first step, intrinsic Fe(2+) ions catalyze the formation of DNICs from S-nitrosothiols. In the secondary step, these newly formed DNICs act as the real NO donors responsible for sGC activation.

  11. Cyclic Stretch Induces Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase and Soluble Guanylate Cyclase in Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Monica R.; Wedgwood, Stephen; Czech, Lyubov; Kim, Gina A.; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan; Schumacker, Paul T.; Steinhorn, Robin H.; Farrow, Kathryn N.

    2013-01-01

    In the pulmonary vasculature, mechanical forces such as cyclic stretch induce changes in vascular signaling, tone and remodeling. Nitric oxide is a potent regulator of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), which drives cGMP production, causing vasorelaxation. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) express inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and while iNOS expression increases during late gestation, little is known about how cyclic stretch impacts this pathway. In this study, PASMC were subjected to cyclic stretch of 20% amplitude and frequency of 1 Hz for 24 h and compared to control cells maintained under static conditions. Cyclic stretch significantly increased cytosolic oxidative stress as compared to static cells (62.9 ± 5.9% vs. 33.3 ± 5.7% maximal oxidation), as measured by the intracellular redox sensor roGFP. Cyclic stretch also increased sGCβ protein expression (2.5 ± 0.9-fold), sGC activity (1.5 ± 0.2-fold) and cGMP levels (1.8 ± 0.2-fold), as well as iNOS mRNA and protein expression (3.0 ± 0.9 and 2.6 ± 0.7-fold, respectively) relative to control cells. An antioxidant, recombinant human superoxide dismutase (rhSOD), significantly decreased stretch-induced cytosolic oxidative stress, but did not block stretch-induced sGC activity. Inhibition of iNOS with 1400 W or an iNOS-specific siRNA inhibited stretch-induced sGC activity by 30% and 68% respectively vs. static controls. In conclusion, cyclic stretch increases sGC expression and activity in an iNOS-dependent manner in PASMC from fetal lambs. The mechanism that produces iNOS and sGC upregulation is not yet known, but we speculate these effects represent an early compensatory mechanism to counteract the effects of stretch-induced oxidative stress. A better understanding of the interplay between these two distinct pathways could provide key insights into future avenues to treat infants with pulmonary hypertension. PMID:23429274

  12. The Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulator IWP-953 Increases Conventional Outflow Facility in Mouse Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Pei; Navarro, Iris D.; Kessler, Marco M.; Bernier, Sylvie G.; Perl, Nicholas R.; Sarno, Renee; Masferrer, Jaime; Hannig, Gerhard; Stamer, W. Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The nitric oxide (NO)–cyclic guanosine-3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP) pathway regulates aqueous humor outflow and therefore, intraocular pressure. We investigated the pharmacologic effects of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator IWP-953 on primary human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells and conventional outflow facility in mouse eyes. Methods Cyclic GMP levels were determined in vitro in HEK-293 cells and four HTM cell strains (HTM120/HTM123: predominantly myofibroblast-like phenotype, HTM130/HTM141: predominantly endothelial-like phenotype), and in HTM cell culture supernatants. Conventional outflow facility was measured following intracameral injection of IWP-953 or DETA-NO using a computerized pressure-controlled perfusion system in enucleated mouse eyes ex vivo. Results IWP-953 markedly stimulated cGMP production in HEK-293 cells in the presence and absence of DETA-NO (half maximal effective concentrations: 17 nM, 9.5 μM). Similarly, IWP-953 stimulated cGMP production in myofibroblast-like HTM120 and HTM123 cells, an effect that was greatly amplified by the presence of DETA-NO. In contrast, IWP-953 stimulation of cGMP production in endothelial-like HTM130 and HTM141 cells was observed, but was markedly less prominent than in HTM120 and HTM123 cells. Notably, cGMP was found in all HTM culture supernatants, following IWP-953/DETA-NO stimulation. In paired enucleated mouse eyes, IWP-953 at 10, 30, 60, and 100 μM concentration-dependently increased outflow facility. This effect (89.5%) was maximal at 100 μM (P = 0.002) and in magnitude comparable to DETA-NO at 100 μM (97.5% increase, P = 0.030). Conclusions These data indicate that IWP-953, via modulation of the sGC–cGMP pathway, increases aqueous outflow facility in mouse eyes, suggesting therapeutic potential for sGC stimulators as novel ocular hypotensive drugs. PMID:26998718

  13. Highly cooperative feedback control of retinal rod guanylate cyclase by calcium ions.

    PubMed

    Koch, K W; Stryer, L

    1988-07-07

    Visual excitation in retinal rod cells is mediated by a cascade that leads to the amplified hydrolysis of cyclic GMP (cGMP) and the consequent closure of cGMP-activated cation-specific channels in the plasma membrane. Recovery of the dark state requires the resynthesis of cGMP, which is catalysed by guanylate cyclase, an axoneme-associated enzyme. The lowering of the cytosolic calcium concentration (Cai) following illumination is thought to be important in stimulating cyclase activity. This hypothesis is supported by the finding that the cGMP content of rod outer segments increases several-fold when Cai is lowered to less than 10 nM. It is evident that cGMP and Cai levels are reciprocally controlled by negative feedback. Guanylate cyclase from toad ROS is strongly stimulated when the calcium level is lowered from 10 microM to 10 nM, but only if they are excited by light. We show here that the guanylate cyclase activity of unilluminated bovine rod outer segments increases markedly (5 to 20-fold) when the calcium level is lowered from 200 nM to 50 nM. This steep dependence of guanylate cyclase activity on the calcium level in the physiological range has a Hill coefficient of 3.9. Stimulation at low calcium levels is mediated by a protein that can be released from the outer segment membranes by washing with a low salt buffer. Calcium sensitivity is partially restored by adding the soluble extract back to the washed membranes. The highly cooperative activation of guanylate cyclase by the light-induced lowering of Cai is likely to be a key event in restoring the dark current after excitation.

  14. Rationale and design of the SOluble guanylate Cyclase stimulatoR in heArT failurE Studies (SOCRATES).

    PubMed

    Pieske, Burkert; Butler, Javed; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Lam, Carolyn; Maggioni, Aldo Pietro; Ponikowski, Piotr; Shah, Sanjiv; Solomon, Scott; Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth; Samano, Eliana Tibana; Scalise, Andrea Viviana; Müller, Katharina; Roessig, Lothar; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2014-09-01

    The clinical outcomes for patients with worsening chronic heart failure (WCHF) remain exceedingly poor despite contemporary evidence-based therapies, and effective therapies are urgently needed. Accumulating evidence supports augmentation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signalling as a potential therapeutic strategy for HF with reduced or preserved ejection fraction (HFrEF and HFpEF, respectively). Direct soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulators target reduced cGMP generation due to insufficient sGC stimulation and represent a promising method for cGMP enhancement. The phase II SOluble guanylate Cyclase stimulatoR in heArT failurE Study (SOCRATES) programme consists of two randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicentre studies, SOCRATES-REDUCED (in patients with LVEF <45%) and SOCRATES-PRESERVED (in those with LVEF ≥ 45%), that will explore the pharmacodynamic effects, safety and tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of four dose regimens of the once-daily oral sGC stimulator vericiguat (BAY 1021189) over 12 weeks compared with placebo. These studies will enrol patients stabilized during hospitalization for HF at the time of discharge or within 4 weeks thereafter. The primary endpoint in SOCRATES-REDUCED is change in NT-proBNP at 12 weeks. The primary endpoints in SOCRATES-PRESERVED are change in NT-proBNP and left atrial volume at 12 weeks. SOCRATES will be the first programme to enrol specifically both inpatients and outpatients with WCHF and patients with reduced or preserved ejection fraction. Results will inform the benefits of pursuing subsequent event-driven clinical outcome trials with sGC stimulators in this patient population. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2014 European Society of Cardiology.

  15. [Potentiation of nitric oxide-dependent activation of soluble guanylate cyclase by levomycetin, tetracycline, and oxolin].

    PubMed

    Shchegolev, A Iu; Sidorova, T A; Severina, I S

    2009-01-01

    The influence of antibiotics laevomycetin and tetracycline and the antivirus agent oxolin on the activity of human platelet soluble guanylate cyclase, the stimulation of the enzyme by NO-donors (sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and spermine nanoate (spermine NONO)) and the combination of spermine NONO and YC-1 was investigated. All preparations used in the concentration range 0,1-10 mM had no effect on the basal activity of guanylate cyclase but potentiated the SNP-induced activation of this enzyme. All preparations used synergistically increased (similar to YC-1) spermine NONO-induced activation of soluble guanylate cyclase. At the same time these compounds did not produce the leftward shift of spermine NONO concentration response curve characteristic for YC-1. Moreover, all compounds used did not influence the leftward shift of spermine NONO concentration response curve obtained in the presence of YC-1. This demonstrated that there was no competition between YC-1 and the drugs for interaction with the enzyme. The revealed regulatory phenomen of laevomycetin, tetracycline and oxolin to increase synergistically NO-dependent activation of soluble guanylate cyclase may cause additional pharmacological effects during prolong treatment by these drugs. This fact is necessary taking into account.

  16. Differential Calcium Signaling by Cone Specific Guanylate Cyclase-Activating Proteins from the Zebrafish Retina

    PubMed Central

    Scholten, Alexander; Koch, Karl-Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    Zebrafish express in their retina a higher number of guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (zGCAPs) than mammalians pointing to more complex guanylate cyclase signaling systems. All six zGCAP isoforms show distinct and partial overlapping expression profiles in rods and cones. We determined critical Ca2+-dependent parameters of their functional properties using purified zGCAPs after heterologous expression in E.coli. Isoforms 1–4 were strong, 5 and 7 were weak activators of membrane bound guanylate cyclase. They further displayed different Ca2+-sensitivities of guanylate cyclase activation, which is half maximal either at a free Ca2+ around 30 nM (zGCAP1, 2 and 3) or around 400 nM (zGCAP4, 5 and 7). Zebrafish GCAP isoforms showed also differences in their Ca2+/Mg2+-dependent conformational changes and in the Ca2+-dependent monomer-dimer equilibrium. Direct Ca2+-binding revealed that all zGCAPs bound at least three Ca2+. The corresponding apparent affinity constants reflect binding of Ca2+ with high (≤100 nM), medium (0.1–5 µM) and/or low (≥5 µM) affinity, but were unique for each zGCAP isoform. Our data indicate a Ca2+-sensor system in zebrafish rod and cone cells supporting a Ca2+-relay model of differential zGCAP operation in these cells. PMID:21829700

  17. The Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Activator BAY 58-2667 Protects against Morbidity and Mortality in Endotoxic Shock by Recoupling Organ Systems

    PubMed Central

    Vandendriessche, Benjamin; Rogge, Elke; Goossens, Vera; Vandenabeele, Peter; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Brouckaert, Peter; Cauwels, Anje

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis and septic shock are associated with high mortality rates and the majority of sepsis patients die due to complications of multiple organ failure (MOF). The cyclic GMP (cGMP) producing enzyme soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is crucially involved in the regulation of (micro)vascular homeostasis, cardiac function and, consequently, organ function. However, it can become inactivated when exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS). The resulting heme-free sGC can be reactivated by the heme- and nitric oxide (NO)-independent sGC activator BAY 58-2667 (Cinaciguat). We report that late (+8 h) post-treatment with BAY 58-2667 in a mouse model can protect against lethal endotoxic shock. Protection was associated with reduced hypothermia, circulating IL-6 levels, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and mortality. In contrast to BAY 58-2667, the sGC stimulator BAY 41-2272 and the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor Sildenafil did not have any beneficial effect on survival, emphasizing the importance of the selectivity of BAY 58-2667 for diseased vessels and tissues. Hemodynamic parameters (blood pressure and heart rate) were decreased, and linear and nonlinear indices of blood pressure variability, reflective for (un)coupling of the communication between the autonomic nervous system and the heart, were improved after late protective treatment with BAY 58-2667. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the pivotal role of the NO/sGC axis in endotoxic shock. Stabilization of sGC function with BAY 58-2667 can prevent mortality when given in the correct treatment window, which probably depends on the dynamics of the heme-free sGC pool, in turn influenced by oxidative stress. We speculate that, considering the central role of sGC signaling in many pathways required for maintenance of (micro)circulatory homeostasis, BAY 58-2667 supports organ function by recoupling inter-organ communication pathways. PMID:24015214

  18. Regulation of intestinal guanylate cyclase by the heat-stable enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (STa) and protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Crane, J K; Wehner, M S; Bolen, E J; Sando, J J; Linden, J; Guerrant, R L; Sears, C L

    1992-01-01

    The heat-stable enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (STa) stimulates membrane-bound guanylate cyclase in intestinal epithelium and induces fluid and ion secretion. Using the T84 human colon carcinoma cell line as a model, we observed that phorbol esters markedly enhanced STa-stimulated cyclic GMP accumulation in T84 cells (C. S. Weikel, C. L. Spann, C. P. Chambers, J. K. Crane, J. Linden, and E. L. Hewlett, Infect. Immun. 58:1402-1407, 1990). In this study we document that the phorbol ester treatment increases 125I-STa-binding sites as well as membrane-bound guanylate cyclase activity in T84 cells and provide evidence that both effects are mediated by phosphorylation. Guanylate cyclase activity was increased approximately 50% in membranes prepared from intact T84 cells treated with phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (beta-PDB) and after treatment of homogenates with beta-PDB in a manner dependent on ATP, MgCl2, and cytosol. Similarly, treatment of membranes with purified bovine brain protein kinase C in the presence of appropriate cofactors and beta-PDB resulted in an increase in STa-stimulated guanylate cyclase activity of about 70%. Likewise, the number of 125I-STa-binding sites was increased by about 25 to 40% in membranes prepared from intact cells or homogenates treated with beta-PDB; no effect on binding affinity (Kd = 0.15 nM) was noted. These experiments suggest that protein kinase C may phosphorylate the STa receptor-guanylate cyclase or a closely related protein and increase guanylate cyclase activity. The stimulatory effects of protein kinase C on STa-sensitive guanylate cyclase are opposite in direction to the profound inhibitory effects of the kinase on atrial natriuretic peptide-stimulated guanylate cyclase, demonstrating differential regulation by protein kinases within the guanylate cyclase-receptor family. PMID:1360449

  19. Soluble guanylate cyclase is activated differently by excess NO and by YC-1: Resonance Raman spectroscopic evidence†

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohammed; Derbyshire, Emily R.; Soldatova, Alexandra V.; Marletta, Michael A.; Spiro, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    Modulation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) activity by nitric oxide (NO) involves two distinct steps. Low level activation of sGC is achieved by the stoichiometric binding of NO (1-NO) to the heme cofactor, while much higher activation is achieved by the binding of additional NO (xsNO) at a non-heme site. Addition of the allosteric activator YC-1 to the 1-NO form leads to activity comparable to xsNO state. In this study the mechanisms of sGC activation were investigated using electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopic methods. RR spectroscopy confirmed that the 1-NO form contains 5-coordinate NO-heme and showed that the addition of NO to the 1-NO form has no significant effect on the spectrum. In contrast, addition of YC-1 to either the 1-NO or xsNO forms alters the RR spectrum significantly, indicating a protein-induced change in the heme geometry. This change in the heme geometry was also observed when BAY 41-2272 was added to the xsNO form. Bands assigned to bending and stretching motions of the vinyl and propionate substituents change intensity in a pattern suggesting altered tilting of the pyrrole rings to which they are attached. In addition, the N-O stretching frequency increases, with no change in the Fe-NO frequency, an effect modeled via DFT calculations as resulting from a small opening of the Fe-N-O angle. These spectral differences demonstrate different mechanisms of activation by synthetic activators, such as YC-1 and BAY 41-2272, and excess NO. PMID:20459051

  20. Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) degradation and impairment of nitric oxide-mediated responses in urethra from obese mice: reversal by the sGC activator BAY 60-2770.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Eduardo C; Leiria, Luiz O; Silva, Fábio H; Mendes-Silvério, Camila B; Calmasini, Fabiano B; Davel, Ana Paula C; Mónica, Fabíola Z; De Nucci, Gilberto; Antunes, Edson

    2014-04-01

    Obesity has emerged as a major contributing risk factor for overactive bladder (OAB), but no study examined urethral smooth muscle (USM) dysfunction as a predisposing factor to obesity-induced OAB. This study investigated the USM relaxant machinery in obese mice and whether soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) activation with BAY 60-2770 [acid 4-({(4-carboxybutyl) [2-(5-fluoro-2-{[4-(trifluoromethyl) biphenyl-4-yl] methoxy} phenyl) ethyl] amino} methyl) benzoic] rescues the urethral reactivity through improvement of sGC-cGMP (cyclic guanosine monophosphate) signaling. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed for 12 weeks with a high-fat diet to induce obesity. Separate groups of animals were treated with BAY 60-2770 (1 mg/kg per day for 2 weeks). Functional assays and measurements of cGMP, reactive-oxygen species (ROS), and sGC protein expression in USM were determined. USM relaxations induced by NO (acidified sodium nitrite), NO donors (S-nitrosoglutathione and glyceryl trinitrate), and BAY 41-2272 [5-cyclopropyl-2-[1-(2-fluoro-benzyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-yl]-pyrimidin-4-ylamine] (sGC stimulator) were markedly reduced in obese compared with lean mice. In contrast, USM relaxations induced by BAY 60-2770 (sGC activator) were 43% greater in obese mice (P < 0.05), which was accompanied by increases in cGMP levels. Oxidation of sGC with ODQ [1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one] (10 μM) potentiated BAY 60-2770-induced USM responses in the lean group. Long-term oral BAY 60-2770 administration fully prevented the impairment of USM relaxations in obese mice. Reactive-oxygen species (ROS) production was enhanced, but protein expression of β1 second guanylate cyclase subunit was reduced in USM from obese mice, both of which were restored by BAY 60-2770 treatment. In conclusion, impaired USM relaxation in obese mice is associated with ROS generation and down-regulation of sGC-cGMP signaling. Prevention of sGC degradation by BAY 60-2770 ameliorates the impairment of urethral

  1. Dysfunction of outer segment guanylate cyclase caused by retinal disease related mutations

    PubMed Central

    Zägel, Patrick; Koch, Karl-Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Membrane bound guanylate cyclases are expressed in rod and cone cells of the vertebrate retina and mutations in several domains of rod outer segment guanylate cyclase 1 (ROS-GC1 encoded by the gene GUCY2D) correlate with different forms of retinal degenerations. In the present work we investigated the biochemical consequences of three point mutations, one is located in position P575L in the juxtamembrane domain close to the kinase homology domain and two are located in the cyclase catalytic domain at H1019P and P1069R. These mutations correlate with various retinal diseases like autosomal dominant progressive cone degeneration, e.g., Leber Congenital Amaurosis and a juvenile form of retinitis pigmentosa. Wildtype and mutant forms of ROS-GC1 were heterologously expressed in HEK cells, their cellular distribution was investigated and activity profiles in the presence and absence of guanylate cyclase-activating proteins were measured. The mutant P575L was active under all tested conditions, but it displayed a twofold shift in the Ca2+-sensitivity, whereas the mutant P1069R remained inactive despite normal expression levels. The mutation H1019P caused the cyclase to become more labile. The different biochemical consequences of these mutations seem to reflect the different clinical symptoms. The mutation P575L induces a dysregulation of the Ca2+-sensitive cyclase activation profile causing a slow progression of the disease by the distortion of the Ca2+-cGMP homeostasis. In contrast, a strong reduction in cGMP synthesis due to an inactive or structurally unstable ROS-GC1 would trigger more severe forms of retinal diseases. PMID:24616660

  2. Clinical potential of nitric oxide-independent soluble guanylate cyclase activators.

    PubMed

    Doggrell, Sheila A

    2005-09-01

    A major problem with using nitrates in the treatment of ischemic heart disease is that tolerance develops to their vasodilatory actions. YC-1 was used as the lead compound to synthesize further nitric oxide-independent soluble guanylate cyclase activators, including BAY-41-2272 and BAY-41-8543. A nitric oxide and heme-independent activator of soluble guanylate cyclase, BAY-58-2667, was subsequently discovered by high-throughput screening. Tolerance to the vasodilatory actions of BAY-41-8543 and BAY-58-2667 does not develop. Results from animal studies have suggested that these compounds may have potential in the treatment of ischemic heart disease, essential and pulmonary hypertension, congestive heart failure, glomerulonephritis and erectile dysfunction.

  3. Receptor-type guanylate cyclase is required for carbon dioxide sensation by Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Hallem, Elissa A.; Spencer, W. Clay; McWhirter, Rebecca D.; Zeller, Georg; Henz, Stefan R.; Rätsch, Gunnar; Miller, David M.; Horvitz, H. Robert; Sternberg, Paul W.; Ringstad, Niels

    2011-01-01

    CO2 is both a critical regulator of animal physiology and an important sensory cue for many animals for host detection, food location, and mate finding. The free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans shows CO2 avoidance behavior, which requires a pair of ciliated sensory neurons, the BAG neurons. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we show that CO2 specifically activates the BAG neurons and that the CO2-sensing function of BAG neurons requires TAX-2/TAX-4 cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels and the receptor-type guanylate cyclase GCY-9. Our results delineate a molecular pathway for CO2 sensing and suggest that activation of a receptor-type guanylate cyclase is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism by which animals detect environmental CO2. PMID:21173231

  4. Receptor-type guanylate cyclase is required for carbon dioxide sensation by Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Hallem, Elissa A; Spencer, W Clay; McWhirter, Rebecca D; Zeller, Georg; Henz, Stefan R; Rätsch, Gunnar; Miller, David M; Horvitz, H Robert; Sternberg, Paul W; Ringstad, Niels

    2011-01-04

    CO(2) is both a critical regulator of animal physiology and an important sensory cue for many animals for host detection, food location, and mate finding. The free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans shows CO(2) avoidance behavior, which requires a pair of ciliated sensory neurons, the BAG neurons. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we show that CO(2) specifically activates the BAG neurons and that the CO(2)-sensing function of BAG neurons requires TAX-2/TAX-4 cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels and the receptor-type guanylate cyclase GCY-9. Our results delineate a molecular pathway for CO(2) sensing and suggest that activation of a receptor-type guanylate cyclase is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism by which animals detect environmental CO(2).

  5. Soluble guanylate cyclase activation during ischemic injury in mice protects against postischemic inflammation at the mitochondrial level.

    PubMed

    Wang, Derek Z; Jones, Allan W; Wang, Walter Z; Wang, Meifang; Korthuis, Ronald J

    2016-05-01

    The aim was to determine whether treatment with BAY 60-2770, a selective activator of oxidized soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), near the end of an ischemic event would prevent postischemic inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in wild-type (WT) and heme oxygenase-1 KO (HO-1(-/-)) mice. This protocol prevented increases in leukocyte rolling (LR) and adhesion (LA) to intestinal venules along with elevated TNFα and circulating neutrophil levels that accompany ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in both animal models. We further hypothesized that a component of BAY 60-2770 treatment involves maintenance of mitochondrial membrane integrity during I/R. Measurements on isolated enterocytes of calcein fluorescence (mitochondrial permeability) and JC-1 fluorescence ratio (mitochondrial membrane potential) were reduced by I/R, indicating formation of mitochondrial permeability transition pores (mPTP). These effects were abrogated by BAY 60-2770 as well as cyclosporin A and SB-216763, which prevented mPTP opening and inhibited glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), respectively. Western blots of WT and HO-1(-/-) enterocytes indicated that GSK-3β phosphorylation on Ser(9) (inhibitory site) was reduced by half following I/R alone (increased GSK-3β activity) and increased by one-third (reduced GSK-3β activity) following BAY 60-2770. Other investigators have associated phosphorylation of the GSK-3β substrate cyclophilin D (pCyPD) with mPTP formation. We observed a 60% increase in pCyPD after I/R, whereas BAY 60-2770 treatment of sham and I/R groups reduced pCyPD by about 20%. In conclusion, selective activation of oxidized sGC of WT and HO-1(-/-) during ischemia protects against I/R-induced inflammation and preserves mucosal integrity in part by reducing pCyPD production and mPTP formation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Stimulators and Activators of Soluble Guanylate Cyclase: Review and Potential Therapeutic Indications

    PubMed Central

    Nossaman, Bobby; Pankey, Edward; Kadowitz, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The heme-protein soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is the intracellular receptor for nitric oxide (NO). sGC is a heterodimeric enzyme with α and β subunits and contains a heme moiety essential for binding of NO and activation of the enzyme. Stimulation of sGC mediates physiologic responses including smooth muscle relaxation, inhibition of inflammation, and thrombosis. In pathophysiologic states, NO formation and bioavailability can be impaired by oxidative stress and that tolerance to NO donors develops with continuous use. Two classes of compounds have been developed that can directly activate sGC and increase cGMP formation in pathophysiologic conditions when NO formation and bioavailability are impaired or when NO tolerance has developed. In this report, we review current information on the pharmacology of heme-dependent stimulators and heme-independent activators of sGC in animal and in early clinical studies and the potential role these compounds may have in the management of cardiovascular disease. PMID:22482042

  7. α1 Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase (sGC) Splice Forms as Potential Regulators of Human sGC Activity*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Sharina, Iraida G.; Jelen, Filip; Bogatenkova, Elena P.; Thomas, Anthony; Martin, Emil; Murad, Ferid

    2008-01-01

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), a key protein in the NO/cGMP signaling pathway, is an obligatory heterodimeric protein composed of one α- and one β-subunit. The α1/β1 sGC heterodimer is the predominant form expressed in various tissues and is regarded as the major isoform mediating NO-dependent effects such as vasodilation. We have identified three new α1 sGC protein variants generated by alternative splicing. The 363 residue N1-α1 sGC splice variant contains the regulatory domain, but lacks the catalytic domain. The shorter N2-α1 sGC maintains 126 N-terminal residues and gains an additional 17 unique residues. The C-α1 sGC variant lacks 240 N-terminal amino acids, but maintains a part of the regulatory domain and the entire catalytic domain. Q-PCR of N1-α1, N2-α1 sGC mRNA levels together with RT-PCR analysis for C-α1 sGC demonstrated that the expression of the α1 sGC splice forms vary in different human tissues indicative of tissue-specific regulation. Functional analysis of the N1-α1 sGC demonstrated that this protein has a dominant-negative effect on the activity of sGC when coexpressed with the α1/β1 heterodimer. The C-α1 sGC variant heterodimerizes with the β1 subunit and produces a fully functional NO- and BAY41-2272-sensitive enzyme. We also found that despite identical susceptibility to inhibition by ODQ, intracellular levels of the 54-kDa C-α1 band did not change in response to ODQ treatments, while the level of 83 kDa α1 band was significantly affected by ODQ. These studies suggest that modulation of the level and diversity of splice forms may represent novel mechanisms modulating the function of sGC in different human tissues. PMID:18381288

  8. Involvement of H1 and H2 receptors and soluble guanylate cyclase in histamine-induced relaxation of rat mesenteric collecting lymphatics

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Kristine H.; Moor, Andrea N.; Souza-Smith, Flavia M.; Breslin, Jerome W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the roles of the H1 and H2 histamine receptors, nitric oxide (NO) synthase, and soluble guanylate (sGC) cyclase in histamine-induced modulation of rat mesenteric collecting lymphatic pumping. Methods Isolated rat mesenteric collecting lymphatics were treated with 1–100 μM histamine. Histamine receptors were blocked with either the H1 antagonist mepyramine or the H2 antagonist cimetidine. The role of NO/sGC signaling was tested using the arginine analog L-NAME, the sGC inhibitor ODQ, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as a positive control. Results Histamine applied at 100 μM decreased tone and contraction frequency (CF) of isolated rat mesenteric collecting lymphatics. Pharmacologic blockade of either H1 or H2 histamine receptors significantly inhibited the response to histamine. Pretreatment with ODQ, but not L-NAME, completely inhibited the histamine-induced decrease in tone. ODQ pretreatment also significantly inhibited SNP-induced lymphatic relaxation. Conclusions H1 and H2 histamine receptors are both involved in histamine-induced relaxation of rat mesenteric collecting lymphatics. NO synthesis does not appear to contribute to the histamine-induced response. However, sGC is critical for the histamine-induced decrease in tone and contributes to the drop in CF. PMID:24702851

  9. Calcium-modulated ciliary membrane guanylate cyclase transduction machinery: constitution and operational principles.

    PubMed

    Duda, Teresa; Fik-Rymarkiewicz, Ewa; Venkataraman, Venkateswar; Krishnan, Anuradha; Sharma, Rameshwar K

    2004-12-01

    Odorant transduction is a biochemical process by which the odorant signal generates the electric signal. The cilia of the olfactory neuroepithelium are the sites of this process. This study documents the detailed biochemical, structural and functional description of an odorant-responsive Ca2+ -modulated membrane guanylate cyclase transduction machinery in the cilia. Myristoylated (myr)-neurocalcin delta is the Ca2+ -sensor component and the cyclase, ONE-GC, the transduction component of the machinery. Myr-neurocalcin delta senses increments in free Ca2+, binds to a defined domain of ONE-GC and stimulates the cyclase. The findings enable the formulation of an odorant transduction model in which three pivotal signaling components--Ca2+, myr-neurocalcin delta and ONE-GC--of the transduction machinery are locked. A glaring feature of the model is that its Ca2+ -dependent operational principle is opposite to the phototransduction model.

  10. Cinaciguat, a soluble guanylate cyclase activator, augments cGMP after oxidative stress and causes pulmonary vasodilation in neonatal pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chester, Marc; Seedorf, Gregory; Tourneux, Pierre; Gien, Jason; Tseng, Nancy; Grover, Theresa; Wright, Jason; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Abman, Steven H

    2011-11-01

    Although inhaled NO (iNO) therapy is often effective in treating infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), up to 40% of patients fail to respond, which may be partly due to abnormal expression and function of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). To determine whether altered sGC expression or activity due to oxidized sGC contributes to high pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and poor NO responsiveness, we studied the effects of cinaciguat (BAY 58-2667), an sGC activator, on pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) from normal fetal sheep and sheep exposed to chronic intrauterine pulmonary hypertension (i.e., PPHN). We found increased sGC α(1)- and β(1)-subunit protein expression but lower basal cGMP levels in PPHN PASMC compared with normal PASMC. To determine the effects of cinaciguat and NO after sGC oxidation in vitro, we measured cGMP production by normal and PPHN PASMC treated with cinaciguat and the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), before and after exposure to 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, an sGC oxidizer), hyperoxia (fraction of inspired oxygen 0.50), or hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). After treatment with ODQ, SNP-induced cGMP generation was markedly reduced but the effects of cinaciguat were increased by 14- and 64-fold in PPHN fetal PASMC, respectively (P < 0.01 vs. controls). Hyperoxia or H(2)O(2) enhanced cGMP production by cinaciguat but not SNP in PASMC. To determine the hemodynamic effects of cinaciguat in vivo, we compared serial responses to cinaciguat and ACh in fetal lambs after ductus arteriosus ligation. In contrast with the impaired vasodilator response to ACh, cinaciguat-induced pulmonary vasodilation was significantly increased. After birth, cinaciguat caused a significantly greater fall in PVR than either 100% oxygen, iNO, or ACh. We conclude that cinaciguat causes more potent pulmonary vasodilation than iNO in experimental PPHN. We speculate that increased NO-insensitive sGC may

  11. Phosphodiesterase 5 restricts NOS3/Soluble guanylate cyclase signaling to L-type Ca2+ current in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Honglan; Kohr, Mark J; Traynham, Christopher J; Ziolo, Mark T

    2009-08-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) regulates the functional response to beta-adrenergic (beta-AR) stimulation via modulation of the L-type Ca(2+) current (I(Ca)). However, the NOS3 signaling pathway modulating I(Ca) is unknown. This study investigated the contribution of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), a cGMP-specific PDE, in the NOS3-mediated regulation of I(Ca). Myocytes were isolated from NOS3 knockout (NOS3(-/-)) and wildtype (WT) mice. We measured I(Ca) (whole-cell voltage-clamp), and simultaneously measured Ca(2+) transients (Fluo-4 AM) and cell shortening (edge detection). Zaprinast (selective inhibitor of PDE5), decreased beta-AR stimulated (isoproterenol, ISO)-I(Ca), and Ca(2+) transient and cell shortening amplitudes in WT myocytes. However, YC-1 (NO-independent activator of sGC) only reduced ISO-stimulated I(Ca), but not cardiac contraction. We further investigated the NOS3/sGC/PDE5 pathway in NOS3(-/-) myocytes. PDE5 is mislocalized in these myocytes and we observed dissimilar effects of PDE5 inhibition and sGC activation compared to WT. That is, zaprinast had no effect on ISO-stimulated I(Ca), or Ca(2+) transient and cell shortening amplitudes. Conversely, YC-1 significantly decreased both ISO-stimulated I(Ca), and cardiac contraction. Further confirming that PDE5 localizes NOS3/cGMP signaling to I(Ca); YC-1, in the presence of zaprinast, now significantly decreased ISO-stimulated Ca(2+) transient and cell shortening amplitudes in WT myocytes. The effects of YC-1 on I(Ca) and cardiac contraction were blocked by KT5823 (a selective inhibitor of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase, PKG). Our data suggests a novel physiological role for PDE5 in restricting the effects of NOS3/sGC/PKG signaling pathway to modulating beta-AR stimulated I(Ca), while limiting effects on cardiac contraction.

  12. Polymerase chain reaction localization of constitutive nitric oxide synthase and soluble guanylate cyclase messenger RNAs in microdissected rat nephron segments.

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Y; Tomita, K; Nonoguchi, H; Marumo, F

    1992-01-01

    Stimulation of the release of nitric oxide (NO) in the kidney has been shown to result in renal hemodynamic changes and natriuresis. NO is a potent stimulator of soluble guanylate cyclase, leading to an increase of cyclic GMP. The precise localization of NO synthase and soluble guanylate cyclase in the renal structure is not known. In this study, the microlocalization of mRNAs coding for constitutive NO synthase and soluble guanylate cyclase was carried out in the rat kidney, using an assay of reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction in individual microdissected renal tubule segments along the nephron, glomeruli, vasa recta bundle, and arcuate arteries. A large signal for constitutive NO synthase was detected in inner medullary collecting duct. Small signals were detected in inner medullary thin limb, cortical collecting duct, outer medullary collecting duct, glomerulus, vasa recta, and arcuate artery. Soluble guanylate cyclase mRNA is expressed largely in glomerulus, proximal convoluted tubule, proximal straight tubule, and cortical collecting duct, and in small amounts in medullary thick ascending limb, inner medullary thin limb, outer medullary collecting duct, inner medullary collecting duct, and the vascular system. Our data demonstrate that NO can be produced locally in the kidney, and that soluble guanylate cyclase is widely distributed in glomerulus, renal tubules, and the vascular system. Images PMID:1379616

  13. Regulation of Neuronal Oxygen Responses in C. elegans Is Mediated through Interactions between Globin 5 and the H-NOX Domains of Soluble Guanylate Cyclases

    PubMed Central

    Abergel, Zohar; Chatterjee, Arijit Kumar; Zuckerman, Binyamin

    2016-01-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclases (sGCs) are gas-binding proteins that control diverse physiological processes such as vasodilation, platelet aggregation, and synaptic plasticity. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a complex of sGCs, GCY-35 and GCY-36, functions in oxygen (O2) sensing. Previous studies suggested that the neuroglobin GLB-5 genetically interacts with GCY-35, and that the inhibitory effect of GLB-5 on GCY-35 function is necessary for fast recovery from prolonged hypoxia. In this study, we identified mutations in gcy-35 and gcy-36 that impact fast recovery and other phenotypes associated with GLB-5, without undermining sGC activity. These mutations, heb1 and heb3, change conserved amino acid residues in the regulatory H-NOX domains of GCY-35 and GCY-36, respectively, and appear to suppress GLB-5 activity by different mechanisms. Moreover, we observed that short exposure to 35% O2 desensitized the neurons responsible for ambient O2 sensing and that this phenomenon does not occur in heb1 animals. These observations may implicate sGCs in neuronal desensitization mechanisms far beyond the specific case of O2 sensing in nematodes. The conservation of functionally important regions of sGCs is supported by examining site-directed mutants of GCY-35, which suggested that similar regions in the H-NOX domains of O2 and NO-sensing sGCs are important for heme/gas interactions. Overall, our studies provide novel insights into sGC activity and regulation, and implicate similar structural determinants in the control of both O2 and NO sensors. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Soluble guanylate cyclases (sGCs) control essential and diverse physiological processes, including memory processing. We used Caenorhabditis elegans to explore how a neuroglobin inhibits a complex of oxygen-sensing sGCs, identifying sGC mutants that resist inhibition. Resistance appears to arise by two different mechanisms: increased basal sGC activity or disruption of an interaction with neuroglobin. Our

  14. Regulation of Neuronal Oxygen Responses in C. elegans Is Mediated through Interactions between Globin 5 and the H-NOX Domains of Soluble Guanylate Cyclases.

    PubMed

    Abergel, Zohar; Chatterjee, Arijit Kumar; Zuckerman, Binyamin; Gross, Einav

    2016-01-20

    Soluble guanylate cyclases (sGCs) are gas-binding proteins that control diverse physiological processes such as vasodilation, platelet aggregation, and synaptic plasticity. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a complex of sGCs, GCY-35 and GCY-36, functions in oxygen (O2) sensing. Previous studies suggested that the neuroglobin GLB-5 genetically interacts with GCY-35, and that the inhibitory effect of GLB-5 on GCY-35 function is necessary for fast recovery from prolonged hypoxia. In this study, we identified mutations in gcy-35 and gcy-36 that impact fast recovery and other phenotypes associated with GLB-5, without undermining sGC activity. These mutations, heb1 and heb3, change conserved amino acid residues in the regulatory H-NOX domains of GCY-35 and GCY-36, respectively, and appear to suppress GLB-5 activity by different mechanisms. Moreover, we observed that short exposure to 35% O2 desensitized the neurons responsible for ambient O2 sensing and that this phenomenon does not occur in heb1 animals. These observations may implicate sGCs in neuronal desensitization mechanisms far beyond the specific case of O2 sensing in nematodes. The conservation of functionally important regions of sGCs is supported by examining site-directed mutants of GCY-35, which suggested that similar regions in the H-NOX domains of O2 and NO-sensing sGCs are important for heme/gas interactions. Overall, our studies provide novel insights into sGC activity and regulation, and implicate similar structural determinants in the control of both O2 and NO sensors. Significance statement: Soluble guanylate cyclases (sGCs) control essential and diverse physiological processes, including memory processing. We used Caenorhabditis elegans to explore how a neuroglobin inhibits a complex of oxygen-sensing sGCs, identifying sGC mutants that resist inhibition. Resistance appears to arise by two different mechanisms: increased basal sGC activity or disruption of an interaction with neuroglobin. Our

  15. Novel Functions of Photoreceptor Guanylate Cyclases Revealed by Targeted Deletion

    PubMed Central

    Karan, Sukanya; Frederick, Jeanne M.; Baehr, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Targeted deletion of membrane guanylyl cyclases (GCs) has yielded new information concerning their function. Here, we summarize briefly recent results of laboratory generated non-photoreceptor GC knockouts characterized by complex phenotypes affecting the vasculature, heart, brain, kidney and other tissues. The main emphasis of the review, however, addresses the two GCs expressed in retinal photoreceptors, termed GC-E and GC-F. Naturally occurring GC-E (GUCY2D) null alleles in human and chicken are associated with an early onset blinding disorder, termed ‘Leber Congenital Amaurosis type 1’ (LCA-1), characterized by extinguished scotopic and photopic ERGs, and retina degeneration. In mouse, a GC-E null genotype produces a recessive cone dystrophy, while rods remain functional. Rod function is supported by the presence of GC-F (Gucy2f), a close relative of GC-E. Deletion of Gucy2f has very little effect on rod and cone physiology and survival. However, a GC-E/GC-F double knockout (GCdko) phenotypically resembles human LCA-1 with extinguished ERGs and rod/cone degneration. In GCdko rods, PDE6 and GCAPs are absent in outer segments. In contrast, GC-E-/- cones lack proteins of the entire phototransduction cascade. These results suggest that GC-E may participate in transport of peripheral membrane proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the outer segments. PMID:20012162

  16. Roles for soluble guanylate cyclase and a thiol oxidation-elicited subunit dimerization of protein kinase G in pulmonary artery relaxation to hydrogen peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Neo, Boon Hwa; Kandhi, Sharath

    2010-01-01

    We have previously provided evidence that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stimulates soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) under conditions where it relaxes isolated endothelium-removed bovine pulmonary arteries (BPAs). Since it was recently reported that H2O2 induces coronary vasorelaxation associated with a nitric oxide/cGMP-independent thiol oxidation/subunit dimerization-elicited activation of protein kinase G (PKG), we investigated whether this mechanism participates in the relaxation of BPAs to H2O2. BPAs precontracted with serotonin (incubated under hypoxia to lower endogenous H2O2) were exposed to increasing concentrations of H2O2. It was observed that 0.1–1 mM H2O2 caused increased PKG dimerization and relaxation. These responses were associated with increased phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) at the serine-239 site known to be mediated by PKG. Treatment of BPAs with 1 mM DTT attenuated PKG dimerization, VASP phosphorylation, and relaxation to H2O2. An organoid culture of BPAs for 48 h with 10 μM 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), a heme oxidant inhibitor of sGC activation, depleted sGC expression by 85%, associated with a 67% attenuation of VASP phosphorylation and 48% inhibition of relaxation elicited by 100 μM H2O2. Thus both a sGC activation/cGMP-dependent and a thiol oxidation subunit dimerization/cGMP-independent activation of PKG appear to contribute to the relaxation of BPAs elicited by H2O2. PMID:20709865

  17. Label-free quantification of calcium-sensor targeting to photoreceptor guanylate cyclase and rhodopsin kinase by backscattering interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Sulmann, Stefan; Kussrow, Amanda; Bornhop, Darryl J.; Koch, Karl-Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    Quantification of protein binding to membrane proteins is challenging and a limited set of methods is available to study such systems. Here we employed backscattering interferometry (BSI), a free-solution label-free method with high sensitivity, to quantify the interaction of neuronal Ca2+-Sensor proteins with their targets operating in phototransduction. We tested direct binding of guanylate cyclase–activating proteins (GCAP1 and GCAP2) to their membrane target guanylate cyclase 1. The regulatory mechanism of GCAPs including their binding interface in the target is unresolved. Here we used a label-free, free-solution assay method based on BSI to determine binding constants of GCAP1 and GCAP2 to the full-length membrane-bound guanylate cyclase type 1. GCAP1 and GCAP2 bound to different regions on the target guanylate cyclase with submicromolar affinity (apparent KD-values of 663 ± 121 nM and 231 ± 63 nM for Ca2+-free GCAP1 and GCAP2, respectively). A guanylate cyclase construct containing the juxta-membrane and kinase homology domain harbored an exclusive binding site for GCAP1 with similar affinities as the full-length protein, whereas GCAP2 did not bind to this region. We provide a model in which GCAP1 and GCAP2 do not share a single binding site to the target, thus cannot exchange upon fluctuating Ca2+ levels. PMID:28361875

  18. Characterization of retinal guanylate cyclase-activating protein 3 (GCAP3) from zebrafish to man

    PubMed Central

    Imanishi, Yoshikazu; Li, Ning; Sokal, Izabela; Sowa, Mathew E.; Lichtarge, Olivier; Wensel, Theodore G.; Saperstein, David A.; Baehr, Wolfgang; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    Calmodulin-like neuronal Ca2+-binding proteins (NCBPs) are expressed primarily in neurons and contain a combination of four functional and nonfunctional EF-hand Ca2+-binding motifs. The guanylate cyclase-activating proteins 1–3 (GCAP1–3), the best characterized subgroup of NCBPs, function in the regulation of transmembrane guanylate cyclases 1–2 (GC1–2). The pairing of GCAPs and GCs in vivo depends on cell expression. Therefore, we investigated the expression of these genes in retina using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. Our results demonstrate that GCAP1, GCAP2, GC1 and GC2 are expressed in human rod and cone photoreceptors, while GCAP3 is expressed exclusively in cones. As a consequence of extensive modification, the GCAP3 gene is not expressed in mouse retina. However, this lack of evolutionary conservation appears to be restricted to only some species as we cloned all three GCAPs from teleost (zebrafish) retina and localized them to rod cells, short single cones (GCAP1–2), and all subtypes of cones (GCAP3). Furthermore, sequence comparisons and evolutionary trace analysis coupled with functional testing of the different GCAPs allowed us to identify the key conserved residues that are critical for GCAP structure and function, and to define class-specific residues for the NCBP subfamilies. PMID:11860507

  19. Guanylate cyclase 1 relies on rhodopsin for intracellular stability and ciliary trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Pearring, Jillian N; Spencer, William J; Lieu, Eric C; Arshavsky, Vadim Y

    2015-01-01

    Sensory cilia are populated by a select group of signaling proteins that detect environmental stimuli. How these molecules are delivered to the sensory cilium and whether they rely on one another for specific transport remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether the visual pigment, rhodopsin, is critical for delivering other signaling proteins to the sensory cilium of photoreceptor cells, the outer segment. Rhodopsin is the most abundant outer segment protein and its proper transport is essential for formation of this organelle, suggesting that such a dependency might exist. Indeed, we demonstrated that guanylate cyclase-1, producing the cGMP second messenger in photoreceptors, requires rhodopsin for intracellular stability and outer segment delivery. We elucidated this dependency by showing that guanylate cyclase-1 is a novel rhodopsin-binding protein. These findings expand rhodopsin’s role in vision from being a visual pigment and major outer segment building block to directing trafficking of another key signaling protein. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12058.001 PMID:26590321

  20. Oxygen sensation and social feeding mediated by a C. elegans guanylate cyclase homologue.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jesse M; Karow, David S; Lu, Hang; Chang, Andy J; Chang, Jennifer S; Ellis, Ronald E; Marletta, Michael A; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2004-07-15

    Specialized oxygen-sensing cells in the nervous system generate rapid behavioural responses to oxygen. We show here that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits a strong behavioural preference for 5-12% oxygen, avoiding higher and lower oxygen levels. 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a common second messenger in sensory transduction and is implicated in oxygen sensation. Avoidance of high oxygen levels by C. elegans requires the sensory cGMP-gated channel tax-2/tax-4 and a specific soluble guanylate cyclase homologue, gcy-35. The GCY-35 haem domain binds molecular oxygen, unlike the haem domains of classical nitric-oxide-regulated guanylate cyclases. GCY-35 and TAX-4 mediate oxygen sensation in four sensory neurons that control a naturally polymorphic social feeding behaviour in C. elegans. Social feeding and related behaviours occur only when oxygen exceeds C. elegans' preferred level, and require gcy-35 activity. Our results suggest that GCY-35 is regulated by molecular oxygen, and that social feeding can be a behavioural strategy for responding to hyperoxic environments.

  1. Role of guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) in setting the flash sensitivity of rod photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Ana; Burns, Marie E.; Sokal, Izabela; Dizhoor, Alexander M.; Baehr, Wolfgang; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Baylor, Denis A.; Chen, Jeannie

    2001-01-01

    The retina's photoreceptor cells adjust their sensitivity to allow photons to be transduced over a wide range of light intensities. One mechanism thought to participate in sensitivity adjustments is Ca2+ regulation of guanylate cyclase (GC) by guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs). We evaluated the contribution of GCAPs to sensitivity regulation in rods by disrupting their expression in transgenic mice. The GC activity from GCAPs−/− retinas showed no Ca2+ dependence, indicating that Ca2+ regulation of GCs had indeed been abolished. Flash responses from dark-adapted GCAPs−/− rods were larger and slower than responses from wild-type rods. In addition, the incremental flash sensitivity of GCAPs−/− rods failed to be maintained at wild-type levels in bright steady light. GCAP2 expressed in GCAPs−/− rods restored maximal light-induced GC activity but did not restore normal flash response kinetics. We conclude that GCAPs strongly regulate GC activity in mouse rods, decreasing the flash sensitivity in darkness and increasing the incremental flash sensitivity in bright steady light, thereby extending the rod's operating range. PMID:11493703

  2. Heat Shock Protein 90 Associates with the Per-Arnt-Sim Domain of Heme-free Soluble Guanylate Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Anindya; Dai, Yue; Haque, Mohammad Mahfuzul; Seeger, Franziska; Ghosh, Arnab; Garcin, Elsa D.; Montfort, William R.; Hazen, Stanley L.; Misra, Saurav; Stuehr, Dennis J.

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) drives heme insertion into the β1 subunit of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) β1, which enables it to associate with a partner sGCα1 subunit and mature into a nitric oxide (NO)-responsive active form. We utilized fluorescence polarization measurements and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry to define molecular interactions between the specific human isoforms hsp90β and apo-sGCβ1. hsp90β and its isolated M domain, but not its isolated N and C domains, bind with low micromolar affinity to a heme-free, truncated version of sGCβ1 (sGCβ1(1–359)-H105F). Surprisingly, hsp90β and its M domain bound to the Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain of apo-sGC-β1(1–359), which lies adjacent to its heme-binding (H-NOX) domain. The interaction specifically involved solvent-exposed regions in the hsp90β M domain that are largely distinct from sites utilized by other hsp90 clients. The interaction strongly protected two regions of the sGCβ1 PAS domain and caused local structural relaxation in other regions, including a PAS dimerization interface and a segment in the H-NOX domain. Our results suggest a means by which the hsp90β interaction could prevent apo-sGCβ1 from associating with its partner sGCα1 subunit while enabling structural changes to assist heme insertion into the H-NOX domain. This mechanism would parallel that in other clients like the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and HIF1α, which also interact with hsp90 through their PAS domains to control protein partner and small ligand binding interactions. PMID:26134567

  3. Regulation of cGMP levels by guanylate cyclase in truncated frog rod outer segments

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Cyclic GMP is the second messenger in phototransduction and regulates the photoreceptor current. In the present work, we tried to understand the regulation mechanism of cytoplasmic cGMP levels in frog photoreceptors by measuring the photoreceptor current using a truncated rod outer segment (tROS) preparation. Since exogenously applied substance diffuses into tROS from the truncated end, we could examine the biochemical reactions relating to the cGMP metabolism by manipulating the cytoplasmic chemical condition. In tROS, exogenously applied GTP produced a dark current whose amplitude was half-maximal at approximately 0.4 mM GTP. The conductance for this current was suppressed by light in a fashion similar to when it is activated by cGMP. In addition, no current was produced in the absence of Mg2+, which is known to be necessary for the guanylate cyclase activity. These results indicate that guanylate cyclase was present in tROS and synthesized cGMP from exogenously applied GTP. The enzyme activity was distributed throughout the rod outer segment. The amount of synthesized cGMP increased as the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration of tROS decreased, which indicated the activation of guanylate cyclase at low Ca2+ concentrations. Half-maximal effect of Ca2+ was observed at approximately 100 nM. tROS contained the proteins involved in the phototransduction mechanism and therefore, we could examine the regulation of the light response waveform by Ca2+. At low Ca2+ concentrations, the time course of the light response was speeded up probably because cGMP recovery was facilitated by activation of the cyclase. Then, if the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration of a photoreceptor decreases during light stimulation, the Ca2+ decrease may explain the acceleration of the light response during light adaptation. In tROS, however, we did observe an acceleration during repetitive light flashes when the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration increased during the stimulation. This result suggests the

  4. Nitric oxide regulation of gene transcription via soluble guanylate cyclase and type I cGMP-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Idriss, S D; Gudi, T; Casteel, D E; Kharitonov, V G; Pilz, R B; Boss, G R

    1999-04-02

    Nitric oxide (NO) regulates the expression of multiple genes but in most cases its precise mechanism of action is unclear. We used baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, which have very low soluble guanylate cyclase and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G-kinase) activity, and CS-54 arterial smooth muscle cells, which express these two enzymes, to study NO regulation of the human fos promoter. The NO-releasing agent Deta-NONOate (ethanamine-2,2'-(hydroxynitrosohydrazone)bis-) had no effect on a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene under control of the fos promoter in BHK cells transfected with an empty vector or in cells transfected with a G-kinase Ibeta expression vector. In BHK cells transfected with expression vectors for guanylate cyclase, Deta-NONOate markedly increased the intracellular cGMP concentration and caused a small (2-fold) increase in CAT activity; the increased CAT activity appeared to be from cGMP activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. In BHK cells co-transfected with guanylate cyclase and G-kinase expression vectors, CAT activity was increased 5-fold in the absence of Deta-NONOate and 7-fold in the presence of Deta-NONOate. Stimulation of CAT activity in the absence of Deta-NONOate appeared to be largely from endogenous NO since we found that: (i) BHK cells produced high amounts of NO; (ii) CAT activity was partially inhibited by a NO synthase inhibitor; and (iii) the inhibition by the NO synthase inhibitor was reversed by exogenous NO. In CS-54 cells, we found that NO increased fos promoter activity and that the increase was prevented by a guanylate cyclase inhibitor. In summary, we found that NO activates the fos promoter by a guanylate cyclase- and G-kinase-dependent mechanism.

  5. NO-Sensitive Guanylate Cyclase Isoforms NO-GC1 and NO-GC2 Contribute to Noise-Induced Inner Hair Cell Synaptopathy.

    PubMed

    Möhrle, Dorit; Reimann, Katrin; Wolter, Steffen; Wolters, Markus; Varakina, Ksenya; Mergia, Evanthia; Eichert, Nicole; Geisler, Hyun-Soon; Sandner, Peter; Ruth, Peter; Friebe, Andreas; Feil, Robert; Zimmermann, Ulrike; Koesling, Doris; Knipper, Marlies; Rüttiger, Lukas

    2017-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) activates the NO-sensitive soluble guanylate cyclase (NO-GC, sGC) and triggers intracellular signaling pathways involving cGMP. For survival of cochlear hair cells and preservation of hearing, NO-mediated cascades have both protective and detrimental potential. Here we examine the cochlear function of mice lacking one of the two NO-sensitive guanylate cyclase isoforms [NO-GC1 knockout (KO) or NO-GC2 KO]. The deletion of NO-GC1 or NO-GC2 did not influence electromechanical outer hair cell (OHC) properties, as measured by distortion product otoacoustic emissions, neither before nor after noise exposure, nor were click- or noise-burst-evoked auditory brainstem response thresholds different from controls. Yet inner hair cell (IHC) ribbons and auditory nerve responses showed significantly less deterioration in NO-GC1 KO and NO-GC2 KO mice after noise exposure. Consistent with a selective role of NO-GC in IHCs, NO-GC β1 mRNA was found in isolated IHCs but not in OHCs. Using transgenic mice expressing the fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based cGMP biosensor cGi500, NO-induced elevation of cGMP was detected in real-time in IHCs but not in OHCs. Pharmacologic long-term treatment with a NO-GC stimulator altered auditory nerve responses but did not affect OHC function and hearing thresholds. Interestingly, NO-GC stimulation exacerbated the loss of auditory nerve response in aged animals but attenuated the loss in younger animals. We propose NO-GC2 and, to some degree, NO-GC1 as targets for early pharmacologic prevention of auditory fiber loss (synaptopathy). Both isoforms provide selective benefits for hearing function by maintaining the functional integrity of auditory nerve fibers in early life rather than at old age. Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s).

  6. Synergism between soluble guanylate cyclase signaling and neuropeptides extends lifespan in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Abergel, Rachel; Livshits, Leonid; Shaked, Maayan; Chatterjee, Arijit Kumar; Gross, Einav

    2017-04-01

    Oxygen (O2 ) homeostasis is important for all aerobic animals. However, the manner by which O2 sensing and homeostasis contribute to lifespan regulation is poorly understood. Here, we use the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to address this question. We demonstrate that a loss-of-function mutation in the neuropeptide receptor gene npr-1 and a deletion mutation in the atypical soluble guanylate cyclase gcy-35 O2 sensor interact synergistically to extend worm lifespan. The function of npr-1 and gcy-35 in the O2 -sensing neurons AQR, PQR, and URX shortens the lifespan of the worm. By contrast, the activity of the atypical soluble guanylate cyclase O2 sensor gcy-33 in these neurons is crucial for lifespan extension. In addition to AQR, PQR, and URX, we show that the O2 -sensing neuron BAG and the interneuron RIA are also important for the lifespan lengthening. Neuropeptide processing by the proprotein convertase EGL-3 is essential for lifespan extension, suggesting that the synergistic effect of joint loss of function of gcy-35 and npr-1 is mediated through neuropeptide signal transduction. The extended lifespan is regulated by hypoxia and insulin signaling pathways, mediated by the transcription factors HIF-1 and DAF-16. Moreover, reactive oxygen species (ROS) appear to play an important function in lifespan lengthening. As HIF-1 and DAF-16 activities are modulated by ROS, we speculate that joint loss of function of gcy-35 and npr-1 extends lifespan through ROS signaling. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Regulatory function of the C-terminal segment of guanylate cyclase-activating protein 2.

    PubMed

    Zernii, Evgeni Yu; Grigoriev, Ilya I; Nazipova, Aliya A; Scholten, Alexander; Kolpakova, Tatiana V; Zinchenko, Dmitry V; Kazakov, Alexey S; Senin, Ivan I; Permyakov, Sergei E; Dell'Orco, Daniele; Philippov, Pavel P; Koch, Karl-W

    2015-10-01

    Neuronal responses to Ca2+-signals are provided by EF-hand-type neuronal Ca2+-sensor (NCS) proteins, which have similar core domains containing Ca2+-binding and target-recognizing sites. NCS proteins vary in functional specificity, probably depending on the structure and conformation of their non-conserved C-terminal segments. Here, we investigated the role of the C-terminal segment in guanylate cyclase activating protein-2, GCAP2, an NCS protein controlling the Ca2+-dependent regulation of photoreceptor guanylate cyclases. We obtained two chimeric proteins by exchanging C-terminal segments between GCAP2 and its photoreceptor homolog recoverin, a Ca2+-sensor controlling rhodopsin kinase (RK) activity. The exchange affected neither the structural integrity of GCAP2 and recoverin nor the Ca2+-sensitivity of GCAP2. Intrinsic fluorescence, circular dichroism, biochemical studies and hydrophobic dye probing revealed Ca2+-dependent conformational transition of the C-terminal segment of GCAP2 occurring in the molecular environment of both proteins. In Ca2+-GCAP2, the C-terminal segment was constrained and its replacement provided the protein with approximately two-fold inhibitory activity towards RK, suggesting that the segment contributes to specific target recognition by interfering with RK-binding. Upon Ca2+-release, it became less constrained and more available for phosphorylation by cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinase. The transition from the Ca2+-bound to the apo-state exposed hydrophobic sites in GCAP2, and was associated with its activating function without affecting its dimerization. The released C-terminal segment participated further in photoreceptor membrane binding making it sensitive to phosphorylation. Thus, the C-terminal segment in GCAP2 confers target selectivity, facilitates membrane binding and provides sensitivity of the membrane localization of the protein to phosphorylation by signaling kinases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  8. Membrane Guanylate Cyclase catalytic Subdomain: Structure and Linkage with Calcium Sensors and Bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Sarangan; Duda, Teresa; Pertzev, Alexandre; Sharma, Rameshwar K

    2017-01-01

    Membrane guanylate cyclase (MGC) is a ubiquitous multi-switching cyclic GMP generating signaling machine linked with countless physiological processes. In mammals it is encoded by seven distinct homologous genes. It is a single transmembrane spanning multi-modular protein; composed of integrated blocks and existing in homo-dimeric form. Its core catalytic domain (CCD) module is a common transduction center where all incoming signals are translated into the production of cyclic GMP, a cellular signal second messenger. Crystal structure of the MGC's CCD does not exist and its precise identity is ill-defined. Here, we define it at a sub-molecular level for the phototransduction-linked MGC, the rod outer segment guanylate cyclase type 1, ROS-GC1. (1) The CCD is a conserved 145-residue structural unit, represented by the segment V(820)-P(964). (2) It exists as a homo-dimer and contains seven conserved catalytic elements (CEs) wedged into seven conserved motifs. (3) It also contains a conserved 21-residue neurocalcin δ-modulated structural domain, V(836)-L(857). (4) Site-directed mutagenesis documents that each of the seven CEs governs the cyclase's catalytic activity. (5) In contrast to the soluble and the bacterium MGC which use Mn(2+)-GTP substrate for catalysis, MGC CCD uses the natural Mg(2+)-GTP substrate. (6) Strikingly, the MGC CCD requires anchoring by the Transmembrane Domain (TMD) to exhibit its major (∼92%) catalytic activity; in isolated form the activity is only marginal. This feature is not linked with any unique sequence of the TMD; there is minimal conservation in TMD. Finally, (7) the seven CEs control each of four phototransduction pathways- -two Ca(2+)-sensor GCAPs-, one Ca(2+)-sensor, S100B-, and one bicarbonate-modulated. The findings disclose that the CCD of ROS-GC1 has built-in regulatory elements that control its signal translational activity. Due to conservation of these regulatory elements, it is proposed that these elements also control the

  9. Soluble Guanylate Cyclase α1–Deficient Mice: A Novel Murine Model for Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Buys, Emmanuel S.; Ko, Yu-Chieh; Alt, Clemens; Hayton, Sarah R.; Jones, Alexander; Tainsh, Laurel T.; Ren, Ruiyi; Giani, Andrea; Clerté, Maeva; Abernathy, Emma; Tainsh, Robert E. T.; Oh, Dong-Jin; Malhotra, Rajeev; Arora, Pankaj; de Waard, Nadine; Yu, Binglan; Turcotte, Raphael; Nathan, Daniel; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Loomis, Stephanie J.; Kang, Jae H.; Lin, Charles P.; Gong, Haiyan; Rhee, Douglas J.; Brouckaert, Peter; Wiggs, Janey L.; Gregory, Meredith S.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Ksander, Bruce R.

    2013-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. The molecular signaling involved in the pathogenesis of POAG remains unknown. Here, we report that mice lacking the α1 subunit of the nitric oxide receptor soluble guanylate cyclase represent a novel and translatable animal model of POAG, characterized by thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer and loss of optic nerve axons in the context of an open iridocorneal angle. The optic neuropathy associated with soluble guanylate cyclase α1–deficiency was accompanied by modestly increased intraocular pressure and retinal vascular dysfunction. Moreover, data from a candidate gene association study suggests that a variant in the locus containing the genes encoding for the α1 and β1 subunits of soluble guanylate cyclase is associated with POAG in patients presenting with initial paracentral vision loss, a disease subtype thought to be associated with vascular dysregulation. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis and genetics of POAG and suggest new therapeutic strategies for POAG. PMID:23527308

  10. Membrane Guanylate Cyclase catalytic Subdomain: Structure and Linkage with Calcium Sensors and Bicarbonate

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, Sarangan; Duda, Teresa; Pertzev, Alexandre; Sharma, Rameshwar K.

    2017-01-01

    Membrane guanylate cyclase (MGC) is a ubiquitous multi-switching cyclic GMP generating signaling machine linked with countless physiological processes. In mammals it is encoded by seven distinct homologous genes. It is a single transmembrane spanning multi-modular protein; composed of integrated blocks and existing in homo-dimeric form. Its core catalytic domain (CCD) module is a common transduction center where all incoming signals are translated into the production of cyclic GMP, a cellular signal second messenger. Crystal structure of the MGC’s CCD does not exist and its precise identity is ill-defined. Here, we define it at a sub-molecular level for the phototransduction-linked MGC, the rod outer segment guanylate cyclase type 1, ROS-GC1. (1) The CCD is a conserved 145-residue structural unit, represented by the segment V820-P964. (2) It exists as a homo-dimer and contains seven conserved catalytic elements (CEs) wedged into seven conserved motifs. (3) It also contains a conserved 21-residue neurocalcin δ-modulated structural domain, V836-L857. (4) Site-directed mutagenesis documents that each of the seven CEs governs the cyclase’s catalytic activity. (5) In contrast to the soluble and the bacterium MGC which use Mn2+-GTP substrate for catalysis, MGC CCD uses the natural Mg2+-GTP substrate. (6) Strikingly, the MGC CCD requires anchoring by the Transmembrane Domain (TMD) to exhibit its major (∼92%) catalytic activity; in isolated form the activity is only marginal. This feature is not linked with any unique sequence of the TMD; there is minimal conservation in TMD. Finally, (7) the seven CEs control each of four phototransduction pathways- -two Ca2+-sensor GCAPs-, one Ca2+-sensor, S100B-, and one bicarbonate-modulated. The findings disclose that the CCD of ROS-GC1 has built-in regulatory elements that control its signal translational activity. Due to conservation of these regulatory elements, it is proposed that these elements also control the

  11. Guanylate cyclase-G, expressed in the Grueneberg ganglion olfactory subsystem, is activated by bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ying-Chi; Cheng, Chien-Jui; Hsieh, Hsiu-Ting; Lin, Chih-Ching; Chen, Chien-Chang; Yang, Ruey-Bing

    2010-12-01

    GC (guanylate cyclase)-G is the most recently identified member of the receptor GC family. However, the regulation of its activity and protein expression in the mammalian olfactory system remains unclear. In the present study, we used a GC-G-specific antibody to validate that the GC-G protein is expressed in Grueneberg ganglion neurons, a newly recognized olfactory subsystem co-expressing other cGMP signalling components such as the cGMP-regulated PDE2A (phosphodiesterase 2A) and the cGMP-gated ion channel CNGA3 (cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel α-3). Further molecular and biochemical analyses showed that heterologously expressed GC-G protein, specifically the C-terminal cyclase domain, was directly stimulated by bicarbonate in both in vivo cellular cGMP accumulation assays in human embryonic kidney-293T cells and in vitro GC assays with a purified recombinant protein containing the GC domain. In addition, overexpression of GC-G in NG108 neuronal cells resulted in a CO2-dependent increase in cellular cGMP level that could be blocked by treatment with acetazolamide, an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrases, which implies that the stimulatory effect of CO2 requires its conversion to bicarbonate. Together, our data demonstrate a novel CO2/bicarbonate-dependent activation mechanism for GC-G and suggest that GC-G may be involved in a wide variety of CO2/bicarbonate-regulated biological processes such as the chemosensory function in Grueneberg ganglion neurons.

  12. Intestinal Enteroids Model Guanylate Cyclase C-Dependent Secretion Induced by Heat-Stable Enterotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Pattison, Amanda M.; Blomain, Erik S.; Merlino, Dante J.; Wang, Fang; Crissey, Mary Ann S.; Kraft, Crystal L.; Rappaport, Jeff A.; Snook, Adam E.; Lynch, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causes ∼20% of the acute infectious diarrhea (AID) episodes worldwide, often by producing heat-stable enterotoxins (STs), which are peptides structurally homologous to paracrine hormones of the intestinal guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C) receptor. While molecular mechanisms mediating ST-induced intestinal secretion have been defined, advancements in therapeutics have been hampered for decades by the paucity of disease models that integrate molecular and functional endpoints amenable to high-throughput screening. Here, we reveal that mouse and human intestinal enteroids in three-dimensional ex vivo cultures express the components of the GUCY2C secretory signaling axis. ST and its structural analog, linaclotide, an FDA-approved oral secretagog, induced fluid accumulation quantified simultaneously in scores of enteroid lumens, recapitulating ETEC-induced intestinal secretion. Enteroid secretion depended on canonical molecular signaling events responsible for ETEC-induced diarrhea, including cyclic GMP (cGMP) produced by GUCY2C, activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), and opening of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of CFTR abrogated enteroid fluid secretion, providing proof of concept for the utility of this model to screen antidiarrheal agents. Intestinal enteroids offer a unique model, integrating the GUCY2C signaling axis and luminal fluid secretion, to explore the pathophysiology of, and develop platforms for, high-throughput drug screening to identify novel compounds to prevent and treat ETEC diarrheal disease. PMID:27481254

  13. Regulation of intraocular pressure by soluble and membrane guanylate cyclases and their role in glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Buys, Emmanuel S.; Potter, Lincoln R.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Ksander, Bruce R.

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy characterized by visual field defects that ultimately lead to irreversible blindness (Alward, 2000; Anderson et al., 2006). By the year 2020, an estimated 80 million people will have glaucoma, 11 million of which will be bilaterally blind. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common type of glaucoma. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is currently the only risk factor amenable to treatment. How IOP is regulated and can be modulated remains a topic of active investigation. Available therapies, mostly geared toward lowering IOP, offer incomplete protection, and POAG often goes undetected until irreparable damage has been done, highlighting the need for novel therapeutic approaches, drug targets, and biomarkers (Heijl et al., 2002; Quigley, 2011). In this review, the role of soluble (nitric oxide (NO)-activated) and membrane-bound, natriuretic peptide (NP)-activated guanylate cyclases that generate the secondary signaling molecule cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in the regulation of IOP and in the pathophysiology of POAG will be discussed. PMID:24904270

  14. Counterbalance between BAG and URX neurons via guanylate cyclases controls lifespan homeostasis in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tiewen; Cai, Dongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Lifespan of C. elegans is affected by the nervous system; however, the underlying neural integration still remains unclear. In this work, we targeted an antagonistic neural system consisting of low-oxygen sensing BAG neurons and high-oxygen sensing URX neurons. While ablation of BAG neurons increases lifespan of C. elegans, ablation of URX neurons decreases lifespan. Genetic analysis revealed that BAG and URX neurons counterbalance each other via different guanylate cyclases (GCYs) to control lifespan balance. Lifespan-modulating effects of GCYs in these neurons are independent of the actions from insulin/IGF-1 signalling, germline signalling, sensory perception, or dietary restriction. Given the known gas-sensing property of these neurons, we profiled that lifespan of C. elegans is promoted under moderately low oxygen (4–12%) or moderately high carbon dioxide (5%) but inhibited under high-level oxygen (40%); however, these pro-longevity and anti-longevity effects are counteracted, respectively, by BAG and URX neurons via different GCYs. In conclusion, BAG and URX neurons work as a neural-regulatory system to counterbalance each other via different GCYs to control lifespan homeostasis. PMID:23584532

  15. A constitutively activated mutant of human soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC): implication for the mechanism of sGC activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Emil; Sharina, Iraida; Kots, Alexander; Murad, Ferid

    2003-01-01

    Heterodimeric alphabeta soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a recognized receptor for nitric oxide (NO) and mediates many of its physiological functions. Although it has been clear that the heme moiety coordinated by His-105 of the beta subunit is crucial for mediating the activation of the enzyme by NO, it is not understood whether the heme moiety plays any role in the function of the enzyme in the absence of NO. Here we analyze the effects of biochemical and genetic removal of heme and its reconstitution on the activity of the enzyme. Detergent-induced loss of heme from the wild-type alphabeta enzyme resulted in several-fold activation of the enzyme. This activation was inhibited after hemin reconstitution. A heme-deficient mutant alphabetaCys-105 with Cys substituted for His-105 was constitutively active with specific activity approaching the activity of the wild-type enzyme activated by NO. However, reconstitution of mutant enzyme with heme and/or DTT treatment significantly inhibited the enzyme. Mutant enzyme reconstituted with ferrous heme was activated by NO and CO alone and showed additive effects between gaseous effectors and the allosteric activator 5-cyclopropyl-2-[1-(2-fluoro-benzyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-yl]-pyrim idin-4-ylamine. We propose that the heme moiety through its coordination with His-105 of the beta subunit acts as an endogenous inhibitor of sGC. Disruption of the heme-coordinating bond induced by binding of NO releases the restrictions imposed by this bond and allows the formation of an optimally organized catalytic center in the heterodimer.

  16. A constitutively activated mutant of human soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC): implication for the mechanism of sGC activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Emil; Sharina, Iraida; Kots, Alexander; Murad, Ferid

    2003-01-01

    Heterodimeric alphabeta soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a recognized receptor for nitric oxide (NO) and mediates many of its physiological functions. Although it has been clear that the heme moiety coordinated by His-105 of the beta subunit is crucial for mediating the activation of the enzyme by NO, it is not understood whether the heme moiety plays any role in the function of the enzyme in the absence of NO. Here we analyze the effects of biochemical and genetic removal of heme and its reconstitution on the activity of the enzyme. Detergent-induced loss of heme from the wild-type alphabeta enzyme resulted in several-fold activation of the enzyme. This activation was inhibited after hemin reconstitution. A heme-deficient mutant alphabetaCys-105 with Cys substituted for His-105 was constitutively active with specific activity approaching the activity of the wild-type enzyme activated by NO. However, reconstitution of mutant enzyme with heme and/or DTT treatment significantly inhibited the enzyme. Mutant enzyme reconstituted with ferrous heme was activated by NO and CO alone and showed additive effects between gaseous effectors and the allosteric activator 5-cyclopropyl-2-[1-(2-fluoro-benzyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-yl]-pyrim idin-4-ylamine. We propose that the heme moiety through its coordination with His-105 of the beta subunit acts as an endogenous inhibitor of sGC. Disruption of the heme-coordinating bond induced by binding of NO releases the restrictions imposed by this bond and allows the formation of an optimally organized catalytic center in the heterodimer.

  17. A constitutively activated mutant of human soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC): Implication for the mechanism of sGC activation

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Emil; Sharina, Iraida; Kots, Alexander; Murad, Ferid

    2003-01-01

    Heterodimeric αβ soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a recognized receptor for nitric oxide (NO) and mediates many of its physiological functions. Although it has been clear that the heme moiety coordinated by His-105 of the β subunit is crucial for mediating the activation of the enzyme by NO, it is not understood whether the heme moiety plays any role in the function of the enzyme in the absence of NO. Here we analyze the effects of biochemical and genetic removal of heme and its reconstitution on the activity of the enzyme. Detergent-induced loss of heme from the wild-type αβ enzyme resulted in several-fold activation of the enzyme. This activation was inhibited after hemin reconstitution. A heme-deficient mutant αβCys-105 with Cys substituted for His-105 was constitutively active with specific activity approaching the activity of the wild-type enzyme activated by NO. However, reconstitution of mutant enzyme with heme and/or DTT treatment significantly inhibited the enzyme. Mutant enzyme reconstituted with ferrous heme was activated by NO and CO alone and showed additive effects between gaseous effectors and the allosteric activator 5-cyclopropyl-2-[1-(2-fluoro-benzyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-yl]-pyrimidin-4-ylamine. We propose that the heme moiety through its coordination with His-105 of the β subunit acts as an endogenous inhibitor of sGC. Disruption of the heme-coordinating bond induced by binding of NO releases the restrictions imposed by this bond and allows the formation of an optimally organized catalytic center in the heterodimer. PMID:12883009

  18. Membrane guanylate cyclase, a multimodal transduction machine: history, present, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rameshwar K.; Duda, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    A sequel to these authors' earlier comprehensive reviews which covered the field of mammalian membrane guanylate cyclase (MGC) from its origin to the year 2010, this article contains 13 sections. The first is historical and covers MGC from the year 1963–1987, summarizing its colorful developmental stages from its passionate pursuit to its consolidation. The second deals with the establishment of its biochemical identity. MGC becomes the transducer of a hormonal signal and founder of the peptide hormone receptor family, and creates the notion that hormone signal transduction is its sole physiological function. The third defines its expansion. The discovery of ROS-GC subfamily is made and it links ROS-GC with the physiology of phototransduction. Sections ROS-GC, a Ca2+-Modulated Two Component Transduction System to Migration Patterns and Translations of the GCAP Signals Into Production of Cyclic GMP are Different cover its biochemistry and physiology. The noteworthy events are that augmented by GCAPs, ROS-GC proves to be a transducer of the free Ca2+ signals generated within neurons; ROS-GC becomes a two-component transduction system and establishes itself as a source of cyclic GMP, the second messenger of phototransduction. Section ROS-GC1 Gene Linked Retinal Dystrophies demonstrates how this knowledge begins to be translated into the diagnosis and providing the molecular definition of retinal dystrophies. Section Controlled By Low and High Levels of [Ca2+]i, ROS-GC1 is a Bimodal Transduction Switch discusses a striking property of ROS-GC where it becomes a “[Ca2+]i bimodal switch” and transcends its signaling role in other neural processes. In this course, discovery of the first CD-GCAP (Ca2+-dependent guanylate cyclase activator), the S100B protein, is made. It extends the role of the ROS-GC transduction system beyond the phototransduction to the signaling processes in the synapse region between photoreceptor and cone ON-bipolar cells; in section Ca2

  19. Therapeutically targeting guanylate cyclase-C: computational modeling of plecanatide, a uroguanylin analog.

    PubMed

    Brancale, Andrea; Shailubhai, Kunwar; Ferla, Salvatore; Ricci, Antonio; Bassetto, Marcella; Jacob, Gary S

    2017-04-01

    Plecanatide is a recently developed guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C) agonist and the first uroguanylin analog designed to treat chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). GC-C receptors are found across the length of the intestines and are thought to play a key role in fluid regulation and electrolyte balance. Ligands of the GC-C receptor include endogenous agonists, uroguanylin and guanylin, as well as diarrheagenic, Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxins (ST). Plecanatide mimics uroguanylin in its 2 disulfide-bond structure and in its ability to activate GC-Cs in a pH-dependent manner, a feature associated with the presence of acid-sensing residues (Asp2 and Glu3). Linaclotide, a synthetic analog of STh (a 19 amino acid member of ST family), contains the enterotoxin's key structural elements, including the presence of three disulfide bonds. Linaclotide, like STh, activates GC-Cs in a pH-independent manner due to the absence of pH-sensing residues. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations compared the stability of plecanatide and linaclotide to STh. Three-dimensional structures of plecanatide at various protonation states (pH 2.0, 5.0, and 7.0) were simulated with GROMACS software. Deviations from ideal binding conformations were quantified using root mean square deviation values. Simulations of linaclotide revealed a rigid conformer most similar to STh. Plecanatide simulations retained the flexible, pH-dependent structure of uroguanylin. The most active conformers of plecanatide were found at pH 5.0, which is the pH found in the proximal small intestine. GC-C receptor activation in this region would stimulate intraluminal fluid secretion, potentially relieving symptoms associated with CIC and IBS-C.

  20. Retinal-specific guanylate cyclase gene mutations in Leber's congenital amaurosis.

    PubMed

    Perrault, I; Rozet, J M; Calvas, P; Gerber, S; Camuzat, A; Dollfus, H; Châtelin, S; Souied, E; Ghazi, I; Leowski, C; Bonnemaison, M; Le Paslier, D; Frézal, J; Dufier, J L; Pittler, S; Munnich, A; Kaplan, J

    1996-12-01

    Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA, MIM 204,000), the earliest and most severe form of inherited retinopathy, accounts for at least 5% of all inherited retinal dystrophies. This autosomal recessive condition is usually recognized at birth or during the first months of life in an infant with total blindness or greatly impaired vision, normal fundus and extinguished electroretinogram (ERG). Nystagmus (pendular type) and characteristic eye poking are frequently observed in the first months of life (digito-ocular sign of Franceschetti). Hypermetropia and keratoconus frequently develop in the course of the disease. The observation by Waardenburg of normal children born to affected parents supports the genetic heterogeneity of LCA. Until now, however, little was known about the pathophysiology of the disease, but LCA is usually regarded as the consequence of either impaired development of photoreceptors or extremely early degeneration of cells that have developed normally. We have recently mapped a gene for LCA to chromosome 17p13.1 (LCA1) by homozygosity mapping in consanguineous families of North African origin and provided evidence of genetic heterogeneity in our sample, as LCA1 accounted for 8/15 LCA families in our series. Here, we report two missense mutations (F589S) and two frameshift mutations (nt 460 del C, nt 693 del C) of the retinal guanylate cyclase (RETGC, GDB symbol GUC2D) gene in four unrelated LCA1 probands of North African ancestry and ascribe LCA1 to an impaired production of cGMP in the retina, with permanent closure of cGMP-gated cation channels.

  1. Digital Holographic Tomography and Fluorescence Used to Localize sGC in HEK293 Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldrake, Eric; Mann, Christopher; Gage, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Digital Holographic Tomography (DHT) is used to analyze and localize the intracellular protein soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. DHT is a non-invasive phase microscopy technique that provides three dimensional quantitative information of HEK293 cells including variance of index of refraction or physical thickness. A fluorescence component will be added to the microscope to further studies of sGC localization. The signaling pathway including nitric oxide (NO) and sGC is studied and has been linked to various cardiovascular diseases, platelet aggregation, and variations in blood pressure via vasodilation. sGC will be labeled using a fluorescent antibody and analyzed using the DHT microscope. DHT will be used to analyze changes in sGC localization in its natural environment and when stimulated by NO. An understanding of how sGC interacts with its surroundings is vital to further research in cardiovascular disease.

  2. N-hydroxylamine is not an intermediate in the conversion of L-arginine to an activator of soluble guanylate cyclase in neuroblastoma N1E-115 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pou, S; Pou, W S; Rosen, G M; el-Fakahany, E E

    1991-01-01

    This study evaluates the role of N-hydroxylamine (NH2OH) in activating soluble guanylate cyclase in the mouse neuroblastoma clone N1E-115. It has been proposed that NH2OH is a putative intermediate in the biochemical pathway for the generation of nitric oxide (NO)/endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) from L-arginine. NH2OH caused a time- and concentration-dependent increase in cyclic GMP formation in intact cells. This response was not dependent on Ca2+. In cytosol preparations the activation of guanylate cyclase by L-arginine was dose-dependent and required Ca2+ and NADPH. In contrast, NH2OH itself did not activate cytosolic guanylate cyclase but it inhibited the basal activity of this enzyme in a concentration-dependent manner. The formation of cyclic GMP in the cytosolic fractions in response to NH2OH required the addition of catalase and H2O2. On the other hand, catalase and/or H2O2 lead to a decrease in L-arginine-induced cyclic GMP formation. Furthermore, NH2OH inhibited L-arginine- and sodium nitroprusside-induced cyclic GMP formation in the cytosol. The inhibition of L-arginine-induced cyclic GMP formation in the cytosol by NH2OH was not reversed by the addition of superoxide dismutase. These data strongly suggest that NH2OH is not a putative intermediate in the metabolism of L-arginine to an activator of guanylate cyclase. PMID:1671745

  3. Kinetics of nitric oxide dissociation from five- and six-coordinate nitrosyl hemes and heme proteins, including soluble guanylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Kharitonov, V G; Sharma, V S; Magde, D; Koesling, D

    1997-06-03

    Kinetics of NO dissociation were characterized for three five-coordinate systems, heme-NO, HSA-heme-NO (human serum albumin), GC-NO (soluble guanylate cyclase), and for the six-coordinate system, Im-heme-NO. Nitrosyl myoglobin was redetermined for comparison. Previously known, six-coordinate R and T state nitrosyl hemoglobins are also included in the comparison. The data indicate that NO dissociates more than 1000 times faster from five-coordinate model heme than it does from the six-coordinate analog. Such a negative trans-effect between NO and a proximal base is in sharp contrast to carboxy heme derivatives, in which ligand dissociation rates are greatly slowed in when a trans base is present. As a result of opposite trans-effects, six-coordinate carboxy and nitrosyl derivatives have comparable dissociation rates, even though the five-coordinate species are very different. In proteins, five- and six-coordinate forms do not show a large difference in dissociation rates. Part of the reason may be due to different probabilities for geminate recombination in the different proteins, but this cannot explain all the facts. There must also be influences of the protein structure on bond-breaking rate constants themselves. With the exception of hemoglobin in the T state, nitrosyl guanylate cyclase shows the highest NO dissociation rate constant, k(obs) = 6 x 10(-4) s(-1). This would yield a half-life of about 2 min at 37 degrees C for dissociation of NO from GC-NO, a number that has implications for the mechanism of regulation of the activity of this key heme enzyme.

  4. [Biosynthesis of cyclic GMP in plant cells - new insight into guanylate cyclases].

    PubMed

    Świeżawska, Brygida; Marciniak, Katarzyna; Szmidt-Jaworska, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic 3',5'-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is involved in many physiological processes in plants. Concentration of this second messenger in plant cell is determined by guanylyl cyclases (GCs) responsible for cGMP synthesis and phosphodiesterases (PDEs) involved in cGMP inactivation. First discovered plant GCs were localized in cytosol, but few years ago a new family of plasma membrane proteins with guanylyl cyclase activity was identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. These proteins belong to the family of a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLK) with extracellular leucine-rich repeat domain, a transmembrane-spanning domain, and an intracellular kinase domain. A novel class of guanylyl cyclases contain the GC catalytic center encapsulated within the intracellular kinase domain. These molecules are different to animal GCs in that the GC catalytic center is nested within the kinase domain. In presented paper we summarized the most recent data concerning plant guanylyl cyclases.

  5. The alpha(2D/A)-adrenergic receptor-linked membrane guanylate cyclase: a new signal transduction system in the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, V; Duda, T; Sharma, R K

    1998-05-01

    In the pineal gland, the membrane guanylate cyclase activity was specifically stimulated by alpha(2D/A)-adrenergic receptor (alpha(2D/A)-AR) agonists. The agonists, however, did not stimulate the cyclase activity in the cell-free membranes. It was possible to stimulate the cyclase in cell-free membranes by the addition of the pineal soluble fraction, but this stimulation was Ca2+-dependent and alpha(2D/A)-agonist-independent. It was also possible to achieve Ca2+-dependent stimulation of the cyclase by the direct addition of CD-GCAP to the isolated pineal membranes. CD-GCAP is a Ca2+-binding protein and is a specific activator of one of the two members of the ROS-GC subfamily of membrane guanylate cyclases, ROS-GC1. The soluble fraction of the pineal gland stimulated recombinant ROS-GC1 in a Ca2+-dependent fashion. The direct presence of both ROS-GC1 and CD-GCAP in the pineal was established by molecular cloning/PCR studies. The findings demonstrate the existence of a novel signal transduction mechanism--the linkage of the alpha(2D/A)-AR signaling system with ROS-GC1 transduction system, occurring through intracellular Ca2+ via CD-GCAP.

  6. Nitric Oxide Activation of Guanylate Cyclase Pushes the α1 Signaling Helix and the β1 Heme-binding Domain Closer to the Substrate-binding Site*

    PubMed Central

    Busker, Mareike; Neidhardt, Inga; Behrends, Sönke

    2014-01-01

    The complete structure of the assembled domains of nitric oxide-sensitive guanylate cyclase (NOsGC) remains to be determined. It is also unknown how binding of NO to heme in guanylate cyclase is communicated to the catalytic domain. In the current study the conformational change of guanylate cyclase on activation by NO was studied using FRET. Endogenous tryptophan residues were used as donors, the substrate analog 2′-Mant-3′-dGTP as acceptor. The enzyme contains five tryptophan residues distributed evenly over all four functional domains. This provides a unique opportunity to detect the movement of the functional domains relative to the substrate-binding catalytic region. FRET measurements indicate that NO brings tryptophan 22 in the αB helix of the β1 heme NO binding domain and tryptophan 466 in the second short helix of the α1 coiled-coil domain closer to the catalytic domain. We propose that the respective domains act as a pair of tongs forcing the catalytic domain into the nitric oxide-activated conformation. PMID:24220034

  7. Increased activity of guanylate cyclase in the atherosclerotic rabbit aorta: role of non-endothelial nitric oxide synthases.

    PubMed Central

    Rupin, A.; Behr, D.; Verbeuren, T. J.

    1996-01-01

    1. Experiments were performed to examine the effects of putative non-endothelial nitric oxide on the soluble guanylate cyclase activity of severe atherosclerotic aortae from hypercholesterolaemic rabbits fed a cholesterol rich diet for 45 weeks. 2. The guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) content of aortae from rabbits fed either a control diet or a diet containing 0.3% cholesterol for 45 weeks was quantified in saline extracts or in trichloracetic acid/either extracts by use of a competitive immunoenzymatic assay. Rabbit anti-cyclic GMP immunoglobulin G was covalently linked to the solid phase, in order to avoid false positive results due to high rabbit immunoglobulin G concentrations in the atherosclerotic saline extracts. 3. Saline extracts of atherosclerotic aortae which were harvested immediately after death (intact aortae) contained about 6 fold more cyclic GMP than control aortae when expressed in pmol cyclic GMP mg-1 protein. The cyclic GMP concentrations in trichloracetic acid/ether extracts of atherosclerotic and control aortae expressed in pmol mg-1 fresh tissue were not significantly different. 4. Neointimal-medial explants from atherosclerotic and control aortae were placed in a physiological saline solution and incubated at 37 degrees C for six hours in an incubator gassed with 5% CO2. Before the incubation, the cyclic GMP concentrations in saline extracts of atherosclerotic explants (0.74 +/- 0.27 pmol mg-1) were found to be 17 fold higher than those of control explants (0.043 +/- 0.008 pmol mg-1). The cyclic GMP content of control explants decreased significantly after 6 h of incubation, while that of atherosclerotic explants remained elevated. 5. Chronic administration of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a non selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthases, at 12 mg kg-1 day-1 subcutaneously for one month did not reduce the cyclic GMP concentration of intact atherosclerotic aortae, while that of intact aortae from control rabbits

  8. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, tolerability, and safety of the soluble guanylate cyclase activator cinaciguat (BAY 58-2667) in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Frey, Reiner; Mück, Wolfgang; Unger, Sigrun; Artmeier-Brandt, Ulrike; Weimann, Gerrit; Wensing, Georg

    2008-12-01

    Preclinical data indicate that the nitric oxide-independent soluble guanylate cyclase activator cinaciguat (BAY 58-2667), which is a new drug in development for patients with heart failure, induces vasodilation preferentially in diseased vessels. This study aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of cinaciguat. Seventy-six healthy volunteers were included in this randomized, placebo-controlled study. Cinaciguat (50-250 microg/h) was administered intravenously for up to 4 hours in a maximum of 6 individuals per dose group. No serious adverse events were reported. Four-hour infusions (50-250 microg/h) decreased diastolic blood pressure and increased heart rate (all P values < .05) versus placebo, without significantly reducing systolic blood pressure (P between 0.07 and 0.56). At higher doses (150-250 microg/h), 4-hour infusions decreased mean arterial pressure and increased plasma cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels (all P values < .05). Pharmacokinetics showed dose-proportionality with low interindividual variability. Plasma concentrations declined below 1.0 microg/L within 30 minutes of cessation of infusion. Cinaciguat had potent cardiovascular effects reducing preload and afterload, warranting further investigation in patients with heart failure.

  9. Comparison of the crystal structures and thermochemistry of a novel soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator riociguat and its solvates.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinbo; Hu, Xiurong; Gu, Jianming; Zhu, Jianrong

    2017-10-01

    Riociguat (Rio) is the first oral soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator to be approved for pulmonary arterial hypertension. In this study, form (II) of riociguat and three solvates with acetonitrile [form (III)], N,N-dimethylformamide [form (IV)] and ethyl acetate [form (V)] were crystallized. They were identified and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, and their crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. No crystal structure has previously been reported for the known form (II) of riociguat. Crystal structure determination of Rio and its new solvates revealed that the dimeric R(2)2(14) motif is common in both structures. The crystal packing of solvates adopts channel-like patterns, whereas form (II) of riociguat adopts sheet-like patterns. Strong π-π interactions exist in the above four forms. The conformation of the riociguat in one molecule of 0.5-DMF solvate was found to be significantly different from the conformations found in the other solvates. Desolvation of the three solvates was studied by thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction, and was shown to transform them into form (I) of riociguat.

  10. Expression of guanylate cyclase-C, guanylin, and uroguanylin is downregulated proportionally to the ulcerative colitis disease activity index

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Danfeng; Niu, Junkun; Miao, Jiarong; Dong, Xiangqian; Wang, Hong; Yang, Gang; Wang, Kunhua; Miao, Yinglei

    2016-01-01

    The transmembrane receptor guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C) signaling pathway has been implicated in several gastrointestinal disorders. Activation of GC-C via guanylin (Gn) and uroguanylin (Ugn) regulates intestinal fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. However, how it regulates the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is still unclear. Here, we investigated the activation of GC-C signaling in ulcerative colitis (UC) of different clinical severities. A total of 60 UC patients and 20 normal controls were recruited. Evaluation of the UC disease activity index (DAI) was performed using a modified Mayo scoring system. The expression of GC-C, Gn and Ugn in the colonic mucosa was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. We found that the UC patients had significantly lower expression of GC-C, Gn and Ugn than the controls. Furthermore, there were significant differences for GC-C, Gn and Ugn expression for the UC groups of Grade 1, 2 and 3, and their expression levels were reduced with increases in their DAI. Taken together, our results demonstrate that GC-C, Gn and Ugn are downregulated in UC, and this downregulation is more significant with aggravation of the clinical condition. Therefore, the GC-C signaling pathway may be implicated in the progression of UC. PMID:27125248

  11. Activation of phosphodiesterase 5 and inhibition of guanylate cyclase by cGMP-dependent protein kinase in smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, K S

    2001-01-01

    The regulation of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5 and soluble guanylate cyclase (GC) by cGMP- and cAMP-dependent protein kinases (PKG and PKA respectively) was examined in gastric smooth muscle. The NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), stimulated PDE5 phosphorylation and activity, which was blocked by the selective PKG inhibitor, KT5823, resulting in an elevation of cGMP levels. Activation of PKA either directly by Sp-5,6-dichloro-1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl benzimidazole 3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate, or via isoproterenol- and forskolin-dependent increase in cAMP, also caused an increase in PDE5 phosphorylation and activity, but only in the presence of cGMP; consistent with the dependence of PDE5 phosphorylation and activity on cGMP binding to allosteric sites in the regulatory domain of PDE5. The selective PKA inhibitors, myristoylated protein kinase inhibitor and H-89, blocked the increase in PDE5 phosphorylation and activity induced by PKA. SNP also stimulated soluble GC phosphorylation and activity. KT5823 abolished phosphorylation and augmented soluble GC activity, implying feedback inhibition of soluble GC by PKG-dependent phosphorylation. Phosphorylation by PKG was direct and could be induced in vitro. Activation of PKA had no effect on soluble GC. Thus cGMP levels are regulated by PKG- and PKA-dependent activation of PDE5 and PKG-specific inhibition of soluble GC. PMID:11696008

  12. Structure, signaling mechanism and regulation of the natriuretic peptide receptor guanylate cyclase.

    SciTech Connect

    Misono, K. S.; Philo, J. S.; Arakawa, T.; Ogata, C. M.; Qiu, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Young, H. S.

    2011-06-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and the homologous B-type natriuretic peptide are cardiac hormones that dilate blood vessels and stimulate natriuresis and diuresis, thereby lowering blood pressure and blood volume. ANP and B-type natriuretic peptide counterbalance the actions of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and neurohormonal systems, and play a central role in cardiovascular regulation. These activities are mediated by natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA), a single transmembrane segment, guanylyl cyclase (GC)-linked receptor that occurs as a homodimer. Here, we present an overview of the structure, possible chloride-mediated regulation and signaling mechanism of NPRA and other receptor GCs. Earlier, we determined the crystal structures of the NPRA extracellular domain with and without bound ANP. Their structural comparison has revealed a novel ANP-induced rotation mechanism occurring in the juxtamembrane region that apparently triggers transmembrane signal transduction. More recently, the crystal structures of the dimerized catalytic domain of green algae GC Cyg12 and that of cyanobacterium GC Cya2 have been reported. These structures closely resemble that of the adenylyl cyclase catalytic domain, consisting of a C1 and C2 subdomain heterodimer. Adenylyl cyclase is activated by binding of G{sub s}{alpha} to C2 and the ensuing 7{sup o} rotation of C1 around an axis parallel to the central cleft, thereby inducing the heterodimer to adopt a catalytically active conformation. We speculate that, in NPRA, the ANP-induced rotation of the juxtamembrane domains, transmitted across the transmembrane helices, may induce a similar rotation in each of the dimerized GC catalytic domains, leading to the stimulation of the GC catalytic activity.

  13. A Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Mediates Negative Signaling by Ammonium on Expression of Nitrate Reductase in Chlamydomonas[W

    PubMed Central

    de Montaigu, Amaury; Sanz-Luque, Emanuel; Galván, Aurora; Fernández, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Nitrate assimilation in plants and related organisms is a highly regulated and conserved pathway in which the enzyme nitrate reductase (NR) occupies a central position. Although some progress has been made in understanding the regulation of the protein, transcriptional regulation of the NR gene (NIA1) is poorly understood. This work describes a mechanism for the ammonium-mediated repression of NIA1. We report the characterization of a mutant defective in the repression of NIA1 and NR in response to ammonium and show that a gene (CYG56) coding for a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent guanylate cyclase (GC) was interrupted in this mutant. NO donors, cGMP analogs, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), and a calcium ionophore (A23187) repress the expression of NIA1 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii wild-type cells and also repress the expression of other ammonium-sensitive genes. In addition, the GC inhibitors LY83,583 (6-anilino-5,8-quinolinedione) and ODQ (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one) release cells from ammonium repression. Intracellular NO and cGMP levels were increased in the presence of ammonium in wild-type cells. In the cyg56 mutant, NIA1 transcription was less sensitive to NO donors and A23187, but responded like the wild type to IBMX. Results presented here suggest that CYG56 participates in ammonium-mediated NIA1 repression through a pathway that involves NO, cGMP, and calcium and that similar mechanisms might be occurring in plants. PMID:20442374

  14. Rod outer segment membrane guanylate cyclase type 1-linked stimulatory and inhibitory calcium signaling systems in the pineal gland: biochemical, molecular, and immunohistochemical evidence.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, V; Nagele, R; Duda, T; Sharma, R K

    2000-05-23

    Recent evidence indicates the presence of a novel alpha(2D/A)-adrenergic receptor (alpha(2D/A)-AR) linked membrane guanylate cyclase signal transduction system in the pineal gland. This system operates via a Ca(2+)-driven rod outer segment membrane guanylate cyclase (ROS-GC). In the present study, this transduction system has been characterized via molecular, immunohistochemical, and biochemical approaches. The two main components of the system are ROS-GC1 and its Ca(2+) regulator, S100B. Both components coexist in pinealocytes where the signaling component alpha(2D/A)-AR also resides. The presence of ROS-GC2 was not detected in the pineal gland. Thus, transduction components involved in processing alpha(2D/A)-AR-mediated signals are Ca(2+), S100B, and ROS-GC1. During this investigation, an intriguing observation was made. In certain pinealocytes, ROS-GC1 coexisted with its other Ca(2+) modulator, guanylate cyclase activating protein type 1 (GCAP1). In these pinealocytes, S100B was not present. The other GCAP protein, GCAP2, which is also a known modulator of ROS-GC in photoreceptors, was not present in the pineal gland. The results establish the identity of an alpha(2D/A)-AR-linked ROS-GC1 transduction system in pinealocytes. Furthermore, the findings show that ROS-GC1, in a separate subpopulation of pinealocytes, is associated with an opposite Ca(2+) signaling pathway, which is similar to phototransduction in retina. Thus, like photoreceptors, pinealocytes sense both positive and negative Ca(2+) signals, where ROS-GC1 plays a pivotal role; however, unlike photoreceptors, the pinealocyte is devoid of the ROS-GC2/GCAP2 signal transduction system.

  15. Plecanatide and dolcanatide, novel guanylate cyclase-C agonists, ameliorate gastrointestinal inflammation in experimental models of murine colitis

    PubMed Central

    Shailubhai, Kunwar; Palejwala, Vaseem; Arjunan, Krishna Priya; Saykhedkar, Sayali; Nefsky, Bradley; Foss, John A; Comiskey, Stephen; Jacob, Gary S; Plevy, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of orally administered plecanatide or dolcanatide, analogs of uroguanylin, on amelioration of colitis in murine models. METHODS: The cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) stimulatory potency of plecanatide and dolcanatide was measured using a human colon carcinoma T84 cell-based assay. For animal studies all test agents were formulated in phosphate buffered saline. Sulfasalazine or 5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA) served as positive controls. Effect of oral treatment with test agents on amelioration of acute colitis induced either by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water or by rectal instillation of trinitrobenzene sulfonic (TNBS) acid, was examined in BALB/c and/or BDF1 mice. Additionally, the effect of orally administered plecanatide on the spontaneous colitis in T-cell receptor alpha knockout (TCRα-/-) mice was also examined. Amelioration of colitis was assessed by monitoring severity of colitis, disease activity index and by histopathology. Frozen colon tissues were used to measure myeloperoxidase activity. RESULTS: Plecanatide and dolcanatide are structurally related analogs of uroguanylin, which is an endogenous ligand of guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C). As expected from the agonists of GC-C, both plecanatide and dolcanatide exhibited potent cGMP-stimulatory activity in T84 cells. Once-daily treatment by oral gavage with either of these analogs (0.05-0.5 mg/kg) ameliorated colitis in both DSS and TNBS-induced models of acute colitis, as assessed by body weight, reduction in colitis severity (P < 0.05) and disease activity index (P < 0.05). Amelioration of colitis by either of the drug candidates was comparable to that achieved by orally administered sulfasalazine or 5-ASA. Plecanatide also effectively ameliorated colitis in TCRα-/- mice, a model of spontaneous colitis. As dolcanatide exhibited higher resistance to proteolysis in simulated gastric and intestinal juices, it was selected for further studies. CONCLUSION: This is

  16. Formation of nitric oxide from L-arginine in the central nervous system: a transduction mechanism for stimulation of the soluble guanylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, R G; Palacios, M; Palmer, R M; Moncada, S

    1989-01-01

    A soluble enzyme obtained from rat forebrain catalyzes the NADPH-dependent formation of nitric oxide (NO) and citrulline from L-arginine. The NO formed stimulates the soluble guanylate cyclase and this stimulation is abolished by low concentrations of hemoglobin. The synthesis of NO and citrulline is dependent on the presence of physiological concentrations of free Ca2+ and is inhibited by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, but not by its enantiomer NG-monomethyl-D-arginine or by L-canavanine. L-Homoarginine, L-arginyl-L-aspartate, or L-arginine methyl ester can replace L-arginine as substrates for the enzyme. These results indicate that NO is formed from L-arginine in the brain through an enzymic reaction similar to that in vascular endothelial cells, neutrophils, and macrophages, adding support to our hypothesis that the formation of NO from L-arginine is a widespread transduction mechanism for the stimulation of the soluble guanylate cyclase. PMID:2567995

  17. Functional consequences of a rod outer segment membrane guanylate cyclase (ROS-GC1) gene mutation linked with Leber's congenital amaurosis.

    PubMed

    Duda, T; Venkataraman, V; Goraczniak, R; Lange, C; Koch, K W; Sharma, R K

    1999-01-12

    ROS-GC1 is the original member of the subfamily of membrane guanylate cyclases with two Ca2+ switches, which have been defined as CRM1 and CRM2. These are separately located within the intracellular domain of the cyclase. CRM1 switches on the enzyme at nanomolar concentrations of Ca2+ and is linked with phototransduction; the other stimulates at micromolar Ca2+ concentrations and is predicted to be linked with retinal synaptic activity. Ca2+ acts indirectly via Ca2+-binding proteins, GCAP1 and CD-GCAP. GCAP1 is a modulator of the CRM1 switch, and CD-GCAP turns on the CRM2 switch. A Leber's congenital amaurosis, termed LCA1, involves F514S point mutation in ROS-GC1. The present study shows that the mutation severely damages its intrinsic cyclase activity and inactivates its CRM1 switch but does not affect the CRM2 switch. In addition, on the basis of the established modulatory features of ROS-GC1, it is predicted that, in two other forms of LCA1 involving deletion of nt 460C or 693C, there is a frameshift in ROS-GC1 gene, which results in the nonexpression of the cyclase. For the first time, the findings define the linkage of distinct molecular forms of LCA to ROS-GC1 in precise biochemical terms; they also explain the reasons for the insufficient production of cyclic GMP in photoreceptors to sustain phototransduction, which ultimately leads to the degeneration of the photoreceptors.

  18. YC-1, a nitric oxide-independent activator of soluble guanylate cyclase, inhibits the spontaneous contractions of isolated pregnant rat myometrium.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Ali; Kaya, Tijen; Demirkoprulu, Nihal; Karadas, Baris; Duran, Bulent; Cetin, Meral

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of YC-1 (3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole) on spontaneous contractions and levels of cyclic GMP (cGMP) of myometrial strips isolated from pregnant rats. It is a nitric oxide-independent soluble guanylate cyclase activator. Myometrial strips were obtained from eight pregnant Wistar albino rats and were mounted in organ baths for the recording of isometric tensions. We evaluated the effect of increasing concentrations of YC-1 on spontaneous myometrial contractions and on contractions of myometrial smooth muscle pretreated with methylene blue (10(-5) M), tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA) (3 x 10(-4) M), and glibenclamide (10(-6) M). YC-1 (10(-9) - 3 x 10(-5) M) concentration-dependently decreased the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions of myometrial strips. The inhibition of the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions by YC-1 were antagonized with methylene blue (10(-5) M) and TEA (3 x 10(-4) M), but they were not changed by glibenclamide (10(-6) M); however, the antagonistic effect of methylene blue was significantly more than that of TEA (P<0.05). We also evaluated the effect of YC-1 on the levels of cGMP in myometrial strips obtained from pregnant rat uterine horns. YC-1-stimulated myometrial strips showed an excessive elevation in myometrial cGMP that declined slowly during the subsequent washout period. These results show that YC-1 decreases spontaneous contractile activity of myometrial strips isolated from pregnant rat and causes elevation of myometrial cGMP levels in vivo. This effect of YC-1 is significantly reduced by the methylene blue and TEA, suggesting the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase and Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels as the mechanisms of action.

  19. GLOBIN-5-Dependent O2 Responses Are Regulated by PDL-1/PrBP That Targets Prenylated Soluble Guanylate Cyclases to Dendritic Endings

    PubMed Central

    Soltesz, Zoltan; Oda, Shigekazu; Zelmanovich, Veronica; Abergel, Zohar

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic animals constantly monitor and adapt to changes in O2 levels. The molecular mechanisms involved in sensing O2 are, however, incompletely understood. Previous studies showed that a hexacoordinated globin called GLB-5 tunes the dynamic range of O2-sensing neurons in natural C. elegans isolates, but is defective in the N2 lab reference strain (McGrath et al., 2009; Persson et al., 2009). GLB-5 enables a sharp behavioral switch when O2 changes between 21 and 17%. Here, we show that GLB-5 also confers rapid behavioral and cellular recovery from exposure to hypoxia. Hypoxia reconfigures O2-evoked Ca2+ responses in the URX O2 sensors, and GLB-5 enables rapid recovery of these responses upon re-oxygenation. Forward genetic screens indicate that GLB-5's effects on O2 sensing require PDL-1, the C. elegans ortholog of mammalian PrBP/PDE6δ protein. In mammals, PDE6δ regulates the traffic and activity of prenylated proteins (Zhang et al., 2004; Norton et al., 2005). PDL-1 promotes localization of GCY-33 and GCY-35, atypical soluble guanylate cyclases that act as O2 sensors, to the dendritic endings of URX and BAG neurons, where they colocalize with GLB-5. Both GCY-33 and GCY-35 are predicted to be prenylated. Dendritic localization is not essential for GCY-35 to function as an O2 sensor, but disrupting pdl-1 alters the URX neuron's O2 response properties. Functional GLB-5 can restore dendritic localization of GCY-33 in pdl-1 mutants, suggesting GCY-33 and GLB-5 are in a complex. Our data suggest GLB-5 and the soluble guanylate cyclases operate in close proximity to sculpt O2 responses. PMID:25505325

  20. Structure and Activation of Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase, the Nitric Oxide Sensor.

    PubMed

    Montfort, William R; Wales, Jessica A; Weichsel, Andrzej

    2017-01-20

    Soluble guanylyl/guanylate cyclase (sGC) is the primary receptor for nitric oxide (NO) and is central to the physiology of blood pressure regulation, wound healing, memory formation, and other key physiological activities. sGC is increasingly implicated in disease and is targeted by novel therapeutic compounds. The protein displays a rich evolutionary history and a fascinating signal transduction mechanism, with NO binding to an N-terminal heme-containing domain, which activates the C-terminal cyclase domains. Recent Advances: Crystal structures of individual sGC domains or their bacterial homologues coupled with small-angle x-ray scattering, electron microscopy, chemical cross-linking, and Förster resonance energy transfer measurements are yielding insight into the overall structure for sGC, which is elongated and likely quite dynamic. Transient kinetic measurements reveal a role for individual domains in lowering NO affinity for heme. New sGC stimulatory drugs are now in the clinic and appear to function through binding near or directly to the sGC heme domain, relieving inhibitory contacts with other domains. New sGC-activating drugs show promise for recovering oxidized sGC in diseases with high inflammation by replacing lost heme. Despite the many recent advances, sGC regulation, NO activation, and mechanisms of drug binding remain unclear. Here, we describe the molecular evolution of sGC, new molecular models, and the linked equilibria between sGC NO binding, drug binding, and catalytic activity. Recent results and ongoing studies lay the foundation for a complete understanding of structure and mechanism, and they open the door for new drug discovery targeting sGC. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 107-121.

  1. The sGC activator BAY 60-2770 has potent erectile activity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Lasker, George F; Pankey, Edward A; Frink, Terrence J; Zeitzer, Jonathan R; Walter, Korey A; Kadowitz, Philip J

    2013-06-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) is the principal mediator of penile erection, and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is the receptor for NO. In pathophysiological conditions when sGC is inactivated and not responsive to NO or sGC stimulators a new class of agents called sGC activators increase the activity of NO-insensitive sGC and produce erection. The aim of this study was to investigate erectile responses to BAY 60-2770, a sGC activator, under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In the present study increases in intracavernosal pressure (ICP) in response to intracavernosal (ic) injections of BAY 60-2770 were investigated under baseline conditions, when sGC was inhibited by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), when nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was inhibited by N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), and after cavernosal nerve crush injury. Under baseline conditions ic injections of BAY 60-2770 increase ICP, ICP/mean arterial pressure (MAP), and area under the ICP curve (AUC) and produce small decreases in MAP at the highest doses studied. BAY 60-2770 was very potent in its ability to induce erection and responses to BAY 60-2770 were enhanced by ODQ which attenuates erectile responses to sodium nitroprusside (SNP), diethylamine NONOate (DEA/NO), and cavernosal nerve stimulation. Responses to BAY 60-2770 were not altered by L-NAME or cavernosal nerve crush injury. These data indicate that BAY 60-2770 has potent erectile activity that is enhanced by ODQ and show that responses to BAY 60-2770 are not attenuated by NOS inhibition or cavernosal nerve injury. These results suggest that BAY 60-2770 would be effective in the treatment of erectile dysfunction when NO bioavailability is reduced, after pelvic nerve injury, and when sGC is oxidized.

  2. The sGC activator BAY 60-2770 has potent erectile activity in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Lasker, George F.; Pankey, Edward A.; Frink, Terrence J.; Zeitzer, Jonathan R.; Walter, Korey A.

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is the principal mediator of penile erection, and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is the receptor for NO. In pathophysiological conditions when sGC is inactivated and not responsive to NO or sGC stimulators a new class of agents called sGC activators increase the activity of NO-insensitive sGC and produce erection. The aim of this study was to investigate erectile responses to BAY 60-2770, a sGC activator, under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In the present study increases in intracavernosal pressure (ICP) in response to intracavernosal (ic) injections of BAY 60-2770 were investigated under baseline conditions, when sGC was inhibited by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), when nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was inhibited by N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), and after cavernosal nerve crush injury. Under baseline conditions ic injections of BAY 60-2770 increase ICP, ICP/mean arterial pressure (MAP), and area under the ICP curve (AUC) and produce small decreases in MAP at the highest doses studied. BAY 60-2770 was very potent in its ability to induce erection and responses to BAY 60-2770 were enhanced by ODQ which attenuates erectile responses to sodium nitroprusside (SNP), diethylamine NONOate (DEA/NO), and cavernosal nerve stimulation. Responses to BAY 60-2770 were not altered by l-NAME or cavernosal nerve crush injury. These data indicate that BAY 60-2770 has potent erectile activity that is enhanced by ODQ and show that responses to BAY 60-2770 are not attenuated by NOS inhibition or cavernosal nerve injury. These results suggest that BAY 60-2770 would be effective in the treatment of erectile dysfunction when NO bioavailability is reduced, after pelvic nerve injury, and when sGC is oxidized. PMID:23585129

  3. The opposing effects of calmodulin, adenosine 5 prime -triphosphate, and pertussis toxin on phorbol ester induced inhibition of atrial natriuretic factor stimulated guanylate cyclase in SK-NEP-1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sekiya, M.; Frohlich, E.D.; Cole, F.E. )

    1991-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of calmodulin, adenosine 5{prime}-triphosphate (ATP) and pertussis toxin (PT) on phorbol ester (PMA) induced inhibition of ANF-stimulated cyclic GMP formation in cells from the human renal cell line, SK-NEP-1. PMA inhibited ANF-stimulated guanylate cyclase activity in particulate membranes by about 65%. Calmodulin reversed this inhibition in a dose dependent manner. ATP potentiated Mg++ but not Mn++ supported guanylate cyclase activity. In PMA treated membranes, ATP potentiating effects were abolished. PMA also inhibited ANF-stimulated cGMP accumulation, but pretreatment with PT prevented this PMA inhibition. PT did not affect basal or ANF-stimulated cGMP accumulation. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that PMA inhibited ANF stimulation of particulate guanylate cyclase in opposition to the activating effects of calmodulin or ATP in SK-NEP-1 cells. The protein kinase C inhibitory effects appeared to be mediated via a PT-sensitive G protein.

  4. S100B Serves as a Ca2+ Sensor for ROS-GC1 Guanylate Cyclase in Cones but Not in Rods of the Murine Retina

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xiao-Hong; Duda, Teresa; Pertzev, Alexandre; Venkataraman, Venkateswar; Makino, Clint L.; Sharma, Rameshwar K.

    2012-01-01

    Rod outer segment membrane guanylate cyclase (ROS-GC1) is a bimodal Ca2+ signal transduction switch. Lowering [Ca2+]i from 200 to 20 nM progressively turns it “ON” as does raising [Ca2+]i from 500 to 5000 nM. The mode operating at lower [Ca2+]i plays a vital role in phototransduction in both rods and cones. The physiological function of the mode operating at elevated [Ca2+]i is not known. Through comprehensive studies on mice involving gene deletions, biochemistry, immunohistochemistry, electroretinograms and single cell recordings, the present study demonstrates that the Ca2+-sensor S100B coexists with and is physiologically linked to ROS-GC1 in cones but not in rods. It up-regulates ROS-GC1 activity with a K1/2 for Ca2+ greater than 500 nM and modulates the transmission of neural signals to cone ON-bipolar cells. Furthermore, a possibility is raised that under pathological conditions where [Ca2+]i levels rise to and perhaps even enter the micromolar range, the S100B signaling switch will be turned “ON” causing an explosive production of CNG channel opening and further rise in [Ca2+]i in cone outer segments. The findings define a new cone-specific Ca2+-dependent feature of photoreceptors and expand our understanding of the operational principles of phototransduction machinery. PMID:22508049

  5. Detection of Nitric Oxide Induced by Angiotensin II Receptor Type 1 Using Soluble Guanylate Cyclase beta1 Subunit Fused to a Yellow Fluorescent Protein, Venus.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yuichi; Ozawa, Kentaro; Komatsubara, Akira T; Zhao, Jing; Nishi, Mayumi; Yoshizumi, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important gaseous molecule involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes, including the regulation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Here, we report the development of a high-affinity method to detect NO using soluble guanylate cyclase beta1 subunit fused to Venus, a variant of yellow fluorescent protein (sGC-Venus). We measured the fluorescence intensity of sGC-Venus with and without an NO donor using purified probes. At 560 nm emission, the fluorescence intensity of sGC-Venus at 405 nm excitation was increased by approximately 2.5-fold by the NO donor, but the fluorescence intensities of sGC-Venus excited by other wavelengths showed much less of an increase or no significant increase. To measure NO in living cells, the fluorescence intensity of sGC-Venus at 405 nm excitation was normalized to that at 488 nm excitation because it showed no significant difference with or without the NO donor. In HEK293 cells overexpressing the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1 receptor), the production of NO induced by activation of the AT1 receptor was detected using sGC-Venus. These data indicate that sGC-Venus will be a useful tool for visualizing intracellular NO in living cells and that NO might be a common tool to regulate GPCRs.

  6. Regulation of soluble guanylyl cyclase redox state by hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zongmin; Martin, Emil; Sharina, Iraida; Esposito, Iolanda; Szabo, Csaba; Bucci, Mariarosaria; Cirino, Giuseppe; Papapetropoulos, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is a receptor for nitric oxide (NO). Binding of NO to ferrous (Fe(2+)) heme increases its catalytic activity, leading to the production of cGMP from GTP. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a signaling molecule that exerts both direct and indirect anti-oxidant effects. In the present, study we aimed to determine whether H2S could regulate sGC redox state and affect its responsiveness to NO-releasing agents and sGC activators. Using cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells, we observed that treatment with H2S augmented the response to the NO donor DEA/NO, while attenuating the response to the heme-independent activator BAY58-2667 that targets oxidized sGC. Similarly, overexpression of H2S-synthesizing enzyme cystathionine-γ lyase reduced the ability of BAY58-2667 to promote cGMP accumulation. In experiments with phenylephrine-constricted mouse aortic rings, treatment with rotenone (a compound that increases ROS production), caused a rightward shift of the DEA/NO concentration-response curve, an effect partially restored by H2S. When rings were pre-treated with H2S, the concentration-response curve to BAY 58-2667 shifted to the right. Using purified recombinant human sGC, we observed that treatment with H2S converted ferric to ferrous sGC enhancing NO-donor-stimulated sGC activity and reducing BAY 58-2667-triggered cGMP formation. The present study identified an additional mechanism of cross-talk between the NO and H2S pathways at the level of redox regulation of sGC. Our results provide evidence that H2S reduces sGC heme Fe, thus, facilitating NO-mediated cellular signaling events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lentiviral Expression of Retinal Guanylate Cyclase-1 (RetGC1) Restores Vision in an Avian Model of Childhood Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Haire, Shannon E; Aleman, Tomas S; Cideciyan, Artur V; Sokal, Izabel; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Jacobson, Samuel G; Semple-Rowland, Susan L

    2006-01-01

    Background Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a genetically heterogeneous group of retinal diseases that cause congenital blindness in infants and children. Mutations in the GUCY2D gene that encodes retinal guanylate cyclase–1 (retGC1) were the first to be linked to this disease group (LCA type 1 [LCA1]) and account for 10%–20% of LCA cases. These mutations disrupt synthesis of cGMP in photoreceptor cells, a key second messenger required for function of these cells. The GUCY1*B chicken, which carries a null mutation in the retGC1 gene, is blind at hatching and serves as an animal model for the study of LCA1 pathology and potential treatments in humans. Methods and Findings A lentivirus-based gene transfer vector carrying the GUCY2D gene was developed and injected into early-stage GUCY1*B embryos to determine if photoreceptor function and sight could be restored to these animals. Like human LCA1, the avian disease shows early-onset blindness, but there is a window of opportunity for intervention. In both diseases there is a period of photoreceptor cell dysfunction that precedes retinal degeneration. Of seven treated animals, six exhibited sight as evidenced by robust optokinetic and volitional visual behaviors. Electroretinographic responses, absent in untreated animals, were partially restored in treated animals. Morphological analyses indicated there was slowing of the retinal degeneration. Conclusions Blindness associated with loss of function of retGC1 in the GUCY1*B avian model of LCA1 can be reversed using viral vector-mediated gene transfer. Furthermore, this reversal can be achieved by restoring function to a relatively low percentage of retinal photoreceptors. These results represent a first step toward development of gene therapies for one of the more common forms of childhood blindness. PMID:16700630

  8. Long-Term Preservation of Cones and Improvement in Visual Function Following Gene Therapy in a Mouse Model of Leber Congenital Amaurosis Caused by Guanylate Cyclase-1 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mihelec, Marija; Pearson, Rachael A.; Robbie, Scott J.; Buch, Prateek K.; Azam, Selina A.; Bainbridge, James W.B.; Smith, Alexander J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a severe retinal dystrophy manifesting from early infancy as poor vision or blindness. Loss-of-function mutations in GUCY2D cause LCA1 and are one of the most common causes of LCA, accounting for 20% of all cases. Human GUCY2D and mouse Gucy2e genes encode guanylate cyclase-1 (GC1), which is responsible for restoring the dark state in photoreceptors after light exposure. The Gucy2e–/– mouse shows partially diminished rod function, but an absence of cone function before degeneration. Although the cones appear morphologically normal, they exhibit mislocalization of proteins involved in phototransduction. In this study we tested the efficacy of an rAAV2/8 vector containing the human rhodopsin kinase promoter and the human GUCY2D gene. Following subretinal delivery of the vector in Gucy2e–/– mice, GC1 protein was detected in the rod and cone outer segments, and in transduced areas of retina cone transducin was appropriately localized to cone outer segments. Moreover, we observed a dose-dependent restoration of rod and cone function and an improvement in visual behavior of the treated mice. Most importantly, cone preservation was observed in transduced areas up to 6 months post injection. To date, this is the most effective rescue of the Gucy2e–/– mouse model of LCA and we propose that a vector, similar to the one used in this study, could be suitable for use in a clinical trial of gene therapy for LCA1. PMID:21671801

  9. PACAP stimulation of maturational gonadotropin secretion in goldfish involves extracellular signal-regulated kinase, but not nitric oxide or guanylate cyclase, signaling.

    PubMed

    Chang, John P; Sawisky, Grant R; Mitchell, Gabriel; Uretsky, Aubrey D; Kwong, Patrick; Grey, Caleb L; Meints, Amanda N; Booth, Morgan

    2010-01-01

    In goldfish, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunoreactivity is present in gonadotropes and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) mediates GnRH stimulation of gonadotropin release and synthesis. In this study, we tested the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) and ERK in mediating PACAP-stimulated maturational gonadotropin (GTH-II) release from primary cultures of dispersed goldfish pituitary cells. In static incubation experiments, PACAP-induced GTH-II release was unaffected by two inhibitors of NOS synthase, AGH and 1400W; whereas addition of a NO donor, SNAP, elevated GTH-II secretion. In perifusion experiments, neither NOS inhibitors (AGH, 1400W and 7-Ni) nor NO scavengers (PTIO and rutin hydrate) attenuated the GTH-II response to pulse applications of PACAP. In addition, the GTH-II responses to PACAP and the NO donor SNP were additive while PTIO blocked SNP action. Although dibutyryl cGMP increased GTH-II secretion in static incubation, inhibition of guanylate cyclase (GC), a known down-stream target for NO signaling, did not reduce the GTH-II response to pulse application of PACAP. On the other hand, GTH-II responses to PACAP in perifusion were attenuated in the presence of two inhibitors of ERK kinase (MEK), U 0126 and PD 98059. These results suggest that although increased availability of NO and cGMP can lead to increased GTH-II secretion, MEK/ERK signaling, rather than NOS/NO/GC activation, mediates PACAP action on GTH-II release in goldfish.

  10. Trpc2-expressing sensory neurons in the mouse main olfactory epithelium of type B express the soluble guanylate cyclase Gucy1b2

    PubMed Central

    Omura, Masayo; Mombaerts, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Chemoreception in the mouse olfactory system occurs primarily at two chemosensory epithelia in the nasal cavity: the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and the vomeronasal epithelium. The canonical chemosensory neurons in the MOE, the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), express the odorant receptor (OR) gene repertoire, and depend on Adcy3 and Cnga2 for chemosensory signal transduction. The canonical chemosensory neurons in the vomeronasal epithelium, the vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs), express two unrelated vomeronasal receptor (VR) gene repertoires, and involve Trpc2 for chemosensory signal transduction. Recently we reported the discovery of two types of neurons in the mouse MOE that express Trcp2 in addition to Cnga2. These cell types can be distinguished at the single-cell level by expression of Adcy3: positive, type A and negative, type B. Some type A cells express OR genes. Thus far there is no specific gene or marker for type B cells, hampering further analyses such as physiological recordings. Here, we show that among MOE cells, type B cells are unique in their expression of the soluble guanylate cyclase Gucy1b2. We came across Gucy1b2 in an explorative approach based on Long Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (LongSAGE) that we applied to single red-fluorescent cells isolated from whole olfactory mucosa and vomeronasal organ of mice of a novel Trcp2-IRES-taumCherry gene-targeted strain. The generation of a novel Gucy1b2-IRES-tauGFP gene-targeted strain enabled us to visualize coalescence of axons of type B cells into glomeruli in the main olfactory bulb. Our molecular and anatomical analyses define Gucy1b2 as a marker for type B cells within the MOE. The Gucy1b2-IRES-tauGFP strain will be useful for physiological, molecular, cellular, and anatomical studies of this newly described chemosensory subsystem. PMID:25701815

  11. Linaclotide activates guanylate cyclase-C/cGMP/protein kinase-II-dependent trafficking of CFTR in the intestine.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Md Kaimul; Tchernychev, Boris; Kessler, Marco M; Solinga, Robert M; Arthur, David; Linde, Cristina I; Silos-Santiago, Inmaculada; Hannig, Gerhard; Ameen, Nadia A

    2017-06-01

    The transmembrane receptor guanylyl cyclase-C (GC-C), expressed on enterocytes along the intestine, is the molecular target of the GC-C agonist peptide linaclotide, an FDA-approved drug for treatment of adult patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Constipation and Chronic Idiopathic Constipation. Polarized human colonic intestinal cells (T84, CaCo-2BBe) rat and human intestinal tissues were employed to examine cellular signaling and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-trafficking pathways activated by linaclotide using confocal microscopy, in vivo surface biotinylation, and protein kinase-II (PKG-II) activity assays. Expression and activity of GC-C/cGMP pathway components were determined by PCR, western blot, and cGMP assays. Fluid secretion as a marker of CFTR cell surface translocation was determined using in vivo rat intestinal loops. Linaclotide treatment (30 min) induced robust fluid secretion and translocation of CFTR from subapical compartments to the cell surface in rat intestinal loops. Similarly, linaclotide treatment (30 min) of T84 and CaCo-2BBe cells increased cell surface CFTR levels. Linaclotide-induced activation of the GC-C/cGMP/PKGII signaling pathway resulted in elevated intracellular cGMP and pVASP(ser239) phosphorylation. Inhibition or silencing of PKGII significantly attenuated linaclotide-induced CFTR trafficking to the apical membrane. Inhibition of protein kinase-A (PKA) also attenuated linaclotide-induced CFTR cell surface trafficking, implying cGMP-dependent cross-activation of PKA pathway. Together, these findings support linaclotide-induced activation of the GC-C/cGMP/PKG-II/CFTR pathway as the major pathway of linaclotide-mediated intestinal fluid secretion, and that linaclotide-dependent CFTR activation and recruitment/trafficking of CFTR from subapical vesicles to the cell surface is an important step in this process. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on

  12. Plecanatide-mediated activation of guanylate cyclase-C suppresses inflammation-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in Apc+/Min-FCCC mice

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Chi L; Masih, Shet; Thadi, Anusha; Patwa, Viren; Joshi, Apoorva; Cooper, Harry S; Palejwala, Vaseem A; Clapper, Margie L; Shailubhai, Kunwar

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of orally administered plecanatide on colorectal dysplasia in Apc+/Min-FCCC mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced inflammation. METHODS Inflammation driven colorectal carcinogenesis was induced in Apc+/Min-FCCC mice by administering DSS in their drinking water. Mice were fed a diet supplemented with plecanatide (0-20 ppm) and its effect on the multiplicity of histopathologically confirmed polypoid, flat and indeterminate dysplasia was evaluated. Plecanatide-mediated activation of guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C) signaling was assessed in colon tissues by measuring cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) by ELISA, protein kinase G-II and vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein by immunoblotting. Ki-67, c-myc and cyclin D1 were used as markers of proliferation. Cellular levels and localization of β-catenin in colon tissues were assessed by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Uroguanylin (UG) and GC-C transcript levels were measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A mouse cytokine array panel was used to detect cytokines in the supernatant of colon explant cultures. RESULTS Oral treatment of Apc+/MinFCCC mice with plecanatide produced a statistically significant reduction in the formation of inflammation-driven polypoid, flat and indeterminate dysplasias. This anti-carcinogenic activity of plecanatide was accompanied by activation of cGMP/GC-C signaling mediated inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and reduced proliferation. Plecanatide also decreased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL1 TNF), chemokines (MIP-1, IP-10) and growth factors (GCSF and GMCSF) from colon explants derived from mice with acute DSS-induced inflammation. The effect of plecanatide-mediated inhibition of inflammation/dysplasia on endogenous expression of UG and GC-C transcripts was measured in intestinal tissues. Although GC-C expression was not altered appreciably, a statistically significant

  13. [Potentiation of activation of soluble guanylate cyclase by YC-1, NO-donors and increase of the synergistic effect of YC-1 on NO-dependent activation of the enzyme by 1,2,3-triazolyl-1,2,5-oxadiazole derivatives].

    PubMed

    Severina, I S; Pyatakova, N V; Shchegolev, A Yu; Rozhkov, V Yu; Batog, L V; Makhova, N N

    2015-01-01

    The influence of (1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole derivatives: 4-amino-3-(5-methyl-4- ethoxycarbonyl-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole (TF4CH3) and 4,4'-bis(5-methel-4-ethoxycarbonyl-1H- 1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)-3,3'-azo-1,2,5-oxadiazole (2TF4CH3) on stimulation of human platelet soluble guanylate cyclase by YC-1, NO-donors (sodium nitroprusside, SNP, and spermine NONO) and on a synergistic increase of NO-dependent enzyme activation in the presence of YC-1 has been investigated. Both compounds increased guanylate cyclase activation by YC-1, potentiated guanylate cyclase stimulation by NO-donors and increased the synergistic effect of YC-1 on NO-dependent activation of soluble guanylate cyclase. The similarity in the properties of the examined TF4CH3 and 2TF4CH3 with that of YC-1 and the possible mechanism underlying the revealed properties of compounds used are discussed.

  14. The regulation of sGC on the rat model of neuropathic pain is mediated by 5-HT1ARs and NO/cGMP pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zifeng; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Jianhai; Zheng, Jijian

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate management of neuropathic pain results in poor clinical outcomes and reduces quality of life for the patient all over the world, but intricate interplay between wide variety of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development and progression of neuropathic pain makes it difficult to design effective therapeutic strategies. The present study aims to elucidate the interaction of 5-HT1A receptors (5-HT1ARs), soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and NO/cGMP signaling pathway in the development of neuropathic pain. The results showed that after sciatic nerve crush procedure, the protein level of sGC in the spinal cord was greatly increased. The mechanical threshold in rats was significantly enhanced by the sGC inhibitor ODQ and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) inhibitor SMTC, indicating the role of sGC and nNOS in the process of neuropathic pain. The treatment of NO donors (SNP and SIN-1) and cGMP-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor (Zaprinast) all significantly decreased the mechanical threshold in rats, but the 5-HT1ARs inhibitor WAY100635 significantly increased the mechanical threshold in rats, demonstrating the role of NO/cGMP pathway and 5-HT1ARs in the development of neuropathic pain. Finally, the protein levels of sGC was greatly increased by SNP and Zaprinast but decreased by WAY100635 and SMTC, showing the regulation of NO/cGMP pathway and 5-HT1ARs on the protein expression of sGC. Taken together, it is suggested that sGC in the spinal cord regulates the neuropathic pain, which is mediated by 5-HT1ARs and NO/cGMP pathway. PMID:27158388

  15. Regulation of Sertoli cell tight junction dynamics in the rat testis via the nitric oxide synthase/soluble guanylate cyclase/3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate/protein kinase G signaling pathway: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nikki P Y; Cheng, C Yan

    2003-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) catalyzes the oxidation of L-arginine to NO. NO plays a crucial role in regulating various physiological functions, possibly including junction dynamics via its effects on cAMP and cGMP, which are known modulators of tight junction (TJ) dynamics. Although inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS) are found in the testis and have been implicated in the regulation of spermatogenesis, their role(s) in TJ dynamics, if any, is not known. When Sertoli cells were cultured at 0.5-1.2 x 10(6) cells/cm(2) on Matrigel-coated dishes or bicameral units, functional TJ barrier was formed when the barrier function was assessed by quantifying transepithelial electrical resistance across the cell epithelium. The assembly of the TJ barrier was shown to associate with a significant plummeting in the levels of iNOS and eNOS, seemingly suggesting that their presence by producing NO might perturb TJ assembly. To further confirm the role of NOS on the TJ barrier function in vitro, zinc (II) protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPP), an NOS inhibitor and a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, was added to the Sertoli cell cultures during TJ assembly. Indeed, ZnPP was found to facilitate the assembly and maintenance of the Sertoli cell TJ barrier, possibly by inducing the production of TJ-associated proteins, such as occludin. Subsequent studies by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting have shown that iNOS and eNOS are structurally linked to TJ-integral membrane proteins, such as occludin, and cytoskeletal proteins, such as actin, vimentin, and alpha-tubulin. When the cAMP and cGMP levels in these ZnPP-treated samples were quantified, a ZnPP-induced reduction of intracellular cGMP, but not cAMP, was indeed detected. Furthermore, 8-bromo-cGMP, a cell membrane-permeable analog of cGMP, could also perturb the TJ barrier dose dependently similar to the effects of 8-bromo-cAMP. KT-5823, a specific inhibitor of protein kinase G, was shown to facilitate the Sertoli cell TJ

  16. Identification of a haem domain in human soluble adenylate cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Middelhaufe, Sabine; Leipelt, Martina; Levin, Lonny R.; Buck, Jochen; Steegborn, Clemens

    2012-01-01

    The second messengers cAMP and cGMP mediate a multitude of physiological processes. In mammals, these cyclic nucleotides are formed by related Class III nucleotidyl cyclases, and both ACs (adenylate cyclases) and GCs (guanylate cyclases) comprise transmembrane receptors as well as soluble isoforms. Whereas sGC (soluble GC) has a well-characterized regulatory HD (haem domain) that acts as a receptor for the activator NO (nitric oxide), very little is known about the regulatory domains of the ubiquitous signalling enzyme sAC (soluble AC). In the present study, we identify a unique type of HD as a regulatory domain in sAC. The sAC-HD (sAC haem domain) forms a larger oligomer and binds, non-covalently, one haem cofactor per monomer. Spectral analyses and mutagenesis reveal a 6-fold co-ordinated haem iron atom, probably with non-typical axial ligands, which can bind both NO and CO (carbon monoxide). Splice variants of sAC comprising this domain are expressed in testis and skeletal muscle, and the HD displays an activating effect on the sAC catalytic core. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for regulation of cAMP signalling and suggest a need for reanalysis of previous studies on mechanisms of haem ligand effects on cyclic nucleotide signalling, particularly in testis and skeletal muscle. PMID:22775536

  17. Involvement of rhodopsin and ATP in the activation of membranous guanylate cyclase in retinal photoreceptor outer segments (ROS-GC) by GC-activating proteins (GCAPs): a new model for ROS-GC activation and its link to retinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, Vladimir A; Hayashi, Fumio; Usukura, Jiro; Yamazaki, Akio

    2010-01-01

    Membranous guanylate cyclase in retinal photoreceptor outer segments (ROS-GC), a key enzyme for the recovery of photoreceptors to the dark state, has a topology identical to and cytoplasmic domains homologous to those of peptide-regulated GCs. However, under the prevailing concept, its activation mechanism is significantly different from those of peptide-regulated GCs: GC-activating proteins (GCAPs) function as the sole activator of ROS-GC in a Ca(2+)-sensitive manner, and neither reception of an outside signal by the extracellular domain (ECD) nor ATP binding to the kinase homology domain (KHD) is required for its activation. We have recently shown that ATP pre-binding to the KHD in ROS-GC drastically enhances its GCAP-stimulated activity, and that rhodopsin illumination, as the outside signal, is required for the ATP pre-binding. These results indicate that illuminated rhodopsin is involved in ROS-GC activation in two ways: to initiate ATP binding to ROS-GC for preparation of its activation and to reduce [Ca(2+)] through activation of cGMP phosphodiesterase. These two signal pathways are activated in a parallel and proportional manner and finally converge for strong activation of ROS-GC by Ca(2+)-free GCAPs. These results also suggest that the ECD receives the signal for ATP binding from illuminated rhodopsin. The ECD is projected into the intradiscal space, i.e., an intradiscal domain(s) of rhodopsin is also involved in the signal transfer. Many retinal disease-linked mutations are found in these intradiscal domains; however, their consequences are often unclear. This model will also provide novel insights into causal relationship between these mutations and certain retinal diseases.

  18. Ischemic-LTP in striatal spiny neurons of both direct and indirect pathway requires the activation of D1-like receptors and NO/soluble guanylate cyclase/cGMP transmission.

    PubMed

    Arcangeli, Sara; Tozzi, Alessandro; Tantucci, Michela; Spaccatini, Cristiano; de Iure, Antonio; Costa, Cinzia; Di Filippo, Massimiliano; Picconi, Barbara; Giampà, Carmen; Fusco, Francesca Romana; Amoroso, Salvatore; Calabresi, Paolo

    2013-02-01

    Striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) are highly vulnerable to ischemia. A brief ischemic insult, produced by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), can induce ischemic long-term potentiation (i-LTP) of corticostriatal excitatory postsynaptic response. Since nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the pathophysiology of brain ischemia and the dopamine D1/D5-receptors (D1-like-R) are expressed in striatal NOS-positive interneurons, we hypothesized a relation between NOS-positive interneurons and striatal i-LTP, involving D1R activation and NO production. We investigated the mechanisms involved in i-LTP induced by OGD in corticostriatal slices and found that the D1-like-R antagonist SCH-23390 prevented i-LTP in all recorded MSNs. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed the induction of i-LTP in both substance P-positive, (putative D1R-expressing) and adenosine A2A-receptor-positive (putative D2R-expressing) MSNs. Furthermore, i-LTP was dependent on a NOS/cGMP pathway since pharmacological blockade of NOS, guanylate-cyclase, or PKG prevented i-LTP. However, these compounds failed to prevent i-LTP in the presence of a NO donor or cGMP analog, respectively. Interestingly, the D1-like-R antagonism failed to prevent i-LTP when intracellular cGMP was pharmacologically increased. We propose that NO, produced by striatal NOS-positive interneurons via the stimulation of D1-like-R located on these cells, is critical for i-LTP induction in the entire population of MSNs involving a cGMP-dependent pathway.

  19. Ischemic-LTP in striatal spiny neurons of both direct and indirect pathway requires the activation of D1-like receptors and NO/soluble guanylate cyclase/cGMP transmission

    PubMed Central

    Arcangeli, Sara; Tozzi, Alessandro; Tantucci, Michela; Spaccatini, Cristiano; de Iure, Antonio; Costa, Cinzia; Di Filippo, Massimiliano; Picconi, Barbara; Giampà, Carmen; Fusco, Francesca Romana; Amoroso, Salvatore; Calabresi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) are highly vulnerable to ischemia. A brief ischemic insult, produced by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), can induce ischemic long-term potentiation (i-LTP) of corticostriatal excitatory postsynaptic response. Since nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the pathophysiology of brain ischemia and the dopamine D1/D5-receptors (D1-like-R) are expressed in striatal NOS-positive interneurons, we hypothesized a relation between NOS-positive interneurons and striatal i-LTP, involving D1R activation and NO production. We investigated the mechanisms involved in i-LTP induced by OGD in corticostriatal slices and found that the D1-like-R antagonist SCH-23390 prevented i-LTP in all recorded MSNs. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed the induction of i-LTP in both substance P-positive, (putative D1R-expressing) and adenosine A2A-receptor-positive (putative D2R-expressing) MSNs. Furthermore, i-LTP was dependent on a NOS/cGMP pathway since pharmacological blockade of NOS, guanylate-cyclase, or PKG prevented i-LTP. However, these compounds failed to prevent i-LTP in the presence of a NO donor or cGMP analog, respectively. Interestingly, the D1-like-R antagonism failed to prevent i-LTP when intracellular cGMP was pharmacologically increased. We propose that NO, produced by striatal NOS-positive interneurons via the stimulation of D1-like-R located on these cells, is critical for i-LTP induction in the entire population of MSNs involving a cGMP-dependent pathway. PMID:23149555

  20. Inhibition of non-small cell lung cancer cell migration by grape seed proanthocyanidins is mediated through the inhibition of nitric oxide, guanylate cyclase, and ERK1/2.

    PubMed

    Punathil, Thejass; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2009-03-01

    Tumor cell migration is considered as a major event in the metastatic cascade. Here we examined the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) on migration capacity and signaling mechanisms using nonsmall cell human lung cancer cells. Using in vitro migration assay, we found that treatment of A549 and H1299 cells with GSPs resulted in concentration-dependent inhibition of migration of these cells. The migration capacity of cells was reduced in presence of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. GSPs suppressed the elevated levels of endogenous NO/NOS in A549 and H1299 cells and blocked the migration promoting capacity of L-arginine. Treatment with guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitor 1-H-[1,2,4]oxadiaxolo[4,3-a]quinolalin-1-one (ODQ) reduced the migration of A549 cells whereas additional presence of 8-bromoguanosine 3'5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP, cGMP analogue) restored the migration of these cells, suggesting a role for GC in migration of A549 cells. GSPs reduced the elevated levels of cGMP in cancer cells and also blocked the migration restoring activity of 8-Br-cGMP. The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) inhibitor, UO126, inhibited the migration of A549 cells, indicating a role for MAPKK in the migration. Additionally, UO126 and ODQ inhibited the migration restoring effects of L-arginine in L-NAME-treated cells, suggesting the involvement of cGMP and MAPK pathways in NO-mediated migration. GSPs inhibited L-arginine and 8-Br-cGMP-induced activation of ERK1/2 in A549 cells. Together, these results indicate sequential inhibition of NO/NOS, GC, and MAPK pathways by GSPs in mediating the inhibitory signals for cell migration, an essential step in invasion and metastasis. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Human recombinant soluble guanylyl cyclase: expression, purification, and regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. C.; Martin, E.; Murad, F.

    2000-01-01

    The alpha1- and beta1-subunits of human soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) were coexpressed in the Sf9 cells/baculovirus system. In addition to the native enzyme, constructs with hexahistidine tag at the amino and carboxyl termini of each subunit were coexpressed. This permitted the rapid and efficient purification of active recombinant enzyme on a nickel-affinity column. The enzyme has one heme per heterodimer and was readily activated with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside or 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'furyl)-1-benzyl-indazole (YC-1). Sodium nitroprusside and YC-1 treatment potentiated each other in combination and demonstrated a remarkable 2,200-fold stimulation of the human recombinant sGC. The effects were inhibited with 1H-(1,2, 4)oxadiazole(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1one (ODQ). The kinetics of the recombinant enzyme with respect to GTP was examined. The products of the reaction, cGMP and pyrophosphate, inhibited the enzyme. The extent of inhibition by cGMP depended on the activation state of the enzyme, whereas inhibition by pyrophosphate was not affected by the enzyme state. Both reaction products displayed independent binding and cooperativity with respect to enzyme inhibition. The expression of large quantities of active enzyme will facilitate structural characterization of the protein.

  2. Human recombinant soluble guanylyl cyclase: expression, purification, and regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. C.; Martin, E.; Murad, F.

    2000-01-01

    The alpha1- and beta1-subunits of human soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) were coexpressed in the Sf9 cells/baculovirus system. In addition to the native enzyme, constructs with hexahistidine tag at the amino and carboxyl termini of each subunit were coexpressed. This permitted the rapid and efficient purification of active recombinant enzyme on a nickel-affinity column. The enzyme has one heme per heterodimer and was readily activated with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside or 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'furyl)-1-benzyl-indazole (YC-1). Sodium nitroprusside and YC-1 treatment potentiated each other in combination and demonstrated a remarkable 2,200-fold stimulation of the human recombinant sGC. The effects were inhibited with 1H-(1,2, 4)oxadiazole(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1one (ODQ). The kinetics of the recombinant enzyme with respect to GTP was examined. The products of the reaction, cGMP and pyrophosphate, inhibited the enzyme. The extent of inhibition by cGMP depended on the activation state of the enzyme, whereas inhibition by pyrophosphate was not affected by the enzyme state. Both reaction products displayed independent binding and cooperativity with respect to enzyme inhibition. The expression of large quantities of active enzyme will facilitate structural characterization of the protein.

  3. Human recombinant soluble guanylyl cyclase: Expression, purification, and regulation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Chen; Martin, Emil; Murad, Ferid

    2000-01-01

    The α1- and β1-subunits of human soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) were coexpressed in the Sf9 cells/baculovirus system. In addition to the native enzyme, constructs with hexahistidine tag at the amino and carboxyl termini of each subunit were coexpressed. This permitted the rapid and efficient purification of active recombinant enzyme on a nickel-affinity column. The enzyme has one heme per heterodimer and was readily activated with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside or 3-(5′-hydroxymethyl-2′furyl)-1-benzyl-indazole (YC-1). Sodium nitroprusside and YC-1 treatment potentiated each other in combination and demonstrated a remarkable 2,200-fold stimulation of the human recombinant sGC. The effects were inhibited with 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazole(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1one (ODQ). The kinetics of the recombinant enzyme with respect to GTP was examined. The products of the reaction, cGMP and pyrophosphate, inhibited the enzyme. The extent of inhibition by cGMP depended on the activation state of the enzyme, whereas inhibition by pyrophosphate was not affected by the enzyme state. Both reaction products displayed independent binding and cooperativity with respect to enzyme inhibition. The expression of large quantities of active enzyme will facilitate structural characterization of the protein. PMID:10995472

  4. Patient-reported outcomes in the SOluble guanylate Cyclase stimulatoR in heArT failurE patientS with PRESERVED ejection fraction (SOCRATES-PRESERVED) study.

    PubMed

    Filippatos, Gerasimos; Maggioni, Aldo P; Lam, Carolyn S P; Pieske-Kraigher, Elisabeth; Butler, Javed; Spertus, John; Ponikowski, Piotr; Shah, Sanjiv J; Solomon, Scott D; Scalise, Andrea-Viviana; Mueller, Katharina; Roessig, Lothar; Bamber, Luke; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Pieske, Burkert

    2017-06-01

    Exploratory assessment of the potential benefits of the novel soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator vericiguat on health status in patients with heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction. The SOCRATES-PRESERVED trial randomized patients with chronic HF and ejection fraction ≥ 45% within 4 weeks of decompensation to 12 weeks of treatment with titrated doses of vericiguat (1.25, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg once daily) or placebo. Health status was assessed with the disease-specific Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) and the generic health-related quality of life measure EQ-5D. In total, 477 patients were randomized 12.9 ± 9.0 days after hospitalization or if requiring outpatient treatment with intravenous diuretics for HF. Baseline KCCQ clinical summary score (CSS), a combination of symptom and physical function domains, was 52.3 ± 20.4 in the 10 mg arm and 54.1 ± 23.0 in placebo, and EQ-5D US index score was 0.74 ± 0.2 and 0.73 ± 0.2, respectively. A larger proportion of patients treated with vericiguat in the 10 mg arm, compared with placebo, achieved clinically meaningful improvements in KCCQ-CSS (82.0% vs. 59.0%, number needed to treat = 4.35, P = 0.0052). Important domains of the KCCQ as well as EQ-5D scores demonstrated a dose-dependent relationship with vericiguat. In the 10 mg arm, the mean physical limitations domain increased by +17.2 ± 19.1 at 12 weeks, compared with +4.5 ± 21.6 in placebo (P = 0.0009). The EQ-5D US index score increased by +0.064 ± 0.167 in the 10 mg arm, compared with a decrease of -0.009 ± 0.195 in placebo (P = 0.0461). Improvements in KCCQ and EQ-5D scores paralleled physician-assessed NYHA class and clinical congestion. Vericiguat, in exploratory hypothesis-generating analyses, was associated with clinically important improvements in patients' health status, as assessed by the KCCQ and EQ-5D. Further studies should be conducted to test the hypothesis that vericiguat improves physical functioning and health

  5. Effect of Vericiguat, a Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulator, on Natriuretic Peptide Levels in Patients With Worsening Chronic Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: The SOCRATES-REDUCED Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Gheorghiade, Mihai; Greene, Stephen J; Butler, Javed; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Lam, Carolyn S P; Maggioni, Aldo P; Ponikowski, Piotr; Shah, Sanjiv J; Solomon, Scott D; Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth; Samano, Eliana T; Müller, Katharina; Roessig, Lothar; Pieske, Burkert

    2015-12-01

    Worsening chronic heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem. To determine the optimal dose and tolerability of vericiguat, a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, in patients with worsening chronic HF and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Dose-finding phase 2 study that randomized 456 patients across Europe, North America, and Asia between November 2013 and January 2015, with follow-up ending June 2015. Patients were clinically stable with LVEF less than 45% within 4 weeks of a worsening chronic HF event, defined as worsening signs and symptoms of congestion and elevated natriuretic peptide level requiring hospitalization or outpatient intravenous diuretic. Placebo (n = 92) or 1 of 4 daily target doses of oral vericiguat (1.25 mg [n = 91], 2.5 mg [n = 91], 5 mg [n = 91], 10 mg [n = 91]) for 12 weeks. The primary end point was change from baseline to week 12 in log-transformed level of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). The primary analysis specified pooled comparison of the 3 highest-dose vericiguat groups with placebo, and secondary analysis evaluated a dose-response relationship with vericiguat and the primary end point. Overall, 351 patients (77.0%) completed treatment with the study drug with valid 12-week NT-proBNP levels and no major protocol deviation and were eligible for primary end point evaluation. In primary analysis, change in log-transformed NT-proBNP levels from baseline to week 12 was not significantly different between the pooled vericiguat group (log-transformed: baseline, 7.969; 12 weeks, 7.567; difference, -0.402; geometric means: baseline, 2890 pg/mL; 12 weeks, 1932 pg/mL) and placebo (log-transformed: baseline, 8.283; 12 weeks, 8.002; difference, -0.280; geometric means: baseline, 3955 pg/mL; 12 weeks, 2988 pg/mL) (difference of means, -0.122; 90% CI, -0.32 to 0.07; ratio of geometric means, 0.885, 90% CI, 0.73-1.08; P = .15). The exploratory secondary analysis suggested a

  6. Vericiguat in patients with worsening chronic heart failure and preserved ejection fraction: results of the SOluble guanylate Cyclase stimulatoR in heArT failurE patientS with PRESERVED EF (SOCRATES-PRESERVED) study.

    PubMed

    Pieske, Burkert; Maggioni, Aldo P; Lam, Carolyn S P; Pieske-Kraigher, Elisabeth; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Butler, Javed; Ponikowski, Piotr; Shah, Sanjiv J; Solomon, Scott D; Scalise, Andrea-Viviana; Mueller, Katharina; Roessig, Lothar; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2017-04-14

    To determine tolerability and the optimal dose regimen of the soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator vericiguat in patients with chronic heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). SOCRATES-PRESERVED was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind, Phase 2b dose-finding study in patients with HFpEF (ejection fraction ≥ 45%). Patients received vericiguat once daily at 1.25 or 2.5 mg fixed doses, or 5 or 10 mg titrated from a 2.5 mg starting dose, or placebo for 12 weeks. The two primary endpoints were change from baseline in log-transformed N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP) and left atrial volume (LAV) at 12 weeks. Patients (N = 477; 48% women; mean age 73 ± 10 years; baseline atrial fibrillation 40%) were randomized within 4 weeks of HF hospitalization (75%) or outpatient treatment with intravenous diuretics for HF (25%) to vericiguat (n = 384) or placebo (n = 93). In the pooled three highest dose arms change in logNT-proBNP (vericiguat: +0.038 ± 0.782 log(pg/mL), n = 195; placebo: -0.098 ± 0.778 log(pg/mL), n = 73; one-sided P = 0.8991, two-sided P = 0.2017), and change in LAV [vericiguat: -1.7 ± 12.8 mL (n = 194); placebo:  -3.4 ± 12.7 mL (n = 67), one-sided P = 0.8156, two-sided P = 0.3688] were not different from placebo. Vericiguat was well tolerated (adverse events: vericiguat 10 mg arm, 69.8%; placebo, 73.1%), with low discontinuation rates in all groups, and no changes in blood pressure at 10 mg compared with placebo. The pre-specified exploratory endpoint of Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Clinical Summary Score improved in the vericiguat 10 mg arm by mean 19.3 ± 16.3 points [median 19.8 (interquartile range 10.4-30.7)] from baseline (mean difference from placebo 9.2 points). Vericiguat was well tolerated, did not change NT-proBNP and LAV at 12 weeks compared with placebo but was associated with

  7. Vericiguat in patients with worsening chronic heart failure and preserved ejection fraction: results of the SOluble guanylate Cyclase stimulatoR in heArT failurE patientS with PRESERVED EF (SOCRATES-PRESERVED) study

    PubMed Central

    Pieske, Burkert; Maggioni, Aldo P.; Lam, Carolyn S.P.; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Butler, Javed; Ponikowski, Piotr; Shah, Sanjiv J.; Solomon, Scott D.; Scalise, Andrea-Viviana; Mueller, Katharina; Roessig, Lothar; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2017-01-01

    Aims To determine tolerability and the optimal dose regimen of the soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator vericiguat in patients with chronic heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Methods and results SOCRATES-PRESERVED was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind, Phase 2b dose-finding study in patients with HFpEF (ejection fraction ≥ 45%). Patients received vericiguat once daily at 1.25 or 2.5 mg fixed doses, or 5 or 10 mg titrated from a 2.5 mg starting dose, or placebo for 12 weeks. The two primary endpoints were change from baseline in log-transformed N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP) and left atrial volume (LAV) at 12 weeks. Patients (N = 477; 48% women; mean age 73 ± 10 years; baseline atrial fibrillation 40%) were randomized within 4 weeks of HF hospitalization (75%) or outpatient treatment with intravenous diuretics for HF (25%) to vericiguat (n = 384) or placebo (n = 93). In the pooled three highest dose arms change in logNT-proBNP (vericiguat: +0.038 ± 0.782 log(pg/mL), n = 195; placebo: −0.098 ± 0.778 log(pg/mL), n = 73; one-sided P = 0.8991, two-sided P = 0.2017), and change in LAV [vericiguat: −1.7 ± 12.8 mL (n = 194); placebo:  −3.4 ± 12.7 mL (n = 67), one-sided P = 0.8156, two-sided P = 0.3688] were not different from placebo. Vericiguat was well tolerated (adverse events: vericiguat 10 mg arm, 69.8%; placebo, 73.1%), with low discontinuation rates in all groups, and no changes in blood pressure at 10 mg compared with placebo. The pre-specified exploratory endpoint of Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Clinical Summary Score improved in the vericiguat 10 mg arm by mean 19.3 ± 16.3 points [median 19.8 (interquartile range 10.4–30.7)] from baseline (mean difference from placebo 9.2 points). Conclusion Vericiguat was well tolerated, did not change NT-proBNP and LAV at 12 weeks compared

  8. Endogenous occurrence of protein S-guanylation in Escherichia coli: Target identification and genetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Tsutsuki, Hiroyasu; Jung, Minkyung; Zhang, Tianli; Ono, Katsuhiko; Ida, Tomoaki; Kunieda, Kohei; Ihara, Hideshi; Akaike, Takaaki; Sawa, Tomohiro

    2016-09-09

    8-Nitroguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-nitro-cGMP) is a nitrated cGMP derivative formed in response to nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). It can cause a post-translational modification (PTM) of protein thiols through cGMP adduction (protein S-guanylation). Accumulating evidence has suggested that, in mammals, S-guanylation of redox-sensor proteins may implicate in regulation of adaptive responses against ROS-associated oxidative stress. Occurrence as well as protein targets of S-guanylation in bacteria remained unknown, however. Here we demonstrated, for the first time, the endogenous occurrence of protein S-guanylation in Escherichia coli (E. coli). Western blotting using anti-S-guanylation antibody clearly showed that multiple proteins were S-guanylated in E. coli. Interestingly, some of those proteins were more intensely S-guanylated when bacteria were cultured under static culture condition than shaking culture condition. It has been known that E. coli is deficient of guanylate cyclase, an enzyme indispensable for 8-nitro-cGMP formation in mammals. We found that adenylate cyclase from E. coli potentially catalyzed 8-nitro-cGMP formation from its precursor 8-nitroguanosine 5'-triphosphate. More importantly, E. coli lacking adenylate cyclase showed significantly reduced formation of S-guanylated proteins. Our S-guanylation proteomics successfully identified S-guanylation protein targets in E. coli, including chaperons, ribosomal proteins, and enzymes which associate with protein synthesis, redox regulation and metabolism. Understanding of functional impacts for protein S-guanylation in bacterial signal transduction is necessary basis for development of potential chemotherapy and new diagnostic strategy for control of pathogenic bacterial infections.

  9. Guanylyl cyclase structure, function and regulation.

    PubMed

    Potter, Lincoln R

    2011-12-01

    Nitric oxide, bicarbonate, natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP and CNP), guanylins, uroguanylins and guanylyl cyclase activating proteins (GCAPs) activate a family of enzymes variously called guanyl, guanylyl or guanylate cyclases that catalyze the conversion of guanosine triphosphate to cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and pyrophosphate. Intracellular cyclic GMP is a second messenger that modulates: platelet aggregation, neurotransmission, sexual arousal, gut peristalsis, blood pressure, long bone growth, intestinal fluid secretion, lipolysis, phototransduction, cardiac hypertrophy and oocyte maturation. This review briefly discusses the discovery of cGMP and guanylyl cyclases, then nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase and soluble guanylyl cyclase are described in slightly greater detail. Finally, the structure, function, and regulation of the individual mammalian single membrane-spanning guanylyl cyclases GC-A, GC-B, GC-C, GC-D, GC-E, GC-F and GC-G are described in greatest detail as determined by biochemical, cell biological and gene-deletion studies.

  10. Proatherosclerotic Effect of the α1-Subunit of Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase by Promoting Smooth Muscle Phenotypic Switching.

    PubMed

    Segura-Puimedon, Maria; Mergia, Evanthia; Al-Hasani, Jaafar; Aherrahrou, Redouane; Stoelting, Stephanie; Kremer, Felix; Freyer, Jennifer; Koesling, Doris; Erdmann, Jeanette; Schunkert, Heribert; de Wit, Cor; Aherrahrou, Zouhair

    2016-08-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), a key enzyme of the nitric oxide signaling pathway, is formed as a heterodimer by various isoforms of its α and β subunit. GUCY1A3, encoding the α1 subunit, was identified as a risk gene for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, but its specific contribution to atherosclerosis remains unclear. This study sought to decipher the role of Gucy1a3 in atherosclerosis in mice. At age 32 weeks and after 20 weeks of standard or high-fat diet, Gucy1a3(-/-)/Ldlr(-/-) mice exhibited a significant reduction of the atherosclerotic plaque size at the aortic root and the aorta for high-fat diet animals as compared with Ldlr(-/-) control mice. Collagen content in plaques in the aortic root was reduced, suggesting an alteration of smooth muscle cell function. Proliferation and migration were reduced in Gucy1a3(-/-) primary aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMCs), and proliferation was also reduced in human AoSMCs after inhibition of sGC by 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one. Gucy1a3 deficiency in AoSMCs prevents their phenotypic switching, as indicated by the differential expression of marker proteins. The inherited Gucy1a3(-/-) loss exerts an atheroprotective effect. We suggest that sGC activity promotes the phenotypic switching of smooth muscle cells from a contractile to a synthetic state, fostering the formation of atherosclerosis. Preventing this switch by sGC inhibition may provide a novel target in atherosclerotic disease. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Small alterations in cobinamide structure considerably influence sGC activation.

    PubMed

    Giedyk, Maciej; ó Proinsias, Keith; Kurcoń, Sylwester; Sharina, Iraida; Martin, Emil; Gryko, Dorota

    2014-10-01

    Specially designed B-ring-modified cobalamin derivatives were synthesized and tested as potential activators of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). Herein, we disclose the influence of substituents at the c- and d-positions in hydrophilic and hydrophobic cobyrinic acid derivatives on their capacities to activate sGC. The presence of the amide group at c-/d-position in cobyrinic acid derivatives strongly influence the level of sGC activation. Removal of the d-position altogether has a profound effect for hydrophobic compounds. In contrast, little differences were observed in hydrophilic ones. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Nucleotidyl cyclase activity of soluble guanylyl cyclase in intact cells.

    PubMed

    Bähre, Heike; Danker, Kerstin Y; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Kaever, Volkhard; Seifert, Roland

    2014-01-24

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is activated by nitric oxide (NO) and generates the second messenger cyclic GMP (cGMP). Recently, purified sGC α1β1 has been shown to additionally generate the cyclic pyrimidine nucleotides cCMP and cUMP. However, since cyclic pyrimidine nucleotide formation occurred only the presence of Mn(2+) but not Mg(2+), the physiological relevance of these in vitro findings remained unclear. Therefore, we studied cyclic nucleotide formation in intact cells. We observed NO-dependent cCMP- and cUMP formation in intact HEK293 cells overexpressing sGC α1β1 and in RFL-6 rat fibroblasts endogenously expressing sGC, using HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. The identity of cCMP and cUMP was unambiguously confirmed by HPLC-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Our data indicate that cCMP and cUMP play second messenger roles and that Mn(2+) is a physiological sGC cofactor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibition of soluble guanylyl cyclase by small molecules targeting the catalytic domain.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, Jagamya; Kramp, Kristopher; Harris, Michael E; van den Akker, Focco

    2016-10-01

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) plays a crucial role in cyclic nucleotide signaling that regulates numerous important physiological processes. To identify new sGC inhibitors that may prevent the formation of the active catalytic domain conformation, we carried out an in silico docking screen targeting a 'backside pocket' of the inactive sGC catalytic domain structure. Compounds 1 and 2 were discovered to inhibit sGC even at high/saturating nitric oxide concentrations. Both compounds also inhibit the BAY 58-2667-activated sGC as well as BAY 41-2272-stimulated sGC activity. Additional biochemical analyses showed that compound 2 also inhibits the isolated catalytic domain, thus demonstrating functional binding to this domain. Both compounds have micromolar affinity for sGC and are potential leads to develop more potent sGC inhibitors. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  14. Alternative splicing impairs soluble guanylyl cyclase function in aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Martin, Emil; Golunski, Eva; Laing, Susan T; Estrera, Anthony L; Sharina, Iraida G

    2014-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) receptor soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a key regulator of several important vascular functions and is important for maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis and vascular plasticity. Diminished sGC expression and function contributes to pathogenesis of several cardiovascular diseases. However, the processes that control sGC expression in vascular tissue remain poorly understood. Previous work in animal and cell models revealed the complexity of alternative splicing of sGC genes and demonstrated its importance in modulation of sGC function. The aim of this study was to examine the role of alternative splicing of α1 and β1 sGC in healthy and diseased human vascular tissue. Our study found a variety of α1 and β1 sGC splice forms expressed in human aorta. Their composition and abundance were different between samples of aortic tissue removed during surgical repair of aortic aneurysm and samples of aortas without aneurysm. Aortas with aneurysm demonstrated decreased sGC activity, which correlated with increased expression of dysfunctional sGC splice variants. In addition, the expression of 55-kDa oxidation-resistant α1 isoform B sGC (α1-IsoB) was significantly lower in aortic samples with aneurysm. The α1-IsoB splice variant was demonstrated to support sGC activity in aortic lysates. Together, our results suggest that alternative splicing contributes to diminished sGC function in vascular dysfunction. Precise understanding of sGC splicing regulation could help to design new therapeutic interventions and to personalize sGC-targeting therapies in treatments of vascular disease. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Molecular variants of soluble guanylyl cyclase affecting cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Wobst, Jana; Rumpf, Philipp Moritz; Dang, Tan An; Segura-Puimedon, Maria; Erdmann, Jeanette; Schunkert, Heribert

    2015-01-01

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is the physiological receptor for nitric oxide (NO) and NO-releasing drugs, and is a key enzyme in several cardiovascular signaling pathways. Its activation induces the synthesis of the second messenger cGMP. cGMP regulates the activity of various downstream proteins, including cGMP-dependent protein kinase G, cGMP-dependent phosphodiesterases and cyclic nucleotide gated ion channels leading to vascular relaxation, inhibition of platelet aggregation, and modified neurotransmission. Diminished sGC function contributes to a number of disorders, including cardiovascular diseases. Knowledge of its regulation is a prerequisite for understanding the pathophysiology of deficient sGC signaling. In this review we consolidate the available information on sGC signaling, including the molecular biology and genetics of sGC transcription, translation and function, including the effect of rare variants, and present possible new targets for the development of personalized medicine in vascular diseases.

  16. [Expression of PAI-2 mRNA in peripheral blood leucocytes and regulation by sGC activator in pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Zou, L H; Zhang, S; Xu, X M; Xiao, F; Zhai, Z G

    2016-04-26

    To investigate the mRNA expression level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) in peripheral blood leucocytes and regulation by soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) activator in pulmonary hypertension. The human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells were treated with sGC activator Cinaciguat. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PAI-2 were detected with Real-time PCR and Western blot. The fresh blood samples of 8 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) (collected at the China-Japan Friendship Hospital from November 2014 to March 2015), 16 patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) (collected at the China-Japan Friendship Hospital from November 2014 to March 2015), 24 age- and gender- matched healthy controls (collected at Beijing Hospital in March 2015) were treated with Cinaciguat for 8 hours. Then RNA of peripheral leukocytes was extracted and performed with reverse transcription and Real-time PCR to detect the mRNA level of PAI-2, which was compared between healthy controls and patients with pulmonary hypertension, before and after the treatment of Cinaciguat. At last, the correlation of PAI-2 mRNA level and the clinic severity of pulmonary hypertension were identified. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PAI-2 were promoted by Cinaciguat in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. The baseline mRNA level of PAI-2 in peripheral leukocytes was significantly lower in PAH patients compared to the healthy controls (0.201±0.152, 0.660±0.440, P=0.021). There was no significant difference in the mRNA expression level of PAI-2 between the CTEPH patients and controls (0.428±0.364, 0.769±0.682, P=0.152). After Cinaciguat treatment, the mRNA expression levels of PAI-2 were up-regulated in PAH patients and CTEPH patients (1.352±1.127, 1.203±1.008), there was no significant difference in the mRNA expression level of PAI-2 among the PAH patients, CTEPH patients and controls (P=0.130, P=0.534). The baseline m

  17. Mapping Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase and Protein Disulfide Isomerase Regions of Interaction.

    PubMed

    Heckler, Erin J; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Jain, Mohit; Liu, Tong; Li, Hong; Beuve, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a heterodimeric nitric oxide (NO) receptor that produces cyclic GMP. This signaling mechanism is a key component in the cardiovascular system. NO binds to heme in the β subunit and stimulates the catalytic conversion of GTP to cGMP several hundred fold. Several endogenous factors have been identified that modulate sGC function in vitro and in vivo. In previous work, we determined that protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) interacts with sGC in a redox-dependent manner in vitro and that PDI inhibited NO-stimulated activity in cells. To our knowledge, this was the first report of a physical interaction between sGC and a thiol-redox protein. To characterize this interaction between sGC and PDI, we first identified peptide linkages between sGC and PDI, using a lysine cross-linking reagent and recently developed mass spectrometry analysis. Together with Flag-immunoprecipitation using sGC domain deletions, wild-type (WT) and mutated PDI, regions of sGC involved in this interaction were identified. The observed data were further explored with computational modeling to gain insight into the interaction mechanism between sGC and oxidized PDI. Our results indicate that PDI interacts preferentially with the catalytic domain of sGC, thus providing a mechanism for PDI inhibition of sGC. A model in which PDI interacts with either the α or the β catalytic domain is proposed.

  18. Regulation of brain adenylate cyclase by calmodulin

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis examined the interaction between the Ca{sup 2+}-binding protein, calmodulin (CaM), and the cAMP synthesizing enzyme, adenylate cyclase. The regulation of guanyl nucleotide-dependent adenylate cyclase by CaM was examined in a particulate fraction from bovine striatum. CaM stimulated basal adenylate cyclase activity and enhanced the stimulation of the enzyme by GTP and dopamine (DA). The potentiation of GTP- and DA-stimulated adenylate cyclase activities by CaM was more sensitive to the concentration of CaM than was the stimulation of basal activity. A photoreactive CaM derivative was developed in order to probe the interactions between CaM and the adenylate cyclase components of bovine brain. Iodo-({sup 125}I)-CaM-diazopyruvamide ({sup 125}I-CAM-DAP) behaved like native CaM with respect to Ca{sup 2+}-enhanced mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels and Ca{sup 2+}-dependent stimulation of adenylate cyclase. {sup 125}I-CaM-DAP cross-linked to CaM-binding proteins in a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent, concentration-dependent, and CaM-specific manner. Photolysis of {sup 125}I-CaM-DAP and forskolin-agarose purified CaM-sensitive adenylate cyclase produced an adduct with a molecular weight of 140,000.

  19. Nitric Oxide Receptor Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase Undergoes Splicing Regulation in Differentiating Human Embryonic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sharin, Vladislav G.; Mujoo, Kalpana; Kots, Alexander Y.; Martin, Emil; Murad, Ferid

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), an important mediator molecule in mammalian physiology, initiates a number of signaling mechanisms by activating the enzyme soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). Recently, a new role for NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling in embryonic development and cell differentiation has emerged. The changes in expression of NO synthase isoforms and various sGC subunits has been demonstrated during human and mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiation. Previously, our laboratory demonstrated that nascent α1 sGC transcript undergoes alternative splicing and that expression of α1 sGC splice forms directly affects sGC activity. Expression of sGC splice variants in the process of human ES (hES) cells differentiation has not been investigated. In this report, we demonstrate that α1 sGC undergoes alternative splicing during random hES differentiation for the first time. Our results indicate that C-α1 sGC splice form is expressed at high levels in differentiating cells and its intracellular distribution varies from canonical α1 sGC subunit. Together, our data suggest that alternative splicing of sGC subunits is associated with differentiation of hES cells. PMID:20964618

  20. RNA splicing in regulation of Nitric Oxide receptor Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Sharina, Iraida G.; Cote, Gilbert J.; Martin, Emil; Doursout, Marie-Francoise; Murad, Ferid

    2011-01-01

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a key protein in the nitric oxide (NO)/-cGMP signaling pathway. sGC activity is involved in a number of important physiological processes including smooth muscle relaxation, neurotransmission and platelet aggregation and adhesion. Regulation of sGC expression and activity emerges as a crucial factor in control of sGC function in normal and pathological conditions. Recently accumulated evidence strongly indicates that the regulation of sGC expression is a complex process modulated on several levels including transcription, post-transcriptional regulation, translation and protein stability. Presently our understanding of mechanisms governing regulation of sGC expression remains very limited and awaits systematic investigation. Among other ways, the expression of sGC subunits is modulated at the levels of mRNA abundance and transcript diversity. In this review we summarize available information on different mechanisms (including transcriptional activation, mRNA stability and alternative splicing) involved in the modulation of mRNA levels of sGC subunits in response to various environmental clues. We also summarize and cross-reference the information on human sGC splice forms available in the literature and in genomic databases. This review highlights the fact that the study of the biological role and regulation of sGC splicing will bring new insights to our understanding of NO/cGMP biology. PMID:21867767

  1. Estradiol rapidly inhibits soluble guanylyl cyclase expression in rat uterus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krumenacker, J. S.; Hyder, S. M.; Murad, F.

    2001-01-01

    Previous reports that investigated the regulation of the NO/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cGMP pathway by estrogenic compounds have focused primarily on the levels of NO, NO-producing enzymes, and cGMP in various tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that 17beta-estradiol (E2) regulates the alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits of the NO receptor, sGC, at the mRNA and protein levels in rat uterus. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we found that within 1 h of in vivo E2 administration to rats, sGC mRNA levels begin to diminish. After 3 h, there is a maximal diminution of sGC mRNA expression (sGC alpha(1) 10% and sGC beta(1) 33% of untreated). This effect was blocked by the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780, indicating that estrogen receptor is required. The effect of E2 also was observed in vitro with incubations of uterine tissue, indicating that the response does not depend on the secondary release of other hormones or factors from other tissues. Puromycin did not block the effect, suggesting the effects occur because of preexisting factors in uterine tissues and do not require new protein synthesis. Using immunoblot analysis, we found that sGC protein levels also were reduced by E2 over a similar time course as the sGC mRNA. We conclude that sGC plays a vital role in the NO/sGC/cGMP regulatory pathway during conditions of elevated estrogen levels in the rat uterus as a result of the reduction of sGC expression.

  2. Estradiol rapidly inhibits soluble guanylyl cyclase expression in rat uterus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krumenacker, J. S.; Hyder, S. M.; Murad, F.

    2001-01-01

    Previous reports that investigated the regulation of the NO/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cGMP pathway by estrogenic compounds have focused primarily on the levels of NO, NO-producing enzymes, and cGMP in various tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that 17beta-estradiol (E2) regulates the alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits of the NO receptor, sGC, at the mRNA and protein levels in rat uterus. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we found that within 1 h of in vivo E2 administration to rats, sGC mRNA levels begin to diminish. After 3 h, there is a maximal diminution of sGC mRNA expression (sGC alpha(1) 10% and sGC beta(1) 33% of untreated). This effect was blocked by the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780, indicating that estrogen receptor is required. The effect of E2 also was observed in vitro with incubations of uterine tissue, indicating that the response does not depend on the secondary release of other hormones or factors from other tissues. Puromycin did not block the effect, suggesting the effects occur because of preexisting factors in uterine tissues and do not require new protein synthesis. Using immunoblot analysis, we found that sGC protein levels also were reduced by E2 over a similar time course as the sGC mRNA. We conclude that sGC plays a vital role in the NO/sGC/cGMP regulatory pathway during conditions of elevated estrogen levels in the rat uterus as a result of the reduction of sGC expression.

  3. Estradiol rapidly inhibits soluble guanylyl cyclase expression in rat uterus

    PubMed Central

    Krumenacker, Joshua S.; Hyder, Salman M.; Murad, Ferid

    2001-01-01

    Previous reports that investigated the regulation of the NO/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cGMP pathway by estrogenic compounds have focused primarily on the levels of NO, NO-producing enzymes, and cGMP in various tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that 17β-estradiol (E2) regulates the α1 and β1 subunits of the NO receptor, sGC, at the mRNA and protein levels in rat uterus. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we found that within 1 h of in vivo E2 administration to rats, sGC mRNA levels begin to diminish. After 3 h, there is a maximal diminution of sGC mRNA expression (sGC α1 10% and sGC β1 33% of untreated). This effect was blocked by the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780, indicating that estrogen receptor is required. The effect of E2 also was observed in vitro with incubations of uterine tissue, indicating that the response does not depend on the secondary release of other hormones or factors from other tissues. Puromycin did not block the effect, suggesting the effects occur because of preexisting factors in uterine tissues and do not require new protein synthesis. Using immunoblot analysis, we found that sGC protein levels also were reduced by E2 over a similar time course as the sGC mRNA. We conclude that sGC plays a vital role in the NO/sGC/cGMP regulatory pathway during conditions of elevated estrogen levels in the rat uterus as a result of the reduction of sGC expression. PMID:11209068

  4. Identification of novel S-nitrosation sites in soluble guanylyl cyclase, the nitric oxide receptor.

    PubMed

    Beuve, Annie; Wu, Changgong; Cui, Chuanlong; Liu, Tong; Jain, Mohit Raja; Huang, Can; Yan, Lin; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Li, Hong

    2016-04-14

    Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase (sGC) is the main receptor for nitric oxide (NO). NO activates sGC to synthesize cGMP, triggering a plethora of signals. Recently, we discovered that NO covalently modifies select sGC cysteines via a post-translational modification termed S-nitrosation or S-nitrosylation. Earlier characterization was conducted on a purified sGC treated with S-nitrosoglutathione, and identified three S-nitrosated cysteines (SNO-Cys). Here we describe a more biologically relevant mapping of sGC SNO-Cys in cells to better understand the multi-faceted interactions between SNO and sGC. Since SNO-Cys are labile during LC/MS/MS, MS analysis of nitrosation typically occurs after a biotin switch reaction, in which a SNO-Cys is converted to a biotin-Cys. Here we report the identification of ten sGC SNO-Cys in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes using an Orbitrap MS. A majority of the SNO-Cys identified is located at the solvent-exposed surface of the sGC, and half of them in the conserved catalytic domain, suggesting biological significance. These findings provide a solid basis for future studies of the regulations and functions of diverse sGC S-nitrosation events in cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Thiol-Based Redox Modulation of Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase, the Nitric Oxide Receptor

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), which produces the second messenger cyclic guanosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate (cGMP), is at the crossroads of nitric oxide (NO) signaling: sGC catalytic activity is both stimulated by NO binding to the heme and inhibited by NO modification of its cysteine (Cys) thiols (S-nitrosation). Modulation of sGC activity by thiol oxidation makes sGC a therapeutic target for pathologies originating from oxidative or nitrosative stress. sGC has an unusually high percentage of Cys for a cytosolic protein, the majority solvent exposed and therefore accessible modulatory targets for biological and pathophysiological signaling. Recent Advances: Thiol oxidation of sGC contributes to the development of cardiovascular diseases by decreasing NO-dependent cGMP production and thereby vascular reactivity. This thiol-based resistance to NO (e.g., increase in peripheral resistance) is observed in hypertension and hyperaldosteronism. Critical Issues: Some roles of specific Cys thiols have been identified in vitro. So far, it has not been possible to pinpoint the roles of specific Cys of sGC in vivo and to investigate the molecular mechanisms in an animal model. Future Directions: The role of Cys as redox sensors, intermediates of activation, and mediators of change in sGC conformation, activity, and dimerization remains largely unexplored. To understand modulation of sGC activity, it is critical to investigate the roles of specific oxidative thiol modifications that are formed during these processes. Where the redox state of sGC thiols contribute to pathologies (vascular resistance and sGC desensitization by NO donors), it becomes crucial to design therapeutic strategies to restore sGC to its normal, physiological thiol redox state. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 137–149. PMID:26906466

  6. Chaperone-dependent E3 ligase CHIP ubiquitinates and mediates proteasomal degradation of soluble guanylyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tian; Dimitropoulou, Christiana; Zeng, Jingmin; Antonova, Galina N; Snead, Connie; Venema, Richard C; Fulton, David; Qian, Shuibing; Patterson, Cam; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Catravas, John D

    2007-11-01

    The nitric oxide receptor soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) exists in multimeric protein complexes, including heat shock protein (HSP) 90 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Inhibition of HSP90 by geldanamycin causes proteasomal degradation of sGC protein. In this study, we have investigated whether COOH terminus of heat shock protein 70-interacting protein (CHIP), a co-chaperone molecule that is involved in protein folding but is also a chaperone-dependent ubiquitin E3 ligase, could play a role in the process of degradation of sGC. Transient overexpression of CHIP in COS-7 cells degraded heterologous sGC in a concentration-related manner; this downregulation of sGC was abrogated by the proteasome inhibitor MG-132. Transfection of tetratricopeptide repeats and U-box domain CHIP mutants attenuated sGC degradation, suggesting that both domains are indispensable for CHIP function. Results from immunoprecipitation and indirect immunofluorescent microscopy experiments demonstrated that CHIP is associated with sGC, HSP90, and HSP70 in COS-7 cells. Furthermore, CHIP increased the association of HSP70 with sGC. In in vitro ubiquitination assays using purified proteins and ubiquitin enzymes, E3 ligase CHIP directly ubiquitinated sGC; this ubiquitination was potentiated by geldanamycin in COS-7 cells, followed by proteasomal degradation. In rat aortic smooth muscle cells, endogenous sGC was also degraded by adenovirus-infected wild-type CHIP but not by the chaperone interaction-deficient K30A CHIP, whereas CHIP, but not K30A, attenuated sGC expression in, and nitric oxide donor-induced relaxation of, rat aortic rings, suggesting that CHIP plays a regulatory role under physiological conditions. This study reveals a new mechanism for the regulation of sGC, an important mediator of cellular and vascular function.

  7. Thiol-Based Redox Modulation of Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase, the Nitric Oxide Receptor.

    PubMed

    Beuve, Annie

    2017-01-20

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), which produces the second messenger cyclic guanosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cGMP), is at the crossroads of nitric oxide (NO) signaling: sGC catalytic activity is both stimulated by NO binding to the heme and inhibited by NO modification of its cysteine (Cys) thiols (S-nitrosation). Modulation of sGC activity by thiol oxidation makes sGC a therapeutic target for pathologies originating from oxidative or nitrosative stress. sGC has an unusually high percentage of Cys for a cytosolic protein, the majority solvent exposed and therefore accessible modulatory targets for biological and pathophysiological signaling. Recent Advances: Thiol oxidation of sGC contributes to the development of cardiovascular diseases by decreasing NO-dependent cGMP production and thereby vascular reactivity. This thiol-based resistance to NO (e.g., increase in peripheral resistance) is observed in hypertension and hyperaldosteronism. Some roles of specific Cys thiols have been identified in vitro. So far, it has not been possible to pinpoint the roles of specific Cys of sGC in vivo and to investigate the molecular mechanisms in an animal model. The role of Cys as redox sensors, intermediates of activation, and mediators of change in sGC conformation, activity, and dimerization remains largely unexplored. To understand modulation of sGC activity, it is critical to investigate the roles of specific oxidative thiol modifications that are formed during these processes. Where the redox state of sGC thiols contribute to pathologies (vascular resistance and sGC desensitization by NO donors), it becomes crucial to design therapeutic strategies to restore sGC to its normal, physiological thiol redox state. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 137-149.

  8. Nucleotidyl cyclase activity of particulate guanylyl cyclase A: comparison with particulate guanylyl cyclases E and F, soluble guanylyl cyclase and bacterial adenylyl cyclases CyaA and edema factor.

    PubMed

    Beste, Kerstin Y; Spangler, Corinna M; Burhenne, Heike; Koch, Karl-Wilhelm; Shen, Yuequan; Tang, Wei-Jen; Kaever, Volkhard; Seifert, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Guanylyl cyclases (GCs) regulate many physiological processes by catalyzing the synthesis of the second messenger cGMP. The GC family consists of seven particulate GCs (pGCs) and a nitric oxide-activated soluble GC (sGC). Rat sGC α1β1 possesses much broader substrate specificity than previously assumed. Moreover, the exotoxins CyaA from Bordetella pertussis and edema factor (EF) from Bacillus anthracis possess nucleotidyl cyclase (NC) activity. pGC-A is a natriuretic peptide-activated homodimer with two catalytic sites that act cooperatively. Here, we studied the NC activity of rat pGC-A in membranes of stably transfected HEK293 cells using a highly sensitive and specific HPLC-MS/MS technique. GTP and ITP were effective, and ATP and XTP were only poor, pGC-A substrates. In contrast to sGC, pGC-A did not use CTP and UTP as substrates. pGC-E and pGC-F expressed in bovine rod outer segment membranes used only GTP as substrate. In intact HEK293 cells, pGC-A generated only cGMP. In contrast to pGCs, EF and CyaA showed very broad substrate-specificity. In conclusion, NCs exhibit different substrate-specificities, arguing against substrate-leakiness of enzymes and pointing to distinct physiological functions of cyclic purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.

  9. Conventional and Unconventional Mechanisms for Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase Signaling.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuansheng

    2016-05-01

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is the principal enzyme in mediating the biological actions of nitric oxide. On activation, sGC converts guanosine triphosphate to guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), which mediates diverse physiological processes including vasodilation, platelet aggregation, and myocardial functions predominantly by acting on cGMP-dependent protein kinases. Cyclic GMP has long been considered as the sole second messenger for sGC action. However, emerging evidence suggests that, in addition to cGMP, other nucleoside 3',5'-cyclic monophosphates (cNMPs) are synthesized by sGC in response to nitric oxide stimulation, and some of these nucleoside 3',5'-cyclic monophosphates are involved in various physiological activities. For example, inosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate synthesized by sGC may play a critical role in hypoxic augmentation of vasoconstriction. The involvement of cytidine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and uridine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate in certain cardiovascular activities is also implicated.

  10. NO and CO Differentially Activate Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase via a Heme Pivot-bend Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Ma,X.; Sayed, N.; Beuve, A.; van den Akker, F.

    2007-01-01

    Diatomic ligand discrimination by soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is paramount to cardiovascular homeostasis and neuronal signaling. Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates sGC activity 200-fold compared with only four-fold by carbon monoxide (CO). The molecular details of ligand discrimination and differential response to NO and CO are not well understood. These ligands are sensed by the heme domain of sGC, which belongs to the heme nitric oxide oxygen (H-NOX) domain family, also evolutionarily conserved in prokaryotes. Here we report crystal structures of the free, NO-bound, and CO-bound H-NOX domains of a cyanobacterial homolog. These structures and complementary mutational analysis in sGC reveal a molecular ruler mechanism that allows sGC to favor NO over CO while excluding oxygen, concomitant to signaling that exploits differential heme pivoting and heme bending. The heme thereby serves as a flexing wedge, allowing the N-terminal subdomain of H-NOX to shift concurrent with the transition of the six- to five-coordinated NO-bound state upon sGC activation. This transition can be modulated by mutations at sGC residues 74 and 145 and corresponding residues in the cyanobacterial H-NOX homolog.

  11. CCAAT-binding factor regulates expression of the beta1 subunit of soluble guanylyl cyclase gene in the BE2 human neuroblastoma cell line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharina, Iraida G.; Martin, Emil; Thomas, Anthony; Uray, Karen L.; Murad, Ferid

    2003-01-01

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a cytosolic enzyme producing the intracellular messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) on activation with nitric oxide (NO). sGC is an obligatory heterodimer composed of alpha and beta subunits. We investigated human beta1 sGC transcriptional regulation in BE2 human neuroblastoma cells. The 5' upstream region of the beta1 sGC gene was isolated and analyzed for promoter activity by using luciferase reporter constructs. The transcriptional start site of the beta1 sGC gene in BE2 cells was identified. The functional significance of consensus transcriptional factor binding sites proximal to the transcriptional start site was investigated by site deletions in the 800-bp promoter fragment. The elimination of CCAAT-binding factor (CBF) and growth factor independence 1 (GFI1) binding cores significantly diminished whereas deletion of the NF1 core elevated the transcription. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assay (EMSA) and Western analysis of proteins bound to biotinated EMSA probes confirmed the interaction of GFI1, CBF, and NF1 factors with the beta1 sGC promoter. Treatment of BE2 cells with genistein, known to inhibit the CBF binding to DNA, significantly reduced protein levels of beta1 sGC by inhibiting transcription. In summary, our study represents an analysis of the human beta1 sGC promoter regulation in human neuroblastoma BE2 cells and identifies CBF as a critically important factor in beta1 sGC expression.

  12. CCAAT-binding factor regulates expression of the beta1 subunit of soluble guanylyl cyclase gene in the BE2 human neuroblastoma cell line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharina, Iraida G.; Martin, Emil; Thomas, Anthony; Uray, Karen L.; Murad, Ferid

    2003-01-01

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a cytosolic enzyme producing the intracellular messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) on activation with nitric oxide (NO). sGC is an obligatory heterodimer composed of alpha and beta subunits. We investigated human beta1 sGC transcriptional regulation in BE2 human neuroblastoma cells. The 5' upstream region of the beta1 sGC gene was isolated and analyzed for promoter activity by using luciferase reporter constructs. The transcriptional start site of the beta1 sGC gene in BE2 cells was identified. The functional significance of consensus transcriptional factor binding sites proximal to the transcriptional start site was investigated by site deletions in the 800-bp promoter fragment. The elimination of CCAAT-binding factor (CBF) and growth factor independence 1 (GFI1) binding cores significantly diminished whereas deletion of the NF1 core elevated the transcription. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assay (EMSA) and Western analysis of proteins bound to biotinated EMSA probes confirmed the interaction of GFI1, CBF, and NF1 factors with the beta1 sGC promoter. Treatment of BE2 cells with genistein, known to inhibit the CBF binding to DNA, significantly reduced protein levels of beta1 sGC by inhibiting transcription. In summary, our study represents an analysis of the human beta1 sGC promoter regulation in human neuroblastoma BE2 cells and identifies CBF as a critically important factor in beta1 sGC expression.

  13. CCAAT-binding factor regulates expression of the β1 subunit of soluble guanylyl cyclase gene in the BE2 human neuroblastoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Sharina, Iraida G.; Martin, Emil; Thomas, Anthony; Uray, Karen L.; Murad, Ferid

    2003-01-01

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a cytosolic enzyme producing the intracellular messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) on activation with nitric oxide (NO). sGC is an obligatory heterodimer composed of α and β subunits. We investigated human β1 sGC transcriptional regulation in BE2 human neuroblastoma cells. The 5′ upstream region of the β1 sGC gene was isolated and analyzed for promoter activity by using luciferase reporter constructs. The transcriptional start site of the β1 sGC gene in BE2 cells was identified. The functional significance of consensus transcriptional factor binding sites proximal to the transcriptional start site was investigated by site deletions in the 800-bp promoter fragment. The elimination of CCAAT-binding factor (CBF) and growth factor independence 1 (GFI1) binding cores significantly diminished whereas deletion of the NF1 core elevated the transcription. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assay (EMSA) and Western analysis of proteins bound to biotinated EMSA probes confirmed the interaction of GFI1, CBF, and NF1 factors with the β1 sGC promoter. Treatment of BE2 cells with genistein, known to inhibit the CBF binding to DNA, significantly reduced protein levels of β1 sGC by inhibiting transcription. In summary, our study represents an analysis of the human β1 sGC promoter regulation in human neuroblastoma BE2 cells and identifies CBF as a critically important factor in β1 sGC expression. PMID:14504408

  14. Volume overload induces differential spatiotemporal regulation of myocardial soluble guanylyl cyclase in eccentric hypertrophy and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuchuan; Dillon, A Ray; Tillson, Michael; Makarewich, Catherine; Nguyen, Vincent; Dell'Italia, Louis; Sabri, Abdel Karim; Rizzo, Victor; Tsai, Emily J

    2013-07-01

    Nitric oxide activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) blunts the cardiac stress response, including cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In the concentric hypertrophied heart, oxidation and re-localization of myocardial sGC diminish cyclase activity, thus aggravating depressed nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) signaling in the pressure-overloaded failing heart. Here, we hypothesized that volume-overload differentially disrupts myocardial sGC activity during early compensated and late decompensated stages of eccentric hypertrophy. To this end, we studied the expression, redox state, subcellular localization, and activity of sGC in the left ventricle of dogs subjected to chordal rupture-induced mitral regurgitation (MR). Unoperated dogs were used as Controls. Animals were studied at 4weeks and 12months post chordal rupture, corresponding with early (4wkMR) and late stages (12moMR) of eccentric hypertrophy. We found that the sGC heterodimer subunits relocalized away from caveolae-enriched lipid raft microdomains at different stages; sGCβ1 at 4wkMR, followed by sGCα1 at 12moMR. Moreover, expression of both sGC subunits fell at 12moMR. Using the heme-dependent NO donor DEA/NO and NO-/heme-independent sGC activator BAY 60-2770, we determined the redox state and inducible activity of sGC in the myocardium, within caveolae and non-lipid raft microdomains. sGC was oxidized in non-lipid raft microdomains at 4wkMR and 12moMR. While overall DEA/NO-responsiveness remained intact in MR hearts, DEA/NO responsiveness of sGC in non-lipid raft microdomains was depressed at 12moMR. Caveolae-localization protected sGC against oxidation. Further studies revealed that these modifications of sGC were also reflected in caveolae-localized cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) and MAPK signaling. In MR hearts, PKG-mediated phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) disappeared from caveolae whereas caveolae-localization of phosphorylated ERK5 increased

  15. YC-1 activation of human soluble guanylyl cyclase has both heme-dependent and heme-independent components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, E.; Lee, Y. C.; Murad, F.

    2001-01-01

    YC-1 [3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'furyl)-1-benzyl indazole] is an allosteric activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). YC-1 increases the catalytic rate of the enzyme and sensitizes the enzyme toward its gaseous activators nitric oxide or carbon monoxide. In other studies the administration of YC-1 to experimental animals resulted in the inhibition of the platelet-rich thrombosis and a decrease of the mean arterial pressure, which correlated with increased cGMP levels. However, details of YC-1 interaction with sGC and enzyme activation are incomplete. Although evidence in the literature indicates that YC-1 activation of sGC is strictly heme-dependent, this report presents evidence for both heme-dependent and heme-independent activation of sGC by YC-1. The oxidation of the sGC heme by 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazole(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1-one completely inhibited the response to NO, but only partially attenuated activation by YC-1. We also observed activation by YC-1 of a mutant sGC, which lacks heme. These findings indicate that YC-1 activation of sGC can occur independently of heme, but that activation is substantially increased when the heme moiety is present in the enzyme.

  16. YC-1 activation of human soluble guanylyl cyclase has both heme-dependent and heme-independent components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, E.; Lee, Y. C.; Murad, F.

    2001-01-01

    YC-1 [3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'furyl)-1-benzyl indazole] is an allosteric activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). YC-1 increases the catalytic rate of the enzyme and sensitizes the enzyme toward its gaseous activators nitric oxide or carbon monoxide. In other studies the administration of YC-1 to experimental animals resulted in the inhibition of the platelet-rich thrombosis and a decrease of the mean arterial pressure, which correlated with increased cGMP levels. However, details of YC-1 interaction with sGC and enzyme activation are incomplete. Although evidence in the literature indicates that YC-1 activation of sGC is strictly heme-dependent, this report presents evidence for both heme-dependent and heme-independent activation of sGC by YC-1. The oxidation of the sGC heme by 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazole(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1-one completely inhibited the response to NO, but only partially attenuated activation by YC-1. We also observed activation by YC-1 of a mutant sGC, which lacks heme. These findings indicate that YC-1 activation of sGC can occur independently of heme, but that activation is substantially increased when the heme moiety is present in the enzyme.

  17. YC-1 activation of human soluble guanylyl cyclase has both heme-dependent and heme-independent components

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Emil; Lee, Yu-Chen; Murad, Ferid

    2001-01-01

    YC-1 [3-(5′-hydroxymethyl-2′furyl)-1-benzyl indazole] is an allosteric activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). YC-1 increases the catalytic rate of the enzyme and sensitizes the enzyme toward its gaseous activators nitric oxide or carbon monoxide. In other studies the administration of YC-1 to experimental animals resulted in the inhibition of the platelet-rich thrombosis and a decrease of the mean arterial pressure, which correlated with increased cGMP levels. However, details of YC-1 interaction with sGC and enzyme activation are incomplete. Although evidence in the literature indicates that YC-1 activation of sGC is strictly heme-dependent, this report presents evidence for both heme-dependent and heme-independent activation of sGC by YC-1. The oxidation of the sGC heme by 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazole(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1-one completely inhibited the response to NO, but only partially attenuated activation by YC-1. We also observed activation by YC-1 of a mutant sGC, which lacks heme. These findings indicate that YC-1 activation of sGC can occur independently of heme, but that activation is substantially increased when the heme moiety is present in the enzyme. PMID:11687640

  18. [Structure, regulation and functions of particulate guanylyl cyclase type A].

    PubMed

    Mitkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2015-04-09

    Guanylyl cyclase type A (GC-A) belongs to the particulate guanylyl cyclases (pGC), which, like the soluble guanylyl cyclases (sGC), catalyze the synthesis of a common secondary messenger, namely cyclic GMP (cGMP), involved in many cellular processes. Although both forms of guanylyl cyclases produce the same secondary messenger, activation of each of them triggers different signaling pathways leading to different cellular effects. This indicates that the final effect of cGMP depends on the site of its synthesis in the cell (cytosol or cell membrane). Particulate guanylyl cyclase type A is a homodimeric protein activated by natriuretic peptides (ANP - atrial natriuretic peptide and BNP - brain natriuretic peptide) binding in the extracellular domain of the enzyme. The widespread expression of GC-A in different cell types and tissues suggests that this protein may regulate many cellular processes. Besides the role of GC-A in the cardiovascular system, which is the most thoroughly documented in the literature, it was observed that this protein is also involved in carcinogenesis and regulation of inflammatory reactions. This review describes important information about the structure, functions and regulation of GC-A catalytic activity, and the regulation of GC-A gene expression.

  19. 21 CFR 172.530 - Disodium guanylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disodium guanylate. 172.530 Section 172.530 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD..., at a level not in excess of that reasonably required to produce the intended effect....

  20. Restoring Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase Expression and Function Blocks the Aggressive Course of GliomaS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haifeng; Li, Jessica Tao; Zheng, Fang; Martin, Emil; Kots, Alexander Y.; Krumenacker, Joshua S.; Choi, Byung-Kwon; McCutcheon, Ian E.; Weisbrodt, Norman; Bögler, Oliver; Murad, Ferid

    2011-01-01

    The NO and cGMP signaling pathways are of broad physiological and pathological significance. We compared the NO/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cGMP pathway in human glioma tissues and cell lines with that of healthy control samples and demonstrated that sGC expression is significantly lower in glioma preparations. Our analysis of GEO databases (National Cancer Institute) further revealed a statistically significant reduction of sGC transcript levels in human glioma specimens. On the other hand, the expression levels of particulate (membrane) guanylyl cyclases (pGC) and cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) were intact in the glioma cells that we have tested. Pharmacologically manipulating endogenous cGMP generation in glioma cells through either stimulating pGC by ANP/BNP, or blocking PDE by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine/zaprinast caused significant inhibition of proliferation and colony formation of glioma cells. Genetically restoring sGC expression also correlated inversely with glioma cells growth. Orthotopic implantation of glioma cells transfected with an active mutant form of sGC (sGCα1β1Cys105) in athymic mice increased the survival time by 4-fold over the control. Histological analysis of xenografts overexpressing α1β1Cys105 sGC revealed changes in cellular architecture that resemble the morphology of normal cells. In addition, a decrease in angiogenesis contributed to glioma inhibition by sGC/cGMP therapy. Our study proposes the new concept that suppressed expression of sGC, a key enzyme in the NO/cGMP pathway, may be associated with an aggressive course of glioma. The sGC/cGMP signaling-targeted therapy may be a favorable alternative to chemotherapy and radiotherapy for glioma and perhaps other tumors. PMID:21908708

  1. The fibrate gemfibrozil is a NO- and haem-independent activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase: in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Sharina, I G; Sobolevsky, M; Papakyriakou, A; Rukoyatkina, N; Spyroulias, G A; Gambaryan, S; Martin, E

    2015-05-01

    Fibrates are a class of drugs widely used to treat dyslipidaemias. They regulate lipid metabolism and act as PPARα agonists. Clinical trials demonstrate that besides changes in lipid profiles, fibrates decrease the incidence of cardiovascular events, with gemfibrozil exhibiting the most pronounced benefit. This study aims to characterize the effect of gemfibrozil on the activity and function of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), the key mediator of NO signalling. High-throughput screening of a drug library identified gemfibrozil as a direct sGC activator. Activation of sGC is unique to gemfibrozil and is not shared by other fibrates. Gemfibrozil activated purified sGC, induced endothelium-independent relaxation of aortic rings and inhibited platelet aggregation. Gemfibrozil-dependent activation was absent when the sGC haem domain was deleted, but was significantly enhanced when sGC haem was lacking or oxidized. Oxidation of sGC haem enhanced the vasoactive and anti-platelet effects of gemfibrozil. Gemfibrozil competed with the haem-independent sGC activators ataciguat and cinaciguat. Computational modelling predicted that gemfibrozil occupies the space of the haem group and interacts with residues crucial for haem stabilization. This is consistent with structure-activity data which revealed an absolute requirement for gemfibrozil's carboxyl group. These data suggest that in addition to altered lipid and lipoprotein state, the cardiovascular preventive benefits of gemfibrozil may derive from direct activation and protection of sGC function. A sGC-directed action may explain the more pronounced cardiovascular benefit of gemfibrozil observed over other fibrates and some of the described side effects of gemfibrozil. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. NO-independent stimulation or activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase during early reperfusion limits infarct size.

    PubMed

    Bice, Justin S; Keim, Yvonne; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Baxter, Gary F

    2014-02-01

    Guanylyl cyclase-cyclic guanosine monophosphate signalling plays an important role in endogenous cardioprotective signalling. The aim was to assess the potential of direct pharmacological activation and stimulation of soluble guanylyl cyclase, targeting different redox states of the enzyme, to limit myocardial necrosis during early reperfusion. Rat isolated hearts were subjected to reversible left coronary artery occlusion (ischaemia-reperfusion) and infarct size was assessed by the tetrazolium staining technique. Administration during early reperfusion of BAY 41-2272, an NO-independent, haem-dependent stimulator of soluble guanylyl cyclase targeting the reduced state, or BAY 60-2770, an NO-independent, haem-independent activator targeting the oxidized state, significantly limited infarct size. Inhibition of NO synthesis did not abrogate this protection, but exogenous perfusion of NO with BAY 41-2272 produced a synergistic effect. The haem site oxidiser, ODQ abrogated the protection afforded by BAY 41-2272 but potentiated the protection afforded by BAY 60-2770. Targeting both the reduced and oxidized forms of sGC together did not afford additive protection. Targeting either reduced or oxidized forms of sGC during early reperfusion affords cardioprotection, providing support for the concept that direct sGC manipulation at reperfusion has therapeutic potential for the management of acute myocardial infarction.

  3. Effect of oral organic nitrates on expression and activity of vascular soluble guanylyl cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Oppermann, M; Dao, V T-V; Suvorava, T; Bas, M; Kojda, G

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: The regulation of vascular soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) expression by nitric oxide (NO) is still under discussion. In vitro, NO has been shown to downregulate the expression of sGC but it is unclear if this mechanism is operative in vivo and occurs during nitrate treatment. Experimental approach: We investigated whether high dose isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN) or pentaerythrityl tetranitrate (PETN) treatment changes vascular sGC expression and activity in vivo. New Zealand White rabbits received a standard diet, 2 or 200 mg ISMN kg−1 d−1 for 16 weeks, and C57BL/6 mice received a standard diet, 6, 60 or 300 mg PETN kg−1 d−1 for four weeks. Absorption was checked by measuring the plasma levels of the drug/metabolite. Key results: Western blots of rabbit aortic rings showed similar protein levels of sGC α1- (P=0.2790) and β1-subunits (P=0.6900) in all groups. Likewise, ANOVA showed that there was no difference in the expression of sGC in lungs of PETN-treated mice (P=0.0961 for α1 and P=0.3709 for β1). The activities of isolated sGC in response to SNAP (1 μM–1 mM) were identical in aortae of ISMN-treated rabbits (P=0.0775) and lungs of PETN-treated mice (P=0.6348). The aortic relaxation response to SNAP slightly decreased at high ISMN but not at high PETN. Conclusions and implications: These data refute the hypothesis that therapeutic treatment with long acting NO donors has a significant impact on the regulation of vascular sGC expression and activity in vivo. PMID:18587420

  4. Soluble guanylyl cyclase activators increase the expression of tolerance to morphine analgesic effect.

    PubMed

    Durmus, N; Bagcivan, I; Ozdemir, E; Altun, A; Gursoy, S

    2014-01-01

    It is aimed to investigate the effects of guanylyl cyclase activation and inhibition on acute morphine antinociception and the development of tolerance to its effect. Nitric oxide-soluble guanylyl cyclase signal transduction cascade suggested to play an important role in the development of tolerance to antinociceptive effects of morphine. Nociception was evaluated by tail flick and hot plate tests in male Wistar rats. The analgesic effects of intraperitoneal protoporphyrin IX (PPIX; an activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase), 3-morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1; NO donor and activator of guanylyl cyclase), S-Nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP; an activator of guanylyl cyclase), 3,3-Bis (amino ethyl)-1-hydroxy-2-oxo-1-triazene (NOC-18; NO donor activating guanylyl cyclase) and 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; an inhibitor of guanylyl cyclase) alone or in combination with subcutaneous morphine injection were evaluated. Their effects on morphine tolerance development were evaluated by giving these agents 20 minutes prior to twice daily morphine injection during tolerance development for 5 days. On day 6, the expression of morphine tolerance was determined. PPIX, SIN-1, SNAP and NOC-18 significantly increased expression of morphine tolerance while ODQ decreased. These data suggested that sGC activators have a significant role in tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 29).

  5. Role of soluble guanylyl cyclase-cyclic GMP signaling in tumor cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Mujoo, Kalpana; Sharin, Vladislav G.; Martin, Emil; Choi, Byung-Kwon; Sloan, Courtney; Nikonoff, Lubov E.; Kots, Alexander Y; Murad, Ferid

    2010-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrate a differential expression of nitric oxide (NO) signaling components in ES cells and our recent study demonstrated an enhanced differentiation of ES cells into myocardial cells with NO donors and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) activators. Since NO-cGMP pathway exhibits a diverse role in cancer, we were interested in evaluating the role of the NO receptor sGC and other components of the pathway in regulation of the tumor cell proliferation. Our results demonstrate a differential expression of the sGC subunits, NOS-1 and PKG mRNA and protein levels in various human cancer models. In contrast to sGCα1, robust levels of sGC β1 were observed in OVCAR-3 (ovarian) and MDA-MB-468 (breast) cancer cells which correlated well with the sGC activity and a marked increase in cGMP levels upon exposure to the combination of a NO donor and a sGC activator. NOC-18 (DETA NONOate; NO donor), BAY41-2272 (3-(4-Amino-5-cyclopropylpyrimidin-2-yl)-1-(2-fluorobenzyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine); sGC activator), NOC-18+BAY41-2272, IBMX (3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine; phosphodiesterase inhibitor) and 8-bromo-cGMP (cGMP analog) caused growth inhibition and apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in growth inhibition, we evaluated the effect of activators/inhibitors on ERK phosphorylation. Our studies indicate that BAY41-2272 or the combination NOC18+BAY41-2272 caused inhibition of the basal ERK1/2 phosphorylation in OVCAR-3 (high sGC activity), SK-OV-3 and SK-Br-3 (low sGC activity) cell lines and in some cases the inhibition was rescued by the sGC inhibitor ODQ (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one). These studies suggest that the effects of activators/inhibitors of NO-sGC-cGMP in tumor cell proliferation is mediated by both cGMP-dependent and independent mechanisms. PMID:19948239

  6. Stimulators of the soluble guanylyl cyclase: promising functional insights from rare coding atherosclerosis-related GUCY1A3 variants.

    PubMed

    Wobst, Jana; von Ameln, Simon; Wolf, Bernhard; Wierer, Michael; Dang, Tan An; Sager, Hendrik B; Tennstedt, Stephanie; Hengstenberg, Christian; Koesling, Doris; Friebe, Andreas; Braun, Siegmund L; Erdmann, Jeanette; Schunkert, Heribert; Kessler, Thorsten

    2016-07-01

    Stimulators of the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) are emerging therapeutic agents in cardiovascular diseases. Genetic alterations of the GUCY1A3 gene, which encodes the α1 subunit of the sGC, are associated with coronary artery disease. Studies investigating sGC stimulators in subjects with CAD and carrying risk-related variants in sGC are, however, lacking. Here, we functionally investigate the impact of coding GUCY1A3 variants on sGC activity and the therapeutic potential of sGC stimulators in vitro. In addition to a known loss-of-function variant, eight coding variants in GUCY1A3 were cloned and expressed in HEK 293 cells. Protein levels and dimerization capability with the β1 subunit were analysed by immunoblotting and co-immunoprecipitation, respectively. All α1 variants found in MI patients dimerized with the β1 subunit. Protein levels were reduced by 72 % in one variant (p < 0.01). Enzymatic activity was analysed using cGMP radioimmunoassay after stimulation with a nitric oxide (NO) donor. Five variants displayed decreased cGMP production upon NO stimulation (p < 0.001). The addition of the sGC stimulator BAY 41-2272 increased cGMP formation in all of these variants (p < 0.01). Except for the variant leading to decreased protein level, cGMP amounts reached the wildtype NO-induced level after addition of BAY 41-2272. In conclusion, rare coding variants in GUCY1A3 lead to reduced cGMP formation which can be rescued by a sGC stimulator in vitro. These results might therefore represent the starting point for discovery of novel treatment strategies for patients at risk with coding GUCY1A3 variants.

  7. Plant adenylate cyclases.

    PubMed

    Lomovatskaya, Lidiya A; Romanenko, Anatoliy S; Filinova, Nadejda V

    2008-01-01

    Adenylate cyclase (AC) (ATP diphosphate-lyase cyclizing; EC 4.6.1.1) is a key component of the adenylate cyclase signaling system and catalyzes the generation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) from ATP. This review summarizes data from the literature and the authors' laboratory on the investigation of plant transmembrane (tmAC) and soluble (sAC) adenylate cyclases, in comparison with some key characteristics of adenylate cyclases of animal cells. Plant sAC has been demonstrated to exhibit similarities with animal sAC with respect to certain characteristics. External factors, such as far-red and red light, temperature, exogenous phytohormones, as well as specific triggering compounds of fungal and bacterial origin exert a significant influence on the activity of plant tmAC and sAC.

  8. Antisense expression of PKCα improved sensitivity of SGC7901/VCR cells to doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Da-Long; Sui, Feng-Ying; Du, Cheng; Zhang, Cheng-Wen; Hui, Bin; Xu, Shui-Ling; Lu, Huan-Zhang; Song, Guo-Jie

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To explore whether antisense blocking of protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) would reverse multi-drug resistance (MDR) in the vincristine (VCR)-resistant human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901/VCR. METHODS: SGC7901/VCR cells expressing antisense PKCα, SGC7901/VCR/aPKC, were established by transfection with a recombinant plasmid reversely inserted with PKCα cDNA. Empty vector (PCI-neo)-transfected cell clones, SGC7901/VCR/neo, served as the control. Western blot method was used to detect PKCα content in SGC7901, SGC7901/VCR, SGC7901/VCR/neo and SGC7901/VCR/aPKC cells, using PKCα-specific antibody. The sensitivity of SGC7901, SGC7901/VCR, SGC7901/VCR/neo and SGC7901/VCR/aPKC cells to doxorubicin (DOX) in vitro was determined by MTT assay. The uptake of DOX in these cells was detected with fluorescence spectrophotometer. RESULTS: Western blot analysis showed that the PKCα protein level was about 8.7-fold higher in SGC7901/VCR cells than that in SGC7901 cells, whereas the protein expression of PKCα was reduced by 78% in SGC7901/VCR/aPKC cells when compared with the SGC7901/VCR cells. SGC7901/VCR/aPKC cells had a 4.2-fold increase in DOX cytotoxicity, accompanied by a 1.7-fold increase of DOX accumulation in comparison with SGC7901/VCR cells. CONCLUSION: PKCα positively regulates MDR in SGC7901 cells, and inhibition of PKCα can partially attenuate MDR in human gastric cancer cells. PMID:19291828

  9. Characterization of oxidized guanosine 5'-triphosphate as a viable inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Bolin, Celeste; Cardozo-Pelaez, Fernando

    2009-03-15

    The guanine base is prone to oxidation by free radicals regardless of the cellular moiety it is bound to. However, under conditions of oxidative stress, 8-oxoguanosine triphosphate (oxo(8)GTP) formation has been shown to occur without oxidation of the guanine base in DNA. In vitro studies have suggested that oxo(8)GTP could impact G-protein signaling and RNA synthesis. Whether increased levels of oxo(8)GTP translate into cellular malfunction is unknown. Data presented herein show that oxo(8)GTP is formed in cell-free preparations as well as in PC12 cells after exposure to physiologically relevant oxidative conditions generated with 10 microM copper sulfate and 1 mM L-ascorbic acid (Cu/Asc). We also determined that oxo(8)GTP has biological activity as a potent inhibitor of nitric oxide-stimulated soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). The increase in oxo(8)GTP formation in purified GTP and PC12 cells exposed to Cu/Asc caused a significant reduction in the product of sGC activity, cGMP. This oxidation of GTP was attenuated by the addition of reduced glutathione under these same Cu/Asc conditions, thus preventing the decrease in sGC activity. This suggests that oxo(8)GTP is produced by free radicals in vivo and could have significant impact on cell functions regulated by sGC activity such as synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system.

  10. Exogenous irritant-induced airway hyperreactivity and inhibition of soluble guanylyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Antosová, Martina; Strapková, Anna; Turcan, Tomás

    2008-10-01

    The majority of nitric oxide (NO) effects in the respiratory system are caused by stimulation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) with subsequent increase of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production. The importance of this mechanism of NO action in airway hyperreactivity (AHR) pathogenesis is unknown. Therefore, the aim of our experiment was to examine the changes of airway reactivity enhanced by toluene vapor exposure in the presence or inhibition of sGC activity in guinea pigs. Animals were treated with a nonspecific sGC inhibitor, methylene blue, in a dose of 50 or 100 mg/kg body weight, administered by intraperitoneal injection 30 min before or after exposure to toluene vapors. The toluene exposure lasted 2 hr in each of 3 consecutive days under in vivo conditions. Thereafter, the tracheal and lung tissue smooth muscle response to cumulative doses of mediators (histamine or acetylcholine) was recorded under in vitro conditions. The exposure to toluene vapors significantly increased the airway reactivity to both mediators in comparison with the healthy animal group. The administration of methylene blue decreased the amplitude of airway smooth muscle contraction in toluene-induced hyperreactivity. The decreases were dependent on the inhibitor doses, on a regimen of administration (before or after toluene inhalation), the level of the respiratory system (trachea, lung), and the bronchoconstrictor mediators. Our results suggest that the interaction between NO and sGC may be important for airway reactivity changes, but other mechanisms of NO action are important in AHR pathogenesis, too.

  11. Hydrogen Peroxide Alters Splicing of Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase and Selectively Modulates Expression of Splicing Regulators in Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cote, Gilbert J.; Zhu, Wen; Thomas, Anthony; Martin, Emil; Murad, Ferid; Sharina, Iraida G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) plays a central role in nitric oxide (NO)-mediated signal transduction in the cardiovascular, nervous and gastrointestinal systems. Alternative RNA splicing has emerged as a potential mechanism to modulate sGC expression and activity. C-α1 sGC is an alternative splice form that is resistant to oxidation-induced protein degradation and demonstrates preferential subcellular distribution to the oxidized environment of endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report that splicing of C-α1 sGC can be modulated by H2O2 treatment in BE2 neuroblastoma and MDA-MD-468 adenocarcinoma human cells. In addition, we show that the H2O2 treatment of MDA-MD-468 cells selectively decreases protein levels of PTBP1 and hnRNP A2/B1 splice factors identified as potential α1 gene splicing regulators by in silico analysis. We further demonstrate that down-regulation of PTBP1 by H2O2 occurs at the protein level with variable regulation observed in different breast cancer cells. Conclusions/Significance Our data demonstrate that H2O2 regulates RNA splicing to induce expression of the oxidation-resistant C-α1 sGC subunit. We also report that H2O2 treatment selectively alters the expression of key splicing regulators. This process might play an important role in regulation of cellular adaptation to conditions of oxidative stress. PMID:22911749

  12. The soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor NS-2028 reduces vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis and permeability.

    PubMed

    Morbidelli, Lucia; Pyriochou, Anastasia; Filippi, Sandra; Vasileiadis, Ioannis; Roussos, Charis; Zhou, Zongmin; Loutrari, Heleni; Waltenberger, Johannes; Stössel, Anne; Giannis, Athanassios; Ziche, Marina; Papapetropoulos, Andreas

    2010-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is known to promote vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated permeability and angiogenesis. However, effector molecules that operate downstream of NO in this pathway remain poorly characterized. Herein, we determined the effect of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibition on VEGF responses in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of endothelial cells (EC) with VEGF stimulated eNOS phosphorylation and cGMP accumulation; pretreatment with the sGC inhibitor 4H-8-bromo-1,2,4-oxadiazolo(3,4-d)benz(b)(1,4)oxazin-1-one (NS-2028) blunted cGMP levels without affecting VEGF-receptor phosphorylation. Incubation of cells with NS-2028 blocked the mitogenic effects of VEGF. In addition, cells in which sGC was inhibited exhibited no migration and sprouting in response to VEGF. To study the mechanisms through which NS-2028 inhibits EC migration, we determined the effects of alterations in cGMP levels on p38 MAPK. Initially, we observed that inhibition of sGC attenuated VEGF-stimulated activation of p38. In contrast, the addition of 8-Br-cGMP to EC stimulated p38 phosphorylation. The addition of cGMP elevating agents (BAY 41-2272, DETA NO and YC-1) enhanced EC migration. To test whether sGC also mediated the angiogenic effects of VEGF in vivo, we used the rabbit cornea assay. Animals receiving NS-2028 orally displayed a reduced angiogenic response to VEGF. As increased vascular permeability occurs prior to new blood vessel formation, we determined the effect of NS-2028 in vascular leakage. Using a modified Miles assay, we observed that NS-2028 attenuated VEGF-induced permeability. Overall, we provide evidence that sGC mediates the angiogenic and permeability-promoting activities of VEGF, indicating the significance of sGC as a downstream effector of VEGF-triggered responses.

  13. Activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase prevents foam cell formation and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tsou, C-Y; Chen, C-Y; Zhao, J-F; Su, K-H; Lee, H-T; Lin, S-J; Shyue, S-K; Hsiao, S-H; Lee, T-S

    2014-04-01

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a key modulator in the regulation of vascular tone. However, its role and involving mechanism in cholesterol metabolism of macrophages and atherosclerosis remain unclear. Oil red O staining, Dil-oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-binding assay and cholesterol efflux assay were performed in biology of foam cells. Levels of cytokines or intracellular lipid were evaluated by ELISA or colorimetric kits. Expression of gene or protein was determined by quantitative real-time PCR or Western blotting. Histopathology was examined by haematoxylin and eosin staining. Soluble guanylyl cyclase was expressed in macrophages of mouse atherosclerotic lesions. Treatment with 1H-[1, 2, 4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, sGC inhibitor) exacerbated oxLDL-induced cholesterol accumulation in macrophages. In contrast, 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'furyl)-1-benzyl indazole (YC-1, sGC activator) attenuated the oxLDL-induced cholesterol accumulation because of increased cholesterol efflux. Additionally, YC-1 dose dependently increased the protein expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) but did not alter that of scavenger receptor class A (SR-A), CD36, SR-BI or ABCG1. Moreover, YC-1-upregulated ABCA1 level depended on liver X receptor α (LXRα). Inhibition of the LXRα-ABCA1 pathway by LXRα small interfering RNA (siRNA), ABCA1 neutralizing antibody or ABCA1 siRNA abolished the effect of YC-1 on cholesterol accumulation and cholesterol efflux. In vivo, YC-1 retarded the development of atherosclerosis, accompanied by reduced serum levels of cholesterol and pro-inflammatory cytokines, in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Activation of sGC by YC-1 leads to LXRα-dependent upregulation of ABCA1 in macrophages and may confer protection against atherosclerosis. © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. LH-RH binding to purified pituitary plasma membranes: absence of adenylate cyclase activation.

    PubMed

    Clayton, R N; Shakespear, R A; Marshall, J C

    1978-06-01

    Purified bovine pituitary plasma membranes possess two specific LH-RH binding sites. The high affinity site (2.5 X 10(9) l/mol) has low capacity (9 X 10(-15) mol/mg membrane protein) while the low affinity site 6.1 X 10(5) l/mol) has a much higher capacity (1.1 X 10(-10) mol/mg). Specific LH-RH binding to plasma membranes is increased 8.5-fold during purification from homogenate whilst adenylate cyclase activity is enriched 7--8-fold. Distribution of specific LH-RH binding to sucrose density gradient interface fractions parallels that of adenylate cyclase activity. Mg2+ and Ca2+ inhibit specific [125I]LH-RH binding at micromolar concentrations. Synthetic LH-RH, up to 250 microgram/ml, failed to stimulate adenylase cyclase activity of the purified bovine membranes. Using a crude 10,800 g rat pituitary membrane preparation, LH-RH similarly failed to activate adenylate cyclase even in the presence of guanyl nucleotides. These data confirm the presence of LH-RH receptor sites on pituitary plasma membranes and suggest that LH-RH-induced gonadotrophin release may be mediated by mechanisms other than activation of adenylate cyclase.

  15. Guanylyl cyclase activation reverses resistive breathing-induced lung injury and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Glynos, Constantinos; Toumpanakis, Dimitris; Loverdos, Konstantinos; Karavana, Vassiliki; Zhou, Zongmin; Magkou, Christina; Dettoraki, Maria; Perlikos, Fotis; Pavlidou, Athanasia; Kotsikoris, Vasilis; Topouzis, Stavros; Theocharis, Stamatios E; Brouckaert, Peter; Giannis, Athanassios; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros

    2015-06-01

    Inspiratory resistive breathing (RB), encountered in obstructive lung diseases, induces lung injury. The soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway is down-regulated in chronic and acute animal models of RB, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and in endotoxin-induced acute lung injury. Our objectives were to: (1) characterize the effects of increased concurrent inspiratory and expiratory resistance in mice via tracheal banding; and (2) investigate the contribution of the sGC/cGMP pathway in RB-induced lung injury. Anesthetized C57BL/6 mice underwent RB achieved by restricting tracheal surface area to 50% (tracheal banding). RB for 24 hours resulted in increased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cellularity and protein content, marked leukocyte infiltration in the lungs, and perturbed respiratory mechanics (increased tissue resistance and elasticity, shifted static pressure-volume curve right and downwards, decreased static compliance), consistent with the presence of acute lung injury. RB down-regulated sGC expression in the lung. All manifestations of lung injury caused by RB were exacerbated by the administration of the sGC inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxodiazolo[4,3-]quinoxalin-l-one, or when RB was performed using sGCα1 knockout mice. Conversely, restoration of sGC signaling by prior administration of the sGC activator BAY 58-2667 (Bayer, Leverkusen, Germany) prevented RB-induced lung injury. Strikingly, direct pharmacological activation of sGC with BAY 58-2667 24 hours after RB reversed, within 6 hours, the established lung injury. These findings raise the possibility that pharmacological targeting of the sGC-cGMP axis could be used to ameliorate lung dysfunction in obstructive lung diseases.

  16. Reduced vascular responses to soluble guanylyl cyclase but increased sensitivity to sildenafil in female rats with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Goulopoulou, Styliani; Hannan, Johanna L; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Ogbi, Safia; Ergul, Adviye; Webb, R Clinton

    2015-07-15

    Impaired nitric oxide (NO), soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling (NO-sGC-cGMP) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular dysfunction. Efforts to directly target this signaling have led to the development of sGC agonists that activate the heme group of sGC (stimulators) or preferentially activate sGC when the heme is oxidized (activators). In this study, we hypothesized that resistance arteries from female rats with spontaneous type 2 diabetes (Goto-Kakizaki rats, GK) would have reduced vasodilatory responses to heme-dependent sGC activation and increased responses to heme-independent sGC activation compared with control rats (Wistar). Endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation was assessed in isolated segments from mesenteric resistance arteries (MA) mounted in a wire myograph. GK MA had reduced responses to acetylcholine (pEC50: 7.96 ± 0.06 vs. 7.66 ± 0.05, P < 0.05) and sodium nitroprusside (pEC50: 8.34 ± 0.05 vs. 7.77 ± 0.04, P < 0.05). There were no group differences in 8-bromoguanosine cGMP-induced relaxation and protein kinase G1 expression (P > 0.05). GK MA had attenuated responses to BAY 41-2272 (heme-dependent sGC stimulator; pEC50: 7.56 ± 0.05 vs. 6.93 ± 0.06, P < 0.05) and BAY 58-2667 (heme-independent sGC activator; pEC50: 10.82 ± 0.07 vs. 10.27 ± 0.08, P < 0.05) and increased sensitivity to sildenafil [phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitor; pEC50: 7.89 ± 0.14 vs. 8.25 ± 0.13, P < 0.05]. Isolated resistance arteries from female rats of reproductive age that spontaneously develop type 2 diabetes have increased sensitivity to PDE5 inhibition and reduced responsiveness to sGC activators and stimulators. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Guanyl nucleotides modulate binding to steroid receptors in neuronal membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Orchinik, M; Murray, T F; Franklin, P H; Moore, F L

    1992-01-01

    The recently characterized corticosteroid receptor on amphibian neuronal membranes appears to mediate rapid, stress-induced changes in male reproductive behaviors. Because the transduction mechanisms associated with this receptor are unknown, we performed radioligand binding studies to determine whether this steroid receptor is negatively modulated by guanyl nucleotides. The binding of [3H]corticosterone to neuronal membranes was inhibited by nonhydrolyzable guanyl nucleotides in both equilibrium saturation binding and titration studies. The addition of guanyl nucleotide plus unlabeled corticosterone induced a rapid phase of [3H]corticosterone dissociation from membranes that was not induced by addition of unlabeled ligand alone. Furthermore, the equilibrium binding of [3H]corticosterone and the sensitivity of the receptor to modulation by guanyl nucleotides were both enhanced by Mg2+. These results are consistent with the formation of a ternary complex of steroid, receptor, and guanine nucleotide-binding protein that is subject to regulation by guanyl nucleotides. Therefore, rapid signal transduction through corticosteroid receptors on neuronal membranes appears to be mediated by guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. PMID:1570300

  18. Catecholamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase of caudate nucleus and cerebral cortex. Effects of guanine nucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Sulakhe, P V; Leung, N L; Arbus, A T; Sulakhe, S J; Jan, S H; Narayanan, N

    1977-01-01

    1. GTP and GMP-P(NH)P (guanyl-5'-yl imidodiphosphate) were observed to increase the stimulation of neural adenylate cyclase by dopamine (3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) and noradrenaline. 2. GMP-P(NH)P had a biphasic effect on the enzyme activity. 3. Preincubation of membranes with GMP-P(NH)P activated the enzyme by a process dependent on time and temperature. Catecholamines increased the speed and the extent of this activation. 4. Membrane fractions contained high- and low-affinity sites for GMP-P(NH)P binding: this binding was due to protein(s) of the membrane preparations. 5. Low-affinity-site binding of GMP-P(NH)P appeared to be related to the stimulatory effect on the adenylate cyclase activity. PMID:18147

  19. Effect of soluble guanylyl cyclase activator and stimulator therapy on nitroglycerin-induced nitrate tolerance in rats.

    PubMed

    Jabs, A; Oelze, M; Mikhed, Y; Stamm, P; Kröller-Schön, S; Welschof, P; Jansen, T; Hausding, M; Kopp, M; Steven, S; Schulz, E; Stasch, J-P; Münzel, T; Daiber, A

    2015-08-01

    Chronic nitroglycerin (GTN) anti-ischemic therapy induces side effects such as nitrate tolerance and endothelial dysfunction. Both phenomena could be based on a desensitization/oxidation of the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). Therefore, the present study aims at investigating the effects of the therapy with the sGC activator BAY 60-2770 and the sGC stimulator BAY 41-8543 on side effects induced by chronic nitroglycerin treatment. Male Wistar rats were treated with nitroglycerin (100mg/kg/d for 3.5days, s.c. in ethanol) and BAY 60-2770 (0.5 or 2.5mg/kg/d) or BAY 41-8543 (1 and 5mg/kg/d) for 6days. Therapy with BAY 60-2770 but not with BAY 41-8543 improved nitroglycerin-triggered endothelial dysfunction and nitrate tolerance, corrected the decrease in aortic nitric oxide levels, improved the cGMP dependent activation of protein kinase I in aortic tissue and reduced vascular, cardiac and whole blood oxidative stress (fluorescence and chemiluminescence assays; 3-nitrotyrosine staining). In contrast to BAY 41-8543, the vasodilator potency of BAY 60-2770 was not impaired in isolated aortic ring segments from nitrate tolerant rats. sGC activator therapy improves partially the adverse effects of nitroglycerin therapy whereas sGC stimulation has only minor beneficial effects pointing to a nitroglycerin-dependent sGC oxidation/inactivation mechanism contributing to nitrate tolerance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. PAS-MEDIATED DIMERIZATION OF SOLUBLE GUANYLYL CYCLASE REVEALED BY SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION HISTIDINE KINASE DOMAIN CRYSTAL STRUCTURE

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaolei; Sayed, Nazish; Baskaran, Padmamalini; Beuve, Annie; van den Akker, Focco

    2010-01-01

    Signal transduction histidine kinases (STHK) are key for sensing environmental stresses, crucial for cell survival, and attain their sensing ability using small molecule binding domains. The N-terminal domain in an STHK from Nostoc punctiforme is of unknown function yet is homologous to the central region in soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), the main receptor for nitric oxide (NO). This domain is termed H-NOXA (or H-NOBA) since it is often associated with the heme-nitric-oxide/oxygen binding (H-NOX) domain. A structure-function approach was taken to investigate the role of H-NOXA in STHK and sGC. We report the 2.1 Å resolution crystal structure of the dimerized H-NOXA domain of STHK, which reveals a Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) fold. The H-NOXA monomers dimerize in a parallel arrangement juxtaposing their N-terminal helices and preceding residues. Such PAS-dimerization is similar to that previously observed for EcDOS, AvNifL, and RmFixL. Deletion of 7 N-terminal residues affected dimer organization. Alanine scanning mutagenesis in sGC indicates that the H-NOXA domains of sGC could adopt a similar dimer organization. Although most putative interface mutations did decrease sGCβ1 H-NOXA homodimerization, heterodimerization of full length heterodimeric sGC was mostly unaffected likely due to sGC’s additional dimerization contacts in the coiled-coil and catalytic domains. Exceptions are mutations sGC-α1 F285A and -β1 F217A which each caused a drastic drop in NO stimulated activity and mutations sGCα1 Q368A and -β1 Q309A which resulted in both a complete lack of activity and heterodimerization. Our structural and mutational results provide new insights into sGC and STHK dimerization and overall architecture. PMID:18006497

  1. Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase and soluble guanylyl cyclase disappear in elicited rat neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Ciuman, Małgorzata; Siednienko, Jakub; Czyzyk, Rafał; Witwicka, Hanna; Kołosionek, Ewa; Kobiałka, Marcin; Gorczyca, Wojciech A

    2006-11-01

    The nitric oxide/soluble guanylyl cyclase/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (NO/sGC/PKG) cascade has been shown to affect important functions of circulating neutrophils. We demonstrate that neutrophils isolated from rats treated intraperitoneally with peptone protease cannot use this signaling pathway. Although PKG was detected at both the mRNA and protein levels in peripheral blood neutrophils (PBNs) of control rats, it was expressed neither in PBNs nor in peritoneal exudate neutrophils (PENs) of provoked rats. Also, mRNA of the alpha and beta chains of heterodimeric sGC was present in PBNs, but absent in PENs. Consistently, PBNs responded to activators of sGC with cGMP synthesis, while PENs did not. These results showed that neutrophils recruited by a provoking agent lost PKG and, in the case of PENs, also sGC and thus the capacity to respond to NO with cGMP signaling. We speculate that such downregulation of the sGC/PKG pathway is likely a result of the high activity of inducible NO synthase observed in inflammatory neutrophils.

  2. Autophagy Protects from Raddeanin A-Induced Apoptosis in SGC-7901 Human Gastric Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shen-lin; Fang, Liang-hua; Zhou, Jin-yong; Wu, Jian; Xi, Song-yang; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Ying-ying; Xu, Song

    2016-01-01

    Raddeanin A (RA) is an extractive from Anemone raddeana Regel, a traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of RA against human gastric cancer (GC) cells (SGC-7901) and explore its mechanism. MTT assay showed that RA inhibition of proliferation of SGC-7901 cells increased in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis and Hoechst 33258 staining showed that RA induced apoptosis on SGC-7901 cells. Meanwhile, it induced autophagy. Western blotting analysis showed that the RA induces apoptosis and autophagy by activating p38 MAPK pathway and inhibiting mTOR pathway. Further studies showed that autophagy inhibition could protect from RA-induced apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells. In conclusion, RA can induce SGC-7901 cell apoptosis and autophagy by activating p38 MAPK pathway. And autophagy can protect SGC-7901 cells from apoptosis induced by RA. PMID:27974905

  3. Guanylate-binding proteins: niche recruiters for antimicrobial effectors.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Christopher D; Hunter, Christopher A

    2012-08-24

    There are fundamental questions regarding how IFN-γ activates host cells to eliminate intracellular pathogens. In this issue of Immunity, Yamamoto et al. (2012) demonstrate a critical role for the p65 guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) in this process during infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

  4. 17 beta-estradiol modifies nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase expression and down-regulates its activity in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Cabilla, Jimena P; Díaz, María del Carmen; Machiavelli, Leticia I; Poliandri, Ariel H; Quinteros, Fernanda A; Lasaga, Mercedes; Duvilanski, Beatriz H

    2006-09-01

    Previous studies showed that 17 beta-estradiol (17 beta-E2) regulates the nitric oxide (NO)/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cGMP pathway in many tissues. Evidence from our laboratory indicates that 17 beta-E2 disrupts the inhibitory effect of NO on prolactin release, decreasing sGC activity and affecting the cGMP pathway in anterior pituitary gland of adult ovariectomized and estrogenized rats. To ascertain the mechanisms by which 17 beta-E2 affects sGC activity, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of 17 beta-E2 on sGC protein and mRNA expression in anterior pituitary gland from immature female rats. In the present work, we showed that 17 beta-E2 acute treatment exerted opposite effects on the two sGC subunits, increasing alpha1 and decreasing beta1 subunit protein and mRNA expression. This action on sGC protein expression was maximal 6-9 h after 17 beta-E2 administration. 17beta-E2 also caused the same effect on mRNA expression at earlier times. Concomitantly, 17 beta-E2 dramatically decreased sGC activity 6 and 9 h after injection. These effects were specific of 17 beta-E2, because they were not observed with the administration of other steroids such as progesterone and 17 alpha-estradiol. This inhibitory action of 17beta-E2 on sGC also required the activation of estrogen receptor (ER), because treatment with the pure ER antagonist ICI 182,780 completely blocked 17 beta-E2 action. 17 beta-E2 acute treatment caused the same effects on pituitary cells in culture. These results suggest that 17 beta-E2 exerts an acute inhibitory effect on sGC in anterior pituitary gland by down-regulating sGC beta 1 subunit and sGC activity in a specific, ER-dependent manner.

  5. Dependence of the hormonal stimulation of adenylate cyclase on the fraction of the plasma membrane accessible for lateral displacement of proteins of the adenylate cyclase complex

    SciTech Connect

    Kazarov, A.R.; Rozenkrants, A.A.; Sobolev, A.S.

    1986-09-10

    Hormonal activation of the adenylate cyclase complex is associated with lateral displacement in the membrane of the proteins that constitute this complex. In this work an experimental investigation was made of the changes in the interaction of the proteins of the adenylate cyclase complex with the changing fraction of fluid lipids in the cell membrane. A decrease in the fraction of fluid lipids of rat reticulocyte membranes led to a decrease (all the way down to a total suppression) of the interaction of the ..beta..-adrenoreceptors with the regulatory N-proteins. The interaction of the N-proteins with the catalytic proteins was also suppressed. On the other hand, an increase in the fraction of fluid lipids led to more effective interaction. It was shown that in this case the functional intactness of the interacting proteins is unimpaired. An analysis of the results obtained, performed on the basis of the percolation theory, suggests the conclusion that the hormonal stimulation of adenylate cyclase depends on the fraction of fluid lipids in the membrane, and the proteins are displaced during interaction over distances comparable with the size of the membrane itself. It was also shown that characteristic activity of the ..beta..-agonist 1-isoproterenol varies from 1.0 to 0, depending on the fraction of fluid lipids in the membrane. The data obtained suggest that in the absence of guanylic nucleotides in the membrane in vitro there are no preexisting complexes with a high affinity for the agonist.

  6. Activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase by BAY 58-2667 improves bladder function in cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis in mice.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Mariana G; Calmasini, Fabiano B; Alexandre, Eduardo C; De Nucci, Gilberto; Mónica, Fabíola Z; Antunes, Edson

    2016-07-01

    Activators of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) interact directly with its prosthetic heme group, enhancing the enzyme responsiveness in pathological conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the sGC activator BAY 58-2667 on voiding dysfunction, protein expressions of α1 and β1 sGC subunits and cGMP levels in the bladder tissues after cyclophosphamide (CYP) exposure. Female C57BL/6 mice (20-25 g) were injected with CYP (300 mg/kg ip) to induce cystitis. Mice were pretreated or not with BAY 58-2667 (1 mg/kg, gavage), given 1 h before CYP injection. The micturition patterns and in vitro bladder contractions were evaluated at 24 h. In freely moving mice, the CYP injection produced reduced the micturition volume and increased the number of urine spots. Cystometric recordings in CYP-injected mice revealed significant increases in basal pressure, voiding frequency, and nonvoiding contractions (NVCs), along with decreases in bladder capacity, intercontraction interval, and compliance. BAY 58-2667 significantly prevented the micturition alterations observed in both freely moving mice and cystometry and normalized the reduced in vitro carbachol-induced contractions in the CYP group. Reduced protein expressions of α1 and β1 sGC subunits and of cGMP levels were observed in the CYP group, all of which were prevented by BAY 58-2667. CYP exposure significantly increased reactive-oxygen species (ROS) generation in both detrusor and urothelium, and this was normalized by BAY 58-2667. The increased myeloperoxidase and cyclooxygenase-2 activities in the bladders of the CYP group remained unchanged by BAY 58-2667. Activators of sGC may constitute a novel and promising therapeutic approach for management of interstitial cystitis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Crystal structure of the signaling helix coiled-coil domain of the β1 subunit of the soluble guanylyl cyclase

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a heterodimeric enzyme that, upon activation by nitric oxide, stimulates the production of the second messenger cGMP. Each sGC subunit harbor four domains three of which are used for heterodimerization: H-NOXA/H-NOBA domain, coiled-coil domain (CC), and catalytic guanylyl cyclase domain. The CC domain has previously been postulated to be part of a larger CC family termed the signaling helix (S-helix) family. Homodimers of sGC have also been observed but are not functionally active yet are likely transient awaiting their intended heterodimeric partner. Results To investigate the structure of the CC S-helix region, we crystallized and determined the structure of the CC domain of the sGCβ1 subunit comprising residues 348-409. The crystal structure was refined to 2.15 Å resolution. Conclusions The CC structure of sGCβ1 revealed a tetrameric arrangement comprised of a dimer of CC dimers. Each monomer is comprised of a long a-helix, a turn near residue P399, and a short second a-helix. The CC structure also offers insights as to how sGC homodimers are not as stable as (functionally) active heterodimers via a possible role for inter-helix salt-bridge formation. The structure also yielded insights into the residues involved in dimerization. In addition, the CC region is also known to harbor a number of congenital and man-made mutations in both membrane and soluble guanylyl cyclases and those function-affecting mutations have been mapped onto the CC structure. This mutant analysis indicated an importance for not only certain dimerization residue positions, but also an important role for other faces of the CC dimer which might perhaps interact with adjacent domains. Our results also extend beyond guanylyl cyclases as the CC structure is, to our knowledge, the first S-helix structure and serves as a model for all S-helix containing family members. PMID:20105301

  8. Crystal Structure of the Signaling Helix Coiled-coil Domain of the b1 Subunit of the Soluble guanylyl Cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, X.; Beuve, A; van den Akker, F

    2010-01-01

    The soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a heterodimeric enzyme that, upon activation by nitric oxide, stimulates the production of the second messenger cGMP. Each sGC subunit harbor four domains three of which are used for heterodimerization: H-NOXA/H-NOBA domain, coiled-coil domain (CC), and catalytic guanylyl cyclase domain. The CC domain has previously been postulated to be part of a larger CC family termed the signaling helix (S-helix) family. Homodimers of sGC have also been observed but are not functionally active yet are likely transient awaiting their intended heterodimeric partner. To investigate the structure of the CC S-helix region, we crystallized and determined the structure of the CC domain of the sGC{beta}1 subunit comprising residues 348-409. The crystal structure was refined to 2.15 {angstrom} resolution. The CC structure of sGC{beta}1 revealed a tetrameric arrangement comprised of a dimer of CC dimers. Each monomer is comprised of a long a-helix, a turn near residue P399, and a short second a-helix. The CC structure also offers insights as to how sGC homodimers are not as stable as (functionally) active heterodimers via a possible role for inter-helix salt-bridge formation. The structure also yielded insights into the residues involved in dimerization. In addition, the CC region is also known to harbor a number of congenital and man-made mutations in both membrane and soluble guanylyl cyclases and those function-affecting mutations have been mapped onto the CC structure. This mutant analysis indicated an importance for not only certain dimerization residue positions, but also an important role for other faces of the CC dimer which might perhaps interact with adjacent domains. Our results also extend beyond guanylyl cyclases as the CC structure is, to our knowledge, the first S-helix structure and serves as a model for all S-helix containing family members.

  9. Crystal structure of the signaling helix coiled-coil domain of the beta1 subunit of the soluble guanylyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaolei; Beuve, Annie; van den Akker, Focco

    2010-01-27

    The soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a heterodimeric enzyme that, upon activation by nitric oxide, stimulates the production of the second messenger cGMP. Each sGC subunit harbor four domains three of which are used for heterodimerization: H-NOXA/H-NOBA domain, coiled-coil domain (CC), and catalytic guanylyl cyclase domain. The CC domain has previously been postulated to be part of a larger CC family termed the signaling helix (S-helix) family. Homodimers of sGC have also been observed but are not functionally active yet are likely transient awaiting their intended heterodimeric partner. To investigate the structure of the CC S-helix region, we crystallized and determined the structure of the CC domain of the sGCbeta1 subunit comprising residues 348-409. The crystal structure was refined to 2.15 A resolution. The CC structure of sGCbeta1 revealed a tetrameric arrangement comprised of a dimer of CC dimers. Each monomer is comprised of a long a-helix, a turn near residue P399, and a short second a-helix. The CC structure also offers insights as to how sGC homodimers are not as stable as (functionally) active heterodimers via a possible role for inter-helix salt-bridge formation. The structure also yielded insights into the residues involved in dimerization. In addition, the CC region is also known to harbor a number of congenital and man-made mutations in both membrane and soluble guanylyl cyclases and those function-affecting mutations have been mapped onto the CC structure. This mutant analysis indicated an importance for not only certain dimerization residue positions, but also an important role for other faces of the CC dimer which might perhaps interact with adjacent domains. Our results also extend beyond guanylyl cyclases as the CC structure is, to our knowledge, the first S-helix structure and serves as a model for all S-helix containing family members.

  10. Lessons from ten years of crystallization experiments at the SGC

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Jia Tsing; Dekker, Carien; Reardon, Paul; von Delft, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Although protein crystallization is generally considered more art than science and remains significantly trial-and-error, large-scale data sets hold the promise of providing general learning. Observations are presented here from retrospective analyses of the strategies actively deployed for the extensive crystallization experiments at the Oxford site of the Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC), where comprehensive annotations by SGC scientists were recorded on a customized database infrastructure. The results point to the importance of using redundancy in crystallizing conditions, specifically by varying the mixing ratios of protein sample and precipitant, as well as incubation temperatures. No meaningful difference in performance could be identified between the four most widely used sparse-matrix screens, judged by the yield of crystals leading to deposited structures; this suggests that in general any comparison of screens will be meaningless without extensive cross-testing. Where protein sample is limiting, exploring more conditions has a higher likelihood of being informative by yielding hits than does redundancy of either mixing ratio or temperature. Finally, on the logistical question of how long experiments should be stored, 98% of all crystals that led to deposited structures appeared within 30 days. Overall, these analyses serve as practical guidelines for the design of initial screening experiments for new crystallization targets. PMID:26894670

  11. Cytotoxic effects of β-carboline alkaloids on human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yuxiang; Patima, Abulimiti; Chen, Yu; Zeng, Fanye; He, Wenting; Luo, Lingjuan; Jie, Yanghua; Zhu, Yanhua; Zhang, Liping; Lei, Jun; Xie, Xinmei; Zhang, Hongliang

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the cytotoxic effects of β-carboline alkaloids on human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Human gastric cancer SGC-790s1 cells were treated with β-carboline alkaloids at the concentration of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 μg/ml for 48 hr. Cell viability was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Cell apoptosis was detected by Hoechst 33258 staining and DNA fragmentation analysis. The expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was examined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay and western blot analysis. β-carboline alkaloids inhibited the growth of SGC-7901 cells concentration dependently. β-carboline alkaloids treated SGC-7901 cells displayed apoptotic nuclei as detected using Hoechst 33258 staining. β-carboline alkaloids also induced DNA ladder, indicative of apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells concentration-dependently. Furthermore, β-carboline alkaloids increased PTEN and decreased ERK mRNA expression in SGC-7901 cells in a concentration dependent manner. They also increased PTEN and decreased ERK protein expression. β-carboline alkaloids inhibit the growth and induce apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells. The cytotoxic effects of β-carboline alkaloids might correlate with increased PTEN expression and decreased ERK expression in SGC-7901 cells. PMID:26550217

  12. High-salt diets during pregnancy increases renal vascular reactivity due to altered soluble guanylyl cyclase-related pathways in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lin; Yin, Xiaohui; He, Axin; Li, Lingjun; Bo, Le; Zhou, Xiuwen; Tang, Jiaqi; Gu, Xiuxia; Wu, Jue; Gao, Qinqin; Lv, Juanxiu; Mao, Caiping; Xu, Zhice

    2016-02-01

    Adverse prenatal factors such as overtake of salt or fat food are potential risks for cardiovascular diseases in offspring. This study tested the hypothesis that prenatal high-salt (HS) diets may influence renal vascular tone and attenuates signaling pathways related to soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) or/and large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BKCa) channels in the offspring. Pregnant rats were fed either normal salt (NS) (1% NaCl) or HS (8% NaCl) diet for the whole gestation. Offspring were maintained on NS diets. Renal interlobar arteries in offspring were tested for vascular responses to phenylephrine (Phe), K(+) channels and signal pathways related to sGC. Phe induced higher vessel tension in interlobar arteries of the HS offspring. Following pretreatment with BKCa channel inhibitor iberiotoxin, Phe-mediated vasoconstrictions were decreased in HS offspring compared to NS. Phe-mediated constrictions following pretreatment with NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester or sGC inhibitor 1H-1,2,4-oxadiazolo-4,3-quinoxalin-1-one in the HS offspring were less sensitive than NS. The whole-cell K(+) currents and the component of BKCa channels were not changed in smooth muscle cells from interlobar arteries, whereas the K(+) currents stimulated by sGC activator BAY41-2272 were reduced in the HS offspring. The protein expressions of sGC β1 and β2 in the interlobar arteries of HS offspring were reduced. The results showed that chronic overintake of salt during pregnancy could increase renal vascular tone in the offspring. The affected signal pathways included down-regulation of sGC function and expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Structure/activity relationships of (M)ANT- and TNP-nucleotides for inhibition of rat soluble guanylyl cyclase α1β1.

    PubMed

    Dove, Stefan; Danker, Kerstin Yvonne; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Kaever, Volkhard; Seifert, Roland

    2014-04-01

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) plays an important role in cardiovascular function and catalyzes formation of cGMP. sGC is activated by nitric oxide and allosteric stimulators and activators. However, despite its therapeutic relevance, the regulatory mechanisms of sGC are still incompletely understood. A major reason for this situation is that no crystal structures of active sGC have been resolved so far. An important step toward this goal is the identification of high-affinity ligands that stabilize an sGC conformation resembling the active, "fully closed" state. Therefore, we examined inhibition of rat sGCα1β1 by 38 purine- and pyrimidine-nucleotides with 2,4,6,-trinitrophenyl and (N-methyl)anthraniloyl substitutions at the ribosyl moiety and compared the data with that for the structurally related membranous adenylyl cyclases (mACs) 1, 2, 5 and the purified mAC catalytic subunits VC1:IIC2. TNP-GTP [2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-GTP] was the most potent sGCα1β1 inhibitor (Ki, 10.7 nM), followed by 2'-MANT-3'-dATP [2'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-3'-deoxy-ATP] (Ki, 16.7 nM). Docking studies on an sGCαcat/sGCβcat model derived from the inactive heterodimeric crystal structure of the catalytic domains point to similar interactions of (M)ANT- and TNP-nucleotides with sGCα1β1 and mAC VC1:IIC2. Reasonable binding modes of 2'-MANT-3'-dATP and bis-(M)ANT-nucleotides at sGC α1β1 require a 3'-endo ribosyl conformation (versus 3'-exo in 3'-MANT-2'-dATP). Overall, inhibitory potencies of nucleotides at sGCα1β1 versus mACs 1, 2, 5 correlated poorly. Collectively, we identified highly potent sGCα1β1 inhibitors that may be useful for future crystallographic and fluorescence spectroscopy studies. Moreover, it may become possible to develop mAC inhibitors with selectivity relative to sGC.

  14. Oxygen-sensitive guanylyl cyclases in insects and their potential roles in oxygen detection and in feeding behaviors.

    PubMed

    Vermehren, Anke; Langlais, Kristofor K; Morton, David B

    2006-04-01

    Responses to hypoxia and hyperoxia depend critically on the ability of the animal to detect changes in O2 levels. However, it has only been recently that an O2-sensing system has been identified in invertebrates. Evidence is accumulating that this molecular O2 sensor is, surprisingly, a class of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) known as atypical sGCs. It has long been known that the conventional sGC alpha and beta subunits form heterodimeric enzymes that are potently activated by NO, but do not bind O2. By contrast, the Drosophila melanogaster atypical sGC subunits, Gyc-88E, Gyc-89Da and Gyc-89Db, are only slightly sensitive to NO, but are potently activated under hypoxic conditions. Here we review evidence that suggests that the atypical sGCs can function as molecular O2 sensors mediating behavioral responses to hypoxia. Sequence comparisons of other predicted O2-sensitive sGCs suggest that most, if not all, insects express two heterodimeric sGCs; an NO-sensitive isoform and a separate O2-sensitive isoform. Expression data and recent experiments that block the function of cells that express the atypical sGCs and experiments that reduce the cGMP levels in these cells also suggest a role in behavioral responses to sweet tastants.

  15. The prelimbic cortex muscarinic M₃ receptor-nitric oxide-guanylyl cyclase pathway modulates cardiovascular responses in rats.

    PubMed

    Fassini, Aline; Antero, Leandro S; Corrêa, Fernando M A; Joca, Sâmia R; Resstel, Leonardo B M

    2015-05-01

    The prelimbic cortex (PL), a limbic structure, sends projections to areas involved in the control of cardiovascular responses. Stimulation of the PL with acetylcholine (ACh) evokes depressor and tachycardiac responses mediated by local PL muscarinic receptors. Early studies demonstrated that stimulation of muscarinic receptors induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and cyclic guanosine cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) formation. Hence, this study investigates which PL muscarinic receptor subtype is involved in the cardiovascular response induced by ACh and tests the hypothesis that cardiovascular responses caused by muscarinic receptor stimulation in the PL are mediated by local NO and cGMP formation. PL pretreatment with J104129 (an M3 receptor antagonist) blocked the depressor and tachycardiac response evoked by injection of ACh into the PL. Pretreatment with either pirenzepine (an M1 receptor antagonist) or AF-DX 116 (an M2 and M4 receptor antagonist) did not affect cardiovascular responses evoked by ACh. Moreover, similarly to the antagonism of PL M3 receptors, pretreatment with N(ω)-propyl-L-arginine (an inhibitor of neuronal NO synthase), carboxy-PTIO(S)-3-carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylglicine (an NO scavenger), or 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolol-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (a guanylate cyclase inhibitor) blocked both the depressor and the tachycardiac response evoked by ACh. The current results demonstrate that cardiovascular responses evoked by microinjection of ACh into the PL are mediated by local activation of the M3 receptor-NO-guanylate cyclase pathway.

  16. Regulation of neuronal growth cone filopodia by nitric oxide depends on soluble guanylyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Van Wagenen, S; Rehder, V

    2001-02-15

    Nitric oxide has been proposed to play an important role in neuronal development. We have previously shown that growth cones from an identified neuron, B5, in the snail Helisoma trivolvis, respond to nitric oxide (NO) donors by increasing the length of their filopodia within minutes of application (Van Wagenen and Rehder, 1999). This effect was mediated through a cGMP-induced increase in [Ca2+]i and resulted in an enlargement of the growth cone's action radius, suggesting that NO could function as a signaling molecule during neuronal pathfinding. We show here that NO functions as a specific rather than a general regulator of growth cone filopodia, because another identified neuron from the same ganglion, B19, failed to respond to NO with an increase in filopodial length. We found that, contrary to B5 neurons, B19 growth cones contained little or no soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) immunoreactivity, presumably preventing their response to NO. This hypothesis was supported by the finding that the sGC activator YC-1 (10 microM) had no effect on B19 filopodia but induced elongation of B5 filopodia. These results indicate that the effects of NO can be quite specific, and raise the interesting possibility that neurons could selectively tune in to NO by differentially expressing the target enzyme sGC in the appropriate cellular location during critical developmental stages. In addition, our NADPH-diaphorase staining and anti-NOS immunohistochemisty suggest that growth cones of B5 neurons, but not of B19 neurons, could be a source of NO, making NO a potential intra- and transcellular messenger.

  17. Heterologous desensitization of adenylate cyclase from pigeon erythrocytes under the action of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, K.M.; Bulargina, T.V.; Severin, E.S.

    1985-09-20

    Preincubation of the plasma membranes from pigeon erythrocytes with the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase leads to desensitization of adenylate cyclase of the erythrocytes. The adenylate cyclase activity, measured in the presence of 10 ..mu..M isoproterenol and 50 ..mu..M GTP-..gamma..-S, is decreased by 40% in 10 min of incubation, while the activity in the presence of 50 ..mu..M GTP-..gamma..-S is decreased by 35% in 20 min. The decrease in the adenylate cyclase activity is due to an increase in the lag phase of activation of the enzyme in the presence of a GTP analog stable to hydrolysis and a decrease in the activity in the steady-state phase of activation. Heterologous desensitization of adenylate cyclase under the action of cAMP-dependent protein kinase is coupled with a decrease in the number of ..beta..-adrenoreceptors capable of passing into a state of high affinity for antagonists in the absence of guanylic nucleotides. The influence of the catalytic subunit on adenylate cyclase entirely models the process of desensitization of the enzyme absorbed in the influence of isoproterenol or cAMP on erythrocytes.

  18. Dysregulation of mRNA profile in cisplatin-resistant gastric cancer cell line SGC7901

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiao-Que; Zhao, Qi-Hong; Wang, Hua; Gu, Kang-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    AIM To explore novel therapeutic target of cisplatin resistance in human gastric cancer. METHODS The sensitivity of SGC7901 cells and cisplatin-resistant SGC7901 cells (SGC7901/DDP) for cisplatin were detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. High-quality total RNA which isolated from SGC7901/DDP cells and SGC7901 cells were used for mRNA microarray analysis. Results were analyzed bioinformatically to predict their roles in the development of cisplatin resistance and the expression of 13 dysregulated mRNAs we selected were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). RESULTS SGC7901/DDP cells highly resistant to cisplatin demonstrated by MTT assay. A total of 1308 mRNAs (578 upregulated and 730 downregulated) were differentially expressed (fold change ≥ 2 and P-value < 0.05) in the SGC7901/DDP cells compared with SGC7901 cells. The expression of mRNAs detected by qRT-PCR were consistent with the microarray results. Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway and protein-protein interaction analysis demonstrated that the differentially expressed mRNAs were enriched in PI3K-Akt, Notch, MAPK, ErbB, Jak-STAT, NF-kappaB signaling pathways which may be involved in cisplatin resistance. Several genes such as PDE3B, VEGFC, IGFBP3, TLR4, HIPK2 and EGF may associated with drug resistance of gastric cancer cells to cisplatin. CONCLUSION Exploration of those altered mRNAs may provide more promising strategy in diagnosis and therapy for gastric cancer with cisplatin resistance. PMID:28275299

  19. Biased activity of soluble guanylyl cyclase: the Janus face of thymoquinone.

    PubMed

    Detremmerie, Charlotte; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Leung, Susan

    2017-07-01

    The natural compound thymoquinone, extracted from Nigella sativa (black cumin), is widely used in humans for its anti-oxidative properties. Thymoquinone is known for its acute endothelium-independent vasodilator effects in isolated rat aortae and pulmonary arteries, depending in part on activation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels and inhibition of voltage-dependent calcium channels. The compound also improves endothelial dysfunction in mesenteric arteries of ageing rodents and in aortae of rabbits treated with pyrogallol, by inhibiting oxidative stress. Serendipitously, thymoquinone was found to augment contractions in isolated arteries with endothelium of both rats and pigs. The endothelium-dependent augmentation it causes counterintuitively depends on biased activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) producing inosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic IMP) rather than guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate. This phenomenon shows a striking mechanistic similarity to the hypoxic augmentation previously observed in porcine coronary arteries. The cyclic IMP preferentially produced under thymoquinone exposure causes an increased contractility of arterial smooth muscle by interfering with calcium homeostasis. This brief review summarizes the vascular pharmacology of thymoquinone, focussing in particular on how the compound causes endothelium-dependent contractions by biasing the activity of sGC.

  20. Accumulation of guanylate binding proteins in patients treated with interferons.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y S; Becker-Manley, M F; Rucker, R G; Borden, E C

    1988-06-01

    We have previously described an interferon (IFN)-induced protein with a molecular weight of 67,000. This protein has an affinity to guanylates and is thus called guanylate binding protein (GBP). The synthesis of GBP is inducible by IFNs in all human diploid fibroblast cell lines that we studied. To determine whether or not the GBP synthesis is IFN-inducible in humans as well as in cultured cells, we have studied the levels of GBP in the peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) of patients treated with either type I or type II IFN. An increased GBP level was found the day immediately after treatment with either type of IFN, and the elevated GBP levels were maintained for at least 8 days. Among the patients studied, we found a higher level GBP accumulation (2.3x) in patients treated with IFN-beta than in those treated with IFN-gamma (1.6x). The increase of GBP in patients receiving IFN-gamma correlated with increases in class II histocompatibility antigens, HLA-DR and HLA-DQ in monocytes. Thus, the levels of GBP in peripheral blood leukocytes may be used as a parameter for the study of IFN responses in patients.

  1. Prolonged illumination up-regulates arrestin and two guanylate cyclase activating proteins: a novel mechanism for light adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Codega, Paolo; Santina, Luca Della; Gargini, Claudia; Bedolla, Diana E; Subkhankulova, Tatiana; Livesey, Frederick J; Cervetto, Luigi; Torre, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Light adaptation in vertebrate photoreceptors is mediated by multiple mechanisms, one of which could involve nuclear feedback and changes in gene expression. Therefore, we have investigated light adaptation-associated changes in gene expression using microarrays and real-time PCR in isolated photoreceptors, in cultured isolated retinas and in acutely isolated retinas. In all three preparations after 2 h of an exposure to a bright light, we observed an up-regulation of almost 100% of three genes, Sag, Guca1a and Guca1b, coding for proteins known to play a major role in phototransduction: arrestin, GCAP1 and GCAP2. No detectable up-regulation occurred for light exposures of less than 1 h. Functional in vivo electroretinographic tests show that a partial recovery of the dark current occurred 1–2 h after prolonged illumination with a steady light that initially caused a substantial suppression of the photoresponse. These observations demonstrate that prolonged illumination results in the up-regulation of genes coding for proteins involved in the phototransduction signalling cascade, possibly underlying a novel component of light adaptation occurring 1–2 h after the onset of a steady bright light. PMID:19332500

  2. Prolonged illumination up-regulates arrestin and two guanylate cyclase activating proteins: a novel mechanism for light adaptation.

    PubMed

    Codega, Paolo; Della Santina, Luca; Gargini, Claudia; Bedolla, Diana E; Subkhankulova, Tatiana; Livesey, Frederick J; Cervetto, Luigi; Torre, Vincent

    2009-06-01

    Light adaptation in vertebrate photoreceptors is mediated by multiple mechanisms, one of which could involve nuclear feedback and changes in gene expression. Therefore, we have investigated light adaptation-associated changes in gene expression using microarrays and real-time PCR in isolated photoreceptors, in cultured isolated retinas and in acutely isolated retinas. In all three preparations after 2 h of an exposure to a bright light, we observed an up-regulation of almost 100% of three genes, Sag, Guca1a and Guca1b, coding for proteins known to play a major role in phototransduction: arrestin, GCAP1 and GCAP2. No detectable up-regulation occurred for light exposures of less than 1 h. Functional in vivo electroretinographic tests show that a partial recovery of the dark current occurred 1-2 h after prolonged illumination with a steady light that initially caused a substantial suppression of the photoresponse. These observations demonstrate that prolonged illumination results in the up-regulation of genes coding for proteins involved in the phototransduction signalling cascade, possibly underlying a novel component of light adaptation occurring 1-2 h after the onset of a steady bright light.

  3. Guanylate Cyclase C Activation Shapes the Intestinal Microbiota in Patients with Familial Diarrhea and Increased Susceptibility for Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Tronstad, Rune R; Kummen, Martin; Holm, Kristian; von Volkmann, Hilde L; Anmarkrud, Jarl A; Høivik, Marte L; Moum, Bjørn; Gilja, Odd H; Hausken, Trygve; Baines, John; Karlsen, Tom H; Fiskerstrand, Torunn; Hov, Johannes R

    2017-10-01

    With 25% prevalence of Crohn's disease, Familial GUCY2C diarrhea syndrome (FGDS) is a monogenic disorder potentially suited to study initiating factors in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We aimed to characterize the impact of an activating GUCY2C mutation on the gut microbiota in patients with FGDS controlling for Crohn's disease status and to determine whether changes share features with those observed in unrelated patients with IBD. Bacterial DNA from fecal samples collected from patients with FGDS (N = 20), healthy relatives (N = 11), unrelated healthy individuals (N = 263), and IBD controls (N = 46) was subjected to sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene to determine gut microbiota composition. Food frequency questionnaires were obtained from patients with FGDS and their relatives. Compared with healthy controls, FGDS displayed prominent changes in many microbial lineages including increase in Enterobacteriaceae, loss of Bifidobacterium and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii but an unchanged intraindividual (alpha) diversity. The depletion of F. prausnitzii is in line with what is typically observed in Crohn's disease. There was no significant difference in the dietary profile between the patients and related controls. The gut microbiota in related and unrelated healthy controls was also similar, suggesting that diet and familial factors do not explain the gut microbiota alterations in FGDS. The findings support that the activating mutation in GUCY2C creates an intestinal environment with a major influence on the microbiota, which could contribute to the increased susceptibility to IBD in patients with FGDS.

  4. Gaseous ligand selectivity of the H-NOX sensor protein from Shewanella oneidensis and comparison to those of other bacterial H-NOXs and soluble guanylyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Liu, Wen; Berka, Vladimir; Tsai, Ah-Lim

    2017-09-01

    To delineate the commonalities and differences in gaseous ligand discrimination among the heme-based sensors with Heme Nitric oxide/OXygen binding protein (H-NOX) scaffold, the binding kinetic parameters for gaseous ligands NO, CO, and O2, including KD, kon, and koff, of Shewanella oneidensis H-NOX (So H-NOX) were characterized in detail in this study and compared to those of previously characterized H-NOXs from Clostridium botulinum (Cb H-NOX), Nostoc sp. (Ns H-NOX), Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis (Tt H-NOX), Vibrio cholera (Vc H-NOX), and human soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), an H-NOX analogue. The KD(NO) and KD(CO) of each bacterial H-NOX or sGC follow the "sliding scale rule"; the affinities of the bacterial H-NOXs for NO and CO vary in a small range but stronger than those of sGC by at least two orders of magnitude. On the other hand, each bacterial H-NOX exhibits different characters in the stability of its 6c NO complex, reactivity with secondary NO, stability of oxyferrous heme and autoxidation to ferric heme. A facile access channel for gaseous ligands is also identified, implying that ligand access has only minimal effect on gaseous ligand selectivity of H-NOXs or sGC. This comparative study of the binding parameters of the bacterial H-NOXs and sGC provides a basis to guide future new structural and functional studies of each specific heme sensor with the H-NOX protein fold. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor component and nitric oxide receptor (sGC) immunoreactivity in rat trigeminal ganglion following glyceroltrinitrate pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nitric oxide (NO) is thought to play an important role in the pathophysiology of migraine. Infusion of the nitrovasodilator glyceroltrinitrate (nitroglycerin, GTN), which mobilizes NO in the organism, is an approved migraine model in humans. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is regarded as another key mediator in migraine. Increased plasma levels of CGRP have been found during spontaneous as well as nitrovasodilator-induced migraine attacks. The nociceptive processes and interactions underlying the NO and CGRP mediated headache are poorly known but can be examined in animal experiments. In the present study we examined changes in immunofluorescence of CGRP receptor components (CLR and RAMP1) and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), the intracellular receptor for NO, in rat trigeminal ganglia after pretreatment with GTN. Methods Isoflurane anaesthetised rats were intravenously infused with GTN (1 mg/kg) or saline for four hours and two hours later the trigeminal ganglia were processed for immunohistochemistry. Different primary antibodies recognizing CLR, RAMP1, CGRP and sGC coupled to fluorescent secondary antibodies were used to examine immunoreactive cells in serial sections of trigeminal ganglia with epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Several staining protocols were examined to yield optimized immunolabeling. Results In vehicle-treated animals, 42% of the trigeminal ganglion neurons were immunopositive for RAMP1 and 41% for CLR. After GTN pretreatment CLR-immunopositivity was unchanged, while there was an increase in RAMP1-immunopositive neurons to 46%. RAMP1 and CLR immunoreactivity was also detected in satellite cells. Neurons immunoreactive for sGC were on average smaller than sGC-immunonegative neurons. The percentage of sGC-immunopositive neurons (51% after vehicle) was decreased after GTN infusion (48%). Conclusions Prolonged infusion of GTN caused increased fractions of RAMP1- and decreased fractions of s

  6. Role of the nitric oxide-soluble guanylyl cyclase pathway in obstructive airway diseases.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Lisa L; Glynos, Constantinos; Bracke, Ken R; Brouckaert, Peter; Brusselle, Guy G

    2014-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseotransmitter, which is involved in many signaling processes in health and disease. Three enzymes generate NO from l-arginine, with citrulline formed as a by-product: neuronal NO synthase (nNOS or NOS1), endothelial NOS (eNOS or NOS3) and inducible NOS (iNOS or NOS2). NO is a ligand of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), an intracellular heterodimer enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to cyclic GMP (cGMP). cGMP further activates protein kinase G that eventually reduces the smooth muscle tone in bronchi or vessels. Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) degrades cGMP to GMP. However, NO reacts with superoxide anion (O2(-)), leading to formation of the pro-inflammatory molecule peroxynitrite. Under physiological conditions, NO plays a homeostatic bronchoprotective role in healthy subjects. In obstructive airway diseases, NO can be beneficial by its bronchodilating effect, but could also be detrimental by the formation of peroxynitrite. Since asthma and COPD are associated with increased levels of exhaled NO, chronic inflammation and increased airway smooth muscle tone, the NO/sGC/cGMP pathway could be involved in these highly prevalent obstructive airway diseases. Here we review the involvement of NO, NO synthases, guanylyl cyclases, cGMP and phophodiesterase-5 in asthma and COPD and potential therapeutic approaches to modulate this pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [The isolation and assessment of Golgi apparatus from gastric cancer cells SGC7901].

    PubMed

    He, Tingting; Yi, Yongfen; Li, Yanqing; Xiao, Zhong

    2010-10-01

    The Golgi complex is the central organelle of the secretory pathway and has many complicate functions. The endeavours to isolate and purify the Golgi apparatus from cultured cells will benefit further investigation of Golgi. A large number of gastric cancer cells SGC7901 were cultivated in vitro, then Golgi apparatus were isolated from the cells by differential centrifugation combined with sucrose density gradient ultra-centrifugation. Its purity was characterized biochemically by enzymatic assays, morphologically by electron microscopy (EM) and neutral red supravital staining. Finally the Golgi complex was successfully fractionated from gastric cancer cells SGC7901. The first successful isolation of Golgi apparatus from gastric cancer cells SGC7901 by using ultra-centrifugation will lead to research into the function of Golgi apparatus.

  8. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on gastric cancer cell line SGC7901

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yinliang; Ruan, Jianfeng; Wang, Mei; Dai, Yuanchang; Zhou, Qing; Gui, Shuyu; Zhang, Sumei; Wang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) has been previously identified as an effective adjunct treatment option for the management of brain injury, diabetic ulcers and chronic wounds. However, the roles of HBO as an adjunctive therapy for tumors remain controversial. The present research project was performed to explore the effects of HBO treatment on proliferation, autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress response of the gastric cancer cell line, SGC7901. The present study demonstrated that, after subjecting SGC7901 cells to HBO treatment, the increase in cell proliferation was significant, compared with that of the control group. In addition, there was a significant increase in LC3-phosphatidylethanolamine conjugate (LC3-II) level, as well as binding immunoglobulin protein level, and a significant decrease in CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein level. These suggested that hyperbaric oxygen treatment alone may promote proliferation and cell survival of gastric cancer cell SGC7901, and inhibit apoptosis through regulating cell autophagy and oxidative stress. PMID:28413648

  9. SGC Tests for Influence of Material Composition on Compaction Characteristic of Asphalt Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qun

    2013-01-01

    Compaction characteristic of the surface layer asphalt mixture (13-type gradation mixture) was studied using Superpave gyratory compactor (SGC) simulative compaction tests. Based on analysis of densification curve of gyratory compaction, influence rules of the contents of mineral aggregates of all sizes and asphalt on compaction characteristic of asphalt mixtures were obtained. SGC Tests show that, for the mixture with a bigger content of asphalt, its density increases faster, that there is an optimal amount of fine aggregates for optimal compaction and that an appropriate amount of mineral powder will improve workability of mixtures, but overmuch mineral powder will make mixtures dry and hard. Conclusions based on SGC tests can provide basis for how to adjust material composition for improving compaction performance of asphalt mixtures, and for the designed asphalt mixture, its compaction performance can be predicted through these conclusions, which also contributes to the choice of compaction schemes. PMID:23818830

  10. SGC tests for influence of material composition on compaction characteristic of asphalt mixtures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qun; Li, Yuzhi

    2013-01-01

    Compaction characteristic of the surface layer asphalt mixture (13-type gradation mixture) was studied using Superpave gyratory compactor (SGC) simulative compaction tests. Based on analysis of densification curve of gyratory compaction, influence rules of the contents of mineral aggregates of all sizes and asphalt on compaction characteristic of asphalt mixtures were obtained. SGC Tests show that, for the mixture with a bigger content of asphalt, its density increases faster, that there is an optimal amount of fine aggregates for optimal compaction and that an appropriate amount of mineral powder will improve workability of mixtures, but overmuch mineral powder will make mixtures dry and hard. Conclusions based on SGC tests can provide basis for how to adjust material composition for improving compaction performance of asphalt mixtures, and for the designed asphalt mixture, its compaction performance can be predicted through these conclusions, which also contributes to the choice of compaction schemes.

  11. Prolonged therapy with the soluble guanylyl cyclase activator BAY 60-2770 restores the erectile function in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fábio H; Leiria, Luiz O; Alexandre, Eduardo C; Davel, Ana Paula C; Mónica, Fabíola Z; De Nucci, Gilberto; Antunes, Edson

    2014-11-01

    Cardiovascular and endocrine-metabolic diseases associated with increased oxidative stress such as obesity lead to erectile dysfunction (ED). Activators of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) such as BAY 60-2770 reactivate the heme-oxidized sGC in vascular diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of 2-week oral intake with BAY 60-2270 on a murine model of obesity-associated ED. C57BL/6 male mice were fed for 12 weeks with standard chow or high-fat diet. Lean and obese mice were treated with BAY 60-2770 (1 mg/kg/day, 2 weeks). Measurements of intracavernosal pressure (ICP), along with acetylcholine (10(-9) to 10(-5)  M) and electrical field stimulation (EFS; 4-10 Hz)-induced corpus cavernosum relaxations in vitro, were obtained. Levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and sGC protein expressions in cavernosal tissues were measured. Cavernous nerve stimulation caused frequency-dependent ICP increases, which were significantly lower in obese compared with lean mice (P < 0.05). Two-week therapy with BAY 60-2770 fully reversed the decreased ICP in obese group. Acetylcholine-induced cavernosal relaxations were 45% lower (P < 0.001) in obese mice, which were fully restored by BAY 60-2770 treatment. Likewise, the EFS-induced relaxations in obese mice were restored by BAY 60-2770. Basal cGMP content in erectile tissue was 68% lower (P < 0.05) in obese mice, an effect normalized by BAY 60-2770. Levels of ROS were 52% higher (P < 0.05) whereas protein expression of α1 sGC subunit was reduced in cavernosal tissue of obese mice, both of which were normalized by BAY 60-2770. In lean group, BAY 60-2770 did not significantly affect any functional, biochemical, or molecular parameter analyzed. Two-week therapy with BAY 60-2770 restores the erectile function in obese mice that is associated with reduced ROS levels, up-regulation of α1 sGC subunit, and increased cGMP levels in the erectile tissue. © 2014

  12. Vasorelaxing effects of the soluble guanylyl cyclase activator BAY 60-2770 in nitrate-tolerant monkey and canine coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Tawa, Masashi; Shimosato, Takashi; Iwasaki, Hirotaka; Imamura, Takeshi; Okamura, Tomio

    2015-03-01

    Nitrate tolerance is an important problem in the treatment of ischemic heart diseases. The present study investigated whether or not a soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) activator can be used as a coronary vasodilator under nitrate-tolerant conditions. Helically cut strips of endothelium-denuded monkey and canine coronary arteries were suspended in organ chambers for isometric tension recording. Nitrate tolerance was induced by a 1-h treatment with nitroglycerin (0.1 mM) followed by 1-h washout of the agent. Control strips were not exposed previously to nitroglycerin, but otherwise were treated identically. The relaxant response to nitroglycerin was dramatically impaired by previous exposure to the drug for 1 h in either monkey or canine coronary arteries, indicating the development of nitrate tolerance. In contrast, development of nitrate tolerance did not affect the relaxant potency and efficacy of the sGC activator BAY 60-2770 in either the monkey or canine coronary arteries. These findings suggest that it may be possible to use sGC activators as substitute drugs for nitroglycerin if tolerance is developed during the treatment of ischemic heart diseases.

  13. Lack of 5-hydroxytryptamine1A-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase in dorsal raphe of male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Clarke, W P; Yocca, F D; Maayani, S

    1996-06-01

    In the rat hippocampus, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A receptors couple to two independent effector mechanisms, the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity and the opening of a K+ channel. In the dorsal raphe, 5-HT1A receptors also open K+ channels; however, coupling to adenylyl cyclase has not been demonstrated. In this study, the selective 5-HT1A agonists (+/-)- 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin, (R+)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin and dipropyl-5-carboxamidotryptamine, did not inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase (FSAC) activity in raphe region homogenates, although these drugs were efficacious in hippocampal homogenates. Other 5-HT1A agonists, NAN-190, BMY-7378, buspirone and gepirone, were also ineffective in raphe region homogenates. Estrogen-treatment of ovariectomized female rats, which is known to enhance 5-HT1A-mediated inhibition of FSAC in the hippocampus, did not promote the action of 5-HT1A agonists. Nor did activation of 5-HT1A receptors stimulate basal adenylyl cyclase activity in raphe homogenates as it does in the hippocampus. FSAC activity was inhibited in raphe region homogenates by activation of adenosine A1 or gamma-aminobutyric acidB receptors or by direct activation of the inhibitor G-protein, Gi, with guanyl-5'-6'-imidodiphosphate, indicating that the raphe homogenates have the biochemical machinery for inhibition of FSAC. High affinity binding studies showed that, in raphe homogenates, 5-HT1A receptors were expressed at a density comparable to that of adenosine A1 receptors and that they were coupled to G-proteins. It should be noted that our failure to observe 5-HT1A-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase in the raphe does not prove that such coupling does not exist. However, a lack of 5-HT1A receptor coupling to adenylyl cyclase in the raphe would support contentions that coupling of the 5-HT1A receptor to adenylyl cyclase may be independent of its coupling to the K+ channel and that there may be distinct differences

  14. Calmodulin independence of human duodenal adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J A; Griffin, M; Mireylees, S E; Long, R G

    1991-01-01

    The calmodulin and calcium dependence of human adenylate cyclase from the second part of the duodenum was assessed in washed particulate preparations of biopsy specimens by investigating (a) the concentration dependent effects of free [Ca2+] on enzyme activity, (b) the effects of exogenous calmodulin on enzyme activity in ethylene glycol bis (b-aminoethyl ether)N,N'-tetra-acetic acid (EGTA) washed particulate preparations, and (c) the effects of calmodulin antagonists on enzyme activity. Both basal (IC50 = 193.75 (57.5) nmol/l (mean (SEM)) and NaF stimulated (IC50 = 188.0 (44.0) nmol/l) adenylate cyclase activity was strongly inhibited by free [Ca2+] greater than 90 nmol/l. Free [Ca2+] less than 90 nmol/l had no effect on adenylate cyclase activity. NaF stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was inhibited by 50% at 2.5 mmol/l EGTA. This inhibition could not be reversed by free Ca2+. The addition of exogenous calmodulin to EGTA (5 mmol/l) washed particulate preparations failed to stimulate adenylate cyclase activity. Trifluoperazine and N-(8-aminohexyl)-5-IODO-1-naphthalene-sulphonamide (IODO 8) did not significantly inhibit basal and NaF stimulated adenylate cyclase activity when measured at concentrations of up to 100 mumol/l. These results suggest that human duodenal adenylate cyclase activity is calmodulin independent but is affected by changes in free [Ca2+]. PMID:1752461

  15. Covalent labeling of a high-affinity, guanyl nucleotide sensitive parathyroid hormone receptor in canine renal cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Nissenson, R.A.; Karpf, D.; Bambino, T.; Winer, J.; Canga, M.; Nyiredy, K.; Arnaud, C.D.

    1987-04-07

    Putative parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptors in canine renal membranes were affinity labeled with /sup 125/I-bPTH(1-34) using the heterobifunctional cross-linking reagent N-hydroxysuccinimidyl 4-azido-benzoate. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of a major 85,000 molecular weight (M/sub r/) PTH binding component, the labeling of which was inhibited by nanomolar concentrations of unlabeled PTH and by micromolar concentrations of 5'-guanylyl imidodiphosphate (Gpp-(NH)p). Labeling was not influenced by the unrelated peptides insulin and arginine vasopressin. Minor PTH binding components of M/sub r/ 55,000 and 130,000 were also seen, and labeling of these was likewise sensitive to unlabeled PTH and to Gpp(NH)p. Omission of protease inhibitors during the isolation of plasma membranes resulted in the loss of the M/sub r/ 85,000 PTH binding species and the appearance of an M/sub r/ 70,000 form. Several minor PTH binding components also were observed. Equilibrium binding studies showed that such membranes had an affinity for PTH indistinguishable from that in membranes isolated with protease inhibitors and displaying a major M/sub r/ 85,000 PTH binding species. The authors conclude that the major form of the adenylate cyclase coupled PTH receptor in canine renal membranes is an M/sub r/ 85,000 protein. An endogenous enzyme, probably a lysosomal cathepsin, can cleave this form to produce an M/sub r/ 70,000 receptor that retains full functional activity with respect to high-affinity, guanyl nucleotide sensitive PTH binding. The ability to covalently label the PTH receptor in high yield represents a major step toward the structural characterization of this important detector molecule.

  16. Nitric oxide sets off an antioxidant response in adrenal cells: involvement of sGC and Nrf2 in HO-1 induction.

    PubMed

    Astort, F; Mercau, M; Giordanino, E; Degese, M S; Caldareri, L; Coso, O; Cymeryng, C B

    2014-02-15

    Induction of microsomal heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) activity is considered a cytoprotective mechanism in different cell types. In adrenal cells, HO-1 induction by ACTH exerts a modulatory effect on steroid production as well. As nitric oxide (NO) has been also regarded as an autocrine/paracrine modulator of adrenal steroidogenesis we sought to study the effects of NO on the induction of HO-1 and the mechanism involved. We hereby analyzed the time and dose-dependent effect of a NO-donor (DETA/NO) on HO-1 induction in a murine adrenocortical cell line. We showed that this effect is mainly exerted at a transcriptional level as it is inhibited by actinomycin D and HO-1 mRNA degradation rates were not affected by DETA/NO treatment. HO-1 induction by NO does not appear to involve the generation of oxidative stress as it was not affected by antioxidant treatment. We also demonstrated that NO-treatment results in the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), an effect that is attenuated by transfecting the cells with a dominant negative isoform of Nrf2. We finally show that the effects of the NO-donor are reproduced by a permeable analog of cGMP and that a soluble guanylate cyclase specific inhibitor blocked both the induction of HO-1 by NO and the nuclear translocation of Nrf2.

  17. Pathophysiological role of guanylate-binding proteins in gastrointestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Britzen-Laurent, Nathalie; Herrmann, Christian; Naschberger, Elisabeth; Croner, Roland S; Stürzl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) are interferon-stimulated factors involved in the defense against cellular pathogens and inflammation. These proteins, particularly GBP-1, the most prominent member of the family, have been established as reliable markers of interferon-γ-activated cells in various diseases, including colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). In CRC, GBP-1 expression is associated with a Th1-dominated angiostatic micromilieu and is correlated with a better outcome. Inhibition of tumor growth by GBP-1 is the result of its strong anti-angiogenic activity as well as its direct anti-tumorigenic effect on tumor cells. In IBD, GBP-1 mediates the anti-proliferative effects of interferon-γ on intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, it plays a protective role on the mucosa by preventing cell apoptosis, by inhibiting angiogenesis and by regulating the T-cell receptor signaling. These functions rely to a large extent on the ability of GBP-1 to interact with and remodel the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:27605879

  18. Interferon induction of fibroblast proteins with guanylate binding activity.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y S; Colonno, R J; Yin, F H

    1983-06-25

    Treatment of human diploid fibroblastic cells with interferon induces the synthesis of two guanylate binding proteins (GBP) with molecular weights of 67,000 and 56,000. The Mr = 67,000 protein (67K GBP) is synthesized upon treatment with either alpha-, beta-, or gamma-interferon. Among these interferons, gamma-interferon induces a higher level of 67K GBP synthesis. The 67K GBP synthesized in either beta- or gamma-interferon-treated cells has two charge forms with isoelectric points of 6.0 and 5.8, respectively. The synthesis of the Mr = 56,000 protein is induced by the treatment using either alpha- or beta-interferon, but its synthesis in gamma-interferon-treated cells is undetectable. The amounts of the radioactive GBPs synthesized in human fibroblasts are proportional to the amounts of the purified beta-interferon used for the inductions. Syntheses of GBPs require the transcription of cellular genes because their syntheses are completely blocked by actinomycin D treatments. The mRNA for the 67K GBP is found in fibroblasts that are treated by either alpha-, beta-, or gamma-interferon, but it is not detected in untreated cells. More 67K GBP mRNA is accumulated in the gamma-interferon-treated than in alpha- or beta-interferon-treated fibroblasts. This is consistent with more 67K GBP synthesis found in gamma-interferon-treated fibroblasts.

  19. Pathophysiological role of guanylate-binding proteins in gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Britzen-Laurent, Nathalie; Herrmann, Christian; Naschberger, Elisabeth; Croner, Roland S; Stürzl, Michael

    2016-07-28

    Guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) are interferon-stimulated factors involved in the defense against cellular pathogens and inflammation. These proteins, particularly GBP-1, the most prominent member of the family, have been established as reliable markers of interferon-γ-activated cells in various diseases, including colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). In CRC, GBP-1 expression is associated with a Th1-dominated angiostatic micromilieu and is correlated with a better outcome. Inhibition of tumor growth by GBP-1 is the result of its strong anti-angiogenic activity as well as its direct anti-tumorigenic effect on tumor cells. In IBD, GBP-1 mediates the anti-proliferative effects of interferon-γ on intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, it plays a protective role on the mucosa by preventing cell apoptosis, by inhibiting angiogenesis and by regulating the T-cell receptor signaling. These functions rely to a large extent on the ability of GBP-1 to interact with and remodel the actin cytoskeleton.

  20. Notch activation augments nitric oxide/soluble guanylyl cyclase signaling in immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cells and ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    El-Sehemy, Ahmed; Chang, Alex C; Azad, Abul Kalam; Gupta, Nidhi; Xu, Zhihua; Steed, Helen; Karsan, Aly; Fu, YangXin

    2013-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is generated by tumor, stromal and endothelial cells and plays a multifaceted role in tumor biology. Many physiological functions of NO are mediated by soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and NO/sGC signaling has been shown to promote proliferation and survival of ovarian cancer cells. However, how NO/sGC signaling is modulated in ovarian cancer cells has not been studied. The evolutionarily conserved Notch signaling pathway plays an oncogenic role in ovarian cancer. Here, we report that all three ovarian cancer cell lines we examined express a higher level of GUCY1B3 (the β subunit of sGC) compared to non-cancerous immortalized ovarian surface epithelial (IOSE) cell lines. Interestingly, the highest expression of GUCY1B3 in ovarian cancer OVCAR3 cells is concurrent with the expression of Notch3. In IOSE cells, forced activation of Notch3 increases the expression of GUCY1B3, NO-induced cGMP production, and the expression of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), thereby enhancing NO- and cGMP-induced phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP, a direct PKG substrate protein). In contrast, inhibition of Notch by DAPT reduces GUCY1B3 expression and NO-induced cGMP production and VASP phosphorylation in OVCAR3 cells. Finally, we confirmed that inhibition of sGC by ODQ decreases growth of ovarian cancer cells. Together, our work demonstrates that Notch is a positive regulator of NO/sGC signaling in IOSE and ovarian cancer cells, providing the first evidence that Notch and NO signaling pathways interact in IOSE and ovarian cancer cells. © 2013.

  1. Direct chemiluminescence detection of nitric oxide in aqueous solutions using the natural nitric oxide target soluble guanylyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Woldman, Yakov Y; Sun, Jian; Zweier, Jay L; Khramtsov, Valery V

    2009-11-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical involved in many physiological processes including regulation of blood pressure, immune response, and neurotransmission. However, the measurement of extremely low, in some cases subnanomolar, physiological concentrations of nitric oxide presents an analytical challenge. The purpose of this methods article is to introduce a new highly sensitive chemiluminescence approach to direct NO detection in aqueous solutions using a natural nitric oxide target, soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), which catalyzes the conversion of guanosine triphosphate to guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and inorganic pyrophosphate. The suggested enzymatic assay uses the fact that the rate of the reaction increases by about 200 times when NO binds with sGC and, in so doing, provides a sensor for nitric oxide. Luminescence detection of the above reaction is accomplished by converting inorganic pyrophosphate into ATP with the help of ATP sulfurylase followed by light emission from the ATP-dependent luciferin-luciferase reaction. Detailed protocols for NO quantification in aqueous samples are provided. The examples of applications include measurement of NO generated by a nitric oxide donor (PAPA-NONOate), nitric oxide synthase, and NO gas dissolved in buffer. The method allows for the measurement of NO concentrations in the nanomolar range and NO generation rates as low as 100 pM/min.

  2. Nitric Oxide-Sensitive Guanylyl Cyclase Is Differentially Regulated by Nuclear and Non-Nuclear Estrogen Pathways in Anterior Pituitary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Cabilla, Jimena P.; Nudler, Silvana I.; Ronchetti, Sonia A.; Quinteros, Fernanda A.; Lasaga, Mercedes; Duvilanski, Beatriz H.

    2011-01-01

    17β-estradiol (E2) regulates hormonal release as well as proliferation and cell death in the pituitary. The main nitric oxide receptor, nitric oxide sensitive- or soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), is a heterodimer composed of two subunits, α and β, that catalyses cGMP formation. α1β1 is the most abundant and widely expressed heterodimer, showing the greater activity. Previously we have shown that E2 decreased sGC activity but exerts opposite effects on sGC subunits increasing α1 and decreasing β1 mRNA and protein levels. In the present work we investigate the mechanisms by which E2 differentially regulates sGC subunits' expression on rat anterior pituitary gland. Experiments were performed on primary cultures of anterior pituitary cells from adult female Wistar rats at random stages of estrous cycle. After 6 h of E2 treatment, α1 mRNA and protein expression is increased while β1 levels are down-regulated. E2 effects on sGC expression are partially dependent on de novo transcription while de novo translation is fully required. E2 treatment decreased HuR mRNA stabilization factor and increased AUF1 p37 mRNA destabilization factor. E2-elicited β1 mRNA decrease correlates with a mRNA destabilization environment in the anterior pituitary gland. On the other hand, after 6 h of treatment, E2-BSA (1 nM) and E2-dendrimer conjugate (EDC, 1 nM) were unable to modify α1 or β1 mRNA levels, showing that nuclear receptor is involved in E2 actions. However, at earlier times (3 h), 1 nM EDC causes a transient decrease of α1 in a PI3k-dependent fashion. Our results show for the first time that E2 is able to exert opposite actions in the anterior pituitary gland, depending on the activation of classical or non-classical pathways. Thus, E2 can also modify sGC expression through membrane-initiated signals bringing to light a new point of regulation in NO/sGC pathway. PMID:22216273

  3. Nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase is differentially regulated by nuclear and non-nuclear estrogen pathways in anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Cabilla, Jimena P; Nudler, Silvana I; Ronchetti, Sonia A; Quinteros, Fernanda A; Lasaga, Mercedes; Duvilanski, Beatriz H

    2011-01-01

    17β-estradiol (E2) regulates hormonal release as well as proliferation and cell death in the pituitary. The main nitric oxide receptor, nitric oxide sensitive- or soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), is a heterodimer composed of two subunits, α and β, that catalyses cGMP formation. α1β1 is the most abundant and widely expressed heterodimer, showing the greater activity. Previously we have shown that E2 decreased sGC activity but exerts opposite effects on sGC subunits increasing α1 and decreasing β1 mRNA and protein levels. In the present work we investigate the mechanisms by which E2 differentially regulates sGC subunits' expression on rat anterior pituitary gland. Experiments were performed on primary cultures of anterior pituitary cells from adult female Wistar rats at random stages of estrous cycle. After 6 h of E2 treatment, α1 mRNA and protein expression is increased while β1 levels are down-regulated. E2 effects on sGC expression are partially dependent on de novo transcription while de novo translation is fully required. E2 treatment decreased HuR mRNA stabilization factor and increased AUF1 p37 mRNA destabilization factor. E2-elicited β1 mRNA decrease correlates with a mRNA destabilization environment in the anterior pituitary gland. On the other hand, after 6 h of treatment, E2-BSA (1 nM) and E2-dendrimer conjugate (EDC, 1 nM) were unable to modify α1 or β1 mRNA levels, showing that nuclear receptor is involved in E2 actions. However, at earlier times (3 h), 1 nM EDC causes a transient decrease of α1 in a PI3k-dependent fashion. Our results show for the first time that E2 is able to exert opposite actions in the anterior pituitary gland, depending on the activation of classical or non-classical pathways. Thus, E2 can also modify sGC expression through membrane-initiated signals bringing to light a new point of regulation in NO/sGC pathway.

  4. Cytokine-induced S-nitrosylation of soluble guanylyl cyclase and expression of phosphodiesterase 1A contribute to dysfunction of longitudinal smooth muscle relaxation.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Senthilkumar; Nalli, Ancy D; Kumar, Divya P; Bhattacharya, Sayak; Hu, Wenhui; Mahavadi, Sunila; Grider, John R; Murthy, Karnam S

    2015-03-01

    The effect of proinflammatory cytokines on the expression and activity of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and cGMP-phosphodiesterases (PDEs) was determined in intestinal longitudinal smooth muscle. In control muscle cells, cGMP levels are regulated via activation of sGC and PDE5; the activity of the latter is regulated via feedback phosphorylation by cGMP-dependent protein kinase. In muscle cells isolated from muscle strips cultured with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) or obtained from the colon of TNBS (2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid)-treated mice, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was induced and sGC was S-nitrosylated, resulting in attenuation of nitric oxide (NO)-induced sGC activity and cGMP formation. The effect of cytokines on sGC S-nitrosylation and activity was blocked by the iNOS inhibitor 1400W [N-([3-(aminomethyl)phenyl]methyl)ethanimidamide dihydrochloride]. The effect of cytokines on cGMP levels measured in the absence of IBMX (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine), however, was partly reversed by 1400W or PDE1 inhibitor vinpocetine and completely reversed by a combination of 1400W and vinpocetine. Expression of PDE1A was induced and was accompanied by an increase in PDE1A activity in muscle cells isolated from muscle strips cultured with IL-1β or TNF-α or obtained from the colon of TNBS-treated mice; the effect of cytokines on PDE1 expression and activity was blocked by MG132 (benzyl N-[(2S)-4-methyl-1-[[(2S)-4-methyl-1-[[(2S)-4-methyl-1-oxopentan-2-yl]amino]-1-oxopentan-2-yl]amino]-1-oxopentan-2-yl]carbamate), an inhibitor of nuclear factor κB activity. NO-induced muscle relaxation was inhibited in longitudinal muscle cells isolated from muscle strips cultured with IL-1β or TNF-α or obtained from the colon of TNBS-treated mice, and this inhibition was completely reversed by the combination of both 1400W and vinpocetine. Inhibition of smooth muscle relaxation during inflammation reflects the combined

  5. The effect of EGB on proliferation of gastric carcinoma SGC7901 cells.

    PubMed

    Qian, Y; Xia, L; Shi, W; Sun, J J; Sun, Y Q

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGB) on the proliferation and cell cycles of gastric carcinoma SGC7901 cells, and make a preliminary exploration on possible molecular mechanisms associated with its inhibitory effect. Human gastric carcinoma SGC7901 cells were cultured in vitro, and treated with various concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400 mg/L) of EGB for different incubation periods (24, 48 and 72 h). CCK-8 assay was used to detect cell proliferation and flow cytometry was performed to analyze the effect of EGB on cell cycles. In addition, mRNA and protein level of two cell cycle regulators cyclin D1 and c-myc in SGC7901 cells treated with EGB were determined using PCR and Western blot. And subcutaneous xenograft model of gastric carcinoma in nude mice was established to evaluate the anti-cancer effect of EGB in vivo. The proliferation of gastric carcinoma SGC7901 cells was inhibited by EGB in dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry showed cell cycle arrest in EGB-treated cells, with increased percentage of cells in G1 phase and decreased percentage in S stage. In addition, the mRNA and protein level of cyclin D1 and c-myc genes were significantly down-regulated in cells with EGB treatment with the concentration increasing. EGB conferred an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of gastric carcinoma SGC7901 cells both in vitro and in vivo. The inhibitory effect was dose dependent and possibly depended on inhibiting cell cycle through G1 arrest induction by suppressing cyclin D1 and c-myc expression.

  6. R-Phycoerythrin Induces SGC-7901 Apoptosis by Arresting Cell Cycle at S Phase.

    PubMed

    Tan, Huixin; Gao, Shiyong; Zhuang, Yan; Dong, Yanhong; Guan, Wenhui; Zhang, Kun; Xu, Jian; Cui, Jingru

    2016-09-12

    R-Phycoerythrin (R-PE), one of the chemical constituents of red algae, could produce singlet oxygen upon excitation with the appropriate radiation and possibly be used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer. Documents reported that R-PE could inhibit cell proliferation in HepG2 and A549 cells, which was significative for cancer therapy. This is due to the fact that R-PE could kill cancer cells directly as well as by PDT. However, little is known about the cytotoxicity of R-PE to the SGC-7901 cell. In this study, it has been found that R-PE could inhibit SGC-7901 proliferation and induce cell apoptosis, which was achieved by arresting the SGC-7901 cell at S phase. CyclinA, CDK2 and CDC25A are proteins associated with the S phase, and it was found that R-PE could increase the expression of cyclin A protein and decrease the expression of CDK2 and CDC25A proteins. Thus, it was concluded that R-PE reduced the CDK2 protein activated through decreasing the CDC25A factor, which reduced the formation of Cyclin-CDK complex. The reduction of Cyclin-CDK complex made the SGC-7901 cells arrest at the S phase. Therefore, R-PE induced apoptosis by arresting the SGC-7901 cell at S phase was successful, which was achieved by the expression of the CDC25A protein, which reduced the CDK2 protein actived and the formation of Cyclin-CDK complex.

  7. Autophagy is involved in anticancer effects of matrine on SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junqiang; Li, Yumin; Chen, Xiaohui; Liu, Tao; Chen, Yingtai; He, Wenting; Zhang, Quanbao; Liu, Shiyuan

    2011-07-01

    Matrine has a wide range of pharmacological effects including antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Autophagy is closely associated with tumors and plays an important role in human tumor suppression, so inducing autophagy is a potential therapeutic strategy in adjuvant chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not autophagy is involved in antitumor effects of matrine on human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells, and to further elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assay was used to examine matrine's cytotoxicity against SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells. The effects of matrine on the cell cycle and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry, and cellular morphology was observed under an inverted phase contrast microscope and transmission electron microscope. Monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining was used to detect autophagy. The expression levels of Bax and Beclin 1 in SGC-7901 cells were monitored by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that matrine significantly inhibited the proliferation of SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells and induced G1-phase cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, both autophagy and apoptosis were activated during the matrine-induced death of SGC-7901 cells. Beclin 1 is involved in matrine-induced autophagy and the pro-apoptotic mechanisms of matrine may be associated with its up-regulation of Bax expression. These findings indicate that matrine is a potent antitumor agent for treating gastric cancer. The ability of matrine to induce autophagy underlines its potential utility as a new gastric cancer treatment modality.

  8. R-Phycoerythrin Induces SGC-7901 Apoptosis by Arresting Cell Cycle at S Phase

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Huixin; Gao, Shiyong; Zhuang, Yan; Dong, Yanhong; Guan, Wenhui; Zhang, Kun; Xu, Jian; Cui, Jingru

    2016-01-01

    R-Phycoerythrin (R-PE), one of the chemical constituents of red algae, could produce singlet oxygen upon excitation with the appropriate radiation and possibly be used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer. Documents reported that R-PE could inhibit cell proliferation in HepG2 and A549 cells, which was significative for cancer therapy. This is due to the fact that R-PE could kill cancer cells directly as well as by PDT. However, little is known about the cytotoxicity of R-PE to the SGC-7901 cell. In this study, it has been found that R-PE could inhibit SGC-7901 proliferation and induce cell apoptosis, which was achieved by arresting the SGC-7901 cell at S phase. CyclinA, CDK2 and CDC25A are proteins associated with the S phase, and it was found that R-PE could increase the expression of cyclin A protein and decrease the expression of CDK2 and CDC25A proteins. Thus, it was concluded that R-PE reduced the CDK2 protein activated through decreasing the CDC25A factor, which reduced the formation of Cyclin-CDK complex. The reduction of Cyclin-CDK complex made the SGC-7901 cells arrest at the S phase. Therefore, R-PE induced apoptosis by arresting the SGC-7901 cell at S phase was successful, which was achieved by the expression of the CDC25A protein, which reduced the CDK2 protein actived and the formation of Cyclin-CDK complex. PMID:27626431

  9. Balance between S-nitrosylation and denitrosylation modulates myoblast proliferation independently of soluble guanylyl cyclase activation.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Aline M S; Ancillotti, Maryana T C; Rangel, Luciana P; Fontenele, Marcio; Figueiredo-Freitas, Cicero; Possidonio, Ana C; Soares, Carolina P; Sorenson, Martha M; Mermelstein, Claudia; Nogueira, Leonardo

    2017-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to myogenesis by regulating the transition between myoblast proliferation and fusion through cGMP signaling. NO can form S-nitrosothiols (RSNO), which control signaling pathways in many different cell types. However, neither the role of RSNO content nor its regulation by the denitrosylase activity of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) during myogenesis is understood. Here, we used primary cultures of chick embryonic skeletal muscle cells to investigate whether changes in intracellular RSNO alter proliferation and fusion of myoblasts in the presence and absence of cGMP. Cultures were grown to fuse most of the myoblasts into myotubes, with and without S-nitrosocysteine (CysNO), 8-Br-cGMP, DETA-NO, or inhibitors for NO synthase (NOS), GSNOR, soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), or a combination of these, followed by analysis of GSNOR activity, protein expression, RSNO, cGMP, and cell morphology. Although the activity of GSNOR increased progressively over 72 h, inhibiting GSNOR (by GSNOR inhibitor - GSNORi - or by knocking down GSNOR with siRNA) produced an increase in RSNO and in the number of myoblasts and fibroblasts, accompanied by a decrease in myoblast fusion index. This was also detected with CysNO supplementation. Enhanced myoblast number was proportional to GSNOR inhibition. Effects of the GSNORi and GSNOR knockdown were blunted by NOS inhibition, suggesting their dependence on NO synthesis. Interestingly, GSNORi and GSNOR knockdown reversed the attenuated proliferation obtained with sGC inhibition in myoblasts, but not in fibroblasts. Hence myoblast proliferation is enhanced by increasing RSNO, and regulated by GSNOR activity, independently of cGMP production and signaling. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Mechanistic investigations on six bacterial terpene cyclases

    PubMed Central

    Rabe, Patrick; Schmitz, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Summary The products obtained by incubation of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) with six purified bacterial terpene cyclases were characterised by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic methods, allowing for a full structure elucidation. The absolute configurations of four terpenes were determined based on their optical rotary powers. Incubation experiments with 13C-labelled isotopomers of FPP in buffers containing water or deuterium oxide allowed for detailed insights into the cyclisation mechanisms of the bacterial terpene cyclases. PMID:27829890

  11. Structural and Chemical Biology of Terpenoid Cyclases

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The year 2017 marks the twentieth anniversary of terpenoid cyclase structural biology: a trio of terpenoid cyclase structures reported together in 1997 were the first to set the foundation for understanding the enzymes largely responsible for the exquisite chemodiversity of more than 80000 terpenoid natural products. Terpenoid cyclases catalyze the most complex chemical reactions in biology, in that more than half of the substrate carbon atoms undergo changes in bonding and hybridization during a single enzyme-catalyzed cyclization reaction. The past two decades have witnessed structural, functional, and computational studies illuminating the modes of substrate activation that initiate the cyclization cascade, the management and manipulation of high-energy carbocation intermediates that propagate the cyclization cascade, and the chemical strategies that terminate the cyclization cascade. The role of the terpenoid cyclase as a template for catalysis is paramount to its function, and protein engineering can be used to reprogram the cyclization cascade to generate alternative and commercially important products. Here, I review key advances in terpenoid cyclase structural and chemical biology, focusing mainly on terpenoid cyclases and related prenyltransferases for which X-ray crystal structures have informed and advanced our understanding of enzyme structure and function. PMID:28841019

  12. Betulin induces reactive oxygen species-dependent apoptosis in human gastric cancer SGC7901 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Liu, Xiaokang; Jiang, Dan; Lin, Yingjia; Wang, Yushi; Li, Qing; Liu, Linlin; Jin, Ying-Hua

    2016-09-01

    Betulin, an abundant natural compound, significantly inhibited the cell viability of advanced human gastric cancer SGC7901 cells. Mechanism study demonstrated that betulin induced apoptosis through mitochondrial Bax and Bak accumulation-mediated intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Downregulation of the anti-apoptosis proteins Bcl-2 and XIAP was involved during betulin-induced cell apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was generated in cells after betulin treatment in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Addition of antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly attenuated betulin-induced ROS generation as well as Bcl-2 and XIAP downregulation. The mitochondrial accumulation of Bax and Bak, as well as caspase activity, was also remarkably inhibited by NAC treatment, indicating that ROS are important signaling intermediates that lead to betulin-induced apoptosis by modulating multiple apoptosis-regulating proteins in SGC7901 cells.

  13. Intrinsic effects of gold nanoparticles on proliferation and invasion activity in SGC-7901 cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yucheng; Zhang, Qingqing; Ruan, Zhongbao; Yin, Yigang

    2016-03-01

    Although biomedical applications of functionalized nanoparticles have taken significant strides, biological characterization of unmodified nanoparticles remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the cell viability and invasion activity of gastric cancer cells after treatment with gold nanoparticles. The growth of SGC-7901 cells was inhibited significantly after treatment with 5-nm gold nanoparticles, and the cell invasion decreased markedly. These effects were not seen by different size gold nanoparticles (10, 20 and 40 nm). The attenuated invasion activity may be associated with the decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. These data indicated that the response of SGC-7901 cells to gold nanoparticles was strongly associated with their unique size-dependent physiochemical properties. Therefore, we provided new evidence for the effect of gold nanoparticles on gastric cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, making a contribution to the application of gold nanoparticles to novel therapies in gastric cancer.

  14. WR-2721 inhibits parathyroid adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, M.E.; Morrissey, J.; McConkey, C. Jr.; Goldfarb, S.; Slatopolsky, E.; Martin, K.J.

    1987-02-01

    WR-2721 (S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid) is a chemoprotective and radioprotective agent that has been shown to lower serum calcium in dogs and in humans. This is secondary both to impaired release of CaS from bone and diminished secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) from parathyroid glands. Because cAMP plays a role in the regulation of PTH secretion and WR-2721 has been shown to lower cAMP levels in radiated mouse spleen, the authors investigated the effects of WR-2721 on cAMP production in dispersed bovine parathyroid cells. Additional, they studied the adenylate cyclase in plasma membranes from normal bovine parathyroid glands after exposure to WR-2721. With parathyroid cells incubated at 0.5 mM CaS , addition of Wr-2721 in concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 2.0 mM resulted in a progressive decrease in intracellular cAMP measured by radioimmunoassay. In plasma membranes of bovine parathyroid cells a dose-dependent decrease in adenylate cyclase activity was noted. Inhibition of the cyclase was seen over a wide range of MgS concentrations. WR-2721 inhibited both basal and NaF, Gpp(NH)(, forskolin, and pertussin toxin-stimulated adenylate cyclase. These data suggest that WR-2721 inhibits the activity of parathyroid adenylate cyclase.

  15. Effect of oxaliplatin combined with polyenephosphatidylcholine on the proliferation of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Hongjun; Liu, Xiguang; Song, Hao; Yao, Ruyong; Li, Jianbin; Zhao, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Oxaliplatin (L-OHP) is a platinum compound that is widely used to treat certain solid tumors, including gastric tumors. L-OHP is an effective anti-cancer treatment; however, its usage increases the probability of patients developing hepatic injury with inflammation, referred to as chemotherapy-associated steatohepatitis. The present study aimed to evaluate the outcome of L-OHP treatment combined with polyenephosphatidylcholine (PPC), a major component of essential phospholipids used to treat steatohepatitis, on SGC-7901 gastric cancer cell proliferation. This would help to determine whether combination therapy with L-OHP and PPC is clinically beneficial for patients with gastric cancer. The viability of SGC-7901 cells was verified by an MTT assay; flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell cycle and rates of cell apoptosis; oxidation-related indicators were measured by spectrophotometry, and the expression of cell cycle- and apoptosis-related proteins was determined by western blotting. The results demonstrated that L-OHP significantly inhibited SGC-7901 cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner (F=194.193, P<0.01 and F=12.428, P=0.01, respectively). Furthermore, PPC stimulated the growth of SGC-7901 cells and greatly promoted their apoptosis induced by L-OHP, which was supported by the upregulation of cytochrome c and the downstream activation of caspases 3 and 9. Finally, following treatment with a combination of PPC and L-OHP, the expression of cyclins D1 and E was downregulated; however, PPC did not alter the production of reactive oxygen species caused by L-OHP (P=0.88). The present study determined that the combination of L-OHP and PPC exerts a synergistic anti-tumor effect, suggesting that L-OHP and PPC combination therapy may be used as a treatment for patients with gastric cancer that reduces the side effects of L-OHP without inhibiting its efficacy. PMID:28101212

  16. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide

    PubMed Central

    Seeliger, Stephan; Buddenkotte, Jörg; Schmidt-Choudhury, Anjona; Rosignoli, Carine; Shpacovitch, Victoria; von Arnim, Ulrike; Metze, Dieter; Rukwied, Roman; Schmelz, Martin; Paus, Ralf; Voegel, Johannes J.; Schmidt, Wolfgang E.; Steinhoff, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) is an important neuropeptide and immunomodulator in various tissues. Although this peptide and its receptors (ie, VPAC1R, VPAC2R, and PAC1R) are expressed in human skin, their biological roles are unknown. Therefore, we tested whether PACAP regulates vascular responses in human skin in vivo. When injected intravenously, PACAP induced a significant, concentration-dependent vascular response (ie, flush, erythema, edema) and mediated a significant and concentration-dependent increase in intrarectal body temperature that peaked at 2.7°C. Topical application of PACAP induced marked concentration-dependent edema. Immunohistochemistry revealed a close association of PACAP-immunoreactive nerve fibers with mast cells and dermal blood vessels. VPAC1R was expressed by dermal endothelial cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, mast cells, and keratinocytes, whereas VPAC2R was expressed only in keratinocytes. VPAC1R protein and mRNA were also detected in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells. The PACAP-induced change in cAMP production in these cells demonstrated VPAC1R to be functional. PACAP treatment of organ-cultured human skin strongly increased the number of CD31+ vessel cross-sections. Taken together, these results suggest that PACAP directly induces vascular responses that may be associated with neurogenic inflammation, indicating for the first time that PACAP may be a crucial vascular regulator in human skin in vivo. Antagonists to PACAP function may be beneficial for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases with a neurogenic component. PMID:20889562

  17. Effects of ophiopogonin B on the proliferation and apoptosis of SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, WEIYUE; ZHANG, QIAOYAN; JIANG, YIPING; LI, FENG; XIN, HAILIANG

    2016-01-01

    Ophiopogonin B (OP-B) is a bioactive component of Radix Ophiopogon japonicus, which is often used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the antitumor activity of OP-B in gastric cancer. Cell Counting kit-8, flow cytometry with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate, Hoechst staining, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) detection, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay were used to detect the biological function of SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells. The results demonstrated that high concentrations of OP-B (5, 10 and 20 μmol/l) exerted potent antiproliferative effects on SGC-7901 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, apoptotic rates were increased and cell morphology was altered following treatment with OP-B. In addition, OP-B-induced apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells was associated with loss of MMP and increased ROS generation. Western blotting indicated that treatment with OP-B increased the protein expression levels of caspase-3 and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein, whereas the expression levels of Bcl-2 and the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1/2 were decreased. These results suggest that OP-B may be considered a potential inhibitor of gastric cancer progression, and may be used as an alternative compound for its treatment. PMID:27121658

  18. Sinomenine inhibits proliferation of SGC-7901 gastric adenocarcinoma cells via suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 expression

    PubMed Central

    LV, YIFEI; LI, CHANGSHUN; LI, SHUANG; HAO, ZHIMING

    2011-01-01

    Sinomenine (SIN) is a bioactive alkaloid extracted from the Chinese medicinal plant Sinomenium acutum. Results of studies have shown that the anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and anti-arthritic effects of SIN are partially attributed to the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. COX-2 overexpression is associated with enhanced proliferation and angiogenesis of gastric cancer (GC). SGC-7901 cells were treated with different concentrations of SIN in order to observe its effect on the proliferation of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and to explore the potential underlying molecular mechanism via the detection of COX-2 expression. Celecoxib was used as the positive control. Morphological alterations of the cells were observed microscopically. Cell proliferation was evaluated using MTT assay. COX-2 expression was detected using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. The results showed that SIN inhibited the proliferation of SGC-7901 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In the presence of SIN or celecoxib, SGC-7901 cells became round and detached morphologically, indicating cell apoptosis. The expression of COX-2 was inhibited by SIN in a dose-dependent manner at both the mRNA and protein levels. Our findings indicate that the protective effects of SIN are mediated through the inhibition of COX-2 expression. These findings suggest a novel therapy to treat inflammation-mediated gastric adenocarcinomata. PMID:22848259

  19. Effects of culture media on metabolic profiling of the human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zicheng; Shao, Wei; Gu, Jinping; Hu, Xiaomin; Shi, Yuanzhi; Xu, Wenqi; Huang, Caihua; Lin, Donghai

    2015-07-01

    Cell culture metabolomics has demonstrated significant advantages in cancer research. However, its applications have been impeded by some influencing factors such as culture media, which could significantly affect cellular metabolic profiles and lead to inaccuracy and unreliability of comparative metabolomic analysis of cells. To evaluate the effects of different culture media on cellular metabolic profiling, we performed NMR-based metabolomic analysis of the human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 cultured in both RPMI1640 and DMEM. We found that SGC7901 cultured in the two media exhibited distinct metabolic profiles with obviously different levels of discrepant metabolites, even though they showed almost the same cellular morphology and proliferation rates. When SGC7901 originally cultured in RPMI1640 was gradually acclimated in DMEM, both the metabolic profiles and most of the discrepant metabolite levels gradually converged toward those of the cells originally cultured in DMEM without significantly altered cell proliferation rates. However, several metabolite levels did not show the converging trends. Our results indicate that the effects of culture media on metabolic profiling must be carefully taken into account for comparative metabolomic analysis of cell lines. This work may be of benefit to the development of cell culture metabolomics.

  20. Chemopreventive effects of Peucedanum praeruptorum DUNN and its major constituents on SGC7901 gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Taigang; Yue, Wenyan; Li, Qingshan

    2010-11-09

    In this study, the effects of Peucedanum praeruptorum DUNN methanolic extract (PPME) and its major constituents on SGC7901 human gastric cancer cells were evaluated. Two pyranocoumarins, namely, (±) praeruptorin A (PA) and (±) praeruptorin B (PB), were isolated from PPME. A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed to determine the contents of PA and PB in PPME. The anti-proliferative and cytotoxic actions of PPME were observed using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. At 300 μg/mL, PPME inhibited cell growth by 51.2% (P < 0.01), probably linked to the high concentration of PA and PB. Both PA and PB exhibited antiproliferative and cytotoxic activities on the SGC7901 cells. Furthermore, the active principle compound, PA, also enhanced the actions of doxorubincin (DOX) on SGC7901 cells. Cell growth decreased higher with the combined treatment of PA and DOX than that with the chemotherapy agent applied alone, suggesting that PA could reduce the dose of DOX for the desired effects.

  1. Structure reactivity relationship in the reaction of DNA guanyl radicals with hydroxybenzoates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Trinh T.; Tang, Vicky J.; Aguilera, Joseph A.; Milligan, Jamie R.

    2010-11-01

    In DNA, guanine bases are the sites from which electrons are most easily removed. As a result of hole migration to this stable location on guanine, guanyl radicals are major intermediates in DNA damage produced by the direct effect of ionizing radiation (ionization of the DNA itself and not through the intermediacy of water radicals). We have modeled this process by employing gamma irradiation in the presence of thiocyanate ions, a method which also produces single electron oxidized guanyl radicals in plasmid DNA in aqueous solution. The stable products formed in DNA from these radicals are detected as strand breaks after incubation with the FPG protein. When a phenolic compound is present in the solution during gamma irradiation, the formation of guanyl radical species is decreased by electron donation from the phenol to the guanyl radical. We have quantified the rate of this reaction for four different phenolic compounds bearing carboxylate substituents as proton acceptors. A comparison of the rates of these reactions with the redox strengths of the phenolic compounds reveals that salicylate reacts ca. 10-fold faster than its structural analogs. This observation is consistent with a reaction mechanism involving a proton coupled electron transfer, because intra-molecular transfer of a proton from the phenolic hydroxyl group to the carboxylate group is possible only in salicylate, and is favored by the strong 6-membered ring intra-molecular hydrogen bond in this compound.

  2. Amino acid sequence and S-S bonds of Penicillium brevicompactum guanyl-specific ribonuclease.

    PubMed

    Shlyapnikov, S V; Kulikov, V A; Yakovlev, G I

    1984-11-19

    The primary structure of Penicillium brevicompactum guanyl-specific RNase was determined. The enzyme consists of 102 amino acid residues, Mr 10801. The 4 cysteine residues of the RNase are linked in pairs by disulfide bonds: Cys2-Cys10, Cys6-Cys101. P. brevicompactum RNase structure is similar to RNase T1; the degree of homology is 66%.

  3. Bifunctional Homodimeric Triokinase/FMN Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Joaquim Rui; Couto, Ana; Cabezas, Alicia; Pinto, Rosa María; Ribeiro, João Meireles; Canales, José; Costas, María Jesús; Cameselle, José Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian triokinase, which phosphorylates exogenous dihydroxyacetone and fructose-derived glyceraldehyde, is neither molecularly identified nor firmly associated to an encoding gene. Human FMN cyclase, which splits FAD and other ribonucleoside diphosphate-X compounds to ribonucleoside monophosphate and cyclic X-phosphodiester, is identical to a DAK-encoded dihydroxyacetone kinase. This bifunctional protein was identified as triokinase. It was modeled as a homodimer of two-domain (K and L) subunits. Active centers lie between K1 and L2 or K2 and L1: dihydroxyacetone binds K and ATP binds L in different subunits too distant (≈14 Å) for phosphoryl transfer. FAD docked to the ATP site with ribityl 4′-OH in a possible near-attack conformation for cyclase activity. Reciprocal inhibition between kinase and cyclase reactants confirmed substrate site locations. The differential roles of protein domains were supported by their individual expression: K was inactive, and L displayed cyclase but not kinase activity. The importance of domain mobility for the kinase activity of dimeric triokinase was highlighted by molecular dynamics simulations: ATP approached dihydroxyacetone at distances below 5 Å in near-attack conformation. Based upon structure, docking, and molecular dynamics simulations, relevant residues were mutated to alanine, and kcat and Km were assayed whenever kinase and/or cyclase activity was conserved. The results supported the roles of Thr112 (hydrogen bonding of ATP adenine to K in the closed active center), His221 (covalent anchoring of dihydroxyacetone to K), Asp401 and Asp403 (metal coordination to L), and Asp556 (hydrogen bonding of ATP or FAD ribose to L domain). Interestingly, the His221 point mutant acted specifically as a cyclase without kinase activity. PMID:24569995

  4. Solubilization of a guanyl nucleotide-sensitive alpha/sub 1/ adrenergic receptor from liver membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, S.I.; Moss, J.

    1987-05-01

    Rat liver membranes incubated with norepinephrine before solubilization with digitonin yielded a soluble hormone-receptor complex from which the release of tightly bound norepinephrine was facilitated by guanyl nucleotides. Binding of the alpha/sub 1/-adrenergic receptor antagonist, (/sup 3/H)-prazosin, to the soluble preparation was utilized as a gauge of guanyl nucleotide-induced release of receptor-bound agonist. The following potency series was obtained with regard to the ability of guanyl nucleotides to facilitate (/sup 3/H)-prazosin binding to the solubilized preparation: guanosine 5'-0-(3-thiotriphosphate)(K/sub 1/2/ = 2.5 nM), guanylyl-imidodiphosphate (K/sub 1/2/ = 10 nM), guanosine triphosphate (K/sub 1/2/ = 34 nM) and adenylyl-imidodiphosphate (K/sub 1/2/ > 1 mM). In the presence of guanylyl-imidodiphosphate (0.4 mM), the receptor population displayed monotonic binding parameters with a K/sub d/ for (/sup 3/H)-prazosin of 1.16 nM by Scatchard analysis. Competition curves against (/sup 3/H)-prazosin with the antagonists phentolamine and yohimbine revealed respective K/sub i/'s of .089 ..mu..M and 1.8 ..mu..M; curves with the agonists norepinephrine and isoproterenol yielded respective K/sub i/'s of 6.2..mu..M and 360 ..mu..M. Competition curves performed in the absence of guanyl nucleotide were complex demonstrating an apparent increase in affinity for agonists and an apparent decrease in affinity for antagonists. These curve shifts are consistent with the conversion of receptor to and from the guanyl nucleotide-sensitive state as a function of competing ligand concentration.

  5. Searching for new strategies against polymicrobial biofilm infections: guanylated polymethacrylates kill mixed fungal/bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yue; Locock, Katherine; Verma-Gaur, Jiyoti; Hay, Iain D; Meagher, Laurence; Traven, Ana

    2016-02-01

    Biofilm-related human infections have high mortality rates due to drug resistance. Cohabitation of diverse microbes in polymicrobial biofilms is common and these infections present additional challenges for treatment compared with monomicrobial biofilms. Here, we address this therapeutic gap by assessing the potential of a new class of antimicrobial agents, guanylated polymethacrylates, in the treatment of polymicrobial biofilms built by two prominent human pathogens, the fungus Candida albicans and the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. We used imaging and quantitative methods to test the antibiofilm efficacy of guanylated polymethacrylates, a new class of drugs that structurally mimic antimicrobial peptides. We further compared guanylated polymethacrylates with first-line antistaphylococcal and anti-Candida agents used as combinatorial therapy against polymicrobial biofilms. Guanylated polymethacrylates were highly effective as a sole agent, killing both C. albicans and S. aureus when applied to established polymicrobial biofilms. Furthermore, they outperformed multiple combinations of current antimicrobial drugs, with one of the tested compounds killing 99.98% of S. aureus and 82.2% of C. albicans at a concentration of 128 mg/L. The extracellular biofilm matrix provided protection, increasing the MIC of the polymethacrylates by 2-4-fold when added to planktonic assays. Using the C. albicans bgl2ΔΔ mutant, we implicate matrix polysaccharide β-1,3 glucan in the mechanism of protection. Data for two structurally distinct polymers suggest that this mechanism could be minimized through chemical optimization of the polymer structure. Finally, we demonstrate that a potential application for these polymers is in antimicrobial lock therapy. Guanylated polymethacrylates are a promising lead for the development of an effective monotherapy against C. albicans/S. aureus polymicrobial biofilms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British

  6. Chelidonine induces mitotic slippage and apoptotic-like death in SGC-7901 human gastric carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhongyuan; Zou, Xiang; Zhang, Xiujuan; Sheng, Jiejing; Wang, Yumeng; Wang, Jiaqi; Wang, Chao; Ji, Yubin

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chelidonine on mitotic slippage and apoptotic-like death in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells. The MTT assay was performed to detect the antiproliferative effect of chelidonine. Following treatment with chelidonine (10 µmol/l), the ultrastructure changes in SGC-7901, MCF-7 and HepG2 cells were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The effects of chelidonine on G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells were determined by flow cytometry. Indirect immunofluorescence assay and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) were used to detect the phosphorylation level of histone H3 (Ser10) and microtubule formation was detected using LSCM following immunofluorescent labeling. Subsequent to treatment with chelidonine (10 µmol/l), expression levels of mitotic slippage-associated proteins, including BUB1 mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase B (BubR1), cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) and cyclin B1, and apoptosis-associated protein, caspase-3 were examined by western blotting at 24, 48 and 72 h. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of chelidonine was 23.13 µmol/l over 48 h and chelidonine induced G2/M phase arrest of cells. The phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser10 was significantly increased following treatment with chelidonine for 24 h, indicating that chelidonine arrested the SGC-7901 cells in the M phase. Chelidonine inhibited microtubule polymerization, destroyed microtubule structures and induced cell cycle arrest in the M phase. Giant cells were observed with multiple micronuclei of varying sizes, which indicated that following a prolonged arrest in the M phase, the cells underwent mitotic catastrophe. Western blotting demonstrated that the protein expression levels of BubR1, cyclin B1 and Cdk1 decreased significantly between 48 and 72 h. Low expression levels of BubR1 and inactivation of the cyclin B1-Cdk1 complex results in the cells being arrested at mitosis and leads to

  7. Receptor guanylyl cyclases in mammalian olfactory function

    PubMed Central

    Zufall, Frank; Munger, Steven D.

    2009-01-01

    The contributions of guanylyl cyclases to sensory signaling in the olfactory system have been unclear. Recently, studies of a specialized subpopulation of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) located in the main olfactory epithelium have provided important insights into the neuronal function of one receptor guanylyl cyclase, GC-D. Mice expressing reporters such as β-galactosidase and green fluorescent protein in OSNs that normally express GC-D have allowed investigators to identify these neurons in situ, facilitating anatomical and physiological studies of this sparse neuronal population. The specific perturbation of GC-D function in vivo has helped to resolve the role of this guanylyl cyclase in the transduction of olfactory stimuli. Similar approaches could be useful for the study of the orphan receptor GC-G, which is expressed in another distinct subpopulation of sensory neurons located in the Grueneberg ganglion. In this review, we discuss key findings that have reinvigorated the study of guanylyl cyclase function in the olfactory system. PMID:19941039

  8. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin: entry of bacterial adenylate cyclase into mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Confer, D L; Slungaard, A S; Graf, E; Panter, S S; Eaton, J W

    1984-01-01

    We have identified an adenylate cyclase toxin in urea extracts and culture supernatant fluids of Bordetella pertussis (2). The ability of this toxin and the lack of a strong correlation between its activity and adenylate cyclase activity found in urea extracts suggest that it is an oligomer of readily dissociable subunits. The mechanism by which Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin interacts with target cells is unknown, but polyvalent cations are necessary. Neutrophils exposed to the toxin acquire a 39,000 Mr protein that can also be photoaffinity labeled with 32P-ATP. We anticipate that this protein will prove to be a catalytic component of Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin. Susceptible cells exposed to Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin are functionally aberrant. In phagocytes, decreased bactericidal capacity may be important in the pathogenesis of human whooping cough and other Bordetella infections occurring in domestic animals. The effects of the toxin on neoplastic cells may offer new insights into the factors controlling their growth and differentiation. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin is a unique bacterial product. Further purification and characterization of this toxin will add to our understanding of cell-protein interactions and pathogen-host relationships.

  9. Carnosine Inhibits the Proliferation of Human Gastric Cancer SGC-7901 Cells through Both of the Mitochondrial Respiration and Glycolysis Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yao; Yang, Jianbo; Li, Juan; Shi, Xiaojie; Ouyang, Li; Tian, Yueyang; Lu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Carnosine, a naturally occurring dipeptide, has been recently demonstrated to possess anti-tumor activity. However, its underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of carnosine on the cell viability and proliferation of the cultured human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Carnosine treatment did not induce cell apoptosis or necrosis, but reduced the proliferative capacity of SGC-7901 cells. Seahorse analysis showed SGC-7901 cells cultured with pyruvate have active mitochondria, and depend on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation more than glycolysis pathway for generation of ATP. Carnosine markedly decreased the absolute value of mitochondrial ATP-linked respiration, and reduced the maximal oxygen consumption and spare respiratory capacity, which may reduce mitochondrial function correlated with proliferative potential. Simultaneously, carnosine also reduced the extracellular acidification rate and glycolysis of SGC-7901 cells. Our results suggested that carnosine is a potential regulator of energy metabolism of SGC-7901 cells both in the anaerobic and aerobic pathways, and provided a clue for preclinical and clinical evaluation of carnosine for gastric cancer therapy. PMID:25115854

  10. Carnosine inhibits the proliferation of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells through both of the mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis pathways.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yao; Yang, Jianbo; Li, Juan; Shi, Xiaojie; Ouyang, Li; Tian, Yueyang; Lu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Carnosine, a naturally occurring dipeptide, has been recently demonstrated to possess anti-tumor activity. However, its underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of carnosine on the cell viability and proliferation of the cultured human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Carnosine treatment did not induce cell apoptosis or necrosis, but reduced the proliferative capacity of SGC-7901 cells. Seahorse analysis showed SGC-7901 cells cultured with pyruvate have active mitochondria, and depend on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation more than glycolysis pathway for generation of ATP. Carnosine markedly decreased the absolute value of mitochondrial ATP-linked respiration, and reduced the maximal oxygen consumption and spare respiratory capacity, which may reduce mitochondrial function correlated with proliferative potential. Simultaneously, carnosine also reduced the extracellular acidification rate and glycolysis of SGC-7901 cells. Our results suggested that carnosine is a potential regulator of energy metabolism of SGC-7901 cells both in the anaerobic and aerobic pathways, and provided a clue for preclinical and clinical evaluation of carnosine for gastric cancer therapy.

  11. Toxicarioside N induces apoptosis in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cell by activating the p38MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huan-Ge; Zhou, Song-Lin; Lin, Ying-Ying; Dai, Hao-Fu; Huang, Feng-Ying

    2017-09-22

    Natural plant compounds with potent proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction properties have been screened as novel anticancer drugs. Toxicarioside N (Tox N) was isolated from the seeds of the tropical plant Antiaris toxicaria in Hainan province, China. To our knowledge, the effects that Tox N has on the apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells and its potential mechanism have never been investigated. In this study, we detected the anticancer activities of Tox N and explored the potential mechanism in the human gastrointestinal cancer cell line SGC-7901. Here, we found that Tox N inhibited SGC-7901 cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner and induced apoptosis in cells based on cell morphology and flow cytometry analyses. Additionally, the SGC-7901 cell treated with Tox N up-regulated the expression level of cleaved caspase-3/9 and PARP, increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and led to the release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm. In addition, Tox N treatment led to the phosphorylation of p38MAPK. SB203580, a p38MAPK inhibitor, partially attenuated Tox N induced apoptosis by preventing the activation of caspase-3/9 and PARP. Our results indicated for the first time that Tox N can induce SGC-7901 cells apoptosis by activating the p38MAPK pathway.

  12. Study on biological characters of SGC7901 gastric cancer cell-dendritic cell fusion vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Gao, Peng-Fen; Yu, Pei-Wu; Rao, Yun; Zhou, Li-Xin

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To detect the biological characters of the SGC7901 gastric cancer cell-dendritic cell fusion vaccines. METHODS: The suspending living SGC7901 gastric cancer cells and dendritic cells were induced to be fusioned by polyethylene glycol. Pure fusion cells were obtained by selective culture with the HAT/HT culture systems. The fusion cells were counted at different time points of culture and their growth curves were drawn to reflect their proliferative activities. The fusion cells were also cultured in culture medium to investigate whether they could grow into cell clones. MTT method was used to test the stimulating abilities of the fusion cells on T lymphocytes’ proliferations. Moreover, the fusion cells were planted into nude mice to observe whether they could grow into new planted tumors in this kind of immunodeficiency animals. RESULTS: The fusion cells had weaker proliferative activity and clone abilities than their parental cells. When they were cultured, the counts of cells did not increase remarkably, nor could they grow into cell clones in culture medium. The fusion cells could not grow into new planted tumors after planted into nude mice. The stimulating abilities of the fusion cells on T lymphocytes’ proliferations were remarkably increased than their parental dendritic cells. CONCLUSION: The SGC7901 gastric cancer cell-dendritic cell fusion vaccines have much weaker proliferative abilities than their parental cells, but they keep strong abilities to irritate the T lymphocytes and have no abilities to grow into new planted tumors in immunodeficiency animals. These are the biological basis for their anti-tumor biotherapies. PMID:16733866

  13. Role of Nitric Oxide, Nitric Oxide Synthase, Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase, and cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase I in Mouse Stem Cell Cardiac Development

    PubMed Central

    Spinelli, Valentina; Vona, Alessia; Corti, Francesca; Diolaiuti, Lorenzo; Zanardelli, Matteo; Sartiani, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Aim. Nitric oxide (NO) can trigger cardiac differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), indicating a cardiogenic function of the NO synthetizing enzyme(s) (NOS). However, the involvement of the NO/NOS downstream effectors soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and cGMP activated protein kinase I (PKG-I) is less defined. Therefore, we assess the involvement of the entire NO/NOS/sGC/PKG-I pathway during cardiac differentiation process. Methods. Mouse ESCs were differentiated toward cardiac lineages by hanging drop methodology for 21 days. NOS/sGC/PKG-I pathway was studied quantifying genes, proteins, enzymatic activities, and effects of inhibition during differentiation. Percentages of beating embryoid bodies (mEBs) were evaluated as an index of cardiogenesis. Results and Discussion. Genes and protein expression of enzymes were increased during differentiation with distinctive kinetics and proteins possessed their enzymatic functions. Exogenous administered NO accelerated whereas the blockade of PKG-I strongly slowed cardiogenesis. sGC inhibition was effective only at early stages and NOS blockade ineffective. Of NOS/sGC/PKG-I pathway, PKG-I seems to play the prominent role in cardiac maturation. Conclusion. We concluded that exogenous administered NO and other pharmacological strategies able to increase the activity of PKG-I provide new tools to investigate and promote differentiation of cardiogenic precursors. PMID:27840646

  14. Liraglutide suppresses obesity and induces brown fat-like phenotype via Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase mediated pathway in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Endong; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Juanjuan; Li, Yongmei; Li, Chunjun; Chen, Liming; Sun, Bei

    2016-12-06

    Strategies for driving white adipose tissue (WAT) to acquire brown-like characteristics are a promising approach to reduce obesity. Liraglutide has been reported to active brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and WAT browning by rapid intracerebroventricular injection in mice. In this study, we investigated the effects and possible mechanisms of liraglutide on WAT browning by chronic treatment. Here, we show that liraglutide significantly decreases body weight of mice and reduces the size of white adipocytes. By quantity polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting analysis, cell immunofluorescence or immunocytochemical staining, we found liraglutide induced WAT browning because it up-regulated lipolytic activity, BAT, as well as mitochondrial marker genes in inguinal and peripheral renal WAT. We also confirmed liraglutide induced browning of 3T3-L1 because it enhanced expression of BAT and mitochondrial specific genes. In further, we observed that, soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and protein kinase G I (PKGI) were up-regulated by liraglutide in vivo and in vitro; stimulation of sGC elevated expression of BAT markers and PKGI, which suggested that liraglutide induced WAT browning via sGC-dependent pathway. Taken together, this study expands our knowledge on the mechanism of liraglutide inducing WAT browning, and provides a theoretical support for clinical usage of liraglutide on obesity treatment.

  15. Facilitation of corticostriatal transmission following pharmacological inhibition of striatal phosphodiesterase 10A: role of nitric oxide-soluble guanylyl cyclase-cGMP signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Padovan-Neto, Fernando E; Sammut, Stephen; Chakroborty, Shreaya; Dec, Alexander M; Threlfell, Sarah; Campbell, Peter W; Mudrakola, Vishnu; Harms, John F; Schmidt, Christopher J; West, Anthony R

    2015-04-08

    The striatum contains a rich variety of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs), which play a critical role in the regulation of cAMP and cGMP signaling. The dual-substrate enzyme PDE10A is the most highly expressed PDE in striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) with low micromolar affinity for both cyclic nucleotides. Previously, we have shown that systemic and local administration of the selective PDE10A inhibitor TP-10 potently increased the responsiveness of MSNs to cortical stimulation. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying PDE10A inhibitor-induced changes in corticostriatal transmission are only partially understood. The current studies assessed the respective roles of cAMP and cGMP in the above effects using soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) or adenylate cyclase (AC) specific inhibitors. Cortically evoked spike activity was monitored in urethane-anesthetized rats using in vivo extracellular recordings performed proximal to a microdialysis probe during local infusion of vehicle, the selective sGC inhibitor ODQ, or the selective AC inhibitor SQ 22536. Systemic administration of TP-10 (3.2 mg/kg) robustly increased cortically evoked spike activity in a manner that was blocked following intrastriatal infusion of ODQ (50 μm). The effects of TP-10 on evoked activity were due to accumulation of cGMP, rather than cAMP, as the AC inhibitor SQ was without effect. Consistent with these observations, studies in neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) knock-out (KO) mice confirmed that PDE10A operates downstream of nNOS to limit cGMP production and excitatory corticostriatal transmission. Thus, stimulation of PDE10A acts to attenuate corticostriatal transmission in a manner largely dependent on effects directed at the NO-sGC-cGMP signaling cascade. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355781-11$15.00/0.

  16. Lysine, disodium guanylate and disodium inosinate as flavor enhancers in low-sodium fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; dos Santos, Bibiana Alves; Terra, Nelcindo Nascimento; Pollonio, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues

    2012-07-01

    Fermented sausages were produced with 50% replacement of NaCl with KCl and with addition of lysine, disodium guanylate, and disodium inosinate. The sausage production was monitored with physical, chemical and microbiological analyses. The final products were submitted to a consumer study. The replacement of NaCl with KCl did not cause changes in the technological process. However, defects in the sensory quality were detected. Lysine at a concentration of 1% with disodium inosinate (300 mg/kg) and disodium guanylate (300 mg/kg) reduced the sensory defects caused by the replacement of 50% NaCl with KCl allowing the preparation of sensory acceptable fermented sausages with a 50% decrease in sodium.

  17. Oxidative stress associated with middle aging leads to sympathetic hyperactivity and downregulation of soluble guanylyl cyclase in corpus cavernosum.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fábio H; Lanaro, Carolina; Leiria, Luiz Osório; Rodrigues, Renata Lopes; Davel, Ana Paula; Claudino, Mário A; Toque, Haroldo A; Antunes, Edson

    2014-11-15

    Impairment of nitric oxide (NO)-mediated cavernosal relaxations in middle age contributes to erectile dysfunction. However, little information is available about the alterations of sympathetic neurotransmission and contraction in erectile tissue at middle age. This study aimed to evaluate the alterations of the contractile machinery associated with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in rat corpus cavernosum (RCC) at middle age, focusing on the role of superoxide anion. Male Wistar young (3.5-mo) and middle-aged (10-mo) rats were used. Electrical-field stimulation (EFS)- and phenylephrine-induced contractions were obtained in RCC strips. Levels of reactive-oxygen species (ROS) and TH mRNA expression, as well as protein expressions for α₁/β₁-subunits of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), in RCC were evaluated. The neurogenic contractile responses elicited by EFS (4-32 Hz) were greater in RCC from the middle-aged group that was accompanied by elevated TH mRNA expression (P < 0.01). Phenylephrine-induced contractions were also greater in the middle-aged group. A 62% increase in ROS generation in RCC from middle-aged rats was observed. The mRNA expression for the α₁A-adrenoceptor remained unchanged among groups. Protein levels of α₁/β₁-sGC subunits were decreased in RCC from the middle-aged compared with young group. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (85 mg·rat(-1)·day(-1), 4 wk) fully restored the enhanced ROS production, TH mRNA expressions, and α₁/β₁-subunit sGC expression, indicating that excess of superoxide anion plays a major role in the sympathetic hyperactivity and hypercontractility in erectile tissue at middle age. Reduction of oxidative stress by dietary antioxidants may be an interesting approach to treat erectile dysfunction in aging population. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Do there exist synergistic antitumor effects by coexpression of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase with cytokine genes on human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Hua; Wan, Ming-Xi; Yuan, Jia-Ying; Pan, Bo-Rong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the synergistic antitumor effects of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) together with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene expression on gastric cancer cell line SGC7901. METHODS: Recombinant vectors pL(TT)SN and pL(TI)SN, which express TK-IRES-TNF-α and TK-IRES-IL-2 genes separately, as well as the control plasmids pL(TK)SN and pLXSN were employed to transfect PA317 cells respectively to generate the viruses that can stably express the objective genes through G418 selection. The gastric cancer cells were then transfected by the retroviral serum from the package cells and maintained in culture to determine the cell growth and apoptosis. The cytotoxic effects of HSV-TK together with TNF-α or IL-2 gene expression on the transfected cancer cells were evaluated by the cell viability and bystander effects in the presence of GCV supplemented in the cultural medium. RESULTS: Expression of recombinant proteins including TNF-α and IL-2 by stable transfectants was confirmed by Western blotting. The percentage of cell apoptosis in the SGC/0, SGC/TK-TNF-α, SGC/TK-IL-2 and SGC/TK clone was 2.3%, 12.3%, 11.1% and 10.9% respectively at 24 h post-transfection. Cell growth status among all the experimental groups as judged by cell absorbance (A) at 570nm did not exhibit any significant difference (P > 0.05); although it was noted to be slightly lower in the SGC/TT group. Cell survival rate in SGC/TI, SGC/TT and SGC/TK group was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner of GCV compared with that of the SGC/0 group (P < 0.05-0.01). Among all studied cells, the SGC/TT was shown most sensitive to GCV with a half lethal dose of 0.5 mg·L-1. In contrast, the survival rate of SGC/0 cells was not affected by the presence of GCV with the doses less than 10 mg·L-1. The half lethal dose of GCV for SGC/0 cells was more than 100 mg·L-1. Marked bystander effect induced by SGC/TI, SGC/TT and SGC/TK cells was confirmed by the

  19. Binase-like guanyl-preferring ribonucleases are new members of Bacillus PhoP regulon.

    PubMed

    Ulyanova, Vera; Vershinina, Valentina; Ilinskaya, Olga; Harwood, Colin R

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular low-molecular weight guanyl-preferring ribonucleases (LMW RNases) of Bacillus sp. comprise a group of hydrolytic enzymes that share highly similar structural and catalytic characteristics with barnase, a ribonuclease from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and binase, a ribonuclease from Bacillus intermedius. Although the physical-chemical and catalytic properties of Bacillus guanyl-preferring ribonucleases are very similar, there is considerably more variation in the environmental conditions that lead to the induction of the genes encoding these RNases. Based on structural differences of their genes the guanyl-preferring ribonucleases have been sub-divided into binase-like and barnase-like groups. Here we show the ability of the key regulator of phosphate deficiency response, PhoP, to direct the transcription of the binase-like RNases but not barnase-like RNases. These results, together with our demonstration that binase-like RNases are induced in response to phosphate starvation, allow us to categorise this group of ribonucleases as new members of Bacillus PhoP regulon. In contrast, the barnase-like ribonucleases are relatively insensitive to the phosphate concentration and the environmental conditions that are responsible for their induction, and the regulatory elements involved, are currently unknown.

  20. Andrographolide Inhibits Proliferation and Metastasis of SGC7901 Gastric Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lei; Wang, Gang

    2017-01-01

    To explore the mechanisms by which andrographolide inhibits gastric cancer cell proliferation and metastasis, we employed the gastric cell line SGC7901 to investigate the anticancer effects of andrographolide. The cell survival ratio, cell migration and invasion, cell cycle, apoptosis, and matrix metalloproteinase activity were assessed. Moreover, western blotting and real-time PCR were used to examine the protein expression levels and the mRNA expression levels, respectively. The survival ratio of cells decreased with an increasing concentration of andrographolide in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent results were also obtained using an apoptosis assay, as detected by flow cytometry. The cell cycle was blocked at the G2/M2 phase by andrographolide treatment, and the proportion of cells arrested at G1/M was enhanced as the dose increased. Similarly, wound healing and Transwell assays showed reduced migration and invasion of the gastric cancer cells at various concentrations of andrographolide. Andrographolide can inhibit cell proliferation, invasion, and migration, block the cell cycle, and promote apoptosis in SGC7901 cells. The mechanisms may include upregulated expression of Timp-1/2, cyclin B1, p-Cdc2, Bax, and Bik and downregulated expression of MMP-2/9 and antiapoptosis protein Bcl-2. PMID:28194420

  1. Isoimperatorin induces apoptosis of the SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cell line via the mitochondria-mediated pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Kehui; Xin, Chang; Chen, Wenzhong

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antiproliferative activity of isoimperatorin against SGC-7901 cells and to examine the possible mechanisms. The antiproliferative activity of isoimperatorin against SGC-7901 cells was evaluated using an MTT assay, and the mechanisms were investigated using flow cytometry and western blot assays, which were used to determine the apoptotic rate and expression levels of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis-associated proteins, including Survivin, myeloid leukemia cell-1 (Mcl-1), B cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xl), B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (Smac), Bcl-2-associated X factor (Bax), cleaved (c)-caspase-3 and c-caspase-9 in SGC-7901 cells. Additionally, a xenograft assay was used to confirm whether isoimperatorin had an inhibitory effect on SGC-7901 cell-induced tumors in vivo. The results of the MTT assay suggested that isoimperatorin significantly inhibited the proliferation of SGC-7901 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration was 18.75 µg/ml. The results of the flow cytometric analysis indicated that, following treatment with isoimperatorin, the apoptotic rate of SGC-7901 cells was significantly increased, compared with that of cells in the control group. The results of the western blot analysis indicated that, following treatment with isoimperatorin, the expression levels of the pro-apoptotic proteins, Bax, c-caspase-3 and c-caspase-9, were significantly increased and the expression levels of the anti-apoptotic proteins, Survivin and Bcl-2, were significantly reduced, compared with the control group. No alterations in expression were found in the other apoptosis-associated proteins, including Mcl-1, Bcl-xl and Smac. The results of the xenograft assay indicated that isoimperatorin significantly inhibited the growth of SGC-7901 cell-induced tumor in vivo by increasing the expression levels of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, c

  2. Membrane guanylyl cyclase receptors: an update

    PubMed Central

    Garbers, David L.; Chrisman, Ted D.; Wiegn, Phi; Katafuchi, Takeshi; Albanesi, Joseph P.; Bielinski, Vincent; Barylko, Barbara; Redfield, Margaret M.; Burnett, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated key roles for several membrane guanylyl cyclase receptors in the regulation of cell hyperplasia, hypertrophy, migration and extracellular matrix production, all of which having an impact on clinically relevant diseases, including tissue remodeling after injury. Additionally, cell differentiation, and even tumor progression, can be profoundly influenced by one or more of these receptors. Some of these receptors also mediate important communication between the heart and intestine, and the kidney to regulate blood volume and Na+ balance. PMID:16815030

  3. Antagonism of soluble guanylyl cyclase attenuates cutaneous vasodilation during whole body heat stress and local warming in humans.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Dean L; Zhao, Joan L; Wu, Yubo; Johnson, John M

    2011-05-01

    We hypothesized that nitric oxide activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) participates in cutaneous vasodilation during whole body heat stress and local skin warming. We examined the effects of the sGC inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), on reflex skin blood flow responses to whole body heat stress and on nonreflex responses to increased local skin temperature. Blood flow was monitored by laser-Doppler flowmetry, and blood pressure by Finapres to calculate cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). Intradermal microdialysis was used to treat one site with 1 mM ODQ in 2% DMSO and Ringer, a second site with 2% DMSO in Ringer, and a third site received Ringer. In protocol 1, after a period of normothermia, whole body heat stress was induced. In protocol 2, local heating units warmed local skin temperature from 34 to 41°C to cause local vasodilation. In protocol 1, in normothermia, CVC did not differ among sites [ODQ, 15 ± 3% maximum CVC (CVC(max)); DMSO, 14 ± 3% CVC(max); Ringer, 17 ± 6% CVC(max); P > 0.05]. During heat stress, ODQ attenuated CVC increases (ODQ, 54 ± 4% CVC(max); DMSO, 64 ± 4% CVC(max); Ringer, 63 ± 4% CVC(max); P < 0.05, ODQ vs. DMSO or Ringer). In protocol 2, at 34°C local temperature, CVC did not differ among sites (ODQ, 17 ± 2% CVC(max); DMSO, 18 ± 4% CVC(max); Ringer, 18 ± 3% CVC(max); P > 0.05). ODQ attenuated CVC increases at 41°C local temperature (ODQ, 54 ± 5% CVC(max); DMSO, 86 ± 4% CVC(max); Ringer, 90 ± 2% CVC(max); P < 0.05 ODQ vs. DMSO or Ringer). sGC participates in neurogenic active vasodilation during heat stress and in the local response to direct skin warming.

  4. Implication of Rho-kinase and soluble guanylyl cyclase enzymes in prostate smooth muscle dysfunction in middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Calmasini, Fabiano B; Silva, Fabio H; Alexandre, Eduardo C; Rodrigues, Renata L; Barbosa, Ana Paula L; Ferrucci, Danilo L; Carvalho, Hernandes F; Anhê, Gabriel F; Pupo, Andre S; Antunes, Edson

    2017-03-01

    Aging is highly associated with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). We investigated here the alterations of the contractile and relaxant machinery in prostates of middle-aged rats, focusing on the Rho-kinase, nitric oxide (NO)-soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), α1- and β-adrenoceptor pathways. Male Wistar young (3.5-month old) and middle-aged rats (10-month old) were used. Quantitative image analysis of prostates and functional assays evaluating the prostate contractions and relaxations were employed. Measurement of [(3) H]-noradrenaline efflux, western blotting for α1 and β1 sGC subunits, and cyclic nucleotide levels were carried out. Prostates of middle-aged rats showed significant increases in lumen and smooth muscle cells, but no alterations in the relative prostate weight were observed. In vivo, noradrenaline (10(-7) -10(-4)  g/kg) produced greater prostatic contractions in middle-aged compared with control rats. Likewise, the in vitro contractions to phenylephrine (1 nM-100 μM) and α,β-methylene ATP (1-10 μM) were greater in middle-aged rats. Electrical-field stimulation (EFS, 1-32 Hz) promoted higher [(3) H]-noradrenaline efflux and prostate contractions in middle-aged rats. Reduced expressions of α1 and β1 sGC subunits and diminished NO-mediated prostate relaxations in middle-age were observed. Isoproterenol-induced relaxations and cAMP levels were reduced in prostates of middle-aged rats. The Rho-kinase inhibitor fasudil (50 mg/kg, 2 weeks) normalized the prostate hypercontractility in middle-age rats. Prostate hypercontractility in middle-aging is associated with increased release of noradrenaline and Rho-kinase pathway, as well as with impairments of NO-sGC and β-adrenoceptor pathways. Middle-aged rats are suitable to explore the enhanced prostatic tone in the absence of prostate overgrowth. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:589-596, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Nitric oxide/soluble guanylyl cyclase signaling mediates depolarization-induced protection of rat mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons from MPP⁺ cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kurauchi, Y; Hisatsune, A; Isohama, Y; Sawa, T; Akaike, T; Katsuki, H

    2013-02-12

    Neuronal electrical activity has been known to affect the viability of neurons in the central nervous system. Here we show that long-lasting membrane depolarization induced by elevated extracellular K(+) recruits nitric oxide (NO)/soluble guanylyl cyclase/protein kinase G signaling pathway, induces 8-nitroguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-nitro-cGMP)-mediated protein S-guanylation, and confers dopaminergic neuroprotection. Treatment of primary mesencephalic cell cultures with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) for 72 h decreased the number of dopaminergic neurons, whereas the cell loss was markedly inhibited by elevated extracellular concentration of K(+) (+40 mM). The neuroprotective effect of elevated extracellular K(+) was significantly attenuated by tetrodotoxin (a Na(+) channel blocker), amlodipine (a voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel blocker), N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) (a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) (a soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor), and KT5823 or Rp-8-bromo-β-phenyl-1,N(2)-ethenoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS) (protein kinase G inhibitors). Elevated extracellular K(+) increased 8-nitro-cGMP production resulting in the induction of protein S-guanylation in cells in mesencephalic cultures including dopaminergic neurons. In addition, exogenous application of 8-nitro-cGMP protected dopaminergic neurons from MPP(+) cytotoxicity, which was prevented by zinc protoporphyrin IX, an inhibitor of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Zinc protoporphyrin IX also inhibited the neuroprotective effect of elevated extracellular K(+). On the other hand, KT5823 or Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS did not inhibit the induction of HO-1 protein expression by 8-nitro-cGMP, although these protein kinase G inhibitors abrogated the neuroprotective effect of 8-nitro-cGMP. These results suggest that protein S-guanylation (leading to HO-1 induction) as well as canonical protein kinase G

  6. Guanylyl cyclase-D in the olfactory CO2 neurons is activated by bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liming; Wang, Huayi; Hu, Ji; Han, Jinlong; Matsunami, Hiroaki; Luo, Minmin

    2009-02-10

    Atmospheric CO(2) is an important environmental cue that regulates several types of animal behavior. In mice, CO(2) responses of the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) require the activity of carbonic anhydrase to catalyze the conversion of CO(2) to bicarbonate and the opening of cGMP-sensitive ion channels. However, it remains unknown how the enhancement of bicarbonate levels results in cGMP production. Here, we show that bicarbonate activates cGMP-producing ability of guanylyl cyclase-D (GC-D), a membrane GC exclusively expressed in the CO(2)-responsive OSNs, by directly acting on the intracellular cyclase domain of GC-D. Also, the molecular mechanism for GC-D activation is distinct from the commonly believed model of "release from repression" for other membrane GCs. Our results contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of CO(2) sensing and suggest diverse mechanisms of molecular activation among membrane GCs.

  7. Adenylate cyclase in striatal cholinergic interneurons regulates acetylcholine release.

    PubMed

    Login, I S; Hewlett, E L

    1996-10-07

    Fractional [3H]ACH efflux from dissociated rat striata tested whether tonic inhibition prevents stimulation of acetylcholine (ACH) release by adenylate cyclase. Forskolin stimulated release from the dissociated cells (threshold at 300 nM; EC50 > or = 1 MicroM). Release was also stimulated by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and was additive with forskolin. The 1,9-dideoxy forskolin analog that lacks cyclase-stimulating activity was ineffective. Thus, stimulation of adenylate cyclase within striatal cholinergic interneurons increases ACH secretion but is tonically inhibited by endogenous striatal transmitters. Disinhibition of the excitatory cyclase by denervation of striatal cholinergic interneurons in situ could contribute to supersensitivity without receptor upregulation.

  8. Effect of association with adenylyl cyclase-associated protein on the interaction of yeast adenylyl cyclase with Ras protein.

    PubMed

    Shima, F; Yamawaki-Kataoka, Y; Yanagihara, C; Tamada, M; Okada, T; Kariya, K; Kataoka, T

    1997-03-01

    Posttranslational modification of Ras protein has been shown to be critical for interaction with its effector molecules, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae adenylyl cyclase. However, the mechanism of its action was unknown. In this study, we used a reconstituted system with purified adenylyl cyclase and Ras proteins carrying various degrees of the modification to show that the posttranslational modification, especially the farnesylation step, is responsible for 5- to 10-fold increase in Ras-dependent activation of adenylyl cyclase activity even though it has no significant effect on their binding affinity. The stimulatory effect of farnesylation is found to depend on the association of adenylyl cyclase with 70-kDa adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (CAP), which was known to be required for proper in vivo response of adenylyl cyclase to Ras protein, by comparing the levels of Ras-dependent activation of purified adenylyl cyclase with and without bound CAP. The region of CAP required for this effect is mapped to its N-terminal segment of 168 amino acid residues, which coincides with the region required for the in vivo effect. Furthermore, the stimulatory effect is successfully reconstituted by in vitro association of CAP with the purified adenylyl cyclase molecule lacking the bound CAP. These results indicate that the association of adenylyl cyclase with CAP is responsible for the stimulatory effect of posttranslational modification of Ras on its activity and that this may be the mechanism underlying its requirement for the proper in vivo cyclic AMP response.

  9. Ethanolic extract of Tulipa edulis Bak induces apoptosis in SGC-7901 human gastric carcinoma cells via the mitochondrial signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    LIN, RUHUI; LI, ZUANFANG; LIN, JIUMAO; YE, JINXIA; CAI, QIAOYAN; CHEN, LIDIAN; PENG, JUN

    2015-01-01

    Tulipa edulis Bak (TEB) is an active ingredient in various traditional Chinese medicine compounds and is commonly used to treat swelling and redness, remove toxicity and eliminate stagnation, as well as to prevent and treat certain cancer types. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of the anticancer activity of TEB remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of the ethanolic extract of TEB (EETEB) on SGC-7901 human gastric carcinoma cells. An MTT assay was performed to analyze cell viability. In addition, transmission electron microscopy, an Annexin V/fluorescein isothiocyanate assay, a JC-1 assay and laser scanning confocal microscopy with DAPI staining were used to determine the rate of apoptosis. Furthermore, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to detect the expression levels of the apoptosis gene and protein. EETEB was identified to inhibit the growth of SGC-7901 cells in a dose-dependent manner and induce changes in cell morphology. At the molecular level, EETEB induced SGC-7901 cell DNA fragmentation, loss of plasma membrane and asymmetrical collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential, while it increased the expression of pro-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein and reduced expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Thus, the results of the current study revealed that the application of EETEB may inhibit the growth of the SGC-7901 cells due to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. PMID:26622854

  10. Ethanolic extract of Tulipa edulis Bak induces apoptosis in SGC-7901 human gastric carcinoma cells via the mitochondrial signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ruhui; Li, Zuanfang; Lin, Jiumao; Ye, Jinxia; Cai, Qiaoyan; Chen, Lidian; Peng, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Tulipa edulis Bak (TEB) is an active ingredient in various traditional Chinese medicine compounds and is commonly used to treat swelling and redness, remove toxicity and eliminate stagnation, as well as to prevent and treat certain cancer types. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of the anticancer activity of TEB remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of the ethanolic extract of TEB (EETEB) on SGC-7901 human gastric carcinoma cells. An MTT assay was performed to analyze cell viability. In addition, transmission electron microscopy, an Annexin V/fluorescein isothiocyanate assay, a JC-1 assay and laser scanning confocal microscopy with DAPI staining were used to determine the rate of apoptosis. Furthermore, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to detect the expression levels of the apoptosis gene and protein. EETEB was identified to inhibit the growth of SGC-7901 cells in a dose-dependent manner and induce changes in cell morphology. At the molecular level, EETEB induced SGC-7901 cell DNA fragmentation, loss of plasma membrane and asymmetrical collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential, while it increased the expression of pro-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein and reduced expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Thus, the results of the current study revealed that the application of EETEB may inhibit the growth of the SGC-7901 cells due to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis.

  11. Overexpression of ECRG4 enhances chemosensitivity to 5-fluorouracil in the human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cell line.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cheng-Ping; Wu, Bi-Hua; Wang, Bai-Qiang; Fu, Mao-Yong; Yang, Ming; Zhou, Yue; Liu, Fu

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of esophageal cancer-related gene 4 (ECRG4) expression levels on chemotherapeutic sensitivity of gastric cancer cells. A SGC-7901 cell system with tetracycline-inducible ECRG4 expression (SGC-7901/ECRG4) was successfully established. ECRG4 mRNA and protein expression levels were detected using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. Chemosensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was examined by cell proliferation assay and cell apoptosis assay. ECRG4 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly upregulated in SGC-7901/ECRG4 cells induced with tetracycline. Compared with control cells, the growth inhibition rate of cells with ECRG4 overexpression was significantly increased when treated with 5-FU. Treatment with 5 μmol/l 5-FU resulted in 15.2 % apoptotic cells, whereas such treatment after overexpression of ECRG4 resulted in 44.5 % apoptotic cells. In conclusion, overexpression of ECRG4 enhanced the chemosensitivity of gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells to 5-FU through induction of apoptosis.

  12. A study of the single SGC7901 and GES1 cell using synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Qi, Zeming; Wang, Shengyi; Hu, Meicong; Liu, Gang; Tian, Yangchao

    2011-05-01

    In order to obtain unique information of the single gastric cancer cell and investigate gastric cancer further at the cellular and subcellular level, synchrotron infrared (SR-IR) microspectroscopy and imaging was used to study human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line SGC7901 and normal gastric mucosal epithelial cell line GES1. When we compared the infrared micro-spectra of the SGC7901 cells with those of the GES1 cells, the peak height ratios of 1121 cm -1/1020 cm -1 (RNA/DNA) of the SGC7901 cells were significantly higher than those of the GES1 cells, which might be useful for distinguishing malignant cells from normal cells. Furthermore, chemical imaging reveals that the amide II/the amide I ratio of the SGC7901 cell is lower than that of the GES1 cell in the most intense absorption region of vPO2-. The result indicates the study of the single gastric cancer cell at subcellular level by synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy and imaging can provide more detailed information which is very helpful for the research and diagnosis of gastric cancer.

  13. Single-dose pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, tolerability, and safety of the soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator BAY 63-2521: an ascending-dose study in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Frey, Reiner; Mück, Wolfgang; Unger, Sigrun; Artmeier-Brandt, Ulrike; Weimann, Gerrit; Wensing, Georg

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of BAY 63-2521, a new drug in development for pulmonary hypertension. Fifty-eight healthy male volunteers received a single oral dose of BAY 63-2521 (0.25-5 mg) or placebo. No serious adverse events were reported; there were no life-threatening events. Heart rate over 1 minute, an indicator of the effect of a vasodilating agent on the cardiovascular system in healthy subjects, was increased dose dependently versus placebo at BAY 63-2521 doses of 1 to 5 mg (P < .01). Mean arterial and diastolic pressures were decreased versus placebo at doses of 1 mg (P < .05) and 5 mg (P < .01). Systolic pressure was not significantly affected. BAY 63-2521 was readily absorbed and exhibited dose-proportional pharmacokinetics. The pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of BAY 63-2521 suggest that it can offer a unique mode of action in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

  14. [Morphological observation of human gastric cancer cell SGC-7901 clones and identification of gastric cancer stem cells].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong-qiong; Zhou, Zhi-hua; Zhang, You-li; Xu, Min; Xu, Ping; Wu, Ying; Wang, Yin-huan

    2013-03-01

    To dynamically investigate the morphology of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cell clones, and then compare the tumorigenic ability of different clones in order to identify the tumor stem cell clones. Clones derived from gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells were assessed by morphological observation, and the clone formation rate and proportion of each clone were calculated. The expression of CD44 and CDX2 in different clones was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blot. Furthermore, different clones were isolated and cultured, and their self-renewal property was assayed. Cells of different clones were subcutaneously inoculated into nude mice and the tumorigenic ability of each group was determined. Clones derived from gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells had three types, i.e. clones of tight, transitional and loose types. The total clone formation rate was (9.80 ± 1.07)%, and the proportion of tight, transitional and loose type clones was 10.2%, 56.0% and 33.8%, respectively. The results of immunofluorescence microscopic examination showed that the signal of CD44 was significantly stronger in the tight clones than in the transitional and loose clones, however, the signal of CDX2 was weakest in the tight colonies. The results of Western blot were consistent with that of immunofluorescence microscopic observation. SGC-7901 cells of tight clones possessed strong ability of self-renewal and in vivo tumorigenicity in the nude mice. SGC-7901 cell clones vary in morphology and differentiation, and the tight type clones may include rich gastric cancer stem cells.

  15. Adenylyl cyclases in the digestive system

    PubMed Central

    Sabbatini, Maria Eugenia; Gorelick, Fred; Glaser, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) are a group of widely distributed enzymes whose functions are very diverse. There are nine known transmembrane AC isoforms activated by Gαs. Each has its own pattern of expression in the digestive system and differential regulation of function by Ca2+ and other intracellular signals. In addition to the transmembrane isoforms, one AC is soluble and exhibits distinct regulation. In this review, the basic structure, regulation and physiological roles of ACs in the digestive system are discussed. PMID:24521753

  16. Adenylyl cyclases in the digestive system.

    PubMed

    Sabbatini, Maria Eugenia; Gorelick, Fred; Glaser, Shannon

    2014-06-01

    Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) are a group of widely distributed enzymes whose functions are very diverse. There are nine known transmembrane AC isoforms activated by Gαs. Each has its own pattern of expression in the digestive system and differential regulation of function by Ca(2+) and other intracellular signals. In addition to the transmembrane isoforms, one AC is soluble and exhibits distinct regulation. In this review, the basic structure, regulation and physiological roles of ACs in the digestive system are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Isoform-targeted regulation of cardiac adenylyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yoshihiro

    2003-01-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to develop strategies for regulating the intracellular cyclic AMP signal pharmacologically, with an intention to establish either new medical therapeutic methods or experimental tools. In the past decades, many pharmacological reagents have been identified that regulate this pathway at the level of the receptor. G protein, adenylyl cyclase, cyclic AMP, protein kinase A and phosphodiesterase. Since the cloning of adenylyl cyclase isoforms during the 1990s, investigators including ourselves have tried to find reagents that regulate the activity of this enzyme directly in an isoform-dependent manner. The ultimate goal of developing such reagents would be to regulate the cyclic AMP signal in an organ-dependent manner. Ourselves and other workers have reported that such reagents may vary from a simple cation to kinases. In a more recent study, using the results from crystallographic studies and computer-assisted drug design programs, we have identified subtype-selective regulators of adenylyl cyclase. Such regulators are mostly based upon forskolin, a diterpene compound obtained from Coleus forskolii, that acts directly on adenylyl cyclase to increase the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP. Similarly, novel reagents have been identified that inhibit a specific adenylyl cyclase isoform (e.g. type 5 adenylyl cyclase). Such reagents would potentially provide a new therapeutic strategy to treat hypertension, for example, as well as methods to selectively stimulate or inhibit this adenylyl cyclase isoform, which may be reminiscent of overexpression or knocking out of the cardiac adenylyl cyclase isoform by the use of a pharmacological method.

  18. Peptide B targets soluble guanylyl cyclase α1 and kills prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Gao, Shuai; Hsieh, Chen-Lin; Malla, Mamata; Shemshedini, Lirim

    2017-01-01

    Among androgen-regulated genes, soluble guanylyl cyclase α1 (sGCα1) is significant in promoting the survival and growth of prostate cancer cells and does so independent of nitric oxide (NO) signaling. Peptides were designed targeting sGCα1 to block its pro-cancer functions and one peptide is discussed here. Peptide B-8R killed both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer cells that expressed sGCα1, but not cells that do not express this gene. Peptide B-8R induced apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. Importantly, Peptide B-8R does not affect nor its cytotoxicity depend on NO signaling, despite the fact that it associates with sGCα1, which dimerizes with sGCβ1 to form the sGC enzyme. Just as with a previously studied Peptide A-8R, Peptide B-8R induced elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in prostate cancer cells, but using a ROS-sequestering agent showed that ROS was not responsible the cytotoxic activity of Peptide B-8R. Interestingly, Peptide B-8R induced elevated levels of p53 and phosphorylated p38, but neither of these changes is the cause of the peptide's cytotoxicity. Additional drugs were used to alter levels of iron levels in cells and these studies showed that Peptide B-8R activity does not depend on Ferroptosis. Thus, future work will be directed at defining the mechanism of cytotoxic action of Peptide B-8R against prostate cancer cells.

  19. Crystallization of cyclase-associated protein from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Andreas; Hess, Sonja; Noegel, Angelika A; Schleicher, Michael; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2002-10-01

    Cyclase-associated protein (CAP) is a conserved two-domain protein that helps to activate the catalytic activity of adenylyl cyclase in the cyclase-bound state through interaction with Ras, which binds to the cyclase in a different region. With its other domain, CAP can bind monomeric actin and therefore also carries a cytoskeletal function. The protein is thus involved in Ras/cAMP-dependent signal transduction and most likely serves as an adapter protein translocating the adenylyl cyclase complex to the actin cytoskeleton. Crystals belonging to the orthorhombic space group C222, with unit-cell parameters a = 71.2, b = 75.1, c = 162.9 A, have been obtained from Dictyostelium discoideum CAP carrying a C-terminal His tag. A complete native data set extending to 2.2 A resolution was collected from a single crystal using an in-house X-ray system. The asymmetric unit contains one molecule of CAP.

  20. ERK1/2 signalling pathway is involved in CD147-mediated gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 proliferation and invasion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liping; Pan, Yuqin; Gu, Ling; Nie, Zhenlin; He, Bangshun; Song, Guoqi; Li, Rui; Xu, Yeqiong; Gao, Tianyi; Wang, Shukui

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of CD147 in the progression of gastric cancer and the signalling pathway involved in CD147-mediated gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 proliferation and invasion. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vectors targeting CD147 were constructed to silence CD147, and the expression of CD147 was monitored by quantitative realtime reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot and further confirmed by immunohistochemistry in vivo. Cell proliferation was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, the activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 were determined by gelatin zymography, and the invasion of SGC7901 was determined by invasion assay. The phosphorylation and non-phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), P38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase were examined by Western blot. Additionally, the ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 were used to confirm the signalling pathway involved in CD147-mediated SGC7901 progression. The BALB/c nude mice were used to study tumour progression in vivo. The results revealed that CD147 silencing inhibited the proliferation and invasion of SGC7901 cells, and down-regulated the activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and the phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 in SGC7901 cells. ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 decreased the proliferation, and invasion of SGC7901 cells, and down-regulated the MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities. In a nude mouse model of subcutaneous xenografts, the tumour volume was significantly smaller in the SGC7901/shRNA group compared to the SGC7901 and SGC7901/snc-RNA group. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that CD147 and p-ERK1/2 protein expressions were down-regulated in the SGC7901/shRNA2 group compared to the SGC7901 and SGC7901/snc-RNA group. These results suggest that ERK1/2 pathway involves in CD147-mediated gastric cancer growth and invasion. These findings further highlight the importance of CD147 in cancer progression

  1. Reduction of obstruction related bladder overactivity by the guanylyl cyclase modulators BAY 41-2272 and BAY 60-2770 alone or in combination with a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Füllhase, C; Hennenberg, M; Sandner, P; Strittmatter, F; Niedworok, C; Bauer, R M; Gratzke, C; Soler, R; Stief, C; Andersson, K E

    2015-11-01

    To assess the urodynamic effects of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) stimulator, BAY 41-2272, and activator, BAY 60-2770, (which both are able to induce cGMP synthesis even in the absence of nitric oxide (NO)) alone or in combination with a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, vardenafil, in a model of partial urethral obstruction (PUO) induced bladder overactivity (BO). Fifty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were used, 31 of them underwent PUO. Fourteen rats were used for Western blots to assess PDE5 and sGC expression. For drug evaluation cystometry without anesthesia was performed three days following bladder catheterization. Obstructed rats showed higher micturition frequency and bladder pressures than non-obstructed animals (Intermicturition Interval, IMI, 2.28 ± 0.55 vs. 3.60 ± 0.60 min (± standard deviation, SD); maximum micturition pressure, MMP, 70.1 ± 8.0 vs. 48.8 ± 7.2 cmH2O; both P < 0.05). In obstructed rats vardenafil, BAY 41-2272, and BAY 60-2770 increased IMI (2.77 ± 1.12, 2.62 ± 0.52, and 3.22 ± 1.04 min; all P < 0.05) and decreased MMP (54.4 ± 2.8, 61.5 ± 11.3, and 51.2 ± 6.3 cmH2O; all P < 0.05). When vardenafil was given following BAY 41-2272 or BAY 60-2770 no further urodynamic effects were observed. PDE5 as well as sGC protein expression was reduced in obstructed bladder tissue. Targeting sGC via stimulators or activators, which increase the levels of cGMP independent of endogenous NO, is as effective as vardenafil to reduce urodynamic signs of BO. Targeting the NO/cGMP pathway via compounds acting on sGC might become a new approach to treat BO. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Antineoplastic effects of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Slungaard, A; Confer, D L; Jacob, H S; Eaton, J W

    1983-01-01

    Urea extracts of B. pertussis, but not B. bronchiseptica, cause large and sustained intracellular cAMP elevation in several neoplastic cell lines. These cAMP elevations are associated with growth inhibition (HL-60, Friend erythroleukemia) and a phenotypic change/differentiation (HL-60, L1210). B. pertussis extract injections prolong survival of L1210 tumor-bearing mice. Pretreatment of L1210 cells with B. pertussis extract both delays mortality and induces growth of solid tumors instead of ascites in subsequently inoculated mice. We conclude that B. pertussis adenylate cyclase is capable of invading a variety of neoplastic cells to catalyze the intracellular formation of large amounts of cAMP. These cAMP elevations are durable and promote growth arrest, differentiation, or phenotypic alterations reflected in altered biologic behavior. B. pertussis adenylate cyclase should prove to be a useful tool for manipulating cAMP levels in neoplastic cells to elucidate the role of cAMP in malignant transformation.

  3. The linker region in receptor guanylyl cyclases is a key regulatory module: mutational analysis of guanylyl cyclase C.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sayanti; Biswas, Kabir Hassan; Kondapalli, Chandana; Isloor, Nishitha; Visweswariah, Sandhya S

    2009-10-02

    Receptor guanylyl cyclases are multidomain proteins, and ligand binding to the extracellular domain increases the levels of intracellular cGMP. The intracellular domain of these receptors is composed of a kinase homology domain (KHD), a linker of approximately 70 amino acids, followed by the C-terminal guanylyl cyclase domain. Mechanisms by which these receptors are allosterically regulated by ligand binding to the extracellular domain and ATP binding to the KHD are not completely understood. Here we examine the role of the linker region in receptor guanylyl cyclases by a series of point mutations in receptor guanylyl cyclase C. The linker region is predicted to adopt a coiled coil structure and aid in dimerization, but we find that the effects of mutations neither follow a pattern predicted for a coiled coil peptide nor abrogate dimerization. Importantly, this region is critical for repressing the guanylyl cyclase activity of the receptor in the absence of ligand and permitting ligand-mediated activation of the cyclase domain. Mutant receptors with high basal guanylyl cyclase activity show no further activation in the presence of non-ionic detergents, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions in the basal and inactive conformation of the guanylyl cyclase domain are disrupted by mutation. Equivalent mutations in the linker region of guanylyl cyclase A also elevated the basal activity and abolished ligand- and detergent-mediated activation. We, therefore, have defined a key regulatory role for the linker region of receptor guanylyl cyclases which serves as a transducer of information from the extracellular domain via the KHD to the catalytic domain.

  4. Structure of the caspase-recruitment domain from a zebrafish guanylate-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tengchuan; Huang, Mo; Smith, Patrick; Jiang, Jiansheng; Xiao, T Sam

    2013-08-01

    The caspase-recruitment domain (CARD) mediates homotypic protein-protein interactions that assemble large oligomeric signaling complexes such as the inflammasomes during innate immune responses. Structural studies of the mammalian CARDs demonstrate that their six-helix bundle folds belong to the death-domain superfamily, whereas such studies have not been reported for other organisms. Here, the zebrafish interferon-induced guanylate-binding protein 1 (zIGBP1) was identified that contains an N-terminal GTPase domain and a helical domain typical of the mammalian guanylate-binding proteins, followed by a FIIND domain and a C-terminal CARD similar to the mammalian inflammasome proteins NLRP1 and CARD8. The structure of the zIGBP1 CARD as a fusion with maltose-binding protein was determined at 1.47 Å resolution. This revealed a six-helix bundle fold similar to the NLRP1 CARD structure with the bent α1 helix typical of all known CARD structures. The zIGBP1 CARD surface contains a positively charged patch near its α1 and α4 helices and a negatively charged patch near its α2, α3 and α5 helices, which may mediate its interaction with partner domains. Further studies using binding assays and other analyses will be required in order to address the physiological function(s) of this zebrafish protein.

  5. A novel antithrombotic effect of sulforaphane via activation of platelet adenylate cyclase: ex vivo and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Chen, Wei-Fan; Lu, Wan-Jung; Chou, Duen-Suey; Hsiao, George; Hsu, Chung-Yi; Sheu, Joen-Rong; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying

    2013-06-01

    Sulforaphane is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate, which can be found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli and cabbage. Sulforaphane was found to have very potent inhibitory effects on tumor growth through regulation of diverse mechanisms. However, no data are available concerning the effects of sulforaphane on platelet activation and its relative issues. Activation of platelets caused by arterial thrombosis is relevant to a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine the in vivo antithrombotic effects of sulforaphane and its possible mechanisms in platelet activation. Sulforaphane (0.125 and 0.25 mg/kg) was effective in reducing the mortality of ADP-induced acute pulmonary thromboembolism in mice. Other in vivo studies also revealed that sulforaphane (0.25 mg/kg) significantly prolonged platelet plug formation in mice. In addition, sulforaphane (15-75 μM) exhibited more-potent activity of inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen. Sulforaphane inhibited platelet activation accompanied by inhibiting relative Ca(2+) mobilization; phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC)γ2, protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Akt; and hydroxyl radical (OH(●)) formation. Sulforaphane markedly increased cyclic (c)AMP, but not cyclic (c)GMP levels, and stimulated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation. SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, but not ODQ (1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxal in-1-one), an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, obviously reversed the sulforaphane-mediated effects on platelet aggregation; PKC activation, p38 MAPK, Akt and VASP phosphorylation; and OH(●) formation. Furthermore, a PI3-kinase inhibitor (LY294002) and a p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) both significantly diminished PKC activation and p38 MAPK and Akt phosphorylation; in contrast, a PKC inhibitor (RO318220) did not diminish p38 MAPK or Akt phosphorylation stimulated by collagen. This

  6. Activation of fat cell adenylate cyclase by protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Naghshineh, S.; Noguchi, M.; Huang, K.P.; Londos, C.

    1986-05-01

    Purified protein kinase C (C-kinase) from guinea pig pancreas and rat brain stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in purified rat adipocyte membranes. Cyclase stimulation occurred over 100 to 1000 mU/ml of C-kinase activity, required greater than 10 ..mu..M calcium, proceeded without a lag, was not readily reversible, and required no exogenous phospholipid. Moreover, C-kinase inhibitors, such as chlorpromazine and palmitoyl carnitine, inhibited selectively adenylate cyclase which was activated by C-kinase and calcium. Depending on assay conditions, 10 nM 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) either enhanced or was required for kinase action on cyclase. Also, TPA plus calcium promoted the quantitative association of C-kinase with membranes. Adenylate cyclase activation by C-kinase was seen both in the presence and absence of exogenous GTP, indicating that the kinase effect does not result from an action on the GTP-binding, inhibitory regulatory component (N/sub i/) of the cyclase system. Moreover, the kinase effect was seen in the presence of non-phosphorylating ATP analogs, such as AppNHp and AppCH/sub 2/p, suggesting that the effects of C-kinase described herein may result from association with, rather than phosphorylation of, adenylate cyclase.

  7. Guanyl nucleotide interactions with dopaminergic binding sites labeled by (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol in human caudate and putamen: guanyl nucleotides enhance ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation and cause an apparent loss of high affinity binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Andorn, A.C.; Bacon, B.R.; Nguyen-Hunh, A.T.; Parlato, S.J.; Stitts, J.A.

    1988-02-01

    The human caudate and putamen contain two high affinity binding sites for (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol. Both of these affinity states exhibit dopaminergic selectivity. Ascorbic acid, at 0.1 mM, induces a slow loss of the low affinity component of (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol binding in these tissues. The addition of guanyl nucleotides to the ascorbate produces a more rapid loss of (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol binding which includes a loss of the highest affinity state for (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol. Ascorbate induces lipid peroxidation in human caudate and putamen, an effect that is further enhanced by guanyl and inosine nucleotides. In the absence of ascorbate, guanyl nucleotides have no effect on (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol binding but do decrease the affinity of dopamine at each affinity state greater than 60-fold. In the absence of ascorbate, guanyl nucleotides apparently decrease agonist affinity at human brain dopamine2-binding sites without causing an interconversion of agonist affinity states.

  8. Chinese medicine formula "Weikang Keli" induces autophagic cell death on human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901.

    PubMed

    Huo, Jiege; Qin, Fengxia; Cai, Xueting; Ju, Jianming; Hu, Chunping; Wang, Zhigang; Lu, Wuguang; Wang, Xiaoning; Cao, Peng

    2013-01-15

    Weikang Keli (constitutes of Root of Codonopsis pilosula, Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, Rhizoma Curcumae Aeruginosae, Rhizoma Pinelliae, Actinidia chinensis Planch, and Rhodiola rosea) is a well known Chinese herbal formula for gastric cancer therapy in clinical treatment. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms involved are still not fully understood. In this study, we found that Weikang Keli could induce patterns of autophagy in SGC-7901 cells, including intracellular vacuole formation, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) conversion. Hoechst 33258 staining and Western blot analysis of apoptosis-related proteins showed that WK induced SGC-7901 cell death was not through apoptosis. In vivo study also revealed that i.g. administration of Weikang Keli once a day for 25 days could significantly reduce tumor volumes by about 50%. Collectively, the current data indicated that Weikang Keli induced gastric cancer cell death by autophagy effects.

  9. Cellular interactions uncouple beta-adrenergic receptors from adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Ciment, G; de Vellis, J

    1978-11-17

    C6 glioma cells and B104 neuroblastoma cells both possess adenylate cyclase activity, but only C6 cells have beta-adrenergic receptors. However, when cocultured with B104 cells, C6 cells show a marked decrease in their ability to accumulate adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate upon stimulation with beta receptor agonists. Since both beta receptors and cholera toxin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activities are present in C6/B104 cocultures, we conclude that the beta receptor/adenylate cyclase transduction mechanism in cocultured C6 cells is uncoupled.

  10. Crystal Structure of Thioesterase SgcE10 Supporting Common Polyene Intermediates in 9- and 10-Membered Enediyne Core Biosynthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Annaval, Thibault; Rudolf, Jeffrey D.; Chang, Chin-Yuan; ...

    2017-08-30

    Enediynes are potent natural product anticancer antibiotics, and are classified as 9- or 10-membered according to the size of their enediyne core carbon skeleton. Both 9- and 10-membered enediyne cores are biosynthesized by the enediyne polyketide synthase (PKSE), thioesterase (TE), and PKSE-associated enzymes. Though the divergence between 9- and 10-membered enediyne core biosynthesis remains unclear, it has been observed that nascent polyketide intermediates, tethered to the acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain of PKSE, could be released by TE in the absence of the PKSE-associated enzymes. Here, we determined the crystal structure of SgcE10, the TE that participates in the biosynthesismore » of the 9-membered enediyne C-1027. Structural comparison of SgcE10 with CalE7 and DynE7, two TEs that participate in the biosynthesis of the 10-membered enediynes calicheamicin and dynemicin, respectively, revealed that they share a common α/β hot-dog fold. The amino acids involved in both substrate binding and catalysis are conserved among SgcE10, CalE7, and DynE7. The volume and the shape of the substrate-binding channel and active site in SgcE10, CalE7, and DynE7 confirm that TEs from both 9- and 10-membered enediyne biosynthetic machineries bind the linear form of similar ACP-tethered polyene intermediates. Taken together, our findings further support the proposal that the divergence between 9- and 10-membered enediyne core biosynthesis occurs beyond PKSE and TE catalysis.« less

  11. Adenylate cyclases involvement in pathogenicity, a minireview.

    PubMed

    Costache, Adriana; Bucurenci, Nadia; Onu, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP), one of the most important secondary messengers, is produced by adenylate cyclase (AC) from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). AC is a widespread enzyme, being present both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although they have the same enzymatic activity (ATP cyclization), the structure of these proteins varies, depending on their function and the producing organism. Some pathogenic bacteria utilize these enzymes as toxins which interact with calmodulin (or another eukaryote activator), causing intense cAMP synthesis and disruption of infected cell functions. In contrast, other pathogenic bacteria benefit of augmentation of AC activity for their own function. Based on sequence analysis ofAC catalytic domain from two pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus anthracis and Bordetellapertussis) with known three-dimensional structures, a possible secondary structure for 1-255 amino acid fragment from Pseudomonas aeruginosa AC (with 80TKGFSVKGKSS90 as the ATP binding site) is proposed.

  12. The concomitant coronary vasodilator and positive inotropic actions of the nitroxyl donor Angeli's salt in the intact rat heart: contribution of soluble guanylyl cyclase-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chin, Kai Yee; Qin, Chengxue; Cao, Nga; Kemp-Harper, Barbara K; Woodman, Owen L; Ritchie, Rebecca H

    2014-04-01

    The NO redox sibling nitroxyl (HNO) elicits soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)-dependent vasodilatation. HNO has high reactivity with thiols, which is attributed with HNO-enhanced left ventricular (LV) function. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the concomitant vasodilatation and inotropic actions induced by a HNO donor, Angeli's salt (sodium trioxodinitrate), were sGC-dependent and sGC-independent respectively. Haemodynamic responses to Angeli's salt (10 pmol-10 μmol), alone and in the presence of scavengers of HNO (L-cysteine, 4 mM) or of NO [hydroxocobalamin (HXC), 100 μM] or a selective inhibitor of sGC [1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), 10 μM], a CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP8-37 , 0.1 μM) or a blocker of voltage-dependent potassium channels [4-aminopyridine (4-AP), 1 mM] were determined in isolated hearts from male rats. Angeli's salt elicited concomitant, dose-dependent increases in coronary flow and LV systolic and diastolic function. Both L-cysteine and ODQ shifted (but did not abolish) the dose-response curve of each of these effects to the right, implying contributions from HNO and sGC in both the vasodilator and inotropic actions. In contrast, neither HXC, CGRP8-37 nor 4-AP affected these actions. Both vasodilator and inotropic actions of the HNO donor Angeli's salt were mediated in part by sGC-dependent mechanisms, representing the first evidence that sGC contributes to the inotropic and lusitropic action of HNO in the intact heart. Thus, HNO acutely enhances LV contraction and relaxation, while concomitantly unloading the heart, potentially beneficial actions in failing hearts. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Mesenchymal stem cell-like cells from children foreskin inhibit the growth of SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yahong; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Cheng, Zhihong; Zhan, Jie; Sun, Xiaochun; Qian, Hui; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Wenrong

    2013-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) become a research hotspot in recent years because of their roles in regenerative medicine and tissue injury repair. However, the limited source for MSCs hampers its clinical application. In this study, we isolated and identified human mesenchymal stem cell-like cells from foreskin (hFMSCs) by explant culture. HFMSCs had similar morphology and immunophenotype to that of human bone marrow derived-mesenchymal stem cells. HFMSCs formed colonies after 9 days of inoculation and could be propagated for more than 50 passages. HFMSCs had a normal karyotype and high G0/G1 phase independent of passage number. Further, hFMSCs could be induced to differentiate into osteocytes and adipocytes. We found that the growth of SGC-7901 (human gastric adenocarcinoma) cells could be suppressed by simultaneous injection of hFMSCs in vivo. HFMSCs also inhibited SGC-7901 cell proliferation in vitro. HFMSC co-injection resulted in a decrease in PCNA-positive and an increase in apoptotic tumor cells. HFMSCs derived conditioned medium inhibited the expression of BCL-2 while increased the expression of BAX and caspase-3 in SGC-7901 cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that children foreskin is a new source for MSCs and hFMSCs could inhibit gastric cancer cell growth both in vitro and in vivo.

  14. ERK1/2 inhibition enhances apoptosis induced by JAK2 silencing in human gastric cancer SGC7901 cells.

    PubMed

    Qian, Cuijuan; Yao, Jun; Wang, Jiji; Wang, Lan; Xue, Meng; Zhou, Tianhua; Liu, Weili; Si, Jianmin

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies suggest JAK2 signaling may be a therapeutic target for treatment of gastric cancer (GC). However, the exact roles of JAK2 in gastric carcinogenesis are not very clear. Here, we have targeted JAK2 to be silenced by shRNA and investigated the biological functions and related mechanisms of JAK2 in GC cell SGC7901. In this study, JAK2 is commonly highly expressed in GC tissues as compared to their adjacent normal tissues (n = 75, p < 0.01). Specific down-regulation of JAK2 suppressed cell proliferation and colony-forming units, induced G2/M arrest in SGC7901 cells, but had no significant effect on cell apoptosis in vitro or tumor growth inhibition in vivo. Interestingly, JAK2 silencing-induced activation of ERK1/2, and inactivation of ERK1/2 using the specific ERK inhibitor PD98059 markedly enhanced JAK2 shRNA-induced cell proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Ultimately, combination of PD98059 and JAK2 shRNA significantly inhibited tumor growth in nude mice. Our results implicate JAK2 silencing-induced cell proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest, and ERK1/2 inhibition could enhance apoptosis induced by JAK2 silencing in SGC7901 cells.

  15. Cantharidin induces G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 and BGC-823 cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, CHENJING; CHEN, ZHONGTING; ZHOU, XINGLU; XU, WEN; WANG, GANG; TANG, XIAOXIAO; LUO, LAISHENG; TU, JIANGFENG; ZHU, YIMIAO; HU, WEN; XU, XIANG; PAN, WENSHENG

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cantharidin (CTD) on human gastric cancer cells and to explore the underlying mechanisms of these effects. The human gastric cancer SGC-7901 and BGC-823 cell lines were treated with CTD. MTS assays were then employed to examine cellular proliferation, flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell cycle and apoptosis, and western blot analysis was used to determine protein expression levels. It was found that CTD inhibited the proliferation of the human gastric cancer SGC-7901 and BGC-823 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner in vitro. CTD also induced G2/M phase arrest and cellular apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, CTD increased the levels of p21, caspase-7, -8 and -9, activated caspase-3, poly ADP ribose polymerase and Bad, but decreased the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase 1, cyclin A and B, B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and Bid. The present results suggested that CTD may inhibit the proliferation of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 and BGC-823 cells in vitro by inducing G2/M phase arrest and cell apoptosis. CTD may induce cellular G2/M phase arrest by regulating cycle-associated proteins and induce apoptosis by activating a caspase cascade or regulating the Bcl-2 family proteins. PMID:25364455

  16. Effects of simulated weightlessness on cellular morphology and biological characteristics of cell lines SGC-7901 and HFE-145.

    PubMed

    Zhu, M; Jin, X W; Wu, B Y; Nie, J L; Li, Y H

    2014-08-07

    We investigated the effects of simulated weightlessness on cellular morphology, proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis of the human gastric carcinoma cell line SGC-7901 and the human gastric normal cell line HFE-145. A rotating clinostat was used to simulate weightlessness. The Image-Pro4.5 image analysis system was used for morphometric analysis. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression was examined by immunohistochemical staining. Changes in the cell cycle were examined using a cytometer. Apoptosis was measured using the terminal dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method. When subjected to simulated weightlessness, the cellular morphology of SGC-7901 cells was changed at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h, cell conversion from the G1 to S phase was blocked, proliferation was inhibited at 48 and 72 h, and the apoptosis index was increased at 72 h. The same changes were observed for HFE-145 cells at 12 h when subjected to simulated weightlessness, but no significant changes were found afterward compared with controls. SGC-7901 cells change their cellular morphology and biological characteristics during clinostat-simulated weightlessness at 72 h, but HFE-145 cells only change at 12 h and adapt to simulated weightlessness after that point.

  17. Isoalantolactone, a sesquiterpene lactone, induces apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells via mitochondrial and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Rasul, Azhar; Khan, Muhammad; Yu, Bo; Ali, Muhammad; Bo, Yang Jing; Yang, Hong; Ma, Tonghui

    2013-10-01

    Isoalantolactone, a sesquiterpene lactone, possesses anti-fungal as well as cytotoxic properties. In this study, the effects of Isoalantolactone on cell viability, cell cycle, and apoptosis were investigated in human gastric adenocarcinoma SGC-7901 cells. The results demonstrated that Isoalantolactone induced morphological changes and decreased cell viability. Subsequently, we found that Isoalantolactone induced G2/M and S phase arrest, which was associated with a decrease in the expression level of cyclin B1. Apoptosis triggered by Isoalantolactone was visualized using propidium iodide (PI) and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. Isoalantolactone-induced apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells was associated with the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m) that was due to the down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax that led to the cleavage of caspase-3. Additionally, it was found that Isoalantolactone was involved in the inhibition of phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt. Isoalantolactone-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells involve mitochondria-caspase and PI3K/Akt dependent pathways, which gives the rationale for in vivo studies on the utilization of Isoalantolactone as a potential cancer therapeutic compound.

  18. SKI-II reverses the chemoresistance of SGC7901/DDP gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Zhu, Zuan; Cai, Hongxing; Liu, Qinghua; Zhou, Honglian; Zhu, Zhengqiu

    2014-07-01

    Cisplatin is frequently used in treating gastric cancers; however, acquired resistance to the drug often reduces the efficacy of therapy. The present study analyzed the efficacy of the combination of 4-[4-(4-chloro-phenyl)-thiazol-2-ylamino]-phenol (SKI-II) and cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II); DDP] on the gastric cancer SGC7901/DDP cell line. The results revealed that SKI-II and DDP had a clear synergistic effect. Glutathione (GSH) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) levels decreased significantly subsequent to the cells being treated with the combination of DDP and SKI-II compared with the cells that were treated with DDP or SKI-II alone. Phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) expression levels also decreased following treatment with SKI-II. The results suggested that SKI-II is able to reverse the drug resistance in human gastric carcinoma cells and enhance the antitumor effect of DDP through the ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) proliferation pathway.

  19. Riociguat for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hambly, Nathan; Granton, John

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a critical signaling molecule in the pulmonary vasculature. NO activates soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) resulting in the synthesis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) - a key mediator of pulmonary artery vasodilatation that may also inhibit smooth muscle proliferation and platelet aggregation. Pulmonary hypertension, a serious, progressive and often fatal disease is characterized by NO-sGC-sGMP pathway dysregulation. Riociguat is a member of a novel therapeutic class known as soluble guanylate stimulators. Riociguat has a dual mode of action, acting in synergy with endogenous NO and also directly stimulating sGC independently of NO availability. Phase 3 randomized control trials have demonstrated that riociguat improves clinical, physiologic and hemodynamic parameters in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. In this review we will discuss the pharmacologic properties of riociguat and its appropriate implementation into clinical practice.

  20. Sodium nitrite causes relaxation of the isolated rat aorta: By stimulating both endothelial NO synthase and activating soluble guanylyl cyclase in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Ling, Wei Chih; Lau, Yeh Siang; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Mustafa, Mohd Rais

    2015-11-01

    Ingestion of dietary nitrites lowers arterial blood pressure in experimental animals and in humans. However, the exact mechanism underlying the hypotensive effect of nitrite remains unclear. The present study compared nitrite-induced responses in rings (with or without endothelium) of aortae of 18-20weeks old Wistar-Kyoto Rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats and investigated the underlying mechanism. Relaxations of aortae from WKY and SHR to increasing concentrations (1nM-100μM) of sodium nitrite (NaNO2) were determined during sustained contractions to phenylephrine, in the absence and presence of pharmacological agents. The nitrite-induced relaxations were concentration-dependent and larger in SHR than in WKY aortic rings. Inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the absence of endothelium decreased nitrite-induced relaxations in both WKY and SHR aortae, indicating the role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) in the response. The involvement of eNOS was further confirmed by increases in phosphorylation of eNOS at ser1177 in HUVEC cells following treatment with sodium nitrite. The presence of NO scavengers decreased the relaxation to nitrite in both WKY and SHR preparations while inhibition of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) abolished the response, indicating that besides producing NO, nitrite also induces relaxation by directly activating the enzyme. Thus, the present study demonstrates that the sensitivity to exogenous nitrite is increased in the aorta of the SHR compared to that of the WKY. The endothelium-dependent component of the relaxation to nitrite involves activation of eNOS with production of endothelium-derived NO, while the endothelium-independent component is due to stimulation of sGC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Adenylate cyclase activity in a higher plant, alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    PubMed Central

    Carricarte, V C; Bianchini, G M; Muschietti, J P; Téllez-Iñón, M T; Perticari, A; Torres, N; Flawiá, M M

    1988-01-01

    An adenylate cyclase activity in Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) roots was partially characterized. The enzyme activity remains in the supernatant fluid after centrifugation at 105,000 g and shows in crude extracts an apparent Mr of about 84,000. The enzyme is active with Mg2+ and Ca2+ as bivalent cations, and is inhibited by EGTA and by chlorpromazine. Calmodulin from bovine brain or spinach leaves activates this adenylate cyclase. PMID:3128270

  2. Primary structure of a guanyl-specific ribonuclease from the fungus Penicillium brevicompactum

    SciTech Connect

    Kulikov, V.A.; Shlyapnikov, S.V.; Yakovlev, G.I.

    1986-01-01

    By the automatic Edman degradation of the intact S-carboxymethylated protein and a mixture of the products of its proteolytic cleavage at Arg, Lys, and Glu residues, together with results on the kinetics of the proteolysis of the protein under the action of carboxypeptidase Y, the primary structure of the extracellular guanyl-specific RNase of the fungus Penicillium brevicompactum has been determined. The RNase contains 102 amino acid residues: 7 Asp, 7 Asn, 9 Thr, 11 Ser, 4 Glu, 1 Gln, 4 Pro, 10 Gly, 11 Ala, 4 Cys, 7 Val, 4 Ile, 3 Leu, 9 Tyr, 5 Phe, 2 Lys, 3 His, 1 Arg (M/sub r/ 10,801). It has been established that four hemicystine residues of the P. compactum RNase form, in pairs, two disulfide bonds

  3. IFN-induced Guanylate Binding Proteins in Inflammasome Activation and Host Defense

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bae-Hoon; Chee, Jonathan D.; Bradfield, Clinton J.; Park, Eui-Soon; Kumar, Pradeep; MacMicking, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional views of the inflammasome highlight pre-existing core components being assembled under basal conditions shortly after infection or tissue damage. Recent work, however, suggests the inflammasome machinery is also subject to tunable or inducible signals that may accelerate its autocatalytic properties and dictate where inflammasome assembly takes place in the cell. Many of these immune signals operate downstream of interferon (IFN) receptors to elicit inflammasome regulators, including a new family of IFN-induced GTPases termed guanylate binding proteins (GBPs). Here, we examine the critical roles for IFN-induced GBPs in directing inflammasome subtype-specific responses and their consequences for cell-autonomous immunity against a wide variety of microbial pathogens. We discuss emerging mechanisms of action and the potential impact of these GBPs on predisposition to sepsis and other infectious or inflammatory diseases. PMID:27092805

  4. Interferon-induced guanylate-binding proteins in inflammasome activation and host defense.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bae-Hoon; Chee, Jonathan D; Bradfield, Clinton J; Park, Eui-Soon; Kumar, Pradeep; MacMicking, John D

    2016-05-01

    Traditional views of the inflammasome highlight the assembly of pre-existing core components shortly after infection or tissue damage. Emerging work, however, suggests that the inflammasome machinery is also subject to 'tunable' or inducible signals that might accelerate its autocatalytic properties and dictate where inflammasome assembly takes place in the cell. Many of these signals operate downstream of interferon receptors to elicit inflammasome regulators, including a new family of interferon-induced GTPases called 'guanylate-binding proteins' (GBPs). Here we investigate the critical roles of interferon-induced GBPs in directing inflammasome subtype-specific responses and their consequences for cell-autonomous immunity to a wide variety of microbial pathogens. We discuss emerging mechanisms of action and the potential effect of these GBPs on predisposition to sepsis and other infectious or inflammatory diseases.

  5. Interferon-induced guanylate-binding proteins promote cytosolic lipopolysaccharide detection by caspase-11.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Etienne; Broz, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram-negative bacteria is a classical pathogen-associated molecular pattern and a strong inducer of immune responses. While the detection of LPS on the cell surface and in the endosome by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been studied for some time, it has only recently been discovered that LPS can also be sensed in the cytosol of cells by a noncanonical inflammasome pathway, resulting in the activation of the cysteine protease caspase-11. Intriguingly, activation of this pathway requires the production of interferons (IFNs) and the induction of a class of IFN-induced GTPases called guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs), which have previously been linked to cell-autonomous killing of intracellular microbes. In this study, we review the recent advances in our understanding of cytosolic LPS sensing and the function of mammalian GBPs.

  6. GTPase properties of the interferon-induced human guanylate-binding protein 2.

    PubMed

    Neun, R; Richter, M F; Staeheli, P; Schwemmle, M

    1996-07-15

    Guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) were originally described as proteins that are strongly induced by interferons and are capable of binding to agarose-immobilized guanine nucleotides. hGBP1, the first of two members of this protein family in humans, was recently shown to represent a novel type of GTPase that hydrolyzes GTP predominantly to GMP. We now report that purified recombinant hGBP2 also hydrolyzes GTP very efficiently, although GDP rather than GMP was the major reaction product. The biochemical parameters of this reaction were as follows: Km = 313 microM, turnover number = 22 min-1. Both hGBP1 and hGBP2 failed to hydrolyze GDP, however, GDP was an effective inhibitor of the hGBP2- but not the hGBP1-catalyzed GTP hydrolysis reaction. Thus, hGBP1 and hGBP2 have similar biochemical properties, but show pronounced differences in product specificity.

  7. Ultraviolet radiation augments epidermal beta-adrenergic adenylate cyclase response

    SciTech Connect

    Iizuka, H.; Kajita, S.; Ohkawara, A.

    1985-05-01

    Pig skin was irradiated in vivo with fluorescent sunlamp tubes (peak emission at 305 nm). A significant increase in epidermal beta-adrenergic adenylate cyclase response was observed as early as 12 h following 1-2 minimum erythema doses (MEDs) UVB exposure, which lasted at least 48 h. The augmentation of adenylate cyclase response was relatively specific to the beta-adrenergic system and there was no significant difference in either adenosine- or histamine-adenylate cyclase response of epidermis. The increased beta-adrenergic adenylate cyclase response was less marked at higher doses of UVB exposure (5 MEDs); in the latter condition, a significant reduction in adenosine- or histamine-adenylate cyclase response was observed. There was no significant difference in either low- or high-Km cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity between control and UVB-treated skin at 1-2 MEDs. These data indicate that the epidermal adenylate cyclase responses are affected in vivo by UVB irradiation, which might be a significant regulatory mechanism of epidermal cyclic AMP systems.

  8. Human guanylate binding proteins potentiate the anti-chlamydia effects of interferon-gamma.

    PubMed

    Tietzel, Illya; El-Haibi, Christelle; Carabeo, Rey A

    2009-08-04

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens that are sensitive to pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma. IFN-gamma-inducible murine p47 GTPases have been demonstrated to function in resistance to chlamydia infection in vivo and in vitro. Because the human genome does not encode IFN-gamma-inducible homologues of these proteins, the significance of the p47 GTPase findings to chlamydia pathogenesis in humans is unclear. Here we report a pair of IFN-gamma-inducible proteins, the human guanylate binding proteins (hGBPs) 1 and 2 that potentiate the anti-chlamydial properties of IFN-gamma. hGBP1 and 2 localize to the inclusion membrane, and their anti-chlamydial functions required the GTPase domain. Alone, hGBP1 or 2 have mild, but statistically significant and reproducible negative effects on the growth of Chlamydia trachomatis, whilst having potent anti-chlamydial activity in conjunction with treatment with a sub-inhibitory concentration of IFN-gamma. Thus, hGBPs appear to potentiate the anti-chlamydial effects of IFN-gamma. Indeed, depletion of hGBP1 and 2 in cells treated with IFN-gamma led to an increase in inclusion size, indicative of better growth. Interestingly, chlamydia species/strains harboring the full-length version of the putative cytotoxin gene, which has been suggested to confer resistance to IFN-gamma was not affected by hGBP overexpression. These findings identify the guanylate binding proteins as potentiators of IFN-gamma inhibition of C. trachomatis growth, and may be the targets of the chlamydial cytotoxin.

  9. Phylogenetic distribution of extracellular guanyl-preferring ribonucleases renews taxonomic status of two Bacillus strains.

    PubMed

    Ulyanova, Vera; Shah Mahmud, Raihan; Dudkina, Elena; Vershinina, Valentina; Domann, Eugen; Ilinskaya, Olga

    2016-09-12

    The potential of microbial ribonucleases as promising antitumor and antiviral agents, determines today's directions of their study. One direction is connected with biodiversity of RNases. We have analyzed completed and drafted Bacillus genomes deposited in GenBank for the presence of coding regions similar to the gene of an extracellular guanyl-preferring RNase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (barnase). Orthologues of the barnase gene were detected in 9 species out of 83. All of these belong to "B. subtilis" group within the genus. B. subtilis itself, as well as some other species within this group, lack such types of RNases. RNases similar to barnase were also found in species of "B. cereus" group as a part of plasmid-encoded S-layer toxins. It was also found that taxonomic states of culture collection strains, which were initially described based on a limited set of phenotypic characteristics, can be misleading and need to be confirmed. Using several approaches such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), sequencing of genes for 16S ribosomal RNA and RNA polymerase subunit beta followed by reconstruction of phylogenetic trees, we have re-identified two RNase-secreting Bacillus strains: B. thuringiensis B-388 which should be assigned as B. altitudinis B388 and B. intermedius 7P which should be renamed as B. pumilus 7P. Therefore, small secreted guanyl-preferring RNases are the feature of "B. subtilis" group only, which is characterized by distinctive lifestyle and adaptation strategies to environment.

  10. Endothelium-Dependent Contractions of Isolated Arteries to Thymoquinone Require Biased Activity of Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase with Subsequent Cyclic IMP Production.

    PubMed

    Detremmerie, Charlotte M; Chen, Zhengju; Li, Zhuoming; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Leung, Susan W S; Xu, Aimin; Gao, Yuansheng; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2016-09-01

    Preliminary experiments on isolated rat arteries demonstrated that thymoquinone, a compound widely used for its antioxidant properties and believed to facilitate endothelium-dependent relaxations, as a matter of fact caused endothelium-dependent contractions. The present experiments were designed to determine the mechanisms underlying this unexpected response. Isometric tension was measured in rings (with and without endothelium) of rat mesenteric arteries and aortae and of porcine coronary arteries. Precontracted preparations were exposed to increasing concentrations of thymoquinone, which caused concentration-dependent, sustained further increases in tension (augmentations) that were prevented by endothelium removal, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester [L-NAME; nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor], and 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; soluble guanylyl cyclase [sGC] inhibitor). In L-NAME-treated rings, the NO-donor diethylenetriamine NONOate restored the thymoquinone-induced augmentations; 5-[1-(phenylmethyl)-1H-indazol-3-yl]-2-furanmethanol (sGC activator) and cyclic IMP (cIMP) caused similar restorations. By contrast, in ODQ-treated preparations, the cell-permeable cGMP analog did not restore the augmentation by thymoquinone. The compound augmented the content (measured with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) of cIMP, but not that of cGMP; these increases in cIMP content were prevented by endothelium removal, L-NAME, and ODQ. The augmentation of contractions caused by thymoquinone was prevented in porcine arteries, but not in rat arteries, by 1-(5-isoquinolinylsulfonyl)homopiperazine dihydrochloride and trans-4-[(1R)-1-aminoethyl]-N-4-pyridinylcyclohexanecarboxamide dihydrochloride (Rho-kinase inhibitors); in the latter, but not in the former, it was reduced by 3,5-dichloro-N-[[(1α,5α,6-exo,6α)-3-(3,3-dimethylbutyl)-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hex-6-yl]methyl]-benzamide hydrochloride (T-type calcium channel inhibitor

  11. Oxaliplatin triggers necrosis as well as apoptosis in gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ping; Zhu, Xueping; Jin, Wei; Hao, Shumei; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Linjie

    2015-05-01

    Intrinsic apoptotic pathway is considered to be responsible for cell death induced by platinum anticancer drugs. While in this study, we found that, necrosis is an indispensable pathway besides apoptosis in oxaliplatin-treated gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Upon exposure to oxaliplatin, both apoptotic and necrotic features were observed. The majority of dead cells were double positive for Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI). Moreover, mitochondrial membrane potential collapsed and caspase cascades were activated. However, ultrastructural changes under transmission electron microscope, coupled with the release of cellular contents, demonstrated the rupture of the plasma membrane. Oxaliplatin administration did not stimulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and autophagy, but elevated the protein level of Bmf. In addition, receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1), but not receptor interacting protein 3 (RIP3) and its downstream components participated in this death process. Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) blocked oxaliplatin-induced cell death nearly completely, whereas z-VAD-fmk could partially suppress cell death. Oxaliplatin treatment resulted in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) overactivation, as indicated by the increase of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), which led to NAD{sup +} and ATP depletion. PARP-1 inhibitor, olaparib, could significantly block oxaliplatin-induced cell death, thus confirming that PARP-1 activation is mainly responsible for the cytotoxicity of oxaliplatin. Phosphorylation of H2AX at Ser139 and translocalization of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) are critical for this death process. Taken together, these results indicate that oxaliplatin can bypass canonical cell death pathways to kill gastric cancer cells, which may be of therapeutic advantage in the treatment of gastric cancer. - Highlights: • Oxaliplatin induces apoptotic and necrotic cell death. • Nec-1 can inhibit oxaliplatin-induced cell death nearly completely. • RIP3 and its

  12. Novel hopanoid cyclases from the environment.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Ann; Flood Page, Sarah R; Jorgenson, Tyler L; Fischer, Woodward W; Higgins, Meytal B

    2007-09-01

    Hopanoids are ubiquitous isoprenoid lipids found in modern biota, in recent sediments and in low-maturity sedimentary rocks. Because these lipids primarily are derived from bacteria, they are used as proxies to help decipher geobiological communities. To date, much of the information about sources of hopanoids has come from surveys of culture collections, an approach that does not address the vast fraction of prokaryotic communities that remains uncharacterized. Here we investigated the phylogeny of hopanoid producers using culture-independent methods. We obtained 79 new sequences of squalene-hopene cyclase genes (sqhC) from marine and lacustrine bacterioplankton and analysed them along with all 31 sqhC fragments available from existing metagenomics libraries. The environmental sqhCs average only 60% translated amino acid identity to their closest relatives in public databases. The data imply that the sources of these important geologic biomarkers remain largely unknown. In particular, genes affiliated with known cyanobacterial sequences were not detected in the contemporary environments analysed here, yet the geologic record contains abundant hopanoids apparently of cyanobacterial origin. The data also suggest that hopanoid biosynthesis is uncommon: < 10% of bacterial species may be capable of producing hopanoids. A better understanding of the contemporary distribution of hopanoid biosynthesis may reveal fundamental insight about the function of these compounds, the organisms in which they are found, and the environmental signals preserved in the sedimentary record.

  13. Adenyl cyclase in the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Ryan, K J

    1971-09-21

    This study demonstrated that the human placenta possesses an adenyl cyclase system responsive to catecholamines and sodium flouride (NaF). 2.5 gm human term placentas were homogenized, centrifuged, washed, resuspended, and used as the enzyme system when placed with various agents. Incubations and the determination of adenosine 3', 5' monophosphate (cyclic AMP) formed were performed. Samples stimulated by .0001 M catecholamines (L-epinephrine or L-norepinephrine) or .01 M NaF had higher levels of cyclic AMP than the controls (p. 005 for catecholamine-treated samples and p. 001 for NaF-treated samples). A concentration of .0001 M L-epinephrine or L-norepinephrine appeared to be a maximum effective dose and .0000001 M a minimum. L=epinephrine was 10 times as effective in the stimulation as L-norepinephrine. With .0001 M, 499 and 439 pmoles/10 minutes per 25 mg of tissue was formed, whereas in the control (no added hormones) 256 pmoles/10 minutes were formed. 3.2% ethanol activated the system by a small amount (p.02). Propranolol alone did not appear to have any effect; however, the effect of .0001 M L-epinephrine was reduced by 95% in the presence of .00001 M propranolol. Propranolol had no effect on NaF-stimulated activity.

  14. Receptor Guanylyl Cyclases in Sensory Processing

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Ichiro N.

    2017-01-01

    Invertebrate models have generated many new insights into transmembrane signaling by cell-surface receptors. This review focuses on receptor guanylyl cyclases (rGCs) and describes recent advances in understanding their roles in sensory processing in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. A complete analysis of the C. elegans genome elucidated 27 rGCs, an unusually large number compared with mammalian genomes, which encode 7 rGCs. Most C. elegans rGCs are expressed in sensory neurons and play roles in sensory processing, including gustation, thermosensation, olfaction, and phototransduction, among others. Recent studies have found that by producing a second messenger, guanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate, some rGCs act as direct sensor molecules for ions and temperatures, while others relay signals from G protein-coupled receptors. Interestingly, genetic and biochemical analyses of rGCs provide the first example of an obligate heterodimeric rGC. Based on recent structural studies of rGCs in mammals and other organisms, molecular mechanisms underlying activation of rGCs are also discussed in this review. PMID:28123378

  15. Conformational basis for the activation of adenylate cyclase by adenosine

    PubMed Central

    Miles, D. L.; Miles, D. W.; Eyring, H.

    1977-01-01

    The ability of adenosine to stimulate adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1] and increase adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) levels has important biochemical consequences. These include the suppression of immune responses and cardiovascular effects. Recent investigations involving the ability of adenosine and adenosine analogs to stimulate adenylate cyclase provided experimental data that appear to be correlated with the ability of adenosine and analogs of adenosine to exist in the glycosidic high anti conformation. 9-β-D-Arabinofuranosyladenine, which is not stable in the high anti conformation, is inactive as a stimulator of adenylate cyclase. 2′-Deoxyadenosine is also not stable in the high anti conformation but its instability may be significantly decreased by intramolecular adjustments promoted by receptor or active site interactions. 2′-Deoxyadenosine does not activate adenylate cyclase in lymphocytes when ATP is the substrate but is able to activate adenylate cyclase when 2-fluoro ATP is the substrate. The inability of certain analogs of adenosine, with bulky groups substituted for hydrogen at the 8 position of the adenine base, to activate adenylate cyclase and increase either lymphocyte or cardiac cell cAMP levels is consistent with the designation of the high anti conformation as being the conformation required for the activation of adenylate cyclase. An understanding of the glycosidic conformation required by the extracellular adenosine receptor of the adenosine molecule provides the basis for designing nucleoside analogs of adenosine that will exert a desired effect on cAMP levels. The avoidance of unwanted immunosuppressive or cardiotoxic effects can be arranged by structural changes that prohibit the high anti conformation. PMID:267918

  16. Phospholipase A activity of adenylate cyclase toxin mediates translocation of its adenylate cyclase domain

    PubMed Central

    González-Bullón, David; Uribe, Kepa B.; Martín, César

    2017-01-01

    Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT or CyaA) plays a crucial role in respiratory tract colonization and virulence of the whooping cough causative bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Secreted as soluble protein, it targets myeloid cells expressing the CD11b/CD18 integrin and on delivery of its N-terminal adenylate cyclase catalytic domain (AC domain) into the cytosol, generates uncontrolled toxic levels of cAMP that ablates bactericidal capacities of phagocytes. Our study deciphers the fundamentals of the heretofore poorly understood molecular mechanism by which the ACT enzyme domain directly crosses the host cell membrane. By combining molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics techniques, we discover that ACT has intrinsic phospholipase A (PLA) activity, and that such activity determines AC translocation. Moreover, we show that elimination of the ACT–PLA activity abrogates ACT toxicity in macrophages, particularly at toxin concentrations close to biological reality of bacterial infection. Our data support a molecular mechanism in which in situ generation of nonlamellar lysophospholipids by ACT–PLA activity into the cell membrane would form, likely in combination with membrane-interacting ACT segments, a proteolipidic toroidal pore through which AC domain transfer could directly take place. Regulation of ACT–PLA activity thus emerges as novel target for therapeutic control of the disease. PMID:28760979

  17. Crystal structure of SgcJ, an NTF2-like superfamily protein involved in biosynthesis of the nine-membered enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Tingting; Chang, Chin -Yuan; Lohman, Jeremy R.; Rudolf, Jeffrey D.; Kim, Youngchang; Chang, Changsoo; Yang, Dong; Ma, Ming; Yan, Xiaohui; Crnovcic, Ivana; Bigelow, Lance; Clancy, Shonda; Bingman, Craig A.; Yennamalli, Ragothaman M.; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Phillips, Jr., George N.; Shen, Ben

    2016-10-01

    Comparative analysis of the enediyne biosynthetic gene clusters revealed sets of conserved genes serving as outstanding candidates for the enediyne core. Here we report the crystal structures of SgcJ and its homologue NCS-Orf16, together with gene inactivation and site-directed mutagenesis studies, to gain insight into enediyne core biosynthesis. Gene inactivation in vivo establishes that SgcJ is required for C-1027 production in Streptomyces globisporus. SgcJ and NCS-Orf16 share a common structure with the nuclear transport factor 2-like superfamily of proteins, featuring a putative substrate binding or catalytic active site. Site-directed mutagenesis of the conserved residues lining this site allowed us to propose that SgcJ and its homologues may play a catalytic role in transforming the linear polyene intermediate, along with other enediyne polyketide synthase-associated enzymes, into an enzyme-sequestered enediyne core intermediate. In conclusion, these findings will help formulate hypotheses and design experiments to ascertain the function of SgcJ and its homologues in nine-membered enediyne core biosynthesis.

  18. Crystal structure of SgcJ, an NTF2-like superfamily protein involved in biosynthesis of the nine-membered enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Tingting; Chang, Chin -Yuan; Lohman, Jeremy R.; ...

    2016-10-01

    Comparative analysis of the enediyne biosynthetic gene clusters revealed sets of conserved genes serving as outstanding candidates for the enediyne core. Here we report the crystal structures of SgcJ and its homologue NCS-Orf16, together with gene inactivation and site-directed mutagenesis studies, to gain insight into enediyne core biosynthesis. Gene inactivation in vivo establishes that SgcJ is required for C-1027 production in Streptomyces globisporus. SgcJ and NCS-Orf16 share a common structure with the nuclear transport factor 2-like superfamily of proteins, featuring a putative substrate binding or catalytic active site. Site-directed mutagenesis of the conserved residues lining this site allowed us tomore » propose that SgcJ and its homologues may play a catalytic role in transforming the linear polyene intermediate, along with other enediyne polyketide synthase-associated enzymes, into an enzyme-sequestered enediyne core intermediate. In conclusion, these findings will help formulate hypotheses and design experiments to ascertain the function of SgcJ and its homologues in nine-membered enediyne core biosynthesis.« less

  19. Crystal Structure of SgcJ, An NTF2-Like Superfamily Protein Involved in Biosynthesis of the 9-Membered Enediyne Antitumor Antibiotic C-1027

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tingting; Chang, Chin-Yuan; Lohman, Jeremy R.; Rudolf, Jeffrey D.; Kim, Youngchang; Chang, Changsoo; Yang, Dong; Ma, Ming; Yan, Xiaohui; Crnovcic, Ivana; Bigelow, Lance; Clancy, Shonda; Bingman, Craig A.; Yennamalli, Ragothaman M.; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Phillips, George N.; Shen, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the enediyne biosynthetic gene clusters revealed sets of conserved genes serving as outstanding candidates for the enediyne core. Here we report the crystal structures of SgcJ and its homologue NCS-Orf16, together with gene inactivation and site-directed mutagenesis studies, to gain insight into enediyne core biosynthesis. Gene inactivation in vivo establishes that SgcJ is required for C-1027 production in Streptomyces globisporus. SgcJ and NCS-Orf16 share a common structure with the nuclear transport factor 2-like superfamily of proteins, featuring a putative substrate binding or catalytic active site. Site-directed mutagenesis of the conserved residues lining this site allowed us to propose that SgcJ and its homologues may play a catalytic role in transforming the linear polyene intermediate, along with other enediyne polyketide synthase associated enzymes, into an enzyme-sequestered enediyne core intermediate. These findings will help formulate hypotheses and design experiments to ascertain the function of SgcJ and its homologues in 9-membered enediyne core biosynthesis. PMID:27406907

  20. Synergistic effect of hyperthermia and neferine on reverse multidrug resistance in adriamycin-resistant SGC7901/ADM gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chenghui; Li, Yaping; Cao, Peiguo; Xie, Zhaoxia; Qin, Zhiqiang

    2011-08-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) plays a major obstacle to successful gastric cancer chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the MDR reversal effect and mechanisms of hyperthermia in combination with neferine (Nef) in adriamycin (ADM) resistant human SGC7901/ADM gastric cancer cells. The MDR cells were heated at 42°C and 45°C for 30 min alone or combined with 10 μg/mL Nef. The cytotoxic effect of ADM was evaluated by MTT assay. Cellular plasma membrane lipid fluidity was detected by fluorescence polarization technique. Intracellular accumulation of ADM was monitored with high performance liquid chromatography. Mdr-1 mRNA, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), γH2AX expression and γH2AX foci formation were determined by real-time PCR, Western blot and immunocytochemical staining respectively. It was found that different heating methods induced different cytotoxic effects. Water submerged hyperthermia had the strongest cytotoxicity of ADM and Nef combined with hyperthermia had a synergistic cytotoxicity of ADM in the MDR cells. The water submerged hyperthermia increased the cell membrane fluidity. Both water submerged hyperthermia and Nef increased the intracellular accumulation of ADM. The water submerged hyperthermia and Nef down-regulated the expression of mdr-1 mRNA and P-gp. The water submerged hyperthermia could damage DNA and increase the γH2AX expression of SGC7901/ADM cells. The higher temperature was, the worse effect was. Our results show that combined treatment of hyperthermia with Nef can synergistically reverse MDR in human SGC7901/ADM gastric cancer cells.

  1. iTRAQ-Based Proteomic Analysis of Ginsenoside F2 on Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells SGC7901

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Qian; Zhang, Pin-Hu; Yang, Jie; Xu, Jin-Di; Kong, Ming; Shen, Hong; Zhu, He; Bai, Min; Zhou, Li; Li, Guang-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Ginsenoside F2 (F2), a protopanaxdiol type of saponin, was reported to inhibit human gastric cancer cells SGC7901. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of F2, an iTRAQ-based proteomics approach was applied to define protein expression profiles in SGC7901 cells in response to lower dose (20 μM) and shorter duration (12 hour) of F2 treatment, compared with previous study. 205 proteins were screened in terms of the change in their expression level which met our predefined criteria. Further bioinformatics and experiments demonstrated that F2 treatment downregulated PRR5 and RPS15 and upregulated RPL26, which are implicated in ribosomal protein-p53 signaling pathway. F2 also inhibited CISD2, Bcl-xl, and NLRX1, which are associated with autophagic pathway. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that F2 treatment increased Atg5, Atg7, Atg10, and PUMA, the critical downstream effectors of ribosomal protein-p53 signaling pathway, and Beclin-1, UVRAG, and AMBRA-1, the important molecules in Bcl-xl/Beclin-1 pathway. The 6 differentially abundant proteins, PRR5, CISD2, Bcl-xl, NLRX1, RPS15, and RPL26, were confirmed by western blot. Taken together, ribosomal protein-p53 signaling pathway and Bcl-xl/Beclin-1 pathway might be the most significantly regulated biological process by F2 treatment in SGC7901 cells, which provided valuable insights into the deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of F2 for gastric cancer treatment. PMID:27829861

  2. Effects of PDE5 Inhibitors and sGC Stimulators in a Rat Model of Artificial Ureteral Calculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sandner, Peter; Tinel, Hanna; Affaitati, Giannapia; Costantini, Raffaele; Giamberardino, Maria Adele

    2015-01-01

    Urinary colics from calculosis are frequent and intense forms of pain whose current pharmacological treatment remains unsatisfactory. New and more effective drugs are needed to control symptoms and improve stone expulsion. Recent evidence suggested that the Nitric Oxide (NO) / cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) / phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) system may contribute to ureteral motility influencing stone expulsion. We investigated if PDE5 inhibitors and sGC stimulators influence ureteral contractility, pain behaviour and stone expulsion in a rat model of ureteral calculosis. We investigated: a)the sex-specific PDE5 distribution in the rat ureter; b)the functional in vitro effects of vardenafil and sildenafil (PDE5 inhibitors) and BAY41-2272 (sGC stimulator) on induced ureteral contractility in rats and c)the in vivo effectiveness of vardenafil and BAY41-2272, alone and combined with ketoprofen, vs hyoscine-N-butylbromide alone or combined with ketoprofen, on behavioural pain indicators and stone expulsion in rats with artificial calculosis in one ureter. PDE5 was abundantly expressed in male and female rats’ ureter. In vitro, both vardenafil and BAY41-2272 significantly relaxed pre-contracted ureteral strips. In vivo, all compounds significantly reduced number and global duration of “ureteral crises” and post-stone lumbar muscle hyperalgesia in calculosis rats. The highest level of reduction of the pain behaviour was observed with BAY41-2272 among all spasmolytics administered alone, and with the combination of ketoprofen with BAY41-2272. The percentage of stone expulsion was maximal in the ketoprofen+BAY41-2272 group. The NO/cGMP/PDE5 pathway is involved in the regulation of ureteral contractility and pain behaviour in urinary calculosis. PDE5 inhibitors and sGC stimulators could become a potent new option for treatment of urinary colic pain. PMID:26509272

  3. Molecular Physiology of Membrane Guanylyl Cyclase Receptors.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    cGMP controls many cellular functions ranging from growth, viability, and differentiation to contractility, secretion, and ion transport. The mammalian genome encodes seven transmembrane guanylyl cyclases (GCs), GC-A to GC-G, which mainly modulate submembrane cGMP microdomains. These GCs share a unique topology comprising an extracellular domain, a short transmembrane region, and an intracellular COOH-terminal catalytic (cGMP synthesizing) region. GC-A mediates the endocrine effects of atrial and B-type natriuretic peptides regulating arterial blood pressure/volume and energy balance. GC-B is activated by C-type natriuretic peptide, stimulating endochondral ossification in autocrine way. GC-C mediates the paracrine effects of guanylins on intestinal ion transport and epithelial turnover. GC-E and GC-F are expressed in photoreceptor cells of the retina, and their activation by intracellular Ca(2+)-regulated proteins is essential for vision. Finally, in the rodent system two olfactorial GCs, GC-D and GC-G, are activated by low concentrations of CO2and by peptidergic (guanylins) and nonpeptidergic odorants as well as by coolness, which has implications for social behaviors. In the past years advances in human and mouse genetics as well as the development of sensitive biosensors monitoring the spatiotemporal dynamics of cGMP in living cells have provided novel relevant information about this receptor family. This increased our understanding of the mechanisms of signal transduction, regulation, and (dys)function of the membrane GCs, clarified their relevance for genetic and acquired diseases and, importantly, has revealed novel targets for therapies. The present review aims to illustrate these different features of membrane GCs and the main open questions in this field.

  4. Role of glutaminyl cyclases in thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kehlen, Astrid; Haegele, Monique; Menge, Katja; Gans, Kathrin; Immel, Uta-Dorothee; Hoang-Vu, Cuong; Klonisch, Thomas; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-02-01

    CCL2 is a chemokine known to recruit monocytes/macrophages to sites of inflammation. CCL2 is also associated with tumor progression in several cancer types. Recently, we showed that the N-terminus of CCL2 is modified to a pyroglutamate (pE)-residue by both glutaminyl cyclases (QC (QPCT)) and its isoenzyme (isoQC (QPCTL)). The pE-residue increases stability against N-terminal degradation by aminopeptidases. Here, we report an upregulation of QPCT expression in tissues of patients with thyroid carcinomas compared with goiter tissues, whereas QPCTL was not regulated. In thyroid carcinoma cell lines, QPCT gene expression correlates with the mRNA levels of its substrate CCL2. Both QPCT and CCL2 are regulated in a NF-κB-dependent pathway shown by stimulation with TNFa and IL1b as well as by inhibition with the IKK2 inhibitor and RNAi of p50. In the culture supernatant of thyroid carcinoma cells, equal amounts of pECCL2 and total CCL2 were detected by two ELISAs discriminating between total CCL2 and pECCL2, concluding that all CCL2 is secreted as pECCL2. Activation of the CCL2/CCR2 pathway by recombinant CCL2 increased tumor cell migration of FTC238 cells in scratch assays as well as thyroid carcinoma cell-derived CCL2-induced migration of monocytic THP1 cells. Suppression of CCL2 signaling by CCR2 antagonist, IKK2 inhibitor, and QPCT RNAi reduced FTC238 cell growth measured by WST8 proliferation assays. Our results reveal new evidence for a novel role of QC in thyroid carcinomas and provide an intriguing rationale for the use of QC inhibitors as a means of blocking pECCL2 formation and preventing thyroid cancer metastasis.

  5. Nocturnal accumulation of cyclic 3',5'-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in the chick pineal organ is dependent on activation of guanylyl cyclase-B.

    PubMed

    Olcese, J; Majora, C; Stephan, A; Müller, D

    2002-01-01

    The role of cGMP in the avian pineal is not well understood. Although the light-sensitive secretion of melatonin is a well-known output of the circadian oscillator, pharmacologically elevated cGMP levels do not result in altered melatonin secretory amplitude or phase. This suggests that pineal cGMP signalling does not couple the endogenous circadian oscillator to the expression of melatonin rhythms. Nonetheless, the free-running rhythm of cGMP signalling implies a link to the circadian oscillator in chick pinealocytes. As the circadian rhythm of cGMP levels in vitro is not altered by pharmacological inhibition of phosphodiesterase activity, we infer that the synthesis, rather than the degradation of cGMP, is under circadian control. In vitro experiments with the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine as well as with an inhibitor of the NO-sensitive soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), showed that the NOS-sGC pathway does not play a major role in the circadian control of cGMP generation. In organ culture experiments, we demonstrated that C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), but not atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), elevated daytime levels of cGMP. As CNP acts on the membrane guanylyl cyclase isoform B (GC-B), which is expressed at very high levels in mammalian pineals, we investigated the effect of the membrane GC-specific inhibitor HS-142 on chick pineal cGMP levels. CNP-induced daytime cGMP levels were reduced by HS-142. More importantly, 'spontaneously' high nocturnal levels of cGMP in vitro were reduced to daytime levels by acute addition of HS-142. These data implicate endogenous nocturnal CNP release and subsequent activation of GC-B as the major input driving cGMP synthesis in the chick pineal organ.

  6. Computational identification of candidate nucleotide cyclases in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Wong, Aloysius; Gehring, Chris

    2013-01-01

    In higher plants guanylyl cyclases (GCs) and adenylyl cyclases (ACs) cannot be identified using BLAST homology searches based on annotated cyclic nucleotide cyclases (CNCs) of prokaryotes, lower eukaryotes, or animals. The reason is that CNCs are often part of complex multifunctional proteins with different domain organizations and biological functions that are not conserved in higher plants. For this reason, we have developed CNC search strategies based on functionally conserved amino acids in the catalytic center of annotated and/or experimentally confirmed CNCs. Here we detail this method which has led to the identification of >25 novel candidate CNCs in Arabidopsis thaliana, several of which have been experimentally confirmed in vitro and in vivo. We foresee that the application of this method can be used to identify many more members of the growing family of CNCs in higher plants.

  7. Characterization of the SgcF Epoxide Hydrolase Supporting an (R)-Vicinal Diol Intermediate for Enediyne Antitumor Antibiotic C-1027 Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shuangjun; Horsman, Geoffrey P.; Chen, Yihua; Li, Wenli; Shen, Ben

    2009-01-01

    C-1027 is a chromoprotein antitumor antibiotic consisting of an apo-protein and the C-1027 chromophore. The C-1027 chromophore possesses four distinct structural moieties – an enediyne core, a deoxy aminosugar, a benzoxazolinate, and an (S)-3-chloro-5-hydroxy-β-tyrosine – the latter two of which are proposed to be appended to the enediyne core via a convergent biosynthetic strategy. Here we report the in vitro characterization of SgcF, an epoxide hydrolase from the C-1027 biosynthetic gene cluster that catalyzes regio- and stereospecific hydrolysis of styrene oxide, serving as an enediyne core epoxide intermediate mimic, to form a vicinal diol. Abolishment of C-1027 production in the ΔsgcF mutant strain Streptomyces globisporus SB1010 unambiguously establishes that sgcF plays an indispensable role in C-1027 biosynthesis. SgcF efficiently hydrolyzes (S)-styrene oxide, displaying an apparent Km of 0.6 ± 0.1 mM and kcat of 48 ± 1 min−1, via attack at the α-position to exclusively generate the (R)-phenyl vicinal diol, consistent with the stereochemistry of the C-1027 chromophore. These findings support the role of SgcF in the proposed convergent pathway for C-1027 biosynthesis, unveiling an (R)-vicinal diol as a key intermediate. Interestingly, SgcF can also hydrolyze (R)-styrene oxide to afford preferentially the (R)-phenyl vicinal diol via attack at the β-position, albeit with significantly reduced efficiency (apparent Km of 2.0 ± 0.4 mM and kcat = 4.3 ± 0.3 min−1). Although the latter activity unlikely contributes to C-1027 biosynthesis in vivo, such enantioconvergence arising from complementary regioselective hydrolysis of a racemic substrate could be exploited to engineer epoxide hydrolases with improved regio- and/or enantiospecificity. PMID:19856960

  8. Oligomeric state affects oxygen dissociation and diguanylate cyclase activity of globin coupled sensors.

    PubMed

    Burns, Justin L; Deer, D Douglas; Weinert, Emily E

    2014-11-01

    Bacterial biofilm formation is regulated by enzymes, such as diguanylate cyclases, that respond to environmental signals and alter c-di-GMP levels. Diguanylate cyclase activity of two globin coupled sensors is shown to be regulated by gaseous ligands, with cyclase activity and O2 dissociation affected by protein oligomeric state.

  9. Intracellular cAMP signaling by soluble adenylyl cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Tresguerres, Martin; Levin, Lonny R.; Buck, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently identified source of the ubiquitous second messenger cAMP. sAC is distinct from the more widely studied source of cAMP, the transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs); its activity is uniquely regulated by bicarbonate anions, and it is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and in cellular organelles. Due to its unique localization and regulation, sAC has various functions in a variety of physiological systems which are distinct from tmACs. In this review, we detail the known functions of sAC, and we reassess commonly held views of cAMP signaling inside cells. PMID:21490586

  10. Regulation and organization of adenylyl cyclases and cAMP.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Dermot M F

    2003-01-01

    Adenylyl cyclases are a critically important family of multiply regulated signalling molecules. Their susceptibility to many modes of regulation allows them to integrate the activities of a variety of signalling pathways. However, this property brings with it the problem of imparting specificity and discrimination. Recent studies are revealing the range of strategies utilized by the cyclases to solve this problem. Microdomains are a consequence of these solutions, in which cAMP dynamics may differ from the broad cytosol. Currently evolving methodologies are beginning to reveal cAMP fluctuations in these various compartments. PMID:12940771

  11. Characterization of the active site of ADP-ribosyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Munshi, C; Thiel, D J; Mathews, I I; Aarhus, R; Walseth, T F; Lee, H C

    1999-10-22

    ADP-ribosyl cyclase synthesizes two Ca(2+) messengers by cyclizing NAD to produce cyclic ADP-ribose and exchanging nicotinic acid with the nicotinamide group of NADP to produce nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Recombinant Aplysia cyclase was expressed in yeast and co-crystallized with a substrate, nicotinamide. x-ray crystallography showed that the nicotinamide was bound in a pocket formed in part by a conserved segment and was near the central cleft of the cyclase. Glu(98), Asn(107) and Trp(140) were within 3.5 A of the bound nicotinamide and appeared to coordinate it. Substituting Glu(98) with either Gln, Gly, Leu, or Asn reduced the cyclase activity by 16-222-fold, depending on the substitution. The mutant N107G exhibited only a 2-fold decrease in activity, while the activity of W140G was essentially eliminated. The base exchange activity of all mutants followed a similar pattern of reduction, suggesting that both reactions occur at the same active site. In addition to NAD, the wild-type cyclase also cyclizes nicotinamide guanine dinucleotide to cyclic GDP-ribose. All mutant enzymes had at least half of the GDP-ribosyl cyclase activity of the wild type, some even 2-3-fold higher, indicating that the three coordinating amino acids are responsible for positioning of the substrate but not absolutely critical for catalysis. To search for the catalytic residues, other amino acids in the binding pocket were mutagenized. E179G was totally devoid of GDP-ribosyl cyclase activity, and both its ADP-ribosyl cyclase and the base exchange activities were reduced by 10,000- and 18,000-fold, respectively. Substituting Glu(179) with either Asn, Leu, Asp, or Gln produced similar inactive enzymes, and so was the conversion of Trp(77) to Gly. However, both E179G and the double mutant E179G/W77G retained NAD-binding ability as shown by photoaffinity labeling with [(32)P]8-azido-NAD. These results indicate that both Glu(179) and Trp(77) are crucial for catalysis and

  12. Guanylate Binding Protein (GBP) 5 Is an Interferon-Inducible Inhibitor of HIV-1 Infectivity.

    PubMed

    Krapp, Christian; Hotter, Dominik; Gawanbacht, Ali; McLaren, Paul J; Kluge, Silvia F; Stürzel, Christina M; Mack, Katharina; Reith, Elisabeth; Engelhart, Susanne; Ciuffi, Angela; Hornung, Veit; Sauter, Daniel; Telenti, Amalio; Kirchhoff, Frank

    2016-04-13

    Guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) are an interferon (IFN)-inducible subfamily of guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) with well-established activity against intracellular bacteria and parasites. Here we show that GBP5 potently restricts HIV-1 and other retroviruses. GBP5 is expressed in the primary target cells of HIV-1, where it impairs viral infectivity by interfering with the processing and virion incorporation of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env). GBP5 levels in macrophages determine and inversely correlate with infectious HIV-1 yield over several orders of magnitude, which may explain the high donor variability in macrophage susceptibility to HIV. Antiviral activity requires Golgi localization of GBP5, but not its GTPase activity. Start codon mutations in the accessory vpu gene from macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strains conferred partial resistance to GBP5 inhibition by increasing Env expression. Our results identify GBP5 as an antiviral effector of the IFN response and may explain the increased frequency of defective vpu genes in primary HIV-1 strains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Guanylate binding protein 5: Impairing virion infectivity by targeting retroviral envelope glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Hotter, Dominik; Sauter, Daniel; Kirchhoff, Frank

    2017-01-02

    Guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) are interferon-inducible cellular factors that belong to the superfamily of guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) and play important roles in the cell-intrinsic defense against bacteria, protozoa and viruses. In a recent report in Cell Host & Microbe, we identify GBP5 as novel restriction factor of HIV-1 that reduces the infectivity of progeny virions by interfering with processing and incorporation of the viral envelope (Env) glycoprotein. The inhibitory activity of GBP5 requires C-terminal isoprenylation, mediating Golgi-association, but not its GTPase function. Notably, GBP5 expression levels vary considerably in human macrophages and inversely correlate with infectious virus yield. We demonstrate that GBP5 can be evaded by an unusual tradeoff mechanism: Naturally occurring mutations in the start codon of the viral accessory gene vpu attenuate GBP5 inhibition by increasing Env expression at the cost of Vpu function. Whether direct counteraction mechanisms or more subtle changes balancing Vpu and Env expression also affect HIV-1 inhibition by GBP5 remains to be clarified. Other open questions are whether GBP5 restricts HIV-1 in CD4(+) T cells and if other GBP family members also decrease infectivity of HIV and/or additional enveloped viruses.

  14. Detection of 8,9-dihydro-(7'-guanyl)-9-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 in human urine

    SciTech Connect

    Autrup, H.; Wakhisi, J.; Vahakangas, K.; Wasunna, A.; Harris, C.C.

    1985-10-01

    A possible role of aflatoxin B1 (AFB) in the etiology of human liver cancer has been suggested from several epidemiological studies. This has been based upon the association between consumption of AFB-contaminated food and the liver cancer incidence in different parts of the world. To further establish the role of AFB as a major factor, we initiated a pilot study in three different districts of Kenya to determine the number of individuals exposed to significant amounts of AFB as measured by the urinary excretion of 8,9-dihydro-8-(7-guanyl)-9-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 (AFB-Gua), an adduct formed between the ultimate carcinogenic form of AFB and nucleic acids. This product has previously been detected in urine from rats treated with AFB. Urine collected at the outpatient clinics at the district hospitals were concentrated on C18 Sep-Pak columns and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography under two different chromatographic conditions. The chemical identity of the samples showing a positive response in both chromatographic systems was verified by synchronous scanning fluorescence spectrophotometry. The highest number of individuals with detectable urinary AFB-Gua lived in either Murang'a district or the neighboring Meru and Embu districts. In Murang'a district a rate of 12% was observed in the January-March period, while only 1 of 32 patients (3%) had a detectable exposure in July-August.

  15. Galectin-3 directs antimicrobial guanylate binding proteins to vacuoles furnished with bacterial secretion systems

    PubMed Central

    Feeley, Eric M.; Pilla-Moffett, Danielle M.; Zwack, Erin E.; Piro, Anthony S.; Finethy, Ryan; Kolb, Joseph P.; Martinez, Jennifer; Brodsky, Igor E.; Coers, Jörn

    2017-01-01

    Many invasive bacteria establish pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) as intracellular niches for microbial growth. Immunity to these infections is dependent on the ability of host cells to recognize PVs as targets for host defense. The delivery of several host defense proteins to PVs is controlled by IFN-inducible guanylate binding proteins (GBPs), which themselves dock to PVs through poorly characterized mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that GBPs detect the presence of bacterial protein secretion systems as “patterns of pathogenesis” associated with PVs. We report that the delivery of GBP2 to Legionella-containing vacuoles is dependent on the bacterial Dot/Icm secretion system, whereas the delivery of GBP2 to Yersinia-containing vacuoles (YCVs) requires hypersecretion of Yersinia translocon proteins. We show that the presence of bacterial secretion systems directs cytosolic carbohydrate-binding protein Galectin-3 to PVs and that the delivery of GBP1 and GBP2 to Legionella-containing vacuoles or YCVs is substantially diminished in Galectin-3–deficient cells. Our results illustrate that insertion of bacterial secretion systems into PV membranes stimulates Galectin-3–dependent recruitment of antimicrobial GBPs to PVs as part of a coordinated host defense program. PMID:28193861

  16. Guanylate binding protein 5: Impairing virion infectivity by targeting retroviral envelope glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Hotter, Dominik; Sauter, Daniel; Kirchhoff, Frank

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) are interferon-inducible cellular factors that belong to the superfamily of guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) and play important roles in the cell-intrinsic defense against bacteria, protozoa and viruses. In a recent report in Cell Host & Microbe, we identify GBP5 as novel restriction factor of HIV-1 that reduces the infectivity of progeny virions by interfering with processing and incorporation of the viral envelope (Env) glycoprotein. The inhibitory activity of GBP5 requires C-terminal isoprenylation, mediating Golgi-association, but not its GTPase function. Notably, GBP5 expression levels vary considerably in human macrophages and inversely correlate with infectious virus yield. We demonstrate that GBP5 can be evaded by an unusual tradeoff mechanism: Naturally occurring mutations in the start codon of the viral accessory gene vpu attenuate GBP5 inhibition by increasing Env expression at the cost of Vpu function. Whether direct counteraction mechanisms or more subtle changes balancing Vpu and Env expression also affect HIV-1 inhibition by GBP5 remains to be clarified. Other open questions are whether GBP5 restricts HIV-1 in CD4+ T cells and if other GBP family members also decrease infectivity of HIV and/or additional enveloped viruses. PMID:27275775

  17. In silico genomic analysis of the human and murine guanylate-binding protein (GBP) gene clusters.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Maureen A; Gray, John; Vestal, Deborah J

    2006-05-01

    The guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) were among the first interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs) discovered, but until recently, little was known about their functions and even less about the composition of the gene family. Analysis of the promoter of human GBP-1 contributed significantly toward the understanding of Jak-Stat signaling and the delineation of the IFN-gamma activation site (GAS) and IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) promoter elements. In this study, we have examined the genomic arrangement and composition of the GBPs in both mouse and humans. There are seven GBP paralogs in humans and at least one pseudogene, all of which are located in a cluster of genes on chromosome 1. Five of the six MuGBPs and a GBP pseudogene are clustered in a syntenic region on chromosome 3. The sixth MuGBP, MuGBP-4, and three GBP pseudogenes are located on chromosome 5. As might be expected, the GBPs share similar genomic organizations of introns and exons. Five of the MuGBPs had previously been shown to be coordinately induced by IFNs, and as expected, all of the MuGBPs have GAS and ISRE elements in their promoters. Interestingly, not all of the HuGBPs have GAS and ISRE elements, suggesting that not all GBPs are IFN responsive in humans.

  18. Ubiquitin systems mark pathogen-containing vacuoles as targets for host defense by guanylate binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Arun K; Foltz, Clémence; Finethy, Ryan; Piro, Anthony S; Feeley, Eric M; Pilla-Moffett, Danielle M; Komatsu, Masaki; Frickel, Eva-Maria; Coers, Jörn

    2015-10-13

    Many microbes create and maintain pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) as an intracellular niche permissive for microbial growth and survival. The destruction of PVs by IFNγ-inducible guanylate binding protein (GBP) and immunity-related GTPase (IRG) host proteins is central to a successful immune response directed against numerous PV-resident pathogens. However, the mechanism by which IRGs and GBPs cooperatively detect and destroy PVs is unclear. We find that host cell priming with IFNγ prompts IRG-dependent association of Toxoplasma- and Chlamydia-containing vacuoles with ubiquitin through regulated translocation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6). This initial ubiquitin labeling elicits p62-mediated escort and deposition of GBPs to PVs, thereby conferring cell-autonomous immunity. Hypervirulent strains of Toxoplasma gondii evade this process via specific rhoptry protein kinases that inhibit IRG function, resulting in blockage of downstream PV ubiquitination and GBP delivery. Our results define a ubiquitin-centered mechanism by which host cells deliver GBPs to PVs and explain how hypervirulent parasites evade GBP-mediated immunity.

  19. Guanylate-binding proteins promote activation of the AIM2 inflammasome during infection with Francisella novicida.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Etienne; Wallet, Pierre; Dreier, Roland F; Costanzo, Stéphanie; Anton, Leonie; Rühl, Sebastian; Dussurgey, Sébastien; Dick, Mathias S; Kistner, Anne; Rigard, Mélanie; Degrandi, Daniel; Pfeffer, Klaus; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Henry, Thomas; Broz, Petr

    2015-05-01

    The AIM2 inflammasome detects double-stranded DNA in the cytosol and induces caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis as well as release of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. AIM2 is critical for host defense against DNA viruses and bacteria that replicate in the cytosol, such as Francisella tularensis subspecies novicida (F. novicida). The activation of AIM2 by F. novicida requires bacteriolysis, yet whether this process is accidental or is a host-driven immunological mechanism has remained unclear. By screening nearly 500 interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) through the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA), we identified guanylate-binding proteins GBP2 and GBP5 as key activators of AIM2 during infection with F. novicida. We confirmed their prominent role in vitro and in a mouse model of tularemia. Mechanistically, these two GBPs targeted cytosolic F. novicida and promoted bacteriolysis. Thus, in addition to their role in host defense against vacuolar pathogens, GBPs also facilitate the presentation of ligands by directly attacking cytosolic bacteria.

  20. Dimerization and its role in GMP formation by human guanylate binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Nazish; Balakumari, Meena; Sau, Apurba Kumar

    2010-10-06

    The mechanism of oligomerization and its role in the regulation of activity in large GTPases are not clearly understood. Human guanylate binding proteins (hGBP-1 and 2) belonging to large GTPases have the unique feature of hydrolyzing GTP to a mixture of GDP and GMP with unequal ratios. Using a series of truncated and mutant proteins of hGBP-1, we identified a hydrophobic helix in the connecting region between the two domains that plays a critical role in dimerization and regulation of the GTPase activity. The fluorescence with 1-8-anilinonaphthalene sulfonate and circular dichroism measurements together suggest that in the absence of the substrate analog, the helix is masked inside the protein but becomes exposed through a substrate-induced conformational switch, and thus mediates dimerization. This is further supported by the intrinsic fluorescence experiment, where Leu(298) of this helix is replaced by a tryptophan. Remarkably, the enzyme exhibits differential GTPase activities depending on dimerization; a monomer produces only GDP, but a dimer gives both GDP and GMP with stimulation of the activity. An absolute dependence of GMP formation with dimerization demonstrates a cross talk between the monomers during the second hydrolysis. Similar to hGBP-1, hGBP-2 showed dimerization-related GTPase activity for GMP formation, indicating that this family of proteins follows a broadly similar mechanism for GTP hydrolysis.

  1. Chicken guanylate-binding protein. Conservation of GTPase activity and induction by cytokines.

    PubMed

    Schwemmle, M; Kaspers, B; Irion, A; Staeheli, P; Schultz, U

    1996-04-26

    To gain further insights into the cytokine network of birds, we used polymerase chain reaction technology to clone a cDNA that codes for a chicken homolog of the interferon-induced guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs). In its N-terminal moiety, the 64-kDa chicken GBP contains two sequence blocks of 100 and 19 amino acids, respectively, that are about 70% identical to mammalian GBPs. The first region includes two motifs of the canonical GTP-binding consensus element. The other parts of chicken GBP are poorly conserved, except for a CAAX motif at the extreme C terminus which might signal isoprenylation. Like mammalian GBPs, recombinant chicken GBP specifically bound to agarose-immobilized guanine nucleotides and hydrolyzed GTP to both GDP and GMP. Regulation by interferons was also conserved: chicken GBP RNA was barely detectable in uninduced chicken cells. Low GBP RNA levels were found in cells treated with type I interferon, whereas very high levels were observed in cells treated with supernatant of a chicken T cell line that secretes a gamma-interferon-like activity. Together with recent phylogenetic studies of interferon genes, these results suggest that in spite of low sequence conservation, the various components of the avian interferon system are functionally well conserved.

  2. Murine guanylate binding protein 2 (mGBP2) controls Toxoplasma gondii replication.

    PubMed

    Degrandi, Daniel; Kravets, Elisabeth; Konermann, Carolin; Beuter-Gunia, Cornelia; Klümpers, Verena; Lahme, Sarah; Wischmann, Eva; Mausberg, Anne K; Beer-Hammer, Sandra; Pfeffer, Klaus

    2013-01-02

    IFN-γ orchestrates the host response against intracellular pathogens. Members of the guanylate binding proteins (GBP) comprise the most abundant IFN-γ-induced transcriptional response. mGBPs are GTPases that are specifically up-regulated by IFN-γ, other proinflammatory cytokines, toll-like receptor agonists, as well as in response to Listeria monocytogenes and Toxoplasma gondii infection. mGBP2 localizes at the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) of T. gondii; however, the molecular function of mGBP2 and its domains in T. gondii infection is not known. Here, we show that mGBP2 is highly expressed in several cell types, including T and B cells after stimulation. We provide evidence that the C-terminal domain is sufficient and essential for recruitment to the T. gondii PV. Functionally, mGBP2 reduces T. gondii proliferation because mGBP2-deficient cells display defects in the replication control of T. gondii. Ultimately, mGBP2-deficient mice reveal a marked immune susceptibility to T. gondii. Taken together, mGBP2 is an essential immune effector molecule mediating antiparasitic resistance.

  3. Guanylate-binding protein 1 (Gbp1) contributes to cell-autonomous immunity against Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Selleck, Elizabeth M; Fentress, Sarah J; Beatty, Wandy L; Degrandi, Daniel; Pfeffer, Klaus; Virgin, Herbert W; Macmicking, John D; Sibley, L David

    2013-01-01

    IFN-γ activates cells to restrict intracellular pathogens by upregulating cellular effectors including the p65 family of guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs). Here we test the role of Gbp1 in the IFN-γ-dependent control of T. gondii in the mouse model. Virulent strains of T. gondii avoided recruitment of Gbp1 to the parasitophorous vacuole in a strain-dependent manner that was mediated by the parasite virulence factors ROP18, an active serine/threonine kinase, and the pseudokinase ROP5. Increased recruitment of Gbp1 to Δrop18 or Δrop5 parasites was associated with clearance in IFN-γ-activated macrophages in vitro, a process dependent on the autophagy protein Atg5. The increased susceptibility of Δrop18 mutants in IFN-γ-activated macrophages was reverted in Gbp1(-/-) cells, and decreased virulence of this mutant was compensated in Gbp1(-/-) mice, which were also more susceptible to challenge with type II strain parasites of intermediate virulence. These findings demonstrate that Gbp1 plays an important role in the IFN-γ-dependent, cell-autonomous control of toxoplasmosis and predict a broader role for this protein in host defense.

  4. Ubiquitin systems mark pathogen-containing vacuoles as targets for host defense by guanylate binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Arun K.; Foltz, Clémence; Finethy, Ryan; Piro, Anthony S.; Feeley, Eric M.; Pilla-Moffett, Danielle M.; Komatsu, Masaki; Frickel, Eva-Maria; Coers, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    Many microbes create and maintain pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) as an intracellular niche permissive for microbial growth and survival. The destruction of PVs by IFNγ-inducible guanylate binding protein (GBP) and immunity-related GTPase (IRG) host proteins is central to a successful immune response directed against numerous PV-resident pathogens. However, the mechanism by which IRGs and GBPs cooperatively detect and destroy PVs is unclear. We find that host cell priming with IFNγ prompts IRG-dependent association of Toxoplasma- and Chlamydia-containing vacuoles with ubiquitin through regulated translocation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6). This initial ubiquitin labeling elicits p62-mediated escort and deposition of GBPs to PVs, thereby conferring cell-autonomous immunity. Hypervirulent strains of Toxoplasma gondii evade this process via specific rhoptry protein kinases that inhibit IRG function, resulting in blockage of downstream PV ubiquitination and GBP delivery. Our results define a ubiquitin-centered mechanism by which host cells deliver GBPs to PVs and explain how hypervirulent parasites evade GBP-mediated immunity. PMID:26417105

  5. Guanylate binding proteins promote caspase-11-dependent pyroptosis in response to cytoplasmic LPS.

    PubMed

    Pilla, Danielle M; Hagar, Jon A; Haldar, Arun K; Mason, Ashley K; Degrandi, Daniel; Pfeffer, Klaus; Ernst, Robert K; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Miao, Edward A; Coers, Jörn

    2014-04-22

    IFN receptor signaling induces cell-autonomous immunity to infections with intracellular bacterial pathogens. Here, we demonstrate that IFN-inducible guanylate binding protein (Gbp) proteins stimulate caspase-11-dependent, cell-autonomous immunity in response to cytoplasmic LPS. Caspase-11-dependent pyroptosis is triggered in IFN-activated macrophages infected with the Gram-negative bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila. The rapid induction of pyroptosis in IFN-activated macrophages required a cluster of IFN-inducible Gbp proteins encoded on mouse chromosome 3 (Gbp(chr3)). Induction of pyroptosis in naive macrophages by infections with the cytosol-invading ΔsdhA L. pneumophila mutant was similarly dependent on Gbp(chr3), suggesting that these Gbp proteins play a role in the detection of bacteria accessing the cytosol. Cytoplasmic LPS derived from Salmonella ssp. or Escherichia coli has recently been shown to trigger caspase-11 activation and pyroptosis, but the cytoplasmic sensor for LPS and components of the caspase-11 inflammasome are not yet defined. We found that the induction of caspase-11-dependent pyroptosis by cytoplasmic L. pneumophila-derived LPS required Gbp(chr3) proteins. Similarly, pyroptosis induced by cytoplasmic LPS isolated from Salmonella was diminished in Gbp(chr3)-deficient macrophages. These data suggest a role for Gbp(chr3) proteins in the detection of cytoplasmic LPS and the activation of the noncanonical inflammasome.

  6. Galectin-3 directs antimicrobial guanylate binding proteins to vacuoles furnished with bacterial secretion systems.

    PubMed

    Feeley, Eric M; Pilla-Moffett, Danielle M; Zwack, Erin E; Piro, Anthony S; Finethy, Ryan; Kolb, Joseph P; Martinez, Jennifer; Brodsky, Igor E; Coers, Jörn

    2017-02-28

    Many invasive bacteria establish pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) as intracellular niches for microbial growth. Immunity to these infections is dependent on the ability of host cells to recognize PVs as targets for host defense. The delivery of several host defense proteins to PVs is controlled by IFN-inducible guanylate binding proteins (GBPs), which themselves dock to PVs through poorly characterized mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that GBPs detect the presence of bacterial protein secretion systems as "patterns of pathogenesis" associated with PVs. We report that the delivery of GBP2 to Legionella-containing vacuoles is dependent on the bacterial Dot/Icm secretion system, whereas the delivery of GBP2 to Yersinia-containing vacuoles (YCVs) requires hypersecretion of Yersinia translocon proteins. We show that the presence of bacterial secretion systems directs cytosolic carbohydrate-binding protein Galectin-3 to PVs and that the delivery of GBP1 and GBP2 to Legionella-containing vacuoles or YCVs is substantially diminished in Galectin-3-deficient cells. Our results illustrate that insertion of bacterial secretion systems into PV membranes stimulates Galectin-3-dependent recruitment of antimicrobial GBPs to PVs as part of a coordinated host defense program.

  7. Intracellular trafficking of guanylate-binding proteins is regulated by heterodimerization in a hierarchical manner.

    PubMed

    Britzen-Laurent, Nathalie; Bauer, Michael; Berton, Valeria; Fischer, Nicole; Syguda, Adrian; Reipschläger, Simone; Naschberger, Elisabeth; Herrmann, Christian; Stürzl, Michael

    2010-12-07

    Guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) belong to the dynamin family of large GTPases and represent the major IFN-γ-induced proteins. Here we systematically investigated the mechanisms regulating the subcellular localization of GBPs. Three GBPs (GBP-1, GBP-2 and GBP-5) carry a C-terminal CaaX-prenylation signal, which is typical for small GTPases of the Ras family, and increases the membrane affinity of proteins. In this study, we demonstrated that GBP-1, GBP-2 and GBP-5 are prenylated in vivo and that prenylation is required for the membrane association of GBP-1, GBP-2 and GBP-5. Using co-immunoprecipitation, yeast-two-hybrid analysis and fluorescence complementation assays, we showed for the first time that GBPs are able to homodimerize in vivo and that the membrane association of GBPs is regulated by dimerization similarly to dynamin. Interestingly, GBPs could also heterodimerize. This resulted in hierarchical positioning effects on the intracellular localization of the proteins. Specifically, GBP-1 recruited GBP-5 and GBP-2 into its own cellular compartment and GBP-5 repositioned GBP-2. In addition, GBP-1, GBP-2 and GBP-5 were able to redirect non-prenylated GBPs to their compartment in a prenylation-dependent manner. Overall, these findings prove in vivo the ability of GBPs to dimerize, indicate that heterodimerization regulates sub-cellular localization of GBPs and underscore putative membrane-associated functions of this family of proteins.

  8. How guanylate-binding proteins achieve assembly-stimulated processive cleavage of GTP to GMP.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Agnidipta; Praefcke, Gerrit J K; Renault, Louis; Wittinghofer, Alfred; Herrmann, Christian

    2006-03-02

    Interferons are immunomodulatory cytokines that mediate anti-pathogenic and anti-proliferative effects in cells. Interferon-gamma-inducible human guanylate binding protein 1 (hGBP1) belongs to the family of dynamin-related large GTP-binding proteins, which share biochemical properties not found in other families of GTP-binding proteins such as nucleotide-dependent oligomerization and fast cooperative GTPase activity. hGBP1 has an additional property by which it hydrolyses GTP to GMP in two consecutive cleavage reactions. Here we show that the isolated amino-terminal G domain of hGBP1 retains the main enzymatic properties of the full-length protein and can cleave GDP directly. Crystal structures of the N-terminal G domain trapped at successive steps along the reaction pathway and biochemical data reveal the molecular basis for nucleotide-dependent homodimerization and cleavage of GTP. Similar to effector binding in other GTP-binding proteins, homodimerization is regulated by structural changes in the switch regions. Homodimerization generates a conformation in which an arginine finger and a serine are oriented for efficient catalysis. Positioning of the substrate for the second hydrolysis step is achieved by a change in nucleotide conformation at the ribose that keeps the guanine base interactions intact and positions the beta-phosphates in the gamma-phosphate-binding site.

  9. Molecular Mechanism and Evolution of Guanylate Kinase Regulation by (p)ppGpp

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Kuanqing; Myers, Angela R.; Pisithkul, Tippapha; Claas, Kathy R.; Satyshur, Kenneth A.; Amador-Noguez, Daniel; Keck, James L.; Wang, Jue D.

    2015-02-01

    The nucleotide (p)ppGpp mediates bacterial stress responses, but its targets and underlying mechanisms of action vary among bacterial species and remain incompletely understood. Here, we characterize the molecular interaction between (p)ppGpp and guanylate kinase (GMK), revealing the importance of this interaction in adaptation to starvation. Combining structural and kinetic analyses, we show that (p)ppGpp binds the GMK active site and competitively inhibits the enzyme. The (p)ppGpp-GMK interaction prevents the conversion of GMP to GDP, resulting in GMP accumulation upon amino acid downshift. Abolishing this interaction leads to excess (p)ppGpp and defective adaptation to amino acid starvation. A survey of GMKs from phylogenetically diverse bacteria shows that the (p)ppGpp-GMK interaction is conserved in members of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Deinococcus-Thermus, but not in Proteobacteria, where (p)ppGpp regulates RNA polymerase (RNAP). We propose that GMK is an ancestral (p)ppGpp target and RNAP evolved more recently as a direct target in Proteobacteria.

  10. Molecular mechanism and evolution of guanylate kinase regulation by (p)ppGpp

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Kuanqing; Myers, Angela R.; Pisithkul, Tippapha; ...

    2015-02-05

    The nucleotide (p)ppGpp mediates bacterial stress responses, but its targets and underlying mechanisms of action vary among bacterial species and remain incompletely understood. In this paper, we characterize the molecular interaction between (p)ppGpp and guanylate kinase (GMK), revealing the importance of this interaction in adaptation to starvation. Combining structural and kinetic analyses, we show that (p)ppGpp binds the GMK active site and competitively inhibits the enzyme. The (p)ppGpp-GMK interaction prevents the conversion of GMP to GDP, resulting in GMP accumulation upon amino acid downshift. Abolishing this interaction leads to excess (p)ppGpp and defective adaptation to amino acid starvation. A surveymore » of GMKs from phylogenetically diverse bacteria shows that the (p)ppGpp-GMK interaction is conserved in members of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Deinococcus-Thermus, but not in Proteobacteria, where (p)ppGpp regulates RNA polymerase (RNAP). Finally, we propose that GMK is an ancestral (p)ppGpp target and RNAP evolved more recently as a direct target in Proteobacteria.« less

  11. Structure of the GH1 domain of guanylate kinase-associated protein from Rattus norvegicus

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Junsen; Yang, Huiseon; Eom, Soo Hyun; Chun, ChangJu; Im, Young Jun

    2014-09-12

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The crystal structure of GKAP homology domain 1 (GH1) was determined. • GKAP GH1 is a three-helix bundle connected by short flexible loops. • The predicted helix α4 associates weakly with the helix α3, suggesting dynamic nature of the GH1 domain. - Abstract: Guanylate-kinase-associated protein (GKAP) is a scaffolding protein that links NMDA receptor-PSD-95 to Shank–Homer complexes by protein–protein interactions at the synaptic junction. GKAP family proteins are characterized by the presence of a C-terminal conserved GKAP homology domain 1 (GH1) of unknown structure and function. In this study, crystal structure of the GH1 domain of GKAP from Rattus norvegicus was determined in fusion with an N-terminal maltose-binding protein at 2.0 Å resolution. The structure of GKAP GH1 displays a three-helix bundle connected by short flexible loops. The predicted helix α4 which was not visible in the crystal structure associates weakly with the helix α3 suggesting dynamic nature of the GH1 domain. The strict conservation of GH1 domain across GKAP family members and the lack of a catalytic active site required for enzyme activity imply that the GH1 domain might serve as a protein–protein interaction module for the synaptic protein clustering.

  12. Soluble guanylyl cyclase-activated cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits arterial smooth muscle cell migration independent of VASP-serine 239 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Holt, Andrew W; Martin, Danielle N; Shaver, Patti R; Adderley, Shaquria P; Stone, Joshua D; Joshi, Chintamani N; Francisco, Jake T; Lust, Robert M; Weidner, Douglas A; Shewchuk, Brian M; Tulis, David A

    2016-09-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) accounts for over half of all cardiovascular disease-related deaths. Uncontrolled arterial smooth muscle (ASM) cell migration is a major component of CAD pathogenesis and efforts aimed at attenuating its progression are clinically essential. Cyclic nucleotide signaling has long been studied for its growth-mitigating properties in the setting of CAD and other vascular disorders. Heme-containing soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) synthesizes cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and maintains vascular homeostasis predominantly through cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) signaling. Considering that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can interfere with appropriate sGC signaling by oxidizing the cyclase heme moiety and so are associated with several CVD pathologies, the current study was designed to test the hypothesis that heme-independent sGC activation by BAY 60-2770 (BAY60) maintains cGMP levels despite heme oxidation and inhibits ASM cell migration through phosphorylation of the PKG target and actin-binding vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP). First, using the heme oxidant ODQ, cGMP content was potentiated in the presence of BAY60. Using a rat model of arterial growth, BAY60 significantly reduced neointima formation and luminal narrowing compared to vehicle (VEH)-treated controls. In rat ASM cells BAY60 significantly attenuated cell migration, reduced G:F actin, and increased PKG activity and VASP Ser239 phosphorylation (pVASP·S239) compared to VEH controls. Site-directed mutagenesis was then used to generate overexpressing full-length wild type VASP (FL-VASP/WT), VASP Ser239 phosphorylation-mimetic (FL-VASP/239D) and VASP Ser239 phosphorylation-resistant (FL-VASP/239A) ASM cell mutants. Surprisingly, FL-VASP/239D negated the inhibitory effects of FL-VASP/WT and FL-VASP/239A cells on migration. Furthermore, when FL-VASP mutants were treated with BAY60, only the FL-VASP/239D group showed reduced migration compared to its VEH controls

  13. Characterization of the adenosine receptor in cultured embryonic chick atrial myocytes: Coupling to modulation of contractility and adenylate cyclase activity and identification by direct radioligand binding

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, B.T.

    1989-06-01

    Adenosine receptors in a spontaneously contracting atrial myocyte culture from 14-day chick embryos were characterized by radioligand binding studies and by examining the involvement of G-protein in coupling these receptors to a high-affinity state and to the adenylate cyclase and the myocyte contractility. Binding of the antagonist radioligand (3H)-8-cyclopentyl-1,3-diproylxanthine ((3H)CPX) was rapid, reversible and saturable and was to a homogeneous population of sites with a Kd value of 2.1 +/- 0.2 nM and an apparent maximum binding of 26.2 +/- 3 fmol/mg of protein (n = 10, +/- S.E.). Guanyl-5-yl-(beta, gamma-imido)diphosphate had no effect on either the Kd or the maximum binding and CPX reversed the N6-R-phenyl-2-propyladenosine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity and contractility, indicating that (3H) CPX is an antagonist radioligand. Competition curves for (3H) CPX binding by a series of reference adenosine agonists were consistent with labeling of an A1 adenosine receptor and were better fit by a two-site model than by a one-site model. ADP-ribosylation of the G-protein by the endogenous NAD+ in the presence of pertussis toxin shifted the competition curves from bi to monophasic with Ki values similar to those of the KL observed in the absence of prior pertussis intoxication. The adenosine agonists were capable of inhibiting both the adenylate cyclase activity and myocyte contractility in either the absence or the presence of isoproterenol. The A1 adenosine receptor-selective antagonist CPX reversed these agonist effects. The order of ability of the reference adenosine receptor agonists in causing these inhibitory effects was similar to the order of potency of the same agonists in inhibiting the specific (3H)CPX binding (N6-R-phenyl-2-propyladenosine greater than N6-S-phenyl-2-propyladenosine or N-ethyladenosine-5'-uronic acid).

  14. Interaction of 7-bromoacetyl-7-desacetylforskolin with adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Laurenza, A.; Morris, D.I.; Seamon, K.B.

    1986-05-01

    7-Bromoacetyl-7-desacetylforskolin (BrAcFk) and the 12-tritio derivative (/sup 3/H-BrAckFk) were synthesized as alkylating analogs of forskolin. BrAcFk stimulated adenylate cyclase in human platelet and bovine brain membranes with an EC50 of 50..mu..M and inhibited /sup 3/H-forskolin binding to these membranes with a K/sub i/ of 300 nM. /sup 3/H-forskolin binding was decreased in membranes pretreated for 20 min with 10 ..mu..M BrAcFk. The i,9-dideoxy derivative of BrAcFk did not activate adenylate cyclase or inhibit /sup 3/H-forskolin binding. Proteins labelled by BrAcFk in solubilized preparations from bovine brain and human platelets were identified by fluorography of SDS gels. The two predominant bands labelled in the low and high molecular weight regions had molecular weights of 50,000 and 135,000 daltons respectively. The 135,000 dalton band identified by fluorography coeluted with adenylate cyclase activity on a Dupont GF450 column and has a molecular weight identical to that of the catalytic subunit determined by silver staining of SDS gels. These results suggest that BrAcFk can react covalently with the catalytic subunit of adenylate cyclase.

  15. General base-general acid catalysis by terpenoid cyclases.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, Travis A; Christianson, David W

    2016-07-01

    Terpenoid cyclases catalyze the most complex reactions in biology, in that more than half of the substrate carbon atoms often undergo changes in bonding during the course of a multistep cyclization cascade that proceeds through multiple carbocation intermediates. Many cyclization mechanisms require stereospecific deprotonation and reprotonation steps, and most cyclization cascades are terminated by deprotonation to yield an olefin product. The first bacterial terpenoid cyclase to yield a crystal structure was pentalenene synthase from Streptomyces exfoliatus UC5319. This cyclase generates the hydrocarbon precursor of the pentalenolactone family of antibiotics. The structures of pentalenene synthase and other terpenoid cyclases reveal predominantly nonpolar active sites typically lacking amino acid side chains capable of serving general base-general acid functions. What chemical species, then, enables the Brønsted acid-base chemistry required in the catalytic mechanisms of these enzymes? The most likely candidate for such general base-general acid chemistry is the co-product inorganic pyrophosphate. Here, we briefly review biological and nonbiological systems in which phosphate and its derivatives serve general base and general acid functions in catalysis. These examples highlight the fact that the Brønsted acid-base activities of phosphate derivatives are comparable to the Brønsted acid-base activities of amino acid side chains.

  16. Virulence of Bordetella bronchiseptica: role of adenylate cyclase-hemolysin.

    PubMed Central

    Gueirard, P; Guiso, N

    1993-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is a pathogen of laboratory, domestic, and wild animals and sometimes of humans. In the present study some characteristics of the virulence of B. bronchiseptica isolates of different origin were studied. All isolates had similar phenotypes, similar bacteriological characters, and synthesized adenylate cyclase-hemolysin, filamentous hemagglutinin and pertactin but not pertussis toxin. These isolates, however, differed in their ability to express dermonecrotic toxin and to cause a lethal infection, but no correlation was found with the human or animal origin of the isolates. The fact that the most virulent isolate did not express dermonecrotic toxin suggests that this toxin does not play an important role in the virulence of the bacteria in the murine model. After infection with virulent B. bronchiseptica a very early synthesis and a persistence of anti-adenylate cyclase-hemolysin and anti-filamentous hemagglutinin antibodies were observed in the sera of infected mice, suggesting a persistence of the bacteria or of its antigens. B. bronchiseptica adenylate cyclase-hemolysin was purified and was shown to be a major protective antigen against B. bronchiseptica infection. Furthermore, we showed that its immunological and protective properties were different from that of B. pertussis adenylate cyclase-hemolysin, confirming that Bordetella species are immunologically different. Images PMID:8406794

  17. A Survey of Nucleotide Cyclases in Actinobacteria: Unique Domain Organization and Expansion of the Class III Cyclase Family in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, K.; Krupa, A.; Srinivasan, N.

    2004-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotides are well-known second messengers involved in the regulation of important metabolic pathways or virulence factors. There are six different classes of nucleotide cyclases that can accomplish the task of generating cAMP, and four of these are restricted to the prokaryotes. The role of cAMP has been implicated in the virulence and regulation of secondary metabolites in the phylum Actinobacteria, which contains important pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. leprae, M. bovis and Corynebacterium, and industrial organisms from the genus Streptomyces. We have analysed the actinobacterial genome sequences found in current databases for the presence of different classes of nucleotide cyclases, and find that only class III cyclases are present in these organisms. Importantly, prominent members such as M. tuberculosis and M. leprae have 17 and 4 class III cyclases, respectively, encoded in their genomes, some of which display interesting domain fusions seen for the first time. In addition, a pseudogene corresponding to a cyclase from M. avium has been identified as the only cyclase pseudogene in M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. The Corynebacterium and Streptomyces genomes encode only a single adenylyl cyclase each, both of which have corresponding orthologues in M. tuberculosis. A clustering of the cyclase domains in Actinobacteria reveals the presence of typical eukaryote-like, fungi-like and other bacteria-like class III cyclase sequences within this phylum, suggesting that these proteins may have significant roles to play in this important group of organisms. PMID:18629044

  18. Modification of adenylate cyclase by photoaffinity analogs of forskolin

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, L.T.; Nie, Z.M.; Mende, T.J.; Richardson, S.; Chavan, A.; Kolaczkowska, E.; Watt, D.S.; Haley, B.E.; Ho, R.J. )

    1989-01-01

    Photoaffinity labeling analogs of the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin (PF) have been synthesized, purified and tested for their effect on preparations of membrane-bound, Lubrol solubilized and forskolin affinity-purified adenylate cyclase (AC). All analogs of forskolin significantly activated AC. However, in the presence of 0.1 to 0.3 microM forskolin, the less active forskolin photoaffinity probes at 100 microM caused inhibition. This inhibition was dose-dependent for PF, suggesting that PF may complete with F for the same binding site(s). After cross-linking (125I)PF-M to either membrane or Lubrol-solubilized AC preparations by photolysis, a radiolabeled 100-110 kDa protein band was observed after autoradiography following SDS-PAGE. F at 100 microM blocked the photoradiolabeling of this protein. Radioiodination of forskolin-affinity purified AC showed several protein bands on autoradiogram, however, only one band (Mr = 100-110 kDa) was specifically labeled by (125I)PF-M following photolysis. The photoaffinity-labeled protein of 100-110 kDa of AC preparation of rat adipocyte may be the catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase of rat adipocyte itself as supported by the facts that (a) no other AC-regulatory proteins are known to be of this size, (b) the catalytic unit of bovine brain enzyme is in the same range and (c) this PF specifically stimulates AC activity when assayed alone, and weekly inhibits forskolin-activation of cyclase. These studies indicate that radiolabeled PF probes may be useful for photolabeling and detecting the catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase.

  19. Involvement of nuclear receptor RZR/RORγ in melatonin-induced HIF-1α inactivation in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ri-Xiong; Liu, Hui; Xu, Li; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Rui-Xiang

    2015-11-01

    The melatonin nuclear receptor is an orphan member of the nuclear receptor superfamily RZR/ROR, which consists of three subtypes (α, β and γ), suggesting that immunomodulatory and antitumor effects through the intracellular action of melatonin depend on nuclear signaling. In the present study, the biological mechanisms of melatonin were elucidated in association with the RZR/RORγ pathway in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells under hypoxia. Melatonin suppressed the activity of RZR/RORγ and SUMO-specific protease 1 (SENP1) signaling pathway, which is essential for stabilization of hypoxia‑inducible factor-1α (HIF‑1α) during hypoxia. Furthermore, melatonin inhibited the stability of HIF-1α in a time- and conce-ntration-dependent manner in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells during hypoxia. Consistently, siRNA-RZR/RORγ effectively blocked the expression of SENP1, HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production in SGC-7901 cells under hypoxia, suggesting the role of nuclear receptor RZR/RORγ in melatonin-inhibited HIF-1α and VEGF accumulation. Moreover, siRNA RZR/RORγ obviously antagonized to inhibit the action of the gastric cancer cell proliferation by melatonin. Our findings suggest that melatonin suppresses HIF-1α accumulation and VEGF generation via inhibition of melatonin nuclear receptor RZR/RORγ in SGC-7901 cells under hypoxia.

  20. Picosecond to second dynamics reveals a structural transition in Clostridium botulinum NO-sensor triggered by the activator BAY-41-2272.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Byung-Kuk; Lamarre, Isabelle; Rappaport, Fabrice; Nioche, Pierre; Raman, C S; Martin, Jean-Louis; Negrerie, Michel

    2012-12-21

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is the mammalian endogenous nitric oxide (NO) receptor that synthesizes cGMP upon NO activation. In synergy with the artificial allosteric effector BAY 41-2272 (a lead compound for drug design in cardiovascular treatment), sGC can also be activated by carbon monoxide (CO), but the structural basis for this synergistic effect are unknown. We recorded in the unusually broad time range from 1 ps to 1 s the dynamics of the interaction of CO binding to full length sGC, to the isolated sGC heme domain β(1)(200) and to the homologous bacterial NO-sensor from Clostridium botulinum. By identifying all phases of CO binding in this full time range and characterizing how these phases are modified by BAY 41-2272, we show that this activator induces the same structural changes in both proteins. This result demonstrates that the BAY 41-2272 binding site resides in the β(1)(200) sGC heme domain and is the same in sGC and in the NO-sensor from Clostridium botulinum.

  1. Guanylate Binding Proteins Regulate Inflammasome Activation in Response to Hyperinjected Yersinia Translocon Components.

    PubMed

    Zwack, Erin E; Feeley, Eric M; Burton, Amanda R; Hu, Baofeng; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi; Bliska, James B; Coers, Jörn; Brodsky, Igor E

    2017-10-01

    Gram-negative bacterial pathogens utilize virulence-associated secretion systems to inject, or translocate, effector proteins into host cells to manipulate cellular processes and promote bacterial replication. However, translocated bacterial products are sensed by nucleotide binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing proteins (NLRs), which trigger the formation of a multiprotein complex called the inflammasome, leading to secretion of interleukin-1 (IL-1) family cytokines, pyroptosis, and control of pathogen replication. Pathogenic Yersinia bacteria inject effector proteins termed Yops, as well as pore-forming proteins that comprise the translocon itself, into target cells. The Yersinia translocation regulatory protein YopK promotes bacterial virulence by limiting hyperinjection of the translocon proteins YopD and YopB into cells, thereby limiting cellular detection of Yersinia virulence activity. How hyperinjection of translocon proteins leads to inflammasome activation is currently unknown. We found that translocated YopB and YopD colocalized with the late endosomal/lysosomal protein LAMP1 and that the frequency of YopD and LAMP1 association correlated with the level of caspase-1 activation in individual cells. We also observed colocalization between YopD and Galectin-3, an indicator of endosomal membrane damage. Intriguingly, YopK limited the colocalization of Galectin-3 with YopD, suggesting that YopK limits the induction or sensing of endosomal membrane damage by components of the type III secretion system (T3SS) translocon. Furthermore, guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) encoded on chromosome 3 (Gbp(Chr3) ), which respond to pathogen-induced damage or alteration of host membranes, were necessary for inflammasome activation in response to hyperinjected YopB/-D. Our findings indicate that lysosomal damage by Yersinia translocon proteins promotes inflammasome activation and implicate GBPs as key regulators of this process. Copyright © 2017 American

  2. Autophagy restricts Chlamydia trachomatis growth in human macrophages via IFNG-inducible guanylate binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Al-Zeer, Munir A; Al-Younes, Hesham M; Lauster, Daniel; Abu Lubad, Mohammad; Meyer, Thomas F

    2013-01-01

    Interferon γ (IFNG) is a key host response regulator of intracellular pathogen replication, including that of Chlamydia spp The antichlamydial functions of IFNG manifest in a strictly host, cell-type and chlamydial strain dependent manner. It has been recently shown that the IFNG-inducible family of immunity-related GTPases (IRG) proteins plays a key role in the defense against nonhost adapted chlamydia strains in murine epithelial cells. In humans, IFN-inducible guanylate binding proteins (hGBPs) have been shown to potentiate the antichlamydial effect of IFNG; however, how hGBPs regulate this property of IFNG is unknown. In this study, we identified hGBP1/2 as important resistance factors against C. trachomatis infection in IFNG-stimulated human macrophages. Exogenous IFNG reduced chlamydial infectivity by 50 percent in wild-type cells, whereas shRNA hGBP1/2 knockdown macrophages fully supported chlamydial growth in the presence of exogenous IFNG. hGBP1/2 were recruited to bacterial inclusions in human macrophages upon stimulation with IFNG, which triggered rerouting of the typically nonfusogenic bacterial inclusions for lysosomal degradation. Inhibition of lysosomal activity and autophagy impaired the IFNG-mediated elimination of inclusions. Thus, hGBP1/2 are critical effectors of antichlamydial IFNG responses in human macrophages. Through their capacity to remodel classically nonfusogenic chlamydial inclusions and stimulate fusion with autophagosomes, hGBP1/2 disable a major chlamydial virulence mechanism and contribute to IFNG-mediated pathogen clearance.

  3. Interferon gamma-induced human guanylate binding protein 1 inhibits mammary tumor growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Lipnik, Karoline; Naschberger, Elisabeth; Gonin-Laurent, Nathalie; Kodajova, Petra; Petznek, Helga; Rungaldier, Stefanie; Astigiano, Simonetta; Ferrini, Silvano; Stürzl, Michael; Hohenadl, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) has recently been implicated in cancer immunosurveillance. Among the most abundant proteins induced by IFN-gamma are guanylate binding proteins (GBPs), which belong to the superfamily of large GTPases and are widely expressed in various species. Here, we investigated whether the well-known human GBP-1 (hGBP-1), which has been shown to exert antiangiogenic activities and was described as a prognostic marker in colorectal carcinomas, may contribute to an IFN-gamma-mediated tumor defense. To this end, an IFN-independent, inducible hGBP-1 expression system was established in murine mammary carcinoma (TS/A) cells, which were then transplanted into syngeneic immune-competent Balb/c mice. Animals carrying TS/A cells that had been given doxycycline for induction of hGBP-1 expression revealed a significantly reduced tumor growth compared with mock-treated mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of the respective tumors demonstrated a tightly regulated, high-level expression of hGBP-1. No signs of an enhanced immunosurveillance were observed by investigating the number of infiltrating B and T cells. However, hemoglobin levels as well as the number of proliferating tumor cells were shown to be significantly reduced in hGBP-1-expressing tumors. This finding corresponded to reduced amounts of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) released by hGBP-1-expressing TS/A cells in vitro and reduced VEGF-A protein levels in the corresponding mammary tumors in vivo. The results suggest that hGBP-1 may contribute to IFN-gamma-mediated antitumorigenic activities by inhibiting paracrine effects of tumor cells on angiogenesis. Consequently, owing to these activities GBPs might be considered as potent members in an innate, IFN-gamma-induced antitumoral defense system.

  4. Guanylate Binding Proteins Enable Rapid Activation of Canonical and Noncanonical Inflammasomes in Chlamydia-Infected Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Finethy, Ryan; Jorgensen, Ine; Haldar, Arun K.; de Zoete, Marcel R.; Strowig, Till; Flavell, Richard A.; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nagarajan, Uma M.; Miao, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-inducible guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) mediate cell-autonomous host resistance to bacterial pathogens and promote inflammasome activation. The prevailing model postulates that these two GBP-controlled activities are directly linked through GBP-dependent vacuolar lysis. It was proposed that the rupture of pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) by GBPs destroyed the microbial refuge and simultaneously contaminated the host cell cytosol with microbial activators of inflammasomes. Here, we demonstrate that GBP-mediated host resistance and GBP-mediated inflammatory responses can be uncoupled. We show that PVs formed by the rodent pathogen Chlamydia muridarum, so-called inclusions, remain free of GBPs and that C. muridarum is impervious to GBP-mediated restrictions on bacterial growth. Although GBPs neither bind to C. muridarum inclusions nor restrict C. muridarum growth, we find that GBPs promote inflammasome activation in C. muridarum-infected macrophages. We demonstrate that C. muridarum infections induce GBP-dependent pyroptosis through both caspase-11-dependent noncanonical and caspase-1-dependent canonical inflammasomes. Among canonical inflammasomes, we find that C. muridarum and the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis activate not only NLRP3 but also AIM2. Our data show that GBPs support fast-kinetics processing and secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 by the NLRP3 inflammasome but are dispensable for the secretion of the same cytokines at later times postinfection. Because IFN-γ fails to induce IL-1β transcription, GBP-dependent fast-kinetics inflammasome activation can drive the preferential processing of constitutively expressed IL-18 in IFN-γ-primed macrophages in the absence of prior Toll-like receptor stimulation. Together, our results reveal that GBPs control the kinetics of inflammasome activation and thereby shape macrophage responses to Chlamydia infections. PMID:26416908

  5. Guanylate binding proteins enable rapid activation of canonical and noncanonical inflammasomes in Chlamydia-infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Finethy, Ryan; Jorgensen, Ine; Haldar, Arun K; de Zoete, Marcel R; Strowig, Till; Flavell, Richard A; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nagarajan, Uma M; Miao, Edward A; Coers, Jörn

    2015-12-01

    Interferon (IFN)-inducible guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) mediate cell-autonomous host resistance to bacterial pathogens and promote inflammasome activation. The prevailing model postulates that these two GBP-controlled activities are directly linked through GBP-dependent vacuolar lysis. It was proposed that the rupture of pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) by GBPs destroyed the microbial refuge and simultaneously contaminated the host cell cytosol with microbial activators of inflammasomes. Here, we demonstrate that GBP-mediated host resistance and GBP-mediated inflammatory responses can be uncoupled. We show that PVs formed by the rodent pathogen Chlamydia muridarum, so-called inclusions, remain free of GBPs and that C. muridarum is impervious to GBP-mediated restrictions on bacterial growth. Although GBPs neither bind to C. muridarum inclusions nor restrict C. muridarum growth, we find that GBPs promote inflammasome activation in C. muridarum-infected macrophages. We demonstrate that C. muridarum infections induce GBP-dependent pyroptosis through both caspase-11-dependent noncanonical and caspase-1-dependent canonical inflammasomes. Among canonical inflammasomes, we find that C. muridarum and the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis activate not only NLRP3 but also AIM2. Our data show that GBPs support fast-kinetics processing and secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 by the NLRP3 inflammasome but are dispensable for the secretion of the same cytokines at later times postinfection. Because IFN-γ fails to induce IL-1β transcription, GBP-dependent fast-kinetics inflammasome activation can drive the preferential processing of constitutively expressed IL-18 in IFN-γ-primed macrophages in the absence of prior Toll-like receptor stimulation. Together, our results reveal that GBPs control the kinetics of inflammasome activation and thereby shape macrophage responses to Chlamydia infections.

  6. GBP-5 splicing variants: New guanylate-binding proteins with tumor-associated expression and antigenicity.

    PubMed

    Fellenberg, Friederike; Hartmann, Tanja B; Dummer, Reinhard; Usener, Dirk; Schadendorf, Dirk; Eichmüller, Stefan

    2004-06-01

    We have identified a new gene, gbp-5, with high homology to the guanylate binding proteins (GBP) belonging to the GTPase superfamily including the ras gene. gbp-5 is transcribed at least into three splicing variants (gbp-5a, -5b, and -5ta) leading to two different proteins (GBP-5a/b, GBP-5ta). GBP-5ta is C-terminally truncated by 97aa and has therefore lost its isoprenylation site. Although RT-PCR results indicated expression of GBP-5 members in selected normal tissues, western blotting using two newly generated antibodies revealed that expression of both proteins is restricted to peripheral blood monocytes with GBP-5ta at lower levels. In contrast, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) tumor tissues (seven of seven) were positive solely for GBP-5ta, and four of four CTCL cell lines expressed both proteins. Eight of nine melanoma cell lines expressed GBP-5a/b and four of nine additionally low levels of GBP-5ta. SEREX retesting using CTCL sera indicated a higher immunogenicity for GBP-5ta (nine of 16) than for GBP-5a/b (two of 11). Treatment of CTCL cell lines with interferon-gamma did not alter protein expression of GBP-5ta or GBP-5a/b. The restricted expression pattern of both GBP-5ta and GBP-5a/b and the pivotal role of many known members of the GTP-binding proteins in proliferation and differentiation suggest possible cancer-related functions of gbp-5.

  7. Unique features of different members of the human guanylate-binding protein family.

    PubMed

    Tripal, Philipp; Bauer, Michael; Naschberger, Elisabeth; Mörtinger, Thomas; Hohenadl, Christine; Cornali, Emmanuelle; Thurau, Mathias; Stürzl, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) are the most abundant cellular proteins expressed in response to interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), with seven highly homologous members in humans, termed HuGBP-1 to HuGBP-7. To date, differential features that may indicate differential functions of these proteins have not been described. Here, we investigated the expression and subcellular localization of the different HuGBPs in endothelial cells (EC). IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) induced the expression of HuGBP-1, HuGBP-2, and HuGBP-3 at similar high levels. In contrast, expression of HuGBP-4 and HuGBP-5 was robustly induced only by IFN-gamma and not by TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. Expression of HuGBP-6 and HuGBP-7 was not detected in EC under the various conditions examined. Investigating subcellular localization of the EC-expressed HuGBPs, HuGBP-1, HuGBP-3, and HuGBP-5 were exclusively detected in the cytoplasm, whereas HuGBP-2 and HuGBP-4 displayed a nucleocytoplasmic distribution. Treatment of the cells with IFN-gamma and aluminum fluoride caused rapid enrichment of HuGBP-1 and HuGBP-2 in the Golgi apparatus, as demonstrated by time-lapse microscopy and fluorescence analyses of GFP-tagged HuGBPs. HuGBP-3 and HuGBP-4 were never detected in the Golgi apparatus, whereas HuGBP-5 was constitutively enriched in this cytosolic compartment, irrespective of stimulation. These results assign a characteristic pattern of expression and subcellular localization to each of the HuGBPs, indicating for the first time that these proteins may have different cellular functions.

  8. Guanylate-binding protein 5 is a marker of interferon-γ-induced classically activated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Yukio; Hizukuri, Yoshiyuki; Yamashiro, Kyoko; Makita, Naoyuki; Ohnishi, Koji; Takeya, Motohiro; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Hayashi, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage activation is the main immunological process occurring during the development of several diseases, and the heterogeneity of macrophage activation or differentiation has been suggested to be involved in disease progression. In the present study, we attempted to identify molecules specifically expressed on human classically activated macrophages (M1) to investigate the significance of the M1-like phenotype in human diseases. Human monocyte-derived macrophages were differentiated into M1, M2a, M2b and M2c phenotypes, and also M1(−) (the M1 phenotype differentiated with interferon-γ) to eliminate the strong effects of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on the gene expression profile. The gene expression profiles of those macrophage phenotypes were analyzed by a cDNA microarray analysis and were used for a bioinformatics examination to identify the markers of the M1 phenotype that are expressed in both M1 and M1(−). The gene expression profiles of murine macrophages were also evaluated. We identified guanylate-binding protein 5 (GBP5), which is associated nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing gene family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3)-mediated inflammasome assembly in the M1 macrophages of both humans and mice. Notably, the expression of GBP5 protein was detected in cultured M1(−) as well as in M1 macrophages by western blotting, which means that GBP5 is a more generalized marker of the M1 phenotype compared with the M1 markers that can be induced by LPS stimulation. GBP5 is a useful candidate marker of the M1 phenotype. PMID:27990286

  9. Guanylate-binding protein 5 is a marker of interferon-γ-induced classically activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yukio; Hizukuri, Yoshiyuki; Yamashiro, Kyoko; Makita, Naoyuki; Ohnishi, Koji; Takeya, Motohiro; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Hayashi, Yasuhiro

    2016-11-01

    Macrophage activation is the main immunological process occurring during the development of several diseases, and the heterogeneity of macrophage activation or differentiation has been suggested to be involved in disease progression. In the present study, we attempted to identify molecules specifically expressed on human classically activated macrophages (M1) to investigate the significance of the M1-like phenotype in human diseases. Human monocyte-derived macrophages were differentiated into M1, M2a, M2b and M2c phenotypes, and also M1(-) (the M1 phenotype differentiated with interferon-γ) to eliminate the strong effects of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on the gene expression profile. The gene expression profiles of those macrophage phenotypes were analyzed by a cDNA microarray analysis and were used for a bioinformatics examination to identify the markers of the M1 phenotype that are expressed in both M1 and M1(-). The gene expression profiles of murine macrophages were also evaluated. We identified guanylate-binding protein 5 (GBP5), which is associated nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing gene family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3)-mediated inflammasome assembly in the M1 macrophages of both humans and mice. Notably, the expression of GBP5 protein was detected in cultured M1(-) as well as in M1 macrophages by western blotting, which means that GBP5 is a more generalized marker of the M1 phenotype compared with the M1 markers that can be induced by LPS stimulation. GBP5 is a useful candidate marker of the M1 phenotype.

  10. A composite guanyl thiourea (GTU), dicyandiamide (DCD) inhibitor improves the efficacy of nitrification inhibition in soil.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Elliott G; O'Sullivan, Cathryn A; Simonsen, Anna K; Roper, Margaret M; Treble, Karen; Whisson, Kelley

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated whether applying dicyandiamide (DCD) and guanyl thiourea (GTU) in conjunction with urea improves the efficacy of nitrification inhibition relative to traditional fertiliser application of urea or urea + DCD. Urea at a rate of 100 mg N kg(-1) soil was applied to soil microcosms (high nutrient tenosol and low nutrient hydrosol) which were treated with either no inhibitor (urea-only); 15 mg DCD kg(-1) soil or 15 mg DCD kg(-1) soil plus 21 mg GTU kg soil(-1). Mineral N (NH4(+) & NO3(-)) concentrations, potential nitrification rates (PNR) and abundances of ammonia oxidising bacteria (AOB) were measured over time. After 100-days incubation, ∼73 mg N kg(-1) soil was found as NH4(+) when urea + DCD + GTU were applied to the tenosol. NH4(+) concentrations were lower (11-32 mg N kg(-1) soil) when urea or urea + DCD were applied. This suggests that the application of GTU in conjunction with DCD elongated the effects of nitrification inhibition. In both soils, PNRs were faster and AOB abundances (gene copies g(-1) soil) were higher when urea was applied without nitrification inhibitors. There were, however, no differences in PNR or AOB abundances in either soil type when 'urea + DCD' or 'urea + DCD + GTU' were applied. The results indicate that the application of GTU with DCD may extend nitrification inhibition in certain soil types. This finding has the potential to improve the efficacy of commercially available and widely used inhibitors such as DCD.

  11. Insight into Temperature Dependence of GTPase Activity in Human Guanylate Binding Protein-1

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Safikur; Deep, Shashank; Sau, Apurba Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Interferon-γ induced human guanylate binding protein-1(hGBP1) belongs to a family of dynamin related large GTPases. Unlike all other GTPases, hGBP1 hydrolyzes GTP to a mixture of GDP and GMP with GMP being the major product at 37°C but GDP became significant when the hydrolysis reaction was carried out at 15°C. The hydrolysis reaction in hGBP1 is believed to involve with a number of catalytic steps. To investigate the effect of temperature in the product formation and on the different catalytic complexes of hGBP1, we carried out temperature dependent GTPase assays, mutational analysis, chemical and thermal denaturation studies. The Arrhenius plot for both GDP and GMP interestingly showed nonlinear behaviour, suggesting that the product formation from the GTP-bound enzyme complex is associated with at least more than one step. The negative activation energy for GDP formation and GTPase assay with external GDP together indicate that GDP formation occurs through the reversible dissociation of GDP-bound enzyme dimer to monomer, which further reversibly dissociates to give the product. Denaturation studies of different catalytic complexes show that unlike other complexes the free energy of GDP-bound hGBP1 decreases significantly at lower temperature. GDP formation is found to be dependent on the free energy of the GDP-bound enzyme complex. The decrease in the free energy of this complex at low temperature compared to at high is the reason for higher GDP formation at low temperature. Thermal denaturation studies also suggest that the difference in the free energy of the GTP-bound enzyme dimer compared to its monomer plays a crucial role in the product formation; higher stability favours GMP but lower favours GDP. Thus, this study provides the first thermodynamic insight into the effect of temperature in the product formation of hGBP1. PMID:22859948

  12. Pantoprazole inhibits human gastric adenocarcinoma SGC-7901 cells by downregulating the expression of pyruvate kinase M2

    PubMed Central

    SHEN, YONGHUA; CHEN, MIN; HUANG, SHULING; ZOU, XIAOPING

    2016-01-01

    The Warburg effect is important in tumor growth. The human M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) is a key enzyme that regulates aerobic glycolysis in tumor cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that PKM2 is a potential target for cancer therapy. The present study investigated the effects of pantoprazole (PPZ) treatment and PKM2 transfection on human gastric adenocarcinoma SGC-7901 cells in vitro. The present study revealed that PPZ inhibited the proliferation of tumor cells, induced apoptosis and downregulated the expression of PKM2, which contributes to the current understanding of the functional association between PPZ and PKM2. In summary, PPZ may suppress tumor growth as a PKM2 protein inhibitor. PMID:26870273

  13. Characterization of the specific interaction between the DNA aptamer sgc8c and protein tyrosine kinase-7 receptors at the surface of T-cells by biosensing AFM.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Michael; Poturnayova, Alexandra; Lamprecht, Constanze; Weich, Sabine; Snejdarkova, Maja; Karpisova, Ivana; Hianik, Tibor; Ebner, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    We studied the interaction of the specific DNA aptamer sgc8c immobilized at the AFM tip with its corresponding receptor, the protein tyrosine kinase-7 (PTK7) embedded in the membrane of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells (Jurkat T-cells). Performing single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) experiments, we showed that the aptamer sgc8c bound with high probability (38.3 ± 7.48%) and high specificity to PTK7, as demonstrated by receptor blocking experiments and through comparison with the binding behavior of a nonspecific aptamer. The determined kinetic off-rate (koff = 5.16 s(-1)) indicates low dissociation of the sgc8c-PTK7 complex. In addition to the pulling force experiments, simultaneous topography and recognition imaging (TREC) experiments using AFM tips functionalized with sgc8c aptamers were realized on the outer regions surface of surface-immobilized Jurkat cells for the first time. This allowed determination of the distribution of PTK7 without any labeling and at near physiological conditions. As a result, we could show a homogeneous distribution of PTK7 molecules on the outer regions of ALL cells with a surface density of 325 ± 12 PTK7 receptors (or small receptor clusters) per μm(2). Graphical Abstract The specific interaction of the DNA aptamer sgc8c and protein tyrosine kinase-7 (PTK7) on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells was characterized. AFM based single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) yielded a kinetic off-rate of 5.16 s(-1) of the complex. Simultaneous topography and recognition imaging (TREC) revealed a PTK7 density of 325 ± 12 molecules or clusters per μm(2) in the cell membrane.

  14. The effect of radixin knockdown on the expression and efflux function of MRP2 in SGC-7901 cells.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Wei-Rong; Zhang, Yun; Yang, Qing

    2012-08-15

    Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2, ABCC2) is the second member of the MRP transporter family and functions physiologically as an organic anion transporter. Earlier studies have confirmed that radixin, which is a member of the ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) family, modulates MRP2 localization at the canalicular membrane in hepatocytes. The relationship between radixin and MRP2 - particularly, the effect of radixin on the expression and function of MRP2 in cells or tissues that co-express all three ERM proteins - has not been well studied. To examine the role of radixin in the expression and function of MRP2 and other MRPs, we chose human gastric carcinoma SGC-7901 cells that express all three ERM proteins rather than hepatocytes, which predominantly express radixin. Radixin stable knockdown SGC-7901 cells, which were constructed by RNAi, exhibited no compensatory up-regulation of ezrin or moesin. The mRNA expression profiles of MRPs in the radixin knockdown cells were primarily evaluated by RT-PCR. Real time quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis revealed that the radixin deficiency caused the mRNA and protein expression levels of MRP2 to be reduced by about 50%, respectively. Accordingly, efflux and MTT assays showed that the radixin knockdown cells exhibited lower efflux ability with respect to calcein but no significant change in cell viability. In conclusion, among the MRP1-6 family members, radixin selectively modulates the expression and function of MRP2 in a system co-expressing all three ERM proteins.

  15. The 70-kilodalton adenylyl cyclase-associated protein is not essential for interaction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae adenylyl cyclase with RAS proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Suzuki, N; Kataoka, T

    1992-11-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, adenylyl cyclase is regulated by RAS proteins. We show here that the yeast adenylyl cyclase forms at least two high-molecular-weight complexes, one with the RAS protein-dependent adenylyl cyclase activity and the other with the Mn(2+)-dependent activity, which are separable by their size difference. The 70-kDa adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (CAP) existed in the former complex but not in the latter. Missense mutations in conserved motifs of the leucine-rich repeats of the catalytic subunit of adenylyl cyclase abolished the RAS-dependent activity, which was accompanied by formation of a very high molecular weight complex having the Mn(2+)-dependent activity. Contrary to previous results, disruption of the gene encoding CAP did not alter the extent of RAS protein-dependent activation of adenylyl cyclase, while a concomitant decrease in the size of the RAS-responsive complex was observed. These results indicate that CAP is not essential for interaction of the yeast adenylyl cyclase with RAS proteins even though it is an inherent component of the RAS-responsive adenylyl cyclase complex.

  16. Coiled-coil interaction of N-terminal 36 residues of cyclase-associated protein with adenylyl cyclase is sufficient for its function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ras pathway.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Y; Shima, F; Sen, H; Tanaka, Y; Yanagihara, C; Yamawaki-Kataoka, Y; Kariya, K; Kataoka, T

    1998-10-23

    In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, association with the 70-kDa cyclase-associated protein (CAP) is required for proper response of adenylyl cyclase to Ras proteins. We show here that a small segment comprising the N-terminal 36 amino acid residues of CAP is sufficient for association with adenylyl cyclase as well as for its function in the Ras-adenylyl cyclase pathway as assayed by the ability to confer RAS2(Val-19)-dependent heat shock sensitivity to yeast cells. The CAP-binding site of adenylyl cyclase was mapped to a segment of 119 amino acid residues near its C terminus. Both of these regions contained tandem repetitions of a heptad motif alphaXXalphaXXX (where alpha represents a hydrophobic amino acid and X represents any amino acid), suggesting a coiled-coil interaction. When mutants of CAP defective in associating with adenylyl cyclase were isolated by screening of a pool of randomly mutagenized CAP, they were found to carry substitution mutations in one of the key hydrophobic residues in the heptad repeats. Furthermore, mutations of the key hydrophobic residues in the heptad repeats of adenylyl cyclase also resulted in loss of association with CAP. These results indicate the coiled-coil mechanism as a basis of the CAP-adenylyl cyclase interaction.

  17. Intracellular cAMP signaling by soluble adenylyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Tresguerres, Martin; Levin, Lonny R; Buck, Jochen

    2011-06-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently identified source of the ubiquitous second messenger cyclic adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cAMP). sAC is distinct from the more widely studied source of cAMP, the transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs); its activity is uniquely regulated by bicarbonate anions, and it is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and in cellular organelles. Due to its unique localization and regulation, sAC has various functions in a variety of physiological systems that are distinct from tmACs. In this review, we detail the known functions of sAC, and we reassess commonly held views of cAMP signaling inside cells.

  18. Interaction of Trypanosoma cruzi adenylate cyclase with liver regulatory factors.

    PubMed Central

    Eisenschlos, C; Flawiá, M M; Torruella, M; Torres, H N

    1986-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi adenylate cyclase catalytic subunits may interact with regulatory factors from rat liver membranes, reconstituting heterologous systems which are catalytically active in assay mixtures containing MgATP. The systems show stimulatory responses to glucagon and guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG) or fluoride. Reconstitution was obtained by three different methods: fusion of rat liver membranes (pretreated with N-ethylmaleimide) to T. cruzi membranes; interaction of detergent extracts of rat liver membranes with T. cruzi membranes; or interaction of purified preparations of T. cruzi adenylate cyclase and of liver membrane factors in phospholipid vesicles. The liver factors responsible for the guanine nucleotide effect were characterized as the NS protein. Data also indicate that reconstitution requires the presence of a membrane substrate. PMID:2947568

  19. Adenylyl cyclase G, an osmosensor controlling germination of Dictyostelium spores.

    PubMed

    van Es, S; Virdy, K J; Pitt, G S; Meima, M; Sands, T W; Devreotes, P N; Cotter, D A; Schaap, P

    1996-09-27

    Dictyostelium cells express a G-protein-coupled adenylyl cyclase, ACA, during aggregation and an atypical adenylyl cyclase, ACG, in mature spores. The ACG gene was disrupted by homologous recombination. acg- cells developed into normal fruiting bodies with viable spores, but spore germination was no longer inhibited by high osmolarity, a fairly universal constraint for spore and seed germination. ACG activity, measured in aca-/ACG cells, was strongly stimulated by high osmolarity with optimal stimulation occurring at 200 milliosmolar. RdeC mutants, which display unrestrained protein kinase A (PKA) activity and a cell line, which overexpresses PKA under a prespore specific promoter, germinate very poorly, both at high and low osmolarity. These data indicate that ACG is an osmosensor controlling spore germination through activation of protein kinase A.

  20. Genetic control of interferon action: mouse strain distribution and inheritance of an induced protein with guanylate-binding property.

    PubMed

    Staeheli, P; Prochazka, M; Steigmeier, P A; Haller, O

    1984-08-01

    Interferons (IFNs) induce in responsive cells the synthesis of various proteins including a set with high binding affinities to guanylates. These guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) were analyzed in cells from 46 inbred mouse strains using GMP-agarose affinity chromatography. In cells of 11 strains, including A/J, BALB/cJ, and C3H/HeJ, type I and II IFNs induced the synthesis of a major GBP of Mr 65,000, designated here GBP-1, and of at least three minor GBPs. In contrast, cells of the remaining 35 strains, including DBA/2J, C57BL/6J, and A2G, failed to synthesize GBP-1 in response to both types of IFNs. Induction of the minor GBPs was comparable in cells of both groups of mice, confirming that they were all responsive to IFNs. Analysis of F1, F2, and BC1 offspring of crosses between GBP-1 inducible (A/J) and noninducible (DBA/2J or A2G) strains showed that inducibility of GBP-1 was inherited as a single autosomal gene. The symbol Gbp-1 is proposed for this locus, designated Gbp-1a for the allele causing inducibility and Gbp-1b for the other allele.

  1. Molecular basis for P-site inhibition of adenylyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Tesmer, J J; Dessauer, C W; Sunahara, R K; Murray, L D; Johnson, R A; Gilman, A G; Sprang, S R

    2000-11-28

    P-site inhibitors are adenosine and adenine nucleotide analogues that inhibit adenylyl cyclase, the effector enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of cyclic AMP from ATP. Some of these inhibitors may represent physiological regulators of adenylyl cyclase, and the most potent may ultimately serve as useful therapeutic agents. Described here are crystal structures of the catalytic core of adenylyl cyclase complexed with two such P-site inhibitors, 2'-deoxyadenosine 3'-monophosphate (2'-d-3'-AMP) and 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine 3'-triphosphate (2',5'-dd-3'-ATP). Both inhibitors bind in the active site yet exhibit non- or uncompetitive patterns of inhibition. While most P-site inhibitors require pyrophosphate (PP(i)) as a coinhibitor, 2',5'-dd-3'-ATP is a potent inhibitor by itself. The crystal structure reveals that this inhibitor exhibits two binding modes: one with the nucleoside moiety bound to the nucleoside binding pocket of the enzyme and the other with the beta and gamma phosphates bound to the pyrophosphate site of the 2'-d-3'-AMP.PP(i) complex. A single metal binding site is observed in the complex with 2'-d-3'-AMP, whereas two are observed in the complex with 2', 5'-dd-3'-ATP. Even though P-site inhibitors are typically 10 times more potent in the presence of Mn(2+), the electron density maps reveal no inherent preference of either metal site for Mn(2+) over Mg(2+). 2',5'-dd-3'-ATP binds to the catalytic core of adenylyl cyclase with a K(d) of 2.4 microM in the presence of Mg(2+) and 0.2 microM in the presence of Mn(2+). Pyrophosphate does not compete with 2',5'-dd-3'-ATP and enhances inhibition.

  2. Inhibition of guanylyl cyclase in the airways hyperreactivity.

    PubMed

    Antosova, M; Turcan, T; Strapkova, A; Nosalova, G

    2005-01-01

    The majority of nitric oxide (NO) effects in the respiratory system are mediated via the stimulation of soluble guanylyl cyclase with subsequent generation of the second messenger--cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). We were interested in the effect of non-selective soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor--methylene blue on the exogenous irritant-induced bronchial hyperreactivity. Male guinea pigs were used in the experiment. The animals received non-selective soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor--methylene blue in a dose of 50 or 100 mg/kg b.w. 30 minutes before inhalation of the exogenous irritant--toluene vapours. The toluene exposition lasted three consecutive days during two hours in in vivo conditions. The monitoring of tracheal and lung tissue strips reactivity changes was carried out in in vitro conditions. The brochoconstrictor mediators histamine and acetylcholine in the cumulative doses (10(-8)-10(-3) mol/l) were used in the experiment. The methylene blue pretreatment induced the decrease of tracheal and lung tissue smooth muscle contraction amplitude increased by exogenous irritant--toluene. We recorded different smooth muscle response depending on the doses of inhibitor. Methylene blue in a dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. affected mainly tracheal smooth muscle, in a dose of 100 mg/kg b.w. mainly the lung tissue. The interaction between nitric oxide and soluble guanylyl cyclase can be important for bronchial reactivity changes. The changes depended on the dose of inhibitor and on the type of respiratory system tissue (trachea, lung). We can summarise that changes of the airways reactivity are not only evoked by NO/cGMP pathway but probably by any other mechanisms (Fig. 5, Ref. 26).

  3. Role of central glutamate receptors, nitric oxide and soluble guanylyl cyclase in the inhibition by endotoxin of rat gastric acid secretion

    PubMed Central

    García-Zaragozá, Eugenia; Barrachina, M Dolores; Moreno, Lucrecia; Esplugues, Juan V

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the role of a central pathway involving glutamate receptors, nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic GMP in the acute inhibitory effects of low doses of peripheral endotoxin on pentagastrin-stimulated acid production.Vagotomy or intracisternal (i.c.) microinjections of the NO-inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl esther (L-NAME; 200 μg rat−1) restored acid secretory responses in endotoxin (10 μg kg−1, i.v.)-treated rats.The acid-inhibitory effect of i.v. endotoxin (10 μg kg−1, i.v.) was prevented by prior i.c. administration of the NMDA receptor antagonists, dizocilpine maleate (MK-801; 10 nmol rat−1) and D-2-amino-5-phosphono-valeric acid (AP-5; 20 nmol rat−1), or the AMPA/kainate antagonist 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX; 10 nmol rat−1). However, the competitive metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist (+)-α-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG; 20–1000 nmol rat−1) did not antagonize the effects of endotoxin.I.c. administration of L-glutamate (0.1 nmol rat−1) inhibited pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion. Coadministration with L-NAME (200 μg rat−1) prevented the inhibition of gastric acid secretion by the aminoacid.I.c. administration of 1H-[1,2,4]Oxazodiolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 100 nmol rat−1), a soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) blocker, reversed the hyposecretory effect of endotoxin.I.c. administration of the cyclic GMP analogue 8-Bromoguanosine-3,5-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP; 100–300 nmol rat−1) reduced gastric acid production in a dose-dependent manner.We conclude that central NMDA and AMPA/kainate receptors are involved in the acid inhibitory effect of peripherally administered endotoxin. This central pathway involves synthesis of NO, which acts on the enzyme sGC. PMID:10903967

  4. Potent Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi Activities of Oxidosqualene Cyclase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Frederick S.; Griffin, John H.; Wilson, Aaron J.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.

    2001-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the protozoan agent that causes Chagas' disease, a major health problem in Latin America. Better drugs are needed to treat infected individuals. The sterol biosynthesis pathway is a potentially excellent target for drug therapy against T. cruzi. In this study, we investigated the antitrypanosomal activities of a series of compounds designed to inhibit a key enzyme in sterol biosynthesis, oxidosqualene cyclase. This enzyme converts 2,3-oxidosqualene to the tetracyclic product, lanosterol. The lead compound, N-(4E,8E)-5,9, 13-trimethyl-4,8, 12-tetradecatrien-1-ylpyridinium, is an electron-poor aromatic mimic of a monocyclized transition state or high-energy intermediate formed from oxidosqualene. This compound and 27 related compounds were tested against mammalian-stage T. cruzi, and 12 inhibited growth by 50% at concentrations below 25 nM. The lead compound was shown to cause an accumulation of oxidosqualene and decreased production of lanosterol and ergosterol, consistent with specific inhibition of the oxidosqualene cyclase. The data demonstrate potent anti-T. cruzi activity associated with inhibition of oxidosqualene cyclase. PMID:11257036

  5. Porcine CD38 exhibits prominent secondary NAD(+) cyclase activity.

    PubMed

    Ting, Kai Yiu; Leung, Christina F P; Graeff, Richard M; Lee, Hon Cheung; Hao, Quan; Kotaka, Masayo

    2016-03-01

    Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) mobilizes intracellular Ca(2+) stores and activates Ca(2+) influx to regulate a wide range of physiological processes. It is one of the products produced from the catalysis of NAD(+) by the multifunctional CD38/ADP-ribosyl cyclase superfamily. After elimination of the nicotinamide ring by the enzyme, the reaction intermediate of NAD(+) can either be hydrolyzed to form linear ADPR or cyclized to form cADPR. We have previously shown that human CD38 exhibits a higher preference towards the hydrolysis of NAD(+) to form linear ADPR while Aplysia ADP-ribosyl cyclase prefers cyclizing NAD(+) to form cADPR. In this study, we characterized the enzymatic properties of porcine CD38 and revealed that it has a prominent secondary NAD(+) cyclase activity producing cADPR. We also determined the X-ray crystallographic structures of porcine CD38 and were able to observe conformational flexibility at the base of the active site of the enzyme which allow the NAD(+) reaction intermediate to adopt conformations resulting in both hydrolysis and cyclization forming linear ADPR and cADPR respectively.

  6. [Adenylate cyclase. A possible factor in the pathogenicity of Yersinia pestis].

    PubMed

    Michankin, B N; Chevchenko, L A; Asseeva, L E

    1992-01-01

    Biological effect of homogenous preparation of Y. pestis adenylate cyclase on eucaryotic cells was studied. Adenylate cyclase, added (7.5 x 10(8) g/ml) to guinea pig macrophages lowers the level of chemiluminescence to 50-70%, has an appreciable cytotoxic effect on peritoneal macrophages and suppresses phosphorylation processes of leucocyte proteins from white mice. The experimental results obtained allow to suggest Y. pestis adenylate cyclase to be a pathogenic factor, contributing to the development of plague infection.

  7. DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF SIJUNZI DECOCTION INHIBIT PROLIFERATION AND INDUCE APOPTOSIS OF HUMAN GASTRIC CANCER SGC-7901 SIDE POPULATION.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jun; Li, Jing; Jia, Jianguang; Jin, Xin; Yu, Dajun; Guo, Chenxu; Xie, Bo; Qian, Liyu

    2016-01-01

    Sijunzi Decoction (SD) is a traditional Chinese medicine which is composed of Ginseng, Atractylodes, Poria and Licorice. It is one of the commonly used Chinese traditional medicines that showed anti-gastric cancer activity in clinical studies. Previous evidence demonstrated SD parties (Ginseng, Atractylodes, Poria, Licorice) can inhibit proliferation and induced apoptosis for gastric cancer cell. In order to further investigate the anticancer effect of SD in gastric cancer, we observed the effects of different concentrations of SD on proliferation and apoptosis of Side Population Cells (SP) of human gastric cancer SGC-7901. SGC-7901 SP and Non- Side Population Cells (NSP) were sorted through flow cytometry; to detect the changes of proliferation of SP and NSP before and after the intervention of serum containing different concentrations of SD using cck-8 method; to detect the changes of cell cycle and apoptosis of SP and NSP before and after the intervention of serum containing different concentrations of SD through flow cytometry; to detect the effects of serum containing different concentrations of SD on apoptosis-related proteins Bax and Bcl-2 of SP and NSP before and after the intervention by western-blot. It was found that different concentrations of SD serum treatments inhibited cell proliferation in a time-dependent and concentration-dependent manner. Compared with the control group (normal saline serum treatment), there were increase in G1/G0 phase population of SP and NSP, and decrease in G2/M and S phase population (P<0.05). Meanwhile, we found G1/G0 arrest induced by different concentrations of SD serum which was followed by apoptosis in a time-dependent and concentration-dependent manner. The apoptosis rate of SD serum treatment group was higher than the control group (P<0.05), the apoptosis rate of 48 h treatment was higher than 24 h treatment (P<0.05), and as the SD serum concentration increases, apoptosis rate is higher and higher (P<0.05). The

  8. A cyanobacterial light activated adenylyl cyclase partially restores development of a Dictyostelium discoideum, adenylyl cyclase a null mutant.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Hui; Raffelberg, Sarah; Losi, Aba; Schaap, Pauline; Gärtner, Wolfgang

    2014-12-10

    A light-regulated adenylyl cyclase, mPAC, was previously identified from the cyanobacterium Microcoleus chthonoplastes PCC7420. MPAC consists of a flavin-based blue light-sensing LOV domain and a catalytic domain. In this work, we expressed mPAC in an adenylate cyclase A null mutant (aca-) of the eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum and tested to what extent light activation of mPAC could restore the cAMP-dependent developmental programme of this organism. Amoebas of Dictyostelium, a well-established model organism, generate and respond to cAMP pulses, which cause them to aggregate and construct fruiting bodies. mPAC was expressed under control of a constitutive actin-15 promoter in D. discoideum and displayed low basal adenylyl cyclase activity in darkness that was about five-fold stimulated by blue light. mPAC expression in aca- cells marginally restored aggregation and fruiting body formation in darkness. However, more and larger fruiting bodies were formed when mPAC expressing cells were incubated in light. Extending former applications of light-regulated AC, these results demonstrate that mPAC can be used to manipulate multicellular development in eukaryotes in a light dependent manner.

  9. Restoration of adenylate cyclase responsiveness in murine myeloid leukemia permits inhibition of proliferation by hormone. Butyrate augments catalytic activity of adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, L; Fleming, J W; Klingberg, D; Gabig, T G; Boswell, H S

    1988-04-01

    Mechanisms of leukemic cell clonal dominance may include aberrations of transmembrane signaling. In particular, neoplastic transformation has been associated with reduced capacity for hormone-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. In the present study, prostaglandin E, a hormonal activator of adenylate cyclase that has antiproliferative activity in myeloid cells, and cholera toxin, an adenylate cyclase agonist that functions at a postreceptor site by activating the adenylate cyclase stimulatory GTP-binding protein (Gs), were studied for antiproliferative activity in two murine myeloid cell lines. FDC-P1, an interleukin 3 (IL 3)-dependent myeloid cell line and a tumorigenic IL 3-independent subline, FI, were resistant to these antiproliferative agents. The in vitro ability of the "differentiation" agent, sodium butyrate, to reverse their resistance to adenylate cyclase agonists was studied. The antiproliferative action of butyrate involved augmentation of transmembrane adenylate cyclase activity. Increased adenylate cyclase catalyst activity was the primary alteration of this transmembrane signaling group leading to the functional inhibitory effects on leukemia cells, although alterations in regulatory G-proteins appear to play a secondary role.

  10. Analysis of the function of the 70-kilodalton cyclase-associated protein (CAP) by using mutants of yeast adenylyl cyclase defective in CAP binding.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Suzuki, N; Nishida, Y; Kataoka, T

    1993-07-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, adenylyl cyclase forms a complex with the 70-kDa cyclase-associated protein (CAP). By in vitro mutagenesis, we assigned a CAP-binding site of adenylyl cyclase to a small segment near its C terminus and created mutants which lost the ability to bind CAP. CAP binding was assessed first by observing the ability of the overproduced C-terminal 150 residues of adenylyl cyclase to sequester CAP, thereby suppressing the heat shock sensitivity of yeast cells bearing the activated RAS2 gene (RAS2Val-19), and then by immunoprecipitability of adenylyl cyclase activity with anti-CAP antibody and by direct measurement of the amount of CAP bound. Yeast cells whose chromosomal adenylyl cyclase genes were replaced by the CAP-nonbinding mutants possessed adenylyl cyclase activity fully responsive to RAS2 protein in vitro. However, they did not exhibit sensitivity to heat shock in the RAS2Val-19 background. When glucose-induced accumulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) was measured in these mutants carrying RAS2Val-19, a rapid transient rise indistinguishable from that of wild-type cells was observed and a high peak level and following persistent elevation of the cAMP concentration characteristic of RAS2Val-19 were abolished. In contrast, in the wild-type RAS2 background, similar cyclase gene replacement did not affect the glucose-induced cAMP response. These results suggest that the association with CAP, although not involved in the in vivo response to the wild-type RAS2 protein, is somehow required for the exaggerated response of adenylyl cyclase to activated RAS2.

  11. miR-340 Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Gastric Cancer Cell Line SGC-7901, Possibly via the AKT Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jinzhong; Wang, Ruijie; Chen, Jianshe; Wu, Jinfeng; Dang, Zhongqin; Zhang, Qinsheng; Li, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is among the most common types of cancer, with high morbidity and mortality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles in the tumorigenesis and biology of gastric cancer. This study aimed to reveal the role of miR-340 in gastric cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis and to elucidate the potential mechanisms. Material/Methods Human gastric cancer cells SGC-7901 were used in this study for cell transfection with miR-340 mimic or inhibitor. After transfection, cell viability, proliferation, and apoptosis were examined by MTT, BrdU, and flow cytometry assays, respectively. The protein level changes of p27, p21, Caspase 3 (CASP3), B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2), BCL2-associated X protein (BAX), and v-AKT murine thymoma viral oncogene (AKT) were detected by Western blot. Results Overexpression of miR-340 significantly reduced cell viability and proliferation (P<0.01), and induced cell apoptosis (P<0.01) of SGC-7901. miR-340 elevated the protein level of cell cycle inhibitor p27, but did not affect the level of p21. Apoptosis-related factors pro-CASP3, cleaved-CASP3, and BAX were promoted, and BCL2 was inhibited by miR-340. miR-340 also suppressed the phosphorylation of AKT. Opposite effects were detected when SGC-7901 cells were transfected with miR-340 inhibitor. Conclusions These results indicate that miR-340 can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells, suggesting its roles in protecting against gastric cancer. The roles of miR-340 in gastric cancer cells may be associated with its regulation of the AKT pathway. Thus, miR-340 may be a potential therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer treatment. PMID:28057912

  12. Effects of a Shuangling Fuzheng anticancer preparation on the proliferation of SGC-7901 cells and immune function in a cyclophosphamide-treated murine model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua-Sheng; Chen, Jue; Cui, De-Li; Zheng, Yuan-Yuan; Xu, Ai-Hua; Chen, Gang; Jia, Ling-Chang

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the inhibitory effects of a Shuangling Fuzheng anticancer preparation (SFAP) on the human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 in vitro as well as its immune-modulated effects in a cyclophosphamide-treated murine model. METHODS: MTT experiments and immunocytochemistry ABC experiments were performed for detecting the proliferation of SGC-7901 cells in vitro and protein expression of c-myc. The staphylococcal protein A (SPA) rosette test was utilized for measuring the ratio of T-lymphocyte subsets from peripheral blood in a cyclophosphamide-treated murine model. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) was performed for measuring the levels of serum sIL-2R in treated mice, while immunoturbidimetry was used for measuring the levels of immunoglobulins (Ig). RESULTS: SFAP (40-640 mg/L, 48 h) inhibited the proliferation of SGC-7901 cells, and a positive correlation was noted between inhibitory effects and dosage. At a dosage of 160-320 mg/L in cultured cells, the expression of c-myc was decreased. SFAP (50-200 mg/kg) increased the percentage of CD3+ and CD4+ T-lymphocytes, the ratio of CD4/CD8, and the contents of Ig such as IgM, IgG or IgA, but decreased the levels of serum sIL-2R in peripheral blood from cyclophosphamide-treated mice. CONCLUSION: SFAP can inhibit the proliferation of SGC-7901 cells via the c-myc gene. In addition, SFAP can modulat the cellular and humoral immunity in cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressed mice. PMID:18161930

  13. Guanyl Nucleotide Exchange Factor Sql2 and Ras2 Regulate Filamentous Growth in Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Philip; Katzenberger, Jörg D.; Loubradou , Gabriel; Kahmann, Regine

    2003-01-01

    The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-signaling pathway regulates cell morphology and plays a crucial role during pathogenic development of the plant-pathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis. Strains lacking components of this signaling pathway, such as the Gα-subunit Gpa3 or the adenylyl cyclase Uac1, are nonpathogenic and grow filamentously. On the other hand, strains exhibiting an activated cAMP pathway due to a dominant-active allele of gpa3 display a glossy colony phenotype and are unable to proliferate in plant tumors. Here we present the identification of sql2 as a suppressor of the glossy colony phenotype of a gpa3Q206L strain. sql2 encodes a protein with similarity to CDC25-like guanine nucleotide exchange factors, which are known to act on Ras proteins. Overexpression of sql2 leads to filamentous growth that cannot be suppressed by exogenous cAMP, suggesting that Sql2 does not act upstream of Uac1. To gain more insight in signaling processes regulated by Sql2, we isolated two genes encoding Ras proteins. Expression of dominant active alleles of ras1 and ras2 showed that Ras2 induces filamentous growth while Ras1 does not affect cell morphology but elevates pheromone gene expression. These results indicate that Ras1 and Ras2 fulfill different functions in U. maydis. Moreover, observed similarities between the filaments induced by sql2 and ras2 suggest that Sql2 is an activator of Ras2. Interestingly, sql2 deletion mutants are affected in pathogenic development but not in mating, indicating a specific function of sql2 during pathogenesis. PMID:12796306

  14. Angiotensin II binding sites in the rat fetus: characterization of receptor subtypes and interaction with guanyl nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Feuillan, P P; Millan, M A; Aguilera, G

    1993-03-19

    Angiotensin II (AII) receptor subtypes were studied in the 18-day gestation fetal rat, using two non-peptide AII antagonists: (2-n-butyl-4-chloro-5-hydroxymethyl-1-(2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl) biphenyl-4-yl)methyl)imidazol (DuP 753; type 1 (AT1) specific), and 1-(4-amino-3-methylphenyl)methyl-5-diphenacetyl -4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1-H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine-6-carboxylic acid (PD 123177; type 2 (AT2) specific). Autoradiography using 125I(-)[Sar1,Ile8]AII showed that 10 microM PD 123177 decreased binding to near-nonspecific levels in skin, skeletal muscle and adrenal medulla, whereas 10 microM DuP 753 blocked binding in the liver and lung. Studies in skin and liver membranes confirmed the autoradiographic data: AT1 receptors were predominant in the liver (95%), and AT2 in the skin (97%). There was no cross-reactivity between receptor subtype and the heterologous antagonist up to a concentration of 10 microM. In both skin and liver, 2 mM dithiothreitol enhanced the binding of AT2 receptors by increasing receptor affinity, but inhibited binding of AT1 by decreasing the receptor number. In the absence of antagonists, guanyl nucleotides, added at equilibrium, caused marked dissociation of 125I-AII binding in liver membranes, but had minimal effect in skin. However, dissociation occurred in the skin when AT2 sites were blocked with 10 microM PD 123177, and in liver, dissociation was not observed when AT1 sites were blocked with DuP 753. Hence, in contrast to classical AII target tissues, which contain predominantly AT1, most of the sites in fetal skin and skeletal muscle are AT2. The demonstration that the effects of guanyl nucleotides are selective for receptor subtype suggests that the AT1 receptor, but not the AT2, is coupled to cell function via guanyl nucleotide binding proteins. The functional importance of the AT2 receptors and their role in fetal physiology is under current investigation.

  15. cRGD conjugated mPEG-PLGA-PLL nanoparticles for SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells-targeted Delivery of fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peifeng; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Qi; Sun, Ying; Shen, Ming; Zhu, Mingjie; Wan, Zhiyong; Duan, Yourong

    2012-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the targeting effect of cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic peptide (cRGD)-modified monomethoxy (polyethylene glycol)-poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide)-poly (L-lysine) nanoparticles (mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD NPs) for gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. We prepared the 5-Fulorouracil (5Fu)-loaded mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD (5Fu/mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD) NPs that had an average particle size of 180 nm and a zeta potential 2.77 mV. The results of cytotoxicity demonstrated the mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD NPs showed the ignorable cytotoxicity and the 5Fu/mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD NPs could significantly enhance the cytotoxicity of 5Fu. In vitro drug release experiments showed that the release of drug was effectively prolonged and sustained. The results of confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and flow cytometer analysis demonstrated that the fluorescence intensity of the SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells treated with Rb/mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD NPs was significantly higher than that treated with Rb, this suggested that Rb/mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD NPs could effectively be internalized by SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells. In summary, the above experimental results illustrate that mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD NPs have great potential to be used as an effective delivery carriers.

  16. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppressed the over-expression of HSP 70 and MDR1 induced by heat shock in SGC 7901.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, You-Qing

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the expression of HSP 70 and MDR 1. SGC-7901 cells were cultured with RPMI 1640 medium. The single or combined effects of EGCG (0.1, 1, 10, 20, and 40 micromol/L) and heat shock were examined by MTT assay. The expression of HSP 70 and MDR 1 was semi-quantified by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry method (SP staining). EGCG suppressed cell proliferation at a time- and dose-dependent manner. The effects of combined treatment with EGCG and heat shock on the growth of SGC-7901 cells were stronger than single effects of EGCG. After using EGCG for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, the IC50s were 112.5 micromol/l, 21.41 micromol/l and 5.24 micromol/l, respectively. Heat shock stimulated the over-expression of HSP 70, especially after heat shock for 8 h, as well as MDR1 after heat shock for 24 h. But EGCG suppressed the over-expression induced by heat shock. The authors conclude that EGCG inhibited the proliferation of SGC-7901, and EGCG combined with heat shock strengthened the effects. Heat shock weakened the over-expression of HSP 70 and MDR1; however, EGCG suppressed the over-expression of HSP 70 and MDR1 induced by heat shock. EGCG combined with heat shock may enhance the sensitivity of drugs to tumors.

  17. ZIO impregnation and cytochemical localization of thiamine pyrophosphatase and acid phosphatase activities in small granule-containing (SGC) cells of rat superior cervical ganglia.

    PubMed

    Chau, Y P; Lu, K S

    1994-10-01

    Cytochemical relationship between Golgi complex and dense-cored granules (DCGs) of small granule-containing (SGC) cells in rat superior cervical ganglia was examined in electron microscopy by zinc-iodide-osmium tetroxide (ZIO) method and by enzyme cytochemistry for thiamine pyrophosphatase (TPPase) and acid phosphatase (ACPase). After ZIO impregnation, all the saccules of Golgi apparatus and some of tubular rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) were stained. DCGs in periphery of SGC cells were not stained, but varying degrees of dense deposits occurred in the DCGs in vicinity of Golgi trans-saccules. Both TPPase and ACPase activities were localized in one or two stacked layers of saccules on the trans side of the Golgi complex. No reaction products were demonstrated in the DCGs. From these results, we suggest that the DCGs of SGC cells in rat superior cervical ganglia are derived from the Golgi complex, and that lysosomal cleavage of protein contents in the DCGs may occur in the trans Golgi saccules.

  18. SLC7A5 Functions as a Downstream Target Modulated by CRKL in Metastasis Process of Gastric Cancer SGC-7901 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weize; Chen, Xuehua; Su, Liping; Zhu, Zhenggang; Zhou, Yunyun

    2016-01-01

    SLC7A5, who is also named LAT-1, has been validated as a promoter regulated by miRNA-126 in our previous research for gastric cancer cells. However, the mechanisms driving SLC7A5 to affect the bio-function of gastric cancer cells are unclear, remaining us lots of to elucidate. The aim of this study is to investigate the regulating effect of CRKL, one of the critical genes involving with gastric cancer progression, on SLC7A5 expression. By studying the gastric cancer cell lines and clinical pathological specimens, we found that the expression of SLC7A5 was significantly correlated to CRKL. By depleting CRKL in gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells, the SLC7A5 expression was impaired, and the invasion and migration of SGC-7901 cells were suppressed. Ectopic expression of SLC7A5 could drastically rescue the phenotypes induced by CRKL depletion in this study. Accordingly, we conclude that SLC7A5 functions as a promoter in gastric cancer metastasis, and CRKL could be one of its regulators modulating the expression of SLC7A5 and consequentially affect the metastatic feature of SGC-7901 cells. The findings in this study indicate a regulation relationship between CRKL and SLC7A5, and provide useful evidence for gastric cancer therapeutic strategies. PMID:27846244

  19. Expression of the intestinal biomarkers Guanylyl cyclase C and CDX2 in poorly differentiated colorectal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Winn, Brody; Tavares, Rosemarie; Matoso, Andres; Noble, Lelia; Fanion, Jacqueline; Waldman, Scott A; Resnick, Murray B

    2010-01-01

    Guanylyl cyclase C, a receptor for bacterial diarrheagenic enterotoxins, is expressed selectively by intestinal epithelium and is an endogenous downstream target of CDX2. The expression of Guanylyl cyclase C is preserved throughout the adenoma/carcinoma sequence in the colorectum. Detection of Guanylyl cyclase C expression by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction is currently being validated as a technique to identify occult lymph node metastases in patients with colorectal cancer and for circulating cells in the blood for postoperative surveillance. Although Guanylyl cyclase C is widely expressed by well-differentiated colorectal cancer, its expression in poorly differentiated colorectal cancer has not been evaluated. A tissue microarray was created from 69 archival specimens including 44 poorly differentiated, 15 undifferentiated or medullary, and 10 signet ring cell colorectal carcinomas. Matched normal colonic mucosa was used as a positive control. Immunohistochemical staining for Guanylyl cyclase C and CDX2 was evaluated as positive or negative based on at least a 10% extent of staining. Of the 69 tumor samples, 75%, 47%, and 90% of the poorly differentiated, medullary, and signet ring cell tumors were positive for Guanylyl cyclase C and 75%, 40% and 90% of these subsets were positive for CDX2, respectively. There was excellent correlation between Guanylyl cyclase C and CDX2 expression on a case-per-case basis (P < .0001). There was also a statistically significant difference in the Guanylyl cyclase C staining pattern between medullary carcinomas and poorly differentiated, not otherwise specified (P = .05). Immunopositivity for Guanylyl cyclase C was greater than 95% in a separately stained microarray series of well/moderately differentiated colorectal carcinomas. In conclusion, Guanylyl cyclase C expression is lost in a quarter of poorly differentiated and half of undifferentiated colorectal carcinomas. Therefore, the utility of Guanylyl cyclase C

  20. The Growth of SGC-7901 Tumor Xenografts Was Suppressed by Chinese Bayberry Anthocyanin Extract through Upregulating KLF6 Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Zhang, Xia-nan; Xie, Wen-hua; Zheng, Yi-xiong; Cao, Jin-ping; Cao, Pei-rang; Chen, Qing-jun; Li, Xian; Sun, Chong-de

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the antitumor effect of anthocyanins extracted from Chinese bayberry fruit (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.), a nude mouse tumor xenograft model was established. Treatments with C3G (cyanidin-3-glucoside, an anthocyanin) significantly suppressed the growth of SGC-7901 tumor xenografts in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemical staining showed a significant increase in p21 expression, indicating that the cell cycle of tumor xenografts was inhibited. qPCR screening showed that C3G treatment up-regulated the expression of the KLF6 gene, which is an important tumor suppressor gene inactivated in many human cancers. Western blot showed that C3G treatments markedly increased KLF6 and p21 protein levels, inhibited CDK4 and Cyclin D1 expression, but did not notably change the expression of p53. These results indicated that KLF6 up-regulates p21 in a p53-independent manner and significantly reduces tumor proliferation. This study provides important information for the possible mechanism of C3G-induced antitumor activity against gastric adenocarcinoma in vivo. PMID:27690088

  1. Guanylate-binding proteins promote AIM2 inflammasome activation during Francisella novicida infection by inducing cytosolic bacteriolysis and DNA release

    PubMed Central

    Dreier, Roland F.; Costanzo, Stéphanie; Anton, Leonie; Rühl, Sebastian; Dussurgey, Sébastien; Dick, Mathias S.; Kistner, Anne; Rigard, Mélanie; Degrandi, Daniel; Pfeffer, Klaus; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Henry, Thomas; Broz, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The AIM2 inflammasome detects double-stranded DNA in the cytosol and induces caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis as well as release of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. AIM2 is critical for host defense against DNA viruses and bacteria that replicate in the cytosol, such as Francisella novicida. AIM2 activation by F. novicida requires bacteriolysis, yet whether this process is accidental or a host-driven immune mechanism remained unclear. Using siRNA screening for nearly 500 interferon-stimulated genes, we identified guanylate-binding proteins GBP2 and GBP5 as key AIM2 activators during F. novicida infection. Their prominent role was validated in vitro and in a mouse model of tularemia. Mechanistically, these two GBPs target cytosolic F. novicida and promote bacteriolysis. Thus, besides their role in host defense against vacuolar pathogens, GBPs also facilitate the presentation of ligands by directly attacking cytosolic bacteria. PMID:25774716

  2. The guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs): proinflammatory cytokine-induced members of the dynamin superfamily with unique GTPase activity.

    PubMed

    Vestal, Deborah J

    2005-08-01

    The guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) were first identified in the late 1970s, and within a short period of time, investigators were aware that GBPs possessed unique properties, in particular the ability to bind GMP agarose. Since then, much study has gone into understanding their mechanism of induction by interferons (IFNs) and other cytokines, and they have been used extensively as markers for IFN responsiveness in both cells and organisms. In time, we learned that GBPs had the unusual ability to hydrolyze GTP to both GDP and GMP. More recently, we have begun to appreciate their novel structure, one that suggests unique mechanisms of GTP binding and hydrolysis and unique forms of regulation. In addition, we have begun to unravel some of their functions and to separate these function into those functions that do and those that do not require GTPase activity.

  3. The transcription factor IRF1 and guanylate-binding proteins target activation of the AIM2 inflammasome by Francisella infection.

    PubMed

    Man, Si Ming; Karki, Rajendra; Malireddi, R K Subbarao; Neale, Geoffrey; Vogel, Peter; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Lamkanfi, Mohamed; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2015-05-01

    Inflammasomes are critical for mounting host defense against pathogens. The molecular mechanisms that control activation of the AIM2 inflammasome in response to different cytosolic pathogens remain unclear. Here we found that the transcription factor IRF1 was required for activation of the AIM2 inflammasome during infection with the Francisella tularensis subspecies novicida (F. novicida), whereas engagement of the AIM2 inflammasome by mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) or transfected double-stranded DNA did not require IRF1. Infection of F. novicida detected by the DNA sensor cGAS and its adaptor STING induced type I interferon-dependent expression of IRF1, which drove the expression of guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs); this led to intracellular killing of bacteria and DNA release. Our results reveal a specific requirement for IRF1 and GBPs in the liberation of DNA for sensing by AIM2 depending on the pathogen encountered by the cell.

  4. Guanylate-Binding Protein-1 protects ovarian cancer cell lines but not breast cancer cell lines from killing by paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Tipton, Aaron R; Nyabuto, Geoffrey O; Trendel, Jill A; Mazur, Travis M; Wilson, John P; Wadi, Suzan; Justinger, Jacob S; Moore, Garret L; Nguyen, Peter T; Vestal, Deborah J

    2016-09-30

    Forced expression of the cytokine-induced large GTPase, human Guanylate-Binding Protein-1 (hGBP-1), in ovarian cancer cell lines increases resistance to paclitaxel. Elevated hGBP-1 RNA in ovarian tumors correlates with shorter recurrence-free survival. In contract, hGBP-1 is part of a gene signature predicting improved prognosis in all subtypes of breast cancers. hGBP-1 does not confer paclitaxel resistance on MCF-7 and TMX2-28 breast cancer cells. Expression of the isotype of the hGBP-1-interacting protein, PIM1, which may contribute to paclitaxel resistance when associated with hGBP-1, is different in breast and ovarian cancer cell lines. Breast cancer cell lines express the 44 kDa isoform of PIM-1, and ovarian cancer cell lines express the 33 kDa isoform. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. ADP-Ribosyl cyclase in rat vascular smooth muscle cells: properties and regulation.

    PubMed

    de Toledo, F G; Cheng, J; Liang, M; Chini, E N; Dousa, T P

    2000-06-09

    We investigated whether ADP-ribosyl cyclase (ADPR-cyclase) in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) has enzymatic properties that differ from the well-characterized CD38-antigen ADPR-cyclase, expressed in HL-60 cells. ADPR-cyclase from VSMCs, but not CD38 ADPR-cyclase from HL-60 cells, was inhibited by gangliosides (10 micromol/L) GT(1B), GD(1), and GM(3). Preincubation of membranes from CD38 HL-60 cells, but not from VSMCs, with anti-CD38 antibodies increased ADPR-cyclase activity; CD38 antigen was detected both in VSMCs and in HL-60 cells. ADPR-cyclase in VSMC membranes was more sensitive than CD38 HL-60 ADPR-cyclase to inactivation by N-endoglycosidase F and to thermal inactivation at 45 degrees C. The specific activity of ADPR-cyclase in membranes from VSMCs was >20-fold higher than in membranes from CD38 HL-60 cells. Most importantly, VSMC ADPR-cyclase was inhibited by Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) ions; the inhibition by Zn(2+) was dose dependent, noncompetitive, and reversible by EDTA. In contrast, Zn(2+) stimulated the activity of CD38 HL-60 ADPR-cyclase and other known types of ADPR-cyclases. Retinoids act either via the nuclear receptor retinoic acid receptor or retinoid X receptor, including all-trans retinoic acid (atRA), and panagonist 9-cis-retinoic acid-upregulated VSMC ADPR-cyclase; the stimulatory effect of atRA was blocked by actinomycin D and cycloheximide. 1,25(OH)(2)-Vitamin D(3) (calciferol) stimulated VSMC ADPR-cyclase dose dependently at subnanomolar concentrations (ED(50) congruent with 56 pmol/L). Oral administration of atRA to rats resulted in an increase of ADPR-cyclase activity in aorta ( congruent with+60%) and, to a lesser degree, in myocardium of left ventricle (+18%), but atRA had no effect on ADPR-cyclases in lungs, spleen, intestinal smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, liver, or testis. Administration of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T(3)) to rats resulted in an increase of ADPR-cyclase activity in aorta ( congruent with+89%), but not in liver or

  6. Complete genomic organization of the human erythroid p55 gene (MPP1), a membrane-associated guanylate kinase homologue

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, A.C.; Metzenberg, A.B.; Sahr, K.E.

    1996-01-15

    Human p55 is an abundantly palmitoylated phosphoprotein of the erythroid membrane. It is the prototype of a newly discovered family of membrane-associated proteins termed MAGUKs (membrane-associated guanylate kinase homologues). The MAGUKs interact with the cytoskeleton and regulate cell proliferation, signaling pathways, and intercellular junctions. Here, we report the complete intron-exon map of the human erythroid p55 gene (HGMW-approved symbol MPP1). The structure of the p55 gene was determined from cosmid clones isolated from a cosmid library specific for the human X chromosome. There is a single copy of the p55 gene, composed of 12 exons and spanning approximately 28 kb in the q28 region of the human X chromosome. The exon sizes range from 69 (exon 5) to 203 bp (intron 2) to {approximately}14 kb (intron 1). The intron-exon boundaries conform to the donor/acceptor consensus sequence, GT-AG, for splice junctions. Several of the exon boundaries correspond to the boundaries of functional domains in the p55 protein. These domains include a SH3 motif and a region that binds to cytoskeletal protein 4.1. In addition, a comparison of the genomic and the primary structures of p55 reveals a highly conserved phosphotyrosine domain located between the protein 4.1 binding domain and the guanylate kinase domain. Finally, promoter activity measurements of the region immediately upstream of the p55 gene, which contains several cis-elements commonly found in housekeeping genes, suggest that a CpG island may be associated with the p55 gene expression in vivo. 42 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Cloning, expression, and characterization of a novel guanylate-binding protein, GBP3 in murine erythroid progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Han, B H; Park, D J; Lim, R W; Im, J H; Kim, H D

    1998-05-19

    We report the molecular cloning of a novel guanylate-binding protein (GBP), termed mouse GBP3 (mGBP3) in Friend virus-induced mouse erythroid progenitor (FVA) cells. The 71-kDa mGBP3 belongs to a family of known GBPs that contain the first two consensus motifs, GXXXXGK(S/T) and DXXG, but lack the third element, (N/T)KXD, found in typical GTP-binding proteins. Recombinant mGBP3 protein, expressed using a baculovirus expression system, binds to agarose-immobilized guanine nucleotides (GTP, GDP and GMP). Moreover, mGBP3 has been found to have an intrinsic GTPase activity with K(m) and Vmax values of 77 +/- 4 microM and 21 +/- 0.5 pmol min-1 microgram-1 of protein, respectively. The mGBP3 is distinct from the other GBPs, in that it does not have an isoprenylation/methylation motif CAAX at the carboxyl terminus. The mGBP3 appears to be localized in the cytosol based on immunofluorescence staining. Although the mGBP3 transcript is expressed to a varying degree in numerous mouse tissues, the message is most abundant in FVA cells. The mGBP3 transcript increases in FVA cells undergoing differentiation to a maximum within a few hours and then decreases to an undetectable level by 24 h. These results, taken together, suggest that mGBP3 is a novel member of a family of guanylate-binding proteins, which plays a role in the erythroid differentiation. The nucleotide sequence reported in this paper has been submitted to the GenBank with accession number U44731.

  8. Identification of residues in the human guanylate-binding protein 1 critical for nucleotide binding and cooperative GTP hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Praefcke, Gerrit J K; Kloep, Stephan; Benscheid, Utz; Lilie, Hauke; Prakash, Balaji; Herrmann, Christian

    2004-11-12

    The guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) form a group of interferon-gamma inducible GTP-binding proteins which belong to the family of dynamin-related proteins. Like other members of this family, human guanylate-binding protein 1 (hGBP1) shows nucleotide-dependent oligomerisation that stimulates the GTPase activity of the protein. A unique feature of the GBPs is their ability to hydrolyse GTP to GDP and GMP. In order to elucidate the relationship between these findings, we designed point mutants in the phosphate-binding loop (P-loop) as well as in the switch I and switch II regions of the protein based on the crystal structure of hGBP1. These mutant proteins were analysed for their interaction with guanine nucleotides labeled with a fluorescence dye and for their ability to hydrolyse GTP in a cooperative manner. We identified mutations of amino acid residues that decrease GTPase activity by orders of magnitude a part of which are conserved in GTP-binding proteins. In addition, mutants in the P-loop were characterized that strongly impair binding of nucleotide. In consequence, together with altered GTPase activity and given cellular nucleotide concentrations this results in hGBP1 mutants prevailingly resting in the nucleotide-free (K51A and S52N) or the GTP bound form (R48A), respectively. Using size-exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation we addressed the impact on protein oligomerisation. In summary, mutants of hGBP1 were identified and biochemically characterized providing hGBP1 locked in defined states in order to investigate their functional role in future cell biology studies.

  9. Nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in the peripheral and central auditory system of the rat.

    PubMed

    Fessenden, J D; Altschuler, R A; Seasholtz, A F; Schacht, J

    1999-02-01

    The neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) were localized in the cochlea, the cochlear nucleus (CN), and the superior olivary complex (SOC) of Fisher 344 rats. In the cochlea, nNOS was identified in spiral ganglion cells by using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-diaphorase histochemistry and in situ hybridization. NADPH-diaphorase staining also was detected in blood vessels of the modiolus. By using immunohistochemistry against cyclic guanosine monophosphate, cochlear sGC activity was localized to pericytes in the spiral ligament as well as nerve fibers innervating outer hair cells. In the lower auditory brainstem, nNOS was localized to principal cells of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) with NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry and in situ hybridization. NADPH-diaphorase activity also was observed in the lateral and medial superior olive (LSO and MSO, respectively), the superior periolivary nucleus (SPN), the ventral and lateral nuclei of the trapezoid body (VNTB and LNTB, respectively), and the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). Transcripts of the beta-subunit of sGC were localized in rat brainstem by using in situ hybridization. mRNA for sGC was expressed in neurons within the SPN, LSO, MSO, LNTB, MNTB, VNTB, and VCN. Highest levels of sGC expression were seen in the SPN. These results suggest that the NO/cGMP pathway is involved in both the ascending and descending pathways of the auditory brainstem.

  10. Inhibition of adenylyl cyclase by neuronal P2Y receptors

    PubMed Central

    Unterberger, Ursula; Moskvina, Eugenia; Scholze, Thomas; Freissmuth, Michael; Boehm, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    P2Y receptors inhibiting adenylyl cyclase have been found in blood platelets, glioma cells, and endothelial cells. In platelets and glioma cells, these receptors were identified as P2Y12. Here, we have used PC12 cells to search for adenylyl cyclase inhibiting P2Y receptors in a neuronal cellular environment.ADP and ATP (0.1 – 100 μM) left basal cyclic AMP accumulation unaltered, but reduced cyclic AMP synthesis stimulated by activation of endogenous A2A or recombinant β2 receptors. Forskolin-dependent cyclic AMP production was reduced by ⩽1 μM and enhanced by 10 – 100 μM ADP; this latter effect was turned into an inhibition when A2A receptors were blocked.The nucleotide inhibition of cyclic AMP synthesis was not altered when P2X receptors were blocked, but abolished by pertussis toxin.The rank order of agonist potencies for the reduction of cyclic AMP was (IC50 values): 2-methylthio-ADP (0.12 nM)=2-methylthio-ATP (0.13 nM)>ADPβS (71 nM)>ATP (164 nM)=ADP (244 nM). The inhibition by ADP was not antagonized by suramin, pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2′,4′-disulphonic acid, or adenosine-3′-phosphate-5′-phosphate, but attenuated by reactive blue 2, ATPαS, and 2-methylthio-AMP.RT – PCR demonstrated the expression of P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6, and P2Y12, but not P2Y1, receptors in PC12 cells. In Northern blots, only P2Y2 and P2Y12 were detectable. Differentiation with NGF did not alter these hybridization signals and left the nucleotide inhibition of adenylyl cyclase unchanged.We conclude that P2Y12 receptors are expressed in neuronal cells and inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity. PMID:11834615

  11. Glucose Inhibition of Adenylate Cyclase in Intact Cells of Escherichia coli B

    PubMed Central

    Peterkofsky, Alan; Gazdar, Celia

    1974-01-01

    Previous studies in E. coli B have demonstrated an inverse correlation between the presence of glucose in the medium and the accumulation of cyclic AMP in the medium. This observation could not be explained by the action of glucose as a repressor of adenylate cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1) synthesis, as a stabilizer of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.17) activity, or as a direct inhibitor of adenylate cyclase activity in cell-free preparations. The recent development of an in vivo assay for adenylate cyclase has provided a basis for further exploring the inhibitory action of glucose in intact cells. With this assay it has been possible to show that, while glucose does not affect adenylate cyclase in vitro, it rapidly inhibits the enzyme activity in intact cells. Extensive metabolism of glucose is not required, since α-methylglucoside also inhibits adenylate cyclase in vivo. When cells are grown on glucose as carbon source, some sugars (mannose, glucosamine) substitute for glucose as adenylate cyclase inhibitors while others (e.g., fructose) do not. Dose-response studies indicate that low concentrations of glucose lead to essentially complete inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity while only moderately decreasing intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations. The evidence presented suggests that the decreased cellular cyclic AMP levels resulting from glucose addition can be accounted for by inhibition of adenylate cyclase without any significant effect on cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase or the transport of cyclic AMP from the cells to the medium. PMID:4366761

  12. Investigation of the role of nitric oxide/soluble guanylyl cyclase pathway in ascorbic acid-mediated protection against acute kidney injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Koul, Vaishali; Kaur, Anudeep; Singh, Amrit Pal

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the possible involvement of nitric oxide/soluble guanylyl cyclase (NO/sGC) pathway in ascorbic acid (AA)-mediated protection against acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. The rats were subjected to bilateral renal ischemia by occluding renal pedicles for 40 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. The AKI was assessed in terms of measuring creatinine clearance (CrCl), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), plasma uric acid, potassium level, fractional excretion of sodium (FeNa), and microproteinuria. The NO level and oxidative stress in renal tissues were assessed by measuring myeloperoxidase activity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, superoxide anion generation, and reduced glutathione level. AA (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 3 days before subjecting rats to AKI. In separate groups, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME (20 mg/kg, i.p.) and sGC inhibitor, methylene blue (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered prior to AA treatment in rats. The significant decrease in CrCl and increase in BUN, plasma uric acid, potassium, FeNa, microproteinuria, and oxidative stress in renal tissues demonstrated ischemia-reperfusion-induced AKI in rats. The AA treatment ameliorated ischemia-reperfusion-induced AKI along with the increase in renal NO level. The pretreatment with L-NAME and methylene blue abolished protective effect of AA. It is concluded that AA protects against ischemia-reperfusion-induced AKI. Moreover, the NO/sGC pathway finds its definite involvement in AA-mediated reno-protective effect.

  13. Discovery of LRE1 as a specific and allosteric inhibitor of soluble adenylyl cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Espiritu, Lavoisier; Kleinboelting, Silke; Navarrete, Felipe A.; Alvau, Antonio; Visconti, Pablo E.; Valsecchi, Federica; Starkov, Anatoly; Manfredi, Giovanni; Buck, Hannes; Adura, Carolina; Zippin, Jonathan H.; van den Heuvel, Joop; Glickman, J. Fraser; Steegborn, Clemens; Levin, Lonny R.; Buck, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    The prototypical second messenger cAMP regulates a wide variety of physiological processes. It can simultaneously mediate diverse functions by acting locally within independently-regulated microdomains. In mammalian cells, two types of adenylyl cyclase generate cAMP; G protein regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases and bicarbonate- calcium- and ATP-regulated soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). Because each type of cyclase regulates distinct microdomains, understanding cAMP signaling demands methods to distinguish between them. We developed a mass spectrometry based adenylyl cyclase assay which we used to identify a novel sAC-specific inhibitor, LRE1. LRE1 binds to the bicarbonate activator binding site and inhibits sAC via a unique allosteric mechanism. LRE1 prevents sAC-dependent processes in cellular and physiological systems and facilitates exploration of the therapeutic potential of sAC inhibition. PMID:27547922

  14. Discovery of LRE1 as a specific and allosteric inhibitor of soluble adenylyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Espiritu, Lavoisier; Kleinboelting, Silke; Navarrete, Felipe A; Alvau, Antonio; Visconti, Pablo E; Valsecchi, Federica; Starkov, Anatoly; Manfredi, Giovanni; Buck, Hannes; Adura, Carolina; Zippin, Jonathan H; van den Heuvel, Joop; Glickman, J Fraser; Steegborn, Clemens; Levin, Lonny R; Buck, Jochen

    2016-10-01

    The prototypical second messenger cAMP regulates a wide variety of physiological processes. It can simultaneously mediate diverse functions by acting locally in independently regulated microdomains. In mammalian cells, two types of adenylyl cyclase generate cAMP: G-protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases and bicarbonate-, calcium- and ATP-regulated soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). Because each type of cyclase regulates distinct microdomains, methods to distinguish between them are needed to understand cAMP signaling. We developed a mass-spectrometry-based adenylyl cyclase assay, which we used to identify a new sAC-specific inhibitor, LRE1. LRE1 bound to the bicarbonate activator binding site and inhibited sAC via a unique allosteric mechanism. LRE1 prevented sAC-dependent processes in cellular and physiological systems, and it will facilitate exploration of the therapeutic potential of sAC inhibition.

  15. Expression of the Intestinal Biomarkers Guanylyl Cyclase C and CDX2 in Poorly Differentiated Colorectal Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Winn, Brody; Tavares, Rosemarie; Matoso, Andres; Noble, Lelia; Fanion, Jacqueline; Waldman, Scott A.; Resnick, Murray B.

    2009-01-01

    Guanylyl cyclase C a receptor for bacterial diarrheagenic enterotoxins is expressed selectively by intestinal epithelium and is an endogenous downstream target of CDX2. The expression of Guanylyl cyclase C is preserved throughout the adenoma/carcinoma sequence in the colorectum. Detection of Guanylyl cyclase C expression by RT-PCR is currently being validated as a technique to identify occult lymph node metastases in patients with colorectal cancer and for circulating cells in the blood for postoperative surveillance. Although Guanylyl cyclase C is widely expressed by well differentiated colorectal cancer, its expression in poorly differentiated colorectal cancer has not been evaluated. A tissue microarray was created from 69 archival specimens including 44 poorly differentiated, 15 undifferentiated or medullary and 10 signet ring cell colorectal carcinomas. Matched normal colonic mucosa was used as a positive control. Immunohistochemical staining for Guanylyl cyclase C and CDX2 was evaluated as positive or negative based on at least a 10% extent of staining. Out of the 69 tumor samples 75%, 47%, and 90% of the poorly differentiated, medullary and signet ring cell tumors were positive for Guanylyl cyclase C and 75%, 40% and 90% of these subsets were positive for CDX2 respectively. There was excellent correlation between Guanylyl cyclase C and CDX2 expression on a case per case basis (p<0.0001). There was also a statistically significant difference in the GCC staining pattern between MC and PDC (p=0.05). Immunopositivity for Guanylyl cyclase C was greater than 95% in a separately stained microarray series of well/moderately differentiated colorectal carcinomas. In conclusion, Guanylyl cyclase C expression is lost in a quarter of poorly differentiated and half of undifferentiated colorectal carcinomas. Therefore the utility of Guanylyl cyclase C expression as a diagnostic marker for colorectal carcinoma may be questionable in poorly differentiated colorectal

  16. Photoactivation Mechanism of a Bacterial Light-Regulated Adenylyl Cyclase.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Robert; Hartmann, Elisabeth; Tarnawski, Miroslaw; Winkler, Andreas; Frey, Daniel; Reinstein, Jochen; Meinhart, Anton; Schlichting, Ilme

    2017-03-21

    Light-regulated enzymes enable organisms to quickly respond to changing light conditions. We characterize a photoactivatable adenylyl cyclase (AC) from Beggiatoa sp. (bPAC) that translates a blue light signal into the production of the second messenger cyclic AMP. bPAC contains a BLUF photoreceptor domain that senses blue light using a flavin chromophore, linked to an AC domain. We present a dark state crystal structure of bPAC that closely resembles the recently published structure of the homologous OaPAC from Oscillatoria acuminata. To elucidate the structural mechanism of light-dependent AC activation by the BLUF domain, we determined the crystal structures of illuminated bPAC and of a pseudo-lit state variant. We use hydrogen-deuterium exchange measurements of secondary structure dynamics and hypothesis-driven point mutations to trace the activation pathway from the chromophore in the BLUF domain to the active site of the cyclase. The structural changes are relayed from the residues interacting with the excited chromophore through a conserved kink of the BLUF β-sheet to a tongue-like extrusion of the AC domain that regulates active site opening and repositions catalytic residues. Our findings not only show the specific molecular pathway of photoactivation in BLUF-regulated ACs but also have implications for the general understanding of signaling in BLUF domains and of the activation of ACs.