Espinola, E B; Dias, R F; Mattei, R; Carlini, E A
Mice that ingested a suspension of guarana (Paullinia cupana, Sapindaceae) in a dose of 0.3 mg/ml showed a significant increase in physical capacity when subjected to a stressful situation such as forced swimming after 100 and 200 days of treatment. Such an effect, however, was not obtained with a concentration of 3.0 mg/ml, nor with the ingestion of a suspension of ginseng 5.0 mg/ml, nor of a solution of caffeine 0.1 mg/ml. Guarana, both after a single (3.0 and 30 mg/kg) or chronic administrations (0.3 mg/ml), was able to partially reverse the amnesic effect of scopolamine as measured through a passive avoidance test in mice and rats, indicating a positive effect on memory acquisition. However, no effect was observed when an active avoidance task was used in rats, even after 20 days of guarana administration. There was also a tendency of rats treated with 0.3 mg/ml of guarana to better maintain the memory of a Lashley III maze path. The animals had the same average lifespan, indicating a low toxicity of guarana, even after 23 months of treatment.
Aquino, S.; Gonçalez, E.; Reis, T. A.; Sabundjian, I. T.; Trindade, R. A.; Rossi, M. H.; Corrêa, B.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.
Guarana ( Paullinia cupana), originally from Amazon, Brazil, is currently used to cure headaches and as a stimulant, besides being used on depressive patients. This study was developed to evaluate the presence of toxigenic moulds, to detect mycotoxins, to determine the water activity (Aw) and to verify the effects of γ-radiation in the fungal mycoflora in 30 samples of guarana ( P. cupana) in powder and grain forms purchased from industry, pharmacies and street market in five cities of São Paulo.
Campos, A R; Barros, A I S; Santos, F A; Rao, V S N
The effects of guarana (Paullinia cupana) extract were analyzed in rats on acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol and indomethacin and were compared to those produced by caffeine, a methylxanthine. Guarana (50 and 100 mg/kg p.o.) pretreated animals showed a significant reduction in the severity of gastric lesions induced by absolute ethanol in a manner similar to caffeine (20 and 30 mg/kg p.o.). Against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration, guarana at a higher dose offered significant protection but caffeine was ineffective at the doses tested. In 4 h pylorus-ligated rats, both guarana and caffeine caused significant diminution in the gastric secretory volume as well as the total acidity. Gastrointestinal transit in mice was not significantly affected by either of these agents. These findings indicate that guarana has a gastroprotective property that needs further elucidation as regards to its mechanism.
Mattei, R; Dias, R F; Espínola, E B; Carlini, E A; Barros, S B
The effects on toxic and behavioral levels of guarana (Paullinia cupana) were assessed in rats and mice subsequent to acute and chronic administrations and were compared to those produced by Ginseng (Panax ginseng). Experimental parameters included tests for antioxidant capacity in vitro and measured in vivo, toxicological screening, progress in weight, motor activity, death rate, and histopathological examination of the viscera. Guarana showed an antioxidant effect because, even at low concentrations (1.2 microg/ml), it inhibited the process of lipid peroxidation. In high doses of 1000-2000 mg/kg (i.p. and p.o.) it did not induce significant alterations in parameters for toxicological screening. No effects on motor activity were observed, neither did guarana alter the hypnotic effect of pentobarbital. Ginseng (250-1000 mg/kg i.p.), however, elicited reductions in motor activity, eyelid ptosis and bristling fur. Consumption of liquids containing guarana or ginseng and progress in weight of the animals remained at levels similar to the controls, even after prolonged administration. The percentage mortality was equivalent in control and in treated groups. The absence of toxicity of guarana was also demonstrated by histopathological examination, with no alteration being detected in heart, lungs, stomach, small and large intestine, liver, pancreas, kidneys, bladder and spleen.
Heard, Charles M; Johnson, Sarah; Moss, Gary; Thomas, Chris P
Extracts of guarana (Paullinia cupana) feature as putatively stimulating ingredients in a number of foods, drinks and dietary/herbal supplements. The objective of this work was to investigate in vitro the transdermal delivery of the major pharmacologically active compounds contained in guarana extract. Saturated solutions of guarana were prepared in polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400), propylene glycol (PG) and H(2)O at 32 degrees C. Guarana extract was also formulated in Duro-tak 2287 transdermal adhesive in a range of concentrations and the diffusional release was determined in addition to adhesive properties. Transdermal delivery across full thickness pig ear skin was investigated in vitro using Franz-type diffusion cells, with reverse-phase HPLC being used for the quantification of the permeation of theobromine (TB), theophylline (TP), (+)-catechin (C) and caffeine (CF). Based upon a combination of release and adhesive property data a patch containing 5.55 mg guarana extract cm(-2) was deemed optimal. The general trend for the delivery of the 4 analytes was: water >5.55 mg cm(-2) patch approximately PG>PEG400. For CF the greatest steady state flux was obtained from the water vehicle: 19 microg cm(-2)h(-1), with approximately 420 microg cm(-2) permeating after 24h. This was some 6x times more than from the drug-in-adhesive patch and 10x greater than PG, a well-known penetration enhancer, and 50x that of the 'regular' excipient PEG400. A water vehicle also provided the greatest delivery of TB (0.45 microg cm(-2) h(-1)), TP (0.022 microg cm(-2) h(-1)), and C (0.10 microg cm(-2) h(-1)). An inverse relationship was noted between lipophilicity and k(p) in each vehicle. The simultaneous transdermal delivery of the major actives of guarana was established, with permeation rates being highly concentration and vehicle dependent.
Arantes, Leticia Priscilla; Peres, Tanara Vieira; Chen, Pam; Caito, Samuel; Aschner, Michael; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes
The influence of routine guarana (Paullinia cupana) consumption on apparent tolerance to mercury intoxication has been proposed. The present study investigated this hypothesis in Caenorhabditis elegans, a suitable experimental model for studies in toxicology. Wild type (WT) and skn-1 (ok2315) worm strains were pretreated with guarana ethanolic extract (GEE) from larvae 1 (L1) to L4 stage and then exposed for 6 hours to methylmercury (MeHg). The analyses included evaluation of GEE's effects on lethality, developmental delay, feeding, locomotion, gene expression (sod-3, gst-4, sir-2.1, hsf-1, snn-1, mtl-1, mtl-2, aat-1, aat-2 and aat-3) and antioxidant activity. GEE pre-treatment had no aberrant effects on WT worms exposed to MeHg, and protected skn-1 (ok2315) worms, which are more susceptible to environmental stresses. Protective effects of GEE might be dependent on modulation of genes other than those directly involved in antioxidant activity. GEE increased the expression of genes involved in metal transport (aat-2), metal detoxification (mtl-1 and mtl-2) and antioxidant responses (sir-2.1 and sod-3). Thus, routine consumption of guarana might be beneficial in protecting against MeHg-induced toxicity.
Campos, A R; Barros, A I S; Albuquerque, F A A; M Leal, L K A; Rao, V S N
Guarana, a herbal extract from the seeds of Paullinia cupana Mart. has been evaluated in comparison with caffeine on mouse behaviour in forced swimming and open field tests. Guarana (25 and 50 mg/kg, p.o.) and caffeine (10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o.) each significantly reduced the duration of immobility in the forced swimming test suggesting an antidepressant-like effect in mice. At these doses, neither substance affected ambulation in the open field test. However, a high dose of guarana (100 mg/kg) and caffeine (30 mg/kg) significantly enhanced the locomotor activity in the open field test. Caffeine, but not guarana, could effectively block an adenosine agonist, cyclopentyl adenosine (CPA)-induced increase in swimming immobility suggesting that mechanism(s) other than the adenosinergic mechanism are involved in the antidepressant-like activity of guarana.
Fukumasu, H; Avanzo, J L; Heidor, R; Silva, T C; Atroch, A; Moreno, F S; Dagli, M L Z
Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis) is a plant originally from Brazil, which is rich in tannins. Some tannins are known to present protective effects against DNA damage. This study was performed to investigate the anti-genotoxic/cytotoxic properties of guarana in hepatocytes of mice injected with N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN). The protective effect of guarana was evaluated both by comet assay and DNA smear fragmentation technique in two month-old female BALB/c mice. These were treated previously with 2.0 mg/g bw of guarana for 16 days and then injected with DEN (160 microg/g body weight) to induce DNA damage. The DEN-only treated group presented higher comet image length than the guarana plus DEN and untreated groups (116.06+/-5.0 microm, 104.09+/-3.3 microm and 93.28+/-14.4 microm, respectively; p<0.01). Guarana treatment presented a 52.54% reduction in comet image length when animals were exposed to DEN (p<0.05). DNA samples from the guarana plus DEN group clearly showed less EtBr fluorescence intensity when compared to the DEN-only group, reinforcing the comet assay data. These results show, for the first time, that guarana has a protective effect against DEN-induced DNA damage in mouse liver.
Subbiah, M T Ravi; Yunker, R
Guarana (Paullinia cupana) is a popular herb native to the Amazon Basin and used extensively in soft drinks in Brazil, other Latin American countries, and more recently in the United States. Extracts derived from the dried seeds of guarana possess strong anti-platelet aggregatory properties. In this study, an active fraction containing this activity was purified and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) techniques. It was noted that this fraction contains catechins, epicatechins, and their dimers, with a small amount of caffeine. It is suggested that complexes containing caffeine and catechins (and their dimers) might be responsible for anti-platelet aggregatory activity in guarana seeds and might offer health benefits towards decreasing risk of thrombosis and cardiovascular disease.
Angelo, Paula C S; Nunes-Silva, Carlos G; Brígido, Marcelo M; Azevedo, Juliana S N; Assunção, Enedina N; Sousa, Alexandra R B; Patrício, Fernando J B; Rego, Mailson M; Peixoto, Jean C C; Oliveira, Waldesse P; Freitas, Danival V; Almeida, Elionor R P; Viana, Andréya Márcya H A; Souza, Ana Fabíola P N; Andrade, Edmar V; Acosta, Pablo O A; Batista, Jaqueline S; Walter, Maria E M T; Leomil, Luciana; Anjos, Daniel A S; Coimbra, Rodrigo C M; Barbosa, Magda H N; Honda, Eduardo; Pereira, Soraya S; Silva, Artur; Pereira, José O; Silva, Marcicleide L; Marins, Mozart; Holanda, Francisca J; Abreu, Rusleyd M M; Pando, Silvana C; Gonçalves, José F C; Carvalho, Margarida L; Leal-Mesquita, Emygdia R R B P; da Silveira, Márcio A; Batista, Weber C; Atroch, André L; França, Suzelei C; Porto, Jorge I R; Schneider, Maria Paula C; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco
Guarana (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis) is a plant native to the central Amazon basin. Roasted seed extracts have been used as medicinal beverages since pre-Colombian times, due to their reputation as stimulants, aphrodisiacs, tonics, as well as protectors of the gastrointestinal tract. Guarana plants are commercially cultivated exclusively in Brazil to supply the national carbonated soft-drink industry and natural product stores around the world. In this report, we describe and discuss the annotation of 15,387 ESTs from guarana seeded-fruits, highlighting sequences from the flavonoid and purine alkaloid pathways, and those related to biotic stress avoidance. This is the largest set of sequences registered for the Sapindaceae family.
Ruchel, Jader B; Braun, Josiane B S; Adefegha, Stephen A; Guedes Manzoni, Alessandra; Abdalla, Fátima H; de Oliveira, Juliana S; Trelles, Kelly; Signor, Cristiane; Lopes, Sônia T A; da Silva, Cássia B; Castilhos, Lívia G; Rubin, Maribel A; Leal, Daniela B R
Hyperlipidemia is a risk factor for the development of cognitive dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Natural compounds have recently received special attention in relation to the treatment of disease due to their low cost and wide margin of safety. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the possible preventive effect of guarana powder (Paullinia cupana) on memory impairment and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain structures of rats with Poloxamer-407-induced hyperlipidemia. Adult male Wistar rats were pretreated with guarana (12.5, 25 and 50mg/kg/day) and caffeine (0.2mg/kg/day) by gavage for a period of 30days. Simvastatin (0.04mg/kg) was administered as a comparative standard. Acute hyperlipidemia was induced with intraperitoneal injections of 500mg/kg of Poloxamer-407. Memory tests and evaluations of anxiety were performed. The cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, hypothalamus and striatum were separated to assess acetylcholinesterase activity. Our results revealed that guarana powder was able to reduce the levels of TC and LDL-C in a manner similar to simvastatin. Guarana powder also partially reduced the liver damage caused by hyperlipidemia. Guarana was able to prevent changes in the activity of AChE and improve memory impairment due to hyperlipidemia. Guarana powder may therefore be a source of promising phytochemicals that can be used as adjuvant therapy in the management of hyperlipidemia and cognitive disorders.
Kennedy, D O; Haskell, C F; Wesnes, K A; Scholey, A B
Extracts from the plant guarana (Paullinia cupana) feature as putatively stimulating ingredients in a number of foods, drinks and dietary/herbal supplements. To date, little research in humans has examined the potential psychoactive effects of these extracts. Extracts of Panax ginseng, which are often sold in combination with guarana, contain similar potentially active components, and have been shown to modulate cognitive performance. In this double-blind, counterbalanced, placebo-controlled study, the cognitive and mood effects of separate single doses of: 75 mg of a dried ethanolic extract of guarana (approx 12% caffeine), 200 mg of Panax ginseng (G115), and their combination (75 mg/200 mg), were assessed in 28 healthy young (18-24) participants. On each day of the study (separated by a 7-day washout), cognitive performance and subjective mood were assessed pre-dose and at 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h post-dose using the Cognitive Drug Research computerised assessment battery, Serial subtraction tasks and Bond-Lader mood scales. In comparison to placebo, all three treatments resulted in improved task performance throughout the day. In the case of guarana, improvements were seen across 'attention' tasks (but with some evidence of reduced accuracy), and on a sentence verification task. While also increasing the speed of attention task performance, both ginseng and the ginseng/guarana combination also enhanced the speed of memory task performance, with little evidence of modulated accuracy. Guarana and the combination, and to a lesser extent ginseng, also led to significant improvements in serial subtraction task performance. These results provide the first demonstration in humans of the psychoactive effects of guarana, and confirmation of the psychoactive properties of ginseng. Given the low caffeine content (9 mg) of this dose of guarana extract, the effects are unlikely to be attributable to its caffeine content.
Rodrigues, Márcio; Alves, Gilberto; Lourenço, Nulita; Falcão, Amílcar
Paullinia cupana is used in weight-loss programs as a constituent of medicinal/dietary supplements. This study aimed to assess a potential herb-drug interaction among a standardized (certified) Paullinia cupana extract and amiodarone (narrow therapeutic index drug) in rats. In a first pharmacokinetic study rats were simultaneously coadministered with a single dose of Paullinia cupana (821 mg/kg, p.o.) and amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.), and in a second study rats were pretreated during 14 days with Paullinia cupana (821 mg/kg/day, p.o.) receiving amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.) on the 15th day. Rats of the control groups received the corresponding volume of vehicle. Blood samples were collected at several time points after amiodarone dosing, and several tissues were harvested at the end of the experiments (24 h after dose). Plasma and tissue concentrations of amiodarone and its major metabolite (mono-N-desethylamiodarone) were measured and analysed. A significant reduction in the peak plasma concentration (73.2%) and in the extent of systemic exposure (57.8%) to amiodarone was found in rats simultaneously treated with Paullinia cupana and amiodarone; a decrease in tissue concentrations was also observed. This paper reports for the first time an herb-drug interaction between Paullinia cupana extract and amiodarone, which determined a great decrease on amiodarone bioavailability in rats.
Freitas, R S; Moreno, S R F; Lima-Filho, G L; Fonseca, A S; Bernardo-Filho, M
We studied the influence of a commercial extract of Paullinia cupana (guarana) on the binding of technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA) on blood constituents. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) from Wistar rats (control and treated) were separated. P and BC were precipitated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) or ammonium sulphate (AS) and soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) isolated. The percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in each fraction was determined. The treatment influenced the %ATI in IF-P and in IF-BC isolated by TCA precipitation.
Woods, David J
The main constituent of guarana is caffeine, with smaller quantities of theophylline and theobromine. There is no evidence that the berries or extracts contain anything else that is therapeutically useful.Guarana is associated with many therapeutic properties, but there is no evidence to support these other than effects that can be attributed to caffeine. Guarana is widely available in herbal products and energy drinks. Excessive intake can cause the same effects as too much caffeine. It is not widely recognised that guarana has a high caffeine content and the labelling on some products is misleading.Although not specifically studied, guarana would be expected to exhibit the same range of adverse effects and drug interactions as those associated with caffeine.
Schimpl, Flávia Camila; Kiyota, Eduardo; Mazzafera, Paulo
Caffeine synthase (CS) is a methyltransferase responsible for the last two steps of the caffeine biosynthesis pathway in plants. CS is able to convert 7-methylxanthine to theobromine (3,7-dimethylxanthine) and theobromine to caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) using S-adenosyl-L-methionine as the methyl donor in both reactions. The production of a recombinant protein is an important tool for the characterization of enzymes, particularly when the enzyme has affinity for different substrates. Guarana has the highest caffeine content among more than a hundred plant species that contain this alkaloid. Different from other plants, in which CS has a higher affinity for paraxanthine (1,7-dimethylxanthine), caffeine synthase from guarana (PcCS) has a higher affinity for theobromine. Here, we describe a method to produce a recombinant caffeine synthase from guarana in Escherichia coli and its purification by affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein retains activity and can be used in enzymatic assays and other biochemical characterization studies.
Bittencourt, Leonardo da Silva; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Yatsu, Francini Kiyono Jorge; Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Kolling, Eduardo Antônio; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Bassani, Valquiria Linck; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are considered potent molecules capable of promoting neuronal cell death and participating in the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that AGEs exacerbate β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation and AGE-related cross-links are also detected in senile plaques. Acrolein (ACR) is an α, β-unsaturated aldehyde found in the environment and thermally processed foods, which can additionally be generated through endogenous metabolism. The role of ACR in AD is widely accepted in the literature. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) is popularly consumed by the population in Brazil, mainly for its stimulant activity. In the present study, we showed that guarana (10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL) is able to prevent protein glycation, β-amyloid aggregation, in vitro methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and ACR (20 μM)-induced toxicity on neuronal-like cells (SH-SY5Y). Since these are considered typical AD pathological hallmarks, we propose that guarana may deserve further research as a potential therapeutic agent in such a neurodegenerative disease.
Pagliarussi, Renata S; Bastos, Jairo K; Freitas, Luis A P
The aim of this study was to study the convective drying of the hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from powdered guarana seeds in a spouted bed dryer. The influence of process variables, such as the convective airflow rate, extract feed rate, and air inlet temperature, on the quality of the dry extract was determined using the caffeine and moisture content for the process evaluation. The caffeine content in the alcoholic and dried extracts was determined by capillary gas chromatography. The experiments were performed following a 3(3) factorial design and the data analyzed by response surface. The analysis of dry extract showed that the air and extract feed rates did not significantly affect (25% level) the caffeine content, but that drying temperature is a major factor to consider when the extract is submitted to fluid bed drying. Caffeine losses were significant (1% level) for drying temperatures above 120 degrees C, while moisture content was lower than 3% for temperatures above 120 degrees C. The data showed that there is an optimum temperature for the drying of guarana extracts in spouted beds, and under the conditions used in this study it was 120 degrees C.
Figueirêdo, L C; Faria-Campos, A C; Astolfi-Filho, S; Azevedo, J L
The current intense production of biological data, generated by sequencing techniques, has created an ever-growing volume of unanalyzed data. We reevaluated data produced by the guarana (Paullinia cupana) transcriptome sequencing project to identify cDNA clones with complete coding sequences (full-length clones) and complete sequences of genes of biotechnological interest, contributing to the knowledge of biological characteristics of this organism. We analyzed 15,490 ESTs of guarana in search of clones with complete coding regions. A total of 12,402 sequences were analyzed using BLAST, and 4697 full-length clones were identified, responsible for the production of 2297 different proteins. Eighty-four clones were identified as full-length for N-methyltransferase and 18 were sequenced in both directions to obtain the complete genome sequence, and confirm the search made in silico for full-length clones. Phylogenetic analyses were made with the complete genome sequences of three clones, which showed only 0.017% dissimilarity; these are phylogenetically close to the caffeine synthase of Theobroma cacao. The search for full-length clones allowed the identification of numerous clones that had the complete coding region, demonstrating this to be an efficient and useful tool in the process of biological data mining. The sequencing of the complete coding region of identified full-length clones corroborated the data from the in silico search, strengthening its efficiency and utility.
Pomportes, Laura; Davranche, Karen; Brisswalter, Ioanna; Hays, Arnaud; Brisswalter, Jeanick
The aim of this study was to assess cognitive performance and heart rate variability (HRV) following the ingestion of either a multi-vitamin-mineral preparation supplemented with 300 mg guarana (Ac); a caffeine supplement (C) or a placebo supplement (Pl). Fifty-six subjects took part in a randomized, double-blind crossover design, consisting of three experimental sessions ran on a different day. Cognitive performance was assessed using a go/no-go task and a simple reaction time (SRT) task. HRV was assessed in the time domain (RMSSD) and in the frequency domain (HF) and cognitive tasks were performed before ingestion, 15 min after ingestion and then every 15 min over the course of 3 h. Responses were faster (without change in accuracy) when the go/no-go task was performed between 30 and 90 min after ingestion of Ac (4.6% ± 0.8%, p < 0.05). No effect was observed on SRT task. A significant decrease in HRV was observed during the first hour under C and Pl, whereas HRV remained stable under Ac. The results suggest that the ingestion of a multi-vitamin-mineral with added guarana improves decision-making performance and is accompanied by a stable autonomic nervous system regulation during the first hour.
Pomportes, Laura; Davranche, Karen; Brisswalter, Ioanna; Hays, Arnaud; Brisswalter, Jeanick
The aim of this study was to assess cognitive performance and heart rate variability (HRV) following the ingestion of either a multi-vitamin-mineral preparation supplemented with 300 mg guarana (Ac); a caffeine supplement (C) or a placebo supplement (Pl). Fifty-six subjects took part in a randomized, double-blind crossover design, consisting of three experimental sessions ran on a different day. Cognitive performance was assessed using a go/no-go task and a simple reaction time (SRT) task. HRV was assessed in the time domain (RMSSD) and in the frequency domain (HF) and cognitive tasks were performed before ingestion, 15 min after ingestion and then every 15 min over the course of 3 h. Responses were faster (without change in accuracy) when the go/no-go task was performed between 30 and 90 min after ingestion of Ac (4.6% ± 0.8%, p < 0.05). No effect was observed on SRT task. A significant decrease in HRV was observed during the first hour under C and Pl, whereas HRV remained stable under Ac. The results suggest that the ingestion of a multi-vitamin-mineral with added guarana improves decision-making performance and is accompanied by a stable autonomic nervous system regulation during the first hour. PMID:25558905
Hertz, Everaldo; Cadoná, Francine Carla; Machado, Alencar Kolinski; Azzolin, Verônica; Holmrich, Sabrina; Assmann, Charles; Ledur, Pauline; Ribeiro, Euler Esteves; DE Souza Filho, Olmiro Cezimbra; Mânica-Cattani, Maria Fernanda; DA Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica
Previous studies suggested that certain plants, such as guarana (Paullinia cupana), exert a protective effect against cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. However, guarana possesses bioactive molecules, such as caffeine and catechin, which may affect the pharmacological properties of antitumor drugs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of guarana on breast cancer cell response to 7 chemotherapeutic agents currently used in the treatment of breast cancer. To perform this study, MCF-7 breast cancer cells were cultured under controlled conditions and exposed to 1, 5 and 10 µg/ml guarana concentrations, with and without chemotherapeutics (gemcitabine, vinorelbine, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, paclitaxel, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide). The effect of these treatments on MCF-7 cell viability and proliferation was spectrophotometrically analyzed with the MTT assay. The main results demonstrated an antiproliferative effect of guarana at concentrations of 5 and 10 µg/ml and a significant effect on chemotherapeutic drug action. In general, guarana improved the antiproliferative effect of chemotherapeutic agents, causing a decrease of >40% in cell growth after 72 h of exposure. The results suggested an interaction of guarana with the chemotherapeutic drugs, which requires confirmation by in vivo complementary studies.
Oliveira, Celso H; Moraes, Maria Elizabete A; Moraes, Manoel O; Bezerra, Fernando A F; Abib, Eduardo; De Nucci, Gilberto
In Brazil, a herbal medicinal extract named Catuama containing a mixture of Paullinia cupana (guarana; Sapindaceae), Trichilia catigua (catuaba; Meliaceae), Ptychopetalum olacoides (muirapuama; Olacaceae) and Zingiber officinale (ginger; Zingiberaceae) is used as a body stimulant, energetic, tonic and aphrodisiac. The present study investigated the chronic administration of 25 mL Catuama twice a day during 28 days for any toxic effect on healthy human volunteers of both sexes. No severe adverse reactions or haematological and biochemical changes were reported.
Basile, Adriana; Ferrara, Lydia; Pezzo, Marisa Del; Mele, Guido; Sorbo, Sergio; Bassi, Paola; Montesano, Domenico
The antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract from Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis Mart. (Sapindaceae) seeds, commonly called guarana, was assessed towards selected bacteria as well as in different antioxidant models. The extract, at a concentration between 16 and 128 microg/ml, showed a significant antibacterial effect expressed as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In particular, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC=16 microg/ml), Proteus mirabilis (MIC=32 microg/ml), Proteus vulgaris (MIC=32 microg/ml) and Escherichia coli (MIC=32 microg/ml) were the most inhibited. The antioxidant activity was determined by the malonyldialdehyde (MDA) test, measuring the MDA concentration in 3T3-L1 cells after induced cellular damage using ferric ammonium citrate (FAC). The reduction of lipid peroxidation was 62.5% using a guarana extract with a concentration of 2 microg/ml. This effect was dose/dependent. The ethanol extract from Paullinia cupana seeds was analysed by spectrophotometry to determine the concentration of catechol substances after treatment of the extract with p-aminophenol. The total phenolics content in the ethanol extract was also determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The concentration of catechol equivalent was 6.06+/-0.13 mg/g (mean+/-S.D.), while the total phenolic content was 8.43+/-0.21 mg/g (mean+/-S.D.). The correlation index between antioxidant activity and catechol content was 0.96.
Avato, P; Pesante, M A; Fanizzi, F P; Santos, C Aimbiré de Moraes
The chemical composition of the oil extracted from the seeds of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke (syn. P. sorbilis) was investigated. Cyanolipids constituted 3% of the total oil from guaraná seeds, whereas acylglycerols accounted for 28%. 1H and 13C NMR analyses indicated that type I cyanolipids (1-cyano-2-hydroxymethylprop-2-ene-1-ol diesters) are present in the oil from P. cupana. GC and GC-MS analysis showed that cis-11-octadecenoic (cis-vaccenic acid) and cis-11-eicosenoic acids were the main FA (30.4 and 38.7%) esterified to the nitrile group. Paullinic acid (7.0%) was also an abundant component. Oleic acid (37.4%) was the dominant fatty acyl chain in the acylglycerols.
Basile, Adriana; Rigano, Daniela; Conte, Barbara; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Sorbo, Sergio
The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the acetone extract from Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis Mart. (Sapindaceae) seeds, commonly called guarana, were assessed against selected bacterial and fungal strains. We tested the extract against both standard American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and clinically isolated (CI) bacterial strains and three fungal strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for bacteria and MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration for fungi were determined. The extract showed an activity against the nine bacterial strains tested, both CI and ATCC strains (MIC comprised between 32 and 128 μm/mL and MBC between 128 and 512 μm/mL), showing a significant antibacterial effect against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Also, the tested fungi were sensitive to the extract (MIC between 125 and 250 μm/mL). The contemporaneous presence of different bioactivities in the extract from guarana suggests this plant as a source of bioactive substances.
Bogas, Andréa Cristina; Ferreira, Almir José; Araújo, Welington Luiz; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Kitajima, Elliot Watanabe; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Azevedo, João Lúcio
Endophytes colonize an ecological niche similar to that of phytopathogens, which make them candidate for disease suppression. Anthracnose is a disease caused by Colletotrichum spp., a phytopathogen that can infect guarana (Paullinia cupana), an important commercial crop in the Brazilian Amazon. We investigated the diversity of endophytic bacteria inhabiting the phyllosphere of asymptomatic and symptomatic anthracnose guarana plants. The PCR-denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprints revealed differences in the structure of the evaluated communities. Detailed analysis of endophytic bacteria composition using culture-dependent and 16S rRNA clone libraries revealed the presence of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria phyla. Firmicutes comprised the majority of isolates in asymptomatic plants (2.40E(-4)). However, cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed differences at the genus level for Neisseria (1.4E(-4)), Haemophilus (2.1E(-3)) and Arsenophonus (3.6E(-5)) in asymptomatic plants, Aquicella (3.5E(-3)) in symptomatic anthracnose plants, and Pseudomonas (1.1E(-3)), which was mainly identified in asymptomatic plants. In cross-comparisons of the endophytic bacterial communities as a whole, symptomatic anthracnose plants contained higher diversity, as reflected in the Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indices estimation (P < 0.05). Similarly, comparisons using LIBSHUFF and heatmap analysis for the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed differences between endophytic bacterial communities. These data are in agreement with the NMSD and ANOSIM analysis of DGGE profiles. Our results suggest that anthracnose can restructure endophytic bacterial communities by selecting certain strains in the phyllosphere of P. cupana. The understanding of these interactions is important for the development of strategies of biocontrol for Colletotrichum.
Paullinia cupana Mart. var. sorbilis, guarana, increases survival of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing mice by decreasing cyclin-D1 expression and inducing a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in EAC cells.
Fukumasu, Heidge; Latorre, Andreia Oliveira; Zaidan-Dagli, Maria Lucia
The objective of this work is to report the antiproliferative effect of P. cupana treatment in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC)-bearing animals. Female mice were treated with three doses of powdered P. cupana (100, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg) for 7 days, injected with 10(5) EAC cells and treated up to day 21. In addition, a survival experiment was carried out with the same protocol. P. cupana decreased the ascites volume (p = 0.0120), cell number (p = 0.0004) and hemorrhage (p = 0.0054). This occurred through a G1-phase arrest (p < 0.01) induced by a decreased gene expression of Cyclin D1 in EAC cells. Furthermore, P. cupana significantly increased the survival of EAC-bearing animals (p = 0.0012). In conclusion, the P. cupana growth control effect in this model was correlated with a decreased expression of cyclin D1 and a G1 phase arrest. These results reinforce the cancer therapeutic potential of this Brazilian plant.
Carvalho, Lidiane Vasconcelos do Nascimento; Cordeiro, Marina Ferraz; E Lins, Thiago Ubiratan Lins; Sampaio, Maria Clara Pinheiro Duarte; de Mello, Gabriela Souto Vieira; da Costa, Valécia de Cassia Mendonça; Marques, Leila Larisa Medeiros; Klein, Traudi; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Cavalcanti, Isabella Macário Ferro; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; Galdino da Rocha Pitta, Maira; Rêgo, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo
Paullinia cupana (Guarana) is a native plant of Amazon region that has very traditional importance. Its seeds are rich in bioactive compounds, including tannins, which exhibit relevant properties. Objective. This study aimed to evaluate antibacterial, antineoplastic, and immunomodulatory activity of P. cupana seeds crude extract (CE) and ethyl-acetate fraction (EAF). Methods. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). Antineoplastic activity was evaluated by MTT assays in hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), ductal carcinoma (T47-D), non-Hodgkin's B cell lymphoma (Toledo), T cell leukemia (Jukart), and Acute Leukemia (HL-60) cell lines. BALB/c mice splenocytes were treated to assess IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-10 levels by sandwich ELISA. Results. CE and EAF were not toxic to peripheral blood cells and splenocytes. CE and EAF fractions showed a bacteriostatic activity (MIC = 250 μg/mL) and presented IC50 values of 70.25 μg/mL and 61.18 μg/mL in HL-60 leukemia cell line. All cytokines evaluated had their levels reduced after treatment, following dose-response model. Discussion and Conclusion. Different biological activities were observed for both CE and EAF, suggesting P. cupana as a source of bioactive substances, especially tannins that may be used for several diseases treatments.
Carvalho, Lidiane Vasconcelos do Nascimento; Cordeiro, Marina Ferraz; e Lins, Thiago Ubiratan Lins; Sampaio, Maria Clara Pinheiro Duarte; de Mello, Gabriela Souto Vieira; da Costa, Valécia de Cassia Mendonça; Marques, Leila Larisa Medeiros; Klein, Traudi; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Cavalcanti, Isabella Macário Ferro; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha
Paullinia cupana (Guarana) is a native plant of Amazon region that has very traditional importance. Its seeds are rich in bioactive compounds, including tannins, which exhibit relevant properties. Objective. This study aimed to evaluate antibacterial, antineoplastic, and immunomodulatory activity of P. cupana seeds crude extract (CE) and ethyl-acetate fraction (EAF). Methods. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). Antineoplastic activity was evaluated by MTT assays in hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), ductal carcinoma (T47-D), non-Hodgkin's B cell lymphoma (Toledo), T cell leukemia (Jukart), and Acute Leukemia (HL-60) cell lines. BALB/c mice splenocytes were treated to assess IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-10 levels by sandwich ELISA. Results. CE and EAF were not toxic to peripheral blood cells and splenocytes. CE and EAF fractions showed a bacteriostatic activity (MIC = 250 μg/mL) and presented IC50 values of 70.25 μg/mL and 61.18 μg/mL in HL-60 leukemia cell line. All cytokines evaluated had their levels reduced after treatment, following dose-response model. Discussion and Conclusion. Different biological activities were observed for both CE and EAF, suggesting P. cupana as a source of bioactive substances, especially tannins that may be used for several diseases treatments. PMID:28053639
Fukumasu, Heidge; da Silva, Tereza Cristina; Avanzo, José Luis; de Lima, Cyntia Esteves; Mackowiak, Ivone Isabel; Atroch, André; de Souza Spinosa, Helenice; Moreno, Fernando Salvador; Dagli, Maria Lucia Zaidan
Guaraná (Paullinia cupana) is originally from Amazon, Brazil. Its effects on mouse hepatocarcinogenesis have been investigated in this study. Mice were treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN), received three different doses of P. cupana added to commercial food, and euthanized after 25 weeks. Gross lesions were quantified, and preneoplastic lesions (PNL) were histologically measured. Cellular proliferation was evaluated by immunobloting for the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The incidence and multiplicity of macroscopic lesions were reduced. The PNL number and PCNA expression were reduced in the highest P. cupana dose. According to these results, guaraná presented inhibitory effects on DEN hepatocarcinogenesis in mice.
Martins, Suelen Patrícia Dos Santos; Ferreira, Cynthia Lemos; Del Giglio, Auro
Fatigue is a common symptom in patients with head and neck carcinoma who undergo chemoradiotherapy. Guarana (Paullinia cupana) is a plant that grows in the Brazilian Amazon region that was used previously to treat fatigue induced by chemotherapy.
Silva, Maria Carolina Santos E; Polonio, Julio Cesar; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Almeida, Tiago Tognolli de; Bogas, Andréa Cristina; Pamphile, João Alencar; Pereira, José Odair; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Azevedo, João Lucio
Guarana (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis) is a plant from the Amazonas region with socio-economic importance. However, guarana production has been increasingly affected by unfavorable conditions resulting from anthracnose, caused by the Colletotrichum fungal genus, which primarily affects mainly the Amazonas region. The aim of the present study was to isolate bacterial endophytes from the seeds of guarana plants obtained from Amazonas region and the Northeast state of Bahia, a region where this disease is not a problem for guarana plantations. The number of bacterial Colony Forming Units (CFU/g seeds) was 2.4 × 10(4) from the Bahia and 2.9 × 10(4) from the Amazonas region. One hundred and two isolated bacteria were evaluated in vitro against the phytopathogenic strain Colletotrichum gloeosporioides L1. These isolates were also analyzed for the enzymatic production of amylase, cellulase, protease, pectinase, lipase and esterase. Approximately 15% of isolates, showing high antagonistic activity, and the production of at least one enzyme were identified through the partial sequencing of 16S rDNA. The genus Bacillus was the most frequently observed, followed by Paenibacillus, Ochrobactrum, Microbacterium and Stenotrophomonas. Proteolytic activity was observed in 24 isolates followed by amylolytic, pectinolytic and cellulolytic activities. No esterase and lipase production was detected. Most of the isolates, showing antagonistic effects against C. gloeosporioides and high enzymatic activities, were isolated from the anthracnose-affected region. A biocontrol method using the endophytes from guarana seeds could be applied in the future, as these bacteria are vertically transferred to guarana seedlings.
Schäfer, A T
Guaraná is a product from the seeds of the Amazonian liana Paullinia cupana that is also cultivated since a couple of years. It is rich in caffeine and serves in Brasil for the production of stimulants, soft drinks, and sweets. In the drug scene it is sometimes trafficked as natural stimulant or drug surrogate. Microscopic examination shows the presence of starch and tannins and provides a simple, quick and cheap method to distinguish guaraná from drugs of abuse.
de Freitas, Danival Vieira; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Filho, Firmino José do Nascimento; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco
The genus Paullinia includes the economically important P. cupana, known as guaraná in Brazil and more recently in the world market. Native Americans of the Maué and Andirá tribes cultivated P. cupana 'Sorbilis' in central Amazon, and the Barés cultivated the 'Typica' variety in the upper Negro River (Brazil). Cytological studies in the Sapindaceae family have concentrated on the diversity in number (from 2n = 14 to 96) and size of the chromosomes. In Paullinia, seven species have been karyotyped and all show 2n = 24. Meristem maceration, cellular dissociation and air-drying techniques were used for cytogenetic preparations and DNA content was determined by flow cytometry. Chromosome characterization and DNA content of Paullinia cupana Kunth 'Sorbilis' (Mart.) Ducke (Sapindaceae) were studied. The high chromosome number (2n = 210) fall into two cytomorphological groups: (a) a metacentric and submetacentric group showing 25 sets of three pairs of chromosomes (2-76); (b) a group containing only acrocentric showing 12 sets of two pairs of chromosomes (82-105), a homologous submetacentric pair (1) and an acrocentric pair (81). Mean nuclear DNA content of guaraná was 2C = 22.8 pg. A karyogram was set up showing a high chromosome number complement.
Leite, Rodrigo P; Predes, Fabrícia S; Monteiro, Juliana C; Freitas, Karine M; Wada, Ronaldo S; Dolder, Heidi
Paullinia cupana is an Amazonian bush whose seeds have long been used in folk medicine. However, most of the therapeutic properties attributed to this plant are broad and nonspecific, although an antioxidant activity has been reported. On the other hand, cadmium is a heavy metal known for increasing free radicals, hence resulting in cellular oxidative damages. This study was designed to evaluate whether Paullinia cupana is able to reduce cadmium-induced morphological impairment in Wistar rat testis. Adult male Wistar rats 110 days old were ip injected with cadmium (1.15 mg/kg BW [body weight]) and subsequently treated with P. cupana during 56 days. Furthermore, groups receiving either P. cupana extract or cadmium are mentioned. After the treatment period, testis samples were subjected to histological and stereological analyses. Moderate to severe testicular impairments were shown by the animals exposed to cadmium. However, the animals supplemented with P. cupana after cadmium exposure showed a significant decrease in the proportion of damaged seminiferous tubules. Also, P. cupana supplementation was effective in maintaining the number of Leydig cells per testis in the animals exposed to cadmium. In conclusion, P. cupana supplementation was partially efficient in preventing cadmium from damaging the testis of adult Wistar rats.
Marques, Leila Larisa Medeiros; Panizzon, Gean Pier; Aguiar, Bruna Aparecida Alves; Simionato, Ane Stéfano; Cardozo-Filho, Lucio; Andrade, Galdino; de Oliveira, Admilton Gonçalves; Guedes, Terezinha Aparecida; Mello, João Carlos Palazzo de
Approximately 70% of the Brazilian production of guaraná (Paullinia cupana) seeds is absorbed by the beverage industries. Guaraná has several pharmacological properties: energy stimulant, antimicrobial, chemoprophylactic, antigenotoxic, antidepressive, anxiolytic, and anti-amnesic effects. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of bioactive compounds from guaraná seeds was carried out and optimized by an orthogonal array design (OA9(3(4))). The factors/levels studied were: modifier(s) (ethanol and/or methanol), extraction time (20, 40, and 60min), temperature (40, 50, and 60°C), and pressure (100, 200, and 300bar). The statistical design was repeated with increasing proportions of modifiers. The percentage of modifier used was proportional to the amount of polar compounds extracted. The best conditions for the supercritical extraction, based on the content of polyphenols, epicatechin/catechin quantification, yield and operating cost, proved to be: 40% ethanol:methanol during 40min, under 40°C, and 100bar. The temperature had a significant effect on the total phenolic content.
Mingori, Moara Rodrigues; Heimfarth, Luana; Ferreira, Charles Francisco; Gomes, Henrique Mautone; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Delgado, Jeferson; Roncato, Sabrina; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca
During aging, there is a marked decline in the antioxidant capacity of brain tissue, leading to a gradual loss of the antioxidant/oxidant balance, which causes oxidative damage. The effects of Paullinia cupana Mart. extract, which is described as being rich in caffeine and many polyphenol compounds, on the central nervous system have not been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to therefore investigate the effect of a commercial guarana extract (CGE) on cognitive function, oxidative stress, and brain homeostasis proteins related to cognitive injury and senescence in middle age, male Wistar rats. Animals were randomly assigned to a group according to their treatment (saline, CGE, or caffeine). Solutions were administered daily by oral gavage for 6 months. Open field and novel object recognition tasks were performed before and after treatment. Biochemical analyses were carried out on the hippocampus and striatum. Our open field data showed an increase in exploratory activity and a decrease in anxiety-like behavior with caffeine but not with the CGE treatment. In the CGE-treated group, catalase activity decreased in the hippocampus and increased in the striatum. Analyses of the hippocampus and striatum indicate that CGE and/or caffeine altered some of the analyzed parameters in a tissue-specific manner. Our data suggest that CGE intake does not improve cognitive development, but modifies the oxidative stress machinery and neurodegenerative-signaling pathway, inhibiting pro-survival pathway molecules in the hippocampus and striatum. This may contribute to the development of unfavorable microenvironments in the brain and neurodegenerative disorders.
Yamaguti-Sasaki, Elza; Ito, Lia Akina; Canteli, Vanessa Cristina Dias; Ushirobira, Tânia Mara Antonelli; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo
Chemical evaluation of the semi-purified fraction from the seeds of guaraná, Paullinia cupana H.B.K. var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke, yielded the following compounds: caffeine, catechin, epicatechin, ent-epicatechin, and procyanidins B1, B2, B3, B4, A2, and C1. Measurement of the antioxidant activity by reduction of the DPPH radical confirmed the anti-radical properties of the aqueous (AqE) and crude (EBPC) extracts and semi-purified (EPA and EPB) fractions. The EPA fraction showed radical-scavenging activity (RSA) and protected DPPH from discoloration at 5.23 +/- 0.08 (RSD% = 1.49) microg/mL, and for the phosphomolybdenum complex showed a higher Relative Antioxidant Capacity (RAC) at 0.75 +/- 0.01 (1.75). The EPA fraction had a total polyphenolics content of 65.80% +/- 0.62 (RSD% = 0.93). The plant drug showed 5.47% +/- 0.19 (RSD% = 3.51) and 6.19% +/- 0.08 (RSD% = 1.29) for total polyphenolics and methylxanthines, respectively. In vitro assessment of the antibacterial potential of the Paullinia cupana extracts against Streptococcus mutans showed that these could be used in the prevention of bacterial dental plaque.
Leite, Rodrigo Paula; Wada, Ronaldo Seichi; Monteiro, Juliana Castro; Predes, Fabrícia Souza; Dolder, Heidi
Guaraná (Paullinia cupana) is an Amazonian plant. Its antioxidant potential was demonstrated to be due to the high polyphenol concentration. On the other hand, one of the mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced cellular damage is free radical mediated, resulting in increased oxidative processes. This study investigated P. cupana's potential to attenuate cadmium-induced damages in Wistar rat testis. Adult male Wistar rats were either pre-treated with 2 mg/g body weight (BW) of powdered P. cupana seed during 56 days and/or injected with cadmium chloride at a dose of 1.15 mg/kg BW. After cadmium exposition (48 h), testes samples were evaluated by histological and stereological analyses. Both groups exposed to cadmium presented evident morphological alterations relative to control animals. A few rodents showed massive cell death in the seminiferous epithelium and intertubular space, indicating that some animals are more sensitive to cadmium. Despite the alterations observed in both groups, pre-treatment with P. cupana was effective in attenuating morphological changes in Leydig cells, as well as reducing inflammatory response, relative to animals exclusively exposed to the metal. Animals treated only with P. cupana presented a significant increase in plasma testosterone levels and a significant increase in volumetric proportions of seminiferous tubules, which are indicative of spermatogenic stimulation.
Otobone, F J; Sanches, A C C; Nagae, R; Martins, J V C; Sela, V R; de Mello, J C P; Audi, E A
The aim of the present study was to investigate the pharmacological properties of the crude lyophilized extract (EBPC) of Paullinia cupana seeds (guaraná) and the semi-purified extracts (EPA and EPB) after acute or chronic administration by the oral route in rats. Anxiolytic-like, antidepressant-like and motor stimulant effects were evaluated using the plus maze (PMT), forced swimming (FST) and open field (OFT) tests, respectively. Acute or chronic administration of EBPC (3.0, 30.0 or 60.0 mg/kg) did not alter the percentage of entries or the time spent in the open arm in the PMT. In the FST, chronic treatment with 30.0 mg EBPC/kg and 4.0 mg EPA/kg extract decreased the immobility time similarly to the antidepressant reference drug, imipramine (20.0 mg/kg). Locomotor activity in the OFT was not increased by these extracts. Caffeine (10.0 mg/kg) significantly reduced the immobility time in the FST, but increased locomotor activity in the OFT, indicating psychostimulant activity. The EPB extract did not induce any effect after acute or chronic treatment in the different models used. The present results suggest that the crude EBPC extract and EPA extract produced an antidepressant-like effect after long-term administration.
Antonelli-Ushirobira, T M; Kaneshima, E N; Gabriel, M; Audi, E A; Marques, L C; Mello, J C P
We evaluated the toxicity of a semipurified extract (EPA fraction, containing caffeine and several flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins) of seeds of the native Amazon plant Paullinia cupana (guaraná) in rodents. Acute toxicity was tested in male Swiss mice, which received different doses orally (OR) and intraperitoneally (ip); control groups received water. These tests produced acute mortality, with LD(50) of 1.825 g/kg (OR) and 0.827 g/kg (ip), and a significant weight decrease in lungs of mice receiving a dose of 0.1g/kg. In the repeated-dose toxicity test, the EPA was administered OR daily to male and female Wistar rats at doses of 30, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day/90 days. Their behavior, mortality, weight changes, laboratory tests, and the weights and histopathology of organs were evaluated. No rats died during the tests. Males dosed at 150 or 300 mg/kg gained weight more slowly and lost kidney weight (absolute and relative weights, compared to the control group). Hematological and biochemical tests showed few changes, differing somewhat between males and females; the histopathological evaluation indicated no significant changes. These results indicate that the EPA fraction of guaraná caused no toxicity in rats at the smallest dose evaluated (30 mg/kg). No other species was evaluated.
de Oliveira, Diêgo Madureira; Barreto, George; Galeano, Pablo; Romero, Juan Ignacio; Holubiec, Mariana Inés; Badorrey, Maria Sol; Capani, Francisco; Alvarez, Lisandro Diego Giraldez
Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis, commonly known as Guaraná, is a Brazilian plant frequently cited for its antioxidant properties and different pharmacological activities on the central nervous system. The potential beneficial uses of Guaraná in neurodegenerative disorders, such as in Parkinson's disease (PD), the pathogenesis of which is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, has not yet been assessed. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to evaluate if an extract of commercial powdered seeds of Guaraná could protect human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line against rotenone-induced cytotoxicity. Two concentration of Guaraná dimethylsulfoxide extract (0.312 and 0.625 mg/mL) were added to SH-SY5Y cells treated with 300 nM rotenone for 48 h, and the cytoprotective effects were assessed by means of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, and analyzing nuclear integrity with Hoechst33258 stain. Results showed that the addition of Guaraná extract significantly increased the cell viability of SH-SY5Y cells treated with rotenone, in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, LDH levels were significantly reduced by addition of 0.312 mg/mL of Guaraná, but unexpectedly, no changes were observed with the higher concentration. Moreover, chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were significantly reduced by addition of any of both concentrations of the extract. The results obtained in this work could provide relevant information about the mechanisms underlying the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in PD and precede in vivo experiments. Further studies are needed to investigate which active constituent is responsible for the cytoprotective effect produced by Paullinia cupana.
Fukumasu, H; Avanzo, J L; Nagamine, M K; Barbuto, J A; Rao, K V; Dagli, M L Z
We showed that guaraná (Paullinia cupana Mart var. sorbilis) had a chemopreventive effect on mouse hepatocarcinogenesis and reduced diethylnitrosamine-induced DNA damage. In the present experiment, we evaluated the effects of guaraná in an experimental metastasis model. Cultured B16/F10 melanoma cells (5 x 10(5) cells/animal) were injected into the tail vein of mice on the 7th day of guaraná treatment (2.0 mg P. cupana/g body weight, per gavage) and the animals were treated with guaraná daily up to 14 days until euthanasia (total treatment time: 21 days). Lung sections were obtained for morphometric analysis, apoptotic bodies were counted to calculate the apoptotic index and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells were counted to determine the proliferation index. Guaraná-treated (GUA) animals presented a 68.6% reduction in tumor burden area compared to control (CO) animals which were not treated with guaraná (CO: 0.84 +/- 0.26, N = 6; GUA: 0.27 +/- 0.24, N = 6; P = 0.0043), a 57.9% reduction in tumor proliferation index (CO: 23.75 +/- 20.54, N = 6; GUA: 9.99 +/- 3.93, N = 6; P = 0.026) and a 4.85-fold increase in apoptotic index (CO: 66.95 +/- 22.95, N = 6; GUA: 324.37 +/- 266.74 AB/mm(2), N = 6; P = 0.0152). In this mouse model, guaraná treatment decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of tumor cells, consequently reducing the tumor burden area. We are currently investigating the molecular pathways of the effects of guaraná in cultured melanoma cells, regarding principally the cell cycle inhibitors and cyclins.
Kennedy, D O; Haskell, C F; Robertson, B; Reay, J; Brewster-Maund, C; Luedemann, J; Maggini, S; Ruf, M; Zangara, A; Scholey, A B
Guaraná (Paullinia cupana) extracts are most commonly used in Western markets as putatively psychoactive food and drink additives. This double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel groups study assessed the acute effects of either a vitamin/mineral/guaraná supplement or placebo drink in 129 healthy young adults (18-24 years). Participants completed a 10min version of the Cognitive Demand Battery (comprising: Serial 3s and Serial 7s subtraction tasks, a Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) task, 'mental fatigue' scale). Thirty minutes following their drink participants made six consecutive completions of the battery (i.e. 60 min). The vitamin/mineral/guaraná combination resulted in improved task performance, in comparison to placebo, in terms of both increased speed and accuracy of performing the RVIP task throughout the post-dose assessment. The increase in mental fatigue associated with extended task performance was also attenuated by the supplement. This research supports previous findings demonstrating guaraná's cognition enhancing properties and provides evidence that its addition to a multi-vitamin-mineral supplement can improve cognitive performance and reduce the mental fatigue associated with sustained mental effort.
Bittencourt, L S; Machado, D C; Machado, M M; Dos Santos, G F F; Algarve, T D; Marinowic, D R; Ribeiro, E E; Soares, F A A; Barbisan, F; Athayde, M L; Cruz, I B M
The antioxidant effects of the hydro-alcoholic guaraná extract (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis Mart.) on nitric oxide (NO) and other compounds generated from the degradation of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in an embryonic fibroblast culture (NIH-3T3 cells) were evaluated. The guaraná bioactive compounds were initially determined by high-performance liquid chromatography: caffeine=12.240 mg/g, theobromine=6.733 mg/g and total catechins=4.336 mg/g. Cells were exposed to 10 μM SNP during a 6 h period because the cells exhibited >90% mortality at this concentration. Guaraná was added to the cultures in five concentrations (0.5, 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg/mL). The guaraná antioxidant effect was evaluated by viability assays, biochemical oxidation [lipid peroxidation, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity] and genotoxicity (DNA Comet assay) analysis. Additionally, oxidative stress was evaluated by a 2,7-dihydrodichlorofluorescein diacetate fluorescence assay. Guaraná reverted the SNP toxicity mainly at lower concentrations (<5 mg), which decreased cell mortality, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and cell oxidative stress as well as increased the SOD levels. These results demonstrate that guaraná has an antioxidant effect on NO metabolism in situations with higher cellular NO levels.
Yonekura, Lina; Martins, Carolina Aguiar; Sampaio, Geni Rodrigues; Monteiro, Marcela Piedade; César, Luiz Antônio Machado; Mioto, Bruno Mahler; Mori, Clara Satsuki; Mendes, Thaíse Maria Nogueira; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; Arçari, Demetrius Paiva; Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva
We assessed the effects of guaraná (Paullinia cupana) consumption on plasma catechins, erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and biomarkers of oxidative stress (ex vivo LDL oxidation, plasma total antioxidant status and ORAC, and lymphocyte single cell gel electrophoresis) in healthy overweight subjects. Twelve participants completed a 15-day run-in period followed by a 15-day intervention with a daily intake of 3 g guaraná seed powder containing 90 mg (+)-catechin and 60 mg (-)-epicatechin. Blood samples were taken on the first and last day of the intervention period, fasting and 1 h post-dose. The administration of guaraná increased plasma ORAC, while reducing ex vivo LDL oxidation (only in the first study day) and hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in lymphocytes, at 1 h post-dose. Plasma catechin (0.38 ± 0.12 and 0.44 ± 0.18 nmol mL(-1)), epicatechin (0.59 ± 0.18 and 0.64 ± 0.25 nmol mL(-1)) and their methylated metabolites were observed at 1 h post-dose but were almost negligible after overnight fasting. The activities of catalase (in both study days) and glutathione peroxidase (in the last intervention day) increased at 1 h post-dose. Furthermore, the activity of both enzymes remained higher than the basal levels in overnight-fasting individuals on the last intervention day, suggesting a prolonged effect of guaraná that continues even after plasma catechin clearance. In conclusion, guaraná catechins are bioavailable and contribute to reduce the oxidative stress of clinically healthy individuals, by direct antioxidant action of the absorbed phytochemicals and up-regulation of antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes.
Sia, Eliandra de Freitas; Marcon, Joelma; Luvizotto, Danice Mazzer; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Tsui, Sarina; Pereira, José Odair; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline Aparecida; Azevedo, João Lúcio
Endophytic fungi live inside plants, apparently do not cause any harm to their hosts and may play important roles in defense and growth promotion. Fungal growth is a routine practice at microbiological laboratories, and the Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) is the most frequently used medium because it is a rich source of starch. However, the production of potatoes in some regions of the world can be costly. Aiming the development of a new medium source to tropical countries, in the present study, we used leaves from the guarana (a tropical plant from the Amazon region) and the olive (which grows in subtropical and temperate regions) to isolate endophytic fungi using PDA and Manihot Dextrose Agar (MDA). Cassava (Manihot esculenta) was evaluated as a substitute starch source. For guarana, the endophytic incidence (EI) was 90% and 98% on PDA and MDA media, respectively, and 65% and 70% for olive, respectively. The fungal isolates were sequenced using the ITS- rDNA region. The fungal identification demonstrated that the isolates varied according to the host plant and media source. In the guarana plant, 13 fungal genera were found using MDA and six were found using PDA. In the olive plant, six genera were obtained using PDA and 4 were obtained using MDA. The multivariate analysis results demonstrated the highest fungal diversity from guarana when using MDA medium. Interestingly, some genera were isolated from one specific host or in one specific media, suggesting the importance of these two factors in fungal isolation specificity. Thus, this study indicated that cassava is a feasible starch source that could serve as a potential alternative medium to potato medium.
Weckerle, Caroline S; Stutz, Michael A; Baumann, Thomas W
Among the few purine alkaloid-containing genera consumed as stimulants, Paullinia is the least investigated with respect to both chemotaxonomy and within-the-plant allocation of caffeine and its allies. Since purine alkaloids (PuA) have been proved to be valuable marker compounds in chemotaxonomy, 34 species of Paullinia and related genera were screened for them, but only one, P. pachycarpa, was positive in addition to the already known P. cupana and P. yoco. The PuA allocation in P. pachycarpa was examined and found to be restricted to theobromine in the stem, leaves and flowers. Moreover, the theobromine concentration in the stem cortex increased significantly towards the base of the plant. Since the stem cortex of P. yoco is traditionally used by the natives of Colombia and Ecuador to prepare a caffeine-rich beverage, we suspected that within the genus Paullinia the PuA are preferentially allocated to the older parts of the stem and not to young shoots like e.g., in the coffee plant (Coffea spp.). Indeed, the axis (greenhouse) of P. cupana (guaraná), known for its caffeine-rich seeds, exhibited a basipetal PuA gradient (0.005-0.145%). Moreover, the analysis of young cortex samples (herbarium) and of one piece of old stem (museum collection) revealed the same for P. yoco, even though we found much less (0.5 vs 2.5%) caffeine in the old cortex as compared to the only two analyses in 1926 of similar material. However, this discrepancy may be explained by the high variability of the PuA pattern we detected among yoco, the diversity of which the Indians take advantage.
Rabelo Soriani, Renata; Cristina Satomi, Lucilia; Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus A.
Raw plant materials normally carry high bioburden due to their origin, offering potential hazards to consumers. The use of decontamination processes is therefore an important step towards the consumer safety and therapeutical efficiency. Several authors have reported the treatment of medicinal herbs with ionizing radiation. This work evaluated the effects of different radiation doses on the microbial burden and chemical constituents of ginkgo ( Ginkgo biloba L.) and guaraná ( Paullinia cupana H.B.K.).
... jitteriness, headache, increased heart rate, and other side effects. Some antibiotics that decrease how quickly the body breaks down caffeine include ciprofloxacin (Cipro), enoxacin (Penetrex), ...
Ruchel, J B; Rezer, J F P; Thorstenberg, M L; Dos Santos, C B; Cabral, F L; Lopes, S T A; da Silva, C B; Machado, A K; da Cruz, I B M; Schetinger, M R C; Gonçalves, J F; Leal, D B R
Hypercholesterolemia is a metabolic disorder characterized by high levels of low-density lipoprotein and blood cholesterol, causing inflammatory lesion. Purinergic signaling modulates the inflammatory and immune responses through adenine nucleotides and nucleoside. Guaraná has hypocholesterolemic and antiinflammatory properties. Considering that there are few studies demonstrating the effects of guaraná powder on the metabolism of adenine nucleotides, we investigated its effects on the activity of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase) and ecto-adenosine deaminase activity in lymphocytes of rats with diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. The rats were divided into hypercholesterolemic and normal diet groups. Each group was subdivided by treatment: saline, guaraná powder 12.5, 25, or 50 mg/kg/day and caffeine concentration equivalent to highest dose of guaraná, fed orally for 30 days. An increase in adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis was observed in the lymphocytes of rats with hypercholesterolemia and treated with 25 or 50 mg/kg/day when compared with the other groups. The hypercholesterolemic group treated with the highest concentration of guaraná powder showed decreased ecto-adenosine deaminase activity compared with the normal diet groups. Guaraná was able to reduce the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to basal levels in hypercholesterolemic rats. High concentrations of guaraná associated with a hypercholesterolemic diet are likely to have contributed to the reduction of the inflammatory process.
Sombra, Lorena L; Gómez, María R; Olsina, Roberto; Martínez, Luis D; Silva, María F
The last years have seen a significant increase in the use of herbal medicines and their preparations all over the world. Adulterations with synthetic drugs are common problems with phytopharmaceutical products and this can potentially cause adverse effects. In consequence, it is important to determine the presence of synthetic drugs in herbal medicines to ensure their efficacy and safety. In this study, guarana derivatives were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE), and the results were compared with those obtained by the HPLC technique. In order to obtain adequate fingerprints, and search for adulterants, caffeine was used as the marker compound. This separation method was applied to analyze the seed powder and commercial tablets of Paulinia cupana Mart. The methodology performance was evaluated in terms of specificity, sensitivity and precision. The results are in agreement with those obtained by the HPLC method. Furthermore, the analysis time of the CE method is up to two times shorter than the respective parameter in HPLC and solvent consumption is more than 100-fold less.
Moustakas, Dimitrios; Mezzio, Michael; Rodriguez, Branden R; Constable, Mic Andre; Mulligan, Margaret E; Voura, Evelyn B
The stimulant effect of energy drinks is primarily attributed to the caffeine they contain. Many energy drinks also contain other ingredients that might enhance the tonic effects of these caffeinated beverages. One of these additives is guarana. Guarana is a climbing plant native to the Amazon whose seeds contain approximately four times the amount of caffeine found in coffee beans. The mix of other natural chemicals contained in guarana seeds is thought to heighten the stimulant effects of guarana over caffeine alone. Yet, despite the growing use of guarana as an additive in energy drinks, and a burgeoning market for it as a nutritional supplement, the science examining guarana and how it affects other dietary ingredients is lacking. To appreciate the stimulant effects of guarana and other natural products, a straightforward model to investigate their physiological properties is needed. The planarian provides such a system. The locomotor activity and convulsive response of planarians with substance exposure has been shown to provide an excellent system to measure the effects of drug stimulation, addiction and withdrawal. To gauge the stimulant effects of guarana we studied how it altered the locomotor activity of the planarian species Dugesia tigrina. We report evidence that guarana seeds provide additional stimulation over caffeine alone, and document the changes to this stimulation in the context of both caffeine and glucose.
Moustakas, Dimitrios; Mezzio, Michael; Rodriguez, Branden R.; Constable, Mic Andre; Mulligan, Margaret E.; Voura, Evelyn B.
The stimulant effect of energy drinks is primarily attributed to the caffeine they contain. Many energy drinks also contain other ingredients that might enhance the tonic effects of these caffeinated beverages. One of these additives is guarana. Guarana is a climbing plant native to the Amazon whose seeds contain approximately four times the amount of caffeine found in coffee beans. The mix of other natural chemicals contained in guarana seeds is thought to heighten the stimulant effects of guarana over caffeine alone. Yet, despite the growing use of guarana as an additive in energy drinks, and a burgeoning market for it as a nutritional supplement, the science examining guarana and how it affects other dietary ingredients is lacking. To appreciate the stimulant effects of guarana and other natural products, a straightforward model to investigate their physiological properties is needed. The planarian provides such a system. The locomotor activity and convulsive response of planarians with substance exposure has been shown to provide an excellent system to measure the effects of drug stimulation, addiction and withdrawal. To gauge the stimulant effects of guarana we studied how it altered the locomotor activity of the planarian species Dugesia tigrina. We report evidence that guarana seeds provide additional stimulation over caffeine alone, and document the changes to this stimulation in the context of both caffeine and glucose. PMID:25880065
Dalonso, Nicole; Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira
Guarana is a fruit from the Amazon whose seeds are used to produce guarana powder. Guarana powder is consumed by the population mainly for its stimulant activity. It has been shown that guarana seeds contain low-molar-mass compounds; however, no data have been reported concerning the polysaccharides. In this work, the polysaccharides present in guarana powder were investigated. A pectic fraction and a xylan were isolated and characterised. Antioxidant activity tests were performed with a methanolic extract and the pectic fraction at concentrations of 0.1-10 mg/ml. The methanolic extract exhibited a strong capacity for scavenging DPPH radicals (90.9% at 10 mg/ml). At the same concentration, the polysaccharide showed a DPPH(·)-scavenging activity of 68.4%. At a higher concentration, the methanolic extract and the polysaccharide exhibited similar hydroxyl radical-scavenging effects (~70%). The results suggest that the polysaccharides present in guarana can contribute to the possible biological effects of guarana powder.
Klein, Traudi; Longhini, Renata; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo
The Neotropical plant 'guaraná' has been widely used in medicine, cosmetics, and industry because of its versatile biological activities. These effects are mainly attributed to the presence of polyphenols. An efficient, precise, and reliable method was developed for quantification of the polyphenols catechin and epicatechin in guaraná extract solution, using HPLC-PDA detection. The ideal conditions for the analysis of a semipurified extract of guaraná (EPA), using solutions of 0.05% TFA-water (phase A) and 0.05% TFA in acetonitrile:methanol (75:25, vv(-1)) (phase B) as mobile phases were established. Gradient reversed-phase chromatography was performed using a guard cartridge (C18, 4.6mm×20mm, 4μm) and column (C18, 250mm×4.6mm, 4μm), flow of 0.5mLmin(-1) and detection at 280nm. The main validation parameters of the method were also determined. The method was linear over a range of 18.75-300μgmL(-1) for catechin and epicatechin, with detection limits of 0.70 and 0.88μgmL(-1) and quantification limits of 2.13 and 2.67μgmL(-1), respectively. The method also showed consistent mean recoveries of 91.3±3.8%, 2.14 RSD and 93.4±3.1, 2.74 RSD of catechin and epicatechin respectively. The relative standard deviations were relatively low: intra-day (0.72% and 0.66% for catechin and epicatechin, respectively) and inter-day (0.93% and 0.75% for catechin and epicatechin, respectively). The semipurified extract showed catechin, epicatechin, and caffeine contents of 180.75, 278.87, and 300.87μgmg(-1), respectively. The results demonstrated the efficiency, precision, accuracy, and robustness of the proposed method. The solutions remained stable for a sufficient time (one week) to complete the analytical process.
Veiga, L L A; Amorim, H; Moraes, J; Silva, M C; Raices, R S L; Quiterio, S L
Samples of toasted guaraná seeds with husk from Maués (Amazônia) and ten samples of different brands of guaraná powder produced in different parts of Brazil were analysed in this work, aiming to identify and quantify 16 PAHs. The samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence and UV-Vis detectors. Naphthalene was identified and quantified in the guaraná samples (0.13 and 0.78 μg kg(-1)) and both naphthalene and phenanthrene were found in two commercial guaraná powder samples (0.36-1.54 and 0.03-0.06 μg kg(-1), respectively). Considering that the average daily intake of guaraná powder is equivalent to 10 g, it can be seen that guaraná powder contains less PAHs than the limit established in European legislation for other kinds of food (CE 835/2011), that is, around 0.20 μg kg(-1) of PAHs.
Jippo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yuko; Sato, Harumi; Hattori, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Shigekawa, Munekazu
This study investigated the effects of guarana seed extract (GSE) on an anti-allergic mechanism. GSE orally administered inhibited the anti-dinitrophenol IgE-induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in mice. Furthermore, it inhibited the degranulation of rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells. It had no cytotoxicity on RBL-2H3 cells. These results show that GSE is a candidate for effective therapeutic material for allergic diseases.
Souza, A L; Angelo, P C S; Nogueira, P P O; Gonçalves, J F C; Franco, A M; Astolfi-Filho, S; López-Lozano, J L; Andrade, E V
Guarana has great agricultural potential and is largely used therapeutically and in the production of non-alcoholic energy drinks. Genomic and proteomic studies are crucial to identify proteins that play central roles in the maintenance and viability of fruits, as well as to identify proteins related to the main metabolic pathways. However, the success of any protein analysis starts with the protein extract preparation, which needs to offer an extract that is free of contaminants. This study aimed to evaluate different extraction methods to obtain high-quantity and high-quality extracts that are compatible with analysis by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry protein identification. Three different methods were tested: trichloroacetic acid (TCA)/acetone, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/phenol, and polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP)/SDS/phenol. The extract obtained from the TCA/acetone precipitation presented low solubility and contamination with lipids and carbohydrates. On the other hand, the quality of the extract gradually improved after using phenol and PVPP/phenol, enabling a yield up to 2 mg/g macerated tissues and the detection of 457 spots by 2-dimensional electrophoresis. The effectiveness of the procedure used was validated by identification of 10 randomly selected proteins by mass spectrometry. The procedure described here can be a starting point for applications using tissues of other organs of guarana or tissues of species that are similar to guarana.
Lopes, Fernanda Cristina Rezende; Tannous, Katia; Rueda-Ordóñez, Yesid Javier
This work aims the study of decomposition kinetics of guarana seed residue using thermogravimetric analyzer under synthetic air atmosphere applying heating rates of 5, 10, and 15°C/min, from room temperature to 900°C. Three thermal decomposition stages were identified: dehydration (25.1-160°C), oxidative pyrolysis (240-370°C), and combustion (350-650°C). The activation energies, reaction model, and pre-exponential factor were determined through four isoconversional methods, master plots, and linearization of the conversion rate equation, respectively. A scheme of two-consecutive reactions was applied validating the kinetic parameters of first-order reaction and two-dimensional diffusion models for the oxidative pyrolysis stage (149.57kJ/mol, 6.97×10(10)1/s) and for combustion stage (77.98kJ/mol, 98.611/s), respectively. The comparison between theoretical and experimental conversion and conversion rate showed good agreement with average deviation lower than 2%, indicating that these results could be used for modeling of guarana seed residue.
Lunga, Paul-Keilah; Qin, Xu-Jie; Yang, Xing-Wei; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Du, Zhi-Zhi; Gatsing, Donatien
A new glycoside, pinnatoside A (1), together with two known compounds (2 and 3), were isolated from the stems of Paullinia pinnata. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. Compound 1 showed significant antibacterial activity with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 1.56 μg/mL against Escherichia coli, and 2 displayed significant antibacterial activity with a MIC value of 1.56 μg/mL against Enterobacter aerogenes and E. coli. Equally, compound 1 exhibited the best radical-scavenging activity (RSa50 = 25.07 ± 0.49 μg/mL).
Schimpl, Flávia Camila; Kiyota, Eduardo; Mayer, Juliana Lischka Sampaio; Gonçalves, José Francisco de Carvalho; da Silva, José Ferreira; Mazzafera, Paulo
Guarana seeds have the highest caffeine concentration among plants accumulating purine alkaloids, but in contrast with coffee and tea, practically nothing is known about caffeine metabolism in this Amazonian plant. In this study, the levels of purine alkaloids in tissues of five guarana cultivars were determined. Theobromine was the main alkaloid that accumulated in leaves, stems, inflorescences and pericarps of fruit, while caffeine accumulated in the seeds and reached levels from 3.3% to 5.8%. In all tissues analysed, the alkaloid concentration, whether theobromine or caffeine, was higher in young/immature tissues, then decreasing with plant development/maturation. Caffeine synthase activity was highest in seeds of immature fruit. A nucleotide sequence (PcCS) was assembled with sequences retrieved from the EST database REALGENE using sequences of caffeine synthase from coffee and tea, whose expression was also highest in seeds from immature fruit. The PcCS has 1083bp and the protein sequence has greater similarity and identity with the caffeine synthase from cocoa (BTS1) and tea (TCS1). A recombinant PcCS allowed functional characterization of the enzyme as a bifunctional CS, able to catalyse the methylation of 7-methylxanthine to theobromine (3,7-dimethylxanthine), and theobromine to caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), respectively. Among several substrates tested, PcCS showed higher affinity for theobromine, differing from all other caffeine synthases described so far, which have higher affinity for paraxanthine. When compared to previous knowledge on the protein structure of coffee caffeine synthase, the unique substrate affinity of PcCS is probably explained by the amino acid residues found in the active site of the predicted protein.
Jimoh, F O; Sofidiya, M O; Afolayan, A J
Paullinia pinnata is an African woody vine widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria. In order to throw more light into its mechanisms of pharmacological actions, the in vitro antioxidant activities of the methanol extract of its leaves were evaluated using different testing systems. Its scavenging activities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radicals as well as its ferric ion reducing power were assessed. The results showed that P. pinnata possessed strong scavenging activity and moderate reducing power. The total phenol, flavonoid, and proanthocyanidin contents of the extracts were very close to those reported for most medicinal plants and showed good correlation with its antioxidant activities. These properties are probably part of the reasons why P. pinnata is effective in folk medicine.
Zamble, Alexis; Carpentier, Marie; Kandoussi, Abdelmejid; Sahpaz, Sevser; Petrault, Olivier; Ouk, Tawarak; Hennuyer, Nathalie; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Staels, Bart; Bordet, Régis; Duriez, Patrick; Bailleul, François; Martin-Nizard, Françoise
Paullinia pinnata L. (Sapindaceae) is an African tropical plant whose roots and leaves are used in traditional medicine for many purposes, especially for erectile dysfunction, but its action mechanism is unknown. P. pinnata root and leaf methanolic extracts are rich in phenolic compounds. This study shows that both extracts are highly antioxidative and induce a slight transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha. They also increased and decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase and endothelin-1 mRNA levels in bovine aortic endothelial cells, respectively. In this study P. pinnata methanolic extracts in cumulative doses elicited in a dose-dependent manner the relaxation of phenylephrine precontracted isolated rat aortic rings. N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester significantly attenuated the capacity of both extracts to induce arterial relaxation, indicating that this arterial relaxation was mediated by endothelial nitric oxide release. It could be suggested that the arterial relaxation induced by both extracts could be mainly linked to their capacities to inhibit nitric oxide oxidation through their antioxidant properties.
Batista, Bruna Durante; Taniguti, Lucas Mitsuo; Monteiro-Vitorello, Claudia Barros; Azevedo, João Lúcio; Quecine, Maria Carolina
Burkholderia ambifaria strain RZ2MS16 was isolated from the rhizosphere of Amazon guarana in Brazil. This bacterium exhibits a remarkable capacity to promote the growth of corn and soybean. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of RZ2MS16 and some genes related to multiple traits involved in plant growth promotion.
Batista, Bruna Durante; Taniguti, Lucas Mitsuo; Monteiro-Vitorello, Claudia Barros; Azevedo, João Lúcio
Burkholderia ambifaria strain RZ2MS16 was isolated from the rhizosphere of Amazon guarana in Brazil. This bacterium exhibits a remarkable capacity to promote the growth of corn and soybean. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of RZ2MS16 and some genes related to multiple traits involved in plant growth promotion. PMID:26988044
Spiegler, Verena; Liebau, Eva; Peppler, Carolin; Raue, Katharina; Werne, Steffen; Strube, Christina; Heckendorn, Felix; Agyare, Christian; Stark, Timo; Hofmann, Thomas; Hensel, Andreas
Paullinia pinnata is a medicinal plant traditionally used in West Africa against a wide range of diseases including soil-transmitted helminthiases. In this study, a hydroethanolic root extract was investigated for its phytochemical composition and in vitro activity against the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as well as the larval stages of the parasitic helminths Ancylostoma caninum, Haemonchus contortus, Toxocara cati, and Trichuris vulpis.LC-MS analysis of the ethanol-water (1 : 1) extract revealed epicatechin and different A-type linked oligomeric and polymeric procyanidins as the predominant compounds.Within an in vitro mortality assay, the extract showed a lethal activity against T. cati (LC50 of 112 µg/mL), T. vulpis (LC50 of 17 µg/mL), and C. elegans (LC50 2.5 of mg/mL), but not against A. caninum. Additionally, effects on egg hatching and larval migration of H. contortus were investigated, but no inhibitory activity was observed.Overall, these findings rationalize the traditional use of the root extract from P. pinnata as an anthelmintic remedy and provide insight into the phytochemical composition of the extract.
Jackson, Nora; Annan, Kofi; Mensah, Abraham Y; Ekuadzi, Edmund; Mensah, Merlin L K; Habtemariam, Solomon
Paullinia pinnata L. (Sapindaceae) is an endemic West African plant that is extensively used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases. Previous phytochemical analysis by various groups led to the isolation of several novel lupene-based triterpenene derivatives along with other classes of compounds. As part of our continued phytochemical studies on the roots of this plant, we have now identified yet another novel triterpene, 6a-(3'-methoxy-4'-hydroxybenzoyl)-lup-20(29)-ene-3-one. The identification of the compound through comprehensive spectroscopic studies is discussed.
Hasegawa, Takashi; Takahashi, Kazunaga; Saijo, Masaaki; Ishii, Toshiyasu; Nagata, Tomoko
A rapid and simple method for determination of theophylline, theobromine and caffeine in dietary supplements containing guarana by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) has been developed. Theophylline, theobromine and caffeine were extracted from finely powdered samples with water in a boiling water bath for 20 min, then the extracts were filtered and the filtrates were subjected to UPLC. Liquid samples were diluted with water and filteres, and the filtrates were subjected to UPLC. UPLC separation was performed on an AQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm i.d.x50 mm, 1.7 microm, Waters) with 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.0)-acetonitrile gradient and eluates were monitored at 275 nm. The recoveries of theophylline (spiked at 200 microg/g [tablet] and 50 microg/mL [liquid]), theobromine (spiked at 200 microg/g [tablet] and 50 microg/mL [liquid]) and caffeine (spiked at 1,000 microg/g [tablet] and 250 microg/mL [liquid]) were 97.6-98.7%, 97.3-99.7%, 97.1-105.4%, respectively. The quantitation limits of theophylline, theobromine and caffeine were 10 microg/g (seed, seed powder, tablet and capsule) and 2.0 microg/mL (liquid) each. When this analytical method was applied to commercial dietary supplements, theophylline, theobromine and caffeine were found at concentrations of 4.45 mg/tablet, 5.48 mg/tablet, 139 mg/tablet, respectively. Taking 4 tablets of this product according to the directions on the package could be dangerous to consumers because of possible overdosing of these ingredients.
Lunga, Paul Keilah; Tamokou, Jean de Dieu; Fodouop, Simeon Pc; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Tchoumboue, Joseph; Gatsing, Donatien
Paullinia pinnata Linn (Sapindaceae) is a medicinal plant, locally used in the West Region of Cameroon for the treatment of typhoid fever. This work was designed to evaluate the antityphoid and antioxidant activities of the extracts and compounds of P. pinnata. The methanol extracts of the leaves and stems were tested for antityphoid and antioxidant activities. Compounds were isolated, and their structures elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data in conjuction with literature data and tested for the same activities. The leaf extract was also tested in vivo for its antityphoid potential in a Salmonella typhimurium-induced typhoid fever model in Wistar rats. Seven known compounds: methylinositol (1), β-sitosterol (2), friedelin (3), 3β-(β-D-Glucopyranosyloxy)stigmast-5-ene (4), (3β)-3-O-(2'-Acetamido-2'-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranosyl) oleanolic acid (5), (3β,16α-hydroxy)-3-O-(2'-Acetamido-2'-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranosyl) echinocystic acid (6) and (3β,)-3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1″-3')-2'-acetamido-2'-deoxy-β-D-galactopyranosyl]oleanolic acid (7) were isolated. Compounds 5 and 1 showed the highest antibacterial (MIC = 0.781-1.562 μg/ml) and DPPH radical scavenging (RSa50 = 19.27 ± 4.43 μg/ml) activities respectively. The maximum extract dose (446.00 mg/kg bw) had comparable activity with ciprofloxacin (7.14 mg/kg bw) and oxytetracycline (5 mg/kg bw). The extract induced significant dose-dependent increase of WBCs and lymphocytes. These results support the ethnomedicinal use of P. pinnata and its isolated Compounds could be useful in the standardization of antityphoid phytomedicine from it.
Adeyemo-Salami, Oluwatoyin A.; Ewuola, Emmanuel O.
Background: Paullinia pinnata is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various diseases, including anemia in West Africa. Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of increasing doses of the methanolic leaves extract of P. pinnata on hematological parameters in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats were grouped into six groups of six animals each. Five doses; 50,100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight of the P. pinnata extract were administered separately to five groups. The sixth group served as a control and received only the vehicle (70% physiological saline: 30% Tween 80 [v/v]). Administration was done orally daily for 28 days at 24 h interval. On day 29, the animals were made inactive, blood was then collected from the heart and various hematological parameters were evaluated. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance was employed. Results: The packed cell volume and red blood cell count increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treatment groups except at 200 mg/kg dose. The hemoglobin concentration increased in all the treatment groups. The values for the neutrophils at 50, 100, 200 and 800 mg/kg doses were higher than that of the control. The white blood cell count increased significantly (P < 0.05) at 50 and 400 mg/kg doses compared to the control and exceeded the normal physiological range. Conclusion: The maximum tolerable dose is 200 mg/kg body weight of the methanolic leaves extract of P. pinnata and the extract has anti-anemic property with the ability to increase neutrophils count. PMID:26109785
Bulku, Elida; Zinkovsky, Daniel; Patel, Payal; Javia, Vishal; Lahoti, Tejas; Khodos, Inna; Stohs, Sidney J; Ray, Sidhartha D
A novel dietary supplement composed of three well-known phytochemicals, namely, Salvia officinalis (sage) extract, Camellia sinensis (oolong tea) extract, and Paullinia cupana (guarana) extract, and two prominent vitamins (thiamine and niacin) was designed to provide nutritional support by enhancing metabolism and maintaining healthy weight and energy. The present study evaluated the safety of this dietary supplement (STG; S=sage; T=tea; G=guarana) and assessed changes in target organ antioxidant enzymes (liver, kidneys and heart), serum chemistry profiles and organ histopathology in Fisher 344 rats. Adult male and female Fisher 344 rats were fed control (no STG) or STG containing (1X and 7X, 1X=daily human dose) diets and sacrificed after 2 and 4 months. Serum chemistry analysis and histopathological examination of three vital target organs disclosed no adverse influence on protein, lipid and carbohydrate profiles, genomic integrity of the liver and/or the tissue architecture. However, analysis of the most important antioxidant components in the liver, kidney and heart homogenates revealed a dramatic increase in total glutathione concentrations, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. Concomitantly, oxidative stress levels (malondialdehyde accumulation) in these three organs were less than control. Organ specific serum markers (ALT/AST for the liver; CPK/AST for the heart; BUN/creatinine for kidneys) and the genomic integrity disclosed no STG-induced alteration. Some of the serum components (lipid and protein) showed insignificant changes. Overall, STG-exposed rats were more active, and the results suggest that STG exposure produces normal serum chemistry coupled with elevated antioxidant capacity in rats fed up to seven times the normal human dose and does not adversely influence any of the vital target organs. Additionally, this study reiterates the potential benefits of exposure to a pharmacologically relevant combination of
Bérubé-Parent, Sonia; Pelletier, Catherine; Doré, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo
It has been reported that green tea has a thermogenic effect, due to its caffeine content and probably also to the catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). The main aim of the present study was to compare the effect of a mixture of green tea and Guarana extracts containing a fixed dose of caffeine and variable doses of EGCG on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation. Fourteen subjects took part to this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study. Each subject was tested five times in a metabolic chamber to measure 24 h energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and blood pressure. During each stay, the subjects ingested a capsule of placebo or capsules containing 200 mg caffeine and a variable dose of EGCG (90, 200, 300 or 400 mg) three times daily, 30 min before standardized meals. Twenty-four hour energy expenditure increased significantly by about 750 kJ with all EGCG-caffeine mixtures compared with placebo. No effect of the EGCG-caffeine mixture was observed for lipid oxidation. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by about 7 and 5 mmHg, respectively, with the EGCG-caffeine mixtures compared with placebo. This increase was significant only for 24 h diastolic blood pressure. The main finding of the study was the increase in 24 h energy expenditure with the EGCG-caffeine mixtures. However, this increase was similar with all doses of EGCG in the mixtures.
Restani, Patrizia; Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Badea, Mihaela; Ceschi, Alessandro; Egan, Bernadette; Dima, Lorena; Lüde, Saskia; Maggi, Franco M.; Marculescu, Angela; Milà-Villarroel, Raimon; Raats, Monique M.; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Uusitalo, Liisa; Serra-Majem, Lluís
Background The use of food supplements containing botanicals is increasing in European markets. Although intended to maintain the health status, several cases of adverse effects to Plant Food Supplements (PFS) have been described. Objectives To describe the self-reported adverse effects collected during the European PlantLIBRA PFS Consumer Survey 2011–2012, with a critical evaluation of the plausibility of the symptomatology reported using data from the literature and from the PlantLIBRA Poisons Centers' survey. Subjects/Setting From the total sample of 2359 consumers involved in the consumers' survey, 82 subjects reported adverse effects due to a total of 87 PFS. Results Cases were self-reported, therefore causality was not classified on the basis of clinical evidence, but by using the frequency/strength of adverse effects described in scientific papers: 52 out of 87 cases were defined as possible (59.8%) and 4 as probable (4.6%). Considering the most frequently cited botanicals, eight cases were due to Valeriana officinalis (garden valerian); seven to Camellia sinensis (tea); six to Ginkgo biloba (Maidenhair tree) and Paullinia cupana (guarana). Most adverse events related to the gastrointestinal tract, nervous and cardiovascular systems. Conclusions Comparing the data from this study with those published in scientific papers and obtained by the PlantLIBRA Poisons Centers' survey, some important conclusions can be drawn: severe adverse effects to PFS are quite rare, although mild or moderate adverse symptoms can be present. Data reported in this paper can help health professionals (and in particular family doctors) to become aware of possible new problems associated with the increasing use of food supplements containing botanicals. PMID:26928206
Atroch, André Luiz
Guaraná (Paullinia cupana H.B.K., Sapindaceae) is a rainforest vine that was domesticated in the Amazon for its caffeine-rich fruits. Guaraná has long been used as a tonic and to treat various disorders in Brazil and abroad and became a national soda in Brazil about a century ago. In the last two decades or so, guaraná has emerged as a key ingredient in various ‘sports’ and energy drinks as well as concoctions that allegedly boost one's libido. For some time, guaraná's high caffeine content was thought to be a detriment because of health concerns about excessive intake of caffeine-rich drinks. But it is precisely this quality, and the fact that it has a mysterious name and comes from an exotic land, that has propelled guaraná into a global beverage. PMID:18955289
Krewer, Cristina da Costa; Ribeiro, Euler Esteves; Ribeiro, Ednéa Aguiar Maia; Moresco, Rafael Noal; da Rocha, Maria Izabel de Ugalde Marques; Montagner, Greice Franciele Feyl dos Santos; Machado, Michel Mansur; Viegas, Karin; Brito, Elorídes; da Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations of metabolic disorders and anthropometric and biochemical biomarkers of lipid, glucose and oxidative metabolism and the habitual ingestion of guaraná (Paullinia cupana, Mart. Var. sorbilis) by an elderly population residing in the Amazon Riverine region of the Maués municipality (Brazil). A case-controlled study was performed that included 637 elderly (≥60 years of age) patients classified as either those who habitually drank guaraná (GI, n = 421) or those who never drank guaraná (NG, n = 239) based upon their self-reported intake of guaraná. Indeed, the prevalence of various metabolic disorders was associated with guaraná ingestion. The prevalence of hypertension, obesity and metabolic syndrome in the GI group was lower than the prevalence found in the NG group. The NG group exhibited lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure values. The males in the GI group exhibited a lower waist circumference, on average, than the circumference found in the NG group, whereas the females in the GI group had lower cholesterol (total and LDL-c) levels than the control cohort. Additionally, a significant association was found between lower levels of advanced oxidative protein product (AOPP) and habitual guaraná consumption. The results constitute the first epidemiological study to suggest a potentially protective effect of habitual guaraná ingestion against metabolic disorders in elderly subjects.
Ferrari, Carlos Kusano Bucalen; Percário, Sandro; Silva, José Carlos Costa Baptista; da Silva Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz
Antioxidant-rich foods scavenge free radicals and other reactive species, decreasing the risk of different non-communicable chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to review the content of total antioxidant capacity of commonly foods comparing with experimental data and to explore the health benefits due to foods with moderate to high TAC. The TAC was analytically measured using the "Total Antioxidant Capacity" (NX2332) test from Randox® (UK) by spectrometry at 600 nm. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), "guaraná" (Paullinia cupana Kunth) powder, ready to drink boiled coffee (Coffea arabica L.), and milk chocolate (made from seeds of Theobroma cacao) had the highest TAC values, followed by collard greens (Brassica oleracea L.), beets (Beta vulgaris L.), apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), bananas (Musa paradisiaca), common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), onions (Allium cepa L.), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Other foods also showed antioxidant capacity. The binomial antioxidant capacity of foods and health was extensively discussed according to science literature. Based on the high TAC content of Brazil nuts, guaraná, coffee, chocolate, collard greens, apples, beets, beans, oranges, onions and other foods, their regular dietary intake is strongly recommended to reduce the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases.
Lima, Sandrine M A; Melo, Janaína G S; Militão, Gardênia C G; Lima, Gláucia M S; do Carmo A Lima, Maria; Aguiar, Jaciana S; Araújo, Renata M; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Marchand, Pascal; Araújo, Janete M; Silva, Teresinha G
Actinomycetes are known to produce numerous secondary bioactive metabolites of pharmaceutical interest. The purpose of this study was to isolate, characterize, and investigate the antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities of metabolites produced by Actinobacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of Paullinia cupana. The Actinobacteria was identified as Streptomyces hygroscopicus ACTMS-9H. Based on a bioguided study, the methanolic biomass extract obtained from submerged cultivation had the most potent antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic activities. This extract was partitioned with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and 2-butanol. Elaiophylin was isolated from the methanolic biomass extract, and its molecular formula was determined (C54H88O18) based on (1)H and (13)C NMR, IR and MS analyses. The 2-butanol phase was fractionated into four fractions (EB1, EB2A, EB2B, and EB3M). Chemical prospecting indicated the presence of alkaloids, saponins, and reducing sugars in the methanolic extract and 2-butanol phase. The elaiophylin displayed anticancer activity in HEp-2 and HL-60 cells with an IC50 of 1 μg/mL. The EB1 fraction was selectively toxic to HL-60 cells with IC50 of 9 ng/mL. Bioautography showed that the EB1 fraction contained an alkaloid with antibacterial and antifungal activities (MIC values ≤1.9 and <3.9 μg/mL, respectively). In conclusion, the EB1 fraction and elaiophylin of S. hygroscopicus have potent antimicrobial, antifungal, and anticancer activities.
Pittler, M H; Schmidt, K; Ernst, E
Herbal weight-loss supplements are marketed with claims of effectiveness. Our earlier systematic review identified data from double-blind, randomized controlled trials for a number of herbal supplements. The aim of this systematic review was to assess all clinical evidence of adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction for which effectiveness data from rigorous clinical trials exist. We assessed Ephedra sinica, Garcinia cambogia, Paullinia cupana, guar gum, Plantago psyllium, Ilex paraguariensis and Pausinystalia yohimbe. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed and The Cochrane Library. Data were also requested from the spontaneous reporting scheme of the World Health Organization. We hand-searched relevant medical journals and our own files. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. The results show that adverse events including hepatic injury and death have been reported with the use of some herbal food supplements. For herbal ephedra and ephedrine-containing food supplements an increased risk of psychiatric, autonomic or gastrointestinal adverse events and heart palpitations has been reported. In conclusion, adverse events are reported for a number of herbal food supplements, which are used for reducing body weight. Although the quality of the data does not justify definitive attribution of causality in most cases, the reported risks are sufficient to shift the risk-benefit balance against the use of most of the reviewed herbal weight-loss supplements. Exceptions are Garcinia cambogia and yerba mate, which merit further investigation.
Lüde, Saskia; Vecchio, Sarah; Sinno-Tellier, Sandra; Dopter, Aymeric; Mustonen, Harriet; Vucinic, Slavica; Jonsson, Birgitta; Müller, Dieter; Veras Gimenez Fruchtengarten, Ligia; Hruby, Karl; De Souza Nascimento, Elizabeth; Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Restani, Patrizia; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Ceschi, Alessandro
Plant food supplements (PFS) are products of increasing popularity and wide-spread distribution. Nevertheless, information about their risks is limited. To fill this gap, a poisons centres-based study was performed as part of the EU project PlantLIBRA. Multicentre retrospective review of data from selected European and Brazilian poisons centres, involving human cases of adverse effects due to plants consumed as food or as ingredients of food supplements recorded between 2006 and 2010. Ten poisons centres provided a total of 75 cases. In 57 cases (76%) a PFS was involved; in 18 (24%) a plant was ingested as food. The 10 most frequently reported plants were Valeriana officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Paullinia cupana, Melissa officinalis, Passiflora incarnata, Mentha piperita, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ilex paraguariensis, Panax ginseng, and Citrus aurantium. The most frequently observed clinical effects were neurotoxicity and gastro-intestinal symptoms. Most cases showed a benign clinical course; however, five cases were severe. PFS-related adverse effects seem to be relatively infrequent issues for poisons centres. Most cases showed mild symptoms. Nevertheless, the occurrence of some severe adverse effects and the increasing popularity of PFS require continuous active surveillance, and further research is warranted. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Roncon, Camila Marroni; Biesdorf de Almeida, Camila; Klein, Traudi; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Audi, Elisabeth Aparecida
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic administration of a semi-purified extract (Purified Extract A--PEA; 4, 8, or 16 mg/kg) of PAULLINIA CUPANA (guaraná) seeds on rats submitted to the elevated T-maze (ETM) model of generalized anxiety and panic disorders. The selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) paroxetine (PAR; 3 mg/kg), was used as a positive control. To evaluate possible serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission involvement in the action of PEA during the ETM test, ineffective doses of metergoline (MET; 5-HT (2A/2C) antagonist receptor) or sulpiride (SUL; dopaminergic receptor antagonist) were acutely administered together with the PEA. The locomotion of the rats was assessed in a circular arena following each drug treatment. Both PEA (8 and 16 mg/kg) and PAR (3 mg/kg) increased one-way escape latencies from the open arm of the ETM, indicating a panicolytic effect compared to the control group. MET, in higher doses (1, 2 or 3 mg/kg), produced a panicolytic effect in the ETM test, whereas SUL did not (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg). The panicolytic effect produced by PEA (8 mg/kg) was blocked by both MET (2 mg/kg) and SUL (20 mg/kg), whereas the panicolytic effect produced by PAR (3 mg/kg) was blocked only by MET (2 mg/kg). These results show that chronic treatment with PEA produces a panicolytic effect during the ETM test, and that the dopaminergic and the serotonergic neurotransmission systems are involved in this effect.
Rajfer, R. A.; Kilic, A.; Neviaser, A. S.; Schulte, L. M.; Hlaing, S. M.; Landeros, J.; Ferrini, M. G.; Ebramzadeh, E.
Objectives We investigated the effects on fracture healing of two up-regulators of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in a rat model of an open femoral osteotomy: tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, and the recently reported nutraceutical, COMB-4 (consisting of L-citrulline, Paullinia cupana, ginger and muira puama), given orally for either 14 or 42 days. Materials and Methods Unilateral femoral osteotomies were created in 58 male rats and fixed with an intramedullary compression nail. Rats were treated daily either with vehicle, tadalafil or COMB-4. Biomechanical testing of the healed fracture was performed on day 42. The volume, mineral content and bone density of the callus were measured by quantitative CT on days 14 and 42. Expression of iNOS was measured by immunohistochemistry. Results When compared with the control group, the COMB-4 group exhibited 46% higher maximum strength (t-test, p = 0.029) and 92% higher stiffness (t-test, p = 0.023), but no significant changes were observed in the tadalafil group. At days 14 and 42, there was no significant difference between the three groups with respect to callus volume, mineral content and bone density. Expression of iNOS at day 14 was significantly higher in the COMB-4 group which, as expected, had returned to baseline levels at day 42. Conclusion This study demonstrates an enhancement in fracture healing by an oral natural product known to augment iNOS expression. Cite this article: R. A. Rajfer, A. Kilic, A. S. Neviaser, L. M. Schulte, S. M. Hlaing, J. Landeros, M. G. Ferrini, E. Ebramzadeh, S-H. Park. Enhancement of fracture healing in the rat, modulated by compounds that stimulate inducible nitric oxide synthase: Acceleration of fracture healing via inducible nitric oxide synthase. Bone Joint Res 2017:6:–97. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.62.BJR-2016-0164.R2. PMID:28188129
... lot of added stimulants, such as:Guarana. An herb used to prevent tiredness and improve mental speed. ... used to improve memory and endurance.Ginseng. An herb used to help reduce stress, strengthen muscles, and ...
Mahlmann, Thiago; De Oliveira, Marcio L
We describe a new species of the bee tribe Tapinotaspidini, Tropidopedia guaranae Mahlmann & Oliveira sp. n. from the Amazon rainforest, Amazonas, Brazil. We emend the phylogenetic tree of Aguiar & Melo (2007) to include the new species and comment upon some characters presented by those authors.
de Camargo Smolarek, Priscila; Esmerino, Luis Antonio; Chibinski, Ana Cláudia; Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; dos Santos, Elizabete Brasil; Kozlowski, Vitoldo Antonio
Objectives: This in vitro study evaluated the antimicrobial effects of commercial toothpastes containing natural compounds. Materials and Methods: The study groups were divided based on the natural compound present in the toothpaste composition: Sorbitol (I), tocopherol (II), mint (III), cinnamon/mint (IV), propolis/melaleuca (V), mint/açai (VI), mint/guarana (VII), propolis (VIII), negative control (IX), and the positive control (X). The antimicrobial properties of the toothpastes were tested using the disk diffusion method against oral pathogens: Streptococcus mutans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis. The resulting inhibition halos were measured in millimeters. Results: The data indicated that the bacteria responded differently to the toothpastes (P < 0.0001). The diameters of the inhibition halos against S. mutans were in decreasing order of efficacy: Propolis/melaleuca > mint/guarana > mint/açai > sorbitol > tocopherol > cinnamon/mint > propolis > mint (P < 0.001 vs. negative control). E. faecalis showed variable responses to the dentifrices in the following order of decreasing efficacy: Mint/guarana > propolis > sorbitol > mint/açai > tocopherol > cinnamon/mint > mint = propolis/melaleuca = negative control. The product with the highest antimicrobial activity was mint/guarana, which was significantly different than propolis/melaleuca, mint, cinnamon/mint, and tocopherol and negative control (P < 0.001). The statistical analysis indicated that propolis, sorbitol, and mint/açai did not show any differences compared to mint/guarana (P > 0.05) and positive control (P > 0.05). P. aeruginosa was resistant to all dental gels tested including positive control. Conclusion: The toothpastes with natural compounds have therapeutic potential and need more detailed searches for the correct clinic therapeutic application. The results from this study revealed differences in the antimicrobial activities of commercial toothpastes with natural compounds
Broadbent, J. L.
A tannin isolated from Paullinia pinnata Linn., and tannic acid, have cardiotonic actions on the isolated perfused frog heart. Paullinia tannin is more firmly “fixed” than tannic acid. Tannin solutions contain peroxide, but the cardiotonic action is not dependent on this, since drugs believed to prevent peroxide formation, and sodium pyruvate which destroys peroxides, do not prevent the cardiotonic action. Maximal stimulation by tannin greatly reduces subsequent stimulation by ouabain. If calcium is omitted from the Ringer solution tannins cannot stimulate the heart. In this respect they differ from ouabain. However, the ouabain stimulation can be prevented by prior perfusion with tannin. It is suggested that the antagonism between tannin and ouabain is due to the former preventing ouabain from reaching its receptor sites, and that tannin stimulation is dependent on the formation of a calcium-tannin complex at the heart surface. In the isolated perfused mammalian heart preparation tannins increase diastolic tonus and coronary flow. PMID:13873207
BROADBENT, J L
Eight drugs that stimulate the isolated hypodynamic frog heart have been tested for their ability to stimulate hearts freshly perfused in calcium-free Ringer solution. Ouabain and digitoxigenin regularly caused stimulation, veratridine did so occasionally. Hydrogen peroxide, tannic acid, paullinia tannin (from Paullinia pinnata, Linn.), sodium oleate and sodium caprylate did not stimulate. The stimulant action of ouabain could be prevented or greatly reduced by prior perfusion with either of the two tannins or with hydrogen peroxide. Hearts perfused for 3 to 4 hr with calcium-free Ringer solution, or hearts perfused for shorter periods of time with calcium-free Ringer solution containing the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid, behave unusually in that when perfusion with low-calcium Ringer solution is resumed twitch tension does not return for periods ranging from 10 to 90 min. Ouabain is unable to stimulate these "calcium-depleted" hearts. It is suggested that hydrogen peroxide, the two tannins, oleate and caprylate stimulate by causing the heart to increase the uptake of calcium from the perfusion fluid to a superficial site where calcium is necessary for the propagation of excitation from the cell membrane inwards. A special feature of the action of cardiac glycosides may be their ability to enable the heart to utilize in a similar way the intracellular stores of calcium.
Meléndez, P A; Capriles, V A
Overall, 173 tropical plants from 72 different families, collected from the north-western and western regions of Puerto Rico, were screened for their molluscicidal properties against Biomphalaria glabrata, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. Six plant extracts were effective at 50 ppm. The two most effective extracts were those from the leaves of Didymopanax morototoni (Araliaceae) and Mammea americana (Guttiferae), which, at 50 ppm, killed all snails after 24 h of exposure and a day for recovery. Under the same conditions, extracts of Furcraea tuberosa, Argemone mexicana and Paullinia pinnata killed 50% of the snails and that of Solanum americanum killed 33%. The most effective extracts (or their active components or compounds based on them) may have potential as molluscides for the relatively cheap control of human schistosomiasis.
González, Wilma; Altieri, Pablo I; Alvarado, Enrique; Banchs, Héctor L; Colón, Edgar; Escobales, Nelson; Crespo, María
Higher doses and consumption of energy drinks leads to cardiovascular effects and potential consequences. Principal components found in energy drinks such as caffeine, guarana and taurine has been related to dilatation, aneurysm formation, dissection and ruptures. There is no evidence showing an integration of these components and its effects in endothelium and aortic walls due to higher levels of pressure during exercises. We report a case of a 44 years male with celiac trunk and branches dissection due to long-term consumption of energy drinks and intense exercise routine. Our proposition relates cell and vessel walls alterations including elasticity in endothelial wall due to higher blood pressure, resistance by intense exercise routine and long-term consumption of energy drinks.
Hui, Hongxiang; Tang, George; Go, Vay Liang W
Conventional drugs treat diabetes by improving insulin sensitivity, increasing insulin production and/or decreasing the amount of glucose in blood. Several herbal preparations are used to treat diabetes, but their reported hypoglycemic effects are complex or even paradoxical in some cases. This article reviews recent findings about some of the most popular hypoglycemic herbs, such as ginseng, bitter melon and Coptis chinensis. Several popular commercially available herbal preparations are also discussed, including ADHF (anti-diabetes herbal formulation), Jiangtangkeli, YGD (Yerbe Mate-Guarana-Damiana) and BN (Byakko-ka-ninjin-to). The efficacy of hypoglycemic herbs is achieved by increasing insulin secretion, enhancing glucose uptake by adipose and muscle tissues, inhibiting glucose absorption from intestine and inhibiting glucose production from heptocytes. PMID:19523223
Carlini, E A
This review article draws the attention to the many species of plants possessing activity on the central nervous system (CNS). In fact, they cover the whole spectrum of central activity such as psychoanaleptic, psycholeptic and psychodysleptic effects, and several of these plants are currently used in therapeutics to treat human ailments. Among the psychoanaleptic (stimulant) plants, those utilized by human beings to reduce body weight [Ephedra spp. (Ma Huang), Paullinia spp. (guaraná), Catha edulis Forssk. (khat)] and plants used to improve general health conditions (plant adaptogens) were scrutinized. Many species of hallucinogenic (psychodysleptic) plants are used by humans throughout the world to achieve states of mind distortions; among those, a few have been used for therapeutic purposes, such as Cannabis sativa L., Tabernanthe iboga Baill. and the mixture of Psychotria viridis Ruiz and Pav. and Banisteriopsis caapi (Spruce ex Griseb.) C.V. Morton. Plants showing central psycholeptic activities, such as analgesic or anxiolytic actions (Passiflora incarnata L., Valeriana spp. and Piper methysticum G. Forst.), were also analysed.Finally, the use of crude or semipurified extracts of such plants instead of the active substances seemingly responsible for their therapeutic effect is discussed.
Hurtado-Hernández, Priscilla M; González-Ramírez, José A
The floodplains of Tortuguero, in northeastern Costa Rica, stand as one of the richest plant-species regions in Central America. In this paper, we present the annotated check-list of vascular plants that are present within the rainforest of Tortuguero National Park (TNP), a 26 604h land that protects most of the biological diversity of these plains. Our list resulted from collections made in 2012, as well as the examination of material mantained at the Herbarium of the National Biodiversity Institute of Costa Rica, INBio (ATTA Database) and in the TROPICOS database. A total of 732 vascular plant species included in 413 genera are known to the Park. Two of these species have limited distributions and are endemic to Costa Rica: Pseuderanthemum pittieri (Acanthaceae) and Paullinia austin-smithii (Sapindaceae). Ninety species have known ethnobotanical uses. The high diversity in plant species reported here for the forest environments of Tortuguero contrasts with the low species diversity previously reported in the palm-swamps that characterize the riverine habitats within the Park.
Cuzzolin, Laura; Benoni, Giuseppina
The lack of a professional supervision may expose consumers of natural products to risks; pharmacists play an important role in giving information about these substances. A survey was designed to investigate the attitudes and knowledge of consumers and pharmacists toward the safety of natural products. Twenty-three pharmacies participated in the project. On the basis of a pre-structured 17-item questionnaire, face-to-face interviews were conducted with consumers buying a natural product over a 6-month period. A further 8 items had to be compiled by pharmacists about the purchased product. During the study period, 1420 interviews were carried out. The most frequently purchased products were echinacea, propolis, garlic, guggul, ginkgo, liquorice, ginseng, glucomannan, guarana, valerian, and passionflower; 71.8% of consumers reported to have been taking conventional medicines along with natural products. Some (3.9%) referred to adverse effects in the last year: allergic reactions after cartilage of shark, propolis and thyme; anxiety after hypericum; hypotension and tachycardia after a mix containing chamomile, valerian and melissa; pyrosis and stomach-ache after laxative-depurative herbs. Pharmacists referred to some adverse effects observed in the past in relation to the products bought by consumers involved in this study. Findings from this study demonstrate that in general consumers need information on herbal safety and pharmacists are more likely to answer correctly about the use of herbs rather than about cautions, adverse effects and interactions.
Baker, Lindsay B; Nuccio, Ryan P; Jeukendrup, Asker E
Performance in many sports is at least partially dependent on motor control, coordination, decision-making, and other cognitive tasks. This review summarizes available evidence about the ingestion of selected nutrients or isolated compounds (dietary constituents) and potential acute effects on motor skill and/or cognitive performance in athletes. Dietary constituents discussed include branched-chain amino acids, caffeine, carbohydrate, cocoa flavanols, Gingko biloba, ginseng, guarana, Rhodiola rosea, sage, L-theanine, theobromine, and tyrosine. Although this is not an exhaustive list, these are perhaps the most researched dietary constituents. Caffeine and carbohydrate have the greatest number of published reports supporting their ability to enhance acute motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes. At this time, there is insufficient published evidence to substantiate the use of any other dietary constituents to benefit sports-related motor skill or cognitive performance. The optimal dose and timing of caffeine and carbohydrate intake promoting enhanced motor skill and cognitive performance remain to be identified. Valid, reliable, and sensitive batteries of motor skills and cognitive tests should be developed for use in future efficacy studies.
Pendleton, Morgan; Brown, Stacy; Thomas, Christan; Odle, Brian
Many dietary supplements being promoted for weight loss contain caffeine- or ephedra-related alkaloids to increase energy and suppress appetite. People may be unaware that supplements can contain caffeine, even if caffeine is not listed as an ingredient. Commonly used herbal dietary supplement ingredients, such as guarana, are natural sources of caffeine. Additions of these natural sources of caffeine to dietary supplements have increased in recent years. We describe a case of possible caffeine-induced seizure in a patient taking an over-the-counter weight loss supplement. A previously healthy 38-year-old female experienced blurring of vision and a new onset grand mal seizure. The patient had a 2-month history of taking the dietary supplement, Zantrex-3™. Zantrex-3™ is advertised as a weight loss supplement, which may provide rapid weight loss and extreme energy in one "power packed pill." Zantrex-3™ is a proprietary blend containing niacin, caffeine, and various herbs. After presenting to the hospital emergency room, the patient's chemistry panel, with the exception of potassium (2.9 mEq/L), was within normal limits. An electroencephalogram (EEG) was unremarkable. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed possible atrophy in the right frontal lobe. Findings from follow-up MRI and EEG ordered as an outpatient were within normal limits. After discontinuation of Zantrex-3™, the patient has experienced no further seizure activity.
Dallas, Constantin; Gerbi, Alain; Tenca, Guillaume; Juchaux, Franck; Bernard, François-Xavier
The present study investigated the lipolytic (break of fat stored) effect of a citrus-based polyphenolic dietary supplement (SINETROL) at human adipocytes (ex vivo), body fat (clinical) and biochemical levels (inhibition of phosphodiesterase). Free fatty acids (FFA) release was used as indicator of human adipocyte lipolysis and SINETROL activity has been compared with known lipolytic products (isoproterenol, theopylline and caffeine). SINETROL stimulated significantly the lipolytic activity in a range of 6 fold greater than the control. Moreover, SINETROL has 2.1 greater activity than guarana 12% caffeine while its content in caffeine is 3 times lower. Clinically, two groups of 10 volunteers with BMI relevant of overweight were compared during 4 and 12 weeks with 1.4 g/day SINETROL and placebo supplementation. In the SINETROL Group the body fat (%) decreased with a significant difference of 5.53% and 15.6% after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively, while the body weight (kg) decreased with a significant difference of 2.2 and 5.2 kg after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively. These observed effects are linked to SINETROL polyphenolic composition and its resulting synergistic activity. SINETROL is a potent inhibitor of cAMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE) (97%) compared to other purified compounds (cyanidin-3 glycoside, narangin, caffeine). These results suggest that SINETROL has a strong lipolytic effect mediated by cAMP-PDE inhibition. SINETROL may serve to prevent obesity by decreasing BMI.
Marczinski, Cecile A.; Fillmore, Mark T.
Energy drinks are popular beverages that typically include high levels of caffeine and other ingredients such as taurine, or caffeine-containing herbs, such as guarana. While energy drinks are often consumed alone, they are also frequently used as mixers for alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes what is known about the scope of use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED), the risks associated with AmED, and the objective laboratory data examining how AmED differs from alcohol alone. The weight of the evidence reveals that AmED beverages are riskier than alcohol alone and constitute a public health concern. AmED beverage consumption is frequent, especially in young and underage drinkers. AmED use is associated with elevated rates of binge drinking, impaired driving, risky sexual behavior, and risk of alcohol dependence when compared with alcohol alone. Laboratory research (human and animal) has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to altered subjective states including decreased perceived intoxication, enhanced stimulation, and increased desire to drink/increased drinking compared to alcohol alone. Possible underlying mechanisms explaining these observations are highlighted. PMID:25293549
Leggett, S; Koczwara, B; Miller, M
Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer amongst women. Women with breast cancer frequently consult dietitians for advice, and increasingly advice on complementary alternative medicines (CAM). The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate evidence of CAM administered orally on cancer-related outcomes. Databases were searched for studies recruiting women with a history of breast cancer reporting on the use of CAM administered orally as tablets, capsules, powders, and liquids for any 1 or more of the following: alleviation of cancer-related symptoms and treatment side effects, improvement to quality of life, physical and emotional wellbeing, survival, and mortality. Twenty-two studies were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. Ten CAM categories were established with no more than 4 articles published in each category. Although the evidence is of varying quality there is some data to support that guarana and Ganoderma lucidum may improve fatigue, whereas glutamine may also be effective in improving oral mucositis symptoms. Overall, the current available evidence is inconclusive to make definitive recommendations regarding the effectiveness for individuals' use of CAM in women with breast cancer. Further high-quality randomized controlled trials exploring safety, toxicity, and other potential adverse effects of CAM are required.
O'Dea, Jennifer A
The aim of the study was to obtain rich qualitative data about the type of nutritional supplements and drinks consumed by adolescents, and the reasons for their consumption, with particular emphasis on the perceived benefits of nutritional supplementation. Semi-structured focus group interviews (n = 16) were conducted among 78 adolescents aged 11-18 years from a co-educational government high school. Participants reported consuming sports drinks, vitamin and mineral supplements, energy drinks, herbal supplements, guarana, creatine, high protein milk supplements, and coenzyme Q10. Reasons for supplement use included perceived short-term health benefits, prevention of illness, improved immunity, parental supply of supplements, taste, energy boost, better sports performance and to rectify a poor diet. Results suggest that some adolescents consume nutritional supplements, sports drinks and energy drinks for their perceived physiological benefits, and that they may not be aware of any potential risks. Health educators should be aware that adolescents seek specific health benefits from nutritional supplements and drinks, which may be better achieved through appropriate consumption of a nutritious diet. Health education programmes should incorporate the perceptions, aspirations and motivations of young people into the planning of interventions and activities in order to make them most relevant and effective.
Duchan, Erin; Patel, Neil D; Feucht, Cynthia
Energy drinks have increased in popularity in adolescents and young adults; however, concerns have been raised regarding the ingredients in energy drinks and their potential negative effects on health. Caffeine, the most physiologically active ingredient in energy drinks, is generally considered safe by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), although adverse effects can occur at varying amounts. Guarana, which contains caffeine in addition to small amounts of theobromine, theophylline, and tannins, is also recognized as safe by the FDA, although it may lead to caffeine toxicity when combined with caffeine. The amount of ginseng in energy drinks is typically far below the amount used as a dietary supplement, and is generally considered safe. Taurine, an intracellular amino acid, has been reported to have positive inotropic effects; however, this claim is not supported by research. Most energy drinks also contain sugar in an amount that exceeds the maximum recommended daily amount. Young athletes are increasingly using energy drinks because of the ergogenic effects of caffeine and the other ingredients found in these beverages. Energy drinks combined with alcohol are also gaining popularity in young adults, which poses significant concerns about health risks. Other health concerns related to consumption of energy drinks include case reports of seizures and cardiac arrest following energy drink consumption and dental enamel erosion resulting from the acidity of energy drinks.
Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T
Energy drinks are popular beverages that typically include high levels of caffeine and other ingredients such as taurine, or caffeine-containing herbs, such as guarana. While energy drinks are often consumed alone, they are also frequently used as mixers for alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes what is known about the scope of use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks, the risks associated with such mixtures, and the objective laboratory data examining how the effects of their consumption differ from consuming alcohol alone. The weight of the evidence reveals that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks is riskier than consuming alcohol alone and constitutes a public health concern. Consumption of these mixed beverages is frequent, especially in young and underage drinkers, and compared with alcohol alone, their use is associated with elevated rates of binge drinking, impaired driving, risky sexual behavior, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research (human and animal) has demonstrated that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks leads to altered subjective states including decreased perceived intoxication, enhanced stimulation, and increased desire to drink/increased drinking compared to consuming alcohol alone. Possible underlying mechanisms explaining these observations are highlighted in this review.
Harrold, J A; Hughes, G M; O'Shiel, K; Quinn, E; Boyland, E J; Williams, N J; Halford, J C G
The impact of two commercially available products, a patented herb extract Yerbe Maté, Guarana and Damiana (YGD) formulation and an inulin-based soluble fermentable fibre (SFF), alone or in combination, on appetite and food intake were studied for the first time in a double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. 58 normal to slightly overweight women consumed a fixed-load breakfast followed 4h later by an ad libitum lunch. They were administered YGD (3 tablets) and SFF (5g in 100ml water), YGD and water (100ml), SFF and placebo (3 tablets) or water and placebo 15min before meals. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales, and energy intake was measured at lunch. Significant reductions in food intake and energy intake were observed when YGD was present (59.5g, 16.3%; 112.4kcal, 17.3%) and when SFF was present (31.9g, 9.1%; 80kcal, 11.7%) compared with conditions were products were absent. The lowest intake (gram and kcal) was in the YGD+SFF condition. Significant reductions in AUC hunger and AUC desire to eat were also observed after YGD+SFF combination. The data demonstrate that YGD produces a robust short-term effect on caloric intake, an effect augmented by SFF. Caloric compensation for SFF indicates independent effects on appetite regulation.
Mobin, Shaikh M; Sanghavi, Bankim J; Srivastava, Ashwini K; Mathur, Pradeep; Lahiri, Goutam K
A new dimeric Cu(II) complex [Cu(mu(2)-hep)(hep-H)](2).2PF(6) (1) containing a bidentate (hep-H = 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyridine) ligand was synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Each Cu ion in 1 is in a distorted square pyramidal geometry. Further 1 is used as a modifier in the construction of a biomimetic sensor for determining phenols [phenol (Phe), resorcinol (Res), hydroquinone (HQ), and catechol (Cat)] in phosphate buffer by using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronocoulometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and square wave voltammetry (SWV). DPV has been proposed for trace determination of Phe and Res while SWV for HQ and Cat. The method has been applied for the selective and precise analysis of Phe in commercial injections, Res in hair coloring agents, HQ in photographic developers and cosmetics, and Cat in tea samples and guarana tablets. The calibration curves showed a linear response ranging between 10(-6) and 10(-8) M for all four of the analytes with detection limits (3sigma) of 1.04 x 10(-8), 2.31 x 10(-8), 1.54 x 10(-8), and 0.86 x 10(-8) M for Phe, Res, HQ, and Cat, respectively. The lifetime of the biomimetic sensor was 200 days at room temperature (at least 750 determinations). The catalytic properties of 1-CPE were characterized by chronoamperometry and were found to be in good agreement with Michaelis-Menten kinetics.
Nyska, Abraham; Murphy, Elizabeth; Foley, Julie F; Collins, Bradley J; Petranka, John; Howden, Reuben; Hanlon, Paul; Dunnick, June K
Because of possible side effects of herbal medicines containing ephedrine and guarana-derived caffeine, including increased risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, and sudden death, the Food and Drug Administration recently banned the sale of ephedra-containing products, specifically over-the-counter dietary supplements. We report cardiac in 7- and 14-week-old male F344 rats exposed by gavage to ephedrine(25 mg/kg) and caffeine (30 mg/kg) administered in combination for one or two days. The ephedrine-caffeine dosage was approximately 12- and 1.4-fold, respectively, above average human exposure, based on a mg/m2 body surface-area comparison. Several (5/7) of the exposed 14-week-old rats died or were sacrificed in extremis 4-5 h after the first dosing. In these hearts, changes were observed chiefly in the interventricular septum but also left and right ventricular walls. Massive interstitial hemorrhage, with degeneration of myofibers, occurred at the subendocardial myocardium of the left ventricle and interventricular septum. Immunostaining for cleaved caspase-3 and hyperphosphorylated H2A.X, a histone variant that becomes hyperphosphorylated during apoptosis, indicated multifocal generalized positive staining of degenerating myofibers and fragmenting nuclei, respectively. The Barbeito-Lopez trichrome stain revealed generalized patchy yellow myofibers consistent with degeneration and/or coagulative necrosis. In ephedrine-caffeine-treated animals terminated after the second dosing, foci of myocardial degeneration and necrosis were already infiltrated by mixed inflammatory cells. The myocardial necrosis may occur secondarily to intense diffuse vasoconstriction of the coronary arterial system with decreased myocardial perfusion. Our work shows the direct relationship between combined ephedrine and caffeine exposure and cardiac pathology.
Seifert, Sara M.; Schaechter, Judith L.; Hershorin, Eugene R.
OBJECTIVE: To review the effects, adverse consequences, and extent of energy drink consumption among children, adolescents, and young adults. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Google using “energy drink,” “sports drink,” “guarana,” “caffeine,” “taurine,” “ADHD,” “diabetes,” “children,” “adolescents,” “insulin,” “eating disorders,” and “poison control center” to identify articles related to energy drinks. Manufacturer Web sites were reviewed for product information. RESULTS: According to self-report surveys, energy drinks are consumed by 30% to 50% of adolescents and young adults. Frequently containing high and unregulated amounts of caffeine, these drinks have been reported in association with serious adverse effects, especially in children, adolescents, and young adults with seizures, diabetes, cardiac abnormalities, or mood and behavioral disorders or those who take certain medications. Of the 5448 US caffeine overdoses reported in 2007, 46% occurred in those younger than 19 years. Several countries and states have debated or restricted energy drink sales and advertising. CONCLUSIONS: Energy drinks have no therapeutic benefit, and many ingredients are understudied and not regulated. The known and unknown pharmacology of agents included in such drinks, combined with reports of toxicity, raises concern for potentially serious adverse effects in association with energy drink use. In the short-term, pediatricians need to be aware of the possible effects of energy drinks in vulnerable populations and screen for consumption to educate families. Long-term research should aim to understand the effects in at-risk populations. Toxicity surveillance should be improved, and regulations of energy drink sales and consumption should be based on appropriate research. PMID:21321035
Ray, Sidhartha; Phadke, Santosh; Patel, Chintan; Hackman, Robert M; Stohs, Sidney
Although conventional biomedical research has largely focused on mechanisms of weight loss and genetic aspects of obesity, most medical solutions are plagued by side-effects and fraught with complex questions. As a consequence, consumers are seriously considering herbal products, nutraceuticals and functional foods as alternatives to conventional medications. This is evidently driven by a growing consumer understanding of diet/disease links, aging-related consequences, rising health care costs, and advances in food technology and nutrition. This study investigated the effects of up to 12 months exposure to a multinutrient and botanical extract supplement (Metabolic Nutrition System Orange (MNSO) - sold by AdvoCare, Carrollton, TX, USA) at five dietary concentrations on serum biochemistry and target organ histopathology of the hearts of B6C3F1 mice. The MNSO is a unique combination of vitamins, minerals, omega-3 fatty acids and herbal extracts designed to provide a strong foundation of nutritional support, and to enhance thermogenesis and perception of energy. The MNSO contain extracts of citrus, ephedra, guarana, gingko, green tea and Ocimum. In this study, female B6C3F1 mice were fed control (-MNSO) or MNSO (one time to ten times, one time = daily human dose) diets. Animals were sacrificed after 4, 8 and 12 months', at which time blood was collected for serum chemistry analysis, and hearts were prepared for histopathology and tissue biochemistry. Food consumption and body weight changes were also monitored throughout the study. The MNSO exposure did not significantly affect any of the cardiosensitive enzymes [including creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)] and normal histopathological architecture of the heart was observed. Although animals given the MNSO diet consumed more food, they were relatively leaner and more active compared to controls. The results indicate that ingestion of ephedra and caffeine for one