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Sample records for guduchi tinospora cordifolia

  1. Phytochemical comparison between Pet ether and ethanolic extracts of Bacopa monnieri, Evolvulus alsinoides and Tinospora cordifolia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Avneet; Raj, Hem; Sharma, Bhartendu; Upmanyu, Neeraj

    2014-04-01

    Bacopa monnieri, Evolvulus alsinoides and Tinospora cordifolia are established ayurvedic herbs having neuropharmacological effect. In present study is aimed to Phytochemical Comparison between Pet ether and Ethanolic extracts of Bacopa monnieri (BME), Evolvulus alsinoides (EAE) and Tinospora cordifolia (TCE). To identify the presence (+) or absence (-) of different phytoconstituents in Pet ether and Ethanolic extracts of BME, EAE and TCE by using various phytochemical testing methods. Phytochemical investigation showed the presence of various phytochemical constituents in Pet ether and Ethanolic extracts of BME, EAE and TCE. When comparison between Pet ether and Ethanolic extracts of BME, EAE and TCE; Ethanolic extracts of these plants showed more phytoconstituents as compared to Pet ether extracts of these plants. From present investigation, it can be concluded that phytochemical comparison is subsequently momentous and useful in finding chemical constituents in the plant substances that may lead to their quantitative evaluation and also pharmacologically active chemical compounds.

  2. Extraction Optimization of Tinospora cordifolia and Assessment of the Anticancer Activity of Its Alkaloid Palmatine

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Huma; Dixit, Savita

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To optimize the conditions for the extraction of alkaloid palmatine from Tinospora cordifolia by using response surface methodology (RSM) and study its anticancerous property against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Methods. The effect of three independent variables, namely, extraction temperature, time, and cycles was investigated by using central composite design. A single topical application of DMBA (100 μg/100 μL of acetone), followed 2 weeks later by repeated application of croton oil (1% in acetone three times a week) for 16 weeks, exhibited 100 percent tumor incidence (Group 2). Results. The highest yield of alkaloid from Tinospora cordifolia could be achieved at 16 hours of extraction time under 40°C with 4 extraction cycles. Alkaloid administration significantly decreases tumor size, number, and the activity of serum enzyme when compared with the control (Group 2). In addition, depleted levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase and increased DNA damage were restored in palmatine treated groups. Conclusion. The data of the present study clearly indicate the anticancer potential of palmatine alkaloid in DMBA induced skin cancer model in mice. PMID:24379740

  3. Aqueous Ethanolic Extract of Tinospora cordifolia as a Potential Candidate for Differentiation Based Therapy of Glioblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Rachana; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastomas are the most aggressive primary brain tumors and their heterogeneity and complexity often renders them non responsive to various conventional treatments. Search for herbal products having potential anti-cancer activity is an active area of research in the Indian traditional system of medicine i.e., Ayurveda. Tinospora cordifolia, also named as ‘heavenly elixir’ is used in various ayurvedic decoctions as panacea to treat several body ailments. The current study investigated the anti-brain cancer potential of 50% ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (TCE) using C6 glioma cells. TCE significantly reduced cell proliferation in dose-dependent manner and induced differentiation in C6 glioma cells, resulting in astrocyte-like morphology as indicated by phase contrast images, GFAP expression and process outgrowth data of TCE treated cells which exhibited higher number and longer processes than untreated cells. Reduced proliferation of cells was accompanied by enhanced expression of senescence marker, mortalin and its translocation from perinuclear to pancytoplasmic spaces. Further, TCE showed anti-migratory and anti-invasive potential as depicted by wound scratch assay and reduced expression of plasticity markers NCAM and PSA-NCAM along with MMP-2 and 9. On analysis of the cell cycle and apoptotic markers, TCE treatment was seen to arrest the C6 cells in G0/G1 and G2/M phase, suppressing expression of G1/S phase specific protein cyclin D1 and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL, thus supporting its anti-proliferative and apoptosis inducing potential. Present study provides the first evidence for the presence of anti-proliferative, differentiation-inducing and anti-migratory/anti-metastatic potential of TCE in glioma cells and possible signaling pathways involved in its mode of action. Our primary data suggests that TCE and its active components may prove to be promising phytotherapeutic interventions in gliobalstoma multiformae.  PMID:24205314

  4. Neuroprotective effect of Tinospora cordifolia ethanol extract on 6-hydroxy dopamine induced Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Kosaraju, Jayasankar; Chinni, Santhivardhan; Roy, Partha Deb; Kannan, Elango; Antony, A. Shanish; Kumar, M. N. Satish

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigates the neuroprotective activity of ethanol extract of Tinospora cordifolia aerial parts against 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA) lesion rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Materials and Methods: T. cordifolia ethanol extract (TCEE) was standardized with high performance thin layer chromatography using berberine. Experimental PD was induced by intracerebral injection of 6-OHDA (8 μg). Animals were divided into five groups: sham operated, negative control, positive control (levodopa 6 mg/kg) and two experimental groups (n = 6/group). Experimental groups received 200 and 400 mg/kg of TCEE once daily for 30 days by oral gavage. Biochemical parameters including dopamine level, oxidative stress, complex I activity and brain iron asymmetry ratio and locomotor activity including skeletal muscle co-ordination and degree of catatonia were assessed. Results: TCEE exhibited significant neuroprotection by increasing the dopamine levels (1.96 ± 0.20 and 2.45 ± 0.40 ng/mg of protein) and complex I activity (77.14 ± 0.89 and 78.50 ± 0.96 nmol/min/mg of protein) at 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively when compared with negative control group. Iron asymmetry ratio was also significantly attenuated by TCEE at 200 (1.57 ± 0.18) and 400 mg/kg (1.11 ± 0.15) when compared with negative control group. Neuroprotection by TCEE was further supported by reduced oxidative stress and restored locomotor activity in treatment groups. Conclusion: Results show that TCEE possess significant neuroprotection in 6-OHDA induced PD by protecting dopaminergic neurons and reducing the iron accumulation. PMID:24741189

  5. A comparative pharmacological investigation of three samples of 'Guduchi ghrita' for adaptogenic activity against forced swimming induced gastric ulceration and hematological changes in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Savrikar, Shriram S.; Dole, Vilas; Ravishankar, B.; Shukla, Vinay J.

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the impact of formulation factors and adjuvants on the expression of biological activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. The adaptogenic effect of three samples of Guduchi ghrita, prepared using plain ghee (clarified butter) obtained from three different sources was studied in albino rats and compared with expressed juice of stem of Guduchi. The test preparations were evaluated against forced–swimming induced hypothermia, gastric ulceration and changes in the hematological parameters. The test drug given in the form of 'ghrita' produced better effect in comparison to the expressed juice. Among the three 'ghrita' preparations evaluated, only the 'Solapur Guduchi ghrita' (SGG) was found to produce significant inhibition of stress hypothermia and gastric ulceration. The other two preparations 'Nanded Guduchi ghrita' (NGG), and 'Wardha Guduchi ghrita' (WGG) could produce only a marginal effect. In hematological parameters 'Guduchi' juice produced better reversal of the stress-induced changes in comparison to the test 'ghrita' preparations. The present study provides evidence highlighting the importance of formulation factors for the expression of biological activity. PMID:20814518

  6. Chemical prospection of important ayurvedic plant Tinospora cordifolia by UPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS and NMR.

    PubMed

    Bala, Manju; Verma, Praveen Kumar; Awasthi, Shiv; Kumar, Neeraj; Lal, Brij; Singh, Bikram

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and accurate ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric method (UPLC-MS) was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of four bioactive compounds, syringin (3), cordifolioside A (4), magnoflorine (6) and tinocordiside (10) in the stem of Tinospora cordifolia. The analysis was performed using an Acquity C18 column and gradient elution of 0.05% formic acid in water and acetonitrile at a detection wavelength of 267 nm in 5 min. A high correlation coefficient (r2 > 0.998) indicated good correlation between investigated compounds concentration and their peak area within the test ranges. The LODs for compounds 3, 4, 6 and 10 were 1.95, 0.97, 3.90 and 0.97 ng/mL, respectively, and LOQs were 6.64, 3.20, 12.87 and 3.20 ng/mL, respectively. The overall intra- and inter-day variations of the four compounds were less than 1%. The variation of these four bioactive compounds in T. cordifolia hosted on fifteen different trees was also determined. The compounds (3, 4, 6 and 10) were found in high amount in the T. cordifolia hosted on Azadirachta indica and Mangifera indica as compared with other plants. Twelve compounds were identified on the basis of their mass and UV-vis spectra. The NMR fingerprinting of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, fatty acid methyl esters, polysaccharides and marker components of T. cordifolia.

  7. Protective Effects of Tinospora cordifolia on Hepatic and Gastrointestinal Toxicity Induced by Chronic and Moderate Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bhawana; Dabur, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Heavy alcohol intake depletes the plasma vitamins due to hepatotoxicity and decreased intestinal absorption. However, moderate alcohol intake is often thought to be healthy. Therefore, effects of chronic moderate alcohol intake on liver and intestine were studied using urinary vitamin levels. Furthermore, effects of Tinospora cordifolia water extract (TCE) (hepatoprotective) on vitamin excretion and intestinal absorption were also studied. In the study, asymptomatic moderate alcoholics (n = 12) without chronic liver disease and healthy volunteers (n = 14) of mean age 39 ± 2.2 (mean ± SD) were selected and divided into three groups. TCE treatment was performed for 14 days. The blood and urine samples were collected on Day 0 and 14 after treatment with TCE and analyzed. In alcoholics samples, a significant increase in the levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, Triglyceride, Cholesterol, HDL and LDL (P < 0.05) was observed but their level get downregulated after TCE intervention. Multivariate analysis of metabolites without missing values showed an increased excretion of 7-dehydrocholesterol, orotic acid, pyridoxine, lipoamide and niacin and TCE intervention depleted their levels (P < 0.05). In contrast, excretion of biotin, xanthine, vitamin D2 and 2-O-p-coumaroyltartronic acid (CA, an internal marker of intestinal absorption) were observed to be decreased in alcoholic samples; however, TCE intervention restored the CA and biotin levels. Vitamin metabolism biomarkers, i.e. homocysteine and xanthurenic acid, were also normalized after TCE intervention. Overall data depict that moderate alcohol intake is also hepatotoxic and decreases intestinal absorption. However, TCE treatment effectively increased the intestinal absorption and retaining power of liver that regulated alcohol-induced multivitamin deficiency. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  8. Radioprotective and cytoprotective activity of Tinospora cordifolia stem enriched extract containing cordifolioside-A

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Arti; Bigoniya, Papiya; Singh, Chandra Shekhar; Patel, Narayan Singh

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the radioprotective and cytoprotective potential of cordifolioside-A, a primary active constituent of n-butanol fraction of Tinospora Cordifolia (NBTC) against 4 Gy-γ radiation in mice and cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Presence of cordifolioside-A in NBTC stem ethanolic extract was confirmed by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis. Radioprotective activity was evaluated at 80 and 120 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of NBTC administered 15 days prior to whole body radiation exposure by observing survival rate, change in body weight, hematology, spleen colony forming unit (CFU), and micronucleus (MN) expression. Cytoprotective activity of NBTC was evaluated at 5, 10, and 15 mg/ml concentrations on Allium cepa root meristem growth against cyclophosphamide. Results: HPTLC analysis of standard cordifolioside A, and NBTC confirmed the presence of cordifolioside-A in NBTC with the retention factor value of 0.86. Administration of NBTC (120 mg/kg, i.p.) produced significant protection against radiation in terms of increased survival rate, body weight retention, hematological parameters, spleen CFU assay (P < 0.01), and decreased MN expression (P < 0.01). Cytoprotectivity was observed maximally at 10 mg/ml NBTC concentration with significant increase in root growth (P < 0.01), non-toxic mitotic index (MI) (65.9%) and lesser chromosomal aberrations (15.4%). NBTC at 10 mg/ml concentration showed very few C-anaphase compared to aberrations like fragmentation, C-anaphase, multipolarity and sticky chromosome in cyclophosphamide alone. Conclusion: The results suggest that enriched NBTC containing cordifolioside-A has a potential in vivo radioprotective effect as well as in vitro cytoprotective activity. PMID:23833365

  9. Validation of ethnomedicinal potential of Tinospora cordifolia for anticancer and immunomodulatory activities and quantification of bioactive molecules by HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Bala, Manju; Pratap, Kunal; Verma, Praveen Kumar; Singh, Bikram; Padwad, Yogendra

    2015-12-04

    Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. f. & Thomas. (Menispermaceae) is one of the most widely used plants in various traditional medicinal systems including "Ayurveda". The plant is used for the treatment of jaundice, rheumatism, urinary disorder, skin diseases, diabetes and anemia. The phytoconstituents present in the plant belongs to different class of compounds such as alkaloids, diterpenoids lactones, glycosides, steroids, phenol, aliphatic compounds and polysaccharides. The aim of present study was the isolation, structure elucidation, quantification and pharmacological evaluation of secondary metabolites from T. cordifolia for anticancer and immunomodulatory activities. Different extracts and fractions were prepared from the stem of T. cordifolia. Pure molecules were isolated using normal phase chromatography and characterized on the basis of NMR and mass spectroscopic techniques. The anti-cancer and immunomodulatory activities of different extracts, fractions and isolated compounds were evaluated against four different human cancer cell lines, KB (human oral squamous carcinoma), CHOK-1 (hamster ovary), HT-29 (human colon cancer) and SiHa (human cervical cancer) and murine primary cells respectively. A simple, normal phase HPTLC method was also developed for the quantification of three bioactive compounds i.e N-formylannonain (1), 11-hydroxymustakone (5) and yangambin (8) in the stem of T. cordifolia hosted on fifteen different plants. Chromatographic purification of different fractions led to the isolation of eight pure molecules i.e N-formylannonain (1), magnoflorine (2), jatrorrhizine (3) palmatine (4), 11-hydroxymustakone (5), cordifolioside A (6), tinocordiside (7) and yangambin (8). All extracts and fractions were active against KB and CHOK-1 cells whereas among the pure molecules palmatine (4) was found to be active against KB and HT-29; tinocordiside (7) against KB and CHOK-1; yangambin (8) against KB cells however N-formylannonain (1) and 11

  10. Comparative evaluation of ethanolic extracts of Bacopa monnieri, Evolvulus alsinoides, Tinospora cordifolia and their combinations on cognitive functions in rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Avneet; Raj, Hem; Karchuli, Manvender Singh; Upmanyu, Neeraj

    2013-12-01

    The effects of ethanolic extracts of whole plants of Bacopa monnieri (BME), Evolvulus alsinoides (EAE), Tinospora cordifolia (TCE) and their combinations in equal proportion [CEP-1 (BME+EAE), CEP-2 (BME+TCE), CEP-3 (EAE+TCE) and CEP-4 (BME+EAE+TCE)] were tested in amnesic rats using Radial arm maze task performance (RAM) and Barnes maze test at 200 mg/kg p.o. The latency to find food and target hole was observed in RAM and Barnes maze respectively. Cognitive dysfunction was induced by scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg i.p.) treatment. BME, EAE, TCE and their combinations of equal proportion (CEPs) showed significant decrease in latency to find food and target hole in RAM and Barnes maze respectively. Inter comparison among single extract alone treated groups revealed that BME treated animals showed significant difference as compared to EAE and TCE treated animals. All combinations of equal proportion (CEPs) of these extracts showed significant difference in latency to find food and target hole as compared to single extracts treated animals. CEP-1 showed significantly better effect as compared to CEP-2 and CEP-3. Significant difference in latency to find food and target hole was also present between CEP-2 and CEP-3. Effect of CEP-4 was found to be significantly better than CEP-1, CEP-2 and CEP-3 treated rats in both models. From present investigation, it was concluded that ethanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri, Evolvulus alsinoides and Tinospora cordifolia provided better nootropic effect when used in combination.

  11. Trace Element Studies on Tinospora cordifolia (Menispermaceae), Ocimum sanctum (Lamiaceae), Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae), and Phyllanthus niruri (Euphorbiaceae) Using PIXE.

    PubMed

    Gowrishankar, Ramadurai; Kumar, Manish; Menon, Vinay; Divi, Sai Mangala; Saravanan, M; Magudapathy, P; Panigrahi, B K; Nair, K G M; Venkataramaniah, K

    2010-03-01

    Traditionally, Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. F. & Thomson (Menispermaceae), Ocimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae), Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae), and Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) are some of the commonly used medicinal plants in India for curing ailments ranging from common cold, skin diseases, and dental infections to major disorders like diabetes, hypertension, jaundice, rheumatism, etc. To understand and correlate their medicinal use, trace element studies on the aqueous extract of these medicinal plants have been carried out using particle-induced X-ray emission technique. A 2-MeV proton beam was used to identify and characterize major and minor elements namely Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, and Sr in them. Results have revealed that these elements are present in varying concentrations in the selected plants. Notable results include very high concentrations of Cl, K, and Ca in all the leaf samples, appreciable levels of Mn in all plants, high Zn content in T. cordifolia, and the aqueous extract of Moringa leaves compared to others and relative higher concentrations of Cr in all the plants.

  12. Pigment identification, antioxidant activity, and nutrient composition of Tinospora cordifolia (willd.) Miers ex Hook. f & Thoms fruit.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Imtiyaj; Harsha, P S C Sri; Giridhar, P; Ravishankar, G A

    2011-05-01

    The stem, leaf, and root of Tinospora cordifolia (willd.) have been highly exploited for medicinal preparations; however, the nutritional and nutraceutical potential of its attractive red berries (fruits) have not so far been studied. Pigments, berberine (107.0 mg/100 g) and lycopene (50.8 mg/100 g), were identified in the deseeded fruit. Total phenol content in the fruit was 3.2 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. The IC(50) of DPPH· (82, and 468 ppm) and OH· (100, and 1,000 ppm) scavenging activity, and the EC(50) of reducing power (2,616, and 1,472 ppm) of hexane and methanol extracts, respectively, were observed. Oxygen radical absorbance capacities of the fruit extracts (150 and 300 ppm) were 1,107 and 2,614 μM trolox equivalent/g, respectively. Nutrient composition including carbohydrate (18.4%), proteins (1.5%), lipids (6%) of which ∼62% was unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins like ascorbic acid (0.24 μg), niacin (0.7 mg), and tocopherols (2.4 mg) in 100 g fruits were determined. Potassium content was 1.2 g/100 g dry tissue of berries. These findings show that components of T. cordifolia fruit could be bioactive and used in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics.

  13. Detection of new human metabolic urinary markers in chronic alcoholism and their reversal by aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia stem.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Ashwani; Dabur, Rajesh

    2015-05-01

    We have studied urine metabolic signature of chronic alcoholism (CA) before and after treatment with an Ayurvedic drug Tinospora cordifolia aqueous extract (TCE). Urinary metabolites of chronic alcoholics and apparently healthy subjects were profiled using HPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Discrimination models from the initial data sets were able to correctly assign the unknown samples to the CA, treated or healthy groups in validation sets with r(2) > 0.98. Metabolic signature in CA patients include changed tryptophan, fatty acids and pyrimidines metabolism. Several novel biomarkers of alcoholism were observed in urine for the first time which includes, 5-hydroxyindole, phenylacetic acid, picolinic acid, quinaldic acid, histidine, cystathionine, riboflavin, tetrahydrobiopterin and chenodeoxyglycocholic acid, in addition to previously reported biomarkers. Treatment of CA with TCE reverted the levels of most of the biomarkers except tetrahydrobiopterin levels. These results suggested that the measurement of these urine metabolites could be used as a non-invasive diagnostic method for the detection of CA. As TCE treatment significantly reversed the affected pathways without any side effect. Overall, the present data depicts that TCE may be used either alone or adjunct in reducing alcohol-induced disorders. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  14. In vitro capacity and in vivo antioxidant potency of sedimental extract of Tinospora cordifolia in streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kannadhasan, Ramachandran; Venkataraman, Subramaniam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The role of herbs against the free radicals have been put forth recently in combating many diseases. The aim of this study was to elucidate the in vitro capacity and in vivo antioxidant properties of sedimental extract of Tinospora cordifolia (SETc). Materials and Methods: SETc was subjected to in vitro chemical analysis such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide anion radicals scavenging respectively and finally drugs reductive ability in order to elucidate the antioxidant capacity of the test drug before introducing it into the biological membrane. The resulting capacity was evaluated in vivo by analyzing enzymic (SOD, CAT) and non-enzymic (vitamin C & E) antioxidant levels in the homogenized samples of major organs isolated from streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats after 30th day of SETc (1000 mg/kg/p.o.) treatment. Finally, the histopathological evaluation was done using cut portion of the respective organs prone to free radical mediated cell destruction with STZ in order to study their micro anatomical changes. Results: Chemical analysis with SETc in vitro for its IC50 proves a key evident for its total antioxidant capacity of around 2046 times, in 1000 mg/kg of fixed dose per oral for in vivo analysis. In contrast to the above, the lipid peroxide levels and in vivo enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidant levels were found to possess most significant difference (p<0.001) and moderate difference (p<0.01) with diabetic non-treated animals which was an supporting contribution for those in vitro parameters studied and have proved that SETc (1000 mg/kg/p.o.) was a potent drug to elevate the antioxidants levels and further healing of damaged organs as compared with that of diabetic and standard drug treated groups. Conclusions: Finally, it was concluded that, the presence of antioxidant potentials in SETc was about 2046 time as an effective scavenger of free radicals in vitro and as a potent healer in

  15. Season and tissue type affect fungal endophyte communities of the Indian medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia more strongly than geographic location.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ashish; Gond, Surendra K; Kumar, Anuj; Sharma, Vijay K; Verma, Satish K; Kharwar, Ravindra N; Sieber, Thomas N

    2012-08-01

    A total of 1,151 endophytic fungal isolates representing 29 taxa were isolated from symptom-less, surface-sterilized segments of stem, leaf, petiole, and root of Tinospora cordifolia which had been collected at three locations differing in air pollution in India (Ramnagar, Banaras Hindu University, Maruadih) during three seasons (summer, monsoon, winter). Endophytes were most abundant in leaf tissues (29.38% of all isolates), followed by stem (18.16%), petiole (10.11%), and root segments (6.27%). The frequency of colonization (CF) varied more strongly among tissue type and season than location. CF was maximal during monsoon followed by winter and minimal during summer. A species each of Guignardia and Acremonium could only be isolated from leaves, whereas all other species occurred in at least two tissue types. Penicillium spp. were dominant (12.62% of all isolates), followed by Colletotrichum spp. (11.8%), Cladosporium spp. (8.9%), Chaetomium globosum (8.1%), Curvularia spp. (7.6%), and Alternaria alternata (6.8%). Species richness, evenness, and the Shannon-Wiener diversity index followed the same pattern as the CF with the tissue type and the season having the greatest effect on these indices, suggesting that tissue type and season are more influential than geography. Dissimilarity of endophyte communities in regards to species composition was highest among seasons. Colletotrichum linicola occurred almost exclusively in winter, Fusarium oxysporum only in winter and summer but never during monsoon and Curvularia lunata only in winter and during monsoon but never in summer. Emissions of NO(2), SO(2), and suspended particulate matter were negatively correlated with the CF. Ozone did not have any effect. The frequency of most species declined with increasing pollution, but some showed an opposite trend (e.g., Aspergillus flavus). Five unnamed taxa (sterile mycelia) were identified as Aspergillus tubingensis, Colletotrichum crassipes, Botryosphaeria rhodina

  16. Analysis of phytochemical variations in dioecious Tinospora cordifolia stems using HPLC/QTOF MS/MS and UPLC/QqQLIT -MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Vikas; Singh, Awantika; Chandra, Preeti; Negi, M P S; Kumar, Nikhil; Kumar, Brijesh

    2016-01-01

    The stem of dioecious Tinospora cordifolia (Menispermaceae) is a commonly used traditional Ayurvedic medicine in India having several therapeutic properties. To develop and validate LC-MS methods for the identification and simultaneous quantitation of various secondary metabolites and to study metabolomic variations in the stem of male and female plants. Ethanolic extract of stems were analysed by HPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS/MS for rapid screening of bioactive phytochemicals. High resolution MS and MS/MS in positive ESI mode were used for structural investigation of secondary metabolites. An UPLC/ESI-QqQ(LIT) -MS/MS method in MRM mode was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of five bioactive alkaloids. Identification and characterisation of 36 metabolites including alkaloids, sesquiterpenes and phytoecdysteroids were performed using LC-MS and MS/MS techniques. The bioactive alkaloids such as jatrorrhizine, magnoflorine, isocorydine, palmatine and tetrahydropalmatine were successfully quantified in male and female plants. The mean abundances of magnoflorine jatrorrhizine, and oblongine were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in male plants while mean abundances of tetrahydropalmatine, norcoclaurine, and reticuline were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in female plants. Phytochemicals in the stem of male and female Tinospora cordifolia showed significant qualitative and quantitative variations. LC-MS and MS/MS methods can be used to differentiate between male and female plants based on their chemical profiles and quantities of the marker bioactive alkaloids. This chemical composition difference was also evident during vegetative stage when there were no male and female flowers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. β-cell regenerative efficacy of a polysaccharide isolated from methanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia stem on streptozotocin -induced diabetic Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rajalakshmi, Manikkam; Anita, Roy

    2016-01-05

    The use of herbal supplements either as extracts or plant-derived individual molecules has significantly increased in the process of drug discovery and development for their potential efficacy or reduced risk in treating human disorders. Tinospora cordifolia (T. cordifolia) is a widely used herbal source to treat various human ailments, including diabetes mellitus. The present study was aimed on evaluating the antidiabetic property of a novel polysaccharide isolated from the methanolic extract of T. cordifolia stem. Bioassay guided fractionation was followed to isolate a compound from the methanol extract. The compound was administered orally at a dose of 20 mg/kg.b.wt for 60 days to control and STZ-induced diabetic male Wistar rats. It was found that plasma glucose was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced compared to normal. Oral administration of the compound significantly decreased HBA1c, triglycerides and total cholesterol and at the same time markedly increased hemoglobin, tissue glycogen and HDL cholesterol. Also the compounds restored the altered carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, insulin, C-peptide, (14)C-glucose oxidation levels to near normal. In addition, the histological studies revealed that there was regeneration of β-cells in the pancreatic sections. The expression of Glut-4 mRNA and protein in the gasrtocnemius muscle were significantly enhanced after the compound treatment. These results confirm that the novel polysaccharide possesses hypoglycemic, glucose oxidizing, hypolipidemic and β-cell regenerative properties and hence it could be developed into potential oral hypoglycemic drug with lesser side effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tinospora species: An overview of their modulating effects on the immune system.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Areeful; Jantan, Ibrahim; Abbas Bukhari, Syed Nasir

    2017-07-31

    Studies on the effects of natural immunomodulators to heal various diseases related to the immune system have been a growing interest in recent years. Amongst the medicinal plants, Tinospora species (family; Menispermaceae) have been one of the widely investigated plants for their modulating effects on the immune system due to their wide use in ethnomedicine to treat various ailments related to immune-related diseases. However, their ethnopharmacological uses are mainly with limited or without scientific basis. In this article, we have reviewed the literature on the phytochemicals of several Tinospora species, which have shown strong immunomodulatory effects and critically analyzed the reports to provide perspectives and instructions for future research for the plants as a potential source of new immunomodulators for use as medicinal agents or dietary supplements. Electronic search on worldwide accepted scientific databases (Google Scholar, Science Direct, SciFinder, Web of Science, PubMed, Wiley Online Library, ACS Publications Today) was performed to compile the relevant information. Some information was obtained from books, database on medicinal plants used in Ayurveda, MSc dissertations and herbal classics books written in various languages. T. cordifolia, T. crispa, T. sinensis, T. smilacina, T. bakis, and T. sagittata have been reported to possess significant immunomodulatory effects. For a few decades, initiatives in molecular research on the effects of these species on the immune system have been carried out. However, most of the biological and pharmacological studies were carried out using the crude extracts of plants. The bioactive compounds contributing to the bioactivities have not been properly identified, and mechanistic studies to understand the immunomodulatory effects of the plants are limited by many considerations with regard to design, conduct, and interpretation. The plant extracts and their active constituents should be subjected to more

  19. Antistress, Adoptogenic Activity of Sida cordifolia Roots in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sumanth, Meera; Mustafa, S S

    2009-05-01

    Ethanol extract of roots of Sida cordifolia was evaluated for antistress, adaptogenic activity using cold restraint stress and swim endurance in mice. Mice pretreated with extract of Sida cordifolia showed significant improvement in the swim duration and reduced the elevated WBC, blood glucose and plasma cortisone.

  20. Antistress, Adoptogenic Activity of Sida cordifolia Roots in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sumanth, Meera; Mustafa, S. S.

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol extract of roots of Sida cordifolia was evaluated for antistress, adaptogenic activity using cold restraint stress and swim endurance in mice. Mice pretreated with extract of Sida cordifolia showed significant improvement in the swim duration and reduced the elevated WBC, blood glucose and plasma cortisone. PMID:20490305

  1. Anticholinesterase inhibitory activity of quaternary alkaloids from Tinospora crispa.

    PubMed

    Yusoff, Mashitah; Hamid, Hazrulrizawati; Houghton, Peter

    2014-01-20

    Quaternary alkaloids are the major alkaloids isolated from Tinospora species. A previous study pointed to the necessary presence of quaternary nitrogens for strong acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity in such alkaloids. Repeated column chromatography of the vine of Tinospora crispa extract led to the isolation of one new protoberberine alkaloid, 4,13-dihydroxy-2,8,9-trimethoxydibenzo[a,g]quinolizinium (1), along with six known alkaloids-dihydrodiscretamine (2), columbamine (3), magnoflorine (4), N-formylannonaine (5), N-formylnornuciferine (6), and N-trans-feruloyltyramine (7). The seven compounds were isolated and structurally elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Two known alkaloids, namely, dihydrodiscretamine and columbamine are reported for the first time for this plant. The compounds were tested for AChE inhibitory activity using Ellman's method. In the AChE inhibition assay, only columbamine (3) showed strong activity with IC50 48.1 µM. The structure-activity relationships derived from these results suggest that the quaternary nitrogen in the skeleton has some effect, but that a high degree of methoxylation is more important for acetylcholinesterase inhibition.

  2. Anti-ulcer polysaccharides from Cola cordifolia bark and leaves.

    PubMed

    Austarheim, Ingvild; Mahamane, Haidara; Sanogo, Rokia; Togola, Adiaratou; Khaledabadi, Mehdi; Vestrheim, Anne C; Inngjerdingen, Kari T; Michaelsen, Terje E; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit S

    2012-08-30

    Aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of C. cordifolia are traditionally used in Mali (West Africa) in the treatment of wounds and gastric ailments like abdominal pain, gastritis and gastric ulcers. To evaluate and compare the anti-ulcer and immunological activities, as well as the toxicity of polysaccharide rich water extracts from the bark and leaves of C. cordifolia. Gastric ulcers were induced in rats and the inhibition of ulcer formation was calculated based on lesion index. Immunological activities were measured by complement fixation and macrophage activation. Toxicity was tested on brine shrimps. The two extracts were characterised by GC, Yariv-precipitation and quantification of phenolic compounds. An ethnomedical survey on C. cordifolia was carried out in Siby (Mali, West-Africa) to generate more knowledge about the traditional use. Bark and leaf extracts from C. cordifolia significantly inhibited the formation of gastric lesions in rodents in a dose depending manner. CCbark50 showed a high complement fixation activity in vitro. No toxicity was found. The ethnomedical survey showed that C. cordifolia was mainly used for treating pain and wounds. Our results shows that the bark and the leaves comprise a dose dependant anti-ulcer activity in an experimental rat model (no statistical difference between the plant parts). Clinical studies should be performed to evaluate the effect of both bark and leaves of C. cordifolia as a remedy against gastric ulcer in human. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Phytopharmacological evaluation of ethanol extract of Sida cordifolia L. roots.

    PubMed

    Momin, Mohammad Abdul Motalib; Bellah, Sm Faysal; Rahman, Sarder Mohammad Raussel; Rahman, Ahmed Ayedur; Murshid, Gazi Mohammad Monjur; Emran, Talha Bin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the phytochemical screening (group determination) and selected pharmacological activities (antioxidant, antimicrobial and analgesic activity) of the plant Sida cordifolia Linn (S. cordifolia). Eighty percent concentrated ethanol extract of the roots was used. To identify the chemical constituents of plant extract standard procedures were followed. In phytochemical screening the crude extract was tested for the presence of different chemical groups like reducing sugar, tannins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, gums, alkaloids and glycosides. The antioxidant property of ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia was assessed by DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Analgesic activity of the extract was tested using the model of acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Diclofenac sodium is used as reference standard drug for the analgesic activity test. Antibacterial activity of plant extract was carried out using disc diffusion method with five pathogenic bacteria comparison with kanamycin as a standard. Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia indicated the presence of reducing sugar, alkaloids, steroids and saponins. In DPPH scavenging assay the IC50 value was found to be 50 μg/mL which was not comparable to the standard ascorbic acid. The crude extract produced 44.30% inhibition of writhing at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight which is statistically significant (P>0.001). The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of the roots of S. cordifolia showed no antimicrobial activity against five types of microorganisms. The experiment was conducted only with five species of bacteria as test species, which do not at all indicate the total inactivity against micro-organisms. The obtained results provide a support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine but further pharmacological studies are required. Copyright © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  4. Phytopharmacological evaluation of ethanol extract of Sida cordifolia L. roots

    PubMed Central

    Momin, Mohammad Abdul Motalib; Bellah, Sm Faysal; Rahman, Sarder Mohammad Raussel; Rahman, Ahmed Ayedur; Murshid, Gazi Mohammad Monjur; Emran, Talha Bin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the phytochemical screening (group determination) and selected pharmacological activities (antioxidant, antimicrobial and analgesic activity) of the plant Sida cordifolia Linn (S. cordifolia). Methods Eighty percent concentrated ethanol extract of the roots was used. To identify the chemical constituents of plant extract standard procedures were followed. In phytochemical screening the crude extract was tested for the presence of different chemical groups like reducing sugar, tannins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, gums, alkaloids and glycosides. The antioxidant property of ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia was assessed by DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Analgesic activity of the extract was tested using the model of acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Diclofenac sodium is used as reference standard drug for the analgesic activity test. Antibacterial activity of plant extract was carried out using disc diffusion method with five pathogenic bacteria comparison with kanamycin as a standard. Results Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia indicated the presence of reducing sugar, alkaloids, steroids and saponins. In DPPH scavenging assay the IC50 value was found to be 50 µg/mL which was not comparable to the standard ascorbic acid. The crude extract produced 44.30% inhibition of writhing at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight which is statistically significant (P>0.001). The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of the roots of S. cordifolia showed no antimicrobial activity against five types of microorganisms. The experiment was conducted only with five species of bacteria as test species, which do not at all indicate the total inactivity against micro-organisms. Conclusions The obtained results provide a support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine but further pharmacological studies are required. PMID:24144125

  5. Soma, food of the immortals according to the Bower Manuscript (Kashmir, 6th century A.D.).

    PubMed

    Leonti, Marco; Casu, Laura

    2014-08-08

    Food is medicine and vice versa. In Hindu and Ayurvedic medicine, and among human cultures of the Indian subcontinent in general, the perception of the food-medicine continuum is especially well established. The preparation of the exhilarating, gold-coloured Soma, Amrita or Ambrosia, the elixir and food of the 'immortals'-the Hindu pantheon-by the ancient Indo-Aryans, is described in the Rigveda in poetic hymns. Different theories regarding the botanical identity of Soma circulate, but no pharmacologically and historically convincing theory exists to date. We intend to contribute to the botanical, chemical and pharmacological characterisation of Soma through an analysis of two historical Amrita recipes recorded in the Bower Manuscript. The recipes are referred therein as panaceas (clarified butter) and also as a medicine to treat nervous diseases (oil), while no exhilarating properties are mentioned. Notwithstanding this, we hypothesise, that these recipes are related to the ca. 1800 years older Rigvedic Soma. We suppose that the psychoactive Soma ingredient(s) are among the components, possibly in smaller proportions, of the Amrita recipes preserved in the Bower Manuscript. The Bower Manuscript is a medical treatise recorded in the 6th century A.D. in Sanskrit on birch bark leaves, probably by Buddhist monks, and unearthed towards the end of the 19th century in Chinese Turkestan. We analysed two Amrita recipes from the Bower Manuscript, which was translated by Rudolf Hoernle into English during the early 20th century. A database search with the updated Latin binomials of the herbal ingredients was used to gather quantitative phytochemical and pharmacological information. Together, both Amrita recipes contain around 100 herbal ingredients. Psychoactive alkaloid containing species still important in Ayurvedic, Chinese and Thai medicine and mentioned in the recipe for 'Amrita-Prâsa clarified butter' and 'Amrita Oil' are: Tinospora cordifolia (Amrita, Guduchi), three

  6. Immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides isolated from Alchornea cordifolia

    PubMed Central

    Kouakou, Koffi; Schepetkin, Igor A.; Yapi, Ahoua; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Jutila, Mark A.; Quinn, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Extracts of leaves from different species of the genus Alchornea have been used for centuries to treat a variety of medicinal problems in tropical Africa. However, little is known about the high-molecular weight active components conferring therapeutic properties to these extracts. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides isolated from the leaves of Alchornea cordifolia. Materials and methods Water-soluble polysaccharides from leaves of A. cordifolia were extracted and fractionated by DEAE-cellulose, Diaion HP-20, and size-exclusion chromatography. Molecular weight, sugar analysis, and other physical and chemical characterization of the fractions were performed. Immunomodulatory activity of the polysaccharide fractions was evaluated by determining their ability to induce monocyte/macrophage nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine production. Activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) was also assessed using a phospho-MAPK array. Activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) was measured using an alkaline phosphatase reporter gene assay in THP1-Blue monocytic cells. Results Six polysaccharide fractions from A. cordifolia were isolated. Fractions containing type II arabinogalactan had potent immunomodulatory activity. Particularly, the parent fraction AP-AU and its high-molecular weight sub-fraction AP-AU1 (average Mr was estimated to be 39.5 kDa) induced production of NO and cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β, -6, -10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)] in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and human and murine monocyte/macrophages cell lines in vitro. Furthermore, treatment with AP-AU1 induced phosphorylation of Akt2, p38δ/p38γ, p70S6K1, RSK2, and mTOR, as well as stimulation of NF-κB transcriptional activity. Conclusion Our results provide a molecular basis to explain a portion of the beneficial therapeutic

  7. Immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides isolated from Alchornea cordifolia.

    PubMed

    Kouakou, Koffi; Schepetkin, Igor A; Yapi, Ahoua; Kirpotina, Liliya N; Jutila, Mark A; Quinn, Mark T

    2013-03-07

    Extracts of leaves from different species of the genus Alchornea have been used for centuries to treat a variety of medicinal problems in tropical Africa. However, little is known about the high-molecular weight active components conferring therapeutic properties to these extracts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides isolated from the leaves of Alchornea cordifolia. Water-soluble polysaccharides from leaves of Alchornea cordifolia were extracted and fractionated by DEAE-cellulose, Diaion HP-20, and size-exclusion chromatography. Molecular weight, sugar analysis, and other physical and chemical characterization of the fractions were performed. Immunomodulatory activity of the polysaccharide fractions was evaluated by determining their ability to induce monocyte/macrophage nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine production. Activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) was also assessed using a phospho-MAPK array. Activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) was measured using an alkaline phosphatase reporter gene assay in THP1-Blue monocytic cells. Six polysaccharide fractions from Alchornea cordifolia were isolated. Fractions containing type II arabinogalactan had potent immunomodulatory activity. Particularly, the parent fraction AP-AU and its high-molecular weight sub-fraction AP-AU1 (average M(r) was estimated to be 39.5kDa) induced production of NO and cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β, -6, -10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)] in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and human and murine monocyte/macrophages cell lines in vitro. Furthermore, treatment with AP-AU1 induced phosphorylation of Akt2, p38δ/p38γ, p70S6K1, RSK2, and mTOR, as well as stimulation of NF-κB transcriptional activity. Our results provide a molecular basis to explain a portion of the beneficial therapeutic properties of water extracts from Alchornea cordifolia leaves in

  8. Wound healing activity of Sida cordifolia Linn. in rats.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Rajesh S; Chaurasiya, Pradeep K; Rajak, Harish; Singour, Pradeep K; Toppo, Fedelic Ashish; Jain, Ankit

    2013-01-01

    The present study provides a scientific evaluation for the wound healing potential of ethanolic (EtOH) extract of Sida cordifolia Linn. (SCL) plant. Excision, incision and burn wounds were inflicted upon three groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control (ointment base). Group II was treated with 10% EtOH extract ointment. Group III was treated with standard silver sulfadiazine (0.01%) cream. The parameters observed were percentage of wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength including histopathological studies. It was noted that the effect produced by the ethanolic extract of SCL ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) healing in all wound models when compared with the control group. All parameters such as wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength and histopathological studies showed significant (P < 0.01) changes when compared with the control. The ethanolic extract ointment of SCL effectively stimulates wound contraction; increases tensile strength of excision, incision and burn wounds.

  9. A unique polysaccharide containing 3-O-methylarabinose and 3-O-methylgalactose from Tinospora sinensis.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Shipra; Hensel, Andreas; Mischnick, Petra; Kumar, Vineet

    2018-08-01

    Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merrill is of great therapeutic significance in Indian traditional medicine. Crude polysaccharides were isolated from methanol pre-extracted stems of dried material by successive extractions with cold water, hot water and NaOH (0.25 mol/L) in 0.98, 0.55 and 0.70 % yields respectively. Cold water soluble polysaccharides (CWSP) were purified and fractionated by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel. Neutral polysaccharides were further fractionated on Sepharose CL6B to yield three fractions TW1, TW2, TW3. The study further focuses on structural elucidation of TW1. TW1 was obtained in 0.8 % yield relative to CWSP, with MW of 1.6 × 10 5  Da. It was composed of 3-O-methyl-arabinose, 3-O-methyl-galactose and galactose in molar ratio of 1.0:6.3:0.9 respectively. Based on per-deuteromethylation, NMR and ESI-MS analyses, TW1 was composed of 1,4-linked 3-O-methyl-β-d-galactopyranose and β-d-galactopyranose backbone with branching at O-6 of 3-O-methyl-β-d-galactosyl residues by 1,5-linked 3-O-methyl-α-l-arabinofuranoside chains. 3-O-methyl-arabinose and 3-O-methyl-galactose have first ever been reported in any polysaccharide and Tinospora genus, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Wound healing activity of Sida cordifolia Linn. in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Rajesh S.; Chaurasiya, Pradeep K.; Rajak, Harish; Singour, Pradeep K.; Toppo, Fedelic Ashish; Jain, Ankit

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The present study provides a scientific evaluation for the wound healing potential of ethanolic (EtOH) extract of Sida cordifolia Linn. (SCL) plant. Materials and Methods: Excision, incision and burn wounds were inflicted upon three groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control (ointment base). Group II was treated with 10% EtOH extract ointment. Group III was treated with standard silver sulfadiazine (0.01%) cream. The parameters observed were percentage of wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength including histopathological studies. Result: It was noted that the effect produced by the ethanolic extract of SCL ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) healing in all wound models when compared with the control group. All parameters such as wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength and histopathological studies showed significant (P < 0.01) changes when compared with the control. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract ointment of SCL effectively stimulates wound contraction; increases tensile strength of excision, incision and burn wounds. PMID:24130382

  11. Phytochemical analysis of Binahong (Anredera Cordifolia) leaves extract to inhibit In Vitro growth of Aeromonas Hydrophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basyuni, Mohammad; Ginting, Prita Yulianti Anasta Br; Lesmana, Indra

    2017-11-01

    Binahong (Anredera cordifolia) is one of the medicinal plants commonly used to treat the disease of living organisms. The secondary metabolite of A. cordifolia leaves has been shown antibacterial activity. This study aimed to investigate the secondary metabolite of A. cordifolia leaves showing antibacterial and analysis the effectiveness of antibacterial to inhibit the growth of bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila. A paper disc soaked in a solution of A. cordifolia leaves extract was used to test in vitro at a concentration of 0% (w/v), 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, and positive control of antibiotic (oxytetracycline), respectively. The extracts then placed on a tryptone soy agar (TSA) medium containing bacteria A. hydrophila and incubated at 37 °C for 24 hours. In vitro test showed that A. cordifolia leaves extract inhibited the growth of bacteria A. hydrophila with an inhibition area around the paper disc. The inhibition growth of A. hydrophila increased with the increasing of extract concentration. Bacterial growth was inhibited in the diameter zone of A. hydrophila under different levels of the extracts were 0 mm (0 % negative control), 8.4 mm (0.2 %), 9.4 mm (0.4 %), 10.5 mm (0.6 %), 11.9 mm (0.8 %), 27.5 mm (positive control), respectively. Phytochemical screening of A. cordifolia leaves extract indicated that the extracts contained flavonoid, phenol, saponin, alkaloid, triterpenoid, and β-sitosterol. Our in vitro study demonstrated the inhibition growth of A. hydrophila that caused the disease of motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS).

  12. Reduction of fecal parasites by Arecha catechu L. seed and Anredera cordifolia (Ten) Steenis leaves powder in laying hens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumanti, Endang; Murwani, Retno

    2018-02-01

    Arecha catechu L (bettle nut) seed and Anredera cordifolia (Ten) Steenis (“Binahong”) have been shown to have anti helmintic and wound healing activities respectively. Their combine use as phytogenic additives in layers have been shown to reduce serum transaminase. Further study was conducted to evaluate the effect of A. catechu seed and A. cordifolia leaves powder supplementation on fecal parasites number and the performance of laying hens obtained from outdoor small scale layer farmers. Forty eight of 42 weeks old laying hens were allocated randomly into 4 treatment groups i.e. no supplementation (T0), supplemented with 0.025% A. catechu seed and A. cordifolia leaves powder (T0.025%), 0.05% A. catechu seed and A. cordifolia leaves powder (T0.05%), 0.1% A. catechu seed and A. cordifolia leaves powder (T0.1%). Each treatment consisted of six replicates with two hens per replicate. Supplementation were carried out by administering alternately A. catechu seed powder for 3 days followed by A. cordifolia leaves powder for another 3 days. The alternate supplementation for each groups was conducted for 18 days. Feed consumption, egg production, egg weight, hen day production (HDP) were recorded daily. Parasites counts were sampled and enumerated at the beginning and at the end of supplementation. The result showed that alternate supplementation of 0.0.025% A. catechu seed and A. cordifolia leaves powder up to 18 days to 42 weeks old laying hens reduced fecal parasites without affecting performance.

  13. Sida cordifolia leaf extract reduces the orofacial nociceptive response in mice.

    PubMed

    Bonjardim, L R; Silva, A M; Oliveira, M G B; Guimarães, A G; Antoniolli, A R; Santana, M F; Serafini, M R; Santos, R C; Araújo, A A S; Estevam, C S; Santos, M R V; Lyra, A; Carvalho, R; Quintans-Júnior, L J; Azevedo, E G; Botelho, M A

    2011-08-01

    In this study, we describe the antinociceptive activity of the ethanol extract (EE), chloroform (CF) and methanol (MF) fractions obtained from Sida cordifolia, popularly known in Brazil as "malva branca" or "malva branca sedosa". Leaves of S. cordifolia were used to produce the crude ethanol extract and after CF and MF. Experiments were conducted on Swiss mice using the glutamate and formalin-induced orofacial nociception. In the formalin test, all doses of EE, CF and MF significantly reduced the orofacial nociception in the first (p < 0.001) and second phase (p < 0.001), which was also naloxone-sensitive. In the glutamate-induced nociception test, only CF and MF significantly reduced the orofacial nociceptive behavior with inhibition percentage values of 48.1% (100 mg/kg, CF), 56.1% (200 mg/kg, CF), 66.4% (400 mg/kg, CF), 48.2 (200 mg/kg, MF) and 60.1 (400 mg/kg, MF). Furthermore, treatment of the animals with EE, CF and MF was not able to promote motor activity changes. These data demonstrate that S. cordifolia has a pronounced antinociceptive activity on orofacial nociception. However, pharmacological and chemical studies are necessary in order to characterize the responsible mechanisms for this antinociceptive action and also to identify other bioactive compounds present in S. cordifolia. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Volatile Constituents from Fresh Fruits of Alchornea cordifolia and Canthium subcordatum

    PubMed Central

    Essien, Emmanuel E.; Newby, Jennifer Schmidt; Walker, Tameka M.; Setzer, William N.; Ekundayo, Olusegun

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial resistance has been increasingly reported worldwide and is one of the major causes of failure in the treatment of infectious diseases. Natural-based products, including plant secondary metabolites (phytochemicals), can be exploited to ameliorate the problem of microbial resistance. The fruit essential oils of Alchornea cordifolia and Canthium subcordatum were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oils were subjected to in vitro antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activity screening. Thirty-eight compounds comprising 97.7% of A. cordifolia oil and forty-six constituents representing 98.2% of C. subcordatum oil were identified. The major components in A. cordifolia oil were methyl salicylate (25.3%), citronellol (21.4%), α-phellandrene (7.4%), terpinolene (5.7%) and 1,8-cineole (5.5%). Benzaldehyde (28.0%), β-caryophyllene (15.5%), (E,E)-α-farnesene (5.3%) and methyl salicylate (4.5%) were the quantitatively significant constituents in C. subcordatum fruit essential oil. A. cordifolia essential oil demonstrated potent in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 78 μg/mL) and marginal antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger (MIC = 156 μg/mL). C. subcordatum showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and S. aureus (MIC = 156 μg/mL) and notable antifungal activity against A. niger (MIC = 39 μg/mL). However, no appreciable cytotoxic effects on human breast carcinoma cells (Hs 578T) and human prostate carcinoma cells (PC-3) were observed for either essential oil. The antimicrobial activities of A. cordifolia and C. subcordatum fruit essential oils are a function of their distinct chemical profiles; their volatiles and biological activities are reported for the first time. PMID:28930111

  15. High perfomance liquid chromatography fingerprint analysis for quality control of brotowali (Tinospora crispa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syarifah, V. B.; Rafi, M.; Wahyuni, W. T.

    2017-05-01

    Brotowali (Tinospora crispa) is widely used in Indonesia as ingredient of herbal medicine formulation. To ensure the quality, safety, and efficacy of herbal medicine products, its chemical constituents should be continuously evaluated. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint is one of powerful technique for this quality control process. In this study, HPLC fingerprint analysis method was developed for quality control of brotowali. HPLC analysis was performed in C18 column and detection was performed using photodiode array detector. The optimum mobile phase for brotowali fingerprint was acetonitrile (ACN) and 0.1% formic acid in gradient elution mode at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The number of peaks detected in HPLC fingerprint of brotowali was 32 peaks and 23 peaks for stems and leaves, respectively. Berberine as marker compound was detected at retention time of 20.525 minutes. Evaluation of analytical performance including precision, reproducibility, and stability prove that this HPLC fingerprint analysis was reliable and could be applied for quality control of brotowali.

  16. Amelioration of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity by the administration of ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia Linn.

    PubMed

    Rejitha, S; Prathibha, P; Indira, M

    2012-10-01

    Sida cordifolia Linn. (Malvaceae) is a plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of the inflammation of oral mucosa, asthmatic bronchitis, nasal congestion and rheumatism. We studied the hepatoprotective activity of 50 % ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia Linn. against alcohol intoxication. The duration of the experiment was 90 d. The substantially elevated levels of toxicity markers such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase due to the alcohol treatment were significantly lowered in the extract-treated groups. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content, which was lowered due to alcohol toxicity, was increased to a near-normal level in the co-administered group. Lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, total collagen and hydroxyproline, which were increased in the alcohol-treated group, were reduced in the co-administered group. The mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 2E1, NF-κB, TNF-α and transforming growth factor-β1 were found to be increased in the alcohol-treated rats, and their expressions were found to be decreased in the co-administered group. These observations were reinforced by histopathological analysis. Thus, the present study clearly indicates that 50 % ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia Linn. has a potent hepatoprotective action against alcohol-induced toxicity, which was mediated by lowering oxidative stress and by down-regulating the transcription factors.

  17. Role of Sida cordifolia L. leaves on biochemical and antioxidant profile during myocardial injury.

    PubMed

    Kubavat, J B; Asdaq, S M B

    2009-07-06

    The Sida cordifolia L. (Family: Malvaceae) is a widely allocated herb by folk tribes of Gujarat state of India for the treatment of coronary manifestations. However, no published data relevant to use of the plant is available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and biochemical profile of hydroalcoholic extract of Sida cordifolia L. (HESC) leaves against myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Albino rats were administered HESC (100 and 500 mg/kg) and propranolol (10 mg/kg) once daily orally for 30 days. At the end of treatment period, MI was induced by administering isoproterenol (ISO) or by subjecting heart to ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Endogenous biomarkers (LDH and CK-MB) and antioxidants (SOD and catalase) were estimated in serum/perfusate and heart tissue homogenate (HTH). The LDH and CK-MB activities were elevated in HTH and depleted in serum/perfusate of HESC and propranolol groups when compared to ISO/IRI control. Further, it was found that both doses significantly increased endogenous antioxidants in HTH. Moreover, biochemical findings were supported by histopathological observations. The result confirm, at least in part, for the use of Sida cordifolia in folk medicine to treat MI.

  18. Antiperoxidative and antiinflammatory effect of Sida cordifolia Linn. on quinolinic acid induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Swathy, S S; Panicker, Seema; Nithya, R S; Anuja, M M; Rejitha, S; Indira, M

    2010-09-01

    Sida cordifolia is a plant belonging to the Malvaceae family used in many ayurvedic preparations. This study aimed at assessing the effects of ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia root on quinolinic acid (QUIN) induced neurotoxicity and to compare its effect with the standard drug deprenyl in rat brain. Rats were divided into six groups: (1) control group (2) QUIN (55 microg/100 g bwt/day) (3) 50% ethanolic plant extract treated group (50 mg/100 g bwt/day) (4) Deprenyl (100 microg/100 g bwt/day) (5) QUIN (55 microg/100 g bwt/day) + 50% ethanolic plant extract treated group (50 mg/100 g bwt/day) (6) QUIN (55 microg/100 g bwt/day) + Deprenyl (100 microg/100 g bwt/day). At the end of the experimental period a status of lipid peroxidation products, protein peroxidation product, activities of the scavenging enzymes and the activities of the inflammatory markers were analyzed. Results revealed that the lipid peroxidation products decreased and the activities of the scavenging enzymes increased significantly in the brain of the plant extract treated group, deprenyl treated group and also in the coadminstered groups. The activities of markers of inflammatory responses such as cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase were found to be significantly increased in the QUIN treated rats and this was decreased upon the administration of plant extract and deprenyl. In short, the study revealed that 50% ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia has got potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity and the activity is comparable with the standard drug deprenyl.

  19. Unprecedented NES non-antagonistic inhibitor for nuclear export of Rev from Sida cordifolia.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Satoru; Kaneko, Masafumi; Shiomi, Atsushi; Yang, Guang-Ming; Yamaura, Toshiaki; Murakami, Nobutoshi

    2010-03-15

    Bioassay-guided separation from the MeOH extract of the South American medicinal plant Sida cordifolia resulted in isolation of (10E,12Z)-9-hydroxyoctadeca-10,12-dienoic acid (1) as an unprecedented NES non-antagonistic inhibitor for nuclear export of Rev. This mechanism of action was established by competitive experiment by the biotinylated probe derived from leptomycin B, the known NES antagonistic inhibitor. Additionally, structure-activity relationship analysis by use of the synthesized analogs clarified cooperation of several functionalities in the Rev-export inhibitory activity of 1. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of aqueous leaf extract of Tinospora crispa as reducing and capping agents for synthesis of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apriandanu, D. O. B.; Yulizar, Y.

    2017-04-01

    Environmentally friendly method for green synthesis of Au nanoparticles (AuNP) using aqueous leaf extract of Tinospora crispa (TLE) was reported. TLE has the ability for reducing and capping AuNP. Identification of active compounds in aqueous leaf extract was obtained by phytochemical analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The AuNP-TLE growth was characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The particle size and the distribution of AuNP were confirmed by particle size analyzer (PSA). AuNP-TLE formation was optimized by varying the extract concentration and time of the synthesis process. UV-Vis absorption spectrum of optimum AuNP formation displayed by the surface plasmon resonance at maximum wavelength of λmax 536 nm. The PSA result showed that AuNP has size distribution of 80.60 nm and stable up to 21 days. TEM images showed that the size of the AuNP is ± 25 nm.

  1. Evaluating higher doses of Shunthi - Guduchi formulations for safety in treatment of osteoarthritis knees: A Government of India NMITLI arthritis project

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Arvind; Saluja, Manjit; Tillu, Girish; Venugopalan, Anuradha; Narsimulu, Gumdal; Sarmukaddam, Sanjeev; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Results of an exploratory trial suggested activity trends of Zingiber officinale-Tinopsora cordifolia (platform combination)-based formulations in the treatment of Osteoarthritis (OA) Knees. These formulations were “platform combination+Withania somnifera+Tribulus terrestris” (formulation B) and “platform combination+Emblica officinale” (formulation C). This paper reports safety of these formulations when used in higher doses (1.5–2 times) along with Sallaki Guggul and Bhallataka Parpati (a Semecarpus anacardium preparation). Materials and Methods: Ninety-two patients with symptomatic OA knees were enrolled in a 6 weeks investigator blind, randomized parallel efficacy 4-arm multicenter drug trial. The 4 arms were (I) formulation B, 2 t.i.d.; (II) formulation B, 2 q.i.d.; (III) platform combination+Sallaki Guggul; (IV) Bhallataka Parpati+formulation C. A detailed enquiry was carried out for adverse events (AE) and drug toxicity as per a priori check list and volunteered information. Laboratory evaluation included detailed hematology and metabolic parameters. Patients were examined at baseline, first and fourth weeks, and on completion. Standard statistical program (SPSS version 12.5) was used for analysis. Results: None of the patients reported serious AE or withdrew due to any drug-related toxicity. Mild gut–related (mostly epigastric burning) AE was reported. A mild increase in liver enzymes [serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)] without any other hepatic abnormality was reported in 2 patients (group IV). Other laboratory parameters remained normal. The mean improvement in active pain visual analog scale (1.4, CI 0.5–2.22), WOMAC (functional activity questionnaire) pain score (1.37, CI 0.22–2.5), and urinary C-TAX (cartilage collagen breakdown product) assay was maximum (NS) in group IV. Lower dose group I showed numerically superior improvement compared with higher dose group II

  2. Evaluating higher doses of Shunthi - Guduchi formulations for safety in treatment of osteoarthritis knees: A Government of India NMITLI arthritis project.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Arvind; Saluja, Manjit; Tillu, Girish; Venugopalan, Anuradha; Narsimulu, Gumdal; Sarmukaddam, Sanjeev; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2012-01-01

    Results of an exploratory trial suggested activity trends of Zingiber officinale-Tinopsora cordifolia (platform combination)-based formulations in the treatment of Osteoarthritis (OA) Knees. These formulations were "platform combination+Withania somnifera+Tribulus terrestris" (formulation B) and "platform combination+Emblica officinale" (formulation C). This paper reports safety of these formulations when used in higher doses (1.5-2 times) along with Sallaki Guggul and Bhallataka Parpati (a Semecarpus anacardium preparation). Ninety-two patients with symptomatic OA knees were enrolled in a 6 weeks investigator blind, randomized parallel efficacy 4-arm multicenter drug trial. The 4 arms were (I) formulation B, 2 t.i.d.; (II) formulation B, 2 q.i.d.; (III) platform combination+Sallaki Guggul; (IV) Bhallataka Parpati+formulation C. A detailed enquiry was carried out for adverse events (AE) and drug toxicity as per a priori check list and volunteered information. Laboratory evaluation included detailed hematology and metabolic parameters. Patients were examined at baseline, first and fourth weeks, and on completion. Standard statistical program (SPSS version 12.5) was used for analysis. None of the patients reported serious AE or withdrew due to any drug-related toxicity. Mild gut-related (mostly epigastric burning) AE was reported. A mild increase in liver enzymes [serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)] without any other hepatic abnormality was reported in 2 patients (group IV). Other laboratory parameters remained normal. The mean improvement in active pain visual analog scale (1.4, CI 0.5-2.22), WOMAC (functional activity questionnaire) pain score (1.37, CI 0.22-2.5), and urinary C-TAX (cartilage collagen breakdown product) assay was maximum (NS) in group IV. Lower dose group I showed numerically superior improvement compared with higher dose group II. The results suggested that despite higher doses, standardized

  3. In vitro Antiviral Activity of Rubia cordifolia Aerial Part Extract against Rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Gong, Xuepeng; Tan, Jia Y; Kang, Lifeng; Li, Dongyan; Vikash; Yang, Jihong; Du, Guang

    2016-01-01

    The root of Rubia cordifolia has been used traditionally as a hemostatic agent, while the aerial part of the plant consisting of leaf and stem is known to exhibit anti-diarrheal properties and has been widely used as a remedy in many parts of China. As rotavirus is one of the most commonly associated diarrhea-causing pathogen, this study aims to investigate the anti-rotaviral effect of R. cordifolia aerial part (RCAP). The cytotoxicity of RCAP toward MA-104 cells was evaluated using the WST-8 assay. Colloidal gold method and real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay were used to confirm the findings of the antiviral assay. Then, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining method was subsequently used to investigate the mode of death among the cells. And the representative components of aqueous extract were isolated and identified. It was shown that both the viability of MA-104 cells and the viral load were reduced with increasing concentration of the extract. DAPI staining showed that virus-induced apoptosis was the cause of the low cell viability and viral load, an effect which was accelerated with incubation in the aqueous herbal extract. The major compounds postulated to exhibit this activity were isolated from the aqueous herbal extract and identified to be compounds Xanthopurpurin and Vanillic Acid. This study showed that RCAP extract effectively inhibited rotavirus multiplication by promoting virus-induced apoptosis in MA-104 cells.

  4. In vitro Antiviral Activity of Rubia cordifolia Aerial Part Extract against Rotavirus

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Gong, Xuepeng; Tan, Jia Y.; Kang, Lifeng; Li, Dongyan; Vikash; Yang, Jihong; Du, Guang

    2016-01-01

    The root of Rubia cordifolia has been used traditionally as a hemostatic agent, while the aerial part of the plant consisting of leaf and stem is known to exhibit anti-diarrheal properties and has been widely used as a remedy in many parts of China. As rotavirus is one of the most commonly associated diarrhea-causing pathogen, this study aims to investigate the anti-rotaviral effect of R. cordifolia aerial part (RCAP). The cytotoxicity of RCAP toward MA-104 cells was evaluated using the WST-8 assay. Colloidal gold method and real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay were used to confirm the findings of the antiviral assay. Then, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining method was subsequently used to investigate the mode of death among the cells. And the representative components of aqueous extract were isolated and identified. It was shown that both the viability of MA-104 cells and the viral load were reduced with increasing concentration of the extract. DAPI staining showed that virus-induced apoptosis was the cause of the low cell viability and viral load, an effect which was accelerated with incubation in the aqueous herbal extract. The major compounds postulated to exhibit this activity were isolated from the aqueous herbal extract and identified to be compounds Xanthopurpurin and Vanillic Acid. This study showed that RCAP extract effectively inhibited rotavirus multiplication by promoting virus-induced apoptosis in MA-104 cells. PMID:27679574

  5. Origins and Widespread Distribution of Co-existing Polyploids in Arnica cordifolia (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Rebecca Hufft

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Polyploidy is a central force structuring genetic diversity in angiosperms, but its ecological significance and modes of origin are not fully understood. This work investigated the patterns of coexistence and molecular relatedness of polyploids in the perennial herb, Arnica cordifolia. Methods The local- and broad-scale distributions of cytotypes were analysed using flow cytometry. Samples were collected from both roadside and understorey habitats to test the hypothesis of niche separation between triploids and tetraploids. The nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and plastid rpl16 spacer, trnL intron plus trnL-trnF spacer and trnK 3' intron regions were sequenced. Key Results Broad-scale sampling established that both triploids and tetraploids were common throughout the range of the species, pentaploids were rare, and diploids were not found. Local-scale sampling revealed coexistence of both triploids and tetraploids within the majority of sites. Triploids and tetraploids were equally represented in the understorey and roadside habitat. Triploids were more variable than tetraploids, but both cytotypes shared polymorphisms in ITS. Conclusions Coexistence of cytotypes appears to be the norm in A. cordifolia, but habitat differentiation (roadside vs. understorey) is not supported as a coexistence mechanism. Molecular analyses supported multiple events creating triploids but revealed a lack of variation in the tetraploids. Additionally, sequence polymorphisms in ITS suggested a hybridization event prior to polyploidization. PMID:17993653

  6. Origins and widespread distribution of co-existing Polyploids in Arnica cordifolia (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Kao, Rebecca Hufft

    2008-01-01

    Polyploidy is a central force structuring genetic diversity in angiosperms, but its ecological significance and modes of origin are not fully understood. This work investigated the patterns of coexistence and molecular relatedness of polyploids in the perennial herb, Arnica cordifolia. The local- and broad-scale distributions of cytotypes were analysed using flow cytometry. Samples were collected from both roadside and understorey habitats to test the hypothesis of niche separation between triploids and tetraploids. The nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and plastid rpl16 spacer, trnL intron plus trnL-trnF spacer and trnK 3' intron regions were sequenced. Broad-scale sampling established that both triploids and tetraploids were common throughout the range of the species, pentaploids were rare, and diploids were not found. Local-scale sampling revealed coexistence of both triploids and tetraploids within the majority of sites. Triploids and tetraploids were equally represented in the understorey and roadside habitat. Triploids were more variable than tetraploids, but both cytotypes shared polymorphisms in ITS. Coexistence of cytotypes appears to be the norm in A. cordifolia, but habitat differentiation (roadside vs. understorey) is not supported as a coexistence mechanism. Molecular analyses supported multiple events creating triploids but revealed a lack of variation in the tetraploids. Additionally, sequence polymorphisms in ITS suggested a hybridization event prior to polyploidization.

  7. Chemical characterization and complement fixation of pectins from Cola cordifolia leaves.

    PubMed

    Austarheim, Ingvild; Christensen, Bjørn E; Aas, Hoai Thi Nguyen; Thöle, Christian; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit S

    2014-02-15

    Defatted leaves from the medicinal tree Cola cordifolia were extracted with 50% EtOH, 50 °C and 100 °C water. The polysaccharide rich extracts were fractionated and the structure of the polysaccharides elucidated. Linkage analysis of the polysaccharides indicates a rhamnogalacturonan type I backbone where both Rha and parts of GalA are substituted in position 3, indicating a highly branched polymer with short side chains. The purified fractions were tested for complement fixation, macrophage stimulating activity and anti-adhesion activity towards Helicobacter pylori. Here we report on complex and polydisperse types of pectins (Mw: 3-1300 kDa) as well as the presence of low Mw (<3 kDa) acidic oligosaccharides. The fractions showed a moderate complement fixing activity and no macrophage activating effects after LPS removal. Anti-adhesion activity towards H. pylori was not found. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Physiological differences between root suckers and saplings enlarge the regeneration niche in Eucryphia cordifolia Cav.

    PubMed

    Escandón, Antonio B; Rojas, Roke; Morales, Loreto V; Corcuera, Luis J; Coopman, Rafael E; Paula, Susana

    2018-01-01

    Many clonal plants produce vegetative recruits that remain connected to the parent plant. Such connections permit resource sharing among ramets, explaining the high survival rates of vegetative recruits during establishment under suboptimal conditions for sexual regeneration. We propose that differences in the regeneration niches of sexual and vegetative recruits reflect different physiological adjustments caused by parental supply of resources to the ramets. We conducted ecophysiological measurements in saplings and root suckers of Eucryphia cordifolia Cav., a tree species of the temperate rainforest of southern South America. We compared the following traits of saplings and suckers: gas exchange at the leaf level, crown architecture, daily crown carbon balance, biomass allocation to above-ground tissues (leaf-to-stem mass ratio, leaf mass area and leaf area ratio), xylem anatomy traits (lumen vessel fraction, vessel density and size) and stem ring width. We also correlated the growth rates of saplings and suckers with relevant environmental data (light and climate). Saplings showed morphological, architectural and physiological traits that enhance daily crown carbon balance and increase water-use efficiency, in order to supply their growth demands while minimizing water loss per unit of carbon gained. The radial growth of saplings diminished under dry conditions, which suggests a strong stomatal sensitivity to water availability. Suckers have low stomatal conductance, likely because the carbon supplied by the parent plant diminishes the necessity of high rates of photosynthesis. The low responsiveness of sucker growth to temporal changes in water availability also supports the existence of parental supply. The physiological differences between sexual and vegetative recruits satisfactorily explain the ecological niche of E. cordifolia, with saplings restricted to more closed and humid sites. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Malva sylvestris, Sida cordifolia, and Pelargonium graveolens Is Related to Inhibition of Prostanoid Production.

    PubMed

    Martins, Cleverson Antonio Ferreira; Campos, Michel Leandro; Irioda, Ana Carolina; Stremel, Dile Pontarolo; Trindade, Angela Cristina Leal Badaró; Pontarolo, Roberto

    2017-11-03

    The ability of plant extracts and preparations to reduce inflammation has been proven by different means in experimental models. Since inflammation enhances the release of specific mediators, inhibition of their production can be used to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of plants widely used in folk medicine for this purpose. The study was performed for leaves and flowers of Malva sylvestris , and leaves of Sida cordifolia and Pelargonium graveolens . These are three plant species known in Brazil as Malva. The anti-inflammatory activity of extracts and fractions (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and residual) was evaluated by quantitation of prostaglandins (PG) PGE₂, PGD₂, PGF 2α , and thromboxane B₂ (the stable nonenzymatic product of TXA₂) concentration in the supernatant of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- induced RAW 264.7 cells. Inhibition of anti-inflammatory mediator release was observed for plants mainly in the crude extract, ethyl acetate fraction, and residual fraction. The results suggest superior activity of S. cordifolia , leading to significantly lower values of all mediators after treatment with its residual fraction, even at the lower concentration tested (10 μg/mL). M. sylvestris and P. graveolens showed similar results, such as the reduction of all mediators after treatment, with leaf crude extracts (50 μg/mL). These results suggest that the three species known as Malva have anti-inflammatory properties, S. cordifolia being the most potent.

  10. Chinese herbal extracts of Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus suppress IgE production and prevent peanut-induced anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Peanut allergy is characterized by increased levels of peanut-specific IgE in the serum of most patients. Thus, the most logical therapy would be to inhibit the IgE production by committed B-cells. This study aims to investigate the unreported anti-IgE effects of Chinese herbal extracts of Rubia cordifolia (Qiancao) and Dianthus superbus (Qumai). Methods Seventy herbal extracts were tested for their ability to reduce IgE secretion by a human B-cell line. Those with the lowest inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) values were tested in a mouse model of peanut-anaphylaxis. Anaphylactic scores, body temperature, plasma histamine and peanut-specific-immunoglobulins were determined. Results Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus inhibited the in vitro IgE production by a human B-cell line in a dose-dependent manner and the in vivo IgE production in a murine model of peanut allergy without affecting peanut-specific-IgG1 levels. After challenge, all mice in the sham groups developed anaphylactic reactions and increased plasma histamine levels. The extract-treated mice demonstrated significantly reduced peanut-triggered anaphylactic reactions and plasma histamine levels. Conclusion The extracts of Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus inhibited the IgE production in vivo and in vitro as well as reduced anaphylactic reactions in peanut-allergic mice, suggesting potentials for allergy treatments. PMID:21961957

  11. Safety, Efficacy, and Physicochemical Characterization of Tinospora crispa Ointment: A Community-Based Formulation against Pediculus humanus capitis

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Gerwin Louis Tapan Dela; Ponsaran, Kerstin Mariae Gonzales; de Guzman, Angelica Louise Dela Peña; Manalo, Richelle Ann Mallapre; Arollado, Erna Custodio

    2017-01-01

    The high prevalence of pediculosis capitis, commonly known as head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) infestation, has led to the preparation of a community-based pediculicidal ointment, which is made of common household items and the extract of Tinospora crispa stem. The present study aimed to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and physicochemical characteristics of the T. crispa pediculicidal ointment. The physicochemical properties of the ointment were characterized, and safety was determined using acute dermal irritation test (OECD 404), while the efficacy was assessed using an in vitro pediculicidal assay. Furthermore, the chemical compounds present in T. crispa were identified using liquid-liquid extraction followed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometric (UPLC-qTOF/MS) analysis. The community-based ointment formulation was light yellow in color, homogeneous, smooth, with distinct aromatic odor and pH of 6.92±0.09. It has spreadability value of 15.04±0.98 g·cm/sec and has thixotropic behavior. It was also found to be non-irritant, with a primary irritation index value of 0.15. Moreover, it was comparable to the pediculicidal activity of the positive control Kwell®, a commercially available 1% permethrin shampoo (P>0.05), and was significantly different to the activity of the negative control ointment, a mixture of palm oil and candle wax (P<0.05). These findings suggested that the community-based T. crispa pediculicidal ointment is safe and effective, having acceptable physicochemical characteristics. Its activity can be attributed to the presence of compounds moupinamide and physalin I. PMID:28877572

  12. Biochemical and Ultrastructural Changes in Sida cordifolia L. and Catharanthus roseus L. to Auto Pollution.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vijeta; Chandra, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    Auto pollution is the by-product of our mechanized mobility, which adversely affects both plant and human life. However, plants growing in the urban locations provide a great respite to us from the brunt of auto pollution by absorbing the pollutants at their foliar surface. Foliar surface configuration and biochemical changes in plant species, namely, Sida cordifolia L. and Catharanthus roseus L. grown at roadside (polluted site 1, Talkatora; polluted site 2, Charbagh) in Lucknow city and in the garden of the university campus, which has been taken as reference site, were investigated. It was observed that air pollution caused by auto exhaust showed marked alterations in photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll, carotenoid, and phaeophytin), and relative water content was reduced while antioxidative enzymes like catalase and peroxidase were found to be enhanced. The changes in the foliar configuration reveal marked alteration in epidermal traits, with decreased number of stomata, stomatal indices, and epidermal cells per unit area, while length and breadth of stomata and epidermal cells were found to be increased in leaves samples wich can be used as biomarkers of auto pollution.

  13. Biochemical and Ultrastructural Changes in Sida cordifolia L. and Catharanthus roseus L. to Auto Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Vijeta; Chandra, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    Auto pollution is the by-product of our mechanized mobility, which adversely affects both plant and human life. However, plants growing in the urban locations provide a great respite to us from the brunt of auto pollution by absorbing the pollutants at their foliar surface. Foliar surface configuration and biochemical changes in plant species, namely, Sida cordifolia L. and Catharanthus roseus L. grown at roadside (polluted site 1, Talkatora; polluted site 2, Charbagh) in Lucknow city and in the garden of the university campus, which has been taken as reference site, were investigated. It was observed that air pollution caused by auto exhaust showed marked alterations in photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll, carotenoid, and phaeophytin), and relative water content was reduced while antioxidative enzymes like catalase and peroxidase were found to be enhanced. The changes in the foliar configuration reveal marked alteration in epidermal traits, with decreased number of stomata, stomatal indices, and epidermal cells per unit area, while length and breadth of stomata and epidermal cells were found to be increased in leaves samples wich can be used as biomarkers of auto pollution. PMID:27355010

  14. Study of aflatoxicosis reduction: effect of Alchornea cordifolia on biomarkers in an aflatoxin B1 exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Adépo, Jean-Baptiste Aholia; Manda, Pierre; Ngbé, Jean Verdier; Diakité, Aïssata; Tigori Sangaré, Béatrice; Dano, Sébastien Djédjé

    2018-01-17

    The toxicity of aflatoxins results in cancer and liver disease. Several natural substances such as plants exhibited their ability to inhibit the initiation of aflatoxin carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Alchornea cordifolia on biomarkers in an aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposed rats. The contents of polyphenols, flavonoids and the antioxidant activity of A. cordifolia ethanolic leaf extract (EELac) were assessed. Groups of rats were treated orally with a daily dose of a mixture of AFB1 at a dose of 150 μg/kg body weight and EELac (50, 100 and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 21 days. Biomarkers of AFB1, such as the AFB1-lysine adduct and aflatoxin M1 were assayed in blood and urine, respectively, using an HPLC system with a fluorescence detector. The contents of polyphenols and flavonoids were 6783.23 ± 272.76 μg EAG/g and 10.54 ± 3.15% of dry matter, respectively. EELac showed a good antioxidant activity (IC50 = 12.65 ± 0.13 μg/mL). The administration of the mixture (AFB1 + EELac) at different doses significantly reduced the level of AFB1-lysine adduct from 14.04 ± 2.1 to 4.13 ± 0.9 ng/mg albumin and that of Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) from 456 ± 16 to 220 ± 24 ng/mL (p <0.05). The rate of reduction was 70.58% for AFB1-lysine adduct and 51.75% for AFM1. A. cordifolia could be used in the prevention of toxicity induced by AFB1 on account of its high content in phenolic compounds.

  15. A nature-based approach for managing the invasive weed species Gutenbergia cordifolia for sustainable rangeland management.

    PubMed

    Ngondya, Issakwisa B; Munishi, Linus K; Treydte, Anna C; Ndakidemi, Patrick A

    2016-01-01

    The invasive weed species Gutenbergia cordifolia has been observed to suppress native plants and to dominate more than half of the entire crater floor (250 km 2 ) in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA). As this species has been found to be toxic to ruminants it might strongly impact animal populations in this ecologically diverse ecosystem. Hence, a nature-based approach is urgently needed to manage its spread. We tested two Desmodium spp extracts applied to G. cordifolia and assessed the latter's germination rate, height, fresh weight and leaf total chlorophyll content after 30 days in both laboratory and screen house experiments. Seedling germination rate was halved by Desmodium uncinatum leaf extract (DuL), particularly under higher concentrations (≥75 %) rather than lower concentrations (≤62.5 %). Likewise, in both laboratory and screen house experiments, germination rate under DuL treatments declined with increasing concentrations. Seedling height, fresh weight and leaf total chlorophyll content (Chl) were also most strongly affected by DuL treatments rather than D. uncinatum root extract, Desmodium intortum leaf extract or D. intortum root extract treatments. Generally, seedlings treated with higher DuL concentrations were half as tall, had one-third the weight and half the leaf Chl content compared to those treated with lower concentrations. Our study shows a novel technique that can be applied where G. cordifolia may be driving native flora and fauna to local extinction. Our data further suggest that this innovative approach is both ecologically safe and effective and that D. uncinatum can be sustainably used to manage invasive plants, and thus, to improve rangeland productivity.

  16. Phytochemical analysis, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Alchornea cordifolia methanol leaf extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Osadebe, Patience O; Okoye, Festus B C; Uzor, Philip F; Nnamani, Nneka R; Adiele, Ijeoma E; Obiano, Nkemakonam C

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of Alchornea cordifolia (A. cordifolia) leaf extract. Various solvent fractions of the methanol extract of the leaf of the plant A. cordifolia Mull. Arg (Fam: Euphorbiaceae) were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity by carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. The degree of protection was measured by using biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT/AST), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT/ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was also evaluated by the 1, 1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. The ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions, at a dose of 300 mg/kg, produced significant (P<0.05) hepatoprotection by decreasing the activities of the serum enzymes and bilirubin while there were marked scavenging of the DPPH free radicals by the fractions. The effects were comparable to those of the standard drugs used for the respective experiments, silymarin and ascorbic acid. Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins were detected in the phytochemical screening. From this study, it was concluded that the plant of A. cordifolia possesses hepatoprotective as well as antioxidant activities and these activities reside mainly in the ethyl acetate and acetone fractions of methanol leaf extract. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ameliorative effect of Sida cordifolia in rotenone induced oxidative stress model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Navneet; Gajbhiye, Asmita

    2013-12-01

    Present study focused on the evaluation of aqueous extract of Sida cordifolia (AESC), and its different fractions; hexane (HFSC), chloroform (CFSC) and aqueous (AFSC), against rotenone induced biochemical, neurochemical, histopathological and behavioral alterations in a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). An estimation of the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) along with superoxide anion generation (SAG) in different brain regions (cortex, midbrain and cerebellum) was carried out to assess biochemical changes. Behavioral evaluation tests (catalepsy, rearing behavior and posture instability) and neurochemical estimations (norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin level) along with histopathological evaluations of different brain regions were also performed. The varying doses (50, 100, 250mg/kg; p.o.) of different test treatments (AESC, HFSC, CFSC and AFSC) were co-administered along with rotenone (2mg/kg; s.c.), for a period of 35 days to rats of various groups and compared with rotenone per se (negative control) and l-deprenyl (positive control; 10mg/kg; p.o.) treated groups for the above mentioned parameters. The increase in catalepsy and posture instability along with decrease in rearing behavior observed due to rotenone treatment was significantly attenuated by co-treatment with varying doses of AESC and AFSC. Results of the histopathological studies of different brain regions of rats showed eosinophilic lesions in the mid brain region due to rotenone treatment. The eosinophilic lesions were significantly attenuated in co-treated groups of AESC-100mg/kg and AFSC-100mg/kg. Rotenone induced oxidative damage, revealed by increased level of TBARS, SAG and decreased level of GSH and CAT in mid brain region of rats, was attenuated by the co-treatment of AESC and AFSC. The rotenone induced decrease of dopamine level in the midbrain region of rats was also attenuated by co-treatment of AESC-100mg/kg and AFSC

  18. Toxicity assessment and analgesic activity investigation of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f . and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae), medicinal plants of Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae) are traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat several ailments, mainly pains, including abdominal infections and associated diseases. Despite the extensive use of these plants in traditional health care, literature provides little information regarding their toxicity and the pharmacology. This work was therefore designed to investigate the toxicological effects of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. Furthermore, their analgesic capacity was assessed, in order to assess the efficiency of the traditional use of these two medicinal plants from Burkina Faso. Method For acute toxicity test, mice were injected different doses of each extract by intraperitoneal route and the LD50 values were determined. For the subchronic toxicity evaluation, Wistar albinos rats were treated by gavage during 28 days at different doses of aqueous acetone extracts and then haematological and biochemical parameters were determined. The analgesic effect was evaluated in mice by the acetic-acid writhing test and by the formalin test. Results For the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of 3.2 g/kg and 3.4 g/kg respectively for S. acuta Burn f. and S. cordifolia L. were obtained. Concerning the haematological and biochemical parameters, data varied widely (increase or decrease) according to dose of extracts and weight of rats and did not show clinical correlations. The extracts have produced significant analgesic effects by the acetic acid writhing test and by the hot plate method (p <0.05) and a dose-dependent inhibition was observed. Conclusion The overall results of this study may justify the traditional uses of S. acuta and S. cordifolia . PMID:22883637

  19. Toxicity assessment and analgesic activity investigation of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f . and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae), medicinal plants of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Konaté, Kiessoun; Bassolé, Imaël Henri Nestor; Hilou, Adama; Aworet-Samseny, Raïssa R R; Souza, Alain; Barro, Nicolas; Dicko, Mamoudou H; Datté, Jacques Y; M'Batchi, Bertrand

    2012-08-11

    Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae) are traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat several ailments, mainly pains, including abdominal infections and associated diseases. Despite the extensive use of these plants in traditional health care, literature provides little information regarding their toxicity and the pharmacology. This work was therefore designed to investigate the toxicological effects of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. Furthermore, their analgesic capacity was assessed, in order to assess the efficiency of the traditional use of these two medicinal plants from Burkina Faso. For acute toxicity test, mice were injected different doses of each extract by intraperitoneal route and the LD50 values were determined. For the subchronic toxicity evaluation, Wistar albinos rats were treated by gavage during 28 days at different doses of aqueous acetone extracts and then haematological and biochemical parameters were determined. The analgesic effect was evaluated in mice by the acetic-acid writhing test and by the formalin test. For the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of 3.2 g/kg and 3.4 g/kg respectively for S. acuta Burn f. and S. cordifolia L. were obtained. Concerning the haematological and biochemical parameters, data varied widely (increase or decrease) according to dose of extracts and weight of rats and did not show clinical correlations. The extracts have produced significant analgesic effects by the acetic acid writhing test and by the hot plate method (p <0.05) and a dose-dependent inhibition was observed. The overall results of this study may justify the traditional uses of S. acuta and S. cordifolia .

  20. Chemical and biological characterization of pectin-like polysaccharides from the bark of the Malian medicinal tree Cola cordifolia.

    PubMed

    Austarheim, Ingvild; Christensen, Bjørn E; Hegna, Ida K; Petersen, Bent O; Duus, Jens O; Bye, Ragnar; Michaelsen, Terje E; Diallo, Drissa; Inngjerdingen, Marit; Paulsen, Berit S

    2012-06-05

    The bark of Cola cordifolia used in Malian traditional medicine contains unusual types of polysaccharides with immunomodulating activities. We report for the first time on the structure of a polymer designated CC1P1 having the repeating structure [2→)[α-D-Gal(1→3)]α-L-Rha(1→4)α-d-GalA(1→] as determined by NMR and GC/MS. α-Linked Gal is unusual in pectins. The Mw of 135 kDa was determined by SEC-MALLS. CC1P2 (1400 kDa), another polymer, having the same backbone, but this was substituted with α-4-OMe-GlcA, α-2-OMe-Gal and α-Gal as terminal units. CC1P1 shows a high complement-fixing activity, IC₅₀ being 2.2 times lower than the positive pectin control PMII (IC₅₀ appr. 71 μg/mL) while IC₅₀ of CC1P2 is 1.8 times lower. The simple structure of CC1P1 did not activate macrophages, while CC1P2 (100 μg/mL) showed the same potency as the positive controls PMII (100 μg/mL) and LPS (500 ng/mL). No cytotoxicity was detected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Rubia cordifolia L. by spectrum-effect relationships.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cai-Hong; Liu, Cui-Ting; Song, Xiao-Juan; Zeng, Wei-Ya; Lu, Xiao-Ying; Zheng, Zuo-Liang; Jie-Pan; Zhan, Ruo-Ting; Ping-Yan

    2018-07-15

    The objective of the current work was to evaluate the spectrum-effect relationships between high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprints and analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Rubia cordifolia L. extract (RCE), and to identify active components of RCE. Chemical fingerprints of ten batches of RC from various sources were obtained by HPLC, and similarity and hierarchical clustering analyses were carried out. Pharmacodynamic assays were performed in adjuvant-induced arthritis rat model to assess the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of RCE. The spectrum-effect relationships between chemical fingerprints and the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of RCE were established by gray correlation analysis. UPLC-ESI-MS was used to identify the structures of potential active components, by reference standards comparison. The results showed that a close correlation existed between chemical fingerprints with analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, and alizarin, 6-hydroxyrubiadin, purpurin and rubiadin might be the active constituents of RCE. In addition, RCE attenuated pathological changes in adjuvant-induced arthritis. The current findings provide a strong basis for combining chemical fingerprints with analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in assessing the spectrum-effect relationships of RCE. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. DNA barcoding for species identification from dried and powdered plant parts: a case study with authentication of the raw drug market samples of Sida cordifolia.

    PubMed

    Vassou, Sophie Lorraine; Kusuma, G; Parani, Madasamy

    2015-03-15

    The majority of the plant materials used in herbal medicine is procured from the markets in the form of dried or powdered plant parts. It is essential to use authentic plant materials to derive the benefits of herbal medicine. However, establishing the identity of these plant materials by conventional taxonomy is extremely difficult. Here we report a case study in which the species identification of the market samples of Sida cordifolia was done by DNA barcoding. As a prelude to species identification by DNA barcoding, 13 species of Sida were collected, and a reference DNA barcode library was developed using rbcL, matK, psbA-trnH and ITS2 markers. Based on the intra-species and inter-species divergence observed, psbA-trnH and ITS2 were found to be the best two-marker combination for species identification of the market samples. The study showed that none of the market samples belonged to the authentic species, S. cordifolia. Seventy-six per cent of the market samples belonged to other species of Sida. The predominant one was Sida acuta (36%) followed by S. spinosa (20%), S. alnifolia (12%), S. scabrida (4%) and S. ravii (4%). Such substitutions may not only fail to give the expected therapeutic effect, but may also give undesirable effects as in case of S. acuta which contains a 6-fold higher amount of ephedrine compared to the roots of S. cordifolia. The remaining 24% of the samples were from other genera such as Abutilon sp. (8%), Ixonanthes sp., Terminalia sp., Fagonia sp., and Tephrosia sp. (4% each). This observation is in contrast to the belief that medicinal plants are generally substituted or adulterated with closely related species. The current study strongly suggests that the raw drug market samples of herbal medicines need to be properly authenticated before use, and DNA barcoding has been found to be suitable for this purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of herbal ointment containing the leaf extracts of Madeira vine (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) for burn wound healing process on albino rats.

    PubMed

    Yuniarti, Wiwik Misaco; Lukiswanto, Bambang Sektiari

    2017-07-01

    Skin burn is a health problem that requires fast and accurate treatment. If not well-treated, the burn will cause various damaging conditions for the patient. The leaf extract of Madeira vine ( Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis), or popularly known as Binahong in Indonesia, has been used to treat various diseases. The purpose of this research is to determine the effects of leaf extracts of Madeira vine ( A. cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) on skin burn healing process in rats as an animal model. In this research, there were four treatment groups: G0, G1, G2, and G3, each consisting of five rats. All these rats were given skin burns, using hot metal plates. Then, sulfadiazine was given to G0, 2.5% leaf extract of Madeira vine was given to G1, 5% extract was given to G2, and 10% extract was given to G3, for straight 14 days topically, 3 times a day. At the end of the treatment period, skin excisions were conducted, and histopathological examination was carried out. Microscopic observation on the wound healing process on the collagen deposition, polymorphonuclear infiltration, angiogenesis, and fibrosis showed that G2 had a significant difference with G0, G1, and G3 (p<0.05), while group G0 was significantly different from G1 and G3 (p<0.05). The better burn healing process on G2 allegedly because of the activity of flavonoid, saponin, and tannin, contained in the Madeira vine, which have the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects. The ointment from the 5% leaf extract of Madeira vine ( A. cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) has been proven to be effective to be used for topical burn therapy.

  4. Effects of herbal ointment containing the leaf extracts of Madeira vine (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) for burn wound healing process on albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Yuniarti, Wiwik Misaco; Lukiswanto, Bambang Sektiari

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Skin burn is a health problem that requires fast and accurate treatment. If not well-treated, the burn will cause various damaging conditions for the patient. The leaf extract of Madeira vine (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis), or popularly known as Binahong in Indonesia, has been used to treat various diseases. The purpose of this research is to determine the effects of leaf extracts of Madeira vine (A. cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) on skin burn healing process in rats as an animal model. Materials and Methods: In this research, there were four treatment groups: G0, G1, G2, and G3, each consisting of five rats. All these rats were given skin burns, using hot metal plates. Then, sulfadiazine was given to G0, 2.5% leaf extract of Madeira vine was given to G1, 5% extract was given to G2, and 10% extract was given to G3, for straight 14 days topically, 3 times a day. At the end of the treatment period, skin excisions were conducted, and histopathological examination was carried out. Result: Microscopic observation on the wound healing process on the collagen deposition, polymorphonuclear infiltration, angiogenesis, and fibrosis showed that G2 had a significant difference with G0, G1, and G3 (p<0.05), while group G0 was significantly different from G1 and G3 (p<0.05). The better burn healing process on G2 allegedly because of the activity of flavonoid, saponin, and tannin, contained in the Madeira vine, which have the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects. Conclusion: The ointment from the 5% leaf extract of Madeira vine (A. cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) has been proven to be effective to be used for topical burn therapy. PMID:28831227

  5. Characterization of Rubia cordifolia L. root extract and its evaluation of cardioprotective effect in Wistar rat model

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekar, BS; Prabhakara, S; Mohan, T; Shabeer, D; Bhandare, Basavaraj; Nalini, M; Sharmila, PS; Meghana, DL; Reddy, Basanth Kumar; Hanumantha Rao, HM; Sahajananda, H; Anbazhagan, K

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Rubia cordifolia L. (RC) is a well-known and highly valuable medicinal plant in the Ayurvedic system. The present study involves evaluating antioxidant and cardioprotective property of RC root extract. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The characterization of RC root extract was carried out using standard phytochemical and biochemical analysis. The functional groups were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and phytotherapeutic compounds were identified using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). Cardioprotective activity of RC root extract was investigated against cyclophosphamide (CP; 100 mg/kg, i.p)-induced cardiotoxicity in male albino Wistar rats. RC (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o) or silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o) was administered immediately after CP on the 1st day and the next consecutive 10 days. Biochemical and histopathological analysis was performed to observe the cardioprotective effects of RC root extract. RESULTS: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of secondary metabolites that include alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and anthraquinones in RC root extract. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of several functional groups. Based on HR-MS analysis, eight major phytotherapeutic compounds were identified in methanol root extract of RC. Biochemical analysis in CP-induced rat model administered with RC extract revealed significantly enhanced levels of antioxidant markers such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione S-transferase. Histopathological study showed that the rat model treated with the root extract had reduced the cardiac injury. CONCLUSION: Our results have shown that the RC extract contains various antioxidant compounds with cardioprotective effect. Treatment with RC root extract could significantly protect CP-induced rats from cardiac tissue injury by restoring the antioxidant markers. PMID:29861523

  6. Volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds and in vitro bioactive properties of Chilean Ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia Cav.) honey.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Francisca; Torres, Paulina; Oomah, B Dave; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Massarioli, Adna Prado; Martín-Venegas, Raquel; Albarral-Ávila, Vicenta; Burgos-Díaz, César; Ferrer, Ruth; Rubilar, Mónica

    2017-04-01

    Ulmo honey originating from Eucryphia cordifolia tree, known locally in the Araucania region as the Ulmo tree is a natural product with valuable nutritional and medicinal qualities. It has been used in the Mapuche culture to treat infections. This study aimed to identify the volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds of Ulmo honey and elucidate its in vitro biological properties by evaluating its antioxidant, antibacterial, antiproliferative and hemolytic properties and cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. Headspace volatiles of Ulmo honey were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME); non-volatiles/semi-volatiles were obtained by removing all saccharides with acidified water and the compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis. Ulmo honey volatiles consisted of 50 compounds predominated by 20 flavor components. Two of the volatile compounds, lyrame and anethol have never been reported before as honey compounds. The non-volatile/semi-volatile components of Ulmo honey comprised 27 compounds including 13 benzene derivatives accounting 75% of the total peak area. Ulmo honey exhibited weak antioxidant activity but strong antibacterial activity particularly against gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the main strain involved in wounds and skin infections. At concentrations >0.5%, Ulmo honey reduced Caco-2 cell viability, released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose dependent manner in the presence of foetal bovine serum (FBS). The wide array of volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile constituents of Ulmo honey rich in benzene derivatives may partly account for its strong antibacterial and antiproliferative properties important for its therapeutic use. Our results indicate that Ulmo honey can potentially inhibit cancer growth at least partly by modulating oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical composition and biological evaluation of the volatile constituents from the aerial parts of Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) and Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C. Presl grown in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Tantawy, Mona E; Shams, Manal M; Afifi, Manal S

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil from the aerial parts of Nephrolepis exaltata and Nephrolepis cordifolia obtained by hydro-distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. The essential oils exhibited potential antibacterial and antifungal activities against a majority of the selected microorganisms. NEA oil showed promising cytotoxicity in breast, colon and lung carcinoma cells. The results presented indicate that NEA oil could be useful alternative for the treatment of dermatophytosis. Comparative investigation of hydro-distilled volatile constituents from aerial parts (A) of Nephrolepis exaltata (NE) and Nephrolepis cordifolia (NC) (Family Nephrolepidaceae) was carried out. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that oils differ in composition and percentages of components. Oxygenated compounds were dominant in NEA and NCA. 2,4-Hexadien-1-ol (16.1%), nonanal (14.4%), β-Ionone (6.7%) and thymol (2.7%) were predominant in NEA. β-Ionone (8.0%), eugenol (7.2%) and anethol (4.6%) were the main constituents in NCA. Volatile samples were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities using agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated using viability assay in breast (MCF-7), colon (HCT-116) and lung carcinoma (A-549) cells by the MTT assay. The results revealed that NEA oil exhibited potential antimicrobial activity against most of the tested organisms and showed promising cytotoxicity.

  8. Immunomodulatory effect of an isolated fraction from Tinospora crispa on intracellular expression of INF-γ, IL-6 and IL-8

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunomodulators are substances that modify immune system response to a threat. Immunomodulators modulate and potentiate the immune system, keeping it highly prepared for any threat. The immunomodulatory effect of the traditional medicine Tinospora crispa is investigated in this work. Methods T. crispa ethanol extract was fractionated by using different solvents. The ethanol extract and effective isolated fraction were used to investigate the potential immunomodulatory effect of different T. crispa doses ranging from 25 μg/mL to 1000 μg/mL on RAW 246.7 cells by detecting intracellular INF-γ, IL-6, and IL-8 expressions. The antioxidant activity of T. crispa was evaluated through FRAP and DPPH. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were also quantified. Results Results show that T. crispa extract has higher antioxidant potential than ascorbic acid. The FRAP value of T. crispa extract is 11011.11 ± 1145.42 μmol Fe+2/g, and its DPPH inhibition percentage is 55.79 ± 7.9, with 22 μg/mL IC50. The results also reveal that the total phenolic content of T. crispa extract is 213.16- ± 1.31 mg GAE/g dry stem weight, and the total flavonoid content is 62.07- ± 39.76 mg QE/g dry stem weight. T. crispa crude extract and its isolated fraction significantly stimulate RAW264.7 cell viability (P ≤ 0.05) and intracellular INF-γ, IL-6, and IL-8 expressions. The results of LC-MS show that four of the active compounds detected in the T. crispa isolated fraction are cordioside, quercetin, eicosenoic acid (paullinic acid), and boldine. Conclusions The results of this study obviously indicate that T. crispa has immunomodulatory effects through the stimulation of INF-γ, IL-6, and IL-8 expressions. LC-MS phytochemical analysis showed that the T. crispa fraction has cordioside, quercetin, eicosenoic acid (paullinic acid), and boldine, which may be responsible for the immunostimulator effect of T. crispa. PMID:24969238

  9. Immunomodulatory effect of an isolated fraction from Tinospora crispa on intracellular expression of INF-γ, IL-6 and IL-8.

    PubMed

    Abood, Walaa Najm; Fahmi, Iman; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Ismail, Salmah

    2014-06-27

    Immunomodulators are substances that modify immune system response to a threat. Immunomodulators modulate and potentiate the immune system, keeping it highly prepared for any threat. The immunomodulatory effect of the traditional medicine Tinospora crispa is investigated in this work. T. crispa ethanol extract was fractionated by using different solvents. The ethanol extract and effective isolated fraction were used to investigate the potential immunomodulatory effect of different T. crispa doses ranging from 25 μg/mL to 1000 μg/mL on RAW 246.7 cells by detecting intracellular INF-γ, IL-6, and IL-8 expressions. The antioxidant activity of T. crispa was evaluated through FRAP and DPPH. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were also quantified. Results show that T. crispa extract has higher antioxidant potential than ascorbic acid. The FRAP value of T. crispa extract is 11011.11 ± 1145.42 μmol Fe(+2)/g, and its DPPH inhibition percentage is 55.79 ± 7.9, with 22 μg/mL IC50. The results also reveal that the total phenolic content of T. crispa extract is 213.16- ± 1.31 mg GAE/g dry stem weight, and the total flavonoid content is 62.07- ± 39.76 mg QE/g dry stem weight. T. crispa crude extract and its isolated fraction significantly stimulate RAW264.7 cell viability (P ≤ 0.05) and intracellular INF-γ, IL-6, and IL-8 expressions. The results of LC-MS show that four of the active compounds detected in the T. crispa isolated fraction are cordioside, quercetin, eicosenoic acid (paullinic acid), and boldine. The results of this study obviously indicate that T. crispa has immunomodulatory effects through the stimulation of INF-γ, IL-6, and IL-8 expressions. LC-MS phytochemical analysis showed that the T. crispa fraction has cordioside, quercetin, eicosenoic acid (paullinic acid), and boldine, which may be responsible for the immunostimulator effect of T. crispa.

  10. Extraction of vitexin from binahong (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) leaves using betaine - 1,4 butanediol natural deep eutectic solvent (NADES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulia, Kamarza; Muhammad, Fajri; Krisanti, Elsa

    2017-03-01

    The leaves of binahong (Anredera cordifolia (Ten) Steenis) contain flavonoids as bioactive substances that have efficacy to treat wounds and diseases caused by bacteria. One of the flavonoids contained in the leaves is 8-glucopyranosyl-4'5'7-trihydroxyflavone or vitexin. Conventional extraction of flavonoids from leaves of binahong has been developed and usually using non-friendly organic solvent. To overcome these problems, a Natural Deep Eutectic Solvent (NADES) is used to replace the conventional organic solvents, as it is an environmentally friendly, non-toxic and high boiling point solvent. In this study, a betaine-based NADES combined with 1,4-butanediol in 1:3 mole ratio was used as the extraction solvent. Vitexin in the extract was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using an HPLC. The extraction of vitexin from binahong leaves at room temperature (27 °C) for four hours give yield of 46 ppm, much lower than 200 ppm yield obtained after extraction at 55 °C for 90 minutes. This results showed that (a) NADES consisting of betaine and 1,4 butanediol is a promising green solvent for extraction of vitexin from binahong leaves, and, (b) the extraction can be performed above ambient temperature, as long as it does not exceed the degradation temperature of the bioactive compound extracted.

  11. Free radical scavenging capacity, anticandicidal effect of bioactive compounds from Sida cordifolia L., in combination with nystatin and clotrimazole and their effect on specific immune response in rats.

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, Maurice; Konaté, Kiessoun; Lepengué, Alexis Nicaise; Souza, Alain; M'Batchi, Bertrand; Sawadogo, Laya L

    2012-12-26

    Infectious diseases caused by fungi are still a major threat to public health, despite numerous efforts by researchers. Use of ethnopharmacological knowledge is one attractive way to reduce empiricism and enhance the probability of success in new drug-finding efforts. In this work, the total alkaloid compounds (AC) from Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae) have been investigated for their free radical scavenging capacity, antifungal and immunostimulatory properties. The antifungal activity was investigated against five candida strains using the microplate dilution method and the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI) of compounds was evaluated. The antioxidant activity of the samples was evaluate using three separate methods, at last, the immunostimulatory effect on immunosuppressed wistar rats was performed. As for the antifungal activity, result varied according to microorganism. The results obtained in this antifungal activity were interesting and indicated a synergistic effect between alkaloid compounds and the antifungal references such as Nystatin and Clotrimazole. Antioxidant capacity noticed that the reduction capacity of DPPH radicals obtained the best result comparatively to the others methods of free radical scavenging. Our results showed a low immunostimulatory effect and this result could be explained by the lack of biologically active antioxidants such as polyphenol compounds lowly contained in the alkaloid compounds. The results of this study showed that alkaloid compounds in combination with antifungal references (Nystatin and Clotrimazole) exhibited antimicrobial effects against candida strains tested. The results supported the utilization of these plants in infectious diseases particularly in treatment of candida infections.

  12. Free radical scavenging capacity, anticandicidal effect of bioactive compounds from Sida Cordifolia L., in combination with nystatin and clotrimazole and their effect on specific immune response in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases caused by fungi are still a major threat to public health, despite numerous efforts by researchers. Use of ethnopharmacological knowledge is one attractive way to reduce empiricism and enhance the probability of success in new drug-finding efforts. In this work, the total alkaloid compounds (AC) from Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae) have been investigated for their free radical scavenging capacity, antifungal and immunostimulatory properties. Method The antifungal activity was investigated against five candida strains using the microplate dilution method and the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI) of compounds was evaluated. The antioxidant activity of the samples was evaluate using three separate methods, at last, the immunostimulatory effect on immunosuppressed wistar rats was performed. Results As for the antifungal activity, result varied according to microorganism. The results obtained in this antifungal activity were interesting and indicated a synergistic effect between alkaloid compounds and the antifungal references such as Nystatin and Clotrimazole. Antioxidant capacity noticed that the reduction capacity of DPPH radicals obtained the best result comparatively to the others methods of free radical scavenging. Our results showed a low immunostimulatory effect and this result could be explained by the lack of biologically active antioxidants such as polyphenol compounds lowly contained in the alkaloid compounds. Conclusion The results of this study showed that alkaloid compounds in combination with antifungal references (Nystatin and Clotrimazole) exhibited antimicrobial effects against candida strains tested. The results supported the utilization of these plants in infectious diseases particularly in treatment of candida infections. PMID:23268761

  13. Vascular and antioxidant effects of an aqueous Mentha cordifolia extract in experimental N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Prachaney, Parichat; Berkban, Warinee; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Khrisanapant, Wilaiwan; Phirawatthakul, Yada

    2014-01-01

    The effect of an aqueous Mentha cordifolia (MC) extract on the haemodynamic status, vascular remodeling, function, and oxidative status in NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertension was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given L-NAME [50 mg/(kg body weight (BW) d)] in their drinking water for 5 weeks and were treated by intragastric administration with the MC extract [200 mg/(kgBWd)] for 2 consecutive weeks. Quercetin [25 mg/(kg BW d)] was used as a positive control. The effects of the MC extract on the haemodynamic status, thoracic aortic wall thickness, and oxidative stress markers were determined, and the vasorelaxant activity of the MC extract was tested in isolated mesenteric vascular beds in rats. Significant increases in the mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), hind limb vascular resistance (HVR), wall thickness, and cross-sectional area of the thoracic aorta, as well as oxidative stress markers were found in the L-NAME-treated group compared to the control (P < 0.05). MAP, HVR, wall thickness, cross-sectional area of the thoracic aorta, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), and vascular superoxide anion production were significantly reduced in L-NAME hypersensitive rats treated with the MC extract or quercetin. Furthermore, the MC extract induced vasorelaxation in the pre-constricted mesenteric vascular bed with intact and denuded endothelium of normotensive and hypertensive rats. Our results suggest that the MC extract exhibits an antihypertensive effect via its antioxidant capacity, vasodilator property, and reduced vascular remodeling.

  14. Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response by ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia provides protection against alcohol-induced oxidative stress in liver by upregulation of glutathione metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rejitha, S; Prathibha, P; Indira, M

    2015-03-01

    Objective The study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant property of ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia (SAE) on alcohol-induced oxidative stress and to elucidate its mechanism of action. Methods Male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain were grouped into four: (1) control, (2) alcohol (4 g/kg body weight), (3) SAE (50 mg/100 g body weight), and (4) alcohol (4 g/kg body weight) + SAE (50 mg/100 g body weight). Alcohol and SAE were given orally each day by gastric intubation. The duration of treatment was 90 days. Results The activities of toxicity markers in liver and serum increased significantly in alcohol-treated rats and to a lesser extent in the group administered SAE + alcohol. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase and the reactive oxygen species level were increased significantly in alcohol-treated rats but attenuated in the SAE co-administered group. Oxidative stress was increased in alcohol-treated rats as evidenced by the lowered activities of antioxidant enzymes, decreased level of reduced glutathione (GSH), increased lipid peroxidation products, and decreased expression of γ-glutamyl cysteine synthase in liver. The co-administration of SAE with alcohol almost reversed these changes. The activity of glutathione-S-transferase and translocation of Nrf2 from cytosol to nucleus in the liver was increased in both the alcohol and alcohol + SAE groups, but the maximum changes were observed in the latter group. Discussion The SAE most likely elicits its antioxidant potential by reducing oxidative stress, enhancing the translocation of Nrf2 to nucleus and thereby regulating glutathione metabolism, leading to enhanced GSH content.

  15. Effects of Medhya Rasayana and Yogic practices in improvement of short-term memory among school-going children.

    PubMed

    Sarokte, Atul Shankar; Rao, Mangalagowri V

    2013-10-01

    Excellent memory, extraordinary intelligence, great academic achievement, and successful career are the dreams of every individual in this era of competition and professionalism. A good memory power acts as a catalyst in all walks of life, be it academic success or maintenance of personal relationships. It is observed that an average man uses only 10% of his natural memory. Remaining 90% is left unused in a haphazard manner. As per the American psychologist Carl Emil Seashore, if one is alert and makes systematic attempts to awaken and use the natural memory properly, his/her natural memory would be activated creatively and would offer benefits of higher order. A comparative study was conducted comprising 90 subjects to know the efficacy of Medhya Rasayana and Yogic practices in short-term memory of school-going children. The study was conducted over a period of 3 months. It was an open, prospective, and randomized clinical study. The subjects of group A formed the control group and they were observed silently for 3 months without any intervention. The subjects in group B were administered with Choorna (powder) of four Medhya Rasayanas, Mandukaparni (Centella asiatica Linn.), Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.), Guduchi [Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. f. and Thoms.], and Sankhapushpi (Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy), at a dose of 2 g twice daily with milk. Subjects belonging to group C were advocated regular Yogic practices of Asanas, Pranayama, and Dhyana. Further study revealed that among the three groups, group B treated with Medhya Rasayana showed highly significant and most effective changes with respect to objective parameters in the tests, i.e. (1) short-term memory test pictures and (2) serial recall effects test using memory scope. Among the three groups, group C treated with Yogic practices showed highly significant and most effective changes with respect to subjective and objective parameters in mini mental status scale i.e. test 3. The

  16. Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Activity of AHPL/AYCAP/0413 Capsule.

    PubMed

    Nipanikar, Sanjay; Chitlange, Sohan; Nagore, Dheeraj

    2017-01-01

    Conventional therapeutic agents used for treatment of Acne are associated with various adverse effects necessitating development of safe and effective alternative therapeutic agents. In this context, a polyherbal formulation AHPL/AYCAP/0413 was developed for treatment of Acne. To evaluate Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity of AHPL/AYCAP/0413. 1) Anti-inflammatory activity: Anti-inflammatory activity of AHPL/AYCAP/0413 in comparison with Diclofenac was assessed in carrageenan induced rat Paw edema model. 2) Anti-microbial activity for P. acne : Propionibacterium acnes were incubated under anaerobic conditions. Aliquots of molten BHI with glucose agar were used as the agar base. Formulation and clindamycin (10 μg/ml) were introduced in to the Agar wells randomly. 3) Anti-microbial activity for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus : Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus were incubated under aerobic conditions at 37°C. TSB with glucose agar was used as the agar base. 0.5ml of formulation and clindamycin (10 μg/ml) were introduced in to the wells randomly. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by measuring zones of inhibition (in mm). Significant reduction in rat paw edema (51% inhibition) was observed with formulation AHPL/AYCAP/0413 which was also comparable to that of Diclofenac (58% inhibition). Zone of inhibition for formulation was 18.33 mm, 19.20 mm and 26.30 mm for P. acnes , S. epidermidis and S. aureus respectively. This activity was also comparable to that of Clindamycin. AHPL/AYCAP/0413 capsule possesses significant Anti-inflammatory and Anti-microbial activities which further justifies its role in the management of Acne vulgaris. Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of polyherbal formulation AHPL/AYCAP/0413 were evaluatedAHPL/AYCAP/0413 contains Guduchi extract ( Tinospora cordifolia ), Manjishtha extract ( Rubia cordifolia ), Sariva extract ( Hemidesmus indicus ), Nimba extract ( Azardirachta indica

  17. Screening of antibacterial potentials of some medicinal plants from Melghat forest in India.

    PubMed

    Tambekar, D H; Khante, B S; Chandak, B R; Titare, A S; Boralkar, S S; Aghadte, S N

    2009-05-07

    Cyperus rotundus, Caesalpinia bonducella, Tinospora cordifolia, Gardenia gummifera, Ailanthus excelsa, Acacia arabica, Embelia ribes and Ventilago maderspatana from Melghat forest were screened for their antibacterial potential against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes by disc diffusion method. Out of these medicinal plants Caesalpinia bonducella, Gardenia gummifera and Acacia arabica showed remarkable antibacterial potential. The phytochemical analysis had showed the presence of Cardiac glycosides in all extracts (aqueous, acetone, ethanol and methanol) of Acacia arabica, Gardenia gummifera and ethanol, methanol extracts of Caesalpinia bonducella. Flavonoids were present in Gardenia gummifera, Ailanthus excelsa and acetone, methanol extracts of Acacia Arabica. Tannins and phenolic were present in Cyperus rotundus, Embelia ribes, and organic extracts of Ventilago maderspatana.

  18. Hydroalcoholic extracts of Indian medicinal plants can help in amelioration from oxidative stress through antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rhitajit; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro study of the antioxidant properties of the hydroalcoholic extracts of various Indian medicinal plants can logically help to develop a better and safer way of amelioration from oxidative stress. As aimed, the present study has been done to estimate and thereby conclude regarding the antioxidant activities of a few Indian medicinal plants, viz., Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis, Caesalpinia crista, Cajanus cajan, and Tinospora cordifolia. The extracts of the plants have been subjected to the evaluation of antioxidant properties through scavenging assays for reactive oxygen species like superoxide, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, hypochlorous acid, singlet oxygen, etc. and measurement of TEAC values and other phytochemical parameters. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of each plant have been found to be correlated to their individual antioxidant activity. The results showed the hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants were efficient indicators of their antioxidant capacity thus concreting their basis to be used as natural antioxidant.

  19. Medico-botanical study of Yercaud hills in the eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Parthipan, M; Aravindhan, V; Rajendran, A

    2011-04-01

    The study reports medicinal plant survey was conceded in Yercaud hills ranges of Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. The study primarily based on field surveys conducted throughout the hills, where dwellers provided information on plant species used as medicine, plant parts used to prepare the remedies and ailments to which the remedies were prescribed. The study resulted about 48- plant species belonging to 45- genera and 29- families of medicinal plants related to folk medicine used by the local people. Among them the most common plants viz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Cissus quadrangularis L., Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br., Justisia adhatoda L., Ocimum sanctum L., Phyllanthes amarus Schum. & Thonn., Piper nigrum L., Solanum nigrum L., Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, Tridax procumbens L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe which are used in their daily life to cure various ailments.

  20. Activity of a crude extract formulation in experimental hepatic amoebiasis and in immunomodulation studies.

    PubMed

    Sohni, Y R; Bhatt, R M

    1996-11-01

    The activity of a crude extract formulation was evaluated in experimental amoebic liver abscess in golden hamsters and in immunomodulation studies. The formulation comprises the following five plants-Boerhavia diffusa, Tinospora cordifolia, Berberis aristata, Terminalia chebula and Zingiber officinale. The formulation had a maximum cure rate of 73% at a dose of 800 mg/kg/day in hepatic amoebiasis reducing the average degree of infection (ADI) to 1.3 as compared to 4.2 for sham-treated controls. In immunomodulation studies humoral immunity was enhanced as evidenced by the haemagglutination titre. The T-cell counts remained unaffected in the animals treated with the formulation but cell-mediated immune response was stimulated as observed in the leukocyte migration inhibition (LMI) tests.

  1. Combined therapy of Ulmo honey (Eucryphia cordifolia) and ascorbic acid to treat venous ulcers1

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, Mariano del Sol; Figueroa, Carolina Schencke; Arias, Jessica Salvo; Sandoval, Alejandra Hidalgo; Torre, Felipe Ocharan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to assess the clinical effect of topical treatment using Ulmo honey associated with oral ascorbic acid in patients with venous ulcers. METHOD: longitudinal and descriptive quantitative study. During one year, 18 patients were assessed who were clinically diagnosed with venous ulcer in different stages, male and female, adult, with a mean injury time of 13 months. Ulmo honey was topically applied daily. The dressing was applied in accordance with the technical standard for advanced dressings, combined with the daily oral consumptions of 500 mg of ascorbic acid. The monitoring instrument is the assessment table of venous ulcers. RESULTS: full healing was achieved in 100% of the venous ulcers. No signs of complications were observed, such as allergies or infection. CONCLUSION: the proposed treatment showed excellent clinical results for the healing of venous ulcers. The honey demonstrated debriding and non-adherent properties, was easy to apply and remove and was well accepted by the users. The described results generated a research line on chronic wound treatment. PMID:26039296

  2. MYCOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND AFLATOXIN B1 CONTAMINANT ESTIMATION OF HERBAL DRUG RAW MATERIALS

    PubMed Central

    Rajeshwari, Puttaswamy; Raveesha, KoteshwarAnandrao

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present study explores the fungal contamination of important herbal drug raw materials (HDRM), which are widely used in the preparation of many herbal drugs. Understanding of the microbial contamination status of HDRM is one of the important steps to ensure the safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. Materials and Methods: Eighteen samples of six herbal drug raw materials (HDRM) viz., Acorus calamus Linn., Cassia angustifolia Vahl., Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban, Myristica fragrans Houtt., Tinospora cardifolia (Wild) Miers and Withania somnifera (Linn.) Dunal, were screened for fungal contamination, by employing serial dilution method. All the isolates of Aspergillus flavus were screened for their ability to produce aflatoxin B1 (AB1) and highly contaminated samples were subjected to AB1 estimation by using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), spectrophotometric method and occurrence of Aflatoxin B1 was confirmed by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis (LCMS). Results: A total of 302 isolates of 42 fungal species belonging to 17 genera were found in association with test the samples. More than 61% of A. flavus isolates tested positive for production of AB1 and highest yield recorded was 5008.20 ppb from the isolates of T. cordifolia. Amongthesix highly contaminated samples three samples tested positive for AB1. Highest AB1 was recorded from T. cordifolia (104.19 μg/kg), followed by A. calamus (13.73 μg/kg) and M. fragrans (12.02 μg/kg). Conclusion: Assessment of fungal and mycotoxin contamination should be a part of the quality check while selecting HDRM for manufacture of herbal products. Safe processing and storage practices are necessary. PMID:28487902

  3. Anti-diabetic activity of traditional Indian gold containing preparation: Shadguna Balijarita Makaradhwaja on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Khedekar, Sanjay; Rukkudin, Galib; Ravishankar, Basavaiah; Prajapati, Pradeepkumar

    2016-01-01

    Makaradhwaja a gold containing mercurial preparation used for diabetes mellitus in indigenous system of medicine. It is a popular aphrodisiac and rejuvenator traditional medicine. It is prepared by using processed gold, mercury and sulfur in different ratios by applying intermittent heating pattern in Valuka Yantra. The aim of the study was to evaluate anti-diabetic effect of Shadguna Balijarita Makaradhwaja (SBM) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced to normal rats by injecting STZ in dose 40 mg/kg. Powdered SBM and dried extract of Tinospora cordifolia were mixed with honey and administered orally for 20 days at dose 2.63 mg/kg and 42.34 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The effects of treatment on body weight changes and blood glucose levels were quantified on day 1, 5, 10, 15 and 21 of the experiments. On the 21(st) day, animals were sacrificed and gross histopathological changes in liver, kidney and pancreas were illustrated. Blood sugar level, glyacated hemoglobin, blood urea, serum cholesterol, serum creatinine, serum triglyceride and serum protein were estimated with standard methods. The study was conducted in the year 2011. Test drug observed significant decrease (P < 0.001) in glyacated hemoglobin level compared to diabetic control rats. Blood sugar level of test drug group shown a significant decrease (279.11 ± 57.95) compared with diabetic rats. The present study demonstrates that SBM and dried extract of T. cordifolia with honey significantly reduces the blood glucose level and shows anti-diabetic effect.

  4. Anti-diabetic activity of traditional Indian gold containing preparation: Shadguna Balijarita Makaradhwaja on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Khedekar, Sanjay; Rukkudin, Galib; Ravishankar, Basavaiah; Prajapati, Pradeepkumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Makaradhwaja a gold containing mercurial preparation used for diabetes mellitus in indigenous system of medicine. It is a popular aphrodisiac and rejuvenator traditional medicine. It is prepared by using processed gold, mercury and sulfur in different ratios by applying intermittent heating pattern in Valuka Yantra. Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate anti-diabetic effect of Shadguna Balijarita Makaradhwaja (SBM) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced to normal rats by injecting STZ in dose 40 mg/kg. Powdered SBM and dried extract of Tinospora cordifolia were mixed with honey and administered orally for 20 days at dose 2.63 mg/kg and 42.34 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The effects of treatment on body weight changes and blood glucose levels were quantified on day 1, 5, 10, 15 and 21 of the experiments. On the 21st day, animals were sacrificed and gross histopathological changes in liver, kidney and pancreas were illustrated. Blood sugar level, glyacated hemoglobin, blood urea, serum cholesterol, serum creatinine, serum triglyceride and serum protein were estimated with standard methods. The study was conducted in the year 2011. Results: Test drug observed significant decrease (P < 0.001) in glyacated hemoglobin level compared to diabetic control rats. Blood sugar level of test drug group shown a significant decrease (279.11 ± 57.95) compared with diabetic rats. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that SBM and dried extract of T. cordifolia with honey significantly reduces the blood glucose level and shows anti-diabetic effect. PMID:27104037

  5. Infrared spectroscopic analysis of skin tumor of mice treated with several medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Huma; Dixit, Savita

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the differences between cancerous tissue, drug treated tissue and its corresponding normal tissue by infrared spectroscopic analysis. Methods Methanolic extracts of Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum, Aloe barbandesis, Tinospora cordifolia and Triticum aestivum were assessed for the isolation and purification of active compound. After that, combine crude and combine isolated samples were prepared. Skin tumor was induced by topical application of 7, 12-dimethyl benz (a) anthracene and promoted by croton oil in Swiss albino mice. To assess the chemopreventive potential of different drugs, it was administered at a concentration of 400 mg/kg body weight daily up to 16 weeks. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis was used to differentiate the drug treated tissues with the normal and cancerous tissue. In the present study, spectra of different tissues were recorded in the range of 400-4 000 cm−1. Results The results of the present study have shown that the remarkable difference exists between the IR spectra of normal, drugs treated and cancerous tissue in terms of frequencies and intensities of prominent bands of cellular biomolecules. Conclusions Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis suggests the chemopreventive effect of above treated drugs and the best result was observed in combine crude sample and in combine isolated sample or synergistic effect of individual crude and isolated extract in 7, 12-dimethyl benz (a) anthracene croton oil induced skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice.

  6. Antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants against multiple antibiotic resistant uropathogens: a study from Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, A S; Raja, S S S; Ponmurugan, K; Kandekar, S C; Natarajaseenivasan, K; Maripandi, A; Mandeel, Q A

    2011-09-01

    The increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens necessitates medicinal plants as an alternate therapy in restricting the resistant infectious organisms. In this primitive study, the antibiotic resistance of organisms isolated from urinary tract infected patients was evaluated using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) method and Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index values, and the MAR values was also calculated for plant extracts. The 10 common medicinal plants collected from Kolli hills, Namakkal, south India were extracted using the chloroform, methanol, acetone, ethanol and saponification procedure. The efficacy of the extracts on the uropathogens was tested by agar disc diffusion method in order to analyse the inhibitory activity of plant extract on the organisms. Azadiracta indica A. Juss., Tinospora cordifolia (Wild.) and Euphorbia hirta Linn. exhibited high inhibitory activity against most of the 11 tested organisms followed by Cassia javanica Linn. and Phyllanthus niruri Linn. The maximum zone size of 46.3 mm was exhibited by methanol extract of P. niruri Linn. against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Asparagus racemosus Willd. and Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl had the least activity against resistant pathogens. Saponified lipids of most of the plants exhibited maximum antibacterial activity. Among the tested organisms, P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most susceptible and Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloaceae, Citrobacter koseri, and Citrobacter freundii were the least inhibited by most of the extracts of medicinal plants. It is concluded that revised antibiotic policies and more importantly the development of herbal medicine as an alternative may be incorporated in urological practice.

  7. The effects of spirulina on allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Cingi, Cemal; Conk-Dalay, Meltem; Cakli, Hamdi; Bal, Cengiz

    2008-10-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis is increasing globally due to various causes. It affects the quality life of a large group of people in all around the world. Allergic rhinitis still remains inadequately controlled with present medical means. The need of continuous medical therapy makes individuals anxious about the side effects of the drugs. So there is a need for an alternative strategy. Effects of spirulina, tinospora cordifolia and butterbur were investigated recently on allergic rhinitis in just very few investigations. Spirulina represents a blue-green alga that is produced and commercialized as a dietary supplement for modulating immune functions, as well as ameliorating a variety of diseases. This double blind, placebo controlled study, evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability of spirulina for treating patients with allergic rhinitis. Spirulina consumption significantly improved the symptoms and physical findings compared with placebo (P < 0.001***) including nasal discharge, sneezing, nasal congestion and itching. Spirulina is clinically effective on allergic rhinitis when compared with placebo. Further studies should be performed in order to clarify the mechanism of this effect.

  8. Antihyperglycaemic effect of 'Ilogen-Excel', an ayurvedic herbal formulation in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Umamaheswari, Selvaraj; Mainzen Prince, Ponnaian Stanely

    2007-01-01

    'Ilogen-Excel', an Ayurvedic herbal formulation is composed of eight medicinal plants (Curcuma longa, Strychnos potatorum, Salacia oblonga, Tinospora cordifolia, Vetivelia zizanioides, Coscinium fenestratum, Andrographis paniculata and Mimosa pudica). The present study evaluates the antihyperglycemic effect of 'Ilogen-Excel' in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Rats were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg/kg body weight). Oral administration of 'Ilogen-Excel' (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg) for 60 days resulted in significantly lowered levels of blood glucose and significantly increased levels of plasma insulin, hepatic glycogen and total hemoglobin. 'Ilogen-Excel' administration also decreased the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides, ceruloplasmin and vitamin E in diabetic rats. Plasma reduced glutathione and vitamin C were significantly elevated by oral administration of 'Ilogen-Excel'. Administration of insulin normalized all the biochemical parameters studied in diabetic rats. The effect at a dose of 100 mg/kg was more pronounced than 50 mg/kg and brought back all the parameters to near normal levels. Thus, our study shows the antihyperglycemic effects of 'Ilogen-Excel' in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Our study also shows that combined therapy is better than individual therapy.

  9. A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Vasim; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Akhtar, Mohd.; Aqil, Mohd.; Mujeeb, Mohd.; Pillai, K. K.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in diabetes. A record of various medicinal plants with their established antidiabetic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Allium sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Panax ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Momrodica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum graecum and Tinospora cordifolia. All of them have shown a certain degree of antidiabetic activity by different mechanisms of action. PMID:22368396

  10. Enhanced resistance to Spodoptera litura in endophyte infected cauliflower plants.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Abhinay; Kaur, Sanehdeep; Kaur, Amarjeet; Singh, Varinder

    2013-04-01

    Endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of disease, are important mediators of plant-herbivore interactions. These endophytes enhance resistance of host plant against insect herbivores mainly by productions of various alkaloid based defensive compounds in the plant tissue or through alterations of plant nutritional quality. Two endophytic fungi, i.e., Nigrospora sp. and Cladosporium sp., were isolated from Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, a traditional indian medicinal plant. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) plants were inoculated with these two endophytic fungi. The effect of endophyte infected and uninfected cauliflower plants were measured on the survival and development of Spodoptera litura (Fab.), a polyphagous pest. Endophyte infected cauliflower plants showed resistance to S. litura in the form of significant increase in larval and pupal mortality in both the fungi. Inhibitory effects of endophytic fungi also were observed on adult emergence, longevity, reproductive potential, as well as hatchability of eggs. Thus, it is concluded that antibiosis to S. litura could be imparted by artificial inoculation of endophytes and this could be used to develop alternative ecologically safe control strategies.

  11. Application of the Kombucha 'tea fungus' for the enhancement of antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory properties of ten herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Watawana, Mindani I; Jayawardena, Nilakshi; Choo, Candy; Waisundara, Viduranga Y

    2016-03-01

    Ten herbal teas (Acacia arabica, Aegle marmelos flower, A. marmelos root bark, Aerva lanata, Asteracantha longifolia, Cassia auriculata, Hemidesmus indicus, Hordeum vulgare, Phyllanthus emblica, Tinospora cordifolia) were fermented with the Kombucha 'tea fungus'. The pH values of the fermented beverages ranged from 4.0 to 6.0 by day 7, while the titratable acidity ranged from 2.5 to 5.0g/mL (P<0.05). Gallic acid had statistically significantly increased (P<0.05) in almost all the samples by day 7. The Oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay indicated 5 of the Kombucha beverages to have statistically significant increases (P<0.05) by day 7. The α-amylase inhibitory activities ranged from 52.5 to 67.2μg/mL in terms of IC50 values following fermentation, while the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities ranged from 95.2 to 196.1μg/mL. In conclusion, an enhancement of the antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory potential of the herbal teas was observed by adding the tea fungus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Trasina, an Ayurvedic herbal formulation, on pancreatic islet superoxide dismutase activity in hyperglycaemic rats.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, S K; Satyan, K S; Chakrabarti, A

    1997-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus was induced in male CF strain rats by streptozotocin (STZ) and hyperglycaemia and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of pancreatic islet cells was assessed on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. STZ induced significant hyperglycaemia and a concomitant decrease in islet cell SOD activity. Transina (TR), an Ayurvedic herbal formulation comprising of Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Eclipta alba, Ocimum sanctum, Picrorrhiza kurroa and shilajit, had little per se effect on blood sugar concentrations and islet SOD activity in euglycaemic rats, in the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. administered once daily for 28 days. However, these doses of TR induced a dose- related decrease in STZ hyperglycaemia and attenuation of STZ induced decrease in islet SOD activity. The results indicate that the earlier reported anti-hyperglycaemic effect of TR may be due to pancreatic islet free radical scavenging activity, the hyperglycaemic activity of STZ being the consequence of decrease in islet SOD activity leading to the accumulation of degenerative oxidative free radicals in islet beta-cells.

  13. Anti-diabetic formulations of Nāga bhasma (lead calx): A brief review

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Dhirajsingh; Patgiri, B. J.; Galib, R; Prajapati, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Ayurvedic formulations usually contain ingredients of herbal, mineral, metal or animal in origin. Nāga bhasma (lead calx) is a potent metallic formulation mainly indicated in the treatment of Prameha (~diabetes). Until date, no published information is available in compiled form on the formulations containing Nāga bhasma as an ingredient, their dose and indications. Therefore, in the present study, an attempt has been made to compile various formulations of Nāga bhasma indicated in treating Prameha. Aim: The present work aims to collect information on various formulations of Nāga bhasma mainly indicated in treating Prameha and to elaborate the safety and efficacy of Nāga bhasma as a Pramehaghna (antidiabetic) drug. Materials and Methods Critical review of formulations of Nāga bhasma is compiled from various Ayurvedic texts and the therapeutic efficacy of Nāga bhasma is discussed on the basis of available data. Result and Conclusion: Antidiabetic formulations of Nāga bhasma were discovered around 12th century CE. There are 44 formulations of Nāga bhasma mainly indicated for Prameha. Haridrā (Curcuma longa Linn), Āmalakī (Emblica officinalis), Guḍūci (Tinospora cordifolia) and Madhu (honey) enhance the antidiabetic action of Nāga bhasma and also help to prevent diabetic complications as well as any untoward effects of Nāga bhasma. On the basis of the reviewed research, it is concluded that Nāga bhasma possesses significant antidiabetic property. PMID:25161332

  14. Anti-diabetic formulations of Nāga bhasma (lead calx): A brief review.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Dhirajsingh; Patgiri, B J; Galib, R; Prajapati, P K

    2013-07-01

    Ayurvedic formulations usually contain ingredients of herbal, mineral, metal or animal in origin. Nāga bhasma (lead calx) is a potent metallic formulation mainly indicated in the treatment of Prameha (~diabetes). Until date, no published information is available in compiled form on the formulations containing Nāga bhasma as an ingredient, their dose and indications. Therefore, in the present study, an attempt has been made to compile various formulations of Nāga bhasma indicated in treating Prameha. The present work aims to collect information on various formulations of Nāga bhasma mainly indicated in treating Prameha and to elaborate the safety and efficacy of Nāga bhasma as a Pramehaghna (antidiabetic) drug. Critical review of formulations of Nāga bhasma is compiled from various Ayurvedic texts and the therapeutic efficacy of Nāga bhasma is discussed on the basis of available data. Antidiabetic formulations of Nāga bhasma were discovered around 12(th) century CE. There are 44 formulations of Nāga bhasma mainly indicated for Prameha. Haridrā (Curcuma longa Linn), Āmalakī (Emblica officinalis), Guḍūci (Tinospora cordifolia) and Madhu (honey) enhance the antidiabetic action of Nāga bhasma and also help to prevent diabetic complications as well as any untoward effects of Nāga bhasma. On the basis of the reviewed research, it is concluded that Nāga bhasma possesses significant antidiabetic property.

  15. Total Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), Antioxidant Activity, and Acceptance of Synbiotic Yoghurt with Binahong Leaf Extract (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestari, R. P.; Nissa, C.; Afifah, D. N.; Anjani, G.; Rustanti, N.

    2018-02-01

    Alternative treatment for metabolic syndrome can be done by providing a diet consist of functional foods or beverages. Synbiotic yoghurt containing binahong leaf extract which high in antioxidant, total LAB and fiber can be selected to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome. The effect of binahong leaf extract in synbiotic yoghurt against total LAB, antioxidant activity, and acceptance were analyzed. The experiment was done with complete randomized design with addition of binahong leaf extract 0% (control); 0.12%; 0.25%; 0.5% in synbiotic yoghurt. Analysis of total LAB using Total Plate Count test, antioxidant activity using DPPH, and acceptance were analyzed by hedonic test. The addition of binahong leaf extract in various doses in synbiotic yoghurt decreased total LAB without significant effect (p=0,145). There was no effect of addition binahong leaf extract on antioxidant activity (p=0,297). The addition of binahong leaf extract had an effect on color, but not on aroma, texture and taste. The best result was yoghurt synbiotic with addition of 0,12% binahong leaf extract. Conclusion of the research was the addition of binahong leaf extract to synbiotic yogurt did not significantly affect total LAB, antioxidant activity, aroma, texture and taste; but had a significant effect on color.

  16. Development of an experimental diet model in rats to study hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance, markers for coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Renuka P; Joshi, Samidha G; Rane, Bhagyeshri N

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an experimental model of hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance (IR), markers of coronary heart disease (CHD) using high fat and high sugar (HFHS) diet and to evaluate the efficacy of the model using atorvastatin, a known antihyperlipidemic drug, pioglitazone, a known insulin sensitizer, and Tinospora cordifolia (Tc), an antidiabetic plant. Following Institutional Animal Ethics Committee permission, the study was conducted in male Wistar rats (200-270 g). The model was developed using a high fat (vanaspati ghee: coconut oil, 3:1) oral diet along with 25% fructose (high sugar) added in drinking water over a period of 6 weeks. Atorvastatin (2.1 mg/kg/day), pioglitazone (2.7 mg/kg/day) and Tc (200 mg/kg/day) were administered 3 weeks after initiation of HFHS diet and continued for another 3 weeks. Parameters assessed were weight, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, insulin, and gastric emptying. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase were assessed as markers of oxidative stress. Administration of HFHS diet demonstrated a significant increase in blood glucose, insulin, total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides with a decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Treatment with test drugs decreased blood sugar, insulin, lipid parameters, increased gastric emptying rate, decreased MDA levels, and catalase activity when compared to HFHS diet group, confirming the efficacy of the model. Atherogenic index of all the test drugs (0.48, 0.57, and 0.53) was significantly lower as compared to HFHS diet group (1.107). This study confirms the development of a diet based cost-effective and time efficient experimental model, which can be used to study two important markers of cardiovascular disease that is, hyperlipidemia and IR and to explore the efficacy of new molecules in CHD.

  17. Development of an experimental diet model in rats to study hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance, markers for coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Munshi, Renuka P.; Joshi, Samidha G.; Rane, Bhagyeshri N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to develop an experimental model of hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance (IR), markers of coronary heart disease (CHD) using high fat and high sugar (HFHS) diet and to evaluate the efficacy of the model using atorvastatin, a known antihyperlipidemic drug, pioglitazone, a known insulin sensitizer, and Tinospora cordifolia (Tc), an antidiabetic plant. Materials and Methods: Following Institutional Animal Ethics Committee permission, the study was conducted in male Wistar rats (200-270 g). The model was developed using a high fat (vanaspati ghee: coconut oil, 3:1) oral diet along with 25% fructose (high sugar) added in drinking water over a period of 6 weeks. Atorvastatin (2.1 mg/kg/day), pioglitazone (2.7 mg/kg/day) and Tc (200 mg/kg/day) were administered 3 weeks after initiation of HFHS diet and continued for another 3 weeks. Parameters assessed were weight, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, insulin, and gastric emptying. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase were assessed as markers of oxidative stress. Results: Administration of HFHS diet demonstrated a significant increase in blood glucose, insulin, total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides with a decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Treatment with test drugs decreased blood sugar, insulin, lipid parameters, increased gastric emptying rate, decreased MDA levels, and catalase activity when compared to HFHS diet group, confirming the efficacy of the model. Atherogenic index of all the test drugs (0.48, 0.57, and 0.53) was significantly lower as compared to HFHS diet group (1.107). Conclusion: This study confirms the development of a diet based cost-effective and time efficient experimental model, which can be used to study two important markers of cardiovascular disease that is, hyperlipidemia and IR and to explore the efficacy of new molecules in CHD. PMID:24987172

  18. Ayurvedic approach in the management of spinocerebellar ataxia-2.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarvesh Kumar; Rajoria, Kshipra

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia -2 is a progressive, degenerative genetic disease caused by an expanded (CAG) trinucleotide repetition on the chromosome 12 resulting in production of an abnormal protein called ataxin-2. There is no known effective management or cure in biomedicine for this genetic disease. In the present study a case of SCA2 that was treated with Ayurvedic intervention is reported. Ayurvedic treatments in this case were directed towards alleviating symptoms and to reduce severe disability due to progressive nature of disease. A 42 year old male patient was diagnosed for Vāta vyādhi (group of various neurological disorders) and was- treated with Śālisastika pinda svedana (sudation with bolus of medicated cooked rice) for 30 days-, Śirobasti (sudation of head with the help of a cap on head) with Aśvagandhā taila for 45 days and Balādi ksīra basti (enema with medicated milk) with Aśvagandhā taila anuvāsana (enema with oil) for 30 days in Karma basti krama (30 days regime of purification and oleation enema) along with a combination of Ayurvedic oral drugs which consisted of Brahadvātacintāmanirasa - 125 mg, Vasantāmaltī rasa- 125 mg, Daśamūla kvātha- 40 ml, Aśvagandhā cūrṇa (powder of Withania somnifera DUNAL)- 3g, Amrtā cūrṇa (powder of Tinospora cordifolia Willd.)- 500 mg, Muktāśukti pisti - 500 mg, Yogarāja Guggulu - 500 mg twice a day for 2 months. Patient's condition was assessed on the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA). Before treatment, mean SARA score was 35. This reduced to 15 after treatment. Good relief in dysarthria, fasciculation, heaviness in eye, blurred vision, axial tremor; constipation and quality of life were observed in this case.

  19. Ayurvedic approach in the management of spinocerebellar ataxia-2

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sarvesh Kumar; Rajoria, Kshipra

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia -2 is a progressive, degenerative genetic disease caused by an expanded (CAG) trinucleotide repetition on the chromosome 12 resulting in production of an abnormal protein called ataxin-2. There is no known effective management or cure in biomedicine for this genetic disease. In the present study a case of SCA2 that was treated with Ayurvedic intervention is reported. Ayurvedic treatments in this case were directed towards alleviating symptoms and to reduce severe disability due to progressive nature of disease. A 42 year old male patient was diagnosed for Vāta vyādhi (group of various neurological disorders) and was- treated with Śālisastika pinda svedana (sudation with bolus of medicated cooked rice) for 30 days-, Śirobasti (sudation of head with the help of a cap on head) with Aśvagandhā taila for 45 days and Balādi ksīra basti (enema with medicated milk) with Aśvagandhā taila anuvāsana (enema with oil) for 30 days in Karma basti krama (30 days regime of purification and oleation enema) along with a combination of Ayurvedic oral drugs which consisted of Brahadvātacintāmanirasa – 125 mg, Vasantāmaltī rasa- 125 mg, Daśamūla kvātha- 40 ml, Aśvagandhā cūrṇa (powder of Withania somnifera DUNAL)- 3g, Amrtā cūrṇa (powder of Tinospora cordifolia Willd.)- 500 mg, Muktāśukti pisti – 500 mg, Yogarāja Guggulu – 500 mg twice a day for 2 months. Patient's condition was assessed on the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA). Before treatment, mean SARA score was 35. This reduced to 15 after treatment. Good relief in dysarthria, fasciculation, heaviness in eye, blurred vision, axial tremor; constipation and quality of life were observed in this case. PMID:27143801

  20. Short-term effect of G-400, polyherbal formulation in the management of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia conditions in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kurian, Gino A; Manjusha, V; Nair, Sunitha S; Varghese, Thomas; Padikkala, Jose

    2014-10-01

    Salacia oblonga, Tinospora cordifolia, Emblica offinalis Gaertn, Curcuma longa and Gymnema sylvestre are Ayurvedic medicinal plants reported to lower plasma glucose levels in animal models. To our knowledge, however, no clinical validations of those extracts for efficacy have been. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polyherbal combination in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We screened 250 patients enrolled in a diabetes mellitus screening camp held at District Ayurvedic Hospital, Kottayam, Kerala, India. Of these, 89 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 50 healthy volunteers of similar age group were included in the study. Patients were treated with a polyherbal combination drug namely G-400 (1000 mg/d) for 8 wk with a follow-up of 2wk interval. Fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels measured after 8 wk of G-400 treatment in patients were significantly lower. Indeed diabetic rats showed similar protection with G-400 administration. Furthermore, glycosylated hemoglobin, serum total cholesterol, both high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides showed a significant improvement in G-400-administered patients. Toxicologic profile of the drug was assessed by analyzing the enzyme activities of alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase along with the concentration of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in blood and found insignificant change compared with control. Short-term supplementation of G-400 not only attenuates the hyperglycemia, but also acts as hypolipidemic agent in patients with diabetes. Further study should be done for the long-term effect of the drug in larger populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Intermittent fasting combined with supplementation with Ayurvedic herbs reduces anxiety in middle aged female rats by anti-inflammatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harpal; Kaur, Taranjeet; Manchanda, Shaffi; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2017-08-01

    Intermittent fasting-dietary restriction (IF-DR) is an increasingly popular intervention to promote healthy aging and delay age associated decline in brain functions. Also, the use of herbal interventions is gaining attention due to their non-pharmacological approach to treat several abnormalities and promote general health with least side effects. The present study was aimed to investigate the synergistic effects of IF-DR regimen with herbal supplementation on anxiety-like behavior and neuroinflammation in middle aged female rats. We used dried leaf powder of Withania somnifera and dried stem powder of Tinospora cordifolia for our study. The rats were divided into three groups: (1) Control group fed ad libitum (AL); (2) rats deprived of food for full day and fed ad libitum on every alternate day (IF-DR); and (3) IF-DR and herbal extract (DRH) group in which rats were fed ad libitum with herbal extract supplemented diet, every alternate day. Post regimen, the rats were tested for anxiety-like behavior and further used for study of key inflammatory molecules (NFκB, Iba1, TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6) and glial marker (GFAP) in hippocampus and piriform cortex regions of brain. The study was further extended to explore the effect of DRH regimen on stress response protein (HSP70) and calcium dependent regulators of synaptic plasticity (CaMKIIα, Calcineurin). Our data demonstrated that DRH regimen reduced anxiety-like behavior in middle age female rats and associated neuroinflammation by ameliorating key inflammatory cytokines and modulated stress response. The present data may provide scientific validation for anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory potential of herbal intervention combined with short term IF-DR regimen.

  2. Assessment of Air Pollution Tolerance Index of some plants to develop vertical gardens near street canyons of a polluted tropical city.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Pandey, Mayank; Tripathi, B D

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of some climber plant species to develop vertical gardens in Varanasi city which has characteristics of tall building and narrow roads. This condition results in street canyon like structure and hinders the vertical dispersal of air pollutants. We have selected 24 climber plant species which are commonly found in of Varanasi city. Chosen plants can be easily grown either in planter boxes or directly in the ground, with a vertical support they can climb on walls to form green walls or vertical garden. Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of the selected plant species was calculated and plants with higher APTI are recommended for the development of Vertical garden. Highest APTI was noted for Ipomoea palmata (25.39) followed by Aristolochia elegans (23.28), Thunbergia grandiflora (23.14), Quisqualis indica (22.42), and Clerodendrum splendens (22.36). However, lowest APTI value (8.75) was recorded for the species Hemidesmus indicus. Moreover, the linear regression analysis has revealed a high positive correlation between APTI and ascorbic acid content (R 2 =0.8837) and positive correlation between APTI and Chlorophyll content (R 2 =0.6687). On the basis of higher APTI values (greater than 17), nine species of climber plants viz. I. palmata, T. grandiflora, C. splendens, A. elegans, Q. indica, Petria volubilis, Antigonon leptopus, Cryptolepis buchuanni and Tinospora cordifolia have been recommended to develop vertical greenery systems in a compact tropical city. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of glycation induced protein cross-linking inhibitory effects of some antidiabetic plants and spices.

    PubMed

    Perera, Handunge Kumudu Irani; Handuwalage, Charith Sandaruwan

    2015-06-09

    Protein cross-linking which occurs towards the latter part of protein glycation is implicated in the development of chronic diabetic complications. Glycation induced protein cross-linking inhibitory effects of nine antidiabetic plants and three spices were evaluated in this study using a novel, simple, electrophoresis based method. Methanol extracts of thirteen plants including nine antidiabetic plants and three spices were used. Lysozyme and fructose were incubated at 37 °C in the presence or absence of different concentrations of plant extracts up to 31 days. Standard glycation inhibitor aminoguanidine and other appropriate controls were included. A recently established sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) method was used to detect the products of protein cross-linking in the incubation mixtures. High molecular weight protein products representing the dimer, trimer and tetramer of lysozyme were detected in the presence of fructose. Among the nine antidiabetic plants, seven showed glycation induced protein cross-linking inhibitory effects namely Ficus racemosa (FR) stem bark, Gymnema sylvestre (GS) leaves, Musa paradisiaca (MP) yam, Phyllanthus debilis (PD) whole plant, Phyllanthus emblica (PE) fruit, Pterocarpus marsupium (PM) latex and Tinospora cordifolia (TC) leaves. Inhibition observed with Coccinia grandis (CG) leaves and Strychnos potatorum (SP) seeds were much low. Leaves of Gymnema lactiferum (GL), the plant without known antidiabetic effects showed the lowest inhibition. All three spices namely Coriandrum sativum (CS) seeds, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ) bark and Syzygium aromaticum (SA) flower buds showed cross-link inhibitory effects with higher effects in CS and SA. PD, PE, PM, CS and SA showed almost complete inhibition on the formation of cross-linking with 25 μg/ml extracts. Methanol extracts of PD, PE, PM, CS and SA have shown promising inhibitory effects on glycation induced protein cross-linking.

  4. Useful ethnophytomedicinal recipes of angiosperms used against diabetes in South East Asian Countries (India, Pakistan & Sri Lanka).

    PubMed

    Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Rehman, Fazalur; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khakwani, Abdul Aziz; Ullah, Imdad; Khan, Kaleem Ullah; Khan, Inam Ullah

    2014-09-01

    This paper is based on data recorded from various literatures pertaining to ethnophytomedicinal recipes used against diabetes in South East Asia (India, Pakistan and Srilanka). Traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for the therapy of diabetes mellitus. In total 419 useful phytorecipes of 270 plant species belonging to 74 Angiospermic families were collected. From the review it was revealed that plants showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belong to the families, Cucurbitaceae (16 spp.), Euphorbiaceae (15 spp.), Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae (13 spp. each), Moraceae (11 spp.), Acanthaceae (10 spp.), Mimosaceae (09 spp.), Asteraceae, Malvaceae and Poaceae (08 spp. each), Hippocrateaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (07 spp. each), Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Verbenaceae (06 spp. each), Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae (05 spp.each). The most active plants are Syzigium cumini (14 recipes), Phyllanthus emblica (09 recipes), Centella asiatica and Momordica charantia (08 recipes each), Azadirachta indica (07 recipes), Aegle marmelos, Catharanthus roseus, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Gymnema sylvestre (06 recipes each), Allium cepa, A. sativum, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa (05 recipes each), Citrullus colocynthis, Justicia adhatoda, Nelumbo nucifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ziziphus mauritiana and Wattakaka volubilis (4 recipes each). These traditional recipes include extracts, leaves, powders, flour, seeds, vegetables, fruits and herbal mixtures. Data inventory consists of botanical name, recipe, vernacular name, English name. Some of the plants of the above data with experimentally confirmed antidiabetic properties have also been recorded. More investigations must be carried out to evaluate the mechanism of action of diabetic medicinal plants. Toxicity of these plants should also be explained. Scientific validation of these recipes may help in discovering new drugs from

  5. Preliminary Screening of a Classical Ayurvedic Formulation for Anticonvulsant Activity.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Arnab; Maurya, Santosh Kumar; Mishra, Ashish; Singh, Gireesh Kumar; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Seth, Ankit

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a serious and complex central nervous system disorder associated with recurrent episodes of convulsive seizures due to the imbalance between excitatory (glutamatergic) and inhibitory (GABAergic) neurotransmitters level in the brain. The available treatments are neither competent to control the seizures nor prevent progress of disease. Since ages, Herbal medicines have remained important sources of medicines in many parts of world which is evidenced through their uses in traditional systems of medicine i.e. Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Homeopathy and Chinese etc. A polyherbal formulation (containing Terminalia chebula Retz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Embelia ribes Burm. F, Acorus calamus L., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers, Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy, Saussurea lappa C.B.Clarke, Achyranthes aspera L.) is mentioned in Ayurvedic classics Bhaiṣajya Ratnāvali . The aim of the study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of the formulation in Maximum electroshock and Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions in rats. In the present study, a polyherbal formulation was developed as directed by classical text and evaluated for the anticonvulsant activity using Maximal Electroshock Shock (MES) and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced convulsions in rats. Statistical comparison was done by one way ANOVA followed by the Tukey's multiple comparison test. The obtained results showed that the PHF had a protective role on epilepsy. Treatment with PHF significantly improves antioxidant enzymes activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels significantly as compared to controls. PHF also significantly decreased malonaldialdehyde (MDA) levels in the brain. Moreover, it also attenuated the PTZ-induced increase in the activity of GABA-T in the rat brain. These findings suggest that PHF might have possible efficacy in the treatment of epilepsy.

  6. Challenges in integrating component level technology and system level information from Ayurveda: Insights from NMR phytometabolomics and anti-HIV potential of select Ayurvedic medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Jayasundar, Rama; Ghatak, Somenath; Makhdoomi, Muzamil Ashraf; Luthra, Kalpana; Singh, Aruna; Velpandian, Thirumurthy

    2018-01-03

    Information from Ayurveda meeting the analytical challenges of modern technology is an area of immense relevance. Apart from the cerebral task of bringing together two different viewpoints, the question at the pragmatic level remains 'who benefits whom'. The aim is to highlight the challenges in integration of information (Ayurvedic) and technology using test examples of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) metabolomics and anti-HIV-1 potential of select Ayurvedic medicinal plants. The other value added objective is implications and relevance of such work for Ayurveda. Six medicinal plants (Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia, Swertia chirata, Terminalia bellerica, Zingiber officinale and Symplocos racemosa) were studied using high resolution proton NMR spectroscopy based metabolomics and also evaluated for anti-HIV-1 activity on three pseudoviruses (ZM53 M.PB12, ZM109F.PB4, RHPA 4259.7). Of the six plants, T.bellerica and Z.officinale showed minimum cell cytotoxicity and maximum anti-HIV-1 potential. T.bellerica was effective against all the three HIV-1 pseudoviruses. Untargeted NMR profiling and multivariate analyses demonstrated that the six plants, all of which had different Ayurvedic pharmacological properties, showed maximum differences in the aromatic region of the spectra. The work adds onto the list of potential plants for anti-HIV-1 drug molecules. At the same time, it has drawn attention to the different perspectives of Ayurveda and Western medicine underscoring the inherent limitations of conceptual bilinguism between the two systems, especially in the context of medicinal plants. The study has also highlighted the potential of NMR metabolomics in study of plant extracts as used in Ayurveda. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Post-fire erosion control mulches alter belowground processes and nitrate reductase activity of a perennial forb, heartleaf arnica (Arnica cordifolia)

    Treesearch

    Erin M. Berryman; Penelope Morgan; Peter R. Robichaud; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2014-01-01

    Four years post-wildfire, we measured soil and plant properties on hillslopes treated with two different mulches (agricultural wheat straw and wood strands) and a control (unmulched, but burned). Soil total N was about 40% higher and microbial respiration of a standard wood substrate was nearly twice as high in the mulched plots compared to the unmulched plots. Greater...

  8. Evaluation of antiplasmodial activity of medicinal plants from North Indian Buchpora and South Indian Eastern Ghats.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Naveen K; Bagavan, Asokan; Rahuman, Abdul A; Zahir, Abdul A; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Kirthi, Arivarasan V; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Tiwari, Santosh K; Sahal, Dinkar

    2015-02-07

    Development of resistance against the frontline anti-malarial drugs has created an alarming situation, which requires intensive drug discovery to develop new, more effective, affordable and accessible anti-malarial agents. Inspired by their ethnobotanical reputation for being effective against febrile diseases, antiplasmodial potential of ethyl acetate extracts (EAE) and methanol extracts (ME) of 17 medicinal plants collected from the Eastern Ghats of South India and Buchpora, North India were explored against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro using the SYBR Green assay. The results were validated both by confirmation that the fall in fluorescence signal was not due to quenching effects mediated by phytochemical extracts and by Giemsa-stained microscopy. Using EAE or ME, promising antiplasmodial activity (IC₅₀ Pf3D7 ≤ 20 μg/ml), was seen in Aerva lanata (Whole aerial parts-EAE), Anisomeles malabarica (Leaf-EAE), Anogeissus latifolia (bark-EAE), Cassia alata (leaves-EAE), Glycyrrhiza glabra (root-EAE), Juglans regia (seed-ME), Psidium guajava (leaf-ME and EAE) and Solanum xanthocarpum (Whole aerial parts-EAE). EAEs from leaves of Couroupita guianensis, Euphorbia hirta, Pergularia daemia, Tinospora cordifolia and Tridax procumbens as also ME from Ricinus communis (leaf and seed) showed good antiplasmodial activity (Pf 3D7 IC₅₀ 21 - 40 μg/ml). Moderate activity (Pf 3D7 IC₅₀: 40-60 μg/mL) was shown by the leaf EAEs of Cardiospermum halicacabum, Indigofera tinctoria and Ricinus communis while the remaining extracts showed marginal (Pf 3D7 IC₅₀ 60 to >100 μg/ml) activities. The promising extracts showed good resistance indices (0.41 - 1.4) against the chloroquine resistant INDO strain of P. falciparum and good selectivity indices (3 to > 22.2) when tested against the HeLa cell line. These results provide validity to the traditional medicinal usage of some of these plants and further make a case for activity-guided purification of new

  9. Potent α-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    P, Sudha; Zinjarde, Smita S; Bhargava, Shobha Y; Kumar, Ameeta R

    2011-01-20

    Indian medicinal plants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic α-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for α-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on PPA (porcine pancreatic α-amylase). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the lead extracts was performed in order to determine the probable constituents. Analysis of the 126 extracts, obtained from 17 plants (Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Adansonia digitata L., Allium sativum L., Casia fistula L., Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don., Cinnamomum verum Persl., Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt., Linum usitatisumum L., Mangifera indica L., Morus alba L., Nerium oleander L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Piper nigrum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers., Trigonella foenum-graceum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc.) for PPA inhibition was initially performed qualitatively by starch-iodine colour assay. The lead extracts were further quantified with respect to PPA inhibition using the chromogenic DNSA (3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid) method. Phytochemical constituents of the extracts exhibiting≥ 50% inhibition were analysed qualitatively as well as by GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry). Of the 126 extracts obtained from 17 plants, 17 extracts exhibited PPA inhibitory potential to varying degrees (10%-60.5%) while 4 extracts showed low inhibition (< 10%). However, strong porcine pancreatic amylase inhibitory activity (> 50%) was obtained with 3 isopropanol extracts. All these 3 extracts exhibited concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, viz., seeds of Linum usitatisumum (540 μgml-1), leaves of Morus alba (1440 μgml-1) and Ocimum tenuiflorum

  10. Potent α-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Indian medicinal plants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic α-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for α-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on PPA (porcine pancreatic α-amylase). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the lead extracts was performed in order to determine the probable constituents. Methods Analysis of the 126 extracts, obtained from 17 plants (Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Adansonia digitata L., Allium sativum L., Casia fistula L., Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don., Cinnamomum verum Persl., Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt., Linum usitatisumum L., Mangifera indica L., Morus alba L., Nerium oleander L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Piper nigrum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers., Trigonella foenum-graceum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc.) for PPA inhibition was initially performed qualitatively by starch-iodine colour assay. The lead extracts were further quantified with respect to PPA inhibition using the chromogenic DNSA (3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid) method. Phytochemical constituents of the extracts exhibiting≥ 50% inhibition were analysed qualitatively as well as by GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry). Results Of the 126 extracts obtained from 17 plants, 17 extracts exhibited PPA inhibitory potential to varying degrees (10%-60.5%) while 4 extracts showed low inhibition (< 10%). However, strong porcine pancreatic amylase inhibitory activity (> 50%) was obtained with 3 isopropanol extracts. All these 3 extracts exhibited concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, viz., seeds of Linum usitatisumum (540 μgml-1), leaves of Morus alba (1440

  11. The treatment of jaundice with medicinal plants in indigenous communities of the Sub-Himalayan region of Uttarakhand, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jyotsana; Gairola, Sumeet; Gaur, R D; Painuli, R M

    2012-08-30

    , external and magico-religious remedies for jaundice, respectively by various communities in different parts of India. Most widely used hepatoprotective plant species for treatment of jaundice in India is Boerhavia diffusa L. followed by Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers, Saccharum officinarum L., Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn., Ricinus communis L., Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees., Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz, Lawsonia inermis L. and Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. The plants recorded in the present survey have also been discussed in relation to pharmacological studies and hepatoprotective phytoconstituents present in them. Most of the recorded plants have shown hepatoprotective effects on experimental animals in earlier studies but more studies are needed to assess hepatoprotective properties of some recorded medicinal plants viz., Averrhoa carambola L., Ehretia laevis Roxb., Holarrhena pubescens Wall., Mangifera indica L., Ocimum americanum L., Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz, Physalis divaricata D. Don, Solanum incanum L., Sphaeranthus senegalensis DC. and Tribulus terrestris L.. The plants enumerated in this study with high number of citations and wider distributions have given some useful leads for further biomedical research. Nevertheless more phytochemical, pharmaceutical and clinical studies are needed to evaluate hepatoprotective properties, efficacy and safety of all the claimed medicinal plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Comprehensive Study of the Tocks Island Lake Project and Alternatives. Part E. Land Use and Secondary Effects of Tocks Island Lake Project.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    Saxifrage family Tiarella cordifolia Foam flower Rosaceae - Rose family Waldsteinia fragarioldes Barren strawberry Polygalaceae - ilkwort family Polypala...train ride through this particularly beautiful region, with modern equipment and the avoidance of traffic jams , might be induce- ments to attract

  13. New insights into the phylogeny of Burasaieae (Menispermaceae) with the recognition of a new genus and emphasis on the southern Taiwanese and mainland Chinese disjunction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Ortiz, Rosa Del C; Jacques, Frédéric M B; Chung, Shih-Wen; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Xiao-Guo; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2017-04-01

    Taiwan is a continental island lying at the boundary between the Eurasian and the Philippine tectonic plates and possesses high biodiversity. Southern Taiwan, viz. Hengchun Peninsula, is notably floristically different from northern Taiwan. The floristic origin and relationships of the Hengchun Peninsula have been rarely investigated in a phylogenetic context. In this study, data from six plastid and nuclear sequences were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships within Burasaieae (Menispermaceae), which mainly inhabits tropical rainforests. The tree-based comparisons indicate that the position of Tinospora sensu stricto conflicts significantly between the cpDNA and ITS trees. However, alternative hypothesis tests from the ITS data did not reject the result of the cpDNA data, which suggests that tree-based comparisons might sometimes generate an artificial incongruence, especially when markers with high homoplasy are used. Based on the combined cpDNA and ITS data, we present an inter-generic phylogenetic framework for Burasaieae. Sampled species of Tinospora are placed in three different clades, including Tinospora dentata from southern Taiwan and T. sagittata from mainland China in an unresolved position alongside six lineages of Burasaieae. By integrating lines of evidence from molecular phylogeny, divergence times, and morphology, we recognize the three Tinospora clades as three different genera, including Tinospora sensu stricto, a new genus (Paratinospora) for T. dentata and T. sagittata, and Hyalosepalum resurrected. Tinospora dentata, now endemic to the Hengchun Peninsula, originated from the Late Eocene (ca. 39Ma), greatly predating the formation of Taiwan. Our study suggests that the flora of the Hengchun Peninsula contains some ancient components that might have migrated from mainland China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... africana Mill. and A. spicata Baker Althea root and flowers Althea officinalis L Amyris (West Indian... flowers Arnica montana L., A. fulgens Pursh, A. sororia Greene, or A. cordifolia Hooker Do. Artemisia..., Section Eubatus Boldus (boldo) leaves Peumus boldus Mol Do. Boronia flowers Boronia megastigma Nees...

  15. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... africana Mill. and A. spicata Baker Althea root and flowers Althea officinalis L Amyris (West Indian... flowers Arnica montana L., A. fulgens Pursh, A. sororia Greene, or A. cordifolia Hooker Do. Artemisia..., Section Eubatus Boldus (boldo) leaves Peumus boldus Mol Do. Boronia flowers Boronia megastigma Nees...

  16. Determination of Antimicrobial Potential of Five Herbs used in Ayurveda Practices against Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Gunasekara, TDCP; Radhika, NDM; Ragunathan, KK; Gunathilaka, DPP; Weerasekera, MM; Hewageegana, HGSP; Arawwawala, L A D M; Fernando, SSN

    2017-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plants are an important source of novel antimicrobial agents. Ayurvedic treatment involves the use of a variety of medicinal plants that merit investigation. Aims: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of bark of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre, stem of Rubia cordifolia Linn, leaves of Jasminum officinale Linn, stem of Berberis ceylanica C.K. Schneid. and fruit of Garcina zeylanica Roxb. Subjects and Methods: Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of dried bark of Pongamia pinnata (Magul karanda), dried stem of Rubia cordifolia Linn (Welmadata), tender leaves of Jasminum officinale Linn (Jasmine) and dried stem of Berberis ceylanica (Dāruharidrā) were prepared according to standard protocols and tested for antimicrobial activity against five clinical isolates and one standard strain each of Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), Candida parapsilosis (ATCC 22019) and six Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates using the well diffusion method. Experiments were done in triplicates using well diffusion method. The plant extracts which gave a zone of inhibition in the well diffusion assay were further tested for Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC). Results: Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Berberis ceylanica and ethanolic extract of Rubia cordifolia had antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Garcinia zeylanica, and the ethanolic extracts of Jasminum officinale, Rubia cordifolia and Pongamia pinnata had antimicrobial activity against MRSA. Conclusions: Berberis ceylanica and Rubia crodifolia had antimicrobial activity against Candida species while Garcinia zeylanica, Jasminum officinale, Rubia crodifolia and Pongamia pinnata had antimicrobial activity against MRSA. PMID:29269969

  17. Potential role of soil calcium in recovery of paper birch following ice storm injury in Vermont, USA

    Treesearch

    Joshua M. Halman; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Christopher F. Hansen

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, an increased number of mature paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and heart-leafed paper birch (B. papyrifera var. cordifolia (Regel) Fern.) in northeastern United States forests have exhibited decline symptoms including foliar loss, reduced fine branching, and tree mortality. We assessed crown health, radial...

  18. Literature-Related Discovery: A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-05

    Plants, Medicinal” or “Plants, Edible” or "Plant Extracts" or "Plant Oils" or Phytotherapy or Fruit or "Fish Oils" or Flavonoids or Dietary...oxidation; Alchornea cordifolia for protection against oxidative stresses; flavonoids from the flower of Rhododendron yedoense var. poukhanense for...officinalis (EO) and honey showed an enhanced antioxidant potential n the management of RA; tiliroside and gnaphaliin, two flavonoids isolated from

  19. Antiplasmodial activity of plant extracts used in west African traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Mustofa; Valentin, A; Benoit-Vical, F; Pélissier, Y; Koné-Bamba, D; Mallié, M

    2000-11-01

    Five plants originating from Ivory Coast were selected after an ethnobotanical survey, Alchornea cordifolia, Mitragyna inermis, Nauclea diderrichii, Pterocarpus santalinoides, and Terminalia glaucescens. Traditional healers for the treatment of malaria commonly used these plants. Extracts of these plants were tested on three strains of Plasmodium falciparum, FcB1-Colombia and FcM29-Cameroon (chloroquine-resistant strains) and a Nigerian chloroquine-sensitive strain. Extracts were obtained by preparing decoction in water of the powdered plant, the technique used by most of the traditional healers. A radioactive micromethod allowed the evaluation of the in vitro activity of the extracts on P. falciparum. Concentrations inhibiting 50% of the parasite growth (IC(50)) ranged from 2.34 to more than 500 microg/ml according to the plant. For the most active plants (A. cordifolia and T. glaucescens) ethanol and pentane extracts were made and tested. The IC(50) values obtained for these extracts ranged from 0.35 to 43.40 microg/ml. The stage specificity of the ethanol extracts of A. cordifolia and T. glaucescens and pentane extract of T. glaucescens on the parasite erythrocytic cycle were determined. The ethanol extract of T. glaucescens showed its highest activity at the transition from the trophozoite to the schizont stages. Cytotoxicity was estimated on human fibroblasts (HeLa) cells and a cytotoxicity/antiplasmodial index was calculated, it ranged between 5 and 21, and the best antiplasmodial extract (T. glaucescens ethanol extract) had the higher index (>20).

  20. Seed development in Malpighiaceae species with an emphasis on the relationships between nutritive tissues.

    PubMed

    Souto, Letícia Silva; Oliveira, Denise Maria Trombert

    2014-01-01

    Malpighiaceae ovules have a well-developed nucellus; previous observations indicate that during seed development, the endosperm does not proliferate, thus, remaining scarce. This study aimed at identifying the nutritive tissues during seed development in Malpighiaceae, focusing especially on the endosperm. We analysed the seed development of Janusia mediterranea, J. occhionii, Mascagnia cordifolia, and Tetrapterys chamaecerasifolia, which were collected and processed by traditional methods for light microscopy. Ovules are subcampylotropous, crassinucellate and unitegmic in Janusia and bitegmic in M. cordifolia and T. chamaecerasifolia. The nucellus is well developed and protrudes through the micropyle, touching the funicular obturator. During development, a pachychalaza is formed, and the integuments coalesce in bitegmic species. Through a series of nucellar cell divisions, the perisperm is formed. In Janusia species, the endosperm is not produced. In M. cordifolia and T. chamaecerasifolia, the endosperm is nuclear, but it is scarce and ephemeral. The mature seed is exalbuminous, and the perisperm is consumed, and thus, the mature embryo is total. The absence of endosperm in Janusia is newly observed for the family and indicates functional transfer for the abundant perisperm. Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Ayurvedic interventions for osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Christian S; Pinders, Lea; Michalsen, Andreas; Cramer, Holger

    2015-02-01

    Ayurveda is one of the fastest growing systems within complementary and alternative medicine. However, the evidence for its effectiveness is unsatisfactory. The aim of this work was to review and meta-analyze the effectiveness and safety of different Ayurvedic interventions in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). 138 electronic databases were searched through August 2013. Randomized controlled trials, randomized crossover studies, cluster-randomized trials, and non-randomized controlled clinical trials were eligible. Adults with pre-diagnosed OA were included as participants. Interventions were included as Ayurvedic if they were explicitly labeled as such. Main outcome measures were pain, physical function, and global improvement. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. 19 randomized and 14 non-randomized controlled trials on 12 different drugs and 3 non-pharmaceutical interventions with a total of 2,952 patients were included. For the compound preparation, Rumalaya, large and apparently unbiased effects beyond placebo were found for pain (standardized mean difference [SMD] -3.73; 95 % confidence interval [CI] -4.97, -2.50; P < 0.01) and global improvement (risk ratio 12.20; 95 % CI 5.83, 25.54; P < 0.01). There is also some evidence that effects of the herbal compound preparation Shunti-Guduchi are comparable to those of glucosamine for pain (SMD 0.08; 95 % CI -0.20, 0.36; P = 0.56) and function (SMD 0.15; 95 % CI -0.12, 0.36; P = 0.41). Based on single trials, positive effects were found for the compound preparations RA-11, Reosto, and Siriraj Wattana. For Boswellia serrata, Lepidium Sativum, a Boswellia serrata containing multicomponent formulation and the compounds Nirgundi Taila, Panchatikta Ghrita Guggulu, and Rhumayog, and for non-pharmacological interventions like Ayurvedic massage, steam therapy, and enema, no evidence for significant effects against potential methodological bias was found. No severe adverse events were observed in

  2. Simultaneous determination of vasicine and vasicinone by High-performance liquid chromatography in roots of eight Sida species

    PubMed Central

    Subramanya, M. D.; Pai, Sandeep R.; Ankad, Gireesh M.; Hegde, Harsha V.; Roy, Subarna; Hoti, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sida L. is a medicinally important genus widely used in conventional systems of medicine in India. Aim: The present study aims toward simultaneous determination of two bioactive compounds vasicine and vasicinone in root extracts of eight Sida spp. from Western Ghats, India. Materials and Methods: Determination of vasicine and vasicinone was undertaken in methanolic root extracts (10% w/v) of Sida acuta, Sida cordata, Sida cordifolia, Sida rhombifolia, Sida spinosa, Sida indica, Sida retusa and Sida mysorensis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The standards were prepared with the concentration of mg/mL. Data were expressed as mean values of three reading and relative standard deviations. The separation was achieved on a Waters, Nova-Pack, C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μ) column, with acetonitrile - 0.1 M phosphate buffer-glacial acetic acid (15: 85: 1, v/v/v) as solvent system at a flow-rate of 1.0 mL/min. The effluent was monitored using ultraviolet detection at a wavelength of 300 nm. Results: Both calibration curves of standard showed good linear regression (R2 > 0.994). The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for vasicine was 0.110 and 0.333 μg/mL and for vasicinone was 0.059 and 0.179 μg/mL respectively. The vasicine content was highest in S. cordifolia (9.891 ± 0.495 μg/100 mg) and vasicinone content was rich in S. cordata (33.013 ± 1.651 μg/100 mg.) The content of vasicinone was higher than vasicine. Conclusion: HPLC method provides simple, accurate, and reproducible quantitative analysis for simultaneous determination of vasicine and vasicinone. Among the selected Sida species, S. cordifolia and S. cordata were found to be rich in the vasicine and vasicinone contents, respectively. PMID:29200752

  3. Simultaneous determination of vasicine and vasicinone by High-performance liquid chromatography in roots of eight Sida species.

    PubMed

    Subramanya, M D; Pai, Sandeep R; Ankad, Gireesh M; Hegde, Harsha V; Roy, Subarna; Hoti, S L

    2016-01-01

    Sida L. is a medicinally important genus widely used in conventional systems of medicine in India. The present study aims toward simultaneous determination of two bioactive compounds vasicine and vasicinone in root extracts of eight Sida spp. from Western Ghats, India. Determination of vasicine and vasicinone was undertaken in methanolic root extracts (10% w/v) of Sida acuta , Sida cordata , Sida cordifolia , Sida rhombifolia , Sida spinosa , Sida indica , Sida retusa and Sida mysorensis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The standards were prepared with the concentration of mg/mL. Data were expressed as mean values of three reading and relative standard deviations. The separation was achieved on a Waters, Nova-Pack, C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μ) column, with acetonitrile - 0.1 M phosphate buffer-glacial acetic acid (15: 85: 1, v/v/v) as solvent system at a flow-rate of 1.0 mL/min. The effluent was monitored using ultraviolet detection at a wavelength of 300 nm. Both calibration curves of standard showed good linear regression ( R 2 > 0.994). The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for vasicine was 0.110 and 0.333 μg/mL and for vasicinone was 0.059 and 0.179 μg/mL respectively. The vasicine content was highest in S. cordifolia (9.891 ± 0.495 μg/100 mg) and vasicinone content was rich in S. cordata (33.013 ± 1.651 μg/100 mg.) The content of vasicinone was higher than vasicine. HPLC method provides simple, accurate, and reproducible quantitative analysis for simultaneous determination of vasicine and vasicinone. Among the selected Sida species, S. cordifolia and S. cordata were found to be rich in the vasicine and vasicinone contents, respectively.

  4. Comparative "in vitro" evaluation of the antiresorptive activity residing in four Ayurvedic medicinal plants. Hemidesmus indicus emerges for its potential in the treatment of bone loss diseases.

    PubMed

    Di Pompo, Gemma; Poli, Ferruccio; Mandrone, Manuela; Lorenzi, Beatrice; Roncuzzi, Laura; Baldini, Nicola; Granchi, Donatella

    2014-06-11

    Four Indian plants, traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicine: Asparagus racemosus Willd., Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Hemidesmus indicus R. Br., and Rubia cordifolia L. were selected on the basis of their ethnobotanical use and of scientific evidence that suggests a potential efficacy in the treatment of bone-loss diseases. The antiresorptive properties of the four plants have been investigated. The aim was to provide adequate evidence for the exploitation of natural compounds as alternative therapeutics for the treatment of diseases caused by increased osteoclast activity. Decoctions were prepared from dried plant material according to the traditional procedure and standardization by HPLC was performed using marker compounds for each species. Total polyphenols, flavonoids and radical scavenging activity of the decoctions were also determined. The bioactivity of the plant decoctions was evaluated in subsequent phases. (1) A cytotoxicity screening was performed on the mouse monocytic RAW 264.7 cell line to define the concentrations that could be utilized in the following step. (2) The antiresorptive properties of plant decoctions were compared with that of a "gold standard" drug (alendronate) by measuring osteoclastogenesis inhibition and osteoclast apoptosis. (3) The toxic effect on bone forming cells was excluded by evaluating the impact on the proliferation of osteogenic precursors (mesenchymal stem cells, MSC). All the decoctions inhibited osteoclastogenesis similarly to alendronate at the highest doses, but Hemidesmus indicus and Rubia cordifolia were also effective at lower concentrations. Apoptosis increased significantly when cells were exposed to the highest concentration of Emblica officinalis, Hemidesmus indicus, and Rubia cordifolia. All concentrations of Emblica officinalis tested inhibited the proliferation of osteogenic precursors, while only the highest doses of Asparagus racemosus and Rubia cordifolia were toxic. On the contrary, Hemidesmus indicus

  5. In vitro immunomodulating properties of selected Sudanese medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Koko, W S; Mesaik, M Ahmed; Yousaf, S; Galal, M; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2008-06-19

    Ethanolic extracts of 23 medicinal plants, commonly used in Sudanese folk medicines against infectious diseases, were investigated for their immunomodulating activity using luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. Preliminary screenings on whole blood oxidative burst activity showed inhibitory activities of 14 plant extracts, while only one plant, Balanites aegyptiaca fruits exhibited a proinflammatory activity. Further investigation was conducted by monitoring their effects on oxidative burst of isolated polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and mononuclear cells (MNCs) by using two different phagocytosis activators (serum opsonizing zymosan-A and PMA). Results obtained showed that the fruits and barks of Acacia nilotica, and leaves and barks of Khaya senegalensis, possess average inhibitory effects in the range of 70.7, 67.1, 69.5 and 67.4% on both types of phagocytes (PMNs and MNCs), respectively, at a 6.25 microg/mL concentration. Moderate inhibitory activity (52.2%) was exerted by the aerial parts of Xanthium brasilicum, while the rest of the plants showed only a weak inhibitory activity. The inhibition of oxidative burst activity was found to be irreversible in most of the extracts, except for Peganum harmala, Tephrosia apollinea, Tinospora bakis, and Vernonia amygdalina. Interestingly, the fruits of Balanites aegyptiaca exhibited a moderate proinflammatory effect (37-40.4% increases in ROS level compared to the control) at 25-100 microg/mL concentration in the case of whole blood along with PMNs phagocyte activity. The Tinospora bakis extract showed proinflammatory response at a low concentration (6.25 microg/mL) during activation with PMA. None of these extracts affected PMNs viability (90-98%) upon 2 h incubation, except of the ethanolic extracts of Acacia nilotica fruits and Balanites aegyptiaca barks.

  6. Immunomodulatory and therapeutic potentials of herbal, traditional/indigenous and ethnoveterinary medicines.

    PubMed

    Mahima; Rahal, Anu; Deb, Rajib; Latheef, Shyma K; Abdul Samad, Hari; Tiwari, Ruchi; Verma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Dhama, K

    2012-08-15

    Herbs/Botanical plants are considered as God's gift to human beings in the form of natural medicines, like the one well known "Sanjeevani booti" described in Hindu Mythology. The traditional and ethno-veterinary practices have been in use for centuries, transferring the knowledge from generation to generation and they are accessible, easy to prepare and administer, with little or no cost at all. Even though the modern developments in therapeutic field brought about a rapid decline in traditional medicine, the plant-based remedies are still having a crucial role as potential source of therapeutic aids in health systems all over the world for both humans and animals. Among the 21,000 medicinal plants listed by the World Health Organization (WHO), 2500 species are native to India, which stands first in the production of medicinal herbs. This innumerable treasure of medicinal herbs brings India the distinction of 'the botanical garden of the world'. Nowadays immune-based therapies are gaining more importance than monovalent approaches which are having limited benefits. Apart from the actions like treating diseases, control of ecto- and endo-parasites, fertility enhancement, bone setting and poor mothering management, an array of herbal medicines have been reported which are having immunomodulatory effects like modulation of cytokine secretion, histamine release, immunoglobulin secretion, class switching, cellular co-receptor expression, lymphocyte expression, phagocytosis and so on. The present article describes in brief few of these important ones viz., ashwagandha, amla, tulsi, arjuna, aloe vera, garlic, turmeric, ginger, shatavari, neem, guduchi, kiwifruit, tut, kamala, palashlata, kokilaksha etc. being used for human and animal health benefits.

  7. Rediscovering Medicinal Plants' Potential with OMICS: Microsatellite Survey in Expressed Sequence Tags of Eleven Traditional Plants with Potent Antidiabetic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Jagajjit; Sen, Priyabrata; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Dehury, Budheswar; Barooah, Madhumita; Modi, Mahendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Herbal medicines and traditionally used medicinal plants present an untapped potential for novel molecular target discovery using systems science and OMICS biotechnology driven strategies. Since up to 40% of the world's poor people have no access to government health services, traditional and folk medicines are often the only therapeutics available to them. In this vein, North East (NE) India is recognized for its rich bioresources. As part of the Indo-Burma hotspot, it is regarded as an epicenter of biodiversity for several plants having myriad traditional uses, including medicinal use. However, the improvement of these valuable bioresources through molecular breeding strategies, for example, using genic microsatellites or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) or Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs)-derived SSRs has not been fully utilized in large scale to date. In this study, we identified a total of 47,700 microsatellites from 109,609 ESTs of 11 medicinal plants (pineapple, papaya, noyontara, bitter orange, bermuda brass, ratalu, barbados nut, mango, mulberry, lotus, and guduchi) having proven antidiabetic properties. A total of 58,159 primer pairs were designed for the non-redundant 8060 SSR-positive ESTs and putative functions were assigned to 4483 unique contigs. Among the identified microsatellites, excluding mononucleotide repeats, di-/trinucleotides are predominant, among which repeat motifs of AG/CT and AAG/CTT were most abundant. Similarity search of SSR containing ESTs and antidiabetic gene sequences revealed 11 microsatellites linked to antidiabetic genes in five plants. GO term enrichment analysis revealed a total of 80 enriched GO terms widely distributed in 53 biological processes, 17 molecular functions, and 10 cellular components associated with the 11 markers. The present study therefore provides concrete insights into the frequency and distribution of SSRs in important medicinal resources. The microsatellite markers reported here markedly add to

  8. Rediscovering medicinal plants' potential with OMICS: microsatellite survey in expressed sequence tags of eleven traditional plants with potent antidiabetic properties.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Jagajjit; Sen, Priyabrata; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Dehury, Budheswar; Barooah, Madhumita; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Talukdar, Anupam Das

    2014-05-01

    Herbal medicines and traditionally used medicinal plants present an untapped potential for novel molecular target discovery using systems science and OMICS biotechnology driven strategies. Since up to 40% of the world's poor people have no access to government health services, traditional and folk medicines are often the only therapeutics available to them. In this vein, North East (NE) India is recognized for its rich bioresources. As part of the Indo-Burma hotspot, it is regarded as an epicenter of biodiversity for several plants having myriad traditional uses, including medicinal use. However, the improvement of these valuable bioresources through molecular breeding strategies, for example, using genic microsatellites or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) or Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs)-derived SSRs has not been fully utilized in large scale to date. In this study, we identified a total of 47,700 microsatellites from 109,609 ESTs of 11 medicinal plants (pineapple, papaya, noyontara, bitter orange, bermuda brass, ratalu, barbados nut, mango, mulberry, lotus, and guduchi) having proven antidiabetic properties. A total of 58,159 primer pairs were designed for the non-redundant 8060 SSR-positive ESTs and putative functions were assigned to 4483 unique contigs. Among the identified microsatellites, excluding mononucleotide repeats, di-/trinucleotides are predominant, among which repeat motifs of AG/CT and AAG/CTT were most abundant. Similarity search of SSR containing ESTs and antidiabetic gene sequences revealed 11 microsatellites linked to antidiabetic genes in five plants. GO term enrichment analysis revealed a total of 80 enriched GO terms widely distributed in 53 biological processes, 17 molecular functions, and 10 cellular components associated with the 11 markers. The present study therefore provides concrete insights into the frequency and distribution of SSRs in important medicinal resources. The microsatellite markers reported here markedly add to the genetic

  9. Antimicrobial and Antiradical Activity of Extracts Obtained from Leaves of Five Species of the Genus Bergenia: Identification of Antimicrobial Compounds.

    PubMed

    Żbikowska, Beata; Franiczek, Roman; Sowa, Alina; Połukord, Grażyna; Krzyżanowska, Barbara; Sroka, Zbigniew

    2017-09-01

    An important focus of modern medicine is the search for new substances and strategies to combat infectious diseases, which present an increasing threat due to the growth of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Another problem concerns free radicals, which in excess can cause several serious diseases. An alternative to chemical synthesis of antimicrobial and antiradical compounds is to find active substances in plant raw materials. We prepared extracts from leaves of five species of the genus Bergenia: B. purpurascens, B. cordifolia, B. ligulata, B. crassifolia, and B. ciliata. Antimicrobial and antiradical features of extracts and raw materials were assessed, and the quantities of phenolic compounds were determined. We also evaluated, using high-performance liquid chromatography, the amounts of arbutin and hydroquinone, compounds related to antimicrobial activity of these raw materials. The strongest antiradical properties were shown by leaves of B. crassifolia and B. cordifolia, the lowest by leaves of B. ciliata. The antiradical activity of extracts showed a strong positive correlation with the amount of phenols. All raw materials have significant antimicrobial properties. Among them, the ethyl acetate extracts were the most active. Antimicrobial activity very weakly correlated with the amount of arbutin, but correlated very strongly with the contents of both hydroquinone and phenolic compounds. Additional experiments using artificially prepared mixtures of phenolic compounds and hydroquinone allowed us to conclude that the most active antimicrobial substance is hydroquinone.

  10. In vitro pollen responses of two birch species to acidity and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.N.; Cox, R.M.

    Paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and mountain paper birch (Betula cordifolia Regel) near the Bay of Fundy coast frequently intercept acidic advection marine fogs. Chemical deposition by these fogs is thought to be a factor contributing to the observed foliar browning symptoms associated with a marked deterioration of these trees in the area. In vitro experiments were performed to test whether pollen germination in these two birch species would be affected by acidity at levels routinely found in the fog. The combined effect of temperature with acidity was also examined. Pollen germination in both species was inhibited below pH 5.6more » (P < 0.0001) and the effect of incubation temperature was also significant (P < 0.01) in both species. There was no difference in in vitro pollen germination between species (P > 0.05) in response to acidity, based on combined data from 12 trees of each; the optimum germination temperature was 22{degrees}C for B. papyrifera and 21{degrees}C for B. cordifolia.« less

  11. Total polyphenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant properties of eight Sida species from Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Subramanya, M. D.; Pai, Sandeep R.; Upadhya, Vinayak; Ankad, Gireesh M.; Bhagwat, Shalini S.; Hegde, Harsha V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sida L., is a medicinally important genus, the species of which are widely used in traditional systems of medicine in India. Pharmacologically, roots are known for anti-tumor, anti-HIV, hepatoprotective, and many other properties. Phenolic antioxidants help in reducing oxidative stress occurring during treatment of such diseases. Objective: The study aimed to evaluate and compare polyphenol contents and antioxidant properties of eight selected species of Sida from Western Ghats, India. Materials and Methods: Methanolic root extracts (10% w/v) of Sida species, viz., S. acuta, S. cordata, S. cordifolia, S. indica, S. mysorensis, S. retusa, S. rhombifolia, and S. spinosa were analyzed. Results: Sida cordifolia possessed highest total phenolic content (TPC: 1.92 ± 0.10 mg Caffeic Acid Equivalent/g and 2.13 ± 0.11 mg Tannic Acid Equivalant/g), total flavonoid content (TF: 2.60 ± 0.13 mg Quercetin Equivalent/g) and also possessed highest antioxidant activities in 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging (51.31 ± 2.57% Radical Scavenging Activity, (RSA); Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 566.25 ± 28.31μM; Ascorbic acid Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 477.80 ± 23.89 μM) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays (TEAC: 590.67 ± 29.53 μM; AEAC: 600.67 ± 30.03 μM). Unlike DPPH and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) activity, 2, 2′-Azinobis (3-ethyl Benzo Thiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid) ABTS+ antioxidant activity was highest in S. indica (TEAC: 878.44 ± 43.92 μM; AEAC 968.44 ± 48.42 μM). It was significant to note that values of AEAC (μM) for all the antioxidant activities analyzed were higher than that of TEAC. Conclusion: The high contents of phenolic compounds in the root extracts of selected Sida species have direct correlation with their antioxidant properties. Conclusively, roots of S. cordifolia can be considered as the potential source of polyphenols and antioxidants. PMID:25878460

  12. Total polyphenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant properties of eight Sida species from Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Subramanya, M D; Pai, Sandeep R; Upadhya, Vinayak; Ankad, Gireesh M; Bhagwat, Shalini S; Hegde, Harsha V

    2015-01-01

    Sida L., is a medicinally important genus, the species of which are widely used in traditional systems of medicine in India. Pharmacologically, roots are known for anti-tumor, anti-HIV, hepatoprotective, and many other properties. Phenolic antioxidants help in reducing oxidative stress occurring during treatment of such diseases. The study aimed to evaluate and compare polyphenol contents and antioxidant properties of eight selected species of Sida from Western Ghats, India. Methanolic root extracts (10% w/v) of Sida species, viz., S. acuta, S. cordata, S. cordifolia, S. indica, S. mysorensis, S. retusa, S. rhombifolia, and S. spinosa were analyzed. Sida cordifolia possessed highest total phenolic content (TPC: 1.92 ± 0.10 mg Caffeic Acid Equivalent/g and 2.13 ± 0.11 mg Tannic Acid Equivalant/g), total flavonoid content (TF: 2.60 ± 0.13 mg Quercetin Equivalent/g) and also possessed highest antioxidant activities in 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging (51.31 ± 2.57% Radical Scavenging Activity, (RSA); Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 566.25 ± 28.31μM; Ascorbic acid Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 477.80 ± 23.89 μM) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays (TEAC: 590.67 ± 29.53 μM; AEAC: 600.67 ± 30.03 μM). Unlike DPPH and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) activity, 2, 2'-Azinobis (3-ethyl Benzo Thiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid) ABTS(+) antioxidant activity was highest in S. indica (TEAC: 878.44 ± 43.92 μM; AEAC 968.44 ± 48.42 μM). It was significant to note that values of AEAC (μM) for all the antioxidant activities analyzed were higher than that of TEAC. The high contents of phenolic compounds in the root extracts of selected Sida species have direct correlation with their antioxidant properties. Conclusively, roots of S. cordifolia can be considered as the potential source of polyphenols and antioxidants.

  13. Antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities of extracts from some antidiarrhoeal traditional preparations used in Kinshasa, Congo.

    PubMed

    Tona, L; Kambu, K; Ngimbi, N; Mesia, K; Penge, O; Lusakibanza, M; Cimanga, K; De Bruyne, T; Apers, S; Totte, J; Pieters, L; Vlietinck, A J

    2000-03-01

    Three major extracts from some traditional preparations, based on medicinal plants, used as antidiarrhoeal agents were investigated for their putative antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities in vitro. Results indicated that both biological activities are concentrated in the polyphenolic fraction, and not in the saponin or alkaloid containing fractions. The most active polyphenolic extracts were those from Euphorbia hirta whole plant, leaves of Alchornea cordifolia, Crossopteryx febrifuga, Nauclea latifolia, Psidium guajava, Tithonia diversifolia, stem bark of Harungana madagascariensis, Mangifera indica, Maprounea africana and Psidium guajava, inhibiting Entamoeba histolytica growth with MAC < 10 micrograms/ml. The same extracts, at a concentration of 80 micrograms/ml in an organ bath, also exhibited more than 70% inhibition of acetylcholine and/or KCl solution-induced contractions on isolated guinea-pig ileum.

  14. Evaluation of the wound-healing activity of selected traditional medicinal plants from Perú.

    PubMed

    Villegas, L F; Fernández, I D; Maldonado, H; Torres, R; Zavaleta, A; Vaisberg, A J; Hammond, G B

    1997-02-01

    Folk medicine practitioners in Perú employ plant preparations as wound-healing agents on superficial and internal wounds (gastric ulcers). The results of a scientific evaluation of the wound-healing activity of nine plants found in the Amazon jungle near Iquitos and in the Andes mountains is presented. The species studied were: Peperomia galioides, Mentzelia cordifolia, Mutisia acuminata, Himatanthus sucuuba, Spondias mombin, Eleutherine bulbosa, Muehlenbeckia tamnifolia, Anredera diffusa and Jatropha curcas. These plants have also been examined for their toxicological properties, their effect on blood pressure, smooth muscle and capillary permeability. Significant wound-healing activity was detected in Peperomia galioides, Anredera diffusa and Jatropha curcas. Extracts from Peperomia galioides and Anredera diffusa had no effect on cell proliferation and did not exhibit mutagenic activity.

  15. Plant medicines of Indian origin for wound healing activity: a review.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Tuhin Kanti; Mukherjee, Biswapati

    2003-03-01

    Research on wound healing drugs is a developing area in modern biomedical sciences. Scientists who are trying to develop newer drugs from natural resources are looking toward the Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine. Several drugs of plant, mineral, and animal origin are described in the Ayurveda for their wound healing properties under the term Vranaropaka. Most of these drugs are derived from plant origin. Some of these plants have been screened scientifically for the evaluation of their wound healing activity in different pharmacological models and patients, but the potential of most remains unexplored. In a few cases, active chemical constituents were identified. Some Ayurvedic medicinal plants, namely, Ficus bengalensis, Cynodon dactylon, Symplocos racemosa, Rubia cordifolia, Pterocarpus santalinus, Ficus racemosa, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Berberis aristata, Curcuma longa, Centella asiatica, Euphorbia nerifolia, and Aloe vera, were found to be effective in experimental models. This paper presents a limited review of plants used in Ayurvedic medicine.

  16. Traditional medicine practitioners’ knowledge and views on treatment of pregnant women in three regions of Mali

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread use of medicinal plants in Mali, knowledge about how traditional practitioners (TPs) treat pregnant and lactating women is lacking. Aim of the study The aim of this study was to investigate how traditional practitioners in Mali treat common diseases and ailments during pregnancy. Methods Data was collected through structured interviews of traditional practitioners in one urban (Bamako) and two rural areas (Siby and Dioila) in Mali. The TPs were interviewed about how they treat common diseases and ailments during pregnancy. They were also asked to name harmful plants in pregnancy and plants that could affect breast milk production. In addition, we asked about nine specific medicinal plants commonly used in Mali; Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia), Ximenia americana, Cola cordifolia, Combretum glutinosum, Parkia biglobosa, Trichilia emetica, Combretum micranthum, Lippia chevalieri and Vepris heterophylla. Results A total of 72 traditional practitioners (64% women, age: 34 to 90 years) were interviewed during an eight week period October 2011 to December 2011. They treated between 1 and 30 pregnant women with medicinal plants per months. We found a relatively high consensus for treatment of pregnant women with common diseases and ailments like nausea and dermatitis. The highest informer consensus was found for the treatment of malaria during pregnancy. TPs generally recommended pregnant women to avoid medicinal plants with bitter tastes like stem and root bark of Khaya senegalensis and Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia). TPs distinguished between oral (potentially unsafe) and dermal use (safe) of Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia). Cola cordifolia was used to facilitate labor. Conclusion Experience and knowledge about treatment of pregnant women with medicinal plants was broad among the traditional practitioners in the three investigated regions in Mali. Collaborating with traditional practitioners on the

  17. Effect of botanical immunomodulators on human CYP3A4 inhibition: implications for concurrent use as adjuvants in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Patil, Dada; Gautam, Manish; Gairola, Sunil; Jadhav, Suresh; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2014-03-01

    Many botanical immunomodulators are used as adjuvants along with cancer chemotherapy. However, information on the impact of concurrent administration of such botanicals on pharmacokinetics of chemotherapy agents is inadequate. This study investigates inhibitory activities of 3 popular botanical adjuvants: ASPARAGUS RACEMOSU: (root aqueous extract; ARE), WITHANIA SOMNIFER: (root aqueous extract; WSE), and TINOSPORA CORDIFOLI: (stem aqueous extract, TCE) on human CYP3A4 isoenzyme, responsible for metabolism of several chemotherapy agents. . Testosterone 6-β hydroxylation was monitored using high-performance liquid chromatography as an indicator of CYP3A4 catalytic activities. Ketoconazole (positive control) and extracts were studied at their in vivo-relevant concentrations. TCE showed mild inhibition while no significant inhibitory activities were observed in WSE and ARE. TCE was further fractionated to obtain polar and nonpolar fractions. The nonpolar fraction showed significant CYP3A4 inhibition with IC50 13.06 ± 1.38 µg/mL. Major constituents of nonpolar fraction were identified using HPLC-DAD-MS profiling as berberine, jatrorrhizine, and palmatine, which showed IC50 values as 6.25 ± 0.30, 15.18 ± 1.59, and 15.53 ± 1.89 µg/mL, respectively. Our findings suggest that constituents of TCE extract especially protoberberine alkaloids have the potential to interact with cancer chemotherapy agents that are metabolized by CYP3A4 in vivo.

  18. Anti-angiogenic and cytotoxicity studies of some medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kwok-Wen; Salhimi, Salizawati Muhamad; Majid, Amin Malik; Chan, Kit-Lam

    2010-06-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor formation and proliferation. The development of anti-angiogenic agents to block new blood vessel growth will inhibit metastasis and induce apoptosis of the cancer cells. Nine medicinal plants, Strobilanthes crispus, Phyllanthus niruri, Phyllanthus pulcher, Phyllanthus urinaria, Ailanthus malabarica, Irvingia malayana, Smilax myosotiflora, Tinospora crispa and blumea balsamifera were screened for anti-angiogenic properties using the rat aortic ring assay. Of these, the methanol extracts of Phyllanthus species and Irvingia malayana exhibited the highest activity. At 100 microg/mL, P. pulcher, P. niruri, P. urinaria and I. malayana recorded an inhibition of 78.8 %, 59.5 %, 56.7 % and 46.4 %, respectively, against rat aortic vascular growth. Their activities were further investigated by the tube formation assay involving human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) on Matrigel. I. malayana, P. niruri and P. urinaria showed a significant decrease of 45.5, 37.9 and 35.6 %, respectively, whilst P. pulcher showed a much lower decrease of 15.5 % when compared with that of the rat aortic ring assay. All the plant extracts were evaluated for cytotoxicity on a panel of human cancer cell lines using the MTT assay. None of them displayed acute cytotoxicity. The HPLC of P. niruri, P. urinaria and P. pulcher indicated the extracts contained some identical chromatographic peaks of lignans. Further fractionation of I. malayana yielded betulinic acid reported in this plant for the first time and at 100 microg/mL it exhibited a 67.3 % inhibition of vessel outgrowth and 46.5 % inhibition of tube formation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  19. Magnoflorine Enhances LPS-Activated Pro-Inflammatory Responses via MyD88-Dependent Pathways in U937 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Areeful; Jantan, Ibrahim; Harikrishnan, Hemavathy; Abdul Wahab, Siti Mariam

    2018-06-15

    Magnoflorine, a major bioactive metabolite isolated from Tinospora crispa, has been reported for its diverse biochemical and pharmacological properties. However, there is little report on its underlying mechanisms of action on immune responses, particularly on macrophage activation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of magnoflorine, isolated from T. crispa on the pro-inflammatory mediators generation induced by LPS and the concomitant NF- κ B, MAPKs, and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways in U937 macrophages. Differentiated U937 macrophages were treated with magnoflorine and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators was evaluated through ELISA, while the relative mRNA expression of the respective mediators was quantified through qRT-PCR. Correspondingly, western blotting was executed to observe the modulatory effects of magnoflorine on the expression of various markers related to NF- κ B, MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling activation in LPS-primed U937 macrophages. Magnoflorine significantly enhanced the upregulation of TNF- α , IL-1 β , and PGE 2 production as well as COX-2 protein expression. Successively, magnoflorine prompted the mRNA transcription level of these pro-inflammatory mediators. Magnoflorine enhanced the NF- κ B activation by prompting p65, I κ B α , and IKK α / β phosphorylation as well as I κ B α degradation. Besides, magnoflorine treatments concentration-dependently augmented the phosphorylation of JNK, ERK, and p38 MAPKs as well as Akt. The immunoaugmenting effects were further confirmed by investigating the effects of magnoflorine on specific inhibitors, where the treatment with specific inhibitors of NF- κ B, MAPKs, and PI3K-Akt proficiently blocked the magnoflorine-triggered TNF- α release and COX-2 expression. Magnoflorine furthermore enhanced the MyD88 and TLR4 upregulation. The results suggest that magnoflorine has high potential on augmenting immune responses. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Morpho-anatomical features of underground systems in six Asteraceae species from the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz; Cury, Graziela

    2011-09-01

    In the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna), the development of bud-bearing underground systems as adaptive structures to fire and dry periods can comprise an important source of buds for this ecosystem, as already demonstrated in the Brazilian Campos grasslands and North American prairies. Asteraceae species from both woody and herbaceous strata have subterranean organs that accumulate carbohydrates, reinforcing the adaptive strategy of these plants to different environmental conditions. This study aims to analyse the morpho-anatomy of underground systems of six species of Asteraceae (Mikania cordifolia L.f. Willd., Mikania sessilifolia DC, Trixis nobilis (Vell.) Katinas, Pterocaulon alopecuroides (Lam.) DC., Vernonia elegans Gardner and Vernonia megapotamica Spreng.), to describe these structures and to verify the occurrence and origin of shoot buds, and to analyse the presence of reserve substances. Individuals sampled in Cerrado areas in São Paulo State showed thick underground bud-bearing organs, with adventitious or lateral roots and presence of fructans. Xylopodium was found in all studied species, except for Trixis nobilis, which had stem tuber. The presence of fructans as reserve, and the capacity of structures in the formation of buds indicate the potential of herbaceous species of Asteraceae in forming a viable bud bank for vegetation regeneration in the Brazilian Cerrado.

  1. Knowledge on plants used traditionally in the treatment of tuberculosis in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bunalema, Lydia; Obakiro, Samuel; Tabuti, John R S; Waako, Paul

    2014-02-03

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally. The disease is especially important because of increasing drug resistant strains and co infection with human immune virus (HIV) and acquired immune disease syndrome (AIDS). Because of this there is need to identify new leads that can be developed into new drugs. The objectives of this study were to (1) document plant species commonly used by traditional medicine practitioners (TMPs) to treat TB, methods of preparation and administration of drugs (2) document disease recognition by TMPs and (3) document medicine preservation and packaging practices by TMPs. We interviewed 40 TMPs from Mpigi and Butambala districts using a guided questionnaire. A total of 90 plant species, distributed within 44 families were documented. Priority plants identified include Zanthoxylum leprieurii, Piptadeniastrum africanum, Albizia coriaria and Rubia cordifolia which were most mentioned by TMPs. TMPs had knowledge of how TB is transmitted and they admitted that it is closely associated with HIV. Decoctions of multiple plant species were commonly used. Plant parts frequently used were leaves followed by the stem bark and root bark. The TMPs had insufficient knowledge about packaging and preservation techniques. Plant based therapies for treating TB have been identified in this study and further investigation of these plants is appropriate as these, may be developed into new drugs to curb the resistant strains of TB. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary Plants for the Prevention and Management of Kidney Stones: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence and Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Nirumand, Mina Cheraghi; Hajialyani, Marziyeh; Rahimi, Roja; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Kidney stones are one of the oldest known and common diseases in the urinary tract system. Various human studies have suggested that diets with a higher intake of vegetables and fruits play a role in the prevention of kidney stones. In this review, we have provided an overview of these dietary plants, their main chemical constituents, and their possible mechanisms of action. Camellia sinensis (green tea), Rubus idaeus (raspberry), Rubia cordifolia (common madder), Petroselinum crispum (parsley), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Pistacia lentiscus (mastic), Solanum xanthocarpum (yellow-fruit nightshade), Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), Dolichos biflorus (horse gram), Ammi visnaga (khella), Nigella sativa (black-cumin), Hibiscus sabdariffa (roselle), and Origanum vulgare (oregano) have received considerable interest based on scientific evidence. Beside these dietary plants, phytochemicals—such as catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, diosmin, rutin, quercetin, hyperoside, and curcumin—as antioxidant dietary phyto-phenols were found to be effective for the prevention of urolithiasis (the process of stone formation in the urinary tract). The main underlying mechanisms of these dietary plants and their isolated phytonutrients in the management of urolithiasis include diuretic, antispasmodic, and antioxidant activity, as well as an inhibitory effect on crystallization, nucleation, and aggregation of crystals. The results as presented in this review demonstrate the promising role of dietary plants and phytophenols in the prevention and management of kidney stones. Further investigations are required to confirm the safety and efficacy of these compounds. PMID:29518971

  3. Dietary Plants for the Prevention and Management of Kidney Stones: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence and Molecular Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nirumand, Mina Cheraghi; Hajialyani, Marziyeh; Rahimi, Roja; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Zingue, Stéphane; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Bishayee, Anupam

    2018-03-07

    Kidney stones are one of the oldest known and common diseases in the urinary tract system. Various human studies have suggested that diets with a higher intake of vegetables and fruits play a role in the prevention of kidney stones. In this review, we have provided an overview of these dietary plants, their main chemical constituents, and their possible mechanisms of action. Camellia sinensis (green tea), Rubus idaeus (raspberry), Rubia cordifolia (common madder), Petroselinum crispum (parsley), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Pistacia lentiscus (mastic), Solanum xanthocarpum (yellow-fruit nightshade), Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), Dolichos biflorus ( horse gram ), Ammi visnaga (khella), Nigella sativa (black-cumin), Hibiscus sabdariffa (roselle), and Origanum vulgare (oregano) have received considerable interest based on scientific evidence. Beside these dietary plants, phytochemicals-such as catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, diosmin, rutin, quercetin, hyperoside, and curcumin-as antioxidant dietary phyto-phenols were found to be effective for the prevention of urolithiasis (the process of stone formation in the urinary tract). The main underlying mechanisms of these dietary plants and their isolated phytonutrients in the management of urolithiasis include diuretic, antispasmodic, and antioxidant activity, as well as an inhibitory effect on crystallization, nucleation, and aggregation of crystals. The results as presented in this review demonstrate the promising role of dietary plants and phytophenols in the prevention and management of kidney stones. Further investigations are required to confirm the safety and efficacy of these compounds.

  4. Revision of endemic Marquesas Islands Bidens (Asteraceae, Coreopsideae)

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Warren L.; Clark, John R.; Lorence, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract During the preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands four new species of Bidens (Coreopsideae, Asteraceae) have come to light and are described herein: Bidens woodii W.L. Wagner, J.R. Clark & Lorence, sp. nov. from Ua Pou, and Bidens microcephala W.L. Wagner, J.R. Clark & Lorence sp. nov., Bidens evapelliana W.L. Wagner, J.R. Clark & Lorence, sp. nov., and Bidens wichmanii W.L. Wagner, J.R. Clark & Lorence, sp. nov. from the undercollected island of Fatu Hiva. In addition to these new species, we recognize the following six species of Bidens previously described from the Marquesas Islands: Bidens beckiana (F. Br.) Sherff (Eiao and Hatutaa), Bidens bipontina Sherff and Bidens cordifolia Sch. Bip. (both in Nuku Hiva), Bidens henryi Sherff (Hiva Oa, Tahuata), Bidens uapensis (F. Br.) Sherff (Ua Pou), and Bidens polycephala Sch. Bip. (Nuku Hiva, Ua Huku, Hiva Oa, Tahuata, and Mohotani). Two names are reduced to synonymy under Bidens polycephala: Bidens collina Degener & Sherff, syn. nov. and Bidens jardinii Sch. Bip., syn. nov. Bidens polycephala has the widest distribution of the Marquesan species on five of the islands and exhibits considerable variation. PMID:25009437

  5. Phylogeographic Insights into a Peripheral Refugium: The Importance of Cumulative Effect of Glaciation on the Genetic Structure of Two Endemic Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zecca, Giovanni; Minuto, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Quaternary glaciations and mostly last glacial maximum have shaped the contemporary distribution of many species in the Alps. However, in the Maritime and Ligurian Alps a more complex picture is suggested by the presence of many Tertiary paleoendemisms and by the divergence time between lineages in one endemic species predating the Late Pleistocene glaciation. The low number of endemic species studied limits the understanding of the processes that took place within this region. We used species distribution models and phylogeographical methods to infer glacial refugia and to reconstruct the phylogeographical pattern of Silene cordifolia All. and Viola argenteria Moraldo & Forneris. The predicted suitable area for last glacial maximum roughly fitted current known distribution. Our results suggest that separation of the major clades predates the last glacial maximum and the following repeated glacial and interglacial periods probably drove differentiations. The complex phylogeographical pattern observed in the study species suggests that both populations and genotypes extinction was minimal during the last glacial maximum, probably due to the low impact of glaciations and to topographic complexity in this area. This study underlines the importance of cumulative effect of previous glacial cycles in shaping the genetic structure of plant species in Maritime and Ligurian Alps, as expected for a Mediterranean mountain region more than for an Alpine region. PMID:27870888

  6. Genetic and chemical diversity of high mucilaginous plants of Sida complex by ISSR markers and chemical fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Thul, Sanjog T; Srivastava, Ankit K; Singh, Subhash C; Shanker, Karuna

    2011-09-01

    A method was developed based on multiple approaches wherein DNA and chemical analysis was carried out toward differentiation of important species of Sida complex that is being used for commercial preparation. Isolated DNA samples were successfully performed through PCR amplification using ISSR markers and degree of genetic diversity among the different species of Sida is compared with that of chemical diversity. For genetic fingerprint investigation, selected 10 ISSR primers generating reproducible banding patterns were used. Among the total of 63 amplicons, 62 were recorded as polymorphic, genetic similarity index deduced from ISSR profiles ranged from 12 to 51%. Based on similarity index, S. acuta and S. rhombifolia found to be most similar (51%). High number of species-specific bands played pivotal role to delineate species at genetic level. Investigation based on HPTLC fingerprints analysis revealed 23 bands representing to characteristic chemicals and similarity index ranged from 73 to 91%. Prominent distinguishable bands were observed only in S. acuta, while S. cordifolia and S. rhombifolia shared most bands making them difficult to identify on chemical fingerprint basis. This report summarizes the genotypic and chemotypic diversity and the use of profiles for authentication of species of Sida complex.

  7. Seasonal variations in the community structures of macrobenthic fauna and their health status in an estuarine bay, Gwangyang Bay in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jin-Young; An, Soon-Mo; Lim, Dhong-il; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2017-09-01

    Macrobenthic fauna in an estuarine Gwangyang Bay, southern Korean coast, were investigated to uncover recent variations in their community structures. In the study area, macrobenthic faunal communities were mainly composed of polychaete worms which were the most abundant faunal group with the highest values in species number and density, while mollusks accounted for the highest proportion in total biomass. There was no clear seasonal difference in species richness during the two year period of the investigation, but the mean density and biomass increased every spring and summer due to the mass recruitment of Theora fragilis. The Shannon's diversity index (H') was more than 2.0 during most sampling seasons and did not show any significant seasonal difference except for the data in August, 2011 when azoic conditions occurred. The community structures of macrobenthos in Gwangyang Bay did not show any remarkable change in the dominance of the two top dominant species, Scoletoma longifolia and Heteromastus filiformis, which abundantly occurred in all seasons, except for the abundance peaks associated with high occurrence of T. fragilis and Paraprionospio cordifolia, especially in spring and summer and in autumn, respectively. These fauna changes reflected the changes in the macrobenthic community health status in Gwangyang Bay, where stable conditions and a healthy status prevailed in winter, but a slightly disturbed status prevailed from spring to autumn.

  8. Total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and radical scavenging activity of 21 selected tropical plants.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, R A; Abdul Hamid, A; Mohamed, S; Bakar, F Abu

    2010-01-01

    Free radical scavenging activity of 21 tropical plant extracts was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay (DPPH). Total phenolic compounds and flavonoids were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu and HPLC, respectively. Results of the study revealed that all the plants tested exhibited excellent antioxidant activity with IC(50) in the range of 21.3 to 89.6 microg/mL. The most potent activity was demonstrated by Cosmos caudatus (21.3 microg/mL) and Piper betle (23.0 microg/mL) that are not significantly different than that of -tocopherol or BHA. L. inermis extract was found to consist of the highest concentration of phenolics, catechin, epicatechin, and naringenin. High content of quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were identified in Vitex negundo, Centella asiatica, and Sesbania grandiflora extracts, respectively. Luteolin and apigenin, on the other hand, were found in Premna cordifolia and Kaempferia galanga extracts. Strong correlation (R = 0.8613) between total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids (R = 0.8430) and that of antioxidant activity of the extracts were observed. The study revealed that phenolic, in particular flavonoids, may be the main contributors to the antioxidant activity exhibited by the plants. Potent antioxidant from natural sources is of great interest to replace the use of synthetic antioxidants. In addition, some of the plants have great potential to be used in the development of functional ingredients/foods that are currently in demand for the health benefits associated with their use.

  9. Antioxidant and metabolite profiling of North American and neotropical blueberries using LC-TOF-MS and multivariate analyses.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunhui; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Flores, Gema; Wu, Shi-Biao; Pedraza-Peñalosa, Paola; Long, Chunlin; Kennelly, Edward J

    2013-04-10

    There are many neotropical blueberries, and recent studies have shown that some have even stronger antioxidant activity than the well-known edible North American blueberries. Antioxidant marker compounds were predicted by applying multivariate statistics to data from LC-TOF-MS analysis and antioxidant assays of 3 North American blueberry species (Vaccinium corymbosum, Vaccinium angustifolium, and a defined mixture of Vaccinium virgatum with V. corymbosum) and 12 neotropical blueberry species (Anthopterus wardii, Cavendishia grandifolia, Cavendishia isernii, Ceratostema silvicola, Disterigma rimbachii, Macleania coccoloboides, Macleania cordifolia, Macleania rupestris, Satyria boliviana, Sphyrospermum buxifolium, Sphyrospermum cordifolium, and Sphyrospermum ellipticum). Fourteen antioxidant markers were detected, and 12 of these, including 7 anthocyanins, 3 flavonols, 1 hydroxycinnamic acid, and 1 iridoid glycoside, were identified. This application of multivariate analysis to bioactivity and mass data can be used for identification of pharmacologically active natural products and may help to determine which neotropical blueberry species will be prioritized for agricultural development. Also, the compositional differences between North American and neotropical blueberries were determined by chemometric analysis, and 44 marker compounds including 16 anthocyanins, 15 flavonoids, 7 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, 5 triterpene glycosides, and 1 iridoid glycoside were identified.

  10. Effects of Five Ayurvedic Herbs on Locomotor Behaviour in a Drosophila melanogaster Parkinson’s Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, R. L. M.; Brogan, B.; Whitworth, A. J.; Okello, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    Current conventional treatments for Parkinson’s disease (PD) are aimed at symptom management, as there is currently no known cure or treatment that can slow down its progression. Ayurveda, the ancient medical system of India, uses a combination of herbs to combat the disease. Herbs commonly used for this purpose are Zandopa (containing Mucuna pruriens), Withania somnifera, Centella asiatica, Sida cordifolia and Bacopa monnieri. In this study, these herbs were tested for their potential ability to improve climbing ability of a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) PD model based on loss of function of phosphatase and tensin-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1). Fruit flies were cultured on food containing individual herbs or herbal formulations, a combination of all five herbs, levodopa (positive control) or no treatment (negative control). Tests were performed in both PINK1 mutant flies and healthy wild-type (WT) flies. A significant improvement in climbing ability was observed in flies treated with B. monnieri compared with untreated PINK1 mutant flies. However, a significant decrease in climbing ability was observed in WT flies for the same herb. Centella asiatica also significantly decreased climbing ability in WT flies. No significant effects were observed with any of the other herbs in either PINK1 or WT flies compared with untreated flies. PMID:25091506

  11. Dermocosmetics for dry skin: a new role for botanical extracts.

    PubMed

    Casetti, F; Wölfle, U; Gehring, W; Schempp, C M

    2011-01-01

    Dry skin is associated with a disturbed skin barrier and reduced formation of epidermal proteins and lipids. During recent years, skin-barrier-reinforcing properties of some botanical compounds have been described. Searching the PubMed database revealed 9 botanical extracts that specifically improve skin barrier and/or promote keratinocyte differentiation in vivo after topical application. The topical application of Aloe vera (leaf gel), Betula alba (birch bark extract), Helianthus annuus (sunflower oleodistillate), Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort extract), Lithospermum erythrorhizon (root extract), Piptadenia colubrina (angico-branco extract) and Simarouba amara (bitter wood extract) increased skin hydration, reduced the transepidermal water loss, or promoted keratinocyte differentiation in humans in vivo. The topical application of Rubia cordifolia root extract and rose oil obtained from Rosa spp. flowers stimulated keratinocyte differentiation in mouse models. The underlying mechanisms of these effects are discussed. It is concluded that some botanical compounds display skin-barrier-reinforcing properties that may be used in dermocosmetics for dry skin. However, more investigations on the mode of action and more vehicle-controlled studies are required. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Floral meristem size and organ number correlation in Eucryphia (Cunoniaceae).

    PubMed

    Bull-Hereñu, Kester; Ronse de Craene, Louis; Pérez, Fernanda

    2018-05-01

    We present a comparative flower ontogenetic study in five species of the genus Eucryphia with the aim of testing whether differences in the organ number observed can be explained by changes in the meristematic size of floral meristem and floral organs. Species native to Oceania, viz. E. milliganii, E. lucida and E. moorei, have the smallest gynoecia with ca. 6 carpels, while the Chilean E. glutinosa and E. cordifolia present more than ten carpels. E. milliganii has the smallest flower with the lowest stamen number (ca. 50), while the other species produce around 200 stamens and more. Standardized measurements of meristematic sectors were taken in 49 developing flowers that were classified into three well-defined ontogenetic stages. Sizes of meristems varied significantly among species within each developmental stage as revealed by ANOVA analyses. Significant regressions between organ number and corresponding meristem size were consistent with the premise that a larger meristem size prior to organ initiation could be determining for a higher organ number. Flower organogenesis in Eucryphia also involves relevant meristem expansion while the organs are initiated, which results in a particular androecium patterning with a chaotic stamen arrangement. Meristem expansion also appears to be slower but more extensive in species with larger initial meristematic size, suggesting that flower phenotype can be determined in ontogeny by this heterochronic interplay of space and time.

  13. Characterisation of chemical components for identifying historical Chinese textile dyes by ultra high performance liquid chromatography - photodiode array - electrospray ionisation mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Wanrooij, Jantien; van Bommel, Maarten; Quye, Anita

    2017-01-06

    This research makes the first attempt to apply Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to both Photodiode Array detection (PDA) and Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometer (ESI-MS) to the chemical characterisation of common textile dyes in ancient China. Three different extraction methods, respectively involving dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-oxalic acid, DMSO and hydrochloric acid, are unprecedentedly applied together to achieve an in-depth understanding of the chemical composition of these dyes. The first LC-PDA-MS database of the chemical composition of common dyes in ancient China has been established. The phenomena of esterification and isomerisation of the dye constituents of gallnut, gardenia and saffron, and the dye composition of acorn cup dyed silk are clarified for the first time. 6-Hydroxyrubiadin and its glycosides are first reported on a dyed sample with Rubia cordifolia from China. UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS with a C18 BEH shield column shows significant advantages in the separation and identification of similar dye constituents, particularly in the cases of analysing pagoda bud and turmeric dyed sample extracts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental traditional knowledge in a natural protected area as the basis for management and conservation policies.

    PubMed

    Pío-León, Juan Fernando; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco; Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; León-de-la-Luz, José Luís; Vega-Aviña, Rito; Nieto-Garibay, Alejandra; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel; Ortega-Rubio, Alfredo

    2017-10-01

    Ethnobotany is an adequate tool to identify the most import wild edible plants used by local people and to develop strategies for its sustainable use and policy making. This research records the wild edible plants used by the inhabitants of the Sierra la Laguna Biosphere Reserve, in Mexico, and identified priority species for sustainable development. The employed quantitative approach included the application of a food-oriented index named Food Significance Index (FSI), which integrated cultural, agricultural and food parameters; moreover, it used multivariate analysis to identify priority edible species for use and/or conservation. Fifty taxa were identified as the most important wild edible plants in the reserve, integrated into five priority groups. Foods in priority group 1 had the highest culinary diversity by grouping three fruits (Ficus petiolaris, Stenocereus thurberi, and Cyrtocarpa edulis), one almond-like seed (Cnidoscolus maculatus), one vegetable (Matelea cordifolia), and one condiment (Capsicum annuum). Priority groups 2-5 were selective for one or two types of food, such as fruits, teas, or seeds. Since group 1 was the most diverse, the FSI and the employed strategy permitted to identify the priority wild edible plant species with the highest potential for food security. The selected six species should be included in the future management program of the reserve as the priority wild edible plants to develop strategies for conservation, sustainable use, and improvement of the local population income. General policies to manage the selected six species are outlined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Review of the Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.

    PubMed

    Shan, Mingqiu; Yu, Sheng; Yan, Hui; Chen, Peidong; Zhang, Li; Ding, Anwei

    2016-12-20

    Rubia cordifolia Linn (Rubiaceae) is a climbing perennial herbal plant, which is widely distributed in China and India. Its root and rhizome, Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma (called Qiancao in China and Indian madder in India), is a well known phytomedicine used for hematemesis, epistaxis, flooding, spotting, traumatic bleeding, amenorrhea caused by obstruction, joint impediment pain, swelling and pain caused by injuries from falls. In addition, it is a kind of pigment utilized as a food additive and a dye for wool or fiber. This review mainly concentrates on studies of the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of this Traditional Chinese Medicine. The phytochemical evidences indicated that over a hundred chemical components have been found and isolated from the medicine, such as anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, triterpenoids, cyclic hexapeptides and others. These components are considered responsible for the various bioactivities of the herbal drug, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, antitumor, effects on coagulation-fibrinolysis system, neuroprotection and other effects. Additionally, based on these existing results, we also propose some interesting future research directions. Consequently, this review should help us to more comprehensively understand and to more fully utilize the herbal medicine Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.

  16. Dietary Pseudopurpurin Improves Bone Geometry Architecture and Metabolism in Red-Bone Guishan Goats

    PubMed Central

    Han, TieSuo; Li, Peng; Wang, JianGuo; Liu, GuoWen; Wang, Zhe; Ge, ChangRong; Gao, ShiZheng

    2012-01-01

    Red-colored bones were found initially in some Guishan goats in the 1980s, and they were designated red-boned goats. However, it is not understood what causes the red color in the bone, or whether the red material changes the bone geometry, architecture, and metabolism of red-boned goats. Pseudopurpurin was identified in the red-colored material of the bone in red-boned goats by high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–mass spetrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Pseudopurpurin is one of the main constituents of Rubia cordifolia L, which is eaten by the goats. The assessment of the mechanical properties and micro-computed tomography showed that the red-boned goats displayed an increase in the trabecular volume fraction, trabecular thickness, and the number of trabeculae in the distal femur. The mean thickness, inner perimeter, outer perimeter, and area of the femoral diaphysis were also increased. In addition, the trabecular separation and structure model index of the distal femur were decreased, but the bone mineral density of the whole femur and the mechanical properties of the femoral diaphysis were enhanced in the red-boned goats. Meanwhile, expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin mRNA was higher, and the ratio of the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa B ligand to osteoprotegerin was markedly lower in the bone marrow of the red-boned goats compared with common goats. To confirm further the effect of pseudopurpurin on bone geometry, architecture, and metabolism, Wistar rats were fed diets to which pseudopurpurin was added for 5 months. Similar changes were observed in the femurs of the treated rats. The above results demonstrate that pseudopurpurin has a close affinity with the mineral salts of bone, and consequently a high level of mineral salts in the bone cause an improvement in bone strength and an enhancement in the structure and metabolic functions of the bone. PMID:22624037

  17. Larvicidal potential of some plants from West Africa against Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Azokou, Alain; Koné, Mamidou W; Koudou, Benjamin G; Tra Bi, Honora F

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitoes increased resistance to insecticides, and environmental concerns about the use of insecticides, pose a major challenge in the search for new molecules to deplete and incapacitate mosquito populations. Plants are the valuable source as practices consisting in exploiting plant materials as repellents, and are still in wide use throughout developing countries. The aim of the present study was to screen plants from Cτte d'Ivoire for larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. Resistant and sensitive larvae (III and IV instar) of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were exposed to crude ethanol extracts (90%) of 45 plants and viability observed after 30 min, 6, 12 and 24 h postincubation. After partition of active extracts, each fraction (hexane and chloroform washed with NaCl 1%, tannins and aqueous) was tested using the same protocol at various concentrations (1000- 31.2 ppm). Of 49 extracts tested, 7 exhibited high potential (LC50 = 80 to 370 ppm) against resistant and sensitive III and IV instar larvae of An. gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus. These extracts were from Cissus populnea, Cochlospermum planchonii, Heliotropium indicum, Phyllanthus amarus, Vitex grandifolia and Alchornea cordifolia. However, three most active plant species (LC50 = 80- 180 ppm) were Cs. populnea, Cm. planchonii and P. amarus Their hexane and chloroform fractions showed high larvicidal activity. This study demonstrated that plants from Cτte d'Ivoire have a real potential for malaria, yellow fever, filarial and dengue vector control. Those could be used as sources or provide lead compounds for the development of safe plant-based biocides.

  18. Acidic fog and temperature effects on stigmatic receptivity in two birch species

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.N.; Cox, R.M.

    Factorial assays were performed to determine the effects of simulated acid fog (SAF) and temperature on stigmatic receptivity in two birch species. Excised reproductive branches were sampled from representative individuals of mountain paper birch (Betula cordifolia Regel.) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) in populations adjacent to the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada. Since 1979 these trees have exhibited branch dieback in association with abnormal foliar browning symptoms. This browning has been linked with acidity and nitrate deposited by fog, which is frequent in the area. In general, experimental results indicated that pollen germination increased with temperature, but pHmore » effects were less obvious. Similarly, pollen tube growth responded positively to temperature and was little affected by fog acidity. ANOVA tests indicated a significant difference (P < 0.05) between species in their pollen germination response only at 12{degrees}C, and not at the other three temperatures tested. For pollen tube growth, significant differences between species (P < 0.05) were demonstrated at 12 and 22{degrees}C. A significant pH effect was demonstrated at 27{degrees}C for germination, while pH effects on tube growth were significant at 27 and 12{degrees}C (P < 0.01). A response surface regression analysis indicated that acidity significantly affected pollen germination in mountain paper birch (P < 0.001) but not in paper birch. Temperature was not a significant factor for in vivo pollen germination in either species. For pollen tube growth, however, temperature was more important than pH and produced highly significant effects in both species (P < 0.001). Acidity was also a significant factor in pollen tube growth for paper birch. 39 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  19. Ancestral chromosomal blocks are triplicated in Brassiceae species with varying chromosome number and genome size.

    PubMed

    Lysak, Martin A; Cheung, Kwok; Kitschke, Michaela; Bures, Petr

    2007-10-01

    The paleopolyploid character of genomes of the economically important genus Brassica and closely related species (tribe Brassiceae) is still fairly controversial. Here, we report on the comparative painting analysis of block F of the crucifer Ancestral Karyotype (AK; n = 8), consisting of 24 conserved genomic blocks, in 10 species traditionally treated as members of the tribe Brassiceae. Three homeologous copies of block F were identified per haploid chromosome complement in Brassiceae species with 2n = 14, 18, 20, 32, and 36. In high-polyploid (n >or= 30) species Crambe maritima (2n = 60), Crambe cordifolia (2n = 120), and Vella pseudocytisus (2n = 68), six, 12, and six copies of the analyzed block have been revealed, respectively. Homeologous regions resembled the ancestral structure of block F within the AK or were altered by inversions and/or translocations. In two species of the subtribe Zillineae, two of the three homeologous regions were combined via a reciprocal translocation onto one chromosome. Altogether, these findings provide compelling evidence of an ancient hexaploidization event and corresponding whole-genome triplication shared by the tribe Brassiceae. No direct relationship between chromosome number and genome size variation (1.2-2.5 pg/2C) has been found in Brassiceae species with 2n = 14 to 36. Only two homeologous copies of block F suggest a whole-genome duplication but not the triplication event in Orychophragmus violaceus (2n = 24), and confirm a phylogenetic position of this species outside the tribe Brassiceae. Chromosome duplication detected in Orychophragmus as well as chromosome rearrangements shared by Zillineae species demonstrate the usefulness of comparative cytogenetics for elucidation of phylogenetic relationships.

  20. Ancestral Chromosomal Blocks Are Triplicated in Brassiceae Species with Varying Chromosome Number and Genome Size1

    PubMed Central

    Lysak, Martin A.; Cheung, Kwok; Kitschke, Michaela; Bureš, Petr

    2007-01-01

    The paleopolyploid character of genomes of the economically important genus Brassica and closely related species (tribe Brassiceae) is still fairly controversial. Here, we report on the comparative painting analysis of block F of the crucifer Ancestral Karyotype (AK; n = 8), consisting of 24 conserved genomic blocks, in 10 species traditionally treated as members of the tribe Brassiceae. Three homeologous copies of block F were identified per haploid chromosome complement in Brassiceae species with 2n = 14, 18, 20, 32, and 36. In high-polyploid (n ≥ 30) species Crambe maritima (2n = 60), Crambe cordifolia (2n = 120), and Vella pseudocytisus (2n = 68), six, 12, and six copies of the analyzed block have been revealed, respectively. Homeologous regions resembled the ancestral structure of block F within the AK or were altered by inversions and/or translocations. In two species of the subtribe Zillineae, two of the three homeologous regions were combined via a reciprocal translocation onto one chromosome. Altogether, these findings provide compelling evidence of an ancient hexaploidization event and corresponding whole-genome triplication shared by the tribe Brassiceae. No direct relationship between chromosome number and genome size variation (1.2–2.5 pg/2C) has been found in Brassiceae species with 2n = 14 to 36. Only two homeologous copies of block F suggest a whole-genome duplication but not the triplication event in Orychophragmus violaceus (2n = 24), and confirm a phylogenetic position of this species outside the tribe Brassiceae. Chromosome duplication detected in Orychophragmus as well as chromosome rearrangements shared by Zillineae species demonstrate the usefulness of comparative cytogenetics for elucidation of phylogenetic relationships. PMID:17720758

  1. Traditional herbal medicine in Far-west Nepal: a pharmacological appraisal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings. Methods The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review, comparison, field observations, and analysis. Comparison was made against earlier standard literature of medicinal plants and ethnomedicine of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda and the latest common phytochemical findings. The field study for primary data collection was carried out from 2006-2008. Results The herbal medicine in far-west Nepal is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. The medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi systems. The traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed because of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Of the 48 Nepalese medicinal plants assessed in the present communication, about half of the species showed affinity with the common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings. The folk uses of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest pharmacological findings

  2. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect of Kerabala: a value-added ayurvedic formulation from virgin coconut oil inhibits pathogenesis in adjuvant-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ratheesh, M; Sandya, S; Pramod, C; Asha, S; Svenia, Jose P; Premlal, S; GrishKumar, B

    2017-02-01

    Kerabala (CB) is a novel ayurvedic formulation used for treating various inflammatory diseases. This formulation was made from virgin coconut oil and it comprises extracts of Sida cordifolia, coconut milk and sesame oil. The current study was performed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory action of CB on carrageenan-induced acute and adjuvant-induced chronic experimental models. 5 mg/kg bwt was found to be potent dose from carrageenan model and evaluated its effect in adjuvant-induced chronic arthritic model. The antioxidant assays like SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, lipid peroxidation product, nitrate level and GSH were measured in paw tissue. Hematological parameters like hemoglobin (HB) count, ESR, WBC count, plasma CRP levels were analyzed. By RT-PCR, the inflammatory markers like cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) expressions were evaluated. The extracellular matrix proteins like MMP-2 and MMP-9 were determined by zymography and its expression by western blotting. Histopathology and cytology of paw tissue and synovium were analyzed. The result indicated that there was a significant increment in the levels of antioxidant enzymes on CB administration. The hematological markers such as ESR, WBC and plasma CRP levels were reduced by CB treatment and it also increases the HB level. The upregulated gene level expressions of inflammatory markers like COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α and IL-6 were down regulated by administration of CB. MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression significantly reduced by CB administration. Massive influx of inflammatory cell infiltration, proliferative collagen in histological analysis of paw tissue of arthritic rat was decreased by CB administration. Synovial cytology of CB administrated group shows reduced number of reactive mesothelial cells and synovial inflammatory cells. This current study shows that ayurvedic drug CB has an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and

  3. Ritual tooth modification among the Baka pygmies in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Agbor, A M; Azodo, C C; Naidoo, S

    2015-09-01

    Ritual tooth mutilation is a relatively understudied human body mutilatory practices. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of ritual tooth modification, teeth cleaning measures and herbal medications for their oral health problems among the Baka pygmies in Cameroon. This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and March, 2012 using semi-structured questionnaire as the tool of data collection. Intra-oral examinations were carried out to determine the dental hard tissue loss using Smith and Knight Tooth Wear Index (TWI). Fifty-six pygmies with ritual tooth modification made of 34 males (60.7%) and 22 females (39.3%) with a mean age of 31 years were interviewed and had oral health examination. The reported age at which the tooth modification was done was between 10 and 15 years with mean age as 12 ± 1.66 years. More than half (58.9%) of the participants reported the tooth filing as painful and nearly two-thirds (64.3%) of the participants reported having persistent pain afterwards. The upper right central and lateral incisors were the most commonly modified teeth. A total of 42.9%, 12.5% and 7.1% of the participants had Smith and Knight TWI scores of 2, 3 and 4 respectively. All the participants reported cleaning their teeth at least once-daily with about two-thirds (66.1%) of them doing so with chewing stick. The majority (67.9%) of the participants reported cleaning their teeth for cosmetic reasons [to remove dirt' (60.7%) and 'to remove stains' (7.1%)]. The oral health problems among the participants in form of tooth sensitivity, toothache and dental abscess were treated with plant-based traditional medicines from Irvingia gabonensis, Ricinodendron heudoletti, Pterocarpus soyauxii, Alchornea cordifolia and Piptadeniastrum africanum. Ritual tooth modification is a painful mutilatory practice which is culturally significant for the Baka pygmies without health benefit. There is need for intervention to stop this harmful traditional

  4. Sahelian rangeland response to changes in rainfall over two decades in the Gourma region, Mali

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiernaux, Pierre; Mougin, Eric; Diarra, Lassine; Soumaguel, Nogmana; Lavenu, François; Tracol, Yann; Diawara, Mamadou

    2009-08-01

    SummaryTwenty-five rangeland sites were monitored over two decades (1984-2006) first to assess the impact of the 1983-1984 droughts on fodder resources, then to better understand ecosystem functioning and dynamics. Sites are sampled along the south-north bioclimatic gradient in Gourma (Mali), within three main edaphic situations: sandy, loamy-clay and shallow soils. In addition, three levels of grazing pressure where systematically sampled within sandy soils. Located at the northern edge of the area reached by the West African monsoon, the Gourma gradient has recorded extremes in inter-annual variations of rainfall and resulting variations in vegetation growth. Following rainfall variability, inter-annual variability of herbaceous yield increases as climate gets dryer with latitudes at least on the sandy soils sites. Local redistribution of rainfall explains the high patchiness of herbaceous vegetation, especially on shallow soils. Yet spatial heterogeneity of the vegetation does not buffer between year yield variability that increases with spatial heterogeneity. At short term, livestock grazing during the wet season affects plant growth and thus yield in direction and proportions that vary with the timing and intensity of grazing. In the longer term, grazing also impinges upon species composition in many ways. Hence, long histories of heavy grazing promote either long cycle annuals refused by livestock or else short cycle good quality feed species. Primary production is maintained or even increased in the case of refusal such as Sida cordifolia, and is lessened in the case of short cycle species such as Zornia glochidiata. These behaviours explain that the yield anomalies calculated for the rangelands on sandy soils relative to the yield of site less grazed under similar climate tend to be negative in northern Sahel where the scenario of short cycle species dominates, while yield anomalies are close to nil in centre Sahel and slightly positive in South Sahel where

  5. The genus Sida L. - A traditional medicine: Its ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and pharmacological data for commercial exploitation in herbal drugs industry.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Biswanath; Das, Niranjan; Dinda, Subhajit; Dinda, Manikarna; SilSarma, Indrajit

    2015-12-24

    was reported. The detailed study on mechanism of action of isolates and extracts and their clinical study are needed for their use in modern medicine. More attention should be paid to Sida acuta, Sida cordifolia, Sida spinosa, Sida rhombifolia and Sida veronicaefolia in the domain of diarrhea, dysentery, gastrointestinal and urinary infections, skin ailments, asthma, bronchitis and other respiratory problems, malaria, childbirth and miscarriage problems, cardiac and neural problems, weight loss aid, and rheumatic and other inflammations, etc. Furthermore, detailed study on quality and safety assurance data on available ethnopharmacological preparations is needed for their commercial exploitation in local and global markets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Plant composition, pharmacological properties and mutagenic evaluation of a commercial Zulu herbal mixture: Imbiza ephuzwato.

    PubMed

    Ndhlala, A R; Finnie, J F; Van Staden, J

    2011-01-27

    Imbiza ephuzwato is a traditional herbal tonic made from a mixture of extracts of roots, bulbs, rhizomes and leaves of 21 medicinal plants and is used in traditional medicine as a multipurpose remedy. To compile and investigate the bioactivity and mutagenic effects of extracts of the 21 plant species used in the preparation of Imbiza ephuzwato herbal tonic. The 21 plant species used to make Imbiza ephuzwato herbal mixture were each investigated for their pharmacological properties. Petroleum ether (PE), dichloromethane (DCM), 80% ethanol (EtOH) and water extracts of the 21 plants were evaluated against two gram-positive, two gram-negative bacteria and a fungus Candida albicans. The extracts were also evaluated for their inhibitory effects against cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and -2) and acetylcholinesterase AChE enzymes. Mutagenic effects of the water extracts were evaluated using the Ames test. Gunnera perpensa and Rubia cordifolia were the only plant species used to manufacture Imbiza ephuzwato that had water extracts which showed good antibacterial activity. The extracts of G. perpensa (EtOH), Hypericum aethiopicum (DCM) and Urginea physodes (EtOH) showed the best antifungal activity. The water extracts of H. aethiopicum, G. perpensa, Drimia robusta, Vitellariopsis marginata, Scadoxus puniceus and Momordica balsamina showed percentage inhibition of COX-1 that was over 70%. For COX-2 enzyme, the water extracts of G. perpensa, Cyrtanthus obliquus, M. balsamina and Tetradenia riparia exhibited inhibitory activity above 70%. Water extracts of G. perpensa, C. obliquus, V. marginata, Asclepias fruticosa and Watsonia densiflora showed good AChE inhibitory activity (>80%). The Ames test results revealed that all the water extracts of the 21 plant species used to make Imbiza ephuzwato were non-mutagenic towards the Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain for the assay with and without S9 metabolic activation. In contrast, Imbiza ephuzwato showed mutagenic effects after exposure to S

  7. Characterization of Palo Podrido, a Natural Process of Delignification in Wood †

    PubMed Central

    Agosin, Eduardo; Blanchette, Robert A.; Silva, Herman; Lapierre, Catherine; Cease, Kory R.; Ibach, Rebecca E.; Abad, André R.; Muga, Pedro

    1990-01-01

    Chemical and morphological changes of incipient to advanced stages of palo podrido, an extensively delignified wood, and other types of white rot decay found in the temperate forests of southern Chile were investigated. Palo podrido is a general term for white rot decay that is either selective or nonselective for the removal of lignin, whereas palo blanco describes the white decayed wood that has advanced stages of delignification. Selective delignification occurs mainly in trunks of Eucryphia cordifolia and Nothofagus dombeyi, which have the lowest lignin content and whose lignins have the largest amount of β-aryl ether bonds and the highest syringyl/guaiacyl ratio of all the native woods included in this study. A Ganoderma species was the main white rot fungus associated with the decay. The structural changes in lignin during the white rot degradation were examined by thioacidolysis, which revealed that the β-aryl ether-linked syringyl units were more specifically degraded than the guaiacyl ones, particularly in the case of selective delignification. Ultrastructural studies showed that the delignification process was diffuse throughout the cell wall. Lignin was first removed from the secondary wall nearest the lumen and then throughout the secondary wall toward the middle lamella. The middle lamella and cell corners were the last areas to be degraded. Black manganese deposits were found in some, but not all, selectively delignified samples. In advanced stages of delignification, almost pure cellulose could be found, although with a reduced degree of polymerization. Cellulolytic enzymes appeared to be responsible for depolymerization. A high brightness and an easy refining capacity were found in an unbleached pulp made from selectively delignified N. dombeyi wood. Its low viscosity, however, resulted in poor resistance properties of the pulp. The last stage of degradation (i.e., decomposition of cellulose-rich secondary wall layers) resulted in a gelatinlike

  8. Ethnomedicinal survey of a maroon community in Brazil's Atlantic tropical forest.

    PubMed

    de Santana, Bruna Farias; Voeks, Robert A; Funch, Ligia Silveira

    2016-04-02

    species (45%), and non-cultivated species (51%) were slightly more numerous than cultivated species (49%). In spite of abundant nearby old-growth forests, trails and gardens were the most common collection sites. A mean of 13.2 medicinal plant species were cited per participant. The highest CV was recorded for Cymbopogon citratus (0.20) followed by Lippia alba (0.19) and Stryphnodendron cf. adstringens (0.17). The highest RF included C. citratus (0.69), L. alba (0.59), and Eugenia uniflora (0.55). The highest UV figures were recorded for S. cf. adstringens (1.68), followed by Sida cf. cordifolia (0.97) and C. citratus (0.93).Fifteen species (13%) of this maroon medicinal flora trace their ancestry to Africa or African-derived healing traditions. The Salamina maroon community maintains considerable knowledge of the medicinal value of the local flora. However, little of this knowledge is derived from the surrounding old-growth tropical forests. Their pharmacopoeia is a hybrid mix of wild and cultivated species, natives and exotics. Among those species representing the community's isolation and African ancestry, most are associated with spiritual and magical medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethnomedicinal and ecological status of plants in Garhwal Himalaya, India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    tropical region and Terminalia belerica in the sub-tropical region were least dominant reported. In the temperate region, Quercus leucotrichophora was the dominant tree and Pyrus pashia the least dominant tree. A total of 10 shrubs were recorded in all three regions: Adhatoda vasica was common species in the tropical and sub-tropical regions however, Rhus parviflora was common species in the sub-tropical and temperate regions. Among the 33 herbs, Sida cordifolia was dominant in the tropical and sub-tropical regions, while Barleria prionitis the least dominant in tropical and Phyllanthus amarus in the sub-tropical region. In temperate region, Vernonia anthelmintica was dominant and Imperata cylindrica least dominant. The consensus survey indicated that the inhabitants have a high level of agreement regarding the usages of single plant. The index value was high (1.0) for warts, vomiting, carminative, pain, boils and antiseptic uses, and lowest index value (0.33) was found for bronchitis. Conclusion The medicinal plants treated various ailments. These included diarrhea, dysentery, bronchitis, menstrual disorders, gonorrhea, pulmonary affections, migraines, leprosy. The ecological studies showed that the tree density and total basal cover increased from the tropical region to sub-tropical and temperate regions. The species composition changed with climatic conditions. Among the localities used for data collection in each climatic region, many had very poor vegetation cover. The herbaceous layer decreased with increasing altitude, which might be an indication that communities at higher elevations were harvesting more herbaceous medicinal plants, due to the lack of basic health care facilities. Therefore, special attention needs to be given to the conservation of medicinal plants in order to ensure their long-term availability to the local inhabitants. Data on the use of individual species of medicinal plants is needed to provide an in-depth assessment of the plants availability

  10. Ethnobotany of the Monpa ethnic group at Arunachal Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The present paper documents the uses of plants in traditional herbal medicine for human and veterinary ailments, and those used for dietary supplements, religious purpose, local beverage, and plants used to poison fish and wild animals. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the rural population in Arunachal Pradesh. Materials and methods Field research was conducted between April 2006 and March 2009 with randomly selected 124 key informants using semi-structured questionnaire. The data obtained was analyzed through informant consensus factor (FIC) to determine the homogeneity of informant's knowledge on medicinal plants. Results We documented 50 plants species belonging to 29 families used for treating 22 human and 4 veterinary ailments. Of the medicinal plants reported, the most common growth form was herbs (40%) followed by shrubs, trees, and climbers. Leaves were most frequently used plant parts. The consensus analysis revealed that the dermatological ailments have the highest FIC (0.56) and the gastro-intestinal diseases have FIC (0.43). FIC values indicated that there was high agreement in the use of plants in dermatological and gastro-intestinal ailments category among the users. Gymnocladus assamicus is a critically rare and endangered species used as disinfectant for cleaning wounds and parasites like leeches and lice on livestocks. Two plant species (Illicium griffithii and Rubia cordifolia) are commonly used for traditional dyeing of clothes and food items. Some of the edible plants recorded in this study were known for their treatment against high blood pressure (Clerodendron colebrookianum), diabetes mellitus (Momordica charantia), and intestinal parasitic worms like round and tape worms (Lindera neesiana, Solanum etiopicum, and Solanum indicum). The Monpas of Arunachal Pradesh have traditionally been using Daphne papyracea for preparing hand-made paper for painting and writing religious scripts in