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Sample records for gueldenstaedtii acipenseriformes acipenseridae

  1. Morphology and fine structure of Acipenser persicus (Acipenseridae, Chondrostei) spermatozoon: Inter-species comparison in Acipenseriformes.

    PubMed

    Hatef, Azadeh; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi; Noveiri, Shahrouz Baradaran; Poorbagher, Hadi; Alipour, Ali Reza; Pourkazemi, Mohammad; Linhart, Otomar

    2011-01-01

    This study describes morphology and fine structure of the Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) (Acipenseridae, Chondrostei) spermatozoon. The results show that the spermatozoon of A. persicus is differentiated into an elongated head (length: mean±SD: 7.1±0.5μm) with an acrosome (length: 1.2±0.2μm), a cylindrical midpiece (length: 1.8±0.5μm), a flagellum (length: 50.3±5.9μm) and a total length of 59.2±6.2μm. Ten posterolateral projections (PLPs) arise from the posterior edge of the acrosome and there were 3 endonuclear canals that traversed the nucleus from the acrosomal end to the basal nuclear fossa region. Three to six mitochondria were in peripheral midpiece and the proximal and distal centrioles were located near to "implantation fossa" and basement of the flagellum. The axoneme has a typical eukaryotic structure composed of 9 peripheral microtubules and a central pair of single microtubule surrounded by the plasma membrane. Lateral fins were observed along the flagellum. The fins started and ended at 0.5-1μm from midpiece and at 4-6μm from the end of flagellum. There were significant differences in the size of almost all measured morphological parameters between males and flagellar, midpiece and nucleus characters were more isolated parameters that can be considered for detecting inter-individual variations. This study showed that sperm morphology and fine structure are similar among sturgeon species, but the dimensions of the parameters may differ. PMID:21144681

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Gulf sturgeon, A. o. desotoi and European sturgeon A. sturio (Acipenseriformes: Acipenseridae) obtained through next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Popović, Danijela; Baca, Mateusz; Panagiotopoulou, Hanna

    2016-07-01

    Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of European sturgeon and two subspecies of the North American, Atlantic and Gulf sturgeons were determined using MiSeq Illumina technology. All three genomes show typical vertebrate organization. They possess 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA (ribosomal RNA) genes and a non-coding control region. Excluding ND6, all protein-coding genes are on the heavy strand. The whole mitogenome sequences have been deposited in GenBank under accession numbers KP997216-KP997218.

  3. Viability and fertilizing capacity of cryopreserved sperm from three North American acipenseriform species: A retrospective study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horvath, A.; Wayman, W.R.; Dean, J.C.; Urbanyi, B.; Tiersch, T.R.; Mims, S.D.; Johnson, D.; Jenkins, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Populations of sturgeon across the globe are threatened due to unregulated harvest and habitat loss, and the status varies among species across North America. Ready access to viable and functional sperm would contribute to recovery programmes for these species. In this study, we examined the motility, viability (cell membrane integrity) of cryopreserved sperm from three North American acipenseriform species and fertilizing capacity. Milt samples were collected from captive shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum), wild paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and cryopreserved using combinations of Modified Tsvetkova's (MT) extender, Original Tsvetkova's extender, and modified Hanks' balanced salt solution, along with the cryoprotectants methanol (MeOH) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). A dual-staining technique using the fluorescent stains SYBR-14 and propidium iodide was employed with flow cytometry to determine the percentages of spermatozoa that were viable by virtue of having intact membranes. The percentage of viable spermatozoa ranged from 5% to 12% in shortnose sturgeon, 30-59% in paddlefish, and 44-58% in pallid sturgeon. In the first experiment with shortnose sturgeon sperm, methanol allowed for higher values for dependent variables than did DMSO, and sperm viability generally correlated with post-thaw motility. However, fertilization rate, neurulation, or hatching rates were independent from these factors. In the second experiment with shortnose sturgeon, 5% MeOH combined with MT yielded higher values for all parameters tested than the other combinations: viability was correlated with motility, fertilization rate, and hatching rate. Overall, viability and post-thaw motility was not affected by the use of hyperosmotic extenders (OT) or cryoprotectants (DMSO), but their use decreased fertilization percentages. For paddlefish sperm (experiment 3), MT combined with 10% MeOH was clearly a good choice for cryopreservation

  4. Characterization and inhibition studies of carbonic anhydrase from gill of Russian Sturgeon Fish (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii).

    PubMed

    Dinçer, Barbaros; Ekinci, Arife Pınar; Akyüz, Gülay; Kurtoğlu, İlker Zeki

    2016-12-01

    An α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) was purified and characterized kinetically from gill of Acipenser gueldenstaedtii as an endangered sturgeon species. The carbonic anhydrase was purified 66-folds with yield 20.7% by Sepharose-4B-l-tyrosine-sulfanilamide affinity column and the specific activity was determined as 222.2 EU/mg protein. Km and Vmax kinetic values for gill carbonic anhydrase were calculated by a Lineweaver-Burk graph using p-nitrophenol acetate (p-NPA) as a substrate, and was defined as 2.5 mM and 5 × 10(6 )μM/min, respectively. It was observed that CA from the sturgeon gill in the presence of the sulfanilamide and acetazolamide as an inhibitor had very low IC50 values such as 13.0 and 0.1 μM, respectively. In addition, it was determined that the enzyme was inhibited by Fe(2+,) Co(2+,) Ni(2+), and Zn(2+)-Ba(2+) with the IC50 values of 0.2, 1.7, 1.2, and 1.1 mM, respectively.

  5. Anatomy and early development of the pectoral girdle, fin, and fin spine of sturgeons (Actinopterygii: Acipenseridae).

    PubMed

    Dillman, Casey B; Hilton, Eric J

    2015-03-01

    Acipenseriformes hold an important place in the evolutionary history of bony fishes. Given their phylogenetic position as extant basal Actinopterygii, it is generally held that a thorough understanding of their morphology will greatly contribute to the knowledge of the evolutionary history and the origin of diversity for the major osteichthyan clades. To this end, we examined comparative developmental series from the pectoral girdle in Acipenser fulvescens, A. medirostris, A. transmontanus, and Scaphirhynchus albus to document, describe, and compare ontogenetic and allometric differences in the pectoral girdle. We find, not surprisingly, broad congruence between taxa in the basic pattern of development of the dermal and chondral elements of the pectoral girdle. However, we also find clear differences in the details of structure and development among the species examined in the dermal elements, including the clavicle, cleithrum, supracleithrum, posttemporal, and pectoral-fin spine. We also find differences in the internal fin elements such as the distal radials as well as in the number of fin rays and their association with the propterygium. Further, there are clear ontogenetic differences during development of the dermal and chondral elements in these species and allometric variation in the pectoral-fin spine. The characters highlighted provide a suite of elements for further examination in studies of the phylogeny of sturgeons. Determining the distribution of these characters in other sturgeons may aid in further resolution of phylogenetic relationships, and these data highlight the role that ontogenetic and comparative developmental studies provide in systematics. PMID:25303307

  6. Anatomy and early development of the pectoral girdle, fin, and fin spine of sturgeons (Actinopterygii: Acipenseridae).

    PubMed

    Dillman, Casey B; Hilton, Eric J

    2015-03-01

    Acipenseriformes hold an important place in the evolutionary history of bony fishes. Given their phylogenetic position as extant basal Actinopterygii, it is generally held that a thorough understanding of their morphology will greatly contribute to the knowledge of the evolutionary history and the origin of diversity for the major osteichthyan clades. To this end, we examined comparative developmental series from the pectoral girdle in Acipenser fulvescens, A. medirostris, A. transmontanus, and Scaphirhynchus albus to document, describe, and compare ontogenetic and allometric differences in the pectoral girdle. We find, not surprisingly, broad congruence between taxa in the basic pattern of development of the dermal and chondral elements of the pectoral girdle. However, we also find clear differences in the details of structure and development among the species examined in the dermal elements, including the clavicle, cleithrum, supracleithrum, posttemporal, and pectoral-fin spine. We also find differences in the internal fin elements such as the distal radials as well as in the number of fin rays and their association with the propterygium. Further, there are clear ontogenetic differences during development of the dermal and chondral elements in these species and allometric variation in the pectoral-fin spine. The characters highlighted provide a suite of elements for further examination in studies of the phylogeny of sturgeons. Determining the distribution of these characters in other sturgeons may aid in further resolution of phylogenetic relationships, and these data highlight the role that ontogenetic and comparative developmental studies provide in systematics.

  7. Acipensins – Novel Antimicrobial Peptides from Leukocytes of the Russian Sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii

    PubMed Central

    Shamova, O. V.; Orlov, D. S.; Balandin, S. V.; Shramova, E. I.; Tsvetkova, E. V.; Panteleev, P. V.; Leonova, Yu. F.; Tagaev, A. A.; Kokryakov, V. N.; Ovchinnikova, T. V.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play an important role in the innate defense mechanisms in humans and animals. We have isolated and studied a set of antimicrobial peptides from leukocytes of the Russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii belonging to a subclass of chondrosteans, an ancient group of bony fish. Structural analysis of the isolated peptides, designated as acipensins (Ac), revealed in leukocytes of the Russian sturgeon six novel peptides with molecular masses of 5336.2 Da, 3803.0 Da, 5173.0 Da, 4777.5 Da, 5449.4 Da, and 2740.2 Da, designated as Ac1–Ac6, respectively. Complete primary structures of all the isolated peptides were determined, and the biological activities of three major components – Ac1, Ac2, and Ac6 – were examined. The peptides Ac1, Ac2, Ac3, Ac4, and Ac5 were found to be the N-terminal acetylated fragments 1–0, 1–5, 1–9, 1–4, and 1–1 of the histone H2A, respectively, while Ac6 was shown to be the 62–5 fragment of the histone H2A. The peptides Ac1 and Ac2 displayed potent antimicrobial activity towards Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria (Escherichia coli ML35p, Listeria monocytogenes EGD, MRSA ATCC 33591) and the fungus Candida albicans 820, while Ac6 proved effective only against Gram-negative bacteria. The efficacy of Ac 1 and Ac2 towards the fungus and MRSA was reduced upon an increase in the ionic strength of the solution. Ac1, Ac2, and Ac6, at concentrations close to their minimum inhibitory concentrations, enhanced the permeability of the E.coli ML35p outer membrane to the chromogenic marker, but they did not affect appreciably the permeability of the bacterial inner membrane in comparison with a potent pore-forming peptide, protegrin 1. Ac1, Ac2, and Ac6 revealed no hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes at concentrations of 1 to 40 μM and had no cytotoxic effect (1 to 20 μM) on K-562 and U-937 cells in vitro. Our findings suggest that histone-derived peptides serve as important anti-infective host

  8. Outbreak of mortality in Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian (Acipenser baerii) sturgeons associated with sturgeon nucleo-cytoplasmatic large DNA virus.

    PubMed

    Ciulli, S; Volpe, E; Sirri, R; Passalacqua, P L; Cesa Bianchi, F; Serratore, P; Mandrioli, L

    2016-08-15

    Diseased outbreaks with high mortality in farmed sturgeon are a limiting factor to the success of this emerging aquaculture sector in Europe. Thorough investigations of outbreaks can determine the aetiological agents, identify important pathological and epidemiological pathways of infections and pave the way for effective control strategies. A thorough investigation of a mortality outbreak in Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian (Acipenser baerii) sturgeons in Italy, demonstrated the primary involvement of a sturgeon nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV). While, the taxonomy classification of this new virus is still uncertain, its involvement in sturgeon mortality outbreaks in Europe is, for the first time, fully investigated and described. Furthermore, the coinfection of bacteria such as motile Aeromonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. was reported. Genetic characterisation showed the close relationship between the European sturgeon NCLDV with North American sturgeon NCLDVs. Similarly to the latter, the European sturgeon NCLDV persists in survivors. Furthermore, a systemic distribution of the European sturgeon NCLDV was evident in diseased A. baerii and A. gueldenstaedtii and in recovered A. gueldenstaedtii. These epidemiological and pathological findings will help in the identification of effective control strategies for sturgeon NCLDV infection, which afflicts an important and emerging European aquaculture sector.

  9. Mycobacterium chelonae associated with tumor-like skin and oral masses in farmed Russian sturgeons (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-tuberculous mycobacteria responsible for piscine mycobacteriosis usually produce visceral granulomas in both freshwater and marine species. In this study, the first occurrence of Mycobacterium chelonae associated with tumor-like lesions in the Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) is reported. Fifteen sturgeons from an Italian fish farm showing skin and oral cauliflower-like masses were investigated by histopathology, bacterial culture and molecular analyses. Results A total of 20 masses different in size located in the mouth and in pectoral and caudal fins (characterized by abundant calcium deposits and by mild to moderate granulomatous inflammation) were observed with a significant different degree of histological severity. All internal organs of the fish were negative for mycobacteria, Ziehl-Neelsen was positive in only one of the oral masses, whereas bacterial and PCR analyses detected the presence of M. chelonae for almost all the skin and oral masses. Based on these results, a calcinosis of dystrophic origin associated with a chronic granulomatous inflammation was considered as a primary diagnosis consequent to tissue injury in areas susceptible to trauma. Conclusions We hypothesized that the occurrence of M. chelonae in farmed sturgeons was only a secondary event related to its presence in a stressful rearing environment and subsequent to a dystrophic calcinosis occurred in previously damaged tissues. PMID:24423126

  10. Ovarian nests in cultured Russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii and North American paddlefish Polyodon spathula comprised of previtellogenic oocytes.

    PubMed

    Żelazowska, M; Jankowska, W; Plewniak, E; Rajek, U

    2015-06-01

    Ovarian nests in the ovaries of sexually maturing Russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii and North American paddlefish Polyodon spathula were investigated. They comprised early previtellogenic, diplotene stage oocytes and somatic cells. In the nucleoplasm, these oocytes contained chromatin in the form of grains, threads and lampbrush chromosomes, primary nucleoli and multiple nucleoli. Two stages of oocytes in nests were distinguished by differences in the distribution of mitochondria with distorted cristae and lipid droplets in the ooplasm. These stages were as follows: pre-early stage 1 (PE 1) and early stage 1 (EP 1) previtellogenic oocytes. In PE 1 oocytes few mitochondria with distorted cristae and lipid droplets were distributed randomly. The ooplasm of PE 1 oocytes was not differentiated into homogeneous and granular compartments. In EP 1 oocytes, mitochondria with distorted cristae were more numerous and grouped in the vicinity of the nucleus, lipid droplets accumulated near these mitochondria. In the nucleoplasm of EP 1 oocytes several low electron-dense spherical bodies, possibly Cajal bodies, were present.

  11. Discovery and identification of candidate sex-related genes based on transcriptome sequencing of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) gonads.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yadong; Xia, Yongtao; Shao, Changwei; Han, Lei; Chen, Xuejie; Yu, Mengjun; Sha, Zhenxia

    2016-07-01

    As the Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) is an important food and is the main source of caviar, it is necessary to discover the genes associated with its sex differentiation. However, the complicated life and maturity cycles of the Russian sturgeon restrict the accurate identification of sex in early development. To generate a first look at specific sex-related genes, we sequenced the transcriptome of gonads in different development stages (1, 2, and 5 yr old stages) with next-generation RNA sequencing. We generated >60 million raw reads, and the filtered reads were assembled into 263,341 contigs, which produced 38,505 unigenes. Genes involved in signal transduction mechanisms were the most abundant, suggesting that development of sturgeon gonads is under control of signal transduction mechanisms. Differentially expressed gene analysis suggests that more genes for protein synthesis, cytochrome c oxidase subunits, and ribosomal proteins were expressed in female gonads than in male. Meanwhile, male gonads expressed more transposable element transposase, reverse transcriptase, and transposase-related genes than female. In total, 342, 782, and 7,845 genes were detected in intersex, male, and female transcriptomes, respectively. The female gonad expressed more genes than the male gonad, and more genes were involved in female gonadal development. Genes (sox9, foxl2) are differentially expressed in different sexes and may be important sex-related genes in Russian sturgeon. Sox9 genes are responsible for the development of male gonads and foxl2 for female gonads.

  12. Ontogenetic behavior and migration of Volga River Russian sturgeon, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, with a note on adaptive significance of body color

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Zhuang, P.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Z.

    2002-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments with Volga River Russian sturgeon, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, to develop a conceptual model of early behavior. We daily observed fish from day-0 (embryos, first life interval after hatching) to day-29 feeding larvae for preference of bright habitat and cover, swimming distance above the bottom, up- and downstream movement, and diel activity. Hatchling embryos initiated a downstream migration, which suggests that predation risk of embryos at spawning sites is high. Migration peaked on days 0-5 and ceased on day 7 (8-day migration). Migrants preferred bright, open habitat and early migrants swam-up far above the bottom (maximum daily median, 140 cm) in a vertical swim tube. Post-migrant embryos did not prefer bright illumination but continued to prefer white substrate, increased use of cover habitat, and swam on the bottom. Larvae initiated feeding on day 10 after 170.6 cumulative temperature degree-days. Larvae did not migrate, weakly preferred bright illumination, preferred white substrate and open habitat, and swam near the bottom (daily median 5-78 cm). The lack of a strong preference by larvae for bright illumination suggests foraging relies more on olfaction than vision for locating prey. A short migration by embryos would disperse wild sturgeon from a spawning area, but larvae did not migrate, so a second later migration by juveniles disperses young sturgeon to the sea (2-step migration). Embryo and larva body color was light tan and tail color was black. The migration, behavior, and light body color of Russian sturgeon embryos was similar to species of Acipenser and Scaphirhynchus in North America and to Acipenser in Asia that migrate after hatching as embryos. The similarity in migration style and body color among species with diverse phylogenies likely reflects convergence for common adaptations across biogeographic regions. ?? 2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  13. Research tools to investigate movements, migrations, and life history of sturgeons (Acipenseridae), with an emphasis on marine-oriented populations.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Troy C; Doukakis, Phaedra; Lindley, Steven T; Schreier, Andrea D; Hightower, Joseph E; Hildebrand, Larry R; Whitlock, Rebecca E; Webb, Molly A H

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are among the most endangered fishes due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and inherent life history characteristics (long life span, late maturation, and infrequent spawning). As most sturgeons are anadromous, a considerable portion of their life history occurs in estuarine and marine environments where they may encounter unique threats (e.g., interception in non-target fisheries). Of the 16 marine-oriented species, 12 are designated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, and these include species commercially harvested. We review important research tools and techniques (tagging, electronic tagging, genetics, microchemistry, observatory) and discuss the comparative utility of these techniques to investigate movements, migrations, and life-history characteristics of sturgeons. Examples are provided regarding what the applications have revealed regarding movement and migration and how this information can be used for conservation and management. Through studies that include Gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Green Sturgeon (A. medirostris), we illustrate what is known about well-studied species and then explore lesser-studied species. A more complete picture of migration is available for North American sturgeon species, while European and Asian species, which are among the most endangered sturgeons, are less understood. We put forth recommendations that encourage the support of stewardship initiatives to build awareness and provide key information for population assessment and monitoring. PMID:23990959

  14. Research Tools to Investigate Movements, Migrations, and Life History of Sturgeons (Acipenseridae), with an Emphasis on Marine-Oriented Populations

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Troy C.; Doukakis, Phaedra; Lindley, Steven T.; Schreier, Andrea D.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Hildebrand, Larry R.; Whitlock, Rebecca E.; Webb, Molly A. H.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are among the most endangered fishes due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and inherent life history characteristics (long life span, late maturation, and infrequent spawning). As most sturgeons are anadromous, a considerable portion of their life history occurs in estuarine and marine environments where they may encounter unique threats (e.g., interception in non-target fisheries). Of the 16 marine-oriented species, 12 are designated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, and these include species commercially harvested. We review important research tools and techniques (tagging, electronic tagging, genetics, microchemistry, observatory) and discuss the comparative utility of these techniques to investigate movements, migrations, and life-history characteristics of sturgeons. Examples are provided regarding what the applications have revealed regarding movement and migration and how this information can be used for conservation and management. Through studies that include Gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Green Sturgeon (A. medirostris), we illustrate what is known about well-studied species and then explore lesser-studied species. A more complete picture of migration is available for North American sturgeon species, while European and Asian species, which are among the most endangered sturgeons, are less understood. We put forth recommendations that encourage the support of stewardship initiatives to build awareness and provide key information for population assessment and monitoring. PMID:23990959

  15. Research tools to investigate movements, migrations, and life history of sturgeons (Acipenseridae), with an emphasis on marine-oriented populations.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Troy C; Doukakis, Phaedra; Lindley, Steven T; Schreier, Andrea D; Hightower, Joseph E; Hildebrand, Larry R; Whitlock, Rebecca E; Webb, Molly A H

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are among the most endangered fishes due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and inherent life history characteristics (long life span, late maturation, and infrequent spawning). As most sturgeons are anadromous, a considerable portion of their life history occurs in estuarine and marine environments where they may encounter unique threats (e.g., interception in non-target fisheries). Of the 16 marine-oriented species, 12 are designated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, and these include species commercially harvested. We review important research tools and techniques (tagging, electronic tagging, genetics, microchemistry, observatory) and discuss the comparative utility of these techniques to investigate movements, migrations, and life-history characteristics of sturgeons. Examples are provided regarding what the applications have revealed regarding movement and migration and how this information can be used for conservation and management. Through studies that include Gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Green Sturgeon (A. medirostris), we illustrate what is known about well-studied species and then explore lesser-studied species. A more complete picture of migration is available for North American sturgeon species, while European and Asian species, which are among the most endangered sturgeons, are less understood. We put forth recommendations that encourage the support of stewardship initiatives to build awareness and provide key information for population assessment and monitoring.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedti).

    PubMed

    Dong, Chuanju; Chen, Baohua; Xu, Jian; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, K; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

    2016-01-01

    Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedti) belongs to the Acipenseriformes Acipenseridae. In this study, we sequenced and characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of A. gueldenstaedti from National Sturgeon Hatchery, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences. The circular mitochondrial genome was determined to be 16,595 bp in length including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 1 control region. The complete mitochondrial genome of A. gueldenstaedti provides basic genome data for relative studies on Acipenseriformes.

  17. Sturgeon and paddlefish (Acipenseridae) saggital otoliths are composed of the calcium carbonate polymorphs vaterite and calcite: acipenseridae otoliths are vaterite and calcite

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pracheil, Brenda M.; Chakoumakos, Bryan C.; Feygenson, Mikhail; Whitledge, Gregory W.; Koenigs, Ryan P.; Bruch, Ronald M.

    2016-07-27

    The otoliths of modern fishes are most commonly comprised of the metastable aragonite polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3); however, sturgeons have otoliths reportedly comprised of the least stable of the three most-common polymorphs, vaterite. In this study, we used neutron diffraction to characterize CaCO3 polymorph composition of lake sturgeon and paddlefish otoliths. Based on previous summaries of CaCO3 composition over fish evolutionary history, we hypothesized that sturgeon and paddlefish otoliths would have similar polymorph composition. We found that despite previous reports of sturgeon otoliths being comprised entirely of vaterite, that all otoliths we examined in this study also had amore » calcite fraction that ranged from 17.9+ 6.0 wt. % to 35.9 + 2.9 wt. %. We also conducted a grinding experiment that demonstrated that calcite fractions were due to biological variation and not an artifact of polymorph transformation during preparation. Our study provides the initial characterization of the polymorph composition of the otoliths of lake sturgeon, and paddlefish and also provides the first-ever report of otoliths of Acipenserids as having a calcite fraction.« less

  18. Molecular analysis of phylogeographic subspecies in three Ponto-Caspian sturgeon species

    PubMed Central

    Dudu, Andreea; Georgescu, Sergiu Emil; Costache, Marieta

    2014-01-01

    Sturgeons (Order Acipenseriformes) represent an extremely valuable natural resource that is now facing depletion. In the current study we evaluate if the traditional classification in subspecies of Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, Acipenser stellatus and Huso huso, endemic to Ponto-Caspian region is sustained by molecular analysis and if these represent Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs) that should be managed separately in conservation programs. To examine the classification of taxonomic entities we sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial control region in case of three sturgeon species that inhabit the North-western of Black Sea and migrate for reproduction in the Lower Danube. Beside these sequences, we used previously published sequences from sturgeon individuals sampled in the Black Sea, Azov Sea and Caspian Sea. We determined the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation, conducted a Population Aggregation Analysis (PAA) and inferred an intraspecific molecular phylogeny and haplotype network. The results indicated a low level of genetic differentiation between the geographically designated subspecies and did not support a significant divergence or reciprocal monophyly between them. Our results confirm previous genetic studies with smaller samples sizes, but additional analyses including nuclear markers should be conducted for proper recommendations aiming at the development of conservation programs. PMID:25249783

  19. Enzyme activity in energy supply of spermatozoon motility in two taxonomically distant fish species (sterlet Acipenser ruthenus, Acipenseriformes and common carp Cyprinus carpio, Cypriniformes).

    PubMed

    Dzyuba, Viktoriya; Dzyuba, Borys; Cosson, Jacky; Rodina, Marek

    2016-03-01

    As spermatozoon motility duration differs significantly among fish species, the mechanism of ATP generation-regeneration and its distribution along the flagellum may be species-dependent. The present study compared the role of creatine kinase (CK) with that of adenylate kinase (AK) in ATP regeneration during motility of demembranated spermatozoa of taxonomically distant fish species, sterlet, and common carp, allowing investigation for the presence of the creatine-phosphocreatine (PCr) shuttle in sterlet spermatozoa. The flagellar beat frequency of demembranated spermatozoa was measured in reactivating media in the presence or absence of ATP, ADP, PCr, and CK and AK inhibitors. After demembranation, AK, CK, and total ATPase activity was measured in spermatozoon extracts. Beat frequency of demembranated spermatozoa was found to be positively correlated with ATP levels in reactivating medium and to reach a plateau at 0.8 mM and 0.6 mM ATP for carp and sterlet, respectively. It was shown for the first time that sterlet axonemal dynein ATPases have a higher affinity for ATP than do those of carp. Supplementation of reactivating medium with ADP and PCr without ATP resulted in beat frequencies comparable to that measured with 0.3 to 0.5-mM ATP for both studied species. The presence of the PCr-CK phosphagen system and its essential role in ATP regeneration were first confirmed for sturgeon spermatozoa. The inhibition of CK exerted a high impact on spermatozoon energy supply in both species, whereas the inhibition of AK was more pronounced in sterlet than in carp. This was confirmed by the quantification of enzyme activity in spermatozoon extracts. We concluded that spermatozoa of these taxonomically distant species use similar systems to supply energy for flagella motility, but with different efficacy.

  20. The description and histopathology of Leptorhynchoides polycristatus n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae) from sturgeons, Acipenser spp. (Actinopterygii: Acipenseridae) in the Caspian Sea, Iran, with emendation of the generic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A; Halajian, Ali; El-Naggar, Atif M; Tavakol, Sareh

    2013-11-01

    Of the three known species of Leptorhynchoides Kostylew 1924, two are reported from North American fishes: Leptorhynchoides aphredoderi Buckner and Buckner 1976 and Leptorhynchoides thecatus (Linton 1891) Kostylew 1924. The third species, Leptorhynchoides plagicephalus (Westrumb 1821) Kostylew 1924, is commonly found in the Caspian and Black Sea from at least four species of sturgeons including Acipenser stellatus Pallas 1771 and the Acipenser nudiventris Lovetzsky 1828 from which Leptorhynchoides polycristatus n. sp. was found. No taxonomic work has been reported for L. plagicephalus for the last 90 years. L. polycristatus n. sp. can be readily confused with L. plagicephalus because of many superficial similarities. Such similarities include the general shape of the trunk, proboscis, and organ systems. However, L. polycristatus is clearly distinguished from the other three species primarily by having (1) 19-20 proboscis hooks per row; (2) the shortest hooks are anterior and the longest at the middle; the opposite is true in L. plagicephalus; (3) with a cuticular collar enveloping the base of the proboscis hooks; (4) the surface of its proboscis hooks is ribbed; (5) with a broad collar of multiple rectangular cuticular crests encircling the anterior end of the trunk; this is the only member of Leptorhynchoides with such a structure; (6) with many large ovoid uninucleated cells in the subcuticular layer of the trunk; (7) with paired glandular clusters near the male reproductive opening and of suction cup-like sensory structures on the bursa; (8) with dorsoventral ligament across the vagina; (9) cement glands are in a cluster of eight arranged in two horizontal tiers of four glands each; (10) with female gonopore near terminal; (11) with structures interpreted as possible microtriches on the surface of the trunk; (12) and with thinner eggs. L. polycristatus caused extensive histopathological damage to host intestinal layers. The armed proboscis invades and attaches to the host mucosa causing villi compression and necrosis of the epithelial lining with subsequent hemorrhaging and granulocyte migration. No encapsulation of the acanthocephalan is visible, and the worm can migrate deep into the smooth muscle layers of the muscularis extrema. The presence of L. polycristatus in the lumen of the host intestine obstructs and damages the absorbing surface of the host affecting the nutritional potential. Dead, necrotic host epithelial tissue and remnants of villi and crypts are visible.

  1. [Comparison of the genome of the alligator gar with the genomes of several other fish].

    PubMed

    Kedrova, O S; Vladychenskaia, N S; Antonov, A S

    1983-01-01

    Hybridization of alligator gar (Lepisosteus osseus, Lepisosteiformes, Ganoidomorpha) [125I]- or [3H]DNA fractions with DNAs of more or less phylogenetically related fishes was studied. Almost all of the repeated and unique sequences of alligator gar DNA and DNA of the spotted gar (from the same genus) are highly homologous (1-2% of nucleotide substitutions). The degrees of homology between repeated and unique sequences of alligator gar DNA and DNAs of the representatives of Acipenseriformes (the same super-order Ganoidomorpha), Latimeria chalumnae (another subclass, Sarcopterygii) and a shark (another class, Chondrichthyes) are of the same order, and the levels of divergency of their DNAs sequences are similar. These results demonstrate, that the joining of Lepisosteiformes and Acipenseriformes in one and the same group of Ganoidomorpha is artificial, and that the superclass of fishes, Pisces, includes more taxons of the class rank then it has been taken in theory. PMID:6855763

  2. [Comparison of the genome of the alligator gar with the genomes of several other fish].

    PubMed

    Kedrova, O S; Vladychenskaia, N S; Antonov, A S

    1983-01-01

    Hybridization of alligator gar (Lepisosteus osseus, Lepisosteiformes, Ganoidomorpha) [125I]- or [3H]DNA fractions with DNAs of more or less phylogenetically related fishes was studied. Almost all of the repeated and unique sequences of alligator gar DNA and DNA of the spotted gar (from the same genus) are highly homologous (1-2% of nucleotide substitutions). The degrees of homology between repeated and unique sequences of alligator gar DNA and DNAs of the representatives of Acipenseriformes (the same super-order Ganoidomorpha), Latimeria chalumnae (another subclass, Sarcopterygii) and a shark (another class, Chondrichthyes) are of the same order, and the levels of divergency of their DNAs sequences are similar. These results demonstrate, that the joining of Lepisosteiformes and Acipenseriformes in one and the same group of Ganoidomorpha is artificial, and that the superclass of fishes, Pisces, includes more taxons of the class rank then it has been taken in theory.

  3. [Meiotic gynogenesis in the stellate, Russian sturgeon and sterlet].

    PubMed

    Rekubratskiĭ, A V; Grunina, A S; Barmintsev, V A; Golovanova, T S; Chudinov, O S; Abramova, A B; Panchenko, N S; Kupchenko, S A

    2003-01-01

    Diploid gynogenetic progenies were obtained in the stellate sturgeon Acipenser stellatus, Russian sturgeon A. gueldenstaedtii, and sterlet A. ruthenus by means of insemination of the eggs with UV-irradiated spermatozoa and suppression of the second meiotic division by heat shock. The gynogenetic nature of experimental fish was confirmed by RAPD-PCR analysis of DNA. Effective photoreactivation of UV-induced lesions of spermatozoa was shown in the case of illumination of the fertilized eggs with visible light. This phenomenon should be taken into account when determining the doses of irradiation that allow inactivation of the male chromosomes and incubating gynogenetic embryos. Gynogenetic stellate and Russian sturgeons are viable and can be reared in order to study the mechanism of sex determination in sturgeons. PMID:12722590

  4. Coevolution of the Monogenoidea (Platyhelminthes) based on a revised hypothesis of parasite phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Boeger, W A; Kritsky, D C

    1997-12-01

    A revised hypothesis for the phylogeny of the Subclass Polyonchoinea (Monogenoidea) was constructed employing phylogenetic systematics. The Acanthocotylidae (formerly of the Order Capsalidea) is transferred to the Order Gyrodactylidea based on this analysis. The new phylogeny is used to determine coevolutionary relationships of the familial taxa of Monogenoidea with their hosts. The coevolutionary analysis suggests that the Monogenoidea apparently underwent sympatric speciation or dispersal while parasitic on ancestral Gnathostomata, resulting in two primary clades: the Polyonchoinea and the Oligonchoinea + Polystomatoinea. The two parasite clades apparently cospeciated independently with divergence of the Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes. In the Polyonchoinea, the clade associated with Chondrichthyes experienced primary extinction within the Holocephala, but coevolved into the Loimoidae and Monocotylidae in the Galeomorphii and Squalea (Elasmobranchii), respectively. Within the Osteichthyes, polyonchoineans experienced primary extinction with the divergence of Sarcopterygii, Polypteriformes and Acipenseriformes. They demonstrate primary dispersal from the Neopterygii into the Squalea (as Amphibdellatinea), Actinistia (as Neodactylodiscinea) and Urodela (as Lagarocotylidea). Secondary dispersals of polyonchoineans occurred in the Gyrodactylidae to the Polypteriformes, Urodela and Anura; in the Acanthocotylidae to the Myxinoidea and Squalea; in the Capsalidae to the Acipenseriformes and Elasmobranchii; and in the Monocotylidae to the Holocephala. The Oligonchoinea and Polystomatoinea developed upon divergence of the Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes. Oligonchoineans cospeciated within the Chondrichthyes, with the Chimaericolidea developing within the Holocephala and the ancestor of the Diclybothriidea + Mazocraeidea within the Elasmobranchii. Two cases of primary dispersal occurred within this clade: the Diclybothriidae to the Acipenseriformes and the ancestor of

  5. Phylogenetic relationships of Paradiclybothrium pacificum and Diclybothrium armatum (Monogenoidea: Diclybothriidae) inferred from 18S rDNA sequence data.

    PubMed

    Rozhkovan, Konstantin V; Shedko, Marina B

    2015-10-01

    The Diclybothriidae (Monogenoidea: Oligonchoinea) includes specific parasites of fishes assigned to the ancient order Acipenseriformes. Phylogeny of the Diclybothriidae is still unclear despite several systematic studies based on morphological characters. Together with the closely related Hexabothriidae represented by parasites of sharks and ray-fishes, the position of Diclybothriidae in different taxonomical systems has been matter of discussion. Here, we present the first molecular data on Diclybothriidae. The SSU rRNA gene was used to investigate the phylogenetic position of Paradiclybothrium pacificum and Diclybothrium armatum among the other Oligonchoinea. Complete nucleotide sequences of P. pacificum and D. armatum demonstrated high identity (98.53%) with no intraspecific sequence variability. Specimens of D. armatum were obtained from different hosts (Acipenser schrenckii and Huso dauricus); however, variation by host was not detected. The sequence divergence and phylogenetic trees data show that Diclybothriidae and Hexabothriidae are more closely related to each other than with other representatives of Oligonchoinea.

  6. Novel single-nucleotide polymorphism markers confirm successful spawning of endangered pallid sturgeon in the upper Missouri River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eichelberger, Jennifer S.; Braaten, P. J.; Fuller, D. B.; Krampe, Matthew S.; Heist, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Spawning of the federally endangered Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus is known to occur in the upper Missouri River basin, but progeny from natural reproductive events have not been observed and recruitment to juvenile or adult life stages has not been documented in recent decades. Identification of Pallid Sturgeon progeny is confounded by the fact that Shovelnose Sturgeon S. platorynchus occurs throughout the entire range of Pallid Sturgeon and the two species are essentially indistinguishable (morphometrically and meristically) during early life stages. Moreover, free embryos of sympatric Paddlefish Polyodon spathula are very similar to the two sturgeon species. In this study, three single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays were employed to screen acipenseriform free embryos and larvae collected from the upper Missouri River basin in 2011, 2012, and 2013. A mitochondrial DNA SNP discriminates Paddlefish from sturgeon, and specific multilocus genotypes at two nuclear DNA SNPs occurred in 98.9% of wild adult Pallid Sturgeon but only in 3% of Shovelnose Sturgeon sampled in the upper Missouri River. Individuals identified as potential Pallid Sturgeon based on SNP genotypes were further analyzed at 19 microsatellite loci for species discrimination. Out of 1,423 free embryos collected over 3 years of sampling, 971 Paddlefish, 446 Shovelnose Sturgeon, and 6 Pallid Sturgeon were identified. Additionally, 249 Scaphirhynchus spp. benthic larvae were screened, but no Pallid Sturgeon were detected. These SNP markers provide an efficient method of screening acipenseriform early life stages for the presence of Pallid Sturgeon in the Missouri River basin. Detection of wild Pallid Sturgeon free embryos in the upper Missouri and Yellowstone rivers supports the hypothesis that the failure of wild Pallid Sturgeon to recruit to the juvenile life stage in the upper Missouri River basin is caused by early life stage mortality rather than by lack of successful spawning.

  7. High-throughput SNP-genotyping analysis of the relationships among Ponto-Caspian sturgeon species

    PubMed Central

    Rastorguev, Sergey M; Nedoluzhko, Artem V; Mazur, Alexander M; Gruzdeva, Natalia M; Volkov, Alexander A; Barmintseva, Anna E; Mugue, Nikolai S; Prokhortchouk, Egor B

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Legally certified sturgeon fisheries require population protection and conservation methods, including DNA tests to identify the source of valuable sturgeon roe. However, the available genetic data are insufficient to distinguish between different sturgeon populations, and are even unable to distinguish between some species. We performed high-throughput single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-genotyping analysis on different populations of Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii), Persian (A. persicus), and Siberian (A. baerii) sturgeon species from the Caspian Sea region (Volga and Ural Rivers), the Azov Sea, and two Siberian rivers. We found that Russian sturgeons from the Volga and Ural Rivers were essentially indistinguishable, but they differed from Russian sturgeons in the Azov Sea, and from Persian and Siberian sturgeons. We identified eight SNPs that were sufficient to distinguish these sturgeon populations with 80% confidence, and allowed the development of markers to distinguish sturgeon species. Finally, on the basis of our SNP data, we propose that the A. baerii-like mitochondrial DNA found in some Russian sturgeons from the Caspian Sea arose via an introgression event during the Pleistocene glaciation. In the present study, the high-throughput genotyping analysis of several sturgeon populations was performed. SNP markers for species identification were defined. The possible explanation of the baerii-like mitotype presence in some Russian sturgeons in the Caspian Sea was suggested. PMID:24567827

  8. Migration and habitats of diadromous Danube River sturgeons in Romania: 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Suciu, R.; Horgan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Upstream migrant adults of stellate sturgeon, Acipenser stellatus (10 in 1998, 43 in 1999) and Russian sturgeon, A. gueldenstaedtii (three in 1999) were captured at river km (rkm) 58-137, mostly in the spring, and tagged with acoustic tags offering a reward for return. The overharvest was revealed by tag returns (38% in 1998, 28% in 1999) and by harvest within 26 days (and before reaching spawning grounds) of the six stellate sturgeon tracked upstream. A drop-back of > 50% of the tagged sturgeon, some to the Black Sea, shows a high sensitivity to interruption of migration and capture/handling/holding. Harvesting and dropback prevented tracking of sturgeon to spawning sites. Gillnetting and tracking of stellate sturgeon showed that the autumn migration ended in early October (river temperature 16??C) and identified a likely wintering area at river km (rkm) 75-76 (St George Branch). Thus, fishery harvesting after early October captures wintering fish, not migrants. Rare shoreline cliffs in the lower river likely create the only rocky habitat for sturgeon spawning. A survey for potential spawning habitats found five sites with rocky substrate and moderate water velocity, all ???rkm 258. Drift netting caught early life-stages of 17 fish species and one sturgeon, a beluga, Huso huso, larva likely spawned at ???rkm 258. All diadromous Danube sturgeons likely spawn at ???rkm 258.

  9. Evolution of the tapetum.

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Ivan R; Yuen, Carlton K; Buyukmihci, Nedim C; Blankenship, Thomas N; Fitzgerald, Paul G

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review, contrast, and compare current known tapetal mechanisms and review the implications for the evolution of the tapetum. METHODS: Ocular specimens of representative fish in key piscine families, including Acipenseridae, Cyprinidae, Chacidae; the reptilian family Crocodylidae; the mammalian family Felidae; and the Lepidopteran family Sphingidae were reviewed and compared histologically. All known varieties of tapeta were examined and classified and compared to the known cladogram representing the evolution of each specific family. RESULTS: Types of tapeta include tapetum cellulosum, tapetum fibrosum, retinal tapetum, invertebrate pigmented tapetum, and invertebrate thin-film tapetum. All but the invertebrate pigmented tapetum were examined histologically. Review of the evolutionary cladogram and comparison with known tapeta suggest that the tapetum evolved in the Devonian period 345 to 395 million years ago. Tapeta developed independently in at least three separate orders in invertebrates and vertebrates, and yet all have surprisingly similar mechanisms of light reflection, including thin-film interference, diffusely reflecting tapeta, Mie scattering, Rayleigh scattering, and perhaps orthogonal retroreflection. CONCLUSION: Tapeta are found in invertebrates and vertebrates and display different physical mechanisms of reflection. Each tapetum reflects the wavelengths most relevant to the species' ecological niche. With this work, we have hypothesized that the tapetum evolved independently in both invertebrates and vertebrates as early as the Devonian period and coincided with an explosion of life forms. PMID:12545693

  10. North American sturgeon otolith morphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate expedient species identification of deceased sturgeon (Acipenseridae) when external physical characteristic analysis is inconclusive has become a high priority due to the endangered or threatened status of sturgeon species around the world. Examination of otoliths has provided useful information to aid in population management, age and size-class analysis, understanding predator–prey interactions, and archeological research in other fish species. The relationship between otolith characteristics and sturgeon species has remained unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the shape of otoliths from the eight species of sturgeon found in North America to test the utility of otolith characteristic morphology in species identification. There were distinct differences in the size and shape of the otoliths between species of sturgeon with little shape variation among individuals of the same species. The relationship between otolith length axes was linear, and most of the variability was explained by a Log (axis + 1) transformation of the x and y axes (r2 = 0.8983) using the equation y = 0.73x + 0.0612. Images of otoliths from all eight North American species are presented to assist in the identification process.

  11. Alternative method of removing otoliths from sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Extracting the otoliths (ear bones) from fish that have very thick skulls can be difficult and very time consuming. The common practice of making a transverse vertical incision on the top of the skull with a hand or electrical saw may damage the otolith if not performed correctly. Sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are one family in particular that have a very large and thick skull. A new laboratory method entering the brain cavity from the ventral side of the fish to expose the otoliths was easier than other otolith extraction methods found in the literature. Methods reviewed in the literature are designed for the field and are more efficient at processing large quantities of fish quickly. However, this new technique was designed to be more suited for a laboratory setting when time is not pressing and successful extraction from each specimen is critical. The success of finding and removing otoliths using this technique is very high and does not compromise the structure in any manner. This alternative technique is applicable to other similar fish species for extracting the otoliths.

  12. Frequency tuning and intensity coding of sound in the auditory periphery of the lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Michaela; Fay, Richard R.; Popper, Arthur N.

    2010-01-01

    Acipenser fulvescens, the lake sturgeon, belongs to one of the few extant non-teleost ray-finned (bony) fishes. The sturgeons (family Acipenseridae) have a phylogenetic history that dates back about 250 million years. The study reported here is the first investigation of peripheral coding strategies for spectral analysis in the auditory system in a non-teleost bony fish. We used a shaker system to simulate the particle motion component of sound during electrophysiological recordings of isolated single units from the eighth nerve innervating the saccule and lagena. Background activity and response characteristics of saccular and lagenar afferents (such as thresholds, response–level functions and temporal firing) resembled the ones found in teleosts. The distribution of best frequencies also resembled data in teleosts (except for Carassius auratus, goldfish) tested with the same stimulation method. The saccule and lagena in A. fulvescens contain otoconia, in contrast to the solid otoliths found in teleosts, however, this difference in otolith structure did not appear to affect threshold, frequency tuning, intensity- or temporal responses of auditory afferents. In general, the physiological characteristics common to A. fulvescens, teleosts and land vertebrates reflect important functions of the auditory system that may have been conserved throughout the evolution of vertebrates. PMID:20400642

  13. Estimating sturgeon abundance in the Carolinas using side-scan sonar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flowers, H. Jared; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are one of the most threatened taxa worldwide, including species in North Carolina and South Carolina. Populations of Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus in the Carolinas have been significantly reduced from historical levels by a combination of intense fishing and habitat loss. There is a need for estimates of current abundance, to describe status, and for estimates of historical abundance in order to provide realistic recovery goals. In this study we used N-mixture and distance models with data acquired from side-scan sonar surveys to estimate abundance of sturgeon in six major sturgeon rivers in North Carolina and South Carolina. Estimated abundances of sturgeon greater than 1 m TL in the Carolina distinct population segment (DPS) were 2,031 using the count model and 1,912 via the distance model. The Pee Dee River had the highest overall abundance of any river at 1,944 (count model) or 1,823 (distance model). These estimates do not account for sturgeon less than 1 m TL or occurring in riverine reaches not surveyed or in marine waters. Comparing the two models, the N-mixture model produced similar estimates using less data than the distance model with only a slight reduction of estimated precision.

  14. Dual annual spawning races in Atlantic sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Balazik, Matthew T; Musick, John A

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures.

  15. Dual Annual Spawning Races in Atlantic Sturgeon

    PubMed Central

    Balazik, Matthew T.; Musick, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures. PMID:26020631

  16. Effects of commercial harvest on shovelnose sturgeon populations in the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koch, Jeff D.; Quist, Michael C.; Pierce, Clay L.; Hansen, Kirk A.; Steuck, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus have become an increasingly important commercial species in the upper Mississippi River (UMR) because of the collapse of foreign sturgeon (family Acipenseridae) populations and bans on imported caviar. In response to concerns about the sustainability of the commercial shovelnose sturgeon fishery in the UMR, we undertook this study to describe the demographics of the shovelnose sturgeon population and evaluate the influence of commercial harvest on shovelnose sturgeon populations in the UMR. A total of 1,682 shovelnose sturgeon were collected from eight study pools in 2006 and 2007 (Pools 4, 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16, and 18). Shovelnose sturgeon from upstream pools generally had greater lengths, weights, and ages than those from downstream pools. Additionally, mortality estimates were lower in upstream pools (Pools 4, 7, 9, and 11) than in downstream pools (Pools 13, 14, 16, and 18). Linear regression suggested that the slower growth of shovelnose sturgeon is a consequence of commercial harvest in the UMR. Modeling of potential management scenarios suggested that a 685-mm minimum length limit is necessary to prevent growth and recruitment overfishing of shovelnose sturgeon in the UMR.

  17. Control of sturgeon sperm motility: Antagonism between K+ ions concentration and osmolality.

    PubMed

    Prokopchuk, Galina; Dzyuba, Borys; Rodina, Marek; Cosson, Jacky

    2016-01-01

    Spermatozoa are stored in a quiescent state in the male reproductive tract and motility is induced in response to various environmental stimuli, such as change of osmolality (general case) and a decrease of extracellular K+ in fish from Acipenseridae family. This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between osmolality and extracellular K+ concentration in controlling sperm motility in sturgeon. Pre-incubation of sturgeon sperm for 5s in hypertonic solutions of glycerol, NaCl, or sucrose (each of 335 mOsm/kg osmolality) prepares sturgeon spermatozoa to become fully motile in presence of high concentration of K+ ions (15 mM), which has previously been demonstrated to fully repress motility. Furthermore, presence of 0.5mM KCl during the high osmolality pre-incubation exposure completely prevented subsequent spermatozoa activation in a K+-rich media. Manipulating the transport of K+ ions by the presence of K+ ionophore (valinomycin), it was concluded that once an efflux of K+ ions, the precursor of sturgeon sperm motility activation, is taking place, spermatozoa then become insensitive to a large extracellular K+ concentration.

  18. Environmental and lunar cues are predictive of the timing of river entry and spawning-site arrival in lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, P S; Scribner, K T; Crossman, J A; Ragavendran, A; Baker, E A; Davis, C; Smith, K K

    2012-07-01

    The associations were quantified between daily and interannual variation in the timing of a closed population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens migration and arrival at spawning sites with stream environmental and lunar covariates. Spawning data were gathered from 1262 fish in Black Lake, Michigan 2001 to 2008 and by video monitoring 2000 to 2002. Sex-specific variation in responses to external cues was also tested. Results showed that a greater number of individuals initiated migration from lake to riverine habitats at dawn and dusk relative to other times of the day. Current and lagged effects of water temperature and river discharge, and periods in the lunar cycle were important variables in models quantifying movements into the river and timing of adult arrival at spawning sites. Different suites of covariates were predictive of A. fulverscens responses during different periods of the spawning season. The timing of initiation of migration and spawning, and the importance of covariates to the timing of these events, did not differ between sexes. Stream flow and temperature covaried with other variables including day length and the lunar cycle. Anthropogenic disruption of relationships among variables may mean that environmental cues may no longer reliably convey information for Acipenseriformes and other migratory fishes. PMID:22747803

  19. Making teeth to order: conserved genes reveal an ancient molecular pattern in paddlefish (Actinopterygii)

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Moya M.; Johanson, Zerina; Butts, Thomas; Ericsson, Rolf; Modrell, Melinda; Tulenko, Frank J.; Davis, Marcus C.; Fraser, Gareth J.

    2015-01-01

    Ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) are the dominant vertebrate group today (+30 000 species, predominantly teleosts), with great morphological diversity, including their dentitions. How dental morphological variation evolved is best addressed by considering a range of taxa across actinopterygian phylogeny; here we examine the dentition of Polyodon spathula (American paddlefish), assigned to the basal group Acipenseriformes. Although teeth are present and functional in young individuals of Polyodon, they are completely absent in adults. Our current understanding of developmental genes operating in the dentition is primarily restricted to teleosts; we show that shh and bmp4, as highly conserved epithelial and mesenchymal genes for gnathostome tooth development, are similarly expressed at Polyodon tooth loci, thus extending this conserved developmental pattern within the Actinopterygii. These genes map spatio-temporal tooth initiation in Polyodon larvae and provide new data in both oral and pharyngeal tooth sites. Variation in cellular intensity of shh maps timing of tooth morphogenesis, revealing a second odontogenic wave as alternate sites within tooth rows, a dental pattern also present in more derived actinopterygians. Developmental timing for each tooth field in Polyodon follows a gradient, from rostral to caudal and ventral to dorsal, repeated during subsequent loss of teeth. The transitory Polyodon dentition is modified by cessation of tooth addition and loss. As such, Polyodon represents a basal actinopterygian model for the evolution of developmental novelty: initial conservation, followed by tooth loss, accommodating the adult trophic modification to filter-feeding. PMID:25788604

  20. Molecular cloning of lungfish proopiomelanocortin cDNA.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Y; Takahashi, A; Meguro, H; Kawauchi, H

    1999-09-01

    To investigate the evolution of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) from fish to tetrapods, nucleotide sequence of POMC cDNA from a lobe-finned fish, the African lungfish, was determined. POMC cDNA was prepared from lungfish pituitary glands. The POMC cDNA is composed of 1114 bp, excluding a poly-A tail, and encodes 255 amino acids (aa) including a signal peptide of 25 aa. The lungfish POMC contains the segment corresponding to gamma-melanotropin (MSH), corticotropin, alpha-MSH, beta-MSH, and beta-endorphin at positions (50-61), (108-146), (108-120), (178-194), and (197-230), respectively. The lungfish POMC shows greater sequence identity on average with amphibian (62%), ancient ray-finned fishes including acipenseriformes and semionotiformes (62%), and mammalian POMC (52%) than with teleostean (49%), elasmobranch (46%), and agnathan POMC (31%). Thus, the overall structural feature of lungfish POMC is close to the tetrapod POMCs which contain gamma-MSH and the ancient ray-finned fishes POMCs containing gamma-MSH-like sequence. However, amino acid sequence of lungfish beta-endorphin exhibits properties which are specifically observed in the ray-finned fishes and the elasmobranchs.

  1. Characterization of insulins and proglucagon-derived peptides from a phylogenetically ancient fish, the paddlefish (Polyodon spathula).

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, T M; Mommsen, T P; Mims, S M; Conlon, J M

    1994-01-01

    The North American paddlefish, Polyodon spathula (Order Acipenseriformes) is an extant representative of a group of primitive Actinopterygian (ray-finned) fish that probably shared a common ancestor with present-day teleosts. Two molecular forms of insulin which differ by a single amino acid substitution, His or Asp at position 15 of the A chain, were isolated from the pancreas of the paddlefish. Paddlefish insulins show greatest structural similarity to insulin from the garfish (order Lepisosteiformes) and resemble mammalian insulins more strongly than do insulins from teleost fish. The primary structures of several proglucagon-derived peptides, two molecular forms of glucagon which differ by the single amino acid substitution Arg18-->Ser, and glucagon-like peptide, have been less well conserved during evolution. The paddlefish glucagons contain 31 amino acid residues, rather than the usual 29, and show several structural features, such as Met5, Glu24 and Gly29, not previously observed in glucagons from other species. In spite of considerable differences in structure between paddlefish and mammalian glucagons (10 or 11 amino acid substitutions), both paddlefish glucagons are equally as effective as bovine glucagon in stimulating glycogenolysis in dispersed hepatocytes from the teleost fish Sebastes caurinus (rockfish). However, the substitution Arg18-->Ser in the paddlefish glucagon results in a 6-fold decrease in potency in this system. PMID:8002937

  2. Making teeth to order: conserved genes reveal an ancient molecular pattern in paddlefish (Actinopterygii).

    PubMed

    Smith, Moya M; Johanson, Zerina; Butts, Thomas; Ericsson, Rolf; Modrell, Melinda; Tulenko, Frank J; Davis, Marcus C; Fraser, Gareth J

    2015-04-22

    Ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) are the dominant vertebrate group today (+30 000 species, predominantly teleosts), with great morphological diversity, including their dentitions. How dental morphological variation evolved is best addressed by considering a range of taxa across actinopterygian phylogeny; here we examine the dentition of Polyodon spathula (American paddlefish), assigned to the basal group Acipenseriformes. Although teeth are present and functional in young individuals of Polyodon, they are completely absent in adults. Our current understanding of developmental genes operating in the dentition is primarily restricted to teleosts; we show that shh and bmp4, as highly conserved epithelial and mesenchymal genes for gnathostome tooth development, are similarly expressed at Polyodon tooth loci, thus extending this conserved developmental pattern within the Actinopterygii. These genes map spatio-temporal tooth initiation in Polyodon larvae and provide new data in both oral and pharyngeal tooth sites. Variation in cellular intensity of shh maps timing of tooth morphogenesis, revealing a second odontogenic wave as alternate sites within tooth rows, a dental pattern also present in more derived actinopterygians. Developmental timing for each tooth field in Polyodon follows a gradient, from rostral to caudal and ventral to dorsal, repeated during subsequent loss of teeth. The transitory Polyodon dentition is modified by cessation of tooth addition and loss. As such, Polyodon represents a basal actinopterygian model for the evolution of developmental novelty: initial conservation, followed by tooth loss, accommodating the adult trophic modification to filter-feeding. PMID:25788604

  3. Investigation of mucus obtained from different fish species on the acute pain induced with scalpel incision in paw of rats

    PubMed Central

    Cetin, Nihal; Suleyman, Bahtiyar; Kuyrukluyildiz, Ufuk; Nalkiran, Hatice Sevim; Kiran, Altan; Gencoglu, Songul; Duzgun, Ahmet; Kurtoglu, Ilker Zeki; Yarali, Oguzhan; Gul, Mehmet Ali; Suleyman, Halis

    2015-01-01

    No comparative study could be found for the analgesic activity of mucuses from the Oncorhynchus mykiss (OM), Salvelinus fontinalis (SF), Salmo coruhensis (SC), Acipenser gueldenstaedtii (AG), and Acipenser baerii (AB) fish species in the literature. We aimed to investigate the effects of mucuses obtained from the abovementioned fish species on scalpel incision-induced pain in the rat paw and to examine the role of oxidant/antioxidant parameters and COX-2 gene expression in the analgesic activities. Animals were divided into groups: SIC (scalpel incision; SI), SIDS (SI+25 mg/kg diclofenac sodium), SOM (SI+25 mg/kg OM mucus), SFM (SI+25 mg/kg SF mucus), SCM (SI+25 mg/kg SC mucus), SAgM (SI+25 mg/kg AG mucus), SAbM (SI+25 mg/kg AB mucus), and HG (healthy). The paw pain thresholds were measured with a Basile algesimeter before and after diclofenac sodium (DS) or mucus administration, and then the rats were euthanized with thiopental sodium. Oxidant/antioxidant and COX-2 gene expression parameters were measured in paw tissues. OM, SC, AG, and AB fish mucuses could not decrease the SI-induced pain. However, SF fish mucus prevented this pain by 69% after the first hour and by 58.3% after the third hour. DS was shown to suppress pain more weakly than SF, preventing the pain by 62.1% and 50.0% after the first and third hours, respectively. SF mucus and DS significantly inhibited increase of COX-2 gene expression, while other fish mucuses could not. None of the fish mucuses except SF mucus in conjunction with DS could significantly inhibit the increase in oxidant parameters and decrease in antioxidants. SF fish mucus should be comparatively assessed in clinical practice for treatment of postoperative pain. PMID:26490740

  4. Gonadotropins in the Russian Sturgeon: Their Role in Steroid Secretion and the Effect of Hormonal Treatment on Their Secretion.

    PubMed

    Yom-Din, Svetlana; Hollander-Cohen, Lian; Aizen, Joseph; Boehm, Benjamin; Shpilman, Michal; Golan, Matan; Hurvitz, Avshalom; Degani, Gad; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2016-01-01

    In the reproduction process of male and female fish, pituitary derived gonadotropins (GTHs) play a key role. To be able to specifically investigate certain functions of Luteinizing (LH) and Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii; st), we produced recombinant variants of the hormones using the yeast Pichia pastoris as a protein production system. We accomplished to create in vitro biologically active heterodimeric glycoproteins consisting of two associated α- and β-subunits in sufficient quantities. Three dimensional modelling of both GTHs was conducted in order to study the differences between the two GTHs. Antibodies were produced against the unique β-subunit of each of the GTHs, in order to be used for immunohistochemical analysis and to develop an ELISA for blood and pituitary hormone quantification. This detection technique revealed the specific localization of the LH and FSH cells in the sturgeon pituitary and pointed out that both cell types are present in substantially higher numbers in mature males and females, compared to immature fish. With the newly attained option to prevent cross-contamination when investigating on the effects of GTH administration, we compared the steroidogeneic response (estradiol and 11-Keto testosterone (11-KT) in female and males, respectively) of recombinant stLH, stFSH, and carp pituitary extract in male and female sturgeon gonads at different developmental stages. Finally, we injected commercially available gonadotropin releasing hormones analog (GnRH) to mature females, and found a moderate effect on the development of ovarian follicles. Application of only testosterone (T) resulted in a significant increase in circulating levels of 11-KT whereas the combination of GnRH + T did not affect steroid levels at all. The response pattern for estradiol demonstrated a similar situation. FSH levels showed significant increases when GnRH + T was administered, while no changes were present in

  5. Gonadotropins in the Russian Sturgeon: Their Role in Steroid Secretion and the Effect of Hormonal Treatment on Their Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Yom-Din, Svetlana; Hollander-Cohen, Lian; Aizen, Joseph; Boehm, Benjamin; Shpilman, Michal; Golan, Matan; Hurvitz, Avshalom; Degani, Gad; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2016-01-01

    In the reproduction process of male and female fish, pituitary derived gonadotropins (GTHs) play a key role. To be able to specifically investigate certain functions of Luteinizing (LH) and Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii; st), we produced recombinant variants of the hormones using the yeast Pichia pastoris as a protein production system. We accomplished to create in vitro biologically active heterodimeric glycoproteins consisting of two associated α- and β-subunits in sufficient quantities. Three dimensional modelling of both GTHs was conducted in order to study the differences between the two GTHs. Antibodies were produced against the unique β-subunit of each of the GTHs, in order to be used for immunohistochemical analysis and to develop an ELISA for blood and pituitary hormone quantification. This detection technique revealed the specific localization of the LH and FSH cells in the sturgeon pituitary and pointed out that both cell types are present in substantially higher numbers in mature males and females, compared to immature fish. With the newly attained option to prevent cross-contamination when investigating on the effects of GTH administration, we compared the steroidogeneic response (estradiol and 11-Keto testosterone (11-KT) in female and males, respectively) of recombinant stLH, stFSH, and carp pituitary extract in male and female sturgeon gonads at different developmental stages. Finally, we injected commercially available gonadotropin releasing hormones analog (GnRH) to mature females, and found a moderate effect on the development of ovarian follicles. Application of only testosterone (T) resulted in a significant increase in circulating levels of 11-KT whereas the combination of GnRH + T did not affect steroid levels at all. The response pattern for estradiol demonstrated a similar situation. FSH levels showed significant increases when GnRH + T was administered, while no changes were present in

  6. Gonadotropins in the Russian Sturgeon: Their Role in Steroid Secretion and the Effect of Hormonal Treatment on Their Secretion.

    PubMed

    Yom-Din, Svetlana; Hollander-Cohen, Lian; Aizen, Joseph; Boehm, Benjamin; Shpilman, Michal; Golan, Matan; Hurvitz, Avshalom; Degani, Gad; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2016-01-01

    In the reproduction process of male and female fish, pituitary derived gonadotropins (GTHs) play a key role. To be able to specifically investigate certain functions of Luteinizing (LH) and Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii; st), we produced recombinant variants of the hormones using the yeast Pichia pastoris as a protein production system. We accomplished to create in vitro biologically active heterodimeric glycoproteins consisting of two associated α- and β-subunits in sufficient quantities. Three dimensional modelling of both GTHs was conducted in order to study the differences between the two GTHs. Antibodies were produced against the unique β-subunit of each of the GTHs, in order to be used for immunohistochemical analysis and to develop an ELISA for blood and pituitary hormone quantification. This detection technique revealed the specific localization of the LH and FSH cells in the sturgeon pituitary and pointed out that both cell types are present in substantially higher numbers in mature males and females, compared to immature fish. With the newly attained option to prevent cross-contamination when investigating on the effects of GTH administration, we compared the steroidogeneic response (estradiol and 11-Keto testosterone (11-KT) in female and males, respectively) of recombinant stLH, stFSH, and carp pituitary extract in male and female sturgeon gonads at different developmental stages. Finally, we injected commercially available gonadotropin releasing hormones analog (GnRH) to mature females, and found a moderate effect on the development of ovarian follicles. Application of only testosterone (T) resulted in a significant increase in circulating levels of 11-KT whereas the combination of GnRH + T did not affect steroid levels at all. The response pattern for estradiol demonstrated a similar situation. FSH levels showed significant increases when GnRH + T was administered, while no changes were present in

  7. Morphology and ultrastructure of beluga (Huso huso) spermatozoa and a comparison with related sturgeons.

    PubMed

    Linhartova, Zuzana; Rodina, Marek; Nebesarova, Jana; Cosson, Jacky; Psenicka, Martin

    2013-03-01

    The ultrastructure and morphology of beluga spermatozoa (Huso huso) (Acipenseridae, Chondrostei) were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Spermatozoa of 51.27 ± 4.71 μm total length (mean ± SD) were typical of sturgeon and paddlefish spermatozoa. Each consisted of an elongated nucleus (length: 5.84 ± 0.46 μm) with distinct acrosome, a cylindrical midpiece (length: 2.10 ± 0.42 μm), and a single flagellum (length: 42.21 ± 3.82 μm). The acrosome was umbrella shaped (length: 1.12 ± 0.14 μm, width: 0.87 ± 0.10 μm) with seven to nine posterolateral projections (length: 0.49 ± 0.09 μm). Three endonuclear canals, spirally arranged, traversed the nucleus length from the acrosome to the implantation fossa. The flagellum comprised an axoneme with the typical 9+2 organization of microtubules. Two flat fins were present along the flagellum parallel to the plane of the central doublet of microtubules. These fins arose at different positions, 0.57 ± 0.30 and 4.06 ± 1.32 μm from the midpiece and terminated 4.18 ± 1.09 and 4.92 ± 1.34 μm from the distal end of the flagellum. Principal component analysis revealed spermatozoan ultrastructure and morphology were similar among sturgeon species, and, although assigned to genus Huso, beluga may be closely related to the genus Acipenser.

  8. Evidence of Circadian Rhythm, Oxygen Regulation Capacity, Metabolic Repeatability and Positive Correlations between Forced and Spontaneous Maximal Metabolic Rates in Lake Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, Jon C.; Genz, Janet; Anderson, W. Gary; Stol, Jennifer A.; Watkinson, Douglas A.; Enders, Eva C.

    2014-01-01

    Animal metabolic rate is variable and may be affected by endogenous and exogenous factors, but such relationships remain poorly understood in many primitive fishes, including members of the family Acipenseridae (sturgeons). Using juvenile lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), the objective of this study was to test four hypotheses: 1) A. fulvescens exhibits a circadian rhythm influencing metabolic rate and behaviour; 2) A. fulvescens has the capacity to regulate metabolic rate when exposed to environmental hypoxia; 3) measurements of forced maximum metabolic rate (MMRF) are repeatable in individual fish; and 4) MMRF correlates positively with spontaneous maximum metabolic rate (MMRS). Metabolic rates were measured using intermittent flow respirometry, and a standard chase protocol was employed to elicit MMRF. Trials lasting 24 h were used to measure standard metabolic rate (SMR) and MMRS. Repeatability and correlations between MMRF and MMRS were analyzed using residual body mass corrected values. Results revealed that A. fulvescens exhibit a circadian rhythm in metabolic rate, with metabolism peaking at dawn. SMR was unaffected by hypoxia (30% air saturation (O2sat)), demonstrating oxygen regulation. In contrast, MMRF was affected by hypoxia and decreased across the range from 100% O2sat to 70% O2sat. MMRF was repeatable in individual fish, and MMRF correlated positively with MMRS, but the relationships between MMRF and MMRS were only revealed in fish exposed to hypoxia or 24 h constant light (i.e. environmental stressor). Our study provides evidence that the physiology of A. fulvescens is influenced by a circadian rhythm and suggests that A. fulvescens is an oxygen regulator, like most teleost fish. Finally, metabolic repeatability and positive correlations between MMRF and MMRS support the conjecture that MMRF represents a measure of organism performance that could be a target of natural selection. PMID:24718688

  9. First detection of pike fry-like rhabdovirus in barbel and spring viraemia of carp virus in sturgeon and pike in aquaculture in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Vicenova, Monika; Reschova, Stanislava; Pokorova, Dagmar; Hulova, Jana; Vesely, Tomas

    2011-06-16

    Rapid antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing of cell cultures with organ homogenate from fish, collected from farms with a predominance of common carp or in natural aquaculture in the Czech Republic between 1995 and 2008, identified piscine vesiculovirus in 27 of 178 samples. Using reverse transcription semi-nested PCR, targeting a 550 nucleotide region of the glycoprotein (G) gene, piscine vesiculovirus was confirmed in 23 of the 27 organ samples diagnosed by ELISA as infected. PCR products were amplified and sequenced from 18 isolates from common carp Cyprinus carpio (family Cyprinidae), 2 isolates from northern pike Esox lucius (family Esocidae), and 1 isolate each from Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii (family Acipenseridae), common barbel Barbus barbus (family Cyprinidae), and koi carp Cyprinus carpio koi (family Cyprinidae). The sequences (based on 401 nucleotides) clustered into 2 genogroups. The majority of isolates (n = 22), including those from sturgeon and pike, grouped with the spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) Genogroup I and Subgroup Id. The 22 isolates could be further subdivided into 2 groups: Id1 (n = 20) and Id2 (n = 2). A marker (a non-conservative nucleotide substitution) for the Id1 SVCV group was identified. It was specifically found in all sequences of Id1 isolates when testing SVCV originating from different countries. The remaining isolate from barbel, was classified in the pike fry-like rhabdovirus Genogroup IV. This is the first confirmation of natural SVCV infection in sturgeon and pike, and pike fry-like rhabdovirus infection in barbel. In the case of the pike fry-like rhabdovirus, this is also its first identification in the Czech Republic. According to the presence/absence of evident clinical signs of rhabdoviral disease in the 3 infected hosts, only the sturgeon seemed to be susceptible to the monitored rhabdovirus.

  10. Effects of subchronic exposure of early life stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to copper, cadmium, and zinc.

    PubMed

    Vardy, David W; Tompsett, Amber R; Sigurdson, Jacinda L; Doering, Jon A; Zhang, Xiaowei; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2011-11-01

    Populations of sturgeon (Acipenseridae) are declining in many places in the world because of several potential factors, including overharvesting, habitat alteration, and pollution. In North America, populations of the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) have been experiencing poor annual recruitment in major river systems for more than three decades. Metal pollution has been hypothesized as a potential contributing factor to the poor recruitment in some of the water bodies. In general, little is known about the toxicity of metals such as Cu, Cd, and Zn to white sturgeon and their potential influence on survival of embryos and juveniles. The present study was conducted to establish baseline toxicity data for the subchronic exposure of early life stages of white sturgeon to Cu, Cd, and Zn that can be used in metal-related risk assessments. Embryos, larvae, and fry were exposed to increasing concentrations of dissolved Cu, Cd, or Zn for 66 d using laboratory-based flow-through exposure systems. Hatching success was greater than 79% for all controls, and no significant differences were observed among treatment groups or between treatments and controls. Chronic lethal concentrations at which 20% mortality occurred (LC20s) for Cd (1.5 µg/L), Cu (5.5 µg/L), and Zn (112 µg/L) obtained for white sturgeon in the present study were comparable to those of sensitive salmonid species. Based on LC20 values for 19 or 58 d posthatch white sturgeon, the United States national ambient water quality criteria and the Canadian water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life that have been established for Cd, Cu, and Zn protect white sturgeon early life stages.

  11. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part III. Effluent toxicity tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Canfield, T.J.; Mount, D.R.; Mayer, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were conducted with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and seven threatened and endangered (listed) fish species from four families: (1) Acipenseridae: shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum); (2) Catostomidae; razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus); (3) Cyprinidae: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas) Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), and spotfin chub (Cyprinella monacha); and (4) Poecillidae: Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis). We conducted 7-day survival and growth studies with embryo-larval fathead minnows and analogous exposures using the listed species. Survival and reproduction were also determined with C. dubia. Tests were conducted with carbaryl, ammonia-or a simulated effluent complex mixture of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol and permethrin at equitoxic proportions. In addition, Cape Fear shiners and spotfin chub were tested using diazinon, copper, and chlorine. Toxicity tests were also conducted with field-collected effluents from domestic or industrial facilities. Bonytail chub and razorback suckers were tested with effluents collected in Arizona whereas effluent samples collected from North Carolina were tested with Cape Fear shiner, spotfin chub, and shortnose sturgeon. The fathead minnow 7-day effluent test was often a reliable estimator of toxic effects to the listed fishes. However, in 21 % of the tests, a listed species was more sensitive than fathead minnows. More sensitive species results varied by test so that usually no species was always more or less sensitive than fathead minnows. Only the Gila topminnow was consistently less sensitive than the fathead minnow. Listed fish species were protected 96% of the time when results for both fathead minnows and C. dubia were considered, thus reinforcing the value of standard whole

  12. An Independent Genome Duplication Inferred from Hox Paralogs in the American Paddlefish—A Representative Basal Ray-Finned Fish and Important Comparative Reference

    PubMed Central

    Crow, Karen D.; Smith, Christopher D.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Wagner, Günter P.; Amemiya, Chris T.

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrates have experienced two rounds of whole-genome duplication (WGD) in the stem lineages of deep nodes within the group and a subsequent duplication event in the stem lineage of the teleosts—a highly diverse group of ray-finned fishes. Here, we present the first full Hox gene sequences for any member of the Acipenseriformes, the American paddlefish, and confirm that an independent WGD occurred in the paddlefish lineage, approximately 42 Ma based on sequences spanning the entire HoxA cluster and eight genes on the HoxD gene cluster. These clusters comprise different HOX loci and maintain conserved synteny relative to bichir, zebrafish, stickleback, and pufferfish, as well as human, mouse, and chick. We also provide a gene genealogy for the duplicated fzd8 gene in paddlefish and present evidence for the first Hox14 gene in any ray-finned fish. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the American paddlefish has an independently duplicated genome. Substitution patterns of the “alpha” paralogs on both the HoxA and HoxD gene clusters suggest transcriptional inactivation consistent with functional diploidization. Further, there are similarities in the pattern of sequence divergence among duplicated Hox genes in paddlefish and teleost lineages, even though they occurred independently approximately 200 Myr apart. We highlight implications on comparative analyses in the study of the “fin-limb transition” as well as gene and genome duplication in bony fishes, which includes all ray-finned fishes as well as the lobe-finned fishes and tetrapod vertebrates. PMID:22851613

  13. An independent genome duplication inferred from Hox paralogs in the American paddlefish--a representative basal ray-finned fish and important comparative reference.

    PubMed

    Crow, Karen D; Smith, Christopher D; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Wagner, Günter P; Amemiya, Chris T

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrates have experienced two rounds of whole-genome duplication (WGD) in the stem lineages of deep nodes within the group and a subsequent duplication event in the stem lineage of the teleosts-a highly diverse group of ray-finned fishes. Here, we present the first full Hox gene sequences for any member of the Acipenseriformes, the American paddlefish, and confirm that an independent WGD occurred in the paddlefish lineage, approximately 42 Ma based on sequences spanning the entire HoxA cluster and eight genes on the HoxD gene cluster. These clusters comprise different HOX loci and maintain conserved synteny relative to bichir, zebrafish, stickleback, and pufferfish, as well as human, mouse, and chick. We also provide a gene genealogy for the duplicated fzd8 gene in paddlefish and present evidence for the first Hox14 gene in any ray-finned fish. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the American paddlefish has an independently duplicated genome. Substitution patterns of the "alpha" paralogs on both the HoxA and HoxD gene clusters suggest transcriptional inactivation consistent with functional diploidization. Further, there are similarities in the pattern of sequence divergence among duplicated Hox genes in paddlefish and teleost lineages, even though they occurred independently approximately 200 Myr apart. We highlight implications on comparative analyses in the study of the "fin-limb transition" as well as gene and genome duplication in bony fishes, which includes all ray-finned fishes as well as the lobe-finned fishes and tetrapod vertebrates.

  14. The presence of microcystins and other cyanobacterial bioactive peptides in aquatic fauna collected from Greek freshwaters.

    PubMed

    Gkelis, S; Lanaras, T; Sivonen, K

    2006-06-10

    Toxic bloom-forming cyanobacteria can cause animal death and adversely affect human health. Blooms may contain microcystins (MCs), cyanobacterial heptapeptide hepatotoxins and other peptides such as anabaenopeptins and anabaenopeptilides. MCs have been shown to occur in various aquatic organisms including mussels, water snails, crustaceans and fish. Muscle and viscera samples from eight species of fish (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, Carassius auratus, Carassius gibelio, Cyprinus carpio, Perca fluviatilis, Rutilus rubilio, Silurus aristotelis and Silurus glanis), a frog (Rana eperotica), a mussel (Anodonta sp.) and a water snail (Viviparus contectus) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) inhibition assay (PP1IA) and ELISA. MC(s) was detected in all fish, frog, mussel and water snail samples tested by PP1IA and ELISA, including the frog R. eperotica and the freshwater snail V. contectus, in which the occurrence of MCs was not previously known. MC concentration ranged from 20 to 1500 ng g(-1)dw and from 25 to 5400 ng g(-1)dw in muscle and visceral tissue of fishes and frogs, respectively. In mussel and water snail tissue MC concentration ranged from 1650 to 3495 ng g(-1)dw. HPLC analysis revealed peaks having the same UV spectrum as anabaenopeptin- or anabaenopeptilide-like compounds, not previously known to occur in aquatic fauna tissue. The concentrations of the compounds detected ranged from 1.5 to 230 microg g(-1)dw. Comparison of the PP1IA and ELISA showed that values obtained with PP1IA where higher than those obtained with ELISA. Anabaenopeptins and/or anabaenopeptilides occurring in faunal tissue may account for the higher PP1IA values as we found that PP1 activity was inhibited by the purified anabaenopeptins A (45-60% inhibition) and B (5-75% inhibition). Purified anabaenopeptilides 90A and 90B exhibited weaker PP1 inhibition activity (5-35 and 5-23% inhibition, respectively). This is the first report of MC

  15. Electrical excitability of the heart in a Chondrostei fish, the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    PubMed

    Haworth, Thomas Eliot; Haverinen, Jaakko; Shiels, Holly A; Vornanen, Matti

    2014-11-01

    Sturgeon (family Acipenseridae) are regarded as living fossils due to their ancient origin and exceptionally slow evolution. To extend our knowledge of fish cardiac excitability to a Chondrostei fish, we examined electrophysiological phenotype of the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) heart with recordings of epicardial ECG, intracellular action potentials (APs), and sarcolemmal ion currents. Epicardial ECG of A. baerii had the typical waveform of the vertebrate ECG with Q-T interval (average duration of ventricular AP) of 650±30 ms and an intrinsic heart rate of 45.5±5 beats min(-1) at 20°C. Similar to other fish species, atrial AP was shorter in duration (402±33 ms) than ventricular AP (585±40) (P<0.05) at 20°C. Densities of atrial and ventricular Na+ currents were similar (-47.6±4.5 and -53.2±5.1 pA/pF, respectively) and close to the typical values of teleost hearts. Two major K+ currents, the inward rectifier K+ current (IK1), and the delayed rectifier K+ current (IKr) were found under basal conditions in sturgeon cardiomyocytes. The atrial IKr (3.3±0.2 pA/pF) was about twice as large as the ventricular IKr (1.3±0.4 pA/pF) (P<0.05) conforming to the typical pattern of teleost cardiac IKr. Divergent from other fishes, the ventricular IK1 was remarkably small (-2.5±0.07 pA/pF) and not different from that of the atrial myocytes (-1.9±0.06 pA/pF) (P>0.05). Two ligand-gated K+ currents were also found: ACh-activated inward rectifier (IKACh) was present only in atrial cells, while ATP-sensitive K+ current (IKATP) was activated by a mitochondrial blocker, CCCP, in both atrial and ventricular cells. The most striking difference to other fishes appeared in Ca2+ currents (ICa). In atrial myocytes, ICa was predominated by nickel-sensitive and nifedipine-resistant T-type ICa, while ventricular myocytes had mainly nifedipine-sensitive and nickel-resistant L-type ICa. ICaT/ICaL ratio of the sturgeon atrial myocytes (2.42) is the highest value ever measured for

  16. Sterilization of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus by using knockdown agent, antisense morpholino oligonucleotide, against dead end gene.

    PubMed

    Linhartová, Zuzana; Saito, Taiju; Kašpar, Vojtěch; Rodina, Marek; Prášková, Eva; Hagihara, Seishi; Pšenička, Martin

    2015-10-15

    Sturgeons (chondrostean, acipenseridae) are ancient fish species, widely known for their caviar. Nowadays, most of them are critically endangered. The sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) is a common Eurasian sturgeon species with a small body size and the fastest reproductive cycle among sturgeons. Such species can be used as a host for surrogate production; application is of value for recovery of critically endangered and huge sturgeon species with an extremely long reproductive cycle. One prerequisite for production of the donor's gametes only is to have a sterile host. Commonly used sterilization techniques in fishes such as triploidization or hybridization do not guarantee sterility in sturgeon. Alternatively, sterilization can be achieved by using a temporary germ cell exclusion-specific gene by a knockdown agent, the antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (MO). The targeted gene for the MO is the dead end gene (dnd) which is a vertebrate-specific gene encoding a RNA-binding protein which is crucial for migration and survival of primordial germ cells (PGCs). For this purpose, a dnd homologue of Russian sturgeon (Agdnd), resulting in the same sequence in the start codon region with isolated fragments of sterlet dnd (Ardnd), was used. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed tissue-specific expression of Ardnd only in the gonads of both sexes. Dnd-MO for depletion of PGCs together with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-biotin-dextran for PGCs labeling was injected into the vegetal region of one- to four-cell-stage sterlet embryos. In the control groups, only FITC was injected to validate the injection method and labeling of PGCs. After optimization of MO concentration together with volume injection, 250-μM MO was applied for sterilization of sturgeon embryos. Primordial germ cells were detected under a fluorescent stereomicroscope in the genital ridge of the FITC-labeled control group only, whereas no PGCs were present in the body cavities of morphants

  17. The fate of the duplicated androgen receptor in fishes: a late neofunctionalization event?

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Based on the observation of an increased number of paralogous genes in teleost fishes compared with other vertebrates and on the conserved synteny between duplicated copies, it has been shown that a whole genome duplication (WGD) occurred during the evolution of Actinopterygian fish. Comparative phylogenetic dating of this duplication event suggests that it occurred early on, specifically in teleosts. It has been proposed that this event might have facilitated the evolutionary radiation and the phenotypic diversification of the teleost fish, notably by allowing the sub- or neo-functionalization of many duplicated genes. Results In this paper, we studied in a wide range of Actinopterygians the duplication and fate of the androgen receptor (AR, NR3C4), a nuclear receptor known to play a key role in sex-determination in vertebrates. The pattern of AR gene duplication is consistent with an early WGD event: it has been duplicated into two genes AR-A and AR-B after the split of the Acipenseriformes from the lineage leading to teleost fish but before the divergence of Osteoglossiformes. Genomic and syntenic analyses in addition to lack of PCR amplification show that one of the duplicated copies, AR-B, was lost in several basal Clupeocephala such as Cypriniformes (including the model species zebrafish), Siluriformes, Characiformes and Salmoniformes. Interestingly, we also found that, in basal teleost fish (Osteoglossiformes and Anguilliformes), the two copies remain very similar, whereas, specifically in Percomorphs, one of the copies, AR-B, has accumulated substitutions in both the ligand binding domain (LBD) and the DNA binding domain (DBD). Conclusion The comparison of the mutations present in these divergent AR-B with those known in human to be implicated in complete, partial or mild androgen insensitivity syndrome suggests that the existence of two distinct AR duplicates may be correlated to specific functional differences that may be connected to the well

  18. Evaluating the radiation of the POMC gene in teleosts: characterization of American eel POMC.

    PubMed

    Alrubaian, Jasem; Sollars, Cristina; Danielson, Phillip B; Dores, Robert M

    2003-07-01

    A distinctive feature of the pituitary hormone precursor, proopiomelanocortin (POMC), is the presence of multiple melanocortin core sequences (HFRW), and one copy of the opioid, beta-endorphin. In the older lineages of ray-finned fish (i.e., orders Acipenseriformes and Semionotiformes), certain extant lobe-finned fish (Australian lungfish and African lungfish), and the tetrapods there are three melanocortin regions in POMC: ACTH/alphaMSH, beta-MSH, and gamma-MSH. However, among the teleosts, the most recent radiation of the ray-finned fishes, the gamma-MSH sequence is absent from the POMC genes of euteleosts like the carp, tilapia, chum salmon, sockeye salmon, and rainbow trout. The objective of this study was to determine whether the gamma-MSH sequence still may be present in the POMC gene of a more basal lineage of the teleosts such as a representative from subdivision Elopomorpha. To this end, a POMC cDNA was cloned and sequenced from the pituitary of the American eel, Anguilla rostrata (order Anguilliformes, family Anguillidae). The open reading frame of the eel POMC cDNA was 648 nucleotides in length and encoded 216 amino acids. As predicted, eel POMC contained the deduced amino acid sequences for beta-endorphin, ACTH/alpha-MSH, and beta-MSH. These end-products displayed primary sequence features that are common to ray-finned fish. Eel POMC lacks a gamma-MSH sequence and a large portion of the joining peptide region. In this regard, the eel POMC gene thus displays features very similar to the POMC genes that have been sequenced from euteleosts. Although it is conceivable that the gamma-MSH sequence may be present in representatives from the other basal extant lineages of teleosts (i.e., subdivisions Osteoglossomorpha or Clupeomorpha), it is also possible that the deletion that resulted in the loss of the gamma-MSH sequence occurred in the ancestral neopterygian that gave rise to the teleosts. In this case, the gamma-MSH sequence should be absent in all extant

  19. Multiple source genes of HAmo SINE actively expanded and ongoing retroposition in cyprinid genomes relying on its partner LINE

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We recently characterized HAmo SINE and its partner LINE in silver carp and bighead carp based on hybridization capture of repetitive elements from digested genomic DNA in solution using a bead-probe [1]. To reveal the distribution and evolutionary history of SINEs and LINEs in cyprinid genomes, we performed a multi-species search for HAmo SINE and its partner LINE using the bead-probe capture and internal-primer-SINE polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Results Sixty-seven full-size and 125 internal-SINE sequences (as well as 34 full-size and 9 internal sequences previously reported in bighead carp and silver carp) from 17 species of the family Cyprinidae were aligned as well as 14 new isolated HAmoL2 sequences. Four subfamilies (type I, II, III and IV), which were divided based on diagnostic nucleotides in the tRNA-unrelated region, expanded preferentially within a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae as multiple active source genes. The copy numbers of HAmo SINEs were estimated to vary from 104 to 106 in cyprinid genomes by quantitative RT-PCR. Over one hundred type IV members were identified and characterized in the primitive cyprinid Danio rerio genome but only tens of sequences were found to be similar with type I, II and III since the type IV was the oldest subfamily and its members dispersed in almost all investigated cyprinid fishes. For determining the taxonomic distribution of HAmo SINE, inter-primer SINE PCR was conducted in other non-cyprinid fishes, the results shows that HAmo SINE- related sequences may disperse in other families of order Cypriniforms but absent in other orders of bony fishes: Siluriformes, Polypteriformes, Lepidosteiformes, Acipenseriformes and Osteoglossiforms. Conclusions Depending on HAmo LINE2, multiple source genes (subfamilies) of HAmo SINE actively expanded and underwent retroposition in a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae. From this perspective, HAmo SINE should