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Sample records for guerra americana brasil

  1. [Contact dermatitis from Agave americana].

    PubMed

    de la Cueva, Pablo; González-Carrascosa, Mateo; Campos, Minia; Leis, Vicente; Suárez, Ricardo; Lázaro, Pablo

    2005-10-01

    Numerous plant species and their derivatives can cause skin reactions through a variety of mechanisms: irritative contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact urticaria and photodermatitis. We present a case of irritative contact dermatitis after exposure to the sap of Agave americana. The skin symptoms in this case have only been described on rare occasions; although this condition usually presents with a papulovesicular rash, in this patient it appeared as purpuric lesions in the contact area.

  2. [Dermatitis from contact with Agave americana].

    PubMed

    Golan, H; Landau, M; Goldberg, I; Brenner, S

    2000-10-01

    Various plants induce dermatitis in man. There have been only a few published cases of contact dermatitis caused by Agave americana (AA). We report intentional exposure to AA in a soldier seeking sick leave, and review our previously reported cases. Treatment with oral antihistamines and topical saline compresses resulted in subsidence of the systemic symptoms within 24 h and regression of cutaneous manifestations in 7-10 days. Physicians should be alert to the possibility of self-inflicted contact dermatitis induced by exposure to plants, especially to A. americana. Systemic signs may accompany the cutaneous lesions.

  3. Lack of Degeneration of Loci on the Neo-Y Chromosome of Drosophila Americana Americana

    PubMed Central

    Charlesworth, B.; Charlesworth, D.; Hnilicka, J.; Yu, A.; Guttman, D. S.

    1997-01-01

    The extent of genetic degeneration of the neo-Y chromosome of Drosophila americana americana has been investigated. Three loci, coding for the enzymes enolase, phosphoglycerate kinase and alcohol dehydrogenase, have been localized to chromosome 4 of D. a. americana, which forms the neo-Y and neo-X chromosomes. Crosses between D. a. americana and D. virilis or D. montana showed that the loci coding for these enzymes carry active alleles on the neo-Y chromosome in all wild-derived strains of americana that were tested. Intercrosses between a genetically marked stock of virilis and strains of americana were carried out, creating F(3) males that were homozygous for sections of the neo-Y chromosome. The sex ratios in the F(3) generation of the intercrosses showed that no lethal alleles have accumulated on any of the neo-Y chromosomes tested. There was evidence for more minor reductions in fitness, but this seems to be mainly caused by deleterious alleles that are specific to each strain. A similar picture was provided by examination of the segregation ratios of two marker genes among the F(3) progeny. Overall, the data suggest that the neo-Y chromosome has undergone very little degeneration, certainly not to the extent of having lost the functions of vital genes. This is consistent with the recent origin of the neo-Y and neo-X chromosomes, and the slow rates at which the forces that cause Y chromosome degeneration are likely to work. PMID:9093852

  4. Ulmus americana is a polyploid complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elms (the genus Ulmus) are one of the most important tree crops for the $4.7-billion per year nursery industry. The commercial importance of the genus centers on the American elm, Ulmus americana. Once decimated by Dutch Elm Disease, the recent introduction of cultivars resistant to the diseas...

  5. Constituents of Agave americana and Agave barbadensis.

    PubMed

    Tinto, W F; Simmons-Boyce, J L; McLean, S; Reynolds, W F

    2005-09-01

    An investigation of Agave americana and Agave barbadensis resulted in the isolation of a new homoisoflavanoid, 7-hydroxy-3-(4-methoxybenzyl)-chroman (3), together with known compounds 7-hydroxy-3-(4-methoxybenzyl)-chroman-4-one (1), 5,7-dihydroxy-3-(4-methoxybenzyl)-chroman-4-one (2), cantalasaponin-1 (4), and 2-hydroxy-butanedioic acid-1-methyl ester (5).

  6. American wildcelery (Vallisneria americana): ecological considerations for restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, C.E.; Green, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    The success of vegetation management programs for waterfowl is dependent on knowing the physical and physiological requirements of the target species. Lakes and riverine impoundments that contain an abundance of the American wildcelery plant (Vallisneria americana) have traditionally been favored by canvasback ducks (Aythya valisineria) and other waterfowl species as feeding areas during migration. Information on the ecology of V. americana is summarized to serve as a guide for potential wetland restoration projects. Because of the geographic diversity and wetland conditions in which V. americana is found, we have avoided making hard-and-fast conclusions about the requirements of the plant. Rather, we present as much general information as possible and provide the sources of more specific information. Vallisneria americana is a submersed aquatic plant that has management potential. Techniques are described for transplanting winter buds from one location to another. Management programs that employ these techniques should define objectives clearly and evaluate the water regime carefully before initiating a major effort.

  7. Inbreeding depression in pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) fawns.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Stacey J; Clancey, Erin; Waits, Lisette P; Byers, John A

    2011-12-01

    Although inbreeding depression affects survival, fitness and population viability, the extent of inbreeding depression in wild populations remains unclear. We examined inbreeding depression in the small, isolated National Bison Range (NBR), MT, pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) population following a bottleneck. We have studied the National Bison Range pronghorn extensively since 1981, and we have detailed birth, survival and mate choice data. We genotyped all animals in the population between 1999 and 2010 at 19 microsatellite loci, assigned paternities to all fawns based on genotype and constructed a genetic-based pedigree to calculate inbreeding coefficients (f). We found an increase in the frequency of inbreeding following the bottleneck. We detected evidence of inbreeding depression on fawn survival to weaning, birth mass, foot length and condition. We estimated the number of diploid lethal equivalents on survival to weaning as 24.17-28.72. Standardized heterozygosity (H) had a relatively small influence on survival, mass, length and condition compared with f, and H was not correlated with f. We conclude that for pronghorn, H was not a good predictor of pedigree-estimates of f. PMID:22026426

  8. Assimilate partitioning in avocado, Persea americana

    SciTech Connect

    Finazzo, S.; Davenport, T.L.

    1986-04-01

    Assimilate partitioning is being studied in avocado, Persea americana cv. Millborrow in relation to fruit set. Single leaves on girdled branches of 10 year old trees were radiolabeled for 1 hr with 13..mu..Ci of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. The source leaves were sampled during the experiment to measure translocation rates. At harvest the sink tissues were dissected and the incorporated radioactivity was measured. The translocation of /sup 14/C-labelled compounds to other leaves was minimal. Incorporation of label into fruitlets varied with the tissue and the stage of development. Sink (fruitlets) nearest to the labelled leaf and sharing the same phyllotaxy incorporated the most /sup 14/C. Source leaves for single non-abscising fruitlets retained 3X more /sup 14/C-labelled compounds than did source leaves for 2 or more fruitlets at 31 hrs. post-labelling. Export of label decreased appreciably when fruitlets abscised. If fruitlets abscised within 4 days of labeling then the translocation pattern was similar to the pattern for single fruitlets. If the fruitlet abscised later, the translocation pattern was intermediate between the single and double fruitlet pattern.

  9. Lectin-like activity from Persea americana.

    PubMed

    Meade, N A; Staat, R H; Langley, S D; Doyle, R J

    1980-01-15

    An extract from the seeds of Persea americana possessed an erythro-agglutinating activity. The agglutinin was devoid of specificity for carbohydrates, but interacted readily with basic proteins or basic polyamino acids. The interaction between the agglutinin and egg-white lysozyme was not inhibited by chaotropic salts, but was sensitive to relatively low concentrations of urea. An affinity chromatographic procedure was developed in an effort to purify the agglutinin. Products from the chromatographic procedure were found not to contain higher specific agglutinating activities than the crude extract. Amino acid acid analyses of the extract showed the presence of relatively high proportions of glutamic and aspartic acids. In addition, the extract contained phosphorus and a visible chromophore. The agglutinin was resistant to detergents and denaturants, and proteases, nucleases, and other enzymes. The results suggest that, as opposed to other plant agglutinins, the active component from Persea is not a protein. Similarly, in contrast to many lectins, the agglutinin from Persea was not mitogenic for mouse lymphocytes. The agglutinin partially inhibited the mitogenesis of lymphocytes when the cells were treated with concanavalin A, or with bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

  10. Analysis of sesquiterpene distributions in leaves, branches, and trunks of avocado (Persea americana Mill.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avocado is a commercially valuable fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates throughout the world. Taxonomists recognize three horticultural races of avocado, consisting of Mexican (Persea americana var. drymifolia), Guatemalan (P. americana var. guatemalensis), and West Indian (P. ...

  11. Repetitive sequence families in Alces alces americana.

    PubMed

    Blake, R D; Wang, J Z; Beauregard, L

    1997-05-01

    muntjac (Chinese muntjac) and Muntiacus reevesi (Indian muntjac), as well as Antilocapra americana (pronghorn), and the bovids Bos taurus and Ovis aries. A tentative tree for the five cervids is in excellent agreement with one proposed on the basis of morphological characteristics. Differences from a consensus sequence indicate transversions exceed transitions by almost twofold, suggesting that substitutions occur randomly, or nearly so. PMID:9115175

  12. Triterpene glycosides from the cultures of Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Namikawa, Y; Tanaka, M; Fukuyama, Y

    2001-02-01

    A new triterpene glycoside I was isolated together with the five known triterpene glycosides 2-6 from the cultures of Phytolacca americana. The structure of 1 was elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison of its NMR data with those of 2-7 and chemical degradation.

  13. Memory Consolidation and Gene Expression in "Periplaneta Americana"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strausfeld, Nicholas J.; Pinter, Marianna; Lent, David D.

    2005-01-01

    A unique behavioral paradigm has been developed for "Periplaneta americana" that assesses the timing and success of memory consolidation leading to long-term memory of visual-olfactory associations. The brains of trained and control animals, removed at the critical consolidation period, were screened by two-directional suppression subtractive…

  14. Teaching German-Americana with Assistance from the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Robert J.; Hoyt, Giles R.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the World Wide Web can assist in teaching about German-Americana in German-language instruction, and discusses some basic Web page uses to find and organize literary texts, syllabi, course outlines, images and realia, and information about people, organizations, events, and places. Some of the most useful German-American resources are…

  15. Characterization and development mechanism of Apios americana tuber starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apios americana is a wild legume-bearing plant with edible tubers. Domestication of Apios is in progress because of the superior nutritional value and health benefits of the tuber. Objectives of this study were to: 1) characterize physicochemical properties of Apios-tuber starch; and 2) understand d...

  16. Three new hecogenin glycosides from fermented leaves of Agave americana.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jian-Ming; Liu, Xi-Kui; Yang, Chong-Ren

    2003-06-01

    Eight steroidal compounds, including three new hecogenin glycosides, agamenosides D-F, were isolated from the fermented leaves of Agave americana. The structures of the new steroidal saponins were elucidated by spectroscopic data and chemical methods. The activity of the isolated compounds on deformations of mycelia germinated from conidia of Pyricularia oaryzae P-2b was evaluated.

  17. Characterization of a satellite DNA from Antilocapra americana.

    PubMed

    Denome, R M; O'Callaghan, B; Luitjens, C; Harper, E; Bianco, R

    1994-08-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a cloned satellite DNA from Antilocapra americana (American pronghorn antelope) is presented. The 1477-bp satellite is composed of degenerate 31-bp sub-repeats which are very similar in sequence to those of the major satellite DNAs from cattle and sheep. The sub-repeat sequence is more degenerate and variable in pronghorn than it is in cattle or sheep. The sequence is organized in the pronghorn genome in multicopy tandem arrays. PMID:8056340

  18. Mouse monoclonal antibodies against Phytolacca americana antiviral protein PAP I.

    PubMed

    Kaloyanova, D; Kyurkchiev, S; Xu, J; Abouhaidar, M; Ivanov, I

    1999-08-01

    Four hybridoma lines are constructed producing monoclonal antibodies against the pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) antiviral protein PAP I. Two of the antibodies, 4E8 and 5D3, are characterized in more detail. They recognize amino acid sequences rather than conformational changes and their epitopes are 65% distinct. One of these antibodies (5D3) is used to study localization of recombinant PAP I in Escherichia coli cells by immuno-gold electron microscopy.

  19. Flavonoids and free phenolic acids from Phytolacca americana L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Bylka, W; Matławska, I

    2001-01-01

    In the leaves of Phytolacca americana L. flavonoid compounds: kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-diglucoside and quercetin 3-O-glucoside were identified by chemical and spectroscopic methods and using co-chromatography, phenolic acids: p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, synapic, p-coumaric ferulic and caffeic were also confirmed.

  20. Antiprotozoal and antimycobacterial activities of Persea americana seeds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Persea americana seeds are widely used in traditional Mexican medicine to treat rheumatism, asthma, infectious processes as well as diarrhea and dysentery caused by intestinal parasites. Methods The chloroformic and ethanolic extracts of P. americana seeds were prepared by maceration and their amoebicidal, giardicidal and trichomonicidal activity was evaluated. These extracts were also tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, four mono-resistant and two multidrug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis as well as five non tuberculosis mycobacterium strains by MABA assay. Results The chloroformic and ethanolic extracts of P. americana seeds showed significant activity against E. histolytica, G. lamblia and T. vaginalis (IC50 <0.634 μg/ml). The chloroformic extract inhibited the growth of M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis MDR SIN 4 isolate, three M. tuberculosis H37Rv mono-resistant reference strains and four non tuberculosis mycobacteria (M. fortuitum, M. avium, M. smegmatis and M. absessus) showing MIC values ≤50 μg/ml. Contrariwise, the ethanolic extract affected only the growth of two mono-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis H37Rv and M. smegmatis (MIC ≤50 μg/ml). Conclusions The CHCl3 and EtOH seed extracts from P. americana showed amoebicidal and giardicidal activity. Importantly, the CHCl3 extract inhibited the growth of a MDR M. tuberculosis isolate and three out of four mono-resistant reference strains of M. tuberculosis H37Rv, showing a MIC = 50 μg/ml. This extract was also active against the NTM strains, M. fortuitum, M. avium, M. smegmatis and M. abscessus, with MIC values <50 μg/ml. PMID:23680126

  1. A new steroidal saponin from the leaves of Agave americana.

    PubMed

    Yokosuka, A; Mimaki, Y; Kuroda, M; Sashida, Y

    2000-05-01

    A new bisdesmosidic spirostanol saponin, along with three known saponins, were isolated from Agave americana (Agavaceae). The structure of the new saponin was elucidated as (25R)-3 beta,6 alpha-dihydroxy-5 alpha-spirostan-12-one 3,6-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. Among the isolated saponins, hecogenin tetraglycoside showed cytotoxic activity against HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells with an IC50 value of 4.3 micrograms/mL.

  2. [Prevention and control of invaded plant Phytolacca americana in sandy coastal shelter forests].

    PubMed

    Fu, Jun-Peng; Li, Chuan-Rong; Xu, Jing-Wei; Cheng, Wan-Li; Song, Rui-Feng; Liu, Yun

    2012-04-01

    The invasion of Phytolacca americana has produced serious damage to the coastal shelter forests in China. In order to search for the effective measures for controlling the growth of P. americana, several plots in the Robinia pseudoacacia forest invaded by P. Americana to the relatively same extent were installed, and the measures of physical control (mowing and root cutting) and chemical control (spraying herbicides) were adopted to control the invasion of P. Americana, taking the site with good growth of Amorpha fruticosa in the forest and without any control measures as the comparison. The results showed that mowing could rapidly decrease the growth of P. americana in the same year, but the growth recovered in the next year. 1/3 root cutting only reduced the aboveground growth of P. americana in the same year, and the growth was recovered in the third year; while 2/3 root cutting and whole cutting could effectively cleanup the P. americana plants all the time. Spraying quizalofop-p-ethyl and paraquat only killed the aboveground part of P. americana in the same year, but this part of P. americana recovered to the normal level in the next year; while spraying 45 g x L(-1) of glyphosate could completely kill the whole P. americana plants till the third year. The growth of P. americana at the site with good growth of A. fruticosa and without any control measures maintained at a low level all the time, suggesting that planting A. fruticosa in R. pseudoacacia forest would be an effective approach to prevent and control the P. americana invasion.

  3. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential fruit of Ximenia americana L.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Maria Lucilania Bezerra; Freitas, Wallace Edelky de Souza; de Morais, Patrícia Lígia Dantas; Sarmento, José Dárcio Abrantes; Alves, Ricardo Elesbão

    2016-02-01

    The caatinga ecoregion in northeast Brazil presents a wide variety in plant species. However, the potential of these species as a source of energy, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and bioactive properties beneficial to health is still unknown. Among these species we can find the wild plum (Ximenia americana). Due to its various phytotherapeutic properties and absence of studies on the chemical composition of the fruit this article aimed to evaluate the bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential of the X. americana in different stages of maturation. The fruits of X. americana showed considerable amounts of bioactive compounds, as well as antioxidant activity and antioxidant enzymes. The fruits at green maturity stage showed higher content of yellow flavonoids (22.07 mg/100g), anthocyanins (1.92 mg/100 g), polyphenols (3051.62 mg/100 g), starch (4.22%), antioxidant activity (489.40 g fruit/g DPPH and 198.77 μmol Trolox/g) and activity of antioxidant enzymes; the antioxidant activity allocated to the fruit was shown to be related to the contents of extractable polyphenols, yellow flavonoids, total anthocyanins and antioxidant enzymes.

  4. Local adaptation for body color in Drosophila americana

    PubMed Central

    Wittkopp, P J; Smith-Winberry, G; Arnold, L L; Thompson, E M; Cooley, A M; Yuan, D C; Song, Q; McAllister, B F

    2011-01-01

    Pigmentation is one of the most variable traits within and between Drosophila species. Much of this diversity appears to be adaptive, with environmental factors often invoked as selective forces. Here, we describe the geographic structure of pigmentation in Drosophila americana and evaluate the hypothesis that it is a locally adapted trait. Body pigmentation was quantified using digital images and spectrometry in up to 10 flies from each of 93 isofemale lines collected from 17 locations across the United States and found to correlate most strongly with longitude. Sequence variation at putatively neutral loci showed no evidence of population structure and was inconsistent with an isolation-by-distance model, suggesting that the pigmentation cline exists despite extensive gene flow throughout the species range, and is most likely the product of natural selection. In all other Drosophila species examined to date, dark pigmentation is associated with arid habitats; however, in D. americana, the darkest flies were collected from the most humid regions. To investigate this relationship further, we examined desiccation resistance attributable to an allele that darkens pigmentation in D. americana. We found no significant effect of pigmentation on desiccation resistance in this experiment, suggesting that pigmentation and desiccation resistance are not unequivocally linked in all Drosophila species. PMID:20606690

  5. [Preliminary analysis of manganese uptake mechanism in the hyperaccumulator Phytolacca americana L].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiang-Hua; Li, Ren-Ying; Liu, Cui-Ying; Shi, Ji-Yan; Lin, Jia

    2013-11-01

    Phytolacca americana L. (P. americana) is a manganese (Mn) hyperaccumulator plant discovered in southern China, and knowledge of Mn uptake characteristics and mechanisms on this plant may provide essential and critical information for phytoremediation. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SRXRF) microprobe was empolyed in this study to explore the Mn distribution in the root cross-section of P. americana, and effects of metabolic inhibitors (DNP and Na3VO4) and Ca-channel inhibitor (LaCl3) on Mn uptake of P. americana was also investigated under laboratory conditions. Results showed that P. americana has strong abilities for absorpting and accumulating Mn, and the Mn concentration in root, stem, and leaf of P. americana may reach up to 402, 208, and 601 mg x kg(-1) DW, respectively, even only treated with 5 micromol x L(-1) Mn. The highest Mn content can be found in the vascular bundle of root, and then the epidermis, while the lowest Mn content can be observed in the cortex. The Mn content increased when shifted from cortex to vascular bundle, indicating that there was an active transportation in Mn absorption of P. americana root, and the inhibitory effect of DNP and Na3VO4 on Mn uptake further verified the possibilities of active absorption. The Mn uptake was inhibited by 30% with LaCl3, suggesting that Mn uptake in P. americana also closely related to the Ca-channel.

  6. Characterization of a chemostable serine alkaline protease from Periplaneta americana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Proteases are important enzymes involved in numerous essential physiological processes and hold a strong potential for industrial applications. The proteolytic activity of insects’ gut is endowed by many isoforms with diverse properties and specificities. Thus, insect proteases can act as a tool in industrial processes. Results In the present study, purification and properties of a serine alkaline protease from Periplaneta americana and its potential application as an additive in various bio-formulations are reported. The enzyme was purified near to homogeneity by using acetone precipitation and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. Enzyme activity was increased up to 4.2 fold after gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme appeared as single protein-band with a molecular mass of ~ 27.8 kDa in SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH and temperature for the proteolytic activity for purified protein were found around pH 8.0 and 60°C respectively. Complete inhibition of the purified enzyme by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride confirmed that the protease was of serine-type. The purified enzyme revealed high stability and compatibility towards detergents, oxidizing, reducing, and bleaching agents. In addition, enzyme also showed stability towards organic solvents and commercial detergents. Conclusion Several important properties of a serine protease from P. Americana were revealed. Moreover, insects can serve as excellent and alternative source of industrially important proteases with unique properties, which can be utilized as additives in detergents, stain removers and other bio-formulations. Properties of the P. americana protease accounted in the present investigation can be exploited further in various industrial processes. As an industrial prospective, identification of enzymes with varying essential properties from different insect species might be good approach and bioresource. PMID:24229392

  7. Comparative analysis of two DOPA dioxygenases from Phytolacca Americana.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kana; Yoshida, Kazuko; Sakuta, Masaaki

    2015-05-01

    The comparative analysis of two Phytolacca americana DOPA dioxygenases (PaDOD1 and PaDOD2) that may be involved in betalain biosynthesis was carried out. The recombinant protein of PaDOD catalyzed the conversion of DOPA to betalamic acid, whereas DOD activity was not detected in PaDOD2 in vitro. The role of DOD genes is discussed in the evolutionary context using phylogenetic analysis, suggesting that DOD might have been duplicated early in evolution and that accumulation of base substitutions could have led to the different characteristics of DODs within the betalain-producing Caryophyllales. PMID:26058141

  8. Comparative analysis of two DOPA dioxygenases from Phytolacca Americana.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kana; Yoshida, Kazuko; Sakuta, Masaaki

    2015-05-01

    The comparative analysis of two Phytolacca americana DOPA dioxygenases (PaDOD1 and PaDOD2) that may be involved in betalain biosynthesis was carried out. The recombinant protein of PaDOD catalyzed the conversion of DOPA to betalamic acid, whereas DOD activity was not detected in PaDOD2 in vitro. The role of DOD genes is discussed in the evolutionary context using phylogenetic analysis, suggesting that DOD might have been duplicated early in evolution and that accumulation of base substitutions could have led to the different characteristics of DODs within the betalain-producing Caryophyllales.

  9. Bioactive triterpene saponins from the roots of Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liyan; Bai, Liming; Nagasawa, Takashi; Hasegawa, Toshiaki; Yang, Xiaoyang; Sakai, Jun-ichi; Bai, Yuhua; Kataoka, Takao; Oka, Seiko; Hirose, Katsutoshi; Tomida, Akihiro; Tsuruo, Takashi; Ando, Masayoshi

    2008-01-01

    Five new triterpene saponins named phytolaccasaponins N-1 (1), N-2 (2), N-3 (3) N-4 (4), and N-5 (5) were isolated from the roots of Phytolacca americana together with seven known triterpene saponins (6-12). The structures of the five new saponins were established as shown in structures 1-5 on the basis of their spectroscopic data. The MDR-reversal activity of 1-12 was evaluated on the basis of the amount of calcein accumulated in MDR human ovarian cancer 2780 AD cells in the presence of each compound. The most effective compound was 8 (155% of control at 25 microg/mL).

  10. Purpuric irritant contact dermatitis induced by Agave americana.

    PubMed

    Cherpelis, B S; Fenske, N A

    2000-10-01

    The sap of Agave americana, a popular ornamental plant, may cause irritant contact dermatitis. This rare eruption is typically vesiculopapular; however, a new purpuric variant with evidence of leukocytoclastic vasculitis has recently been reported. We report an additional case of a purpuric eruption associated with severe constitutional symptoms further supporting a possible vasculitic component. Both cases resulted from direct exposure to sap propelled by a chainsaw. We speculate that oxalic acid crystals, which are recognized systemic toxins, are embedded in the skin with resulting oxalism, which may result in vascular damage.

  11. Distribution and characterization of Heterobilharzia americana in dogs in Texas.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, J Y; Lewis, B C; Snowden, K F

    2014-06-16

    Heterobilharzia americana is a trematode parasite (family Schistosomatidae) that infects a wide range of wild mammalian hosts. Canine cases have been reported in the Gulf coast and south Atlantic states, Kansas, and Oklahoma. A total of 238 canine H. americana cases in Texas were retrospectively collected for a period of approximately 22 years from case records at the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory and the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital pathology service, diagnostic parasitology service, and Gastrointestinal Laboratory at Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine. Of these cases, 26 patients had 1-2 repeat positive tests for a total of 268 positive tests (26 biopsies, 39 necropsies, 160 fecal examinations, and 43 PCR). Multiple dogs were infected in 12 households. Cases were distributed primarily in the eastern region of Texas in 42 of 254 counties. Cases were seen as far west as Kerr county and in counties bordering Oklahoma, Louisiana, Mexico, and the Gulf of Mexico. The median dog age was 5.6 years (2.7 months to 17.2 years) and the median weight was 20.5 kg (1-61.6 kg). All American Kennel Club (AKC) breed groups were represented (n=186): crossbred (20%), herding (17.8%), sporting (16.1%), toy (10.8%), hounds (10.8%), working (10.1%), terrier (8.5%), non-sporting (4.9%), and miscellaneous (1%). No seasonal pattern of diagnosis was apparent. Clinical signs reported (n=90) were diarrhea (67%), weight loss (38%), anorexia/hyporexia (27%), vomiting (22%), hematochezia (20%), lethargy (17%), polyuria/polydipsia (6%), and collapse (3%). In 39 necropsy cases, trematode eggs were identified by histopathology in the small intestine (84%), liver (84%), large intestine (39%), pancreas (35%), lung (9%), lymph node (8%), spleen (4%), and stomach (3%). Adult parasites were identified histologically in four cases. Granulomatous inflammation associated with the eggs was the most commonly reported histopathologic change. Other changes reported

  12. American wild celery (Vallisneria americana): Ecological considerations for restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, C.E.; Green, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    The success of vegetation management programs for waterfowl is dependent on knowing the physical and physiological requirements of target species. Lakes and riverine impoundments that contain an abundance of the American wildcelery (Vallisneria americana ) have traditionally been favored by canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria ) and other waterfowl as feeding areas during migration. Information on the ecology of American wildcelery is summarized to serve as a guide for potential wetland restoration projects. Techniques are described for transplanting winter buds. Management programs that employ these techniques should define objectives clearly and evaluate the water regime carefully before initiating major restoration.

  13. Seed output and the seed bank in Vallisneria americana (Hydrocharitaceae).

    PubMed

    Lokker, C; Lovett-Doust, L; Lovett-Doust, J

    1997-10-01

    Seed banks and sexual reproduction are known to be significant in colonization and re-establishment of some aquatic macrophyte communities. For highly clonal aquatic macrophytes, however, there is a lack of information on seed production and seed fate as compared with annual sexual species. The seed bank for three populations of Vallisneria americana in the Huron-Erie corridor of the Great Lakes was sampled and quantified in the spring of 1994, and related to seed production in the previous season at these sites. Seed deposition rates during 1994 were also assessed. Sites varied in the proportion of plants flowering and in their tertiary sex ratios, but did not differ in seed numbers produced per unit area. The size of the seed bank was not significantly related to the previous season's seed output, and estimates of seed deposition in the following year tended to be approximately tenfold greater than seed densities found in the seed bank. The stages between seed production and subsequent seed germination are generally very dynamic, with dispersal, mortality, and predation as likely regulating factors. The potential for seedling establishment in V. americana needs to be assessed more fully before the role of seeds in population processes can be determined. PMID:21708549

  14. Laboratory assay of sediment phytotoxicity using the macrophyte Vallisneria americana

    SciTech Connect

    Biernacki, M.; Lovett-Doust, J.; Lovett-Doust, L.

    1997-03-01

    In contrast to their ecological importance, submersed rooted macrophytes have been overlooked in environmental science. Presently, the array of standard phytotoxic bioassays includes only one free-floating vascular macrophyte (Lemna) and several algal species. A short-term and inexpensive assay was studied for feasibility in evaluating sediment quality. Cloned ramets of the macrophyte, Vallisneria americana were used to test phytotoxicity of sediments collected at different locations in the Detroit River. Ramets were planted in sediment samples and placed in greenhouse aquaria. After a week of exposure, ramets of V. americana were destructively sampled and preserved. The leaf and root surfaces areas were determined, and plant biomass was recorded for each ramet. An index of the leaf-to-root surface area ratio was a reliable predictor of sediment phytotoxicity; the ratio of leaf-to-root mass was also useful but proved less consistent. Ramets grown in sediments that were relatively less contaminated with organic compounds had lower values of the leaf-to-root surface area ratio, while plants grown in more contaminated sediments had greater values. Results of analyses of variance indicated that the index of leaf-to-root surface area ratio responded to sediment quality but was not significantly affected by either variation in plant genotype or interaction between sediment and plant genotype. There was a significant correlation between rank-ordered results of the present greenhouse study and results of leaf-to-root surface area ratios for plants previously surveyed in the field.

  15. Two new types of allergens from the cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Fang, Y; Long, C; Bai, X; Liu, W; Rong, M; Lai, R; An, S

    2015-12-01

    Periplaneta americana cockroach is an important source of inhalant indoor allergen resource, and there are more than twenty IgE-binding components identified in P. americana, but only nine allergens were characterized. Our knowledge about cockroach allergens remains poor. In this work, two novel allergen proteins Per a 11 (alpha-amylase) and Per a 12 (chitinase) with molecular weight around 55 and 45 kDa, respectively, were purified and characterized from the midgut of cockroaches. Their primary sequences were determined by Edman degradation, mass spectrometry, and cDNA cloning. Sera from 39 and 30 of 47 (83.0% and 63.8%) patients reacted to Per a 11 and Per a 12 on immunoblots, respectively. The allergenicity of Per a 11 and Per a 12 was further confirmed by competitive ELISA, basophil activation test (BAT), and skin prick test (SPT). They appear to be of importance for the allergic reactions induced by cockroach and have a potential for component-based diagnosis of allergy. PMID:26361742

  16. The phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Persea americana Mill

    PubMed Central

    Yasir, Mohammad; Das, Sattwik; Kharya, M. D.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decades, herbal medicine has become a thing of global significance with medicinal and economic implications. Wide spread use of herbs throughout the globe has raised serious concerns over its quality, safety, and efficacy. Thus, exact scientific assessment has become a precondition for acceptance of herbal health claims. Persea americana Mill. (avocado) is a tree, native to central America, cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates around the world, belonging to the family Lauraceae, is widely used in Ayurveda and evidence-based phototherapy. There are 3 principal races or groups of avocado: Mexican, Guatemalan, and West Indian named for the areas where they were originally cultivated. The plant is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments, such as monorrhagia, hypertension, stomach ache, bronchitis, diarrhea, and diabetes. Peptone, b-galactoside, glycosylated abscisic acid, alkaloids, cellulose, polygalacto urease, polyuronoids, cytochrome P-450, and volatile oils are reported to be present in this plant. Biotechnologic approaches show that modified MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg benzyladenine/L, 0-1mg Indole Butyric Acid/L, 0.1 mg Gibberalic Acid 3/L was optimum for adventitious shoot development. In the present review, an effort has been made to study the different aspects of P. americana Mill. PMID:22228945

  17. Intraspecific Signals Inducing Aggregation in Periplaneta americana (Insecta: Dictyoptera).

    PubMed

    Imen, Saïd; Christian, Malosse; Virginie, Durier; Colette, Rivault

    2015-06-01

    Chemical communication is necessary to induce aggregation and to maintain the cohesion of aggregates in Periplaneta americana (L.) cockroaches. We aimed to identify the chemical message inducing aggregation in this species. Two types of bioassays were used-binary choice tests in Petri dishes and tests in Y-olfactometer. Papers conditioned by direct contact of conspecifics induce aggregation when proposed in binary choice tests and were attractive in a Y-olfactometer. The identification of the molecules present on these conditioned papers indicated that dichloromethane extracts contained mainly cuticular hydrocarbons whereas methanol extracts contained more volatile molecules. Only a mixture of extracts in both solvents induced aggregation. High concentrations of cuticular hydrocarbons are necessary to induce aggregation when presented alone. When presented with volatile molecules present in methanol extracts, low concentrations of cuticular hydrocarbons are sufficient to induce aggregation if they are presented in contact. Among volatile molecules collected on filter paper, a mixture of three compounds-hexadecanoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, and pentaethylene glycol-induced aggregation. Our results provide evidence that aggregation processes in P. americana relies on a dual mechanism: attraction over long distances by three volatile molecules and maintenance on site by contact with cuticular hydrocarbons. PMID:26313978

  18. Parelaphostrongylus tenuis in captive pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) in Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Heather A; Steffen, David J; Armstrong, Douglas L; Rogers, Douglas G

    2002-10-01

    Lesions in four captive pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) naturally infected with Parelaphostrongylus tenuis in eastern Nebraska (USA) are described in this report. Animals were bright and alert with hind limb ataxia that progressed to sternal or lateral recumbency between July 28 and October 17, 1998. Animals were euthanized due to disease progression despite therapy. Multifocal decubital ulcers over bony prominences occurred in two animals and chronic unilateral otitis media was present in one animal. Histopathologic examination revealed severe Wallerian degeneration randomly scattered throughout the spinal cords of all four animals. Spinal cord sections from two animals contained adult nematode parasites consistent with P. tenuis. This is the first report of naturally occurring P. tenuis infection in pronghorn antelope. Pronghorn antelope should be considered susceptible to P. tenuis infection and contact with infected white-tailed deer as well as intermediate gastropod hosts of P. tenuis should be prevented in endemic areas. PMID:12528452

  19. Invasive entamoebae in pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) from Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Kingston, N; Williams, E S; Thorne, E T

    1990-01-01

    Trophozoites and cysts of an amoeba resembling Entamoeba bovis were recovered from soft stools of captive pronghorn fawns (Antilocapra americana). Chronic or intermittent diarrhea was observed in most individuals in two groups of hand-raised 1- to 8-mo-old pronghorns. Ileocecal lymph nodes were mildly to moderately enlarged. Microscopic lesions were characterized by lymphoid hyperplasia, focal necrosis and pyogranulomatous inflammation in lymph nodes and focal necrosis and diffuse nonsuppurative enteritis in ileum and cecum. In 12 of 17 fawns, trophic stages of amoebae were observed in the submucosa of the cecum and/or the cortex of the ileocecal lymph node. This is the first report of E. bovis-like organisms invading and causing pathological changes in the tissues of their host. PMID:2304201

  20. Establishing paternity in whooping cranes (Grus Americana) by DNA analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longmire, J.L.; Gee, G.F.; Hardekopf, C.L.; Mark, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting was used to study paternity and genetic variability within a captive flock of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana). Fingerprint patterns for 42 individuals were obtained by digesting genomic crane DNAs with HaeIII followed by electrophoresis, blotting, and hybridization to the M13 minisatellite probe. Despite finding reduced levels of genetic variation in the Whooping Crane due to a population 'bottleneck,' these polymorphisms were successfully used to determine paternity in six of seven cases of captive propagation where the maternal-offspring relationship was known, but where the sire was unknown. These determinations of paternity are required for effective genetic management of. the crane flock. These results also revealed a number of heterozygous minisatellite loci that will be valuable in future assessments of genetic variability in this endangered species.

  1. Pretreatment of Agave americana stalk for enzymatic saccharification.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiang; Pan, Xuejun

    2012-12-01

    Agave americana is one of commonly grown agave species but currently less valuable because its large flower stalk cannot be used for producing alcoholic beverage. In the present study, the stalk was pretreated with dilute acid (DA), sulfite (SPORL), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to preliminarily assess its potential as feedstock for bioethanol production. The changes of cell wall components during the pretreatments, enzymatic digestibility of the pretreated stalks, and the adsorption of cellulases on the substrates were investigated. Results indicated that the pretreatments significantly improved the enzymatic digestibility of the agave stalk. SPORL pretreatment gave higher substrate and sugar yields, while NaOH pretreated stalk had better digestibility under the investigated conditions. The better hydrolysability of NaOH-pretreated stalk was attributed to low lignin and hemicellulose content and high affinity to cellulases. PMID:23122484

  2. Exertional myopathy in whooping cranes (Grus americana) with prognostic guidlelines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanley, C.S.; Thomas, N.J.; Paul-Murphy, P.; Hartup, B.K.

    2005-01-01

    Exertional myopathy developed in three whooping cranes (Grus americana) secondary to routine capture, handling, and trauma. Presumptive diagnosis of exertional myopathy was based on history of recent capture or trauma, clinical signs, and elevation of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and serum potassium. Treatments were attempted in each case, but ultimately were not successful. Gross and microscopic lesions at necropsy confirmed the diagnosis in each case, with the leg musculature most severely affected. Guidelines for determining prognosis of exertional myopathy in cranes have been included based on the analysis of these cases and others in the literature. As treatment is largely unrewarding, prevention remains the key in controlling exertional myopathy. Identification of predisposing factors and proper handling, immobilization, and transportation techniques can help prevent development of exertional myopathy in cranes.

  3. Dispersal and genetic structure in the American marten, Martes americana.

    PubMed

    Broquet, T; Johnson, C A; Petit, E; Thompson, I; Burel, F; Fryxell, J M

    2006-05-01

    Natal dispersal in a vagile carnivore, the American marten (Martes americana), was studied by comparing radio-tracking data and microsatellite genetic structure in two populations occupying contrasting habitats. The genetic differentiation determined among groups of individuals using F(ST) indices appeared to be weak in both landscapes, and showed no increase with geographical distance. Genetic structure investigated using pairwise genetic distances between individuals conversely showed a pattern of isolation by distance (IBD), but only in the population occurring in a homogeneous high-quality habitat, therefore showing the advantage of individual-based analyses in detecting within-population processes and local landscape effects. The telemetry study of juveniles revealed a leptokurtic distribution of dispersal distances in both populations, and estimates of the mean squared parent-offspring axial distance (sigma2) inferred both from the genetic pattern of IBD and from the radio-tracking survey showed that most juveniles make little contribution to gene flow.

  4. Pretreatment of Agave americana stalk for enzymatic saccharification.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiang; Pan, Xuejun

    2012-12-01

    Agave americana is one of commonly grown agave species but currently less valuable because its large flower stalk cannot be used for producing alcoholic beverage. In the present study, the stalk was pretreated with dilute acid (DA), sulfite (SPORL), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to preliminarily assess its potential as feedstock for bioethanol production. The changes of cell wall components during the pretreatments, enzymatic digestibility of the pretreated stalks, and the adsorption of cellulases on the substrates were investigated. Results indicated that the pretreatments significantly improved the enzymatic digestibility of the agave stalk. SPORL pretreatment gave higher substrate and sugar yields, while NaOH pretreated stalk had better digestibility under the investigated conditions. The better hydrolysability of NaOH-pretreated stalk was attributed to low lignin and hemicellulose content and high affinity to cellulases.

  5. Betacyanins from plants and cell cultures of Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed

    Schliemann, W; Joy, R W; Komamine, A; Metzger, J W; Nimtz, M; Wray, V; Strack, D

    1996-07-01

    Betacyanins from cell cultures of Phytolacca americana were characterized and compared with those of the stems and ripening fruits of the plant. Whereas in fruits prebetanin (betanin 6'-O-sulphate) and its isoform predominate, in the stem and cell cultures feruloylated derivatives occur as the major components. These were rigorously identified by various spectroscopic techniques (DAD-HPLC, NMR, LC-MS and electrospray MS-MS) and carbohydrate analyses as betanidin 5-O-[(5"-O-E-feruloyl)-2'-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl] -beta-D-glucopyranoside, a new betacyanin of higher plants, and betanidin 5-O-(6'-O-E-feruloyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (lampranthin II), together with their isoforms.

  6. Properties of peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase from Agave americana.

    PubMed

    Segovia, J L; Zafra, M F; Alejandre, M J; García-Peregrín, E

    1982-09-01

    Adenine nucleotides were tested as effectors of peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase from Agave americana leaves in the presence of different concentrations of acetyl-CoA and oxalacetate substrates. ATP inhibited both enzyme activities but with a different inhibition profile. 1.0-7.5 mM ADP did not inhibit the peroxisomal citrate synthase in the presence of high substrate concentrations, while the mitochondrial enzyme was strongly inhibited by 1.0 mM ADP in the same conditions. Likewise, a different pattern was obtained with AMP on both peroxisomal and mitochondrial activities. The rate of citrate formation as function of acetyl-CoA and oxalacetate concentration was also studied in both fractions. Maximal velocity was highest in the peroxisomal fraction, whether acetyl-CoA or oxalacetate were the variable substrates. These differences indicate that peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthases seem to be two different isoenzymes.

  7. [Antioxidative response of Phytolacca americana and Nicotiana tabacum to manganese stresses].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-xiu; Huang, Zhi-bo; Zhang, Hong-mei; Li, Lin-feng; Chai, Tuan-yao

    2009-12-01

    Plant species capable of accumulating heavy metals are of considerable interest for phytoremediation and phytomining. The mechanism of Mn tolerance/hyperaccumulate in Phytolacca americana L. is less known. To elucidate the role of antioxidative enzyme in response to Mn, the 6-week-old seedling of Mn hyperaccumulator P. americana and non-accumulator-tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) were exposed to half strength Hoagland solution with 1 mmol x L(-1) or 3 mmol x L(-1) MnCl2 for 4 days. The photosynthetic rate in P. americana decreased more slowly than that in tobacco, while the MDA content and electrolyte leakage in tobacco increased more rapidly than that in P. americana. For example, after exposure to 1 mmol x L(-1) Mn for 4 days, the photosynthetic rates of P. americana and tobacco in comparison to the control reduced by 13.3% and 75.5%, respectively. The MDA content and electrolyte leakage in tobacco increased by 347.3% and 120.1%, respectively, whereas Mn had no marked effect on both of it in P. americana, indicated that the oxidative damage in tobacco was more serious than that in P. americana. The activities of SOD and POD of both species increased rapidly with elevated Mn concentration and exposure time in both species, the increase of SOD activity in P. americana was higher than that in tobacco. CAT activity in tobacco declined rapidly, while the activity of CAT in P. americana was increased. The activities of SOD, POD and CAT in P. americana upon 1 mmol x L(-1) Mn exposure increased by 161.1%, 111.3% and 17.5%, respectively. The activities of SOD and POD in tobacco increased by 55.5% and 206.0%, respectively, while CAT activity decreased by 15.6%, indicating that the antioxidative enzymes in P. americana, particularly in CAT,could fully scavenge the reactive oxygen species generated by Mn toxicity. These results collectively indicate that the enzymatic antioxidation capacity is one of the important mechanisms responsible for Mn tolerance in hyperaccumulator plant

  8. Cadmium accumulation and distribution in populations of Phytolacca americana L. and the role of transpiration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Peng, Kejian; Wang, Aiguo; Lian, Chunlan; Shen, Zhenguo

    2010-02-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals in Phytolacca americana L. and corresponding soil samples from three contaminated sites and an uncontaminated site were studied. Hydroponic experiments were also conducted to investigate the Cd uptake ability and mechanism of P. americana. The field results showed that the average Cd concentration was 42 mg kg(-1) in P. americana leaves, with the highest concentration of 402 mg kg(-1) found at Datianwan. A significant relationship was observed between the concentrations of Cd in leaves and those of corresponding soils on a logarithmic scale. Under laboratory hydroponic conditions, the maximum Cd concentration in aerial tissues of P. americana was 637 mg kg(-1), under treatment with 100 microM Cd. The population from the uncontaminated site (Zijinshan) also had a remarkable ability to accumulate Cd in shoots to concentrations well in excess of 100 microM in the hydroponic experiment, similar to the population from contaminated site, suggesting that Cd accumulation is a constitutive trait of P. americana. In the presence of 100 microM Cd, the addition of polyethylene glycol decreased leaf transpiration, the shoot Cd concentration, and the shoot/root Cd concentration ratio. There was a significantly positive relationship between the shoot Cd concentration and the leaf transpiration of P. americana. A similar significant positive correlation was also obtained between the shoot/root Cd concentration and leaf transpiration. Moreover, pretreatment with 5 microM abscisic acid or 5 microM HgCl(2) significantly decreased the Cd concentration in P. americana shoots. These results suggest that transpiration has an important role in Cd accumulation in shoots of P. americana.

  9. Accumulation and detoxification of manganese in hyperaccumulator Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed

    Dou, C-M; Fu, X-P; Chen, X-C; Shi, J-Y; Chen, Y-X

    2009-09-01

    Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) has recently received much attention because of its ability to hyperaccumulate manganese (Mn). The internal mechanism of detoxification of Mn, however, is not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated Mn accumulation, subcellular distribution, chemical speciation and detoxification through oxalate in pokeweed. The plant accumulated excess Mn in the leaves, mainly in the water-soluble fraction, and over 80% of Mn was in a water-soluble form, while accumulation of excess Mn in the cellular organelle and membrane fraction caused phytotoxicity. In addition, pokeweed has an intrinsically high oxalate content. In all experiments, there was sufficient oxalate to chelate Mn in leaf water extracts at all different levels of Mn application. Phase analysis of X-ray diffraction detected oxalate-Mn chelate complexes, and gel chromatography further confirmed the chelation of Mn by oxalate. In conclusion, pokeweed accumulates excess Mn in the soluble fraction of leaf cells, most likely in vacuoles, in which detoxification of Mn could be achieved by chelation with oxalate.

  10. Characterization and development mechanism of Apios americana tuber starch.

    PubMed

    Yangcheng, Hanyu; Belamkar, Vikas; Cannon, Steven B; Jane, Jay-Lin

    2016-10-20

    Apios americana is a wild legume-bearing plant with edible tubers. Domestication of Apios is in progress because of the superior nutritional value and health benefits of the tuber. Objectives of this study were to: (1) characterize physicochemical properties of the Apios tuber starch; and (2) understand differences in starch structures and properties between the mother (seed) and child (progeny) tubers and the mechanism of starch development. Granules of the Apios tuber starch displayed ellipsoidal, rod, or kidney shape with diameter ranges of 1-30μm. The mother tuber starches displayed greater percentage crystallinity, larger gelatinization enthalpy-changes, longer branch-chain lengths of amylopectin, and lower pasting viscosity than their counterpart child tuber starches. The mother tuber starch of Apios 2127 displayed distinct two peaks of gelatinization, which were attributed to starch granules located at different regions of the tuber having different structures and properties. The mother tuber displayed more active starch biosynthesis in the periphery than in the center of the tuber.

  11. Characterization and development mechanism of Apios americana tuber starch.

    PubMed

    Yangcheng, Hanyu; Belamkar, Vikas; Cannon, Steven B; Jane, Jay-Lin

    2016-10-20

    Apios americana is a wild legume-bearing plant with edible tubers. Domestication of Apios is in progress because of the superior nutritional value and health benefits of the tuber. Objectives of this study were to: (1) characterize physicochemical properties of the Apios tuber starch; and (2) understand differences in starch structures and properties between the mother (seed) and child (progeny) tubers and the mechanism of starch development. Granules of the Apios tuber starch displayed ellipsoidal, rod, or kidney shape with diameter ranges of 1-30μm. The mother tuber starches displayed greater percentage crystallinity, larger gelatinization enthalpy-changes, longer branch-chain lengths of amylopectin, and lower pasting viscosity than their counterpart child tuber starches. The mother tuber starch of Apios 2127 displayed distinct two peaks of gelatinization, which were attributed to starch granules located at different regions of the tuber having different structures and properties. The mother tuber displayed more active starch biosynthesis in the periphery than in the center of the tuber. PMID:27474558

  12. Avocado (Persea americana) seed as a source of bioactive phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Dabas, Deepti; Shegog, Rachel M; Ziegler, Gregory R; Lambert, Joshua D

    2013-01-01

    The pulp of avocado (Persea americana, Lauraceae) has been reported to have beneficial cardiovascular health effects. Avocado oil is used for dermatological applications and its unsaponifiable portion is reported to have beneficial effects against osteoarthritis. Although the seed represents a considerable percentage of the total fruit, scientific research on the phytochemistry and biological effects of avocado seeds is in the nascent stages,. Currently, the seed represents an under-utilized resource and a waste issue for avocado processors. There is ethno-pharmacological information on the use of seeds for the treatment of health-related conditions, especially in South American countries where avocados are endemic and currently grown on a large scale. Current research has shown that avocado seeds may improve hypercholesterolemia, and be useful in the treatment of hypertension, inflammatory conditions and diabetes. Seeds have also been found to possess insecticidal, fungicidal, and anti-microbial activities. The avocado seeds and rich in phenolic compounds, and these may play a role in the putative health effects. Historically, extracts of avocado seeds were also used as ink for writing and research in our laboratory has explored the potential colorant properties of a polyphenol oxidase-produced colored avocado seed extract. Here, we review the currently-available data on the bioactivity and other functional properties of avocado seeds. We discuss the strength of the available data, the putative active compounds, and potential directions for future studies. PMID:23448442

  13. Why are there few seedlings beneath the myrmecophyte Triplaris americana?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrea-Alcázar, Daniel M.; Simonetti, Javier A.

    2007-07-01

    We compared the relative importance of chemical alellopathy, pruning behaviour of resident ants and other non-related agents to ant-plant mutualism for seedling establishment beneath Triplaris americana L. (Polygonaceae), a myrmecophyte plant. We also included a preliminary analysis of effects of fragmentation on these ecological processes. Seeds and seedlings of Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae) were used as the target species in all experiments. Leaf-tissue extracts of the myrmecophyte plant did not inhibit germination of cacao seeds. Resident Pseudomyrmex triplarinus Weddell (Pseudomyrmecinae) ants did not remove seeds under the canopy of their host plants. The main seed consumer was the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens L. (Myrmicinae). Leaves of cacao seedlings were partially or totally pruned by Pseudomyrmex ants mainly in forest fragments studied. We offer evidence pointing to the possibility that the absence of seedlings beneath Triplaris may result from effects of both ant species. We discuss the benefits of pruning behaviour for the resident ant colony and the effects of ant-ant interactions on seedling establishment beneath this ant-plant system.

  14. Protoplast-to-plant regeneration of American elm (Ulmus americana).

    PubMed

    Jones, A M P; Shukla, M R; Biswas, G C G; Saxena, P K

    2015-05-01

    This study describes a protocol for regeneration of plants from cell suspension-derived protoplasts of American elm (Ulmus americana). Efficient protoplast isolation was achieved from a two-phase culture system through the incorporation of 100 μM 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid, with a yield of approximately 2 × 10(6) protoplasts/ml packed cell volume. Isolated protoplasts failed to survive in liquid or alginate bead culture systems but initiated and continued to divide when embedded in low melting point agarose beads. Protoplast-derived callus proliferated and differentiated into shoot buds in response to 10 or 20 μM thidiazuron. Differentiated buds elongated and continued to proliferate on elm shoot medium supplemented with 3.0 μM GA3. The protoplast-derived shoots rooted and acclimatized to greenhouse conditions and continued to grow. This system provides the first protoplast-to-plant regeneration system for American elm and provides a framework for the development of protoplast fusion or genome editing technologies.

  15. Tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine immobilization of American marten (Martes americana).

    PubMed

    Belant, Jerrold L

    2005-07-01

    The effectiveness of tiletamine-zolazepam (Telazol) and xylazine as an immobilizing combination for American martens (Martes americana) was evaluated. Fifteen martens were intramuscularly injected on 19 occasions using a 3:2 mixture of tiletamine-zolazepam (3.2+/-0.6 mg/kg [mean +/- SD]) and xylazine (2.1+/-0.4 mg/kg) at Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Michigan (USA) during May to October 2002-2003. Mean induction time was 2.5+/-1.8 min; mean recovery time was 70.8+/-31.9 min. There was no relation between the amount (mg/kg) of tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine injected and induction (r(2)=0.08, P=0.26). However, there was an inverse relation (r(2)=0.28, P<0.01) between dosage and time to first effect of immobilants. Time to recovery increased (r(2)=0.21, P=0.05) with increased dosage. Mean heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature declined through 10 min postinduction (P<0.05). No mortality occurred and no short-term adverse effects were observed in recaptured individuals. In conclusion, a 3:2 mixture of tiletamine-zolazepam/xylazine is a safe and effective immobilizing agent for martens when conducting non-surgical field procedures. Immobilizing martens with 4.2 mg/kg tiletamine-zolazepam and 2.8 mg/kg xylazine should provide < or =30 min of handling time and allow full recovery in about 70 min.

  16. Avocado (Persea americana) seed as a source of bioactive phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Dabas, Deepti; Shegog, Rachel M; Ziegler, Gregory R; Lambert, Joshua D

    2013-01-01

    The pulp of avocado (Persea americana, Lauraceae) has been reported to have beneficial cardiovascular health effects. Avocado oil is used for dermatological applications and its unsaponifiable portion is reported to have beneficial effects against osteoarthritis. Although the seed represents a considerable percentage of the total fruit, scientific research on the phytochemistry and biological effects of avocado seeds is in the nascent stages,. Currently, the seed represents an under-utilized resource and a waste issue for avocado processors. There is ethno-pharmacological information on the use of seeds for the treatment of health-related conditions, especially in South American countries where avocados are endemic and currently grown on a large scale. Current research has shown that avocado seeds may improve hypercholesterolemia, and be useful in the treatment of hypertension, inflammatory conditions and diabetes. Seeds have also been found to possess insecticidal, fungicidal, and anti-microbial activities. The avocado seeds and rich in phenolic compounds, and these may play a role in the putative health effects. Historically, extracts of avocado seeds were also used as ink for writing and research in our laboratory has explored the potential colorant properties of a polyphenol oxidase-produced colored avocado seed extract. Here, we review the currently-available data on the bioactivity and other functional properties of avocado seeds. We discuss the strength of the available data, the putative active compounds, and potential directions for future studies.

  17. Classical olfactory conditioning in the cockroach Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hidehiro; Kobayashi, Yuko; Sakura, Midori; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Mizunami, Makoto

    2003-12-01

    We established a classical conditioning procedure for the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, by which odors were associated with reward or punishment. Cockroaches underwent differential conditioning trials in which peppermint odor was associated with sucrose solution and vanilla odor was associated with saline solution. Odor preference of cockroaches was tested by allowing them to choose between peppermint and vanilla sources. Cockroaches that had undergone one set of differential conditioning trials exhibited a significantly greater preference for peppermint odor than did untrained cockroaches. Memory formed by three sets of differential conditioning trials, with an inter-trial interval of 5 min, was retained at least 4 days after conditioning. This conditioning procedure was effective even for cockroaches that had been harnessed in plastic tubes. This study shows, for the first time in hemimetaborous insects, that both freely moving and harnessed insects are capable of forming olfactory memory by classical conditioning procedure. This procedure may be useful for future electrophysiological and pharmacological studies aimed at elucidation of neural mechanisms underlying olfactory learning and memory.

  18. Susceptibility of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus mutans to Antibacterial Effect from Mammea americana.

    PubMed

    Herrera Herrera, Alejandra; Franco Ospina, Luis; Fang, Luis; Díaz Caballero, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The development of periodontal disease and dental caries is influenced by several factors, such as microorganisms of bacterial biofilm or commensal bacteria in the mouth. These microorganisms trigger inflammatory and immune responses in the host. Currently, medicinal plants are treatment options for these oral diseases. Mammea americana extracts have reported antimicrobial effects against several microorganisms. Nevertheless, this effect is unknown against oral bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of M. americana extract against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus mutans. For this, an experimental study was conducted. Ethanolic extract was obtained from seeds of M. americana (one oil phase and one ethanolic phase). The strains of Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 and Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 were exposed to this extract to evaluate its antibacterial effect. Antibacterial activity was observed with the two phases of M. americana extract on P. gingivalis and S. mutans with lower MICs (minimum inhibitory concentration). Also, bactericidal and bacteriostatic activity was detected against S. mutans, depending on the concentration of the extract, while on M. americana extract presented only bacteriostatic activity against P. gingivalis. These findings provide important and promising information allowing for further exploration in the future.

  19. Susceptibility of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus mutans to Antibacterial Effect from Mammea americana

    PubMed Central

    Herrera Herrera, Alejandra; Franco Ospina, Luis; Fang, Luis; Díaz Caballero, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The development of periodontal disease and dental caries is influenced by several factors, such as microorganisms of bacterial biofilm or commensal bacteria in the mouth. These microorganisms trigger inflammatory and immune responses in the host. Currently, medicinal plants are treatment options for these oral diseases. Mammea americana extracts have reported antimicrobial effects against several microorganisms. Nevertheless, this effect is unknown against oral bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of M. americana extract against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus mutans. For this, an experimental study was conducted. Ethanolic extract was obtained from seeds of M. americana (one oil phase and one ethanolic phase). The strains of Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 and Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 were exposed to this extract to evaluate its antibacterial effect. Antibacterial activity was observed with the two phases of M. americana extract on P. gingivalis and S. mutans with lower MICs (minimum inhibitory concentration). Also, bactericidal and bacteriostatic activity was detected against S. mutans, depending on the concentration of the extract, while on M. americana extract presented only bacteriostatic activity against P. gingivalis. These findings provide important and promising information allowing for further exploration in the future. PMID:24864137

  20. Preparation of Eleutherine americana-Alginate Complex Microcapsules and Application in Bifidobacterium longum

    PubMed Central

    Phoem, Atchara N; Chanthachum, Suphitchaya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P

    2015-01-01

    Microencapsulation using extrusion and emulsion techniques was prepared for Bifidobacterium longum protection against sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, refrigeration storage and heat treatment. Eleutherine americana was used as the co-encapsulating agent. Hydrolysis of E. americana by gastric and intestinal juices was also determined. E. americana and its oligosaccharide extract demonstrated their resistance to low pH and partial tolerance to human α-amylase. Microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana and oligosaccharide extract prepared by the extrusion technique survived better than that by the emulsion technique under adverse conditions. Survival of microencapsulated cells after exposure to the juices and refrigeration storage was higher than free cells at Weeks 2 and 4. In addition, the viability of microencapsulated cells was better than free cells at 65 °C for 15 min. This work suggested that microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana offers the effective delivery of probiotics to colon and maintains their survival in food products. PMID:25629556

  1. Mendelian inheritance, genetic linkage, and genotypic disequilibrium at microsatellite loci in Genipa americana L. (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Manoel, R O; Freitas, M L M; Tambarussi, E V; Cambuim, J; Moraes, M L T; Sebbenn, A M

    2015-07-27

    Genipa americana is a tropical tree species that is widely distributed in the humid tropical and subtropical regions of Central and South America. This study investigated Mendelian inheritance, genetic linkage, and genotypic disequilibrium at six microsatellite loci developed for G. americana. Adult trees (188) and regenerants (163) were sampled and genotyped in a fragmented population of the species. We also genotyped open-pollinated seeds from 12 seed-trees during reproductive events in 2010 and 2011. Significant deviations from the expected 1:1 Mendelian segregation were detected in 29.5% of the tests. Significant genetic linkage between pairwise loci was detected in 54.4% of the tests, but no genotypic disequilibrium was detected between pairwise loci for adult trees and regenerants. Overall, the results indicate that the six loci analyzed may be used in studies of G. americana's genetic diversity and structure, its mating system, and in parentage analyses.

  2. Mendelian inheritance, genetic linkage, and genotypic disequilibrium at microsatellite loci in Genipa americana L. (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Manoel, R O; Freitas, M L M; Tambarussi, E V; Cambuim, J; Moraes, M L T; Sebbenn, A M

    2015-01-01

    Genipa americana is a tropical tree species that is widely distributed in the humid tropical and subtropical regions of Central and South America. This study investigated Mendelian inheritance, genetic linkage, and genotypic disequilibrium at six microsatellite loci developed for G. americana. Adult trees (188) and regenerants (163) were sampled and genotyped in a fragmented population of the species. We also genotyped open-pollinated seeds from 12 seed-trees during reproductive events in 2010 and 2011. Significant deviations from the expected 1:1 Mendelian segregation were detected in 29.5% of the tests. Significant genetic linkage between pairwise loci was detected in 54.4% of the tests, but no genotypic disequilibrium was detected between pairwise loci for adult trees and regenerants. Overall, the results indicate that the six loci analyzed may be used in studies of G. americana's genetic diversity and structure, its mating system, and in parentage analyses. PMID:26345742

  3. Fecal corticoid monitoring in whooping cranes (Grus americana) undergoing reintroduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartup, B.K.; Olsen, G.H.; Czekala, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    We used radioimmunoassay to determine fecal corticoid concentrations and assess potential stress in 10 endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) undergoing reintroduction to the wild. Fecal samples were collected shortly after hatching at a captive facility in Maryland, during field training in Wisconsin, and throughout a human-led migration to Florida. After a 14-day decline following hatching, fecal corticoid concentrations stabilized at baseline levels for the duration of the captive period, despite exposure to potentially stressful stimuli. Shipment of the cranes to the field training site was correlated with an eight- to 34-fold increase in fecal corticoid concentrations, which returned to baseline levels within 1 week. Increases were positively correlated with age but not body weight at the time of shipping. Fecal corticoid concentrations during the training period increased slightly and exhibited greater variation than levels observed at the captive facility, but were well within expected norms based on previous studies. Fecal corticoid concentrations increased twofold following premigration physical examinations and placement of radiotransmitters, and persisted for up to 4 days before they returned to baseline levels. Though fecal corticoid concentrations and variation during the migration period were similar to training levels, there was an overall decline in fecal corticoid concentrations during the artificial migration. Acute stressors, such as capture, restraint, and severe storms, were associated with stress responses by the cranes that varied in accordance with lasting physical or psychological stimuli. The overall reintroduction process of costume-rearing, ultralight aircraft habituation, training, and artificial migration was not associated with elevations in fecal corticoid concentrations suggestive of chronic stress. ?? 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Fecal corticoid monitoring in whooping cranes (Grus americana) undergoing reintroduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartup, Barry K.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Czekala, Nancy M.

    2005-01-01

    We used radioimmunoassay to determine fecal corticoid concentrations and assess potential stress in 10 endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) undergoing reintroduction to the wild. Fecal samples were collected shortly after hatching at a captive facility in Maryland, during field training in Wisconsin, and throughout a human-led migration to Florida. After a 14-day decline following hatching, fecal corticoid concentrations stabilized at baseline levels for the duration of the captive period, despite exposure to potentially stressful stimuli. Shipment of the cranes to the field training site was correlated with an eight- to 34-fold increase in fecal corticoid concentrations, which returned to baseline levels within 1 week. Increases were positively correlated with age but not body weight at the time of shipping. Fecal corticoid concentrations during the training period increased slightly and exhibited greater variation than levels observed at the captive facility, but were well within expected norms based on previous studies. Fecal corticoid concentrations increased twofold following premigration physical examinations and placement of radiotransmitters, and persisted for up to 4 days before they returned to baseline levels. Though fecal corticoid concentrations and variation during the migration period were similar to training levels, there was an overall decline in fecal corticoid concentrations during the artificial migration. Acute stressors, such as capture, restraint, and severe storms, were associated with stress responses by the cranes that varied in accordance with lasting physical or psychological stimuli. The overall reintroduction process of costume-rearing, ultralight aircraft habituation, training, and artificial migration was not associated with elevations in fecal corticoid concentrations suggestive of chronic stress.

  5. Acute toxicity and genotoxic activity of avocado seed extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass).

    PubMed

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

    2013-01-01

    The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test. PMID:24298206

  6. Acute toxicity and genotoxic activity of avocado seed extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass).

    PubMed

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

    2013-01-01

    The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test.

  7. Acute Toxicity and Genotoxic Activity of Avocado Seed Extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass)

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

    2013-01-01

    The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test. PMID:24298206

  8. Molecular Characterization and Genetic Structure in Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) Using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is an economically important tropical fruit native to Mesoamerica. It belongs to the Lauraceae family and is subdivided in three horticultural races (Guatemalan, Mexican, and West Indian) based primarily on ecological adaptation, botanical and physiological traits. T...

  9. Glycosylation of artepillin C with cultured plant cells of Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Kei; Kubota, Naoji; Uesugi, Daisuke; Hamadab, Hiroki

    2014-05-01

    Biotransformation of artepillin C was investigated using cultured plant cells as biocatalysts. Artepillin C was converted into its 4- and 9-beta-D-glucosides, and 4,9-beta-D-diglucoside by cultured cells of Phytolacca americana. In contrast, cultured lpomoea batatas cells glucosylated artepillin C to only its 4- and 9-beta-D-glucosides.

  10. Phytotoxicity of Phytolacca americana leaf extracts on the growth, and physiological response of Cassia mimosoides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Ok; Johnson, Jon D; Lee, Eun Ju

    2005-12-01

    We examined the allelochemical effects of control soil, native soil (treated soil), and leaf extracts of Phytolacca americana (pokeweed) on the germination rate and seedling growth of Cassia mimosoides var. nomame. We also studied the resulting changes in root-tip ultrastructure and peroxidase isozyme biochemistry. P. americana leaf extract inhibited seed germination, seedling growth, and biomass when compared to control and treated soil. Root and shoot growth in treated soil was stimulated relative to control soil, but root growth was inhibited by 50% in the leaf extract treatment. Biomass of C. mimosoides seedlings grown on leaf extract was reduced sevenfold when compared to the control seedlings. The amounts of total phenolic compounds in the leaf extract, treated soil, and control soil were 0.77, 0.14, and 0.03 mg l(-1), respectively. The root tips of C. mimsoides treated with leaf extracts of P. americana showed amyloplasts and large central vacuoles with electron-dense deposits inside them when compared to control root tips. The activity of guaiacol peroxidase (GuPOX) in whole plant, roots, and shoots of C. mimosoides increased as leaf extract increased; maximum activity was observed in extract concentrations of 75% and higher. Root GuPOX activity was three times higher than in shoots. Therefore, we conclude that inhibition of C. mimosoides growth is related to the phenolic compounds in the P. americana leaf extract and the ultrastructure changes in root-tip cells and increased GuPOX activity is a response to these allelochemicals.

  11. [Antioxidative enzymes play key roles in cadmium tolerance of Phytolacca americana].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Xiu; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Huang, Zhi-Bo; Li, Lin-Feng; Liu, Jin-Guang; Li, Xia

    2011-03-01

    Phytolacca americana L. has the capacity to take up and accumulate to very high levels heavy metals such as Mn and Cd, and is used for phytoextraction of heavy metal contaminated soils. The role of antioxidative enzyme of Phytolacca americana in response to Cd stress is unknown. The 6-week-old seedlings of Phytolacca americana were exposed to half strength Hoagland solution with 200 micromol/L CdCl2 or 400 micromol/L CdCl2 for 4 days. The content of H2O2 and MDA, and electrolyte leakage increased, while the photosynthetic rate decreased, indicated that the oxidative damage induced by Cd stress in Phytolacca americana was one of the metal toxicity mechanism. The activities of SOD and POD increased rapidly with elevated Cd concentration and exposure time, CAT activity was stable in response to 200 micromol/L CdCl2 stress, and increased only at 3 d later upon 400 micromol/L CdCl2, treatment. Suggested that the enzymatic antioxidation capacity played important role in Cd tolerance of hyperaccumulator plant.

  12. Interbreeding among deeply divergent mitochondrial lineages in the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Beeren, Christoph; Stoeckle, Mark Y.; Xia, Joyce; Burke, Griffin; Kronauer, Daniel J. C.

    2015-02-01

    DNA barcoding promises to be a useful tool to identify pest species assuming adequate representation of genetic variants in a reference library. Here we examined mitochondrial DNA barcodes in a global urban pest, the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana). Our sampling effort generated 284 cockroach specimens, most from New York City, plus 15 additional U.S. states and six other countries, enabling the first large-scale survey of P. americana barcode variation. Periplaneta americana barcode sequences (n = 247, including 24 GenBank records) formed a monophyletic lineage separate from other Periplaneta species. We found three distinct P. americana haplogroups with relatively small differences within (<=0.6%) and larger differences among groups (2.4%-4.7%). This could be interpreted as indicative of multiple cryptic species. However, nuclear DNA sequences (n = 77 specimens) revealed extensive gene flow among mitochondrial haplogroups, confirming a single species. This unusual genetic pattern likely reflects multiple introductions from genetically divergent source populations, followed by interbreeding in the invasive range. Our findings highlight the need for comprehensive reference databases in DNA barcoding studies, especially when dealing with invasive populations that might be derived from multiple genetically distinct source populations.

  13. Evaluation of phenotypic variation in a collection of Apios americana: an edible tuberous legume

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apios americana, sometimes called “potato bean,” is native to the central and eastern parts of the United States and southeastern Canada. Apios is a nitrogen-fixing legume with a vining habit that produces protein rich tubers at nodes along below-ground stolons originating from a “mother tuber.” A b...

  14. Interbreeding among deeply divergent mitochondrial lineages in the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana)

    PubMed Central

    von Beeren, Christoph; Stoeckle, Mark Y.; Xia, Joyce; Burke, Griffin; Kronauer, Daniel J. C.

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcoding promises to be a useful tool to identify pest species assuming adequate representation of genetic variants in a reference library. Here we examined mitochondrial DNA barcodes in a global urban pest, the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana). Our sampling effort generated 284 cockroach specimens, most from New York City, plus 15 additional U.S. states and six other countries, enabling the first large-scale survey of P. americana barcode variation. Periplaneta americana barcode sequences (n = 247, including 24 GenBank records) formed a monophyletic lineage separate from other Periplaneta species. We found three distinct P. americana haplogroups with relatively small differences within (≤0.6%) and larger differences among groups (2.4%–4.7%). This could be interpreted as indicative of multiple cryptic species. However, nuclear DNA sequences (n = 77 specimens) revealed extensive gene flow among mitochondrial haplogroups, confirming a single species. This unusual genetic pattern likely reflects multiple introductions from genetically divergent source populations, followed by interbreeding in the invasive range. Our findings highlight the need for comprehensive reference databases in DNA barcoding studies, especially when dealing with invasive populations that might be derived from multiple genetically distinct source populations. PMID:25656854

  15. EFFECTS OF IN SITU LIGHT REDUCTION ON WILD CELERY, VALLISNERIA AMERICANA, IN PERDIDO BAY, AL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of reducing available light using commercially available shade cloth were examined in a densely populated grassbed of wild celery, Vallisneria americana. Grassbeds were shaded in treatments of 92% light reduction and 79% light reduction with control treatments (0% lig...

  16. EFFECTS OF IN SITU LIGHT REDUCTION ON WILD CELERY, VALLISNERIA AMERICANA, IN PERDIDO BAY, ALABAMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of reducing ambient light using commercially available shade cloth were examined in a densely populated grassbed of wild celerly, Vallisneria americana. Grassbeds were shaded in treatments of 92% light reduction and 79% light reduction with control treatments (0% ligh...

  17. The Scirtothrips perseae species-group (Thysanoptera), with one new species from avocado, Persea americana.

    PubMed

    Mound, Laurence A; Hoddle, Mark S

    2016-02-12

    Following recent molecular studies on avocado thrips, a new species is described from Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Colombia from the young leaves of avocado, Persea americana. Scirtothrips hansoni sp.n. is closely related to the Californian pest, S. perseae, and also to S. astrictus from Costa Rica that remains known from a single female. An illustrated key to these three species is provided.

  18. Race, Interracial Admixture and Genetic Differentiation of Avocado (Persea americana Mill)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a major tropical fruit crop native to Mesoamerica and domesticated around 8000 to 7000 BC. It is a member of the Laureace family and currently classified into three subspecies or races: Guatemalan (G), Mexican (M) and West Indian (WI) according to their ecological...

  19. EFFECTS OF VALLISNERIA AMERICANA (L.) ON COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND ECOSYSTEM FUNCTION IN LAKE MESOCOSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Submerged aquatic vegetation is known as a key structural component and regulator in ecosystems. In this mesocosm study, we examine community- and system-level responses to the presence of Valisneria americana (L), a deep-rooted macrophyte, Phytoplankton, bacteria and filamentous...

  20. Phytobezoar from the stem ("quiote") of the cactus Agave americana: report of case.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, R; Martinez, O; Berumen, U

    1985-11-01

    Agave americana is a cactus growing abundantly in Mexico. Its cooked stem ("quiote") yields by mastication a sweet juice which is swallowed, while the fibers ("bagazo") are spit out. That is the way Mexicans are taught to chew quiote since their early childhood, and it accounts for the rarity of bezoars from this origin. One of such cases is reported herein.

  1. APPLICATION OF PROPICONAZOLE IN MANAGEMENT OF LAUREL WILT DISEASE IN AVOCADO (Persea americana Mill.) TREES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laurel wilt is a vascular disease of Lauraceous plants caused by a fungus (Raffaelea spp.) that is carried by a recently introduced, nonnative ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus). The disease is devastating to Persea species including redbay (Persea borbonia) and avocado (Persea americana) trees i...

  2. Isolation and characterization of an utero-active compound from Agave americana.

    PubMed

    Basilio, C M; Seyler, L; Bernstein, J; Castro de la Mata, R

    1989-12-01

    Crude extracts of Agave americana contain two utero-active compounds. One of these, tentatively named "Fraction B", has been purified to chromatographic homogeneity. Its pharmacological actions are similar to those of acetylcholine. However its chromatographic and electrophoretic mobilities are different. Some chemical properties of fraction B are compatible with the structure of an acyl derivative of choline different from acetylcholine.

  3. Developmental ecdysteroid titers and DNA puffs in larvae of two sciarid species, Rhynchosciara americana and Rhynchosciara milleri (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    PubMed

    Soares, M A M; Hartfelder, K; Tesserolli de Souza, J M; Stocker, A J

    2015-10-01

    Ecdysteroid titers, developmental landmarks and the presence of prominent amplifying regions (DNA puffs) have been compared during late larval to pupal development in four groups of Rhynchosciara americana larvae and in R. americana and Rhynchosciara milleri. Three prominent DNA puffs (B2, C3 and C8) expand and regress sequentially on the rising phase of the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) titer in R. americana as a firm, cellular cocoon is being constructed. A sharp rise in 20E coincides with the regression of these puffs. The shape of the 20E curve is similar in R. milleri, a species that does not construct a massive cocoon, but the behavior of certain DNA puffs and their temporal relationship to the curve differs. Regions corresponding to B2 and C3 can be identified in R. milleri by banding pattern similarity with R. americana chromosomes and, in the case of B2, by hybridization to an R. americana probe. A B2 puff appears in R. milleri as the 20E titer rises but remains small in all gland regions. A puff similar to the R. americana C3 puff occurs in posterior gland cells of R. milleri (C3(Rm)) after the B2 puff, but this site did not hybridize to R. americana C3 probes. C3(Rm) incorporated (3)H-thymidine above background, but showed less post-puff DNA accumulation than C3 of R. americana. R. americana C8 probes hybridized to a more distal region of the R. milleri C chromosome that did not appear to amplify or form a large puff. These differences can be related to developmental differences, in particular differences in cocoon construction between the two species.

  4. Manganese uptake and interactions with cadmium in the hyperaccumulator--Phytolacca Americana L.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kejian; Luo, Chunling; You, Wuxin; Lian, Chunlan; Li, Xiangdong; Shen, Zhenguo

    2008-06-15

    In the present study, the accumulation of Mn and other metals by Phytolacca Americana L. from contaminated soils in Hunan Province, South China, was investigated. Results showed that the average concentrations of Mn in the leaves and roots reached 2198 and 80.4 mg kg(-1) (dry weight), respectively, with a maximum 13,400 mg kg(-1) in the leaves. A significant correlation was found between Mn concentrations in the plant leaves and those in the corresponding soils. Hydroponic experiments were also conducted to study the Cd uptake ability and interactions between Mn and Cd in the plant. It was found that P. americana hyperaccumulated not only Mn, but also Cd in the leaves. In the presence of Cd, adding Mn to the solution significantly improved the plant growth and reduced the concentrations of Cd in all organs of the plant. PMID:18068296

  5. Applications of Microencapsulated Bifidobacterium Longum with Eleutherine Americana in Fresh Milk Tofu and Pineapple Juice

    PubMed Central

    Phoem, Atchara N.; Chanthachum, Suphitchaya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P.

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacterium longum was microencapsulated by extrusion technique and added in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. Microencapsulation of B. longum with Eleutherine americana extract, oligosaccharides extract, and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides was assessed for the bacterial survival after sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, and refrigeration storage. Microencapsulated B. longum with the extract and oligosaccharides extract in the food products showed better survival than free cells under adverse conditions. Sensory analysis demonstrated that the products containing co-encapsulated bacterial cells were more acceptable by consumers than free cells. Pineapple juice prepared with co-encapsulated cells had lower values for over acidification, compared with the juice with free cells added. This work suggested that microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana could enhance functional properties of fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. PMID:25854832

  6. Manganese uptake and interactions with cadmium in the hyperaccumulator--Phytolacca Americana L.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kejian; Luo, Chunling; You, Wuxin; Lian, Chunlan; Li, Xiangdong; Shen, Zhenguo

    2008-06-15

    In the present study, the accumulation of Mn and other metals by Phytolacca Americana L. from contaminated soils in Hunan Province, South China, was investigated. Results showed that the average concentrations of Mn in the leaves and roots reached 2198 and 80.4 mg kg(-1) (dry weight), respectively, with a maximum 13,400 mg kg(-1) in the leaves. A significant correlation was found between Mn concentrations in the plant leaves and those in the corresponding soils. Hydroponic experiments were also conducted to study the Cd uptake ability and interactions between Mn and Cd in the plant. It was found that P. americana hyperaccumulated not only Mn, but also Cd in the leaves. In the presence of Cd, adding Mn to the solution significantly improved the plant growth and reduced the concentrations of Cd in all organs of the plant.

  7. Applications of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium longum with Eleutherine americana in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice.

    PubMed

    Phoem, Atchara N; Chanthachum, Suphitchaya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P

    2015-04-03

    Bifidobacterium longum was microencapsulated by extrusion technique and added in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. Microencapsulation of B. longum with Eleutherine americana extract, oligosaccharides extract, and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides was assessed for the bacterial survival after sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, and refrigeration storage. Microencapsulated B. longum with the extract and oligosaccharides extract in the food products showed better survival than free cells under adverse conditions. Sensory analysis demonstrated that the products containing co-encapsulated bacterial cells were more acceptable by consumers than free cells. Pineapple juice prepared with co-encapsulated cells had lower values for over acidification, compared with the juice with free cells added. This work suggested that microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana could enhance functional properties of fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice.

  8. Secondary metabolites from the unripe pulp of Persea americana and their antimycobacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying-Chen; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Peng, Chien-Fang; Lin, Chu-Hung; Chen, Ih-Sheng

    2012-12-15

    The fruits of Persea americana (Avocado) are nowadays used as healthy fruits in the world. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the active ethyl acetate soluble fraction has led to the isolation of five new fatty alcohol derivatives, avocadenols A-D (1-4) and avocadoin (5) from the unripe pulp of P. americana, along with 12 known compounds (6-17). These structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Among the isolates, avocadenol A (1), avocadenol B (2), (2R,4R)-1,2,4-trihydroxynonadecane (6), and (2R,4R)-1,2,4-trihydroxyheptadec-16-ene (7) showed antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)R(V)in vitro, with MIC values of 24.0, 33.8, 24.9, and 35.7 μg/ml, respectively.

  9. Secondary metabolites from the unripe pulp of Persea americana and their antimycobacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying-Chen; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Peng, Chien-Fang; Lin, Chu-Hung; Chen, Ih-Sheng

    2012-12-15

    The fruits of Persea americana (Avocado) are nowadays used as healthy fruits in the world. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the active ethyl acetate soluble fraction has led to the isolation of five new fatty alcohol derivatives, avocadenols A-D (1-4) and avocadoin (5) from the unripe pulp of P. americana, along with 12 known compounds (6-17). These structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Among the isolates, avocadenol A (1), avocadenol B (2), (2R,4R)-1,2,4-trihydroxynonadecane (6), and (2R,4R)-1,2,4-trihydroxyheptadec-16-ene (7) showed antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)R(V)in vitro, with MIC values of 24.0, 33.8, 24.9, and 35.7 μg/ml, respectively. PMID:22980888

  10. Mechanical Behavior of Agave Americana L. Fibres: Correlation Between Fine Structure and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Msahli, S.; Chaabouni, Y.; Sakli, F.; Drean, J. Y.

    In this study, results of a mechanical behavior study of fibres extracted from the agave Americana L. plant, the most abundant variety in Tunisia, are presented. These results deal with the principal and mechanical characteristics of these fibres which are the elongation at break, the elasticity modulus and the rupture facture. These results permitted to situate these fibres, compared to the other textile fibres, as materials that can be used in technical applications such as reinforcing composites or geotextile. In order to understand the mechanical properties of these fibres, a correlation study between the properties already cited and the fine structure was done. The obtained results showed that the mechanical properties of agave Americana L. fibres are closely related to the individual fibers deformations and to the natural matrix (lignin and gums) that links these elementary fibres.

  11. Hydroxylation and Glycosylation of Phenylpropanoids by Cultured Cells of Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Kei; Kubota, Naoji; Uesugi, Daisuke; Tanigawa, Masato; Hamada, Hiroki

    2016-02-01

    Hydroxylation and glycosylation of cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid were investigated using cultured plant cells of Phytolacca americana as biocatalysts. Regioselective hydroxylation at the 4-position of cinnamic acid and 3-position of p-coumaric acid was observed. Although cinnamic acid was transformed to mono-glucoside products, di-glycosylation occurred in the case of the biotransformation of p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid.

  12. Inhibition of Plant Transformation by Phytolaccoside B from Phytolacca americana Callus.

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, H; Kagemori, T; Yamachika, Y; Nitoda, T; Kawazu, K

    1999-01-01

    The newly established GUS expression bioassay on the callus extracts of 22 species of plants revealed that the methanol extract of Phytolacca americana callus had the most potent inhibitory activity against agrobacterial plant transformation. A triterpene glycoside phytolaccoside B was isolated from the extract as a genuine plant transformation inhibitor having neither antiagrobacterial nor phytotoxic activity. This compound is promising for use as a biochemical probe for studies on the plant transformation mechanism.

  13. [Effects of manganese on antioxidant system of manganese-hyperaccumulator Phytolacca americana L.].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Hua; Feng, Tao; Peng, Xi-Xu; Yan, Ming-Li; Tang, Xin-Ke

    2009-10-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to study the growth, manganese (Mn) accumulation, lipid peroxidation, H2O2 concentration, and antioxidant system of Phytolacca americana L. exposed to different concentration Mn. With increasing Mn concentration in the medium, the plant Mn content increased significantly, and the Mn accumulation was in the sequence of leaf > stem > root. Comparing with the control, low concentration (5 mmol x L(-1)) Mn promoted the plant growth, decreased the leaf H2O2 concentration, and had less effects on the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content, while high concentration (> or = 10 mmol x L(-1)) Mn led to a remarkable increase of leaf H2O2 and MDA contents, indicating an evident oxidative damage occurred in leaves. The activities of ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase and glutathione reductase and the content of reduced ascorbate increased with increasing Mn concentration, while the SOD activity was inhibited significantly at 5 mmol x L(-1) of Mn but enhanced at > or = 10 mmol x L(-1) of Mn. The activities of catalase and peroxidase and the content of reduced glutathione increased at 5-10 mmol x L(-1) of Mn but dropped markedly at 20 mmol x L(-1) of Mn. All the results suggested that the Mn-induced oxidative damage and Mn accumulation might be responsible for the growth inhibition of P. americana plants at high Mn exposure, and the increase of antioxidative enzyme activities and low molecular antioxidant contents was, at least partly, contributed to the Mn tolerance and hyperaccumulation of P. americana. However, due to their different Mn concentration-dependent change modes, these antioxidants played different roles in the Mn tolerance of P. americana.

  14. Neuroprotective evaluation of Tilia americana and Annona diversifolia in the neuronal damage induced by intestinal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Angeles-López, Guadalupe E; González-Trujano, María Eva; Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Ventura-Martínez, Rosa

    2013-08-01

    Tilia americana and Annona diversifolia are plants widely distributed in Mexico and sold in markets for their medicinal properties on the central nervous system (CNS) including possible neuroprotection. Pharmacological studies have corroborated CNS activities due to flavonoid constituents, but evidence of their neuroprotector effects are lacking. This study was conducted to test aqueous and organic extracts of these two plants for neuroprotective effects in a novel experimental model of intestinal ischemia in situ. T. americana and A. diversifolia aqueous and organic extracts were administrated to guinea pigs at an oral dose of 100 and 300 mg/kg for 15 days. Twenty four hours after the last administration, the animals were anesthetized and intestinal ischemia in situ was induced by clamping for 80 min selected branches of the superior mesenteric artery. Ischemic segments placed in an in vitro organ bath were stimulated electrically (0.3 Hz frequency, 3.0 ms duration, 14 V intensity) and chemically (ACh; 1 × 10(-9) to 1×10(-5) M). Neuroprotection was considered present when the depressed contractile response of the ischemic tissue to electrical stimulation was normalized in the treated animals. Results showed that pretreatment with the T. americana hexane and aqueous extracts, but not with those from A. diversifolia, significantly improved responses of the ischemic tissue. These results suggest that T. americana possesses neuroprotective effects against neuronal damage induced by ischemia, and that flavonoids as well as non-polar constituents are involved. Our study supports the use of this plant in folk medicine and suggests its possible effectiveness for stroke prevention. PMID:23739919

  15. The Scirtothrips perseae species-group (Thysanoptera), with one new species from avocado, Persea americana.

    PubMed

    Mound, Laurence A; Hoddle, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Following recent molecular studies on avocado thrips, a new species is described from Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Colombia from the young leaves of avocado, Persea americana. Scirtothrips hansoni sp.n. is closely related to the Californian pest, S. perseae, and also to S. astrictus from Costa Rica that remains known from a single female. An illustrated key to these three species is provided. PMID:27396014

  16. Neuroprotective evaluation of Tilia americana and Annona diversifolia in the neuronal damage induced by intestinal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Angeles-López, Guadalupe E; González-Trujano, María Eva; Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Ventura-Martínez, Rosa

    2013-08-01

    Tilia americana and Annona diversifolia are plants widely distributed in Mexico and sold in markets for their medicinal properties on the central nervous system (CNS) including possible neuroprotection. Pharmacological studies have corroborated CNS activities due to flavonoid constituents, but evidence of their neuroprotector effects are lacking. This study was conducted to test aqueous and organic extracts of these two plants for neuroprotective effects in a novel experimental model of intestinal ischemia in situ. T. americana and A. diversifolia aqueous and organic extracts were administrated to guinea pigs at an oral dose of 100 and 300 mg/kg for 15 days. Twenty four hours after the last administration, the animals were anesthetized and intestinal ischemia in situ was induced by clamping for 80 min selected branches of the superior mesenteric artery. Ischemic segments placed in an in vitro organ bath were stimulated electrically (0.3 Hz frequency, 3.0 ms duration, 14 V intensity) and chemically (ACh; 1 × 10(-9) to 1×10(-5) M). Neuroprotection was considered present when the depressed contractile response of the ischemic tissue to electrical stimulation was normalized in the treated animals. Results showed that pretreatment with the T. americana hexane and aqueous extracts, but not with those from A. diversifolia, significantly improved responses of the ischemic tissue. These results suggest that T. americana possesses neuroprotective effects against neuronal damage induced by ischemia, and that flavonoids as well as non-polar constituents are involved. Our study supports the use of this plant in folk medicine and suggests its possible effectiveness for stroke prevention.

  17. [Mechanism of manganese binding to leaf cell wall of Phytolacca americana L].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiang-Hua; Liu, Cui-Ying; Li, Ping; Lang, Man; Zhao, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Jian-Jun; Gong, Min

    2015-02-01

    Phytolacca americana L. (P. americana) is a manganese (Mn) hyperaccumulator and cell wall plays an important role in the accumulation and detoxicity of Mn. We studied the impact of pH and Mn initial concentration on the binding of Mn by the leaf cell wall of P. americana, and explored the binding mechanisms by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) Spectroscopy. The results show that the optimum pH of Mn bingding for the leaf cell wall is between 5 and 6. The adsorption behavior of leaf cell wall can be described by Langmuir equation (R2 = 0.978 5) and the maximum adsorption of Mn on the leaf cell wall is 62.50 μmol x g(-1). Hydronyl and carbonyl groups are involved in the binding of Mn on the leaf cell wall. The Mn absorbed on the leaf cell wall is bonded by 6.3 oxygen around, and the bond length of Mn-O is 0.216 nm, which indicates the binding mechasnism of Mn to cell wall was inner-sphere complexation.

  18. Isolation and expression analysis of two DOPA dioxygenases in Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kana; Takamura, Eri; Sakuta, Masaaki

    2009-01-01

    Betacyanins and anthocyanins, two main red flower pigments, never occur together in the same plant. Although the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway has been well analyzed, the biosynthetic genes and the regulatory mechanism of the betacyanin biosynthesis are still obscure. We cloned two cDNAs of DOPA dioxygenase from Phytolacca americana, PaDOD1 and PaDOD2, that may be involved in the betalain biosynthesis. The deduced amino acid sequence of PaDOD1 and PaDOD2 showed approximately 80% homology to each other. The promoter regions of PaDOD1 and PaDOD2 were isolated by inverse PCR and analyzed using PLACE database. Some putative MYB, bHLH, and environmental stress-responsive transcription factor binding sites were detected in the PaDOD1 and PaDOD2 promoter regions. Expression patterns of PaDOD1 and PaDOD2 in suspension cultures of P. americana were investigated by semiquantitative RT-PCR. The transcripts of PaDODs were found in both betacyanin-producing red cells and non-betacyanin-producing white cells, suggesting that not only the expression of DOD, but also the supplementation of DOPA might be a regulatory step for the betalain biosynthesis in P. americana.

  19. The distribution of Vallisneria americana seeds and seedling light requirements in the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimber, A.; Korschgen, C.E.; Van Der Valk, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    Vallisneria americana declined in backwaters of the Upper Mississippi River, U.S.A., after a drought in 1988. To determine whether viable seeds of V. americana occurred in the seed bank of navigation pool 7, Lake Onalaska, the upper 5 cm of sediment was collected from 103 sites in May 1990. These sediment samples were kept in pots at a depth of 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 m in an outdoor pond for 12 weeks. Vallisneria americana seeds germinated from sites throughout the lake, and some seedlings produced overwintering buds by the end of the study. Seeds, spores, or fragments of 12 other species of aquatic plants also germinated. Seed germination trials with fresh and stored seeds in both greenhouse and ponds in which light availability was reduced with shade cloths indicated that seed germination was insensitive to light level. To determine the tight requirements for seedling survival and bud production, sediment from Lake Onalaska was incubated in ponds under neutral density shade screens reducing light to 2, 5, 9, and 25% of full sun. Seeds germinated under all shade treatments but survival was significantly higher in the 9 and 25% light treatments, and bud production was restricted to these light levels.

  20. Hypoglycaemic and Tissue-Protective Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Persea Americana Seeds on Alloxan-Induced Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    EZEJIOFOR, Anthonet Ndidi; OKORIE, Abednego; ORISAKWE, Orish Ebere

    2013-01-01

    Background: The tissue-protective potential of Persea americana necessitated a look into the histopathological effects of the plant extract on the pancreas, liver, and kidneys. This study was conceived and designed based on the gaps in the research that has been performed and what is known about the plant. The hypoglycaemic and tissue-protective effects of hot aqueous Persea americana (avocado pear) seed extracts on alloxan-induced albino rats were investigated. Methods: Persea americana seeds were extracted using hot water, and different concentrations of the extract were prepared. The effects of different concentrations (20, 30, 40 g/L) of the hot aqueous P. americana seed extract on alloxan-induced Wistar albino rats were compared with those of a reference drug, glibenclamide. The glucose level of the rats was measured daily, and the weight of the animal was monitored on a weekly basis for 21 days. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes, and the histopathologies of the liver, kidneys, and pancreas were investigated. Phytochemical analysis of P. americana seed extracts indicated the presence of glycosides, tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, and alkaloids. Results: The results showed that the extract possessed a significant hypoglycaemic (P < 0.05) effect and reversed the histopathological damage that occurred in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, comparable to the effects glibenclamide. The seeds of P. americana also had anti-diabetic and protective effects on some rat tissues such as the pancreas, kidneys, and liver. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study provides a pharmacological basis for the folkloric use of the hot-water extract of P. americana seeds in the management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:24643349

  1. American marten (Martes americana) in the Pacific Northwest: population differentiation across a landscape fragmented in time and space.

    PubMed

    Small, Maureen P; Stone, Karen D; Cook, Joseph A

    2003-01-01

    American marten (Martes americana) have a close association with mature temperate forests, a habitat that expanded throughout the Pacific Northwest as glaciers receded at the end of the Pleistocene. Similar to several other forest-associated mammals in North America (e.g. black bear), genetic analysis of the marten shows a deep phylogeographical subdivision that reflects populations with distinctive evolutionary histories. Using a suite of 14 microsatellite markers, we explored the genetic structure of marten populations in two reciprocally monophyletic clades in the Pacific Northwest identified previously as M. caurina and M. americana by mitochondrial haplotypes and morphology. Microsatellite phylogeographical patterns were congruent with mitochondrial analyses. These independent data sets shed light upon hybridization patterns, population structure and evolutionary histories. Hybridization between M. caurina and M. americana individuals was documented in two regions of sympatry (Kuiu Island in southeastern Alaska and southern Montana). Northern insular populations of M. caurina exhibited higher differentiation and lower variability relative to northern populations of M. americana. Greater divergence among M. caurina populations may reflect longer isolation and persistence in coastal forest habitat that was fragmented by rising sea level in the early Holocene. Lower differentiation among northern M. americana populations and close relationship to other continental M. americana populations may reflect more recent expansion into the Pacific Northwest and/or continued gene flow among populations. Differentiation among M. caurina populations was attributed to habitat fragmentation (i.e. rising sea level), as opposed to isolation-by-distance; oceanic straits pose significant barriers to gene flow among M. caurina populations and between populations of M. caurina and M. americana.

  2. Simple Y-autosomal incompatibilities cause hybrid male sterility in reciprocal crosses between Drosophila virilis and D. americana.

    PubMed

    Sweigart, Andrea L

    2010-03-01

    Postzygotic reproductive isolation evolves when hybrid incompatibilities accumulate between diverging populations. Here, I examine the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility between two species of Drosophila, Drosophila virilis and D. americana. From these analyses, I reach several conclusions. First, neither species carries any autosomal dominant hybrid male sterility alleles: reciprocal F(1) hybrid males are perfectly fertile. Second, later generation (backcross and F(2)) hybrid male sterility between D. virilis and D. americana is not polygenic. In fact, I identified only three genetically independent incompatibilities that cause hybrid male sterility. Remarkably, each of these incompatibilities involves the Y chromosome. In one direction of the cross, the D. americana Y is incompatible with recessive D. virilis alleles at loci on chromosomes 2 and 5. In the other direction, the D. virilis Y chromosome causes hybrid male sterility in combination with recessive D. americana alleles at a single QTL on chromosome 5. Finally, in contrast with findings from other Drosophila species pairs, the X chromosome has only a modest effect on hybrid male sterility between D. virilis and D. americana.

  3. Visual pigments, oil droplets, lens, and cornea characterization in the whooping crane (Grus americana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, Megan L.; Kingston, Alexandra C. N.; McCready, Robert; Cameron, Evan G.; Hofmann, Christopher M.; Suarez, Lauren; Olsen, Glenn H.; Cronin, Thomas W.; Robinson, Phyllis R.

    2014-01-01

    Vision has been investigated in many species of birds, but few studies have considered the visual systems of large birds and the particular implications of large eyes and long-life spans on visual system capabilities. To address these issues we investigated the visual system of the whooping crane, Grus americana (Gruiformes: Gruidae). G. americana (an endangered species) is one of only two North American crane species and represents a large, long-lived bird where ultraviolet sensitivity may be degraded by chromatic aberrations and entrance of ultraviolet light into the eye could be detrimental to retinal tissues. To investigate the whooping crane visual system we used microspectrophotometry to determine the absorbance spectra of retinal oil droplets and to investigate if the ocular media (i.e., the lens and cornea) absorbs UV light. In vitro expression and reconstitution was used to determine the absorbance spectra of rod and cone visual pigments. The rod visual pigments had wavelengths of peak absorbance (λmax) at 500 nm, while the cone visual pigments λmax values were determined to be 404 nm (SWS1), 450 nm (SWS2), 499 nm (RH2), and 561 nm (LWS), similar to other characterized bird visual pigment absorbance values. The oil droplet cutoff wavelength (λcut) values similarly fell within ranges recorded from other avian species: 576 nm (R-type), 522 nm (Y-type), 506 nm (P-type), and 448 nm (C-type). We confirm that G. americana has a violet-sensitive visual system, although based on the λmax of the SWS1 visual pigment (404 nm) may also have some ability for UV sensitivity.

  4. The effect of burial depth on removal of seeds of Phytolacca americana.

    SciTech Connect

    Orrock, John, L.: Damschen, Ellen, I.

    2007-04-01

    Abstract - Although burial is known to have important effects on seed predation in a variety of habitats, the role of burial depth in affecting the removal of seeds in early successional systems is poorly known. Phytolacca American (pokeweed) is a model species to examine the role of burial depth in affecting seed removal because it is common in early-successional habitats, studies suggest that seed removal is indicative of seed predation, and seed predation is related to the recruitment of mature plants. To determine how burial depth affects P. americana seed removal, 20 seeds of P. americana were buried at depths of 0, 1, or 3 cm in early-successional habitats at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina for over 6 weeks. The frequency with which seeds were encountered (as measured by the removal of at least one seed) and the proportion of seeds removed was significantly greater when seeds were on the soil surface (0 cm depth) compared to seeds that were buried 1 cm or 3 cm; there was no difference in encounter or removal between seeds at 1 cm or 3 cm. Our findings suggest that burial may have important consequences for P. americana population dynamics, because seed survival depends upon whether or not the seed is buried, and relatively shallow burial can yield large increases in seed survival. Because seed limitation is known to be an important determinant of plant community composition in early successional systems, our work suggests that burial may play an unappreciated role in the dynamics of these communities by reducing predator-mediated seed limitation.

  5. Cd-induced changes in leaf proteome of the hyperaccumulator plant Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Le; Sun, Yong-Le; Cui, Su-Xia; Chen, Mei; Yang, Hao-Meng; Liu, Hui-Min; Chai, Tuan-Yao; Huang, Fang

    2011-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is highly toxic to all organisms. Soil contamination by Cd has become an increasing problem worldwide due to the intensive use of Cd-containing phosphate fertilizers and industrial zinc mining. Phytolacca americana L. is a Cd hyperaccumulator plant that can grow in Cd-polluted areas. However, the molecular basis for its remarkable Cd resistance is not known. In this study, the effects of Cd exposure on protein expression patterns in P.americana was investigated by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). 2-DE profiles of leaf proteins from both control and Cd-treated (400μM, 48h) seedlings were compared quantitatively using ImageMaster software. In total, 32 differentially expressed protein spots were identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry coupled to protein database search, corresponding to 25 unique gene products. Of those 14 were enhanced/induced while 11 reduced under Cd treatment. The alteration pattern of protein expression was verified for several key proteins involved in distinct metabolic pathways by immuno-blot analysis. Major changes were found for the proteins involved in photosynthetic pathways as well as in the sulfur- and GSH-related metabolisms. One-third of the up-regulated proteins were attributed to transcription, translation and molecular chaperones including a protein belonging to the calreticulin family. Other proteins include antioxidative enzymes such as 2-cys-peroxidase and oxidoreductases. The results of this proteomic analysis provide the first and primary information regarding the molecular basis of Cd hypertolerance in P. americana.

  6. Technical approaches of a natural dye extracted from Phytolacca americana L.-berries with chemical mordants.

    PubMed

    Park, Su-Youn; Jung, Suk-Yul

    2014-01-01

    Phytolacca americana L. is a large semi-succulent herbaceous plant which reaches three meters in height. It is native to eastern North America, the Midwest, and the Gulf Coast, with more scattered populations in the far West. It is imported into Korea and has been frequently used as a traditional natural drug for diseases such as systemic edema and nephritis. Its berries, that is, fruits are shiny dark purple held in racemous clusters on pink pedicels with a pink peduncle. They are round with a flat indented top and bottom. Immature berries are green, maturing into white and then blackish purple. It is not well known how the berries are used for a natural staining yet. In this study, using Phytolacca americana L.-berries, a natural staining was analyzed. Moreover, due to the broad use of chemical mordants, five different mordants including copper acetate, aluminum potassium sulfate, sodium tartrate plus citric acid, Iron II sulfate and potassium dichromate were combined. Extracted dye from the berries stained silk fabrics with ivory. The original purple color from the berries disappeared and transformed into ivory. Although the silk fabrics were differentially stained by the berries that were combined with mordants of aluminum potassium sulfate, sodium tartrate plus citric acid and potassium dichromate, only differences in lightness and darkness were observed. Interestingly, the combination of the dye from the berries with a mordant of copper acetate and Iron II sulfate induced the staining of the silk fabrics into khaki and dark khaki, respectively. This study is the first systemic report on staining silk fabrics with Phytolacca americana L.-berries and chemical mordants and suggests application of natural products to the fiber industry.

  7. Flavonoids from Tilia americana with anxiolytic activity in plus-maze test.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel; Román-Ramos, Rubén; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Tortoriello, Jaime; Jiménez-Ferrer, J Enrique

    2008-07-23

    The aerial parts of Tilia americana var. mexicana (Schltdl) Hardin (Tiliaceae) have been widely used in Mexican traditional medicine to relieve sleeplessness, headache, and nervous excitement. The anxiolytic effect of four extracts and several flavonoid fractions from the bracts of Tilia americana subsp.mexicana, var. mexicana (Schltdl) Hardin or Tilia mexicana (Tiliaceae) was studied. Administration of 100mg/kg of n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous extracts to elevated plus-maze (EPM)-exposed mice displayed no anxiolytic effect; however, identical doses of methanol extract was able to increase the time percentage that mice spent in the EPM's open arms, as well as the percentage of crossings in the EPM's arms. The dose-response curve produced by methanol extract showed anxiolytic activity since 25mg/kg; animals showed no motor activity alteration in the open field test (OFT). Methanol extract was subjected to a bioassay-guided fractionation to obtain four ascendant polarity fractions (F1-F4) which were administrated at 100mg/kg. Data results indicate that F1 displayed the main anxiolytic effect. The purification of F1 produced a rich flavonoid anxiolytic mixture (F1C). This fraction was purified by RP-18 open chromatographic column to obtain four polar descent fractions: F1C(1), F1C(2), F1C(3), and F1C(4), respectively. Tiliroside was the major ingredient from the active fraction. High performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that F1C was constituted principally of tiliroside, quercetin, quercitrin, kaempherol, and their glycosides. These results supported the use of Tilia americana in Mexican traditional medicine as well as the anxiolytic effect of a rich flavonoid fraction without affect motor activity.

  8. Cd-induced changes in leaf proteome of the hyperaccumulator plant Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Le; Sun, Yong-Le; Cui, Su-Xia; Chen, Mei; Yang, Hao-Meng; Liu, Hui-Min; Chai, Tuan-Yao; Huang, Fang

    2011-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is highly toxic to all organisms. Soil contamination by Cd has become an increasing problem worldwide due to the intensive use of Cd-containing phosphate fertilizers and industrial zinc mining. Phytolacca americana L. is a Cd hyperaccumulator plant that can grow in Cd-polluted areas. However, the molecular basis for its remarkable Cd resistance is not known. In this study, the effects of Cd exposure on protein expression patterns in P.americana was investigated by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). 2-DE profiles of leaf proteins from both control and Cd-treated (400μM, 48h) seedlings were compared quantitatively using ImageMaster software. In total, 32 differentially expressed protein spots were identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry coupled to protein database search, corresponding to 25 unique gene products. Of those 14 were enhanced/induced while 11 reduced under Cd treatment. The alteration pattern of protein expression was verified for several key proteins involved in distinct metabolic pathways by immuno-blot analysis. Major changes were found for the proteins involved in photosynthetic pathways as well as in the sulfur- and GSH-related metabolisms. One-third of the up-regulated proteins were attributed to transcription, translation and molecular chaperones including a protein belonging to the calreticulin family. Other proteins include antioxidative enzymes such as 2-cys-peroxidase and oxidoreductases. The results of this proteomic analysis provide the first and primary information regarding the molecular basis of Cd hypertolerance in P. americana. PMID:21723586

  9. Pro-apoptotic effect of Persea americana var. Hass (avocado) on Jurkat lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Porras, Angelica R; Salazar-Ospina, Andrea; Jimenez-Del-Rio, Marlene; Pereañez-Jimenez, Andres; Velez-Pardo, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    Abstract Context: Therapy for leukemia has a limited efficacy. There is a need to search for alternative anti-leukemia therapies. Persea americana Mill var. Hass (Lauraceae) is a tropical fruit (avocado) that might be used against cancer. Objective: To investigate whether P. americana induces death in Jurkat lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Materials and methods: Four ethanol extracts (0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 mg/mL) from avocado fruit (endocarp, whole seed, seed and leaves) were analyzed against Jurkat cells. Hydrogen peroxide generation by oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate to the fluorescent compound 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein assay, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, flow cytometry analysis of annexin-V/7-amino-actinomycin, mitochondrial membrane potential and immunocytochemistry detection of transcription factor p53, caspase-3 and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) were evaluated. Results: Endocarp, seed, whole seed, and leaf (0.1 mg/mL) extracts induced significant apoptosis in Jurkat cells (p < 0.001) in an oxidative stress-dependent fashion via mitochondrial membrane depolarization (52-87%), activation of transcription factor p53 (6.3-25.4%), protease caspase-3 (8.3-20%) and predominance of AIF reactivity (20.6-36%) in all extracts. Similar results were obtained with 0.5 mg/mL extracts. However, extract ≥1 mg/mL concentration induced necrosis (100%). Conclusions: P. americana extracts function as a pro-apoptotic compound. Leukemic cells are eliminated through an oxidative stress mechanism. This study contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanism of the avocado and its therapeutic action on leukemia. PMID:24188375

  10. Pro-apoptotic effect of Persea americana var. Hass (avocado) on Jurkat lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Porras, Angelica R; Salazar-Ospina, Andrea; Jimenez-Del-Rio, Marlene; Pereañez-Jimenez, Andres; Velez-Pardo, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    Abstract Context: Therapy for leukemia has a limited efficacy. There is a need to search for alternative anti-leukemia therapies. Persea americana Mill var. Hass (Lauraceae) is a tropical fruit (avocado) that might be used against cancer. Objective: To investigate whether P. americana induces death in Jurkat lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Materials and methods: Four ethanol extracts (0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 mg/mL) from avocado fruit (endocarp, whole seed, seed and leaves) were analyzed against Jurkat cells. Hydrogen peroxide generation by oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate to the fluorescent compound 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein assay, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, flow cytometry analysis of annexin-V/7-amino-actinomycin, mitochondrial membrane potential and immunocytochemistry detection of transcription factor p53, caspase-3 and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) were evaluated. Results: Endocarp, seed, whole seed, and leaf (0.1 mg/mL) extracts induced significant apoptosis in Jurkat cells (p < 0.001) in an oxidative stress-dependent fashion via mitochondrial membrane depolarization (52-87%), activation of transcription factor p53 (6.3-25.4%), protease caspase-3 (8.3-20%) and predominance of AIF reactivity (20.6-36%) in all extracts. Similar results were obtained with 0.5 mg/mL extracts. However, extract ≥1 mg/mL concentration induced necrosis (100%). Conclusions: P. americana extracts function as a pro-apoptotic compound. Leukemic cells are eliminated through an oxidative stress mechanism. This study contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanism of the avocado and its therapeutic action on leukemia.

  11. Midgut Transcriptome of the Cockroach Periplaneta americana and Its Microbiota: Digestion, Detoxification and Oxidative Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Yixi; Li, Jingjing; Liu, Meiling; Liu, Zewen

    2016-01-01

    The cockroach, Periplaneta americana, is an obnoxious and notorious pest of the world, with a strong ability to adapt to a variety of complex environments. However, the molecular mechanism of this adaptability is mostly unknown. In this study, the genes and microbiota composition associated with the adaptation mechanism were studied by analyzing the transcriptome and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing of the P. americana midgut, respectively. Midgut transcriptome analysis identified 82,905 unigenes, among which 64 genes putatively involved in digestion (11 genes), detoxification (37 genes) and oxidative stress response (16 genes) were found. Evaluation of gene expression following treatment with cycloxaprid further revealed that the selected genes (CYP6J1, CYP4C1, CYP6K1, Delta GST, alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and aminopeptidase) were upregulated at least 2.0-fold at the transcriptional level, and four genes were upregulated more than 10.0-fold. An interesting finding was that three digestive enzymes positively responded to cycloxaprid application. Tissue expression profiles further showed that most of the selected genes were midgut-biased, with the exception of CYP6K1. The midgut microbiota composition was obtained via 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and was found to be mainly dominated by organisms from the Firmicutes phylum, among which Clostridiales, Lactobacillales and Burkholderiales were the main orders which might assist the host in the food digestion or detoxification of noxious compounds. The preponderant species, Clostridium cellulovorans, was previously reported to degrade lignocellulose efficiently in insects. The abundance of genes involved in digestion, detoxification and response to oxidative stress, and the diversity of microbiota in the midgut might provide P. americana high capacity to adapt to complex environments. PMID:27153200

  12. Technical approaches of a natural dye extracted from Phytolacca americana L.-berries with chemical mordants.

    PubMed

    Park, Su-Youn; Jung, Suk-Yul

    2014-01-01

    Phytolacca americana L. is a large semi-succulent herbaceous plant which reaches three meters in height. It is native to eastern North America, the Midwest, and the Gulf Coast, with more scattered populations in the far West. It is imported into Korea and has been frequently used as a traditional natural drug for diseases such as systemic edema and nephritis. Its berries, that is, fruits are shiny dark purple held in racemous clusters on pink pedicels with a pink peduncle. They are round with a flat indented top and bottom. Immature berries are green, maturing into white and then blackish purple. It is not well known how the berries are used for a natural staining yet. In this study, using Phytolacca americana L.-berries, a natural staining was analyzed. Moreover, due to the broad use of chemical mordants, five different mordants including copper acetate, aluminum potassium sulfate, sodium tartrate plus citric acid, Iron II sulfate and potassium dichromate were combined. Extracted dye from the berries stained silk fabrics with ivory. The original purple color from the berries disappeared and transformed into ivory. Although the silk fabrics were differentially stained by the berries that were combined with mordants of aluminum potassium sulfate, sodium tartrate plus citric acid and potassium dichromate, only differences in lightness and darkness were observed. Interestingly, the combination of the dye from the berries with a mordant of copper acetate and Iron II sulfate induced the staining of the silk fabrics into khaki and dark khaki, respectively. This study is the first systemic report on staining silk fabrics with Phytolacca americana L.-berries and chemical mordants and suggests application of natural products to the fiber industry. PMID:24704646

  13. Development of 11 polymorphic microsatellite markers in a macrophyte of conservation concern, Vallisneria americana Michaux (Hydrocharitaceae).

    PubMed

    Burnett, Robert K; Lloyd, Michael W; Engelhardt, Katharina A M; Neel, Maile C

    2009-09-01

    Vallisneria americana Michaux (wild celery) is currently a target of submersed aquatic vegetation restoration efforts in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. To aid these efforts, we have developed 11 polymorphic microsatellite markers to assess the distribution and degree of genetic diversity in both restored and naturally occurring populations in the Chesapeake Bay. In 59 individuals from two populations, we detected two to 10 total alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.125 to 0.929, and two loci exhibited significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in at least one of the populations assayed. PMID:21564928

  14. Effects of ripening on rheological properties of avocado pulp (Persea americana mill. Cv. Hass)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, F.; Roman, A.; Ortiz, J.

    2015-04-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill) Hass variety is the most planted in Chile with a greater trade prospect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maturity on rheological properties of Chilean Avocado Hass pulp. Fresh unripe avocados were washed and peeled, cut and stored at 3 different times; a portion was treated at 5°C and the other was treated at 20°C until it reached 2 lb puncture pressure. During maturation changes would develop due to temperature and time, with internal cellular structure changes. Preliminary results of the rheological characteristics of avocado puree show a Bingham plastic behavior.

  15. Insect erythrocyte agglutinins. In vitro opsonization experiments with Clitumnus extradentatus and Periplaneta americana haemocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, A F; Ratcliffe, N A

    1980-01-01

    The effect of naturally occurring haemagglutinins on the in vitro phagocytosis of sheep erythrocytes by the blood cells (haemocytes) of Clitumnus extradentatus and Periplaneta americana was studied. The results showed that the haemagglutinins in both species failed to act as opsonins. Indeed, in some instances, incubation of erythrocytes in haemolymph resulted in less avid ingestion as compared with the saline-incubated controls. This reduced phagocytosis was probably caused by the clumping of erythrocytes on the haemocyte monolayers, leaving fewer single red cells available for uptake. The possible roles of these erythrocyte agglutinins in the host defence systems of insects are discussed. Images Figures 1-3 Figures 6-7 PMID:7000682

  16. Mycotoxin-induced disease in captive whooping cranes (Grus americana) and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Carpenter, J.W.; Gee, G.F.; Thomas, N.J.; Dein, F.J.

    1995-01-01

    In 1987, an epizootic in cranes at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, USA, caused illness in 80% of 300 captive whooping cranes (Grus americana) and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and death of 15 of these cranes. Gross pathology findings were inconclusive and consisted of dehydration, atrophy of fat, renal insufficiency, and small spleens. Extensive testing resulted in isolation of Fusarium sp. mold from constituents of the grain-based diet. Low levels of two mycotoxins, T2 (1-2 ppm) and deoxynivalenol (0.4 ppm), were isolated from the pelleted feed.

  17. Pollen, Tapetum, and Orbicule Development in Colletia paradoxa and Discaria americana (Rhamnaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Gotelli, M.; Galati, B.; Medan, D.

    2012-01-01

    Tapetum, orbicule, and pollen grain ontogeny in Colletia paradoxa and Discaria americana were studied with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The ultrastructural changes observed during the different stages of development in the tapetal cells and related to orbicule and pollen grain formation are described. The proorbicules have the appearance of lipid globule, and their formation is related to the endoplasmic reticulum of rough type (ERr). This is the first report on the presence of orbicules in the family Rhamnaceae. Pollen grains are shed at the bicellular stage. PMID:22645479

  18. Synthesis and configuration of the nonadecenetriol isolated from seeds of Persea americana.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xin; Zhang, Shao-Min; Wu, Yikang; Gao, Po

    2011-10-01

    In an effort to establish the relative as well as absolute configuration of the trypanocidally active natural nonadec-6-en-1,2,4-triol isolated from Persea americana, the (2S,4R), (2S,4S), and (2R,4R) isomers were synthesized. The stereogenic centers taken from enantiopure chiral epoxy building blocks derived from inexpensive and readily available D-glucolactone. The (2R,4R) isomer gave (1)H and (13)C NMR as well as specific rotation in excellent consistence with those reported for the natural triol.

  19. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis and Detection of Antimicrobial Peptides of the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Woo; Lee, Joon Ha; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Iksoo; Park, Junhyung; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches are surrogate hosts for microbes that cause many human diseases. In spite of their generally destructive nature, cockroaches have recently been found to harbor potentially beneficial and medically useful substances such as drugs and allergens. However, genomic information for the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is currently unavailable; therefore, transcriptome and gene expression profiling is needed as an important resource to better understand the fundamental biological mechanisms of this species, which would be particularly useful for the selection of novel antimicrobial peptides. Thus, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis of P. americana that were or were not immunized with Escherichia coli. Using an Illumina HiSeq sequencer, we generated a total of 9.5 Gb of sequences, which were assembled into 85,984 contigs and functionally annotated using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database terms. Finally, using an in silico antimicrobial peptide prediction method, 86 antimicrobial peptide candidates were predicted from the transcriptome, and 21 of these peptides were experimentally validated for their antimicrobial activity against yeast and gram positive and -negative bacteria by a radial diffusion assay. Notably, 11 peptides showed strong antimicrobial activities against these organisms and displayed little or no cytotoxic effects in the hemolysis and cell viability assay. This work provides prerequisite baseline data for the identification and development of novel antimicrobial peptides, which is expected to provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of innate immunity in similar species. PMID:27167617

  20. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis and Detection of Antimicrobial Peptides of the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Iksoo; Park, Junhyung; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches are surrogate hosts for microbes that cause many human diseases. In spite of their generally destructive nature, cockroaches have recently been found to harbor potentially beneficial and medically useful substances such as drugs and allergens. However, genomic information for the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is currently unavailable; therefore, transcriptome and gene expression profiling is needed as an important resource to better understand the fundamental biological mechanisms of this species, which would be particularly useful for the selection of novel antimicrobial peptides. Thus, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis of P. americana that were or were not immunized with Escherichia coli. Using an Illumina HiSeq sequencer, we generated a total of 9.5 Gb of sequences, which were assembled into 85,984 contigs and functionally annotated using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database terms. Finally, using an in silico antimicrobial peptide prediction method, 86 antimicrobial peptide candidates were predicted from the transcriptome, and 21 of these peptides were experimentally validated for their antimicrobial activity against yeast and gram positive and -negative bacteria by a radial diffusion assay. Notably, 11 peptides showed strong antimicrobial activities against these organisms and displayed little or no cytotoxic effects in the hemolysis and cell viability assay. This work provides prerequisite baseline data for the identification and development of novel antimicrobial peptides, which is expected to provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of innate immunity in similar species. PMID:27167617

  1. Abiotic influences on the biomass of Vallisneria americana Michx. In the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreiling, Rebecca M.; Yin, Y.; Gerber, D.T.

    2007-01-01

    American wildcelery, Vallisneria americana Michx. is an ecologically important component of aquatic communities in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR). We conducted a study in 2002 to determine the association of several abiotic factors on the vegetative growth of Vallisneria in Navigation Pool 8 (Pool 8) of the UMR. We measured turbidity, percent light absorbance, surface water ammonium, surface water nitrate, current velocity, conductivity, pH and water depth throughout one growing season at 56 stratified sites based on where Vallisneria occurred in previous years. Sediment and aboveground biomass samples were collected during peak growth. Sediment was analysed for organic content, particle size, pore water nitrate and pore water ammonium. Vallisneria biomass samples were dried to constant mass. Because some sites were without water for much of the growing season, only data from 52 sites were reported. Biomass was associated with depth, percent light absorbance, turbidity and wind fetch. Vallisneria was abundant in the depth range of 0.55 to 1.03 m, in areas receiving at least 38% of surface light and in areas exposed to greater wind fetch (>2000 m). Our results suggest that the primary abiotic variable associated with Vallisneria americana in the UMR is light, not nutrients.

  2. Vallisneria americana (Hydrocharitaceae) as a biomonitor of aquatic ecosystems: comparison of cloned genotypes.

    PubMed

    Biernacki, M; Lovett-Doust, J

    1997-12-01

    We assessed the effects of local environment on survival, growth, and development in six clones (genotypes) of Vallisneria americana grown at five sites in the Huron-Erie Corridor. Detrimental effects of local environment on plant performance (rate of clonal growth, leaf and root production, surface area of leaves and roots, plant biomass, rate of flowering, and turion production) were correlated with sediment toxicity and levels of organic contamination determined in independent studies, and differed among plant genotypes. All surviving clones used in the study ranked environmental quality of the five sites in the same order. Two genotypes, which were tolerant of contaminants, survived the 2 yr of exposure at all sites, while other nontolerant clones died within the 1st yr of study, at the two most contaminated sites. The leaf-to-root surface area ratio was highly indicative of site quality, and was not affected either by year-to-year variation, or by differences between genotypes. The use of cloned plants in this biomonitoring study reduced variance, and increased precision and accuracy of site assessment compared to biomonitoring with genetically variable plants. Clones of V. americana tolerant of contaminants were particularly useful in assessing the most contaminated sites. An approach that uses an array of both tolerant and nontolerant clones is recommended. PMID:21708580

  3. Biotransformation of raspberry ketone and zingerone by cultured cells of Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Kei; Harada, Toshio; Hamada, Hatsuyuki; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Hamada, Hiroki

    2007-02-01

    The biotransformation of raspberry ketone and zingerone were individually investigated using cultured cells of Phytolacca americana. In addition to (2S)-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanol (2%), (2S)-4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-butanol (5%), 4-[4-(beta-d-glucopyranosyloxy)phenyl]-2-butanone (19%), 4-[(3S)-3-hydroxybutyl]phenyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside (23%), and (2S)-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)but-2-yl-beta-d-glucopyranoside (20%), two biotransformation products, i.e., 2-hydroxy-4-[(3S)-3-hydroxybutyl]phenyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside (12%) and 2-hydroxy-5-[(3S)-3-hydroxybutyl]phenyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside (11%), were isolated from suspension cells after incubation with raspberry ketone for three days. On the other hand, two compounds, i.e., (2S)-4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)but-2-yl-beta-d-glucopyranoside (17%) and (2S)-2-(beta-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-4-[4-(beta-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-methoxyphenyl]butane (16%), together with (2S)-4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanol (15%), 4-[4-(beta-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-methoxyphenyl]-2-butanone (21%), and 4-[(3S)-3-hydroxybutyl]-2-methoxyphenyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside (24%) were obtained upon addition of zingerone. Cultured cells of P. americana can reduce, and regioselectively hydroxylate and glucosylate, these food ingredients to their beta-glycosides.

  4. [Studies on the physiological response of Phytolacca americana to manganese toxicity by FTIR spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Ren, Li-Min; Cheng, Ze-Feng; Liu, Peng; Li, Zhi-Gang

    2008-03-01

    A technique based on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry was used to detect the physiological changes in chemical composition of Phytolacca americana under a wide range of Mn2+ treatments (0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 g x kg(-1)). Using the roots, stems and leaves of phytolacca americana, absorption bands corresponding to carbohydrates, ester and proteins varied differently. The absorption band heights at 3 000 and 2 916 cm(-1) of stem tissues rose firstly and then decreased, indicating the exudation and transporting situation of organic substances which served as organic osmotic contents to enhance manganese tolerance under low treatments; Meanwhile, the band heights at 2 922 cm(-1) (roots) and 1 606 cm(-1) (leaves) which have different tendency in accordance with Mn treatments showed that the capability to chelate Mn decreased under higher manganese concentration. In addition, the changes of the bands at 1 732 and 1 026 cm(-1) (roots), 1 028 cm(-1) (stems), 1 052 and 967 cm(-1) (leaves) differed from each other, suggesting that under the conditions of severe Mn stress the ex-oxidation of membrane lipid increased; Otherwise, the band heights at 1 375 cm(-1) increased firstly and then decreased, representing that the cell wall improved Mn resistance by increasing cation-exchange capacity (CEC). The result also implied that it is practical to apply FTIR to the research comparing the chemical differences of phytoaccumulators under metal treatments.

  5. In vitro antioxidant activity of Polygonium hyrcanicum, Centaurea depressa, Sambucus ebulus, Mentha spicata and Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Pourmorad, Fereshteh; Shahabimajd, Naghi; Shahrbandy, Kami; Hosseinzadeh, Rasa

    2007-02-15

    Extracts of five plants were investigated for their total flavonoids, phenol contents and their radical scavenging activity using DPPH assays: Polygonium hyrcanicum, Centaurea depressa, Sambucus ebulus, Mentha spicata and Phytolacca americana. Quercetin and butylated hydroxy toluene were used as standard reference with well-documented antioxidant activity. Total flavonoid content in these plants ranged from 31.6 to 109.5 mg g(-1) and the amount of free phenolic compounds was between 32 and 287.5 mg g(-1) extract powder. Free phenolic compounds content were in the order: P. hyrcanium > M. spicata > S. ebulus > C. depressa > P. americana. It was also observed that all methanolic extract samples of studied plants showed free radical scavenging activity. The highest antioxidant activity was found in P. hyrcanium with an IC 50 equal to 0.036 mg mL(-1) that is higher than BHT (IC 50 = 0.054). A correlation between radical scavenging capacities of extracts with total phenolic compounds content was observed. This result indicates that P. hyrcanium contains high levels of phenolic compounds that may contribute to higher free radical scavenging activity compared to the other extracts of the plants in this study.

  6. Impact of Phytolacca americana extracts on gene expression of colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Maness, L; Goktepe, I; Chen, H; Ahmedna, M; Sang, S

    2014-02-01

    Native Americans have used Phytolacca americana to treat breast ailments, gastrointestinal disorders, rashes, and inflammation. Some anti-cancer and anti-viral research has been reported on this perennial herb, but none has been published concerning the effects of its extracts on cancer cell genes. In this study, changes in gene expression at the transcription level were evaluated in HCT-116 colon cancer cells after exposure to P. americana ethanol extract and its water fraction using the Human Cancer Pathway Finder PCR Array. Of the genes significantly affected in HCT-116 cells exposed to the ethanol extract at 3200 µg/ml, changes in expression of MYC, PLAU, and TEK may benefit the treatment of colon cancer. Exposing the cells to 1600 µg/ml of the water fraction resulted in several gene changes that may also be beneficial in the treatment of colon cancer: NME4, TEK, and THBS1. A few genes on this array that are known to play a specific role in colon cancer had activities changed in a way that may be detrimental in the treatment of colon cancer. Further studies should be performed to understand how these changes would impact colon cancer treatment.

  7. Isolation and characterisation of a cysteine protease (phytolacain G), from Phytolacca americana roots.

    PubMed

    Sussner, Ursula; Abel, Gudrun; Schulte, Ralf; Kreis, Wolfgang

    2004-10-01

    Protein extracts obtained from dried and fresh roots of Phytolacca americana L. (Phytolaccaceae) were examined in order to identify and characterise individual proteins. The extracts were compared with a commercial pokeweed mitogen standard using SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). A dominant protein, present in both the extracts and the pokeweed mitogen standard, was isolated by subsequent ammonium sulphate fractionation, anion exchange chromatography, gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. In this way it was purified 140-fold with about 20 % yield and 70-fold with about 13 % yield from dried and fresh roots, respectively. Its molecular mass as determined by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE was estimated to be about 25 kDa. Subsequent isoelectric focussing revealed one single protein band at pH 6.0. LysC digestion of the 25 kDa protein yielded several peptides which were subjected to micro-sequencing. Comparison with published sequences revealed that the protein isolated was phytolacain G, a cysteine protease previously isolated from unripe fruits of P. americana L. The enzyme showed a high affinity towards the oxidised insulin B-chain and was completely inhibited by trans-epoxysuccinyl- L-leucylamido(4-guanidino)-butane (E64). The purified phytolacain G showed "lectin-like" activities such as haemagglutination and mitogenic effects towards human lymphocytes.

  8. Enhancement of heparin and heparin disaccharide absorption by the Phytolacca americana saponins.

    PubMed

    Cho, So Yean; Sim, Joon-Soo; Kang, Sam Sik; Jeong, Choon-Sik; Linhardt, Robert J; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2003-12-01

    We studied the effects of phytolaccosides, saponins from Phytolacca americana, on the intestinal absorption of heparin in vitro and in vivo. The absorption enhancing activity of these compounds (phytolaccosides B, D2, E, F, G and I) was determined by changes in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and the transport amount of heparin disaccharide, the major repeating unit of heparin, across Caco-2 cell monolayers. With the exception of phytolaccoside G, all of them decreased TEER values and increased the permeability in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. In vitro, phytolaccosides B, D2, and E showed significant absorption enhancing activities, while effects by phytolaccoside F and I were mild. In vivo, phytolaccoside E increased the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time, indicating that phytolaccoside E modulated the transport of heparin in intestinal route. Our results suggest that a series of phytolaccosides from Phytolacca americana can be applied as pharmaceutical excipients to improve the permeability of macromolecules and hydrophilic drugs having difficulty in absorption across the intestinal epithelium.

  9. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis and Detection of Antimicrobial Peptides of the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Woo; Lee, Joon Ha; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Iksoo; Park, Junhyung; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches are surrogate hosts for microbes that cause many human diseases. In spite of their generally destructive nature, cockroaches have recently been found to harbor potentially beneficial and medically useful substances such as drugs and allergens. However, genomic information for the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is currently unavailable; therefore, transcriptome and gene expression profiling is needed as an important resource to better understand the fundamental biological mechanisms of this species, which would be particularly useful for the selection of novel antimicrobial peptides. Thus, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis of P. americana that were or were not immunized with Escherichia coli. Using an Illumina HiSeq sequencer, we generated a total of 9.5 Gb of sequences, which were assembled into 85,984 contigs and functionally annotated using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database terms. Finally, using an in silico antimicrobial peptide prediction method, 86 antimicrobial peptide candidates were predicted from the transcriptome, and 21 of these peptides were experimentally validated for their antimicrobial activity against yeast and gram positive and -negative bacteria by a radial diffusion assay. Notably, 11 peptides showed strong antimicrobial activities against these organisms and displayed little or no cytotoxic effects in the hemolysis and cell viability assay. This work provides prerequisite baseline data for the identification and development of novel antimicrobial peptides, which is expected to provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of innate immunity in similar species.

  10. Effect of certain entomopathogenic fungi on oxidative stress and mortality of Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Abhilasha; Lone, Yaqoob; Wani, Owais; Gupta, U S

    2016-02-01

    The present paper reports the effects of Metarhizium anisopliae, Isaria fumosoroseus and Hirsutella thompsonaii on Periplaneta americana. I. fumosoroseus and H. thompsonaii were cultured at 28±1°C on potato carrot agar and M. anisopliae was cultured at 28±1°C on potato dextrose agar for 14days. Conidial suspensions of fungi were given to cockroaches through different routes. M. anisopliae shows high virulence against adult cockroaches and mortality ranges from 38.65% to 78.36% after 48h. I. fumosoroseus and H. thompsonii show less virulence compared to M. anisopliae. We also investigated the effect of these three fungi on the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, lipid peroxidation and catalase in different tissues of the insect to gain an understanding of the different target site. The result suggested that the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, catalase and level of malondialdehyde varies in different organs and through different routes of exposure. Based on mortality percentages, all tested fungi had high potentials for biocontrol agents against P. americana. Our study reveals for the first time that I. fumosoroseus and H. thompsonaii fungal infections initiate oxidative stress in the midgut, fat body, whole body and hemolymph of cockroach thereby suggesting them to be the target organs for oxidative damage.

  11. One pot phytosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Genipa americana fruit extract and its biological applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Brajesh; Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis; Camacho, Javier; Hernández-Gallegos, Elisabeth; de Guadalupe Chávez-López, María; Grijalva, Marcelo; Andrade, Kleber

    2016-05-01

    In this article, rapid one pot synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using an eco-friendly extract of Genipa americana L. fruit is described. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies demonstrated that small molecules such as genipin, genipaol, geniposide and ranolazine can act as reducer as well as stabilizers. The monodispersed, spherical GNPs were further characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy at λmax=535 nm, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. This synthetic approach offers a greener and alternate route to the preparation of GNPs free from toxic chemical components and stable for 6-7 months under room temperature. The green synthesized GNPs showed weak antioxidant efficacy against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and no cytotoxicity against A-549 and HeLa human cancer cell lines, from lung and cervix. This study opens a new industrial scope of G. americana fruit in nanoscience and as surface modified GNPs can be developed into a successful drug carrier for future pharmaceutical products.

  12. Effect of Agave americana and Agave salmiana Ripeness on Saponin Content from Aguamiel (Agave Sap).

    PubMed

    Leal-Díaz, Ana María; Santos-Zea, Liliana; Martínez-Escobedo, Hilda Cecilia; Guajardo-Flores, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet Alejandra; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio Othón

    2015-04-22

    Steroidal saponins have shown beneficial health effects. Agave spp. leaves and rhizomes are sources of these compounds, but their presence has not been reported in the aguamiel. Aguamiel is the sweet edible sap from mature agave, and its quality is influenced by the plant ripening stage. The purpose of this research was to identify and quantitate saponins in aguamiel from Agave americana and Agave salmiana at two ripening stages. Saponins and sapogenins were identified with HPLC/ESI-MS/TOF and quantitated with HPLC/ELSD. Results proved the presence of saponins derived from kammogenin, manogenin, gentrogenin, and hecogenin. The saponin content in aguamiel from immature A. salmiana was 2-fold higher (478.3 protodioscin equivalents (PE) μg/g aguamiel (DM)) compared with A. americana (179.0 PE μg/g aguamiel (DM)). In both species, saponin content decreased when plants reached sexual maturity. This should be considered before evaluating the effects of Agave spp. as a source of bioactive saponins. PMID:25811101

  13. One pot phytosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Genipa americana fruit extract and its biological applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Brajesh; Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis; Camacho, Javier; Hernández-Gallegos, Elisabeth; de Guadalupe Chávez-López, María; Grijalva, Marcelo; Andrade, Kleber

    2016-05-01

    In this article, rapid one pot synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using an eco-friendly extract of Genipa americana L. fruit is described. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies demonstrated that small molecules such as genipin, genipaol, geniposide and ranolazine can act as reducer as well as stabilizers. The monodispersed, spherical GNPs were further characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy at λmax=535 nm, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. This synthetic approach offers a greener and alternate route to the preparation of GNPs free from toxic chemical components and stable for 6-7 months under room temperature. The green synthesized GNPs showed weak antioxidant efficacy against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and no cytotoxicity against A-549 and HeLa human cancer cell lines, from lung and cervix. This study opens a new industrial scope of G. americana fruit in nanoscience and as surface modified GNPs can be developed into a successful drug carrier for future pharmaceutical products. PMID:26952478

  14. Effect of Agave americana and Agave salmiana Ripeness on Saponin Content from Aguamiel (Agave Sap).

    PubMed

    Leal-Díaz, Ana María; Santos-Zea, Liliana; Martínez-Escobedo, Hilda Cecilia; Guajardo-Flores, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet Alejandra; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio Othón

    2015-04-22

    Steroidal saponins have shown beneficial health effects. Agave spp. leaves and rhizomes are sources of these compounds, but their presence has not been reported in the aguamiel. Aguamiel is the sweet edible sap from mature agave, and its quality is influenced by the plant ripening stage. The purpose of this research was to identify and quantitate saponins in aguamiel from Agave americana and Agave salmiana at two ripening stages. Saponins and sapogenins were identified with HPLC/ESI-MS/TOF and quantitated with HPLC/ELSD. Results proved the presence of saponins derived from kammogenin, manogenin, gentrogenin, and hecogenin. The saponin content in aguamiel from immature A. salmiana was 2-fold higher (478.3 protodioscin equivalents (PE) μg/g aguamiel (DM)) compared with A. americana (179.0 PE μg/g aguamiel (DM)). In both species, saponin content decreased when plants reached sexual maturity. This should be considered before evaluating the effects of Agave spp. as a source of bioactive saponins.

  15. Effect of increasing photon irradiance on the growth of Vallisneria americana in the tidal Potomac River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, V.; Rybicki, N.B.; Turtora, M.

    1996-01-01

    Following declines in submersed macrophyte populations in tidal ecosystems, revegetation of areas devoid of macrophytes may be sudden and rapid or may not occur for years. Declines of submersed macrophyte populations in the Chesapeake Bay and the tidal Potomac River have been attributed to insufficient light in the water column; however, the role of light in promoting revegetation has never been unequivocally documented. Photon irradiance was artificially increased for Vallisneria americana transplants in two unvegetated embayments in the otherwise vegetated freshwater tidal Potomac River: Pohick Bay and Belmont Bay. Pohick Bay had high nutrient concentrations and frequent algal blooms. Belmont Bay was broader and shallower than Pohick Bay with turbidity resulting from wind- driven resuspension of sediment. The total number of plants of V. americana in the lighted cages was 7.5 times higher than that in the unlighted cages at Pohick Bay and 11 times higher than that in the unlighted control cages in Belmont Bay. The biomass in the lighted cages was 11-fold higher in Belmont Bay and 38-fold higher in Pohick Bay than that in the control cages. Plants were less numerous and more robust in lighted cages in Pohick Bay than in Belmont Bay.

  16. Characterization of an invertebrate-type dopamine receptor of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Troppmann, Britta; Balfanz, Sabine; Krach, Christian; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA coding for a putative invertebrate-type dopamine receptor (Peadop2) from P. americana brain by using a PCR-based strategy. The mRNA is present in samples from brain and salivary glands. We analyzed the distribution of the PeaDOP2 receptor protein with specific affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies. On Western blots, PeaDOP2 was detected in protein samples from brain, subesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglia, and salivary glands. In immunocytochemical experiments, we detected PeaDOP2 in neurons with their somata being located at the anterior edge of the medulla bilaterally innervating the optic lobes and projecting to the ventro-lateral protocerebrum. In order to determine the functional and pharmacological properties of the cloned receptor, we generated a cell line constitutively expressing PeaDOP2. Activation of PeaDOP2-expressing cells with dopamine induced an increase in intracellular cAMP. In contrast, a C-terminally truncated splice variant of this receptor did not exhibit any functional property by itself. The molecular and pharmacological characterization of the first dopamine receptor from P. americana provides the basis for forthcoming studies focusing on the significance of the dopaminergic system in cockroach behavior and physiology.

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts and steroidal sapogenins of Agave americana.

    PubMed

    Peana, A T; Moretti, M D; Manconi, V; Desole, G; Pippia, P

    1997-06-01

    Lyophilized aqueous extracts obtained from Agave americana L (Agavaceae) collected in the north of Sardinia were characterized with regard to their steroidal sapogenin content. Extracts of A. americana and genins isolated from them were evaluated for anti-inflammatory properties by testing their effects on carrageenin-induced edema. The effect of orally administered genins on gastric mucous membranes was also assessed. Lyophilized extracts administered by the intraperitoneal route at doses equivalent to 200 and 300 mg/kg of fresh plant starting material, showed good anti-inflammatory activity. Doses of genins (total steroidal sapogenins, hecogenin and tigogenin) equivalent to the amount in the lyophilized extracts produced an antiedentatous effect which was much stronger and more efficacious than that obtained with an i.p. administration of 5 mg/kg of indomethacin or dexamethasone 21-phosphate at a dose equivalent to the molar content of hecogenin administered. At the doses used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity, the genins did not have any harmful effect on the gastric mucous membranes. Lesions occurred when significantly higher doses of hecogenin were given, but gastric damage was still less than that caused by the drugs used for comparative purposes.

  18. Molecular binding mechanisms of manganese to the root cell wall of Phytolacca americana L. using multiple spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianghua; Yang, Jianjun; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xuesong; Li, Renying

    2015-10-15

    The root cell wall (RCW) of Mn hyperaccumulator Phytolacca americana L. (P. americana) plays an important role in immobilizing and detoxifying excessive Mn, but the molecular binding mechanism of Mn to RCW has been little studied. This study investigated the effect of varied pH on Mn adsorption by the isolated RCW from P. americana in batch experiments, and explored the binding mechanisms of Mn to RCW using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), and extended X-ray fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Results showed that Mn binding capacity depends on solution pH, with an optimal pH of 5.0-6.0. Experimental isotherm data could be successfully modeled by the Langmuir and Freundlich equations; the estimated maximum Mn adsorption capacity was 5.446 mg g(-1) according to the established Langmuir isotherm. FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated hydroxyl and carboxyl groups were probably involved in the Mn binding process. XANES results showed that Mn remained as Mn(II) after adsorption on RCW, without any change of oxidation state; EXAFS analysis further revealed that Mn was complexed to RCW via bidentate inner-sphere coordination with carboxyl, which provides new structure information of Mn adsorbed on biomaterials and accounted for high Mn accumulation on RCW of P. americana.

  19. Molecular binding mechanisms of manganese to the root cell wall of Phytolacca americana L. using multiple spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianghua; Yang, Jianjun; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xuesong; Li, Renying

    2015-10-15

    The root cell wall (RCW) of Mn hyperaccumulator Phytolacca americana L. (P. americana) plays an important role in immobilizing and detoxifying excessive Mn, but the molecular binding mechanism of Mn to RCW has been little studied. This study investigated the effect of varied pH on Mn adsorption by the isolated RCW from P. americana in batch experiments, and explored the binding mechanisms of Mn to RCW using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), and extended X-ray fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Results showed that Mn binding capacity depends on solution pH, with an optimal pH of 5.0-6.0. Experimental isotherm data could be successfully modeled by the Langmuir and Freundlich equations; the estimated maximum Mn adsorption capacity was 5.446 mg g(-1) according to the established Langmuir isotherm. FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated hydroxyl and carboxyl groups were probably involved in the Mn binding process. XANES results showed that Mn remained as Mn(II) after adsorption on RCW, without any change of oxidation state; EXAFS analysis further revealed that Mn was complexed to RCW via bidentate inner-sphere coordination with carboxyl, which provides new structure information of Mn adsorbed on biomaterials and accounted for high Mn accumulation on RCW of P. americana. PMID:25917696

  20. Secondary metabolite production by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Pf-5 confers protection against Naegleria americana in the wheat rhizosphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteria employ a variety of morphological and metabolic mechanisms to avoid protozoan predation. In Pseudomonas fluorescens strains SS101 and SBW25, cyclic lipopeptide (CLP) production served as a defense mechanism that limited predation by the amoeba-flagellate Naegleria americana, and secondary m...

  1. Callicarpenal and Intermedeol: Two Natural Arthropod Feeding Deterrent and Repellent Compounds Identified from the Southern Folk Remedy Plant, Callicarpa americana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In previous studies on the American beautyberry (Callicarpa americana), it was demonstrated that callicarpenal and intermedeol were responsible for the arthropod repellent and feeding deterrent activity of this folk remedy. Both compounds showed significant bite-deterring activity against Aedes aeg...

  2. Seed rescue from photoperiod sensitive American Joint Vetch (Aeschynomene americana L.) accessions using hydroponic cloning and aeroponics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    American joint vetch, Aeschynomene Americana L. is a self-pollinated tropical pasture legume and the USDA, ARS, PGRCU curates 137 accessions from the United States, S. America, Mexico, Central America, and Zambia. Many accessions in this collection are photoperiod sensitive due to their typical flow...

  3. Fusarium symbionts of an ambrosia beetle (Euwallacea sp.) in southern Florida are pathogens of avocado, Persea americana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium dieback, a destructive disease of avocado (Persea americana), was reported in California and Israel in 2012. It is associated with an ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea sp., and damage caused by an unnamed symbiont of the beetle in Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) designated p...

  4. Protective effect of Agave americana Linn. leaf extract in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mannasaheb, Basheerahmed A.A.; Kulkarni, Preeti V.; Sangreskopp, Mashood Ahmed; Savant, Chetan; Mohan, Anjana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Natural plants always provide core compounds for new drug development. In the present life and food style, inflammatory bowel disease has become common and needs a lead compound for its drug development. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Agave americana Linn. leaf extract in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats based on its traditional anti-inflammatory use. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were pretreated with A. americana leaf extract in the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. daily for 7 days. On 8th day, 2 ml of 4% v/v acetic acid in saline was instilled into rats’ rectum. Prednisolone was used as standard drug and it was administered on the day of acetic acid instillation and continued for 3 days. Extract treatment was continued till 11th day. Body weight, ulcer score, colonic muscle contraction, antioxidant activity and histopathology were studied. Statistical analysis was performed using Parametric one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's posttest. Results: A. americana have retained total body weight significantly (P < 0.01) and decreased colon weight/length ratio. Extract have shown a significant decrease (P < 0.001) in ulcer scores, myeloperoxidase, lipid peroxidase activity. Further, extract have shown significant improvement in colonic muscle contraction, histopathology of colon etc., which is comparable with standard drug. Conclusion: A. americana possess protective effect against acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. PMID:26730148

  5. Post-glacial colonization of northwestern North America by the forest-associated American marten (Martes americana, Mammalia: Carnivora: Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Stone, Karen D; Flynn, Rodney W; Cook, Joseph A

    2002-10-01

    Phylogeographic patterns were used to assess intraspecific diversification of American martens (Martes americana). Within martens, two morphological groups (americana and caurina) have been recognized, though the level of distinction between them has been debated. We examined mitochondrial cytochrome b gene haplotypes from 680 martens to explore the colonization history of the Pacific Northwest and found two clades that correspond to the morphological groups. The widespread americana clade extends from interior Alaska south to Montana and eastward to Newfoundland and New England (i.e. northwestern, north-central and northeastern North America). The caurina clade occurs in western North America, minimally extending from Admiralty Island (southeastern Alaska) south to Oregon and Wyoming. Our data indicated two colonization events for the Pacific Northwest (one by members of each clade) and were consistent with the persistence of populations throughout past glacial periods in eastern and western refugia. Due to vegetational and geological history following the past deglaciation, we hypothesize that martens of the caurina clade spread along the North Pacific Coast, and into southeastern Alaska, earlier than martens of the americana clade. Mismatch distributions for the americana clade were indicative of populations that recently experienced demographic expansion, while mismatch distributions for the caurina clade suggested that populations were at equilibrium. These clades are reciprocally monophyletic and distinctive (interclade divergence ranged from 2.5 to 3.0% (uncorrected p), whereas, intraclade divergence was < 0.7%), and two regions of sympatry have been identified. Genetic signatures of past admixture in hybrid zones may have been extinguished during subsequent glacial periods when ranges contracted. This recurrent pattern of relatively restricted western, or Pacific coastal, lineages and more widespread eastern, or interior continental, lineages exists across

  6. The effect of gut passage by two species of avian frugivore on seeds of pokeweed, Phytolacca Americana.

    SciTech Connect

    Orrock, John, L.

    2005-05-05

    Orrock, John, L. 2005 The effect of gut passage by two species of avian frugivore on seeds of pokeweed, Phytolacca Americana. Can. J. Bot. 83: 427431. Abstract: Although avian frugivores are known to be important dispersers of seeds of pokeweed, Phytolacca americana L., there are no studies that rigorously examine the effect of gut passage through avian frugivores on P. americana seeds. I examined how passage through avian frugivores affected the proportion of P. americana seeds germinating, the rate of germination (average number of days required for all seeds to germinate), and the total number of viable seeds. Field-collected fruits were either cleaned of pulp (control seeds), fed to northern Mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos), or fed to Brown Thrashers (Toxostoma rufum). The proportion of seeds germinating after passage through avian frugivores was greater than control seeds (0.88 vs. 0.67, respectively), but did not differ between Mockingbirds or Brown Thrashers. However, seeds consumed by Mockingbirds germinated significantly faster on average (4.2 d) compared with seeds consumed by Brown Thrashers (4.6 d). Consumption by either species led to faster germination than control seeds (5.5 d). The total number of viable seeds did not differ among seeds consumed by avian frugivores or control seeds. These results suggest that avian frugivores do not change the viability of P. americana seeds. Rather, avian frugivores shifted the timing of germination, such that more seeds germinate more quickly after passage through frugivores. The adaptive implications of accelerated germination following passage through frugivores are briefly discussed.

  7. Serologic survey for pathogens potentially affecting pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) fawn recruitment in Arizona, USA.

    PubMed

    Dubay, Shelli A; Noon, Ted H; deVos, James C; Ockenfels, Richard A

    2006-10-01

    During the 1990s, pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) populations declined in Arizona, USA. To investigate potential causes of decline, we collected blood samples from hunter-harvested male pronghorn from 2001 to 2003 on four Arizona sites. Sera were tested for antibody to parainfluenza virus type 3 (PI3), bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), bluetongue virus (BTV), and Chlamydia psittaci. Antibody against PI3 was found in 33% of the samples, whereas antibody against BTV/EHDV was found in 77%. Antibodies to other pathogens were found at low prevalence rates. Although pronghorn decline in Arizona is probably not directly related to disease, potential reproductive effects of BTV/EHDV and PI3 infection on pronghorn in Arizona merit further study. PMID:17255453

  8. Evaluation of two short-term anesthetic protocols in captive juvenile pronghorn (Antilocapra americana).

    PubMed

    Mama, Khursheed R; Uhrig, Samantha; Miller, David S; Harris, Lauren; Syndergaard, Melissa; Regnier, Marianne; Rhyan, Jack C

    2009-12-01

    Safe and efficacious anesthesia is required to facilitate biomedical procedures in pronghorn (Antilocapra americana). Two short-term anesthesia protocols were evaluated in 10 juvenile male pronghorn raised in captivity. Following i.m. medetomidine (0.1 mg/kg), pronghorn received either intravenous propofol (P) or ketamine (K). Behavioral and physiologic parameters were assessed for 15 min prior to atipamezole (0.2 mg/kg, i.m.) administration. Quantitative and qualitative values following both protocols were similar. Mean induction times were 80 +/- 23 and 75 +/- 15 sec after K and P, respectively. Arterial pressure decreased over time, and hypoxemia was evident (PaO2 51 +/- 4 mmHg) following both treatments. PMID:20063831

  9. Regioselective glucosidation of trans-resveratrol in Escherichia coli expressing glucosyltransferase from Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Shin-ichi; Imai, Hiroya; Iwakiri, Tomoya; Sato, Takehiro; Shimoda, Kei; Nakayama, Toru; Hamada, Hiroki

    2012-03-01

    A glucosyltransferase (GT) of Phytolacca americana (PaGT3) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified for the synthesis of two O-β-glucoside products of trans-resveratrol. The reaction was moderately regioselective with a ratio of 4'-O-β-glucoside: 3-O-β-glucoside at 10:3. We used not only the purified enzyme but also the E. coli cells containing the PaGT3 gene for the synthesis of glycoconjugates. E. coli cell cultures also have other advantages, such as a shorter incubation time compared with cultured plant cells, no need for the addition of exogenous glucosyl donor compounds such as UDP-glucose, and almost complete conversion of the aglycone to the glucoside products. Furthermore, a homology model of PaGT3 and mutagenesis studies suggested that His-20 would be a catalytically important residue.

  10. Soboliphyme baturini infection does not affect the nutritional condition of American marten (Martes americana) in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J G; Pauli, J N; Donadio, E; Buskirk, S W

    2008-12-01

    Soboliphyme baturini, a stomach-dwelling nematode of American martens (Martes Americana), reaches high levels of infection; however, its effects on the nutritional condition of the host are unknown. To understand the effects of this parasite on American martens, we collected S. baturini and measured abdominal fat deposits from 155 marten carcasses on Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska, in the winter 2006-2007. We analyzed how the dried mass of abdominal fat varied as a function of S. baturini intensity. Parasite intensity and nutritional condition were not correlated; these results suggest that American martens were able to withstand even very high levels of S. baturini infection (up to 178 parasites per host). PMID:18576861

  11. Surgical removal of a tracheal foreign body from a whooping crane (Grus americana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, P.E.; Dein, F.J.; Langenberg, J.A.; Frischmeyer, K.J.; Brunson, D.

    1991-01-01

    The left wing of a whooping crane (Grus americana) was amputated for treatment of severe nonunion and malunion fractures of the radius and ulna. During the postoperative convalescent period, the bird aspirated a corn kernel and subsequently suffered episodic bouts of dyspnea. The bird was anesthetized with tiletamine-zolazepam. Attempts to deliver the kernel through the glottis with endoscopic instruments were unsuccessful. The corn kernel was retrieved via a tracheotomy incision. Endoscopy of the trachea 2 mo postoperatively showed complete healing of the tracheal incision. Mucosal integrity had been reestablished, and tracheal lumen diameter was not compromised. The bird continues in good health 2.5 yr after surgery, shows no sign of respiratory disease, and currently is in a captive breeding program.

  12. Soboliphyme baturini infection does not affect the nutritional condition of American marten (Martes americana) in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J G; Pauli, J N; Donadio, E; Buskirk, S W

    2008-12-01

    Soboliphyme baturini, a stomach-dwelling nematode of American martens (Martes Americana), reaches high levels of infection; however, its effects on the nutritional condition of the host are unknown. To understand the effects of this parasite on American martens, we collected S. baturini and measured abdominal fat deposits from 155 marten carcasses on Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska, in the winter 2006-2007. We analyzed how the dried mass of abdominal fat varied as a function of S. baturini intensity. Parasite intensity and nutritional condition were not correlated; these results suggest that American martens were able to withstand even very high levels of S. baturini infection (up to 178 parasites per host).

  13. Two glucosylated abscisic acid derivates from avocado seeds (Persea americana Mill. Lauraceae cv. Hass).

    PubMed

    del Refugio Ramos, María; Jerz, Gerold; Villanueva, Socorro; López-Dellamary, Fernando; Waibel, Reiner; Winterhalter, Peter

    2004-04-01

    Phytochemical investigation of avocado seed material (Persea americana Mill., Lauraceae) resulted in the isolation of two glucosylated abscisic acid derivates. One of these was not known as a natural product and can be regarded as a potential 'missing link' in abscisic acid metabolism in plants. After fractionation by high-speed countercurrent chromatography, and multiple steps of column chromatography, structures were elucidated by 1D-, 2D-NMR, electrospray-MS to be the novel beta-d-glucoside of (1'S,6'R)-8'-hydroxyabscisic acid, and (1'R,3'R,5'R,8'S)-epi-dihydrophaseic acid beta-d-glucoside. Absolute configuration was determined by circulardichroism, optical rotation, and by NOE experiments.

  14. Successful treatment of suspected exertional myopathy in a rhea (Rhea americana).

    PubMed

    Smith, Kristine M; Murray, Suzan; Sanchez, Carlos

    2005-06-01

    A 7-yr-old, adult, female greater rhea (Rhea americana) from the National Zoological Park presented with a 24-hr history of severe left leg lameness that progressed to an inability to stand. Blood work revealed creatine phosphokinase (CPK) above 50,000 U/L and elevated lactate dehydrogenase. The bird's condition deteriorated over the next week. The bird's CPK increased to over 208,400 U/L. Aggressive intravenous fluids and physical therapy along with oral anxiolytic and muscle-relaxant drugs were instituted. After 2 wk of aggressive therapy, initial signs of improvement were noted. By day 28, the bird was able to walk unassisted with no noticeable lameness. This is one of the few reported cases of successful treatment of suspected ratite exertional myopathy. It is believed that success in this case can be attributed to persistent, aggressive physical therapy, muscle relaxants, and anxiolytics aimed to counteract the hyperexcitable nature of these birds.

  15. Evaluation of two short-term anesthetic protocols in captive juvenile pronghorn (Antilocapra americana).

    PubMed

    Mama, Khursheed R; Uhrig, Samantha; Miller, David S; Harris, Lauren; Syndergaard, Melissa; Regnier, Marianne; Rhyan, Jack C

    2009-12-01

    Safe and efficacious anesthesia is required to facilitate biomedical procedures in pronghorn (Antilocapra americana). Two short-term anesthesia protocols were evaluated in 10 juvenile male pronghorn raised in captivity. Following i.m. medetomidine (0.1 mg/kg), pronghorn received either intravenous propofol (P) or ketamine (K). Behavioral and physiologic parameters were assessed for 15 min prior to atipamezole (0.2 mg/kg, i.m.) administration. Quantitative and qualitative values following both protocols were similar. Mean induction times were 80 +/- 23 and 75 +/- 15 sec after K and P, respectively. Arterial pressure decreased over time, and hypoxemia was evident (PaO2 51 +/- 4 mmHg) following both treatments.

  16. Characterization of visual pigments, oil droplets, lens and cornea in the whooping crane Grus americana.

    PubMed

    Porter, Megan L; Kingston, Alexandra C N; McCready, Robert; Cameron, Evan G; Hofmann, Christopher M; Suarez, Lauren; Olsen, Glenn H; Cronin, Thomas W; Robinson, Phyllis R

    2014-11-01

    Vision has been investigated in many species of birds, but few studies have considered the visual systems of large birds and the particular implications of large eyes and long-life spans on visual system capabilities. To address these issues we investigated the visual system of the whooping crane Grus americana (Gruiformes, Gruidae), which is one of only two North American crane species. It is a large, long-lived bird in which UV sensitivity might be reduced by chromatic aberration and entrance of UV radiation into the eye could be detrimental to retinal tissues. To investigate the whooping crane visual system we used microspectrophotometry to determine the absorbance spectra of retinal oil droplets and to investigate whether the ocular media (i.e. the lens and cornea) absorb UV radiation. In vitro expression and reconstitution was used to determine the absorbance spectra of rod and cone visual pigments. The rod visual pigments had wavelengths of peak absorbance (λmax) at 500 nm, whereas the cone visual pigment λmax values were determined to be 404 nm (SWS1), 450 nm (SWS2), 499 nm (RH2) and 561 nm (LWS), similar to other characterized bird visual pigment absorbance values. The oil droplet cut-off wavelength (λcut) values similarly fell within ranges recorded in other avian species: 576 nm (R-type), 522 nm (Y-type), 506 nm (P-type) and 448 nm (C-type). We confirm that G. americana has a violet-sensitive visual system; however, as a consequence of the λmax of the SWS1 visual pigment (404 nm), it might also have some UV sensitivity.

  17. Niche evolution and thermal adaptation in the temperate species Drosophila americana.

    PubMed

    Sillero, N; Reis, M; Vieira, C P; Vieira, J; Morales-Hojas, R

    2014-08-01

    The study of ecological niche evolution is fundamental for understanding how the environment influences species' geographical distributions and their adaptation to divergent environments. Here, we present a study of the ecological niche, demographic history and thermal performance (locomotor activity, developmental time and fertility/viability) of the temperate species Drosophila americana and its two chromosomal forms. Temperature is the environmental factor that contributes most to the species' and chromosomal forms' ecological niches, although precipitation is also important in the model of the southern populations. The past distribution model of the species predicts a drastic reduction in the suitable area for the distribution of the species during the last glacial maximum (LGM), suggesting a strong bottleneck. However, DNA analyses did not detect a bottleneck signature during the LGM. These contrasting results could indicate that D. americana niche preference evolves with environmental change, and thus, there is no evidence to support niche conservatism in this species. Thermal performance experiments show no difference in the locomotor activity across a temperature range of 15 to 38 °C between flies from the north and the south of its distribution. However, we found significant differences in developmental time and fertility/viability between the two chromosomal forms at the model's optimal temperatures for the two forms. However, results do not indicate that they perform better for the traits studied here in their respective optimal niche temperatures. This suggests that behaviour plays an important role in thermoregulation, supporting the capacity of this species to adapt to different climatic conditions across its latitudinal distribution.

  18. Toxicity of the herbicides bromacil and simazine to the aquatic macrophyte, Vallisneria americana Michx.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P Chris; Wilson, Sandra B

    2010-01-01

    Vallisneria americana Michx. (tapegrass) is an ecologically important submersed, vascular aquatic plant that provides food and shelter for many aquatic and waterfowl species. This plant often occurs close to land areas where herbicides are used. Nontarget exposure of these plants to herbicides may compromise ecological structure and function. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of several endpoint measurements for determining no-observable-adverse effect concentrations (NOAECs), lowest-observable-adverse effect concentrations (LOAECs), and median effective concentration values (EC50s) for tapegrass exposed to the herbicides bromacil (0-0.092 mg/L) and simazine (0-0.592 mg/L) following a 13-d single-pulse exposure and 15-d (bromacil) or 14-d (simazine) postexposure periods. The NOAEC/LOAEC/EC50 for fresh weight gains, new leaf production, and total leaf growth after 13-d exposure to bromacil were 0.020/0.036/0.032, 0.036/0.054/0.036, and 0.036/0.054/0.043 mg/L, respectively. The same respective NOAEC/LOAEC/EC50s for simazine were <0.058/0.058/0.067, 0.229/0.344/0.154, and 0.058/0.116/0.081 mg/L. Reductions in quantity and fresh weight of daughter plants produced and stolon fresh weights occurred at bromacil concentrations > or = 77, 0.020, and 0.036 mg/L, respectively; and simazine concentrations > or = 0.344, >0.592, and > or = 0.116 mg/L, respectively. Neither herbicide affected leaf greenness, total chlorophyll concentrations, or carbohydrate allocation. Although toxicity was shown for many endpoints, most EC50 values were greater than aquatic life benchmark values for algae used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), but less than for aquatic plants, indicating that V. americana would likely be protected by use of the algal benchmark criteria. PMID:20821436

  19. Characterization of visual pigments, oil droplets, lens and cornea in the whooping crane Grus americana

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Megan L.; Kingston, Alexandra C. N.; McCready, Robert; Cameron, Evan G.; Hofmann, Christopher M.; Suarez, Lauren; Olsen, Glenn H.; Cronin, Thomas W.; Robinson, Phyllis R.

    2014-01-01

    Vision has been investigated in many species of birds, but few studies have considered the visual systems of large birds and the particular implications of large eyes and long-life spans on visual system capabilities. To address these issues we investigated the visual system of the whooping crane Grus americana (Gruiformes, Gruidae), which is one of only two North American crane species. It is a large, long-lived bird in which UV sensitivity might be reduced by chromatic aberration and entrance of UV radiation into the eye could be detrimental to retinal tissues. To investigate the whooping crane visual system we used microspectrophotometry to determine the absorbance spectra of retinal oil droplets and to investigate whether the ocular media (i.e. the lens and cornea) absorb UV radiation. In vitro expression and reconstitution was used to determine the absorbance spectra of rod and cone visual pigments. The rod visual pigments had wavelengths of peak absorbance (λmax) at 500 nm, whereas the cone visual pigment λmax values were determined to be 404 nm (SWS1), 450 nm (SWS2), 499 nm (RH2) and 561 nm (LWS), similar to other characterized bird visual pigment absorbance values. The oil droplet cut-off wavelength (λcut) values similarly fell within ranges recorded in other avian species: 576 nm (R-type), 522 nm (Y-type), 506 nm (P-type) and 448 nm (C-type). We confirm that G. americana has a violet-sensitive visual system; however, as a consequence of the λmax of the SWS1 visual pigment (404 nm), it might also have some UV sensitivity. PMID:25267845

  20. Allometric scaling for chemical restraint in greater Rheas (Rhea americana) with Tiletamine and Zolazepam

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chemical restraint is of great importance in the clinical practice of wildlife animals. In such, interspecific allometric scaling proposes pharmacological doses to a wide range of species, based on previously known doses for domestic animals and the target animal’s body mass. The objective was to compare chemical restraint responses in the greater rhea (Rhea americana) with conventional doses of tiletamine/zolazepam, found in the literature for the species, and with doses calculated through interspecific allometric scaling extrapolation. From the Federal University of Piauí, six adult greater rheas (Rhea americana), three males and three females, were randomly selected to be subjects in this research. All six animals were submitted to two chemical restraint protocols with tiletamine and zolazepam, per intramuscular injection in the hind limb. The first protocol was composed of doses found on the literature for the species, while the second protocol used doses calculated by interspecific allometric scaling, with the domestic dog as model animal. Heart and respiratory rates, body temperature, eyelid reflex, digital pinch and metatarsal reflex were registered along with latency and ambulation times. Results The use of interspecific allometric scaling for chemical restraint with the combination tiletamine and zolazepam showed satisfying results, with great similarity to results obtained with conventional doses in Greater rheas. Conclusions Literature on chemical restraint and use of tiletamine and zolazepam in rheas is scarce. Chemical restraint is of extreme importance on these animals, due to their aggressive nature and low level of domesticity. This research may further establish the interspecific allometric scaling method as a viable tool for the veterinary physician in formulating anesthetic and chemical restraint protocols for wildlife animals. PMID:24625103

  1. Contribution of anaerobic protozoa and methanogens to hindgut metabolic activities of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed Central

    Gijzen, H J; Barugahare, M

    1992-01-01

    The ciliate Nyctotherus ovalis occurs in high numbers in the hindgut of the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) and harbors methanogenic bacteria as endosymbionts. The contribution of these hindgut microorganisms to metabolic and developmental processes of P. americana was studied by comparing cultures of cockroaches in which the composition of the hindgut microbial population was altered in various ways. Rearing the insects protozoan free resulted in increased insect generation time, decreased adult body weight, and absence of methane production. After feeding of protozoan-free adult cockroaches with a hindgut suspension containing N. ovalis and methanogens, methane increased to normal values and insect body weight was restored during the development of the second generation of insects. Feeding the protozoan-free cockroaches a hindgut suspension which was made free of N. ovalis resulted in an increase in methane production to only about 20% of the normal methane production level. This suggests that the methanogenic endosymbionts of N. ovalis are the major source of methane production in the hindgut. Inhibition of methanogens by addition of bromoethanesulfonic acid to the drinking water of a normal cockroach culture resulted in a reduction of methane production to about 2% of the normal level. No effects on insect body weight or the number of N. ovalis organisms were observed, but the fermentation pattern in the hindgut was shifted towards a relative increase in propionate levels. Similar results were obtained for in vitro cultures of hindgut microorganisms treated with bromoethanesulfonic acid. The results suggest a major role for hindgut protozoa in cockroach metabolic activities, especially during the insect growth period. The relatively large amounts of methane produced by cockroaches and by other methane-producing xylophagous insects suggest a major contribution by insects to global methane production. PMID:1514803

  2. Structural analysis of fructans from Agave americana grown in South Africa for spirit production.

    PubMed

    Ravenscroft, Neil; Cescutti, Paola; Hearshaw, Meredith A; Ramsout, Ronica; Rizzo, Roberto; Timme, Elizabeth M

    2009-05-27

    Fructans isolated from Agave americana grown in South Africa are currently used for spirit production. Structural studies on water-soluble fructans were performed to facilitate the development of other applications including its use as a prebiotic. Acid hydrolysis followed by HPAEC-PAD analysis confirmed that the fructan was composed of glucose and fructose, and size analysis by HPAEC-PAD and size exclusion chromatography indicated that the saccharides have a DP range from 6 to 50. An average DP of 14 was estimated by (1)H NMR analysis. Linkage analysis and ESI-MS studies suggest that A. americana has a neofructan structure consisting of a central sucrose to which (2 → 1)- and (2 → 6)-linked β-D-Fruf chains are attached. The (2 → 1)-linked units extend from C-1 of Fru and C-6 of glucose, whereas the (2 → 6)-linked β-D-Fruf units are attached to C-6 of the central Fru. This structure accounts for the presence of equimolar amounts of 1,6-linked Glu and 1,2,6-linked Fru found in linkage analysis and the multiplicity of the NMR signals observed. Detailed ESI-MS studies were performed on fructan fractions: native, periodate oxidized/reduced, and permethylated oligomers. These derivatizations introduced mass differences between Glc and Fru following oxidation and between 1,2-, 1,6-, 2,6-, and 1,2,6-linked units after methylation. Thus, ESI-MS showed the presence of a single Glc per fructan chain and that it is predominantly internal, rather than terminal as found in inulin. These structural features were confirmed by the use of 1D and 2D NMR experiments.

  3. A new species of armored scale, Mycetaspis ailynaomi (Hemiptera, Diaspididae, Aspidiotinae), associated with Mammea americana L. (Malpighiales, Calophyllaceae) from Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Dones, Ramón A.; Evans, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new species of armored scale, Mycetaspis ailynaomi Dones and Evans is described and illustrated from specimens collected on mamey (Mammea americana) from Puerto Rico. A key to the species of Mycetaspis is provided. PMID:21852924

  4. Occurrence of the wheat stem maggot, Meromyza americana Fitch, (Diptera: Chloropidae) in intermediate wheatgrass, Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth and D.R. Dewey (Poaceae), in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adults of the wheat stem maggot, Meromyza americana Fitch, were reared from aborted (white, blasted) reproductive culms of intermediate wheatgrass, Elytrigia intermedia (Host) Nevski subsp. intermedia, collected from seed production blocks in Woodward County, Oklahoma. Percentage of aborted inflore...

  5. Cloning of PaAtg8 and roles of autophagy in adaptation to starvation with respect to the fat body and midgut of the Americana cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Park, Moon Soo; Takeda, Makio

    2014-05-01

    Starvation, in particular amino acid deprivation, induces autophagy in trophocytes (adipocytes), the major component of the fat body cell types, in the larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. However, the fat body of cockroach has two additional cell types: urocytes depositing uric acid in urate vacuoles as a nitrogen resource and mycetocytes harboring an endosymbiont, Blattabacterium cuenoti, which can synthesize amino acids from the metabolites of the stored uric acid. These cells might complement the roles of autophagy in recycling amino acids in the fat body or other organs of cockroaches under starvation. We investigate the presence of autophagy in tissues such as the fat body and midgut of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, under starvation by immunoblotting with antibody against Atg8, a ubiquitin-like protein required for the formation of autophagosomes and by electron microscopy. Corresponding changes in acid phosphatase activity were also investigated as representing lysosome activity. Starvation increased the level of an autophagic marker, Atg8-II, in both the tissues, extensively stimulating the formation of autophagic compartments in trophocytes of the fat body and columnar cells of the midgut for over 2 weeks. Acid phosphatase showed no significant increase in the fat body of the starved cockroaches but was higher in the midgut of the continuously fed animals. Thus, a distinct autophagic mechanism operates in these tissues under starvation of 2 weeks and longer. The late induction of autophagy implies exhaustion of the stored uric acid in the fat body. High activity of acid phosphatase in the midgut of the fed cockroaches might represent enhanced assimilation and not an autophagy-related function.

  6. Cloning of PaAtg8 and roles of autophagy in adaptation to starvation with respect to the fat body and midgut of the Americana cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Park, Moon Soo; Takeda, Makio

    2014-05-01

    Starvation, in particular amino acid deprivation, induces autophagy in trophocytes (adipocytes), the major component of the fat body cell types, in the larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. However, the fat body of cockroach has two additional cell types: urocytes depositing uric acid in urate vacuoles as a nitrogen resource and mycetocytes harboring an endosymbiont, Blattabacterium cuenoti, which can synthesize amino acids from the metabolites of the stored uric acid. These cells might complement the roles of autophagy in recycling amino acids in the fat body or other organs of cockroaches under starvation. We investigate the presence of autophagy in tissues such as the fat body and midgut of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, under starvation by immunoblotting with antibody against Atg8, a ubiquitin-like protein required for the formation of autophagosomes and by electron microscopy. Corresponding changes in acid phosphatase activity were also investigated as representing lysosome activity. Starvation increased the level of an autophagic marker, Atg8-II, in both the tissues, extensively stimulating the formation of autophagic compartments in trophocytes of the fat body and columnar cells of the midgut for over 2 weeks. Acid phosphatase showed no significant increase in the fat body of the starved cockroaches but was higher in the midgut of the continuously fed animals. Thus, a distinct autophagic mechanism operates in these tissues under starvation of 2 weeks and longer. The late induction of autophagy implies exhaustion of the stored uric acid in the fat body. High activity of acid phosphatase in the midgut of the fed cockroaches might represent enhanced assimilation and not an autophagy-related function. PMID:24696316

  7. Comparative analyses of bioactive Mammea coumarins from seven parts of Mammea americana by HPLC-PDA with LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Jiang, Bei; Reynertson, Kurt A; Basile, Margaret J; Kennelly, Edward J

    2006-06-14

    Mammea americana L. is tropical plant in the Clusiaceae family that bears edible fruit. Mammea coumarins are isoprenylated derivatives of the lactones of the 2-hydroxy-Z-cinnamic acids that are bioactive and have limited distribution in three Clusiaceae genera. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed to determine the distribution of mammea coumarins in the seed nucleus, seed coat, fruit flesh, fruit skin, leaf, stem, and root of M. americana using high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Ten major mammea coumarins, mammea E/BD (1), mammea E/BC (2), mammea E/BA (3), mammea E/BB (4), mammea B/BA hydroxycyclo F (5), mammea B/BD (6), mammea B/BC (7), mammea B/BA (8), mammea B/BB (9), and mammea B/BA cyclo F (10), were isolated and identified from the seed nucleus of M. americana and employed as standards. The HPLC-PDA method was validated with respect to sensitivity, linearity, recovery, accuracy, and precision. The total content (w/w %) of the 10 major mammea coumarins in M. americana was determined to be highest in the root (0.75%), followed by the leaf (0.64%), seed nucleus (0.48%), fruit skin (0.11%), stem (0.08%), seed coat (0.02%), and fruit flesh (<0.01%). The leaf and seed nucleus are rich and sustainable natural sources of mammea coumarins. Additionally, the described HPLC-PDA and LC-MS methods are sensitive and accurate and can be applied to the analysis of mammea coumarins in other samples.

  8. Identification and tissue expression profile of genes from three chemoreceptor families in an urban pest, Periplaneta americana

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; He, Ming; Li, Zhao-Qun; Zhang, Ya-Nan; He, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Periplaneta americana is a notorious urban pest prevalent in human habitats; very little is known about its chemosensory mechanism. Employing the advanced next-generation sequencing technique, in the present study, we conducted transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the antennae of the adult males and females as well as their mouthparts using an Illumina platform. This resulted in the discovery of a huge number of the members of all major known chemosensory receptor families in P. americana, including 96 odorant receptors (ORs), 53 ionotropic receptors (IRs), and 33 gustatory receptors (GRs). Tissue expression profiles showed most of them mainly expressed in antennae and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the expansion in the clade distinguishing them from other functionally well-known Lepidoptera species. A high percentage of chemosensory receptor genes (ORs in particular) showing female antenna bias in mRNA expression was observed. Our results provide a basis for further investigations on how P. americana coordinates its chemosensory receptor genes in chemical communication with environments, and for development of novel pest management approaches. PMID:27279336

  9. Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria on the growth and fructan production of Agave americana L.

    PubMed

    De La Torre-Ruiz, Neyser; Ruiz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel; Rincón-Molina, Clara Ivette; Rodríguez-Mendiola, Martha; Arias-Castro, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; Palomeque-Dominguez, Héctor; Rincón-Rosales, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    The effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria inoculation on plant growth and the sugar content in Agave americana was assessed. The bacterial strains ACO-34A, ACO-40, and ACO-140, isolated from the A. americana rhizosphere, were selected for this study to evaluate their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The three bacterial strains were evaluated via plant inoculation assays, and Azospirillum brasilense Cd served as a control strain. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that strains ACO-34A, ACO-40 and ACO-140 were Rhizobium daejeonense, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Pseudomonas mosselii, respectively. All of the strains were able to synthesize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), solubilize phosphate, and had nitrogenase activity. Inoculation using the plant growth-promoting bacteria strains had a significant effect (p<0.05) on plant growth and the sugar content of A. americana, showing that these native plant growth-promoting bacteria are a practical, simple, and efficient alternative to promote the growth of agave plants with proper biological characteristics for agroindustrial and biotechnological use and to increase the sugar content in this agave species. PMID:27268113

  10. Antimicrobial activity of crude epicarp and seed extracts from mature avocado fruit (Persea americana) of three cultivars.

    PubMed

    Raymond Chia, Teck Wah; Dykes, Gary A

    2010-07-01

    The epicarp and seed of Persea Americana Mill. var. Hass (Lauraceae), Persea Americana Mill. var. Shepard, and Persea americana Mill. var Fuerte cultivars of mature avocados (n = 3) were ground separately and extracted with both absolute ethanol and distilled water. Extracts were analyzed for antimicrobial activity using the microtiter broth microdilution assay against four Gram-positive bacteria, six Gram-negative bacteria, and one yeast. Antimicrobial activity against two molds was determined by the hole plate method. The ethanol extracts showed antimicrobial activity (104.2-416.7 microg/mL) toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (except Escherichia coli), while inhibition of the water extracts was only observed for Listeria monocytogenes (93.8-375.0 microg/mL) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (354.2 microg/mL). The minimum concentration required to inhibit Zygosaccharomyces bailii was 500 microg/mL for the ethanol extracts, while no inhibition was observed for the water extracts. No inhibition by either ethanol or water extracts was observed against Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus flavus.

  11. In vitro cytotoxicity study of agave americana, strychnos nuxvomica and areca catechu extracts using mcf-7 cell line.

    PubMed

    Anajwala, Chetan C; Patel, Rajesh M; Dakhara, Sanjay L; Jariwala, Jitesh K

    2010-04-01

    Research is focusing on the search for new types of natural chemotherapeutic agent that is plant based medicines which are proving to be excellent sources of new compounds. In present research study, an attempt was made to prove cytotoxicity activity of various parts of medicinal plants such as Agave americana, Strychnos nuxvomica and Areca catechu using MCF-7 and Vero cell line. Various parts of the medicinal plants were extracted by soxhlet apparatus using solvents likes methanol and water. By trypan blue dye exclusion method, Viability of MCF-7 and Vero cell lines were 85.50 and 81.13%, respectively. IC(50) value of methanol extract of Agave americana leaves and aqueous extract of Areca catechu fruits were found to be 545.9 & 826.1 μg/ml by SRB assay and 775.1 & 1461pg/ml by MTT assay, respectively, against MCF-7 cell line. From cytotoxicity study data by SRB and MTT assay, it revealed that methanol extract of Agave americana and aqueous extract of Areca catechu are potent cytotoxic. PMID:22247852

  12. In vitro cytotoxicity study of agave americana, strychnos nuxvomica and areca catechu extracts using mcf-7 cell line.

    PubMed

    Anajwala, Chetan C; Patel, Rajesh M; Dakhara, Sanjay L; Jariwala, Jitesh K

    2010-04-01

    Research is focusing on the search for new types of natural chemotherapeutic agent that is plant based medicines which are proving to be excellent sources of new compounds. In present research study, an attempt was made to prove cytotoxicity activity of various parts of medicinal plants such as Agave americana, Strychnos nuxvomica and Areca catechu using MCF-7 and Vero cell line. Various parts of the medicinal plants were extracted by soxhlet apparatus using solvents likes methanol and water. By trypan blue dye exclusion method, Viability of MCF-7 and Vero cell lines were 85.50 and 81.13%, respectively. IC(50) value of methanol extract of Agave americana leaves and aqueous extract of Areca catechu fruits were found to be 545.9 & 826.1 μg/ml by SRB assay and 775.1 & 1461pg/ml by MTT assay, respectively, against MCF-7 cell line. From cytotoxicity study data by SRB and MTT assay, it revealed that methanol extract of Agave americana and aqueous extract of Areca catechu are potent cytotoxic.

  13. Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria on the growth and fructan production of Agave americana L.

    PubMed

    De La Torre-Ruiz, Neyser; Ruiz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel; Rincón-Molina, Clara Ivette; Rodríguez-Mendiola, Martha; Arias-Castro, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; Palomeque-Dominguez, Héctor; Rincón-Rosales, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    The effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria inoculation on plant growth and the sugar content in Agave americana was assessed. The bacterial strains ACO-34A, ACO-40, and ACO-140, isolated from the A. americana rhizosphere, were selected for this study to evaluate their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The three bacterial strains were evaluated via plant inoculation assays, and Azospirillum brasilense Cd served as a control strain. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that strains ACO-34A, ACO-40 and ACO-140 were Rhizobium daejeonense, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Pseudomonas mosselii, respectively. All of the strains were able to synthesize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), solubilize phosphate, and had nitrogenase activity. Inoculation using the plant growth-promoting bacteria strains had a significant effect (p<0.05) on plant growth and the sugar content of A. americana, showing that these native plant growth-promoting bacteria are a practical, simple, and efficient alternative to promote the growth of agave plants with proper biological characteristics for agroindustrial and biotechnological use and to increase the sugar content in this agave species.

  14. Phylogeny of ruminants secretory ribonuclease gene sequences of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana).

    PubMed

    Beintema, Jaap J; Breukelman, Heleen J; Dubois, Jean-Yves F; Warmels, Hayo W

    2003-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses based on primary structures of mammalian ribonucleases, indicated that three homologous enzymes (pancreatic, seminal and brain ribonucleases) present in the bovine species are the results of gene duplication events, which occurred in the ancestor of the ruminants after divergence from other artiodactyls. In this paper sequences are presented of genes encoding pancreatic and brain-type ribonuclease genes of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana). The seminal-type ribonuclease gene could not be detected in this species, neither by PCR amplification nor by Southern blot analyses, indicating that it may be deleted completely in this species. Previously we demonstrated of a study of amino acid sequences of pancreatic ribonucleases of a large number of ruminants the monophyly of bovids and cervids, and that pronghorn groups with giraffe. Here we present phylogenetic analyses of nucleotide sequences of ribonucleases and other molecules from ruminant species and compare these with published data. Chevrotain (Tragulus) always groups with the other ruminants as separate taxon from the pecora or true ruminants. Within the pecora the relationships between Bovidae, Cervidae, Giraffidae, and pronghorn (Antilocapra) cannot be decided with certainty, although in the majority of analyses Antilocapra diverges first, separately or joined with giraffe. Broad taxon sampling and investigation of specific sequence features may be as important for reliable conclusions in phylogeny as the lengths of analyzed sequences. PMID:12470934

  15. Presumptive copper deficiency in hand-reared captive pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) fawns.

    PubMed

    Miller, M; Amsel, S; Boehm, J; Gonzales, B

    2001-09-01

    Presumptive copper deficiency was diagnosed in hand-reared captive pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) at the Los Angeles Zoo. Clinical signs, which were manifested in growing fawns, included anemia, anorexia, diarrhea, progressive paresis/recumbency, and aortic rupture. The range of serum copper concentrations in fawns born during the 1989 season (0.08-0.67 ppm) was below levels considered normal for domestic sheep and goats (0.7-2.0 ppm) and below concentrations measured in adult pronghorn (0.4-1.43 ppm). Copper sulfate supplementation of the hand-rearing formula, which was initiated in 1989, resulted in a significant increase in mean (+/- SD) serum copper levels from 0.45 +/- 0.18 ppm before supplementation to 0.68 +/- 0.05 ppm after supplementation (P < 0.05). Fawns born in subsequent seasons (April 1990-August 1993) continued to be supplemented with copper in the hand-rearing formula. Mean serum copper concentration from these fawns (0.68 +/- 0.22 ppm) was similar to the mean values from supplemented 1989 fawns and adult pronghorn in this herd (0.85 +/- 0.34 ppm; P > 0.05). No clinical signs of copper deficiency were detected in any fawns after supplementation was started. Analyses of the herd's diet revealed marginal dietary copper levels. Suspected dietary deficiency was confirmed by marginal tissue and serum copper concentrations in some of the herd's adult animals. Dietary copper levels were corrected to prevent future cases of clinical copper deficiency. PMID:12785688

  16. Bluetongue in free-ranging pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) in Wyoming: 1976 and 1984.

    PubMed

    Thorne, E T; Williams, E S; Spraker, T R; Helms, W; Segerstrom, T

    1988-01-01

    At least 3,200 pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) died during a bluetongue (BT) epizootic in eastern Wyoming during late September and early October 1976. In August and September 1984, another BT epizootic occurred in northeastern Wyoming resulting in 300 known pronghorn deaths. In 17 pronghorn examined postmortem, hemorrhages and edema were the most common gross pathologic changes. Microscopic changes included hemorrhage, edema, arterial fibrinoid necrosis, lymphoid depletion in splenic and lymphatic follicles, and neuronal necrosis. Bluetongue virus serotype 17 was isolated from pronghorn in both epizootics. Mortalities ceased with the advent of cool weather in late September and October. Seventy-six of 94 pronghorn killed by hunters during the latter period of the 1976 epizootic, and 14 of 24 pronghorn killed 1 yr later had serologic evidence of exposure to BT virus. The reproductive rate in pronghorn was depressed to 47 fawns per 100 does in August 1977, but returned to 93 fawns per 100 does by 1978. Following the 1984 outbreak, the reproductive rate was similarly depressed, but the cause was confounded by other environmental and range conditions. Deer, mostly mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), also died during both epizootics of what was presumed to be BT. PMID:2832621

  17. Anadromous alewives, Alosa pseudoharengus, as prey for white perch, Morone americana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moring, J.R.; Mink, L.H.

    2002-01-01

    The reintroduction of anadromous alewives, Alosa pseudoharengus, to their historic habitats in the inland waters of the United States and Canada, has prompted concerns about possible interactions with a popular sport fish, white perch, Morone americana. Both species are now widely distributed in northeastern North America. Diets of white perch in Lake George, Maine, U.S.A., where alewives were absent, were monitored and compared with those of white perch populations that were sympatric with anadromous alewives in two coastal Maine lakes, Biscay Pond and North Pond. In the presence of introduced alewives, the diet of adult white perch became almost exclusively juvenile alewives by late summer in ponds where both species were present. White perch that were sympatric with alewives were more piscivorus than were Lake George white perch, which primarily consumed Cladocera. Not only were alewives the principal prey item in the diet of white perch in Biscay and North ponds, but adult alewives were largely cannibalistic by August. Thus, success of reintroducing anadromous alewives in waters containing white perch may be negatively impacted by predation as well as cannibalism.

  18. Spirochaeta americana sp. nov.: A New Haloalkaliphilic, Obligately Anaerobic Spirochete Isolated from Soda Mono Lake, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Pikuta, Elena V.; Marsic, Damien; Whitman, William B.; Tang, Jane; Krader, Paul; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A novel obligately anaerobic, mesophilic, haloalkaliphilic spirochete, strain ASpG1, was isolated from sediments of the alkaline, hypersaline Mono Lake in California, U.S.A. The gram-negative cells are motile and spirochete-shaped with sizes of 0.22 x 10-15 micron. Growth was observed over the temperature range of 10 C to 44 C (optimum 37 C), NaCl concentration range of greater than 1 - 12 % (wt/vol) (optimum 3%), and pH range 7.5 - 10.5 (optimum pH 9.5). The novel isolate is strictly alkaliphilic, requires high concentrations of carbonate in the medium, and is capable of utilizing D-glucose, fructose, maltose, sucrose, starch, and D-mannitol. Main end products of glucose fermentation are: H2, acetate, ethanol, and formate. Strain AspG1 is resistant to kanamycin, but sensitive to chloramphenicol, gentamycin and tetracycline. The G+C content of its DNA is 58.5 mol%. On the basis of its physiological and molecular properties, the isolate appears to be a novel species among the genus Spirochaeta; and the name Spirochaeta americana sp. nov., is proposed for the taxon (type strain ASpG1(sup T) = ATCC BAA_392(sup T) = DSMZ 14872(sup T)).

  19. Differences in bacterial community structure on Hydrilla verticillata and Vallisneria americana in a freshwater spring.

    PubMed

    Gordon-Bradley, Nadine; Lymperopoulou, Despoina S; Williams, Henry Neal

    2014-01-01

    The phylogenetic composition of the epiphytic bacterial community of an invasive aquatic plant (Hydrilla verticillata) and a native species (Vallisneria americana [eelgrass]) of the Wakulla Spring (Florida) was investigated, along with the water column bacterial composition, using clone libraries of the 16S rRNA genes. The bacterial clones from three clone libraries were classified into 182 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), most of which were affiliated with bacterial divisions commonly found in freshwater ecosystems. Based on the identified classes, the bacterial communities on eelgrass and Hydrilla were distinct, such that Planctomycetes, Cyanobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria were found on eelgrass and in the water column but not on Hydrilla. On the other hand, Deltaproteobacteria and Verrucomicrobiae were found on Hydrilla and in the water column but not on eelgrass. Further distinctions observed were that Armatimonadia and Deinococci were found only on Hydrilla while Gemmatimonadetes was found only on eelgrass. Our results indicated differences between the epiphytic bacterial community on the two plants and the water column at the species level, but an even representation of the most abundant phylogenetic taxa (classes) in all three libraries was revealed. Statistical comparison of the retrieved sequences confirmed that the three libraries did not differ significantly at the community level (LIBSHUFF, p <0.05). PMID:24553106

  20. Differences in Bacterial Community Structure on Hydrilla verticillata and Vallisneria americana in a Freshwater Spring

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Bradley, Nadine; Lymperopoulou, Despoina S.; Williams, Henry Neal

    2014-01-01

    The phylogenetic composition of the epiphytic bacterial community of an invasive aquatic plant (Hydrilla verticillata) and a native species (Vallisneria americana [eelgrass]) of the Wakulla Spring (Florida) was investigated, along with the water column bacterial composition, using clone libraries of the 16S rRNA genes. The bacterial clones from three clone libraries were classified into 182 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), most of which were affiliated with bacterial divisions commonly found in freshwater ecosystems. Based on the identified classes, the bacterial communities on eelgrass and Hydrilla were distinct, such that Planctomycetes, Cyanobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria were found on eelgrass and in the water column but not on Hydrilla. On the other hand, Deltaproteobacteria and Verrucomicrobiae were found on Hydrilla and in the water column but not on eelgrass. Further distinctions observed were that Armatimonadia and Deinococci were found only on Hydrilla while Gemmatimonadetes was found only on eelgrass. Our results indicated differences between the epiphytic bacterial community on the two plants and the water column at the species level, but an even representation of the most abundant phylogenetic taxa (classes) in all three libraries was revealed. Statistical comparison of the retrieved sequences confirmed that the three libraries did not differ significantly at the community level (LIBSHUFF, p <0.05). PMID:24553106

  1. Effects of nutrient pre-exposure on atrazine toxicity to Vallisneria americana Michx. (wild celery).

    PubMed

    Dantin, Darrin D; Boustany, Ronald G; Lewis, Michael A; Jordan, Stephen J; Moss, Rebecca F; Michot, Thomas C

    2010-04-01

    Accelerated eutrophication is common to many freshwater and marine environments and often co-occurs with the presence of anthropogenic chemicals. However, the toxic effects of common chemical stressors such as herbicides in the presence of elevated nutrients are not well understood for most aquatic flora, particularly vascular species. To provide insight, field-collected Vallisneria americana Michx. (wild celery) were sequentially exposed to three nutrient concentrations for 3 months and then to nominal 11 and 110 microg L(-1) atrazine for 96 h. Nutrient concentrations (combined NH(4)(+), NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-), PO(4)(-)) were based on ambient concentrations in the St. Johns River (FL) and ranged from 0.013 to 0.668 mg L(-1). Nutrient pretreatment potentiated the toxicity of atrazine as determined by chlorophyll fluorescence activity. Electron transport rates (ETR) were significantly less (48-59%) for plants pretreated with low and ambient nutrient levels in the presence of an average of 107.5-128.1 microg L(-1) atrazine. Significant ETR reductions were also observed for plants exposed to an average of 11.4 microg L(-1) atrazine after exposure to nutrients three times the ambient concentration in the St. Johns River. The results indicate the importance of considering the presence of nutrients in chemical hazard assessments, particularly for phytotoxicants and nontarget vascular plants. PMID:19795158

  2. Homology modeling, agonist binding site identification, and docking in octopamine receptor of Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, Akinori; Huang, Hongwei

    2008-06-01

    AY333178 (from Periplaneta americana, 628 AAs) was selected as a target octopamine receptor (OAR) class OAR2 for this study using Discovery Studio (DS Modeling1.1/1.2, Accelrys Inc.). Blast similarity search was performed and identified that AY333178 contains N-terminal domain of GPCR. Based upon Blast and Pfam results, Rhodopsin 1U19 (protein data bank) was considered as an ideal homologue and used as a template for homology modeling due to its higher X-ray resolution at 2.2A. Sequence alignment between AY333178 and 1U19 was done using Align123 followed by a manual modification. The final alignment was carefully evaluated and evidenced to be matching the conserved residue data for class A GPCR fairly well. The 3D model of AY333178 was generated with MODELER, and further refined using CHARMm. Superimposition of the model was done over the template 1U19. Two fairly consistent profiles were observed demonstrating AY333178 model was reasonable and could be employed for the further docking study. Agonist docking into OAR2 model was done using LigandFit. The superimposition of two top poses of representative agonists was performed with a soft surface generated. Those models are considered to be used in designing new leads for hopefully more active compounds. Further research on the comparison of models for the agonists may elucidate the mechanisms of OAR2-ligand interactions.

  3. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium in Phytolacca americana L.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaoping; Dou, Changming; Chen, Yingxu; Chen, Xincai; Shi, Jiyan; Yu, Mingge; Xu, Jie

    2011-02-15

    Phytolacca americana L. (pokeweed) is a promising species for Cd phytoextraction with large biomass and fast growth rate. To further understand the mechanisms involved in Cd tolerance and detoxification, the present study investigated subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd in pokeweed. Subcellular fractionation of Cd-containing tissues indicated that both in root and leaves, the majority of the element was located in soluble fraction and cell walls. Meanwhile, Cd taken up by pokeweed existed in different chemical forms. Results showed that the greatest amount of Cd was found in the extraction of 80% ethanol in roots, followed by 1 M NaCl, d-H(2)O and 2% HAc, while in leaves and stems, most of the Cd was extracted by 1 M NaCl, and the subdominant amount of Cd was extracted by 80% ethanol. It could be suggested that Cd compartmentation with organo-ligands in vacuole or integrated with pectates and proteins in cell wall might be responsible for the adaptation of pokeweed to Cd stress.

  4. Effects of generalist herbivory on resistance and resource allocation by the invasive plant, Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Ding, Jianqing

    2016-04-01

    Successful invasions by exotic plants are often attributed to a loss of co-evolved specialists and a re-allocation of resources from defense to growth and reproduction. However, invasive plants are rarely completely released from insect herbivory because they are frequently attacked by generalists in their introduced ranges. The novel generalist community may also affect the invasive plant's defensive strategies and resource allocation. Here, we tested this hypothesis using American pokeweed (Phytolacca americana L.), a species that has become invasive in China, which is native to North America. We examined resistance, tolerance, growth and reproduction of plant populations from both China and the USA when plants were exposed to natural generalist herbivores in China. We found that leaf damage was greater for invasive populations than for native populations, indicating that plants from invasive ranges had lower resistance to herbivory than those from native ranges. A regression of the percentage of leaf damage against mass showed that there was no significant difference in tolerance between invasive and native populations, even though the shoot, root, fruit and total mass were larger for invasive populations than for native populations. These results suggest that generalist herbivores are important drivers mediating the defensive strategies and resource allocation of the invasive American pokeweed.

  5. Purification and characterization of two chitinases from the leaves of pokeweed (Phytolacca americana).

    PubMed

    Ohta, M; Yamagami, T; Funatsu, G

    1995-04-01

    Two chitinases, designated PLC-A and PLC-B, were purified from the leaves of pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) using DEAE-cellulose column chromatography followed by gel filtration on Sephadex G-75, hydrophobic column chromatography, and ion-exchange FPLC. PLC-A and PLC-B are acidic and basic proteins having molecular masses of 25 and 29 kDa, and isoelectric points of 3.7 and 9.5, respectively. On the basis of their partial amino acid sequences, it was seen that PLC-A and PLC-B belong to class II and class III chitinases, respectively. The optimal pH of PLC-A toward glycolchitin is pH 4.5 and hydrolyzed (GlcNAc)4 into 2(GlcNAc)2, and (GlcNAc)5-6 into (GlcNAc)2 and (GlcNAc)3. on the other hand, PLC-B has two optimal pHs at 3 and 7 toward glycolchitin and hydrolyzed (GlcNAc)5 into GlcNAc and (GlcNAc)4, and (GlcNAc)6 into GlcNAc, (GlcNAc)2, and (GlcNAc)4.

  6. Purification and characterization of three mitogenic lectins from the roots of pokeweed (Phytolacca americana).

    PubMed

    Kino, M; Yamaguchi, K; Umekawa, H; Funatsu, G

    1995-04-01

    Three mitogenic lectins, designated PL-A, PL-B, and PL-C, were purified from the roots of pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) using Q-Sepharose column chromatography followed by gel filtration on Sephadex G-75, hydrophobic chromatography on Butyl-Toyopearl, and FPLC on a Mono-Q column. PL-A, PL-B, and PL-C are acidic proteins having isoelectric points of 4.35 and their apparent molecular masses were 22, 48, and 21 kDa by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol, respectively. The three lectins have similar amino acid compositions rich in half-cystine and similar N-terminal sequences, indicating that they are homologous proteins. Identical sequences of N-terminal regions and six corresponding tryptic peptides in PL-A and PL-B suggested that PL-A may be an N-terminal half fragment of PL-B. Although all of three lectins have mitogenic activities, PL-B is a mitogenic lectin with the most potent hemagglutinating and mitogenic activities, and PL-C has almost no hemagglutinating activity.

  7. The contribution of the melanin pathway to overall body pigmentation during ontogenesis of Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Lemonds, Thomas R; Liu, Jin; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2016-08-01

    The most prominent colors observed in insects are black or brown, whose production is attributed to the melanin pathway. At present, though, the contribution of this pathway to overall body pigmentation throughout ontogenesis is still lacking. To address this question we examined the roles of 2 key melanin genes (TH and DDC), in embryonic and postembryonic development of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Our results show that the melanin pathway does not contribute to the light brown coloration observed in the first nymphs. However, the dark brown coloration in mid nymphs and adults is produced solely from the melanin pathway. In addition, the DDC RNAi results reveal that it is dopamine melanin, not DOPA melanin, acts as the main contributor in this process. Overall, present study provides a new insight into insect pigmentation suggesting that genetic mechanisms of coloration can change during ontogenesis. Future studies of additional basal insect lineages will be required to assess in more details the generality of this phenomenon. PMID:27158782

  8. Persea americana Mill. Seed: Fractionation, Characterization, and Effects on Human Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Jerz, Maria del R.; Villanueva, Socorro; Jerz, Gerold; Winterhalter, Peter; Deters, Alexandra M.

    2013-01-01

    Methanolic avocado (Persea americana Mill., Lauraceae) seed extracts were separated by preparative HSCCC. Partition and HSCCC fractions were principally characterized by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Their in vitro influence was investigated on proliferation, differentiation, cell viability, and gene expression on HaCaT and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). The methanol-water partition (M) from avocado seeds and HSCCC fraction 3 (M.3) were mostly composed of chlorogenic acid and its isomers. Both reduced NHDF but enhanced HaCaT keratinocytes proliferation. HSCCC fraction M.2 composed of quinic acid among chlorogenic acid and its isomers inhibited proliferation and directly induced differentiation of keratinocytes as observed on gene and protein level. Furthermore, M.2 increased NHDF proliferation via upregulation of growth factor receptors. Salidrosides and ABA derivatives present in HSCCC fraction M.6 increased NHDF and keratinocyte proliferation that resulted in differentiation. The residual solvent fraction M.7 contained among low concentrations of ABA derivatives high amounts of proanthocyanidins B1 and B2 as well as an A-type trimer and stimulated proliferation of normal cells and inhibited the proliferation of immortalized HaCaT keratinocytes. PMID:24371457

  9. Mechanical properties of tracheal tubes in the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Matthew R.; De Vita, Raffaella; Twigg, Jeffrey N.; Socha, John J.

    2011-09-01

    Insects breathe using an extensive network of flexible air-filled tubes. In some species, the rapid collapse and reinflation of these tubes is used to drive convective airflow, a system that may have bio-inspired engineering applications. The mechanical behavior of these tracheal tubes is critical to understanding how they function in this deformation process. Here, we performed quasi-static tensile tests on ring sections of the main thoracic tracheal trunks from the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) to determine the tracheal mechanical properties in the radial direction. The experimental findings indicate that the stress-strain relationships of these tracheal tubes exhibit some nonlinearities. The elastic modulus of the linear region of the stress-strain curves tubes was found to be 1660 ± 512 MPa. The ultimate tensile strength, ultimate strain and toughness were found to be 23.7 ± 7.33 MPa, 2.0 ± 0.7% and 0.207 ± 0.153 MJ m-3, respectively. This study is the first experimental quantification of insect tracheal tissue, and represents a necessary step toward understanding the mechanical role of tracheal tubes in insect respiration.

  10. Fast and Powerful: Biomechanics and Bite Forces of the Mandibles in the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Weihmann, Tom; Reinhardt, Lars; Weißing, Kevin; Siebert, Tobias; Wipfler, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing the functionality and capabilities of masticatory apparatuses is essential for the ecological classification of jawed organisms. Nevertheless insects, especially with their outstanding high species number providing an overwhelming morphological diversity, are notoriously underexplored with respect to maximum bite forces and their dependency on the mandible opening angles. Aiming for a general understanding of insect biting, we examined the generalist feeding cockroach Periplaneta americana, characterized by its primitive chewing mouth parts. We measured active isometric bite forces and passive forces caused by joint resistance over the entire mandibular range with a custom-built 2D force transducer. The opening angle of the mandibles was quantified by using a video system. With respect to the effective mechanical advantage of the mandibles and the cross-section areas, we calculated the forces exerted by the mandible closer muscles and the corresponding muscle stress values. Comparisons with the scarce data available revealed close similarities of the cockroaches' mandible closer stress values (58 N/cm2) to that of smaller specialist carnivorous ground beetles, but strikingly higher values than in larger stag beetles. In contrast to available datasets our results imply the activity of faster and slower muscle fibres, with the latter becoming active only when the animals chew on tough material which requires repetitive, hard biting. Under such circumstances the coactivity of fast and slow fibres provides a force boost which is not available during short-term activities, since long latencies prevent a specific effective employment of the slow fibres in this case.

  11. Fast and Powerful: Biomechanics and Bite Forces of the Mandibles in the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana

    PubMed Central

    Weihmann, Tom; Reinhardt, Lars; Weißing, Kevin; Siebert, Tobias; Wipfler, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing the functionality and capabilities of masticatory apparatuses is essential for the ecological classification of jawed organisms. Nevertheless insects, especially with their outstanding high species number providing an overwhelming morphological diversity, are notoriously underexplored with respect to maximum bite forces and their dependency on the mandible opening angles. Aiming for a general understanding of insect biting, we examined the generalist feeding cockroach Periplaneta americana, characterized by its primitive chewing mouth parts. We measured active isometric bite forces and passive forces caused by joint resistance over the entire mandibular range with a custom-built 2D force transducer. The opening angle of the mandibles was quantified by using a video system. With respect to the effective mechanical advantage of the mandibles and the cross-section areas, we calculated the forces exerted by the mandible closer muscles and the corresponding muscle stress values. Comparisons with the scarce data available revealed close similarities of the cockroaches’ mandible closer stress values (58 N/cm2) to that of smaller specialist carnivorous ground beetles, but strikingly higher values than in larger stag beetles. In contrast to available datasets our results imply the activity of faster and slower muscle fibres, with the latter becoming active only when the animals chew on tough material which requires repetitive, hard biting. Under such circumstances the coactivity of fast and slow fibres provides a force boost which is not available during short-term activities, since long latencies prevent a specific effective employment of the slow fibres in this case. PMID:26559671

  12. Direct visualization of hemolymph flow in the heart of a grasshopper (Schistocerca americana)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wah-Keat; Socha, John J

    2009-01-01

    Background Hemolymph flow patterns in opaque insects have never been directly visualized due to the lack of an appropriate imaging technique. The required spatial and temporal resolutions, together with the lack of contrast between the hemolymph and the surrounding soft tissue, are major challenges. Previously, indirect techniques have been used to infer insect heart motion and hemolymph flow, but such methods fail to reveal fine-scale kinematics of heartbeat and details of intra-heart flow patterns. Results With the use of microbubbles as high contrast tracer particles, we directly visualized hemolymph flow in a grasshopper (Schistocerca americana) using synchrotron x-ray phase-contrast imaging. In-vivo intra-heart flow patterns and the relationship between respiratory (tracheae and air sacs) and circulatory (heart) systems were directly observed for the first time. Conclusion Synchrotron x-ray phase contrast imaging is the only generally applicable technique that has the necessary spatial, temporal resolutions and sensitivity to directly visualize heart dynamics and flow patterns inside opaque animals. This technique has the potential to illuminate many long-standing questions regarding small animal circulation, encompassing topics such as retrograde heart flow in some insects and the development of flow in embryonic vertebrates. PMID:19272159

  13. Comparison of Serum Protein Electrophoresis Values in Wild and Captive Whooping Cranes ( Grus americana ).

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Cray, Carolyn; Hartup, Barry K

    2015-09-01

    Protein electrophoresis of serum samples from endangered, wild whooping cranes ( Grus americana ) was performed to help assess the health of the only self-sustaining, migratory population in North America. Serum samples from wild adult cranes (n = 22) were taken at Aransas National Wildlife Refuge, Texas, USA during winter. Wild juvenile cranes (n = 26) were sampled at Wood Buffalo National Park, Northwest Territories, Canada, in midsummer. All captive crane samples were acquired from the International Crane Foundation, Baraboo, WI, USA. Captive adult cranes (n = 30) were sampled during annual examinations, and archived serum samples from captive juvenile cranes (n = 19) were selected to match the estimated age of wild juveniles. Wild juveniles had significantly lower concentrations of all protein fractions than wild adults, except for prealbumin and γ globulins. All protein fraction concentrations for wild juveniles were significantly lower compared with captive juveniles, except for prealbumin and γ globulins, which were higher. Wild adults had significantly greater γ globulin concentrations than captive adults. Captive juveniles had significantly lower prealbumin and albumin concentrations and albumin : globulin ratios than captive adults. The higher γ globulin concentrations in wild versus captive cranes are likely because of increased antigenic exposure and immune stimulation. Protein fraction concentrations vary significantly with age and natural history in this species. Reference intervals for serum protein electrophoresis results from captive adult whooping cranes are provided in this study. PMID:26378665

  14. Influence of a Ceratocystis ulmi Toxin on Water Relations of Elm (Ulmus americana)

    PubMed Central

    Van Alfen, Neal K.; Turner, Neil C.

    1975-01-01

    Water-soluble glycopeptides isolated from cultures of Ceratocystis ulmi have been reported to be toxins involved in Dutch elm disease. The influence of the glycopeptides on the water relations of Ulmus americana seedlings was tested by placing cut stems in glycopeptide preparations. After 4 hours in 200 micrograms per milliliter toxin the stem conductance of the seedlings was reduced by 79% and the leaf water potential was reduced by 3 bars to that at which the seedlings wilted, the stomata closed, and transpiration decreased. Decrease in stem conductance as the mode of action of the toxin was further confirmed by forcing toxin through the stem and petiole of elm and measuring the effects on stem conductance. High molecular weight dextrans were found to mimic the action of toxin on stem and petiole conductance, and their ability to do so was found to be correlated with their molecular weight. As low as 4 micrograms of toxin or dextrans were found to measurably decrease the stem and petiole conductance of elms. Disruption of the water-conducting system of elms and other plants by small quantities of high molecular weight compounds may be a factor in diseases with wilting symptoms. PMID:16659073

  15. Effects of freezing on white perch Morone americana (Gmelin, 1789): Implications for multivariate morphometrics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocovsky, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that duration of freezing differentially affects whole-body morphometrics of a derived teleost. Whole-body morphometrics are frequently analyzed to test hypotheses of different species, or stocks within a species, of fishes. Specimens used for morphometric analyses are typically fixed or preserved prior to analysis, yet little research has been done on how fixation or preservation methods or duration of preservation of specimens might affect outcomes of multivariate statistical analyses of differences in shape. To determine whether whole-body morphometrics changed as a result of freezing, 23 whole-body morphometrics of age-1 white perch (Morone americana) from western Lake Erie (n = 211) were analyzed immediately after capture, after being held on ice overnight, and after freezing for 100 or 200 days. Discriminant function analysis revealed that all four groups differed significantly from one another (P < 0.0001). The first canonical axis reflected long-axis morphometrics, where there was a clear pattern of positive translation along this axis with duration of preservation. Re-classification analysis demonstrated fish were typically assigned to their original preservation class except for fish frozen 100 days, which assigned mostly to frozen 200 days. Morphometric comparisons using frozen fish must be done on fish frozen for identical periods of time to avoid biases related to the length of time they were frozen. Similar experiments should be conducted on other species and also using formalin- and alcohol-preserved specimens.

  16. Effects of nutrient pre-exposure on atrazine toxicity to Vallisneria americana Michx. (wild celery).

    PubMed

    Dantin, Darrin D; Boustany, Ronald G; Lewis, Michael A; Jordan, Stephen J; Moss, Rebecca F; Michot, Thomas C

    2010-04-01

    Accelerated eutrophication is common to many freshwater and marine environments and often co-occurs with the presence of anthropogenic chemicals. However, the toxic effects of common chemical stressors such as herbicides in the presence of elevated nutrients are not well understood for most aquatic flora, particularly vascular species. To provide insight, field-collected Vallisneria americana Michx. (wild celery) were sequentially exposed to three nutrient concentrations for 3 months and then to nominal 11 and 110 microg L(-1) atrazine for 96 h. Nutrient concentrations (combined NH(4)(+), NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-), PO(4)(-)) were based on ambient concentrations in the St. Johns River (FL) and ranged from 0.013 to 0.668 mg L(-1). Nutrient pretreatment potentiated the toxicity of atrazine as determined by chlorophyll fluorescence activity. Electron transport rates (ETR) were significantly less (48-59%) for plants pretreated with low and ambient nutrient levels in the presence of an average of 107.5-128.1 microg L(-1) atrazine. Significant ETR reductions were also observed for plants exposed to an average of 11.4 microg L(-1) atrazine after exposure to nutrients three times the ambient concentration in the St. Johns River. The results indicate the importance of considering the presence of nutrients in chemical hazard assessments, particularly for phytotoxicants and nontarget vascular plants.

  17. Persea americana Mill. Seed: Fractionation, Characterization, and Effects on Human Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Jerz, Maria Del R; Villanueva, Socorro; Jerz, Gerold; Winterhalter, Peter; Deters, Alexandra M

    2013-01-01

    Methanolic avocado (Persea americana Mill., Lauraceae) seed extracts were separated by preparative HSCCC. Partition and HSCCC fractions were principally characterized by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Their in vitro influence was investigated on proliferation, differentiation, cell viability, and gene expression on HaCaT and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). The methanol-water partition (M) from avocado seeds and HSCCC fraction 3 (M.3) were mostly composed of chlorogenic acid and its isomers. Both reduced NHDF but enhanced HaCaT keratinocytes proliferation. HSCCC fraction M.2 composed of quinic acid among chlorogenic acid and its isomers inhibited proliferation and directly induced differentiation of keratinocytes as observed on gene and protein level. Furthermore, M.2 increased NHDF proliferation via upregulation of growth factor receptors. Salidrosides and ABA derivatives present in HSCCC fraction M.6 increased NHDF and keratinocyte proliferation that resulted in differentiation. The residual solvent fraction M.7 contained among low concentrations of ABA derivatives high amounts of proanthocyanidins B1 and B2 as well as an A-type trimer and stimulated proliferation of normal cells and inhibited the proliferation of immortalized HaCaT keratinocytes. PMID:24371457

  18. Blood parasites in wood storks (Mycteria americana) from the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Zabransky, Cody J; Webb, Stephen L; Fedynich, Alan M; Bryan, A Lawrence

    2008-10-01

    Wood storks (Mycteria americana) are endangered throughout their breeding range in the United States. Because of this, researchers have had little opportunity to thoroughly examine the continental wood stork population for endoparasites. The blood protozoan Haemoproteus crumenium has been identified from several populations of wood storks in North America. However, there have been no reports of wood storks being infected with species of Plasmodium or Leucocytozoon. During 2003, 42 nestling wood storks were captured at sites in Georgia and 27 free-ranging wood storks were captured at postbreeding dispersal sites in Mississippi and Louisiana. Two thin blood smears were made from each bird, and they were examined for parasites. Haemoproteus crumenium was found in 5 wood storks (7.2%), whereas Leucocytozoon sp., Plasmodium sp., and microfilariae were not observed. Mean intensity of H. crumenium was 4.4 +/- 0.7 (SE) per 2,000 erythrocytes counted. All infected wood storks were subadult or adult and were from postbreeding dispersal sites in Mississippi.

  19. Field use of isoflurane as an inhalant anesthetic in the American marten (Martes americana).

    PubMed

    Desmarchelier, Marion; Cheveau, Marianne; Imbeau, Louis; Lair, Stéphane

    2007-10-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness and practicality of using isoflurane as an inhalation anesthetic with oxygen as a gas carrier for American martens (Martes americana) in a field setting. Sixty-eight martens were trapped in the Waswanipi Cree Model Forest (Québec, Canada) from October to November 2005 and anesthetized with isoflurane in 100% oxygen (1 l/min) using a face mask. Induction setting of isoflurane was 3% for all animals. Mean (+/-SD) length of induction was 1.8+/-1.2 min. Maintenance isoflurane settings ranged from 1% to 4%. Procedures lasted an average of 16.4+/-7.1 min and were uneventful. Length of recovery, defined as the interval between the end of the procedure and animal release, was short (6.3+/-2.8 min), and well below reported lengths of recovery using injectable anesthetics (>/=70 min). As compared to open drop administration of isoflurane described in previous studies, the use of an anesthesia machine prevents the risk of potential fatal anesthetic overdose. We conclude that among anesthesia techniques currently available, isoflurane with oxygen as a gas carrier is a safe and useful field anesthetic in martens, when issues with equipment portability can be overcome.

  20. Distribution, occupancy, and habitat correlates of American martens (Martes americana) in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, R.A.; Bender, L.C.

    2008-01-01

    A clear understanding of habitat associations of martens (Martes americana) is necessary to effectively manage and monitor populations. However, this information was lacking for martens in most of their southern range, particularly during the summer season. We studied the distribution and habitat correlates of martens from 2004 to 2006 in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) across 3 spatial scales: site-specific, home-range, and landscape. We used remote-sensored cameras from early August through late October to inventory occurrence of martens and modeled occurrence as a function of habitat and landscape variables using binary response (BR) and binomial count (BC) logistic regression, and occupancy modeling (OM). We also assessed which was the most appropriate modeling technique for martens in RMNP. Of the 3 modeling techniques, OM appeared to be most appropriate given the explanatory power of derived models and its incorporation of detection probabilities, although the results from BR and BC provided corroborating evidence of important habitat correlates. Location of sites in the western portion of the park, riparian mixed-conifer stands, and mixed-conifer with aspen patches were most frequently positively correlated with occurrence of martens, whereas more xeric and open sites were avoided. Additionally, OM yielded unbiased occupancy values ranging from 91% to 100% and 20% to 30% for the western and eastern portions of RMNP, respectively. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  1. Persea americana (avocado): bringing ancient flowers to fruit in the genomics era.

    PubMed

    Chanderbali, André S; Albert, Victor A; Ashworth, Vanessa E T M; Clegg, Michael T; Litz, Richard E; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S

    2008-04-01

    The avocado (Persea americana) is a major crop commodity worldwide. Moreover, avocado, a paleopolyploid, is an evolutionary "outpost" among flowering plants, representing a basal lineage (the magnoliid clade) near the origin of the flowering plants themselves. Following centuries of selective breeding, avocado germplasm has been characterized at the level of microsatellite and RFLP markers. Nonetheless, little is known beyond these general diversity estimates, and much work remains to be done to develop avocado as a major subtropical-zone crop. Among the goals of avocado improvement are to develop varieties with fruit that will "store" better on the tree, show uniform ripening and have better post-harvest storage. Avocado transcriptome sequencing, genome mapping and partial genomic sequencing will represent a major step toward the goal of sequencing the entire avocado genome, which is expected to aid in improving avocado varieties and production, as well as understanding the evolution of flowers from non-flowering seed plants (gymnosperms). Additionally, continued evolutionary and other comparative studies of flower and fruit development in different avocado strains can be accomplished at the gene expression level, including in comparison with avocado relatives, and these should provide important insights into the genetic regulation of fruit development in basal angiosperms.

  2. Persea americana Mill. Seed: Fractionation, Characterization, and Effects on Human Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Jerz, Maria Del R; Villanueva, Socorro; Jerz, Gerold; Winterhalter, Peter; Deters, Alexandra M

    2013-01-01

    Methanolic avocado (Persea americana Mill., Lauraceae) seed extracts were separated by preparative HSCCC. Partition and HSCCC fractions were principally characterized by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Their in vitro influence was investigated on proliferation, differentiation, cell viability, and gene expression on HaCaT and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). The methanol-water partition (M) from avocado seeds and HSCCC fraction 3 (M.3) were mostly composed of chlorogenic acid and its isomers. Both reduced NHDF but enhanced HaCaT keratinocytes proliferation. HSCCC fraction M.2 composed of quinic acid among chlorogenic acid and its isomers inhibited proliferation and directly induced differentiation of keratinocytes as observed on gene and protein level. Furthermore, M.2 increased NHDF proliferation via upregulation of growth factor receptors. Salidrosides and ABA derivatives present in HSCCC fraction M.6 increased NHDF and keratinocyte proliferation that resulted in differentiation. The residual solvent fraction M.7 contained among low concentrations of ABA derivatives high amounts of proanthocyanidins B1 and B2 as well as an A-type trimer and stimulated proliferation of normal cells and inhibited the proliferation of immortalized HaCaT keratinocytes.

  3. Differences in bacterial community structure on Hydrilla verticillata and Vallisneria americana in a freshwater spring.

    PubMed

    Gordon-Bradley, Nadine; Lymperopoulou, Despoina S; Williams, Henry Neal

    2014-01-01

    The phylogenetic composition of the epiphytic bacterial community of an invasive aquatic plant (Hydrilla verticillata) and a native species (Vallisneria americana [eelgrass]) of the Wakulla Spring (Florida) was investigated, along with the water column bacterial composition, using clone libraries of the 16S rRNA genes. The bacterial clones from three clone libraries were classified into 182 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), most of which were affiliated with bacterial divisions commonly found in freshwater ecosystems. Based on the identified classes, the bacterial communities on eelgrass and Hydrilla were distinct, such that Planctomycetes, Cyanobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria were found on eelgrass and in the water column but not on Hydrilla. On the other hand, Deltaproteobacteria and Verrucomicrobiae were found on Hydrilla and in the water column but not on eelgrass. Further distinctions observed were that Armatimonadia and Deinococci were found only on Hydrilla while Gemmatimonadetes was found only on eelgrass. Our results indicated differences between the epiphytic bacterial community on the two plants and the water column at the species level, but an even representation of the most abundant phylogenetic taxa (classes) in all three libraries was revealed. Statistical comparison of the retrieved sequences confirmed that the three libraries did not differ significantly at the community level (LIBSHUFF, p <0.05).

  4. Head-bobbing behavior in walking whooping cranes (Grus americana) and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, Thomas W.; Kinloch, Matthew R.; Olsen, Glenn H.

    2007-01-01

    Head-bobbing is a common and characteristic behavior of walking birds. While the activity could have a relatively minor biomechanical function, for balance and stabilization of gait, head-bobbing is thought to be primarily a visual behavior in which fixation of gaze alternates with a forward movement that generates visual flow. We studied head-bobbing in locomoting whooping cranes (Grus americana) and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis), using food strewn on the ground to motivate them to walk or run. When the cranes walked, head-bobbing proceeded in a four-step sequence that was closely linked to the stepping cycle. The time available for gaze stabilization decreased with travel speed, and running cranes did not head-bob at all. As a crane extended its bill towards the ground for food, it also exhibited a series of short head-bobs that were not associated with forward travel. Head-bobbing is a flexible behavior that varies with gait and with visual search, most notably as the cranes prepare to strike with the bill.

  5. Molecular cytogenetic insights to the phylogenetic affinities of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana).

    PubMed

    Cernohorska, Halina; Kubickova, Svatava; Kopecna, Olga; Kulemzina, Anastasia I; Perelman, Polina L; Elder, Frederick F B; Robinson, Terence J; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Rubes, Jiri

    2013-08-01

    Five families are traditionally recognized within higher ruminants (Pecora): Bovidae, Moschidae, Cervidae, Giraffidae and Antilocapridae. The phylogenetic relationships of Antilocapridae and Giraffidae within Pecora are, however, uncertain. While numerous fusions (mostly Robertsonian) have accumulated in the giraffe's karyotype (Giraffa camelopardalis, Giraffidae, 2n = 30), that of the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana, Antilocapridae, 2n = 58) is very similar to the hypothesised pecoran ancestral state (2n = 58). We examined the chromosomal rearrangements of two species, the giraffe and pronghorn, using a combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization painting probes and BAC clones derived from cattle (Bos taurus, Bovidae). Our data place Moschus (Moschidae) closer to Bovidae than Cervidae. Although the alternative (i.e., Moschidae + Cervidae as sister groups) could not be discounted in recent sequence-based analyses, cytogenetics bolsters conclusions that the former is more likely. Additionally, DNA sequences were isolated from the centromeric regions of both species and compared. Analysis of cenDNA show that unlike the pronghorn, the centromeres of the giraffe are probably organized in a more complex fashion comprising different repetitive sequences specific to single chromosomal pairs or groups of chromosomes. The distribution of nucleolar organiser region (NOR) sites, often an effective phylogenetic marker, were also examined in the two species. In the giraffe, the position of NORs seems to be autapomorphic since similar localizations have not been found in other species within Pecora. PMID:23896647

  6. Genomics-assisted characterization of a breeding collection of Apios americana, an edible tuberous legume

    PubMed Central

    Belamkar, Vikas; Farmer, Andrew D.; Weeks, Nathan T.; Kalberer, Scott R.; Blackmon, William J.; Cannon, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    For species with potential as new crops, rapid improvement may be facilitated by new genomic methods. Apios (Apios americana Medik.), once a staple food source of Native American Indians, produces protein-rich tubers, tolerates a wide range of soils, and symbiotically fixes nitrogen. We report the first high-quality de novo transcriptome assembly, an expression atlas, and a set of 58,154 SNP and 39,609 gene expression markers (GEMs) for characterization of a breeding collection. Both SNPs and GEMs identify six genotypic clusters in the collection. Transcripts mapped to the Phaseolus vulgaris genome–another phaseoloid legume with the same chromosome number–provide provisional genetic locations for 46,852 SNPs. Linkage disequilibrium decays within 10 kb (based on the provisional genetic locations), consistent with outcrossing reproduction. SNPs and GEMs identify more than 21 marker-trait associations for at least 11 traits. This study demonstrates a holistic approach for mining plant collections to accelerate crop improvement. PMID:27721469

  7. Expression of a Ripening-Related Avocado (Persea americana) Cytochrome P450 in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Bozak, K R; O'keefe, D P; Christoffersen, R E

    1992-12-01

    One of the mRNAs that accumulates during the ripening of avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) has been previously identified as a cytochrome P450 (P450) monooxygenase and the corresponding gene designated CYP71A1. In this report we demonstrate that during ripening the accumulation of antigenically detected CYP71A1 gene product (CYP71A1) correlates with increases in total P450 and two P450-dependent enzyme activities: para-chloro-N-methylaniline demethylase, and trans-cinnamic acid hydroxylase (tCAH). To determine whether both of these activities are derived from CYP71A1, we have expressed this protein in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) using a galactose-inducible yeast promoter. Following induction, the microsomal fraction of transformed yeast cells undergoes a large increase in P450 level, attributable almost exclusively to the plant CYP71A1 protein. These membranes exhibit NADPH-dependent para-chloro-N-methylaniline demethylase activity at a rate comparable to that in avocado microsomes but have no detectable tCAH. These results demonstrate both that the CYP71A1 protein is not a tCAH and that a plant P450 is fully functional upon heterologous expression in yeast. These findings also indicate that the heterologous P450 protein can interact with the yeast NADPH:P450 reductase to produce a functional complex.

  8. Partitioning of photoassimilates in avocado (Persea americana Mill.) during flowering and fruit set.

    PubMed

    Finazzo, S F; Davenport, T L; Schaffer, B

    1994-02-01

    To assess competition for photoassimilates among developing inflorescences, fruitlets and vegetative shoots in avocado (Persea americana Mill.), the distribution of recent photoassimilates was examined before and during flowering, fruit set, and the transition from sink to source of developing vegetative shoots. Mature leaves, located proximal to developing reproductive organs, and developing leaves, located distal to those organs, were exposed to a one-hour pulse of (14)CO(2). Translocation of radiolabeled assimilates was monitored over time and among organs. Overall distribution of assimilates was dependent on dry mass of tissues regardless of organ type. Flowers and fruitlets did not demonstrate greater sink strength than non-autotrophic leaves. Organs receiving assimilates were in phyllotactic alignment with source leaves. Photoassimilates were never limiting, although flower and fruitlet abscission occurred during and long after this competitive period. Carbohydrate availability was sufficient to support the growth of both developing fruitlets and leaves during early stages of reproductive development, and it did not limit fruitlet growth or stimulate fruitlet abscission. PMID:14967710

  9. Food habits of stunted and non-stunted white perch (Morone americana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Stittie, J.R.; Pope, K.L.

    2010-01-01

    We studied food habits of white perch (Morone americana) from two populations with different stable states (stunted [Branched Oak Lake, Nebraska] and nonstunted [Pawnee Lake, Nebraska]) to determine if change in food habits of white perch is likely to occur in situations where a stunted white perch population is altered to a nonstunted state and vice versa. Three approaches were used to quantitatively describe seasonal (spring = March-May, summer = June-August, autumn = September-November) diets of white perch - 1) frequency of occurrence, 2) percentage of composition by volume, and 3) mean stomach fullness. White perch diets were dominated by cladocerans and dipterans in both reservoirs during all seasons. Fish egg predation was similar between reservoirs, and white perch rarely consumed fishes in either the stunted or the non-stunted population. Shifting a white perch population between stunted and non-stunted states will likely cause little or no change in food habits; fish in both states will primarily consume invertebrates.

  10. Four new steroid constituents from the waste residue of fibre separation from Agave americana leaves.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Ying-Jun; Yang, Chong-Ren

    2004-06-01

    Three new steroidal saponins, named agamenosides H-J (1-3), and a new cholestane steroid agavegenin D (4) were isolated from the waste residue of fibre separation from Agave americana leaves, together with six known steroids. Structures of the new compounds 1-4 were deduced to be (22S,23S,24R,25S)-24-[(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-5alpha-spirostane-3beta,6alpha,23-triol 6-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), (22S,23S,24R,25S)-5alpha-spirostane-3beta,23,24-triol 24-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), (22S,23S,25R,26S)-23,26-epoxy-5alpha-furostane-3beta,22,26-triol 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), and (22S,25S)-5alpha-cholestane-3beta,16beta,22,26-tetrol (4), respectively, by means of spectroscopic analysis, including extensive 1D and 2D NMR data, and the results of hydrolytic cleavage.

  11. 3-Oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier protein) reductase from avocado (Persea americana) fruit mesocarp.

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, P S; Kekwick, R G; Sidebottom, C; Smith, C G; Slabas, A R

    1990-01-01

    The NADPH-linked 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier protein) (ACP) reductase (EC 1.1.1.100), also known as 'beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase', has been purified from the mesocarp of mature avocado pears (Persea americana). The enzyme is inactivated by low ionic strength and low temperature. On SDS/PAGE under reducing conditions, purified 3-oxoacyl-ACP reductase migrated as a single polypeptide giving a molecular mass of 28 kDa. Gel-filtration chromatography gave an apparent native molecular mass of 130 kDa, suggesting that the enzyme is tetrameric. The enzyme is inactivated by dilution, but some protection is afforded by the presence of NADPH. Kinetic constants have been determined using synthetic analogues as well as the natural ACP substrate. It exhibits a broad pH optimum around neutrality. Phenylglyoxal inactivates the enzyme, and partial protection is given by 1 mM-NADPH. Antibodies have been raised against the protein, which were used to localize it using immunogold electron microscopy. It is localized in plastids. N-Terminal amino-acid-sequence analysis was performed on the enzyme, and it shows close structural similarity with cytochrome f. Internal amino-acid-sequence data, derived from tryptic peptides, shows similarity with the putative gene products encoded by the nodG gene from the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhizobium meliloti and the gra III act III genes from Streptomyces spp. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2244875

  12. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding a membrane bound acyl-CoA binding protein from Agave americana L. epidermis.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Consuelo; Martín-Rufián, M; Reina, José J; Heredia, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    A cDNA encoding an acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) homologue has been cloned from a cDNA library made from mRNA isolated from epidermis of young leaves of Agave americana L. The derived amino acid sequence reveals a protein corresponding to the membrane-associated form of ACBPs only previously described in Arabidopsis and rice. Northern blot analysis showed that the A. americana ACBP gene is mainly expressed in the epidermis of mature zone of the leaves. The epidermis of A. americana leaves have a well developed cuticle with the highest amounts of the cuticular components waxes, cutin and cutan suggesting a potential role of the protein in cuticle formation.

  13. Toxicologic evaluation of a high-selenium hay diet in captive pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana).

    PubMed

    Raisbeck, M F; O'Toole, D; Schamber, R A; Belden, E L; Robinson, L J

    1996-01-01

    Five captive-raised pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) were fed an alfalfa-grass hay diet containing 15 ppm total dietary selenium (Se) for 164 days. Four additional captive-raised pronghorns fed a similar diet containing approximately 0.3 ppm total dietary Se served as controls. None of the pronghorns had clinical signs attributable to the high Se hay. Plasma Se increased more rapidly than blood Se concentrations, from baseline concentrations (< 0.15 g/ml) to > 0.40 g/ml within the first 50 days on the high selenium diet, but thereafter declined to approximately 0.30 microgram/ml. Mean primary antibody response to hen egg albumin was less in pronghorn on Se hay. No significant gross or histological lesions attributable to selenosis were found, nor was there any evidence of dystrophic hoof growth. The greatest Se tissue concentrations were found in liver and kidney (5.67 to 10.4 micrograms/g and 2.36 to 3.14 micrograms/g, respectively) from experimental animals; liver and kidney from the controls contained considerably less (< or = 0.52 microgram/g and < or = 0.61 microgram/g, respectively). Exposure of pronghorns for more than 5 mo to a diet containing 15 ppm Se caused significant increases in plasma, liver and kidney Se concentrations, in the absence of clinical disease or pathologic lesions due to selenosis. Based on these results, we propose that pronghorns are less susceptible to selenosis than previously reported and that diagnostic criteria for the disease should be modified. PMID:8627943

  14. Coccidian Parasites and Conservation Implications for the Endangered Whooping Crane (Grus americana).

    PubMed

    Bertram, Miranda R; Hamer, Gabriel L; Snowden, Karen F; Hartup, Barry K; Hamer, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    While the population of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) has grown from 15 individuals in 1941 to an estimated 304 birds today, the population growth is not sufficient to support a down-listing of the species to threatened status. The degree to which disease may be limiting the population growth of whooping cranes is unknown. One disease of potential concern is caused by two crane-associated Eimeria species: Eimeria gruis and E. reichenowi. Unlike most species of Eimeria, which are localized to the intestinal tract, these crane-associated species may multiply systemically and cause a potentially fatal disease. Using a non-invasive sampling approach, we assessed the prevalence and phenology of Eimeria oocysts in whooping crane fecal samples collected across two winter seasons (November 2012-April 2014) at the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge along the Texas Gulf coast. We also compared the ability of microscopy and PCR to detect Eimeria in fecal samples. Across both years, 26.5% (n = 328) of fecal samples were positive for Eimeria based on microscopy. Although the sensitivity of PCR for detecting Eimeria infections seemed to be less than that of microscopy in the first year of the study (8.9% vs. 29.3%, respectively), an improved DNA extraction protocol resulted in increased sensitivity of PCR relative to microscopy in the second year of the study (27.6% and 20.8%, respectively). The proportion of positive samples did not vary significantly between years or among sampling sites. The proportion of Eimeria positive fecal samples varied with date of collection, but there was no consistent pattern of parasite shedding between the two years. We demonstrate that non-invasive fecal collections combined with PCR and DNA sequencing techniques provides a useful tool for monitoring Eimeria infection in cranes. Understanding the epidemiology of coccidiosis is important for management efforts to increase population growth of the endangered whooping crane.

  15. A Novel Use for Potassium Alum as Controlling Agent Against Periplaneta americana (Dictyoptera: Blattidae).

    PubMed

    Salama, Elham M

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we present our results on the use of potassium alum as an environmentally friendly insecticide. This compound has the potential to rid our homes, schools, hotels, restaurants, and ships of cockroach infestations. This compound is environmentally friendly and has no hazardous effects on plant, animal, or human ecosystems. Alum was approved for medical use a long time ago. In our laboratory, we developed a novel method using potassium alum as an environmentally friendly insecticide to kill the most common cockroach in the subtropical region, Periplaneta americana (L.). Adult and nymph-staged cockroaches were left to feed on potassium alum per individual insect after a period of food deprivation. The mortality was recorded as LT50. The younger nymphs the third and early fourth instars died within 4 d of feeding after consuming an average of 0.3 mg per individual insect. Gravid females were highly susceptible to alum toxicity and experienced a higher mortality rate, with an average of 3 mg per individual female. The oothecae of the normal untreated females were 8.1 mm long and 4.13 mm wide and weighed 94 mg. The eggs laid by the treated gravid females were underweight and exhibited a dwarfism shape, and these eggs did not hatched if the females consumed the potassium alum before laying eggs. The results revealed that the adult male and female cockroaches have to consume 1 mg and 2.7 mg, respectively, of potassium alum to kill 100% of them after 1 month of ingestion. The potassium alum had to be ingested by the cockroaches to affect mortality. The effect of potassium alum was attributed to chronic toxicity and not acute toxicity. The potential applications of this novel technique will be discussed.

  16. A Novel Use for Potassium Alum as Controlling Agent Against Periplaneta americana (Dictyoptera: Blattidae).

    PubMed

    Salama, Elham M

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we present our results on the use of potassium alum as an environmentally friendly insecticide. This compound has the potential to rid our homes, schools, hotels, restaurants, and ships of cockroach infestations. This compound is environmentally friendly and has no hazardous effects on plant, animal, or human ecosystems. Alum was approved for medical use a long time ago. In our laboratory, we developed a novel method using potassium alum as an environmentally friendly insecticide to kill the most common cockroach in the subtropical region, Periplaneta americana (L.). Adult and nymph-staged cockroaches were left to feed on potassium alum per individual insect after a period of food deprivation. The mortality was recorded as LT50. The younger nymphs the third and early fourth instars died within 4 d of feeding after consuming an average of 0.3 mg per individual insect. Gravid females were highly susceptible to alum toxicity and experienced a higher mortality rate, with an average of 3 mg per individual female. The oothecae of the normal untreated females were 8.1 mm long and 4.13 mm wide and weighed 94 mg. The eggs laid by the treated gravid females were underweight and exhibited a dwarfism shape, and these eggs did not hatched if the females consumed the potassium alum before laying eggs. The results revealed that the adult male and female cockroaches have to consume 1 mg and 2.7 mg, respectively, of potassium alum to kill 100% of them after 1 month of ingestion. The potassium alum had to be ingested by the cockroaches to affect mortality. The effect of potassium alum was attributed to chronic toxicity and not acute toxicity. The potential applications of this novel technique will be discussed. PMID:26470384

  17. Toxicity of the norflurazon to the aquatic macrophyte Vallisneria americana (Michx.).

    PubMed

    Wilson, P Chris; Wilson, Sandra B; Haunert, Daniel

    2006-06-01

    Vallisneria americana (Michx.) (common name tapegrass) is a submersed, vascular aquatic plant that reproduces vegetatively and by seed. The objective of this study was to determine the no-observable-effects concentrations (NOECs) and lowest-observable-effects concentrations (LOECs) for tapegrass exposed to the herbicide norflurazon (0-0.1 mg/L) following a 14-d exposure and a postexposure period. The primary symptom of norflurazon toxicity was bleaching of newly emerged leaf blades at concentrations of 0.04 mg/L and higher after 14 d of exposure. Leaf greenness effect levels were 0.04 mg/L (NOEC) and 0.06 mg/L (LOEC). All other endpoints measured resulted in a NOEC greater than 0.1 mg/L following the exposure period. Latent effects were observed 14 d postexposure for new leaf production and fresh weight gains, with a NOEC and LOEC of 0.08 and 0.1 mg/L, respectively. Total leaf growth was the least sensitive endpoint measured. Following the exposure/postexposure periods, significant effects on vegetative reproduction were apparent, with no effects occurring at concentrations up to 0.08 mg/L, but with significant reduction at the 0.1 mg/L treatment level. Root and stolon dry weights were significantly reduced at the 0.1 and 0.08 mg/L treatments, respectively. Total soluble sugars (TSS) and hexose content in shoots was reduced at concentrations of 0.04 mg/L and higher. TSS, hexose, and sucrose contents were higher in roots of plants exposed to 0.1 mg/L. Some recovery was apparent for all treatment concentrations following the postexposure period, indicating that the effects were at least partially reversible. PMID:16728379

  18. Foraging behavior of redheads (Aythya americana) wintering in Texas and Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodin, M.C.; Michot, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    Redheads, Aythya americana, concentrate in large numbers annually in traditional wintering areas along the western and northern rim of the Gulf of Mexico. Two of these areas are the Laguna Madre of Texas and Chandeleur Sound of Louisiana. We collected data on 54,340 activities from 103 redhead flocks in Texas and 51,650 activities from 57 redhead flocks in Louisiana. Males and females fed similarly, differing neither in levels of feeding (percent of all birds in flock that were feeding) (p>0.90) nor in percentages of birds feeding by diving, tipping, dipping, or gleaning from the surface (p>0.10). The foraging level of redheads in the upper Laguna Madre region was relatively constant throughout two winters. Foraging of redheads in early winter in Louisiana was significantly greater than redhead foraging in the upper Laguna Madre, but by late winter, foraging by redheads in Louisiana had declined to the same level as that shown by redheads foraging in the upper Laguna Madre. The overall foraging level of redheads from Chandeleur Sound was greater (41%) than that of redheads in the upper Laguna Madre (26%), yet it was quite similar to the 46% foraging level reported for redheads from the lower Laguna Madre. Redheads in the upper Laguna Madre region of Texas fed more by diving than did those in the Chandeleur Sound and the lower Laguna Madre. Diving increased in frequency in late winter. Greater reliance by redheads on diving in January and February indicates that the birds altered their foraging to feed in deeper water, suggesting that the large concentrations of redheads staging at this time for spring migration may have displaced some birds to alternative foraging sites. Our results imply that the most likely period for food resources to become limiting for wintering redheads is when they are staging in late winter. ?? Springer 2006.

  19. Physiology of digestion and the molecular characterization of the major digestive enzymes from Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Fábio K; Pimentel, André C; Dias, Alcides B; Cardoso, Christiane; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Ferreira, Clélia; Terra, Walter R

    2014-11-01

    Cockroaches are among the first insects to appear in the fossil record. This work is part of ongoing research on insects at critical points in the evolutionary tree to disclose evolutionary trends in the digestive characteristics of insects. A transcriptome (454 Roche platform) of the midgut of Periplanetaamericana was searched for sequences of digestive enzymes. The selected sequences were manually curated. The complete or nearly complete sequences showing all characteristic motifs and highly expressed (reads counting) had their predicted sequences checked by cloning and Sanger sequencing. There are two chitinases (lacking mucin and chitin-binding domains), one amylase, two α- and three β-glucosidases, one β-galactosidase, two aminopeptidases (none of the N-group), one chymotrypsin, 5 trypsins, and none β-glucanase. Electrophoretic and enzymological data agreed with transcriptome data in showing that there is a single β-galactosidase, two α-glucosidases, one preferring as substrate maltase and the other aryl α-glucoside, and two β-glucosidases. Chromatographic and enzymological data identified 4 trypsins, one chymotrypsin (also found in the transcriptome), and one non-identified proteinase. The major digestive trypsin is identifiable to a major P. americana allergen (Per a 10). The lack of β-glucanase expression in midguts was confirmed, thus lending support to claims that those enzymes are salivary. A salivary amylase was molecularly cloned and shown to be different from the one from the midgut. Enzyme distribution showed that most digestion occurs under the action of salivary and midgut enzymes in the foregut and anterior midgut, except the posterior terminal digestion of proteins. A counter-flux of fluid may be functional in the midgut of the cockroach to explain the low excretory rate of digestive enzymes. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical localization data showed that amylase and trypsin are released by both merocrine and apocrine secretion

  20. Structures of two lectins from the roots of pokeweed (Phytolacca americana).

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tomomi; Hayashida, Minoru; Hamasu, Mika; Ishiguro, Masatsune; Hata, Yasuo

    2004-04-01

    Pokeweed lectin (PL), a lectin specific for N-acetylglucosamine-containing saccharides, stimulates peripheral lymphocytes to undergo mitosis by binding to their cell surfaces. Four types of lectins have been isolated from the roots of pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) and shown to contain homologous domains but to have different molecular sizes and biological properties. PL-D, the smallest lectin in the group, has two isolectins, PL-D1 and PL-D2. PL-D1 consists of 84 amino-acid residues, while PL-D2 is identical to PL-D1 in sequence except for the lack of two C-terminal residues, Leu83 and Thr84. The crystal structures of PL-D1 and PL-D2 were solved by the molecular-replacement method and refined to 1.65 and 1.5 A resolution with R factors of 17.2 and 17.6%, respectively. The PL-Ds are composed of two repetitive chitin-binding domains, each of which has four S-S bridges and one putative carbohydrate-binding site. The two carbohydrate-binding sites in PL-D are located on one side of the molecule. The relative orientation of the two domains in PL-D1 differs from that in PL-D2. Two C-terminal residues of PL-D1 are invisible in the present crystal structure, indicating the flexibility of the region. PL-D2 has a Ca2+ ion bound to the C-terminus on the molecular surface. A wide distribution of acidic residues is characteristically observed on one side of the C-terminal region of PL-D.

  1. Symbiotic essential amino acids provisioning in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) under various dietary conditions.

    PubMed

    Ayayee, Paul A; Larsen, Thomas; Sabree, Zakee

    2016-01-01

    Insect gut microbes have been shown to provide nutrients such as essential amino acids (EAAs) to their hosts. How this symbiotic nutrient provisioning tracks with the host's demand is not well understood. In this study, we investigated microbial essential amino acid (EAA) provisioning in omnivorous American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana), fed low-quality (LQD) and comparatively higher-quality dog food (DF) diets using carbon stable isotope ratios of EAAs (δ (13)CEAA). We assessed non-dietary EAA input, quantified as isotopic offsets (Δ(13)C) between cockroach (δ (13)CCockroach EAA) and dietary (δ (13)CDietary EAA) EAAs, and subsequently determined biosynthetic origins of non-dietary EAAs in cockroaches using (13)C-fingerprinting with dietary and representative bacterial and fungal δ (13)CEAA. Investigation of biosynthetic origins of de novo non-dietary EAAs indicated bacterial origins of EAA in cockroach appendage samples, and a mixture of fungal and bacterial EAA origins in gut filtrate samples for both LQD and DF-fed groups. We attribute the bacteria-derived EAAs in cockroach appendages to provisioning by the fat body residing obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium and gut-residing bacteria. The mixed signatures of gut filtrate samples are attributed to the presence of unassimilated dietary, as well as gut microbial (bacterial and fungal) EAAs. This study highlights the potential impacts of dietary quality on symbiotic EAA provisioning and the need for further studies investigating the interplay between host EAA demands, host dietary quality and symbiotic EAA provisioning in response to dietary sufficiency or deficiency.

  2. Aerobic Bacterial Community of American Cockroach Periplaneta americana,a Step toward Finding Suitable Paratransgenesis Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Sanaz; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Hashemi-Aghdam, Saedeh Sadat; Hajikhani, Sara; Oshaghi, Ghazaleh; Shirazi, Mohammad Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cockroaches mechanically spread pathogenic agents, however, little is known about their gut microbiota. Identification of midgut microbial community helps targeting novel biological control strategies such as paratransgenesis. Here the bacterial microbiota of Periplaneta americana midgut, were identified and evaluated for finding proper paratransgenesis candidate. Methods: Midgut of specimens were dissected and cultivated in different media. The bacterial isolates were then identified using the phenotypic and 16S-rRNA sequencing methods. Results: The analytical profile index (API) kit showed presence of 11 bacterial species including: Escherichia coli, Shigella flexineri, Citrobacter freundii, E. vulneris, Enterobacter cloacae, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Y. intermedia, Leclericia adecarboxylata, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. planticola, and Rahnella aquatilis in the cockroach midguts. The first three species are potentially symbiotic whereas others are transient. The conventional plating method revealed presence of only four isolates of Salmonella, E. coli, and Proteus which in three cases mismatched with API and 16S-rRNA genotyping. The API correctly identified the four isolates as Shigella flexneri, Citrobacter freundii, and E. coli (n= 2). 16S-rRNA sequence analysis confirmed the API results; however the C. freundii sequence was identical with C. murliniae indicating lack of genetic variation in the gene between these two closely related species. Conclusion: A low number of potentially symbiotic bacteria were found in the American cockroach midguts. Among them Enterobacter cloacae is a potential candidate for paratransgenesis approach whereas other bacteria are pathogens and are not useful for the approach. Data analysis showed that identification levels increase from the conventional to API and to genotyping respectively. PMID:26114142

  3. Dopamine- and Tyrosine Hydroxylase-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Brain of the American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana

    PubMed Central

    Hamanaka, Yoshitaka; Minoura, Run; Nishino, Hiroshi; Miura, Toru; Mizunami, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    The catecholamine dopamine plays several vital roles in the central nervous system of many species, but its neural mechanisms remain elusive. Detailed neuroanatomical characterization of dopamine neurons is a prerequisite for elucidating dopamine’s actions in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of dopaminergic neurons in the brain of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, using two antisera: 1) an antiserum against dopamine, and 2) an antiserum against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, an enzyme required for dopamine synthesis), and identified about 250 putatively dopaminergic neurons. The patterns of dopamine- and TH-immunoreactive neurons were strikingly similar, suggesting that both antisera recognize the same sets of “dopaminergic” neurons. The dopamine and TH antibodies intensively or moderately immunolabeled prominent brain neuropils, e.g. the mushroom body (memory center), antennal lobe (first-order olfactory center) and central complex (motor coordination center). All subdivisions of the mushroom body exhibit both dopamine and TH immunoreactivity. Comparison of immunolabeled neurons with those filled by dye injection revealed that a group of immunolabeled neurons with cell bodies near the calyx projects into a distal region of the vertical lobe, which is a plausible site for olfactory memory formation in insects. In the antennal lobe, ordinary glomeruli as well as macroglomeruli exhibit both dopamine and TH immunoreactivity. It is noteworthy that the dopamine antiserum labeled tiny granular structures inside the glomeruli whereas the TH antiserum labeled processes in the marginal regions of the glomeruli, suggesting a different origin. In the central complex, all subdivisions excluding part of the noduli and protocerebral bridge exhibit both dopamine and TH immunoreactivity. These anatomical findings will accelerate our understanding of dopaminergic systems, specifically in neural circuits underlying aversive memory

  4. Systematic variation in xylem hydraulic capacity within the crown of white ash (Fraxinus americana).

    PubMed

    Joyce, B J; Steiner, K C

    1995-10-01

    A 7-m tall white ash tree (Fraxinus americana Marsh.) was dissected, and hydraulic parameters of the xylem were determined by inducing a steady-state flow of water through the stem segments and monitoring volume and velocity flow rates. Leaf-specific conductivity (LSC) was highest in the main stem and lowest in some of the leaf-bearing lateral shoots. The LSC was higher in the main stem than in branches and higher in primary than in secondary branch axes. Terminal leaf-bearing shoots were larger and had a significantly greater mean LSC than subjacent lateral shoots. A significant reduction in LSC was associated with the transition between 1- and 2-year-old growth. In branches of the same age, there was a close correspondence among LSC, branch position and branch size. The average LSC of leaf-bearing shoots from south-facing branches was 43% greater than that of shoots from north-facing branches. Within-crown variation in LSC was associated with variation in velocity flow rate (V). By contrast, the ratio of potentially functional xylem area to supported leaf area (A(pf)/A(l)) was relatively stable throughout the crown. Stratification of stems by Strahler order accounted for approximately 70% of the total variation in LSC. These results suggest that (1) there exists a systematic pattern of variation in LSC distribution within the crown of white ash, (2) within-crown variability in LSC is primarily the result of variation in mean vessel diameter, and (3) there is a physiological linkage between LSC and crown morphology that is maintained through a positive feedback mechanism during branch ontogeny. PMID:14965998

  5. Coccidian Parasites and Conservation Implications for the Endangered Whooping Crane (Grus americana)

    PubMed Central

    Bertram, Miranda R.; Hamer, Gabriel L.; Snowden, Karen F.; Hartup, Barry K.; Hamer, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    While the population of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) has grown from 15 individuals in 1941 to an estimated 304 birds today, the population growth is not sufficient to support a down-listing of the species to threatened status. The degree to which disease may be limiting the population growth of whooping cranes is unknown. One disease of potential concern is caused by two crane-associated Eimeria species: Eimeria gruis and E. reichenowi. Unlike most species of Eimeria, which are localized to the intestinal tract, these crane-associated species may multiply systemically and cause a potentially fatal disease. Using a non-invasive sampling approach, we assessed the prevalence and phenology of Eimeria oocysts in whooping crane fecal samples collected across two winter seasons (November 2012–April 2014) at the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge along the Texas Gulf coast. We also compared the ability of microscopy and PCR to detect Eimeria in fecal samples. Across both years, 26.5% (n = 328) of fecal samples were positive for Eimeria based on microscopy. Although the sensitivity of PCR for detecting Eimeria infections seemed to be less than that of microscopy in the first year of the study (8.9% vs. 29.3%, respectively), an improved DNA extraction protocol resulted in increased sensitivity of PCR relative to microscopy in the second year of the study (27.6% and 20.8%, respectively). The proportion of positive samples did not vary significantly between years or among sampling sites. The proportion of Eimeria positive fecal samples varied with date of collection, but there was no consistent pattern of parasite shedding between the two years. We demonstrate that non-invasive fecal collections combined with PCR and DNA sequencing techniques provides a useful tool for monitoring Eimeria infection in cranes. Understanding the epidemiology of coccidiosis is important for management efforts to increase population growth of the endangered whooping crane. PMID

  6. Coccidian Parasites and Conservation Implications for the Endangered Whooping Crane (Grus americana).

    PubMed

    Bertram, Miranda R; Hamer, Gabriel L; Snowden, Karen F; Hartup, Barry K; Hamer, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    While the population of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) has grown from 15 individuals in 1941 to an estimated 304 birds today, the population growth is not sufficient to support a down-listing of the species to threatened status. The degree to which disease may be limiting the population growth of whooping cranes is unknown. One disease of potential concern is caused by two crane-associated Eimeria species: Eimeria gruis and E. reichenowi. Unlike most species of Eimeria, which are localized to the intestinal tract, these crane-associated species may multiply systemically and cause a potentially fatal disease. Using a non-invasive sampling approach, we assessed the prevalence and phenology of Eimeria oocysts in whooping crane fecal samples collected across two winter seasons (November 2012-April 2014) at the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge along the Texas Gulf coast. We also compared the ability of microscopy and PCR to detect Eimeria in fecal samples. Across both years, 26.5% (n = 328) of fecal samples were positive for Eimeria based on microscopy. Although the sensitivity of PCR for detecting Eimeria infections seemed to be less than that of microscopy in the first year of the study (8.9% vs. 29.3%, respectively), an improved DNA extraction protocol resulted in increased sensitivity of PCR relative to microscopy in the second year of the study (27.6% and 20.8%, respectively). The proportion of positive samples did not vary significantly between years or among sampling sites. The proportion of Eimeria positive fecal samples varied with date of collection, but there was no consistent pattern of parasite shedding between the two years. We demonstrate that non-invasive fecal collections combined with PCR and DNA sequencing techniques provides a useful tool for monitoring Eimeria infection in cranes. Understanding the epidemiology of coccidiosis is important for management efforts to increase population growth of the endangered whooping crane. PMID

  7. Symbiotic essential amino acids provisioning in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) under various dietary conditions

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Thomas; Sabree, Zakee

    2016-01-01

    Insect gut microbes have been shown to provide nutrients such as essential amino acids (EAAs) to their hosts. How this symbiotic nutrient provisioning tracks with the host’s demand is not well understood. In this study, we investigated microbial essential amino acid (EAA) provisioning in omnivorous American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana), fed low-quality (LQD) and comparatively higher-quality dog food (DF) diets using carbon stable isotope ratios of EAAs (δ13CEAA). We assessed non-dietary EAA input, quantified as isotopic offsets (Δ13C) between cockroach (δ13CCockroach EAA) and dietary (δ13CDietary EAA) EAAs, and subsequently determined biosynthetic origins of non-dietary EAAs in cockroaches using 13C-fingerprinting with dietary and representative bacterial and fungal δ13CEAA. Investigation of biosynthetic origins of de novo non-dietary EAAs indicated bacterial origins of EAA in cockroach appendage samples, and a mixture of fungal and bacterial EAA origins in gut filtrate samples for both LQD and DF-fed groups. We attribute the bacteria-derived EAAs in cockroach appendages to provisioning by the fat body residing obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium and gut-residing bacteria. The mixed signatures of gut filtrate samples are attributed to the presence of unassimilated dietary, as well as gut microbial (bacterial and fungal) EAAs. This study highlights the potential impacts of dietary quality on symbiotic EAA provisioning and the need for further studies investigating the interplay between host EAA demands, host dietary quality and symbiotic EAA provisioning in response to dietary sufficiency or deficiency. PMID:27231663

  8. Phylogenetic and expression analysis of the NPR1-like gene family from Persea americana (Mill.).

    PubMed

    Backer, Robert; Mahomed, Waheed; Reeksting, Bianca J; Engelbrecht, Juanita; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; van den Berg, Noëlani

    2015-01-01

    The NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (NPR1) forms an integral part of the salicylic acid (SA) pathway in plants and is involved in cross-talk between the SA and jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET) pathways. Therefore, NPR1 is essential to the effective response of plants to pathogens. Avocado (Persea americana) is a commercially important crop worldwide. Significant losses in production result from Phytophthora root rot, caused by the hemibiotroph, Phytophthora cinnamomi. This oomycete infects the feeder roots of avocado trees leading to an overall decline in health and eventual death. The interaction between avocado and P. cinnamomi is poorly understood and as such limited control strategies exist. Thus uncovering the role of NPR1 in avocado could provide novel insights into the avocado - P. cinnamomi interaction. A total of five NPR1-like sequences were identified. These sequences were annotated using FGENESH and a maximum-likelihood tree was constructed using 34 NPR1-like protein sequences from other plant species. The conserved protein domains and functional motifs of these sequences were predicted. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR was used to analyze the expression of the five NPR1-like sequences in the roots of avocado after treatment with salicylic and jasmonic acid, P. cinnamomi infection, across different tissues and in P. cinnamomi infected tolerant and susceptible rootstocks. Of the five NPR1-like sequences three have strong support for a defensive role while two are most likely involved in development. Significant differences in the expression profiles of these five NPR1-like genes were observed, assisting in functional classification. Understanding the interaction of avocado and P. cinnamomi is essential to developing new control strategies. This work enables further classification of these genes by means of functional annotation and is a crucial step in understanding the role of NPR1 during P. cinnamomi infection. PMID:25972890

  9. Pistil starch reserves at anthesis correlate with final flower fate in avocado (Persea americana).

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, María Librada; Hormaza, José Ignacio; Rodrigo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    A common observation in different plant species is a massive abscission of flowers and fruitlets even after adequate pollination, but little is known as to the reason for this drop. Previous research has shown the importance of nutritive reserves accumulated in the flower on fertilization success and initial fruit development but direct evidence has been elusive. Avocado (Persea americana) is an extreme case of a species with a very low fruit to flower ratio. In this work, the implications of starch content in the avocado flower on the subsequent fruit set are explored. Firstly, starch content in individual ovaries was analysed from two populations of flowers with a different fruit set capacity showing that the flowers from the population that resulted in a higher percentage of fruit set contained significantly more starch. Secondly, in a different set of flowers, the style of each flower was excised one day after pollination, once the pollen tubes had reached the base of the style, and individually fixed for starch content analysis under the microscope once the fate of its corresponding ovary (that remained in the tree) was known. A high variability in starch content in the style was found among flowers, with some flowers having starch content up to 1,000 times higher than others, and the flowers that successfully developed into fruits presented significantly higher starch content in the style at anthesis than those that abscised. The relationship between starch content in the ovary and the capacity of set of the flower together with the correlation found between the starch content in the style and the fate of the ovary support the hypothesis that the carbohydrate reserves accumulated in the flower at anthesis are related to subsequent abscission or retention of the developing fruit. PMID:24167627

  10. Terpenoid variations within and among half-sibling avocado trees, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Niogret, Jerome; Epsky, Nancy D; Schnell, Raymond J; Boza, Edward J; Kendra, Paul E; Heath, Robert R

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses were conducted to determine the qualitative and quantitative differences in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in plant material from avocado trees, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae). The initial study analyzed plant material sampled from the trunk to the leaves through different branch diameters to quantify proximo-distal spatial differences within a tree. All trees were seedlings initiated from a single maternal tree. Two-way analysis of variance was conducted on 34 chemicals that comprised at least 3% of the total chemical content of at least one tree and/or location within a tree. There were significant interactions between genotype and location sampled for most chemicals. Parentage analysis using microsatellite molecular markers (SSR's) determined that the four trees had three fathers and that they represented two full-siblings and two half-sibling trees. Descriptive discriminant analysis found that both genotype and location within a tree could be separated based on chemical content, and that the chemical content from full-siblings tended to be more similar than chemical content from half-siblings. To further explore the relationship between genetic background and chemical content, samples were analyzed from leaf material from 20 trees that included two sets of full-sibling seedling trees, the maternal tree and the surviving paternal tree. Descriptive discriminant analysis found good separation between the two full-sibling groups, and that the separation was associated with chemistry of the parental trees. Six groups of chemicals were identified that explained the variation among the trees. We discuss the results in relation to the discrimination process used by wood-boring insects for site-selection on host trees, for tree selection among potential host trees, and the potential use of terpenoid chemical content in chemotaxonomy of avocado trees. PMID:24039994

  11. Nonlinear cable properties of the giant axon of the cockroach Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Segev, I; Parnas, I

    1985-05-01

    The steady state nonlinear properties of the giant axon membrane of the cockroach Periplaneta americana were studied by means of intracellular electrodes. The resistivity of this membrane markedly decreases in response to small subthreshold depolarizations. The specific slope resistance is reduced by twofold at 5 mV depolarization and by a factor of 14 at 20 mV depolarization. As a result, the spatial decay, V(X), of depolarizing potentials is enhanced when compared with the passive (exponential) decay. This enhancement is maximal at a distance of 1-1.5 mm from a point of subthreshold (0-20 mV) depolarizing perturbation. At that distance, the difference between the actual potential and the potential expected in the passive axon is approximately 30%. The effects of membrane rectification on V(X) were analyzed quantitatively with a novel derivation based on Cole's theorem, which enables one to calculate V(X) directly from the input current-voltage (I0-V) relation of a long axon. It is shown that when the experimental I0-V curve is replotted as (I0Rin)-1 against V (where Rin is the input resistance at the resting potential), the integral between any two potentials (V1 greater than V2) on this curve is the distance, in units of the resting space constant, over which V1 attenuates to V2. Excellent agreement was found between the experimental V(X) and the predicted value based solely on the input I0-V relation. The results demonstrate that the rectifying properties of the giant axon membrane must be taken into account when the electrotonic spread of even small subthreshold potentials is studied, and that, in the steady state, this behavior can be extracted from measurements at a single point. The effect of rectification on synaptic efficacy is also discussed.

  12. Pistil Starch Reserves at Anthesis Correlate with Final Flower Fate in Avocado (Persea americana)

    PubMed Central

    Alcaraz, María Librada; Hormaza, José Ignacio; Rodrigo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    A common observation in different plant species is a massive abscission of flowers and fruitlets even after adequate pollination, but little is known as to the reason for this drop. Previous research has shown the importance of nutritive reserves accumulated in the flower on fertilization success and initial fruit development but direct evidence has been elusive. Avocado (Persea americana) is an extreme case of a species with a very low fruit to flower ratio. In this work, the implications of starch content in the avocado flower on the subsequent fruit set are explored. Firstly, starch content in individual ovaries was analysed from two populations of flowers with a different fruit set capacity showing that the flowers from the population that resulted in a higher percentage of fruit set contained significantly more starch. Secondly, in a different set of flowers, the style of each flower was excised one day after pollination, once the pollen tubes had reached the base of the style, and individually fixed for starch content analysis under the microscope once the fate of its corresponding ovary (that remained in the tree) was known. A high variability in starch content in the style was found among flowers, with some flowers having starch content up to 1,000 times higher than others, and the flowers that successfully developed into fruits presented significantly higher starch content in the style at anthesis than those that abscised. The relationship between starch content in the ovary and the capacity of set of the flower together with the correlation found between the starch content in the style and the fate of the ovary support the hypothesis that the carbohydrate reserves accumulated in the flower at anthesis are related to subsequent abscission or retention of the developing fruit. PMID:24167627

  13. Antioxidant and Hypolipidemic Activity of the Hydroethanolic Extract of Curatella americana L. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Rafael Henrique Oliveira; Macorini, Luis Fernando Benitez; Antunes, Katia Ávila; Espindola, Priscilla Pereira de Toledo; Alfredo, Tamaeh Monteiro; da Rocha, Paola dos Santos; Pereira, Zefa Valdivina; dos Santos, Edson Lucas; de Picoli Souza, Kely

    2016-01-01

    High levels of reactive oxygen species in the body and hyperlipidemia are key factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The present study investigated the antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity of hydroethanolic extract of Curatella americana L. leaves (ExC). The antioxidant activity of ExC was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging capacity and protection against hemolysis induced by 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), followed by quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA). Wistar rats with hyperlipidemia induced by high-fructose diet (60%) were treated for 60 days with water, simvastatin (30 mg·Kg−1), ciprofibrate (2 mg·Kg−1), and ExC (200 mg·Kg−1). ExC revealed IC50 of 6.0 ± 0.5 μg·mL−1, an intermediary value among positive controls used in the assay of DPPH scavenging capacity. At all concentrations (50 to 125 μg·mL−1) and times (60 to 240 min) evaluated, ExC protected erythrocytes against AAPH-induced hemolysis, which was confirmed by lower MDA levels. In vivo tests showed a reduction of 34 and 45%, respectively, in serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in hyperlipidemic rats treated with ExC, a similar effect compared to the reference drugs, simvastatin and ciprofibrate, respectively. Together, the results showed the antioxidant activity of ExC and its ability to improve the serum lipid profile in hyperlipidemic rats. PMID:27247703

  14. Dopamine- and Tyrosine Hydroxylase-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Brain of the American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Hamanaka, Yoshitaka; Minoura, Run; Nishino, Hiroshi; Miura, Toru; Mizunami, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    The catecholamine dopamine plays several vital roles in the central nervous system of many species, but its neural mechanisms remain elusive. Detailed neuroanatomical characterization of dopamine neurons is a prerequisite for elucidating dopamine's actions in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of dopaminergic neurons in the brain of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, using two antisera: 1) an antiserum against dopamine, and 2) an antiserum against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, an enzyme required for dopamine synthesis), and identified about 250 putatively dopaminergic neurons. The patterns of dopamine- and TH-immunoreactive neurons were strikingly similar, suggesting that both antisera recognize the same sets of "dopaminergic" neurons. The dopamine and TH antibodies intensively or moderately immunolabeled prominent brain neuropils, e.g. the mushroom body (memory center), antennal lobe (first-order olfactory center) and central complex (motor coordination center). All subdivisions of the mushroom body exhibit both dopamine and TH immunoreactivity. Comparison of immunolabeled neurons with those filled by dye injection revealed that a group of immunolabeled neurons with cell bodies near the calyx projects into a distal region of the vertical lobe, which is a plausible site for olfactory memory formation in insects. In the antennal lobe, ordinary glomeruli as well as macroglomeruli exhibit both dopamine and TH immunoreactivity. It is noteworthy that the dopamine antiserum labeled tiny granular structures inside the glomeruli whereas the TH antiserum labeled processes in the marginal regions of the glomeruli, suggesting a different origin. In the central complex, all subdivisions excluding part of the noduli and protocerebral bridge exhibit both dopamine and TH immunoreactivity. These anatomical findings will accelerate our understanding of dopaminergic systems, specifically in neural circuits underlying aversive memory formation

  15. Terpenoid variations within and among half-sibling avocado trees, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Niogret, Jerome; Epsky, Nancy D; Schnell, Raymond J; Boza, Edward J; Kendra, Paul E; Heath, Robert R

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses were conducted to determine the qualitative and quantitative differences in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in plant material from avocado trees, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae). The initial study analyzed plant material sampled from the trunk to the leaves through different branch diameters to quantify proximo-distal spatial differences within a tree. All trees were seedlings initiated from a single maternal tree. Two-way analysis of variance was conducted on 34 chemicals that comprised at least 3% of the total chemical content of at least one tree and/or location within a tree. There were significant interactions between genotype and location sampled for most chemicals. Parentage analysis using microsatellite molecular markers (SSR's) determined that the four trees had three fathers and that they represented two full-siblings and two half-sibling trees. Descriptive discriminant analysis found that both genotype and location within a tree could be separated based on chemical content, and that the chemical content from full-siblings tended to be more similar than chemical content from half-siblings. To further explore the relationship between genetic background and chemical content, samples were analyzed from leaf material from 20 trees that included two sets of full-sibling seedling trees, the maternal tree and the surviving paternal tree. Descriptive discriminant analysis found good separation between the two full-sibling groups, and that the separation was associated with chemistry of the parental trees. Six groups of chemicals were identified that explained the variation among the trees. We discuss the results in relation to the discrimination process used by wood-boring insects for site-selection on host trees, for tree selection among potential host trees, and the potential use of terpenoid chemical content in chemotaxonomy of avocado trees.

  16. Pistil starch reserves at anthesis correlate with final flower fate in avocado (Persea americana).

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, María Librada; Hormaza, José Ignacio; Rodrigo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    A common observation in different plant species is a massive abscission of flowers and fruitlets even after adequate pollination, but little is known as to the reason for this drop. Previous research has shown the importance of nutritive reserves accumulated in the flower on fertilization success and initial fruit development but direct evidence has been elusive. Avocado (Persea americana) is an extreme case of a species with a very low fruit to flower ratio. In this work, the implications of starch content in the avocado flower on the subsequent fruit set are explored. Firstly, starch content in individual ovaries was analysed from two populations of flowers with a different fruit set capacity showing that the flowers from the population that resulted in a higher percentage of fruit set contained significantly more starch. Secondly, in a different set of flowers, the style of each flower was excised one day after pollination, once the pollen tubes had reached the base of the style, and individually fixed for starch content analysis under the microscope once the fate of its corresponding ovary (that remained in the tree) was known. A high variability in starch content in the style was found among flowers, with some flowers having starch content up to 1,000 times higher than others, and the flowers that successfully developed into fruits presented significantly higher starch content in the style at anthesis than those that abscised. The relationship between starch content in the ovary and the capacity of set of the flower together with the correlation found between the starch content in the style and the fate of the ovary support the hypothesis that the carbohydrate reserves accumulated in the flower at anthesis are related to subsequent abscission or retention of the developing fruit.

  17. Phylogenetic and expression analysis of the NPR1-like gene family from Persea americana (Mill.).

    PubMed

    Backer, Robert; Mahomed, Waheed; Reeksting, Bianca J; Engelbrecht, Juanita; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; van den Berg, Noëlani

    2015-01-01

    The NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (NPR1) forms an integral part of the salicylic acid (SA) pathway in plants and is involved in cross-talk between the SA and jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET) pathways. Therefore, NPR1 is essential to the effective response of plants to pathogens. Avocado (Persea americana) is a commercially important crop worldwide. Significant losses in production result from Phytophthora root rot, caused by the hemibiotroph, Phytophthora cinnamomi. This oomycete infects the feeder roots of avocado trees leading to an overall decline in health and eventual death. The interaction between avocado and P. cinnamomi is poorly understood and as such limited control strategies exist. Thus uncovering the role of NPR1 in avocado could provide novel insights into the avocado - P. cinnamomi interaction. A total of five NPR1-like sequences were identified. These sequences were annotated using FGENESH and a maximum-likelihood tree was constructed using 34 NPR1-like protein sequences from other plant species. The conserved protein domains and functional motifs of these sequences were predicted. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR was used to analyze the expression of the five NPR1-like sequences in the roots of avocado after treatment with salicylic and jasmonic acid, P. cinnamomi infection, across different tissues and in P. cinnamomi infected tolerant and susceptible rootstocks. Of the five NPR1-like sequences three have strong support for a defensive role while two are most likely involved in development. Significant differences in the expression profiles of these five NPR1-like genes were observed, assisting in functional classification. Understanding the interaction of avocado and P. cinnamomi is essential to developing new control strategies. This work enables further classification of these genes by means of functional annotation and is a crucial step in understanding the role of NPR1 during P. cinnamomi infection.

  18. Gastrointestinal parasites in greater rheas (Rhea americana) and lesser rheas (Rhea pennata) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Díaz, Rafael A; Martella, Mónica Beatriz; Navarro, Joaquín Luis; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco

    2013-05-01

    Few data exist on the parasites of ratites, especially from regions within their natural range. It is only recently that extensive studies on the parasites of ostriches (Struthio camelus) have been published, mainly from European countries where commercial farming has expanded. Two species of ratites are native in South America: the lesser rhea also known as Darwin's rhea (Rhea pennata) and the greater rhea (Rhea americana). Both species are considered near threatened by the IUCN and are included in the CITES' Appendices I and II, respectively. Parasitological studies have conservation implications, as they allow us to assess the risk of transmission of pathogens from farmed ratites to wild populations. In this study 92 faecal samples from greater rheas and 55 faecal samples from lesser rheas from different localities in Argentine were analyzed to determine their gastrointestinal parasites. In greater rheas the protozoa (Balantidium coli-like and Entamoeba spp.) and helminths (Fasciola hepatica and Deletrocephalus spp.). The protozoa had not previously been cited as parasites of greater rheas in South America. Cysts and/or trophozoites of B. coli-like were found in 16.3% of the samples, while the prevalence of the remaining parasites was below 10%. Lesser rheas harbored the protozoa B. coli-like, Entamoeba spp. and Chilomastix spp. as well as F. hepatica and nematode eggs and larvae. B. coli-like cysts were found in 20.0% of the samples, while the prevalence of the other parasites remained below 5%. Some of them had not been cited as infecting lesser rheas yet. PMID:23305970

  19. Phenolic compound profiles and antioxidant capacity of Persea americana Mill. peels and seeds of two varieties.

    PubMed

    Kosińska, Agnieszka; Karamać, Magdalena; Estrella, Isabel; Hernández, Teresa; Bartolomé, Begoña; Dykes, Gary A

    2012-05-01

    Avocado processing by the food and cosmetic industries yields a considerable amount of phenolic-rich byproduct such as peels and seeds. Utilization of these byproducts would be favorable from an economic point of view. Methanolic (80%) extracts obtained from lyophilized ground peels and seeds of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) of the Hass and Shepard varieties were characterized for their phenolic compound profiles using the HPLC-PAD technique. The structures of the identified compounds were subsequently unambiguously confirmed by ESI-MS. Compositional analysis revealed that the extracts contained four polyphenolic classes: flavanol monomers, proanthocyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonol glycosides. The presence of 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid, and procyanidin A trimers was identified in seeds of both varieties. Intervarietal differences were apparent in the phenolic compound profiles of peels. Peels of the Shepard variety were devoid of (+)-catechin and procyanidin dimers, which were present in the peels of the Hass variety. Peels of both varieties contained 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin derivatives. The differences in the phenolic profiles between varietals were also apparent in the different antioxidant activity of the extracts. The peel extracts had a higher total phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity when compared to the seed extracts. The highest TEAC and ORAC values were apparent in peels of the Haas variety in which they amounted to 0.16 and 0.47 mmol Trolox/g DW, respectively. No significant (p > 0.05) differences were apparent between the TEAC values of seeds of the two varieties but the ORAC values differed significantly (p < 0.05). Overall these findings indicate that both the seeds and peel of avocado can be utilized as a functional food ingredient or as an antioxidant additive.

  20. Mycosis Inhibits Cannibalism by Melanoplus sanguinipes, M. differentialis, Schistocerca americana, and Anabrus simplex

    PubMed Central

    Jaronski, Stefan T.

    2013-01-01

    Cannibalism is common among the Acrididae and the Mormon cricket, Anabrus simplex Haldeman (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). This behavior has been proposed as a mechanism for the horizontal transmission of Microsporida and entomopathogenic fungi. Aanecdotal observations suggested that the migratory grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes Fabricius (Acrididae), and A. simplex did not eat cadavers that had been killed by insect pathogenic fungi. The hypothesis tested was that A. simplex or M. sanguinipes would not cannibalize individuals freshly killed by the entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana Bals.-Criv. (Vuill.) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), or Metarhizium acridum (Driver and Milner) Bischoff, Rehner, and Humber. Cannibalism was examined in a series of no-choice tests with individual insects. Test insects included healthy adults of M. sanguinipes; the differential grasshopper, M. differentialis (Thomas); the American grasshopper, Schistocerca americana (Drury) (Acrididae); and A. simplex. Individual, starved Acrididae or A. simplex were confined in small cages with either a fungus-killed (but unsporulated) or uninfected cadaver. The insects were then observed periodically for the first 4 hr. After 24 hr, the cadavers were scored for the degree to which they had been consumed. Very few mycotic cadavers were fed upon by the healthy insects, and, at most only the tarsi were eaten. All four species generally refused to eat fungus-infected cadavers. In contrast, freeze-killed cadavers were partly or entirely consumed by most of the test insects, often within a few hours. Transmission of infection through contact in these tests was between 0–18.9%, depending upon the fungus and insect species, and was lower than the prevalence of cannibalism in all cases. PMID:24786183

  1. Phylogenetic and expression analysis of the NPR1-like gene family from Persea americana (Mill.)

    PubMed Central

    Backer, Robert; Mahomed, Waheed; Reeksting, Bianca J.; Engelbrecht, Juanita; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; van den Berg, Noëlani

    2015-01-01

    The NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (NPR1) forms an integral part of the salicylic acid (SA) pathway in plants and is involved in cross-talk between the SA and jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET) pathways. Therefore, NPR1 is essential to the effective response of plants to pathogens. Avocado (Persea americana) is a commercially important crop worldwide. Significant losses in production result from Phytophthora root rot, caused by the hemibiotroph, Phytophthora cinnamomi. This oomycete infects the feeder roots of avocado trees leading to an overall decline in health and eventual death. The interaction between avocado and P. cinnamomi is poorly understood and as such limited control strategies exist. Thus uncovering the role of NPR1 in avocado could provide novel insights into the avocado – P. cinnamomi interaction. A total of five NPR1-like sequences were identified. These sequences were annotated using FGENESH and a maximum-likelihood tree was constructed using 34 NPR1-like protein sequences from other plant species. The conserved protein domains and functional motifs of these sequences were predicted. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR was used to analyze the expression of the five NPR1-like sequences in the roots of avocado after treatment with salicylic and jasmonic acid, P. cinnamomi infection, across different tissues and in P. cinnamomi infected tolerant and susceptible rootstocks. Of the five NPR1-like sequences three have strong support for a defensive role while two are most likely involved in development. Significant differences in the expression profiles of these five NPR1-like genes were observed, assisting in functional classification. Understanding the interaction of avocado and P. cinnamomi is essential to developing new control strategies. This work enables further classification of these genes by means of functional annotation and is a crucial step in understanding the role of NPR1 during P. cinnamomi infection. PMID:25972890

  2. Functional analysis of Scr during embryonic and post-embryonic development in the cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Hrycaj, Steven; Chesebro, John; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2010-05-01

    The cockroach, Periplaneta americana represents a basal insect lineage that undergoes the ancestral hemimetabolous mode of development. Here, we examine the embryonic and post-embryonic functions of the hox gene Scr in Periplaneta as a way of better understanding the roles of this gene in the evolution of insect body plans. During embryogenesis, Scr function is strictly limited to the head with no role in the prothorax. This indicates that the ancestral embryonic function of Scr was likely restricted to the head, and that the posterior expansion of expression in the T1 legs may have preceded any apparent gain of function during evolution. In addition, Scr plays a pivotal role in the formation of the dorsal ridge, a structure that separates the head and thorax in all insects. This is evidenced by the presence of a supernumerary segment that occurs between the labial and T1 segments of RNAiScr first nymphs and is attributed to an alteration in engrailed (en) expression. The fact that similar Scr phenotypes are observed in Tribolium but not in Drosophila or Oncopeltus reveals the presence of lineage-specific variation in the genetic architecture that controls the formation of the dorsal ridge. In direct contrast to the embryonic roles, Scr has no function in the head region during post-embryogenesis in Periplaneta, and instead, strictly acts to provide identity to the T1 segment. Furthermore, the strongest Periplaneta RNAiScr phenotypes develop ectopic wing-like tissue that originates from the posterior region of the prothoracic segment. This finding provides a novel insight into the current debate on the morphological origin of insect wings.

  3. Symbiotic essential amino acids provisioning in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) under various dietary conditions.

    PubMed

    Ayayee, Paul A; Larsen, Thomas; Sabree, Zakee

    2016-01-01

    Insect gut microbes have been shown to provide nutrients such as essential amino acids (EAAs) to their hosts. How this symbiotic nutrient provisioning tracks with the host's demand is not well understood. In this study, we investigated microbial essential amino acid (EAA) provisioning in omnivorous American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana), fed low-quality (LQD) and comparatively higher-quality dog food (DF) diets using carbon stable isotope ratios of EAAs (δ (13)CEAA). We assessed non-dietary EAA input, quantified as isotopic offsets (Δ(13)C) between cockroach (δ (13)CCockroach EAA) and dietary (δ (13)CDietary EAA) EAAs, and subsequently determined biosynthetic origins of non-dietary EAAs in cockroaches using (13)C-fingerprinting with dietary and representative bacterial and fungal δ (13)CEAA. Investigation of biosynthetic origins of de novo non-dietary EAAs indicated bacterial origins of EAA in cockroach appendage samples, and a mixture of fungal and bacterial EAA origins in gut filtrate samples for both LQD and DF-fed groups. We attribute the bacteria-derived EAAs in cockroach appendages to provisioning by the fat body residing obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium and gut-residing bacteria. The mixed signatures of gut filtrate samples are attributed to the presence of unassimilated dietary, as well as gut microbial (bacterial and fungal) EAAs. This study highlights the potential impacts of dietary quality on symbiotic EAA provisioning and the need for further studies investigating the interplay between host EAA demands, host dietary quality and symbiotic EAA provisioning in response to dietary sufficiency or deficiency. PMID:27231663

  4. Terpenoid Variations within and among Half-Sibling Avocado Trees, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Niogret, Jerome; Epsky, Nancy D.; Schnell, Raymond J.; Boza, Edward J.; Kendra, Paul E.; Heath, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses were conducted to determine the qualitative and quantitative differences in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in plant material from avocado trees, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae). The initial study analyzed plant material sampled from the trunk to the leaves through different branch diameters to quantify proximo-distal spatial differences within a tree. All trees were seedlings initiated from a single maternal tree. Two-way analysis of variance was conducted on 34 chemicals that comprised at least 3% of the total chemical content of at least one tree and/or location within a tree. There were significant interactions between genotype and location sampled for most chemicals. Parentage analysis using microsatellite molecular markers (SSR's) determined that the four trees had three fathers and that they represented two full-siblings and two half-sibling trees. Descriptive discriminant analysis found that both genotype and location within a tree could be separated based on chemical content, and that the chemical content from full-siblings tended to be more similar than chemical content from half-siblings. To further explore the relationship between genetic background and chemical content, samples were analyzed from leaf material from 20 trees that included two sets of full-sibling seedling trees, the maternal tree and the surviving paternal tree. Descriptive discriminant analysis found good separation between the two full-sibling groups, and that the separation was associated with chemistry of the parental trees. Six groups of chemicals were identified that explained the variation among the trees. We discuss the results in relation to the discrimination process used by wood-boring insects for site-selection on host trees, for tree selection among potential host trees, and the potential use of terpenoid chemical content in chemotaxonomy of avocado trees. PMID:24039994

  5. Isolation and partial characterization of a protease from Agave americana variegata.

    PubMed

    Du Toit, P J

    1976-05-13

    A new protease was isolated from an extract of leaves of Agave americana variegata. The protease (EC 3.4.-) was purified 565-fold with a yield of 39.5%. The 43.8 mg enzyme had a specific activity of 0.44 units/mg. According to electrophoretic, ultracentrifugal and other physical characterizations the enzyme was homogeneous. The enzyme had a MR of 57000, a S20,W-value of 4.37 S, a D20, W-value of 6.8-7.0 - 10(-7) cm2sec-1, a Stokes radius of 3.18 nm, a partial specific volume of 0.735 cm3g-1, a frictional ration of 1.25, a molecular absorbancy index at 280 nm of 5.773-10(4), an isoelectric point of 5.25 and contained 8-10% carbohydrate. The enzyme contained no cysteine. Agave protease could hydrolyze a variety of protein substrates although it did have a restricted specificity. It is not a sulphhydryl protease but seems to be an alkaline "serine" protease with an optimum pH of 7.8-8.0 Agave protease had marked esterolytic activity and with Cbz-Tyr-ONp had an apparent Michaelis constant of 0.0345 -10(-3) M and a V of 1.24 mol substrate/mol enzyme per sec. The enzyme did not need metal ions for optimal activity, monovalent cations did not influence its kinetic parameters, but it was inhibited by cobalt, pC1HgBzO- and TosPheCH2C1. With respect to its primary specificity, as well as its pH-dependence there was a resemblance with chymotrypsin, although the rate of hydrolysis of Agave protease is much lower.

  6. The effects of copper, manganese and zinc on plant growth and elemental accumulation in the manganese-hyperaccumulator Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huijun; Wu, Liangqi; Chai, Tuanyao; Zhang, Yuxiu; Tan, Jinjuan; Ma, Shengwen

    2012-09-01

    Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were used to estimate major, minor and trace elements in Cu-, Zn- and Mn-treated Phytolacca americana. The effects of the addition of Cu, Zn and Mn on morphological parameters, such as root length, shoot height, and fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots, were also examined. In addition, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidases (GPX) and catalase (CAT) and the expression of Fe-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, metallothionein-2 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) exposed to the highest amounts of Cu, Zn or Mn were detected. Our results confirmed the following: (1) Zn supplementation leads to chlorosis, disturbed elemental homeostasis and decreased concentrations of micro- and macroelements such as Fe, Mg, Mn, Ca and K. Cu competed with Fe, Mn and Zn uptake in plants supplemented with 25 μM Cu. However, no antagonistic interactions took place between Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe uptake in plants supplemented with 100 μM Cu. Mn supplementation at various concentrations had no negative effects on elemental deficits. Mn was co-located with high concentrations of Fe and Zn in mature leaves and the concentrations of macro elements were unchanged. (2) P. americana supplemented with increased concentrations of Zn and Cu exhibited lower biomass production and reduced plant growth. (3) When plants were supplemented with the highest Zn and Cu concentrations, symptoms of toxicity corresponded to decreased SOD or CAT activities and increased APX and GPX activities. However, Mn tolerance corresponded to increased SOD and CAT activities and decreased POD and APX activities. Our study revealed that heavy metals partially exert toxicity by disturbing the nutrient balance and modifying enzyme activities that induce damage in plants. However, P. americana has evolved hyper accumulating mechanisms to maintain elemental balance and redox homeostasis under

  7. Separation of betalains from berries of Phytolacca americana by ion-pair high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jerz, Gerold; Skotzki, Tanja; Fiege, Kathrin; Winterhalter, Peter; Wybraniec, Sławomir

    2008-05-01

    The first preparative fractionation of betalain pigments by means of ion-pair high-speed counter-current chromatography (IP-HSCCC) from berry extracts of Phytolacca americana (Phytolaccaceae) is presented. A novel HSCCC solvent system consisting of 1-butanol-acetonitrile-water (5:1:6, v/v/v) was applied using ion-pair forming trifluoroacetic acid at low concentration (0.7%, v/v). Affinity of polar betacyanins and betaxanthins to the organic stationary phase of the biphasic HSCCC solvent mixture was considerably improved. Partitioning coefficient values and influence of increasing trifluoroacetic acid additions to the biphasic solvent mixture were measured for all identified betacyanins and betaxanthins. Gentle separation by IP-HSCCC of the injected pigment extract (900 mg) yielded sufficient amounts of the principal pigments 15S-betanin/15R-isobetanin. The pure epimers separated by C18-HPLC were immediately studied by one- and two-dimensional NMR. In the recovered fractions, minor concentrated betacyanins and betaxanthins were significantly enriched by IP-HSCCC and were detected for the first time in the extracts of P. americana. IP-HSCCC and C18-HPLC were shown to be complementary techniques in the isolation procedure of recovering minor concentrated, highly polar and chemically instable betacyanins and betaxanthin from complex plant matrices. Altogether, identification of 17 betalains was achieved by HPLC-diode array detection-electrospray ionization MS/MS in the HSCCC fractions with their respective isomers, also resulting in the tentative elucidation of betacyanins with novel salicylic acid substitution pattern in the berry extracts of P. americana.

  8. Acute Toxicity Investigation and Anti-diarrhoeal Effect of the Chloroform-Methanol Extract of the Leaves of Persea americana.

    PubMed

    Christian E, Odo; Okwesili Fc, Nwodo; Parker E, Joshua; Okechukwu Pc, Ugwu

    2014-01-01

    Persea americana is a plant used by traditional medicine practitioners to treat ailments including diarrhoea and diabetes mellitus in Nigeria. Hence, the chloroform and the methanol fractions of the chloroform-methanol extract of the leaves of P. americana were evaluated for their acute toxicity as well as anti-diarrhoeal effects in Wistar rats to substantiate this claim. The chloroform and methanol fractions [at graded doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg body weight (b.w) of each] were studied for their anti-diarrhoeal effects in terms of the reductions in the wetness of faeces and the frequency of defaecation of castor oil-induced diarrhoea. To understand the mechanism of their anti-diarrhoeal effects, their actions were further evaluated on castor oil-induced enteropooling (intestinal fluid accumulation). The median lethal dose (LD50) of the methanol fraction was found to be less than 5000 mg/Kg b.w. At the two doses, the chloroform and the methanol fractions showed dose-dependent significant (p < 0.05) reductions in the wetness of faeces and the frequency of defaecation with the 200 mg/Kg b.w of the chloroform fraction being the most effective. Results of the fractions were comparable with those of the standard anti-diarrhoeal drug, hyoscine butylbromide (3 mg/Kg b.w). Both fractions produced remarkable (p < 0.05) dose-related inhibition of castor oil-induced enteropooling as shown by the significant (p < 0.05) decreases in the weight and volume of the intestinal contents. Experimental findings show that the chloroform-methanol extract of the leaves of P. americana possesses significant anti-diarrhoeal effect and may be a potent source of anti-diarrhoeal drug(s) in future. PMID:25237361

  9. The effects of copper, manganese and zinc on plant growth and elemental accumulation in the manganese-hyperaccumulator Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huijun; Wu, Liangqi; Chai, Tuanyao; Zhang, Yuxiu; Tan, Jinjuan; Ma, Shengwen

    2012-09-01

    Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were used to estimate major, minor and trace elements in Cu-, Zn- and Mn-treated Phytolacca americana. The effects of the addition of Cu, Zn and Mn on morphological parameters, such as root length, shoot height, and fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots, were also examined. In addition, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidases (GPX) and catalase (CAT) and the expression of Fe-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, metallothionein-2 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) exposed to the highest amounts of Cu, Zn or Mn were detected. Our results confirmed the following: (1) Zn supplementation leads to chlorosis, disturbed elemental homeostasis and decreased concentrations of micro- and macroelements such as Fe, Mg, Mn, Ca and K. Cu competed with Fe, Mn and Zn uptake in plants supplemented with 25 μM Cu. However, no antagonistic interactions took place between Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe uptake in plants supplemented with 100 μM Cu. Mn supplementation at various concentrations had no negative effects on elemental deficits. Mn was co-located with high concentrations of Fe and Zn in mature leaves and the concentrations of macro elements were unchanged. (2) P. americana supplemented with increased concentrations of Zn and Cu exhibited lower biomass production and reduced plant growth. (3) When plants were supplemented with the highest Zn and Cu concentrations, symptoms of toxicity corresponded to decreased SOD or CAT activities and increased APX and GPX activities. However, Mn tolerance corresponded to increased SOD and CAT activities and decreased POD and APX activities. Our study revealed that heavy metals partially exert toxicity by disturbing the nutrient balance and modifying enzyme activities that induce damage in plants. However, P. americana has evolved hyper accumulating mechanisms to maintain elemental balance and redox homeostasis under

  10. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for efficient detection of antibody to bluetongue virus in pronghorn (Antilocapra americana).

    PubMed

    Drolet, B S; Mills, K W; Belden, E L; Mecham, J O

    1990-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using cell-associated viral antigen, was developed for detection of antibody to bluetongue virus (BTV) in field-collected pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) sera. To test the applicability of the ELISA to seroepizootiologic studies, pronghorn serum samples from three Wyoming counties (USA) were tested. Bluetongue virus ELISA results were compared to those of the bluetongue immunodiffusion assay. Discrepant serum samples were retested for reaction to either BTV or epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus. The pronghorn BTV ELISA gave rapid, quantitative, objective results and should facilitate testing large numbers of sera for BT diagnostic and seroepizootiologic studies. PMID:2154627

  11. Nervous System of Periplaneta americana Cockroach as a Model in Toxinological Studies: A Short Historical and Actual View.

    PubMed

    Stankiewicz, Maria; Dąbrowski, Marcin; de Lima, Maria Elena

    2012-01-01

    Nervous system of Periplaneta americana cockroach is used in a wide range of pharmacological studies, including electrophysiological techniques. This paper presents its role as a preparation in the development of toxinological studies in the following electrophysiological methods: double-oil-gap technique on isolated giant axon, patch-clamp on DUM (dorsal unpaired median) neurons, microelectrode technique in situ conditions on axon in connective and DUM neurons in ganglion, and single-fiber oil-gap technique on last abdominal ganglion synapse. At the end the application of cockroach synaptosomal preparation is mentioned. PMID:22666245

  12. Early osteological development of white perch and striped bass with emphasis on identification of their larvae. [Morone saxatilis; Morone americana

    SciTech Connect

    Fritzsche, R.A.; Johnson, G.D.

    1980-07-01

    A cartilage and bone straining technique was employed to study the developmental osteology of the striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and white perch (Morone americana). Special attention was given to those osteological characters that appeared to be unique to the larvae of each species. Larval striped bass and white perch exhibited diagnostic differences in the position and shape of the median ethmoid, predorsal bones, dorsal- and anal-fin pterygiophores, vertebral column, and caudal skeleton. These differences were discernible at the earliest appearance of these elements as cartilage, and allow identification of striped bass and white perch larvae above a length of about 7.5 mm.

  13. Prevalence of Soboliphyme baturini in marten (Martes americana) populations from three regions of Alaska, 1990-1998.

    PubMed

    Zarnke, Randall L; Whitman, Jackson S; Flynn, Rodney W; Ver Hoef, Jay M

    2004-07-01

    Marten (Martes americana) carcasses were collected from trappers in three regions of Alaska. Stomachs were examined for the nematode parasite Soboliphyme baturini. Both prevalence and intensity of infection exhibited an increase from north to south. Prevalence was higher in adults (compared with juveniles) from the two mainland study areas. Prevalences in these two age classes were similar for the southeastern region. There were no sex-specific differences in prevalence. No pathologic changes were observed in the gastrointestinal tract. Impact of the parasite on either individual animals or populations was not detected.

  14. La guerra de los Estados Unidos contra la inmigración. Efectos paradójicos1

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.; Pren, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Resumen A finales de la década de los cincuenta, Estados Unidos permitía la entrada de aproximadamente medio millón de inmigrantes mexicanos al año, de los cuales 450.000 entraban con visados de trabajo temporal y 50.000 llegaban con visados de residentes permanentes. A mediados de los años sesenta, los cambios en la política migratoria de Estados Unidos realizados en nombre de los derechos civiles redujeron drásticamente las oportunidades de entrada legal a Estados Unidos. Se eliminaron los visados de trabajo temporal y se limitaron los visados de residentes a 20.000 por año. Con las oportunidades de entrada legal restringidas, los flujos migratorios ya establecidos simplemente continuaron, fuera de los límites legales, dando comienzo a una inesperada reacción en cadena de eventos que culminaron en una guerra total contra los inmigrantes y el rápido crecimiento -sin precedentes- de población residente no autorizada en Estados Unidos. El presente artículo demuestra que el aumento de inmigración indocumentada en los Estados Unidos y el crecimiento de la población sin papeles son un producto de políticas migratorias y fronterizas mal concebidas. PMID:27076695

  15. Preliminary in vitro antisickilng properties of crude juice extracts of Persia Americana, Citrus sinensis, Carica papaya and Ciklavit®.

    PubMed

    Iweala, E E J; Uhegbu, F O; Ogu, G N

    2009-12-30

    The antisickling properties of crude juice extracts of the edible portions of three commonly consumed tropical fruits namely Persia americana, Citrus sinensis, and Carica papaya were investigated in vitro alongside a new drug preparation called Ciklavit® that has antisickling activity. Four different solvent extracts of the crude juice of each fruit including aqueous, acidic, alkaline and alcoholic extracts were prepared and their antisickling effects on sickle cell trait (HbAS) and sickle cell disease (HbSS) blood samples checked alongside Ciklavit®. Blood samples were stabilized using normal saline and the antisickling effects were checked by counting the number of sickle cells remaining after incubation of the blood samples with the crude fruit extracts and Ciklavit® for twenty-four hours. The results showed that Ciklavit® produced a sustained reduction in the number of sickle cells in both HbAS and HbSS blood samples. Also the alkaline and alcoholic extracts of P. americana and C. papaya produced significant reduction in the number of sickle cells.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genomes of two cockroaches, Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana, and the phylogenetic position of termites.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bo; Chen, Ai-Hui; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Jiang, Guo-Fang; Hu, Chao-Chao; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2012-04-01

    The mitochondrial genomes are one of the most information-rich markers in phylogenetics. The relationships within superorder Dictyoptera have been debated in the literature. However, the closely related termites (Isoptera) are retained as unranked taxon within the order Blattaria (cockroaches). In this work, we sequenced the complete mitogenomes of two cockroaches, reconstructed the molecular phylogeny and attempted to infer the phylogenetic position of termites in Blattaria more reliably. The complete mtDNA nucleotide sequences of the peridomestic American cockroach (Periplaneta americana L.) and the domestic German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) are 15,025 and 15,584 bp in size, respectively. The genome shares the gene order and orientation with previously known Blattaria mitogenomes. Most tRNAs could be folded into the typical cloverleaf secondary structure, but the tRNA-Ser (AGN) of P. americana appears to be missing the dihydrouridine arm. Using nucleotide and amino acid sequences as phylogenetic markers, we proposed that termites should be treated as a superfamily (Termitoidea) of cockroaches. We suggested that Polyphagoidea was the sister group of Termitoidea in Blattaria and supported that the suborder Caelifera is more closely related to the Phasmatodea than to the suborder Ensifera of Orthoptera.

  17. Cardiotoxicity of acetogenins from Persea americana occurs through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and caspase-dependent apoptosis pathways.

    PubMed

    Silva-Platas, Christian; García, Noemí; Fernández-Sada, Evaristo; Dávila, Daniel; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; Rodríguez, Dariana; García-Rivas, Gerardo

    2012-08-01

    Acetogenins are cell-membrane permeable, naturally occurring secondary metabolites of plants such as Annonaceae, Lauraceae and other related phylogenic families. They belong to the chemical derivatives of polyketides, which are synthesized from fatty acid precursors. Although acetogenins have displayed diverse biological activities, the anti-proliferative effect on human cancer cells has been widely reported. Acetogenins are inhibitors of complex I in the electron transport chain therefore they interrupt ATP synthesis in mitochondria. We tested a new acetogenins-enriched extract from the seed of Persea americana in order to investigate if any toxicity was induced on cardiac tissue and determine the involved mechanism. In isolated perfused heart we found that contractility was completely inhibited at an accumulative dose of 77 μg/ml. In isolated cardiomyocytes, the acetogenins-enriched extract induced apoptosis through the activation of the intrinsic pathway at 43 μg/ml. In isolated mitochondria, it inhibited complex I activity on NADH-linked respiration, as would be expected, but also induced permeability transition on succinate-linked respiration. Cyclosporine A, a known blocker of permeability transition, significantly prevented the permeability transition triggered by the acetogenins-enriched extract. In addition, our acetogenins-enriched extract inhibited ADP/ATP exchange, suggesting that an important element in phosphate or adenylate transport was affected. In this manner we suggest that acetogenins-enriched extract from Persea americana could directly modulate permeability transition, an entity not yet associated with the acetogenins' direct effects, resulting in cardiotoxicity. PMID:22733015

  18. Cardiotoxicity of acetogenins from Persea americana occurs through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and caspase-dependent apoptosis pathways.

    PubMed

    Silva-Platas, Christian; García, Noemí; Fernández-Sada, Evaristo; Dávila, Daniel; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; Rodríguez, Dariana; García-Rivas, Gerardo

    2012-08-01

    Acetogenins are cell-membrane permeable, naturally occurring secondary metabolites of plants such as Annonaceae, Lauraceae and other related phylogenic families. They belong to the chemical derivatives of polyketides, which are synthesized from fatty acid precursors. Although acetogenins have displayed diverse biological activities, the anti-proliferative effect on human cancer cells has been widely reported. Acetogenins are inhibitors of complex I in the electron transport chain therefore they interrupt ATP synthesis in mitochondria. We tested a new acetogenins-enriched extract from the seed of Persea americana in order to investigate if any toxicity was induced on cardiac tissue and determine the involved mechanism. In isolated perfused heart we found that contractility was completely inhibited at an accumulative dose of 77 μg/ml. In isolated cardiomyocytes, the acetogenins-enriched extract induced apoptosis through the activation of the intrinsic pathway at 43 μg/ml. In isolated mitochondria, it inhibited complex I activity on NADH-linked respiration, as would be expected, but also induced permeability transition on succinate-linked respiration. Cyclosporine A, a known blocker of permeability transition, significantly prevented the permeability transition triggered by the acetogenins-enriched extract. In addition, our acetogenins-enriched extract inhibited ADP/ATP exchange, suggesting that an important element in phosphate or adenylate transport was affected. In this manner we suggest that acetogenins-enriched extract from Persea americana could directly modulate permeability transition, an entity not yet associated with the acetogenins' direct effects, resulting in cardiotoxicity.

  19. Acute and sub-acute toxicological assessment of the aqueous seed extract of Persea americana mill (Lauraceae) in rats.

    PubMed

    Ozolua, Raymond I; Anaka, Ogochukwu N; Okpo, Stephen O; Idogun, Sylvester E

    2009-07-03

    The aqueous seed extract of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) is used by herbalists in Nigeria for the management of hypertension. As part of our on-going scientific evaluation of the extract, we designed the present study to assess its acute and sub-acute toxicity profiles in rats. Experiments were conducted to determine the oral median lethal dose (LD(50)) and other gross toxicological manifestations on acute basis. In the sub-acute experiments, the animals were administered 2.5 g/kg (p.o) per day of the extract for 28 consecutive days. Animal weight and fluid intake were recorded during the 28 days period. Terminally, kidneys, hearts, blood/sera were obtained for weight, haematological and biochemical markers of toxicity. Results show that the LD(50) could not be determined after a maximum dose of 10 g/kg. Sub-acute treatment with the extract neither affected whole body weight nor organ-to-body weight ratios but significantly increased the fluid intake (P < 0.0001). Haematological parameters and the levels of ALT, AST, albumin and creatinine were not significantly altered. However, the concentration of total proteins was significantly increased in the treated group. In conclusion, the aqueous seed extract of P. americana is safe on sub-acute basis but extremely high doses may not be advisable.

  20. Composition and ultrastructure of the suberized cell wall of isolated crystal idioblasts from Agave americana L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Espelie, K E; Wattendorff, J; Kolattukudy, P E

    1982-07-01

    Styloid-calcium-oxalate-crystal-containing idioblasts possess an interior cell-wall layer which has a lamellar ultrastructure. Idioblasts were isolated by centrifugation of an Agave americana leaf homogenate through 2M sucrose. The aliphatic monomers of the polymeric material from an idioblast fraction were primarily ω-hydroxy acids (32%) and dicarboxylic acids (35%), with C18:1 dicarboxylic acid being the most dominant monomer (25%). Nitrobenzene oxidation of the idioblasts yielded syringaldehyde and vanillin in a ratio of 0.46:1. The major class of wax associated with the idioblasts was free fatty acids (34%). A major homologue of both the fatty acid and fatty alcohol fractions of this wax was C22. The hydrocarbon fraction of the wax had a broad chainlength distribution with a large amount of even-numbered (47%) and shorter-chain homologues. The ultrastructure, the composition of the aliphatic and aromatic components of the polymeric material as well as the composition of the wax show that the idioblast cell wall is suberized. The wax and cutin polymer of the epidermis of A. americana leaves were chemically characterized for comparative purposes.

  1. Effects of irradiance on growth and winter bud production by Vallisneria americana and consequences to its abundance and distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, Carl E.; Green, W.L.; Kenow, Kevin P.

    1997-01-01

    Number, total biomass, and individual mass of winter buds of Vallisneria americana was significantly related to the depth of the 1% of surface irradiance (Z) and the photosynthetic photon irradiance calculated for each shading treatment imposed during this study. Between the range of 23.8 and 111.2 cm depth for the 1% Z, total biomass of winterbuds produced ranged from 0.63 to 0.01 g, counts ranged from 3.5 to 0.1, and mass of individual winterbuds ranged from 0.18 to 0.04 g. Total biomass of winter buds produced was reduced when plants were exposed to a 14-day period without irradiance during the middle of the growing season. Applying the results of the culture experiments to conditions found in Navigation Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River suggests that irradiance may indeed limit the distribution and abundance of Vallisneria americana by reducing the number and size of winter buds. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

  2. Mechanisms of Egg Yolk Formation and Implications on Early Life History of White Perch (Morone americana).

    PubMed

    Schilling, Justin; Loziuk, Philip L; Muddiman, David C; Daniels, Harry V; Reading, Benjamin J

    2015-01-01

    The three white perch (Morone americana) vitellogenins (VtgAa, VtgAb, VtgC) were quantified accurately and precisely in the liver, plasma, and ovary during pre-, early-, mid-, and post-vitellogenic oocyte growth using protein cleavage-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (PC-IDMS). Western blotting generally mirrored the PC-IDMS results. By PC-IDMS, VtgC was quantifiable in pre-vitellogenic ovary tissues and VtgAb was quantifiable in pre-vitellogenic liver tissues however, neither protein was detected by western blotting in these respective tissues at this time point. Immunohistochemistry indicated that VtgC was present within pre-vitellogenic oocytes and localized to lipid droplets within vitellogenic oocytes. Affinity purification coupled to tandem mass spectrometry using highly purified VtgC as a bait protein revealed a single specific interacting protein (Y-box binding protein 2a-like [Ybx2a-like]) that eluted with suramin buffer and confirmed that VtgC does not bind the ovary vitellogenin receptors (LR8 and Lrp13). Western blotting for LR8 and Lrp13 showed that both receptors were expressed during vitellogenesis with LR8 and Lrp13 expression highest in early- and mid-vitellogenesis, respectively. The VtgAa within the ovary peaked during post-vitellogenesis, while VtgAb peaked during early-vitellogenesis in both white perch and the closely related striped bass (M. saxatilis). The VtgC was steadily accumulated by oocytes beginning during pre-vitellogenesis and continued until post-vitellogenesis and its composition varies widely between striped bass and white perch. In striped bass, the VtgC accounted for 26% of the vitellogenin-derived egg yolk, however in the white perch it comprised only 4%. Striped bass larvae have an extended developmental window and these larvae have yolk stores that may enable them to survive in the absence of food for twice as long as white perch after hatch. Thus, the VtgC may play an integral role in providing nutrients to late stage

  3. The effects of captive rearing on the behavior of newly-released whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreger, M.D.; Hatfield, J.S.; Estevez, I.; Gee, G.F.; Clugston, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Rearing treatments used in captivity to prepare animals for reintroduction to the wild may have a profound effect on behavior and, possibly, affect their survival after reintroduction. This study examined the behaviors of captive-reared whooping cranes (Grus americana) upon their release in Florida to determine if rearing treatments may affect the behavior of the birds and how these affect their chances of survival in the wild. Individually tagged birds were observed at the rearing facility, the U.S. Geological Survey Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Maryland, from hatch to 20 weeks of age and at the release site in Central Florida for up to 6 weeks post release. The rearing treatments were parent reared (PR), hand reared (HR), and hand reared with exercise (HRE). Observations at the rearing facility are described in a previous paper. At the release site, each bird was observed for 5 min every morning (0700?1000 h) and late afternoon (1500?1800 h) during the 6-week study period. Our results indicated that most of the time, the n = 34 birds were foraging (46.03 ? 1.48%), followed by nonvigilant (20.89 ? 0.73%), vigilant (19.21 ? 0.72%), or performing comfort behaviors (11.61 ? 1.28%). Data were analyzed using mixed models repeated measures ANOVA. There were no significant behavioral differences between HR and HRE birds. PR birds were found in larger groups than HR birds during the first 2 weeks post release and greater than HR and HRE birds afterwards. This may be interpreted as an antipredator strategy for birds that relied on parental guidance during rearing. HR and HRE birds foraged more than PR birds during the first 2 weeks post release and PR birds were more vigilant during the first 2 weeks post release. Across rearing treatments, the percentages of time spent foraging and engaged in vigilant behaviors during rearing were positively correlated with their behavior upon release. If any of these behaviors can be demonstrated to have relevance for the

  4. Mechanisms of Egg Yolk Formation and Implications on Early Life History of White Perch (Morone americana).

    PubMed

    Schilling, Justin; Loziuk, Philip L; Muddiman, David C; Daniels, Harry V; Reading, Benjamin J

    2015-01-01

    The three white perch (Morone americana) vitellogenins (VtgAa, VtgAb, VtgC) were quantified accurately and precisely in the liver, plasma, and ovary during pre-, early-, mid-, and post-vitellogenic oocyte growth using protein cleavage-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (PC-IDMS). Western blotting generally mirrored the PC-IDMS results. By PC-IDMS, VtgC was quantifiable in pre-vitellogenic ovary tissues and VtgAb was quantifiable in pre-vitellogenic liver tissues however, neither protein was detected by western blotting in these respective tissues at this time point. Immunohistochemistry indicated that VtgC was present within pre-vitellogenic oocytes and localized to lipid droplets within vitellogenic oocytes. Affinity purification coupled to tandem mass spectrometry using highly purified VtgC as a bait protein revealed a single specific interacting protein (Y-box binding protein 2a-like [Ybx2a-like]) that eluted with suramin buffer and confirmed that VtgC does not bind the ovary vitellogenin receptors (LR8 and Lrp13). Western blotting for LR8 and Lrp13 showed that both receptors were expressed during vitellogenesis with LR8 and Lrp13 expression highest in early- and mid-vitellogenesis, respectively. The VtgAa within the ovary peaked during post-vitellogenesis, while VtgAb peaked during early-vitellogenesis in both white perch and the closely related striped bass (M. saxatilis). The VtgC was steadily accumulated by oocytes beginning during pre-vitellogenesis and continued until post-vitellogenesis and its composition varies widely between striped bass and white perch. In striped bass, the VtgC accounted for 26% of the vitellogenin-derived egg yolk, however in the white perch it comprised only 4%. Striped bass larvae have an extended developmental window and these larvae have yolk stores that may enable them to survive in the absence of food for twice as long as white perch after hatch. Thus, the VtgC may play an integral role in providing nutrients to late stage

  5. The rhizome of Reclinomonas americana, Homo sapiens, Pediculus humanus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mitochondria are thought to have evolved from eubacteria-like endosymbionts; however, the origin of the mitochondrion remains a subject of debate. In this study, we investigated the phenomenon of chimerism in mitochondria to shed light on the origin of these organelles by determining which species played a role in their formation. We used the mitochondria of four distinct organisms, Reclinomonas americana, Homo sapiens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and multichromosome Pediculus humanus, and attempted to identify the origin of each mitochondrial gene. Results Our results suggest that the origin of mitochondrial genes is not limited to the Rickettsiales and that the creation of these genes did not occur in a single event, but through multiple successive events. Some of these events are very old and were followed by events that are more recent and occurred through the addition of elements originating from current species. The points in time that the elements were added and the parental species of each gene in the mitochondrial genome are different to the individual species. These data constitute strong evidence that mitochondria do not have a single common ancestor but likely have numerous ancestors, including proto-Rickettsiales, proto-Rhizobiales and proto-Alphaproteobacteria, as well as current alphaproteobacterial species. The analysis of the multichromosome P. humanus mitochondrion supports this mechanism. Conclusions The most plausible scenario of the origin of the mitochondrion is that ancestors of Rickettsiales and Rhizobiales merged in a proto-eukaryotic cell approximately one billion years ago. The fusion of the Rickettsiales and Rhizobiales cells was followed by gene loss, genomic rearrangements and the addition of alphaproteobacterial elements through ancient and more recent recombination events. Each gene of each of the four studied mitochondria has a different origin, while in some cases, multichromosomes may allow for enhanced gene exchange

  6. Mechanisms of Egg Yolk Formation and Implications on Early Life History of White Perch (Morone americana)

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Justin; Loziuk, Philip L.; Muddiman, David C.; Daniels, Harry V.; Reading, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    The three white perch (Morone americana) vitellogenins (VtgAa, VtgAb, VtgC) were quantified accurately and precisely in the liver, plasma, and ovary during pre-, early-, mid-, and post-vitellogenic oocyte growth using protein cleavage-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (PC-IDMS). Western blotting generally mirrored the PC-IDMS results. By PC-IDMS, VtgC was quantifiable in pre-vitellogenic ovary tissues and VtgAb was quantifiable in pre-vitellogenic liver tissues however, neither protein was detected by western blotting in these respective tissues at this time point. Immunohistochemistry indicated that VtgC was present within pre-vitellogenic oocytes and localized to lipid droplets within vitellogenic oocytes. Affinity purification coupled to tandem mass spectrometry using highly purified VtgC as a bait protein revealed a single specific interacting protein (Y-box binding protein 2a-like [Ybx2a-like]) that eluted with suramin buffer and confirmed that VtgC does not bind the ovary vitellogenin receptors (LR8 and Lrp13). Western blotting for LR8 and Lrp13 showed that both receptors were expressed during vitellogenesis with LR8 and Lrp13 expression highest in early- and mid-vitellogenesis, respectively. The VtgAa within the ovary peaked during post-vitellogenesis, while VtgAb peaked during early-vitellogenesis in both white perch and the closely related striped bass (M. saxatilis). The VtgC was steadily accumulated by oocytes beginning during pre-vitellogenesis and continued until post-vitellogenesis and its composition varies widely between striped bass and white perch. In striped bass, the VtgC accounted for 26% of the vitellogenin-derived egg yolk, however in the white perch it comprised only 4%. Striped bass larvae have an extended developmental window and these larvae have yolk stores that may enable them to survive in the absence of food for twice as long as white perch after hatch. Thus, the VtgC may play an integral role in providing nutrients to late stage

  7. Synthesis of ε-Viniferin Glycosides by Glucosyltransferase from Phytolacca americana and their Inhibitory Activity on Histamine Release from Rat Peritoneal Mast Cells.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Hiroki; Hamada, Hatsuyuki; Shimoda, Kei

    2015-06-01

    Glycosylation of (+)-ε-viniferin was investigated using glucosyltransferase from Phytolacca americana (PaGT3) as a biocatalyst. (+)-ε-Viniferin was converted by PaGT3 into its 4b- and 13b-β-D-glucosides, the inhibitory activities on histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells of which were higher than that of (+)-ε-viniferin.

  8. Synthesis of 3,5,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-trans-stilbene-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside by glucosyltransferases from Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed

    Iwakiri, Tomoya; Imai, Hiroya; Hamada, Hiroki; Nakayama, Toru; Ozaki, Shin-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Two glucosyltransferase isozymes from Phytolacca americana, PaGT3 and PaGT2, catalyzed stereo- and regio-selective monoglucosylation of 3,5,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-trans-stilbene to yield 3,5,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-trans-stilbene-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

  9. EFFECTS OF LIGHT REDUCTION ON GROWTH OF THE SUBMERGED MACROPHYTE VALLISNERIA AMERICANA AND THE COMMUNITY OF ROOT-ASSOCIATED HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A shading experiment was conducted over a growing season to measure the effects of light reduction on Vallisneria americana in Perdido Bay on the Florida-Alabama border, and to determine the response of heterotrophic bacteria in the rhizosphere. Plants subjected to 92% light redu...

  10. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FOLIAR INJURY RESPONSES OF PRUNUS SEROTINA, FRAXINUS AMERICANA, AND ACER RUBRUM SEEDLINGS TO VARYING SOIL MOISTURE AND OZONE. (R825244)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings wer...

  11. Remnant B-cell-stimulative and anti-oxidative effects of Persea americana fruit extract studied in rats introduced into streptozotocin - induced hyperglycaemic state.

    PubMed

    Rao, U S Mahadeva; Adinew, Bizuneh

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-stimulative and anti-oxidative effects of Persea americana fruit extract were evaluated using streptozotocin (STZ). Ethanol extract of P. americana in the concentration of 300 mg/kg body weight/rat /day was orally administered to rats introduced into STZ-induced hyperglycaemic state for a period of 30 days. After the treatment with avocado fruit extract, the elevated levels of blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood urea and serum creatinine seen in the hyperglycaemic rats, reverted back to near normal. Similarly, significantly decreased plasma insulin and haemoglobin levels went back to near normal after the treatment, suggesting the insulin-stimulative effect of P. americana fruit. Determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydroperoxides and both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, confirmed the anti-oxidative potential of avocado fruit extract which, in turn, might be responsible for its hypoglycaemic potential. Changes in activities of enzymes such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (ALT), and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) seen in the control and experimental rats, revealed the tissue-protective nature of Persea americana fruits, while all of the analysed biochemical parameters were comparable to those obtained with gliclazide as a standard reference drug.

  12. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana).

    PubMed

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J; Chandler, Jane N; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-05-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production.

  13. [The Unión Médica Hispano-Americana (1900) and its contribution to scientific internationalism].

    PubMed

    Olagüe de Ros, Guillermo

    2006-01-01

    The Unión Médica Hispano-Americana was founded during the XIII International Congress of Medicine of Paris in 1900. Its main aim was to strengthen the cultural and scientific ties among Spanish speaking countries. The first assembly took place in Madrid in the Spring of 1903. The most interesting paper presented was undoubtedly that of Manuel Tolosa Latour. He suggested creating a Diccionario Tecnológico Médico Hispano-Americano. The society had no continuity and neither did the dictionary. The reasons for this failure must be seen in the absence of economic support by political authorities in Spain and America, the organizational weakness of the Unión and the poverty of its action program, which was imbued with a triumphalist rhetoric, empty of content and highly paternalistic in its relations with the American world.

  14. Endoparasites of American marten (Martes americana): Review of the literature and parasite survey of reintroduced American marten in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Maria C; Kaloustian, Lisa L; Gerhold, Richard W

    2016-12-01

    The American marten (Martes americana) was reintroduced to both the Upper (UP) and northern Lower Peninsula (NLP) of Michigan during the 20th century. This is the first report of endoparasites of American marten from the NLP. Faeces from live-trapped American marten were examined for the presence of parasitic ova, and blood samples were obtained for haematocrit evaluation. The most prevalent parasites were Capillaria and Alaria species. Helminth parasites reported in American marten for the first time include Eucoleus boehmi, hookworm, and Hymenolepis and Strongyloides species. This is the first report of shedding of Sarcocystis species sporocysts in an American marten and identification of 2 coccidian parasites, Cystoisospora and Eimeria species. The pathologic and zoonotic potential of each parasite species is discussed, and previous reports of endoparasites of the American marten in North America are reviewed. PMID:27536551

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of lectin C from the roots of pokeweed (Phytolacca americana).

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Minoru; Fujii, Tomomi; Hamasu, Mika; Ishiguro, Masatsune; Hata, Yasuo

    2003-07-01

    Lectin C from the roots of pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) (PL-C; 13 747 Da, 126 amino-acid residues), which consists of three chitin-binding domains, was initially crystallized in two crystal forms. One form, obtained in the presence of 30%(w/v) PEG 4000, belongs to the tetragonal system. The other, obtained in the presence of 2.0 M ammonium sulfate, belongs to the rhombohedral system. Statistical analyses of the X-ray diffraction intensities showed that both crystals were twinned. Single crystals suitable for a diffraction experiment were obtained by the addition of 0.5%(v/v) dioxane to the latter precipitant solution. They belong to space group R3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 104.1, c = 69.7 A, and diffract X-rays to 1.8 A resolution. A heavy-atom derivative crystal has been obtained and structure determination is presently ongoing using the SIRAS method.

  16. A new antifungal peptide from the seeds of Phytolacca americana: characterization, amino acid sequence and cDNA cloning.

    PubMed

    Shao, F; Hu, Z; Xiong, Y M; Huang, Q Z; WangCG; Zhu, R H; Wang, D C

    1999-03-19

    An antifungal peptide from seeds of Phytolacca americana, designated PAFP-s, has been isolated. The peptide is highly basic and consists of 38 residues with three disulfide bridges. Its molecular mass of 3929.0 was determined by mass spectrometry. The complete amino acid sequence was obtained from automated Edman degradation, and cDNA cloning was successfully performed by 3'-RACE. The deduced amino acid sequence of a partial cDNA corresponded to the amino acid sequence from chemical sequencing. PAFP-s exhibited a broad spectrum of antifungal activity, and its activities differed among various fungi. PAFP-s displayed no inhibitory activity towards Escherichia coli. PAFP-s shows significant sequence similarities and the same cysteine motif with Mj-AMPs, antimicrobial peptides from seeds of Mirabilis jalapa belonging to the knottin-type antimicrobial peptide.

  17. Isolation and Some Properties of the Antimicrobial Peptide (Pa-AMP) from the Seeds of Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana).

    PubMed

    Minami, Y; Higuchi, S; Yagi, F; Tadera, K

    1998-01-01

    An antimicrobial peptide, designated Pa-AMP, was purified by gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 followed by S-Sepharose, Cosmosil-SP, and reverse-phase HPLC from the seeds of pokeweed (Phytolacca americana). Pa-AMP is a basic peptide having an isoelectric point of over 10 and its extinction coefficient at 280 nm of 1% aqueous solution was 7.7. Pa-AMP has a molecular mass of 4 kDa and 3.4 kDa on tricine SDS-PAGE under nonreducing and reducing conditions, respectively. The N-terminal amino acid of Pa-AMP was blocked. The concentrations of peptide required for 50% inhibition (IC50) of the growth of plant pathogenic fungi, Gram-positive, and Gram-negative bacteria were 3 to 41 μg/ml. Differing from other peptides, Pa-AMP inhibited the growth of some Gram-negative bacteria.

  18. Leaf anatomy and histochemistry of three species of Ficus sect. Americanae supported by light and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Nathalia Diniz; Coelho, Victor Peçanha M; Ventrella, Marília Contin; Agra, Maria de Fátima

    2014-02-01

    In this work the leaf anatomy of three species of Ficus section Americanae (Miq.) Miq. from Brazil, whose leaves and latex are used in folk medicine is reported. The work was carried out using light and scanning electron microscopy in order to characterize these species and to evaluate their taxonomic significance, and also contribute to the quality control of their ethnodrugs. The three species (Ficus cyclophylla, Ficus elliotiana, and Ficus caatingae) showed hypostomatic leaves, anomocytic stomata, straight epidermal cell outlines, and a dorsiventral mesophyll. Some micro-morphological characters such as density and distribution of epicuticular waxes, glandular trichomes, the length and width of stomata, as well as the palisade of mesophyll and petiole outlines proved to be the most useful and distinctive characters for the separation of species. These may contribute as additional support for the taxonomy of the section and for the quality control of their ethnodrugs.

  19. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J.; Chandler, Jane N.; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production.

  20. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana).

    PubMed

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J; Chandler, Jane N; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-05-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production. PMID:27080552

  1. Identification of avocado (Persea americana) pulp proteins by nano-LC-MS/MS via combinatorial peptide ligand libraries.

    PubMed

    Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Marina, María Luisa; García, María Concepción; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2012-09-01

    Avocado (Persea americana) proteins have been scarcely studied despite their importance, especially in food related allergies. The proteome of avocado pulp was explored in depth by extracting proteins with capture by combinatorial peptide ligand libraries at pH 7.4 and under conditions mimicking reverse-phase capture at pH 2.2. The total number of unique gene products identified amounts to 1012 proteins, of which 174 are in common with the control, untreated sample, 190 are present only in the control and 648 represent the new species detected via combinatorial peptide ligand libraries of all combined eluates and likely represent low-abundance proteins. Among the 1012 proteins, it was possible to identify the already known avocado allergen Pers a 1 and different proteins susceptible to be allergens such as a profilin, a polygalacturonase, a thaumatin-like protein, a glucanase, and an isoflavone reductase like protein. PMID:23019098

  2. Purification and cDNA cloning of a lectin and a lectin-like protein from Apios americana Medikus tubers.

    PubMed

    Kouzuma, Yoshiaki; Irie, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Rikiya; Yonekura, Masami

    2014-01-01

    An Apios americana lectin (AAL) and a lectin-like protein (AALP) were purified from tubers by chromatography on Butyl-Cellulofine, ovomucoid-Cellulofine, and DEAE-Cellulofine columns. AAL showed strong hemagglutinating activity toward chicken and goose erythrocytes, but AALP showed no such activity toward any of the erythrocytes tested. The hemagglutinating activity of AAL was not inhibited by mono- or disaccharides, but was inhibited by glycoproteins, such as asialofetuin and ovomucoid, suggesting that AAL is an oligosaccharide-specific lectin. The cDNAs of AAL and AALP consist of 1,093 and 1,104 nucleotides and encode proteins of 302 and 274 amino acid residues, respectively. Both amino acid sequences showed high similarity to known legume lectins, and those of their amino acids involved in carbohydrate and metal binding were conserved. PMID:25036952

  3. Endoparasites of American marten (Martes americana): Review of the literature and parasite survey of reintroduced American marten in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Maria C; Kaloustian, Lisa L; Gerhold, Richard W

    2016-12-01

    The American marten (Martes americana) was reintroduced to both the Upper (UP) and northern Lower Peninsula (NLP) of Michigan during the 20th century. This is the first report of endoparasites of American marten from the NLP. Faeces from live-trapped American marten were examined for the presence of parasitic ova, and blood samples were obtained for haematocrit evaluation. The most prevalent parasites were Capillaria and Alaria species. Helminth parasites reported in American marten for the first time include Eucoleus boehmi, hookworm, and Hymenolepis and Strongyloides species. This is the first report of shedding of Sarcocystis species sporocysts in an American marten and identification of 2 coccidian parasites, Cystoisospora and Eimeria species. The pathologic and zoonotic potential of each parasite species is discussed, and previous reports of endoparasites of the American marten in North America are reviewed.

  4. Macroinvertebrate communities associated with three aquatic macrophytes (Ceratophyllum demersum, Myriophyllum spicatum, and Vallisneria americana) in Lake Onalaska, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chilton, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    The standing crop and species diversity of macroinvertebrates associated with wild celery (Vallisneria americana), Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), and coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum) were examined in Lake Onalaska, Pool 7 of the upper Mississippi River, during summer 1983. Although Ceratophyllum generally supported the largest invertebrate standing crop (number per g plant dry weight), differences in invertebrate abundance among plant species were not consistent across time. However, the distribution of several taxa were significantly affected by plant species. Hyalella azteca (overall the most abundant species) and Enallagma spp. (the most abundant predator) were consistently most numerous in Ceratophyllum samples and least abundant in Vallisneria samples. Generally, invertebrate community composition differed significantly among plant species throughout the summer.

  5. Identification of avocado (Persea americana) pulp proteins by nano-LC-MS/MS via combinatorial peptide ligand libraries.

    PubMed

    Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Marina, María Luisa; García, María Concepción; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2012-09-01

    Avocado (Persea americana) proteins have been scarcely studied despite their importance, especially in food related allergies. The proteome of avocado pulp was explored in depth by extracting proteins with capture by combinatorial peptide ligand libraries at pH 7.4 and under conditions mimicking reverse-phase capture at pH 2.2. The total number of unique gene products identified amounts to 1012 proteins, of which 174 are in common with the control, untreated sample, 190 are present only in the control and 648 represent the new species detected via combinatorial peptide ligand libraries of all combined eluates and likely represent low-abundance proteins. Among the 1012 proteins, it was possible to identify the already known avocado allergen Pers a 1 and different proteins susceptible to be allergens such as a profilin, a polygalacturonase, a thaumatin-like protein, a glucanase, and an isoflavone reductase like protein.

  6. Antifungal Properties of Crude Extracts, Fractions, and Purified Compounds from Bark of Curatella americana L. (Dilleniaceae) against Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Mendes de Toledo, Cleyton Eduardo; Santos, Patrícia Regina; Palazzo de Mello, João Carlos; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia

    2015-01-01

    The ethnomedicinal plant Curatella americana L. (Dilleniaceae) is a common shrub in the Brazilian cerrado, in which crude extract showed antifungal activity in a preliminary study. In this work, the antifungal and cytotoxic properties of the crude extract, fractions, and isolated compounds from C. americana were evaluated against the standard yeast strains Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis, clinical isolates, and fluconazole-resistant strains. The combinatory effects between subfractions and isolated compounds and effects on cell morphology, virulence factors, and exogenous ergosterol were also evaluated. The MIC obtained against the Candida species including fluconazole-resistant strain ranged from 15.3 to 31.3 µg/mL for crude extract, 3.9 to 15.6 µg/mL for ethyl acetate fraction, and 7.8 to 31.3 µg/mL for subfractions. The isolated compounds identified as 4′-O-methyl-catechin, epicatechin-3-O-gallate, and 4′-O-methyl-catechin-3-O-gallate showed lower antifungal activity than the crude extract and fractions (MIC ranging from 31.3 to 125.0 µg/mL). The addition of exogenous ergosterol to yeast culture did not interfere in the antifungal activity of the extract and its fractions. Synergistic antifungal activity was observed between subfractions and isolated compounds. The effects on virulence factors and the different mechanisms of action compared to fluconazole and nystatin suggest that this ethnomedicinal plant may be an effective alternative treatment for candidiasis. PMID:26347790

  7. Integrating gene flow, crop biology, and farm management in on-farm conservation of avocado (Persea americana, Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Kenneth; Desalle, Rob; Peters, Charles M; Benfey, Philip N

    2003-11-01

    Maintaining crop diversity on farms where cultivars can evolve is a conservation goal, but few tools are available to assess the long-term maintenance of genetic diversity on farms. One important issue for on-farm conservation is gene flow from crops with a narrow genetic base into related populations that are genetically diverse. In a case study of avocado (Persea americana var. americana) in one of its centers of diversity (San Jerónimo, Costa Rica), we used 10 DNA microsatellite markers in a parentage analysis to estimate gene flow from commercialized varieties into a traditional crop population. Five commercialized genotypes comprised nearly 40% of orchard trees, but they contributed only about 14.5% of the gametes to the youngest cohort of trees. Although commercialized varieties and the diverse population were often planted on the same farm, planting patterns appeared to keep the two types of trees separated on small scales, possibly explaining the limited gene flow. In a simulation that combined gene flow estimates, crop biology, and graft tree management, loss of allelic diversity was less than 10% over 150 yr, and selection was effective in retaining desirable alleles in the diverse subpopulation. Simulations also showed that, in addition to gene flow, managing the genetic makeup and life history traits of the invasive commercialized varieties could have a significant impact on genetic diversity in the target population. The results support the feasibility of on-farm crop conservation, but simulations also showed that higher levels of gene flow could lead to severe losses of genetic diversity even if farmers continue to plant diverse varieties. PMID:21653337

  8. Persea americana Glycolic Extract: In Vitro Study of Antimicrobial Activity against Candida albicans Biofilm and Cytotoxicity Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Jesus, D.; Oliveira, J. R.; Oliveira, F. E.; Higa, K. C.; Junqueira, J. C.; Jorge, A. O. C.; Back-Brito, G. N.; Oliveira, L. D.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the antifungal activity of Persea americana extract on Candida albicans biofilm and its cytotoxicity in macrophage culture (RAW 264.7). To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), microdilution in broth (CLSI M27-S4 protocol) was performed. Thereafter, the concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL (n = 10) with 5 min exposure were analyzed on mature biofilm in microplate wells for 48 h. Saline was used as control (n = 10). After treatment, biofilm cells were scraped off and dilutions were plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. After incubation (37°C/48 h), the values of colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) were converted to log10 and analyzed (ANOVA and Tukey test, 5%). The cytotoxicity of the P. americana extract was evaluated on macrophages by MTT assay. The MIC of the extract was 6.25 mg/mL and with 12.5 mg/mL there was elimination of 100% of planktonic cultures. Regarding the biofilms, a significant reduction (P < 0.001) of the biofilm at concentrations of 50 (0.580 ± 0.209 log10), 100 (0.998 ± 0.508 log10), and 200 mg/mL (1.093 ± 0.462 log10) was observed. The concentrations of 200 and 100 mg/mL were cytotoxic for macrophages, while the concentrations of 50, 25, and 12.5 mg/mL showed viability higher than 55%. PMID:26605376

  9. Persea americana Glycolic Extract: In Vitro Study of Antimicrobial Activity against Candida albicans Biofilm and Cytotoxicity Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jesus, D; Oliveira, J R; Oliveira, F E; Higa, K C; Junqueira, J C; Jorge, A O C; Back-Brito, G N; Oliveira, L D

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the antifungal activity of Persea americana extract on Candida albicans biofilm and its cytotoxicity in macrophage culture (RAW 264.7). To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), microdilution in broth (CLSI M27-S4 protocol) was performed. Thereafter, the concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL (n = 10) with 5 min exposure were analyzed on mature biofilm in microplate wells for 48 h. Saline was used as control (n = 10). After treatment, biofilm cells were scraped off and dilutions were plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. After incubation (37°C/48 h), the values of colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) were converted to log10 and analyzed (ANOVA and Tukey test, 5%). The cytotoxicity of the P. americana extract was evaluated on macrophages by MTT assay. The MIC of the extract was 6.25 mg/mL and with 12.5 mg/mL there was elimination of 100% of planktonic cultures. Regarding the biofilms, a significant reduction (P < 0.001) of the biofilm at concentrations of 50 (0.580 ± 0.209 log10), 100 (0.998 ± 0.508 log10), and 200 mg/mL (1.093 ± 0.462 log10) was observed. The concentrations of 200 and 100 mg/mL were cytotoxic for macrophages, while the concentrations of 50, 25, and 12.5 mg/mL showed viability higher than 55%. PMID:26605376

  10. Persea americana Glycolic Extract: In Vitro Study of Antimicrobial Activity against Candida albicans Biofilm and Cytotoxicity Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jesus, D; Oliveira, J R; Oliveira, F E; Higa, K C; Junqueira, J C; Jorge, A O C; Back-Brito, G N; Oliveira, L D

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the antifungal activity of Persea americana extract on Candida albicans biofilm and its cytotoxicity in macrophage culture (RAW 264.7). To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), microdilution in broth (CLSI M27-S4 protocol) was performed. Thereafter, the concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL (n = 10) with 5 min exposure were analyzed on mature biofilm in microplate wells for 48 h. Saline was used as control (n = 10). After treatment, biofilm cells were scraped off and dilutions were plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. After incubation (37°C/48 h), the values of colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) were converted to log10 and analyzed (ANOVA and Tukey test, 5%). The cytotoxicity of the P. americana extract was evaluated on macrophages by MTT assay. The MIC of the extract was 6.25 mg/mL and with 12.5 mg/mL there was elimination of 100% of planktonic cultures. Regarding the biofilms, a significant reduction (P < 0.001) of the biofilm at concentrations of 50 (0.580 ± 0.209 log10), 100 (0.998 ± 0.508 log10), and 200 mg/mL (1.093 ± 0.462 log10) was observed. The concentrations of 200 and 100 mg/mL were cytotoxic for macrophages, while the concentrations of 50, 25, and 12.5 mg/mL showed viability higher than 55%.

  11. Phytolacca americana lectin (Pa-2; pokeweed mitogen): an intrinsically unordered protein and its conversion into partial order at low pH.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ejaz; Kamranur Rahman, Shah; Masood Khan, Javed; Varshney, Ankita; Hasan Khan, Rizwan

    2009-11-23

    This is the first report of its kind that well demonstrates that a lectin from Phytolacca americana [Pa-2 (P. americana lectin-2)] can also be intrinsically unordered, based on the results obtained by CD, tryptophan fluorescence, ANS (8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid) binding, acrylamide quenching, DLS (dynamic light scattering) and its amino acid composition database analyses. Pa-2 is an acidic monomeric lectin and acquires random coil conformation at neutral pH without any regular secondary structure. As confirmed by different spectroscopic techniques, on lowering the pH, some secondary structures, predominantly alpha-helices, are detected by far-UV CD that adopt a marginally stable partially folded collapsed conformation possessing the characteristics of a premolten globule state. It is in accordance with coil-helix transition that is commonly observed when these intrinsically unordered proteins interact with their partner molecules in vivo.

  12. The Effects and Mechanisms of Periplaneta americana Extract Reversal of Multi-Drug Resistance in BEL-7402/5-FU Cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Falu; Liu, Junyong; Qiao, Tingting; Li, Ting; Shen, Qi; Peng, Fang

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports the reversing effects of extracts from P. americana on multidrug resistance of BEL-7402/5-FU cells, as well as a preliminary investigation on their mechanism of action. A methylthiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method was applied to determine the multidrug resistance of BEL-7402/5-FU, while an intracellular drug accumulation assay was used to evaluate the effects of a column chromatography extract (PACC) and defatted extract (PADF) from P. americana on reversing multi-drug resistance. BEL-7402/5-FU reflected high resistance to 5-FU; PACC and PADF could promote drug accumulation in BEL-7402/5-FU cells, among which PADF was more effective than PACC. Moreover, results from the immunocytochemical method showed that PACC and PADF could downregulate the expression of drug resistance-associated proteins (P-gp, MRP, LRP); PACC and PADF had no effects on the expression of multidrug resistance-associated enzymes (GST-π), but PACC could increase the expression of multidrug resistance-associated enzymes (PKC). Results of real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR revealed that PACC and PADF were able to markedly inhibit the expression of multidrug resistance-associated genes (MDR1, LRP and MRP1); PACC presented a significant impact on the gene expression of multidrug resistance-associated enzymes, which increased the gene expression of GST-π and PKC. However, PADF had little impact on the expression of multidrug resistance-associated enzymes. These results demonstrated that PACC and PADF extracted from P. americana could effectively reverse MDR in BEL-7402/5-FU cells, whose mechanism was to inhibit the expression of P-gp, MRP, and LRP, and that PADF was more effective in the reversal of MDR than did PACC. In addition, some of extracts from P. americana altered (sometimes increasing) the expression of multidrug resistance-associated enzymes. PMID:27367657

  13. Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb.) Schltr., Eleutherine americana Merr. and Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. as antibiofilm producing and antiquorum sensing in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Limsuwan, Surasak; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2008-08-01

    Biofilm formation has been demonstrated as a potentially important mechanism contributing to antibiotic treatment failure on Streptococcus pyogenes. It could play a significant role in recurrent and chronic infections. Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb.) Schltr., Eleutherine americana Merr. and Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. have been previously reported from our laboratory as effective agents against S. pyogenes. Therefore, in the present study, we observed the effect of these plants on biofilm formation. The bacterial biofilms were quantified by safranin staining and absorbance at 492 nm. The results clearly demonstrated that all subinhibitory concentrations [1/32-1/2 minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)] of E. americana (7.81-125 microg mL(-1)) and R. tomentosa (0.24-7.81 microg mL(-1)) extracts significantly prevented biofilm formation while 1/2MIC (7.81 microg mL(-1)) of B. pandurata extract produced this effect. The issue of antiquorum sensing of this pathogenic bacterium has been further explored. A correlation between antiquorum-sensing and antibiofilm-producing activities was demonstrated. Strong inhibition on quorum sensing was displayed with the extract of R. tomentosa. Eleutherine americana extract showed partial inhibition, while B. pandurata did not show this activity. By contrast, an assay of microbial adhesion to hydrocarbon revealed no changes in the cell-surface hydrophobicity of the treated organisms. Active organisms with the ability to inhibit quorum sensing and biofilm formation are worth studying as they may provide complimentary medicine for biofilm-associated infections. PMID:18631184

  14. Specific B-cell Epitope of Per a 1: A Major Allergen of American Cockroach (Periplaneta americana) and Anatomical Localization

    PubMed Central

    Sookrung, Nitat; Khetsuphan, Thanyathon; Chaisri, Urai; Indrawattana, Nitaya; Reamtong, Onrapak; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cockroach (CR) is a common source of indoor allergens, and Per a 1 is a major American CR (Periplaneta americana) allergen; however, several attributes of this protein remain unknown. This study identifies a novel specific B cell epitope and anatomical locations of Per a 1.0105. Methods Recombinant Per a 1.0105 (rPer a 1.0105) was used as BALB/c mouse immunogen for the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAb). The MAb specific B cell epitope was identified by determining phage mimotopic peptides and pair-wise alignment of the peptides with the rPer a 1.0105 amino acid sequence. Locations of the Per a 1.0105 in P. americana were investigated by immunohistochemical staining. Results The rPer a 1.0105 (~13 kDa) had 100%, 98% and ≥90% identity to Per a 1.0105, Per a 1.0101, and Cr-PII, respectively. The B-cell epitope of the Per a 1.0105 specific-MAb was located at residues99 QDLLLQLRDKGV110 contained in all 5 Per a 1.01 isoforms and Per a 1.02. The epitope was analogous to the Bla g 1.02 epitope; however, this B-cell epitope was not an IgE inducer. Per a 1.0105 was found in the midgut and intestinal content of American CR but not in the other organs. The amount of the Per a 1 was ~544 ℃g per gram of feces. Conclusions The novel Per a 1 B-cell epitope described in this study is a useful target for allergen quantification in samples; however, the specific MAb can be used as an allergen detection reagent. The MAb based-affinity resin can be made for allergen purification, and the so-purified protein can serve as a standard and diagnostic allergen as well as a therapeutic vaccine component. The finding that the Per a 1 is contained in the midgut and feces is useful to increase yield and purity when preparing this allergen. PMID:24991456

  15. EST sequencing and gene expression profiling of defence-related genes from Persea americana infected with Phytophthora cinnamomi

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Avocado (Persea americana) belongs to the Lauraceae family and is an important commercial fruit crop in over 50 countries. The most serious pathogen affecting avocado production is Phytophthora cinnamomi which causes Phytophthora root rot (PRR). Root pathogens such as P. cinnamomi and their interactions with hosts are poorly understood and despite the importance of both the avocado crop and the effect Phytophthora has on its cultivation, there is a lack of molecular knowledge underpinning our understanding of defence strategies against the pathogen. In order to initiate a better understanding of host-specific defence we have generated EST data using 454 pyrosequencing and profiled nine defence-related genes from Pc-infected avocado roots. Results 2.0 Mb of data was generated consisting of ~10,000 reads on a single lane of the GS FLX platform. Using the Newbler assembler 371 contigs were assembled, of which 367 are novel for Persea americana. Genes were classified according to Gene Ontology terms. In addition to identifying root-specific ESTs we were also able to identify and quantify the expression of nine defence-related genes that were differentially regulated in response to P. cinnamomi. Genes such as metallothionein, thaumatin and the pathogenesis related PsemI, mlo and profilin were found to be differentially regulated. Conclusions This is the first study in elucidating the avocado root transcriptome as well as identifying defence responses of avocado roots to the root pathogen P. cinnamomi. Our data is currently the only EST data that has been generated for avocado rootstocks, and the ESTs identified in this study have already been useful in identifying defence-related genes as well as providing gene information for other studies looking at processes such as ROS regulation as well as hypoxia in avocado roots. Our EST data will aid in the elucidation of the avocado transcriptome and identification of markers for improved rootstock breeding and

  16. Impact of Laurel Wilt, Caused by Raffaelea lauricola, on Leaf Gas Exchange and Xylem Sap Flow in Avocado, Persea americana.

    PubMed

    Ploetz, Randy C; Schaffer, Bruce; Vargas, Ana I; Konkol, Joshua L; Salvatierra, Juanpablo; Wideman, Ronney

    2015-04-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola, is a destructive disease of avocado (Persea americana). The susceptibility of different cultivars and races was examined previously but more information is needed on how this host responds to the disease. In the present study, net CO2 assimilation (A), stomatal conductance of H2O (gs), transpiration (E), water use efficiency (WUE), and xylem sap flow rates were assessed in cultivars that differed in susceptibility. After artificial inoculation with R. lauricola, there was a close relationship between symptom development and reductions in A, gs, E, WUE, and mean daily sap flow in the most susceptible cultivar, 'Russell', and significantly greater disease and lower A, gs, E, WUE, and sap flow rates were usually detected after 15 days compared with the more tolerant 'Brogdon' and 'Marcus Pumpkin'. Significant differences in preinoculation A, gs, E, and WUE were generally not detected among the cultivars but preinoculation sap flow rates were greater in Russell than in Brogdon and Marcus Pumpkin. Preinoculation sap flow rates and symptom severity for individual trees were correlated at the end of an experiment (r=0.46), indicating that a plant's susceptibility to laurel wilt was related to its ability to conduct water. The potential management of this disease with clonal rootstocks that reduce sap flow rates is discussed.

  17. Spirochaeta americana sp. nov., a new haloalkaliphilic, obligately anaerobic spirochaete isolated from soda Mono Lake in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Pikuta, Elena V.; Bej, Asim K.; Marsic, Damien; Whitman, William B.; Tang, Jane; Krader, Paul

    2003-01-01

    A novel, obligately anaerobic, mesophilic, haloalkaliphilic spirochaete, strain ASpG1(T), was isolated from sediments of the alkaline, hypersaline Mono Lake in California, USA. Cells of the Gram-negative strain were motile and spirochaete-shaped with sizes of 0.2-0.22 x 8-18 microm. Growth of the strain was observed between 10 and 44 degrees C (optimum 37 degrees C), in 2-12% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 3% NaCl) and between pH 8 and 10.5 (optimum pH 9.5). The novel strain was strictly alkaliphilic, required high concentrations of carbonates in the medium and was capable of utilizing D-glucose, fructose, maltose, sucrose, starch and D-mannitol. End products of glucose fermentation were H2, acetate, ethanol and formate. Strain ASpG(T) was resistant to kanamycin and rifampicin, but sensitive to gentamicin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol. The G + C content of its DNA was 58.5 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis of strain ASpG1(T) with its most closely related species, Spirochaeta alkalica Z-7491(T), revealed a hybridization value of only 48.7%. On the basis of its physiological and molecular properties, strain ASpG1(T) appears to represent a novel species of the genus Spirochaeta, for which the name Spirochaeta americana is proposed (type strain ASpG1(T) =ATCC BAA-392(T) = DSM 14872(T)).

  18. Analysis of active site residues of the antiviral protein from summer leaves from Phytolacca americana by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Poyet, J L; Hoeveler, A; Jongeneel, C V

    1998-12-30

    The summer leaf isoform of the pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) antiviral protein, PAP II, was produced in high yields from inclusion bodies in recombinant E. coli. On the basis of its sequence similarity with the spring leaf isoform (PAP I) and with the A chain of ricin, a three-dimensional model of the protein was constructed as an aid in the design of active site mutants. PAP II variants mutated in residues Asp 88 (D88N), Tyr 117 (Y117S), Glu 172 (E172Q), Arg 175 (R175H) and a combination of Asp 88 and Arg 175 (D88N/R175H) were produced in E. coli and assayed for their ability to inhibit protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate. All of these mutations had effects deleterious to the enzymatic activity of PAP II. The results were interpreted in the light of three reaction mechanisms proposed for ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs). We conclude that none of the proposed mechanisms is entirely consistent with the data presented here.

  19. Amino acid sequence and some properties of lectin-D from the roots of pokeweed (Phytolacca americana).

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, K; Mori, A; Funatsu, G

    1996-08-01

    Two pokeweed lectins, designated PL-D1 and PL-D2, have been isolated from the roots of pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) using chitin affinity column chromatography followed by gel filtration on a Sephacryl S-200 column and fast protein liquid chromatography on a Mono-Q column, and their amino acid sequences have been analyzed. PL-D1 consists of 84 amino acid residues and has a molecular mass of 9317, while PL-D2 has an identical sequence with PL-D1 except lack of the C-terminal Leu-Thr. PL-D is composed of two chitin-binding domains, A and B, with 50% homology with each other. Both PL-Ds did not agglutinate native rabbit erythrocytes, but showed about 0.1% of the agglutinating activity of wheat germ agglutinin toward trypsin-treated erythrocytes. In the presence of beta (1-->4) linked oligomers of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, which inhibit the hemagglutination, PL-D1 had an ultraviolet-difference spectrum with maxima at 292-294 nm and 284-285 nm, attributed to the red shift of the tryptophan residue, suggesting the location of tryptophan residue(s) at or near saccharide-binding site of PL-D1.

  20. alpha-Spinasterol isolated from the root of Phytolacca americana and its pharmacological property on diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seung I; Kim, Kang Ju; Choi, Min Kyu; Keum, Kyung Soo; Lee, Seoul; Ahn, Seon Ho; Back, Seung Hoon; Song, Ju Hung; Ju, Young Sung; Choi, Bong Kyu; Jung, Kyu Yong

    2004-08-01

    Based on an inhibitory activity-guided fractionation for the high glucose-induced proliferation of glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs), chloroform extracts of the roots of Phytolacca americana were found to contain alpha-spinasterol (C (29)H (48)O), a delta (7)-sterol. This phytosterol proved to be a potent inhibitor (IC (50) = 3.9 x 10 (-12) g/mL, 9.5 pmol/L) of glomerular mesangial cell proliferation caused by high-ambient glucose (5.6 mM vs. 25 mM), and its inhibitory potency was about 1,000 times higher than that of simvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor used as a positive control. alpha-Spinasterol also significantly reduced the increases of serum triglycerides, renal weight and urinary protein excretion in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, and these were comparable to the results observed in insulin-treated diabetic mice. Therefore, the results obtained in this study suggest that alpha-spinasterol has a significant therapeutic potential to modulate the development and/or progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  1. Amino acid sequence and some properties of phytolacain G, a cysteine protease from growing fruit of pokeweed, Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed

    Uchikoba, T; Arima, K; Yonezawa, H; Shimada, M; Kaneda, M

    2000-10-18

    A protease, phytolacain G, has been found to appear on CM-Sepharose ion-exchange chromatography of greenish small-size fruits of pokeweed, Phytolacca americana L, from ca. 2 weeks after flowering, and increases during fruit enlargement. Reddish ripe fruit of the pokeweed contained both phytolacain G and R. The molecular mass of phytolacain G was estimated to be 25.5 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Its amino acid sequence was reconstructed by automated sequence analysis of the peptides obtained after cleavage with Achromobacter protease I, chymotrypsin, and cyanogen bromide. The enzyme is composed of 216 amino acid residues, of which it shares 152 identical amino acid residues (70%) with phytolacain R, 126 (58%) with melain G, 108 (50%) with papain, 106 (49%) with actinidain, and 96 (44%) with stem bromelain. The amino acid residues forming the substrate binding S(2) pocket of papain, Tyr67, Pro68, Trp69, Val133, and Phe207, were predicted to be replaced by Trp, Met, His, Ala, and Ser in phytolacain G, respectively. As a consequence of these substitutions, the S(2) pocket is expected to be less hydrophobic in phytolacain G than in papain.

  2. Phytolacca americana inhibits the high glucose-induced mesangial proliferation via suppressing extracellular matrix accumulation and TGF-beta production.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seung Il; Kim, Kang Ju; Choo, Yong Kug; Keum, Kyung Soo; Choi, Bong Kyu; Jung, Kyu Yong

    2004-02-01

    This study describes a potential of Phytolaccaceae (Phytolacca americana var.) as an inhibitor of high glucose-stimulated production of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and TGF-beta in cultured glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs). Raising the ambient glucose concentration for 24 hrs caused a dose-dependent increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation of GMCs, and the maximal response was achieved at 20 mM. Phytolaccaceae extracts (2.5-20 microg/ml) inhibited the high glucose-induced [3H]thymidine incorporation in a dose-dependent manner, and the concentrations tested here did not affect to the cell viability. Exposure of the GMCs to 20 mM glucose caused both ECM (collagen and fibronectin) accumulation and TGF-beta secretion, and these changes were significantly diminished by treatment of GMCs with Phytolaccaceae (10 microg/ml). Taken together, these results indicate that Phytolaccaceae inhibits the high glucose-induced GMCs proliferation partially through suppressing accumulation of ECM components and TGF-beta production, suggesting that Phytolaccaceae may be a promising agent for treating the development and progression of diabetic glomerulopathy.

  3. Effect of sediment depth and sediment type on the survival of Vallisneria americana Michx grown from tubers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rybicki, N.B.; Carter, V.

    1986-01-01

    Sedimentation resulting from storms may have been one of the reasons for the elimination of submersed aquatic vegetation from the tidal Potomac River in the late 1930's. Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the effects of different depths of overlying sediment and composition of sediment on the survival of Vallisneria americana Michx (wildcelery) grown from tubers. Survival of plants grown from tubers decreased significantly with increasing sediment depth. Survival of tubers declined from 90% or more when buried in 10 cm to no survival in greater than 25 cm of sediment. Survival with depth in sand was significantly lower than in silty clay. Field investigation determined that the majority of tubers in Vallisneria beds are distributed between 10 and 20 cm in depth in silty clay and between 5 and 15 cm in depth in sand. Based on the field distribution of tubers and on the percent survival of plants growing from tubers at each depth in the laboratory experiment, we suggest that the deposition of 10 cm or more of sediment by severe storms such as occurred in the 1930s could contribute to the loss of vegetation in the tidal Potomac River. ?? 1986.

  4. Avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill) exhibits chemo-protective potentiality against cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity in human lymphocyte culture.

    PubMed

    Paul, Rajkumar; Kulkarni, Paresh; Ganesh, Narayan

    2011-01-01

    Diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been associated with reduced risks for many types of cancers. Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a widely consumed fruit containing many cancer preventing nutrients, vitamins and phytochemicals. Studies have shown that phytochemicals extracted from the avocado fruit selectively induce cell cycle arrest, inhibit growth, and induce apoptosis in precancerous and cancer cell lines. Our recent studies indicate that phytochemicals extracted with 50% Methanol from avocado fruits help in proliferation of human lymphocyte cells and decrease chromosomal aberrations induced by cyclophosphamide. Among three concentrations (100 mg, 150 mg and 200 mg per Kg Body Weight), the most effective conc. of extract was 200 mg/Kg Body Wt. It decreased significant level of numerical and structural aberrations (breaks, premature centromeric division etc. up to 88%, p < 0.0001)), and accrocentric associtation within D & G group (up to 78%, p = 0.0008). These studies suggest that phytochemicals from the avocado fruit can be utilized for making active chemoprotective ingredient for lowering the side effect of chemotherapy like cyclophosphamide in cancer therapy.

  5. Purification and partial characterization of another form of the antiviral protein from the seeds of Phytolacca americana L. (pokeweed).

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, L; Aron, G M; Irvin, J D; Stirpe, F

    1982-01-01

    1. The pokeweed antiviral protein, previously identified in two forms (PAP and PAP II) in the leaves of Phytolacca americana (pokeweed) [Obrig. Irvin & Hardesty (1973) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 155, 278-289; Irvin, Kelly & Robertus (1980) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 200, 418-425] is a protein that prevents replication of several viruses and inactivates ribosomes, thus inhibiting protein synthesis. 2. PAP is present in several forms in the seeds of pokeweed. One of them, which we propose to call 'pokeweed antiviral protein from seeds' (PAP-S) was purified in high yield (180 mg per 100 g of seeds) by chromatography on CM-cellulose, has mol.wt. 30 000, and is similar to, but not identical with. PAP and PAP II. 3. PAP-S inhibits protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate with an ID50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) of 1.1 ng/ml (3.6 x 10(-11) M), but has much less effect on protein synthesis by whole cells, with an ID50 of 1 mg/ml (3.3 x 10(-5) M), and inhibits replication of herpes simplex virus type 1. PMID:7103950

  6. In Vitro Effect of Aqueous Extract and Fraction IV Portion of Ximenia americana Stem Bark on Trypanosoma congolense DNA

    PubMed Central

    Maikai, Victor Ambrose; Maikai, Beatty Viv; Kobo, Patricia Ishyaku

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosomosis is a debilitating disease affecting mainly livestock and humans in tropical Africa. Chemically synthesized drugs and medicinal plants have been used in the treatment and control of this disease. In this study, the in vitro effect of aqueous extracts and fraction IV extract of Ximenia americana stem bark on Trypanosoma congolense DNA was investigated. The extracts were incubated with the parasites in vitro at 300 mg/mL aqueous extract and 25 mg/mL fraction IV portion for 30, 60, and 120 mins. The DNA of the trypanosomes was isolated and digested using ECOR1 enzyme and subsequently PCR was carried out. Results showed that aqueous extract and fraction IV portion immobilized 55% and 90% of the trypanosomes after 30-minute incubation. Subsequent isolation of the parasite DNA and agarose gel electrophoresis did not reveal that cell death was as a result of DNA fragmentation. This suggests that cell death was by another mechanism of action. PMID:24587898

  7. Isolation and chemical identification of lipid derivatives from avocado (Persea americana) pulp with antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Sanchez, Dariana Graciela; Flores-García, Mirthala; Silva-Platas, Christian; Rizzo, Sheryl; Torre-Amione, Guillermo; De la Peña-Diaz, Aurora; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; García-Rivas, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Platelets play a pivotal role in physiological hemostasis. However, in coronary arteries damaged by atherosclerosis, enhanced platelet aggregation, with subsequent thrombus formation, is a precipitating factor in acute ischemic events. Avocado pulp (Persea americana) is a good source of bioactive compounds, and its inclusion in the diet as a source of fatty acid has been related to reduced platelet aggregability. Nevertheless, constituents of avocado pulp with antiplatelet activity remain unknown. The present study aims to characterize the chemical nature of avocado constituents with inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation. Centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) was used as a fractionation and purification tool, guided by an in vitro adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid or collagen-platelet aggregation assay. Antiplatelet activity was initially linked to seven acetogenins that were further purified, and their dose-dependent effects in the presence of various agonists were contrasted. This process led to the identification of Persenone-C (3) as the most potent antiplatelet acetogenin (IC₅₀=3.4 mM) among the evaluated compounds. In vivo evaluations with Persenone A (4) demonstrated potential protective effects against arterial thrombosis (25 mg kg⁻¹ of body weight), as coagulation times increased (2-fold with respect to the vehicle) and thrombus formation was attenuated (71% versus vehicle). From these results, avocado may be referred to as a functional food containing acetogenin compounds that inhibit platelet aggregation with a potential preventive effect on thrombus formation, such as those that occur in ischaemic diseases. PMID:25319210

  8. Impact of Laurel Wilt, Caused by Raffaelea lauricola, on Leaf Gas Exchange and Xylem Sap Flow in Avocado, Persea americana.

    PubMed

    Ploetz, Randy C; Schaffer, Bruce; Vargas, Ana I; Konkol, Joshua L; Salvatierra, Juanpablo; Wideman, Ronney

    2015-04-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola, is a destructive disease of avocado (Persea americana). The susceptibility of different cultivars and races was examined previously but more information is needed on how this host responds to the disease. In the present study, net CO2 assimilation (A), stomatal conductance of H2O (gs), transpiration (E), water use efficiency (WUE), and xylem sap flow rates were assessed in cultivars that differed in susceptibility. After artificial inoculation with R. lauricola, there was a close relationship between symptom development and reductions in A, gs, E, WUE, and mean daily sap flow in the most susceptible cultivar, 'Russell', and significantly greater disease and lower A, gs, E, WUE, and sap flow rates were usually detected after 15 days compared with the more tolerant 'Brogdon' and 'Marcus Pumpkin'. Significant differences in preinoculation A, gs, E, and WUE were generally not detected among the cultivars but preinoculation sap flow rates were greater in Russell than in Brogdon and Marcus Pumpkin. Preinoculation sap flow rates and symptom severity for individual trees were correlated at the end of an experiment (r=0.46), indicating that a plant's susceptibility to laurel wilt was related to its ability to conduct water. The potential management of this disease with clonal rootstocks that reduce sap flow rates is discussed. PMID:25496301

  9. Amplifiability of mitochondrial, microsatellite and amelogenin DNA loci from fecal samples of red brocket deer Mazama americana (Cetartiodactyla, Cervidae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M L; Duarte, J M B

    2013-01-16

    We tried to amplify mitochondrial, microsatellite and amelogenin loci in DNA from fecal samples of a wild Mazama americana population. Fifty-two deer fecal samples were collected from a 600-ha seasonal semideciduous forest fragment in a subtropical region of Brazil (21°20'S, 47°17'W), with the help of a detection dog; then, stored in ethanol and georeferenced. Among these samples 16 were classified as "fresh" and 36 as "non-fresh". DNA was extracted using the QIAamp(®) DNA Stool Mini Kit. Mitochondrial loci were amplified in 49 of the 52 samples. Five microsatellite loci were amplified by PCR; success in amplification varied according to locus size and sample age. Successful amplifications were achieved in 10/16 of the fresh and in 13/36 of the non-fresh samples; a negative correlation (R = -0.82) was found between successful amplification and locus size. Amplification of the amelogenin locus was successful in 22 of the 52 samples. The difficulty of amplifying nuclear loci in DNA samples extracted from feces collected in the field was evident. Some methodological improvements, including collecting fresh samples, selecting primers for shorter loci and quantifying the extracted DNA by real-time PCR, are suggested to increase amplification success in future studies.

  10. Profiling LC-DAD-ESI-TOF MS method for the determination of phenolic metabolites from avocado (Persea americana).

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Fernández, Elena; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2011-03-23

    A powerful HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF MS method was established for the efficient identification of the chemical constituents in the methanolic extracts of avocado (Persea americana). Separation and detection conditions were optimized by using a standard mix containing 39 compounds belonging to phenolic acids and different categories of flavonoids, analytes that could be potentially present in the avocado extracts. Optimum LC separation was achieved on a Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 analytical column (4.6×150 mm, 1.8 μm particle size) by gradient elution with water+acetic acid (0.5%) and acetonitrile as mobile phases, at a flow rate of 1.6 mL/min. The detection was carried out by ultraviolet-visible absorption and ESI-TOF MS. The developed method was applied to the study of 3 different varieties of avocado, and 17 compounds were unequivocally identified with standards. Moreover, around 25 analytes were tentatively identified by taking into account the accuracy and isotopic information provided by TOF MS.

  11. Paleoecological and biogeographical implications of late Pleistocene noble marten ( Martes americana nobilis) in eastern Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, R. Lee

    2011-01-01

    A mandible identified as noble marten ( Martes americana nobilis) recovered from sediments dating to 11,800 cal yr BP and a humerus identified as M. a. cf. nobilis recovered from sediments dating from 13,100 to 12,500 cal yr BP at the Marmes Rockshelter archaeological site in southeastern Washington represent the first record of this taxon in the state. Mammalian taxa associated with the Marmes Rockshelter noble marten represent a diversity of open mesic habitats corroborating earlier analyses of other records of the noble marten in the western United States and exemplify how paleozoologists determine the ecology and environmental predilections of extinct taxa. The recovery site represents the topographically lowest record of this species in western North America and the farthest north record in the United States. Future research should examine known late-Quaternary Martes spp. remains from British Columbia and Alberta to fill in the 2200-km geographic gap in the known distribution of this taxon between a record in the northern Yukon and those in the western United States, and to refine our knowledge of noble marten paleoecology.

  12. Fasting in the American marten (Martes americana): a physiological model of the adaptations of a lean-bodied animal.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Petteri; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Saarela, Seppo; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2007-10-01

    The American marten (Martes americana) is a boreal forest marten with low body adiposity throughout the year. The aim of this study was to investigate the adaptations of this lean-bodied species to fasting for an ecologically relevant duration (48 h) by exposing eight farm-bred animals to total food deprivation with seven control animals. Selected morphological and hematological parameters, plasma and serum biochemistry, endocrinological variables and liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) enzyme activities were determined. After 48 h without food, the marten were within phase II of fasting with depleted liver and muscle glycogen stores, but with active lipid mobilization indicated by the high lipase activities in several WAT depots. The plasma ghrelin concentrations were higher due to food deprivation, possibly increasing appetite and enhancing foraging behavior. The lower plasma insulin and higher cortisol concentrations could mediate augmented lipolysis and the lower triiodothyronine levels could suppress the metabolic rate. Fasting did not affect the plasma levels of stress-associated catecholamines or variables indicating tissue damage. In general, the adaptations to short-term fasting exhibited some differences compared to the related farm-bred American mink (Mustela vison), an example of which was the better ability of the marten to hydrolyze lipids despite its significantly lower initial fat mass.

  13. Cadmium and manganese accumulation in Phytolacca americana L. and the roles of non-protein thiols and organic acids.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lu; Peng, Kejian; Xia, Yan; Wang, Guiping; Niu, Liyuan; Lian, Chunlan; Shen, Zhenguo

    2013-01-01

    Phytolacca americana L. can accumulate large amounts of heavy metals in its aerial tissues, especially cadmium (Cd) and manganese (Mn). It has great potential for use in phytoextraction of metals from multi-metal-contaminated soils. This study was conducted to further investigate the Cd- and Mn-tolerance strategies of this plant. Concentrations of non-protein thiols (NPTs) and phytochelatins (PCs) in leaves and roots increased significantly as the concentration of Cd in solution increased. The molar ratios of PCs:soluble Cd ranged from 1.8 to 3.6 in roots and 8.1 to 31.6 in leaves, suggesting that the cellular response involving PC synthesis was sufficient to complex Cd ions in the cytosol, especially that of leaves. In contrast, excess Mn treatments did not result in a significant increase in NPT or PC concentrations in leaves or roots. Oxalic acid concentrations in leaves of plants exposed to 2 or 20 mM Mn reached 69.4 to 89.3 mg (0.771 to 0.992 mmol) g(-1) dry weight, respectively, which was approximately 3.7- to 8.6-fold higher than the Mn level in the 0.6 M HCl extract. Thus, oxalic acid may play an important role in the detoxification of Mn.

  14. Reproductive Ecology and Habitat Use of Pacific Black Scoters (Melanitta nigra americana) Nesting on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schamber, Jason L.

    2010-01-01

    Abundance indices of Black Scoters (Melanitta nigra. americana) breeding in Alaska indicate a long-term population decline without obvious cause (s). However, few life history data are available for the species in North America. In 2001–2004, information was collected on nesting habitat and reproductive parameters (i.e. components of productivity) from a population of Black Scoters nesting on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. A total of 157 nests were found over four years. Primarily, nests were among dense vegetation in shrub edge habitat, predominantly dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa) and Alaska spiraea (Spiraea beauverdiana), an average of 58 m from water. Females initiated nests from 11 June and 17 July across years. Clutch size averaged 7.5 eggs and did not vary annually. Nest success was highly variable among years and ranged from 0.01 to 0.37. Duckling survival to 30 days old varied among years, and ranged from 0.09 – 0.35. Nest success was poor in three of four years, likely due to predation by Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes). Black Scoters appear to have low but variable productivity, consistent with life-history patterns of other sea duck species. Information gained will direct future demographic research on Black Scoters, and highlights knowledge gaps impeding management strategies needed for population recovery.

  15. Identifying nest predators of American avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) in San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, G.; Ackerman, J.T.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Eagles-Smith, C. A.; Eadie, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated predation on nests and methods to detect predators using a combination of infrared cameras and plasticine eggs at nests of American avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) in Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, San Mateo and Santa Clara counties, California. Each technique indicated that predation was prevalent; 59% of monitored nests were depredated. Most identifiable predation (n = 49) was caused by mammals (71%) and rates of predation were similar on avocets and stilts. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) each accounted for 16% of predations, whereas gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and avian predators each accounted for 14%. Mammalian predation was mainly nocturnal (mean time, 0051 h ?? 5 h 36 min), whereas most avian predation was in late afternoon (mean time, 1800 h ?? 1 h 26 min). Nests with cameras and plasticine eggs were 1.6 times more likely to be predated than nests where only cameras were used in monitoring. Cameras were associated with lower abandonment of nests and provided definitive identification of predators.

  16. Identifying nest predators of American avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) in San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Takekawa, John Y.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Eadie, John M.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated predation on nests and methods to detect predators using a combination of infrared cameras and plasticine eggs at nests of American avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) in Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, San Mateo and Santa Clara counties, California. Each technique indicated that predation was prevalent; 59% of monitored nests were depredated. Most identifiable predation (n = 49) was caused by mammals (71%) and rates of predation were similar on avocets and stilts. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) each accounted for 16% of predations, whereas gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and avian predators each accounted for 14%. Mammalian predation was mainly nocturnal (mean time, 0051 h +/- 5 h 36 min), whereas most avian predation was in late afternoon (mean time, 1800 h +/- 1 h 26 min). Nests with cameras and plasticine eggs were 1.6 times more likely to be predated than nests where only cameras were used in monitoring. Cameras were associated with lower abandonment of nests and provided definitive identification of predators.

  17. Isolation and chemical identification of lipid derivatives from avocado (Persea americana) pulp with antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Sanchez, Dariana Graciela; Flores-García, Mirthala; Silva-Platas, Christian; Rizzo, Sheryl; Torre-Amione, Guillermo; De la Peña-Diaz, Aurora; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; García-Rivas, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Platelets play a pivotal role in physiological hemostasis. However, in coronary arteries damaged by atherosclerosis, enhanced platelet aggregation, with subsequent thrombus formation, is a precipitating factor in acute ischemic events. Avocado pulp (Persea americana) is a good source of bioactive compounds, and its inclusion in the diet as a source of fatty acid has been related to reduced platelet aggregability. Nevertheless, constituents of avocado pulp with antiplatelet activity remain unknown. The present study aims to characterize the chemical nature of avocado constituents with inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation. Centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) was used as a fractionation and purification tool, guided by an in vitro adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid or collagen-platelet aggregation assay. Antiplatelet activity was initially linked to seven acetogenins that were further purified, and their dose-dependent effects in the presence of various agonists were contrasted. This process led to the identification of Persenone-C (3) as the most potent antiplatelet acetogenin (IC₅₀=3.4 mM) among the evaluated compounds. In vivo evaluations with Persenone A (4) demonstrated potential protective effects against arterial thrombosis (25 mg kg⁻¹ of body weight), as coagulation times increased (2-fold with respect to the vehicle) and thrombus formation was attenuated (71% versus vehicle). From these results, avocado may be referred to as a functional food containing acetogenin compounds that inhibit platelet aggregation with a potential preventive effect on thrombus formation, such as those that occur in ischaemic diseases.

  18. Physiological and foliar injury responses of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana, and Acer rubrum seedlings to varying soil moisture and ozone.

    PubMed

    Schaub, M; Skelly, J M; Steiner, K C; Davis, D D; Pennypacker, S P; Zhang, J; Ferdinand, J A; Savage, J E; Stevenson, R E

    2003-01-01

    Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings were exposed to three different ozone scenarios (ambient air: 100% O3; non-filtered air: 98% ambient O3; charcoal-filtered air: 50% ambient O3) within each of two different water regimes (nine plots irrigated, nine plots non-irrigated) during three growing seasons. During the 1998 and 1999 growing season, leaf gas exchange, plant water relations, and foliar injury were measured. Climatic data,ambient- and chamber-ozone-concentrations were monitored. We found that seedlings grown under irrigated conditions had similar (in 1998) but significantly higher gas exchange rates (in 1999) than seedlings grown within non-irrigated plots among similar ozone exposures. Cherry and ash had similar ozone uptake but cherry developed more ozone-induced injury (< 34% affected leaf area, LAA) than ash (<5% LAA), while maple rarely showed foliar injury, indicating the species differed in ozone sensitivity. Significantly more severe injury on seedlings grown under irrigated conditions than seedlings grown under non-irrigated conditions demonstrated that soil moisture altered seedling responses to ambient ozone exposures. PMID:12713930

  19. Physiological stress in captive Greater rheas (Rhea americana): highly sensitive plasma corticosterone response to an ACTH challenge.

    PubMed

    Lèche, Alvina; Busso, Juan M; Hansen, Cristian; Navarro, Joaquín L; Marín, Raúl H; Martella, Mónica B

    2009-06-01

    Up to the present no studies have been conducted either on baseline concentrations of adrenal hormones or on hormonal responses to stress in Greater rhea (Rhea americana) and most ratite species. The aims of this work were to assess the presence of corticosterone in plasma of Greater rhea, to validate a corticosterone (125)I-radioimmunoassay for determining corticosterone levels in plasma samples and to study the activation of the adrenal gland after an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) challenge. Six captive Greater rhea juveniles of 10 months of age received an intravenous ACTH injection. Blood samples were taken at 0min (baseline pre-ACTH levels), and post-injection at 15, 30, 60min and at 24 and 48h. The high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of pooled plasma showed that corticosterone is the glucocorticoid found in the plasma of Greater rhea. Biochemical assays of standard validation (e.g., parallelism, exogenous corticosterone recovery) showed that measurements of corticosterone present in the plasma of the Greater rhea provided by commercial corticosterone (125)I-radioimmunoassay were accurate and precise. ACTH challenge induced a more than 40-fold increase in plasma corticosterone at 60min post-ACTH (from 4.0 to 166.5ng/ml, on average). The corticosterone response to ACTH in Greater rhea was higher than is usual in birds, an apparently typical characteristic of ratites.

  20. [Medical assessments and measurements in ELSA-Brasil].

    PubMed

    Mill, Jose Geraldo; Pinto, Karina; Griep, Rosane Härter; Goulart, Alessandra; Foppa, Murilo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Maestri, Marcelo K; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Andreão, Rodrigo Varejão; Dantas, Eduardo Miranda; Oliveira, Ilka; Fuchs, Sandra C; Cunha, Roberto de Sá; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2013-06-01

    The article describes assessments and measurements performed in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Some assessments including anthropometric assessment, casual blood pressure measurement, and ankle-brachial index have an established clinical application while others including pulse wave velocity, heart rate variability, and carotid intima-media thickness have no established application and do not have reference values for healthy Brazilian population but may be important predictors of cardiovascular outcomes. Blood pressure measurement following postural change maneuver was included in the ELSA-Brasil because it has not been much tested in epidemiological studies. Innovative approaches were developed for assessing the ankle-brachial index using an automatic device instead of the mercury column to measure blood pressure and for assessing the anterior-posterior diameter of the right lobe of the liver by ultrasound for quantitative assessment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. All ELSA-Brasil subjects were younger (35 years or more) than those included in other cohorts studying subclinical atherosclerosis. The inclusion of younger individuals and a variety of assessments make the ELSA-Brasil a relevant epidemiology study nationwide and worldwide.

  1. Restoration of wildcelery, Vallisneria americana Michx., in the lower Detroit River of the Lake Huron-Lake Erie Corridor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, D.W.; Manny, B.A.

    2007-01-01

    American wildcelery (Vallisneria americana Michx.) is a valuable submersed aquatic plant that was negatively affected by pollution and urban runoff in the lower Detroit River for much of the 20th century. Following 25 years of water-pollution and urban-runoff abatement initiated in the early 1970s, we postulated that water clarity had increased and that this would allow restoration of wildcelery in the lower Detroit River. In addition, water clarity increased in the late 1980s due to water filtration and particulate removal by exotic dreissenid mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis), which could contribute to potential wildcelery restoration. We sampled wildcelery in 1996–97 and compared these data to wildcelery data from 1950–51 and 1984–85. Over the 48-year period of comparison, areal density of wildcelery tubers decreased 72% (from 51.2 million to 14.4 million tubers) between 1950–51 and 1984–85 then increased 251% (from14.4 million to 50.5 million tubers) between 1984–85 and 1996–97. As a result, overall areal abundance was about the same in 1950–51 as in fall 1996–97. However, tuber densities in spring 1996 were similar to historical low abundances in springs of 1984–85. Then between spring and fall 1996, tuber densities increased 333% and remained relatively abundant through October 1997 indicating the beginning of the restoration of wildcelery in the lower Detroit River. In addition, we believe further reductions of turbidity through continued pollution-abatement programs and water filtration by dreissenid mussels combined with habitat protection and active management of wildcelery will contribute even further to the restoration of wildcelery in the Detroit River in the 21st century.

  2. Supplemental Feeding for Ecotourism Reverses Diel Activity and Alters Movement Patterns and Spatial Distribution of the Southern Stingray, Dasyatis americana

    PubMed Central

    Corcoran, Mark J.; Wetherbee, Bradley M.; Shivji, Mahmood S.; Potenski, Matthew D.; Chapman, Demian D.; Harvey, Guy M.

    2013-01-01

    Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS), Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world’s most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture efforts to test the hypothesis that human-sourced supplemental feeding has altered stingray activity patterns and habitat use at SCS relative to wild animals at control sites. Secondarily, we also qualitatively estimated the population size of stingrays supporting this major ecotourism venue. Tag-recapture data indicated that a population of at least 164 stingrays, over 80% female, utilized the small area at SCS for prolonged periods of time. Examination of comparative movements of mature female stingrays at SCS and control sites revealed strong differences between the two groups: The fed animals demonstrated a notable inversion of diel activity, being constantly active during the day with little movement at night compared to the nocturnally active wild stingrays; The fed stingrays utilized significantly (p<0.05) smaller 24 hour activity spaces compared to wild conspecifics, staying in close proximity to the ecotourism site; Fed stingrays showed a high degree of overlap in their core activity spaces compared to wild stingrays which were largely solitary in the spaces utilized (72% vs. 3% overlap respectively). Supplemental feeding has strikingly altered movement behavior and spatial distribution of the stingrays, and generated an atypically high density of animals at SCS which could have downstream fitness costs for individuals and potentially broader ecosystem effects. These findings should help environmental managers plan mitigating measures for existing operations, and

  3. Spirochaeta Americana Sp. Nov., A new Haloalkaliphilic, Obligately Anaerobic Spirochete Isolated from Soda Mono Lake in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Pikuta, Elena V.; Bej, Asim K.; Marsic, Damien; Whitman, William B.; Tang, Jane; Krader, Paul; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A novel obligately anaerobic, mesophilic, haloalkaliphilic spirochete, strain ASpG1(sup T), was isolated from sediments of the alkaline, hypersaline Mono Lake in California, U.S.A. The Gram-negative cells are motile and spirochete-shaped with sizes of 0.2 - 0.22 X 8-15 microns. Growth was observed over the following ranges: temperature 10 C to 44 C; optimum +37 C; NaCl concentration 2 - 12 % (w/v); optimum NaCl3 % and pH 8 - 10.5; optimum pH 9.5. The novel isolate is strictly alkaliphilic, requires high concentrations of carbonate in the medium, and is capable of utilizing D-glucose, fructose, maltose, sucrose, starch, and D-mannitol. The main end products of glucose fermentation are: H2, acetate, ethanol, and formate. Strain ASpG(sup T) is resistant to kanamycin, and rifampin, but sensitive to chloramphenicol, gentamycin and tetracycline. The G+C content of its DNA is 58.5 mol%, genome size is 2.98 x l0(exp 9) Daltons, Tm of the genomic DNA is 68 +/- 2 C, and DNA-DNA hybridization with the most closely related species, Spirocheta alkalica Strain Z-7491(sup T), exhibited 48.7% homology. On the basis of its physiological and molecular properties, the isolate appears to be a novel species of the genus Spirochaeta; and the name Spirochaeta americana sp. nov., is proposed for the taxon (type strain ASpG1(sup T) = ATCC BAA-392(sup T) = DSMZ 14872(sup T)).

  4. Spirochaeta Americana sp. Nov., A New Haloalkaliphilic, Obligately Anaerobic Spirochaete Isolated from Soda Mona Lake in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Pikuta, Elena V.; Bej, Asim K.; Marsic, Damien; Whitman, William B.; Tang, Jane; Krader, Paul

    2003-01-01

    A novel, obligately anaerobic, mesophilic, haloalkaliphilic spirochaete, strain ASpG1(sup T), was isolated from sediments of the alkaline, hypersaline Mono Lake in California, USA. Cells of the Gram-negative strain were motile and spirochaete-shaped with sizes of 0.2-0.22 x 8-18 microns. Growth of the strain was observed between 10 and 44 C (optimum 37 C), in 2-12% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 3 % NaCl) and between pH 8 and 10.5 (optimum pH 9.5). The novel strain was strictly alkaliphilic, required high concentrations of carbonates in the medium and was capable of utilizing D-glucose, fructose, maltose, sucrose, starch and D-mannitol. End products of glucose fermentation were H2, acetate, ethanol and formate. Strain ASpG1(sup T) was resistant to kanamycin and rifampicin, but sensitive to gentamicin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol. The G + C content of its DNA was 58.5 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis of strain ASpG1(sup T) with its most closely related species, Spirochaeta alkalica Z-7491(sup T) revealed a hybridization value of only 48.7 %. On the basis of its physiological and molecular properties, strain ASpG1(sup T) appears to represent a novel species of the genus Spirochaeta, for which the name Spirochaeta americana is proposed (type strain ASpG1(sup T) = ATCC 13AA-392(sup T) = DSM 14872(sup T)).

  5. Diurnal time-activity budgets of redheads (Aythya americana) wintering in seagrass beds and coastal ponds in Louisiana and Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michot, T.C.; Woodin, M.C.; Adair, S.E.; Moser, E.B.

    2006-01-01

    Diurnal time-activity budgets were determined for wintering redheads (Aythya americana) from estuarine seagrass beds in Louisiana (Chandeleur Sound) and Texas (Laguna Madre) and from ponds adjacent to the Laguna Madre. Activities differed (p<0.0001) by location, month, and diurnal time period. Resting and feeding were the most frequent activities of redheads at the two estuarine sites, whereas drinking was almost nonexistent. Birds on ponds in Texas engaged most frequently in resting and drinking, but feeding was very infrequent. Redheads from the Louisiana estuarine site rested less than birds in Texas at either the Laguna Madre or freshwater ponds. Redheads in Louisiana fed more than birds in Texas; this was partially because of weather differences (colder temperatures in Louisiana), but the location effect was still significant even when we adjusted the model for weather effects. Redheads in Louisiana showed increased resting and decreased feeding as winter progressed, but redheads in Texas did not exhibit a seasonal pattern in either resting or feeding. In Louisiana, birds maintained a high level of feeding activity during the early morning throughout the winter, whereas afternoon feeding tapered off in mid- to late-winter. Texas birds showed a shift from morning feeding in early winter to afternoon feeding in late winter. Males and females at both Chandeleur Sound and Laguna Madre showed differences in their activities, but because the absolute difference seldom exceeded 2%, biological significance is questionable. Diurnal time-activity budgets of redheads on the wintering grounds are influenced by water salinities and the use of dietary fresh water, as well as by weather conditions, tides, and perhaps vegetation differences between sites. The opportunity to osmoregulate via dietary freshwater, vs. via nasal salt glands, may have a significant effect on behavioral allocations. ?? Springer 2006.

  6. Strong indirect effects of a submersed aquatic macrophyte, Vallisneria americana, on bacterioplankton densities in a mesotrophic lake.

    PubMed

    Huss, A A; Wehr, J D

    2004-05-01

    Phytoplankton and allochthonous matter are important sources of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) for planktonic bacteria in aquatic ecosystems. But in small temperate lakes, aquatic macrophytes may also be an important source of DOC, as well as a source or sink for inorganic nutrients. We conducted micro- and mesocosm studies to investigate the possible effects of an actively growing macrophyte, Vallisneria americana, on bacterial growth and water chemistry in mesotrophic Calder Lake. A first microcosm (1 L) study conducted under high ambient NH4+ levels (NH4+ > or = 10 microM) demonstrated that macrophytes had a positive effect on bacterial densities through release of DOC and P. A second microcosm experiment, conducted under NH4+-depleted conditions (NH4+ < 10 microM), examined inter- active effects of macrophytes and their sediments on bacterial growth and water chemistry. Non-rooted macrophytes had negative effects on bacterial numbers, while rooted macrophytes had no significant effects, despite significant increases in DOC and P. A 70-L mesocosm experiment manipulated macrophytes, as well as N and P supply under surplus NH4-+conditions (NH4+ > or = 10 gmicro), and measured effects on bacterial growth, Chl a concentrations, and water chemistry. Bacterial growth and Chl a concentrations declined with macrophyte additions, while bacterial densities increased with P addition (with or without N). Results suggest that the submersed macrophyte Vallisneria exerts a strong but indirect effect on bacteria by modifying nutrient conditions and/or suppressing phytoplankton. Effects of living macrophytes differed with ambient nutrient conditions: under NH4+-surplus conditions, submersed macrophytes stimulated bacterioplankton through release of DOC or P, but in NH4-+depleted conditions, the influence of Vallisneria was negative or neutral. Effects of living macrophytes on planktonic bacteria were apparently mediated by the macrophytes use and/or release of nutrients, as well

  7. Solution structure of PAFP-S: a new knottin-type antifungal peptide from the seeds of Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed

    Gao, G H; Liu, W; Dai, J X; Wang, J F; Hu, Z; Zhang, Y; Wang, D C

    2001-09-18

    The three-dimensional solution structure of PAFP-S, an antifungal peptide extracted from the seeds of Phytolacca americana, was determined using 1H NMR spectroscopy. This cationic peptide contains 38 amino acid residues. Its structure was determined from 302 distance restraints and 36 dihedral restraints derived from NOEs and coupling constants. The peptide has six cysteines involved in three disulfide bonds. The previously unassigned parings have now been determined from NMR data. The solution structure of PAFP-S is presented as a set of 20 structures using ab initio dynamic simulated annealing, with an average RMS deviation of 1.68 A for the backbone heavy atoms and 2.19 A for all heavy atoms, respectively. For the well-defined triple-stranded beta-sheet involving residues 8-10, 23-27, and 32-36, the corresponding values were 0.39 and 1.25 A. The global fold involves a cystine-knotted three-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet (residues 8-10, 23-27, 32-36), a flexible loop (residues 14-19), and four beta-reverse turns (residues 4-8, 11-14, 19-22, 28-32). This structure features all the characteristics of the knottin fold. It is the first structural model of an antifungal peptide that adopts a knottin-type structure. PAFP-S has an extended hydrophobic surface comprised of residues Tyr23, Phe25, Ile27, Tyr32, and Val34. The side chains of these residues are well-defined in the NMR structure. Several hydrophilic and positively charged residues (Arg9, Arg38, and Lys36) surround the hydrophobic surface, giving PAFP-S an amphiphilic character which would be the main structural basis of its biological function.

  8. Behavioral responses to short-term transport in male and female Greater Rheas (Rhea americana) reared in captivity.

    PubMed

    Della Costa, N S; Lèche, A; Guzmán, D A; Navarro, J L; Marin, R H; Martella, M B

    2013-04-01

    Animal transport is an indispensable practice in species that need to be moved for management or commercial purposes. However, transport may have negative effects on individuals' welfare. The aims of the present work were to determine if the behavioral responses of adult Greater Rheas (Rhea americana) bred in captivity are sensitive to short-term transport and if males and females differ in their posttransport behavioral activity and recovery. Eight males and 8 females were placed in individual pens and allowed 6 d to habituate (d 1 to 6) before transport procedure. On the transport day (d 7), half of the birds (4 males and 4 females) were randomly assigned to a transport group that was captured and handled to be placed into the crates, exposed to a 30-min transport stressor, and immediately returned to their pens. Four transports with 1 different male and female each time were performed. The other half remained undisturbed and were used as controls. Behavior of all individuals was video-recorded during habituation days, after transport on d 7, and on the 2 following days (d 8 and 9) to evaluate pre- and posttransport behavioral activity for 2 h per day. No significant behavioral changes were observed during the last 2 d of the habituation period (d 5 and 6), suggesting that Greater Rheas were adapted to the housing conditions before transport. After transportation, several behaviors were affected: transported males and females showed null resting, transported females also showed reduced preening and increased vigilance (P < 0.05), whereas transported males showed increased drinking (P < 0.05) compared with their respective control groups. The results suggest that behavioral responses of captive-bred Greater Rheas are sensitive to short-term transport (which includes handling) and that males and females differ in their posttransport behavioral activity, recovering their overall basal levels on the third day posttransportation. PMID:23472006

  9. Effects of altering flow and odor information on plume tracking behavior in walking cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.).

    PubMed

    Willis, Mark A; Avondet, Jennifer L; Finnell, Andrew S

    2008-07-01

    Animals using odor plumes to locate resources are activated to track these plumes by the presence of an attractive odor, and typically steer toward the source using directional cues from the flowing air or water bearing the odor. We challenged freely walking virgin male cockroaches, Periplaneta americana, to track plumes of airborne female pheromone and then video-recorded and analyzed their responses as the odor plume and wind were independently manipulated. Plume tracking males that experienced the total loss of directional air flow halfway to the odor source showed little change in their performance, and 100% were able to quickly locate the pheromone source. By contrast, males experiencing a sudden loss of odor while tracking a plume rapidly changed their behavior; often turning downwind and retracing their steps to the release point, or walking in loops, but rarely moving upwind to the previous location of the source. In a subsequent experiment, in order to determine whether a memory of the previously experienced wind direction could provide the directional information necessary to locate an odor source, we challenged males to track plumes in zero wind after pre-exposing them to: (1) wind and pheromone, (2) wind only, and (3) neither wind nor pheromone. These were compared to males tracking a wind-borne pheromone plume, in which case, all males were able to locate the pheromone source. Our results show that males require the detection of wind and pheromone simultaneously during plume tracking in order to quickly and efficiently locate the odor source. These results are consistent with those reported from flying moths tracking wind-borne pheromone plumes, and suggest that the control system underlying this behavior requires ongoing simultaneous experience with wind and odor information during the performance of the behavior to operate efficiently. PMID:18587126

  10. Analyses of the mouthpart kinematics in Periplaneta americana (Blattodea, Blattidae) using synchrotron-based X-ray cineradiography.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Christian; Rack, Alexander; Betz, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    The kinematics of the biting and chewing mouthparts of insects is a complex interaction of various components forming multiple jointed chains. The non-invasive technique of in vivo cineradiography by means of synchrotron radiation was employed to elucidate the motion cycles of the mouthparts in the cockroach Periplaneta americana. Digital X-ray footage sequences were used in order to calculate pre-defined angles and distances, each representing characteristic aspects of the movement pattern. We were able to analyze the interactions of the mouthpart components and to generate a functional model of maxillary movement by integrating kinematic results, morphological dissections and fluorescence microscopy. During the opening and closing cycles, which take about 450-500 ms on average, we found strong correlations between the measured maxillary and mandibular angles, indicating a strong neural coordination of these movements. This is manifested by strong antiphasic courses of the maxillae and the mandibles, antiphasic patterns of the rotation of the cardo about its basic articulation at the head and by the deflection between the cardo and stipes. In our functional model of the maxilla, its movement pattern is explained by the antagonistic activity of four adductor-promotor muscles and two abductor-remotor muscles. However, beyond the observed intersegmental and bilateral stereotypy, certain amounts of variation across subsequent cycles within a sequence were observed with respect to the degree of correlation between the various mouthparts, the maximum, minimum and time course of the angular movements. Although generally correlated with the movement pattern of the mandibles and the maxillary cardo-stipes complex, such plastic behaviour was especially observed in the maxillary palpi and the labium.

  11. Developmental expression and molecular characterization of two gap junction channel proteins expressed during embryogenesis in the grasshopper Schistocerca americana.

    PubMed

    Ganfornina, M D; Sánchez, D; Herrera, M; Bastiani, M J

    1999-01-01

    Gap junctions are membrane channels that directly connect the cytoplasm of neighboring cells, allowing the exchange of ions and small molecules. Two analogous families of proteins, the connexins and innexins, are the channel-forming molecules in vertebrates and invertebrates, respectively. In order to study the role of gap junctions in the embryonic development of the nervous system, we searched for innexins in the grasshopper Schistocerca americana. Here we present the molecular cloning and sequence analysis of two novel innexins, G-Inx(1) and G-Inx(2), expressed during grasshopper embryonic development. The analysis of G-Inx(1) and G-Inx(2) proteins suggests they bear four transmembrane domains, which show strong conservation in members of the innexin family. The study of the phylogenetic relationships between members of the innexin family and the new grasshopper proteins suggests that G-Inx(1) is orthologous to the Drosophila 1(1)-ogre. However, G-Inx(2) seems to be a member of a new group of insect innexins. We used in situ hybridization with the G-Inx(1) and G-Inx(2) cDNA clones, and two polyclonal sera raised against different regions of G-Inx(1) to study the mRNA and protein expression patterns and the subcellular localization of the grasshopper innexins. G-Inx(1) is primarily expressed in the embryonic nervous system, in neural precursors and glial cells. In addition, a restricted stripe of epithelial cells in the developing limb, involved in the guidance of sensory growth cones, expresses G-Inx(1). G-Inx(2) expression is more widespread in the grasshopper embryo, but a restricted expression is found in a subset of neural precursors. The generally different but partially overlapping expression patterns of G-Inx(1) and G-Inx(2) supports the combinatorial character of gap junction formation in invertebrates, an essential property to generate specificity in this form of cell-cell communication.

  12. Hematological, morphological and morphometric characteristics of blood cells from rhea, Rhea Americana (Struthioniformes: Rheidae): a standard for Brazilian birds.

    PubMed

    Gallo, S S M; Ederli, N B; Bôa-Morte, M O; Oliveira, F C R

    2015-11-01

    Blood exams are an indispensable tool in bird medicine. This study aimed at describing values and aspects of rheas' hematology, Rhea americana, as well as analyzing the morphology and morphometry of all blood cells. Fifty eight adult rheas of both sexes from two farms, one in Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, Espírito Santo State and the other in São Carlos, São Paulo State, were selected. Blood samples were taken and RBC count, PCV and Hb levels measured and used in hematimetric indexes calculations. The total and differentiated leukocyte counts, as well as the TPP and fibrinogen were determined. Erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes were identified and characterized morphologically. The values for the red series and hematimetric indexes were: RBC (2.81 ± 0.15 × 106/μL), PCV (44.20 ± 2.86%), Hb (12.12 ± 0.74 g/dL), MCV (15.75 ± 0.89 fL), MCH (43.18 ± 1.82 pg), MCHC (27.44 ± 0.80 g/dL); the values of white series were: WBC (12.072 ± 4116/μL), heterophils (64.10 ± 9.90%), eosinophils (2.05 ± 2.06%), monocytes (6.40 ± 2.99%), lymphocytes (26.93 ± 9.62%), basophils (0.52 ± 1.27%). One may conclude that on average, rheas' blood cells are larger than those of other birds, but these cells in smears cannot be differentiated only by their size. Besides rheas' leukocytes have different components and coloring as in other bird species, however, there are no components or staining aspects unique to the species. PMID:26675913

  13. Fatty acid profiles and relative mobilization during fasting in adipose tissue depots of the American marten (Martes americana).

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Petteri; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Collinsb, Danielle; Grant, Judy; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2006-03-01

    The American marten (Martes americana) is a boreal forest marten with low body adiposity but high metabolic rate. The study describes the FA composition in white adipose tissue depots of the species and the influence of food deprivation on them. American marten (n = 8) were fasted for 2 d with 7 control animals. Fasting resulted in a 13.4% weight loss, while the relative fat mass was >25% lower in the fasted animals. The FA composition of the fat depots of the trunk was quite similar to other previously studied mustelids with 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-9, and 18:2n-6 as the most abundant FA. In the extremities, there were higher proportions of monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and PUFA. Food deprivation decreased the proportions of 16:0 and 16:1 n-7, while the proportion of long-chain MUFA increased in the trunk. The mobilization of FA was selective, as 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-9, and particular n-3 PUFA were preferentially mobilized. Relative mobilization correlated negatively with the carbon chain length in saturated FA (SFA) and n-9 MUFA. The delta9-desaturation of SFA enhanced the mobilization of the corresponding MUFA, but the positional isomerism of the first double bond did not correlate consistently with relative mobilization in MUFA or PUFA. In the marten, the FA composition of the extremities was highly resistant to fasting, and the tail tip and the paws contained more long-chain PUFA to prevent the solidification of lipids and to maintain cell membrane fluidity during cooling.

  14. Behavioral responses to short-term transport in male and female Greater Rheas (Rhea americana) reared in captivity.

    PubMed

    Della Costa, N S; Lèche, A; Guzmán, D A; Navarro, J L; Marin, R H; Martella, M B

    2013-04-01

    Animal transport is an indispensable practice in species that need to be moved for management or commercial purposes. However, transport may have negative effects on individuals' welfare. The aims of the present work were to determine if the behavioral responses of adult Greater Rheas (Rhea americana) bred in captivity are sensitive to short-term transport and if males and females differ in their posttransport behavioral activity and recovery. Eight males and 8 females were placed in individual pens and allowed 6 d to habituate (d 1 to 6) before transport procedure. On the transport day (d 7), half of the birds (4 males and 4 females) were randomly assigned to a transport group that was captured and handled to be placed into the crates, exposed to a 30-min transport stressor, and immediately returned to their pens. Four transports with 1 different male and female each time were performed. The other half remained undisturbed and were used as controls. Behavior of all individuals was video-recorded during habituation days, after transport on d 7, and on the 2 following days (d 8 and 9) to evaluate pre- and posttransport behavioral activity for 2 h per day. No significant behavioral changes were observed during the last 2 d of the habituation period (d 5 and 6), suggesting that Greater Rheas were adapted to the housing conditions before transport. After transportation, several behaviors were affected: transported males and females showed null resting, transported females also showed reduced preening and increased vigilance (P < 0.05), whereas transported males showed increased drinking (P < 0.05) compared with their respective control groups. The results suggest that behavioral responses of captive-bred Greater Rheas are sensitive to short-term transport (which includes handling) and that males and females differ in their posttransport behavioral activity, recovering their overall basal levels on the third day posttransportation.

  15. Supplemental feeding for ecotourism reverses diel activity and alters movement patterns and spatial distribution of the southern stingray, Dasyatis americana.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Mark J; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Shivji, Mahmood S; Potenski, Matthew D; Chapman, Demian D; Harvey, Guy M

    2013-01-01

    Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS), Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world's most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture efforts to test the hypothesis that human-sourced supplemental feeding has altered stingray activity patterns and habitat use at SCS relative to wild animals at control sites. Secondarily, we also qualitatively estimated the population size of stingrays supporting this major ecotourism venue. Tag-recapture data indicated that a population of at least 164 stingrays, over 80% female, utilized the small area at SCS for prolonged periods of time. Examination of comparative movements of mature female stingrays at SCS and control sites revealed strong differences between the two groups: The fed animals demonstrated a notable inversion of diel activity, being constantly active during the day with little movement at night compared to the nocturnally active wild stingrays; The fed stingrays utilized significantly (p<0.05) smaller 24 hour activity spaces compared to wild conspecifics, staying in close proximity to the ecotourism site; Fed stingrays showed a high degree of overlap in their core activity spaces compared to wild stingrays which were largely solitary in the spaces utilized (72% vs. 3% overlap respectively). Supplemental feeding has strikingly altered movement behavior and spatial distribution of the stingrays, and generated an atypically high density of animals at SCS which could have downstream fitness costs for individuals and potentially broader ecosystem effects. These findings should help environmental managers plan mitigating measures for existing operations, and

  16. Anticonvulsant and Antioxidant Effects of Tilia americana var. mexicana and Flavonoids Constituents in the Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí; González-Trujano, María Eva; Aguirre-Hernández, Eva; Ruíz-García, Matilde; Sampieri, Aristides; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Carmona-Aparicio, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    Tilia genus is commonly used around the world for its central nervous system properties; it is prepared as tea and used as tranquilizing, anticonvulsant, and analgesic. In this study, anticonvulsant activity of the Tilia americana var. mexicana inflorescences and leaves was investigated by evaluating organic and aqueous extracts (100, 300, and 600 mg/kg, i.p.) and some flavonoids in the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice. Moreover, antioxidant effect of these extracts and flavonoids was examined in an in vitro study by using spectrophotometric technique. Significant activity was observed in the methanol extract from inflorescences. An HPLC analysis of the methanol extract from inflorescences and leaves of Tilia allowed demonstrating the respective presence of some partial responsible flavonoid constituents: quercetin (20.09 ± 1.20 μg/mg and 3.39 ± 0.10 μg/mg), rutin (3.52 ± 0.21 μg/mg and 8.94 ± 0.45 μg/mg), and isoquercitrin (1.74 ± 0.01 μg/mg and 1.24 ± 0.13 μg/mg). In addition, significant but different antioxidant properties were obtained among the flavonoids and the extracts investigated. Our results provide evidence of the anticonvulsant activity of Tilia reinforcing its utility for central nervous system diseases whose mechanism of action might involve partial antioxidant effects due to the presence of flavonoids. PMID:25197430

  17. Anticonvulsant and antioxidant effects of Tilia americana var. mexicana and flavonoids constituents in the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí; González-Trujano, María Eva; Aguirre-Hernández, Eva; Ruíz-García, Matilde; Sampieri, Aristides; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Carmona-Aparicio, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    Tilia genus is commonly used around the world for its central nervous system properties; it is prepared as tea and used as tranquilizing, anticonvulsant, and analgesic. In this study, anticonvulsant activity of the Tilia americana var. mexicana inflorescences and leaves was investigated by evaluating organic and aqueous extracts (100, 300, and 600 mg/kg, i.p.) and some flavonoids in the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice. Moreover, antioxidant effect of these extracts and flavonoids was examined in an in vitro study by using spectrophotometric technique. Significant activity was observed in the methanol extract from inflorescences. An HPLC analysis of the methanol extract from inflorescences and leaves of Tilia allowed demonstrating the respective presence of some partial responsible flavonoid constituents: quercetin (20.09 ± 1.20 μg/mg and 3.39 ± 0.10 μg/mg), rutin (3.52 ± 0.21 μg/mg and 8.94 ± 0.45 μg/mg), and isoquercitrin (1.74 ± 0.01 μg/mg and 1.24 ± 0.13 μg/mg). In addition, significant but different antioxidant properties were obtained among the flavonoids and the extracts investigated. Our results provide evidence of the anticonvulsant activity of Tilia reinforcing its utility for central nervous system diseases whose mechanism of action might involve partial antioxidant effects due to the presence of flavonoids.

  18. Supplemental feeding for ecotourism reverses diel activity and alters movement patterns and spatial distribution of the southern stingray, Dasyatis americana.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Mark J; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Shivji, Mahmood S; Potenski, Matthew D; Chapman, Demian D; Harvey, Guy M

    2013-01-01

    Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS), Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world's most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture efforts to test the hypothesis that human-sourced supplemental feeding has altered stingray activity patterns and habitat use at SCS relative to wild animals at control sites. Secondarily, we also qualitatively estimated the population size of stingrays supporting this major ecotourism venue. Tag-recapture data indicated that a population of at least 164 stingrays, over 80% female, utilized the small area at SCS for prolonged periods of time. Examination of comparative movements of mature female stingrays at SCS and control sites revealed strong differences between the two groups: The fed animals demonstrated a notable inversion of diel activity, being constantly active during the day with little movement at night compared to the nocturnally active wild stingrays; The fed stingrays utilized significantly (p<0.05) smaller 24 hour activity spaces compared to wild conspecifics, staying in close proximity to the ecotourism site; Fed stingrays showed a high degree of overlap in their core activity spaces compared to wild stingrays which were largely solitary in the spaces utilized (72% vs. 3% overlap respectively). Supplemental feeding has strikingly altered movement behavior and spatial distribution of the stingrays, and generated an atypically high density of animals at SCS which could have downstream fitness costs for individuals and potentially broader ecosystem effects. These findings should help environmental managers plan mitigating measures for existing operations, and

  19. Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance of Gram-Negative Pathogenic Bacteria Species Isolated from Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica in Varanasi, India

    PubMed Central

    Wannigama, D Leshan; Dwivedi, Rishabh; Zahraei-Ramazani, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Background Cockroaches are among the medically important pests found within the human habitations that cause serious public health problems. They may harbor a number of pathogenic bacteria on the external surface with antibiotic resistance. Hence, they are regarded as major microbial vectors. This study investigates the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria species isolated from Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica in Varanasi, India. Methods: Totally, 203 adult cockroaches were collected form 44 households and 52 food-handling establishments by trapping. Bacteriological examination of external surfaces of Pe. americana and Bl. germanica were carried out using standard method and antibiotics susceptibility profiles of the isolates were determined using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methods. Results: Among the places, we found that 54% had cockroache infestation in households and 77% in food- handling establishments. There was no significant different between the overall bacteria load of the external surface in Pe. americana (64.04%) and Bl. germanica (35.96%). However the predominant bacteria on cockroaches were Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, Kl. pneumoniae and Ps. aeruginosa were the most prevalent, drug-resistant strains were isolated from the cockroaches with 100% resistance to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and ampicillin. For individual strains of bacteria, Escherichia coli was found to have multi-resistance to four antibiotic tested, Citrobacter freundii four, Enterobacter aerogenes and Proteus mirabilis to three. Conclusion: Cockroaches are uniformly distributed in domestic environment, which can be a possible vector for transmission of drug-resistant bacteria and food-borne diseases. PMID:25629061

  20. Characterization of Mn-resistant endophytic bacteria from Mn-hyperaccumulator Phytolacca americana and their impact on Mn accumulation of hybrid penisetum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Hui; Chen, Wei; He, Lin-Yan; Wang, Qi; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2015-10-01

    Three hundred Mn-resistant endophytic bacteria were isolated from the Mn-hyperaccumulator, Phytolacca americana, grown at different levels of Mn (0, 1, and 10mM) stress. Under no Mn stress, 90%, 92%, and 11% of the bacteria produced indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophore, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, respectively. Under Mn stress, 68-94%, 91-92%, and 21-81% of the bacteria produced IAA, siderophore, and ACC deaminase, respectively. Greater percentages of ACC deaminase-producing bacteria were found in the Mn-treated P. americana. Furthermore, the ratios of IAA- and siderophore-producing bacteria were significantly higher in the Mn treated plant leaves, while the ratio of ACC deaminase-producing bacteria was significantly higher in the Mn treated-roots. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, Mn-resistant bacteria were affiliated with 10 genera. In experiments involving hybrid penisetum grown in soils treated with 0 and 1000mgkg(-1) of Mn, inoculation with strain 1Y31 was found to increase the root (ranging from 6.4% to 18.3%) and above-ground tissue (ranging from 19.3% to 70.2%) mass and total Mn uptake of above-ground tissues (64%) compared to the control. Furthermore, inoculation with strain 1Y31 was found to increase the ratio of IAA-producing bacteria in the rhizosphere and bulk soils of hybrid penisetum grown in Mn-added soils. The results showed the effect of Mn stress on the ratio of the plant growth-promoting factor-producing endophytic bacteria of P. americana and highlighted the potential of endophytic bacterium as an inoculum for enhanced phytoremediation of Mn-polluted soils by hybrid penisetum plants.

  1. The taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis) and the red brocket deer (Mazama americana) as intermediate hosts of Taenia hydatigena in Peru, morphological and molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Pacheco, Joel; Gonzales-Viera, Omar; Lopez-Urbina, Maria T; Gonzalez, Armando E

    2015-09-15

    In the present report metacestodes were collected from the mesentery of a taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis) and from the omentum of a red brocket deer (Mazama americana) in Peru. Various metacestodes parameters, including rostellar hook characteristics, were measured. Molecular analysis was performed to amplify the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene from metacestode isolates. Metacestodes were identified as T. hydatigena by morphology and molecular methods. This constitutes the first molecular detection of T. hydatigena metacestodes in the taruca and the red brocket deer and demonstrates that these animal species are natural intermediate hosts for this parasite.

  2. Improving weather modeling in South America through IDD-Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagas, G. O.

    2007-05-01

    The IDD-Brasil constitutes of an international collaboration among Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (LPM/UFRJ), Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC/INPE) and the Unidata Program Center (Unidata/UCAR), which connects several universities and research centers across the Americas in a network to share real-time hydro meteorological data. Using this network as a new path to deliver and acquire observational data, IDD-Brazil participants are capable of receiving observational data from GTS (Global Telecommunication System), locally ingested data from several automatic weather stations networks (mesonets) from INPE, the entire array of METAR and SYNOP observations, and several model outputs and satellite imagery. During recent years Numerical Models have been used constantly, especially in mesoscale research, but the lack of a dense observational network in South America leads to several constraints during the data assimilation and model validation. Since the IDD-Brasil offers an improved and simple method to have new datasets readily accessible, it has been used continuously as a new manner to distribute surface observations that are not currently available in GTS, such as several mesonets in Brazil that account for an increase in data density. Through the usage of data ingested in IDD-Brasil as guess fields it is possible to study how the assimilation in several global models frequently used as initial conditions for mesoscale simulations can be affected, since in certain areas in Brazil the density of data nearly doubles if compared to GTS. Therefore it is also possible to better validate the results generated in mesoscale simulations, in view of the fact that the network has an improved spatial distribution. It is expected that the increase of locally held numerical model output from South American institutions in IDD- Brasil leads to an increased awareness of the need to constantly validate these results with observational data, thus

  3. Effect of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of Persea americana Mill. on high fat diet induced obesity: A dose response study in rats.

    PubMed

    Monika, Padmanabhan; Geetha, Arumugam

    2016-06-01

    The fruits of Persea Americana Mill., commonly known as Avocado, are traditionally consumed for various health benefits including weight reduction. Here, we studied the effect of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of Persea americana (HAEPA) on high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity in rats. Obesity was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by feeding HFD for 14 wk. The hypolipidemic effect was evaluated by co-administering 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body wt. of HAEPA. There was a significant increase in weight gain, body mass index (BMI), blood lipids, low density lipoproteins (LDL), lipid peroxides (LPO) and serum transaminases in HFD fed rats. HFD+HAEPA fed rats showed a significant decrease in blood lipids, LPO, liver lipids and increase in antioxidant status when compared to HFD control rats. The activity of lipid metabolic key enzymes such as fatty acid synthase and HMG CoA reductase in liver were also found to be decreased significantly in HAEPA co-administered rats. Lipoprotein lipase activity was found increased in HFD+HAEPA rats. Among the 4 doses studied, 100 mg of HAEPA/kg body wt. exhibited optimum hypolipidemic activity. Histopathological observations in liver and visceral adipose tissue added more evidence for the lipid lowering effect of HAEPA. It can be concluded that avocado fruit extract can act as hypolipidemic agent probably by modulating the activities of HMG CoA reductase and fatty acid synthase in liver. PMID:27468463

  4. Analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from avocado seed (Persea americana var. drymifolia) reveals abundant expression of the gene encoding the antimicrobial peptide snakin.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina J; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; Suárez-Rodríguez, Luis María; Rodríguez-Zapata, Luis C; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Jimenez-Moraila, Beatriz; López-Meza, Joel E; López-Gómez, Rodolfo

    2013-09-01

    Avocado is one of the most important fruits in the world. Avocado "native mexicano" (Persea americana var. drymifolia) seeds are widely used in the propagation of this plant and are the primary source of rootstocks globally for a variety of avocado cultivars, such as the Hass avocado. Here, we report the isolation of 5005 ESTs from the 5' ends of P. americana var. drymifolia seed cDNA clones representing 1584 possible unigenes. These avocado seed ESTs were compared with the avocado flower EST library, and we detected several genes that are expressed either in both tissues or only in the seed. The snakin gene, which encodes an element of the innate immune response in plants, was one of those most frequently found among the seed ESTs, and this suggests that it is abundantly expressed in the avocado seed. We expressed the snakin gene in a heterologous system, namely the bovine endothelial cell line BVE-E6E7. Conditioned media from transfected BVE-E6E7 cells showed antimicrobial activity against strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first study of the function of the snakin gene in plant seed tissue, and our observations suggest that this gene might play a protective role in the avocado seed. PMID:23811120

  5. Analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from avocado seed (Persea americana var. drymifolia) reveals abundant expression of the gene encoding the antimicrobial peptide snakin.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina J; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; Suárez-Rodríguez, Luis María; Rodríguez-Zapata, Luis C; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Jimenez-Moraila, Beatriz; López-Meza, Joel E; López-Gómez, Rodolfo

    2013-09-01

    Avocado is one of the most important fruits in the world. Avocado "native mexicano" (Persea americana var. drymifolia) seeds are widely used in the propagation of this plant and are the primary source of rootstocks globally for a variety of avocado cultivars, such as the Hass avocado. Here, we report the isolation of 5005 ESTs from the 5' ends of P. americana var. drymifolia seed cDNA clones representing 1584 possible unigenes. These avocado seed ESTs were compared with the avocado flower EST library, and we detected several genes that are expressed either in both tissues or only in the seed. The snakin gene, which encodes an element of the innate immune response in plants, was one of those most frequently found among the seed ESTs, and this suggests that it is abundantly expressed in the avocado seed. We expressed the snakin gene in a heterologous system, namely the bovine endothelial cell line BVE-E6E7. Conditioned media from transfected BVE-E6E7 cells showed antimicrobial activity against strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first study of the function of the snakin gene in plant seed tissue, and our observations suggest that this gene might play a protective role in the avocado seed.

  6. Effect of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of Persea americana Mill. on high fat diet induced obesity: A dose response study in rats.

    PubMed

    Monika, Padmanabhan; Geetha, Arumugam

    2016-06-01

    The fruits of Persea Americana Mill., commonly known as Avocado, are traditionally consumed for various health benefits including weight reduction. Here, we studied the effect of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of Persea americana (HAEPA) on high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity in rats. Obesity was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by feeding HFD for 14 wk. The hypolipidemic effect was evaluated by co-administering 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body wt. of HAEPA. There was a significant increase in weight gain, body mass index (BMI), blood lipids, low density lipoproteins (LDL), lipid peroxides (LPO) and serum transaminases in HFD fed rats. HFD+HAEPA fed rats showed a significant decrease in blood lipids, LPO, liver lipids and increase in antioxidant status when compared to HFD control rats. The activity of lipid metabolic key enzymes such as fatty acid synthase and HMG CoA reductase in liver were also found to be decreased significantly in HAEPA co-administered rats. Lipoprotein lipase activity was found increased in HFD+HAEPA rats. Among the 4 doses studied, 100 mg of HAEPA/kg body wt. exhibited optimum hypolipidemic activity. Histopathological observations in liver and visceral adipose tissue added more evidence for the lipid lowering effect of HAEPA. It can be concluded that avocado fruit extract can act as hypolipidemic agent probably by modulating the activities of HMG CoA reductase and fatty acid synthase in liver.

  7. Epizootic vacuolar myelinopathy of the central nervous system of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and American coots (Fulica americana).

    PubMed

    Thomas, N J; Meteyer, C U; Sileo, L

    1998-11-01

    Unprecedented mortality occurred in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at DeGray Lake, Arkansas, during the winters of 1994-1995 and 1996-1997. The first eagles were found dead during November, soon after arrival from fall migration, and deaths continued into January during both episodes. In total, 29 eagles died at or near DeGray Lake in the winter of 1994-1995 and 26 died in the winter of 1996-1997; no eagle mortality was noted during the same months of the intervening winter or in the earlier history of the lake. During the mortality events, sick eagles were observed overflying perches or colliding with rock walls. Signs of incoordination and limb paresis were also observed in American coots (Fulica americana) during the episodes of eagle mortality, but mortality in coots was minimal. No consistent abnormalities were seen on gross necropsy of either species. No microscopic findings in organs other than the central nervous system (CNS) could explain the cause of death. By light microscopy, all 26 eagles examined and 62/77 (81%) coots had striking, diffuse, spongy degeneration of the white matter of the CNS. Vacuolation occurred in all myelinated CNS tissue, including the cerebellar folia and medulla oblongata, but was most prominent in the optic tectum. In the spinal cord, vacuoles were concentrated near the gray matter, and occasional swollen axons were seen. Vacuoles were uniformly present in optic nerves but were not evident in the retina or peripheral or autonomic nerves. Cellular inflammatory response to the lesion was distinctly lacking. Vacuoles were 8-50 microns in diameter and occurred individually, in clusters, or in rows. In sections stained by luxol fast blue/periodic acid-Schiff stain, the vacuoles were delimited and transected by myelin strands. Transmission electron microscopy revealed intramyelinic vacuoles formed in the myelin sheaths by splitting of one or more myelin lamellae at the intraperiodic line. This lesion is characteristic of

  8. Behavioral profiles of the captive juvenile whooping crane (Grus americana) as an indicator of reintroduction behavior and survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreger, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Predation by bobcats (Lynx rufus) has been the greatest cause of mortality of whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the reintroduced population in Florida. This study investigated whether the behavior of juvenile cranes during captive rearing and shortly after release can be used to predict their chances of survival once released in the wild. This study also examined differences in behavior based on rearing treatments and whether differences observed during rearing continued at the release site. Experimental rearing treatments were parent reared (PR), hand reared (RR), and hand reared with exercise (HRE). Two annual cycles of cranes were observed from hatch to 20 weeks of age in captivity (n=56 birds). Post-release bebavioral data were collected at the release site for a minimum of two weeks (n=34 birds), with mortality data collected up to one year post release (n=38 birds). Behavioral time budgets were compared using repeated measures ANOVA. Logistic regression was used to build a model to identify behaviors that were associated with first-year survival. During rearing, PR birds were the most vigilant. There were no behavioral differences between HR and HRE birds. Generally, rearing treatments had few long-term effects on the post-release behavior of the birds. The main behavioral differences during rearing and after release were the frequency of bouts and the percentage of time spent performing different behaviors. This may be attributed to foraging strategies and adaptation from captive conditions to the wild. Survival was not related to rearing treatment. Fifty-five percent of the birds survived the first year post-release based upon data pooled over two years. During rearing, the frequency of foraging bouts was positively correlated to survival. Survival was negatively correlated to the frequency of walking bouts during rearing, and release weight of the birds. These correlations accounted for 32 percent of the variability in survival. At the release site, 20

  9. Epizootic vacuolar myelinopathy of the central nervous system of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and American coots (Fulica americana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, N.J.; Meteyer, C.U.; Sileo, L.

    1998-01-01

    Unprecedented mortality occurred in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at DeGray Lake, Arkansas, during the winters of 1994-1995 and 1996-1997. The first eagles were found dead during November, soon after arrival from fall migration, and deaths continued into January during both episodes. In total, 29 eagles died at or near DeGray Lake in the winter of 1994-1995 and 26 died in the winter of 1996-1997; no eagle mortality was noted during the same months of the intervening winter or in the earlier history of the lake. During the mortality events, sick eagles were observed overflying perches or colliding with rock walls. Signs of incoordination and limb paresis were also observed in American coots (Fulica americana) during the episodes of eagle mortality, but mortality in coots was minimal. No consistent abnormalities were seen on gross necropsy of either species. No microscopic findings in organs other than the central nervous system (CNS) could explain the cause of death. By light microscopy, all 26 eagles examined and 62/77 (81%) coots had striking, diffuse, spongy degeneration of the white matter of the CNS. Vacuolation occurred in all myelinated CNS tissue, including the cerebellar folia and medulla oblongata, but was most prominent in the optic tectum. In the spinal cord, vacuoles were concentrated near the gray matter, and occasional swollen axons were seen. Vacuoles were uniformly present in optic nerves but were not evident in the retina or peripheral or autonomic nerves. Cellular inflammatory response to the lesion was distinctly lacking. Vacuoles were 8-50 microns in diameter and occurred individually, in clusters, or in rows. In sections stained by luxol fast blue/periodic acid-Schiff stain, the vacuoles were delimited and transected by myelin strands. Transmission electron microscopy revealed intramyelinic vacuoles formed in the myelin sheaths by splitting of one or more myelin lamellae at the intraperiodic line. This lesion is characteristic of

  10. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis increases cell wall digestibility, protoplast isolation, and facilitates sustained cell division in American elm (Ulmus americana)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Protoplast technologies offer unique opportunities for fundamental research and to develop novel germplasm through somatic hybridization, organelle transfer, protoclonal variation, and direct insertion of DNA. Applying protoplast technologies to develop Dutch elm disease resistant American elms (Ulmus americana L.) was proposed over 30 years ago, but has not been achieved. A primary factor restricting protoplast technology to American elm is the resistance of the cell walls to enzymatic degradation and a long lag phase prior to cell wall re-synthesis and cell division. Results This study suggests that resistance to enzymatic degradation in American elm was due to water soluble phenylpropanoids. Incubating tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf tissue, an easily digestible species, in aqueous elm extract inhibits cell wall digestion in a dose dependent manner. This can be mimicked by p-coumaric or ferulic acid, phenylpropanoids known to re-enforce cell walls. Culturing American elm tissue in the presence of 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP; 10-150 μM), an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), reduced flavonoid content, decreased tissue browning, and increased isolation rates significantly from 11.8% (±3.27) in controls to 65.3% (±4.60). Protoplasts isolated from callus grown in 100 μM AIP developed cell walls by day 2, had a division rate of 28.5% (±3.59) by day 6, and proliferated into callus by day 14. Heterokaryons were successfully produced using electrofusion and fused protoplasts remained viable when embedded in agarose. Conclusions This study describes a novel approach of modifying phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to facilitate efficient protoplast isolation which has historically been problematic for American elm. This isolation system has facilitated recovery of viable protoplasts capable of rapid cell wall re-synthesis and sustained cell division to form callus. Further, isolated protoplasts survived electrofusion and viable

  11. American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark P.; Takekawa, John Y.; Robinson, Julie A.; Oring, Lewis W.; Skorupa, Joseph P.; Boettcher, Ruth; Edited by Poole, A.

    2013-01-01

    This large, striking shorebird with long bluish-gray legs, a long recurved bill, and a black-and-white chevron pattern on its back and wings is one of four Avocet species in the world, the only one with distinct breeding and non-breeding plumages -- its grayish-white head and neck feathers become cinnamon in early spring as birds begin to form pairs and migrate to breeding areas.

  12. Incidence and growth of Salmonella enterica on the peel and pulp of avocado (Persea americana) and custard apple (Annona squamosa).

    PubMed

    Rezende, Ana Carolina B; Crucello, Juliana; Moreira, Rafael C; Silva, Beatriz S; Sant'Ana, Anderson S

    2016-10-17

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and to estimate the growth kinetic parameters (maximum growth rate, μ; lag time, λ; and maximum population, κ) of Salmonella on the peel and pulp of avocado (Perseaamericana var. americana) and custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) as affected by temperature (10-30°C). The incidence of Salmonella was assessed on the peel and pulp of the fruits (n=200 of each fruit), separately, totalizing 800 analyses. Only three samples of custard apple pulp were positive for Salmonella enterica and the three isolates recovered belonged to serotype S. Typhimurium. Salmonella was not recovered from avocado and custard apple peels and from avocado pulp. Generally, the substrate (pulp or peel) of growth did not affect μ values of S. enterica (p>0.05). Very similar μ values were found for S. enterica inoculated in custard apple and avocado. S. enterica presented the highest λ in the peel of the fruits. The growth of S. enterica resulted in larger λ in custard apple in comparison to avocado. For example, the λ of S. enterica in the pulp of custard apple and avocado were 47.0±0.78h and 10.0±3.78h, respectively. The lowest values of κ were obtained at the lower storage temperature conditions (10°C). For instance, κ values of 3.7±0.06log CFU/g and 2.9±0.03log CFU/g were obtained from the growth of S. enterica in avocado and custard apple pulps at 10°C (p<0.05), respectively. On the other hand, at 30°C, κ values were 6.5±0.25log CFU/g and 6.5±0.05log CFU/g, respectively. Significantly higher κ were obtained from the growth of S. enterica in the pulp than in the peel of the fruits (p<0.05). For instance, the growth of S. enterica in the pulp of avocado led to a κ value of 6.5±0.25log CFU/g, while in the peel led to a κ value of 4.6±0.23log CFU/g (p<0.05). In general, growth kinetic parameters indicated that avocado comprises a better substrate than custard apple for the growth of S. enterica. The square root model

  13. Incidence and growth of Salmonella enterica on the peel and pulp of avocado (Persea americana) and custard apple (Annona squamosa).

    PubMed

    Rezende, Ana Carolina B; Crucello, Juliana; Moreira, Rafael C; Silva, Beatriz S; Sant'Ana, Anderson S

    2016-10-17

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and to estimate the growth kinetic parameters (maximum growth rate, μ; lag time, λ; and maximum population, κ) of Salmonella on the peel and pulp of avocado (Perseaamericana var. americana) and custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) as affected by temperature (10-30°C). The incidence of Salmonella was assessed on the peel and pulp of the fruits (n=200 of each fruit), separately, totalizing 800 analyses. Only three samples of custard apple pulp were positive for Salmonella enterica and the three isolates recovered belonged to serotype S. Typhimurium. Salmonella was not recovered from avocado and custard apple peels and from avocado pulp. Generally, the substrate (pulp or peel) of growth did not affect μ values of S. enterica (p>0.05). Very similar μ values were found for S. enterica inoculated in custard apple and avocado. S. enterica presented the highest λ in the peel of the fruits. The growth of S. enterica resulted in larger λ in custard apple in comparison to avocado. For example, the λ of S. enterica in the pulp of custard apple and avocado were 47.0±0.78h and 10.0±3.78h, respectively. The lowest values of κ were obtained at the lower storage temperature conditions (10°C). For instance, κ values of 3.7±0.06log CFU/g and 2.9±0.03log CFU/g were obtained from the growth of S. enterica in avocado and custard apple pulps at 10°C (p<0.05), respectively. On the other hand, at 30°C, κ values were 6.5±0.25log CFU/g and 6.5±0.05log CFU/g, respectively. Significantly higher κ were obtained from the growth of S. enterica in the pulp than in the peel of the fruits (p<0.05). For instance, the growth of S. enterica in the pulp of avocado led to a κ value of 6.5±0.25log CFU/g, while in the peel led to a κ value of 4.6±0.23log CFU/g (p<0.05). In general, growth kinetic parameters indicated that avocado comprises a better substrate than custard apple for the growth of S. enterica. The square root model

  14. Structures of 1,4-benzodioxane derivatives from the seeds of Phytolacca americana and their neuritogenic activity in primary cultured rat cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Takahasi, Hironobu; Yanagi, Kazue; Ueda, Masumi; Nakade, Kousuke; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu

    2003-12-01

    The methanol extract of the seeds of Phytolacca americana was reinvestigated to yield three new 1,4-benzodioxane-type compounds, americanoic acid methyl ester (1), isoamericanoic acid A methyl ester (2), and 9'-O-methylamericanol A (3) along with the previously isolated neolignans 6-9. The structures of 1-3 were characterized by 2D NMR and long-range selective proton-decoupling (LSPD) techniques. The neuritogenic effects of compounds 1-3, and dicarboxilic acids 4 and 5, which had been previously synthesized with horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed oxidative coupling of caffeic acid, were examined in primary cultured rat cortical neurons. Americanoic acid A methyl ester (1) exhibited neurite outgrowth-promoting activity at concentration of 0.01-1.0 microM, whereas dicarboxilic acids 4 and 5 were found to induce neuritogenesis dose dependently at the concentrations from 0.1 microM to 10 microM.

  15. Quantitative comparison of the stress response of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis x Morone chrysops and Morone saxatilis x Morone americana).

    PubMed

    Noga, E J; Kerby, J H; King, W; Aucoin, D P; Giesbrecht, F

    1994-03-01

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) exposed to a standardized confinement stress had markedly different clinical and endocrinologic responses, compared with hybrid striped bass exposed to the same stress. Plasma cortisol concentration increased at a faster rate and appeared to reach a higher value in striped bass than in hybrid bass. Mean plasma cortisol concentration was 742 +/- 43 ng/ml in striped bass, compared with 490 +/- 37 and 531 +/- 40 ng/ml in striped bass x white perch (M americana) and striped bass x white bass (M chrysops) hybrids, respectively, after a 45-minute net confinement. Plasma cortisol concentration also remained significantly (P = 0.003) higher in striped bass for at least 48 hours after the net confinement. These hormonal differences were associated with a markedly lower survival and resistance to infection in striped bass, compared with the hybrids.

  16. Trypanocidal constituents in plants 5. Evaluation of some Mexican plants for their trypanocidal activity and active constituents in the seeds of Persea americana.

    PubMed

    Abe, Fumiko; Nagafuji, Shinya; Okawa, Masafumi; Kinjo, Junei; Akahane, Hiroshige; Ogura, Tetsuya; Martinez-Alfaro, Miguel Angel; Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo

    2005-07-01

    Crude extracts of Mexican medicinal plants were screened for trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma cruzi, which is the etiological agent for Chagas' disease, one of the most serious protozoan diseases in Latin America. There were 71 kinds of methanolic and other organic extracts from 65 plants, which were newly examined by a preliminary screening test to observe immobilization of epimastigotes and trypomastigotes of T. cruzi in vitro. The MeOH extract of seeds of Persea americana (avocado) showed moderate activity against epimastigotes. In order to identify the principal compounds for the activity, the MeOH extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation. From the active fractions, six 1,2,4-trihydroxyheptadecane derivatives and two 1,2,4-trihydroxynonadecane derivatives including a new one were isolated. These compounds showed moderate activity against epimastigotes and trypomastigotes.

  17. DNA replication during amplification of the C3 puff of Rhynchosciara americana initiates at multiple sites in a 6 kb region.

    PubMed

    Yokosawa, J; Soares, M A; Dijkwel, P A; Stocker, A J; Hamlin, J L; Lara, F J

    1999-09-01

    Two independent two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis methods have been used to map the origin of replication that directs amplification of the C3 DNA puff of Rhynchosciara americana. The results of neutral/neutral two-dimensional gel electrophoresis show that DNA replication initiates at multiple sites in a zone of at least 6 kb situated immediately upstream from the promoter of the main transcription unit of this puff. The complementary neutral/alkaline two-dimensional gel electrophoresis technique shows that, within the initiation zone, forks move in both directions. In contrast, unidirectional fork movement away from the initiation zone is observed at the ends of the region, implying that it is the only place in the amplified region of the C3 puff where initiations occur. Since the initiation zone coincides with the region that is most highly amplified, amplification of the C3 puff probably occurs by an onion skin-type mechanism. PMID:10525965

  18. Bioactivity-guided isolation of beta-sitosterol and some fatty acids as active compounds in the anxiolytic and sedative effects of Tilia americana var. mexicana.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Hernández, Eva; Rosas-Acevedo, Hortensia; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Martínez, Ana Laura; Moreno, Julia; González-Trujano, Ma Eva

    2007-09-01

    Tilia species have been used as anxiolytics for many years. In a previous study anxiolytic-like effects of a hexane extract of Tilia americana var. mexicana inflorescences were observed in experimental models in mice. To get additional insights into the neuroactive actions of this particular Tilia species, in this study we report a bioactivity guided-fractionation of the extract and separation by column chromatographic methods to isolate three fatty acids and a triterpene identified as beta-sitosterol as major constituents. Our results revealed that the crude extract at 10 and 30 mg/kg I. P. and some pooled fractions at the same dosages potentiated sodium pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and caused a significant increase in the time spent at the open-arm sides in the plus-maze test. A reduction in the exploratory behavioral pattern manifested as ambulatory activity, as well as head dipping and rearing tests was also observed. Further fractionation and purification yielded four major fractions containing fatty acids and beta-sitosterol as the active compounds. A dose-response curve of beta-sitosterol in the range 1 to 30 mg/kg doses indicated that this compound produced an anxiolytic-like action from 1 to 10 mg/kg and a sedative response when the dose was increased to 30 mg/kg, these effects resemble those produced by diazepam (0.1 mg/kg). Our results suggest that hexane extract of Tilia americana var. mexicana produces depressant actions on the central nervous system, at least in part, because of the presence of beta-sitosterol and some fatty acids that remain to be identified.

  19. Isolation, characterization, and localization of AgaSGNH cDNA: a new SGNH-motif plant hydrolase specific to Agave americana L. leaf epidermis.

    PubMed

    Reina, José J; Guerrero, Consuelo; Heredia, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    GDSL and SGNH hydrolases are lipases involved in a wide range of functions, behaving in many cases as bifunctional enzymes. In this work, the isolation and characterization of AgaSGNH, a cDNA encoding a member of the SGNH-hydrolase superfamily from young leaf epidermis of the monocot Agave americana L., is reported. The protein possesses a typical signal peptide at its N-terminus that allows its secretion to the epidermis cell wall, as verified by immunolocalization experiments. In addition, the AgaSGNH sequence contains a His-Leu-Gly-Ala-Glu (HLGAE) motif which is similar to that observed in other plant acyltransferases. Expression levels by northern blot and in situ localization of the corresponding mRNA, as well as the immunolocalization of the protein in Agave young leaves indicate that the protein is specifically present in the epidermal cells. The detailed study performed in different parts of the Agave leaf confirms two aspects: first, the expression of AgaSGNH is limited to the epidermis, and second, the maximum mRNA levels are found in the epidermis of the youngest zones of the leaf which are especially active in cutin biosynthesis. These levels dramatically decrease in the oldest zone of the leaf, where the presence of AgaSGNH mRNA is undetectable, and the biosynthesis of different cuticle components is severely reduced. These data could be compatible with the hypothesis that AgaSGNH could carry out both the hydrolysis and the transfer, from an activated acyl-CoA to a crescent cutin in Agave americana leaves and, therefore, be involved in the still unknown mechanism of plant cutin biosynthesis.

  20. Wirkungen biogener Amine auf die Erregungs-Sekretions-Kopplung in der Speicheldrüse von Periplaneta americana (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietdorf, Katja

    2003-07-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit habe ich wichtige Teilmechanismen der Erregungs-Sekretionskopplung in der Speicheldrüse der Schabe Periplaneta americana (L.) untersucht. Die Speicheldrüse ist von dopaminergen und serotonergen Fasern innerviert (Baumann et al., 2002). Beide Transmitter stimulieren eine unterschiedliche Reaktion der Drüse: Dopamin (DA) stimuliert die P-Zellen der Acini und die Ausführgangzellen, während Serotonin (5-HT) die P- und C-Zellen der Acini stimuliert, nicht jedoch die Ausführgangzellen. Der Endspeichel ist nach einer DA-Stimulierung proteinfrei. Dagegen enthält er nach einer 5-HT-Stimulierung Proteine, die von den C-Zellen sezerniert werden (Just & Walz, 1996). Im ersten Teil meiner Arbeit habe ich mittels Kapillarelektrophoretischer Analyse (CE-Analyse) die Elektrolytkonzentrationen im Endspeichel untersucht sowie die Raten der Flüssigkeitssekretion gemessen. Damit wollte ich klären, welche Transporter an der Sekretion des Primärspeichels und an dessen Modifikation beteiligt sind. Ausserdem wollte ich die Rolle der transportaktiven Epithelzellen der Ausführgänge für die Modifikation des Primärspeichels untersuchen. Dafür habe ich einen Vergleich der Elektrolytkonzentrationen im DA- und 5-HT-stimulierten Endspeichel durchgeführt. Der Elektrolytgehalt des DA- und 5-HT-stimulierten Endspeichels unterscheidet sich nicht signifikant voneinander. Er ist nach beiden Stimulierungen hypoosmotisch zum verwendeten Ringer. Die Ausführgangzellen werden durch DA stimuliert und modifizieren den Primärspeichel durch eine netto-Ionenreabsorption. Meine Versuche zeigen jedoch, dass auch die während einer 5-HT-Stimulierung der Drüse unstimulierten Ausführgangzellen den Primärspeichel modifizieren. In einer nachfolgenden Versuchsreihe habe ich den Einfluss von Ouabain, einem Hemmstoff der Na+-K+-ATPase, und Bumetanid, einem Hemmstoff des NKCC, auf die Raten der Flüssigkeitssekretion sowie den Elektrolytgehalt des Endspeichels untersucht. Ich

  1. Growth and cesium uptake responses of Phytolacca americana Linn. and Amaranthus cruentus L. grown on cesium contaminated soil to elevated CO2 or inoculation with a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Burkholderia sp. D54, or in combination.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shirong; Liao, Shangqiang; Guo, Junkang; Song, Zhengguo; Wang, Ruigang; Zhou, Xiaomin

    2011-12-30

    Growth and cesium uptake responses of plants to elevated CO(2) and microbial inoculation, alone or in combination, can be explored for clean-up of contaminated soils, and this induced phytoextraction may be better than the natural process. The present study used open-top chambers to investigate combined effects of Burkholderia sp. D54 inoculation and elevated CO(2) (860 μL L(-1)) on growth and Cs uptake by Phytolacca americana and Amaranthus cruentus grown on soil spiked with various levels of Cs (0-1000 mg kg(-1)). Elevated CO(2) and bacterial inoculation, alone or in combination, significantly increased biomass production with increased magnitude, ranging from 22% to 139% for P. americana, and 14% to 254% for A. cruentus. Total tissue Cs in both plants was significantly greater for bacterial inoculation treatment singly, and combined treatments of bacterial inoculation and elevated CO(2) than for the control treatment in most cases. Regardless of CO(2) concentrations and bacterial inoculation, A. cruentus had higher tissue Cs concentration, Cs transfer factors and concentration ratios than P. americana, but they had slightly different contents of antioxidant enzymes. It is concluded that combined effects of elevated CO(2) and microbial inoculation with regard to plant ability to grow and remove radionuclides from soil can be explored for CO(2)- and microbe-assisted phytoextraction technology. PMID:22074893

  2. Growth and cesium uptake responses of Phytolacca americana Linn. and Amaranthus cruentus L. grown on cesium contaminated soil to elevated CO2 or inoculation with a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Burkholderia sp. D54, or in combination.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shirong; Liao, Shangqiang; Guo, Junkang; Song, Zhengguo; Wang, Ruigang; Zhou, Xiaomin

    2011-12-30

    Growth and cesium uptake responses of plants to elevated CO(2) and microbial inoculation, alone or in combination, can be explored for clean-up of contaminated soils, and this induced phytoextraction may be better than the natural process. The present study used open-top chambers to investigate combined effects of Burkholderia sp. D54 inoculation and elevated CO(2) (860 μL L(-1)) on growth and Cs uptake by Phytolacca americana and Amaranthus cruentus grown on soil spiked with various levels of Cs (0-1000 mg kg(-1)). Elevated CO(2) and bacterial inoculation, alone or in combination, significantly increased biomass production with increased magnitude, ranging from 22% to 139% for P. americana, and 14% to 254% for A. cruentus. Total tissue Cs in both plants was significantly greater for bacterial inoculation treatment singly, and combined treatments of bacterial inoculation and elevated CO(2) than for the control treatment in most cases. Regardless of CO(2) concentrations and bacterial inoculation, A. cruentus had higher tissue Cs concentration, Cs transfer factors and concentration ratios than P. americana, but they had slightly different contents of antioxidant enzymes. It is concluded that combined effects of elevated CO(2) and microbial inoculation with regard to plant ability to grow and remove radionuclides from soil can be explored for CO(2)- and microbe-assisted phytoextraction technology.

  3. The interaction of CO2 concentration and spatial location on O2 flux and mass transport in the freshwater macrophytes Vallisneria spiralis and V. americana.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Gregory N; Ackerman, Josef D

    2007-02-01

    The biology of aquatic organisms determines the maximum rates of physiological processes, but the mass transport of nutrients determines the nominal rates at which these processes occur. Maximum O(2) flux (P(max)) at 17.1 mmol m(-3) CO(2) was higher for the leaves of the freshwater macrophyte Vallisneria spiralis [P(max)=0.013+/-0.001 mmol m(-2) s(-1) (g(chla+b) m(-2))(-1) (mean +/- s.e.m.)] than for the closely related species, Vallisneria americana [P(max)=0.008+/-0.001 mmol m(-2) s(-1) (g(chla+b) m(-2))(-1)]. The O(2) flux saturated at freestream velocities >4.5+/-1.2 cm s(-1) and was spatially invariant for both species. However, a tenfold decrease in CO concentration to 1.71 mmol m(-3) changed the nature of the relationship between O(2) flux and spatial location along the leaf surface, and reduced the O(2) flux of V. spiralis to values similar to V. americana. The O(2) flux [P(max)=0.007+/-0.001 mmol m(-2) s(-1) (g(chla+b) m(-2))(-1)] saturated at the upstream location (i.e. 1 cm from the leading edge of the leaf) but was found to increase linearly with freestream velocity [slope=0.057+/-0.011 mmol m(-2) s(-1) (g(chla+b) m(-2))(-1) (m s(-1))(-1)] at the downstream location (i.e. 7 cm from the leading edge) at freestream velocities >1.8+/-0.9 cm s(-1). Conversely, mass transfer rates did not vary with CO(2) concentration, and were characteristic of a laminar concentration boundary layer at the upstream location and a turbulent concentration boundary layer at the downstream location. Rates of mass transfer measured directly from O(2) profiles were not predicted by theoretical values based on hydrodynamic measurements. Moreover, the concentration boundary layer thickness (delta(CBL)) values measured directly from O(2) profiles were 48+/-2% and 21+/-1% of the predicted theoretical delta(CBL) values at the upstream and downstream locations, respectively. It is evident that physiological processes involving mass transport are coupled and vary in space. Mass

  4. Nonhost status of commercial Persea americana 'Hass' to Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha obliqua, Anastrepha serpentina, and Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aluja, Martín; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, José

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the host status in Mexico of commercially cultivated and marketed avocado, Persea americana (Mill.), 'Hass' to Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), and Anastrepha striata (Schiner) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Experiments in Michoacán, Mexico, were carried out in six orchards located at three altitudes above sea level during two times (August-October 2001 and April-June 2002). They included choice ('Hass' avocado plus natural host) and no-choice foraging behavior tests on trees under field cages; no-choice, forced infestation trials on caged, fruit-bearing branches in the field, and with individual fruit under laboratory conditions; infestation trials using 'Hass' avocados left unprotected over 1 and 7 d on the ground of orchards; studies to ascertain depth of oviposition and determine egg hatchability; and experiments to determine susceptibility by using time elapsed since removal of fruit from tree as the experimental variable. We trapped adult Anastrepha (n = 7,936) in all orchards and dissected fruit (n = 7,695) from orchards and packing houses (n = 1,620) in search of eggs or larvae. Most (96.7%) A. ludens, A. obliqua, A. striata, and A. serpentina adults were captured in low-elevation orchards. No eggs or larvae were detected in any of the fruit from foraging behavior studies or dissected fruit from orchards or packing houses. Of 5,200 mature, intact fruit on trees in the field forcibly exposed to no-choice female oviposition activity (five females/fruit), we only found four fruit infested by A. ludens but no adults emerged. 'Hass' avocados only became marginally susceptible to attack by A. ludens (but not A. obliqua, A. serpentina, and A. striata) 24 h after being removed from the tree. Fruit placed on the ground in orchards (n = 3,600) were occasionally infested by Neosilba batesi (Curran) (Diptera: Lonchaeidae), a decomposer, but not Anastrepha spp. Based on our

  5. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding the pokeweed antiviral protein II from Phytolacca americana and its expression in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Poyet, J L; Radom, J; Hoeveler, A

    1994-06-27

    Three distinct ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) were isolated from pokeweed (Phytolacca americana). We identified and sequenced for the first time a complete cDNA encoding the pokeweed antiviral protein II (PAP II), which is expressed in the late summer leaves of pokeweed. The cDNA of PAP II consists of 1,187 nucleotides and encodes a mature protein of 285 amino acids. Its predicted amino acid sequence is only 33% similar to PAP and PAP-S. The NH2 terminal extrapeptide (25 amino acid residues) was similar but not identical to that of PAP's extrapeptide. The cDNA of PAP II was expressed in E. coli. The growth of the transformants was strongly inhibited after induction of the gene. Furthermore, PAP II, which was produced in E. coli, inhibited protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte translation system. Thus, recombinant PAP II would appear to be as functional as native PAP in inhibiting protein synthesis in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

  6. Amino acid sequence and some properties of phytolacain R, a cysteine protease from full-growth fruits of pokeweed, Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, H; Uchikoba, T; Arima, K; Shimada, M; Kaneda, M

    1999-07-01

    A cysteine protease, phytolacain R from full-growth greenish fruits of pokeweed, Phytolacca americana L, was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by a simple purification procedure employing CM-Sepharose ion-exchange chromatography. The enzyme was present in low content in the young fruits about 50 d after flowering but gradually accumulated in growing fruits. Its molecular mass was estimated to be ca. 23 kDa by SDS-PAGE, and its sugar content was zero. Its amino acid sequence was established by automated sequence analysis of the peptides obtained by cleavage with Achromobacter protease I, chymotrypsin, trypsin, and cyanogen bromide. The enzyme is composed of 218 amino acid residues, of which it shares 110 residues (50%) with papain, 104 (47%) with actinidain, and 87 (40%) with stem bromelain. The amino acid residues forming the substrate-binding the S2 pocket of papain, Tyr61, Tyr67, Pro68, Trp69, Val133, and Phe207, were predicted to be replaced by Gly, Trp, Met, His, Ala, and Met in phytolacain R, respectively. As a consequence of these substitutions, the S2 pocket is expected to be less hydrophobic in phytolacain R than in papain.

  7. An HPLC-ELSD Method for the Determination of Triterpenes in Sorbus decora and Sorbus americana Bark Used by the Eeyou Istchee Cree First Nation.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Ammar; Liu, Rui; Guerrero-Analco, José A; Bailie, Anna; Foster, Brian; Cuerrier, Alain; Johns, Timothy; Haddad, Pierre S; Arnason, John Thor

    2016-09-01

    Sorbus decora and Sorbus americana are used traditionally as medicine by the Eeyou Istchee Cree First Nation of the James Bay region of Quebec, Canada. Because the ethanol extracts of the bark and the isolated terpenes of these plants have shown promising in vivo antidiabetic effects, an analytical method was developed and validated by RP-HPLC-ELSD for the identification and quantification of eight lupane- and ursane-type terpenes. The extraction method reproducibly recovered the compounds above 70 % and the chromatographic separation of betulin, 23-hydroxy-betulin, 23,28-dihydroxylupan-20(29)-ene-3β-caffeate, betulinic acid, α-amyrin, uvaol, 3β,23,28-trihydroxy-12-ursene, and 23,28-dihydroxyursan-12-ene-3β-caffeate was achieved within 27 min by linear gradient. The method produced highly reproducible quantitative data at interday and intraday levels. The limits of detection were in the ng level on-column with remarkable range and linearity. The target compounds were present at mg levels in the populations, collected from inland (Mistissini and Nemaska) and costal (Waskagnish and Chisasibi) Cree communities of northern Quebec. A triterpene, 23-hydroxybetulin, was the most abundant, while betulinic acid and uvaol were minor constituents. Overall, HPLC-ELSD analyses produced very similar profiles and contents of the eight compounds in the plants collected from four geographic locations. The developed HPLC-ELSD method can be used as a targeted analysis of triterpenes in these medicinal plants. PMID:27163231

  8. Apios americana Medik Extract Alleviates Lung Inflammation in Influenza Virus H1N1- and Endotoxin-Induced Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Sung-Hwa; Lee, Sang-Yeon; Cui, Jun; Jang, Ho Hee; Kang, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Jong-Keun; Kim, In-Kyoung; Lee, Deuk-Ki; Choi, Seulgi; Yoon, Il-Sub; Chung, Ji-Woo; Nam, Jae-Hwan

    2015-12-28

    Apios americana Medik (hereinafter Apios) has been reported to treat diseases, including cancer, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes. The therapeutic effect of Apios is likely to be associated with its anti-inflammatory activity. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of Apios in animal models of acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza A virus (H1N1). Mice were exposed to LPS or H1N1 for 2-4 days to induce acute lung injury. The treatment groups were administered Apios extracts via oral injection for 8 weeks before LPS treatment or H1N1 infection. To investigate the effects of Apios, we assessed the mice for in vivo effects of Apios on immune cell infiltration and the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and histopathological changes in the lung. After induction of acute lung injury, the numbers of neutrophils and total cells were lower in the Apios-treated groups than in the non-Apios-treated LPS and H1N1 groups. The Apios groups tended to have lower levels of tumor necrosis factor-a and interleukin-6 in BAL fluid. In addition, the histopathological changes in the lungs were markedly reduced in the Apios-treated groups. These data suggest that Apios treatment reduces LPS- and H1N1-induced lung inflammation. These protective effects of Apios suggest that it may have therapeutic potential in acute lung injury.

  9. A new species of Syncuaria Gilbert, 1927 (Nematoda: Acuarioidea: Acuariidae) in the wood stork, Mycteria americana L. (Aves: Ciconiiformes: Ciconiidae) from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luping; Brooks, Daniel R; Causey, Douglas

    2003-10-01

    Syncuaria mycteriae n. sp. (Nematoda: Acuarioidea) was collected under the lining of the gizzard of a wood stork, Mycteria americana L., from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica. The new species can be distinguished from all known species of Syncuaria by having irregular dotted ornamentations on the caudal alae of males, a complex distal end of the left spicule comprising 3 protuberances, and a spicule ratio of 1:9.3. Preliminary phylogenetic analysis of 11 Syncuaria spp. based on 9 morphological characters produced 2 equally parsimonious cladograms with a consistency index of 85%, differing only in the placement of S. hargilae. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that the new species is the sister species of S. leptoptili, whose male members have a single protuberance on the left spicule. Furthermore, the analysis suggests that the plesiomorphic host group for the genus is Ciconiiformes, specifically Ciconiidae (host for 5 species), with 2 species occurring in Threskiornithidae (also Ciconiiformes), possibly as a result of cospeciation, and 2 species each occurring in Pelecaniformes and Podicipediformes, resulting from 4 episodes of speciation by host switching.

  10. Fungal inoculation and elevated CO2 mediate growth of Lolium mutiforum and Phytolacca americana, metal uptake, and metal bioavailability in metal-contaminated soil: evidence from DGT measurement.

    PubMed

    Song, Ningning; Wang, Fangli; Zhang, Changbo; Tang, Shirong; Guo, Junkang; Ju, Xuehai; Smith, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    Fungal inoculation and elevated CO2 may mediate plant growth and uptake of heavy metals, but little evidence from Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films (DGT) measurement has been obtained to characterize the process. Lolium mutiforum and Phytolacca americana were grown at ambient and elevated CO2 on naturally Cd and Pb contaminated soils inoculated with and without Trichoderma asperellum strain C3 or Penicillium chrysogenum strain D4, to investigate plant growth, metal uptake, and metal bioavailability responses. Fungal inoculation increased plant biomass and shoot/root Cd and Pb concentrations. Elevated CO2 significantly increased plants biomass, but decreased Cd and Pb concentrations in shoot/root to various extents, leading to a metal dilution phenomenon. Total Cd and Pb uptake by plants, and DGT-measured Cd and Pb concentrations in rhizosphere soils, were higher in all fungal inoculation and elevated CO2 treatments than control treatments, with the combined treatments having more influence than either treatment alone. Metal dilution phenomenon occurred because the increase in DGT-measured bioavailable metal pools in plant rhizosphere due to elevated CO2 was unable to match the increase in requirement for plant uptake of metals due to plant biomass increase.

  11. Brain-midgut cross-talk and autocrine metabolastat via the sNPF/CCAP negative feed-back loop in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Mikani, Azam; Watari, Yasuhiko; Takeda, Makio

    2015-12-01

    Immunohistochemical reactivities against short neuropeptide F (sNPF-ir) and crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP-ir) were detected in both the brain-subesophageal ganglion (Br-SOG) and midgut epithelial cells of the male American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Four weeks of starvation increased the number of sNPF-ir cells and decreased the CCAP-ir cells in the Br-SOG, whereas refeeding reversed these effects. The contents of sNPF in the Br-SOG, midgut and hemolymph titer decreased in response to an injection of CCAP into the hemocoel of normally fed male cockroaches, while CCAP titers/contents decreased in response to an injection of sNPF. The results of a double-labeling experiment demonstrated that sNPF-ir co-existed in CCAP-ir cells in the pars intercerebralis (PI), dorsolateral region of protocerebrum (DL), deutocerebrum (De) and SOG. sNPF-ir and CCAP-ir were also colocalized in the midgut. sNPF and CCAP are neuropeptides and midgut factors that interact with each other. Since the two peptides are known to be secreted by identical cells that affect each other, this constitutes autocrine negative feedback regulation for a quick response to food accessibility/inaccessibility. These peptides not only constitute the switch in the digestive mechanism but also couple digestive adaptation with behavior. A CCAP injection suppressed locomotor activity when cockroaches were starved, whereas sNPF activated it when they were fed.

  12. The effects of grazers and light penetration on the survival of transplants of Vallisneria americana Michs in the tidal Potomac River, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, V.; Rybicki, N.B.

    1985-01-01

    Poor light penetration and grazing are among the factors potentially responsible for the lack of submersed aquatic macrophytes in the tidal Potomac River. Between 1980 and 1983, plugs, springs and tubers of Vallisneria americana Michx were transplanted from the oligohaline Potomac Estuary to six sites in the freshwater tidal Potomac River. Transplants made in 1980 and 1981 were generally successful only when protected by full exclosures which prevented grazing. Grazing resulted in the removal of whole plants or clipping off of plant leaves in unprotected plots. Plants protected in the first year were permanently established, despite the occurrence of grazing in subsequent years, at Elodea Cove and Rosier Bluff, where light penetration was high (average 1% light level was 1.6-1.7 m). Plants were not permanent;y established at Goose Island, where light penetration was lower (average 1% light level was 1.4 m) and grazing occurred, or Neabsco Bay where light penetration was very low (average 1% light level was 1.0 m) and grazing may not have occurred. In 1983, Secchi depth transparencies in the upper tidal river were improved significantly compared to 1978-1981. Both protected and unprotected transplants thrived in 1983. ?? 1985.

  13. Development and evaluation of methods to assess populations of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) at nests of the endangered whooping crane (Grus americana).

    PubMed

    King, Richard S; Adler, Peter H

    2012-12-01

    Hematophagous insects can negatively affect the reproductive success of their vertebrate hosts. To determine the influence of hematophagous insects on endangered vertebrates requires specially designed programs that minimize disturbance to the hosts and address problems associated with their small populations. We developed and evaluated a surveillance program for black flies potentially affecting a population of whooping cranes (Grus americana) introduced to central Wisconsin, U.S.A. In one of the few studies to survey host-seeking female black flies and their immature stages concurrently, we processed nearly 346,000 specimens and documented 26 species, of which only two, Simulium annulus and Simulium johannseni, were attracted to nesting whooping cranes. Attempts to assess black fly populations with artificial nests and real crane eggs were unsuccessful. Carbon-dioxide traps performed well in describing black fly taxa on the landscape. However, the number of black flies at whooping crane nests was consistently higher than the number captured in carbon-dioxide traps. The carbon-dioxide traps poorly described the presence/absence, population fluctuations, and periodicity of black flies at whooping crane nests. The weak performance of the carbon-dioxide traps might have resulted from microhabitat differences between trap locations and nests or from Simulium annulus and Simulium johannseni using sensory cues in addition to carbon dioxide to find hosts. Choice of trapping techniques, therefore, depends on the information required for the particular study objectives. PMID:23181852

  14. Stem bark extract and fraction of Persea americana (Mill.) exhibits bactericidal activities against strains of bacillus cereus associated with food poisoning.

    PubMed

    Akinpelu, David A; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A; Akinpelu, Oluseun F; Okoh, Anthony I

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the in vitro antibacterial potentials of stem bark extracts of Persea americana on strains of Bacillus cereus implicated in food poisoning. The crude stem bark extracts and butanolic fraction at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively, exhibited antibacterial activities against test isolates. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the crude extract and the fraction ranged between 10 mm and 26 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged between 0.78 and 5.00 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged between 3.12 mg/mL-12.5 mg/mL and 1.25-10 mg/mL for the extract and the fraction, respectively. The butanolic fraction killed 91.49% of the test isolates at a concentration of 2× MIC after 60 min of contact time, while a 100% killing was achieved after the test bacterial cells were exposed to the butanolic fraction at a concentration of 3× MIC after 90 min contact time. Intracellular protein and potassium ion leaked out of the test bacterial cells when exposed to certain concentrations of the fraction; this is an indication of bacterial cell wall disruptions by the extract's butanolic fraction and, thus, caused a biocidal effect on the cells, as evident in the killing rate test results. PMID:25558854

  15. The defensin from avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) PaDef induces apoptosis in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina Julia; López-Gómez, Rodolfo; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E

    2016-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are cytotoxic to cancer cells; however, mainly the effects of AMPs from animals have been evaluated. In this work, we assessed the cytotoxicity of PaDef defensin from avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) on the MCF-7 cancer cell line (a breast cancer cell line) and evaluated its mechanism of action. PaDef inhibited the viability of MCF-7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50=141.62μg/ml. The viability of normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells was unaffected by this AMP. Additionally, PaDef induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells in a time-dependent manner, but did not affect the membrane potential or calcium flow. In addition, PaDef IC50 induced the expression of cytochrome c, Apaf-1, and the caspase 7 and 9 genes. Likewise, this defensin induced the loss of mitochondrial Δψm and increased the phosphorylation of MAPK p38, which may lead to MCF-7 apoptosis by the intrinsic pathway. This is the first report of an avocado defensin inducing intrinsic apoptosis in cancer cells, which suggests that it could be a potential therapeutic molecule in the treatment of cancer. PMID:27470405

  16. Antibacterial activity of defensin PaDef from avocado fruit (Persea americana var. drymifolia) expressed in endothelial cells against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina Julia; López-Gómez, Rodolfo; Suárez-Rodríguez, Luis M; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Rodríguez-Zapata, Luis C; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy is a useful tool to control infectious diseases in general and rising antibiotic resistant microorganisms in particular. Alternative strategies are desirable, and antimicrobial peptides (AMP) represent attractive control agents. Mexican avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) is used in traditional medicine; however, the AMP production has not been reported in this plant. We obtained a cDNA library from avocado fruit and clone PaDef was identified, which has a cDNA (249 bp) encoding a protein (78 aa) homologous with plant defensins (>80%). We expressed the defensin PaDef cDNA (pBME3) in the bovine endothelial cell line BVE-E6E7. Polyclonal and clonal populations were obtained and their activity was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. E. coli viability was inhibited with 100 μg/mL of total protein from clones (>55%). Also, S. aureus viability was inhibited from 50 μg/mL total protein (27-38%) but was more evident at 100 μg/mL (52-65%). This inhibition was higher than the effect showed by polyclonal population (~23%). Finally, we did not detect activity against C. albicans. These results are the first report that shows antimicrobial activity of a defensin produced by avocado and suggest that this AMP could be used in the control of pathogens. PMID:24319695

  17. Determination of changes in the metabolic profile of avocado fruits (Persea americana) by two CE-MS approaches (targeted and non-targeted).

    PubMed

    Contreras-Gutiérrez, Paulina K; Hurtado-Fernández, Elena; Gómez-Romero, María; Ignacio Hormaza, José; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    A CZE method with two different MS detection conditions (MRM and Full Scan) was developed to determine qualitative and quantitative changes in the metabolic profile of avocado fruits (Persea americana). LODs in MRM approach were found between 20.1 and 203.0 ppb for abscisic acid and perseitol, respectively, whilst in Full Scan, varied within the range 0.22–1.90 ppm for the same metabolites. The RSDs for reproducibility test did not exceed 11.45%. The two MS approaches were used to quantify 10 metabolites (phenolic acids, flavonoids, a carbohydrate, an organic acid, a vitamin and a phytohormone) in 18 samples of avocado at different ripening states, and the achieved results were compared. Perseitol, quinic, chlorogenic, trans-cinnamic, pantothenic and abscisic acids, as well as epicatechin and catechin decreased during the ripening process, whereas ferulic and p-coumaric acids showed the opposite trend. Moreover, some other unknown compounds whose concentration changed largely during ripening were also studied by MS/MS and QTOF MS to get a tentative identification. PMID:24228266

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Defensin PaDef from Avocado Fruit (Persea americana var. drymifolia) Expressed in Endothelial Cells against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina Julia; López-Gómez, Rodolfo; Suárez-Rodríguez, Luis M.; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Rodríguez-Zapata, Luis C.; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E.

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy is a useful tool to control infectious diseases in general and rising antibiotic resistant microorganisms in particular. Alternative strategies are desirable, and antimicrobial peptides (AMP) represent attractive control agents. Mexican avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) is used in traditional medicine; however, the AMP production has not been reported in this plant. We obtained a cDNA library from avocado fruit and clone PaDef was identified, which has a cDNA (249 bp) encoding a protein (78 aa) homologous with plant defensins (>80%). We expressed the defensin PaDef cDNA (pBME3) in the bovine endothelial cell line BVE-E6E7. Polyclonal and clonal populations were obtained and their activity was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. E. coli viability was inhibited with 100 μg/mL of total protein from clones (>55%). Also, S. aureus viability was inhibited from 50 μg/mL total protein (27–38%) but was more evident at 100 μg/mL (52–65%). This inhibition was higher than the effect showed by polyclonal population (~23%). Finally, we did not detect activity against C. albicans. These results are the first report that shows antimicrobial activity of a defensin produced by avocado and suggest that this AMP could be used in the control of pathogens. PMID:24319695

  19. Seasonal changes in plasma levels of sex hormones in the greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American Ratite with a complex mating system.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Diego J; Vera Cortez, Marilina; Della Costa, Natalia S; Lèche, Alvina; Hansen, Cristian; Navarro, Joaquín L; Martella, Mónica B

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal rhythm in sex hormones has been extensively studied in birds, as well as its relationship with the type of mating system. The Greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American ratite species, reproduces seasonally and has a complex mating system: female-defense polygyny and sequential polyandry. The present study aimed at analyzing the endocrine basis of reproduction in this species and its relationship with its mating system. We used HPLC and electrochemiluminescence techniques to identify and measure plasma testosterone and estradiol levels. Annual oscillations in sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol, in adult males and females were observed. Lower levels of these hormones were exhibited during the non reproductive season (February to July), whereas their maximum values were reached in September for males and November-December for females. These fluctuations reflect the seasonal changes in gonadal function. By contrast, no significant sex hormones oscillations were observed in juvenile males and females (negative control of seasonal changes). Greater rheas maintain high testosterone and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period. The high testosterone levels during incubation and chick rearing did not inhibit parental behavior in males, which appears not to conform to the "Challenge Hypothesis". In females, the high estradiol levels throughout the reproductive season would be needed to sustain their long egg-laying period. PMID:24837464

  20. Stem bark extract and fraction of Persea americana (Mill.) exhibits bactericidal activities against strains of bacillus cereus associated with food poisoning.

    PubMed

    Akinpelu, David A; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A; Akinpelu, Oluseun F; Okoh, Anthony I

    2014-12-30

    The study investigates the in vitro antibacterial potentials of stem bark extracts of Persea americana on strains of Bacillus cereus implicated in food poisoning. The crude stem bark extracts and butanolic fraction at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively, exhibited antibacterial activities against test isolates. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the crude extract and the fraction ranged between 10 mm and 26 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged between 0.78 and 5.00 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged between 3.12 mg/mL-12.5 mg/mL and 1.25-10 mg/mL for the extract and the fraction, respectively. The butanolic fraction killed 91.49% of the test isolates at a concentration of 2× MIC after 60 min of contact time, while a 100% killing was achieved after the test bacterial cells were exposed to the butanolic fraction at a concentration of 3× MIC after 90 min contact time. Intracellular protein and potassium ion leaked out of the test bacterial cells when exposed to certain concentrations of the fraction; this is an indication of bacterial cell wall disruptions by the extract's butanolic fraction and, thus, caused a biocidal effect on the cells, as evident in the killing rate test results.

  1. Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) phenolics, in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and inhibition of lipid and protein oxidation in porcine patties.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carpena, Javier-Germán; Morcuende, David; Andrade, María-Jesús; Kylli, Petri; Estévez, Mario

    2011-05-25

    The first aim of the present work (study 1) was to analyze ethyl acetate, 70% acetone, and 70% methanol extracts of the peel, pulp, and seed from two avocado (Persea americana Mill.) varieties, namely, 'Hass' and 'Fuerte', for their phenolic composition and their in vitro antioxidant activity using the CUPRAC, DPPH, and ABTS assays. Their antimicrobial potential was also studied. Peels and seeds had higher amounts of phenolics and a more intense in vitro antioxidant potential than the pulp. Peels and seeds were rich in catechins, procyanidins, and hydroxycinnamic acids, whereas the pulp was particularly rich in hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and procyanidins. The total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of avocado phenolics was affected by the extracting solvent and avocado variety. The avocado materials also displayed moderate antimicrobial effects against Gram-positive bacteria. Taking a step forward (study 2), extracts (70% acetone) from avocado peels and seeds were tested as inhibitors of oxidative reactions in meat patties. Avocado extracts protected meat lipids and proteins against oxidation with the effect on lipids being dependent on the avocado variety.

  2. Antibacterial activity of defensin PaDef from avocado fruit (Persea americana var. drymifolia) expressed in endothelial cells against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina Julia; López-Gómez, Rodolfo; Suárez-Rodríguez, Luis M; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Rodríguez-Zapata, Luis C; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy is a useful tool to control infectious diseases in general and rising antibiotic resistant microorganisms in particular. Alternative strategies are desirable, and antimicrobial peptides (AMP) represent attractive control agents. Mexican avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) is used in traditional medicine; however, the AMP production has not been reported in this plant. We obtained a cDNA library from avocado fruit and clone PaDef was identified, which has a cDNA (249 bp) encoding a protein (78 aa) homologous with plant defensins (>80%). We expressed the defensin PaDef cDNA (pBME3) in the bovine endothelial cell line BVE-E6E7. Polyclonal and clonal populations were obtained and their activity was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. E. coli viability was inhibited with 100 μg/mL of total protein from clones (>55%). Also, S. aureus viability was inhibited from 50 μg/mL total protein (27-38%) but was more evident at 100 μg/mL (52-65%). This inhibition was higher than the effect showed by polyclonal population (~23%). Finally, we did not detect activity against C. albicans. These results are the first report that shows antimicrobial activity of a defensin produced by avocado and suggest that this AMP could be used in the control of pathogens.

  3. The defensin from avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) PaDef induces apoptosis in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina Julia; López-Gómez, Rodolfo; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E

    2016-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are cytotoxic to cancer cells; however, mainly the effects of AMPs from animals have been evaluated. In this work, we assessed the cytotoxicity of PaDef defensin from avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) on the MCF-7 cancer cell line (a breast cancer cell line) and evaluated its mechanism of action. PaDef inhibited the viability of MCF-7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50=141.62μg/ml. The viability of normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells was unaffected by this AMP. Additionally, PaDef induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells in a time-dependent manner, but did not affect the membrane potential or calcium flow. In addition, PaDef IC50 induced the expression of cytochrome c, Apaf-1, and the caspase 7 and 9 genes. Likewise, this defensin induced the loss of mitochondrial Δψm and increased the phosphorylation of MAPK p38, which may lead to MCF-7 apoptosis by the intrinsic pathway. This is the first report of an avocado defensin inducing intrinsic apoptosis in cancer cells, which suggests that it could be a potential therapeutic molecule in the treatment of cancer.

  4. Determination of changes in the metabolic profile of avocado fruits (Persea americana) by two CE-MS approaches (targeted and non-targeted).

    PubMed

    Contreras-Gutiérrez, Paulina K; Hurtado-Fernández, Elena; Gómez-Romero, María; Ignacio Hormaza, José; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    A CZE method with two different MS detection conditions (MRM and Full Scan) was developed to determine qualitative and quantitative changes in the metabolic profile of avocado fruits (Persea americana). LODs in MRM approach were found between 20.1 and 203.0 ppb for abscisic acid and perseitol, respectively, whilst in Full Scan, varied within the range 0.22–1.90 ppm for the same metabolites. The RSDs for reproducibility test did not exceed 11.45%. The two MS approaches were used to quantify 10 metabolites (phenolic acids, flavonoids, a carbohydrate, an organic acid, a vitamin and a phytohormone) in 18 samples of avocado at different ripening states, and the achieved results were compared. Perseitol, quinic, chlorogenic, trans-cinnamic, pantothenic and abscisic acids, as well as epicatechin and catechin decreased during the ripening process, whereas ferulic and p-coumaric acids showed the opposite trend. Moreover, some other unknown compounds whose concentration changed largely during ripening were also studied by MS/MS and QTOF MS to get a tentative identification.

  5. Biochemical analysis of reactive oxygen species production and antioxidative responses in unripe avocado (Persea americana Mill var Hass) fruits in response to wounding.

    PubMed

    Castro-Mercado, E; Martinez-Diaz, Y; Roman-Tehandon, N; Garcia-Pineda, E

    2009-03-01

    We analyzed the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of detoxifying enzymes and enzymes of the ascorbate (ASC) acid cycle in avocado fruit (Pesea Americana Mill cv Hass) in response to wounding. The levels of superoxide anion (O(2-), hydroxyl radicals (OH.) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) increased at 15 min and 2 and 15 h post-wounding. Peroxidase (POD) activity had increased to high levels 24 h after wounding; in contrast, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels hat decreased significantly at 24 h post-treatment. Basic POD was the major POD form induced, and the levels of at least three apoplastic POD isozymes -increased following wounding. Using specific inhibitors, we characterized one MnSOD and two CuZnSOD isozymes. CuZnSOD activities decreased notably 12 h after treatment. The activities of dehydroascorbate reductase and glutathione reductase increased dramatically following the wounding treatment, possibly as a means to compensate for the redox changes due to ROS production.

  6. Development and evaluation of methods to assess populations of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) at nests of the endangered whooping crane (Grus americana).

    PubMed

    King, Richard S; Adler, Peter H

    2012-12-01

    Hematophagous insects can negatively affect the reproductive success of their vertebrate hosts. To determine the influence of hematophagous insects on endangered vertebrates requires specially designed programs that minimize disturbance to the hosts and address problems associated with their small populations. We developed and evaluated a surveillance program for black flies potentially affecting a population of whooping cranes (Grus americana) introduced to central Wisconsin, U.S.A. In one of the few studies to survey host-seeking female black flies and their immature stages concurrently, we processed nearly 346,000 specimens and documented 26 species, of which only two, Simulium annulus and Simulium johannseni, were attracted to nesting whooping cranes. Attempts to assess black fly populations with artificial nests and real crane eggs were unsuccessful. Carbon-dioxide traps performed well in describing black fly taxa on the landscape. However, the number of black flies at whooping crane nests was consistently higher than the number captured in carbon-dioxide traps. The carbon-dioxide traps poorly described the presence/absence, population fluctuations, and periodicity of black flies at whooping crane nests. The weak performance of the carbon-dioxide traps might have resulted from microhabitat differences between trap locations and nests or from Simulium annulus and Simulium johannseni using sensory cues in addition to carbon dioxide to find hosts. Choice of trapping techniques, therefore, depends on the information required for the particular study objectives.

  7. Seasonal Changes in Plasma Levels of Sex Hormones in the Greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American Ratite with a Complex Mating System

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Diego J.; Vera Cortez, Marilina; Della Costa, Natalia S.; Lèche, Alvina; Hansen, Cristian; Navarro, Joaquín L.; Martella, Mónica B.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal rhythm in sex hormones has been extensively studied in birds, as well as its relationship with the type of mating system. The Greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American ratite species, reproduces seasonally and has a complex mating system: female-defense polygyny and sequential polyandry. The present study aimed at analyzing the endocrine basis of reproduction in this species and its relationship with its mating system. We used HPLC and electrochemiluminescence techniques to identify and measure plasma testosterone and estradiol levels. Annual oscillations in sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol, in adult males and females were observed. Lower levels of these hormones were exhibited during the non reproductive season (February to July), whereas their maximum values were reached in September for males and November-December for females. These fluctuations reflect the seasonal changes in gonadal function. By contrast, no significant sex hormones oscillations were observed in juvenile males and females (negative control of seasonal changes). Greater rheas maintain high testosterone and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period. The high testosterone levels during incubation and chick rearing did not inhibit parental behavior in males, which appears not to conform to the “Challenge Hypothesis”. In females, the high estradiol levels throughout the reproductive season would be needed to sustain their long egg-laying period. PMID:24837464

  8. Seasonal changes in plasma levels of sex hormones in the greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American Ratite with a complex mating system.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Diego J; Vera Cortez, Marilina; Della Costa, Natalia S; Lèche, Alvina; Hansen, Cristian; Navarro, Joaquín L; Martella, Mónica B

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal rhythm in sex hormones has been extensively studied in birds, as well as its relationship with the type of mating system. The Greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American ratite species, reproduces seasonally and has a complex mating system: female-defense polygyny and sequential polyandry. The present study aimed at analyzing the endocrine basis of reproduction in this species and its relationship with its mating system. We used HPLC and electrochemiluminescence techniques to identify and measure plasma testosterone and estradiol levels. Annual oscillations in sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol, in adult males and females were observed. Lower levels of these hormones were exhibited during the non reproductive season (February to July), whereas their maximum values were reached in September for males and November-December for females. These fluctuations reflect the seasonal changes in gonadal function. By contrast, no significant sex hormones oscillations were observed in juvenile males and females (negative control of seasonal changes). Greater rheas maintain high testosterone and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period. The high testosterone levels during incubation and chick rearing did not inhibit parental behavior in males, which appears not to conform to the "Challenge Hypothesis". In females, the high estradiol levels throughout the reproductive season would be needed to sustain their long egg-laying period.

  9. A third type of raphide crystal in the plant kingdom: Six-sided raphides with laminated sheaths in Agave americana L.

    PubMed

    Wattendorff, J

    1976-01-01

    Raphides in leaves of Agave americana L. have six-sided cross sections. Each crystal tapers off to a point at both ends. It is enveloped in a 100 nm thick sheath which, in cross section, shows lamellae with periods of 6-9 nm. No polysaccharides could be detected in the sheaths with the Thiéry reaction. Dissolution of a raphide in acid occurs slowly from both ends leaving the crystal sheath visible in the light microscope. The raphide cell walls contain a layer that in glutaraldehyde-fixed tissue reacts neither with the Thiéry stain nor with potassium permanagnate. Its morphology resembles the "isotropic layer" of Chafe and Chauret (Protoplasma 80, 129-147, 1974) but no lignification could be shown as yet. Though up to now only raphides with four-sided or H-shaped cross sections have been observed by electron microscopy, we suggest that many raphides described as "rounded" in light microscopy might in fact be six-sided.

  10. [Design and implementation of the ELSA-Brasil biobank: a prospective study in a Brazilian population].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Alexandre C; Bensenor, Isabela M; Fedeli, Ligia M; Castilhos, Cristina; Vidigal, Pedro G; Maniero, Viviane; Leite, Claudia M; Pimentel, Robercia A; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2013-06-01

    The Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is a multicenter prospective cohort of civil servants designed to assess the determinants of chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The present article describes the main design and implementation points of the ELSA-Brasil biobank project. Economic, political, logistical and technological aspects of this study are characterized. Additionally, it discusses the final biorepository protocol and the facilities implemented to achieve this objective. The design and implementation process of the ELSA-Brasil biobank took three years to be performed. Both the central and local biobanks were built according to the best biorepository techniques, using different technological solutions for the distinct needs expected in this study.

  11. Cohort Profile: Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, José Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Chor, Dóra; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Aquino, Estela ML; Passos, Valéria Maria Azeredo; Matos, Sheila MA; Molina, Maria del Carmen B; Carvalho, Marilia S; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases are a global problem, yet information on their determinants is generally scant in low- and middle-income countries. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information regarding the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, in one such setting. At Visit 1, we enrolled 15 105 civil servants from predefined universities or research institutes. Baseline assessment (2008–10) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess social and biological determinants of health, as well as various clinical and subclinical conditions related to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and mental health. A second visit of interviews and examinations is under way (2012–14) to enrich the assessment of cohort exposures and to detect initial incident events. Annual surveillance has been conducted since 2009 for the ascertainment of incident events. Biological samples (sera, plasma, urine and DNA) obtained at both visits have been placed in long-term storage. Baseline data are available for analyses, and collaboration via specific research proposals directed to study investigators is welcome. PMID:24585730

  12. Role of aluminum and growth rate on changes in cell size and silica content of silica-limited populations of Asterionella ralfsii var. Americana (bacillariophyceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Gensemer, R.W. )

    1990-06-01

    Changes in cell size and silica content were examined in response to aluminum additions in cultures of the acidophilic diatom Asterionella ralfsii var. americana Koern at pH 6.0. The effects of Al were examined over a range of steady-state growth rates using silica-limited semicontinuous cultures (Si:P = 8.0). Additions of {ge}2.8 {mu}mol{center dot}L{sup {minus}1} total Al decreased mean cell length, total surface area, and biovolume up to 40-50%. The effects of Al were dependent on growth rate with the magnitude of size reduction increasing at higher growth rates. The proportion of small (approximately 15-20 {mu}m) cell length classes increased relative to large (approximately 50 {mu}m length) cell length classes when total Al exceeded 2.8 {mu}mol{center dot}L{sup {minus}1}, particularly at higher growth rates. The relationship between cell quota and steady-state growth rate fit a Droop relationship at 0 and 2.8 {mu}mol{center dot}L{sup {minus}1} total Al, but this fit was highly variable in the presence of Al. Cell quotas in the 6.22 {mu}mol{center dot}L{sup {minus}1} total Al treatment were highest at low growth rates; therefore, a Droop relationship was an inappropriate descriptor of growth rate. Cells also became 30-40% more heavily silicified per unit surface area in the presence of Al and at growth rates {ge}0.22 day{sup {minus}1}. Although the mechanisms responsible for size reductions in response to Al additions are unclear, the relationship between metal concentration and frustule morphology may be useful as an indicator of Al loading to acidified lakes.

  13. Effect of nutrients and salinity pulses on biomass and growth of Vallisneria americana in lower St Johns River, FL, USA

    PubMed Central

    Boustany, Ronald G.; Michot, Thomas C.; Moss, Rebecca F.

    2015-01-01

    We determined the interactive effects of nutrient loading and salinity pulsing on Vallisneria americana Michx., the dominant submerged aquatic vegetation species in the lower St Johns River (LSJR), FL, USA, and its associated algal community. Five hundred and ninety 6-inch diameter intact plant plugs of Vallisneria were collected from the LSJR in March 2003 and transported to US Geological Survey mesocosm facilities in Lafayette, LA, USA. A 3×3 experimental design consisting of three nutrient levels (control, 1/3 control and 3× control) and three salinity pulsing regimes (no pulse, 1-pulse at 18 ppt and 2-pulse at 12 and 18 ppt) was implemented with three replicates per treatment for a total of 27 experimental tanks. Salinity pulsing significantly reduced all measured Vallisneria growth parameters including above- and below-ground biomass, areal productivity and leaf area index. Nutrient levels had little effect on plants subjected to salinity pulses, but in non-salinity pulse treatments we observed higher mean macrophyte biomass in the low-nutrient loading treatments. Macroalgal components (epiphytes and surface algal mats) were not significantly different ( p=0.2998 and p=0.2444, respectively), but water column chlorophyll a (phytoplankton) was significantly higher ( p<0.0001) in all salinity pulse treatments except for the 1-pulse, low-nutrient treatment. A single salinity pulse at 18 ppt resulted in 22% pot mortality and two consecutive pulses of 18 and 12 ppt resulted in an additional 14% mortality. Individual leaves and ramets lost 59.7% and 67.8%, respectively, in the combined salinity pulse treatments. Nutrient loading tends to have a long-term effect on Vallisneria through complex community interactions while salinity pulsing frequency and intensity has an immediate and direct influence on growth and distribution. PMID:26064592

  14. Effect of nutrients and salinity pulses on biomass and growth of Vallisneria americana in lower St Johns River, FL, USA.

    PubMed

    Boustany, Ronald G; Michot, Thomas C; Moss, Rebecca F

    2015-02-01

    We determined the interactive effects of nutrient loading and salinity pulsing on Vallisneria americana Michx., the dominant submerged aquatic vegetation species in the lower St Johns River (LSJR), FL, USA, and its associated algal community. Five hundred and ninety 6-inch diameter intact plant plugs of Vallisneria were collected from the LSJR in March 2003 and transported to US Geological Survey mesocosm facilities in Lafayette, LA, USA. A 3×3 experimental design consisting of three nutrient levels (control, 1/3 control and 3× control) and three salinity pulsing regimes (no pulse, 1-pulse at 18 ppt and 2-pulse at 12 and 18 ppt) was implemented with three replicates per treatment for a total of 27 experimental tanks. Salinity pulsing significantly reduced all measured Vallisneria growth parameters including above- and below-ground biomass, areal productivity and leaf area index. Nutrient levels had little effect on plants subjected to salinity pulses, but in non-salinity pulse treatments we observed higher mean macrophyte biomass in the low-nutrient loading treatments. Macroalgal components (epiphytes and surface algal mats) were not significantly different ( p=0.2998 and p=0.2444, respectively), but water column chlorophyll a (phytoplankton) was significantly higher ( p<0.0001) in all salinity pulse treatments except for the 1-pulse, low-nutrient treatment. A single salinity pulse at 18 ppt resulted in 22% pot mortality and two consecutive pulses of 18 and 12 ppt resulted in an additional 14% mortality. Individual leaves and ramets lost 59.7% and 67.8%, respectively, in the combined salinity pulse treatments. Nutrient loading tends to have a long-term effect on Vallisneria through complex community interactions while salinity pulsing frequency and intensity has an immediate and direct influence on growth and distribution. PMID:26064592

  15. Effect of nutrients and salinity pulses on biomass and growth of Vallisneria americana in lower St Johns River, FL, USA.

    PubMed

    Boustany, Ronald G; Michot, Thomas C; Moss, Rebecca F

    2015-02-01

    We determined the interactive effects of nutrient loading and salinity pulsing on Vallisneria americana Michx., the dominant submerged aquatic vegetation species in the lower St Johns River (LSJR), FL, USA, and its associated algal community. Five hundred and ninety 6-inch diameter intact plant plugs of Vallisneria were collected from the LSJR in March 2003 and transported to US Geological Survey mesocosm facilities in Lafayette, LA, USA. A 3×3 experimental design consisting of three nutrient levels (control, 1/3 control and 3× control) and three salinity pulsing regimes (no pulse, 1-pulse at 18 ppt and 2-pulse at 12 and 18 ppt) was implemented with three replicates per treatment for a total of 27 experimental tanks. Salinity pulsing significantly reduced all measured Vallisneria growth parameters including above- and below-ground biomass, areal productivity and leaf area index. Nutrient levels had little effect on plants subjected to salinity pulses, but in non-salinity pulse treatments we observed higher mean macrophyte biomass in the low-nutrient loading treatments. Macroalgal components (epiphytes and surface algal mats) were not significantly different ( p=0.2998 and p=0.2444, respectively), but water column chlorophyll a (phytoplankton) was significantly higher ( p<0.0001) in all salinity pulse treatments except for the 1-pulse, low-nutrient treatment. A single salinity pulse at 18 ppt resulted in 22% pot mortality and two consecutive pulses of 18 and 12 ppt resulted in an additional 14% mortality. Individual leaves and ramets lost 59.7% and 67.8%, respectively, in the combined salinity pulse treatments. Nutrient loading tends to have a long-term effect on Vallisneria through complex community interactions while salinity pulsing frequency and intensity has an immediate and direct influence on growth and distribution.

  16. Colour, lipid and protein stability of Rhea americana meat during air- and vacuum-packaged storage: influence of muscle on oxidative processes.

    PubMed

    Filgueras, R S; Gatellier, P; Aubry, L; Thomas, A; Bauchart, D; Durand, D; Zambiazi, R C; Santé-Lhoutellier, V

    2010-11-01

    Physicochemical characteristics and oxidative stability during storage were determined in Gastrocnemius pars interna (GN) and Iliofiburalis (IF) muscles of Rhea americana. Glycolytic potential (GP) and pH decline of muscles were measured within the first 24 h post mortem. Colour, lipid and protein stability were determined during storage of meat, i.e. 5 days under air-packaging at 4°C, or 28 days under vacuum-packaging at 4°C. In parallel, anti-oxidant status of muscles was estimated by measuring α-tocopherol content and anti-oxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase and catalase), while pro-oxidant status was evaluated by determining haeminic iron and long chain fatty acids (especially polyunsaturated fatty acids). The ultimate pH was similar in both muscles, but the GP value was significantly higher in IF than in GN muscle. Haeminic iron and alpha-tocopherol content differed between muscles, with 30% more haeminic iron (p<0.05) and 134% more alpha-tocopherol (p<0.001) in IF than GN muscle. The IF muscle presented higher lipid content and lower PUFA/SFA ratio (polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids) than GN muscle. With storage under air-packaging, lipid and protein oxidation of rhea muscles increased up to 275% and 30%, respectively. This increase was more rapidly and marked in IF muscle. The IF also showed high level of metmyoglobin accumulation after 3 days of storage (47%) and was rejected by 1 consumer out of 2 in sensorial analysis. Under vacuum-packaging, both muscles showed a high stability of colour and no oxidation of lipids and proteins.

  17. Elemental contaminants in the livers and ingesta of four subpopulations of the American coot (Fulica americana): An herbivorous winter migrant in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hui, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Water birds with diets high in animal foods in the San Francisco Bay area are exposed to trace elements that are potentially health impairing. Water birds with herbivorous diets have been less thoroughly examined. The concentrations of trace elements in the livers and the esophageal contents of an herbivorous water bird, the American coot (Fulica americana) were measured to compare levels of contaminant exposure among different locations in the Bay system and with other water birds. A total of 39 coots were collected from four sites: Napa River and Mare Island Strait in the north, Berkeley in the middle, and Coyote Creek in the south. Livers of Berkeley samples differed significantly from those of Napa River and Mare Island Strait by their greater concentrations of As and B and lower concentrations of Cu, but they seemed to be within normal ranges for birds. Otherwise the concentrations of trace elements in the livers did not differ among sites. Ingesta samples from Berkeley differed from the other sites because they tended to be higher in Al, V, and Zn. In contrast to waterfowl, livers from the herbivorous coots in San Francisco Bay showed little exposure to Cd, Hg, Pb, or Se. Coot ingesta showed few samples with measurable levels of Cd, Hg, or Se and had low levels of Pb. The herbivorous diet of coots may shield them from exposure to such elements. However, high levels of V were present in coot livers and ingesta from all four sites, suggesting adaptation to this toxic element. Copyright (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  18. Physiological and foliar symptom response in the crowns of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana and Acer rubrum canopy trees to ambient ozone under forest conditions.

    PubMed

    Schaub, M; Skelly, J M; Zhang, J W; Ferdinand, J A; Savage, J E; Stevenson, R E; Davis, D D; Steiner, K C

    2005-02-01

    The crowns of five canopy dominant black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), five white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and six red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees on naturally differing environmental conditions were accessed with scaffold towers within a mixed hardwood forest stand in central Pennsylvania. Ambient ozone concentrations, meteorological parameters, leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential were measured at the sites during the growing seasons of 1998 and 1999. Visible ozone-induced foliar injury was assessed on leaves within the upper and lower crown branches of each tree. Ambient ozone exposures were sufficient to induce typical symptoms on cherry (0-5% total affected leaf area, LAA), whereas foliar injury was not observed on ash or maple. There was a positive correlation between increasing cumulative ozone uptake (U) and increasing percent of LAA for cherry grown under drier site conditions. The lower crown leaves of cherry showed more severe foliar injury than the upper crown leaves. No significant differences in predawn leaf water potential (psi(L)) were detected for all three species indicating no differing soil moisture conditions across the sites. Significant variation in stomatal conductance for water vapor (g(wv)) was found among species, soil moisture, time of day and sample date. When comparing cumulative ozone uptake and decreased photosynthetic activity (P(n)), red maple was the only species to show higher gas exchange under mesic vs. drier soil conditions (P < 0.05). The inconsistent differences in gas exchange response within the same crowns of ash and the uncoupling relationship between g(wv) and P(n) demonstrate the strong influence of heterogeneous environmental conditions within forest canopies. PMID:15519730

  19. Effect of cold storage on larval and adult Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) viability in commercially ripe, artificially infested Persea americana 'Hass'.

    PubMed

    Aluja, M; Díaz-Fleischer, F; Arredondo, J; Valle-Mora, J; Rull, J

    2010-12-01

    Commercially ripe 'Hass' avocados, Persea americana Mill, artificially exposed to wild Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) females 24 h after harvest were placed in a cold storage facility to determine the effect of low temperature on larval survival and adult viability. Fruit were left for 3, 6, 9, and 12 d in a cold room at 5 degrees C followed by a 20-25-d period at ambient temperature to allow for larval development and pupation. Hass avocados and grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfadyen, maintained at ambient temperature served as controls. Overall, only 0.23% of the Hass avocados and 19.30% of the grapefruit were infested. The number of infested fruit increased with decreasing exposure time to cold. Puparia from cold-treated Hass avocados were significantly smaller than those stemming from cold-treated grapefruit. Hass avocados exposed for 12 d to 5 degrees C yielded no puparia, and those exposed for 6 and 9 d yielded 22 and two puparia, respectively, but no adults. Although Hass avocados exposed to cold temperature for 3 d yielded adults that reached sexual maturity (N = 16), females laid inviable eggs. Grapefruit exposed to cold for 12 d yielded normal-sized puparia (but no adults), whereas those exposed over 9 d yielded females able to lay viable eggs. We conclude that exposing fruit to cold storage after packing and during transport represents an effective risk-mitigating procedure in the highly improbable event that a gravid A. ludens female might lay eggs in a commercially ripe Hass avocado that had been left unprotected in a packinghouse.

  20. Elevated CO2 increases Cs uptake and alters microbial communities and biomass in the rhizosphere of Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth) grown on soils spiked with various levels of Cs.

    PubMed

    Song, Ningning; Zhang, Ximei; Wang, Fangli; Zhang, Changbo; Tang, Shirong

    2012-10-01

    General concern about increasing global atmospheric CO(2) levels owing to the ongoing fossil fuel combustion and elevated levels of radionuclides in the environment, has led to growing interest in the responses of plants to interactive effects of elevated CO(2) and radionuclides in terms of phytoremediation and food safety. To assess the combined effects of elevated CO(2) and cesium contamination on plant biomass, microbial activities in the rhizosphere soil and Cs uptake, Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed, C3 specie) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth, C4 specie) were grown in pots of soils containing five levels of cesium (0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg(-1)) under two levels of CO(2) (360 and 860 μL L(-1), respectively). Shoot and root biomass of P. americana and Amaranthus crentus was generally higher under elevated CO(2) than under ambient CO(2) for all treatments. Both plant species exhibited higher Cs concentration in the shoots and roots under elevated CO(2) than ambient CO(2). For P. americana grown at 0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg(-1), the increase magnitude of Cs concentration due to elevated CO(2) was 140, 18, 11, 34 and 15% in the shoots, and 150, 20, 14, 15 and 19% in the roots, respectively. For A. cruentus, the corresponding value was 118, 28, 21, 14 and 17% in the shoots, and 126, 6, 11, 17 and 22% in the roots, respectively. Higher bioaccumulation factors were noted for both species grown under elevated CO(2) than ambient CO(2). The populations of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, and the microbial C and N in the rhizosphere soils of both species were higher at elevated CO(2) than at ambient CO(2) with the same concentration of Cs. The results suggested that elevated CO(2) significantly affected plant biomass, Cs uptake, soil C and N concentrations, and community composition of soil microbes associated with P. americana and A. cruentus roots. The knowledge gained from this investigation constitutes an important advancement in

  1. [Dissemination of German medicine in Spain and Latin America: the "Revista Médica de Hamburgo" and the "Revista Médica Germano-Ibero-Americana" (1920-1933)].

    PubMed

    Sá, Magali Romero; Cândido da Silva, André Felipe

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the development of the journals "Revista Médica de Hamburgo" and "Revista Médica Germano-Ibero-Americana," which were created to promote and disseminate the German science among the medical community in Latin America and Spain between the two World Wars. Shaken by the loss of Germany's colonies in Africa, the difficulties faced due to post-war economy, and the restrictions imposed by the armistice, the Germans sought to restore their cultural and scientific prestige through such initiative.

  2. Substitution for petroleum products in Brasil: Urgent issues

    SciTech Connect

    de Araujo, J.L.; Ghirardi, A.

    1986-06-01

    Brazililan energy policy during the last decade has focused on the replacement of imported petroleum with domestic energy sources, combined with efforts at conservation. The substitution results, however, have been more spectacular by far. The strategy of replacement is based on two elements. first, to increase domestic petroleum exploration and production. Second, to promote non-petroleum fuels as alternatives to the industrial and transportation sectors, for the substitution of fuel oil and gasoline, respectively. A combination of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of demand, has resulted in large surpluses of both gasoline and fuel oil, while diesel has become the most used among petroleum products. The surpluses are not easily exportable because there is ample availability of fuel oil in the world market, and because the low octane number of the gasoline produced in Brasil is not compatible with the engines of cars elsewhere in the region and in the world. Furthermore, although gasoline might be upgraded, the question remains that prospects for the world market are not encouraging, and an export-based strategy does not seem justified in view of the growing surpluses. The objective of this analysis is to review the mechanisms of themajor petroleum-substitution programs currently in existence, identifying their past impact on the energy market and the possible consequences of changes in the goals and operating conditions of these programs, in the light of the new prospects for increased domestic oil production and self-sufficiency. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Phytolacca americana from contaminated and noncontaminated soils of South Korea: effects of elevated temperature, CO(2) and simulated acid rain on plant growth response.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Ok; Rodriguez, Rusty J; Lee, Eun Ju; Redman, Regina S

    2008-11-01

    Chemical analyses performed on the invasive weed Phytolacca americana (pokeweed) growing in industrially contaminated (Ulsan) and noncontaminated (Suwon) sites in South Korea indicated that the levels of phenolic compounds and various elements that include some heavy metals (Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were statistically higher in Ulsan soils compared to Suwon soils with Al being the highest (>1,116 mg/l compared to 432 mg/l). Analysis of metals and nutrients (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl, NH(4), N, P, S) in plant tissues indicated that accumulation occurred dominantly in plant leaves with Al levels being 33.8 times higher in Ulsan plants (PaU) compared to Suwon plants (PaS). The ability of PaU and PaS to tolerate stress was evaluated under controlled conditions by varying atmospheric CO(2) and temperature and soil pH. When grown in pH 6.4 soils, the highest growth rate of PaU and PaS plants occurred at elevated (30 degrees C) and non-elevated (25 degrees C) temperatures, respectively. Both PaU and PaS plants showed the highest and lowest growth rates when exposed to atmospheric CO(2) levels of 360 and 650 ppm, respectively. The impact of soil pH (2-6.4) on seed germination rates, plant growth, chlorophyll content, and the accumulation of phenolics were measured to assess the effects of industrial pollution and global-warming-related stresses on plants. The highest seed germination rate and chlorophyll content occurred at pH 2.0 for both PaU and PaS plants. Increased pH from 2-5 correlated to increased phenolic compounds and decreased chlorophyll content. However, at pH 6.4, a marked decrease in phenolic compounds, was observed and chlorophyll content increased. These results suggest that although plants from Ulsan and Suwon sites are the same species, they differ in the ability to deal with various stresses.

  4. Phytolacca americana from contaminated and noncontaminated soils of South Korea: Effects of elevated temperature, CO2 and simulated acid rain on plant growth response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, Y.-O.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Lee, E.J.; Redman, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Chemical analyses performed on the invasive weed Phytolacca americana (pokeweed) growing in industrially contaminated (Ulsan) and noncontaminated (Suwon) sites in South Korea indicated that the levels of phenolic compounds and various elements that include some heavy metals (Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were statistically higher in Ulsan soils compared to Suwon soils with Al being the highest (>1,116 mg/l compared to 432 mg/l). Analysis of metals and nutrients (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl, NH4, N, P, S) in plant tissues indicated that accumulation occurred dominantly in plant leaves with Al levels being 33.8 times higher in Ulsan plants (PaU) compared to Suwon plants (PaS). The ability of PaU and PaS to tolerate stress was evaluated under controlled conditions by varying atmospheric CO2 and temperature and soil pH. When grown in pH 6.4 soils, the highest growth rate of PaU and PaS plants occurred at elevated (30??C) and non-elevated (25??C) temperatures, respectively. Both PaU and PaS plants showed the highest and lowest growth rates when exposed to atmospheric CO2 levels of 360 and 650 ppm, respectively. The impact of soil pH (2-6.4) on seed germination rates, plant growth, chlorophyll content, and the accumulation of phenolics were measured to assess the effects of industrial pollution and global-warming-related stresses on plants. The highest seed germination rate and chlorophyll content occurred at pH 2.0 for both PaU and PaS plants. Increased pH from 2-5 correlated to increased phenolic compounds and decreased chlorophyll content. However, at pH 6.4, a marked decrease in phenolic compounds, was observed and chlorophyll content increased. These results suggest that although plants from Ulsan and Suwon sites are the same species, they differ in the ability to deal with various stresses. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  5. Reduction of Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes with electrolyzed oxidizing water on inoculated hass avocados (Persea americana var. Hass).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Garcia, O; González-Romero, V M; Fernández-Escartín, E

    2011-09-01

    This study was intended to evaluate the bactericidal effect of electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) and chlorinated water on populations of Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on avocados (Persea americana var. Hass). In the first experiment, inoculated avocados were treated with a water wash applied by spraying tap water containing 1 mg/liter free chlorine for 15 s (WW); WW treatment and then spraying sodium hypochlorite in water containing 75 mg/liter free chlorine for 15 s (Cl75); WW treatment and then spraying alkaline EOW for 30 s (AkEW) and then spraying acid EOW (AcEW) for 15 s; and spraying AkEW and then AcEW. In another experiment, the inoculated avocados were treated by spraying AkEW and then AcEW for 15, 30, 60, or 90 s. All three pathogen populations were lowered between 3.6 and 3.8 log cycles after WW treatment. The application of Cl75 did not produce any further reduction in counts, whereas AkEW and then AcEW treatment resulted in significantly lower bacterial counts for L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 but not for Salmonella. Treatments with AkEW and then AcEW produced a significant decrease in L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, and E. coli O157:H7 populations, with estimated log reductions of 3.9 to 5.2, 5.1 to 5.9, and 4.2 to 4.9 log CFU/cm², respectively. Spraying AcEW for more than 15 s did not produce any further decrease in counts of Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7, whereas L. monocytogenes counts were significantly lower after spraying AcEW for 60 s. Applying AkEW and then AcEW for 15 or 30 s seems to be an effective alternative to reduce bacterial pathogens on avocado surfaces.

  6. Phytolacca americana from contaminated and noncontaminated soils of South Korea: effects of elevated temperature, CO(2) and simulated acid rain on plant growth response.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Ok; Rodriguez, Rusty J; Lee, Eun Ju; Redman, Regina S

    2008-11-01

    Chemical analyses performed on the invasive weed Phytolacca americana (pokeweed) growing in industrially contaminated (Ulsan) and noncontaminated (Suwon) sites in South Korea indicated that the levels of phenolic compounds and various elements that include some heavy metals (Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were statistically higher in Ulsan soils compared to Suwon soils with Al being the highest (>1,116 mg/l compared to 432 mg/l). Analysis of metals and nutrients (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl, NH(4), N, P, S) in plant tissues indicated that accumulation occurred dominantly in plant leaves with Al levels being 33.8 times higher in Ulsan plants (PaU) compared to Suwon plants (PaS). The ability of PaU and PaS to tolerate stress was evaluated under controlled conditions by varying atmospheric CO(2) and temperature and soil pH. When grown in pH 6.4 soils, the highest growth rate of PaU and PaS plants occurred at elevated (30 degrees C) and non-elevated (25 degrees C) temperatures, respectively. Both PaU and PaS plants showed the highest and lowest growth rates when exposed to atmospheric CO(2) levels of 360 and 650 ppm, respectively. The impact of soil pH (2-6.4) on seed germination rates, plant growth, chlorophyll content, and the accumulation of phenolics were measured to assess the effects of industrial pollution and global-warming-related stresses on plants. The highest seed germination rate and chlorophyll content occurred at pH 2.0 for both PaU and PaS plants. Increased pH from 2-5 correlated to increased phenolic compounds and decreased chlorophyll content. However, at pH 6.4, a marked decrease in phenolic compounds, was observed and chlorophyll content increased. These results suggest that although plants from Ulsan and Suwon sites are the same species, they differ in the ability to deal with various stresses. PMID:18956232

  7. Fish community dynamics in northeastern Lake Ontario with emphasis on the growth and reproductive success of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and white perch (Morone americana), 1978 to1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Gorman, Robert; Burnett, John A.D.

    2001-01-01

    Fishes were assessed in Guffin, Chaumount, and Black River bays in northeastern Lake Ontario with a 7.9-m (headrope) bottom trawl during late September and early October, 1978 to 1997. Fish density declined in the early 1990s with sharp declines in abundance of spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus), and johnny darter (Etheostoma nigrum) occurring in 1993 to 1995. Rising numbers of piscivores, walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) and double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), increased predation pressure, presumably acting in concert with oligotrophication to lower fish density, particularly after 1991 when large numbers of adult alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) no longer migrated to the northeast basin in spring. Annual mortality of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from age 2 to 5 rose from 33% in 1980–83 to 65% in 1992–95 and was positively related to piscivore numbers (P = 0.01, r = 0.96, n = 5). Annual mortality of yellow perch from age 0 to 2 also peaked in 1992–95. Abundance of yellow perch YOY in fall varied 40 fold and was not related to water warming in spring (P = 0.45, r = −0.19, n = 18) but was negatively related to the abundance of adult alewives in spring (P = 0.04, r = −0.49, n = 18). Although yellow perch produced moderate to strong year classes each year during 1991–95, stock size failed to increase because of rapidly accelerating mortality. Fully 85% of the variation in mean length of yellow perch YOY was explained by a multiple regression model which included YOY abundance, mean total phosphorus, and cumulative degree days > 13.5°C (P < 0.01, n = 15). Abundance of white perch (Morone americana) YOY varied nearly 200 fold and was not related to water warming or spring alewife abundance (P > 0.15). Variation in mean length of white perch YOY was related to cumulative degree days > 15°C (P < 0.01, r = 0.69).

  8. A 5 S rRNA gene is present in the mitochondrial genome of the protist Reclinomonas americana but is absent from red algal mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Lang, B F; Goff, L J; Gray, M W

    1996-09-01

    Except in the case of land plants, mitochondrial ribosomes apparently lack a 5 S rRNA species, even though this small RNA is a component of all prokaryotic, chloroplast and eukaryotic cytosol ribosomes. In plants, the mitochondrial 5 S rRNA is encoded by mtDNA and differs in sequence from the 5 S rRNA specified by plant nuclear and chloroplast genomes. A distinctive 5 S rRNA component has not been found in the mitochondrial ribosomes of non-plant eukaryotes and, with the notable exception of the chlorophycean alga, Prototheca wickerhamii, a 5 S rRNA gene has not been identified in those non-plant mtDNAs characterized to date. Here, we report the presence of a 5 S rRNA gene in the mtDNA of the heterotrophic flagellate Reclinomonas americana. This unicellular eukaryote is a member of the jakobid flagellates, an early-diverging group of protists that share ultrastructural characteristics with the retortamonads, primitive protists that lack mitochondria. We report sequence data from the mtDNAs of the red algae Porphyra purpurea and Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, which we use to evaluate a recent claim that a 5 S rRNA gene exists in the mtDNA of a third rhodophyte alga, Chondrus crispus. Our results lead us to the opposite conclusion: that a 5 S rRNA gene is not encoded by red algal mtDNA. In view of the accumulating evidence favoring a monophyletic origin of the mitochondrial genome, it is likely that a 5 S rRNA gene was present in an ancestral proto-mitochondrial genome, and that contemporary mtDNA-encoded 5 S rRNA genes have all descended from this ancestral gene. Considering the highly restricted phylogenetic distribution of identified mtDNA-encoded 5 S rRNA genes, it follows that the mitochondrial 5 S rRNA gene must have been lost multiple times during evolutionary diversification of the eukaryotic lineage.

  9. Comunicare fisica all'Americana

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2005-11-01

    I survey motivations for education and outreach initiatives in the American context and explore the value of communicating physics for physicists and for the wider society. I describe the roles of large institutions, professional organizations, and funding agencies and cite some individual actions, local activities, and coordinated national programs. I note the emergence of transnational enterprises--not only to carry out research, but to communicate physics. A brief appendix collects some useful internet resources.

  10. Seismic waether over Brasil during the Chile earthquake/tsunami of September 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kherani, Esfhan; Klausner, Virginia

    2016-07-01

    During an earthquake and tsunami, the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere hosts varieities of disturbances. We refer, this phenomena, as seismic weather, drawing anology from the space weather. In this work, we study the seismic weather over Brasil, associated with the September Chile eqarthquake/tsunami. We aim to simulate this seismic weather for which the seismogenic magnetic and airglow disturbances over Brasil are already reported. We employ the Seismic-Atmsopheric-Ionospheric coupling model (SAI) developed by us, to study this seismic weather. The Earth's surface displacement obtained from seismometer is consisdered as an input to the model which them trigger the Acoustic-Gravity waves (AGWs) in the atmosphere and subsequent magnetic and airglow disturbances in the atmosphere-ionosphere coupled system. The results provide better understanding of coupling arising from the Rayleigh wave forcing.

  11. Explicación de las disparidades raciales en la salud neonatal en Brasil*

    PubMed Central

    Nyarko, Kwame A.; López-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Wehby, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Buscamos cuantificar la manera en que los efectos socioeconómicos, demográficos, geográficos y de atención de salud explican las disparidades raciales en las tasas de bajo peso al nacer y prematuridad en Brasil. Métodos. Utilizamos una muestra de 8 949 niños nacidos entre 1995 y el 2009 en 15 ciudades y 7 provincias de Brasil. Nos centramos en las disparidades en la prevalencia de bajo peso al nacer (< 2 500 g) y prematuridad (< 37 semanas de gestación) en recién nacidos de ascendencia solo africana o mezclada con otras ascendencias y de ascendencia solo europea. Usamos un modelo de descomposición para cuantificar la contribución de los factores conceptualmente pertinentes a esas disparidades. Resultados. El modelo permitió explicar entre 45% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto al bajo peso al nacer y entre 64% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto a la prematuridad entre los grupos de ascendencia africana y de ascendencia europea. Las diferencias en el uso de atención prenatal y en la ubicación geográfica fueron los factores más importantes, seguidos por las diferencias socioeconómicas. El modelo permitió explicar la mayoría de las disparidades en los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana mezclada y parte de las disparidades en los de ascendencia solo africana. Conclusiones. En las políticas públicas para mejorar la salud infantil se deben abordar las diferencias en cuanto a la atención prenatal y la ubicación geográfica a fin de reducir las disparidades en materia de salud entre los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana y los de ascendencia europea en Brasil.

  12. Avança Brasil: environmental and social consequences of Brazil's planned infrastructure in Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Fearnside, Philip M

    2002-12-01

    "Avança Brasil" (Forward Brazil) is a package of 338 projects throughout Brazil; the portion of the plan to be carried out in Brazil's Legal Amazon region totals US$43 billion over 8 years, US$20 billion of which would be for infrastructure causing environmental damage. Brazil's environmental impact assessment system is not yet capable of coping with the challenge presented by Avança Brasil. Generic problems with the licensing process include stimulation of a lobby in favor of construction before decisions are made on the advisability of the projects, the "dragging effect" of third parties, whereby economic activity is attracted to the infrastructure but escapes the environmental impact assessment system, a tendency for consulting firms to produce favorable reports, a bureaucratic emphasis on the existence of steps without regard to the content of what is said, and the inability to take account of the chain of events unleashed when a given project is undertaken. The environmental and social costs of forest loss are high; among them is loss of opportunities for sustainable use of the forest, including loss of environmental services such as biodiversity maintenance, water cycling, and carbon storage. The benefits of export infrastructure are meager, especially from the point of view of generating employment. Much of the transportation infrastructure is for soybeans, while the hydroelectric dams contribute to processing aluminum. The example of Avança Brasil makes clear the need to rethink how major development decisions are made and to reconsider a number of the plan's component projects. PMID:12402090

  13. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; da Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    Resumo O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20428503

  14. Antitumor Activity of Americanin A Isolated from the Seeds of Phytolacca americana by Regulating the ATM/ATR Signaling Pathway and the Skp2-p27 Axis in Human Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Cholomi; Hong, Ji-Young; Bae, Song Yi; Kang, Sam Sik; Park, Hyen Joo; Lee, Sang Kook

    2015-12-24

    The antiproliferative and antitumor activities of americanin A (1), a neolignan isolated from the seeds of Phytolacca americana, were investigated in human colon cancer cells. Compound 1 inhibited the proliferation of HCT116 human colon cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. The induction of G2/M cell-cycle arrest by 1 was concomitant with regulation of the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated/ATM and Rad3-related (ATM/ATR) signaling pathway. Treatment with 1 activated ATM and ATR, initiating the subsequent signal transduction cascades that include checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), and tumor suppressor p53. Another line of evidence underlined the significance of 1 in regulation of the S phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2)-p27 axis. Compound 1 targeted selectively Skp2 for degradation and thereby stabilized p27. Therefore, compound 1 suppressed the activity of cyclin B1 and its partner cell division cycle 2 (cdc2) to prevent entry into mitosis. Furthermore, prolonged treatment with 1 induced apoptosis by producing excessive reactive oxygen species. The intraperitoneal administration of 1 inhibited the growth of HCT116 tumor xenografts in nude mice without any overt toxicity. Modulation of the ATM/ATR signaling pathway and the Skp2-p27 axis might be plausible mechanisms of action for the antiproliferative and antitumor activities of 1 in human colon cancer cells.

  15. Short- and long-term modulation of the lutein epoxide and violaxanthin cycles in two species of the Lauraceae: sweet bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) and avocado (Persea americana Mill.).

    PubMed

    Esteban, R; Jiménez, M S; Morales, D; Jiménez, E T; Hormaetxe, K; Becerril, J M; Osmond, B; García-Plazaola, J I

    2008-05-01

    Short- and long-term responses of the violaxanthin (V) and lutein epoxide (Lx) cycles were studied in two species of Lauraceae: sweet bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) and avocado (Persea americana L.). The Lx content exceeded the V content in shade leaves of both species. Both Lx and V were de-epoxidised on illumination, but only V was fully restored by epoxidation in low light. Violaxanthin was preferentially de-epoxidised in low light in L. nobilis. This suggests that Lx accumulates with leaf ageing, partly because its conversion to lutein is limited in shade. After exposure to strong light, shade leaves of avocado readjusted the total pools of alpha- and beta-xanthophyll cycles by de novo synthesis of antheraxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein. This occurred in parallel with a sustained depression of F(v)/F(m). In Persea indica, a closely related but low Lx species, F(v)/F(m) recovered faster after a similar light treatment, suggesting the involvement of the Lx cycle in sustained energy dissipation. Furthermore, the seasonal correlation between non-reversible Lx and V photoconversions and pre-dawn F(v)/F(m) in sun leaves of sweet bay supported the conclusion that the Lx cycle is involved in a slowly reversible downregulation of photosynthesis analogous to the V cycle.

  16. Graphene/TiO2 nanocomposite based solid-phase extraction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for lipidomic profiling of avocado (Persea americana Mill.).

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing; Yang, Mei; Li, Linqiu; Cheung, Hon-Yeung

    2014-12-10

    Phospholipids possess important physiological, structural and nutritional functions in biological systems. This study described a solid-phase extraction (SPE) method, employing graphene and titanium dioxide (G/TiO2) nanocomposite as sorbent, for the selective isolation and enrichment of phospholipids from avocado (Persea americana Mill.). Based on the principal that the phosphoryl group in the phospholipid can interact with TiO2 via a bridging bidentate mode, an optimum condition was established for SPE, and was successfully applied to prepare avocado samples. The extracts were monitored by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) in both positive-ion and negative-ion modes. Results showed that phospholipids could be efficiently extracted in a clean manner by G/TiO2 based SPE. In addition, the signals of phospholipids were enhanced while the noise was reduced. Some minor peaks became more obvious. In conclusion, the nanocomposite material of G/TiO2 was proved to be a promising sorbent for selective separation of phospholipids from crude lipid extract. PMID:25441892

  17. Graphene/TiO2 nanocomposite based solid-phase extraction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for lipidomic profiling of avocado (Persea americana Mill.).

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing; Yang, Mei; Li, Linqiu; Cheung, Hon-Yeung

    2014-12-10

    Phospholipids possess important physiological, structural and nutritional functions in biological systems. This study described a solid-phase extraction (SPE) method, employing graphene and titanium dioxide (G/TiO2) nanocomposite as sorbent, for the selective isolation and enrichment of phospholipids from avocado (Persea americana Mill.). Based on the principal that the phosphoryl group in the phospholipid can interact with TiO2 via a bridging bidentate mode, an optimum condition was established for SPE, and was successfully applied to prepare avocado samples. The extracts were monitored by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) in both positive-ion and negative-ion modes. Results showed that phospholipids could be efficiently extracted in a clean manner by G/TiO2 based SPE. In addition, the signals of phospholipids were enhanced while the noise was reduced. Some minor peaks became more obvious. In conclusion, the nanocomposite material of G/TiO2 was proved to be a promising sorbent for selective separation of phospholipids from crude lipid extract.

  18. Telpochcalli Irma Guerra, La Escuela Preparatoria Progresiva.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleman, Narciso L.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the educational foundations of a proposed two-way bilingual/bicultural charter school for adolescent Latino parents in Milwaukee (Wisconsin). Discusses teenage pregnancy in the two contexts of Hispanic cultural values and educational alternatives available to teen parents in Milwaukee; the school-community partnership; and arguments for…

  19. Eating patterns in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil): an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Melere, Cristiane; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Faria, Carolina Perim de; Benseñor, Isabela M; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Griep, Rosane Harter; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    The food consumption of 15,071 public employees was analyzed in six Brazilian cities participating in the baseline for Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil, 2008-2010) with the aim of identifying eating patterns and their relationship to socio-demographic variables. Multiple correspondence and cluster analysis were applied. Four patterns were identified, with their respective frequencies: "traditional" (48%); "fruits and vegetables" (25%); "pastry shop" (24%); and "diet/light" (5%) The "traditional" and "pastry shop" patterns were more frequent among men, younger individuals, and those with less schooling. "Fruits and vegetables" and "diet/light" were more frequent in women, older individuals, and those with more schooling. Our findings show the inclusion of new items in the "traditional" pattern and the appearance of the "low sugar/low fat" pattern among the eating habits of Brazilian workers, and signal socio-demographic and regional differences.

  20. Eating patterns in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil): an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Melere, Cristiane; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Faria, Carolina Perim de; Benseñor, Isabela M; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Griep, Rosane Harter; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    The food consumption of 15,071 public employees was analyzed in six Brazilian cities participating in the baseline for Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil, 2008-2010) with the aim of identifying eating patterns and their relationship to socio-demographic variables. Multiple correspondence and cluster analysis were applied. Four patterns were identified, with their respective frequencies: "traditional" (48%); "fruits and vegetables" (25%); "pastry shop" (24%); and "diet/light" (5%) The "traditional" and "pastry shop" patterns were more frequent among men, younger individuals, and those with less schooling. "Fruits and vegetables" and "diet/light" were more frequent in women, older individuals, and those with more schooling. Our findings show the inclusion of new items in the "traditional" pattern and the appearance of the "low sugar/low fat" pattern among the eating habits of Brazilian workers, and signal socio-demographic and regional differences. PMID:27192025

  1. [The teaching of history at the Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia of the Universidade do Brasil].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marieta de Moraes

    2012-06-01

    This work analyzes the trajectory of the history course at the Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia of the Universidade do Brasil between 1939 and 1964/1965. Special emphasis is placed on the period between 1955 and 1965, when there was the separation of the history and geography courses, through to the onset of the reorganization of the schools and institutes of the university. The Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia was a benchmark for the other schools of philosophy in the country, as well as being a reference in the development of the history of education in Brazil. The approach adopted is geared to the field of the history of the historiography, with a focus on the study of the trajectories, institutions and relationship networks.

  2. Reproductive biology of the characid dourado Salminus franciscanus from the São Francisco River, Brasil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Leonardo J A; Prado, Paula S; Arantes, Fabio P; Santiago, Kleber B; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2013-06-01

    The neotropical characid Salminus franciscanus is an economically valuable migratory fish whose populations have been drastically reduced in recent decades due to industrial and economic development in Brasil. To study its reproduction, a total of 283 adult specimens were captured in the Upper São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias dam, Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brasil, from August 2009 to July 2010. The gonadal maturity stages were determined from histological features of the gonads and gonadosomatic index (GSI). Gametogenesis was assessed by light and electron microscopy. For analysis of the oocyte's surface and fecundity, mature females were subjected to hormonal induction and oocyte stripping. Fish in resting (Stage 1) were common in all samplings, ripening/ripe and spawning (Stages 2 and 3) were predominant in October-November and December-January and post-spawning (Stage 4) occurred from December-January extending until April-May. The GSI followed the morphological changes of gonadal maturation, with a peak in October-November, when maximum GSI (7.08 in females and 3.46 in males) was achieved. From scanning electron microscopy, stripped oocytes showed a funnel-shaped micropyle and a simple oocyte surface arrangement, which is typical for non-adhesive eggs. Fecundity ranged from 160 to 440×10(3) oocytes per female and 129 to 175×10(3)oocytes/kg. The results of this study indicate that S. franciscanus reproduces in the Upper São Francisco River from October to January, exhibiting a total spawning pattern, non-adhesive eggs and high fecundity, providing support for aquaculture and conservation biology of this important neotropical characid fish. PMID:23618945

  3. Reproducibility of Left Ventricular Mass by Echocardiogram in the ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Tognon, Alexandre Pereira; Foppa, Murilo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Lotufo, Paulo; El Aouar, Lilia Maria Mameri; Fernandes, Luciana Pereira; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2015-01-01

    Background Echocardiography, though non-invasive and having relatively low-cost, presents issues of variability which can limit its use in epidemiological studies. Objective To evaluate left ventricular mass reproducibility when assessed at acquisition (online) compared to when assessed at a reading center after electronic transmission (offline) and also when assessed by different readers at the reading center. Methods Echocardiographers from the 6 ELSA-Brasil study investigation centers measured the left ventricular mass online during the acquisition from 124 studies before transmitting to the reading center, where studies were read according to the study protocol. Half of these studies were blindly read by a second reader in the reading center. Results From the 124 echocardiograms, 5 (4%) were considered not measurable. Among the remaining 119, 72 (61%) were women, mean age was 50.2 ± 7.0 years and 2 had structural myocardial abnormalities. Images were considered to be optimal/ good by the reading center for 110 (92.4%) cases. No significant difference existed between online and offline measurements (1,29 g, CI 95% −3.60-6.19), and the intraclass correlation coefficient between them was 0.79 (CI 95% 0.71-0.85). For images read by two readers, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.86 (CI 95% 0.78-0.91). Conclusion There were no significant drifts between online and offline left ventricular mass measurements, and reproducibility was similar to that described in previous studies. Central quantitative assessment of echocardiographic studies in reading centers, as performed in the ELSA-Brasil study, is feasible and useful in clinical and epidemiological studies performed in our setting. PMID:25424165

  4. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Ladwig, R; Vigo, A; Fedeli, L M G; Chambless, L E; Bensenor, I; Schmidt, M I; Vidigal, P G; Castilhos, C D; Duncan, B B

    2016-08-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008-2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31-0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60-0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements.

  5. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Ladwig, R.; Vigo, A.; Fedeli, L.M.G.; Chambless, L.E.; Bensenor, I.; Schmidt, M.I.; Vidigal, P.G.; Castilhos, C.D.; Duncan, B.B.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008–2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31–0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60–0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements. PMID:27533768

  6. Reproductive biology of the characid dourado Salminus franciscanus from the São Francisco River, Brasil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Leonardo J A; Prado, Paula S; Arantes, Fabio P; Santiago, Kleber B; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2013-06-01

    The neotropical characid Salminus franciscanus is an economically valuable migratory fish whose populations have been drastically reduced in recent decades due to industrial and economic development in Brasil. To study its reproduction, a total of 283 adult specimens were captured in the Upper São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias dam, Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brasil, from August 2009 to July 2010. The gonadal maturity stages were determined from histological features of the gonads and gonadosomatic index (GSI). Gametogenesis was assessed by light and electron microscopy. For analysis of the oocyte's surface and fecundity, mature females were subjected to hormonal induction and oocyte stripping. Fish in resting (Stage 1) were common in all samplings, ripening/ripe and spawning (Stages 2 and 3) were predominant in October-November and December-January and post-spawning (Stage 4) occurred from December-January extending until April-May. The GSI followed the morphological changes of gonadal maturation, with a peak in October-November, when maximum GSI (7.08 in females and 3.46 in males) was achieved. From scanning electron microscopy, stripped oocytes showed a funnel-shaped micropyle and a simple oocyte surface arrangement, which is typical for non-adhesive eggs. Fecundity ranged from 160 to 440×10(3) oocytes per female and 129 to 175×10(3)oocytes/kg. The results of this study indicate that S. franciscanus reproduces in the Upper São Francisco River from October to January, exhibiting a total spawning pattern, non-adhesive eggs and high fecundity, providing support for aquaculture and conservation biology of this important neotropical characid fish.

  7. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Ladwig, R; Vigo, A; Fedeli, L M G; Chambless, L E; Bensenor, I; Schmidt, M I; Vidigal, P G; Castilhos, C D; Duncan, B B

    2016-01-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008-2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31-0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60-0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements. PMID:27533768

  8. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  9. Factors associated with leisure time physical activity among ELSA-Brasil participants: Ecological model.

    PubMed

    Pitanga, Francisco José Gondim; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Almeida, Maria da Conceição; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Aquino, Estela M L

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of the study was identify the prevalence and factors associated with leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in adult participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The LTPA was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), long version. A hierarchical ecological model was built with the possible factors associated with LTPA distributed across blocks. We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using logistic regression. In men, being more educated, having a high family income, living in environments with conditions and opportunities for PA, being retired and being overweight were positively associated, while current smoking, obesity and abdominal obesity were associated negatively with the LTPA. Among women, being over 60years old, being more educated, having a high family income, living in an environment with conditions and opportunities for PA practice and being retired were positively associated, while being overweight, obese and having abdominal obesity were associated negatively with the LTPA. The proposed ecological model explains the LTPA through the social, physical and personal environment and highlights gender differences in physical activity.

  10. "Farmácia Popular do Brasil" Program: characterization and evolution between 2004 and 2012.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rondineli Mendes; Caetano, Rosangela

    2015-10-01

    The "Farmácia Popular do Brasil" Program (PFPB) aims to improve access to medicines, offering subsidized products. It is structured in an arrangement involving public and private sectors. The paper described the organization and expansion of the PFPB and examined the reference price (RP) of the medicines paid by the government, between 2004 and 2012. It is an exploratory study of quantitative and qualitative approach, developed from the literature review and analysis of public documents. Quantitative data were collected from the Ministry of Health and Electronic System of Citizens Information Services. The PFPB is organized in two delivery models: public owned facilities (Rede Própria) and accredited private retail pharmacies (Aqui Tem Farmácia Popular-ATFP). The ATFP has allowed its own expansion, from 2006. Antihypertensives, antidiabetics and antiasthmatics were exempt from copayment, since 2011. The expansion of the ATFP Program was significant, for facilities and covered municipalities, 750% and 528%, respectively. The RP was reduced by 33.6% on average (ranging from 23-52%) for medicines available since the beginning of the ATFP. The expansion was performed with the actions hitherto unprecedented, as copayment and accreditation of private retail pharmacies.

  11. Improvements in the detection efficiency model for the Brazilian lightning detection network (BrasilDAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naccarato, K. P.; Pinto, O., Jr.

    2009-02-01

    The detection efficiency (DE) is the most important performance gauge of a lightning detection network (LDN). Moreover, the main motivation for evaluating the DE of a LDN is to separate the geographical variations of the CG lightning parameters from the variations regarding the network performance. A review of previous relative DE techniques and simple methods to correct the cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash density maps is presented. In addition, recent improvements in the flash DE model for the Brazilian lightning detection network (BrasilDAT) are discussed. The DE estimated values are based on the sensor individual DE probability functions, which are derived from a large amount of CG stroke data provided by the network considering different distances from the sensor and specific peak current ranges. The new approach provides better results when compared with the previous developments, since the calculation of the sensor DE probability functions neglects the lightning data provided by the minimum number of reporting sensors. Hence it is possible to minimize the unrealistic enhancement of the DE closer to the network boundaries ("border effect") without affecting significantly the performance inside the network. The main result is a more realistic correction of the CG flash density maps, particularly at the outermost network areas, leading to an improvement in the model sensitivity.

  12. Relation of Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms to Coronary Artery Calcium (from the ELSA-Brasil Baseline Data).

    PubMed

    Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Marcio S; Rocco, Priscila T; Pereira, Alexandre C; Barreto, Sandhi M; Brunoni, André R; Goulart, Alessandra C; Blaha, Michael J; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2016-07-15

    Previous studies of the association between symptoms of anxiety or depression and coronary artery calcium (CAC) have produced heterogeneous results. Our aim was to investigate whether psychopathological symptoms were associated with CAC in a cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline. We analyzed data from 4,279 ELSA-Brasil subjects (aged 35 to 74 years) from the São Paulo site without previous cardiovascular disease who underwent CAC score assessment at baseline. Prevalent CAC was defined as a CAC score >0. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R). We built binary logistic regression models to determine whether CIS-R scores, anxiety, or depression were associated with prevalent CAC. Prevalent CAC was found in 1,211 subjects (28.3%). After adjustment for age and gender, a direct association between CIS-R scores and prevalent CAC was revealed (odds ratio for 1-SD increase: 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 to 1.22). This association persisted after multivariate adjustment (odds ratio for 1-SD increase 1.11; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.20). No independent associations were found for specific diagnoses of anxiety or depression and prevalent CAC. In post hoc models, a significant interaction term (p = 0.019) suggested a stronger association in older subjects. In conclusion, psychopathological symptoms were directly associated with coronary atherosclerosis in the ELSA-Brasil baseline in adjusted models, and this association seems to be stronger in older subjects.

  13. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different.

  14. The Characteristics of Americana and Britannica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Dorothy Ethlyn

    1973-01-01

    In this study quantifiable characteristics of encyclopedia articles such as subjects treated, length, illustrations and bibliographies were examined. Random subsamples were analyzed and the findings are presented in twelve tables. (1 reference) (DH)

  15. Hypophosphatemic rickets in rheas (Rhea americana).

    PubMed

    Gröne, A; Swayne, D E; Nagode, L A

    1995-05-01

    Rickets was diagnosed in 11 rheas from four flocks in Ohio. At necropsy, had pliable bones with prominent valgus or varus deformation of the femoral bone and/or the tibiotarsal bone, marked thickening of the metaphyseal plates, and frequent fractures. Histopathologically, bones of rachitic birds showed marked retention of cartilage core within the growth plate, mainly because of a significant lengthening of the hypertrophied zone of the growth plate in relationship to the remaining zones. Feed analysis showed that rachitic birds were fed diets having higher calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) ratios (1.38-4.32) than that of the diet fed to nonrachitic birds from a different flock (0.65 Ca/P ratio). Serum analysis of blood from clinically rachitic birds from the affected flocks revealed a marked hypophosphatemia (3.0-4.7 mg/dl), mild hypocalcemia, and normal 25-(OH)-vitamin D concentrations as compared with values in nonrachitic birds, which had serum phosphorus concentrations of 8.5-8.7 mg/dl. These findings suggest that rickets in growing rheas was associated with marked hypophosphatemia and improper Ca/P ratios.

  16. Physical Activity and Lipid Profile in the ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Raquel Caroline; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Alvim, Sheila; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Fedeli, Ligia Maria Giongo; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity (PA) induces desirable changes in plasma levels of high- and low-density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively) and triglycerides (TG), important risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. However, doubts whether intensity and duration have equivalent benefits remain. Objective To assess the association of PA intensity and duration with HDL, LDL and TG levels. Methods Cross-sectional study with 12,688 participants from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline, who were not on lipid-lowering medication. After adjustment for important covariates, multiple linear regression was used to assess the association of PA intensity and duration with HDL, LDL and TG (natural logarithm) levels. Results Both moderate and vigorous PA and PA practice ≥ 150 min/week were significantly associated with higher HDL and lower TG levels. Vigorous PA was associated with lower LDL only on univariate analysis. After adjustments, moderate and vigorous PA increased mean HDL level by 0.89 mg/dL and 1.71 mg/dL, respectively, and reduced TG geometric mean by 0.98 mg/dL and 0.93 mg/dL, respectively. PA practice ≥ 150 min/week increased mean HDL level by 1.05 mg/dL, and decreased TG geometric mean by 0.98 mg/dL. Conclusion Our findings reinforce the benefits of both PA parameters studied on HDL and TG levels, with a slight advantage for vigorous PA as compared to the recommendation based only on PA duration. PMID:27355470

  17. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35–74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74–0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61–0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11–1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29–1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol—metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference—wine or beer—appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations

  18. Maternal education, anthropometric markers of malnutrition and cognitive function (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The early exposure to poor social and nutritional conditions may influence cognitive function during adult age. However, the relative impact of these factors has not yet been established and they can vary during the course of life. Methods Analysis of data from 12,997 participants (35-64 years) of the baseline exams (2008-2010) of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a cohort of Brazilian civil servants. Four cognitive tests were applied: learning, recall and word recognition; semantic and phonemic verbal fluency; trail-making test version B. The markers of early nutritional and social conditions were maternal educational level, birth weight, and length of trunk and leg. The presence of independent association between every early marker and the poor performance in each cognitive test was investigated by multiple logistic regression, after mutual adjustment and considering the effects of gender, age and participant’s schooling level. The cut off for poor performance was the worst age-specific percentile of the final score distribution for each test. Results After full adjustments, lower maternal education increased the chances of poor performance in all cognitive tests, with a dose-response gradient; low birth-weight was related to poor performance in the trail-making test B (OR = 1.63, 95% IC = 1.29-2.06); and greater trunk length decreased the chances of poor performance in the semantic and phonemic verbal fluency (OR = 0.96, 95% IC = 0.94-0.97) and in the trail-making test B (OR = 0.94, 95% IC = 0.92-0.95). Leg length was not associated with any of the tests examined. The associations found were not modified by the educational attainment of the participants. Conclusions Early exposure to adverse social and nutritional conditions appear detrimental to semantic memory, learning, concentration, executive control and language among adults, independent of adulthood educational achievement. PMID:24989981

  19. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35-74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74-0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61-0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11-1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29-1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol-metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference-wine or beer-appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations extend these

  20. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35-74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74-0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61-0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11-1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29-1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol-metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference-wine or beer-appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations extend these

  1. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Carolina G.; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D. C. B.; Nunes, Maria A. A.; Barreto, Sandhi M.

    2015-01-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34–65 years (n = 13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender. PMID:26035664

  2. [Factor structure validity of the social capital scale used at baseline in the ELSA-Brasil study].

    PubMed

    Souto, Ester Paiva; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi; Chor, Dora; Reichenheim, Michael E; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2016-07-21

    This study aims to analyze the factor structure of the Brazilian version of the Resource Generator (RG) scale, using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Health Study in Adults (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-validation was performed in three random subsamples. Exploratory factor analysis using exploratory structural equation models was conducted in the first two subsamples to diagnose the factor structure, and confirmatory factor analysis was used in the third to corroborate the model defined by the exploratory analyses. Based on the 31 initial items, the model with the best fit included 25 items distributed across three dimensions. They all presented satisfactory convergent validity (values greater than 0.50 for the extracted variance) and precision (values greater than 0.70 for compound reliability). All factor correlations were below 0.85, indicating full discriminative factor validity. The RG scale presents acceptable psychometric properties and can be used in populations with similar characteristics.

  3. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carolina G; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D C B; Nunes, Maria A A; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2015-05-29

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34-65 years (n=13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender.

  4. [Factor structure validity of the social capital scale used at baseline in the ELSA-Brasil study].

    PubMed

    Souto, Ester Paiva; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi; Chor, Dora; Reichenheim, Michael E; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2016-07-21

    This study aims to analyze the factor structure of the Brazilian version of the Resource Generator (RG) scale, using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Health Study in Adults (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-validation was performed in three random subsamples. Exploratory factor analysis using exploratory structural equation models was conducted in the first two subsamples to diagnose the factor structure, and confirmatory factor analysis was used in the third to corroborate the model defined by the exploratory analyses. Based on the 31 initial items, the model with the best fit included 25 items distributed across three dimensions. They all presented satisfactory convergent validity (values greater than 0.50 for the extracted variance) and precision (values greater than 0.70 for compound reliability). All factor correlations were below 0.85, indicating full discriminative factor validity. The RG scale presents acceptable psychometric properties and can be used in populations with similar characteristics. PMID:27462850

  5. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carolina G; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D C B; Nunes, Maria A A; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2015-06-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34-65 years (n=13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender. PMID:26035664

  6. Standardization and reference intervals of platelet volume indices: Insight from the Brazilian longitudinal study of adult health (ELSA-BRASIL).

    PubMed

    Maluf, Chams B; Barreto, Sandhi M; Vidigal, Pedro G

    2015-01-01

    Platelet volume indices (PVI) are associated with hematological and non-hematological diseases, notably cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The establishment of PVI reference intervals (RIs) are essential to evaluate whether these indices are useful in clinical practice. Healthy-associated RIs have not yet been established for the Brazilian population. Here, we determined RIs of PVI for a health adult population, participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health ELSA-Brasil. A total of 580 individuals out of an initial sample of 3115 subjects constituted the healthy reference sample. To be part of the study, individuals had to fulfill the following criteria: blood count within 2 hours of collection, no use of continuous medication, self-rated health as good or very good, no reported diagnosis of diabetes and/or arterial hypertension, not smoking, lack of metabolic syndrome, body mass index (BMI) <30 kg/m(2), and platelet, hemoglobin, and creatinine beyond reference values. The RIs are mean platelet volume (MPV): 8.9-11.8 fL, platelet distribution width (PDW): 9.6-15.3 fL, platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR): 15.6-39.5%. These parameters were not significantly affected by age, gender, smoking, obesity, and alcohol abuse. However, significant differences were found among self-rated race/color groups. Standardization of measurement procedures and the establishment of healthy-associated PVI RIs are essential to be able to support clinical decision-making from laboratorial test results. This study at the baseline of the ELSA Brasil reported herein may contribute to future efforts aiming to evaluate whether PVI values are associated with clinical conditions in the Brazilian population.

  7. Stromatolite laminae (Lagoa Vermelha, Brasil) as archives for reservoir age changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggmann, Sylvie; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Hajdas, Irka

    2016-04-01

    As laminated biogenic or abiogenic sedimentary structures [1], stromatolites record environmental changes along growth profiles, revealing possible changes in reservoir ages due to input of older carbon. A modern stromatolite sample was collected in Lagoa Vermelha (100 km east of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil) an area known for upwelling of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW). 34 samples from a transect cutting the lamination were collected with a hand-driller for standard geochemistry and 14C AMS analyses. Shells collected in 2015 were analysed for estimation of the present-day reservoir age. 14C ages of laminae and the reservoir age were used to apply the age-depth model to the stromatolite transect with the OxCal depositional model (Marine13 calibration curve; [2]). Small-scale changes in the composition of laminae report environmental changes, e.g. upwelling. The well-laminated middle part (laminated boundstone; ca. 4cm) of the stromatolite transect was found to have grown in a short time period of less than 100 years (1163-1210 14C y BP), with four excursions towards older 14C ages (ca. 1200 14C y BP). To detect possible changes of marine 14C, calendar years assuming a stable modern reservoir age were used to simulate atmospheric 14C ages with the southern hemisphere IntCal13 atmospheric calibration curve [3]. The offset between the measured and simulated 14C ages indicates a variability of the reservoir age between -99 and 268 14C y with highest reservoir correction found for the layers with indication of environmental changes (e.g. upwelling). Thus, this simulation confirms the occurrence of older carbon and points out the sensitivity of stromatolites for changing reservoir ages. [1] M.A. Semikhatov, C.D. Gebelein, P. Cloud, S.M. Awramik, W.C. Benmore (1979). Stromatolite morphogenesis - progress and problems. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 19:992-1015. [2] P.J. Reimer, E. Bard, A. Bayliss, J. W. Beck, P. G. Blackwell, C. Bronk Ramsey, C. E. Buck, H. Cheng, R

  8. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF AMERICAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE TRI‑BORDER AREA OF ASSIS BRASIL, ACRE STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    TELES, Carolina Bioni Garcia; MEDEIROS, Jansen Fernandes; dos SANTOS, Ana Paula de Azevedo; de FREITAS, Luís Antônio Rodrigues; KATSURAGAWA, Tony Hiroshi; CANTANHÊDE, Lilian Motta; FERREIRA, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; CAMARG, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In this study, Leishmaniaspecies were identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The epidemiology of patients suspected of having American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the municipality of Assis Brasil, Acre State, located in the Brazil/Peru/Bolivia triborder was also investigated. By PCR, the DNA of Leishmaniawas detected in 100% of the cases (37 samples) and a PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) of the hsp 70gene identified the species in 32 samples: Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (65.6%) , L. (V.) shawi (28.1%) , L. (V.) guyanensis (3.1%) and mixed infection L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (Leishmania) amazonensis (3.1%)This is the first report of L. (V.) shawiand L. (L.) amazonensis in Acre. The two predominant species were found in patients living in urban and rural areas. Most cases were found in males living in rural areas for at least three years and involved in rural work. This suggests, in most cases, a possible transmission of the disease from a rural/forest source, although some patients had not engaged in activities associated with permanence in forestall areas, which indicate a possible sandflies adaptation to the periurban setting. PMID:26422160

  9. Tendências De Teses e Dissertações Sobre Educação em Astronomia No Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Megid Neto, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia, com objetivo de identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: isntituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Pretende-se assim colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica na área. Ao mesmo tempo o estudo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as contribuições dessa produção para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  10. PREVALENCE AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY IN ELDERLY FROM VIÇOSA/MG, BRASIL.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Martinho, Karina; Luiz Araújo Tinôco, Adelson; Queiroz Ribeiro, Andréia

    2015-11-01

    La prevalencia de deficiencia nutricional de vitamina B12 aumenta con la edad y es especialmente común en la población mayor. El objetivo de este estudio consistió en determinar su prevalencia y los factores asociados a esta carencia en mayores no institucionalizados de Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Métodos: estudio poblacional interseccional, realizado para identificar la prevalencia y los factores asociados a deficiencia de vitamina B12 entre la población de mayores en Viçosa (MG). Los datos fueron recopilados desde agosto de 2011 hasta junio de 2012 mediante una encuesta en los hogares y pruebas hematológicas y bioquímicas realizadas en 340 mayores. Resultados: la prevalencia de deficiencia de vitamina B12 en este grupo fue del 17,4% (95% CI, 13,4% - 21,4%). La deficiencia cognitiva se presenta como un factor importante relacionado con la deficiencia de vitamina B12. Conclusiones: el informe actual contribuye a los estudios que destacan ciertos factores que podrían afectar al rendimiento de las personas mayores en su proceso de envejecimiento natural, especialmente cuando estos factores están asociados con deficiencia cognitiva y dan lugar a una discapacidad significativa así como pérdida de calidad de vida. Así, los resultados aquí presentados han servido para aportar un conocimiento más comprensivo sobre la relación entre deficiencia de B12 y su impacto sobre este grupo de población. También han demostrado su relevancia de cara a la planificación de programas e iniciativas de salud pública centrados en este grupo de población.

  11. Reliability of the MacArthur scale of subjective social status - Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status intend to measure the subjective social status using a numbered stepladder image. This study investigated the reliability of the MacArthur scale in a subsample of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Method Three scales were employed using different references: 1) the overall socioeconomic position; 2) the socioeconomic situation of the participant’s closer community; 3) the workplace as a whole. A total of 245 of the ELSA participants from six states were involved. They were interviewed twice by the same person within an interval of seven to fourteen days. The reliability of the scale was assessed with weighted Kappa statistics and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), with their respective 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Kappa values were 0.62(0.58 to 0.64) for the society ladder; 0.58(0.56 to 0.61) for the community-related ladder; and 0.67(0.66 to 0.72) for the work-related ladder. The ICC ranged from 0.75 for the work ladder to 0.64 for the community ladder. These values differed slightly according to the participants’ age, sex and education category. Conclusion The three ladders showed good stability in the test-retest, except the community ladder that showed moderate stability. Because the social structure in Brazil is rapidly changing, future qualitative and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm and understand the construct underlying the MacArthur Scale in the country. PMID:23253581

  12. Factors associated with metabolically healthy status in obesity, overweight, and normal weight at baseline of ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Beleigoli, Alline Maria Rezende; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz P; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Bensenor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo A; Duncan, Bruce B; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2016-07-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate metabolically healthy status (MHS) among participants in obesity, overweight, and normal weight groups and characteristics associated with this phenotype using baseline data of Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The secondary aim was to investigate agreement among 4 different MHS criteria. This cross-sectional study included 14,545 participants aged 35 to 74 years with a small majority (54.1%) being women. Of all participants, 22.7% (n = 3298) were obese, 40.8% (n = 5934) were overweight, and 37.5% (n = 5313) were of normal weight.Socio-demographic, behavioral, and anthropometric factors related to MHS were ascertained. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of associations. We used 4 different criteria separately and in combination to define MHS: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-ATPIII), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and comorbidities, and the agreement between them were evaluated by Cohen-kappa coefficient.MHS was present among 12.0% (n = 396) of obese, 25.5% (n = 1514) of overweight, and 48.6% (n = 2582) of normal weight participants according to the combination of the 4 criteria. The agreement between all the 4 MHS criteria was strong (kappa 0.73 P < 0.001). In final logistic models, MHS was associated with lower age, female sex, lower body mass index (BMI), and weight change from age 20 within all BMI categories.This study showed that, despite differences in prevalence among the 4 criteria, MHS was associated with common characteristics at every BMI category.

  13. Epicardial fat thickness: distribution and association with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome in the ELSA-Brasil study.

    PubMed

    Graeff, Daniela Bertol; Foppa, Murilo; Pires, Julio Cesar Gall; Vigo, Alvaro; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-04-01

    Epicardial fat thickness (EFT) has emerged as a marker of cardiometabolic risk, but its clinical use warrants proper knowledge of its distribution and associations in populations. We aimed to describe the distribution of EFT, its demographic correlates and independent associations with diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome (MS) in free-living Brazilian adults. From the baseline echocardiography of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)-a cohort study of civil servants aged 35-74 years-EFT was measured from a randomly selected sample of 998 participants as the mean of two paraesternal windows obtained at end systole (EFTsyst) and end diastole (EFTdiast). From the 421 individuals free of diabetes, hypertension and MS, we defined EFT reference values and the EFTsyst 75th percentile cut-off. Median EFTsyst was 1.5 (IQR 0-2.6) mm; a large proportion (84 %) had EFTdiast = 0. EFT was higher in women and lower in blacks, and increased with age and BMI. Although EFT was higher in those with diabetes, hypertension, and MS, EFT associations were reduced when adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity, and were non-significant after adjusting for obesity measures. In conclusion, the amount of EFT in this large multiethnic population is smaller than reported in other populations. EFT reference values varied across demographic and clinical variables, EFT associations with cardiometabolic variables being largely explained by age, sex, ethnicity and central obesity. Although EFT can help identify individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk, it will likely have a limited additional role compared to current risk stratification strategies.

  14. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa acerca da Pastoral de DST/Aids da Igreja Católica1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles da; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20442806

  15. Night work is associated with glycemic levels and anthropometric alterations preceding diabetes: Baseline results from ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Silva-Costa, Aline; Rotenberg, Lucia; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2016-01-01

    Night work has been suggested as a risk factor for diabetes. Individuals with high triglyceride levels, high LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol and obesity, especially abdominal obesity, have a greater chance of developing diabetes. The aim of this study was to analyze glycemic levels, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides and the anthropometric alterations that precede diabetes, considering their possible association with nigh work among a non-diabetic population. Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) comprises of 15,105 civil servants (35-74 years old) at baseline (2008-2010). The following parameters were analyzed: serum cholesterol (total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C), triglycerides and glucose drawn from 12-hour fasting blood sample, glycated hemoglobin and 2-hour plasma glucose obtained after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, BMI, hip and waist measurements using standard equipment and techniques. Participants with diabetes, retired workers and day workers with previous experience of night work were excluded. Generalized linear models, a gamma regression model with an identity link function, were performed to test the association of night work with metabolic and anthropometric variables. The study sample consisted of 3918 men and 4935 women; 305 (7.8%) and 379 (7.7%) of the participants were men and women who worked at night, respectively. Among the men, the exposure to night work was associated with an increase in BMI (b-value = 0.542; p = 0.032) and waist circumference (b-value = 1.66; p = 0.014). For women, increased fasting plasma glucose (b-value = 2.278; p < 0.001), glycated hemoglobin (b-value = 0.099, p < 0.001) and 2 hour plasma glucose (b-value = 5.479, p = 0.001) were associated with night work after adjustments. No significant associations between night work and triglycerides, LDL-C, HDL-C, total cholesterol levels or waist-hip ratio were found. The influences of night work on metabolic and anthropometric factors

  16. Night work is associated with glycemic levels and anthropometric alterations preceding diabetes: Baseline results from ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Silva-Costa, Aline; Rotenberg, Lucia; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2016-01-01

    Night work has been suggested as a risk factor for diabetes. Individuals with high triglyceride levels, high LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol and obesity, especially abdominal obesity, have a greater chance of developing diabetes. The aim of this study was to analyze glycemic levels, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides and the anthropometric alterations that precede diabetes, considering their possible association with nigh work among a non-diabetic population. Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) comprises of 15,105 civil servants (35-74 years old) at baseline (2008-2010). The following parameters were analyzed: serum cholesterol (total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C), triglycerides and glucose drawn from 12-hour fasting blood sample, glycated hemoglobin and 2-hour plasma glucose obtained after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, BMI, hip and waist measurements using standard equipment and techniques. Participants with diabetes, retired workers and day workers with previous experience of night work were excluded. Generalized linear models, a gamma regression model with an identity link function, were performed to test the association of night work with metabolic and anthropometric variables. The study sample consisted of 3918 men and 4935 women; 305 (7.8%) and 379 (7.7%) of the participants were men and women who worked at night, respectively. Among the men, the exposure to night work was associated with an increase in BMI (b-value = 0.542; p = 0.032) and waist circumference (b-value = 1.66; p = 0.014). For women, increased fasting plasma glucose (b-value = 2.278; p < 0.001), glycated hemoglobin (b-value = 0.099, p < 0.001) and 2 hour plasma glucose (b-value = 5.479, p = 0.001) were associated with night work after adjustments. No significant associations between night work and triglycerides, LDL-C, HDL-C, total cholesterol levels or waist-hip ratio were found. The influences of night work on metabolic and anthropometric factors

  17. Geology, petrology and geochemistry of the "Americano do Brasil" layered intrusion, central Brazil, and its Ni-Cu sulfide deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    E Silva, Jonas Mota; Ferreira Filho, Cesar Fonseca; Bühn, Bernhard; Dantas, Elton Luiz

    2011-01-01

    The "Americano do Brasil" Complex (ABC) is part of a cluster of coeval synorogenic mafic-ultramafic intrusions emplaced during the Brasiliano/Pan-African Orogenic Cycle in Brazil. The medium-sized ABC consists of interlayered dunite, peridotite, websterite, and gabbronorite. High Fo values of olivine (up to Fo88) and the crystallization sequence of the ABC (Ol + Chr ≥ Ol + Opx + Chr ≥ Cpx + Opx ≥ Opx + Pl + Cpx ≥ Opx + Pl + Cpx + Ilm + Mag) suggest crystallization from tholeiitic high-MgO parental magmas. Light rare earth element (REE)-enriched mantle-normalized REE profiles and ɛNd(T) values of +2.4 for cumulate rocks from the ABC suggest a depleted mantle source for the parental magma. The ABC Ni-Cu sulfide deposit (3.1 Mt at 1.12 wt.% Ni and 1.02 wt.% Cu) consists of three distinctively different orebodies (S1, S2, and G2). The S2 orebody, an unusual occurrence of stratiform massive sulfide hosted by dunite and peridotite in the interior of a layered intrusion, results from sulfides accumulated at the transient base of the magma chamber following a new influx of parental magma. The G2 orebody has an irregular and roughly cylindrical shape, consisting mainly of net-textured sulfides. The G2 orebody is hosted by peridotite and pyroxenite and located stratigraphically below the S1 orebody. S2 and G2 orebodies are characterized by low Cu/Cu + Ni ratios (mainly below 0.4). The S1 orebody, hosted by websterite and gabbronorite in the more fractionated sequence of the ABC, is a cluster of several irregular discontinuous orebodies of Ni-Cu disseminated sulfides. The sulfides of the S1 orebody have high Cu/Cu + Ni ratios (mainly between 0.5 and 0.8) and are highly depleted in PGE. The S1 orebody is interpreted to result from a later event of sulfide segregation in the magma chamber, possibly following the event that originated the G2 orebody. The bulk of δ34S values for sulfides of the ABC orebodies and their host rocks fall in the range of 0 ± 2‰. Higher

  18. Avian tuberculosis and salmonellosis in a whooping crane (Grus americana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroud, R.K.; Thoen, C.O.; Duncan, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The whooping crane has been the subject of intensive scientific study and management because it is an endangered species and has high public interest. Programs have been developed to identify critical habitat, to increase production through captive breeding, and in recent years, to use sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) as surrogate parents in establishing new populations of wild whooping cranes. Only a few reports describing diseases and parasites in wild whooping cranes appear in the literature because opportunities to secure specimens are limited for this rare, protected bird (for review, see Carpenter and Derrickson, In Proc. International Crane Workshop of 1983, Bharatur, India, in press). Avian tuberculosis and concurrent salmonellosis in a wild whooping crane are described in this case report.

  19. Thermoregulation in pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana, Ord) in winter.

    PubMed

    Hébert, J; Lust, A; Fuller, A; Maloney, S K; Mitchell, D; Mitchell, G

    2008-03-01

    Conservation of energy is a prerequisite thermoregulatory strategy for survival in northern hemisphere winters. We have used thermistor/data logger assemblies to measure temperatures in the brain, carotid artery, jugular vein and abdominal cavity, in pronghorn antelope to determine their winter body temperature and to investigate whether the carotid rete has a survival role. Over the study period mean black globe and air temperature were -0.5+/-3.2 degrees C and -2.0+/-3.4 degrees C, respectively, and mean daytime solar radiation was approximately 186 W m(-2). Brain temperature (T(brain), 39.3+/-0.3 degrees C) was higher than carotid blood temperature (T(carotid), 38.5+/-0.4 degrees C), and higher than jugular temperature (T(jugular), 37.9+/-0.7 degrees C). Minimum T(brain) (38.5+/-0.4 degrees C) and T(carotid) (37.8+/-0.2 degrees C) in winter were higher than the minimum T(brain) (37.7+/-0.5 degrees C) and T(carotid) (36.4+/-0.8 degrees C) in summer that we have reported previously. Compared with summer, winter body temperature patterns were characterized by an absence of selective brain cooling (SBC), a higher range of T(brain), a range of T(carotid) that was significantly narrower (1.8 degrees C) than in summer (3.1 degrees C), and changes in T(carotid) and T(brain) that were more highly correlated (r=0.99 in winter vs r=0.83 in summer). These findings suggest that in winter the effects of the carotid rete are reduced, which eliminates SBC and prevents independent regulation of T(brain), thus coupling T(brain) to T(carotid). The net effect is that T(carotid) varies little. A possible consequence is depression of metabolism, with the survival advantage of conservation of energy. These findings also suggest that the carotid rete has wider thermoregulatory effects than its traditional SBC function. PMID:18281337

  20. Polioencephalomalacia-like disease in pronghorns (Antilocapra americana).

    PubMed

    Wobeser, G; Daoust, P Y; Hunt, H M

    1983-07-01

    A disease resembling thiamine-responsive polioencephalomalacia of domestic ruminants is described in four wild pronghorn from Saskatchewan. One animal was found dead, two were recumbent and unable to rise and the fourth was staggering and ataxic. Lesions were confined to the brain and consisted of brain swelling with herniation, symmetrical hemorrhagic foci in the thalamus and brainstem, and laminar necrosis of cortical neurons. All animals had been eating grain prior to their death. Possible pathogenetic mechanisms including changes in rumen microflora resulting in thiamine deficiency, plant and salt intoxication are discussed. PMID:6644922

  1. Thermoregulation in pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana Ord) in the summer.

    PubMed

    Lust, A; Fuller, A; Maloney, S K; Mitchell, D; Mitchell, G

    2007-07-01

    We have used thermistor/data logger assemblies to measure temperatures in the brain, carotid artery, jugular vein and abdominal cavity, and subcutaneously, in five pronghorn antelope over a summer in Wyoming. Globe and air temperature varied by up to approximately 50 degrees C daily during the summer and maximum solar radiation was approximately 900 W m(-2). Brain temperature (38.9+/-0.3 degrees C) was consistently approximately 0.2-0.5 degrees C higher than carotid blood temperature (38.6+/-0.3 degrees C), which was the same as abdominal temperature (38.8+/-0.4 degrees C). Jugular blood temperature (38.0+/-0.4 degrees C) varied, probably because of changes in Respiratory Evaporative Heat Loss (REHL), and was lower than other temperatures. Subcutaneous temperature (38.3+/-0.6 degrees C) varied, probably because of peripheral vasoactivity, but on average was similar to other temperatures. Carotid blood temperature had a circadian/nycthemeral rhythm weakly but significantly (r=0.634) linked to the time of sunrise, of amplitude 0.8+/-0.1 degrees C. There were daily variations of up to 2.3 degrees C in carotid body temperature in individual animals. An average range of carotid blood temperature of 3.1+/-0.4 degrees C over the study period was recorded for the group, which was significantly wider than the average variation in brain temperature (2.3+/-0.6 degrees C). Minimum carotid temperature (36.4+/-0.8 degrees C) was significantly lower than minimum brain temperature (37.7+/-0.5 degrees C), but maximum brain and carotid temperatures were similar. Brain temperature was kept relatively constant by a combination of warming at low carotid temperatures and cooling at high carotid temperatures and so varied less than carotid temperature. This regulation of brain temperature may be the origin of the amplitude of the average variation in carotid temperature found, and may confer a survival advantage. PMID:17601948

  2. Um Olhar sobre "Beleza Americana" (A Look at "American Beauty").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissoto, Maria Luisa

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the film "American Beauty" in light of a reading of Karl Marx. Finds that the film shows the circularity which marks bourgeois society, even though the rhythm of industry and renovation of the society masks it. States that Marx praises the industry, invention, and innovation of the bourgeoisie. (BT)

  3. Pax Americana and the World of Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2004-01-01

    This philosophical essay maps conceptually five logically defensible aims for music education around the world. These are: to develop musical communities; to transform musical traditions; to enrich culture; to benefit society; to ennoble people. Clarifying these aims opens an array of questions for subsequent examination. It also provides…

  4. [Asymmetry of antennal grooming in the cockroach (Periplaneta americana)].

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the key features of antennal grooming of male American cockroaches in neutral circumstances. It was shown for the first time that the right antenna was cleaned significantly more often than the left one, which indicates the presence of functional asymmetry of antennal grooming in this insect species. At the same time, no statistically significant asymmetry was found for grooming of antennal bases and legs. Morphological asymmetries of antennae and legs and/or brain lateralization are the plausible sources of observed behavioral asymmetry in antennal grooming.

  5. Extracts of Agave americana inhibit aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxigenic fungi invade crops prior to harvest as well as during storage and produce harmful, even carcinogenic toxins such as aflatoxins. Since consumers demand safe commodities, and due to enhanced public awareness of the dangers of many synthetic fungicides, the importance of investigating alterna...

  6. Negative life events and migraine: a cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stress is a typical migraine trigger. However, the impact of negative life events on migraine activity is poorly studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between negative life events and migraine using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline assessment. Methods ELSA-Brasil is a multicenter cohort study conducted in six Brazilian cities. Baseline assessment included validated questionnaires for headache classification and the occurrence of five pre-specified negative life events (financial hardship, hospitalization other than for childbirth, death of a close relative, robbery and end of a love relationship), focusing on a 12-month period before evaluation. We built crude and adjusted logistic regression models to study the association between the occurrences of negative life events and migraine diagnosis and activity. Results We included 4,409 individuals with migraine and 4,457 participants without headache (reference). After adjustment for age, sex, race, income and educational level, we found that the occurrence of a negative life event (Odds ratio = 1.31; 95% confidence interval = 1.19 – 1.45) was associated with migraine. However, after stratifying with subgroup analyses, only financial hardship (Odds ratio = 1.65; 95% confidence interval = 1.47 – 1.87) and hospitalization (Odds ratio = 1.47; 95% confidence interval = 1.25 – 1.72) were independently associated with migraine. Further adjustment for a current major depression episode and report of religious activity did not significantly change the results. Considering migraine frequency as (a) less than once per month, (b) once per month to once per week, or (c) more than once per week, financial hardship and hospitalization remained significantly associated with migraine in all episode frequency strata, with higher odds ratios for higher frequencies in adjusted models. We also observed a significant

  7. HIV Infection Is Not Associated with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the INI/ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Grinsztejn, Beatriz; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M.; Griep, Rosane Härter; Lotufo, Paulo; Bensenor, Isabela; Mill, José G.; Moreira, Rodrigo de C.; Moreira, Ronaldo I.; Friedman, Ruth K.; Santini-Oliveira, Marilia; Cardoso, Sandra W.; Veloso, Valdiléa G.; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as an early marker of atherosclerotic disease in the general population. Recently its role among HIV-infected patients has been questioned. To date, no Brazilian study has compared cIMT in respect to HIV status. Methods We compared data from 535 patients actively followed in a prospective cohort in Rio de Janeiro (HIV group); 88 HIV-negative individuals who were nominated by patients (friend controls–FCs); and 10,943 participants of the ELSA-Brasil study. Linear regression models were used to study associations of the 3 groups and several covariables with cIMT. Propensity scores weighting (PSW) were also employed to balance data. Results Median thickness in mm (IQR) were 0.54 (0.49,0.62); 0.58 (0.52,0.68); and 0.57 (0.49,0.70), HIV, FCs and ELSA-Brasil groups, respectively (p-value<0.001). The best linear model chosen did not include the group variables, after adjusting for all the variables chosen, showing no difference of cIMT across groups. Similar results were obtained with PSW. Several traditional CVD risk factors were also significantly associated with cIMT: female gender, higher education and higher HDL were negatively associated while risk factors were older age, current/former smoker, AMI/stroke family history, CVD history, hypertension, DM, higher BMI and total cholesterol. Conclusions We show for the first time in a middle-income setting that cIMT, is not different in HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro compared with 2 different groups of non-HIV-infected individuals. Traditional CVD risk factors are associated with this outcome. Our results point out that high standards of care and prevention for CVD risk factors should always be sought both in the HIV-infected and non-infected populations to prevent CVD-related events. PMID:27391355

  8. Academic tutorship of the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors to Brazil) Project in Santa Catarina: the ethical-political viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rita de Cássia Gabrielli Souza; Gripa, Denis William; Prospero, Elisete Navas Sanches; Ros, Marco Aurélio da

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to identify the fundamentals that drive the academic tutorship of the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors for Brazil) project in Santa Catarina, based on the unit of analysis entitled values achieved. It is an exploratory and comprehensive study carried out in 2015, with tutors of the State of Santa Catarina, decentralized reference professionals of the Education and Health Ministries, and key reference professionals of the Education Ministry. Focus groups were used as the instrument for collection of data, through semi-structured interview. Based on the category Emergency care as a force of innovation in the Mais Médicos Program, the analysis was conducted from an ethical-political approach. Three fundamentals emerged: 'Putting out fires', 'Qualification of the Project', and 'the procedural point of view'. It was concluded that academic tutorship of the productive activities of doctors in emergency care is not an isolated pedagogical approach, since it is a part and a consequence of the historic development of the theory and of the practice. The activity corresponds, dialectically, to movements of rupture, resistance, emancipation and also requires collective reflection about the values chosen and achieved in the acts of decision. PMID:27653064

  9. Participation of small municipalities in the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors to Brazil) Program in the macro-region of Northern Paraná.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Fernanda de Freitas; Mattos, Luis Fernando Abucarub de; Oliveira, Emmeline Bernardes Duarte de; Domingos, Carolina Milena; Okamura, Carlos Takeo; Carvalho, Brígida Gimenez; Nunes, Elisabete de Fátima Polo de Almeida

    2016-09-01

    Doctor shortage is a constant problem in smaller cities and towns, which tend to be more vulnerable from a social and economic point of view, and located in geographically isolated areas. The goal of this study was to establish the share and characteristics of the small cities and towns in the macro-region of northern Paraná that subscribed to the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (PMMB) program. This is a quantitative study of 82 cities and towns using primary and secondary data. Results show that only a few of them (6.1%) had any adherence criteria, which was not an impediment for other cities and towns (75%) to adhere to the project. Cities and towns with over five thousand inhabitants, lower municipal HDI (Human Development Index), some adherence criteria and more geographically isolated, either from the main city in the region or the closest large or mid-sized city, tended to adhere to the PMMB. It is undeniable that the PMMB significantly reduced the uneven distribution of doctors in Brazil and the study region. However, the sustainability of this policy is linked to addressing other remaining challenges in the SUS system.

  10. Academic tutorship of the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors to Brazil) Project in Santa Catarina: the ethical-political viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rita de Cássia Gabrielli Souza; Gripa, Denis William; Prospero, Elisete Navas Sanches; Ros, Marco Aurélio da

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to identify the fundamentals that drive the academic tutorship of the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors for Brazil) project in Santa Catarina, based on the unit of analysis entitled values achieved. It is an exploratory and comprehensive study carried out in 2015, with tutors of the State of Santa Catarina, decentralized reference professionals of the Education and Health Ministries, and key reference professionals of the Education Ministry. Focus groups were used as the instrument for collection of data, through semi-structured interview. Based on the category Emergency care as a force of innovation in the Mais Médicos Program, the analysis was conducted from an ethical-political approach. Three fundamentals emerged: 'Putting out fires', 'Qualification of the Project', and 'the procedural point of view'. It was concluded that academic tutorship of the productive activities of doctors in emergency care is not an isolated pedagogical approach, since it is a part and a consequence of the historic development of the theory and of the practice. The activity corresponds, dialectically, to movements of rupture, resistance, emancipation and also requires collective reflection about the values chosen and achieved in the acts of decision.

  11. Serum Uric Acid and Prehypertension Among Adults Free of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes: Baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Baena, Cristina P; Santos, Itamar S; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2016-02-01

    The association between serum uric acid (SUA) and prehypertension was evaluated in a racially admixed sample of civil servants aged 35 to 74 years, enrolled (2008-2010) in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Health (ELSA-Brasil). Of the 15 105 patients who enrolled in the study, we analyzed 3412 after excluding those who reported previous cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, or hypertension; were heavy drinkers; or had a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m(2). Among the men, logistic regression, adjusted for age, race, income, birth weight, salt intake, insulin resistance, BMI, and renal function revealed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of prehypertension from the bottom quartile (referent) to the top quartile of SUA levels as follows: 0.84 (95% CI, 0.61-1.38), 0.97 (0.71-1.34) and 1.44 (1.04-2.0; P for trend .01). Analyzing for 1-standard deviation of change in SUA, the ORs were 1.19 (1.06-1.32). This association persisted in the subgroup analysis consisting of patients who were white, overweight, with a high salt intake but with normal renal function, and without metabolic syndrome. No association was found among women. In conclusion, SUA levels were associated with prehypertension among men.

  12. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Santos, Ana Paula; Campos, Rhanderson Gardinali; Guimarães, Andréia Silva; Araújo, Thiago Santos de; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2016-06-01

    Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children's conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother's height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother's characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon.

  13. Participation of small municipalities in the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors to Brazil) Program in the macro-region of Northern Paraná.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Fernanda de Freitas; Mattos, Luis Fernando Abucarub de; Oliveira, Emmeline Bernardes Duarte de; Domingos, Carolina Milena; Okamura, Carlos Takeo; Carvalho, Brígida Gimenez; Nunes, Elisabete de Fátima Polo de Almeida

    2016-09-01

    Doctor shortage is a constant problem in smaller cities and towns, which tend to be more vulnerable from a social and economic point of view, and located in geographically isolated areas. The goal of this study was to establish the share and characteristics of the small cities and towns in the macro-region of northern Paraná that subscribed to the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (PMMB) program. This is a quantitative study of 82 cities and towns using primary and secondary data. Results show that only a few of them (6.1%) had any adherence criteria, which was not an impediment for other cities and towns (75%) to adhere to the project. Cities and towns with over five thousand inhabitants, lower municipal HDI (Human Development Index), some adherence criteria and more geographically isolated, either from the main city in the region or the closest large or mid-sized city, tended to adhere to the PMMB. It is undeniable that the PMMB significantly reduced the uneven distribution of doctors in Brazil and the study region. However, the sustainability of this policy is linked to addressing other remaining challenges in the SUS system. PMID:27653075

  14. Serum Uric Acid and Prehypertension Among Adults Free of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes: Baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Baena, Cristina P; Santos, Itamar S; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2016-02-01

    The association between serum uric acid (SUA) and prehypertension was evaluated in a racially admixed sample of civil servants aged 35 to 74 years, enrolled (2008-2010) in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Health (ELSA-Brasil). Of the 15 105 patients who enrolled in the study, we analyzed 3412 after excluding those who reported previous cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, or hypertension; were heavy drinkers; or had a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m(2). Among the men, logistic regression, adjusted for age, race, income, birth weight, salt intake, insulin resistance, BMI, and renal function revealed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of prehypertension from the bottom quartile (referent) to the top quartile of SUA levels as follows: 0.84 (95% CI, 0.61-1.38), 0.97 (0.71-1.34) and 1.44 (1.04-2.0; P for trend .01). Analyzing for 1-standard deviation of change in SUA, the ORs were 1.19 (1.06-1.32). This association persisted in the subgroup analysis consisting of patients who were white, overweight, with a high salt intake but with normal renal function, and without metabolic syndrome. No association was found among women. In conclusion, SUA levels were associated with prehypertension among men. PMID:25972396

  15. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Santos, Ana Paula; Campos, Rhanderson Gardinali; Guimarães, Andréia Silva; Araújo, Thiago Santos de; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2016-06-01

    Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children's conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother's height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother's characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:27383358

  16. Controls on the seasonality of photosynthesis across the Amazon basin -A cross-site analysis of eddy flux tower measurements from the Brasil flux network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Saleska, S. R.; Da Rocha, H. R.

    2009-04-01

    The Amazon Basin is categorized as a terrestrial biogeochemical "hotspot" where climate change and deforestation can trigger substantial changes on atmospheric CO. However, model skill at predicting seasonality of photosynthetic metabolism and ecosystem productivity in the Amazon is limited. To enhance our understanding of these processes, we investigated the seasonal and spatial patterns of Amazonian forest photosynthetic activity by integrating data from a network of ground-based eddy flux towers in Brazil established as part of the ‘Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia' project. We present the results of a simple model of leaf-flush for two central Amazon BrasilFlux sites, based on the eddy covariance estimates of canopy photosynthetic capacity (Pc) and measured canopy structure parameters. We found that in contrast to studies of Amazon evapotranspiration, which is highly correlated with available energy, Amazon ecosystem photosynthetic flux surprisingly showed no simple relationship with measures of available energy. We hypothesize that the seasonality of Amazon photosynthesis is controlled by the interaction of adaptive mechanisms (which biologically determine photosynthetic capacity through leaf flush and litter fall seasonality) and sunlight availability (which determines the fraction of photosynthetic capacity utilized). Equatorial climates advantage vegetation that can grow leaves in the dry season, when surface solar radiation peaks, but southerly sites may not because of reduced seasonality in surface radiation.

  17. DEZ ANOS DE EXPERIÊNCIA DO COMITÊ DE ÉTICA EM PESQUISA DA SECRETARIA DE SAÚDE DO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita C. G.; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é relatar a experiência do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde do Distrito Federal (CEP/SES/DF) Brasil, durante o período de 10 anos a partir de sua fundação. Trata-se de uma avaliação descritiva e documental, na modalidade estudo de caso, utilizando-se a totalidade de projetos protocolados no CEP/SES/DF (N° 052/08) nesse período. As pendências mais freqüentes dos projetos foram: termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido (30%), folha de rosto (25%), metodologia (20%), curriculum vitae (12%), planilha de orçamento (9%), outros (4%). O relato das atividades do CEP/SES/DF no período de 10 anos revelou, através de sua produtividade, a legitimidade do processo de análise ética dos protocolos visando à proteção dos participantes da pesquisa. PMID:19888441

  18. Acute suicidal ideation in middle-aged adults from Brazil. Results from the baseline data of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Brunoni, André R; Nunes, Maria A; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2015-02-28

    Suicidal ideation represents an important burden worldwide. However, little is known about it in low-/middle-income countries. We investigated this issue in a large cross-sectional of Brazilian civil servants (ELSA-Brasil, the Brazilian Health Longitudinal Study, n=15,105). Logistic univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the strength of association (odds ratio, OR) between clinical and sociodemographic variables with acute life-weariness (tiredness of life) and suicidal thoughts. The presence of major depressive disorder (MDD), common mental disorders (CMDs), stressful life-events (SLEs) and poor self-perceived physical health was also collected. MDD and CMDs were strongly associated with suicidal ideation in univariate and multivariate analyses. For life-weariness thoughts, a modest, consistent association was found for female gender, being single, non-White ethnicity and poor education. SLEs and poor self-perceived physical health were also associated with suicidal ideation. Espiritism-Kardecism, but not other religions or Atheism/Agnosticism, was associated with lower rates of life-weariness and suicidal thoughts. To conclude, suicidal ideation does not differ in Brazil compared to developed countries, being primarily associated with psychiatric disorders and, to a lesser but significant extent, to social disadvantage, SLEs, poor self-perceived health and being single.

  19. Relations of Digital Vascular Function, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Arterial Stiffness: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA‐Brasil) Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Brant, Luisa C. C.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; Barreto, Sandhi M.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Ribeiro, Antonio L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vascular dysfunction is an early expression of atherosclerosis and predicts cardiovascular (CV) events. Peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) evaluates basal pulse amplitude (BPA), endothelial function (PAT ratio), and wave reflection (PAT‐AIx) in the digital microvessels. In Brazilian adults, we investigated the correlations of PAT responses to CV risk factors and to carotid‐femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness. Methods and Results In a cross‐sectional study, 1535 participants of the ELSA‐Brasil cohort underwent PAT testing (52±9 years; 44% women). In multivariable analyses, more‐impaired BPA and PAT ratios were associated with male sex, higher body mass index (BMI), and total cholesterol/high‐density lipoprotein. Higher age and triglycerides were related to higher BPA, whereas lower systolic blood pressure, hypertension (HTN) treatment, and prevalent CV disease (CVD) were associated with lower PAT ratio. PAT‐AIx correlated positively with female sex, advancing age, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and smoking and inversely to heart rate, height, BMI, and prevalent CVD. Black race was associated with lower BPA, higher PAT ratio, and PAT‐AIx. Microvessel vasodilator function was not associated with PWV. Higher PAT‐AIx was modestly correlated to higher PWV and PAT ratio and inversely correlated to BPA. Conclusion Metabolic risk factors are related to impaired microvessel vasodilator function in Brazil. However, in contrast to studies from the United States, black race was not associated with an impaired microvessel vasodilator response, implying that vascular function may vary by race across populations. PAT‐AIx relates to HTN, may be a valid measure of wave reflection, and provides distinct information from arterial stiffness. PMID:25510401

  20. Earlier age at menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in Brazilian adults: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Early menarche has been linked to higher risk of type 2 diabetes in Western and Asian societies, yet whether age at menarche is associated with diabetes in Latin America, where puberty and diabetes may have different life courses, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk in Brazilian adults. Methods We used data from 8,075 women aged 35-74 years in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) who had complete information on age at menarche, diabetes status, and covariates. Diabetes was defined based on self-reported physician diagnosis, medication use, and laboratory variables (fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, and glycated hemoglobin). Poisson regression was used to generate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Menarche onset < 11 years [vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher risk of diabetes (RR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, maternal education, maternal and paternal diabetes, and birth weight. This persisted after further control for BMI at age 20 years and relative leg length. Additionally, among those not taking diabetes medications, earlier menarche [<11 years vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher % glycated hemoglobin (p < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.003), waist circumference (p < 0.001), and BMI measured at baseline exam (p < 0.001). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with greater risk for adult diabetes and cardiometabolic disease in the Brazilian context. PMID:24438044

  1. Gender, race and socioeconomic influence on diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Olmos, R.D.; de Figueiredo, R.C.; Aquino, E.M.; Lotufo, P.A.; Bensenor, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid diseases are common, and use of levothyroxine is increasing worldwide. We investigated the influence of gender, race and socioeconomic status on the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort study of civil servants (35-74 years of age) from six Brazilian cities. Diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction was by thyrotropin (TSH), and free thyroxine (FT4) if TSH was altered, and the use of specific medications. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed using overt hyperthyroidism/hypothyroidism and levothyroxine use as dependent variables and sociodemographic characteristics as independent variables. The frequencies of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism were 0.7 and 7.4%, respectively. Using whites as the reference ethnicity, brown, and black race were protective for overt hypothyroidism (OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.64-0.89, and OR=0.53, 95%CI=0.43-0.67, respectively, and black race was associated with overt hyperthyroidism (OR=1.82, 95%CI=1.06-3.11). Frequency of hypothyroidism treatment was higher in women, browns, highly educated participants and those with high net family incomes. After multivariate adjustment, levothyroxine use was associated with female gender (OR=6.06, 95%CI=3.19-11.49) and high net family income (OR=3.23, 95%CI=1.02-10.23). Frequency of hyperthyroidism treatment was higher in older than in younger individuals. Sociodemographic factors strongly influenced the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders, including the use of levothyroxine. PMID:26108100

  2. Gender, race and socioeconomic influence on diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Olmos, R D; Figueiredo, R C de; Aquino, E M; Lotufo, P A; Bensenor, I M

    2015-08-01

    Thyroid diseases are common, and use of levothyroxine is increasing worldwide. We investigated the influence of gender, race and socioeconomic status on the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort study of civil servants (35-74 years of age) from six Brazilian cities. Diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction was by thyrotropin (TSH), and free thyroxine (FT4) if TSH was altered, and the use of specific medications. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed using overt hyperthyroidism/hypothyroidism and levothyroxine use as dependent variables and sociodemographic characteristics as independent variables. The frequencies of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism were 0.7 and 7.4%, respectively. Using whites as the reference ethnicity, brown, and black race were protective for overt hypothyroidism (OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.64-0.89, and OR=0.53, 95%CI=0.43-0.67, respectively, and black race was associated with overt hyperthyroidism (OR=1.82, 95%CI=1.06-3.11). Frequency of hypothyroidism treatment was higher in women, browns, highly educated participants and those with high net family incomes. After multivariate adjustment, levothyroxine use was associated with female gender (OR=6.06, 95%CI=3.19-11.49) and high net family income (OR=3.23, 95%CI=1.02-10.23). Frequency of hyperthyroidism treatment was higher in older than in younger individuals. Sociodemographic factors strongly influenced the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders, including the use of levothyroxine.

  3. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Influence of Socioeconomic Variables on Control of High Blood Pressure: Results of the ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Chor, Dóra; Pinho Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Sá Carvalho, Marilia; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Andrade Lotufo, Paulo; Araújo Nobre, Aline; de Aquino, Estela Mota Lima Leão; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Griep, Rosane Härter; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Passos, Valéria Maria de Azeredo; Benseñor, Isabela Judith Martins; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Mill, José Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure (HBP) is the leading risk factor for years of life lost in Brazil. Factors associated with HBP awareness, treatment and control need to be understood better. Our aim is to estimate prevalence, awareness, and types of anti-hypertensive treatment and to investigate the association of HBP control with social position. Data of 15,103 (54% female) civil servants in six Brazilian state capitals collected at the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline (2008-2010) were used to estimate prevalence and cross-sectional association of HBP control with education, per capita family income and self-reported race, using multiple logistic regression. Blood pressure was measured by the oscillometric method. 35.8% were classified as presenting HBP; 76.8% of these used anti-hypertensive medication. Women were more aware than men (84.8% v. 75.8%) and more often using medication (83.1% v. 70.7%). Adjusted HBP prevalence was, in ascending order, Whites (30.3%), Browns (38.2%) and Blacks (49.3%). The therapeutic schemes most used were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, in isolation (12.4%) or combined with diuretics (13.3%). Among those in drug treatment, controlled blood pressure was more likely in the (postgraduate) higher education group than among participants with less than secondary school education (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.14–1.28), and among Asian (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.12–1.32) and ‘Whites (PR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.12–1.26) compared to Blacks. Socioeconomic and racial inequality—as measured by different indicators—are strongly associated with HBP control, beyond the expected influence of health services access. PMID:26102079

  4. Coffee Consumption, Newly Diagnosed Diabetes, and Other Alterations in Glucose Homeostasis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Yarmolinsky, James; Mueller, Noel T.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Bisi Molina, Maria del Carmen; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Observational studies have reported fairly consistent inverse associations between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, but this association has been little investigated with regard to lesser degrees of hyperglycemia and other alterations in glucose homeostasis. Additionally, the association between coffee consumption and diabetes has been rarely investigated in South American populations. We examined the cross-sectional relationships of coffee intake with newly diagnosed diabetes and measures of glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, in a large Brazilian cohort of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods We used baseline data from 12,586 participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes. Analysis of covariance was used to assess coffee intake in relation to two-hour glucose from an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fasting and –2-hour postload insulin and measures of insulin sensitivity. Results We found an inverse association between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes, after adjusting for multiple covariates [23% and 26% lower odds of diabetes for those consuming coffee 2–3 and >3 times per day, respectively, compared to those reporting never or almost never consuming coffee, (p = .02)]. An inverse association was also found for 2-hour postload glucose [Never/almost never: 7.57 mmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 7.48 mmol/L, 2-3 times/day: 7.22 mmol/L, >3 times/day: 7.12 mol/L, p<0.0001] but not with fasting glucose concentrations (p = 0.07). Coffee was additionally associated with 2-hour postload insulin [Never/almost never: 287.2 pmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 280.1 pmol/L, 2–3 times/day: 275.3 pmol/L, >3 times/day: 262.2 pmol/L, p = 0.0005) but not with fasting insulin concentrations (p = .58). Conclusion Our present study provides

  5. Efectos combinados de la ampliación de la atención primaria de salud y de las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo sobre la mortalidad infantil en Brasil, 1998–2010*

    PubMed Central

    Guanais, Frederico C.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Examiné los efectos combinados del acceso a la atención primaria mediante el Programa de Salud Familiar (PSF) y las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo del Programa Bolsa Familia (PBF) sobre la mortalidad infantil posneonatal (MIPN) en Brasil. Métodos. Empleé un análisis ecológico longitudinal usando datos en panel de 4 583 municipios brasileños de 1998 al 2010, con 54 253 observaciones en total. Estimé modelos de regresión de efectos fijos por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios, con la tasa de MIPN como la variable dependiente y el PSF, el PBF y sus interacciones como las principales variables independientes de interés. Resultados. La asociación de una mayor cobertura del PSF con una menor tasa de MIPN se volvió más fuerte conforme aumentaba la cobertura del PBF. En los promedios de todas las demás variables, cuando la cobertura de PBF era 25%, la MIPN predicha fue 5,24 (intervalo de confianza [IC] de 95% = 4,95, 5,53) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 3,54 (IC de 95% = 2,77, 4,31) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Cuando la cobertura del PBF era de 60%, la MIPN predicha fue 4,65 (IC de 95% = 4,36, 4,94) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 1,38 (IC de 95% = 0,88, 1,89) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Conclusiones. El efecto del PSF depende de la ampliación del PBF. Para las poblaciones empobrecidas y subatendidas, la combinación de intervenciones tanto del lado de la oferta como del lado de la demanda podría ser necesaria para mejorar los resultados en salud.

  6. Presentation of the Multimédia Game "Geolover" Concept, to Educational Enchancement of the Geolocical Heritage of the Following Regions: "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal (Portugal) and Açores (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, João; Gomes, Ana; Alfama, Vera; Oliveira, Sirlene; Pinharandas, Carlos; Fonseca, Pedro; Campos, José; Nobre, José

    2013-04-01

    "Geolover" - Presentation of the multimédia game concept, to educational enchancement of the geolocical heritage of the following regions: : "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal and Açores (Portugal). "Geolover" is a multitouch game, played by four players simultaneously, identified by 4 mascots and using as sceneries, the four regions landscapes, aimed to the young people with ages between 8 and 12 years old. The main objective is value the geological heritage of the Ilha do Fogo (Cabo Verde), Seridó in State of Rio Grande do Norte (Brasil) , Sabugal in Beira Alta province (Portugal) and Arquipélago dos Açores (Portuguese autonomous region). These regions have a great geological heritage like volcanology, plutonic rocks, sedimentar formations, metamorphic, paleontologic, mineralogic, geomorphologic, hydric and mining resources. Such heritage is being used in the different regions has base of studies to senior scientists and were used to great scientific researches. The diversified and distinguished cultural heritage of these four regions is referenced and it's a value to the union of the students from these three continents, with the Portuguese language as communication tool. The variety of the geological wealth and cultural of these regions, results in the common objective of their valuing like Geoparks. His creation on these three regions is a strategy with a great relevance to the socio-economic development. With the creation of this game, we promote the union of these 3 countries from these three continents, the universal values of the heritage richness that are offered by our planet.

  7. How brasil grows motor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, V.; Trindade, S.C.; Branco, J.R.C.

    1981-03-01

    The general background in technical, economic, and political terms is discussed, along with the experience of using alcohol in automobiles. Since 1973 a concerted effort has been made to utilize various crops for the production of alcohol. The disposal of stillage is considered. 10 refs.

  8. California Federal Savings and Loan Association v. Guerra, 13 January 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    The plaintiff employer and other similar employers challenged the constitutionality of a California law that required employers to provide female employees with up to four months unpaid pregnancy leave with reinstatement in the same or a substantially similar job. They claimed that the law was preempted by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 because the 1964 Act, as amended by the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978, required absolute neutrality in the treatment of pregnant employees with respect to other employees. Their position was that the California law discriminated in favor of pregnant employees. The Court rejected their claim. It held that the Pregnancy Discrimination Act was "a floor beneath which pregnancy disability benefits may not drop--not a ceiling above which they may not rise," and that the California law shared a common goal with the federal law of providing women with full rights in the workforce without denying them the right to full participation in family life. It ruled that there was nothing in the law that prevented employers from complying with the law and Title VII.

  9. Découverte d'une mégafaune holocène à la Toca do Serrote do Artur (aire archéologique de São Raimundo Nonato, Piauî, Brésil). A gruta do Serrote do Artur (área arqueológica de São Raimundo Nonato, Piaúi, Brasil): dataçoes holocênicas para megafáuna de mamíferos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, Martine; Guérin, Claude; Parenti, Fabio

    1999-09-01

    The cave of Toca do Serrote do Artur (São Raimundo Nonato Archaeological Area, southeastern Piauí, Brazil) has yielded a Mammalian community constituted of Dasypus septemcinctus, Propraopus cf. sulcatus, Hoplophorus euphractus, Glyptodon clavipes, Conepatus sp., Panthera onca, Equus neogaeus, Dicotyles tajacu, Tayassu pecari, Palaeolama major, Mazama guazoubira, Mazama americana and a large Cervid. In comparison with the Mammalian fauna of the other sites from the same area, such a list shows a comparatively reduced biodiversity together with the presence of rare ( Hoplophorus, Conepatus) or unknown ( Propraopus, Palaeolama major) taxa. Explanation lies in the more recent age of the fossiliferous layers, probably Lower Holocene, as demonstrated by two 14C dating of 8 490 ± 120 BP and 6 890 ± 60 BP of the highest one. Moreover, that fauna shows the late survival of some genera ( Propraopus, Hoplophorus, Glyptodon, Equus, Palaeolama) together with climatic modifications related to the Pleistocene-Holocene transition.

  10. The association between mood and anxiety disorders, and coronary heart disease in Brazil: a cross-sectional analysis on the Brazilian longitudinal study of adult health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Andrew H.; Brunoni, Andre R.; Nunes, Maria A.; Santos, Itamar S.; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Associations between major depressive disorder (MDD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) have been established, and these associations increase risk of future morbidity and mortality. Prior research has been carried out in high-income countries. Here we examine associations between the mood and anxiety disorders, and CHD in a large cohort at baseline from Brazil, a country facing a variety of challenges that may affect these associations. Methods: Participants included 15,105 civil servants aged 35 to 74 at baseline (2008–2010) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). CHD (N = 721) included self-reported angina pectoris (n = 305), myocardial infarction (n = 259) and coronary revascularization (n = 239). Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate odds ratios and confidence intervals. Results: Major findings indicate that comorbid MDD and anxiety disorders (n = 434) are associated with a threefold increase in CHD, MDD alone (n = 170) with a twofold increase in CHD, while generalized anxiety disorder alone (n = 1,394) and mixed anxiety and depression disorder (n = 1,844) – symptoms present, but diagnostic threshold not reached – are associated with a 1.5-fold increase in CHD, after full adjustment for covariates. Conclusion: The association with CHD is greatest in those with psychiatric comorbidity, while associations were also observed in MDD and generalized anxiety disorder without comorbidity. While findings are limited by the cross-sectional design of the study, given the known risks associated with comorbidity of the mood and anxiety disorders with CHD, findings reinforce the importance of comprehensive health assessment in Brazil. PMID:25762963

  11. Life Course Socioeconomic Position and C-Reactive Protein: Mediating Role of Health-Risk Behaviors and Metabolic Alterations. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Camelo, Lidyane V.; Giatti, Luana; Neves, Jorge Alexandre Barbosa; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Chor, Dóra; Griep, Rosane Härter; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Kawachi, Ichiro; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation has been postulated to be one mediating mechanism explaining the association between low socioeconomic position (SEP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We sought to examine the association between life course SEP and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in adulthood, and to evaluate the extent to which health-risk behaviors and metabolic alterations mediate this association. Additionally, we explored the possible modifying influence of gender. Methods and Findings Our analytical sample comprised 13,371 participants from ELSA-Brasil baseline, a multicenter prospective cohort study of civil servants. SEP during childhood, young adulthood, and adulthood were considered. The potential mediators between life course SEP and CRP included clusters of health-risk behaviors (smoking, low leisure time physical activity, excessive alcohol consumption), and metabolic alterations (obesity, hypertension, low HDL, hypertriglyceridemia, and diabetes). Linear regression models were performed and structural equation modeling was used to evaluate mediation. Although lower childhood SEP was associated with higher levels of CRP in adult life, this association was not independent of adulthood SEP. However, CRP increased linearly with increasing number of unfavorable social circumstances during the life course (p trend <0.001). The metabolic alterations were the most important mediator between cumulative SEP and CRP. This mediation path accounted for 49.5% of the total effect of cumulative SEP on CRP among women, but only 20.2% among men. In consequence, the portion of the total effect of cumulative SEP on CRP that was mediated by risk behaviors and metabolic alterations was higher among women (55.4%) than among men (36.8%). Conclusions Cumulative SEP across life span was associated with elevated systemic inflammation in adulthood. Although health-risk behaviors and metabolic alterations were important mediators of this association, a sizable fraction of this

  12. Mycosis inhibits cannibalism by Melanoplus sanguinipes, M. differentialis, Schistocerca americana, and Anabrus simplex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cannibalism is common among the Acrididae and the Mormon cricket, Anabrus simplex, a tettigonid. These behaviors have been proposed as mechanisms for the horizontal transmission of Microsporida and entomopathogenic fungi. After anecdotal observations that Melanoplus sanguinipes and A. simplex did ...

  13. Greater rhea (Rhea americana) external morphology at different stages of embryonic and fetal development.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Hatawa Melo; Sousa, Renata Patrícia; Bezerra, Dayseanny Oliveira; Olivindo, Rodrigo Fernando Gomes; das Neves Diniz, Anaemilia; de Oliveira, Sâmia Clara; Feitosa, Matheus Levi Tajra; de Moura Fortes, Eunice Anita; Ferraz, Maíra Soares; de Carvalho, Yulla Klinger Pereira; de Menezes, Danilo José Ayres; de Carvalho, Maria Acelina Martins

    2015-11-01

    Knowledge of wild species embryonic development is important for their maintenance in captivity or the wild. The objective of the present study was to characterize the external morphology and define the biometry of greater rhea embryos and fetuses at different stages of development. A total of 41 embryos and fetuses were analyzed to describe their external morphology using a stereoscopic microscope. The crown-rump (CR), total length (TL), cephalocaudal length (CCL), biparietal diameter (BPD), beak, humerus and tibio-tarsal lengths were measured by digital pachymeter, millimetric scale ruler and cotton thread. The weight of the embryos and fetuses was measured on digital scales. The greater rhea embryos at 5, 6 and 7 days incubation presented a "C" shape. At 9, 10 and 11 days the eyes were big and pigmented. At 11, 12 and 13 days the eyelid covered more than half the eye, resulting in an oval slit. In 14 and 15 day-old embryos, the skin was still thin and the ribs evident, but at 18 days this structure was thicker. In embryos at 21 and 27 days of development closed eyelids were observed forming an eyelid slit, and the eye ball was less pronounced at 27 days. Weight gain presented an exponential growth curve, while measurements such as TL, DBP, beak, humerus and tibio-tarsal length had linear growth over time. Thus it was possible to characterize the greater rhea embryos and fetuses at several incubation ages using their external morphology and morphometric analyses. PMID:26432389

  14. Melatonin enhances the recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips of American elm (Ulmus Americana L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change and the global migrations of people and goods have exposed trees to new diseases and abiotic challenges that threaten the survival of species. In vitro germplasm storage via cryopreservation is an effective tool to ensure conservation of tree species, but plant cells and tissues are e...

  15. Influence of the rearing system on yolk corticosterone concentration in captive Greater Rheas (Rhea americana).

    PubMed

    Della Costa, Natalia S; Marin, Raul H; Busso, Juan M; Hansen, Cristian; Navarro, Joaquín L; Martella, Mónica B

    2016-05-01

    Many environmental conditions elevate plasma corticosterone in laying birds, leading to elevated hormone accumulation in the egg. We investigated whether maternal yolk corticosterone levels in Greater Rheas differ between fresh eggs collected from an intensive (IRS) and a semi-extensive (SRS) rearing system. After HPLC validation, yolk corticosterone was measured using a corticosterone (125) I radio-immunoassay kit. Results (mean ± SE) showed that eggs collected from the IRS exhibited a significantly higher corticosterone concentration than eggs from SRS (89.88 ± 8.93 vs. 45.41 ± 5.48 ng/g yolk, respectively). Our findings suggest that rearing conditions under an intensive scheme (e.g., small pens with bare ground, no direct foraging and handling) might be perceived as more stressful for Greater Rhea females than semi-extensive rearing conditions (e.g., low animal density distributed in extensive areas and direct foraging), which would result in the transfer of higher yolk corticosterone levels. A better understanding of environmental conditions and female traits that affect yolk corticosterone deposition provides a background for future studies concerning the roles of maternal corticosterone on offspring development. Zoo Biol. 35:246-250, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26928950

  16. Effects of rearing treatment on the behavior of captive whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreger, M.D.; Estevez, I.; Hatfield, J.S.; Gee, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    Small founder populations of whooping cranes are managed to maximize egg production for the purpose of reintroducing young to the wild. This results in an excessive number of hatched chicks that cannot be naturally reared by parents. Hand-rearing techniques have been developed to raise the additional hatches. However, hand rearing may affect the behavior of the birds and their chances of survival later in life. The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of rearing practices on the behavior of whooping crane chicks. The birds were reared under three commonly used rearing techniques: parent reared (PR), hand reared (HR), and hand reared with exercise (HRE). Fifty-six whooping crane chicks were observed by focal animal sampling from hatch to 20 weeks of age. During these observations, occurrences of comfort behavior, aggression, foraging, nonvigilance, sleep, vigilance, and other types of behavior were collected. Data were analyzed using mixed models repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Behavior was affected by rearing treatment, age, and time of day. PR birds spent more time being vigilant than HR and HRE birds. An inverse correlation was found between percentage of time foraging and vigilant (r = -0.686, P < 0.0001). However, there were no differences in the behavior of birds reared in HR or HRE programs.

  17. EFFECTS OF NUTRIENT PRE-EXPOSURE ON ATRAZINE TOXICITY TO VALLISNERIA AMERICANA MICHX. (WILD CELERY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The importance of aquatic plants as a valued component of coastal environments is receiving increased attention in the public policy and scientific community. Unfortunately, the fact remains that the effects of anthropogenic contaminants on both emergent (marsh) and submerged aq...

  18. The complete amino acid sequence of chitinase-B from the leaves of pokeweed (Phytolacca americana).

    PubMed

    Tanigawa, M; Yamagami, T; Funatsu, G

    1995-05-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of pokeweed leaf chitinase-B (PLC-B) has been determined by first sequencing all 19 tryptic peptides derived from the reduced and S-carboxymethylated (RCm-) PLC-B and then connecting them by analyzing the chymotryptic peptides from three fragments produced by cyanogen bromide cleavage of RCm-PLC-B. PLC-B consists of 274 amino acid residues and has a molecular mass of 29,473 Da. Six cysteine residues are linked by disulfide bonds between Cys20 and Cys67, Cys50 and Cys57, and Cys159 and Cys188. From 58-68% sequence homology of PLC-B with five class III chitinases, it was concluded that PLC-B is a basic class III chitinase.

  19. The complete amino acid sequence of lectin-C from the roots of pokeweed (Phytolacca americana).

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, K; Mori, A; Funatsu, G

    1995-07-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of pokeweed lectin-C (PL-C) consisting of 126 residues has been determined. PL-C is an acidic simple protein with molecular mass of 13,747 Da and consists of three cysteine-rich domains with 51-63% homology. PL-C shows homology to chitin-binding proteins such as wheat germ agglutinin, and all eight cysteine residues in the three domains of PL-C are completely conserved in all other chitin-binding domains.

  20. Comparison of phytolacain G, a cysteine protease from fruit of Phytolacca americana, with phytolacain R.

    PubMed

    Uchikoba, T; Yonezawa, H; Shimada, M; Kaneda, M

    1998-10-01

    The enzymatic properties of phytolacain G, a protease isolated from green fruit of pokeweed, were compared with those of phytolacain R, a protease obtained from ripe fruit. The optimum pH of phytolacain G was 7.5-8.0 at 37 degrees C using casein as the substrate. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by iodoacetic acid and p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, but not by diisopropyl fluorophosphate or EDTA. These results indicated that phytolacain G was a cysteine protease, like phytolacain R. Nine sites of oxidized insulin B-chain were cleaved by phytolacain G during 20 h of hydrolysis. The six sites cleaved by phytolacain G were also cleaved by phytolacain R. The substrate specificity of phytolacain G was broad, but the preference for hydrophobic residues at the P2 position was similar to the substrate specificity of papain. The amino-terminal sequence of phytolacain G was not identical with that of phytolacain R; however, the amino acid residues conserved in the papain family were also conserved in this enzyme.