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Sample records for gujarat india earthquake

  1. India: Gujarat

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... title:  Dewatering Effects from the Gujarat Earthquake     View Larger Image ... India's Republic Day is normally celebrated, a devastating earthquake hit the state of Gujarat. About 20,000 people died and millions were ...

  2. Earthquake Hazard and Risk Assessment based on Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes: State of Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekrasova, Anastasia; Kossobokov, Vladimir; Parvez, Imtiyaz

    2016-04-01

    The Gujarat state of India is one of the most seismically active intercontinental regions of the world. Historically, it has experienced many damaging earthquakes including the devastating 1819 Rann of Kutch and 2001 Bhuj earthquakes. The effect of the later one is grossly underestimated by the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP). To assess a more adequate earthquake hazard for the state of Gujarat, we apply Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), which generalizes the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence relation taking into account naturally fractal distribution of earthquake loci. USLE has evident implications since any estimate of seismic hazard depends on the size of the territory considered and, therefore, may differ dramatically from the actual one when scaled down to the proportion of the area of interest (e.g. of a city) from the enveloping area of investigation. We cross compare the seismic hazard maps compiled for the same standard regular grid 0.2°×0.2° (i) in terms of design ground acceleration (DGA) based on the neo-deterministic approach, (ii) in terms of probabilistic exceedance of peak ground acceleration (PGA) by GSHAP, and (iii) the one resulted from the USLE application. Finally, we present the maps of seismic risks for the state of Gujarat integrating the obtained seismic hazard, population density based on 2011 census data, and a few model assumptions of vulnerability.

  3. Wrong Place, Wrong Time: Coincidental Involvement in the Gujarat Earthquake, India (2001).

    PubMed

    Coughlin, R Richard; Roy, Nobhojit; Patel, Vikas

    2015-10-01

    Orthopaedic surgeons have traditionally answered the call in times of disaster. Shortly after the devastating earthquake in January 2001, in Gujarat India, that call came from a buffer zone hospital. The Gandhi Lincoln Hospital in Deesa, Gujarat was struggling with an influx of injured survivors. Five days after the initial event, 2 of the traveling American authors met up with the Director of Surgery at the hospital. The clinical load was primarily extremity injuries and wounds. The authors present their assessment of the orthopaedic response highlighting factors of success, barriers, and lessons learned. Despite their published accounts, many of these lessons were not applied to the Haiti earthquake response.

  4. Seismological evidence for monsoon induced micro to moderate earthquake sequence beneath the 2011 Talala, Saurashtra earthquake, Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. P.; Mishra, O. P.

    2015-10-01

    In order to understand the processes involved in the genesis of monsoon induced micro to moderate earthquakes after heavy rainfall during the Indian summer monsoon period beneath the 2011 Talala, Saurashtra earthquake (Mw 5.1) source zone, we assimilated 3-D microstructures of the sub-surface rock materials using a data set recorded by the Seismic Network of Gujarat (SeisNetG), India. Crack attributes in terms of crack density (ε), the saturation rate (ξ) and porosity parameter (ψ) were determined from the estimated 3-D sub-surface velocities (Vp, Vs) and Poisson's ratio (σ) structures of the area at varying depths. We distinctly imaged high-ε, high-ξ and low-ψ anomalies at shallow depths, extending up to 9-15 km. We infer that the existence of sub-surface fractured rock matrix connected to the surface from the source zone may have contributed to the changes in differential strain deep down to the crust due to the infiltration of rainwater, which in turn induced micro to moderate earthquake sequence beneath Talala source zone. Infiltration of rainwater during the Indian summer monsoon might have hastened the failure of the rock by perturbing the crustal volume strain of the causative source rock matrix associated with the changes in the seismic moment release beneath the surface. Analyses of crack attributes suggest that the fractured volume of the rock matrix with high porosity and lowered seismic strength beneath the source zone might have considerable influence on the style of fault displacements due to seismo-hydraulic fluid flows. Localized zone of micro-cracks diagnosed within the causative rock matrix connected to the water table and their association with shallow crustal faults might have acted as a conduit for infiltrating the precipitation down to the shallow crustal layers following the fault suction mechanism of pore pressure diffusion, triggering the monsoon induced earthquake sequence beneath the source zone.

  5. Seismogenesis of the lower crustal intraplate earthquakes occurring in Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Prantik; Pandey, O. P.

    2011-08-01

    Large intraplate continental earthquakes like the 1811-12 New Madrid (M w ⩾ 8.0) and the 2001 Bhuj (Mw7.7) were highly destructive because they occurred in strong crust, but the mechanisms underlying their seismogenesis are not understood. Here we show, using local earthquake velocity tomography, and joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave group velocity dispersion that the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the 2001 Bhuj earthquake region of western India is far more complex than hitherto known through previous studies. A new image of the crust and underlying mantle lithosphere indicates the presence of a 18-km thick high velocity (Vp: 7.15-8.11 km/s) differentiated crustal and mantle magmatic layer above a hot and thin lithosphere (only 70 km) in the epicentral region of 2001 Bhuj earthquake. This magmatic layer begins at the depth of 24 km and continues down to 42 km depth. Below this region, brittle-ductile transition reaches as deep as the Moho (˜34 km) due to the possible presence of olivine rich mafic magma. Our 1-D velocity structure envisages an initial phase of plume activity (Deccan plume at 65 m.y. ago) resulting in basaltic magma in the eclogitic layers at sub-lithospheric levels, wherein they were subjected to crystallization under ultra-high pressure conditions. Our study also delineates an updoming of Moho (˜4-7 km) as well as asthenosphere (˜6-10 km) below the Kachchh rift zone relative to surrounding areas, suggesting the presence of a confined body of partial melts below the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. Restructuring of this warm and thin lithosphere may have been caused due to rifting (at 184 and 88 m.y. ago) and tholeiitic and alkalic volcanism related to the Deccan Traps K/T boundary event (at 65 m.y. ago). Recent study of isotopic ratios proposed that the alkalic basalts found in Kachchh are generated from a CO 2 rich lherzolite partial melts in the asthenosphere that ascended along deep lithospheric rift faults

  6. Occurrences of large-magnitude earthquakes in the Kachchh region, Gujarat, western India: Tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Prosanta Kumar; Mohanty, Sarada Prasad; Sinha, Sushmita; Singh, Dhananjay

    2016-06-01

    Moderate-to-large damaging earthquakes in the peninsular part of the Indian plate do not support the long-standing belief of the seismic stability of this region. The historical record shows that about 15 damaging earthquakes with magnitudes from 5.5 to ~ 8.0 occurred in the Indian peninsula. Most of these events were associated with the old rift systems. Our analysis of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake and its 12-year aftershock sequence indicates a seismic zone bound by two linear trends (NNW and NNE) that intersect an E-W-trending graben. The Bouguer gravity values near the epicentre of the Bhuj earthquake are relatively low (~ 2 mgal). The gravity anomaly maps, the distribution of earthquake epicentres, and the crustal strain-rate patterns indicate that the 2001 Bhuj earthquake occurred along a fault within strain-hardened mid-crustal rocks. The collision resistance between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate along the Himalayas and anticlockwise rotation of the Indian plate provide the far-field stresses that concentrate within a fault-bounded block close to the western margin of the Indian plate and is periodically released during earthquakes, such as the 2001 MW 7.7 Bhuj earthquake. We propose that the moderate-to-large magnitude earthquakes in the deeper crust in this area occur along faults associated with old rift systems that are reactivated in a strain-hardened environment.

  7. Injury epidemiology after the 2001 Gujarat earthquake in India: a retrospective analysis of injuries treated at a rural hospital in the Kutch district immediately after the disaster

    PubMed Central

    Phalkey, Revati; Reinhardt, Jan D.; Marx, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background The number of injured far exceeds those dead and the average injury to mortality ratio in earthquakes stands at 3:1. Immediate effective medical response significantly influences injury outcomes and thus the overall health impact of earthquakes. Inadequate or mismanagement of injuries may lead to disabilities. The lack of precise data from immediate aftermath is seen as a remarkable weak point in disaster epidemiology and warrants evidence generation. Objective To analyze the epidemiology of injuries and the treatment imparted at a secondary rural hospital in the Kutch district, Gujarat, India following the January 26, 2001 earthquake. Design/Methods Discharge reports of patients admitted to the hospital over 10 weeks were analyzed retrospectively for earthquake-related injuries. Results Orthopedic injuries, (particularly fractures of the lower limbs) were predominant and serious injuries like head, chest, abdominal, and crush syndrome were minimal. Wound infections were reported in almost 20% of the admitted cases. Surgical procedures were more common than conservative treatment. The most frequently performed surgical procedures were open reduction with internal fixation and cleaning and debridement of contaminated wounds. Four secondary deaths and 102 transfers to tertiary care due to complications were reported. Conclusion The injury epidemiology reported in this study is in general agreement with most other studies reporting injury epidemiology except higher incidence of distal orthopedic injuries particularly to the lower extremities. We also found that young males were more prone to sustaining injuries. These results warrant further research. Inconsistent data reporting procedures against the backdrop of inherent disaster data incompleteness calls for urgent standardization of reporting earthquake injuries for evidence-based response policy planning. PMID:21799668

  8. Evidence for a fluid flow triggered spatio-temporal migration of seismicity in the 2001 Mw 7.7 Bhuj earthquake region, Gujarat, India, during 2001-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Prantik; Kumar, Manish; Biswas, Koushik

    2016-08-01

    We studied the variations in spatial and temporal clustering of earthquake activity (during 2001-2013) in the Kachchh seismic zone, Gujarat, India, by precisely relocating 3478 events using a joint hypocentral determination (JHD) relocation technique, and high-quality arrival times of 21032 P- and 20870 S-waves. Temporal disposition of estimated station corrections of P- and S-waves suggests that the fluid flow in the causative fault zone of the 2001 Bhuj mainshock increased during 2001-2010, while it reduced during 2011-2013, due to the healing process associated with the perturbed Kachchh fault zone. We also estimated the isotropic seismic diffusivities from epicentral growth patterns, which are found to be much lower than those observed for reservoir-induced seismicity sites in the world. Finally, we analysed the spatial and temporal evolution of this earthquake sequence by solving the diffusion equation of pore-pressure relaxation caused by co- and post-seismic stress changes associated with earthquakes. The value of the isotropic diffusivity is estimated to be 100 m2/s for the Kachchh rift zone. This gives a higher permeability (after a lapse time of 14 years from the occurrence of the 2001 Bhuj mainshock) in comparison to those observed for other intraplate regions in the world. Our results suggest that the observed spatio-temporal migration of seismicity is consistent with the shallow (meteoric water circulation at 0-10 km depths) and deeper (metamorphic fluid and volatile CO2 circulation at 10-40 km depths) fluid flows in the permeable and fractured causative fault zone of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake.

  9. Wind Resource Assessment of Gujarat (India)

    SciTech Connect

    Draxl, C.; Purkayastha, A.; Parker, Z.

    2014-07-01

    India is one of the largest wind energy markets in the world. In 1986 Gujarat was the first Indian state to install a wind power project. In February 2013, the installed wind capacity in Gujarat was 3,093 MW. Due to the uncertainty around existing wind energy assessments in India, this analysis uses the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the wind at current hub heights for one year to provide more precise estimates of wind resources in Gujarat. The WRF model allows for accurate simulations of winds near the surface and at heights important for wind energy purposes. While previous resource assessments published wind power density, we focus on average wind speeds, which can be converted to wind power densities by the user with methods of their choice. The wind resource estimates in this study show regions with average annual wind speeds of more than 8 m/s.

  10. Lg Attenuation Characteristic of Gujarat Region (Western India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, Namrata; Singh, Chandrani

    2016-04-01

    We estimate the Lg attenuation characteristics of the Gujarat Region in Western India by using a reliable two-station method. This region comes under the V, IV and III seismicity zone. So, in India this is the seismic active region other than Himalayas, which shows high seismicity. Lg is typically the most prominent short-period seismic phase on high frequency seismogram observed over the continental paths from regional to teleseimic distance. We use data from 15 earthquakes with magnitude > 5 mb and focal depth < 30 km collected during 2008-2010 from 41 stations deployed in the study region. We estimate 1-Hz Lg Q (Q0) values between many pairs of stations. Finally, 5 events with 70 high-quality inter-station paths were selected from 117 possible pairs of stations that are (1) aligned approximately with the source and (2) separated enough to permit the use of the standard two-station method for Lg Q measurement. Spatial variations in Q0 have been noticed across the Gujarat region. Low Q0 (< 50) values are observed in the Kutch, Jamnagar and southeast region of Gujarat. The northern region of Saurashtra (Gujarat) shows a high Q0 (> 300) value. These observations are consistent with the results of the body wave attenuation structure reported for the region. The variations in the attenuation characteristics may be caused due to both the intrinsic and scattering contributions caused by thermal effects, sedimentary layer thickness as well as heterogeneities present below the study region. Our results are found to be comparable with the previous studies of the attenuation characteristics of the Gujarat region.

  11. Probabilistic earthquake hazard assessment for Peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashish; Lindholm, C.; Parvez, I. A.; Kühn, D.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) is presented for Peninsular India. The PSHA has been performed using three different recurrence models: a classical seismic zonation model, a fault model, and a grid model. The development of a grid model based on a non-parameterized recurrence model using an adaptation of the Kernel-based method that has not been applied to this region before. The results obtained from the three models have been combined in a logic tree structure in order to investigate the impact of different weights of the models. Three suitable attenuation relations have been considered in terms of spectral acceleration for the stable continental crust as well as for the active crust within the Gujarat region. While Peninsular India has experienced large earthquakes, e.g., Latur and Jabalpur, it represents in general a stable continental region with little earthquake activity, as also confirmed in our hazard results. On the other hand, our study demonstrates that both the Gujarat and the Koyna regions are exposed to a high seismic hazard. The peak ground acceleration for 10 % exceedance in 50 years observed in Koyna is 0.4 g and in the Kutch region of Gujarat up to 0.3 g. With respect to spectral acceleration at 1 Hz, estimated ground motion amplitudes are higher in Gujarat than in the Koyna region due to the higher frequency of occurrence of larger earthquakes. We discuss the higher PGA levels for Koyna compared Gujarat and do not accept them uncritically.

  12. Probabilistic earthquake hazard assessment for Peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashish; Lindholm, C.; Parvez, I. A.; Kühn, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) is presented for Peninsular India. The PSHA has been performed using three different recurrence models: a classical seismic zonation model, a fault model, and a grid model. The development of a grid model based on a non-parameterized recurrence model using an adaptation of the Kernel-based method that has not been applied to this region before. The results obtained from the three models have been combined in a logic tree structure in order to investigate the impact of different weights of the models. Three suitable attenuation relations have been considered in terms of spectral acceleration for the stable continental crust as well as for the active crust within the Gujarat region. While Peninsular India has experienced large earthquakes, e.g., Latur and Jabalpur, it represents in general a stable continental region with little earthquake activity, as also confirmed in our hazard results. On the other hand, our study demonstrates that both the Gujarat and the Koyna regions are exposed to a high seismic hazard. The peak ground acceleration for 10 % exceedance in 50 years observed in Koyna is 0.4 g and in the Kutch region of Gujarat up to 0.3 g. With respect to spectral acceleration at 1 Hz, estimated ground motion amplitudes are higher in Gujarat than in the Koyna region due to the higher frequency of occurrence of larger earthquakes. We discuss the higher PGA levels for Koyna compared Gujarat and do not accept them uncritically.

  13. SRTM Radar Image with Color as Height: Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image shows the area around the January 26, 2001, earthquake in western India, the deadliest in the country's history with some 20,000 fatalities. The epicenter of the magnitude 7.6 earthquake was just to the left of the center of the image. The Gulf of Kachchh (or Kutch) is the black area running from the lower left corner towards the center of the image. The city of Bhuj is in the yellow-toned area among the brown hills left of the image center and is the historical capital of the Kachchh region. Bhuj and many other towns and cities nearby were almost completely destroyed by the shaking of the earthquake. These hills reach up to 500 meters (1,500 feet) elevation. The city of Ahmedabad, capital of Gujarat state, is the radar-bright area next to the right side of the image. Several buildings in Ahmedabad were also destroyed by the earthquake. The dark blue areas around the center of the image and extending to the left side are low-lying salt flats called the Rann of Kachchh with the Little Rann just to the right of the image center. The bumpy area north of the Rann (green and yellow colors) is a large area of sand dunes in Pakistan. A branch of the Indus River used to flow through the area on the left side of this image, but it was diverted by a previous large earthquake that struck this area in 1819.

    The annotated version of the image includes a 'beachball' that shows the location and slip direction of the January 26, 2001, earthquake from the Harvard Quick CMT catalog: http://www.seismology.harvard.edu/CMTsearch.html. [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to brown and white at the highest elevations. This image is a mosaic of four SRTM swaths.

    This image

  14. Sensitivity analysis of seismic hazard for the northwestern portion of the state of Gujarat, India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.D.; Rastogi, B.K.; Schweig, E.S.; Harmsen, S.C.; Gomberg, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    We test the sensitivity of seismic hazard to three fault source models for the northwestern portion of Gujarat, India. The models incorporate different characteristic earthquake magnitudes on three faults with individual recurrence intervals of either 800 or 1600 years. These recurrence intervals imply that large earthquakes occur on one of these faults every 266-533 years, similar to the rate of historic large earthquakes in this region during the past two centuries and for earthquakes in intraplate environments like the New Madrid region in the central United States. If one assumes a recurrence interval of 800 years for large earthquakes on each of three local faults, the peak ground accelerations (PGA; horizontal) and 1-Hz spectral acceleration ground motions (5% damping) are greater than 1 g over a broad region for a 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years' hazard level. These probabilistic PGAs at this hazard level are similar to median deterministic ground motions. The PGAs for 10% in 50 years' hazard level are considerably lower, generally ranging between 0.2 g and 0.7 g across northwestern Gujarat. Ground motions calculated from our models that consider fault interevent times of 800 years are considerably higher than other published models even though they imply similar recurrence intervals. These higher ground motions are mainly caused by the application of intraplate attenuation relations, which account for less severe attenuation of seismic waves when compared to the crustal interplate relations used in these previous studies. For sites in Bhuj and Ahmedabad, magnitude (M) 7 3/4 earthquakes contribute most to the PGA and the 0.2- and 1-s spectral acceleration ground motion maps at the two considered hazard levels. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Current Neonatal Resuscitation Practices among Paediatricians in Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Satvik C.; Nimbalkar, Archana S.; Patel, Dipen V.; Sethi, Ankur R.; Phatak, Ajay G.; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. We assessed neonatal resuscitation practices among paediatricians in Gujarat. Methods. Cross-sectional survey of 23 questions based on guidelines of Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) and Navjaat Shishu Suraksha Karyakram (NSSK) was conducted using web-based tool. Questionnaire was developed and consensually validated by three neonatologists. Results. Total of 142 (21.2%) of 669 paediatricians of Gujarat, India, whose e-mail addresses were available, attempted the survey and, from them, 126 were eligible. Of these, 74 (58.7%) were trained in neonatal resuscitation. Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with mechanical ventilation facilities was available for 54% of respondents. Eighty-eight (69.8%) reported correct knowledge and practice regarding effective bag and mask ventilation (BMV) and chest compressions. Knowledge and practice about continuous positive airway pressure use in delivery room were reported in 18.3% and 30.2% reported use of room air for BMV during resuscitation. Suctioning oral cavity before delivery in meconium stained liquor was reported by 27.8% and 38.1% cut the cord after a minute of birth. Paediatricians with NRP training used appropriate method of tracheal suction in cases of nonvigorous newborns than those who were not trained. Conclusions. Contemporary knowledge about neonatal resuscitative practices in paediatricians is lacking and requires improvement. Web-based tools provided low response in this survey. PMID:24688549

  16. Maternal health in Gujarat, India: a case study.

    PubMed

    Mavalankar, Dileep V; Vora, Kranti S; Ramani, K V; Raman, Parvathy; Sharma, Bharati; Upadhyaya, Mudita

    2009-04-01

    Gujarat state of India has come a long way in improving the health indicators since independence, but progress in reducing maternal mortality has been slow and largely unmeasured or documented. This case study identified several challenges for reducing the maternal mortality ratio, including lack of the managerial capacity, shortage of skilled human resources, non-availability of blood in rural areas, and infrastructural and supply bottlenecks. The Gujarat Government has taken several initiatives to improve maternal health services, such as partnership with private obstetricians to provide delivery care to poor women, a relatively-short training of medical officers and nurses to provide emergency obstetric care (EmOC), and an improved emergency transport system. However, several challenges still remain. Recommendations are made for expanding the management capacity for maternal health, operationalization of health facilities, and ensuring EmOC on 24/7 (24 hours a day, seven days a week) basis by posting nurse-midwives and trained medical officers for skilled care, ensuring availability of blood, and improving the registration and auditing of all maternal deaths. However, all these interventions can only take place if there are substantially-increased political will and social awareness. PMID:19489418

  17. Gandhi, Non-Cooperation, and Socio-Civic Education in Gujarat, India: Harnessing the Vernaculars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramanathan, Vaidehi

    2006-01-01

    This article offers an interconnected, grounded understanding of how two Gandhian endeavours in the city of Ahmedabad in Gujarat, India, make us rethink the notion of "education" in terms of civic and communal engagement. Drawing on local, vernacular ways of living, learning, being, reasoning, and believing--in this case Gujarati--I show how these…

  18. Written Textual Production and Consumption (WTPC) in Vernacular and English-Medium Settings in Gujarat, India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramanathan, Vaidehi

    2003-01-01

    Sketches key facets in the larger socioeducational machinery that shapes the written textual production and consumption (WTPC) of English-medium (EM) and "vernacular-medium" (VM) students in Gujarat, India. Lays out ways in which articulator macro-structures align together to produce and shape conditions that privilege the WTPC of EM students over…

  19. Ambiguities about English: Ideologies and Critical Practice in Vernacular-Medium College Classrooms in Gujarat, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramanathan, Vaidehi

    2005-01-01

    Situated amid tertiary-level institutions in the city of Ahmedabad, in Gujarat, India, this article explores how particular ideologies countering English inform pedagogic choices made by language teachers teaching in "vernacular-medium" (VM) college classrooms. The ideologies under discussion are two linked "thought structures." The first, the…

  20. Use of Seismotectonic Information for the Seismic Hazard Analysis for Surat City, Gujarat, India: Deterministic and Probabilistic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaker, T. P.; Rathod, Ganesh W.; Rao, K. S.; Gupta, K. K.

    2012-01-01

    Surat, the financial capital of Gujarat, India, is a mega city with a population exceeding five millions. The city falls under Zone III of the Seismic Zoning Map of India. After the devastating 2001 Bhuj earthquake of Mw 7.7, much attention is paid towards the seismic microzonation activity in the state of Gujarat. In this work, an attempt has been made to evaluate the seismic hazard for Surat City (21.170 N, 72.830 E) based on the probabilistic and deterministic seismic hazard analysis. After collecting a catalogue of historical earthquakes in a 350 km radius around the city and after analyzing a database statistically, deterministic analysis has been carried out considering known tectonic sources; a further recurrence relationship for the control region is found out. Probabilistic seismic hazard analyses were then carried out for the Surat region considering five seismotectonic sources selected from a deterministic approach. The final results of the present investigations are presented in the form of peak ground acceleration and response spectra at bed rock level considering the local site conditions. Rock level Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration values at 0.01 s and 1.0 s corresponding to 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years have been calculated. Further Uniform Hazard Response Spectrum (UHRS) at rock level for 5% damping, and 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, were also developed for the city considering all site classes. These results can be directly used by engineers as basic inputs in earthquake-resistant design of structures in and around the city.

  1. A robust satellite technique for monitoring seismically active areas: The case of Bhuj Gujarat earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzano, N.; Aliano, C.; Filizzola, C.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2007-02-01

    A robust satellite data analysis technique (RAT) has been recently proposed as a suitable tool for satellite TIR surveys in seismically active regions and already successfully tested in different cases of earthquakes (both high and medium-low magnitudes). In this paper, the efficiency and the potentialities of the RAT technique have been tested even when it is applied to a wide area with extremely variable topography, land coverage and climatic characteristics (the whole Indian subcontinent). Bhuj-Gujarat's earthquake (occurred on 26th January 2001, MS ˜ 7.9) has been considered as a test case in the validation phase, while a relatively unperturbed period (no earthquakes with MS ≥ 5, in the same region and in the same period) has been analyzed for confutation purposes. To this aim, 6 years of Meteosat-5 TIR observations have been processed for the characterization of the TIR signal behaviour at each specific observation time and location. The anomalous TIR values, detected by RAT, have been evaluated in terms of time-space persistence in order to establish the existence of actually significant anomalous transients. The results indicate that the studied area was affected by significant positive thermal anomalies which were identified, at different intensity levels, not far from the Gujarat coast (since 15th January, but with a clearer evidence on 22nd January) and near the epicentral area (mainly on 21st January). On 25th January (1 day before Gujarat's earthquake) significant TIR anomalies appear on the Northern Indian subcontinent, showing a remarkable coincidence with the principal tectonic lineaments of the region (thrust Himalayan boundary). On the other hand, the results of the confutation analysis indicate that no meaningful TIR anomalies appear in the absence of seismic events with MS ≥ 5.

  2. Sociodemographic Correlates of Tobacco Consumption in Rural Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Kahar, Payal; Misra, Ranjita; Patel, Thakor G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to examine occupation-, education-, and gender-specific patterns of tobacco use and knowledge of its health effects among 23,953 rural Asian Indians ≥18 years in Gujarat. Methodology. A statewide, community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in 26 districts of Gujarat (December 2010–May 2015), using face-to-face interviews by trained community health workers called SEVAKS. Results. Mean age was 39.8 ± 15.2 years. Eighteen percent of respondents used tobacco in various forms. Tobacco consumption was significantly higher among males (32%), 18–34 years' age group (35%), those who were self-employed (72%), and those with elementary education (40%). The prevalence was 11 times higher among males than females (95% CI = 9.78, 13.13). Adjusted ORs for tobacco use showed strong gradient by age and educational level; consumption was lower among the illiterates and higher for older participants (≥55 years). Tobacco consumption also varied by occupation; that is, those who were self-employed and employed for wages were more likely to use tobacco than those who were unemployed. Knowledge of health effects of tobacco lowered the odds of consumption by 30–40%. Conclusions. Effective educational programs should be tailored by gender, to improve knowledge of health risks and dispel myths on perceived benefits of tobacco. PMID:27127788

  3. Serosurvey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in domestic animals, Gujarat, India, 2013.

    PubMed

    Mourya, Devendra T; Yadav, Pragya D; Shete, Anita; Majumdar, Triparna D; Kanani, Amit; Kapadia, Dhirendra; Chandra, Vartika; Kachhiapatel, Anantdevesh J; Joshi, Pravinchandra T; Upadhyay, Kamalesh J; Dave, Paresh; Raval, Dinkar

    2014-09-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral disease that causes a fatal hemorrhagic illness in humans. This disease is asymptomatic in animals. CCHF was first confirmed in a nosocomial outbreak in 2011 in Gujarat State. Another notifiable outbreak occurred in July, 2013, in Karyana Village, Amreli district, Gujarat State. Anti-CCHF virus (CCHFV) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were detected in domestic animals from the adjoining villages of the affected area, indicating a considerable amount of positivity against domestic animals. The present serosurvey was carried out to determine the prevalence of CCHFV among bovine, sheep, and goat populations from 15 districts of Gujarat State, India. A total of 1226 serum samples from domestic animals were screened for IgG antibodies using a CCHF animal IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibodies were detected in all the 15 districts surveyed; with positivity of 12.09%, 41.21%, and 33.62% in bovine, sheep, and goat respectively. This necessitates the surveillance of CCHFV IgG antibodies in animals and hemorrhagic fever cases in human. PMID:25229708

  4. Ground motion modelling in the Gujarat region of Western India using empirical Green's function approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Pallabee; Chopra, Sumer; Roy, Ketan Singha; Sharma, Jyoti

    2016-04-01

    In this study, ground motions are estimated for scenario earthquakes of Mw 6.0, 6.5 and 7.0 at 17 sites in Gujarat region using Empirical Green's function technique. The Dholavira earthquake of June 19, 2012 (Mw 5.1) which occurred in the Kachchh region of Gujarat is considered as an element earthquake. We estimated the focal mechanism and source parameters of the element earthquake using standard methodologies. The moment tensor inversion technique is used to determine the fault plane solution (strike = 8°, dip = 51°, and rake = - 7°). The seismic moment and the stress drop are 5.6 × 1016 Nm and 120 bars respectively. The validity of the approach was tested for a smaller earthquake. A few possible directivity scenarios were also tested to find out the effect of directivity on the level of ground motions. Our study reveals that source complexities and site effects play a very important role in deciding the level of ground motions at a site which are difficult to model by GMPEs. Our results shed new light on the expected accelerations in the region and suggest that the Kachchh region can expect maximum acceleration of around 500 cm/s2 at few sites near source and around 200 cm/s2 at most of the sites located within 50 km from the epicentre for a Mw 7.0 earthquake. The estimated ground accelerations can be used by the administrators and planners for providing a guiding framework to undertake mitigation investments and activities in the region.

  5. Different stages of collision zones on examples of Gujarat province (India) and Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabelina, Irina; Koulakov, Ivan; Ranjan Kayal, Jnana; Pratap Singh, Ajay; Kumar, Santosh; Kukarina, Ekaterina; Amanatashvili, Iason

    2016-04-01

    In this study we present seismic structures of the crust and upper mantle beneath two regions: Kachchh Gujarat region (India), and Caucasus that may represent different stages of the collisional processes. In both cases, the 3D seismic models were obtained based on tomography inversion of arrival times of P and S seismic waves from local and regional earthquakes. Collisional processes in the Caucasus region began 35 million years ago with the closure of the Tethys Ocean, and continues to this day. The rate of shortening between the Scythian and the Arabian plate is currently 1-2.2 mm/year. The tomography inversion used the dataset provided by several seismic agencies of the Caucasus region that contained 23,071 P- and 21,598 S-picks from 1374 events. The obtained P and S velocity models clearly delineate major tectonic units in the study area. A high velocity anomaly in Transcaucasian separating the Great and Lesser Caucasus possibly represents a rigid crustal block corresponding to the remnant oceanic lithosphere of Tethys. Another high-velocity pattern coincides with the southern edge of the Scythian Plate. Strongly deformed areas of Great and Lesser Caucasus are mostly associated with low-velocity patterns representing thickened felsic part of the crust and strong fracturing of rocks. Most Cenozoic volcanic centers of Caucasus match to the low-velocity seismic anomalies in the crust. We propose that the mantle part of the Arabian and Eurasian Plates has been delaminated due to the continental collision in the Caucasus region. As a result, overheated asthenosphere appeared nearly the bottom of the crust and facilitated melting of the crustal material that caused the origin of recent volcanism in Great and Lesser Caucasus. The Kachchh province, in contrast to the Caucasus, is far from any boundaries of major lithospheric plates. However, this area is one of the most seismically active in India. It is suggested that it may be a site of the lithosphere rupture and

  6. Usage of EMBRACETM in Gujarat, India: Survey of Paediatricians

    PubMed Central

    Nimbalkar, Somashekhar; Patel, Harshil; Dongara, Ashish; Patel, Dipen V.; Bansal, Satvik

    2014-01-01

    Aim. EMBRACETM is an innovative, low cost infant warmer for use in neonates. It contains phase change material, which stays at constant temperature for 6 hours. We surveyed paediatricians using EMBRACETM regarding benefits, risks, and setup in which it was used in Gujarat. Methods. Questionnaire was administered telephonically to 52 out of 53 paediatricians. Results. EMBRACETM was used for an average of 8.27 (range of 3–18, SD = 3.84) months by paediatricians. All used it for thermoregulation during transfers, for average (SD) duration of 42 (0.64) m per transfer, 62.7% used it at mother's side for average (SD) 11.06 (7.89) h per day, and 3.9% prescribed it at home. It was used in low birth weight neonates only by 56.9% while 43.1% used it for all neonates. While hyperthermia was not reported, 5.9% felt that EMBRACETM did not prevent hypothermia. About 54.9% felt that they could not monitor the newborn during EMBRACETM use. Of paediatricians who practiced kangaroo mother care (KMC), 7.7% have limited/stopped/decreased the practice of KMC and substituted it with EMBRACETM. Conclusions. EMBRACETM was acceptable to most but concerns related to monitoring neonates and disinfection remained. Most paediatricians felt that it did not hamper KMC practice. PMID:25530887

  7. Infection control in delivery care units, Gujarat state, India: A needs assessment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasingly, women in India attend health facilities for childbirth, partly due to incentives paid under government programs. Increased use of health facilities can alleviate the risks of infections contracted in unhygienic home deliveries, but poor infection control practices in labour and delivery units also cause puerperal sepsis and other infections of childbirth. A needs assessment was conducted to provide information on procedures and practices related to infection control in labour and delivery units in Gujarat state, India. Methods Twenty health care facilities, including private and public primary health centres and referral hospitals, were sampled from two districts in Gujarat state, India. Three pre-tested tools for interviewing and for observation were used. Data collection was based on existing infection control guidelines for clean practices, clean equipment, clean environment and availability of diagnostics and treatment. The study was carried out from April to May 2009. Results Seventy percent of respondents said that standard infection control procedures were followed, but a written procedure was only available in 5% of facilities. Alcohol rubs were not used for hand cleaning and surgical gloves were reused in over 70% of facilities, especially for vaginal examinations in the labour room. Most types of equipment and supplies were available but a third of facilities did not have wash basins with "hands-free" taps. Only 15% of facilities reported that wiping of surfaces was done immediately after each delivery in labour rooms. Blood culture services were available in 25% of facilities and antibiotics are widely given to women after normal delivery. A few facilities had data on infections and reported rates of 3% to 5%. Conclusions This study of current infection control procedures and practices during labour and delivery in health facilities in Gujarat revealed a need for improved information systems, protocols and procedures, and for

  8. Microbial keratitis in Gujarat, Western India: findings from 200 cases

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anil; Pandya, Snehal; Kavathia, Ghanshyam; Antala, Sejul; Madan, Molly; Javdekar, Tanuja

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to study the epidemiological characteristics and the microbiological profile of patients suspected with microbial keratitis in Gujarat. Methods Corneal scraping was collected from 200 consecutive cases of suspected microbial keratitis and was subjected to direct examination and culture. Results Of the 200 ulcers 55% were culture positive, 26.5% were bacterial ulcers of which 47% were due to Staphylococcus spp. Pure fungal growth was seen in 22% while 6% were mixed ulcers. Fusarium spp. (30%) was the most common fungus followed by Aspergillus spp. (21%). Only one case of Acanthamoeba keratitis was encountered. Patients were mainly from rural areas (61.5%) with male preponderance (61.5%). Corneal injury was seen in 78.5% cases of which 53% had injury with vegetative matter. Prior treatment was seen in 58% of which 5% had been treated by village healers. Nineteen patients (9.5%) also used some kind of traditional topical treatment. Increased incidence was seen from August to December. Five case of fugal ulcers lead to perforation of which three were due to Fusarium spp. whereas perforation was seen in only two cases of bacterial ulcers due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion Staphylococcus and Fusarium spp. were the most common etiological agents in our region. Predominant outdoor agricultural activity is the principal causative factor for corneal injury. Corneal ulcers complicated due to treatment by village healers are another important concern. The information regarding regional etiology will help empirical management as many eye clinics do not have microbiological facilities. PMID:22384294

  9. Study of blood-transfusion services in Maharashtra and Gujarat States, India.

    PubMed

    Ramani, K V; Mavalankar, Dileep V; Govil, Dipti

    2009-04-01

    Blood-transfusion services are vital to maternal health because haemorrhage and anaemia are major causes of maternal death in South Asia. Unfortunately, due to continued governmental negligence, blood-transfusion services in India are a highly-fragmented mix of competing independent and hospital-based blood-banks, serving the needs of urban populations. This paper aims to understand the existing systems of blood-transfusion services in India focusing on Maharashtra and Gujarat states. A mix of methodologies, including literature review (including government documents), analysis of management information system data, and interviews with key officials was used. Results of analysis showed that there are many managerial challenges in blood-transfusion services, which calls for strengthening the planning and monitoring of these services. Maharashtra provides a good model for improvement. Unless this is done, access to blood in rural areas may remain poor. PMID:19489420

  10. Y chromosome haplogroup distribution in Indo-European speaking tribes of Gujarat, western India.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Priyanka; Aggarwal, Aastha; Mitra, Siuli; Italia, Yazdi M; Saraswathy, Kallur N; Chandrasekar, Adimoolam; Kshatriya, Gautam K

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out in the Indo-European speaking tribal population groups of Southern Gujarat, India to investigate and reconstruct their paternal population structure and population histories. The role of language, ethnicity and geography in determining the observed pattern of Y haplogroup clustering in the study populations was also examined. A set of 48 bi-allelic markers on the non-recombining region of Y chromosome (NRY) were analysed in 284 males; representing nine Indo-European speaking tribal populations. The genetic structure of the populations revealed that none of these groups was overtly admixed or completely isolated. However, elevated haplogroup diversity and FST value point towards greater diversity and differentiation which suggests the possibility of early demographic expansion of the study groups. The phylogenetic analysis revealed 13 paternal lineages, of which six haplogroups: C5, H1a*, H2, J2, R1a1* and R2 accounted for a major portion of the Y chromosome diversity. The higher frequency of the six haplogroups and the pattern of clustering in the populations indicated overlapping of haplogroups with West and Central Asian populations. Other analyses undertaken on the population affiliations revealed that the Indo-European speaking populations along with the Dravidian speaking groups of southern India have an influence on the tribal groups of Gujarat. The vital role of geography in determining the distribution of Y lineages was also noticed. This implies that although language plays a vital role in determining the distribution of Y lineages, the present day linguistic affiliation of any population in India for reconstructing the demographic history of the country should be considered with caution.

  11. Assisting community management of groundwater: Irrigator attitudes in two watersheds in Rajasthan and Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varua, M. E.; Ward, J.; Maheshwari, B.; Oza, S.; Purohit, R.; Hakimuddin; Chinnasamy, P.

    2016-06-01

    The absence of either state regulations or markets to coordinate the operation of individual wells has focussed attention on community level institutions as the primary loci for sustainable groundwater management in Rajasthan and Gujarat, India. The reported research relied on theoretical propositions that livelihood strategies, groundwater management and the propensity to cooperate are associated with the attitudinal orientations of well owners in the Meghraj and Dharta watersheds, located in Gujarat and Rajasthan respectively. The research tested the hypothesis that attitudes to groundwater management and farming practices, household income and trust levels of assisting agencies were not consistent across the watersheds, implying that a targeted approach, in contrast to default uniform programs, would assist communities craft rules to manage groundwater across multiple hydro-geological settings. Hierarchical cluster analysis of attitudes held by survey respondents revealed four statistically significant discrete clusters, supporting acceptance of the hypothesis. Further analyses revealed significant differences in farming practices, household wealth and willingness to adapt across the four groundwater management clusters. In conclusion, the need to account for attitudinal diversity is highlighted and a framework to guide the specific design of processes to assist communities craft coordinating instruments to sustainably manage local aquifers described.

  12. Lower Oligocene bivalves of Ramanian Stage from Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachhara, R. P.; Jodhawat, R. L.; Devi, K. Bigyapati

    2012-04-01

    Marine Oligocene sequences in India outcrop only in western part of Kachchh. Earlier researchers have recognized the Oligocene strata under the Nari Series (Nagappa 1959; Chatterji and Mathur 1966). The Nari Series has a type area in Pakistan. It has two subdivisions - the Lower Nari (Lower Oligocene) and the Upper Nari (Upper Oligocene). It seems that there is no valid proof about the age of the Lower Nari due to lack of proper fauna (Eames 1975), and according to Pascoe (1962), the Upper Nari slightly transgress into Aquitanian (Lower Miocene), therefore, one has to be very cautious. Biswas and Raju (1971) reclassified the Oligocene strata of Kachchh and lithostratigraphically clubbed them as the Maniyara Fort Formation with type section along the Bermoti stream. This Formation has four members. The lower three members correspond to the Ramanian Stage (Lower Oligocene, Biswas 1971, 1973) while the uppermost to the Waiorian Stage (Upper Oligocene, Biswas 1965, 1971, 1973). The Ramanian Stage is characterized by large forams especially Nummulites fichteli, Nummulites fichteli intermedius, Lepidocyclina ( Eulepidina) dialata and Operculina sp. Several ostracods are also known to occur. Megafauna include bivalves, gastropods, echinoids, corals, mammals and reptiles. Concerning bivalves earlier researchers have recorded a few taxa namely Trisidos semitorta (Lamarck), Cubitostrea angulata (J de C Sowerby), Pecten ( Amussiopecten) labadyei d'Archiac and Haime, Periglypta puerpera (Linne') var. aglaurae Brongniart, Ostrea fraasi Mayer Eymer and listed Pecten laevicostatus J de C Sowerby, Callista pseudoumbonella Vredenburg and Clementia papyracea (Gray) from Kachchh as against overall 42 forms from the Nari Series as a whole (Vredenburg 1928). This tempted us to make an attempt to collect bivalve fauna systematically which are occurring prolifically in the Ramanian Stage. In the present work, for this purpose, sections are worked out around Lakhpat (23°50'N; 68°47'E

  13. Knowledge and attitudes toward depression among community members in rural Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Liu, Michelle C; Tirth, Seth; Appasani, Raghu; Shah, Sandip; Katz, Craig L

    2014-11-01

    Limited data exist regarding community attitudes and knowledge about clinical depression in rural India. We administered 159 questionnaires and 7 focus groups to Gujarati villagers to explore knowledge and beliefs about clinical depression. Quantitative data were analyzed for frequencies, nonparametric correlations, and principal components, whereas qualitative data were coded for prominent themes. Two groups of subjects emerged from our analysis: one "medically oriented" group that viewed depression as a medical condition and expressed optimism regarding its prognosis and one "spiritually oriented" group that expressed pessimism. Correlations emerged between etiological belief, degree of optimism, and associated stigma. The subjects were pessimistic when they attributed depression to a traumatic event, punishment from God, or brain disease but optimistic when depression was attributed to socioeconomic circumstances. Overall, the subjects were knowledgeable and open-minded toward depression and demonstrated curiosity and willingness to learn more. This study will help to inform future clinical and educational outreach in rural Gujarat.

  14. Knowledge and attitudes toward depression among community members in rural Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Liu, Michelle C; Tirth, Seth; Appasani, Raghu; Shah, Sandip; Katz, Craig L

    2014-11-01

    Limited data exist regarding community attitudes and knowledge about clinical depression in rural India. We administered 159 questionnaires and 7 focus groups to Gujarati villagers to explore knowledge and beliefs about clinical depression. Quantitative data were analyzed for frequencies, nonparametric correlations, and principal components, whereas qualitative data were coded for prominent themes. Two groups of subjects emerged from our analysis: one "medically oriented" group that viewed depression as a medical condition and expressed optimism regarding its prognosis and one "spiritually oriented" group that expressed pessimism. Correlations emerged between etiological belief, degree of optimism, and associated stigma. The subjects were pessimistic when they attributed depression to a traumatic event, punishment from God, or brain disease but optimistic when depression was attributed to socioeconomic circumstances. Overall, the subjects were knowledgeable and open-minded toward depression and demonstrated curiosity and willingness to learn more. This study will help to inform future clinical and educational outreach in rural Gujarat. PMID:25275344

  15. Metagenomic sequence of saline desert microbiota from wild ass sanctuary, Little Rann of Kutch, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajesh; Mevada, Vishal; Prajapati, Dhaval; Dudhagara, Pravin; Koringa, Prakash; Joshi, C G

    2015-03-01

    We report Metagenome from the saline desert soil sample of Little Rann of Kutch, Gujarat State, India. Metagenome consisted of 633,760 sequences with size 141,307,202 bp and 56% G + C content. Metagenome sequence data are available at EBI under EBI Metagenomics database with accession no. ERP005612. Community metagenomics revealed total 1802 species belonged to 43 different phyla with dominating Marinobacter (48.7%) and Halobacterium (4.6%) genus in bacterial and archaeal domain respectively. Remarkably, 18.2% sequences in a poorly characterized group and 4% gene for various stress responses along with versatile presence of commercial enzyme were evident in a functional metagenome analysis.

  16. Metagenomic sequence of saline desert microbiota from wild ass sanctuary, Little Rann of Kutch, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajesh; Mevada, Vishal; Prajapati, Dhaval; Dudhagara, Pravin; Koringa, Prakash; Joshi, C G

    2015-03-01

    We report Metagenome from the saline desert soil sample of Little Rann of Kutch, Gujarat State, India. Metagenome consisted of 633,760 sequences with size 141,307,202 bp and 56% G + C content. Metagenome sequence data are available at EBI under EBI Metagenomics database with accession no. ERP005612. Community metagenomics revealed total 1802 species belonged to 43 different phyla with dominating Marinobacter (48.7%) and Halobacterium (4.6%) genus in bacterial and archaeal domain respectively. Remarkably, 18.2% sequences in a poorly characterized group and 4% gene for various stress responses along with versatile presence of commercial enzyme were evident in a functional metagenome analysis. PMID:26484162

  17. An Investigation of an Outbreak of Viral Hepatitis B in Modasa Town, Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Disha A; Gupta, Praveg A; Kinariwala, Deepa M; Shah, Hetal S; Trivedi, Grishma R; Vegad, Mahendra M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Most outbreaks of viral hepatitis in India are caused by hepatitis E. Recently in the year 2009, Modasa town of Sabarkantha district in Gujarat witnessed the outbreak of hepatitis B. Purpose: An attempt was made to study the outbreak clinically and serologically, to estimate the seropositivity of hepatitis B Virus among the cases and their contacts and to know the seroprevalence of hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) and IgM antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (IgM HBcAb) out of all the Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) positive ones. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and fifty-six (856) cases and 1145 contacts were evaluated for hepatitis B markers namely HBsAg, HBeAg and IgM HBcAb by enzyme-linked immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) test. Results: This outbreak of viral hepatitis B in Modasa, Gujarat was most likely due to unsafe injection practices. Evidence in support of this was collected by Government authorities. Most of the patients and approximately 40% of the surveyed population gave history of injections in last 1.5–6 months. Total 664/856 (77.57%) cases and 20/1145 (1.75%) contacts were found to be positive for HBsAg. 53.41% of the positive cases and 52.93% of the positive contacts were HBeAg-positive and thus in a highly infectious stage. Conclusions: Inadequately sterilized needles and syringes are an important cause of transmission of hepatitis B in India. Our data reflects the high positivity rate of a hepatitis B outbreak due to such unethical practices. There is a need to strengthen the routine surveillance system, and to organise a health education campaign targeting all health care workers including private practitioners, especially those working in rural areas, as well as the public at large, to take all possible measures to prevent this often fatal infection. PMID:22529628

  18. Source Characteristics of Aftershocks of the India Republic Day Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, S.; Bodin, P.; Johnston, A.; Withers, M.; Chiu, C.; Raphael, A.; Rabak, I.; Maio, Q.; Smalley, R.; Chiu, J.; Langston, C.

    2001-05-01

    We present a preliminary analysis of aftershocks of the Mw=7.7 Republic Day (26 January) 2001 earthquake in Gujarat, India, recorded on a network of portable digital event recorders (the MAEC/ISTAR network). During the 18 day deployment, this network recorded ground motion from nearly 2000 earthquakes; almost exclusively M<5 events within about 100 km of all stations. In this talk we will discuss the results of an analysis of approximately 400 earthquakes that were recorded at 6 or more sites. Because of its history of infrequent moderate-to-large earthquakes and its setting within a continental plate interior (albeit rather close to a rather diffuse continental boundary), studies of the Kachchh region may provide important insights for other high-consequence-but-low-occurrence-rate regions, such as the central US. A series of unfortunate circumstances has cast an obscuring veil of ignorance over the mainshock: we know of no strong-motion recordings of the mainshock, regional broad-band and seismic network data is notoriously difficult to obtain for scientific evaluation, evidence of surface rupture or deformation is fragmentary and complex or obscured by massive liquefaction, pre-existing geodetic networks are non-existent, and satellite-based radar interferometry studies have been hobbled by poor pre-earthquake images. Aftershock occurrence may provide critical evidence to determine which fault ruptured in January, 2001, and aftershock studies may provide important observational constraints on source processes and wave propagation in the region. We focus on trying to discern the mainshock fault plane, which appears to dip to the south, and whether the aftershocks are unusually deep (down to 35 km, which might help to explain the lack of obvious surface rupture). In addition to determining first-motion focal mechanisms we will examine whether stress drops of the aftershocks are, on the whole, high. We compare the seismic sources and regional propagation of

  19. Bypassing health facilities for childbirth: a multilevel study in three districts of Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Mariano; Vora, Kranti; Costa, Ayesha De

    2016-01-01

    Background Bypassing available facilities for childbirth has important implications for maternal health service delivery and human resources within a health system. The results are the additional expenses imposed on the woman and her family, as well as the inefficient use of health system resources. Bypassing often indicates a lack of confidence in the care provided by the facility nearest to the mother, which implies a level of dysfunctionality that the health system needs to address. Over the past decade, India has experienced a steep rise in the proportion of facility births. The initiation of programs promoting facility births resulted in a rise from 39% in 2005 to 85% in 2014. There have been no reports on bypassing facilities for childbirth from India. In the context of steeply rising facility births, it is important to quantify the occurrence of and study the relative contributions of maternal characteristics and facility functionality to bypassing. Objectives 1) To determine the extent of bypassing health facilities for childbirth among rural mothers in three districts of Gujarat, India, 2) to identify associations between the functionality of an obstetric care (OC) facility and it being bypassed, and 3) to assess the relative contribution of maternal and facility characteristics to bypassing. Design A cross-sectional survey of 166 public and private OC facilities reporting ≥30 births in the 3 months before the survey was conducted in three purposively selected districts (Dahod, Sabarkantha, and Surendranagar) in the state of Gujarat, India. Besides information on each facility, data from 946 women giving birth at these facilities were also gathered. Data were analyzed using a multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression model. Results Off all mothers, 37.7% bypassed their nearest facility for childbirth. After adjusting for maternal characteristics, for every one-unit increase in the facility's emergency obstetric care (EmOC) signal functions, the odds

  20. Detection of amitraz resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from North Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K; Gelot, I S; Jyoti; Singh, Veer; Rath, S S

    2015-03-01

    Amitraz has become one of the most extensively used chemical acaricide for control of cattle tick due to development of resistance against most of the organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroid acaricides. The resistance status of amitraz was evaluated against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India by adult immersion test (AIT). The different concentrations of amitraz utilized in the AIT were 125, 250, 500, 750 and 1,000 ppm. The adult female ticks showed an upward trend in the mortality percentage with increase in drug concentration. The regression graph of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of progressively increasing concentrations of amitraz was utilized for the determination of slope of mortality which was 1.868 ± 0.2068. The lethal concentration (LC95) was calculated as 3098.2 ppm and the RF was 24.78 which indicated level II resistance status. The dose response curves for egg masses, reproductive index and inhibition of oviposition of R. (B.) microplus were also validated and the slope was -0.5165 ± 0.08287, -0.1328 ± 0.04472 and 24.22 ± 8.160, respectively. The current study appears to be the pioneer report of amitraz resistance in R. (B.) microplus from India and the data generated could be of immense help to develop effective control strategies against ticks.

  1. Detection of amitraz resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from North Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K; Gelot, I S; Jyoti; Singh, Veer; Rath, S S

    2015-03-01

    Amitraz has become one of the most extensively used chemical acaricide for control of cattle tick due to development of resistance against most of the organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroid acaricides. The resistance status of amitraz was evaluated against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India by adult immersion test (AIT). The different concentrations of amitraz utilized in the AIT were 125, 250, 500, 750 and 1,000 ppm. The adult female ticks showed an upward trend in the mortality percentage with increase in drug concentration. The regression graph of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of progressively increasing concentrations of amitraz was utilized for the determination of slope of mortality which was 1.868 ± 0.2068. The lethal concentration (LC95) was calculated as 3098.2 ppm and the RF was 24.78 which indicated level II resistance status. The dose response curves for egg masses, reproductive index and inhibition of oviposition of R. (B.) microplus were also validated and the slope was -0.5165 ± 0.08287, -0.1328 ± 0.04472 and 24.22 ± 8.160, respectively. The current study appears to be the pioneer report of amitraz resistance in R. (B.) microplus from India and the data generated could be of immense help to develop effective control strategies against ticks. PMID:25698859

  2. Enrichment of arsenic in the Quaternary sediments from Ankaleshwar industrial area, Gujarat, India: an anthropogenic influence.

    PubMed

    Shirke, K D; Pawar, N J

    2015-09-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of sediments and waters is known from Bengal and other parts of eastern and central India. However, there is paucity of reports that document occurrence of As in Quaternary sediments from western India. In this paper, we report the enrichment of As in the Quaternary sediments of Ankaleshwar area in the western Indian state of Gujarat. Twenty-five surface and five profile samples were analyzed that indicated spatial and vertical distribution of As in the sediments. The As content of fine size fractions (<63 μm) compared with upper continental crust (UCC) and standard shale indicates anomalous As enrichment that is supported by moderate to high geo-accumulation index (Igeo) as well as pollution index (Pi). Enrichment of As is seen in surface sediments from the industrial and urban land use regions, followed by oil field and agricultural land suggesting strong influence of anthropogenic factors. Although the arsenic concentration decreases with depth, the relatively higher values of As coupled with Igeo and Pi index values suggest downward migration of metal that is likely to contaminate groundwater. This calls for urgent remediation so that the ill effects of As contamination can be minimized.

  3. An external evaluation of the Diarrhea Alleviation through Zinc and ORS Treatment (DAZT) program in Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Lamberti, Laura M; Taneja, Sunita; Mazumder, Sarmila; LeFevre, Amnesty; Black, Robert E; Walker, Christa L Fischer

    2015-01-01

    Background To address inadequate coverage of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc supplements for the treatment of diarrhea among children under–five, the Diarrhea Alleviation through Zinc and ORS Treatment (DAZT) program was carried out from 2011–2013 in Gujarat and from 2011–2014 in Uttar Pradesh (UP), India. The program focused on improving the diarrhea treatment practices of public and private sector providers. Methods We conducted cross–sectional household surveys in program districts at baseline and endline and constructed state–specific logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations to assess changes in ORS and zinc treatment during the program period. Results Between baseline and endline, zinc coverage increased from 2.5% to 22.4% in Gujarat and from 3.1% to 7.0% in UP; ORS coverage increased from 15.3% to 39.6% in Gujarat but did not change in UP. In comparison to baseline, children with diarrhea in the two–weeks preceding the endline survey had higher odds of receiving zinc treatment in both Gujarat (odds ratio, OR = 11.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.4–19.3) and UP (OR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.4–3.9), but the odds of receiving ORS only increased in Gujarat (OR = 3.6; 95% CI 2.7–4.8; UP OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.7–1.2). Seeking care outside the home, especially from a public sector source, was associated with higher odds of receiving ORS and zinc. Conclusions During the duration of the DAZT program, there were modest improvements in the treatment of diarrhea among young children. Future programs should build upon and accelerate this trend with continued investment in public and private sector provider training and supply chain sustainability, in addition to targeted caregiver demand generation activities. PMID:26682045

  4. Source investigation of the tar balls deposited along the Gujarat coast, India, using chemical fingerprinting and transport modeling techniques.

    PubMed

    Suneel, V; Vethamony, P; Naik, B G; Kumar, K Vinod; Sreenu, L; Samiksha, S V; Tai, Yunus; Sudheesh, K

    2014-10-01

    Deposition of tar balls (TBs) along the south Gujarat coast, situated on the west coast of India (WCI), commonly occurs during the southwest monsoon season. Several offshore oil fields off the Mumbai-Gujarat coast, and refineries along the coast might be sources of oil spills/leakages and lead to the formation of TBs. To identify the sources, we collected 12 TB samples from the beaches of Gujarat (Tithal, Maroli, Umbergam, and Nargol) during 15-17 July 2012 as well as samples of crude oils, namely, Cairn, NIKO, MSC Chitra, and two at Bombay High (BH). These TBs were subject to the following multimarker approach for source identification: Diagnostic Ratios of n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pentacyclic triterpanes, compound specific isotope analysis, Principle Component Analysis and numerical simulations (hydrodynamic model coupled with particle trajectories). The chemical fingerprint results reveal that the source of the TBs is BH crude oils, and the model results confirm that the source location is BH north oil fields. This is the first study of its kind in India to use fingerprinting and transport modeling techniques for source identification of TBs.

  5. Understanding CBHI hospitalisation patterns: a comparison of insured and uninsured women in Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Community-based health insurance has been associated with increased hospitalisation in low-income settings, but with limited analysis of the illnesses for which claims are submitted. A review of claims submitted to VimoSEWA, an inpatient insurance scheme in Gujarat, India, found that fever, diarrhoea and hysterectomy, the latter at a mean age of 37 years, were the leading reasons for claims by adult women. We compared the morbidity, outpatient treatment-seeking and hospitalisation patterns of VimoSEWA-insured women with uninsured women. Methods We utilised data from a cross-sectional survey of 1,934 insured and uninsured women in Gujarat, India. Multivariable logistic regression identified predictors of insurance coverage and the association of insurance with hospitalisation. Self-reported data on morbidity, outpatient care and hospitalisation were compared between insured and uninsured women. Results Age, marital status and occupation of adult women were associated with insurance status. Reported recent morbidity, type of illness and outpatient treatment were similar among insured and uninsured women. Multivariable analysis revealed strong evidence of a higher odds of hospitalisation amongst the insured (OR = 2.7; 95% ci. 1.6, 4.7). The leading reason for hospitalisation for uninsured and insured women was hysterectomy, at a similar mean age of 36, followed by common ailments such as fever and diarrhoea. Insured women appeared to have a higher probability of being hospitalised than uninsured women for all causes, rather than specifically for fever, diarrhoea or hysterectomy. Length of stay was similar while choice of hospital differed between insured and uninsured women. Conclusions Despite similar reported morbidity patterns and initial treatment-seeking behaviour, VimoSEWA members were more likely to be hospitalised. The data did not provide strong evidence that inpatient hospitalisation replaced outpatient treatment for common illnesses or that

  6. Towards a Managed Aquifer Recharge strategy for Gujarat, India: An economist’s dialogue with hydro-geologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Tushaar

    2014-10-01

    Gujarat state in Western India exemplifies all challenges of an agrarian economy founded on groundwater overexploitation sustained over decades by perverse energy subsidies. Major consequences are: secular decline in groundwater levels, deterioration of groundwater quality, rising energy cost of pumping, soaring carbon footprint of agriculture and growing financial burden of energy subsidies. In 2009, Government of Gujarat asked the present author, an economist, to chair a Taskforce of senior hydro-geologists and civil engineers to develop and recommend a Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) strategy for the state. This paper summarizes the recommended strategy and its underlying logic. It also describes the imperfect fusion of socio-economic and hydro-geologic perspectives that occurred in course of the working of the Taskforce and highlights the need for trans-disciplinary perspectives on groundwater governance.

  7. Development and implementation of South Asia's first heat-health action plan in Ahmedabad (Gujarat, India).

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Kim; Kulkarni, Suhas P; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Mavalankar, Dileep; Jaiswal, Anjali; Connolly, Meredith; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Rajiva, Ajit; Dutta, Priya; Deol, Bhaskar; Sanchez, Lauren; Khosla, Radhika; Webster, Peter J; Toma, Violeta E; Sheffield, Perry; Hess, Jeremy J

    2014-04-01

    Recurrent heat waves, already a concern in rapidly growing and urbanizing South Asia, will very likely worsen in a warming world. Coordinated adaptation efforts can reduce heat's adverse health impacts, however. To address this concern in Ahmedabad (Gujarat, India), a coalition has been formed to develop an evidence-based heat preparedness plan and early warning system. This paper describes the group and initial steps in the plan's development and implementation. Evidence accumulation included extensive literature review, analysis of local temperature and mortality data, surveys with heat-vulnerable populations, focus groups with health care professionals, and expert consultation. The findings and recommendations were encapsulated in policy briefs for key government agencies, health care professionals, outdoor workers, and slum communities, and synthesized in the heat preparedness plan. A 7-day probabilistic weather forecast was also developed and is used to trigger the plan in advance of dangerous heat waves. The pilot plan was implemented in 2013, and public outreach was done through training workshops, hoardings/billboards, pamphlets, and print advertisements. Evaluation activities and continuous improvement efforts are ongoing, along with plans to explore the program's scalability to other Indian cities, as Ahmedabad is the first South Asian city to address heat-health threats comprehensively. PMID:24670386

  8. New euprimate postcrania from the early Eocene of Gujarat, India, and the strepsirrhine-haplorhine divergence.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Rachel H; Rose, Kenneth D; Rana, Rajendra S; Kumar, Kishor; Sahni, Ashok; Smith, Thierry

    2016-10-01

    The oldest primates of modern aspect (euprimates) appear abruptly on the Holarctic continents during a brief episode of global warming known as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, at the beginning of the Eocene (∼56 Ma). When they first appear in the fossil record, they are already divided into two distinct clades, Adapoidea (basal members of Strepsirrhini, which includes extant lemurs, lorises, and bushbabies) and Omomyidae (basal Haplorhini, which comprises living tarsiers, monkeys, and apes). Both groups have recently been discovered in the early Eocene Cambay Shale Formation of Vastan lignite mine, Gujarat, India, where they are known mainly from teeth and jaws. The Vastan fossils are dated at ∼54.5 Myr based on associated dinoflagellates and isotope stratigraphy. Here, we describe new, exquisitely preserved limb bones of these Indian primates that reveal more primitive postcranial characteristics than have been previously documented for either clade, and differences between them are so minor that in many cases we cannot be certain to which group they belong. Nevertheless, the small distinctions observed in some elements foreshadow postcranial traits that distinguish the groups by the middle Eocene, suggesting that the Vastan primates-though slightly younger than the oldest known euprimates-may represent the most primitive known remnants of the divergence between the two great primate clades. PMID:27650579

  9. Late Holocene Palaeotsunami Events Archived along the Gujarat Coast, Western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, Drasti; Primowala, Siddharth; Bhatt, Nishith; Bhatt, Nilesh

    2016-04-01

    Gujarat state is situated in the western most part of India and has the longest coastline of 1600 km facing the Arabian Sea. Historically the coastline has been affected by tsunami waves with the latest one being the 1945 Makran tsunami which had run up height of 11 m along the Gulf of Kachchh coastline. From all over the world, several scientists recognized boulders/megaclasts, presence of mud intraclasts in sand layers and abrupt sand layers between clayey layers as the geological signatures of palaeotsunami deposits. As Gujarat coastline comprise of both rocky coastline of Saurashtra and sandy Coastline of Kachchh, providing a fascinating scenario to study palaeotsunami deposits of varied textural sizes. We studied the rocky coastline of south-western Saurashtra (i.e. From Navibander to Mangrol) and observed the presence of boulder deposits, scattered above the high tide line upto tens of meters inland. Using various physical parameters and numerical models it was estimated that a tsunami wave of 3.5 m wave height had detached and mobilized these boulders to their inland final position. Using optical dating technique, the age of deposition of the dune on which those boulders were lying was estimated to be 3.4 ± 0.23 ka. This suggests the tsunami event took place sometime during the last 3.4 ka. Similarly at the Mundra coastline of Kachchh, a shallow trench of about 2 m was dug at an elevation of 2m from high tide line. This sequence shows a typical tidal flat sedimentation comprising silty - clayey layers (unit-1 to unit 7). However unit 6 and unit 4 were sandy in nature and supported their deposition in form of a high energy marine flooding event. Geochemical analysis of this sequence showed decrease in concentration of major and trace elements at unit 4 and unit 6. Based on sedimentology and geochemical signatures we suggest that the Unit-4 was deposited on account of a storm surge as it showed seaward dipping mega ripples ~ a characteristic feature of strong

  10. Bottleneck analysis and strategic planning using Tanahashi model for childhood diarrhea management in Gujarat, Western India.

    PubMed

    Rupani, Mihir Prafulbhai; Gaonkar, Narayan T; Bhatt, Gneyaa S

    2016-10-01

    In spite of continued efforts, India is still lagging behind in achieving its MDG goals. The objectives of this study were to identify stake-holders who have a role to play in childhood diarrhea management, to identify gaps in childhood diarrhea management and to propose strategic options for relieving these gaps. Bottleneck analysis exercise was carried out based on the Tanahashi model in six High Priority Districts (HPDs) of Gujarat in period between July-November 2013. The major bottlenecks identified for Childhood Diarrhea management were poor demand generation, unsafe drinking water, poor access to improved sanitation facility and lack of equitable distribution and replenishment mechanisms for Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) packets and Zinc tablets till the front-line worker level. The main strategic options that were suggested for relieving these bottlenecks were Zinc-ORS roll out in scale-up districts, develop Information Education Communication/Behaviour Change Communication (IEC/BCC) plan for childhood diarrhea management at state/district level, use of Drug Logistics Information Management System (DLIMS) software for supply chain management of Zinc-ORS, strengthening of chlorination activity at household level, monitoring implementation of Nirmal Bharat Abhiyaan (NBA) for constructing improved sanitation facilities at household level and to develop an IEC/BCC plan for hygiene promotion and usage of sanitary latrines. Use of Zinc tablets need to be intensified through an effective scale-up. Adequate demand generation activity is needed. There is need to address safe drinking water and improved sanitation measures at household levels. Multi-sectoral engagements and ownership of Zinc-ORS program is the need of the hour.

  11. Bottleneck analysis and strategic planning using Tanahashi model for childhood diarrhea management in Gujarat, Western India.

    PubMed

    Rupani, Mihir Prafulbhai; Gaonkar, Narayan T; Bhatt, Gneyaa S

    2016-10-01

    In spite of continued efforts, India is still lagging behind in achieving its MDG goals. The objectives of this study were to identify stake-holders who have a role to play in childhood diarrhea management, to identify gaps in childhood diarrhea management and to propose strategic options for relieving these gaps. Bottleneck analysis exercise was carried out based on the Tanahashi model in six High Priority Districts (HPDs) of Gujarat in period between July-November 2013. The major bottlenecks identified for Childhood Diarrhea management were poor demand generation, unsafe drinking water, poor access to improved sanitation facility and lack of equitable distribution and replenishment mechanisms for Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) packets and Zinc tablets till the front-line worker level. The main strategic options that were suggested for relieving these bottlenecks were Zinc-ORS roll out in scale-up districts, develop Information Education Communication/Behaviour Change Communication (IEC/BCC) plan for childhood diarrhea management at state/district level, use of Drug Logistics Information Management System (DLIMS) software for supply chain management of Zinc-ORS, strengthening of chlorination activity at household level, monitoring implementation of Nirmal Bharat Abhiyaan (NBA) for constructing improved sanitation facilities at household level and to develop an IEC/BCC plan for hygiene promotion and usage of sanitary latrines. Use of Zinc tablets need to be intensified through an effective scale-up. Adequate demand generation activity is needed. There is need to address safe drinking water and improved sanitation measures at household levels. Multi-sectoral engagements and ownership of Zinc-ORS program is the need of the hour. PMID:27340871

  12. Using an emergency response infrastructure to help women who experience gender-based violence in Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, Swaminatha; Gohil, Narendrasinh; Jamshed, Roma; Prajapati, Jashvant; Rao, GV Ramana; Strehlow, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Problem Many women who experience gender-based violence may never seek any formal help because they do not feel safe or confident that they will receive help if they try. Approach A public–private-academic partnership in Gujarat, India, established a toll-free telephone helpline – called 181 Abhayam – for women experiencing gender-based violence. The partnership used existing emergency response service infrastructure to link women to phone counselling, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and government programmes. Local setting In India, the lifetime prevalence of gender-based violence is 37.2%, but less than 1% of women will ever seek help beyond their family or friends. Before implementation of the helpline, there were no toll-free helplines or centralized coordinating systems for government programmes, NGOs and emergency response services. Relevant changes In February 2014, the helpline was launched across Gujarat. In the first 10 months, the helpline assisted 9767 individuals, of which 8654 identified themselves as women. Of all calls, 79% (7694) required an intervention by phone or in person on the day they called and 43% (4190) of calls were by or for women experiencing violence. Lessons learnt Despite previous data that showed women experiencing gender-based violence rarely sought help from formal sources, women in Gujarat did use the helpline for concerns across the spectrum of gender-based violence. However, for evaluating the impact of the helpline, the operational definitions of concern categories need to be further clarified. The initial triage system for incoming calls was advantageous for handling high call volumes, but may have contributed to dropped calls. PMID:27147769

  13. Healthcare-Seeking Behaviors of Mothers regarding their Children in a Tribal Community of Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Chandwani, Haresh; Pandor, Jyotsna

    2015-01-01

    Background: The mortality and morbidity from the diseases which contribute to the deaths among children can be reduced if early intervention is made in terms of appropriate care and treatment. Thus, utmost care should be taken to prevent diseases, recognize the danger signals, and treat them urgently. Thus, healthcare-seeking behavior is of prime importance and is pivotal in the well-being of the individual as well as the community. The aims of this research were to determine the possible factors that affect the healthcare-seeking behavior of mothers for their children in a tribal community of Narmada district and to determine the reasons for not seeking curative care for children who are perceived to be sick. Methods: A cross-sectional, community-based study of 405 mothers of the Dediyapada Block in Narmada District Gujarat, India, was undertaken, using a two-stage, cluster-sampling technique. The study was conducted from June through August 2011 using the questionnaire method. The chi squared test was used to determine the association between various factors and the healthcare-seeking behaviors of mothers. Results: The mothers were in the age range of 17 to 44 years, with the mean (+SD) being 26.2+3.2 years. Ninety-one percent of the children, irrespective of gender, had completed their primary immunization. Regarding curative healthcare-seeking behavior, 16.5% of the males and 42% of the females received no treatment. Joint family structure (P<0.05, df=1, χ2=41.39), mass media exposure (P<0.05, df=1, χ2=16.42), literacy status (P<0.05, df=1, χ2=60.76), socioeconomic status of the mothers (P<0.05, df=1, χ2=56.08), and gender differences among children (P<0.05, df=1, χ2=21.18) were found to be associated significantly with the healthcare-seeking behavior of the mothers. Conclusion: Increased maternal education, generation of intensified awareness through the mass media approach, implementing gender-sensitive interventions, and counseling may have positive

  14. Promoting universal financial protection: evidence from the Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) in Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background India’s health expenditure is met mostly by households through out-of-pocket (OOP) payments at the time of illness. To protect poor families, the Indian government launched a national health insurance scheme (RSBY). Those below the national poverty line (BPL) are eligible to join the RSBY. The premium is heavily subsidised by the government. The enrolled members receive a card and can avail of free hospitalisation care up to a maximum of US$ 600 per family per year. The hospitals are reimbursed by the insurance companies. The objective of our study was to analyse the extent to which RSBY contributes to universal health coverage by protecting families from making OOP payments. Methods A two-stage stratified sampling technique was used to identify eligible BPL families in Patan district of Gujarat, India. Initially, all 517 villages were listed and 78 were selected randomly. From each of these villages, 40 BPL households were randomly selected and a structured questionnaire was administered. Interviews and discussions were also conducted among key stakeholders. Results Our sample contained 2,920 households who had enrolled in the RSBY; most were from the poorer sections of society. The average hospital admission rate for the period 2010–2011 was 40/1,000 enrolled. Women, elderly and those belonging to the lowest caste had a higher hospitalisation rate. Forty four per cent of patients who had enrolled in RSBY and had used the RSBY card still faced OOP payments at the time of hospitalisation. The median OOP payment for the above patients was US$ 80 (interquartile range, $16–$200) and was similar in both government and private hospitals. Patients incurred OOP payments mainly because they were asked to purchase medicines and diagnostics, though the same were included in the benefit package. Conclusions While the RSBY has managed to include the poor under its umbrella, it has provided only partial financial coverage. Nearly 60% of insured and admitted

  15. The transition of childbirth practices among tribal women in Gujarat, India - a grounded theory approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Under the National Rural Health Mission, the current emphasis is on achieving universal institutional births through incentive schemes as part of reforms related to childbirth in India. There has been rapid progress in achieving this goal. To understand the choices made as well as practices and perceptions related to childbirth amongst tribal women in Gujarat and how these have been influenced by modernity in general and modernity brought in through maternal health policies. Method A model depicting the transition in childbirth practices amongst tribal women was constructed using the grounded theory approach with; 8 focus groups of women, 5 in depth interviews with traditional birth attendants, women, and service providers and field notes on informal discussions and observations. Results A transition in childbirth practices across generations was noted, i.e. a shift from home births attended by Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) to hospital births. The women and their families both adapted to and shaped this transition through a constant ’trade-off between desirable and essential’- the desirable being a traditional homebirth in secure surroundings and the essential being the survival of mother and baby by going to hospital. This transition was shaped by complex multiple factors: 1) Overall economic growth and access to modern medical care influencing women’s choices, 2) External context in terms of the international maternal health discourses and national policies, especially incentive schemes for promoting institutional deliveries, 3) Socialisation into medical childbirth practices, through exposure to many years of free outreach services for maternal and child health, 4) Loss of self reliance in the community as a consequence of role redefinition and deskilling of the TBAs and 5) Cultural belief that intervention is necessary during childbirth aiding easy acceptance of medical interventions. Conclusion In resource poor settings where choices are

  16. Jarosite Precipitation from Acidic Saline Waters in Kachchh, Gujarat, India: an Appropriate Martian Analogue?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, S.; Gupta, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Banerjee, S.; Chauhan, P.; Parthasarathy, G.

    2014-12-01

    The origin of jarosite [KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6] on the Martian surface has been an intriguing problem since the Mars Exploration Rover 'Opportunity' first revealed its presence at the Meridiani Planum on Mars. To explain its origin, several terrestrial analogue sites have been studied in different geographical zones. Although several models have been suggested, there is a consensus that only the prevalence of acidic and oxidizing aqueous environmental conditions are conducive to form jarosite. In the Kachchh region of Gujarat, western India, jarosite has been recently discovered from gorges dissecting the Paleocene Matanumadh Formation sediments, that overlie basalts of the Deccan Volcanic Province. This formation comprises pebble conglomerates, carbonaceous shales and purple sandstones capped by a laterite on top. Jarosite, in association with gypsum and goethite, has been detected through FTIR and VNIR spectrometry in almost all litho-units of the succession, albeit in different modes and concentrations. The occurrence of jarosite within black shale in other parts of the world, has been attributed to the oxidation of pyrites within the shale layers. However, in shales of the Matanumadh Formation, jarosite is restricted to fractures that cut across the bedding, while the overlying purple sandstone unit only preserves jarosite in shale clasts within the sandstone. Since the sandstone overlies the black shale layer, downward percolation of sulfate-bearing water from the oxidation of pyrite within the shale layer cannot explain jarosite formation in this unit. In addition, no jarosite is observed below or within pyrite-rich lignite bearing sections in other parts of Kachchh. Alternative suggestions, that jarosite developed in the immediate aftermath of Deccan volcanism as surface waters were rendered acidic by interaction with the final phase of volcanic effusives, are also unlikely as on-going studies suggest that jarosite is not restricted to the Matanumadh Formation. The

  17. Barriers to Real-Time Medical Direction via Cellular Communication for Prehospital Emergency Care Providers in Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Strehlow, Matthew C; Rao, G.V. Ramana; Newberry, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many low- and middle-income countries depend on emergency medical technicians (EMTs), nurses, midwives, and layperson community health workers with limited training to provide a majority of emergency medical, trauma, and obstetric care in the prehospital setting. To improve timely patient care and expand provider scope of practice, nations leverage cellular phones and call centers for real-time online medical direction. However, there exist several barriers to adequate communication that impact the provision of emergency care. We sought to identify obstacles in the cellular communication process among GVK Emergency Management and Research Institute (GVK EMRI) EMTs in Gujarat, India. Methods: A convenience sample of practicing EMTs in Gujarat, India were surveyed regarding the barriers to call initiation and completion. Results: 108 EMTs completed the survey. Overall, ninety-seven (89.8%) EMTs responded that the most common reason they did not initiate a call with the call center physician was insufficient time. Forty-six (42%) EMTs reported that they were unable to call the physician one or more times during a typical workweek (approximately 5-6 twelve-hour shifts/week) due to their hands being occupied performing direct patient care. Fifty-eight (54%) EMTs reported that they were unable to reach the call center physician, despite attempts, at least once a week. Conclusion: This study identified multiple barriers to communication, including insufficient time to call for advice and inability to reach call center physicians. Identification of simple interventions and best practices may improve communication and ensure timely and appropriate prehospital care.  PMID:27551654

  18. Socio-economic, Biophysical, and Perceptional Factors Associated with Agricultural Adaptation of Smallholder Farmers in Gujarat, Northwest India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, M.; DeFries, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to negatively impact many agricultural communities across the globe, particularly smallholder farmers who often do not have access to appropriate technologies to reduce their vulnerability. To better predict which farmers will be most impacted by future climate change at a regional scale, we use remote sensing and agricultural census data to examine how cropping intensity and crop type have shifted based on rainfall variability across Gujarat, India from 1990 to 2010. Using household-level interviews, we then identify the socio-economic, biophysical, perceptional, and psychological factors associated with smallholder farmers who are the most impacted and the least able to adapt to contemporaneous rainfall variability. We interviewed 750 farmers in 2011 and 2012 that span a rainfall, irrigation, socio-economic, and caste gradient across central Gujarat. Our results show that farmers shift cropping practices in several ways based on monsoon onset, which farmers state is the main observable rainfall signal influencing cropping decisions during the monsoon season. When monsoon onset is delayed, farmers opt to plant more drought-tolerant crops, push back the date of sowing, and increase the number of irrigations used. Comparing self-reported income and yields, we find that switching crops does not improve agricultural income, shifting planting date does not influence crop yield, yet increasing the number of irrigations significantly increases yield. Future work will identify which social (e.g. social networks), psychological (e.g. risk preference), and knowledge (e.g. information sources) factors are associated with farmers who are best able to adapt to rainfall variability.

  19. Physico-chemical quality of drinking water in villages of Primary Health Centre, Waghodia, Gujarat (India).

    PubMed

    Desai, Gaurav; Vasisth, Smriti; Patel, Maharshi; Mehta, Vaibhav; Bhavsar, Bharat

    2012-07-01

    16 water samples were collected to study the physical and chemical quality of water of main source of drinking water in the villages of Primary Health Centre, Waghodia of Vadodara district of Gujarat. The values recommended by Indian Standard for Drinking Water (IS 10500:1991) were used for comparison of observed values. The study indicates that the contamination problem in these villages is not alarming at present, but Waghodia being industrial town, ground water quality may deteriorate with passage of time, which needs periodical monitoring. The study provides the local area baseline data which may be useful for the comparison of future study.

  20. Seismotectonic Models of the Three Recent Devastating SCR Earthquakes in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, W. D.; Kayal, J.

    2007-12-01

    During the last decade, three devastating earthquakes, the Killari 1993 (Mb 6.3), Jabalpur 1997 (Mb 6.0) and the Bhuj 2001 (Mw 7.7) occurred in the Stable Continental Region (SCR), Peninsular India. First, the September 30, 1993 Killari earthquake (Mb 6.3) occurred in the Deccan province of central India, in the Latur district of Maharashtra state. The local geology in the area is obscured by the late Cretaceous-Eocene basalt flows, referred to as the Deccan traps. This makes it difficult to recognize the geological surface faults that could be associated with the Killari earthquake. The epicentre was reported at 18.090N and 76.620E, and the focal depth at 7 +/- 1 km was precisely estimated by waveform inversion (Chen and Kao, 1995). The maximum intensity reached to VIII and the earthquake caused a loss of about 10,000 lives and severe damage to property. The May 22, 1997 Jabalpur earthquake (Mb 6.0), epicentre at 23.080N and 80.060E, is a well studied earthquake in the Son-Narmada-Tapti (SONATA) seismic zone. A notable aspects of this earthquake is that it was the first significant event in India to be recorded by 10 broadband seismic stations which were established in 1996 by the India Meteorological Department (IMD). The focal depth was well estimated using the "converted phases" of the broadband seismograms. The focal depth was given in the lower crust at a depth of 35 +/- 1 km, similar to the moderate earthquakes reported from the Amazona ancient rift system in SCR of South America. Maximum MSK intensity of the Jabalpur earthquake reached to VIII in the MSK scale and this earthquake killed about 50 people in the Jabalpur area. Finally, the Bhuj earthquake (MW 7.7) of January 26, 2001 in the Gujarat state, northwestern India, was felt across the whole country, and killed about 20,000 people. The maximum intensity level reached X. The epicenter of the earthquake is reported at 23.400N and 70.280E, and the well estimated focal depth at 25 km. A total of about

  1. Improving quality of life with new menstrual hygiene practices among adolescent tribal girls in rural Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shobha P; Nair, Rajesh; Shah, Pankaj P; Modi, Dhiren K; Desai, Shrey A; Desai, Lata

    2013-05-01

    The Government of India has started a new scheme aimed at offering sanitary pads at a subsidized rate to adolescent girls in rural areas. This paper addresses menstrual health and hygiene practices among adolescent girls in a rural, tribal region of South Gujarat, India, and their experiences using old cloths, a new soft cloth (falalin) and sanitary pads. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected in a community-based study over six months, with a pre-and post- design, among 164 adolescent girls from eight villages. Questions covered knowledge of menstruation, menstrual practices, quality of life, experience and satisfaction with the different cloths/pads and symptoms of reproductive tract infections. Knowledge regarding changes of puberty, source of menstrual blood and route of urine and menstrual flow was low. At baseline 90% of girls were using old cloths. At the end of the study, 68% of adolescent girls said their first choice was falalin cloths, while 32% said it was sanitary pads. None of them preferred old cloths. The introduction of falalin cloths improved quality of life significantly (p<0.000) and to a lesser extent also sanitary pads. No significant reduction was observed in self-reported symptoms of reproductive tract infections. Falalin cloths were culturally more acceptable as they were readily available, easy to use and cheaper than sanitary pads.

  2. Has Chiranjeevi Yojana changed the geographic availability of free comprehensive emergency obstetric care services in Gujarat, India?

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Kranti Suresh; Yasobant, Sandul; Patel, Amit; Upadhyay, Ashish; Mavalankar, Dileep V.

    2015-01-01

    Background The high rate of maternal mortality in India is of grave concern. Poor rural Indian women are most vulnerable to preventable maternal deaths primarily because they have limited availability of affordable emergency obstetric care (EmOC) within reasonable geographic proximity. Scarcity of obstetricians in the public sector combined with financial barriers to accessing private sector obstetrician services preclude this underserved population from availing lifesaving functions of comprehensive EmOC such as C-section. In order to overcome this limitation, Government of Gujarat initiated a unique public–private partnership program called Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY) in 2005. The program envisaged leveraging private sector providers to increase availability and thereby accessibility of EmOC care for vulnerable sections of society. Under CY, private sector providers render obstetric care services to poor women at no cost to patients. This paper examines the CY's effectiveness in improving availability of CEmOC services between 2006 and 2012 in three districts of Gujarat, India. Methods Primary data on facility locations, EmOC functionality, and obstetric bed availability were collected in the years 2012 and 2013 in three study districts. Secondary data from Census 2001 and 2011 were used along with required geographic information from Topo sheets and Google Earth maps. ArcGIS version 10 was used to analyze the availability of services using two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method. Results Our analysis suggests that the availability of CEmOC services within reasonable travel distance has greatly improved in all three study districts as a result of CY. We also show that the declining participation of the private sector did not result in an increase in distance to the nearest facility, but the extent of availability of providers for several villages was reduced. Spatial and temporal analyses in this paper provide a comprehensive understanding of trends in the

  3. Fossil Steginoporellid (Cheilostomata: Neocheilostomina), Bryozoa from the Tertiary sediments of Western Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonar, Mohan A.; Gaikwad, Sharad G.

    2013-02-01

    Five species of Steginoporella from the Palaeogene rocks of the Western Kachchh, Gujarat are described in this paper. Out of five steginoporellids, S. mathuri n.sp., S. murachbanensis n.sp. and S. chiplonkari n.sp. are new to science; S. bhujensis is already reported from this region; and Steginoporella sp. indet is reported for the first time in these rocks. All these species show Indo-Pacific affinities. The occurrence of Steginoporella from Middle Eocene to Early Miocene indicates that two stages of radiation had taken place in Kachchh. Phylogenetic analysis using PAST programme indicates that S. mathuri is very distinct from other species of Steginoporella; while S. murachbanensis and S. bhujensis form the same clade.

  4. Naphthalene degradation by bacterial consortium (DV-AL) developed from Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vilas; Jain, Siddharth; Madamwar, Datta

    2012-03-01

    Naphthalene degrading bacterial consortium (DV-AL) was developed by enrichment culture technique from sediment collected from the Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard, Gujarat, India. The 16S rRNA gene based molecular analyzes revealed that the bacterial consortium (DV-AL) consisted of four strains namely, Achromobacter sp. BAB239, Pseudomonas sp. DV-AL2, Enterobacter sp. BAB240 and Pseudomonas sp. BAB241. Consortium DV-AL was able to degrade 1000 ppm of naphthalene in Bushnell Haas medium (BHM) containing peptone (0.1%) as co-substrate with an initial pH of 8.0 at 37°C under shaking conditions (150 rpm) within 24h. Maximum growth rate and naphthalene degradation rate were found to be 0.0389 h(-1) and 80 mg h(-1), respectively. Consortium DV-AL was able to utilize other aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, phenol, carbazole, petroleum oil, diesel fuel, and phenanthrene and 2-methyl naphthalene as sole carbon source. Consortium DV-AL was also efficient to degrade naphthalene in the presence of other pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals.

  5. Decadal changes in the land use/land cover and shoreline along the coastal districts of southern Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Misra, A; Balaji, R

    2015-07-01

    The coastal zone along the districts of Surat, Navsari, and Valsad in southern Gujarat, India, is reported to be facing serious environmental challenges in the form of shoreline erosion, wetland loss, and man-made encroachments. This study assesses the decadal land use/ land cover (LULC) changes in these three districts for the years 1990, 2001, and 2014 using satellite datasets of Landsat TM, ETM, and OLI. The LULC changes are identified by using band ratios as a pre-classification step, followed by implementation of hybrid classification (a combination of supervised and unsupervised classification). An accuracy assessment is carried out for each dataset, and the overall accuracy ranges from 90 to 95%. It is observed that the spatial extents of aquaculture, urban built-up, and barren classes have appreciated over time, whereas the coverage of mudflats has depreciated due to rapid urbanization. The changes in the shoreline of these districts have also been analyzed for the same years, and significant changes are found in the form of shoreline erosion. The LULC maps prepared as well as the shoreline change analysis done for this study area will enable the local decision makers to adopt better land-use planning and shoreline protection measures, which will further aid in sustainable future developments in this region.

  6. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Malaria in Urban Ahmedabad (Gujarat), India: Identification of Hot Spots and Risk Factors for Targeted Intervention.

    PubMed

    Parizo, Justin; Sturrock, Hugh J W; Dhiman, Ramesh C; Greenhouse, Bryan

    2016-09-01

    The world population, especially in developing countries, has experienced a rapid progression of urbanization over the last half century. Urbanization has been accompanied by a rise in cases of urban infectious diseases, such as malaria. The complexity and heterogeneity of the urban environment has made study of specific urban centers vital for urban malaria control programs, whereas more generalizable risk factor identification also remains essential. Ahmedabad city, India, is a large urban center located in the state of Gujarat, which has experienced a significant Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum disease burden. Therefore, a targeted analysis of malaria in Ahmedabad city was undertaken to identify spatiotemporal patterns of malaria, risk factors, and methods of predicting future malaria cases. Malaria incidence in Ahmedabad city was found to be spatially heterogeneous, but temporally stable, with high spatial correlation between species. Because of this stability, a prediction method utilizing historic cases from prior years and seasons was used successfully to predict which areas of Ahmedabad city would experience the highest malaria burden and could be used to prospectively target interventions. Finally, spatial analysis showed that normalized difference vegetation index, proximity to water sources, and location within Ahmedabad city relative to the dense urban core were the best predictors of malaria incidence. Because of the heterogeneity of urban environments and urban malaria itself, the study of specific large urban centers is vital to assist in allocating resources and informing future urban planning.

  7. Occurrence and distribution of selected heavy metals and boron in groundwater of the Gulf of Khambhat region, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Devang; Survaiya, Mayur D; Basha, Shaik; Mandal, Subir K; Thorat, R B; Haldar, Soumya; Goel, Sangita; Dave, Himal; Baxi, Krushnakant; Trivedi, Rohit H; Mody, Kalpana H

    2014-03-01

    The concentration of selected heavy metals, like As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn as well as B, was measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in groundwater samples from various locations in the Gulf of Khambhat (GoK), an inlet of the Arabian Sea in the state of Gujarat, India, during post-monsoon, winter, and pre-monsoon seasons in a year. Most heavy elements are characterized by low mobility under slightly alkaline and reducing conditions; concentrations in confined aquifers are smaller than the maximum permissible values for drinking water. The temporal changes indicate that a majority of metals is entering the aquifer during monsoon. Principle component analysis of the heavy metal data suggests that Co, Cu, Cd, and Zn are interrelated with each other and derived significantly from anthropogenic route, while input of Pb and Cr may be due to atmospheric deposition in the study area. Both weathering of rocks and anthropogenic input were found to be main sources of elements in the groundwater. The heavy metal levels in groundwaters of the GoK region in comparison with some of the European and Asian sites were higher; however, these metal levels were found to be comparable with few urban sites in the world.

  8. A unique trend of murder-suicide in the Jamnagar region of Gujarat, India (a retrospective study of 5 years).

    PubMed

    Gupta, B D; Gambhir Singh, O

    2008-05-01

    Jamnagar region, Gujarat state, enjoys a relatively low incidence of homicide in India. In the 5 year period from 2000 to 2004, 8 mothers committed 13 murders involving 3 male and 10 female victims and in every case it was followed by suicide of the assailant mothers. During the study the annual incidence of murder-suicide was about 1.8 cases. All the assailants were mothers and the victims were their small children in the age group of 6 months to 7 years. Five incidents took place in rural areas and three in urban areas. It was prevalent only in low socio-economic families. Methods both for killing and suicide were either burning or drowning. All the mothers were legally married and living with the family. Family and family related matters were the main motives for killing. In one case there was history of depression of the mother due to her previous miscarriage. Alcohol consumption or drug abuse was not seen even in a single case. All cases fell in the altruistic category of filicide-suicide. PMID:18423359

  9. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Malaria in Urban Ahmedabad (Gujarat), India: Identification of Hot Spots and Risk Factors for Targeted Intervention.

    PubMed

    Parizo, Justin; Sturrock, Hugh J W; Dhiman, Ramesh C; Greenhouse, Bryan

    2016-09-01

    The world population, especially in developing countries, has experienced a rapid progression of urbanization over the last half century. Urbanization has been accompanied by a rise in cases of urban infectious diseases, such as malaria. The complexity and heterogeneity of the urban environment has made study of specific urban centers vital for urban malaria control programs, whereas more generalizable risk factor identification also remains essential. Ahmedabad city, India, is a large urban center located in the state of Gujarat, which has experienced a significant Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum disease burden. Therefore, a targeted analysis of malaria in Ahmedabad city was undertaken to identify spatiotemporal patterns of malaria, risk factors, and methods of predicting future malaria cases. Malaria incidence in Ahmedabad city was found to be spatially heterogeneous, but temporally stable, with high spatial correlation between species. Because of this stability, a prediction method utilizing historic cases from prior years and seasons was used successfully to predict which areas of Ahmedabad city would experience the highest malaria burden and could be used to prospectively target interventions. Finally, spatial analysis showed that normalized difference vegetation index, proximity to water sources, and location within Ahmedabad city relative to the dense urban core were the best predictors of malaria incidence. Because of the heterogeneity of urban environments and urban malaria itself, the study of specific large urban centers is vital to assist in allocating resources and informing future urban planning. PMID:27382081

  10. Spectral pathways for exploration of secondary uranium: An investigation in the desertic tracts of Rajasthan and Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharti, Rishikesh; Kalimuthu, R.; Ramakrishnan, D.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims at identifying potential zones of secondary uranium enrichment using hyperspectral remote sensing, γ-ray spectrometry, fluorimetry and geochemical techniques in the western Rajasthan and northern Gujarat, India. The investigated area has suitable source rocks, conducive past-, and present-climate that can facilitate such enrichment. This enrichment process involves extensive weathering of uranium bearing source rocks, leaching of uranyl compounds in groundwater, and their precipitation in chemical deltas along with duricrusts like calcretes and gypcretes. Spatial distribution of groundwater calcretes (that are rich in Mg-calcite) and gypcretes (that are rich in gypsum) along palaeochannels and chemical deltas were mapped using hyperspectral remote sensing data based on spectral absorptions in 1.70 μm, 2.16 μm, 2.21 μm, 2.33 μm, 2.44 μm wavelength regions. Subsequently based on field radiometric survey, zones of U anomalies were identified and samples of duricrusts and groundwater were collected for geochemical analyses. Anomalous concentration of U (2345.7 Bq/kg) and Th (142.3 Bq/kg) are observed in both duricrusts and groundwater (U-1791 μg/l, Th-34 μg/l) within the palaeo-delta and river confluence. The estimated carnotite Solubility Index also indicates the secondary enrichment of U and the likelihood of occurrence of an unconventional deposit.

  11. Development and Implementation of South Asia’s First Heat-Health Action Plan in Ahmedabad (Gujarat, India)

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, Kim; Kulkarni, Suhas P.; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Mavalankar, Dileep; Jaiswal, Anjali; Connolly, Meredith; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Rajiva, Ajit; Dutta, Priya; Deol, Bhaskar; Sanchez, Lauren; Khosla, Radhika; Webster, Peter J.; Toma, Violeta E.; Sheffield, Perry; Hess, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent heat waves, already a concern in rapidly growing and urbanizing South Asia, will very likely worsen in a warming world. Coordinated adaptation efforts can reduce heat’s adverse health impacts, however. To address this concern in Ahmedabad (Gujarat, India), a coalition has been formed to develop an evidence-based heat preparedness plan and early warning system. This paper describes the group and initial steps in the plan’s development and implementation. Evidence accumulation included extensive literature review, analysis of local temperature and mortality data, surveys with heat-vulnerable populations, focus groups with health care professionals, and expert consultation. The findings and recommendations were encapsulated in policy briefs for key government agencies, health care professionals, outdoor workers, and slum communities, and synthesized in the heat preparedness plan. A 7-day probabilistic weather forecast was also developed and is used to trigger the plan in advance of dangerous heat waves. The pilot plan was implemented in 2013, and public outreach was done through training workshops, hoardings/billboards, pamphlets, and print advertisements. Evaluation activities and continuous improvement efforts are ongoing, along with plans to explore the program’s scalability to other Indian cities, as Ahmedabad is the first South Asian city to address heat-health threats comprehensively. PMID:24670386

  12. Decadal changes in the land use/land cover and shoreline along the coastal districts of southern Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Misra, A; Balaji, R

    2015-07-01

    The coastal zone along the districts of Surat, Navsari, and Valsad in southern Gujarat, India, is reported to be facing serious environmental challenges in the form of shoreline erosion, wetland loss, and man-made encroachments. This study assesses the decadal land use/ land cover (LULC) changes in these three districts for the years 1990, 2001, and 2014 using satellite datasets of Landsat TM, ETM, and OLI. The LULC changes are identified by using band ratios as a pre-classification step, followed by implementation of hybrid classification (a combination of supervised and unsupervised classification). An accuracy assessment is carried out for each dataset, and the overall accuracy ranges from 90 to 95%. It is observed that the spatial extents of aquaculture, urban built-up, and barren classes have appreciated over time, whereas the coverage of mudflats has depreciated due to rapid urbanization. The changes in the shoreline of these districts have also been analyzed for the same years, and significant changes are found in the form of shoreline erosion. The LULC maps prepared as well as the shoreline change analysis done for this study area will enable the local decision makers to adopt better land-use planning and shoreline protection measures, which will further aid in sustainable future developments in this region. PMID:26108747

  13. Modelling the impact and cost-effectiveness of the HIV intervention programme amongst commercial sex workers in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Isaac C-H; Guinness, Lorna; Vickerman, Peter; Watts, Charlotte; Vannela, Gangadhar; Vadhvana, Jagdish; Foss, Anna M; Malodia, Laxman; Gandhi, Meena; Jani, Gaurang

    2007-01-01

    Background Ahmedabad is an industrial city in Gujarat, India. In 2003, the HIV prevalence among commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Ahmedabad reached 13.0%. In response, the Jyoti Sangh HIV prevention programme for CSWs was initiated, which involves outreach, peer education, condom distribution, and free STD clinics. Two surveys were performed among CSWs in 1999 and 2003. This study estimates the cost-effectiveness of the Jyoti Sangh HIV prevention programme. Methods A dynamic mathematical model was used with survey and intervention-specific data from Ahmedabad to estimate the HIV impact of the Jyoti Sangh project for the 51 months between the two CSW surveys. Uncertainty analysis was used to obtain different model fits to the HIV/STI epidemiological data, producing a range for the HIV impact of the project. Financial and economic costs of the intervention were estimated from the provider's perspective for the same time period. The cost per HIV-infection averted was estimated. Results Over 51 months, projections suggest that the intervention averted 624 and 5,131 HIV cases among the CSWs and their clients, respectively. This equates to a 54% and 51% decrease in the HIV infections that would have occurred among the CSWs and clients without the intervention. In the absence of intervention, the model predicts that the HIV prevalence amongst the CSWs in 2003 would have been 26%, almost twice that with the intervention. Cost per HIV infection averted, excluding and including peer educator economic costs, was USD 59 and USD 98 respectively. Conclusion This study demonstrated that targeted CSW interventions in India can be cost-effective, and highlights the importance of replicating this effort in other similar settings. PMID:17683595

  14. Revision of the Cretaceous fossil plant-assemblage from Gardeshwar (Gujarat, India): A conifer dominated floral association from an Upper Gondwana sequence on the West Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Brajendra Nath; King, Sarah C.; Hilton, Jason

    2013-09-01

    A small but diverse fossil plant assemblage from Gardeshwar in Gujarat Province of western India is reinvestigated, based on analysis of recently collected specimens that represent previously unrecognised taxa in combination with a critical review of previously reported taxa from the site. The assemblage is dominated by conifers including Brachyphyllum Brongniart, Elatocladus Halle, Pagiophyllum Heer, the cone Conites Sternberg, and ovulate scales of an araucarian conifer. Other plant groups are rare but include notable occurrences of the pteridophytes Lycopodites Lindley and Hutton and Gleichenia Smith, and the seed fern Sphenopteris (Brongniart) Sternberg. This assemblage is important as it represents the only datable fossils available from the Gardeshwar Formation and from the information presented we conclude it belongs to the Lower Cretaceous Allocladus-Brachyphyllum-Pagiophyllum floral biozone. The Gardeshwar assemblage association is unusual as it lacks the distinctive genus Allocladus but includes other taxa more typical of the Lower Cretaceous fern-dominated Weichselia-Onychiopsis-Gleichenia floral biozone, and may represent a transitional assemblage with characters of both biozones. However, this investigation highlights the lack of detailed stratigraphic analyses on the Lower Cretaceous sedimentary sequences of the west coast of India from which it remains uncertain if these two ‘biozones' are of different ages or whether they represent stratigraphically contemporaneous but ecologically distinct environments.

  15. Perceptions regarding barriers and facilitators to combination antiretroviral therapy adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS in Gujarat, India: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sangita; Baxi, Rajendra K.; Patel, Shilpa N.; Golin, Carol E; Mehta, Mansi; Bakshi, Harsh; Shingrapure, Kalpita; Modi, Ekta; Coonor, Priyanka; Mehta, Kedar

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To know the perceptions regarding barriers and facilitators to cART adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS Materials and Methods: To adapt U.S. based SAFETALK “prevention with positives” intervention to be culturally relevant in Gujarat, India in assisting PLWHA, a formative study was conducted. We conducted 30 in-depth interviews with PLWHA in the local language, assessing the experiences, perceived barriers, and facilitators to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) among PLWHA in Gujarat. PLWHA were selected from the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centre (VCTC) in Gujarat. To triangulate interview findings, we conducted two focus group discussions (FGDs) with medical and non-medical providers, respectively. Results: Travel and commuting to clinic, fear of possible physical reactions, high cost of ART from private practitioners, CD4 count being in normal limits and resistance to medication acted as barriers to cART adherence. Initiation of cART was facilitated by family members′ suggestion, advice of treating doctors and counselors, appropriate counseling before starting cART, belief that cART would aid in living a better and longer life and due to lowering of the CD4 count. Interpretation and Conclusions: Our study suggests that several issues need to be considered when providing cART. Further research is needed to study interactions between patients and their health care providers. PMID:23188935

  16. Usage of EMBRACE(TM) in Gujarat, India: Survey of Paediatricians.

    PubMed

    Nimbalkar, Somashekhar; Patel, Harshil; Dongara, Ashish; Patel, Dipen V; Bansal, Satvik

    2014-01-01

    Aim. EMBRACE(TM) is an innovative, low cost infant warmer for use in neonates. It contains phase change material, which stays at constant temperature for 6 hours. We surveyed paediatricians using EMBRACE(TM) regarding benefits, risks, and setup in which it was used in Gujarat. Methods. Questionnaire was administered telephonically to 52 out of 53 paediatricians. Results. EMBRACE(TM) was used for an average of 8.27 (range of 3-18, SD = 3.84) months by paediatricians. All used it for thermoregulation during transfers, for average (SD) duration of 42 (0.64) m per transfer, 62.7% used it at mother's side for average (SD) 11.06 (7.89) h per day, and 3.9% prescribed it at home. It was used in low birth weight neonates only by 56.9% while 43.1% used it for all neonates. While hyperthermia was not reported, 5.9% felt that EMBRACE(TM) did not prevent hypothermia. About 54.9% felt that they could not monitor the newborn during EMBRACE(TM) use. Of paediatricians who practiced kangaroo mother care (KMC), 7.7% have limited/stopped/decreased the practice of KMC and substituted it with EMBRACE(TM). Conclusions. EMBRACE(TM) was acceptable to most but concerns related to monitoring neonates and disinfection remained. Most paediatricians felt that it did not hamper KMC practice. PMID:25530887

  17. Neo-deterministic definition of earthquake hazard scenarios: a multiscale application to India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peresan, Antonella; Magrin, Andrea; Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Rastogi, Bal K.; Vaccari, Franco; Cozzini, Stefano; Bisignano, Davide; Romanelli, Fabio; Panza, Giuliano F.; Ashish, Mr; Mir, Ramees R.

    2014-05-01

    performed to understand the influence of the model characteristics on the computed ground shaking scenarios. For massive parametric tests, or for the repeated generation of large scale hazard maps, the methodology can take advantage of more advanced computational platforms, ranging from GRID computing infrastructures to HPC dedicated clusters up to Cloud computing. In such a way, scientists can deal efficiently with the variety and complexity of the potential earthquake sources, and perform parametric studies to characterize the related uncertainties. NDSHA provides realistic time series of expected ground motion readily applicable for seismic engineering analysis and other mitigation actions. The methodology has been successfully applied to strategic buildings, lifelines and cultural heritage sites, and for the purpose of seismic microzoning in several urban areas worldwide. A web application is currently being developed that facilitates the access to the NDSHA methodology and the related outputs by end-users, who are interested in reliable territorial planning and in the design and construction of buildings and infrastructures in seismic areas. At the same, the web application is also shaping up as an advanced educational tool to explore interactively how seismic waves are generated at the source, propagate inside structural models, and build up ground shaking scenarios. We illustrate the preliminary results obtained from a multiscale application of NDSHA approach to the territory of India, zooming from large scale hazard maps of ground shaking at bedrock, to the definition of local scale earthquake scenarios for selected sites in the Gujarat state (NW India). The study aims to provide the community (e.g. authorities and engineers) with advanced information for earthquake risk mitigation, which is particularly relevant to Gujarat in view of the rapid development and urbanization of the region.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Textile Azo Dye-Decolorizing and -Degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PFK10, Isolated from the Common Effluent Treatment Plant of the Ankleshwar Industrial Area of Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Faldu, P. R.; Kothari, V. V.; Kothari, C. R.; Rawal, C. M.; Domadia, K. K.; Patel, P. A.; Bhimani, H. D.; Raval, V. H.; Parmar, N. R.; Nathani, N. M.; Koringa, P. G.; Joshi, C. G.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PFK10, isolated from the common effluent treatment plant (CETP) of the Ankleshwar industrial area of Gujarat, India. The 6.04-Mb draft genome sequence of strain PFK10 provides information about the genes encoding enzymes that enable the strain to decolorize and degrade textile azo dye. PMID:24503984

  19. Appropriate Management of Acute Diarrhea in Children Among Public and Private Providers in Gujarat, India: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Walker, Christa L Fischer; Taneja, Sunita; LeFevre, Amnesty; Black, Robert E; Mazumder, Sarmila

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries. In 2006, the Indian government formally endorsed the World Health Organization guidelines that introduced zinc supplementation and low-osmolarity oral rehydration salts (ORS) for the treatment of diarrhea. Despite this, zinc is rarely prescribed and has not been available in the public sector in India until very recently. The Diarrhea Alleviation Through Zinc and ORS Treatment (DAZT) project was implemented in Gujarat between 2011 and 2013 to accelerate the uptake of zinc and ORS among public and private providers in 6 rural districts. As part of an external evaluation of DAZT, we interviewed 619 randomly selected facility- and community-based public and private providers 2-3 months after a 1-day training event had been completed (or, in the case of private providers, after at least 1 drug-detailing visit by a pharmaceutical representative had occurred) and supplies were in place. The purpose of the interviews was to assess providers' knowledge of appropriate treatment for diarrhea in children, reported treatment practices, and availability of drugs in stock. More than 80% of all providers interviewed reported they had received training or a drug-detailing visit on diarrheal treatment in the past 6 months. Most providers in all cadres (range, 68% to 100%) correctly described how to prepare ORS and nearly all (range, 90% to 100%) reported routinely prescribing it to treat diarrhea in children. Reported routine prescription of zinc was lower, ranging from 62% among private providers to 96% among auxiliary nurse-midwives. Among providers who reported ever not recommending zinc (n = 242), the 2 most frequently reported reasons for not doing so were not completely understanding zinc for diarrhea treatment and not having zinc in stock at the time of contact with the patient. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, recent training or

  20. Appropriate Management of Acute Diarrhea in Children Among Public and Private Providers in Gujarat, India: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Walker, Christa L Fischer; Taneja, Sunita; LeFevre, Amnesty; Black, Robert E; Mazumder, Sarmila

    2015-05-07

    Diarrhea remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries. In 2006, the Indian government formally endorsed the World Health Organization guidelines that introduced zinc supplementation and low-osmolarity oral rehydration salts (ORS) for the treatment of diarrhea. Despite this, zinc is rarely prescribed and has not been available in the public sector in India until very recently. The Diarrhea Alleviation Through Zinc and ORS Treatment (DAZT) project was implemented in Gujarat between 2011 and 2013 to accelerate the uptake of zinc and ORS among public and private providers in 6 rural districts. As part of an external evaluation of DAZT, we interviewed 619 randomly selected facility- and community-based public and private providers 2-3 months after a 1-day training event had been completed (or, in the case of private providers, after at least 1 drug-detailing visit by a pharmaceutical representative had occurred) and supplies were in place. The purpose of the interviews was to assess providers' knowledge of appropriate treatment for diarrhea in children, reported treatment practices, and availability of drugs in stock. More than 80% of all providers interviewed reported they had received training or a drug-detailing visit on diarrheal treatment in the past 6 months. Most providers in all cadres (range, 68% to 100%) correctly described how to prepare ORS and nearly all (range, 90% to 100%) reported routinely prescribing it to treat diarrhea in children. Reported routine prescription of zinc was lower, ranging from 62% among private providers to 96% among auxiliary nurse-midwives. Among providers who reported ever not recommending zinc (n = 242), the 2 most frequently reported reasons for not doing so were not completely understanding zinc for diarrhea treatment and not having zinc in stock at the time of contact with the patient. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, recent training or

  1. Palynostratigraphy and depositional environment of Vastan Lignite Mine (Early Eocene), Gujarat, western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M. R.; Sahni, Ashok; Rana, R. S.; Verma, Poonam

    2013-04-01

    Early Eocene sedimentary successions of south Asia, are marked by the development of extensive fossil-bearing, lignite-rich sediments prior to the collision of India with Asia and provide data on contemporary equatorial faunal and vegetational assemblages. One such productive locality in western India is the Vastan Lignite Mine representing approximately a 54-52 Ma sequence dated by the presence of benthic zone marker species, Nummulites burdigalensis burdigalensis. The present study on Vastan Lignite Mine succession is based on the spore-pollen and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages and documents contemporary vegetational changes. 86 genera and 105 species belonging to algal remains (including dinoflagellate cysts), fungal remains, pteridophytic spores and angiospermous pollen grains have been recorded. On the basis of first appearance, acme and decline of palynotaxa, three cenozones have been recognized and broadly reflect changing palaeodepositional environments. These are in ascending stratigraphic order (i) Proxapertites Spp. Cenozone, (ii) Operculodinium centrocarpum Cenozone and (iii) Spinizonocolpites Spp. Cenozone. The basal sequence is lagoonal, palm-dominated and overlain by more open marine conditions with dinoflagellate cysts and at the top, mangrove elements are dominant. The succession has also provided a unique record of fish, lizards, snakes, and mammals.

  2. Effect of Chiranjeevi Yojana on institutional deliveries and neonatal and maternal outcomes in Gujarat, India: a difference-in-differences analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bauhoff, Sebastian; La Forgia, Gerard; Babiarz, Kimberly Singer; Singh, Kultar; Miller, Grant

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the effect of the Chiranjeevi Yojana programme, a public–private partnership to improve maternal and neonatal health in Gujarat, India. Methods A household survey (n = 5597 households) was conducted in Gujarat to collect retrospective data on births within the preceding 5 years. In an observational study using a difference-in-differences design, the relationship between the Chiranjeevi Yojana programme and the probability of delivery in health-care institutions, the probability of obstetric complications and mean household expenditure for deliveries was subsequently examined. In multivariate regressions, individual and household characteristics as well as district and year fixed effects were controlled for. Data from the most recent District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3) wave conducted in Gujarat (n = 6484 households) were used in parallel analyses. Findings Between 2005 and 2010, the Chiranjeevi Yojana programme was not associated with a statistically significant change in the probability of institutional delivery (2.42 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, CI: −5.90 to 10.74) or of birth-related complications (6.16 percentage points; 95% CI: −2.63 to 14.95). Estimates using DLHS-3 data were similar. Analyses of household expenditures indicated that mean household expenditure for private-sector deliveries had either not fallen or had fallen very little under the Chiranjeevi Yojana programme. Conclusion The Chiranjeevi Yojana programme appears to have had no significant impact on institutional delivery rates or maternal health outcomes. The absence of estimated reductions in household spending for private-sector deliveries deserves further study. PMID:24700978

  3. Carbonate-Dissolving Bacteria from ‘Miliolite’, a Bioclastic Limestone, from Gopnath, Gujarat, Western India

    PubMed Central

    Subrahmanyam, Gangavarapu; Vaghela, Ravi; Bhatt, Nilesh Pinakinprasad; Archana, Gattupalli

    2012-01-01

    In the present investigation, the abundance and molecular phylogeny of part of the culturable bacterial population involved in the dissolution of “miliolite”, a bioclastic limestone, from Gopnath, India, was studied. Carbonate-dissolving bacteria were isolated, enumerated and screened for their ability to dissolve miliolite. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) indicated 14 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to be distributed in 5 different clades at a similarity coefficient of 0.85. Then, 16S rRNA sequence analysis helped to decipher that the majority of carbonate-dissolving bacteria were affiliated to phyla Firmicutes (Families Bacillaceae and Staphylococcaceae) and Actinobacteria (Family Promicromonosporaceae) indicating their role in miliolite weathering. PMID:22446314

  4. Loss-To-Follow-Up on Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis Treatment in Gujarat, India: The WHEN and WHO of It

    PubMed Central

    Shringarpure, Kalpita S.; Isaakidis, Petros; Sagili, Karuna D.; Baxi, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a rising global threat to public health and concerted efforts for its treatment are diluted if the outcomes are not successful, loss to follow up (LFU) being one of them. It is therefore necessary to know the proportion and the associated reasons for LFU and devise effective patient-centered strategies to improve retention in care. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted at the MDR-TB treatment site (DR-TB Site)in Central Gujarat among all patients registered from February 2010 to June 2013.LFU patients were defined as those whose treatment was interrupted for two or more consecutive months for any reason. Descriptive statistics, survival analysis and multivariate modeling were used to determine the proportion of patients LFU and to assess associations between LFU and selected demographic and clinical factors. Results A total of 796 patients were enrolled during the study period; 71.9% were male and the median age was 35 years [Interquartile range (IQR) 27-45].The overall proportion of LFU patients was 153/796 (19.2%).The majority of LFU patients (133/153 i.e.87%) were lost within the first 6 months of treatment. Ambulatory treatment initiation (adjusted Hazards ratio aHR=2.63, CI:1.01-6.86), different providers in IP and CP ( aHR=1.27, CI:1.18-1.38)and culture conversion after more than 4 months of treatment(aHR=1.34, CI: 1.21-1.49)were found to be significantly associated with LFU in multivariate models. Conclusions A high proportion of LFU among patients on MDR-TB treatment was found in a programmatic setting in India. Clinical but equally important programmatic factors were associated with LFU, accounting for one-fifth of all the outcomes of MDR-TB treatment. Proper training for DOT providers and aggressive counseling and health system strengthening with patient friendly follow up services may help reduce LFU. PMID:26167891

  5. Estimation of seismic ground motions using deterministic approach for major cities of Gujarat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, J.; Choudhury, D.

    2012-06-01

    A deterministic seismic hazard analysis has been carried out for various sites of the major cities (Ahmedabad, Surat, Bhuj, Jamnagar and Junagadh) of the Gujarat region in India to compute the seismic hazard exceeding a certain level in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and to estimate maximum possible PGA at each site at bed rock level. The seismic sources in Gujarat are very uncertain and recurrence intervals of regional large earthquakes are not well defined. Because the instrumental records of India specifically in the Gujarat region are far from being satisfactory for modeling the seismic hazard using the probabilistic approach, an attempt has been made in this study to accomplish it through the deterministic approach. In this regard, all small and large faults of the Gujarat region were evaluated to obtain major fault systems. The empirical relations suggested by earlier researchers for the estimation of maximum magnitude of earthquake motion with various properties of faults like length, surface area, slip rate, etc. have been applied to those faults to obtain the maximum earthquake magnitude. For the analysis, seven different ground motion attenuation relations (GMARs) of strong ground motion have been utilized to calculate the maximum horizontal ground accelerations for each major city of Gujarat. Epistemic uncertainties in the hazard computations are accounted for within a logic-tree framework by considering the controlling parameters like b-value, maximum magnitude and ground motion attenuation relations (GMARs). The corresponding deterministic spectra have been prepared for each major city for the 50th and 84th percentiles of ground motion occurrence. These deterministic spectra are further compared with the specified spectra of Indian design code IS:1893-Part I (2002) to validate them for further practical use. Close examination of the developed spectra reveals that the expected ground motion values become high for the Kachchh region i.e. Bhuj

  6. Variations of seismic velocities in the Kachchh rift zone, Gujarat, India, during 2001-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Prantik

    2016-03-01

    We herein study variations of seismic velocities in the main rupture zone (MRZ) of the Mw 7.7 2001 Bhuj earthquake for the time periods [2001-05, 2006-08, 2009-10 and 2011-13], by constructing dVp(%), dVs(%) and d(Vp/Vs)(%) tomograms using high-quality arrival times of 28,902 P- and 28,696 S-waves from 4644 precise JHD (joint hypocentral determination) relocations of local events. Differential tomograms for 2001-05 reveal a marked decrease in seismic velocities (low dVp, low dVs and high d(Vp/Vs)) in the MRZ (at 5-35 km depths) during 2001-10, which is attributed to an increase in crack/fracture density (higher pore fluid pressure) resulted from the intense fracturing that occurred during the mainshock and post-seismic periods. While we observe a slight recovery or increase in seismic velocities 2011-13, this could be related to the healing process (lower pore fluid pressure due to sealing of cracks) of the causative fault zone of the 2001 Bhuj mainshock. The temporal reduction in seismic velocities is observed to be higher at deeper levels (more fluid enrichment under near-lithostatic pressure) than that at shallower levels. Fluid source for low velocity zone (LVZ) at 0-10 km depths (with high d(Vp/Vs)) could be attributed to the presence of meteoric water or soft alluvium sediments with higher water content, while fluid source for LVZ at 10-35 km depths could be due to the presence of brine fluids (released from the metamorphic dewatering) and volatile CO2 (emanating from the crystallization of carbonatite melts in the asthenosphere), in fractures and pores. We also imaged two prominent LVZs associated with the Katrol Hill fault zone and Island Belt fault zone, extending from shallow upper-crust to sub-crustal depth, which might be facilitating the deeper circulation of metamorphic fluids/volatile CO2, thereby, the generation of lower crustal earthquakes occurring in the Kachchh rift zone.

  7. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by freshwater algal species of Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Jaiswar, Santial; Kazi, Mudassar Anisoddin; Mehta, Shailesh

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated copper, cadmium, lead and zinc accumulation in algal species Oedogonium, Cladophora, Oscillatoria and Spirogyra from freshwater habitats of Bhavnagar, India. Eight different locations were periodically sampled during August 2009 to March 2011. The general trend of heavy metal concentrations in all the algal species in present study (except at few stations), were found to be in the following order: Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. Highest accumulation of Cu was recorded in Oedogonium, while Cladophora showed highest accumulation of Pb signifying a good bioaccumulator. Oscillatoria and Oedogonium were highest Zn accumulating algae which showed significant difference between the means at P < 0.05. ANOVA was performed for comparing significance mean between the groups and within the group for heavy metals in water. The concentration of heavy metals in water was in the following order: Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. The present study showed that Oedogonium, Cladophora, Oscillatoria and Spirogyra were excellent bioaccumulator and could be utilized as biomonitoring agents in water bodies receiving waste contaminated by metals.

  8. Impact assessment of climate change on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and mustard (Brassica spp.) production and its adaptation strategies in different districts of Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, V.; Patel, H. R.; Yadav, S. B.; Patil, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    Gujarat is the western-most state of India with a long (1600 km) sea coast on the Arabian Sea. Average annual rainfall ranges from as high as 1900 mm in the sub-humid southeast to as low as 250 mm in the arid north. There are three distinct crop seasons- rainy (June to September), winter (Oct.-Nov. through Feb.-March) and summer (Feb-March through May-June). Wheat and mustard are grown during winter seasons. The past climatic records suggested increasing trends in rainfall( 2 to 5 mm per year), maximum (0.03 to 0.05 0C per year) and minimum temperatures (0.02 to 0.05 0C per year) at most of places in Gujarat. But the minimum temperature is fould to be increasing significantly at all the locations. This affects the winter season crops viz. wheat and mustard adversely. Simulation results with DSSAT CERES-wheat model revealed that with increase in temperature by 2 0C in different months (November to February) the decrease in wheat yield is observed between 7 to 29 per cent. The impact of increase in maximum temperature during early (November) and late (February) is less (<12.5 %) than that during active vegetative and reproductive period (December and January; >24.8 %). The climate change projections during 2071-2100 using PRECIS output suggested that there would be increase in maximum temperature by 3.2 to 5.2 0C in different districts of Gujarat over baseline period of 1961-1990 while minimum temperature is project to increase by 2.8 to 5.8 0C. Rainfall is also projected to increase by 28 to 70 per cent in different districts. The impact of climate change on wheat would be reduction in its duration by 14-20 days and the grain yield would be reduced by 20-55 per cent in different districts. In case of mustard crops the duration of crop would be reduced by 11 to 16 days and seed yield would be reduced by 32-50 per cent. In order to mitigate the ill effect of climate change, various adaptation strategies vis change in dates of sowing, change in variety, additional

  9. A very large dew and rain ridge collector in the Kutch area (Gujarat, India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharan, G.; Clus, O.; Singh, S.; Muselli, M.; Beysens, D.

    2011-07-01

    SummaryThe world's largest dew and rain collecting system, comprised of ridge-and-trough modules, was constructed in March 2006 at Panandhro in the semi-arid area of Kutch (NW India). The main goals were (i) to collect dew on a scale that could be beneficial to the local population (ii) to determine the efficiency of this new module shape, (iii) to determine whether results obtained from small measurement condensers can be projected to large condensers, (iv) to apply a computational fluid dynamic simulation to improve the condenser set-up. Preliminary studies performed with four standard plane condensers of 1 m 2 surface area, inclined 30° from horizontal, identified Panandhro as a promising site. The cumulated dew water during 192 days was 12.6 mm with a maximum of 0.556 mm/night. A large dew condenser (850 m 2 net total surface) was designed with 10 ridge-and-trough modules. The ridges are trapezoidal, 33 m long, 0.5 m wide at the top, 2.2 m wide at the base and sloping 30° from horizontal. The depth of the troughs between the ridges is 0.5 m. A 2.5 cm thick polystyrene foam rests on the surface as insulation with a radiative foil on top (similar to that developed by OPUR, see www.opur.fr). Numerical simulations using the computational fluid dynamic software PHOENICS were performed. The most profitable orientation was with the condenser oriented back to the wind direction, a configuration that lowers the wind velocity near the foil due to the combination of free convection and wind recirculation flows. A comparison of water yields over one year of measurements between four 1 m 2 plane condensers and a 850 m 2 ridge condenser showed a 42% lower yield on the large condenser. The difference is attributed mainly to folds in the plastic foil allowing water to fill the central ridge, thus decreasing radiative cooling. The output for 2007 was 6545 L, corresponding to 7.7 mm/day on average. The largest event was 251.4 L/night (0.3 mm). Such a condenser can also collect

  10. Earthquake risk mitigation projects in central asia and india

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausler, E.; Petal, M.; Tobin, T.; Tucker, B.; Gupta, M.; Sharma, A.; Shaw, R.

    2003-04-01

    In the fall of 2002, GeoHazards International (GHI), a California-based nonprofit organization, launched two 3-year projects, each funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, to improve the earthquake risk management of 23 cities in Central Asia and India. The objectives of these projects are to: * Assess the earthquake risk of each city, * Identify the most effective risk mitigation options for each city, * Raise awareness of that risk and those mitigation options, and * Initiate mitigation activities in some of these cities. A critical characteristic of these projects is that leaders of each local community will be deeply involved in realizing all four objectives. GHI will work with, in addition to local authorities, national government, academic and non-governmental organizations. In India, GHI’s partners are the Disaster Management Planning Hyogo Office, United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD) of Kobe, Japan, and the Sustainable Environment and Ecological Development Society (SEEDS), of Delhi, India. In India, we will work in 20 cities that were chosen, in a February 1, 2002 workshop (sponsored by Munich Reinsurance Company) in Delhi; the cities were selected by Indian earthquake professionals on the basis of the cities’ population, hazard, and economic, cultural and political significance. In Central Asia, we will focus on Tashkent, Uzbekistan; Dushanbe, Tadzhikistan; and Almaty, Kazakstan. GHI and its partners are looking for other organizations that would like to collaborate on these projects.

  11. Earthquake Forecasting in Northeast India using Energy Blocked Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, A. K.; Mohanty, D. K.

    2009-12-01

    In the present study, the cumulative seismic energy released by earthquakes (M ≥ 5) for a period 1897 to 2007 is analyzed for Northeast (NE) India. It is one of the most seismically active regions of the world. The occurrence of three great earthquakes like 1897 Shillong plateau earthquake (Mw= 8.7), 1934 Bihar Nepal earthquake with (Mw= 8.3) and 1950 Upper Assam earthquake (Mw= 8.7) signify the possibility of great earthquakes in future from this region. The regional seismicity map for the study region is prepared by plotting the earthquake data for the period 1897 to 2007 from the source like USGS,ISC catalogs, GCMT database, Indian Meteorological department (IMD). Based on the geology, tectonic and seismicity the study region is classified into three source zones such as Zone 1: Arakan-Yoma zone (AYZ), Zone 2: Himalayan Zone (HZ) and Zone 3: Shillong Plateau zone (SPZ). The Arakan-Yoma Range is characterized by the subduction zone, developed by the junction of the Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. It shows a dense clustering of earthquake events and the 1908 eastern boundary earthquake. The Himalayan tectonic zone depicts the subduction zone, and the Assam syntaxis. This zone suffered by the great earthquakes like the 1950 Assam, 1934 Bihar and the 1951 Upper Himalayan earthquakes with Mw > 8. The Shillong Plateau zone was affected by major faults like the Dauki fault and exhibits its own style of the prominent tectonic features. The seismicity and hazard potential of Shillong Plateau is distinct from the Himalayan thrust. Using energy blocked model by Tsuboi, the forecasting of major earthquakes for each source zone is estimated. As per the energy blocked model, the supply of energy for potential earthquakes in an area is remarkably uniform with respect to time and the difference between the supply energy and cumulative energy released for a span of time, is a good indicator of energy blocked and can be utilized for the forecasting of major earthquakes

  12. Prevalence of Goiter and Urinary Iodine Status in Six-Twelve-Year-Old Rural Primary School Children of Bharuch District, Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Chandwani, Haresh Rameshkumar; Shroff, Bhavesh Dahyabhai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) creates major public health problems in India, including Gujarat. The Bharuch district is a known iodine deficiency endemic area. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of goiter in primary school children; to determine the median urinary iodine concentration; to assess the level of iodine in salt samples at the household and retail shop levels; and to study the profile of salt sold at retail shops. Methods: This study was carried out by using the 30-cluster survey method in the primary schools of the rural areas in Bharuch district. A total of 70 students, including five boys and five girls from the first to seventh classes, who were present in class on the day of the visit were selected randomly for goiter examination from each village. Urine samples were collected from one boy and one girl from each class in each cluster. From each community, a maximum of two boys and two girls from each standard in the same age group were examined and also salt samples were tested from their households. From each village, one retail shop was visited and the salt purchased from those shops was immediately tested for iodine with spot kits. Results: We found a goiter prevalence of 23.2% (grade 1 – 17.4% and grade 2 – 5.8%). As the age increased, the goiter prevalence decreased except in nine-year-olds. The median urinary iodine excretion level was 110 μg/L. An Iodine level > 15 ppm was found in 93% of the salt samples tested at the household level. Conclusion: The present study showed moderate goiter prevalence in primary school children in the Bharuch district of Gujarat and an inadequate iodine content of salt at some household levels. PMID:22355478

  13. In Vitro Detection of Acaricidal Resistance Status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus against Commercial Preparation of Deltamethrin, Flumethrin, and Fipronil from North Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Shyma, K. P.; Gupta, Jay Prakash; Singh, Veer; Patel, K. K.

    2015-01-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the most common tick species in India infesting cattle and buffaloes and causing significant economic losses to dairy and leather industries by adversely affecting the milk production and quality of hides. A study to evaluate the acaricide resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus to deltamethrin, flumethrin, and fipronil was conducted on the samples collected from organized and unorganized farms of North Gujarat state, where treatment failures were reported frequently. Adult Immersion Test (AIT) and Larval Packet Test (LPT) were conducted using field strain for determination of 50 and 95% lethal concentration of deltamethrin, flumethrin, and fipronil. Results obtained by the Adult Immersion Test showed low grade resistance (level I, RF > 5) has been developed against both deltamethrin and fipronil. However, deltamethrin by performing Larval Packet Test showed moderate grade resistance (level II, RF > 25). Larval packet performed by flumethrin also revealed low grade resistance, level I. The data on field status of acaricide resistance from the area with diversified animal genetic resources will be helpful to adopt suitable strategy to overcome the process of development of resistance in ticks. PMID:26788362

  14. In Vitro Detection of Acaricidal Resistance Status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus against Commercial Preparation of Deltamethrin, Flumethrin, and Fipronil from North Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Shyma, K P; Gupta, Jay Prakash; Singh, Veer; Patel, K K

    2015-01-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the most common tick species in India infesting cattle and buffaloes and causing significant economic losses to dairy and leather industries by adversely affecting the milk production and quality of hides. A study to evaluate the acaricide resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus to deltamethrin, flumethrin, and fipronil was conducted on the samples collected from organized and unorganized farms of North Gujarat state, where treatment failures were reported frequently. Adult Immersion Test (AIT) and Larval Packet Test (LPT) were conducted using field strain for determination of 50 and 95% lethal concentration of deltamethrin, flumethrin, and fipronil. Results obtained by the Adult Immersion Test showed low grade resistance (level I, RF > 5) has been developed against both deltamethrin and fipronil. However, deltamethrin by performing Larval Packet Test showed moderate grade resistance (level II, RF > 25). Larval packet performed by flumethrin also revealed low grade resistance, level I. The data on field status of acaricide resistance from the area with diversified animal genetic resources will be helpful to adopt suitable strategy to overcome the process of development of resistance in ticks. PMID:26788362

  15. Earthquake interevent time distribution in Kachchh, Northwestern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasari, Sumanta; Dikshit, Onkar

    2015-08-01

    Statistical properties of earthquake interevent times have long been the topic of interest to seismologists and earthquake professionals, mainly for hazard-related concerns. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study on the temporal statistics of earthquake interoccurrence times of the seismically active Kachchh peninsula (western India) from thirteen probability distributions. Those distributions are exponential, gamma, lognormal, Weibull, Levy, Maxwell, Pareto, Rayleigh, inverse Gaussian (Brownian passage time), inverse Weibull (Frechet), exponentiated exponential, exponentiated Rayleigh (Burr type X), and exponentiated Weibull distributions. Statistical inferences of the scale and shape parameters of these distributions are discussed from the maximum likelihood estimations and the Fisher information matrices. The latter are used as a surrogate tool to appraise the parametric uncertainty in the estimation process. The results were found on the basis of two goodness-of-fit tests: the maximum likelihood criterion with its modification to Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) minimum distance criterion. These results reveal that (i) the exponential model provides the best fit, (ii) the gamma, lognormal, Weibull, inverse Gaussian, exponentiated exponential, exponentiated Rayleigh, and exponentiated Weibull models provide an intermediate fit, and (iii) the rest, namely Levy, Maxwell, Pareto, Rayleigh, and inverse Weibull, fit poorly to the earthquake catalog of Kachchh and its adjacent regions. This study also analyzes the present-day seismicity in terms of the estimated recurrence interval and conditional probability curves (hazard curves). The estimated cumulative probability and the conditional probability of a magnitude 5.0 or higher event reach 0.8-0.9 by 2027-2036 and 2034-2043, respectively. These values have significant implications in a variety of practical applications including earthquake insurance, seismic zonation

  16. Prevalence of dental fluorosis & dental caries in association with high levels of drinking water fluoride content in a district of Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Kotecha, P.V.; Patel, S.V.; Bhalani, K.D.; Shah, D.; Shah, V.S.; Mehta, K.G.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Endemic fluorosis resulting from high fluoride concentration in groundwater is a major public health problem in India. This study was carried out to measure and compare the prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries in the population residing in high and normal level of fluoride in their drinking water in Vadodara district, Gujarat, India. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Vadodara district, six of the 261 villages with high fluoride level and five of 1490 with normal fluoride level in drinking water were selected. The data collection was made by house-to-house visits twice during the study period. Results: The dental fluorosis prevalence in high fluoride area was 59.31 per cent while in normal fluoride area it was 39.21 per cent. The prevalence of dental caries in high fluoride area was 39.53 per cent and in normal fluoride area was 48.21 per cent with CI 6.16 to 11.18. Dental fluorosis prevalence was more among males as compared to females. Highest prevalence of dental fluorosis was seen in 12-24 yr age group. Interpretation & conclusions: The risk of dental fluorosis was higher in the areas showing more fluoride content in drinking water and to a lesser degree of dental caries in the same area. High fluoride content is a risk factor for dental fluorosis and problem of dental fluorosis increased with passage of time suggesting that the fluoride content in the water has perhaps increased over time. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to confirm the findings. PMID:22825606

  17. Morphological and toxigenic variability in the Aspergillus flavus isolates from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production system in Gujarat (India).

    PubMed

    Singh, Diwakar; Thankappan, Radhakrishnan; Kumar, Vinod; Bagwan, Naimoddin B; Basu, Mukti S; Dobaria, Jentilal R; Mishra, Gyan P; Chanda, Sumitra

    2015-03-01

    Morphological and toxigenic variability in 187 Aspergillus flavus isolates, collected from a major Indian peanut production system, from 10 districts of Gujarat was studied. On the basis of colony characteristics, the isolates were grouped as group A (83%), B (11%) and G (6%). Of all the isolates, 21%, 47% and 32% were found to be fast-growing, moderately-fast and slow-growing respectively, and nosclerotia and sclerotia production was recorded in 32.1% and 67% isolates respectively. Large, medium and small number of sclerotia production was observed in 55, 38 and 34 isolates respectively. Toxigenic potential based on ammonia vapour test was not found reliable, while ELISA test identified 68.5%, 18.7% and 12.8% isolates as atoxigenic, moderately-toxigenic and highly-toxigenic, respectively. On clustering, the isolates were grouped into 15 distinct clusters, 'A' group of isolates was grouped distinctly in different clusters, while 'B' and 'G' groups of isolates were clustered together. No association was observed between morphological-diversity and toxigenic potential of the isolates. From the present investigation, most virulent isolates were pooled to form a consortium for sick-plot screening of germplasm, against Aspergillus flavus. In future, atoxigenic isolates may be evaluated for their potential to be used as bio-control agent against toxigenicisolates.

  18. Assessment of microbial quality of fish processing industrial effluent in bar-mouth at Bhidia landing site, Veraval, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Sivaraman, G K; Visnuvinayagam, S; Jha, Ashish Kumar; Renuka, V; Remya, S; Vanik, Deesha

    2016-07-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the microbial quality of fish processing industries effluent at Bhidia bar-mouth, Veraval, Gujarat during April, 2012 to March 2013. The total viable bacterial count (TVBC), total Enterobacteriaceae count, E. coli count (EC), Staphylococcus aureus and Fecal Streptococcal count in effluent ranged from 3.0 x 10(-1) to 6.8 x 10(6), 9.0 x 10(1) to 2.9 x 10(4), 0 to 0. 5 x 10(4), 0 to 0. 4 x 102 and 0.3 x 10(1) to 0. 1 x 10(4) cfu.(-1)respectively. Significantly higher load of TEC, E. coli, S.aureus, Fecal Streptococci, Total coliforms and Fecal coliforms were higher during summer whereas, TVBC was higher in the month of Sept.-Oct. Furthermore, the total coliform and fecal coliform counts were found to be higher with 1400+ /100 ml MPN value throughout the year of the study, except in the month of August. Overall occurrence of pathogenic strains of E. coli, S. aureus and Fecal streptococci were 41.67%, 25.00% and 66.67% respectively during this period. The antibiogram of the isolated E. coli isolates show that almost 50% were resistant to Cefazidime/Clavulanic acid (CAC), Amoxyclav (AMC), Ciprofloxacin (CIF) and Ampicillin (AMP). The present study indicated that the effluent of fish processing industry was heavily contaminated with E. coli, S. aureus and Fecal Streptococci which confirmed improper treatment of fish processing effluent. Moreover, the precedence of antibiotic resistant E. coli may pose threat to public health safety. PMID:27498498

  19. Early gestation screening of pregnant women for iodine deficiency disorders and iron deficiency in urban centre in Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, K; Nair, S; Khade, C; Rajan, M G R

    2014-02-01

    Pregnancy is a special condition where many metabolic changes may occur because of increased requirement of essential micronutrients such as iron and iodine. Foetal thyroid starts producing its own thyroid hormones after 12 weeks of gestation. Therefore, the first trimester is very crucial for meeting thyroid hormone requirements of the mother and foetus. Iodine deficiency and iron deficiency may affect mental and physical growth of the foetus. Hence, it is very important to establish a programme on the screening of pregnant women for thyroid dysfunction tests along with established iron status assessment. Thus, the study was aimed to screen the pregnant women for iodine deficiency disorders and iron deficiency during early gestation, situational analysis on thyroid insufficiency and iron deficiency in pregnant women (gestational age <15 weeks) in urban Vadodara, Gujarat. n = 256 healthy pregnant women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancy were selected. The thyroid hormone was estimated by RIA, UIE using simple microplate technique and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration by acid hematin method. Median thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4) and UIE concentrations were 1.88 μIU/ml, 0.83 ng/dl, 10.24 μg/dl and 297.14 mcg/l, respectively. There was a significant correlation between TSH, FT4 and month of gestation. Mean Hb concentration was 9.27 ± 1.09 g/dl. The prevalence of iodine insufficiency (based on UI) was 16.79% and iron deficiency was 91%. Screening programme for iodine deficiency during early gestation should be implemented along with the existing programme of haemoglobin estimation at first prenatal visit. This would help prevent damage to the developing brain and growth of the foetus and also to trace at-risk pregnant women. PMID:24847692

  20. Assessment of microbial quality of fish processing industrial effluent in bar-mouth at Bhidia landing site, Veraval, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Sivaraman, G K; Visnuvinayagam, S; Jha, Ashish Kumar; Renuka, V; Remya, S; Vanik, Deesha

    2016-07-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the microbial quality of fish processing industries effluent at Bhidia bar-mouth, Veraval, Gujarat during April, 2012 to March 2013. The total viable bacterial count (TVBC), total Enterobacteriaceae count, E. coli count (EC), Staphylococcus aureus and Fecal Streptococcal count in effluent ranged from 3.0 x 10(-1) to 6.8 x 10(6), 9.0 x 10(1) to 2.9 x 10(4), 0 to 0. 5 x 10(4), 0 to 0. 4 x 102 and 0.3 x 10(1) to 0. 1 x 10(4) cfu.(-1)respectively. Significantly higher load of TEC, E. coli, S.aureus, Fecal Streptococci, Total coliforms and Fecal coliforms were higher during summer whereas, TVBC was higher in the month of Sept.-Oct. Furthermore, the total coliform and fecal coliform counts were found to be higher with 1400+ /100 ml MPN value throughout the year of the study, except in the month of August. Overall occurrence of pathogenic strains of E. coli, S. aureus and Fecal streptococci were 41.67%, 25.00% and 66.67% respectively during this period. The antibiogram of the isolated E. coli isolates show that almost 50% were resistant to Cefazidime/Clavulanic acid (CAC), Amoxyclav (AMC), Ciprofloxacin (CIF) and Ampicillin (AMP). The present study indicated that the effluent of fish processing industry was heavily contaminated with E. coli, S. aureus and Fecal Streptococci which confirmed improper treatment of fish processing effluent. Moreover, the precedence of antibiotic resistant E. coli may pose threat to public health safety.

  1. Satellite image based quantification of invasion and patch dynamics of mesquite ( Prosopis juliflora) in Great Rann of Kachchh, Kachchh Biosphere Reserve, Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasha, S. Vazeed; Satish, K. V.; Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Prasada Rao, P. V. V.; Jha, C. S.

    2014-10-01

    The invasion of alien species is a significant threat to global biodiversity and the top driver of climate change. The present study was conducted in the Great Rann of Kachchh, part of Kachchh Biosphere Reserve, Gujarat, India, which has been severely affected by invasion of Prosopis juliflora. The invasive weed infestation has been identified using multi-temporal remote sensing datasets of 1977, 1990, 1999, 2005 and 2011. Spatial analyses of the transition matrix, extent of invasive colonies, patchiness, coalescence and rate of spread were carried out. During the study period of three and half decades, almost 295 km2 of the natural land cover was converted into Prosopis cover. This study has shown an increment of 42.9% of area under Prosopis cover in the Great Rann of Kachchh, part of the Kachchh Biosphere Reserve during 1977 to 2011. Spatial analysis indicates high occupancy of Prosopis cover with most of the invasion (95.9%) occurring in the grasslands and only 4.1% in other land cover types. The process of Prosopis invasion shows high patch initiation, followed by coalescence, indicating aggressive colonization of species. The number of patches within an area of < 1 km2 increased from 1977 to 2011, indicating the formation of new Prosopis habitats by replacing the grasslands. The largest patch of Prosopis cover increased from 144 km2 in 1977 to 430 km2 in 2011. The estimated mean patch size was 7.8 km2 in 1977. The mean patch size was largest during 2011, i.e., 9 km2. The annual spread rate for Prosopis has been estimated as 2.1% during 2005-2011. The present work has investigated the long term changes in Prosopis cover in the Great Rann of Kachchh, part of Kachchh Biosphere Reserve. The spatial database generated will be useful in preparing strategies for the management of Prosopis juliflora.

  2. Reduction of catastrophic health care expenditures by a community-based health insurance scheme in Gujarat, India: current experiences and challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Ranson, Michael Kent

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the Self Employed Women's Association's Medical Insurance Fund in Gujarat in terms of insurance coverage according to income groups, protection of claimants from costs of hospitalization, time between discharge and reimbursement, and frequency of use. METHODS: One thousand nine hundred and thirty claims submitted over six years were analysed. FINDINGS: Two hundred and fifteen (11%) of 1927 claims were rejected. The mean household income of claimants was significantly lower than that of the general population. The percentage of households below the poverty line was similar for claimants and the general population. One thousand seven hundred and twelve (1712) claims were reimbursed: 805 (47%) fully and 907 (53%) at a mean reimbursement rate of 55.6%. Reimbursement more than halved the percentage of catastrophic hospitalizations (>10% of annual household income) and hospitalizations resulting in impoverishment. The average time between discharge and reimbursement was four months. The frequency of submission of claims was low (18.0/1000 members per year: 22-37% of the estimated frequency of hospitalization). CONCLUSIONS: The findings have implications for community-based health insurance schemes in India and elsewhere. Such schemes can protect poor households against the uncertain risk of medical expenses. They can be implemented in areas where institutional capacity is too weak to organize nationwide risk-pooling. Such schemes can cover poor people, including people and households below the poverty line. A trade off exists between maintaining the scheme's financial viability and protecting members against catastrophic expenditures. To facilitate reimbursement, administration, particularly processing of claims, should happen near claimants. Fine-tuning the design of a scheme is an ongoing process - a system of monitoring and evaluation is vital. PMID:12219151

  3. The hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic setting and depositional palaeoenvironment of carbonaceous shale and lignite successions of Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahay, Vinay

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present paper is to provide geochemical and palynological data to characterize lignites and carbonaceous shales from Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India, in terms of their hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic settings and depositional palaeoenvironment. The samples, collected in Panandhro lignite mine, belong to Naredi Formation of Late Paleocene-Early Eocene age. The geochemical results are based on proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, X-ray diffraction and Rock-Eval py-rolysis analyses, whereas palynological data include palynofossil composition and thermal alteration index (TAI). The TOC, hydrogen index (HI), cracked hydrocarbon (S2), bitumen index (BI), quality index (QI), and the total genetic potential (S1+S2) values indicate that the studied lignites and carbonaceous shales have good source rock potential. The organic matter is predominantly of type II and type II/III kerogen, which has potential to generate oil as well as gas. Thermal maturity determined from thermal alteration index (TAI), Tmax and production index (PI) indicates that the organic matter is immature, and in the diagenesis stage of organic matter transformation. The deposition of the studied carbonaceous shales and lignites took place in palaeoenvironments varying from brackish mangrove to freshwater swamp. This study indicates that the proportion of ferns, palms, volatile matter content, S/C, H/C ratios, as well as the presence of siderite and quartz can be used as an indicator of accommodation trends in the coal depositional system. The Panandhro carbonaceous shales and lignites were deposited during the lowstand systems tract with many cycles of small magnitude trangressive-regressive phases. Thus, the geochemistry and ecological palynology are useful not only for the investigation of coal quality and origin, but also to infer accommodation space settings of the mire. This can be gainfully utilized in the coal

  4. The hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic setting and depositional palaeoenvironment of carbonaceous shale and lignite successions of Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahay, Vinay K.

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present paper is to provide geochemical and palynological data to characterize lignites and carbonaceous shales from Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India, in terms of their hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic settings and depositional palaeoenvironment. The samples, collected in Panandhro lignite mine, belong to Naredi Formation of Late Paleocene-Early Eocene age. The geochemical results are based on proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, X-ray diffraction and Rock-Eval py-rolysis analyses, whereas palynological data include palynofossil composition and thermal alteration index (TAI). The TOC, hydrogen index (HI), cracked hydrocarbon (S2), bitumen index (BI), quality index (QI), and the total genetic potential (S1+S2) values indicate that the studied lignites and carbonaceous shales have good source rock potential. The organic matter is predominantly of type II and type II/III kerogen, which has potential to generate oil as well as gas. Thermal maturity determined from thermal alteration index (TAI), T max and production index (PI) indicates that the organic matter is immature, and in the diagenesis stage of organic matter transformation. The deposition of the studied carbonaceous shales and lignites took place in palaeoenvironments varying from brackish mangrove to freshwater swamp. This study indicates that the proportion of ferns, palms, volatile matter content, S/C, H/C ratios, as well as the presence of siderite and quartz can be used as an indicator of accommodation trends in the coal depositional system. The Panandhro carbonaceous shales and lignites were deposited during the lowstand systems tract with many cycles of small magnitude trangressive-regressive phases. Thus, the geochemistry and ecological palynology are useful not only for the investigation of coal quality and origin, but also to infer accommodation space settings of the mire. This can be gainfully utilized in the coal

  5. Earthquake Recurrence and Rupture Dynamics of Himalayan Frontal Thrust, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Senthil; Wesnousky, Steven G.; Rockwell, Thomas K.; Ragona, Daniel; Thakur, Vikram C.; Seitz, Gordon G.

    2001-12-01

    The Black Mango fault is a structural discontinuity that transforms motion between two segments of the active Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) in northwestern India. The Black Mango fault displays evidence of two large surface rupture earthquakes during the past 650 years, subsequent to 1294 A.D. and 1423 A.D., and possibly another rupture at about 260 A.D. Displacement during the last two earthquakes was at minimum 4.6 meters and 2.4 to 4.0 meters, respectively, and possibly larger for the 260 A.D. event. Abandoned terraces of the adjacent Markanda River record uplift due to slip on the underlying HFT of 4.8 +/- 0.9 millimeters per year or greater since the mid-Holocene. The uplift rate is equivalent to rates of fault slip and crustal shortening of 9.6-3.5+7.0 millimeters per year and 8.4-3.6+7.3 millimeters per year, respectively, when it is assumed that the HFT dips 30° +/- 10°.

  6. Household Resources and Their Changing Relationships: Case Studies in Gujarat, India. International Agriculture Publications General Series Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrabi, Frances M., Ed.; Verma, Amita, Ed.

    This publication contains case studies based on rural life in northern India. The titles include: (1) "Profiles of Two Indian Rural Settings"; (2) "Visitors View a Village"; (3) "Village Households"; (4) "Agriculture"; (5) "Women's Needs: Health and Nutrition"; (6) "Meal Pattern, Nutrient Intake, Intra-Familial Distribution of Foods, Food Habits,…

  7. Major and trace element abundances, and Sr and Nd isotopic composition of Carbonatites from Amba Dongar, Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Jyoti; Paul, Debajyoti; Viladkar, Shrinivas G.; Sensarma, Sarajit

    2015-04-01

    Despite significant progress during the last decade, the petrogenesis of carbonatites is still highly debated regarding the exact mechanism of carbonatite magma generation (fractional crystallization of carbonated-silicate magmas, liquid immiscibility of carbonated-silicate magmas, partial melting of carbonated mantle peridotite or carbonated lherzolitic mantle) and its evolution. The Amba Dongar carbonatite complex in Chhota Udaipur district, Gujarat is the youngest Indian carbonatite complex, which intruded into the ~ 90 Ma Bagh sandstones and limestone and 68-65 Ma Deccan flood basalts. The emplacement age (40Ar/39Ar age of 65±0.3 Ma; Ray and Pande, 1999) coincides with the age of main pulse of Deccan flood basalts at ca. 65 Ma. We report new geochemical data (major oxide and trace element abundances, and Sr and Nd isotopic ratios) on 23 carbonatite samples from Amba Dongar. The Amba Dongar carbonatite complex consists of carbonatite (sövite, and ankerite), and associated nephelinite, phonolite, and both pre- and post-carbonatite basalts. Detailed minerology of carbonatite include dominant calcite along with pyrochlore, apatite, magnetite, aegirine-augite and accessory phases. Apatite crystals are observed in carbonatite as well as in nephelinite. In sövites, apatite occur in various forms including cumulus, clusters and scattered within and along the boundary of calcite crystals. Two generation of apatite crystals are commonly observed in sövite and nephelinite; textural changes suggest presence of different five pulses of sövitic magma during the emplacement of the sövite ring dike. Bulk major oxides and trace element (including REEs) compositions of carbonatites and associated silicate rocks are determined by WD-XRF and ICP-MS, respectively. Major oxides abundances are consistent with the already available data on the Amba Dongar carbonatite complex. Trace element concentrations for the sövite reveals high concentrations of Sr (929-7476 ppm), Ba (344

  8. Characterizing rainfall of hot arid region by using time-series modeling and sustainability approaches: a case study from Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machiwal, Deepesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Dayal, Devi

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at characterization of rainfall dynamics in a hot arid region of Gujarat, India by employing time-series modeling techniques and sustainability approach. Five characteristics, i.e., normality, stationarity, homogeneity, presence/absence of trend, and persistence of 34-year (1980-2013) period annual rainfall time series of ten stations were identified/detected by applying multiple parametric and non-parametric statistical tests. Furthermore, the study involves novelty of proposing sustainability concept for evaluating rainfall time series and demonstrated the concept, for the first time, by identifying the most sustainable rainfall series following reliability ( R y), resilience ( R e), and vulnerability ( V y) approach. Box-whisker plots, normal probability plots, and histograms indicated that the annual rainfall of Mandvi and Dayapar stations is relatively more positively skewed and non-normal compared with that of other stations, which is due to the presence of severe outlier and extreme. Results of Shapiro-Wilk test and Lilliefors test revealed that annual rainfall series of all stations significantly deviated from normal distribution. Two parametric t tests and the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test indicated significant non-stationarity in annual rainfall of Rapar station, where the rainfall was also found to be non-homogeneous based on the results of four parametric homogeneity tests. Four trend tests indicated significantly increasing rainfall trends at Rapar and Gandhidham stations. The autocorrelation analysis suggested the presence of persistence of statistically significant nature in rainfall series of Bhachau (3-year time lag), Mundra (1- and 9-year time lag), Nakhatrana (9-year time lag), and Rapar (3- and 4-year time lag). Results of sustainability approach indicated that annual rainfall of Mundra and Naliya stations ( R y = 0.50 and 0.44; R e = 0.47 and 0.47; V y = 0.49 and 0.46, respectively) are the most sustainable and dependable

  9. Individual and interpersonal characteristics that influence male-dominated sexual decision-making and inconsistent condom use among married HIV serodiscordant couples in Gujarat, India: results from the positive Jeevan Saathi study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shilpa N; Wingood, Gina M; Kosambiya, J K; McCarty, Frances; Windle, Michael; Yount, Kathryn; Hennink, Monique

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 40 % of new infections occur among married women. No studies have examined the factors that may contribute to HIV transmission among HIV-negative wives in HIV serodiscordant relationships in Gujarat, India. In 2010, a cross-sectional survey with 185 HIV serodiscordant, married couples (i.e. 185 HIV-positive husbands and their 185 HIV-negative wives) in Gujarat was conducted. Socio-demographic, individual, and interpersonal characteristics of HIV-positive husbands and their HIV negative wives were examined. The association of these characteristics with inconsistent condom use and male-dominated sexual decision-making, were examined using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Approximately 10 % of couples reported inconsistent condom use in the past 3 months and 20 % reported intimate partner violence (IPV). Reports of IPV were associated with a higher odds of inconsistent condom use among HIV-positive husbands (aOR = 6.281). Husbands who reported having received couples counseling had a lower odds of male-dominated decision making about condom use (aOR = 0.372). HIV-negative wives who reported sex communication had a lower odds of male-dominated decision making about condom use (aOR = 0.322) with their HIV-positive husbands. Although condom use is a traditional measure of risk behavior, other factors that facilitate risk, such as male-dominated sexual decision-making need to be considered in analyses of risk. PMID:24893852

  10. Time-predictable model applicability for earthquake occurrence in northeast India and vicinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panthi, A.; Shanker, D.; Singh, H. N.; Kumar, A.; Paudyal, H.

    2011-03-01

    Northeast India and its vicinity is one of the seismically most active regions in the world, where a few large and several moderate earthquakes have occurred in the past. In this study the region of northeast India has been considered for an earthquake generation model using earthquake data as reported by earthquake catalogues National Geophysical Data Centre, National Earthquake Information Centre, United States Geological Survey and from book prepared by Gupta et al. (1986) for the period 1906-2008. The events having a surface wave magnitude of Ms≥5.5 were considered for statistical analysis. In this region, nineteen seismogenic sources were identified by the observation of clustering of earthquakes. It is observed that the time interval between the two consecutive mainshocks depends upon the preceding mainshock magnitude (Mp) and not on the following mainshock (Mf). This result corroborates the validity of time-predictable model in northeast India and its adjoining regions. A linear relation between the logarithm of repeat time (T) of two consecutive events and the magnitude of the preceding mainshock is established in the form LogT = cMp+a, where "c" is a positive slope of line and "a" is function of minimum magnitude of the earthquake considered. The values of the parameters "c" and "a" are estimated to be 0.21 and 0.35 in northeast India and its adjoining regions. The less value of c than the average implies that the earthquake occurrence in this region is different from those of plate boundaries. The result derived can be used for long term seismic hazard estimation in the delineated seismogenic regions.

  11. SRTM Anaglyph: Bhuj, India, Two Weeks After earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On January 26, 2001, the city of Bhuj suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. About 20,000 were killed and more than one million homes were damaged or destroyed. Shortly after the quake, geologists conducted field investigations to inventory and analyze the natural effects of the event. Stereoscopic views, similar to this anaglyph, aided the geologists in locating landforms indicative of long-term (and possibly ongoing) deformation. Soon, elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) will be used in the study of a wide variety of natural hazards worldwide.

    In this image, the city of Bhuj appears as a medium gray area at the scene center, and the city airport is toward the north (top). Vegetation appears very dark. Rugged but low relief hills of previously folded and faulted bedrock appear south (bottom) and northwest (upper-left) of the city.

    The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image (taken just two weeks after the earthquake) over preliminary digital elevation data from the SRTM and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000

  12. SRTM Stereo Pair: Bhuj, India, Two Weeks After earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On January 26, 2001, the city of Bhuj suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. About 20,000 people were killed, and more than one million homes were damaged or destroyed. Shortly after the quake, geologists conducted field investigations to inventory and analyze the natural effects of the event. Stereoscopic views, similar to this image, aided the geologists in locating landforms indicative of long-term (and possibly ongoing) deformation. Soon, elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) will be used in the study of a wide variety of natural hazards worldwide.

    In this image, the city of Bhuj appears as a gray area at the scene center, and the city airport is toward the north (top). Vegetation appears green. Rugged but low relief hills of previously folded and faulted bedrock appear south (bottom) and northwest (upper-left) of the city.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image (taken just two weeks after the earthquake) over a preliminary SRTM elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing) or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM

  13. An improved geodetic source model for the 1999 Mw 6.3 Chamoli earthquake, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenbin; Bürgmann, Roland; Li, Zhiwei

    2016-04-01

    We present a distributed slip model for the 1999 Mw 6.3 Chamoli earthquake of north India using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data from both ascending and descending orbits and Bayesian estimation of confidence levels and trade-offs of the model geometry parameters. The results of fault-slip inversion in an elastic half-space show that the earthquake ruptured a 9°_{-2.2}^{+3.4} northeast-dipping plane with a maximum slip of ˜1 m. The fault plane is located at a depth of ˜15.9_{ - 3.0}^{ + 1.1} km and is ˜120 km north of the Main Frontal Thrust, implying that the rupture plane was on the northernmost detachment near the mid-crustal ramp of the Main Himalayan Thrust. The InSAR-determined moment is 3.35 × 1018 Nm with a shear modulus of 30 GPa, equivalent to Mw 6.3, which is smaller than the seismic moment estimates of Mw 6.4-6.6. Possible reasons for this discrepancy include the trade-off between moment and depth, uncertainties in seismic moment tensor components for shallow dip-slip earthquakes and the role of earth structure models in the inversions. The released seismic energy from recent earthquakes in the Garhwal region is far less than the accumulated strain energy since the 1803 Ms 7.5 earthquake, implying substantial hazard of future great earthquakes.

  14. Quantifying the media bias in intensity surveys: Lessons from the 2001 Bhuj, India, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.; Pande, P.

    2007-01-01

    Many seismologists have looked at the 26 January 2001 Bhuj earthquake as a key modern calibration event that could be used to improve estimates of magnitudes of large historic mainshocks in stable continental regions. Since no instrumental data are available for important historic events such as the 1819 Allah Bund, India, and the 1811-1812 New Madrid, central U.S. mainshocks, calibration hinges on comparisons of the macroseismic effects of these earthquakes with those of comparable modern earthquakes for which a reliable, instrumentally determined moment magnitude is available. However, although such a comparison is conceptually straightforward, in practice it is complicated by potentially significant inconsistencies in methods used to quantify macroseismic effects in different regions and/or times. For the Bhuj earthquake, extensive intensity data sets have been compiled and published from both media accounts and detailed direct surveys. Comparing the two provides a quantification of the previously suspected media bias, whereby earthquake effects can be exaggerated in media accounts. This bias is a strong function of intensity level, with substantial bias at the highest shaking levels and significantly less bias at low intensities. Because only sparse documentary data are in general available for older historic earthquakes, the results of this study suggest that their inferred intensity distributions might be similarly biased. We further use the survey-based intensity values to develop a new relationship between intensities and ground motions.

  15. Single step purification and characterization of a thermostable and calcium independent α-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquifaciens TSWK1-1 isolated from Tulsi Shyam hot spring reservoir, Gujarat (India).

    PubMed

    Kikani, B A; Singh, S P

    2011-05-01

    A thermophilic bacteria, identified and designated as Bacillus amyloliquifaciens TSWK1-1 (16S rRNA gene sequence, GenBank: GQ121033), was isolated from a hot water reservoir located at Tulsi Shyam, Gujarat, India. The optimum temperature and pH for amylase production were 50 °C and 7.0, respectively. The crude enzyme was partially purified by ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by dialysis. However, single step purification was achieved on Phenyl Sepharose 6FF affinity column with 45.71% yield, 8000 U/mg specific activity and 13.33 fold purification. The molecular weight of the purified α-amylase was 43 kD. The optimal temperature and pH for amylase activity were 70 °C and 7.0, respectively; however, the purified amylase was stable at broad temperature and pH range. The purified amylase did not require Ca(++) and K(+); however, it was moderately affected by Mg(++) and Cu(++) and significantly inhibited by Na(+) and Fe(++). The amylase was highly thermostable and remained active for 24h at 60 °C, for 12h at 70 °C and up to 3h even at 90 °C. Other unique features of the enzyme were calcium independent nature and resistance against chemical denaturation by Urea and Guanidine-HCl. The data on the enzymatic stability at different levels of purity would add significantly to the knowledge of amylases.

  16. Liquefaction record of the great 1934 earthquake predecessors from the north Bihar alluvial plains of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, C. P.; John, Biju; Rajendran, Kusala; Sanwal, Jaishri

    2016-07-01

    The great 1934 Himalayan earthquake of moment magnitude (Mw) 8.1 generated a large zone of ground failure and liquefaction in north Bihar, India, in addition to the earthquakes of 1833 (Mw ~7.7) and 1988 (Mw 6.7) that have also impacted this region. Here, we present the results of paleoliquefaction investigations from four sites in the plains of north Bihar and one in eastern Uttar Pradesh. The liquefaction features generated by successive earthquakes were dated at AD 829-971, 886-1090, 907-1181, 1130-1376, 1112-1572, 1492-1672, 1733-1839, and 1814-1854. One of the liquefaction events dated at AD 829-971, 886-1090, and 907-1181 may correlate with the great earthquake of AD ~1100, recognized in an earlier study from the sections across the frontal thrust in central eastern Nepal. Two late medieval liquefaction episodes of AD 1130-1376 and 1492-1672 were also exposed in our sites. The sedimentary sections also revealed sandblows that can be attributed to the 1833 earthquake, a lesser magnitude event compared to the 1934. Liquefactions triggered by the 1934 and 1988 earthquakes were evident within the topmost level in some sections. The available data lead us to conjecture that a series of temporally close spaced earthquakes of both strong and large types, not including the infrequent great earthquakes like the 1934, have affected the Bihar Plains during the last 1500 years with a combined recurrence interval of 124 ± 63 years.

  17. The Association between Provider Practice and Knowledge of ORS and Zinc Supplementation for the Treatment of Childhood Diarrhea in Bihar, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India: A Multi-Site Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lamberti, Laura M.; Fischer Walker, Christa L.; Taneja, Sunita; Mazumder, Sarmila; Black, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Programs aimed at reducing the burden of diarrhea among children under-five in low-resource settings typically allocate resources to training community-level health workers, but studies have suggested that provider knowledge does not necessarily translate into adequate practice. A diarrhea management program implemented in Bihar, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India trained private sector rural medical practitioners (RMPs) and public sector Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) and Anganwadi workers (AWWs) in adequate treatment of childhood diarrhea with oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc. We used cross-sectional program evaluation data to determine the association between observed diarrhea treatment practices and reported knowledge of ORS and zinc among each provider cadre. Methods We conducted principal components analysis on providers’ responses to diarrhea treatment questions in order to generate a novel scale assessing ORS/zinc knowledge. We subsequently regressed a binary indicator of whether ORS/zinc was prescribed during direct observation onto the resulting knowledge scores, controlling for other relevant knowledge predictors. Results There was a positive association between ORS/zinc knowledge score and prescribing ORS and zinc to young children with diarrhea among private sector RMPs (aOR: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.29-4.17) and public sector ASHAs and AWWs (aOR 2.48; 95% CI: 1.90-3.24). Controlling for knowledge score, receipt of training in the preceding 6 months was a good predictor of adequate prescribing in the public but not the private sector. In the public sector, direct access to ORS and zinc supplies was also highly associated with prescribing. Conclusions To enhance the management of childhood diarrhea in India, programmatic activities should center on increasing knowledge of ORS and zinc among public and private sector providers through biannual trainings but should also focus on ensuring sustained access to an adequate supply chain

  18. Review of the bioenvironmental methods for malaria control with special reference to the use of larvivorous fishes and composite fish culture in central Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Kant, Rajni; Haq, S; Srivastava, H C; Sharma, V P

    2013-03-01

    Mosquito control with the use of insecticides is faced with the challenges of insecticide resistance in disease vectors, community refusal, their high cost, operational difficulties, and environmental concern. In view of this, integrated vector control strategies with the use of larvivorous fishes such as Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) and Gambusia (G. affinis) as biological control agents were used in controlling mosquito breeding in different types of breeding places such as intradomestic containers, various types of wells, rice-fields, pools, ponds and elsewhere in malaria prone rural areas of central Gujarat. Attempts were also made to demonstrate composite fish culture in unused abandoned village ponds by culturing Guppy along with the food fishes such as Rohu (Labeo rohita), Catla (Catla catla) and Mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala). Income generated from these ponds through sale of fishes was utilized for mosquito control and village development. The technology was later adopted by the villagers themselves and food fish culture was practised in 23 ponds which generated an income of Rs 1,02,50,992 between 1985 and 2008. The number of villages increased from 13 to 23 in 2008 and there was also gradual increase of income from Rs 3,66,245 in 1985-90 to Rs 55,06,127 in 2002-08 block. It is concluded that larvivorous fishes can be useful tool in controlling mosquito breeding in certain situations and their use along with composite fish culture may also generate income to make the programme self-sustainable.

  19. Earthquake Hazard Assessment Based on Geological Data: An approach from Crystalline Terrain of Peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, B.

    2009-04-01

    Earthquake Hazard Assessment Based on Geological Data: An approach from Crystalline Terrain of Peninsular India Biju John National Institute of Rock Mechanics b_johnp@yahoo.co.in Peninsular India was for long considered as seismically stable. But the recent earthquake sequence of Latur (1993), Jabalpur (1997), Bhuj (2001) suggests this region is among one of the active Stable Continental Regions (SCRs) of the world, where the recurrence intervals is of the order of tens of thousands of years. In such areas, earthquake may happen at unexpected locations, devoid of any previous seismicity or dramatic geomorphic features. Even moderate earthquakes will lead to heavy loss of life and property in the present scenario. So it is imperative to map suspected areas to identify active faults and evaluate its activities, which will be a vital input to seismic hazard assessment of SCR area. The region around Wadakkanchery, Kerala, South India has been experiencing micro seismic activities since 1989. Subsequent studies, by the author, identified a 30 km long WNW-ESE trending reverse fault, dipping south (45°), that influenced the drainage system of the area. The macroscopic and microscopic studies of the fault rocks from the exposures near Desamangalam show an episodic nature of faulting. Dislocations of pegmatitic veins across the fault indicate a cumulative dip displacement of 2.1m in the reverse direction. A minimum of four episodes of faulting were identified in this fault based on the cross cutting relations of different structural elements and from the mineralogic changes of different generations of gouge zones. This suggests that an average displacement of 52cm per event might have occurred for each event. A cyclic nature of faulting is identified in this fault zone in which the inter-seismic period is characterized by gouge induration and fracture sealing aided by the prevailing fluids. Available empirical relations connecting magnitude with displacement and rupture

  20. Spatial relationship between earthquakes, hot-springs and faults in Odisha, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet; Jena, Ratiranjan

    2016-06-01

    Odisha is famous for Mineral rich Eastern-Ghat mobile belt, hot springs and cultural Heritage. The hot springs are known for centuries and are used by public as a place for worship. Odisha falls under the II and III seismic zones in India. Most of the seismicity in Odisha is due to motion along some active normal faults along the Mahanadi Graben. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the active faults and understand spatial distribution of seismic activity in Odisha. It is also important to understand the Earthquakes and their relation with the Geology of Odisha and understand the neo-tectonic activity. There are 7 major hot springs found along the North Odisha Boundary Fault and Mahanadi Shear Zone. The hot water percolates deep into the Earth through porous and permeable fractured rocks along the fault. Depth of source for most of the hot springs in Odisha must be some few feets to few meters; however most of these observations are not based on scientific geophysical data. Therefore, spatial relationship between thermal springs, earthquakes, and geology of Odisha may provide better understanding of the hot-spring setting. By using the earthquake and fault data, the sense of motion along faults can be easily interpreted. All these information can explain the spatial distribution and inter-relation between hot-springs, faults and earthquakes in Odisha.

  1. Damage due to the Mw 7.7 Kutch, India earthquake of 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, B. K.

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents a study of the damage due to the Mw 7.6-7.7 intraplate Kutch earthquake of 26 January 2001. It was a powerful earthquake with a high stress drop of about 20 MPa. Aftershocks (up to M 4) have continued for 2.5 years. The distribution of early aftershocks indicates a rupture plane of 20-25 km radius at depths of 10-45 km along an E-W-trending and south-dipping hidden fault situated approximately 25 km north of the Kutch Mainland Fault. The moment tensor solution determined from regional broadband data indicates reverse motion along a south-dipping (by 47°) fault. The earthquake is the largest event in India in the last 50 years and the most destructive in the recorded history in terms of socioeconomic losses with 13,819 deaths (including 14 in Pakistan), collapse/severe damage of over a million houses and US$10 billion economic loss. Surface faulting was not observed. However, intense land deformations have been observed in a 40×20-km meizoseismal area. These include lateral spreading, ground uplifts (about a meter), ground slumping and deep cracks. Liquefaction with ejection of sand and copious water was widespread in the Banni grassland, Rann areas (salt plains), along rivers and also in the coastal areas up to 200 km distance from the epicenter in areas of intensity VII to X+. Stray incidences of liquefaction have occurred up to distances of at least 300 km. For the first time in India, multistory buildings have been destroyed/damaged by an earthquake. The maximum acceleration is inferred to be 700 cm/s 2 and intensities are 1-3 units higher in soil-covered areas than expected from the decay rate of acceleration for hard rock.

  2. Coda Q Attenuation and Source Parameters Analysis in North East India Using Local Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, A. K.; Mohanty, W. K.; Earthquake Seismology

    2010-12-01

    Alok Kumar Mohapatra1* and William Kumar Mohanty1 *Corresponding author: alokgpiitkgp@gmail.com 1Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal, India. Pin-721302 ABSTRACT In the present study, the quality factor of coda waves (Qc) and the source parameters has been estimated for the Northeastern India, using the digital data of ten local earthquakes from April 2001 to November 2002. Earthquakes with magnitude range from 3.8 to 4.9 have been taken into account. The time domain coda decay method of a single back scattering model is used to calculate frequency dependent values of Coda Q (Qc) where as, the source parameters like seismic moment(Mo), stress drop, source radius(r), radiant energy(Wo),and strain drop are estimated using displacement amplitude spectrum of body wave using Brune's model. The earthquakes with magnitude range 3.8 to 4.9 have been used for estimation Qc at six central frequencies 1.5 Hz, 3.0 Hz, 6.0 Hz, 9.0 Hz, 12.0 Hz, and 18.0 Hz. In the present work, the Qc value of local earthquakes are estimated to understand the attenuation characteristic, source parameters and tectonic activity of the region. Based on a criteria of homogeneity in the geological characteristics and the constrains imposed by the distribution of available events the study region has been classified into three zones such as the Tibetan Plateau Zone (TPZ), Bengal Alluvium and Arakan-Yuma Zone (BAZ), Shillong Plateau Zone (SPZ). It follows the power law Qc= Qo (f/fo)n where, Qo is the quality factor at the reference frequency (1Hz) fo and n is the frequency parameter which varies from region to region. The mean values of Qc reveals a dependence on frequency, varying from 292.9 at 1.5 Hz to 4880.1 at 18 Hz. Average frequency dependent relationship Qc values obtained of the Northeastern India is 198 f 1.035, while this relationship varies from the region to region such as, Tibetan Plateau Zone (TPZ): Qc= 226 f 1.11, Bengal Alluvium

  3. Earthquakes

    MedlinePlus

    An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the day or night. If an earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause ...

  4. Intensity, magnitude, location and attenuation in India for felt earthquakes since 1762

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szeliga, Walter; Hough, Susan; Martin, Stacey; Bilham, Roger

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive, consistently interpreted new catalog of felt intensities for India (Martin and Szeliga, 2010, this issue) includes intensities for 570 earthquakes; instrumental magnitudes and locations are available for 100 of these events. We use the intensity values for 29 of the instrumentally recorded events to develop new intensity versus attenuation relations for the Indian subcontinent and the Himalayan region. We then use these relations to determine the locations and magnitudes of 234 historical events, using the method of Bakun and Wentworth (1997). For the remaining 336 events, intensity distributions are too sparse to determine magnitude or location. We evaluate magnitude and location accuracy of newly located events by comparing the instrumental- with the intensity-derived location for 29 calibration events, for which more than 15 intensity observations are available. With few exceptions, most intensity-derived locations lie within a fault length of the instrumentally determined location. For events in which the azimuthal distribution of intensities is limited, we conclude that the formal error bounds from the regression of Bakun and Wentworth (1997) do not reflect the true uncertainties. We also find that the regression underestimates the uncertainties of the location and magnitude of the 1819 Allah Bund earthquake, for which a location has been inferred from mapped surface deformation. Comparing our inferred attenuation relations to those developed for other regions, we find that attenuation for Himalayan events is comparable to intensity attenuation in California (Bakun and Wentworth, 1997), while intensity attenuation for cratonic events is higher than intensity attenuation reported for central/eastern North America (Bakun et al., 2003). Further, we present evidence that intensities of intraplate earthquakes have a nonlinear dependence on magnitude such that attenuation relations based largely on small-to-moderate earthquakes may significantly

  5. Intensity, magnitude, location, and attenuation in India for felt earthquakes since 1762

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szeliga, W.; Hough, S.; Martin, S.; Bilham, R.

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive, consistently interpreted new catalog of felt intensities for India (Martin and Szeliga, 2010, this issue) includes intensities for 570 earth-quakes; instrumental magnitudes and locations are available for 100 of these events. We use the intensity values for 29 of the instrumentally recorded events to develop new intensity versus attenuation relations for the Indian subcontinent and the Himalayan region. We then use these relations to determine the locations and magnitudes of 234 historical events, using the method of Bakun and Wentworth (1997). For the remaining 336 events, intensity distributions are too sparse to determine magnitude or location. We evaluate magnitude and location accuracy of newly located events by comparing the instrumental-with the intensity-derived location for 29 calibration events, for which more than 15 intensity observations are available. With few exceptions, most intensity-derived locations lie within a fault length of the instrumentally determined location. For events in which the azimuthal distribution of intensities is limited, we conclude that the formal error bounds from the regression of Bakun and Wentworth (1997) do not reflect the true uncertainties. We also find that the regression underestimates the uncertainties of the location and magnitude of the 1819 Allah Bund earthquake, for which a location has been inferred from mapped surface deformation. Comparing our inferred attenuation relations to those developed for other regions, we find that attenuation for Himalayan events is comparable to intensity attenuation in California (Bakun and Wentworth, 1997), while intensity attenuation for cratonic events is higher than intensity attenuation reported for central/eastern North America (Bakun et al., 2003). Further, we present evidence that intensities of intraplate earth-quakes have a nonlinear dependence on magnitude such that attenuation relations based largely on small-to-moderate earthquakes may significantly

  6. Deep Scientific Drilling at Koyna, India to Investigate Reservoir Triggered Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Harsh; Nayak, Shailesh; Bansal, Brijesh; Roy, Sukanta; Purnachandra Rao, Nemalikanti; S, Satyanarayana H. V.; M, Tiwari V.; Arora, Kusumita; K, Patro B. P.; Dodla, Shashidhar; Kothamasu, Mallika

    2015-04-01

    The Koyna region, located in the ~65 Ma old Deccan Traps of India, is globally the most prominent site of artificial water reservoir triggered earthquakes (RTS). Triggered earthquakes are occurring since impoundment of the Koyna Dam in 1962 including M 6.3 December 10, 1967; 22 M>5, and thousands of smaller earthquakes. Filling of the nearby Warna Reservoir gave an impetus to triggered earthquakes. The entire earthquake activity is limited to an area of about 20 km x 30 km, with most focal depths being within 6 km. There is no other earthquakes source within 50 km of the Koyna Dam. An ICDP Workshop held at Hyderabad and Koyna in March 2011 found Koyna to be the most suitable site to investigate RTS through deep drilling. A preparatory phase of investigations was recommended. Studies carried out since 2011 in the preparatory phase were recently reviewed in the second ICDP Workshop held at Koyna from May 16 to 18, 2014. Results of detailed airborne magnetic and gravity-gradient surveys, MT surveys, drilling of 6 boreholes going to depths of ~ 1500 m and logging, heat flow measurements, seismological investigations including the deployment of two borehole seismometers, and LiDAR surveys were reviewed. Significant results include absence of sediments below the basalt cover, the thickness of the basalt column and its relation with the surface elevation, and almost flat topography of the basement. The temperatures at the depth of 5 km would be around 130 to 150 degrees Celsius, in confirmation of earlier estimates. To achieve desired accuracies of ~ 50 meters in focal parameters, seismometers need to be placed below the basalt cover. This has led to the plan of putting eight borehole seismometers with good azimuthal coverage around the earthquake zone. Four of them are already in operation and four more are likely to be installed in the months to come. The future plan of work includes: • Submitting a proposal to ICDP for two pilot boreholes by Jan 15, 2015.

  7. "Probing Reservoir Triggered Earthquakes at Koyna, India through Scientific Deep Drilling"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, H. K.; Nayak, S.; Bansal, B.; Rao, P.; Roy, S.; Arora, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Koyna region, located in the ~65 Ma old Deccan Traps of India, is globally the most prominent site of artificial water reservoir triggered earthquakes (RTS). Triggered earthquakes are occurring since impoundment of the Koyna Dam in1962 including M 6.3 December 10, 1967; 22 M>5, and thousands of smaller earthquakes. Filling of the nearby Warna Reservoir gave a further impetus to triggered earthquakes. The entire earthquake activity is limited to an area of about 20 km x 30 km, with most focal depths being within 6 km. There is no other earthquakes source within 50 km of the Koyna Dam. An ICDP Workshop held at Hyderabad and Koyna in March 2011 found Koyna to be the most suitable site to investigate RTS through deep drilling. A preparatory phase of investigations was recommended. Studies carried out since 2011 in the preparatory phase were recently reviewed in the second ICDP Workshop held at Koyna from May 16 to 18, 2014. Results of detailed airborne magnetic and gravity-gradient surveys, MT surveys, drilling of 6 boreholes going to depths of ~ 1500 m and logging, heat flow measurements, seismological investigations including the deployment of two borehole seismometers, and LiDAR surveys were reviewed. Significant results include absence of sediments below the basalt cover, the thickness of the basalt column and its relation with the surface elevation, and almost flat topography of the basement. The temperatures at the depth of 5 km would be around 130 to 150 degrees Celsius, in confirmation of earlier estimates. To achieve desired accuracies of a few tens of meters in focal parameters, seismometers need to be placed below the basalt cover. This has led to the plan of putting eight borehole seismometers with good azimuthal coverage around the earthquake zone. Two of them have been already in operation and six more are likely to be installed in the months to come. The future plan of work include: Submitting a proposal to ICDP for the main boreholes by Jan 15, 2015

  8. Network of seismo-geochemical monitoring observatories for earthquake prediction research in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Hirok; Barman, Chiranjib; Iyengar, A.; Ghose, Debasis; Sen, Prasanta; Sinha, Bikash

    2013-08-01

    Present paper deals with a brief review of the research carried out to develop multi-parametric gas-geochemical monitoring facilities dedicated to earthquake prediction research in India by installing a network of seismo-geochemical monitoring observatories at different regions of the country. In an attempt to detect earthquake precursors, the concentrations of helium, argon, nitrogen, methane, radon-222 (222Rn), polonium-218 (218Po), and polonium-214 (214Po) emanating from hydrothermal systems are monitored continuously and round the clock at these observatories. In this paper, we make a cross correlation study of a number of geochemical anomalies recorded at these observatories. With the data received from each of the above observatories we attempt to make a time series analysis to relate magnitude and epicentral distance locations through statistical methods, empirical formulations that relate the area of influence to earthquake scale. Application of the linear and nonlinear statistical techniques in the recorded geochemical data sets reveal a clear signature of long-range correlation in the data sets.

  9. Distribution of Earthquake Interevent Times in Northeast India and Adjoining Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasari, Sumanta; Dikshit, Onkar

    2015-10-01

    This study analyzes earthquake interoccurrence times of northeast India and its vicinity from eleven probability distributions, namely exponential, Frechet, gamma, generalized exponential, inverse Gaussian, Levy, lognormal, Maxwell, Pareto, Rayleigh, and Weibull distributions. Parameters of these distributions are estimated from the method of maximum likelihood estimation, and their respective asymptotic variances as well as confidence bounds are calculated using Fisher information matrices. Three model selection criteria namely the Chi-square criterion, the maximum likelihood criterion, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov minimum distance criterion are used to compare model suitability for the present earthquake catalog (Y adav et al. in Pure Appl Geophys 167:1331-1342, 2010). It is observed that gamma, generalized exponential, and Weibull distributions provide the best fitting, while exponential, Frechet, inverse Gaussian, and lognormal distributions provide intermediate fitting, and the rest, namely Levy, Maxwell Pareto, and Rayleigh distributions fit poorly to the present data. The conditional probabilities for a future earthquake and related conditional probability curves are presented towards the end of this article.

  10. Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Presents an analysis of the causes of earthquakes. Topics discussed include (1) geological and seismological factors that determine the effect of a particular earthquake on a given structure; (2) description of some large earthquakes such as the San Francisco quake; and (3) prediction of earthquakes. (HM)

  11. Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakiser, Louis C.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in earthquakes with an introduction to the subject. Following a section presenting an historical look at the world's major earthquakes, the booklet discusses earthquake-prone geographic areas, the nature and workings of earthquakes, earthquake…

  12. Active faulting in apparently stable peninsular India: Rift inversion and a Holocene-age great earthquake on the Tapti Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copley, Alex; Mitra, Supriyo; Sloan, R. Alastair; Gaonkar, Sharad; Reynolds, Kirsty

    2014-08-01

    We present observations of active faulting within peninsular India, far from the surrounding plate boundaries. Offset alluvial fan surfaces indicate one or more magnitude 7.6-8.4 thrust-faulting earthquakes on the Tapti Fault (Maharashtra, western India) during the Holocene. The high ratio of fault displacement to length on the alluvial fan offsets implies high stress-drop faulting, as has been observed elsewhere in the peninsula. The along-strike extent of the fan offsets is similar to the thickness of the seismogenic layer, suggesting a roughly equidimensional fault rupture. The subsiding footwall of the fault is likely to have been responsible for altering the continental-scale drainage pattern in central India and creating the large west flowing catchment of the Tapti river. A preexisting sedimentary basin in the uplifting hanging wall implies that the Tapti Fault was active as a normal fault during the Mesozoic and has been reactivated as a thrust, highlighting the role of preexisting structures in determining the rheology and deformation of the lithosphere. The slip sense of faults and earthquakes in India suggests that deformation south of the Ganges foreland basin is driven by the compressive force transmitted between India and the Tibetan Plateau. The along-strike continuation of faulting to the east of the Holocene ruptures we have studied represents a significant seismic hazard in central India.

  13. 2001 Bhuj, India, earthquake engineering seismoscope recordings and Eastern North America ground-motion attenuation relations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cramer, C.H.; Kumar, A.

    2003-01-01

    Engineering seismoscope data collected at distances less than 300 km for the M 7.7 Bhuj, India, mainshock are compatible with ground-motion attenuation in eastern North America (ENA). The mainshock ground-motion data have been corrected to a common geological site condition using the factors of Joyner and Boore (2000) and a classification scheme of Quaternary or Tertiary sediments or rock. We then compare these data to ENA ground-motion attenuation relations. Despite uncertainties in recording method, geological site corrections, common tectonic setting, and the amount of regional seismic attenuation, the corrected Bhuj dataset agrees with the collective predictions by ENA ground-motion attenuation relations within a factor of 2. This level of agreement is within the dataset uncertainties and the normal variance for recorded earthquake ground motions.

  14. Earthquakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Paul J.; Roper, Jere Gerard

    1974-01-01

    Describes the causes and effects of earthquakes, defines the meaning of magnitude (measured on the Richter Magnitude Scale) and intensity (measured on a modified Mercalli Intensity Scale) and discusses earthquake prediction and control. (JR)

  15. Causes and incidence of maxillofacial injuries in India: 12-year retrospective study of 4437 patients in a tertiary hospital in Gujarat.

    PubMed

    Weihsin, Hu; Thadani, Sandeep; Agrawal, Mohit; Tailor, Suket; Sood, Ramita; Langalia, Akshay; Patel, Twinkle

    2014-10-01

    Maxillofacial injuries are unique because of the anatomical complexity of the area and their associated psychological effects. An understanding of the epidemiology of these injuries is important if we are to develop preventive measures, increase the efficiency and delivery of health services, improve the skills of healthcare providers, and better distribute resources. We retrospectively evaluated data on 4455 patients (aged between 3 and 84 years) who presented with maxillofacial injuries to a tertiary referral hospital in Ahmedabad, India, between 1 January 1999 and 31 January 2010. Of these, 18 needed only rest and medication so 4437 were included. Data included patients'characteristics and the cause of injury. Details on the presentation and severity of injury, associated injuries including head injuries, the influence of alcohol and other drugs, treatment, and outcome, were also included. Around one-third were aged between 21and 30 years, and the male to female ratio was 5:1. The main causes of injury were road traffic accidents (n=2347, 53%) and interpersonal violence (n=1041, 23%). Most road traffic accidents involved two-wheeled vehicles. Alcohol was associated with 11% of injuries. A total of 2546 patients (57%) had mandibular fractures. To reduce the number of injuries we need better road safety laws with stringent enforcement, and the public, particularly those between 15 and 45 years of age, must be educated about road safety. PMID:25086833

  16. Geographic smoothing of solar PV: Results from Gujarat

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Klima, Kelly; Apt, Jay

    2015-09-24

    We examine the potential for geographic smoothing of solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation using 13 months of observed power production from utility-scale plants in Gujarat, India. To our knowledge, this is the first published analysis of geographic smoothing of solar PV using actual generation data at high time resolution from utility-scale solar PV plants. We use geographic correlation and Fourier transform estimates of the power spectral density (PSD) to characterize the observed variability of operating solar PV plants as a function of time scale. Most plants show a spectrum that is linear in the log–log domain at high frequencies f,more » ranging from f-1.23 to f-1.56 (slopes of -1.23 and -1.56), thus exhibiting more relative variability at high frequencies than exhibited by wind plants. PSDs for large PV plants have a steeper slope than those for small plants, hence more smoothing at short time scales. Interconnecting 20 Gujarat plants yields a f-1.66 spectrum, reducing fluctuations at frequencies corresponding to 6 h and 1 h by 23% and 45%, respectively. Half of this smoothing can be obtained through connecting 4-5 plants; reaching marginal improvement of 1% per added plant occurs at 12-14 plants. The largest plant (322 MW) showed an f-1.76 spectrum. Furthermore, this suggests that in Gujarat the potential for smoothing is limited to that obtained by one large plant.« less

  17. Investigations related to scientific deep drilling to study reservoir-triggered earthquakes at Koyna, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Harsh; Purnachandra Rao, N.; Roy, Sukanta; Arora, Kusumita; Tiwari, V. M.; Patro, Prasanta K.; Satyanarayana, H. V. S.; Shashidhar, D.; Mallika, K.; Akkiraju, Vyasulu V.; Goswami, Deepjyoti; Vyas, Digant; Ravi, G.; Srinivas, K. N. S. S. S.; Srihari, M.; Mishra, S.; Dubey, C. P.; Raju, D. Ch. V.; Borah, Ujjal; Chinna Reddy, K.; Babu, Narendra; Rohilla, Sunil; Dhar, Upasana; Sen, Mrinal; Bhaskar Rao, Y. J.; Bansal, B. K.; Nayak, Shailesh

    2015-09-01

    Artificial water reservoir-triggered earthquakes have continued at Koyna in the Deccan Traps province, India, since the impoundment of the Shivaji Sagar reservoir in 1962. Existing models, to comprehend the genesis of triggered earthquakes, suffer from lack of observations in the near field. To investigate further, scientific deep drilling and setting up a fault zone observatory at depth of 5-7 km is planned in the Koyna area. Prior to undertaking deep drilling, an exploratory phase of investigations has been launched to constrain subsurface geology, structure and heat flow regime in the area that provide critical inputs for the design of the deep borehole observatory. Two core boreholes drilled to depths of 1,522 and 1,196 m have penetrated the Deccan Traps and sampled the granitic basement in the region for the first time. Studies on cores provide new and direct information regarding the thickness of the Deccan Traps, the absence of infra-Trappean sediments and the nature of the underlying basement rocks. Temperatures estimated at a depth of 6 km in the area, made on the basis of heat flow and thermal properties data sets, do not exceed 150 °C. Low-elevation airborne gravity gradient and magnetic data sets covering 5,012 line km, together with high-quality magnetotelluric data at 100 stations, provide both regional information about the thickness of the Deccan Traps and the occurrence of localized density heterogeneities and anomalous conductive zones in the vicinity of the hypocentral zone. Acquisition of airborne LiDAR data to obtain a high-resolution topographic model of the region has been completed over an area of 1,064 km2 centred on the Koyna seismic zone. Seismometers have been deployed in the granitic basement inside two boreholes and are planned in another set of six boreholes to obtain accurate hypocentral locations and constrain the disposition of fault zones.

  18. The Mw 7.7 Bhuj earthquake: Global lessons for earthquake hazard in intra-plate regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweig, E.; Gomberg, J.; Petersen, M.; Ellis, M.; Bodin, P.; Mayrose, L.; Rastogi, B.K.

    2003-01-01

    The Mw 7.7 Bhuj earthquake occurred in the Kachchh District of the State of Gujarat, India on 26 January 2001, and was one of the most damaging intraplate earthquakes ever recorded. This earthquake is in many ways similar to the three great New Madrid earthquakes that occurred in the central United States in 1811-1812, An Indo-US team is studying the similarities and differences of these sequences in order to learn lessons for earthquake hazard in intraplate regions. Herein we present some preliminary conclusions from that study. Both the Kutch and New Madrid regions have rift type geotectonic setting. In both regions the strain rates are of the order of 10-9/yr and attenuation of seismic waves as inferred from observations of intensity and liquefaction are low. These strain rates predict recurrence intervals for Bhuj or New Madrid sized earthquakes of several thousand years or more. In contrast, intervals estimated from paleoseismic studies and from other independent data are significantly shorter, probably hundreds of years. All these observations together may suggest that earthquakes relax high ambient stresses that are locally concentrated by rheologic heterogeneities, rather than loading by plate-tectonic forces. The latter model generally underlies basic assumptions made in earthquake hazard assessment, that the long-term average rate of energy released by earthquakes is determined by the tectonic loading rate, which thus implies an inherent average periodicity of earthquake occurrence. Interpreting the observations in terms of the former model therefore may require re-examining the basic assumptions of hazard assessment.

  19. Earthquake!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Hildo

    2000-01-01

    Examines the types of damage experienced by California State University at Northridge during the 1994 earthquake and what lessons were learned in handling this emergency are discussed. The problem of loose asbestos is addressed. (GR)

  20. Earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedlock, Kaye M.; Pakiser, Louis Charles

    1998-01-01

    One of the most frightening and destructive phenomena of nature is a severe earthquake and its terrible aftereffects. An earthquake is a sudden movement of the Earth, caused by the abrupt release of strain that has accumulated over a long time. For hundreds of millions of years, the forces of plate tectonics have shaped the Earth as the huge plates that form the Earth's surface slowly move over, under, and past each other. Sometimes the movement is gradual. At other times, the plates are locked together, unable to release the accumulating energy. When the accumulated energy grows strong enough, the plates break free. If the earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause many deaths and injuries and extensive property damage. Today we are challenging the assumption that earthquakes must present an uncontrollable and unpredictable hazard to life and property. Scientists have begun to estimate the locations and likelihoods of future damaging earthquakes. Sites of greatest hazard are being identified, and definite progress is being made in designing structures that will withstand the effects of earthquakes.

  1. The b-value as an earthquake precursor: Spatiotemporal variations for the NW Himalayan region, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushil, R.; Kumar, S.

    2011-12-01

    The northwest Himalayan region and the adjoining regions fall in the most intense seismic zone. Earthquakes of varying intensities have hit the region in the past and similar threats remain imminent. In the last 105 years, the main earthquakes occurred are the Kangra earthquake of 1905 (Ms=8.0), the Kinnaur earthquake of 1975 (M=6.8), Dharchula earthquake of 1980 (Mw=6.5), Uttarkashi earthquake of 1991 (Mb=6.6), Chamoli earthquake of 1999 (Mb=6.8) and the Kashmir earthquake of 2005 (Mw=7.6), which resulted in tremendous loss of life and property. The earthquakes occurrence possesses non-linear relation with respect to space and size. Spatiotemporal variations in b-Value are determined from 3846 well-located earthquakes, recorded at 10-19 seismic stations in Northwest Himalaya during 1995-2011. A systematic study of b-values in NW Himalaya has shown that within the vicinity of forthcoming large earthquakes there is initially a decrease and then increase in b after that return to normal. The Uttarkashi earthquake (Mb=6.5) and Chamoli earthquake (Mb=6.8) shows the same phenomenon. The results of this analysis will be discussed during the presentation of this paper.

  2. The 26 January 2001 M 7.6 Bhuj, India, earthquake: Observed and predicted ground motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.; Martin, S.; Bilham, R.; Atkinson, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    the average effects. The discrepancy may also be partly attributable to the inadequacy of the empirical relationship between MMI and peak ground acceleration (PGA), when applied to India. The MMI-PGA relationship was developed using data from California earthquakes, which might have a systematically different stress drop and therefore, a different frequency content than intraplate events. When a relationship between response spectra and MMI is used, we obtain larger predicted MMI values, in better agreement with the observations.

  3. Seismicity, faulting, and structure of the Koyna-Warna seismic region, Western India from local earthquake tomography and hypocenter locations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixit, Madan M.; Kumar, Sanjay; Catchings, Rufus D.; Suman, K.; Sarkar, Dipankar; Sen, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Although seismicity near Koyna Reservoir (India) has persisted for ~50 years and includes the largest induced earthquake (M 6.3) reported worldwide, the seismotectonic framework of the area is not well understood. We recorded ~1800 earthquakes from 6 January 2010 to 28 May 2010 and located a subset of 343 of the highest-quality earthquakes using the tomoDD code of Zhang and Thurber (2003) to better understand the framework. We also inverted first arrivals for 3-D Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs and Poisson's ratio tomography models of the upper 12 km of the crust. Epicenters for the recorded earthquakes are located south of the Koyna River, including a high-density cluster that coincides with a shallow depth (<1.5 km) zone of relatively high Vp and low Vs (also high Vp/Vs and Poisson's ratios) near Warna Reservoir. This anomalous zone, which extends near vertically to at least 8 km depth and laterally northward at least 15 km, is likely a water-saturated zone of faults under high pore pressures. Because many of the earthquakes occur on the periphery of the fault zone, rather than near its center, the observed seismicity-velocity correlations are consistent with the concept that many of the earthquakes nucleate in fractures adjacent to the main fault zone due to high pore pressure. We interpret our velocity images as showing a series of northwest trending faults locally near the central part of Warna Reservoir and a major northward trending fault zone north of Warna Reservoir.

  4. Detection of acaricidal resistance in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum from Banaskantha district, Gujarat.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K; Gelot, I S; Jyoti; Bhat, S A; Singh, Harkirat; Singh, Veer

    2015-09-01

    The resistance status in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum collected from Banaskantha district, Gujarat (India) was estimated by larval packet test (LPT) with different concentrations of amitraz (125, 250, 500, 750 and 1,000 ppm) and cypermethrin (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm). The regression graphs of mean mortality of larvae ticks were plotted against values of progressively increasing concentrations of amitraz and cypermethrin for the estimation of LC95 values and were determined as 1,529.39 and 351.84 ppm, respectively. Further a resistance of level I was determined against cypermethrin whereas, a comparatively higher resistance level (II) was recorded against amitraz. The current study appears to be the pioneer report of amitraz and cypermethrin resistance in H. a. anatolicum from the Gujarat state, India.

  5. Detection of acaricidal resistance in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum from Banaskantha district, Gujarat.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K; Gelot, I S; Jyoti; Bhat, S A; Singh, Harkirat; Singh, Veer

    2015-09-01

    The resistance status in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum collected from Banaskantha district, Gujarat (India) was estimated by larval packet test (LPT) with different concentrations of amitraz (125, 250, 500, 750 and 1,000 ppm) and cypermethrin (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm). The regression graphs of mean mortality of larvae ticks were plotted against values of progressively increasing concentrations of amitraz and cypermethrin for the estimation of LC95 values and were determined as 1,529.39 and 351.84 ppm, respectively. Further a resistance of level I was determined against cypermethrin whereas, a comparatively higher resistance level (II) was recorded against amitraz. The current study appears to be the pioneer report of amitraz and cypermethrin resistance in H. a. anatolicum from the Gujarat state, India. PMID:26345072

  6. Geographic smoothing of solar PV: Results from Gujarat

    SciTech Connect

    Klima, Kelly; Apt, Jay

    2015-09-24

    We examine the potential for geographic smoothing of solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation using 13 months of observed power production from utility-scale plants in Gujarat, India. To our knowledge, this is the first published analysis of geographic smoothing of solar PV using actual generation data at high time resolution from utility-scale solar PV plants. We use geographic correlation and Fourier transform estimates of the power spectral density (PSD) to characterize the observed variability of operating solar PV plants as a function of time scale. Most plants show a spectrum that is linear in the log–log domain at high frequencies f, ranging from f-1.23 to f-1.56 (slopes of -1.23 and -1.56), thus exhibiting more relative variability at high frequencies than exhibited by wind plants. PSDs for large PV plants have a steeper slope than those for small plants, hence more smoothing at short time scales. Interconnecting 20 Gujarat plants yields a f-1.66 spectrum, reducing fluctuations at frequencies corresponding to 6 h and 1 h by 23% and 45%, respectively. Half of this smoothing can be obtained through connecting 4-5 plants; reaching marginal improvement of 1% per added plant occurs at 12-14 plants. The largest plant (322 MW) showed an f-1.76 spectrum. Furthermore, this suggests that in Gujarat the potential for smoothing is limited to that obtained by one large plant.

  7. Structure of the Koyna-Warna Seismic Zone, Maharashtra, India: A possible model for large induced earthquakes elsewhere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catchings, R. D.; Dixit, M. M.; Goldman, M. R.; Kumar, S.

    2015-05-01

    The Koyna-Warna area of India is one of the best worldwide examples of reservoir-induced seismicity, with the distinction of having generated the largest known induced earthquake (M6.3 on 10 December 1967) and persistent moderate-magnitude (>M5) events for nearly 50 years. Yet, the fault structure and tectonic setting that has accommodated the induced seismicity is poorly known, in part because the seismic events occur beneath a thick sequence of basalt layers. On the basis of the alignment of earthquake epicenters over an ~50 year period, lateral variations in focal mechanisms, upper-crustal tomographic velocity images, geophysical data (aeromagnetic, gravity, and magnetotelluric), geomorphic data, and correlation with similar structures elsewhere, we suggest that the Koyna-Warna area lies within a right step between northwest trending, right-lateral faults. The sub-basalt basement may form a local structural depression (pull-apart basin) caused by extension within the step-over zone between the right-lateral faults. Our postulated model accounts for the observed pattern of normal faulting in a region that is dominated by north-south directed compression. The right-lateral faults extend well beyond the immediate Koyna-Warna area, possibly suggesting a more extensive zone of seismic hazards for the central India area. Induced seismic events have been observed many places worldwide, but relatively large-magnitude induced events are less common because critically stressed, preexisting structures are a necessary component. We suggest that releasing bends and fault step-overs like those we postulate for the Koyna-Warna area may serve as an ideal tectonic environment for generating moderate- to large- magnitude induced (reservoir, injection, etc.) earthquakes.

  8. Paleoseismological evidence of surface faulting along the northeastern Himalayan front, India: Timing, size, and spatial extent of great earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Senthil; Wesnousky, Steven G.; Jayangondaperumal, R.; Nakata, T.; Kumahara, Y.; Singh, Vimal

    2010-12-01

    The ˜2500 km long Himalayan arc has experienced three large to great earthquakes of Mw 7.8 to 8.4 during the past century, but none produced surface rupture. Paleoseismic studies have been conducted during the last decade to begin understanding the timing, size, rupture extent, return period, and mechanics of the faulting associated with the occurrence of large surface rupturing earthquakes along the ˜2500 km long Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) system of India and Nepal. The previous studies have been limited to about nine sites along the western two-thirds of the HFT extending through northwest India and along the southern border of Nepal. We present here the results of paleoseismic investigations at three additional sites further to the northeast along the HFT within the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam. The three sites reside between the meizoseismal areas of the 1934 Bihar-Nepal and 1950 Assam earthquakes. The two westernmost of the sites, near the village of Chalsa and near the Nameri Tiger Preserve, show that offsets during the last surface rupture event were at minimum of about 14 m and 12 m, respectively. Limits on the ages of surface rupture at Chalsa (site A) and Nameri (site B), though broad, allow the possibility that the two sites record the same great historical rupture reported in Nepal around A.D. 1100. The correlation between the two sites is supported by the observation that the large displacements as recorded at Chalsa and Nameri would most likely be associated with rupture lengths of hundreds of kilometers or more and are on the same order as reported for a surface rupture earthquake reported in Nepal around A.D. 1100. Assuming the offsets observed at Chalsa and Nameri occurred synchronously with reported offsets in Nepal, the rupture length of the event would approach 700 to 800 km. The easternmost site is located within Harmutty Tea Estate (site C) at the edges of the 1950 Assam earthquake meizoseismal area. Here the most recent event

  9. Large and great earthquakes in the Shillong plateau-Assam valley area of Northeast India Region: Pop-up and transverse tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayal, J. R.; Arefiev, S. S.; Baruah, Saurabh; Hazarika, D.; Gogoi, N.; Gautam, J. L.; Baruah, Santanu; Dorbath, C.; Tatevossian, R.

    2012-04-01

    The tectonic model of the Shillong plateau and Assam valley in the northeast India region, the source area for the 1897 great earthquake (Ms ~ 8.7) and for the four (1869, 1923, 1930 and 1943) large earthquakes (M. ≥ 7.0), is examined using the high precision data of a 20-station broadband seismic network. About 300 selected earthquakes M ≥ 3.0 recorded during 2001-2009 are analysed to study the seismicity and fault plane solutions. The dominating thrust/reverse faulting earthquakes in the western plateau may be explained by the proposed pop-up tectonics between two active boundary faults, the Oldham-Brahmaputra fault to the north and the Dapsi-Dauki thrust to the south, though the northern boundary fault is debated. The more intense normal and strike-slip faulting earthquakes in the eastern plateau (Mikir massif) and in the Assam valley, on the other hand, are well explained by transverse tectonics at the long and deep rooted Kopili fault that cuts across the Himalaya and caused the 2009 Bhutan earthquake (Mw 6.3). It is conjectured that the complex tectonics of the Shillong plateau and transverse tectonics at the Kopili fault make the region vulnerable for impending large earthquake(s).

  10. Inequity in maternal health care service utilization in Gujarat: analyses of district-level health survey data

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Deepak; Vangani, Ruchi; Mavalankar, Dileep V.; Thomsen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Background Two decades after the launch of the Safe Motherhood campaign, India still accounts for at least a quarter of maternal death globally. Gujarat is one of the most economically developed states of India, but progress in the social sector has not been commensurate with economic growth. The purpose of this study was to use district-level data to gain a better understanding of equity in access to maternal health care and to draw the attention of the policy planers to monitor equity in maternal care. Methods Secondary data analyses were performed among 7,534 ever-married women who delivered since January 2004 in the District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3) carried out during 2007–2008 in Gujarat, India. Based on the conceptual framework designed by the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, associations were assessed between three outcomes – Institutional delivery, antenatal care (ANC), and use of modern contraception – and selected intermediary and structural determinants of health using multiple logistic regression. Results Inequities in maternal health care utilization persist in Gujarat. Structural determinants like caste group, wealth, and education were all significantly associated with access to the minimum three antenatal care visits, institutional deliveries, and use of any modern method of contraceptive. There is a significant relationship between being poor and access to less utilization of ANC services independent of caste category or residence. Discussion and conclusions Poverty is the most important determinant of non-use of maternal health services in Gujarat. In addition, social position (i.e. caste) has a strong independent effect on maternal health service use. More focused and targeted efforts towards these disadvantaged groups needs to be taken at policy level in order to achieve targets and goals laid out as per the MDGs. In particular, the Government of Gujarat should invest more in basic education and

  11. Acute stress-related psychological impact in children following devastating natural disaster, the Sikkim earthquake (2011), India

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Rakesh; Sarkar, Sumantra; Banerjee, Indira; Hazra, Avijit; Majumder, Debabrata; Sabui, Tapas; Dutta, Sudip; Saren, Abhisek; Pan, Partha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Psychological stress following natural disaster is common. Despite several earthquakes in India, data on evaluation of acute stress among the child victims in the early postdisaster period is scarce. Immediately following a devastating earthquake (6.9 Richter) at Sikkim on September, 18 2011, many children attended North Bengal Medical College, the nearest government tertiary care institution, with unusual stress symptoms. Objective: Evaluation of acute stress symptoms in children in the immediate postearthquake period. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done over 4 weeks and includes all the children from 1 to 12 years presenting with unusual physical or behavioral symptoms. Those with major injuries requiring admission were excluded. They were divided into two age groups. For older children (8-12 years) the 8-item Children Impact of Event Scale (CIES) was used for screening of stress. Unusual symptoms were recorded in younger children (1-8 years) as CIES is not validated < 8 years. Result: A total of 84 children (2.66%) out of 3154 had stress symptoms. Maximum attendance was noted in first 3 days (65.47%) and declined gradually. In children ≥ 8 years, 48.78% had psychological stress, which was statistically significant on CIES scores without any gender predilection. Static posturing (41.86%), sleeplessness (32.55%), anorexia (9.30%), recurrent vomiting (13.95%), excessive crying (13.95%), or night-awakenings (4.65%) were found in younger children (n = 43) and three required admission. Conclusion: This study represent the first Indian data showing statistically significant psychological impact in older children (8-12 years) and various forms of physical stress symptoms in young children (1-8 years) following earthquake. PMID:24174793

  12. A quantitative study of the energy release in the aftershocks of the Bhuj earthquake, 2001, India, using Lg phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayachandran, G.; Abdul Razak, M. M.; Prasad, A. G. V.; Unnikrishnan, E.

    2003-07-01

    The devastating earthquake on 26 January 2001 at Bhuj, India, resulted in large-scale death and destruction of properties of several million US dollars. The moment magnitude of the earthquake was 7.7 and its maximum focal intensity exceeded X in MM scale. The rate of aftershocks of this earthquake, recorded at Gauribidanur seismic array station (GBA), shows a monotonic decay with time superposed with oscillations. For the Indian continent the Lg phase is a prominent arrival at regional distances. The estimate of Lg amplitude is obtained by optimally fitting the Lg wave train to a exponential decay curve. The logarithm of these amplitudes and logarithm of root mean square (rms) value of actual amplitudes of the Lg are calibrated with USGS mb to create a local mbLg magnitude scale. The energy released from these aftershocks is calculated from the rms value of Lg phase. The plot of cumulative energy release with time follows the power law of the form t p, superposed with oscillations. The exponent of the power law, p, is estimated both by a time-window scanning method and by an interpolation method. The value of p is 0.434 for time-window scanning method and 0.432 for the interpolation method. The predominant periods found in the oscillatory part of the cumulative energy, obtained by differencing the observed from the power law fit, are 10.6, 7.9, 5.4, 4.6 and 3.5 h for time-window scanning method. The corresponding periods for interpolation method are 13.4, 11.5, 7.4, 4.2, 3.5, 2.6 and 2.4 h.

  13. Variability of Power from Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Scenarios in the State of Gujarat (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, B.; Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

    2014-04-01

    India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

  14. Variability of Power from Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Scenarios in the State of Gujarat: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, B.; Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

    2014-04-01

    India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

  15. Variability of Photovoltaic Power in the State of Gujarat Using High Resolution Solar Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Weekley, A.; Lopez, A.; Zhang, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Parsons, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

    2014-03-01

    India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

  16. Estimation of ground motion for Bhuj (26 January 2001; Mw 7.6 and for future earthquakes in India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, S.K.; Bansal, B.K.; Bhattacharya, S.N.; Pacheco, J.F.; Dattatrayam, R.S.; Ordaz, M.; Suresh, G.; ,; Hough, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    Only five moderate and large earthquakes (Mw ???5.7) in India-three in the Indian shield region and two in the Himalayan arc region-have given rise to multiple strong ground-motion recordings. Near-source data are available for only two of these events. The Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.6), which occurred in the shield region, gave rise to useful recordings at distances exceeding 550 km. Because of the scarcity of the data, we use the stochastic method to estimate ground motions. We assume that (1) S waves dominate at R < 100 km and Lg waves at R ??? 100 km, (2) Q = 508f0.48 is valid for the Indian shield as well as the Himalayan arc region, (3) the effective duration is given by fc-1 + 0.05R, where fc is the corner frequency, and R is the hypocentral distance in kilometer, and (4) the acceleration spectra are sharply cut off beyond 35 Hz. We use two finite-source stochastic models. One is an approximate model that reduces to the ??2-source model at distances greater that about twice the source dimension. This model has the advantage that the ground motion is controlled by the familiar stress parameter, ????. In the other finite-source model, which is more reliable for near-source ground-motion estimation, the high-frequency radiation is controlled by the strength factor, sfact, a quantity that is physically related to the maximum slip rate on the fault. We estimate ???? needed to fit the observed Amax and Vmax data of each earthquake (which are mostly in the far field). The corresponding sfact is obtained by requiring that the predicted curves from the two models match each other in the far field up to a distance of about 500 km. The results show: (1) The ???? that explains Amax data for shield events may be a function of depth, increasing from ???50 bars at 10 km to ???400 bars at 36 km. The corresponding sfact values range from 1.0-2.0. The ???? values for the two Himalayan arc events are 75 and 150 bars (sfact = 1.0 and 1.4). (2) The ???? required to explain Vmax data

  17. Seismotectonics in Northeast India: a stress analysis of focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes and its kinematic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelier, Jacques; Baruah, Saurabh

    2009-07-01

    In Northeast India, three major plates interact along two convergent boundaries: the Himalayas and the Indo-Burma Ranges, which meet at the Assam Syntaxis. To clarify this tectonic interaction and the underlying dynamics, we determine the regional seismotectonic stress from the stress inversion of 285 double couple focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes with an average magnitude of 5. We then compare the reconstructed stress regimes with the available information about geodetically determined relative displacements. North-south compression, in a direction consistent with India-Eurasia convergence, prevails in the whole area from the Eastern Himalayas to the Bengal Basin, through the Shillong-Mikir Massif and the Upper Assam Valley. E-W extension in Tibet is related to this N-S India-Eurasia convergence. Not only does the major N-S compression affect the outer segments of the Indo-Burma Ranges, it also extends into the descending slab of Indian lithosphere below these ranges, although stresses at depth are controlled by bending of the slab beneath the Burmese arc. The existence of widespread N-S compression in the Bengal Basin, far away from the Himalayan front, is compatible with the previously proposed convergence between a Shillong-Mikir-Assam Valley block and the Indian craton. E-W compression inside this block supports the hypothesis of a component of eastward extrusion. Stress inversion of focal mechanism solutions in the Indo-Burma Ranges reveals a complex stress pattern. The Burmese arc and its underlying lithosphere experience nearly arc-perpendicular extension with ESE-WNW trends in the northernmost, NE-trending segment and ENE-WSW trends in the main N-S arc segment. Such extensional stress, documented from many arcs, is likely a response to pull from and bending of the subducting plate. At the same time, the Indo-Burma Ranges are under compression as a result of oblique convergence between the Sunda and Indian plates. The maximum compressive stress

  18. The 2001 Mw7.7 Bhuj, India Earthquake and Eastern North American Ground-Motion Attenuation Relations: Seismic Hazard Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, C. H.; Bhattacharya, S. N.; Kumar, A.

    2002-12-01

    It has been suggested that the Mw7.7 2001 Bhuj, India earthquake occurred in a stable continental region with ground-motion attenuation properties similar to eastern North America (ENA). No strong motion recordings for M7 or greater earthquakes have been recorded in ENA, so, if the two regions share similar properties, then observations from the Bhuj earthquake provide important information for hazard assessments in ENA as well as India. This thesis can be tested using seismic data for the Bhuj mainshock. The Indian Meteorological Department recorded accelerograph and broadband seismograph data at distances of 500 to 1800 km. Accelerograph and engineering seismoscope data were recorded at distances of 40 to 1100 km by the Department of Earthquake Engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. We have processed the accelerograph and broadband data for response spectral accelerations and corrected them to a common NEHRP site class using Joyner and Boore (2000) site factors. The geologic conditions at each recording site were determined using the geologic map of India and categorized as Quaternary sediments, Tertiary sediments, or hard rock. Comparisons were then made to available ENA ground-motion attenuation relations. For peak ground acceleration (PGA) and 1.0 s spectral acceleration (Sa), the geologically-corrected Bhuj data generally fall among the ENA ground-motion attenuation relations. The Bhuj mainshock ground-motion data agree with the collective predictions of the ENA relations given the random uncertainty in ground-motion measurements of a factor of two or more plus the ground-motion attenuation relation modeling uncertainty. From an engineering perspective, this comparison supports the thesis that seismic-wave attenuation in stable continental India is similar to eastern North America.

  19. Anomalous variations of ionosphere associated with the strong earthquake at Pakistan-Iran border at a low latitude station Agra, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pundhir, Devbrat; Singh, Birbal; Singh, O. P.; Gupta, Saral K.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the TEC data for April 2013 observed at Agra station, India (geogr. lat. 27.2° N, long. 78° E) to examine the effect of earthquake of magnitude M = 7.8 which occurred on 16 April 2013 at Pakistan-Iran border region. We process the TEC data using the σ statistical criterion to find out anomalous variation in TEC data. We also study the VLF propagation signal from NPM, Hawaii (21.42° N, 158° W), which is monitored at the same station (Agra station) in the light of this earthquake as well as solar flares. The nighttime fluctuation method is used to analyze the VLF data for the period of ±5 days from the day of earthquake (11-21 April 2013). The anomalous enhancements and depletions are found in TEC data on 1-9 days before the occurrence of event.

  20. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

  1. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

    Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

  2. India.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  3. India.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  4. Deformation in Northeast India and Indo-Burmese Arc derived from GPS and Earthquake data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukumaran, S. P.; Kreemer, C. W.; Blewitt, G.; Reddy, C. D.

    2011-12-01

    GPS/acoustic (GPS/A) seafloor geodetic observation is a precise seafloor positioning technique and has made great progress over the last decade. GPS/A observation determines the positions of acoustic mirror-type transponders installed on the seafloor by combining the two techniques of kinematic GPS and acoustic ranging through a ship or a buoy. The original idea was proposed by Prof. Spiess at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in 1985 and its protocol and hardware were made through research and development of his group by the mid-1990s. In Japan, three research groups, Japan Coast Guard, Tohoku University and Nagoya University, began to develop the GPS/A observation system in the 1990s, established GPS/A observation sites mainly on the landward slope of the plate boundaries around Japan, such as the Japan Trench and the Nankai trough, and have been carrying out campaign observations since around 2000. The primary purpose of our observation is to detect and monitor the crustal deformation caused by the subduction of the oceanic plate near the plate boundary where large interplate earthquakes have repeatedly occurred. By continuous efforts for over a decade, the positioning precision has achieved a few centimeters and seafloor movements such as intraplate deformation and coseismic displacements have been successfully detected. In particular, regarding the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (M9.0), which occurred off northeastern Japan on March 11, 2011, east-southeastward coseismic displacements of up to 31 m were observed above the focal region, especially close to the epicenter, while those detected by on-land GPS measurements over 100 km away from the epicenter, conducted by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, was up to 5.3 m. Coseismic slip models on the plate boundary estimated from not only GPS data but also GPS/A results indicate that a huge slip of more than 50 m generated close to the trench axis, which was much larger than that estimated from GPS

  5. Crustal properties in the epicentral tract of the Great 1897 Assam Earthquake, northeastern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Chander, R.; Khattri, K. N.

    1997-12-01

    The velocity structure for the upper and middle crust in the epicentral tract of the Great 1897 Assam Earthquake (western half of the Shillong massif) was estimated using locally recorded microearthquake data. The relatively homogeneous upper crustal layer has P and S wave velocities of 5.9 ± 0.2 and 3.4 ± 0.1 km/s, respectively, with a thickness of 11 to 12 km. The average P and S wave velocities in the middle part of the crust down to a depth of about 26 km were estimated to be 6.3 ± 0.6 and 3.5 ± 0.2 km/s, respectively. The larger scatter in P velocity estimate of the mid-crustal layer was investigated using synthetic examples. Our preference is for the model in which this crustal region is assumed to comprise of a number of thin layers with alternate low and high seismic velocities. From theoretical considerations we confirm that it is possible to estimate the velocity structure for a horizontally layered model using the velocity estimation procedure (a combination of the Wadati, Riznichenko and Bune method) we have used. We also carried out detailed model analysis to check how effective this velocity estimation procedure is for the type of array data we have. Combining the estimated velocity structure with our earlier work on seismicity of this area we propose that the upper homogeneous crustal layer in the Shillong massif may be moving relatively southward across an intracrustal thrust zone. We suggest that the Great 1897 Assam Earthquake may represent the most recent episode of this relative southward movement of the massif.

  6. Postseismic deformation and stress changes following the 1819 Rann of Kachchh, India earthquake: Was the 2001 Bhuj earthquake a triggered event?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    To, A.; Burgmann, R.; Pollitz, F.

    2004-01-01

    The 2001 Mw 7.6 Bhuj earthquake occurred in an intraplate region with rather unusual active seismicity, including an earlier major earthquake, the 1819 Rann of Kachchh earthquake (M7.7). We examine if static coseismic and transient postseismic deformation following the 1819 earthquake contributed to the enhanced seismicity in the region and the occurrence of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake, ???100 km away and almost two centuries later. Based on the Indian shield setting, great rupture depth of the 2001 event and lack of significant early postseismic deformation measured following the 2001 event, we infer that little viscous relaxation occurs in the lower crust and choose an upper mantle effective viscosity of 1019 Pas. The predicted Coulomb failure stress (DCFS) on the rupture plane of the 2001 event increased by more than 0.1 bar at 20 km depth, which is a small but possibly significant amount. Stress change from the 1819 event may have also affected the occurrence of other historic earthquakes in this region. We also evaluate the postseismic deformation and ??CFS in this region due to the 2001 event. Positive ??CFS from the 2001 event occur to the NW and SE of the Bhuj earthquake rupture. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Understanding Conspicuous Gravity Low Over the Koyna-Warna Seismogenic Region (Maharashtra, India) and Earthquake Nucleation: A Paradigm Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasanthi, A.; Satish Kumar, K.

    2016-06-01

    The continued seismicity in Koyna-Warna region of the western part of Maharastra (India) and its relationship with subsurface structures, concealed below thick volcanic sequences, are studied in detail using gravity field along with newly available deep scientific drilling results. This seismically active zone is marked by a large conspicuous negative gravity anomaly, the causes of which are yet to be fully understood. Recent findings from the boreholes drilled in the Koyna (G upta et al. in Int J Earth Sci 104:1511-1522, 2015) and Killari seismic zones, both of which penetrated the thick Deccan volcanic cover and the underlying Archean crystalline basement, have motivated us to revisit the Bouguer gravity field over this region, using a newly developed finite element method of regional-residual separation. Our study reveals the presence of two thick low-density/low-velocity crustal zones below the Koyna-Warna region, the shallower one between 5 and 13 km depth and the deeper one between 35 and 43 km depth just above the Moho. Both of these zones appear to contain mantle-metasomatised and fractionated magmatic material, respectively. Interestingly, the hypocenters of all M ≥ 5 Koyna earthquakes occur within the upper low-velocity/low-density zone. We also suggest high-order crustal exhumation below this region, which led to the removal of the entire sedimentary and granitic upper crustal column. This process has brought denser mid-crustal lithological facies close to the surface. Quaternary uplifting and movement of fault blocks along the old as well as newly created fault planes seem to be still continuing. A paleo-rift may have existed beneath this region below which Moho temperatures (~600 °C) and mantle heat flow (~31 mW/m2) are still high.

  8. India.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    In 1988, India's population stood at 817 million, 25% of which was concentrated in urban areas. The annual rate of population growth is 2.01%. Life expectancy is currently 56 years, and infant mortality is 90/1000 live births. Education is compulsory to the age of 14 years, but the adult literacy rate is only 36%. Of the work force of 300 million, 70% are engaged in agriculture, 19% are in industry and commerce, 8% work in the services and government sector, and 3% are employed in transport and communications. India's gross national product currently stands at US$246 billion, with a real growth rate of 1.8% and a per capita income of $313. Although India is a federal republic, its central government has greater power in relation to its states than is the case in the US and there is a parliamentary system. Nonetheless, some states have been revitalizing traditional village councils and introducing grassroots democracy at the village level. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and pool of skilled labor have emerged since India achieved independence, although agriculture remains the crucial economic sector. There was a surge in agricultural production in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a result of the "green revolution" that made India largely self-sufficient in grain production through the use of hybrid seeds, irrigation, and fertilizer. However, failed monsoons and severe drought conditions have created fluctuations in the output of the agricultural sector in recent years. Gradual deregulation of industry and trade is providing increased incentives for foreign trade, and the Indian Government is encouraging collaborations that involve the transfer of high technology.

  9. Effects on atmospherics at 6 kHz and 9 kHz recorded at Tripura during the India-Pakistan Border earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de, S. S.; de, B. K.; Bandyopadhyay, B.; Paul, S.; Haldar, D. K.; Bhowmick, A.; Barui, S.; Ali, R.

    2010-04-01

    The outcome of the results of some analyses of electromagnetic emissions recorded by VLF receivers at 6 kHz and 9 kHz over Agartala, Tripura, the North-Eastern state of India (Lat. 23° N, Long. 91.4° E) during the large earthquake at Muzaffarabad (Lat. 34.53° N, Long. 73.58° E) at Kashmir under Pakistan have been presented here. Spiky variations in integrated field intensity of atmospherics (IFIA) at 6 and 9 kHz have been observed 10 days prior (from midnight of 28 September 2005) to the day of occurrence of the earthquake on 8 October 2005 and the effect continued, decayed gradually and eventually ceased on 16 October 2005. The spikes distinctly superimposed on the ambient level with mutual separation of 2-5 min. Occurrence number of spikes per hour and total duration of their occurrence have been found remarkably high on the day of occurrence of the earthquake. The spike heights are higher at 6 kHz than at 9 kHz. The results have been explained on the basis of generation of electromagnetic radiation associated with fracture of rocks, their subsequent penetration into the Earth's atmosphere and finally their propagation between Earth-ionosphere waveguide. The present observation shows that VLF anomaly is well-confined between 6 and 9 kHz.

  10. Occurrence of anomalous seismic activity preceding large to great earthquakes in northeast India region with special reference to 6 August 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, H. N.; Shanker, D.; Singh, V. P.

    2005-02-01

    Seismicity database from 1860 to 1985 of northeast India region bounded by the area 20°-32°N and 82°-100°E have been analyzed for the identification of precursory swarm/anomalous seismic activity preceding large to great earthquakes with M ≥ 7.5. It is observed that with the exception of three earthquakes (1908, 1912 and 1918), the large earthquakes of 1897, 1946, 1947, 1950 and 1951/1952 were preceded by well-developed epoch of swarm/anomalous seismic activity in space and time well before their occurrence. The seismicity is observed to fluctuate in the order of low-high-low ranging from 0-0.5, 01-33 to 0-0.7 events/year prior to these mainshocks during the epochs of normal/background, swarm/anomalous and gap/quiescence, respectively. The duration of precursory gap is observed to vary from 11 to 17 years for mainshocks of M 7.5-8.0, and from 23 to 27 years for M 8.7 and this period is dependent on the magnitude of the mainshocks. Using the values of magnitude of mainshock ( Mm), average magnitude of swarm ( Mp) and the precursory time gap ( Tp), the following predictive equations are established for the region: M=1.37M-1.40 M=3log⁡T-3.27 All the major earthquakes with mb ≥ 6.1 occurred during 1963-1988 have been investigated for their association with anomalous seismicity/precursory swarms using the events with cutoff magnitude mb ≥ 4.5. Eleven such events have occurred in the region during the period except one earthquake of 29 May 1976. All the remaining 10 earthquakes were associated in some forms of anomalous seismicity epochs. Well-defined patterns of anomalous seismicity are observed prior to 1964-1965, 12 August 1976 and 30 December 1984 ( mb 5.6). All these mainshocks are preceded by seismicity patterns in the order of low-high-low similar to that observed prior to the mainshocks from 1897 to 1962. The anomalous seismicity epoch is delineated with extremely high annual earthquake frequency, which was preceded and followed by extremely low

  11. Anomalous Behavior of D-Layer Preparation Time of the Ionosphere Due to Earthquakes as observed from Malda (India)

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Achintya K.; Nandy, Nilmadhab; Bari, Md. Washimul; Choudhury, Asit K.

    2010-10-20

    The anomalous behavior of D-layer preparation time of the ionosphere are observed only before, during and after the earthquakes, which took place in the neighbouring region by monitoring the Very Low Frequency (VLF) signal using Gyrator II loop antenna. The anomalies were also observed in the sunrise terminator times during seismically active days. These anomalous behavior may be due to the Lithosphere-Ionosphere coupling. These anomalies may be a precursor of earthquake.

  12. Evaluation of water quality index for River Sabarmati, Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Kosha A.; Joshi, Geeta S.

    2015-07-01

    An attempt has been made to develop water quality index (WQI), using six water quality parameters pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, electrical conductivity, nitrate nitrogen and total coliform measured at three different stations along the Sabarmati river basin from the year 2005 to 2008. Rating scale is developed based on the tolerance limits of inland waters and health point of view. Weighted arithmetic water quality index method was used to find WQI along the stretch of the river basin. It was observed from this study that the impact of human activity and sewage disposal in the river was severe on most of the parameters. The station located in highly urban area showed the worst water quality followed by the station located in moderately urban area and lastly station located in a moderately rural area. It was observed that the main cause of deterioration in water quality was due to the high anthropogenic activities, illegal discharge of sewage and industrial effluent, lack of proper sanitation, unprotected river sites and urban runoff.

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about menarche of adolescent girls in Anand district, Gujarat.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, H; Oza, U N; Tiwari, R

    2006-01-01

    A questionnaire survey of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards menstruation was made in 22 schools in Anand district, Gujarat state. Of 900 schoolgirls aged 11-17 years, only 38.5% felt comfortable about menarche and only 31.0% believed that menstruation was a normal physiological process. Many (37.2%) had not been informed about menarche before its onset and 48.2% felt they were not mentally prepared. The major sources of information were the mother (60.7%) or an elder sister (15.8%); teachers and others relatives played a small role. In this area of India, many families continue the custom of celebrating the first menarche and observing social restrictions.

  14. Anomalous Seismic Velocity Drop in Iron and Biotite Rich Amphibolite to Granulite Facies Transitional Rocks from Deccan Volcanic Covered 1993 Killari Earthquake Region, Maharashtra (India): a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, O. P.; Tripathi, Priyanka; Vedanti, Nimisha; Srinivasa Sarma, D.

    2016-07-01

    65 Ma Deccan Volcanic Province of western India forms one of the largest flood basaltic eruptions on the surface of the earth. The nature of the concealed crust below this earthquake prone region, which is marked by several low velocity zones at different depths has hardly been understood. These low velocity zones have been invariably interpreted as fluid-filled zones, genetically connected to earthquake nucleation. While carrying out detailed geological and petrophysical studies on the Late Archean basement cores, obtained from a 617 m deep KLR-1 borehole, drilled in the epicentral zone of 1993 Killari earthquake region of the southern Deccan Volcanic Province, we came across several instances where we observed remarkable drop in measured P-wave velocity in a number of high density cores. We provide detailed petrographic and geological data on 11 such anomalous samples which belong to mid-crustal amphibolite to granulite facies transitional rocks. They are associated with a mean P-wave velocity of 6.02 km/s (range 5.82-6.22 km/s) conforming to granitic upper crust, but in contrast have a high mean density of 2.91 g/cm3 (range 2.75-3.08 g/cm3), which characterise mid to lower crust. This velocity drop, which is as much as 15 % in some cores, is primarily attributed to FeOT enrichment (up to about 23 wt%) during the course of mantle-fluid driven retrogressive metasomatic reactions, caused by exhumation of deep-seated mafic rocks. Presence of Iron content (mainly magnetite), widely seen as opaques in thin sections of the rocks, seems to have resulted into sharp increase in density, as well as mean atomic weight. Our study indicates that the measured V p is inversely related to FeOT content as well as mean atomic weight of the rock.

  15. Stratigraphic evidence for earthquakes and tsunamis on the west coast of South Andaman Island, India during the past 1000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Javed N.; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Khan, Afzal; Johnson, Frango C.; Shishikura, Masanobu.; Satake, Kenji.; Singhvi, Ashok K.

    2015-10-01

    Stratigraphic records from west coast of South Andaman Island revealed evidence of three historical earthquakes and associated transoceanic tsunamis during past 1000 yrs, in addition to the Mw 9.3 tsunamigenic earthquake of 26 December, 2004. Our finding suggests that along with Sumatran arc segment the Andaman-Arakan segment is also capable of generating mega-subduction zone earthquakes and transoceanic tsunamis. To study the near sub-surface stratigraphic succession we excavated shallow trenches and obtained geoslices from two sites around Collinpur (sites 1 and 2). The exposed succession comprised 11 lithounits (Unit a - youngest and k - oldest) of alternating sequence of coarser units overlain by peaty soils and some of these are indicative of deposition during paleo-tsunami events. Event I that predated AD 800, and is marked by a 35-40 cm thick deposit of fine gravel to coarse sands along with broken shell fragments (Unit k). Event II dated around AD 660-800, is represented by 20-25 cm thick coarse sand and broken shell fragments (Unit i). Based on stratigraphic evidences of land-level changes, this event is attributed to a near source rupture along Andaman-Arakan segment, accompanied by a transoceanic tsunami. Event III, occurred around AD 1120-1300, is marked by a 50 cm thick sand deposit (Unit g). The 2004 tsunami resulted in deposition of 15 cm thick medium to coarse sand at the same location. We infer that the 2004 tsunami and Event III resulted in different styles of sedimentation at the same site. Four events at Collinpur along with the record of a subsidence event of AD 1679 from the east coast of Andaman, close-to, Port Blair (Malik et al., 2011), suggest that mega-subduction zone earthquakes and associated tsunamis recur at an interval of 300-500 years at variable locations along the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone.

  16. Earthquakes in Stable Continental Crust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Arch C.; Kanter, Lisa R.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are some of the reasons for earthquakes which occur in stable crust away from familiar zones at the ends of tectonic plates. Crust stability and the reactivation of old faults are described using examples from India and Australia. (CW)

  17. Earthquakes and emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earthquakes and emerging infections may not have a direct cause and effect relationship like tax evasion and jail, but new evidence suggests that there may be a link between the two human health hazards. Various media accounts have cited a massive 1993 earthquake in Maharashtra as a potential catalyst of the recent outbreak of plague in India that has claimed more than 50 lives and alarmed the world. The hypothesis is that the earthquake may have uprooted underground rat populations that carry the fleas infected with the bacterium that causes bubonic plague and can lead to the pneumonic form of the disease that is spread through the air.

  18. Liquefaction Effects from the Bhuj earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These MISR images show the Kachchh region in the Gujarat province of western India. On January 26, 2001, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake devastated this area, killing 20,000 people and destroying buildings, dams, and port facilities. The two upper MISR images are pre- and post-earthquake scenes acquired on January 15 and January 31, 2001, respectively (Terra orbits 5736 and 5969). They are 'true-color' images made by combining the red, green and blue bands from the nadir (vertically down-looking) camera. The two lower views are 'false-color' images made by combining the red bands from three different cameras. Blue is assigned to the camera pointing 70 degrees forward (more sun-facing), green to the nadir camera, and red to the camera pointing 70 degrees aftward. Each of these images is about 275 kilometers wide by 218 kilometers high.

    The earthquake epicenter was just below the southern tip of the large, white area on the right-hand side of the images, and about 70 kilometers northeast of the city of Bhuj. The earthquake may have occurred on the Kachchh Mainland Fault, which extends from the region of the epicenter westward along the curved boundary between the darker brown region to the south and the lighter brown area north of it. The compressive stresses responsible for the earthquake are related to the collision of India with Asia and the resulting rise of the Himalayas to the northeast.

    That part of the Kachchh region which lies north of the Kachchh Mainland Fault includes the Banni Plains and the Rann of Kachchh. It is a low, flat basin characterized by salt pans and mud flats. The salt forms in the Rann of Kachchh as mineral-laden waters evaporate. The salt flats can be seen in the nadir images as highly reflective, white and gray areas. During the earthquake, strong shaking produced liquefaction in the fine silts and sands below the water table in the Rann of Kachchh. This caused the mineral grains to settle and expel their interstitial water to the

  19. Source Parameters of the Deadly Mw 7.6 Kashmir Earthquake of 8 October, 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Prantik; Chadha, R. K.; Kumar, N.; Raju, I. P.; Satyamurty, C.

    2007-10-01

    During the last six years, National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad has established a semi-permanent seismological network of 5 8 broadband seismographs and 10 20 accelerographs in the Kachchh seismic zone, Gujarat with a prime objective to monitor the continued aftershock activity of the 2001 Mw 7.7 Bhuj mainshock. The reliable and accurate broadband data for the 8 October Mw 7.6 2005 Kashmir earthquake and its aftershocks from this network as well as Hyderabad Geoscope station enabled us to estimate the group velocity dispersion characteristics and one-dimensional regional shear velocity structure of the Peninsular India. Firstly, we measure Rayleigh-and Love-wave group velocity dispersion curves in the period range of 8 to 35 sec and invert these curves to estimate the crustal and upper mantle structure below the western part of Peninsular India. Our best model suggests a two-layered crust: The upper crust is 13.8 km thick with a shear velocity (Vs) of 3.2 km/s; the corresponding values for the lower crust are 24.9 km and 3.7 km/sec. The shear velocity for the upper mantle is found to be 4.65 km/sec. Based on this structure, we perform a moment tensor (MT) inversion of the bandpass (0.05 0.02 Hz) filtered seismograms of the Kashmir earthquake. The best fit is obtained for a source located at a depth of 30 km, with a seismic moment, Mo, of 1.6 × 1027 dyne-cm, and a focal mechanism with strike 19.5°, dip 42°, and rake 167°. The long-period magnitude (MA ~ Mw) of this earthquake is estimated to be 7.31. An analysis of well-developed sPn and sSn regional crustal phases from the bandpassed (0.02 0.25 Hz) seismograms of this earthquake at four stations in Kachchh suggests a focal depth of 30.8 km.

  20. Source Parameters of the 8 October, 2005 Mw7.6 Kashmir Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Prantik; Chadha, R. K.; Kumar, N.; Raju, I. P.; Satyamurty, C.

    2007-12-01

    During the last six years, the National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad has established a semi-permanent seismological network of 5 broadband seismographs and 10 accelerographs in the Kachchh seismic zone, Gujarat, with the prime objective to monitor the continued aftershock activity of the 2001 Mw7.7 Bhuj mainshock. The reliable and accurate broadband data for the Mw 7.6 (8 Oct., 2005) Kashmir earthquake and its aftershocks from this network, as well as from the Hyderabad Geoscope station, enabled us to estimate the group velocity dispersion characteristics and the one-dimensional regional shear-velocity structure of peninsular India. Firstly, we measure Rayleigh- and Love-wave group velocity dispersion curves in the range of 8 to 35 sec and invert these curves to estimate the crustal and upper mantle structure below the western part of peninsular India. Our best model suggests a two-layered crust: The upper crust is 13.8-km thick with a shear velocity (Vs) of 3.2 km/s; the corresponding values for the lower crust are 24.9 km and 3.7 km/sec. The shear velocity for the upper mantle is found to be 4.65 km/sec. Based on this structure, we perform a moment tensor (MT) inversion of the bandpass (0.05 0.02 Hz) filtered seismograms of the Kashmir earthquake. The best fit is obtained for a source located at a depth of 30 km, with a seismic moment, Mo, of 1.6 × 1027 dyne-cm, and a focal mechanism with strike 19.5°, dip 42°, and rake 167°. The long-period magnitude (MA ~ Mw) of this earthquake is estimated to be 7.31. An analysis of well-developed sPn and sSn regional crustal phases from the bandpassed (0.02 0.25 Hz) seismograms of this earthquake at four stations in Kachchh suggests a focal depth of 30.8 km.

  1. Regional crustal structures along several paths in India and its surrounding regions using local P- and S-wave travel times and regional waveforms recorded from the March 28, 1999 Chamoli earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, C. K.; Ichinose, G. A.; Kayal, J. R.; Bhattacharya, S. N.; Shukla, A. K.

    2001-12-01

    The March 28, 1999 Chamoli earthquake (Mw 6.8) in northwest India generated a large sequence of aftershocks (M_ w> 4.0) which were recorded by a temporary network ofshort-period stations deployed by various organizations, namely India Meteorological Department (IMD), Geological Survey of India (GSI), National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI) and Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology (WIHG) in India. We inverted the local P- and S-wave arrival times from about 20 local stations jointly for all available aftershocks implementing a technique which optimizes both earthquake locations and crustal velocity model. Of these, seven events were recorded by more than 5 stations locating within 5o of the epicenters withazimuthal gap not greater than 90o. We used these events to compute the station correctionsfor local stations and applied these station corrections to relocate the entire sequence of the Chamoli aftershocks. The relocation vectors which indicate the direction toward which the events would move from the reference locations (in this case the GSI locations) suggest that for the majority of the seismic events they show movement towards the epicentral locations of the mainshock. The new locations of these events also show improvements in the error ellipse measurements. We have also investigated variations in crustal models using regional broadband seismograms from the mainshock recorded by the IMD stations in India (IMD, 2000). Using a crustal model developed earlier by Bhattacharya using surface-wave dispersion for northern India as a starting model, we conducted a systematic analysis of surface-wave dispersion characteristics recorded at these broadband stations. We synthesized f-k seismograms andexamined the relative amplitude of the Pnl waves to the surface waves and their absolutetravel-time differences. We used focal mechanism and depth that were independently determined by modeling teleseismic depth phases, pP and sP, and by modeling regional seismograms

  2. Assessing the knowledge, attitudes and practice of type 2 diabetes among patients of Saurashtra region, Gujarat

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Viral N.; Kamdar, P. K.; Shah, Nishit

    2009-01-01

    As India will ranks first in diabetes now and will continue to do so in 2025, we must prevent the disease by various measures. Before setting the programmes, we should have ample data on the population's knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of diabetes. There are some epidemiological studies from southern India, Mumbai and north India, but there is no KAP study from Gujarat. The study was conducted between the period of June 2007 to November 2007 at three centers of Saurashtra region. Out of 300 patients who were given questionnaire, 238 patients were included for the analysis, rest were excluded due to various reasons. 52% were male. Mean age of patients was 55.82±10.2 years (95% CI 54.5-57.1) with mean weight of 64.52±10.96 Kg (95% CI 62.8-66.2). Mean duration of diabetes was 8.2±6.8 years (95% CI 7.2-9.1). 46% of patients knew the pathophysiology of diabetes. Nearly 50% knew the complications of diabetes. Dietary modifications were relied more than exercises among the interviewed subjects. Most of the lacunae in knowledge prevailed in drug therapy of diabetes. Insulin was not favored by most of patients. An encouraging finding in our study was that most believed in self-care and ready to change. Consultation time given by their treating doctors was less than 5 minutes in nearly 50%. Foot care and education to prevent complications were least suggested by doctors. PMID:20165648

  3. Marital Ideoscapes in 21st-Century India: Creative Combinations of Love and Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netting, Nancy S.

    2010-01-01

    Although arranged marriage has survived in India, the custom is increasingly challenged by the current influx of new commodities, media, and ideas. Interviews with 15 male and 15 female unmarried professionals, age 22 to 29, in Vadodara, Gujarat, showed that educated youth have moved beyond the conventional love-versus-arranged marriage dichotomy.…

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Halomonas hydrothermalis MTCC 5445, Isolated from the West Coast of India.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj Sv, Vamsi; Shrivastav, Anupama; Dubey, Sonam; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Paliwal, Chetan; Maurya, Rahulkumar; Mishra, Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    We announce here the draft genome sequence of Halomonas hydrothermalis MTCC 5445, a halophilic bacterium of the class Gammaproteobacteria. It was isolated from the sea coast of Aadri, Veraval, Gujarat, India. Its genome contains genes for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a biodegradable polymer that can be used as a substitute for petroleum plastics. PMID:25593258

  5. Beyond the Education Silo? Tackling Adolescent Secondary Education in Rural India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Orla; Bhabha, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine the factors contributing to gender inequality in secondary schooling in India by critically reviewing the government's secondary education policy. Drawing on the findings of a study in rural Gujarat, we couple this analysis with an examination of the gendered dynamics that restrict girls' ability to fully benefit…

  6. Girls' Education and Discursive Spaces for Empowerment: Perspectives from Rural India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Payal P.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a national girls' education program and its role in addressing gender inequality in the Indian state of Gujarat. In 2004, the Ministry of Education, Government of India, enacted the Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyala (KGBV) program. As a national program designed to increase educational access for the most marginalized girls, the…

  7. Relationship between Household Literacy and Educational Engagement: Analysis of Data from Rajkot District, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudgar, Amita; Miller, Karyn; Kothari, Brij

    2012-01-01

    Household engagement in a child's education is a complex process; depending on the culture and the context, it may be revealed through a variety of behaviours. Using data from one district in rural Gujarat, India, four indicators of a household's educational engagement were employed to investigate the relationship between household literacy levels…

  8. Palynology and clay mineralogy of the Deccan volcanic associated sediments of Saurashtra, Gujarat: Age and paleoenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samant, Bandana; Mohabey, D. M.; Srivastava, P.; Thakre, Deepali

    2014-02-01

    The intertrappean sediments associated with Deccan Continental Flood Basalt (DCFB) sequence at Ninama in Saurashtra, Gujarat yielded palynoassemblage comprising at least 12 genera and 14 species including Paleocene taxa such as Intrareticulites brevis, Neocouperipollis spp., Striacolporites striatus, Retitricolpites crassimarginatus and Rhombipollis sp. The lava flows of Saurashtra represent the northwestern most DCFB sequence in India. It is considered that the Saurashtra lava flows represent the earliest volcanic activity in the Late Cretaceous of the Reunion Mantle Plume on the northward migrating Indian Plate. The present finding of the Paleocene palynoflora from Ninama sediments indicate Paleocene age for the associated lava flows occurring above the intertrappean bed which suggests that the Saurashtra plateau witnessed eruption of Deccan lava flows even during Paleocene. The clay mineral investigation of the Ninama sediments which are carbonate dominated shows dominance of low charge smectite (LCS) along with the presence of mica and vermiculite. Based on the clay mineral assemblage it is interpreted that arid climatic conditions prevailed during the sedimentation. The smectite dominance recorded within these sediments is in agreement with global record of smectite peak close to the Maastrichtian-Paleocene transition and climatic aridity.

  9. Scaling–up public sector childhood diarrhea management program: Lessons from Indian states of Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Roy, Rajashree; Dutta, Sucharita

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhea remains a leading cause of death among children under five in India. Public health sector is an important source for diarrhea treatment with oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc. In 2010, Micronutrient Initiative started a project to improve service delivery for childhood diarrhea management through public health sector in Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Bihar. This paper aims to highlight feasible strategies, experiences and lessons learned from scaling–up zinc and ORS for childhood diarrhea management in the public sector in three Indian states. Methods The project was implemented in six districts of Gujarat, 12 districts of UP and 15 districts of Bihar, which includes 10.5 million children. Program strategies included capacity building of health care providers, expanding service delivery through community health workers (CHWs), providing supportive supervision to CHWs, ensuring supplies and conducting monitoring and evaluation. The lessons described in this paper are based on program data, government documents and studies that were used to generate evidence and inform program scale–up. Results 140 000 health personnel, including CHWs, were trained in childhood diarrhea management. During three years, CHWs had sustained knowledge and have treated and reported more than three million children aged 2–59 months having diarrhea, of which 84% were treated with both zinc and ORS. The successful strategies were scaled–up. Conclusion It is feasible and viable to introduce and scale–up zinc and ORS for childhood diarrhea treatment through public sector. Community–based service delivery, timely and adequate supplies, trained staff and pro–active engagement with government were essential for program success. PMID:26682047

  10. Sea lice, Caligus rotundigenitalis infestations and its management in pond cultured pearlspot, Etroplus suratensis in Gujarat: a case study.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Haresh G; Patil, Prasanna Kumar; Vanza, Jesing G; Patel, Pritesh; Sethi, Satyanarayana; Gopal, Chavali

    2016-06-01

    Highly popular and delicious fish of Kerala (India), pearlspot, Etroplus suratensis is known for its ability to tolerate wide range of salinity, omnivorous feeding behavior. Present report documents the occurrence and management of Caligus rotundigenitalis in brackishwater pond meant for culture demonstration of pearlspot in Gujarat, (India). A brackishwater aquaculture pond (1,500 sq m) was stocked with pearlspot fry (2.60 ± 0.83 g; 4.31 ± 0.82 cm) @ 25,000 ha(-1). On the 46th day of culture couple of dead fish were observed which gradually increased to 120 per day by 52nd day. Following the close observation parasitic infestation was noticed on gills cavities ranging from 15 to 20 numbers per fish. These characteristic features confirmed the parasite as C. rotundigenitalis. As a therapeutic measure the infested pond was successfully treated with Butox(®) @ 300 ml/ha (Deltamethrin 12.5 mg) and repeat dose was administered 2 weeks later. The results of the study suggest the possible therapeutic value of Deltamethrin in treatment of caligid infestation in pond cultured pearlspot. PMID:27413343

  11. Sea lice, Caligus rotundigenitalis infestations and its management in pond cultured pearlspot, Etroplus suratensis in Gujarat: a case study.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Haresh G; Patil, Prasanna Kumar; Vanza, Jesing G; Patel, Pritesh; Sethi, Satyanarayana; Gopal, Chavali

    2016-06-01

    Highly popular and delicious fish of Kerala (India), pearlspot, Etroplus suratensis is known for its ability to tolerate wide range of salinity, omnivorous feeding behavior. Present report documents the occurrence and management of Caligus rotundigenitalis in brackishwater pond meant for culture demonstration of pearlspot in Gujarat, (India). A brackishwater aquaculture pond (1,500 sq m) was stocked with pearlspot fry (2.60 ± 0.83 g; 4.31 ± 0.82 cm) @ 25,000 ha(-1). On the 46th day of culture couple of dead fish were observed which gradually increased to 120 per day by 52nd day. Following the close observation parasitic infestation was noticed on gills cavities ranging from 15 to 20 numbers per fish. These characteristic features confirmed the parasite as C. rotundigenitalis. As a therapeutic measure the infested pond was successfully treated with Butox(®) @ 300 ml/ha (Deltamethrin 12.5 mg) and repeat dose was administered 2 weeks later. The results of the study suggest the possible therapeutic value of Deltamethrin in treatment of caligid infestation in pond cultured pearlspot.

  12. A media-based assessment of damage and ground motions from the January 26th, 2001 M 7.6 Bhuj, India earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.; Martin, S.; Bilham, R.; Atkinson, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    We compiled available news and internet accounts of damage and other effects from the 26th January, 2001, Bhuj earthquake, and interpreted them to obtain modified Mercalli intensities at over 200 locations throughout the Indian subcontinent. These values are used to map the intensity distribution using a simple mathematical interpolation method. The maps reveal several interesting features. Within the Kachchh region, the most heavily damaged villages are concentrated towards the western edge of the inferred fault, consistent with western directivity. Significant sediment-induced amplification is also suggested at a number of locations around the Gulf of Kachchh to the south of the epicenter. Away from the Kachchh region intensities were clearly amplified significantly in areas that are along rivers, within deltas, or on coastal alluvium such as mud flats and salt pans. In addition we use fault rupture parameters inferred from teleseismic data to predict shaking intensity at distances of 0-1000 km. We then convert the predicted hard rock ground motion parameters to MMI using a relationship (derived from internet-based intensity surveys) that assigns MMI based on the average effects in a region. The predicted MMIs are typically lower by 1-2 units than those estimated from news accounts. This discrepancy is generally consistent with the expected effect of sediment response, but it could also reflect other factors such as a tendency for media accounts to focus on the most dramatic damage, rather than the average effects. Our modeling results also suggest, however, that the Bhuj earthquake generated more high-frequency shaking than is expected for earthquakes of similar magnitude in California, and may therefore have been especially damaging.

  13. Hidden earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, R.S.; Yeats, R.S.

    1989-06-01

    Seismologists generally look for earthquakes to happen along visible fault lines, e.g., the San Andreas fault. The authors maintain that another source of dangerous quakes has been overlooked: the release of stress along a fault that is hidden under a fold in the earth's crust. The paper describes the differences between an earthquake which occurs on a visible fault and one which occurs under an anticline and warns that Los Angeles greatest earthquake threat may come from a small quake originating under downtown Los Angeles, rather than a larger earthquake which occurs 50 miles away at the San Andreas fault.

  14. Prevalence of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder among college students of Bhavnagar, Gujarat

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Chintan Madhusudan; Panchal, Bharat Navinchandra; Tiwari, Deepak Sachidanand; Vala, Ashok Ukabhai; Bhatt, Renish Bhupendrabhai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) characterized by mood changes, anxiety, and somatic symptoms experienced during the specific time of menstrual cycle. Prevalence data of PMS and PMDD is sparse among college girls in India. Aims: The aim of this study is to study the prevalence of PMS and PMDD among college students of Bhavnagar (Gujarat), its associated demographic and menstrual factors, to rank common symptoms and compare premenstrual symptom screening tool (PSST) with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR defined PMDD (SCID-PMDD) for sensitivity and specificity. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was done in five colleges of Bhavnagar. Of 529 subjects approached, 489 college girls were finally analyzed for sociodemographic data, menstrual history, and PSST. SCID-PMDD was applied among those who were positive on PSST and 20% of those who were negative. The data were analyzed using OpenEpi Version 2. Chi-square test was done for qualitative variables and analysis of variance for quantitative variables. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were calculated for PSST. Results: The prevalence of PMS was 18.4%. Moderate to severe PMS was 14.7% and PMDD was 3.7% according to DSM IV-TR and 91% according to International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition criteria. The symptoms commonly reported were “fatigue/lack of energy,” “decrease interest in work,” and “anger/irritability.” The most common functional impairment item was “school/work efficiency and productivity.” PSST has 90.9% sensitivity, 57.01% specificity, and 97.01% predictive value of negative test. Conclusion: Prevalence of PMS among college students is similar to other studies from Asia. PSST is a useful screening tool for PMS, and it should be confirmed by more specific tool as by SCID-PMDD. Routine screening with PSST can identify college girls who can improve with treatment. PMID:27385849

  15. Water Footprint Assessment of Cotton Cultivation in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guoping; Safaya, Sameer; Methews, Ruth; Ercin, Ertug

    2016-04-01

    This study aims at assessing the water footprint of cotton production in 700 farms located in Gujarat, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh states in India. These farms grow cotton using one of three different agricultural practices: organic farming; conventional farming; or a hybrid method. The main difference between these farming practices relates to chemical inputs: hybrid farms are stricter in the use of synthetic chemical pesticides and fertilisers than conventional farms, and organic farms are the most strict on chemical inputs and use more compost, urea, neem and organic seeds. First, we calculated the green, blue and grey water footprint of cotton cultivation using the data collected from the farms, then established the relationship between cotton agricultural practices and technologies and the green, blue and grey water footprint. At a final step, we analyzed the potential for water footprint reduction through the transition from one practice to another and developing water efficiency benchmarks and targets for reduction. The results showed an impressive reduction of water pollution levels from organic farming. The grey water footprint ranged from 330,000 cubic metres per tonne of cotton for conventional farming in Madhya Pradesh to 178 cubic metres per tonne of cotton for organic farming in Gujarat. If all farms in this study performed as well as the organic farms in Gujarat, the grey water footprint (pollution) would be reduced by over 99%.

  16. Options for Optimal Coverage of Free C-Section Services for Poor Mothers in Indian State of Gujarat: Location Allocation Analysis Using GIS

    PubMed Central

    De Costa, Ayesha; Mavalankar, Dileep V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Gujarat, a western state of India, has seen a steep rise in the proportion of institutional deliveries over the last decade. However, there has been a limited access to cesarean section (C-Section) deliveries for complicated obstetric cases especially for poor rural women. C-section is a lifesaving intervention that can prevent both maternal and perinatal mortality. Poor women bear a disproportionate burden of maternal mortality, and lack of access to C-section, especially for these women, is an important contributor for high maternal and perinatal mortality in resource limited settings. To improve access for this underserved population in the context of inadequate public provision of emergency obstetric services, the state government of Gujarat initiated a public private partnership program called “Chiranjeevi Yojana” (CY) in 2005 to increase the number of facilities providing free C-section services. This study aimed to analyze the current availability of these services in three districts of Gujarat and to identify the best locations for additional service centres to optimize access to free C-section services using Geographic Information System technology. Methodology Supply and demand for obstetric care were calculated using secondary data from sources such as Census and primary data from cross-sectional facility survey. The study is unique in using primary data from facilities, which was collected in 2012–13. Information on obstetric beds and functionality of facilities to calculate supply was collected using pretested questionnaire by trained researchers after obtaining written consent from the participating facilities. Census data of population and birth rates for the study districts was used for demand calculations. Location-allocation model of ArcGIS 10 was used for analyses. Results Currently, about 50 to 84% of populations in all three study districts have access to free C-section facilities within a 20km radius. The model suggests that

  17. Earthquake Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Neville

    1979-01-01

    Provides a survey and a review of earthquake activity and global tectonics from the advancement of the theory of continental drift to the present. Topics include: an identification of the major seismic regions of the earth, seismic measurement techniques, seismic design criteria for buildings, and the prediction of earthquakes. (BT)

  18. Earthquake prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    1991-01-01

    The state of the art in earthquake prediction is discussed. Short-term prediction based on seismic precursors, changes in the ratio of compressional velocity to shear velocity, tilt and strain precursors, electromagnetic precursors, hydrologic phenomena, chemical monitors, and animal behavior is examined. Seismic hazard assessment is addressed, and the applications of dynamical systems to earthquake prediction are discussed.

  19. Analog earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, R.B.

    1995-09-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.

  20. UNBIASED MOMENT-RATE SPECTRA AND ABSOLUTE SITE EFFECTS IN THE KACHCHH BASIN, INDIA, FROM THE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTERSHOCKS OF THE 2001 Mw 7.6 BHUJ EARTHQUAKE

    SciTech Connect

    Malagnini, L; Bodin, P; Mayeda, K; Akinci, A

    2005-05-04

    What can be learned about absolute site effects on ground motions and about earthquake source spectra from recordings at temporary seismic stations, none of which could be considered a 'reference' (hard rock) site, for which no geotechnical information is available, in a very poorly instrumented region? This challenge motivated our current study of aftershocks of the 2001 Mw 7.6 Bhuj earthquake, in Western India. Crustal attenuation and spreading relationships based on the same data used here were determined in an earlier study. In this paper we decouple the ambiguity between absolute source radiation and site effects by first computing robust estimates of moment-rate spectra of about 200 aftershocks in each of two depth ranges. Using these new estimates of sourcespectra, and our understanding of regional wave propagation, we extract the absolute site terms of the sites of the temporary deployment. Absolute site terms (one for each component of the ground motion, for each station) are computed in an average sense, via an L{sub 1}-norm minimization, and results for each site are averaged over wide ranges of azimuths and takeoff angles. The Bhuj deployment is characterized by a variable shallow geology, mostly of soft sedimentary units. Vertical site terms in the region were observed to be almost featureless and slightly < 1.0 within wide frequency ranges. As a result, H/V spectral ratios mimic the absolute behaviors of absolute horizontal site terms, and they generally overpredict them. On the contrary, with respect to the results for sedimentary rock sites (limestone, dolomite) obtained by Malagnini et al. (2004), H/V spectral ratios in their study did not have much in common with absolute horizontal site terms. Spectral ratios between the vector sum of the computed horizontal site terms for the temporary deployment with respect to the same quantity computed at the hardest rock station available, BAC1, are seriously biased by its non-flat, non-unitary site response

  1. Maternal Socialization of Children's Anger, Sadness, and Physical Pain in Two Communities in Gujarat, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raval, Vaishali Vidhatri; Martini, Tanya Susan

    2009-01-01

    Despite the recognition of cultural influences in child socialization, little is known about socialization of emotion in children from different cultures. This study examined (a) Gujarati Indian mothers' reports concerning their beliefs, affective and behavioral responses to their children's displays of anger, sadness, and physical pain, and (b)…

  2. Study on prevalence of ancylostomosis in dogs at Anand district, Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Brahmbhatt, Nilima N.; Patel, P. V.; Hasnani, Jigar J.; Pandya, Suchit S.; Joshi, B. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was undertaken to derive the prevalence rate of ancylostomosis in dogs by a collection of fecal samples from Anand district. Materials and Methods: The fecal samples were collected from the dogs brought to the Hospital of Veterinary College (Teaching Veterinary Clinical Service Complex) and the surrounding areas of Anand district. On the day of collection, fecal samples were collected and brought to the Department of Veterinary Parasitology and processed for standard qualitative examination. The sedimentation technique was used to detect the presence of Ancylostoma spp. eggs in the samples. Result: The highest prevalence rate was observed in the month of May (36.66% fecal samples) and the lowest in the month of December (13.79% fecal samples) at Anand district. Conclusion: It can be concluded that heavy infection is present in Anand district especially in the season of summer followed by monsoon and the least in winter. PMID:27047052

  3. Modelling of lindane transport in groundwater of metropolitan city Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, M K; Jain, C K; Rao, G Tamma; Rao, V V S Gurunadha

    2015-05-01

    Migration pattern of organochloro pesticide lindane has been studied in groundwater of metropolitan city Vadodara. Groundwater flow was simulated using the groundwater flow model constructed up to a depth of 60 m considering a three-layer structure with grid size of 40 × 40 × 40 m(3). The general groundwater flow direction is from northeast to south and southwest. The river Vishwamitri and river Jambua form natural hydrologic boundary. The constant head in the north and south end of the study area is taken as another boundary condition in the model. The hydraulic head distribution in the multilayer aquifer has been computed from the visual MODFLOW groundwater flow model. TDS has been computed though MT3D mass transport model starting with a background concentration of 500 mg/l and using a porosity value of 0.3. Simulated TDS values from the model matches well with the observed data. Model MT3D was run for lindane pesticide with a background concentration of 0.5 μg/l. The predictions of the mass transport model for next 50 years indicate that advancement of containment of plume size in the aquifer system both spatially and depth wise as a result of increasing level of pesticide in river Vishwamitri. The restoration of the aquifer system may take a very long time as seen from slow improvement in the groundwater quality from the predicted scenarios, thereby, indicating alarming situation of groundwater quality deterioration in different layers. It is recommended that all the industries operating in the region should install efficient effluent treatment plants to abate the pollution problem.

  4. Earthquake Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Fernando

    2000-01-01

    Indicates the importance of the development of students' measurement and estimation skills. Analyzes earthquake data recorded at seismograph stations and explains how to read and modify the graphs. Presents an activity for student evaluation. (YDS)

  5. Earthquake watch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, M.

    1976-01-01

     When the time comes that earthquakes can be predicted accurately, what shall we do with the knowledge? This was the theme of a November 1975 conference on earthquake warning and response held in San Francisco called by Assistant Secretary of the Interior Jack W. Carlson. Invited were officials of State and local governments from Alaska, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, utah, Washington, and Wyoming and representatives of the news media. 

  6. Earthquakes for Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hazards Data & Products Learn Monitoring Research Earthquakes for Kids Kid's Privacy Policy Earthquake Topics for Education FAQ Earthquake Glossary For Kids Prepare Google Earth/KML Files Earthquake Summary Posters ...

  7. Emergence and extinction of Dipterocarpaceae in western India with reference to climate change: Fossil wood evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Anumeha; Mehrotra, R. C.; Guleria, J. S.

    2013-10-01

    Climate has played a crucial role in assigning a different kind of topography to Rajasthan and Gujarat since the Cenozoic time. Evidently, three genera, namely, Dipterocarpus Gaert. f., Hopea Roxb. and Shorea Roxb. of the Dipterocarpaceae are described from the Neogene sediments of western India (Rajasthan and Gujarat). These taxa are marked by their complete absence in the region today. The presence of Dipterocarpaceae in western India has been noticed from the Early Eocene up to the Plio-Pleistocene in deep time. The family is usually a dominant component of the humid tropical and subtropical flora of the Indo-Malayan region and its discovery, along with earlier described fossils from western India indicates existence of ancient tropical rain forests in western India. A change in the climate affected warm and humid conditions occurring there during the Cenozoic resulting in arid to semi-arid climate at present which is responsible for the ultimate extinction of Dipterocarpaceae in the region. In addition, the palaeobiogeography of Dipterocarpaceae is reviewed.

  8. Earthquake Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    During NASA's Apollo program, it was necessary to subject the mammoth Saturn V launch vehicle to extremely forceful vibrations to assure the moonbooster's structural integrity in flight. Marshall Space Flight Center assigned vibration testing to a contractor, the Scientific Services and Systems Group of Wyle Laboratories, Norco, California. Wyle-3S, as the group is known, built a large facility at Huntsville, Alabama, and equipped it with an enormously forceful shock and vibration system to simulate the liftoff stresses the Saturn V would encounter. Saturn V is no longer in service, but Wyle-3S has found spinoff utility for its vibration facility. It is now being used to simulate earthquake effects on various kinds of equipment, principally equipment intended for use in nuclear power generation. Government regulations require that such equipment demonstrate its ability to survive earthquake conditions. In upper left photo, Wyle3S is preparing to conduct an earthquake test on a 25ton diesel generator built by Atlas Polar Company, Ltd., Toronto, Canada, for emergency use in a Canadian nuclear power plant. Being readied for test in the lower left photo is a large circuit breaker to be used by Duke Power Company, Charlotte, North Carolina. Electro-hydraulic and electro-dynamic shakers in and around the pit simulate earthquake forces.

  9. Earthquake Occurrence in Bangladesh and Surrounding Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hussaini, T. M.; Al-Noman, M.

    2011-12-01

    The collision of the northward moving Indian plate with the Eurasian plate is the cause of frequent earthquakes in the region comprising Bangladesh and neighbouring India, Nepal and Myanmar. Historical records indicate that Bangladesh has been affected by five major earthquakes of magnitude greater than 7.0 (Richter scale) during 1869 to 1930. This paper presents some statistical observations of earthquake occurrence in fulfilment of a basic groundwork for seismic hazard assessment of this region. An up to date catalogue covering earthquake information in the region bounded within 17°-30°N and 84°-97°E for the period of historical period to 2010 is derived from various reputed international sources including ISC, IRIS, Indian sources and available publications. Careful scrutiny is done to remove duplicate or uncertain earthquake events. Earthquake magnitudes in the range of 1.8 to 8.1 have been obtained and relationships between different magnitude scales have been studied. Aftershocks are removed from the catalogue using magnitude dependent space window and time window. The main shock data are then analyzed to obtain completeness period for different magnitudes evaluating their temporal homogeneity. Spatial and temporal distribution of earthquakes, magnitude-depth histograms and other statistical analysis are performed to understand the distribution of seismic activity in this region.

  10. America's faulty earthquake plans

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, J

    1989-10-01

    In this article, the author discusses the liklihood of major earthquakes in both the western and eastern United States as well as the level of preparedness of each region of the U.S. for a major earthquake. Current technology in both earthquake-resistance design and earthquake detection is described. Governmental programs for earthquake hazard reduction are outlined and critiqued.

  11. Darwin's earthquake.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard V

    2010-07-01

    Charles Darwin experienced a major earthquake in the Concepción-Valdivia region of Chile 175 years ago, in February 1835. His observations dramatically illustrated the geologic principles of James Hutton and Charles Lyell which maintained that the surface of the earth was subject to alterations by natural events, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and the erosive action of wind and water, operating over very long periods of time. Changes in the land created new environments and fostered adaptations in life forms that could lead to the formation of new species. Without the demonstration of the accumulation of multiple crustal events over time in Chile, the biologic implications of the specific species of birds and tortoises found in the Galapagos Islands and the formulation of the concept of natural selection might have remained dormant.

  12. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-15

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes.

  13. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-01

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes.

  14. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-15

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes. PMID:27418504

  15. Defeating Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra earthquake claimed what seemed an unfathomable 228,000 lives, although because of its size, we could at least assure ourselves that it was an extremely rare event. But in the short space of 8 years, the Sumatra quake no longer looks like an anomaly, and it is no longer even the worst disaster of the Century: 80,000 deaths in the 2005 M=7.6 Pakistan quake; 88,000 deaths in the 2008 M=7.9 Wenchuan, China quake; 316,000 deaths in the M=7.0 Haiti, quake. In each case, poor design and construction were unable to withstand the ferocity of the shaken earth. And this was compounded by inadequate rescue, medical care, and shelter. How could the toll continue to mount despite the advances in our understanding of quake risk? The world's population is flowing into megacities, and many of these migration magnets lie astride the plate boundaries. Caught between these opposing demographic and seismic forces are 50 cities of at least 3 million people threatened by large earthquakes, the targets of chance. What we know for certain is that no one will take protective measures unless they are convinced they are at risk. Furnishing that knowledge is the animating principle of the Global Earthquake Model, launched in 2009. At the very least, everyone should be able to learn what his or her risk is. At the very least, our community owes the world an estimate of that risk. So, first and foremost, GEM seeks to raise quake risk awareness. We have no illusions that maps or models raise awareness; instead, earthquakes do. But when a quake strikes, people need a credible place to go to answer the question, how vulnerable am I, and what can I do about it? The Global Earthquake Model is being built with GEM's new open source engine, OpenQuake. GEM is also assembling the global data sets without which we will never improve our understanding of where, how large, and how frequently earthquakes will strike, what impacts they will have, and how those impacts can be lessened by

  16. The Vermetidae of the Gulf of Kachchh, western coast of India (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Devanshi MukundRay; Mankodi, Pradeep C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Coral reefs are often termed underwater wonderlands due to the presence of an incredible biodiversity including numerous invertebrates and vertebrates. Among the dense population of benthic and bottom-dwelling inhabitants of the reef, many significant species remain hidden or neglected by researchers. One such example is the vermetids, a unique group of marine gastropods. The present study attempts for the first time to assess the density and identify preferred reef substrates in the Gulf of Kachchh, state of Gujarat, on the western coast of India. A total of three species of the family Vermetidae were recorded during the study and their substrate preferences identified. PMID:26877684

  17. Relationship between household literacy and educational engagement: Analysis of data from Rajkot district, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudgar, Amita; Miller, Karyn; Kothari, Brij

    2012-02-01

    Household engagement in a child's education is a complex process; depending on the culture and the context, it may be revealed through a variety of behaviours. Using data from one district in rural Gujarat, India, four indicators of a household's educational engagement were employed to investigate the relationship between household literacy levels and the household's engagement in the education of its child members. The findings on educational engagement were also compared across households with different wealth and income levels. Uniformly, indicators of household literacy levels were found to be more important in understanding a household's educational engagement than a household's wealth and income levels.

  18. Conferees Examine Deadly 2005 Kashmir Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeats, Robert S.; Kausar, Allah Bakhsh; Nakata, Takashi

    2006-03-01

    The last major urban earthquake to strike Pakistan prior to 2005 severely damaged the city of Quetta in 1935 and killed 35,000 people. In the last 70 years, although much progress has been made in studying the location of active faults and zones of seismicity in Pakistan, the general public in Pakistan has not yet fully understood or recognized the earthquake hazard. The near-destruction of two towns- Balakot in the North-West Frontier Province, and Muzaffarabad, the capital of Azad Jammu Kashmir Province-and the deaths of more than 70,000 people caused by the 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake (Mw 7.6) led the government of Pakistan to request a scientific response and plan of action. Accordingly, the Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP) organized a recent international conference, which was attended by Pakistani scientists and participants from Austria, France, India, Iran, Japan, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States [Kausar et al., 2006].

  19. Earthquake occurrence and effects.

    PubMed

    Adams, R D

    1990-01-01

    Although earthquakes are mainly concentrated in zones close to boundaries of tectonic plates of the Earth's lithosphere, infrequent events away from the main seismic regions can cause major disasters. The major cause of damage and injury following earthquakes is elastic vibration, rather than fault displacement. This vibration at a particular site will depend not only on the size and distance of the earthquake but also on the local soil conditions. Earthquake prediction is not yet generally fruitful in avoiding earthquake disasters, but much useful planning to reduce earthquake effects can be done by studying the general earthquake hazard in an area, and taking some simple precautions. PMID:2347628

  20. Genetic counselling in tribals in India

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Dipika; Das, Kishalaya

    2011-01-01

    Genetic counselling in tribals unlike general population residing in cities and near villages is a difficult task due of their lower literacy and poor socio-economic status. However, sustained effort is essential with a close interaction in the local language, certain misbeliefs need to be removed gradually taking into account their socio-cultural background. The present communication deals with our experience in counselling for haemoglobinopathies during Neonatal Screening Programme undertaken for sickle cell disease in Kalahandi district of Orissa and Community Screening Programmes in primitive tribes of India in four States viz. Orissa, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. Counselling during neonatal screening programme was very well accepted demonstrating the benefit to the small babies as regards the morbidity. Premarital marriage counselling was also accepted by them. The success rate as followed up for 5 years is almost 50 per cent, the limitation being long follow up. Genetic counselling in these areas has to be continuous to achieve success and therefore the need for setting up of permanent centres in the tribal areas in India. PMID:22089621

  1. Emissions from India's transport sector: Statewise synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandra, T. V.; Shwetmala

    A decentralized emission inventories are prepared for road transport sector of India in order to design and implement suitable technologies and policies for appropriate mitigation measures. Globalization and liberalization policies of the government in 90's have increased the number of road vehicles nearly 92.6% from 1980-1981 to 2003-2004. These vehicles mainly consume non-renewable fossil fuels, and are a major contributor of green house gases, particularly CO 2 emission. This paper focuses on the statewise road transport emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2, PM and HC), using region specific mass emission factors for each type of vehicles. The country level emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2 and NMVOC) are calculated for railways, shipping and airway, based on fuel types. In India, transport sector emits an estimated 258.10 Tg of CO 2, of which 94.5% was contributed by road transport (2003-2004). Among all the states and Union Territories, Maharashtra's contribution is the largest, 28.85 Tg (11.8%) of CO 2, followed by Tamil Nadu 26.41 Tg (10.8%), Gujarat 23.31 Tg (9.6%), Uttar Pradesh 17.42 Tg (7.1%), Rajasthan 15.17 Tg (6.22%) and, Karnataka 15.09 Tg (6.19%). These six states account for 51.8% of the CO 2 emissions from road transport.

  2. Sickle cell disease in tribal populations in India

    PubMed Central

    Colah, Roshan B.; Mukherjee, Malay B.; Martin, Snehal; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2015-01-01

    The sickle gene is widespread among many tribal population groups in India with prevalence of heterozygotes varying from 1-40 per cent. Co-inheritance of the sickle gene with β-thalassaemia, HbD Punjab and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency has also been reported. Most of the screening programmes in India now use high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis although the solubility test is also sensitive and cheap. Sickle cell disease (SCD) among tribal populations is generally milder than among non-tribal groups with fewer episodes of painful crises, infections, acute chest syndrome and need for hospitalization. This has partly been attributed to the very high prevalence of α-thalassaemia among these tribes as well as higher foetal haemoglobin levels. However, the clinical presentation is variable with many cases having a severe presentation. There is not much information available on maternal and perinatal outcome in tribal women with sickle cell disease. Newborn screening programmes for SCD have recently been initiated in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Odisha and Chattisgarh and monitoring these birth cohorts will help to understand the natural history of SCD in India. Prenatal diagnosis is acceptable by tribal families in India. The Indian Council of Medical Research and the National Rural Health Mission in different States are undertaking outreach programmes for better management and control of the disease. PMID:26139766

  3. Prediction of earthquake-triggered landslide event sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Anika; Havenith, Hans-Balder; Schlögel, Romy

    2016-04-01

    contribution for the prediction of the number (and concentration) of induced landslides. This, for instance, partly explains why the Wenchuan 2008 earthquake triggered far more landslides than the Nepal 2015 earthquake. Moreover, according to our prediction the most severe earthquake-triggered landslide event would have been the Assam 1950 earthquake (India), followed by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Regarding the overall performance of our prediction method it can be seen that the number of landslides is overestimated for a series of earthquakes, while the size of the affected area is often underestimated. Especially for older events the incompleteness of the published catalogues can partly explain the overestimation of the landslide numbers. The underestimation of the affected area however is real and must be attributed to particular remote effects of earthquakes.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Commercial Textile Dye-Decolorizing and -Degrading Bacillus subtilis Strain C3 Isolated in India.

    PubMed

    Kunadia, Khushbu; Nathani, Neelam M; Kothari, Vishal; Kotadia, Rohit J; Kothari, Charmy R; Joshi, Anjali; Rank, Jalpa K; Faldu, Priti R; Shekar, M Chandra; Viroja, Mitkumar J; Patel, Priyank A; Jadeja, Divyarajsinh; Reddy, Bhaskar; Pal Singh, Ravindra; Koringa, Prakash G; Joshi, Chaitanya G; Kothari, Ramesh K

    2016-03-10

    Bacillus subtilis C3, a commercial textile dye-decolorizing and -degrading bacterium, was isolated from the common effluent treatment plant (CEPT) of the Jetpur textile dyeing and printing industrial sector situated in the district of Rajkot, Gujarat, India. Here, we present the annotated 4.18-Mb draft genome sequence of B. subtilis C3, providing information about the metabolic pathways involved in decolorization and degradation of several commercial textile azo dyes. Thus, we confirm B. subtilis C3 as a potential candidate for bioremediation of textile effluents.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Commercial Textile Dye-Decolorizing and -Degrading Bacillus subtilis Strain C3 Isolated in India.

    PubMed

    Kunadia, Khushbu; Nathani, Neelam M; Kothari, Vishal; Kotadia, Rohit J; Kothari, Charmy R; Joshi, Anjali; Rank, Jalpa K; Faldu, Priti R; Shekar, M Chandra; Viroja, Mitkumar J; Patel, Priyank A; Jadeja, Divyarajsinh; Reddy, Bhaskar; Pal Singh, Ravindra; Koringa, Prakash G; Joshi, Chaitanya G; Kothari, Ramesh K

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis C3, a commercial textile dye-decolorizing and -degrading bacterium, was isolated from the common effluent treatment plant (CEPT) of the Jetpur textile dyeing and printing industrial sector situated in the district of Rajkot, Gujarat, India. Here, we present the annotated 4.18-Mb draft genome sequence of B. subtilis C3, providing information about the metabolic pathways involved in decolorization and degradation of several commercial textile azo dyes. Thus, we confirm B. subtilis C3 as a potential candidate for bioremediation of textile effluents. PMID:26966205

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Commercial Textile Dye-Decolorizing and -Degrading Bacillus subtilis Strain C3 Isolated in India

    PubMed Central

    Kunadia, Khushbu; Nathani, Neelam M.; Kothari, Vishal; Kotadia, Rohit J.; Kothari, Charmy R.; Joshi, Anjali; Rank, Jalpa K.; Faldu, Priti R.; Shekar, M. Chandra; Viroja, Mitkumar J.; Patel, Priyank A.; Jadeja, Divyarajsinh; Reddy, Bhaskar; Pal Singh, Ravindra; Koringa, Prakash G.; Joshi, Chaitanya G.

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis C3, a commercial textile dye-decolorizing and -degrading bacterium, was isolated from the common effluent treatment plant (CEPT) of the Jetpur textile dyeing and printing industrial sector situated in the district of Rajkot, Gujarat, India. Here, we present the annotated 4.18-Mb draft genome sequence of B. subtilis C3, providing information about the metabolic pathways involved in decolorization and degradation of several commercial textile azo dyes. Thus, we confirm B. subtilis C3 as a potential candidate for bioremediation of textile effluents. PMID:26966205

  7. Cost–benefit analysis of installing dust control devices in the agate industry, Khambhat (Gujarat)

    PubMed Central

    Bhagia, Lakho J.; Sadhu, H. G.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that an exposure to crystalline silica gives rise to silicosis and silico-tuberculosis (TB). In the agate industry of Khambhat (Gujarat) not only workers but also people staying in the vicinity of the agate-grinding facilities are exposed to crystalline silica. To reduce their dust exposure, dust control devices were developed. There are approximately 500 grinding machines located in Khambhat. A cost–benefit analysis of installing dust control devices on all agate-grinding machines was carried out by adding all positive factors and benefits and subtracting the negatives and costs. It was concluded that by installing dust control devices not only could the prevalence of silicosis and TB be reduced but also, in the long run, there could be financial benefits. PMID:20040971

  8. The Northern Rupture of the 1762 Arakan Meghathrust Earthquake and other Potential Earthquake Sources in Bangladesh.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, S. H.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It occupies a major part of the Bengal Basin, which contains the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD), the largest and one of the most active of world deltas, and is located along the Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt. As such it is vulnerable to many natural hazards, especially earthquakes. The country sits at the junction of three tectonic plates - Indian, Eurasian, and the Burma 'sliver' of the Sunda plate. These form two boundaries where plates converge- the India-Eurasia plate boundary to the north forming the Himalaya Arc and the India-Burma plate boundary to the east forming the Indo-Burma Arc. The India-Burma plate boundary is exceptionally wide because collision with the GBD feeds an exception amount of sediment into the subduction zone. Thus the Himalayan continent collision orogeny along with its syntaxes to the N and NE of Bangladesh and the Burma Arc subduction boundary surround Bangladesh on two sides with active faults of regional scale, raising the potential for high-magnitude earthquakes. In recent years Bangladesh has experienced minor to moderate earthquakes. Historical records show that major and great earthquakes have ravaged the country and the neighboring region several times over the last 450 years. Field observations of Tertiary structures along the Chittagong-Teknaf coast reveal that the rupture of 1762 Arakan megathrust earthquake extended as far north as the Sitakund anticline to the north of the city of Chittagong. This earthquake brought changes to the landscape, uplifting the Teknaf peninsula and St. Martin's Island by about 2-2.5 m, and activated two mud volcanos along the axis of the Sitakund anticline, where large tabular blocks of exotic crystalline limestone, were tectonically transported from a deep-seated formation along with the eruptive mud. Vast area of the coast including inland areas east of the lower Meghna River were inundated. More than 500 peoples died near

  9. The size of earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kanamori, H.

    1980-01-01

    How we should measure the size of an earthquake has been historically a very important, as well as a very difficult, seismological problem. For example, figure 1 shows the loss of life caused by earthquakes in recent times and clearly demonstrates that 1976 was the worst year for earthquake casualties in the 20th century. However, the damage caused by an earthquake is due not only to its physical size but also to other factors such as where and when it occurs; thus, figure 1 is not necessarily an accurate measure of the "size" of earthquakes in 1976. the point is that the physical process underlying an earthquake is highly complex; we therefore cannot express every detail of an earthquake by a simple straightforward parameter. Indeed, it would be very convenient if we could find a single number that represents the overall physical size of an earthquake. This was in fact the concept behind the Richter magnitude scale introduced in 1935. 

  10. Earthquakes: Predicting the unpredictable?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    The earthquake prediction pendulum has swung from optimism in the 1970s to rather extreme pessimism in the 1990s. Earlier work revealed evidence of possible earthquake precursors: physical changes in the planet that signal that a large earthquake is on the way. Some respected earthquake scientists argued that earthquakes are likewise fundamentally unpredictable. The fate of the Parkfield prediction experiment appeared to support their arguments: A moderate earthquake had been predicted along a specified segment of the central San Andreas fault within five years of 1988, but had failed to materialize on schedule. At some point, however, the pendulum began to swing back. Reputable scientists began using the "P-word" in not only polite company, but also at meetings and even in print. If the optimism regarding earthquake prediction can be attributed to any single cause, it might be scientists' burgeoning understanding of the earthquake cycle.

  11. Earthquakes: hydrogeochemical precursors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Manga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake prediction is a long-sought goal. Changes in groundwater chemistry before earthquakes in Iceland highlight a potential hydrogeochemical precursor, but such signals must be evaluated in the context of long-term, multiparametric data sets.

  12. Estimating earthquake potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The hazards to life and property from earthquakes can be minimized in three ways. First, structures can be designed and built to resist the effects of earthquakes. Second, the location of structures and human activities can be chosen to avoid or to limit the use of areas known to be subject to serious earthquake hazards. Third, preparations for an earthquake in response to a prediction or warning can reduce the loss of life and damage to property as well as promote a rapid recovery from the disaster. The success of the first two strategies, earthquake engineering and land use planning, depends on being able to reliably estimate the earthquake potential. The key considerations in defining the potential of a region are the location, size, and character of future earthquakes and frequency of their occurrence. Both historic seismicity of the region and the geologic record are considered in evaluating earthquake potential. 

  13. Energy Balance of Rural Ecosystems In India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhabra, A.; Madhava Rao, V.; Hermon, R. R.; Garg, A.; Nag, T.; Bhaskara Rao, N.; Sharma, A.; Parihar, J. S.

    2014-11-01

    India is predominantly an agricultural and rural country. Across the country, the villages vary in geographical location, area, human and livestock population, availability of resources, agricultural practices, livelihood patterns etc. This study presents an estimation of net energy balance resulting from primary production vis-a-vis energy consumption through various components in a "Rural Ecosystem". Seven sites located in different agroclimatic regions of India were studied. An end use energy accounting "Rural Energy Balance Model" is developed for input-output analysis of various energy flows of production, consumption, import and export through various components of crop, trees outside forest plantations, livestock, rural households, industry or trade within the village system boundary. An integrated approach using field, ancillary, GIS and high resolution IRS-P6 Resourcesat-2 LISS IV data is adopted for generation of various model inputs. The primary and secondary field data collection of various energy uses at household and village level were carried out using structured schedules and questionnaires. High resolution multi-temporal Resourcesat-2 LISS IV data (2013-14) was used for generating landuse/landcover maps and estimation of above-ground Trees Outside Forests phytomass. The model inputs were converted to energy equivalents using country-specific energy conversion factors. A comprehensive geotagged database of sampled households and available resources at each study site was also developed in ArcGIS framework. Across the study sites, the estimated net energy balance ranged from -18.8 Terra Joules (TJ) in a high energy consuming Hodka village, Gujarat to 224.7 TJ in an agriculture, aquaculture and plantation intensive Kollaparru village, Andhra Pradesh. The results indicate that the net energy balance of a Rural Ecosystem is largely driven by primary production through crops and natural vegetation. This study provides a significant insight to policy

  14. Early Eocene fossils suggest that the mammalian order Perissodactyla originated in India.

    PubMed

    Rose, Kenneth D; Holbrook, Luke T; Rana, Rajendra S; Kumar, Kishor; Jones, Katrina E; Ahrens, Heather E; Missiaen, Pieter; Sahni, Ashok; Smith, Thierry

    2014-11-20

    Cambaytheres (Cambaytherium, Nakusia and Kalitherium) are recently discovered early Eocene placental mammals from the Indo-Pakistan region. They have been assigned to either Perissodactyla (the clade including horses, tapirs and rhinos, which is a member of the superorder Laurasiatheria) or Anthracobunidae, an obscure family that has been variously considered artiodactyls or perissodactyls, but most recently placed at the base of Proboscidea or of Tethytheria (Proboscidea+Sirenia, superorder Afrotheria). Here we report new dental, cranial and postcranial fossils of Cambaytherium, from the Cambay Shale Formation, Gujarat, India (~54.5 Myr). These fossils demonstrate that cambaytheres occupy a pivotal position as the sister taxon of Perissodactyla, thereby providing insight on the phylogenetic and biogeographic origin of Perissodactyla. The presence of the sister group of perissodactyls in western India near or before the time of collision suggests that Perissodactyla may have originated on the Indian Plate during its final drift toward Asia.

  15. Redefining Earthquakes and the Earthquake Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubenthal, Michael; Braile, Larry; Taber, John

    2008-01-01

    The Earthquake Machine (EML), a mechanical model of stick-slip fault systems, can increase student engagement and facilitate opportunities to participate in the scientific process. This article introduces the EML model and an activity that challenges ninth-grade students' misconceptions about earthquakes. The activity emphasizes the role of models…

  16. Earthquakes, October 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    October was an active month seismically, although there were no damaging earthquakes in the United States. Several States experienced earthquakes that were felt sharply. There were four major earthquakes in other parts of the world, including a magntidue 7.4 in the Philippine Islands that killed on person. 

  17. Children's Ideas about Earthquakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simsek, Canan Lacin

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

  18. Real Earthquakes, Real Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomburg, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    One teacher took her class on a year long earthquake expedition. The goal was to monitor the occurrences of real earthquakes during the year and mark their locations with push pins on a wall-sized world map in the hallway outside the science room. The purpose of the project was to create a detailed picture of the earthquakes that occurred…

  19. Earthquake and Schools. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

    Designing schools to make them more earthquake resistant and protect children from the catastrophic collapse of the school building is discussed in this videotape. It reveals that 44 of the 50 U.S. states are vulnerable to earthquake, but most schools are structurally unprepared to take on the stresses that earthquakes exert. The cost to the…

  20. School Safety and Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwelley, Laura; Tucker, Brian; Fernandez, Jeanette

    1997-01-01

    A recent assessment of earthquake risk to Quito, Ecuador, concluded that many of its public schools are vulnerable to collapse during major earthquakes. A subsequent examination of 60 buildings identified 15 high-risk buildings. These schools were retrofitted to meet standards that would prevent injury even during Quito's largest earthquakes. US…

  1. Operational earthquake forecasting can enhance earthquake preparedness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, T.H.; Marzocchi, W.; Michael, A.J.; Gerstenberger, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    We cannot yet predict large earthquakes in the short term with much reliability and skill, but the strong clustering exhibited in seismic sequences tells us that earthquake probabilities are not constant in time; they generally rise and fall over periods of days to years in correlation with nearby seismic activity. Operational earthquake forecasting (OEF) is the dissemination of authoritative information about these time‐dependent probabilities to help communities prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes. The goal of OEF is to inform the decisions that people and organizations must continually make to mitigate seismic risk and prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes on time scales from days to decades. To fulfill this role, OEF must provide a complete description of the seismic hazard—ground‐motion exceedance probabilities as well as short‐term rupture probabilities—in concert with the long‐term forecasts of probabilistic seismic‐hazard analysis (PSHA).

  2. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning.

    PubMed

    Minson, Sarah E; Brooks, Benjamin A; Glennie, Craig L; Murray, Jessica R; Langbein, John O; Owen, Susan E; Heaton, Thomas H; Iannucci, Robert A; Hauser, Darren L

    2015-04-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an M w (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California's Hayward fault, and real data from the M w 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing. PMID:26601167

  3. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    PubMed Central

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing. PMID:26601167

  4. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning.

    PubMed

    Minson, Sarah E; Brooks, Benjamin A; Glennie, Craig L; Murray, Jessica R; Langbein, John O; Owen, Susan E; Heaton, Thomas H; Iannucci, Robert A; Hauser, Darren L

    2015-04-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an M w (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California's Hayward fault, and real data from the M w 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.

  5. Earthquake forecasting and warning

    SciTech Connect

    Rikitake, T.

    1983-01-01

    This review briefly describes two other books on the same subject either written or partially written by Rikitake. In this book, the status of earthquake prediction efforts in Japan, China, the Soviet Union, and the United States are updated. An overview of some of the organizational, legal, and societal aspects of earthquake prediction in these countries is presented, and scientific findings of precursory phenomena are included. A summary of circumstances surrounding the 1975 Haicheng earthquake, the 1978 Tangshan earthquake, and the 1976 Songpan-Pingwu earthquake (all magnitudes = 7.0) in China and the 1978 Izu-Oshima earthquake in Japan is presented. This book fails to comprehensively summarize recent advances in earthquake prediction research.

  6. Lithospheric Structure and Earthquakes beneath Kashmir Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanchoo, S. K.; Powali, D.; Sharma, S.; Mitra, S.; Priestley, K. F.; Gaur, V. K.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last two centuries, convergence between India and Tibet has outpaced the cumulative slip released through Himalayan earthquakes and have resulted in seismic gap across Kashmir Himalaya. Recent GPS geodetic data from Kashmir show that the ongoing convergence is accumulated as elastic strain within a ~200 km wide locked decollement and is sufficiently stressed to drive a magnitude 8 or greater event. Recently published focal mechanism of the mb 5.7 (2013) Kishtwar earthquake and hypocentral distribution of small-to-moderate seismicity for the past 60 years, showed that the down dip end of the locked decollement is currently active and could possibly be the site of initiation of a future great earthquake. In order to assess the seismic hazard in this Kashmir gap, we require a detailed knowledge of the lithospheric structure and use it to reliably locate active faults. A pilot seismological experiment, of nine broadband seismographs, have been deployed across the Kashmir Himalaya to achieve this goal. These stations are sited on the Siwalik Himalaya (AKNR, NGRT, SMVD, SUND and TAPN), the Lesser Himalaya (RAMN and UDHM) and the Higher Himalaya (BADR and PHAG), and straddle major Himalayan thrust zones. Most of these stations have recorded high quality broadband data for a year, which has been used to compute receiver functions and relocate local earthquakes. The Moho Ps is the strongest arrival on all the receiver functions, and highlights the base of the underthrusting Indian crust as a large impedance contrast boundary. Forward modeling of receiver functions show that the crustal thickness increases from ~40 km beneath the Siwalik Himalaya to ~48 km beneath the Lesser Himalaya and to ~52 km beneath the Higher Himalaya. The average crustal Vp/Vs points to a felsic Indian crust underthrusting the Kashmir Himalaya. Relocated local earthquakes cluster around the hypocenter of the Kishtwar earthquake and attests to the active downdip end of the locked decollement.

  7. Distribution, sources and ecological risk assessment of PAHs in historically contaminated surface sediments at Bhavnagar coast, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Dudhagara, Dushyant R; Rajpara, Rahul K; Bhatt, Jwalant K; Gosai, Haren B; Sachaniya, Bhumi K; Dave, Bharti P

    2016-06-01

    The concentration, distribution and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been investigated in surface sediments near Bhavnagar coast. The concentration of ∑PAHs ranged from 5.02 to 981.18 μg g(-1) dry weight, indicating heavy pollution compared to other historically polluted study sites. It was found to be introduced via mixed origins such as burning of gas, oil, coal, production of petrochemicals, cement, and rubber tires. Domestic fuel burning and motor vehicles are also culprits for air pollution. Industrial effluents and accidental oil spillage can also be considered. PAHs can be exposed through air, water, soil and food sources including ingestion, inhalation, and dermal content in both occupational and non-occupational levels by single or sometimes multiple exposures routes concomitantly. Furthermore, diagnostic ratios, statistical principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) models have confirmed that the sources of PAHs were both - petrogenic and pyrogenic. For both the sites, assessment of ecological risk of the elevated levels of these pollutants has been exercised based on toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) and risk quotient (RQ) methods. The composite results indicated accurately that both the sites, bears potentially acute and chronic health hazards such as decreased immune functionality, genotoxicity, malignancy and developmental malfunctions in humans. The sites studied here and the workers have been exposed to hazardous pollutants for a longer period of time. Evidences indicate that mixtures of PAHs are carcinogenic to humans, based on occupational studies on workers, exposed to these pollutants. Hence, the present study and statistical approaches applied herein clearly indicate the historic mix routes of PAHs that resulted in magnified concentrations leading to high ecosystem risk. Thus, the scientific communities are urged to develop strategies to minimize the concentrations of PAHs from the historically impacted coastlines, thereby concerning for the future investigations and restoration of these sites.

  8. Effect of light quality on the C-phycoerythrin production in marine cyanobacteria Pseudanabaena sp. isolated from Gujarat coast, India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sanjiv K; Shrivastav, Anupama; Maurya, Rahulkumar R; Patidar, Shailesh K; Haldar, Soumya; Mishra, Sandhya

    2012-01-01

    The isolated cyanobacterium containing biopigments like chlorophyll-a, phycoerythrin, phycocyanin, and carotenoid was cultured under different quality of light modes to ascertain biomass and pigment productivity. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence, the isolate was identified as Pseudanabaena sp. Maximum biomass concentration obtained in white-, blue-, and green-light was 0.82, 0.94, and 0.89 g/L, respectively. It was observed that maximum phycoerythrin production was in green light (39.2 mg/L), ensued by blue light (32.2 mg/L), while phycocyanin production was maximum in red light (10.9 mg/L). In yellow light, pigment production as well as the growth rate gradually declined after 12 days. Carotenoid production decreased in blue-, white-, and red-light after 15 days, while in green light it had increased gradually. The present communication suggests that Pseudanabaena sp. can be used for commercial production of phycoerythrin when grown under green light. PMID:21906679

  9. Antibiotic sensitivity profile of bacterial pathogens in postoperative wound infections at a tertiary care hospital in Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Nutanbala N.; Trivedi, Hiren R.; Goswami, Alpesh Puri P.; Patel, Tejas K.; Tripathi, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To find out the most common bacterial pathogens responsible for post-operative wound infection and their antibiotic sensitivity profile. Materials and Methods: This prospective, observational study was carried out in patients of postoperative wound infection. Samples from wound discharge were collected using a sterile swab and studied for identification of isolates by Gram stains and culture growth followed by in vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing performed by disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar. Results: Out of 183 organisms, 126 (68.85%) isolated organisms were gram negative. Staphylococcus aureus, 48 (26.23%), was the predominant organism. S. aureus was sensitive to rifampicin (89.58%), levofloxacin (60.42%), and vancomycin (54.17%). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was sensitive to ciprofloxacin (83.78%), gatifloxacin (51.35%), and meropenem (51.35%). Escherichia coli was sensitive to levofloxacin (72.41%) and ciprofloxacin (62.07%). Klebsiella pneumoniae was sensitive to ciprofloxacin (63.16%), levofloxacin (63.16%), gatifloxacin (63.16%), and linezolid (56.52%). Proteus mirabilis was sensitive to ciprofloxacin (75%) and linezolid (62.50). Proteus vulgaris was sensitive to ampicillin+sulbactam (57.14%) followed by levofloxacin (50%). Conclusions: There is an alarming increase of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly in the emergence of VRSA/VISA, meropenem, and third generation cephalosporin resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Linezolid showing sensitivity against Gram negative bacteria. PMID:21897707

  10. Weather Satellite Thermal IR Responses Prior to Earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OConnor, Daniel P.

    2005-01-01

    A number of observers claim to have seen thermal anomalies prior to earthquakes, but subsequent analysis by others has failed to produce similar findings. What exactly are these anomalies? Might they be useful for earthquake prediction? It is the purpose of this study to determine if thermal anomalies can be found in association with known earthquakes by systematically co-registering weather satellite images at the sub-pixel level and then determining if statistically significant responses occurred prior to the earthquake event. A new set of automatic co-registration procedures was developed for this task to accommodate all properties particular to weather satellite observations taken at night, and it relies on the general condition that the ground cools after sunset. Using these procedures, we can produce a set of temperature-sensitive satellite images for each of five selected earthquakes (Algeria 2003; Bhuj, India 2001; Izmit, Turkey 2001; Kunlun Shan, Tibet 2001; Turkmenistan 2000) and thus more effectively investigate heating trends close to the epicenters a few hours prior to the earthquake events. This study will lay tracks for further work in earthquake prediction and provoke the question of the exact nature of the thermal anomalies.

  11. Missing great earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of three earthquakes with moment magnitude (Mw) greater than 8.8 and six earthquakes larger than Mw 8.5, since 2004, has raised interest in the long-term global rate of great earthquakes. Past studies have focused on the analysis of earthquakes since 1900, which roughly marks the start of the instrumental era in seismology. Before this time, the catalog is less complete and magnitude estimates are more uncertain. Yet substantial information is available for earthquakes before 1900, and the catalog of historical events is being used increasingly to improve hazard assessment. Here I consider the catalog of historical earthquakes and show that approximately half of all Mw ≥ 8.5 earthquakes are likely missing or underestimated in the 19th century. I further present a reconsideration of the felt effects of the 8 February 1843, Lesser Antilles earthquake, including a first thorough assessment of felt reports from the United States, and show it is an example of a known historical earthquake that was significantly larger than initially estimated. The results suggest that incorporation of best available catalogs of historical earthquakes will likely lead to a significant underestimation of seismic hazard and/or the maximum possible magnitude in many regions, including parts of the Caribbean.

  12. Lightning Activities and Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2016-04-01

    The lightning activity is one of the key parameters to understand the atmospheric electric fields and/or currents near the Earth's surface as well as the lithosphere-atmosphere coupling during the earthquake preparation period. In this study, to see whether or not lightning activities are related to earthquakes, we statistically examine lightning activities 30 days before and after 78 land and 230 sea M>5.0 earthquakes in Taiwan during the 12-year period of 1993-2004. Lightning activities versus the location, depth, and magnitude of earthquakes are investigated. Results show that lightning activities tend to appear around the forthcoming epicenter and are significantly enhanced a few, especially 17-19, days before the M>6.0 shallow (depth D< 20 km) land earthquakes. Moreover, the size of the area around the epicenter with the statistical significance of lightning activity enhancement is proportional to the earthquake magnitude.

  13. Tsunami: India

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Indonesia. This was the fourth largest earthquake in the world since 1900 and the largest in over 40 years. It was caused by the release ... orbit 26720 and use data from within blocks 77 and 78 within World Reference System-2 path 142. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's ...

  14. India: Kachchh

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... The earthquake may have occurred on the Kachchh Mainland Fault, which extends from the region of the epicenter westward along the curved ... the Kachchh region which lies north of the Kachchh Mainland Fault includes the Banni Plains and the Rann of Kachchh. It is a low, flat ...

  15. Earthquake at 40 feet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, G. J.

    1976-01-01

    The earthquake that struck the island of Guam on November 1, 1975, at 11:17 a.m had many unique aspects-not the least of which was the experience of an earthquake of 6.25 Richter magnitude while at 40 feet. My wife Bonnie, a fellow diver, Greg Guzman, and I were diving at Gabgab Beach in teh outer harbor of Apra Harbor, engaged in underwater phoyography when the earthquake struck. 

  16. NCEER seminars on earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pantelic, J.

    1987-01-01

    In May of 1986, the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (NCEER) in Buffalo, New York, held the first seminar in its new monthly forum called Seminars on Earthquakes. The Center's purpose in initiating the seminars was to educate the audience about earthquakes, to facilitate cooperation between the NCEER and visiting researchers, and to enable visiting speakers to learn more about the NCEER   

  17. Earthquakes, November-December 1973

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    Other parts of the world suffered fatalities and significant damage from earthquakes. In Iran, an earthquake killed one person, injured many, and destroyed a number of homes. Earthquake fatalities also occurred in the Azores and in Algeria. 

  18. Women's health as empowerment in India.

    PubMed

    Khanna, R

    1992-01-01

    A grassroots nongovernmental organization, Social Action for Rural and Tribal Inhabitants of India (SARTHI), operating in Panchmahals District in Gujarat, India, since 1980, organized a women's health program in 1988 as part of a larger effort to empower local women to improve their lives. SARTHI has broadened the definition of women's health to respond to the needs of the local women. In its first phase, the women's health program trained 20 local women in maternal and child health care. When the local women began confiding gynecological complaints to the women's health workers (WHWs), the WHWs responded by recommending traditional remedies and also by requesting specific information about gynecology. The second and third phases of the program, therefore, were to investigate and validate locally used traditional medicines and to train WHWs to be "barefoot" gynecologists and to take complete medical histories. WHWs also understand that they are agents of change and have a role in the effort to empower the local women. The training of the WHWs was specifically tailored for illiterate rural women. The training took place in stages and included technical health inputs and an equal emphasis on empowerment and leadership building. Training workshops were organized around the specific learning needs of each participant and included built-in reviews. Nothing was taken for granted, even the use of sterile gloves was practiced. Games and songs were incorporated into the learning process, and the core of the training took place through role playing. The trainers assumed the position of resource people, supplying new information as need dictated.

  19. Earthquake history of Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    Although situated between two States (California and Washington) that have has many violent earthquakes, Oregon is noticeably less active seismically. the greatest damage experienced resulted from a major shock near Olympia, Wash., in 1949. During the short history record available (since 1841), 34 earthquakes of intensity V, Modified Mercalli Scale, or greater have centered within Oregon or near its borders. Only 13 of the earthquakes had an intensity above V, and many of the shocks were local. However, a 1936 earthquake in the eastern Oregon-Washington region caused extensive damage and was felt over an area of 272,000 square kilometers. 

  20. Are Earthquake Magnitudes Clustered?

    SciTech Connect

    Davidsen, Joern; Green, Adam

    2011-03-11

    The question of earthquake predictability is a long-standing and important challenge. Recent results [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 098501 (2007); ibid.100, 038501 (2008)] have suggested that earthquake magnitudes are clustered, thus indicating that they are not independent in contrast to what is typically assumed. Here, we present evidence that the observed magnitude correlations are to a large extent, if not entirely, an artifact due to the incompleteness of earthquake catalogs and the well-known modified Omori law. The latter leads to variations in the frequency-magnitude distribution if the distribution is constrained to those earthquakes that are close in space and time to the directly following event.

  1. Earthquakes and Plate Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Paul; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Contains the contents of the Student Investigation booklet of a Crustal Evolution Education Project (CEEP) instructional modules on earthquakes. Includes objectives, procedures, illustrations, worksheets, and summary questions. (MA)

  2. Internet India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews a number of Internet sites containing information on every aspect of life in Modern India. The various sites provide information on such diverse topics as the Indian film industry, politics, the booming Indian computer industry, changing status of women, and financial and political issues. (MJP)

  3. OMG Earthquake! Can Twitter improve earthquake response?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, P. S.; Guy, M.; Ostrum, C.; Horvath, S.; Buckmaster, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public, text messages, can augment its earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. The goal is to gather near real-time, earthquake-related messages (tweets) and provide geo-located earthquake detections and rough maps of the corresponding felt areas. Twitter and other social Internet technologies are providing the general public with anecdotal earthquake hazard information before scientific information has been published from authoritative sources. People local to an event often publish information within seconds via these technologies. In contrast, depending on the location of the earthquake, scientific alerts take between 2 to 20 minutes. Examining the tweets following the March 30, 2009, M4.3 Morgan Hill earthquake shows it is possible (in some cases) to rapidly detect and map the felt area of an earthquake using Twitter responses. Within a minute of the earthquake, the frequency of “earthquake” tweets rose above the background level of less than 1 per hour to about 150 per minute. Using the tweets submitted in the first minute, a rough map of the felt area can be obtained by plotting the tweet locations. Mapping the tweets from the first six minutes shows observations extending from Monterey to Sacramento, similar to the perceived shaking region mapped by the USGS “Did You Feel It” system. The tweets submitted after the earthquake also provided (very) short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking. Accurately assessing the potential and robustness of a Twitter-based system is difficult because only tweets spanning the previous seven days can be searched, making a historical study impossible. We have, however, been archiving tweets for several months, and it is clear that significant limitations do exist. The main drawback is the lack of quantitative information

  4. Earthquakes and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Earthquakes are low-probability, high-consequence events. Though they may occur only once in the life of a school, they can have devastating, irreversible consequences. Moderate earthquakes can cause serious damage to building contents and non-structural building systems, serious injury to students and staff, and disruption of building operations.…

  5. Earthquake research in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raleigh, B.

    1977-01-01

    The prediction of the Haicheng earthquake was an extraordinary achievement by the geophysical workers of the People's Republic of China, whose national program in earthquake reserach was less than 10 years old at the time. To study the background to this prediction, a delgation of 10 U.S scientists, which I led, visited China in June 1976. 

  6. Can we control earthquakes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raleigh, B.

    1977-01-01

    In 1966, it was discovered that high pressure injection of industrial waste fluids into the subsurface near Denver, Colo., was triggering earthquakes. While this was disturbing at the time, it was also exciting because there was immediate speculation that here at last was a mechanism to control earthquakes.  

  7. Modeling earthquake dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpentier, Arthur; Durand, Marilou

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate questions arising in Parsons and Geist (Bull Seismol Soc Am 102:1-11, 2012). Pseudo causal models connecting magnitudes and waiting times are considered, through generalized regression. We do use conditional model (magnitude given previous waiting time, and conversely) as an extension to joint distribution model described in Nikoloulopoulos and Karlis (Environmetrics 19: 251-269, 2008). On the one hand, we fit a Pareto distribution for earthquake magnitudes, where the tail index is a function of waiting time following previous earthquake; on the other hand, waiting times are modeled using a Gamma or a Weibull distribution, where parameters are functions of the magnitude of the previous earthquake. We use those two models, alternatively, to generate the dynamics of earthquake occurrence, and to estimate the probability of occurrence of several earthquakes within a year or a decade.

  8. Demand surge following earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Anna H.

    2012-01-01

    Demand surge is understood to be a socio-economic phenomenon where repair costs for the same damage are higher after large- versus small-scale natural disasters. It has reportedly increased monetary losses by 20 to 50%. In previous work, a model for the increased costs of reconstruction labor and materials was developed for hurricanes in the Southeast United States. The model showed that labor cost increases, rather than the material component, drove the total repair cost increases, and this finding could be extended to earthquakes. A study of past large-scale disasters suggested that there may be additional explanations for demand surge. Two such explanations specific to earthquakes are the exclusion of insurance coverage for earthquake damage and possible concurrent causation of damage from an earthquake followed by fire or tsunami. Additional research into these aspects might provide a better explanation for increased monetary losses after large- vs. small-scale earthquakes.

  9. Earthquake history of Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    Since its admission into the Union in 1817, Mississippi has had only four earthquakes of intensity V or greater within its borders. Although the number of earthquakes known to have been centered within Mississippi's boundaries is small, the State has been affected by numerous shocks located in neighboring States. In 1811 and 1812, a series of great earthquakes near the New Madrid Missouri area was felt in Mississippi as far south as the gulf coast. The New Madrid series caused the banks of the Mississippi River to cave in as far as Vicksburg, mroe than 300 miles from the epicentral region. As a result of this great earthquake series, the northwest corner of Mississippi is in seismic risk zone 3, the highest risk zone. Expect for the new Madrid series, effects in Mississippi from earthquakes located outside of the State have been less than intensity V. 

  10. Earthquake history of Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    Record of early earthquakes in Northeastern United States provide limited information on effects in pennsylvania until 1737, 55 years after the first permanent settlement was established. A very severe earthquake that centered in the St.Lawrence River region in 1663 may have been felt in Pennsylvania, but historical accounts are not definite. Likewise, a damaging shock at Newbury, Mass., in 1727 probably affected towns in Pennsylvania. A strong earthquake on December 18, 1737, toppled chimneys at New York City and was reported felt at Boston, Mass., Philadelphia, Pa. and New Castle, Del. Other shocks with origins outside the State were felt in 1758, 1783, and 1791. Since 1800, when two earthquakes (March 17 and November 29) were reported as "severe" at Philadelphia, 16 tremors of intensity V or greater (Modified Mercalli Scale) have originated within the State. On November 11 and 14, 1840, sever earthquakes at Philadelphia were accompnaied by a great and unusual swell on the Delaware River. 

  11. Triggered Earthquakes and Earthquake Interactions: the role of the focal mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, M.; Grasso, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    The long lasting observation of earthquakes triggered by other earthquakes is not yet robustly reproduced by either static of dynamics stress transfer models. Average observed patterns of seismicity rate changes after a given shock are well fitted in space and time domains by point source models of cascading events. Here we show that significant departures from the average pattern exists at a regional scale, when analyzing the 18 M>7 events within 15° of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake. The aftershock productivity of 3 over 18 M>7 earthquakes, including the Kashmir event, are above 2 standard deviations, when normalized by the catalogue completeness and by the mainshock size. This pattern is resolved during both the first 1-3 days of the sequence and on the whole sequence duration. A bypath product of this analysis points on the low productivity of the strike-slip event in the India-Asia collision zone as compared to the thrust events. When testing this pattern on worldwide database for M>7 shocks, we resolve a significant dependence of the normalized M>7 aftershock productivity to the fault dip. A peak of productivity emerges for 20-40° dip range. We discuss faults mechanics that possibly drive such patterns as well as how its may impact on the probabilities of triggered events.

  12. Turkish Compulsory Earthquake Insurance and "Istanbul Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durukal, E.; Sesetyan, K.; Erdik, M.

    2009-04-01

    The city of Istanbul will likely experience substantial direct and indirect losses as a result of a future large (M=7+) earthquake with an annual probability of occurrence of about 2%. This paper dwells on the expected building losses in terms of probable maximum and average annualized losses and discusses the results from the perspective of the compulsory earthquake insurance scheme operational in the country. The TCIP system is essentially designed to operate in Turkey with sufficient penetration to enable the accumulation of funds in the pool. Today, with only 20% national penetration, and about approximately one-half of all policies in highly earthquake prone areas (one-third in Istanbul) the system exhibits signs of adverse selection, inadequate premium structure and insufficient funding. Our findings indicate that the national compulsory earthquake insurance pool in Turkey will face difficulties in covering incurring building losses in Istanbul in the occurrence of a large earthquake. The annualized earthquake losses in Istanbul are between 140-300 million. Even if we assume that the deductible is raised to 15%, the earthquake losses that need to be paid after a large earthquake in Istanbul will be at about 2.5 Billion, somewhat above the current capacity of the TCIP. Thus, a modification to the system for the insured in Istanbul (or Marmara region) is necessary. This may mean an increase in the premia and deductible rates, purchase of larger re-insurance covers and development of a claim processing system. Also, to avoid adverse selection, the penetration rates elsewhere in Turkey need to be increased substantially. A better model would be introduction of parametric insurance for Istanbul. By such a model the losses will not be indemnified, however will be directly calculated on the basis of indexed ground motion levels and damages. The immediate improvement of a parametric insurance model over the existing one will be the elimination of the claim processing

  13. The mass balance of earthquakes and earthquake sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marc, O.; Hovius, N.; Meunier, P.

    2016-04-01

    Large, compressional earthquakes cause surface uplift as well as widespread mass wasting. Knowledge of their trade-off is fragmentary. Combining a seismologically consistent model of earthquake-triggered landsliding and an analytical solution of coseismic surface displacement, we assess how the mass balance of single earthquakes and earthquake sequences depends on fault size and other geophysical parameters. We find that intermediate size earthquakes (Mw 6-7.3) may cause more erosion than uplift, controlled primarily by seismic source depth and landscape steepness, and less so by fault dip and rake. Such earthquakes can limit topographic growth, but our model indicates that both smaller and larger earthquakes (Mw < 6, Mw > 7.3) systematically cause mountain building. Earthquake sequences with a Gutenberg-Richter distribution have a greater tendency to lead to predominant erosion, than repeating earthquakes of the same magnitude, unless a fault can produce earthquakes with Mw > 8 or more.

  14. Life-Stage and Mobility: An Exploratory GPS Study of Mobility in Multigenerational Families, Ahmedabad, India.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Michal; D'Ambrosio, Lisa; Samanta, Tannistha; Coughlin, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    As the population of older adults in India grows, research is needed to plan a sustainable future for India's older adults. This article reports results from a Global Positioning System (GPS)-based pilot study that examined the mobility of middle-class, older adults living in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Using mobility as a lens through which to examine the lives of older adults, we map potential research and identify policy areas of interest considering older adults in urban India. The study explores the role of life stage in mobility as well as the effects of gender and urban environment on mobility. Using this distinctive perspective on day-to-day life, we propose themes through which, using policy and planning tools, the living environments of older adults in Indian cities can be improved. These policy measures include focusing on walkability and pedestrian safety in residential areas and building on existing mixed land use to create high accessibility to goods and services in urban environments.

  15. Spine surgery in Nepal: the 2015 earthquake

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    At noon on Saturday, 25 April 2015, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck Nepal. It was centered in the Himalaya northwest of Kathmandu, the capital of over 1 million people. The violent tremors were felt as far away as New Delhi, India 1,000 km from the epicenter, but the worst of its destructive force was experienced in the heavily populated Kathmandu valley and in the remote mountainous villages of the Himalaya. Ancient temples crumbled; poorly constructed buildings collapsed; men, women, and children were trapped and injured, sometimes fatally. Avalanches killed mountain climbers, Sherpa guides, and porters at Everest base camp (EBC). The death toll to date exceeds 8,600 with as many as 20,000 injured. Spinal Health International (SHI), a nonprofit volunteer organization, has been active in Nepal in past years and responded to requests by Nepali spine surgeons for assistance with traumatic spine injury victims following the earthquake. SHI volunteers were present during the 2nd major earthquake of magnitude 7.3 on 12 May 2015. Past and current experiences in Nepal will be presented.

  16. Spine surgery in Nepal: the 2015 earthquake

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    At noon on Saturday, 25 April 2015, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck Nepal. It was centered in the Himalaya northwest of Kathmandu, the capital of over 1 million people. The violent tremors were felt as far away as New Delhi, India 1,000 km from the epicenter, but the worst of its destructive force was experienced in the heavily populated Kathmandu valley and in the remote mountainous villages of the Himalaya. Ancient temples crumbled; poorly constructed buildings collapsed; men, women, and children were trapped and injured, sometimes fatally. Avalanches killed mountain climbers, Sherpa guides, and porters at Everest base camp (EBC). The death toll to date exceeds 8,600 with as many as 20,000 injured. Spinal Health International (SHI), a nonprofit volunteer organization, has been active in Nepal in past years and responded to requests by Nepali spine surgeons for assistance with traumatic spine injury victims following the earthquake. SHI volunteers were present during the 2nd major earthquake of magnitude 7.3 on 12 May 2015. Past and current experiences in Nepal will be presented. PMID:27683676

  17. Spine surgery in Nepal: the 2015 earthquake.

    PubMed

    Sutterlin, Chester E

    2015-12-01

    At noon on Saturday, 25 April 2015, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck Nepal. It was centered in the Himalaya northwest of Kathmandu, the capital of over 1 million people. The violent tremors were felt as far away as New Delhi, India 1,000 km from the epicenter, but the worst of its destructive force was experienced in the heavily populated Kathmandu valley and in the remote mountainous villages of the Himalaya. Ancient temples crumbled; poorly constructed buildings collapsed; men, women, and children were trapped and injured, sometimes fatally. Avalanches killed mountain climbers, Sherpa guides, and porters at Everest base camp (EBC). The death toll to date exceeds 8,600 with as many as 20,000 injured. Spinal Health International (SHI), a nonprofit volunteer organization, has been active in Nepal in past years and responded to requests by Nepali spine surgeons for assistance with traumatic spine injury victims following the earthquake. SHI volunteers were present during the 2(nd) major earthquake of magnitude 7.3 on 12 May 2015. Past and current experiences in Nepal will be presented.

  18. Spine surgery in Nepal: the 2015 earthquake.

    PubMed

    Sutterlin, Chester E

    2015-12-01

    At noon on Saturday, 25 April 2015, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck Nepal. It was centered in the Himalaya northwest of Kathmandu, the capital of over 1 million people. The violent tremors were felt as far away as New Delhi, India 1,000 km from the epicenter, but the worst of its destructive force was experienced in the heavily populated Kathmandu valley and in the remote mountainous villages of the Himalaya. Ancient temples crumbled; poorly constructed buildings collapsed; men, women, and children were trapped and injured, sometimes fatally. Avalanches killed mountain climbers, Sherpa guides, and porters at Everest base camp (EBC). The death toll to date exceeds 8,600 with as many as 20,000 injured. Spinal Health International (SHI), a nonprofit volunteer organization, has been active in Nepal in past years and responded to requests by Nepali spine surgeons for assistance with traumatic spine injury victims following the earthquake. SHI volunteers were present during the 2(nd) major earthquake of magnitude 7.3 on 12 May 2015. Past and current experiences in Nepal will be presented. PMID:27683676

  19. Earthquakes; January-February 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    In the United States, a number of earthquakes occurred, but only minor damage was reported. Arkansas experienced a swarm of earthquakes beginning on January 12. Canada experienced one of its strongest earthquakes in a number of years on January 9; this earthquake caused slight damage in Maine. 

  20. Earthquakes, November-December 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    Hawaii experienced its strongest earthquake in more than a century. The magnitude 7.2 earthquake on November 29, killed at least 2 and injured about 35. These were the first deaths from an earthquake in the United States dince the San Fernando earthquake of Febraury 1971. 

  1. Earthquakes, September-October 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    There was one great earthquake (8.0 and above) during this reporting period in the South Pacific in the Kermadec Islands. There were no major earthquakes (7.0-7.9) but earthquake-related deaths were reported in Greece and in El Salvador. There were no destrcutive earthquakes in the United States.

  2. Earthquakes; July-August, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    Earthquake activity during this period was about normal. Deaths from earthquakes were reported from Greece and Guatemala. Three major earthquakes (magnitude 7.0-7.9) occurred in Taiwan, Chile, and Costa Rica. In the United States, the most significant earthquake was a magnitude 5.6 on August 13 in southern California. 

  3. Delhi, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. The Challenge of Centennial Earthquakes to Improve Modern Earthquake Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Saragoni, G. Rodolfo

    2008-07-08

    The recent commemoration of the centennial of the San Francisco and Valparaiso 1906 earthquakes has given the opportunity to reanalyze their damages from modern earthquake engineering perspective. These two earthquakes plus Messina Reggio Calabria 1908 had a strong impact in the birth and developing of earthquake engineering. The study of the seismic performance of some up today existing buildings, that survive centennial earthquakes, represent a challenge to better understand the limitations of our in use earthquake design methods. Only Valparaiso 1906 earthquake, of the three considered centennial earthquakes, has been repeated again as the Central Chile, 1985, Ms = 7.8 earthquake. In this paper a comparative study of the damage produced by 1906 and 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes is done in the neighborhood of Valparaiso harbor. In this study the only three centennial buildings of 3 stories that survived both earthquakes almost undamaged were identified. Since for 1985 earthquake accelerogram at El Almendral soil conditions as well as in rock were recoded, the vulnerability analysis of these building is done considering instrumental measurements of the demand. The study concludes that good performance of these buildings in the epicentral zone of large earthquakes can not be well explained by modern earthquake engineering methods. Therefore, it is recommended to use in the future of more suitable instrumental parameters, such as the destructiveness potential factor, to describe earthquake demand.

  5. Phase Transformations and Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, H. W.

    2011-12-01

    Phase transformations have been cited as responsible for, or at least involved in, "deep" earthquakes for many decades (although the concept of "deep" has varied). In 1945, PW Bridgman laid out in detail the string of events/conditions that would have to be achieved for a solid/solid transformation to lead to a faulting instability, although he expressed pessimism that the full set of requirements would be simultaneously achieved in nature. Raleigh and Paterson (1965) demonstrated faulting during dehydration of serpentine under stress and suggested dehydration embrittlement as the cause of intermediate depth earthquakes. Griggs and Baker (1969) produced a thermal runaway model of a shear zone under constant stress, culminating in melting, and proposed such a runaway as the origin of deep earthquakes. The discovery of Plate Tectonics in the late 1960s established the conditions (subduction) under which Bridgman's requirements for earthquake runaway in a polymorphic transformation could be possible in nature and Green and Burnley (1989) found that instability during the transformation of metastable olivine to spinel. Recent seismic correlation of intermediate-depth-earthquake hypocenters with predicted conditions of dehydration of antigorite serpentine and discovery of metastable olivine in 4 subduction zones, suggests strongly that dehydration embrittlement and transformation-induced faulting are the underlying mechanisms of intermediate and deep earthquakes, respectively. The results of recent high-speed friction experiments and analysis of natural fault zones suggest that it is likely that similar processes occur commonly during many shallow earthquakes after initiation by frictional failure.

  6. Sun, Moon and Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolvankar, V. G.

    2013-12-01

    During a study conducted to find the effect of Earth tides on the occurrence of earthquakes, for small areas [typically 1000km X1000km] of high-seismicity regions, it was noticed that the Sun's position in terms of universal time [GMT] shows links to the sum of EMD [longitude of earthquake location - longitude of Moon's foot print on earth] and SEM [Sun-Earth-Moon angle]. This paper provides the details of this relationship after studying earthquake data for over forty high-seismicity regions of the world. It was found that over 98% of the earthquakes for these different regions, examined for the period 1973-2008, show a direct relationship between the Sun's position [GMT] and [EMD+SEM]. As the time changes from 00-24 hours, the factor [EMD+SEM] changes through 360 degree, and plotting these two variables for earthquakes from different small regions reveals a simple 45 degree straight-line relationship between them. This relationship was tested for all earthquakes and earthquake sequences for magnitude 2.0 and above. This study conclusively proves how Sun and the Moon govern all earthquakes. Fig. 12 [A+B]. The left-hand figure provides a 24-hour plot for forty consecutive days including the main event (00:58:23 on 26.12.2004, Lat.+3.30, Long+95.980, Mb 9.0, EQ count 376). The right-hand figure provides an earthquake plot for (EMD+SEM) vs GMT timings for the same data. All the 376 events including the main event faithfully follow the straight-line curve.

  7. Fatality rates of the M w ~8.2, 1934, Bihar-Nepal earthquake and comparison with the April 2015 Gorkha earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapkota, Soma Nath; Bollinger, Laurent; Perrier, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Large Himalayan earthquakes expose rapidly growing populations of millions of people to high levels of seismic hazards, in particular in northeast India and Nepal. Calibrating vulnerability models specific to this region of the world is therefore crucial to the development of reliable mitigation measures. Here, we reevaluate the >15,700 casualties (8500 in Nepal and 7200 in India) from the M w ~8.2, 1934, Bihar-Nepal earthquake and calculate the fatality rates for this earthquake using an estimation of the population derived from two census held in 1921 and 1942. Values reach 0.7-1 % in the epicentral region, located in eastern Nepal, and 2-5 % in the urban areas of the Kathmandu valley. Assuming a constant vulnerability, we obtain, if the same earthquake would have repeated in 2011, fatalities of 33,000 in Nepal and 50,000 in India. Fast-growing population in India indeed must unavoidably lead to increased levels of casualty compared with Nepal, where the population growth is smaller. Aside from that probably robust fact, extrapolations have to be taken with great caution. Among other effects, building and life vulnerability could depend on population concentration and evolution of construction methods. Indeed, fatalities of the April 25, 2015, M w 7.8 Gorkha earthquake indicated on average a reduction in building vulnerability in urban areas, while rural areas remained highly vulnerable. While effective scaling laws, function of the building stock, seem to describe these differences adequately, vulnerability in the case of an M w >8.2 earthquake remains largely unknown. Further research should be carried out urgently so that better prevention strategies can be implemented and building codes reevaluated on, adequately combining detailed ancient and modern data.

  8. Landslides caused by earthquakes.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefer, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    Data from 40 historical world-wide earthquakes were studied to determine the characteristics, geologic environments, and hazards of landslides caused by seismic events. This sample was supplemented with intensity data from several hundred US earthquakes to study relations between landslide distribution and seismic parameters. Correlations between magnitude (M) and landslide distribution show that the maximum area likely to be affected by landslides in a seismic event increases from approximately 0 at M = 4.0 to 500 000 km2 at M = 9.2. Each type of earthquake-induced landslide occurs in a particular suite of geologic environments. -from Author

  9. Earthquake engineering in Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vargas, N.J

    1983-01-01

    During the last decade, earthquake engineering research in Peru has been carried out at the Catholic University of Peru and at the Universidad Nacional de Ingeniera (UNI). The Geophysical Institute (IGP) under the auspices of the Organization of American States (OAS) has initiated in Peru other efforts in regional seismic hazard assessment programs with direct impact to the earthquake engineering program. Further details on these programs have been reported by L. Ocola in the Earthquake Information Bulletin, January-February 1982, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 33-38. 

  10. Earthquake history of Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1977-01-01

     The western part of the State was shaken strongly by the New Madrid, Mo., earthquakes of 1811-12 and by earthquakes in 1843 and 1895. The area has also experienced minor shocks. Additional activity has occurred in the eastern part of the State, near the North Carolina border. Forty shocks of intensity V (Modified Mercalli scale) or greater have been cataloged as occurring within the State. Many other earthquakes centered in bordering States have affected points in Tennessee. The following summary covers only hose shocks of intensity VI or greater. 

  11. Identification and molecular characterization of a new recombinant begomovirus and associated betasatellite DNA infecting Capsicum annuum in India.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Bhavin S; Chahwala, Fenisha D; Rathod, Sangeeta; Singh, Achuit K

    2016-05-01

    Capsicum annuum (Chilli) is a perennial herbaceous plant that is cultivated as an annual crop throughout the world, including India. Chilli leaf curl disease (ChiLCD) is a major biotic constraint, causing major losses in chilli production. During 2014, leaf samples of chilli plants displaying leaf curl disease were collected from the Ahmedabad district of Gujarat, India. These samples were used to isolate, clone and sequence viral genomic DNA and an associated betasatellite DNA molecule. Sequence analysis showed 90.4 % nucleotide sequence identity to the previously reported chilli leaf curl virus-[India:Guntur:2009] (ChiLCV-[IN:Gun:09]. As per ICTV nomenclature rules, ChiLCV-Ahm represents a new species of begomovirus, and we therefore propose the name chilli leaf curl Ahmedabad virus-[India:Ahmedabad:2014] (ChiLCAV-[IN:Ahm:14]). The associated betasatellite DNA showed a maximum of 93.5 % nucleotide sequence identity to a previously reported tomato leaf curl Bangladesh betasatellite and may be named tomato leaf curl Bangladesh betasatellite-[India:Ahmedabad:Chilli:2014].

  12. A life crisis and its management a case study from north India.

    PubMed

    Pfleiderer, B

    1985-10-01

    The behaviour of so called traditional patients has been the topic of anthropological research for the last thirty years. Myths have been and constructed and rejected, one being that patients with chronic and less incapacitating illness see rather traditional healers than allopathic medical treatment. The case study with which we are concerned in this paper is the illness of a young girl who is the age in which she is expected to accept a marriage contract. Since she is obviously not willing to do she adopts an illness behaviour which enables her to postpone all role expectations of her age group. She performs a behaviour which is socially accepted and guarantees all the support from her family which she needs and requires. The paper investigates the causes, reason and development of her spirit possession and relates it to the cultural grammar of the patient's group of reference. The data of this case study were obtained at a Muslim shrine in Gujarat, India.

  13. Physico-chemical characteristics of groundwater in and around Surat City (India).

    PubMed

    Raval, Viral H; Malik, G M

    2010-10-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from different locations of Surat city, Gujarat (India). These samples from 32 locations of Surat city were analysed for their physico-chemical characteristics involving pH, colour, odour, hardness, chloride, alkalinity, COD, sulfate, TDS, SS, iron, Cu, boron, chromium, temperature and Langelier Saturation Index. On comparing the results against drinking water quality standards laid by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and World Health Organization (WHO), it is found that most of the water samples are non-potable. Most of the samples indicated Total Alkalinity, Hardness, Chloride and TDS values much higher than the permissible level stipulated by ICMR and WHO. Even at some places Langelier Saturation Index values found higher too. The high values of these parameters may have health implications and therefore these need attention.

  14. Nonlinear processes in earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.; Frohlich, C.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Three-dimensional, elastic-wave-propagation calculations were performed to define the effects of near-source geologic structure on the degree to which seismic signals produced by earthquakes resemble {open_quotes}non-double-couple{close_quotes} sources. Signals from sources embedded in a subducting slab showed significant phase and amplitude differences compared with a {open_quotes}no-slab{close_quotes} case. Modifications to the LANL elastic-wave propagation code enabled improved simulations of path effects on earthquake and explosion signals. These simulations demonstrate that near-source, shallow, low-velocity basins can introduce earthquake-like features into explosion signatures through conversion of compressive (P-wave) energy to shear (S- and R-wave) modes. Earthquake sources simulated to date do not show significant modifications.

  15. Earthquake resistant design

    SciTech Connect

    Dowrick, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The author discusses recent advances in earthquake-resistant design. This book covers the entire design process, from aspects of loading to details of construction. Early chapters offer a broad theoretical background; later chapters provide rigorous coverage of practical aspects.

  16. The New Madrid earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Obermeier, S.F.

    1989-01-01

    Two interpreted 1811-12 epicenters generally agree well with zones of seismicity defined by modern, small earthquakes. Bounds on accelerations are placed at the limits of sand blows, generated by the 1811-12 earthquakes in the St. Francis Basin. Conclusions show how the topstratum thickness, sand size of the substratum, and thickness of alluvium affected the distribution of sand blows in the St. Francis Basin.

  17. Earthquake education in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCabe, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    In a survey of community response to the earthquake threat in southern California, Ralph Turner and his colleagues in the Department of Sociology at the University of California, Los Angeles, found that the public very definitely wants to be educated about the kinds of problems and hazards they can expect during and after a damaging earthquake; and they also want to know how they can prepare themselves to minimize their vulnerability. Decisionmakers, too, are recognizing this new wave of public concern. 

  18. Bombay, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Formerly known as Bombay, the city of Mumbai is situated on India's west coast, on the Arabian Sea, roughly 500 km (310 miles) south of the Tropic of Cancer. Its large harbor and ideal location facing Africa, Europe, and the Middle East make it an excellent city for trade. Sometimes referred to as the 'Gateway of India,' Mumbai handles more than one third of the country's foreign trade. The city supports a population of more than 12 million people in an area of roughly 619 square km (239 square miles). The port was acquired in 1534 by Portugal, which named it Bom Bahia, meaning 'beautiful bay.' Originally, the city rested upon seven small islands, mostly basaltic bedrock from earlier lava flows. These islands are now connected to one another by reclaimed land, but each island, or neighborhood, still retains a distinct identity within the city. (For more details, visit Welcome to Bombay: The Gateway of India.) The blue-grey pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The dark green areas are heavily vegetated surfaces while the light brown regions are more sparsely vegetated. This image of Mumbai was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  19. Injection-induced earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellsworth, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  20. Charles Darwin's earthquake reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiev, Shamil

    2010-05-01

    As it is the 200th anniversary of Darwin's birth, 2009 has also been marked as 170 years since the publication of his book Journal of Researches. During the voyage Darwin landed at Valdivia and Concepcion, Chile, just before, during, and after a great earthquake, which demolished hundreds of buildings, killing and injuring many people. Land was waved, lifted, and cracked, volcanoes awoke and giant ocean waves attacked the coast. Darwin was the first geologist to observe and describe the effects of the great earthquake during and immediately after. These effects sometimes repeated during severe earthquakes; but great earthquakes, like Chile 1835, and giant earthquakes, like Chile 1960, are rare and remain completely unpredictable. This is one of the few areas of science, where experts remain largely in the dark. Darwin suggested that the effects were a result of ‘ …the rending of strata, at a point not very deep below the surface of the earth…' and ‘…when the crust yields to the tension, caused by its gradual elevation, there is a jar at the moment of rupture, and a greater movement...'. Darwin formulated big ideas about the earth evolution and its dynamics. These ideas set the tone for the tectonic plate theory to come. However, the plate tectonics does not completely explain why earthquakes occur within plates. Darwin emphasised that there are different kinds of earthquakes ‘...I confine the foregoing observations to the earthquakes on the coast of South America, or to similar ones, which seem generally to have been accompanied by elevation of the land. But, as we know that subsidence has gone on in other quarters of the world, fissures must there have been formed, and therefore earthquakes...' (we cite the Darwin's sentences following researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). These thoughts agree with results of the last publications (see Nature 461, 870-872; 636-639 and 462, 42-43; 87-89). About 200 years ago Darwin gave oneself airs by the

  1. Extending earthquakes' reach through cascading.

    PubMed

    Marsan, David; Lengliné, Olivier

    2008-02-22

    Earthquakes, whatever their size, can trigger other earthquakes. Mainshocks cause aftershocks to occur, which in turn activate their own local aftershock sequences, resulting in a cascade of triggering that extends the reach of the initial mainshock. A long-lasting difficulty is to determine which earthquakes are connected, either directly or indirectly. Here we show that this causal structure can be found probabilistically, with no a priori model nor parameterization. Large regional earthquakes are found to have a short direct influence in comparison to the overall aftershock sequence duration. Relative to these large mainshocks, small earthquakes collectively have a greater effect on triggering. Hence, cascade triggering is a key component in earthquake interactions.

  2. Nisqually, Washington Intraplate Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Hofmeister, R.

    2001-05-01

    On February 28, 2001, the M6.8 Nisqually earthquake shook the Pacific Northwest. This intraplate event occurred within the subducting Juan de Fuca plate along the Cascadia margin. Although the damage was less than observed at most large urban earthquakes, serious damage was found in Olympia, Seattle, and Tacoma. To better serve Oregon public safety needs, DOGAMI and others surveyed the Puget Sound damage to expand our technical understanding of seismic ground response, building and lifeline behavior, and secondary hazards (landslides and liquefaction). Damage was observed in structures and areas that, for the most part, would be predicted to be vulnerable. These included: old buildings (URMs), old lifelines (4th Ave bridge in Olympia), areas with poor soil conditions (Harbor Island, Seattle; Sunset Lake, Tumwater), and steep slopes (Salmon Beach; Burien). Damage types included: structural, nonstructural, contents, lifelines, landslides, liquefaction, lateral spreading, sand boils, and settlement. In several notable places, seismic-induced ground failures significantly increased the damage. Estimated costs developed from HAZUS evaluations ranged from \\2 billion to \\3.9 billion. Historic intraplate earthquakes in the Puget Sound region, including the 1949 M7.1, 1965 M6.5, and 1999 M5.9, were not accompanied by significant aftershock events or associated with earthquake sequences. However, a recent El Salvador earthquake sequence suggests there may be particular cases of increased seismicity following large intraplate events, with implications for post-earthquake response and mitigation. The January 13, 2001 M7.6 El Salvador intraplate earthquake was followed by a M6.6 crustal event February 13, 2001 and a M5.4 intraplate event February 28, 2001.

  3. Accessing completeness of pregnancy, delivery, and death registration by Accredited Social Health Activists [ASHA] in an innovative mHealth project in the tribal areas of Gujarat: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Modi, D; Patel, J; Desai, S; Shah, P

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Innovative Mobile-phone Technology for Community Health Operation (ImTeCHO) is a mobile-phone application that helps Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) in complete registration through the strategies employed during implementation that is linking ASHAs’ incentives to digital records, regular feedback, onsite data entry, and demand generation among beneficiaries. Objective: To determine the proportion of pregnancies, deliveries, and infant deaths (events) being registered through the ImTeCHO application against actual number of events in a random sample of villages. Materials and Methods: Five representative villages were randomly selected from the ImTeCHO project area in the tribal areas of Gujarat, India to obtain the required sample of 98 recently delivered women. A household survey was done in the entire villages to enumerate each family and create a line-listing of events since January 2014; the line-listing was compared with list of women registered through the ImTeCHO application. The proportion of events being registered through the ImTeCHO application was compared against the actual number of events to find sensitivity of the ImTeCHO application. Result: A total of 844 families were found during household enumeration. Out of actual line-listing of pregnancies (N = 39), deliveries (N = 102), and infant deaths (N = 5) found during household enumeration, 38 (97.43%), 101 (99.01%), and 5 (100%) were registered by ASHAs through the ImTeCHO application. Conclusion: The use of mobile-phone technology and strategies applied during the ImTeCHO implementation should be upscaled to supplement efforts to improve the completeness of registration. PMID:27241808

  4. Initiatives to Reduce Earthquake Risk of Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B. E.

    2008-12-01

    The seventeen-year-and-counting history of the Palo Alto-based nonprofit organization GeoHazards International (GHI) is the story of many initiatives within a larger initiative to increase the societal impact of geophysics and civil engineering. GHI's mission is to reduce death and suffering due to earthquakes and other natural hazards in the world's most vulnerable communities through preparedness, mitigation and advocacy. GHI works by raising awareness in these communities about their risk and about affordable methods to manage it, identifying and strengthening institutions in these communities to manage their risk, and advocating improvement in natural disaster management. Some of GHI's successful initiatives include: (1) creating an earthquake scenario for Quito, Ecuador that describes in lay terms the consequences for that city of a probable earthquake; (2) improving the curricula of Pakistani university courses about seismic retrofitting; (3) training employees of the Public Works Department of Delhi, India on assessing the seismic vulnerability of critical facilities such as a school, a hospital, a police headquarters, and city hall; (4) assessing the vulnerability of the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives in Dharamsala, India; (5) developing a seismic hazard reduction plan for a nonprofit organization in Kathmandu, Nepal that works to manage Nepal's seismic risk; and (6) assisting in the formulation of a resolution by the Council of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to promote school earthquake safety among OECD member countries. GHI's most important resource, in addition to its staff and Board of Trustees, is its members and volunteer advisors, who include some of the world's leading earth scientists, earthquake engineers, urban planners and architects, from the academic, public, private and nonprofit sectors. GHI is planning several exciting initiatives in the near future. One would oversee the design and construction of

  5. Extreme events in Uttarakhand, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimri, V. P.

    2013-12-01

    Uttarakhand in NW Himalaya, India is prone to various disasters, which include earthquakes, cloud bursts, landslides, floods etc. These disasters have a cascading effect. The cloud burst results in flooding of rivers and landslides. The earthquakes shake the ground causing landslides, which sometimes block the natural path of river making artificial dams. These artificial dams can cause river flooding. The situation becomes more devastating, if heavy rainfall occurs. Such disasters are increasing in recent times. There could be several reasons for the rise in frequency of these disasters because of global and local environment changes. The global changes such as rise of global temperatures due to increase in CO2 concentration in the atmosphere can be responsible for melting of Himalayan Glaciers and changes in precipitation/ rainfall patterns etc. Anthropogenic causes such as deforestation, establishment of new townships, new hydro-power projects, mining activities etc are also making the condition more vulnerable by changing the course of river channels. A case study of such extreme event is presented. The region is affected by changes of both global and local origin, tectonically as well as climatologically.

  6. Earthquake impact scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, D.J.; Jaiswal, K.S.; Marano, K.D.; Bausch, D.

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of the USGS prompt assessment of global earthquakes for response (PAGER) system, which rapidly assesses earthquake impacts, U.S. and international earthquake responders are reconsidering their automatic alert and activation levels and response procedures. To help facilitate rapid and appropriate earthquake response, an Earthquake Impact Scale (EIS) is proposed on the basis of two complementary criteria. On the basis of the estimated cost of damage, one is most suitable for domestic events; the other, on the basis of estimated ranges of fatalities, is generally more appropriate for global events, particularly in developing countries. Simple thresholds, derived from the systematic analysis of past earthquake impact and associated response levels, are quite effective in communicating predicted impact and response needed after an event through alerts of green (little or no impact), yellow (regional impact and response), orange (national-scale impact and response), and red (international response). Corresponding fatality thresholds for yellow, orange, and red alert levels are 1, 100, and 1,000, respectively. For damage impact, yellow, orange, and red thresholds are triggered by estimated losses reaching $1M, $100M, and $1B, respectively. The rationale for a dual approach to earthquake alerting stems from the recognition that relatively high fatalities, injuries, and homelessness predominate in countries in which local building practices typically lend themselves to high collapse and casualty rates, and these impacts lend to prioritization for international response. In contrast, financial and overall societal impacts often trigger the level of response in regions or countries in which prevalent earthquake resistant construction practices greatly reduce building collapse and resulting fatalities. Any newly devised alert, whether economic- or casualty-based, should be intuitive and consistent with established lexicons and procedures. Useful alerts should

  7. Earthquakes and Earthquake Engineering. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buydos, John F., Comp.

    An earthquake is a shaking of the ground resulting from a disturbance in the earth's interior. Seismology is the (1) study of earthquakes; (2) origin, propagation, and energy of seismic phenomena; (3) prediction of these phenomena; and (4) investigation of the structure of the earth. Earthquake engineering or engineering seismology includes the…

  8. Biogeographic and evolutionary implications of a diverse paleobiota in amber from the early Eocene of India

    PubMed Central

    Rust, Jes; Singh, Hukam; Rana, Rajendra S.; McCann, Tom; Singh, Lacham; Anderson, Ken; Sarkar, Nivedita; Nascimbene, Paul C.; Stebner, Frauke; Thomas, Jennifer C.; Solórzano Kraemer, Monica; Williams, Christopher J.; Engel, Michael S.; Sahni, Ashok; Grimaldi, David

    2010-01-01

    For nearly 100 million years, the India subcontinent drifted from Gondwana until its collision with Asia some 50 Ma, during which time the landmass presumably evolved a highly endemic biota. Recent excavations of rich outcrops of 50–52-million-year-old amber with diverse inclusions from the Cambay Shale of Gujarat, western India address this issue. Cambay amber occurs in lignitic and muddy sediments concentrated by near-shore chenier systems; its chemistry and the anatomy of associated fossil wood indicates a definitive source of Dipterocarpaceae. The amber is very partially polymerized and readily dissolves in organic solvents, thus allowing extraction of whole insects whose cuticle retains microscopic fidelity. Fourteen orders and more than 55 families and 100 species of arthropod inclusions have been discovered thus far, which have affinities to taxa from the Eocene of northern Europe, to the Recent of Australasia, and the Miocene to Recent of tropical America. Thus, India just prior to or immediately following contact shows little biological insularity. A significant diversity of eusocial insects are fossilized, including corbiculate bees, rhinotermitid termites, and modern subfamilies of ants (Formicidae), groups that apparently radiated during the contemporaneous Early Eocene Climatic Optimum or just prior to it during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Cambay amber preserves a uniquely diverse and early biota of a modern-type of broad-leaf tropical forest, revealing 50 Ma of stasis and change in biological communities of the dipterocarp primary forests that dominate southeastern Asia today. PMID:20974929

  9. Biogeographic and evolutionary implications of a diverse paleobiota in amber from the early Eocene of India.

    PubMed

    Rust, Jes; Singh, Hukam; Rana, Rajendra S; McCann, Tom; Singh, Lacham; Anderson, Ken; Sarkar, Nivedita; Nascimbene, Paul C; Stebner, Frauke; Thomas, Jennifer C; Solórzano Kraemer, Monica; Williams, Christopher J; Engel, Michael S; Sahni, Ashok; Grimaldi, David

    2010-10-26

    For nearly 100 million years, the India subcontinent drifted from Gondwana until its collision with Asia some 50 Ma, during which time the landmass presumably evolved a highly endemic biota. Recent excavations of rich outcrops of 50-52-million-year-old amber with diverse inclusions from the Cambay Shale of Gujarat, western India address this issue. Cambay amber occurs in lignitic and muddy sediments concentrated by near-shore chenier systems; its chemistry and the anatomy of associated fossil wood indicates a definitive source of Dipterocarpaceae. The amber is very partially polymerized and readily dissolves in organic solvents, thus allowing extraction of whole insects whose cuticle retains microscopic fidelity. Fourteen orders and more than 55 families and 100 species of arthropod inclusions have been discovered thus far, which have affinities to taxa from the Eocene of northern Europe, to the Recent of Australasia, and the Miocene to Recent of tropical America. Thus, India just prior to or immediately following contact shows little biological insularity. A significant diversity of eusocial insects are fossilized, including corbiculate bees, rhinotermitid termites, and modern subfamilies of ants (Formicidae), groups that apparently radiated during the contemporaneous Early Eocene Climatic Optimum or just prior to it during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Cambay amber preserves a uniquely diverse and early biota of a modern-type of broad-leaf tropical forest, revealing 50 Ma of stasis and change in biological communities of the dipterocarp primary forests that dominate southeastern Asia today. PMID:20974929

  10. Earthquakes, September-October 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    In the United States, Wyoming experienced a couple of moderate earthquakes, and off the coast of northern California, a strong earthquake shook much of the northern coast of California and parts of the Oregon coast. 

  11. Earthquakes: Megathrusts and mountain building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Rich

    2016-05-01

    Coastlines above subduction zones slowly emerge from the sea despite repeated drowning by great, shallow earthquakes. Analysis of the Chilean coast suggests that moderate-to-large, deeper earthquakes may be responsible for the net uplift.

  12. Earthquakes, July-August 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    There was one major earthquake during this reporting period-a magnitude 7.1 shock off the coast of Northern California on August 17. Earthquake-related deaths were reported from Indonesia, Romania, Peru, and Iraq. 

  13. Distribution of similar earthquakes in aftershocks of inland earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, M.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Aftershock Observations Of 2007 Noto Hanto, G.

    2010-12-01

    Frictional properties control the slip behavior on a fault surface such as seismic slip and aseismic slip. Asperity, as a seismic slip area, is characterized by a strong coupling in the interseismic period and large coseismic slip. On the other hand, steady slip or afterslip occurs in an aseismic slip area around the asperity. If an afterslip area includes small asperities, a repeating rupture of single asperity can generate similar earthquakes due to the stress accumulation caused by the afterslip. We here investigate a detail distribution of similar earthquakes in the aftershocks of the 2007 Noto Hanto earthquake (Mjma 6.9) and the 2000 Western Tottori earthquake (Mjma 7.3), inland large earthquakes in Japan. We use the data obtained by the group for the aftershock observations of the 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake and by the group for the aftershock observations of the 2000 Western Tottori earthquake. First, we select pairs of aftershocks whose cross correlation coefficients in 10 s time window of band-pass filtered waveforms of 1~4 Hz are greater than 0.95 at more than 5 stations and divide those into groups by a link of the cross correlation coefficients. Second, we reexamine the arrival times of P and S waves and the maximum amplitude for earthquakes of each group and apply the double-difference method (Waldhouser and Ellsworth, 2000) to relocate them. As a result of the analysis, we find 24 groups of similar earthquakes in the aftershocks on the source fault of the 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake and 86 groups of similar earthquakes in the aftershocks on the source fault of the 2000 Western Tottori Earthquake. Most of them are distributed around or outside the asperity of the main shock. Geodetic studies reported that postseismic deformation was detected for the both earthquakes (Sagiya et al., 2002; Hashimoto et al., 2008). The source area of similar earthquakes seems to correspond to the afterslip area. These features suggest that the similar earthquakes observed

  14. Why the New Madrid earthquakes are M 7–8 and the Charleston earthquake is ∼M 7

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cramer, Chris H.; Boyd, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of magnitudes of large historical earthquakes are an essential input to and can seriously affect seismic‐hazard estimates. The earthquake‐intensity observations, modified Mercalli intensities (MMI), and assigned magnitudes Mof the 1811–1812 New Madrid events have been reinterpreted several times in the last decade and have been a source of controversy in making seismic‐hazard estimates in the central United States. Observations support the concept that the larger the earthquake, the greater the maximum‐felt distance. For the same crustal attenuation and local soil conditions, magnitude should be the main influence on intensity values at large distances. We apply this concept by comparing the mean MMI at distances of 600–1200 km for each of the four largest New Madrid 1811–1812 earthquakes, the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake, the 1929 M 7.2 Grand Banks earthquake, and the 2001M 7.6 Bhuj, India, earthquake. We fit the intensity observations using the form MMI=A+C×dist−0.8×log(dist) to better define intensity attenuation in eastern North America (ENA). The intensity attenuation in cratonic India differs from ENA and is corrected to ENA using both the above estimate and published intensity relations. We evaluate source, marine geophysical, Q, and stress‐drop information, as well as a 1929 Milne–Shaw record at Chicago to confirm that the 1929 Grand Banks earthquake occurred in ENA crust. Our direct comparison of mean intensities beyond 600 km suggests M 7.5, 7.3, 7.7, and 6.9 for the three New Madrid 1811–1812 mainshocks and the largest aftershock and M 7.0 for the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake, with an estimated uncertainty of 0.3 units at the 95% confidence level (based on a Monte Carlo analysis). Our mean New Madrid and Charleston mainshock magnitudes are similar to those of Bakun and Hopper (2004) and are much higher than those of Hough and Page (2011) for New Madrid.

  15. A Clinico-Etiological Study of Dermatoses in Pediatric Age Group in Tertiary Health Care Center in South Gujarat Region

    PubMed Central

    Jawade, Sugat A; Chugh, Vishal S; Gohil, Sneha K; Mistry, Amit S; Umrigar, Dipak D

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dermatologic conditions have different presentation and management in pediatric age group from that in adult; this to be studied separately for statistical and population based analysis. Objective: To study the pattern of various dermatoses in infants and children in tertiary health care center in South Gujarat region. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study; various dermatoses were studied in pediatric patients up to 14 years of age attending the Dermatology OPD of New Civil Hospital, Surat, Gujarat over a period of 12 months from June 2009 to June 2010. All patients were divided into four different study groups: <1 month (neonates), 1 month to 1 year, >1 to 6 years and 7 to 14 years. Results: There were 596 boys and 425 girls in total 1021 study populations. Majority of the skin conditions in neonates were erythema toxicum neonatorum (12.97%), scabies (9.92%), mongolian spot (9.16%), and seborrheic dermatitis (7.63%). In > 1 month to 14 years age group of children among infectious disorder, children were found to be affected most by scabies (24.49%), impetigo (5.96%), pyoderma (5.62%), molluscum contagiosum (5.39%), tinea capitis (4.49%), leprosy (2.02%), and viral warts (1.35%) while among non-infectious disorders, they were affected by atopic dermatitis (4.27%), pityriasis alba (4.16%), seborrheic dermatitis (3.60%), pityriasis rosea (3.15%), others (3.01%), phrynoderma (2.70%), lichen planus (2.58%), contact dermatitis (1.57%) and ichthyosis (1.45%). Conclusion: There is a need to emphasize on training the management of common pediatric dermatoses to dermatologists, general practitioners and pediatricians for early treatment. PMID:26677296

  16. Earthquakes; January-February, 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    The first major earthquake (magnitude 7.0 to 7.9) of the year struck in southeastern Alaska in a sparsely populated area on February 28. On January 16, Iran experienced the first destructive earthquake of the year causing a number of casualties and considerable damage. Peru was hit by a destructive earthquake on February 16 that left casualties and damage. A number of earthquakes were experienced in parts of the Untied States, but only minor damage was reported. 

  17. Effect of Climate Change on Invasion Risk of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica Férussac, 1821: Achatinidae) in India.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Roshmi Rekha; Munsi, Madhushree; Ananthram, Aravind Neelavara

    2015-01-01

    The Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica) is considered to be one the world's 100 worst invasive alien species. The snail has an impact on native biodiversity, and on agricultural and horticultural crops. In India, it is known to feed on more than fifty species of native plants and agricultural crops and also outcompetes the native snails. It was introduced into India in 1847 and since then it has spread all across the country. In this paper, we use ecological niche modeling (ENM) to assess the distribution pattern of Giant African Snail (GAS) under different climate change scenarios. The niche modeling results indicate that under the current climate scenario, Eastern India, peninsular India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are at high risk of invasion. The three different future climate scenarios show that there is no significant change in the geographical distribution of invasion prone areas. However, certain currently invaded areas will be more prone to invasion in the future. These regions include parts of Bihar, Southern Karnataka, parts of Gujarat and Assam. The Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands are highly vulnerable to invasion under changed climate. The Central Indian region is at low risk due to high temperature and low rainfall. An understanding of the invasion pattern can help in better management of this invasive species and also in formulating policies for its control. PMID:26618637

  18. Effect of Climate Change on Invasion Risk of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica Férussac, 1821: Achatinidae) in India

    PubMed Central

    Rekha Sarma, Roshmi; Munsi, Madhushree; Neelavara Ananthram, Aravind

    2015-01-01

    The Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica) is considered to be one the world’s 100 worst invasive alien species. The snail has an impact on native biodiversity, and on agricultural and horticultural crops. In India, it is known to feed on more than fifty species of native plants and agricultural crops and also outcompetes the native snails. It was introduced into India in 1847 and since then it has spread all across the country. In this paper, we use ecological niche modeling (ENM) to assess the distribution pattern of Giant African Snail (GAS) under different climate change scenarios. The niche modeling results indicate that under the current climate scenario, Eastern India, peninsular India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are at high risk of invasion. The three different future climate scenarios show that there is no significant change in the geographical distribution of invasion prone areas. However, certain currently invaded areas will be more prone to invasion in the future. These regions include parts of Bihar, Southern Karnataka, parts of Gujarat and Assam. The Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands are highly vulnerable to invasion under changed climate. The Central Indian region is at low risk due to high temperature and low rainfall. An understanding of the invasion pattern can help in better management of this invasive species and also in formulating policies for its control. PMID:26618637

  19. Effect of Climate Change on Invasion Risk of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica Férussac, 1821: Achatinidae) in India.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Roshmi Rekha; Munsi, Madhushree; Ananthram, Aravind Neelavara

    2015-01-01

    The Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica) is considered to be one the world's 100 worst invasive alien species. The snail has an impact on native biodiversity, and on agricultural and horticultural crops. In India, it is known to feed on more than fifty species of native plants and agricultural crops and also outcompetes the native snails. It was introduced into India in 1847 and since then it has spread all across the country. In this paper, we use ecological niche modeling (ENM) to assess the distribution pattern of Giant African Snail (GAS) under different climate change scenarios. The niche modeling results indicate that under the current climate scenario, Eastern India, peninsular India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are at high risk of invasion. The three different future climate scenarios show that there is no significant change in the geographical distribution of invasion prone areas. However, certain currently invaded areas will be more prone to invasion in the future. These regions include parts of Bihar, Southern Karnataka, parts of Gujarat and Assam. The Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands are highly vulnerable to invasion under changed climate. The Central Indian region is at low risk due to high temperature and low rainfall. An understanding of the invasion pattern can help in better management of this invasive species and also in formulating policies for its control.

  20. Earthquakes, May-June 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    No major earthquakes (7.0-7.9) occurred during this reporting period. earthquake-rated deaths were reported from Italy, the Dominican Republic, and Yugoslavia. A number of earthquakes occurred in the United States but none caused casualties or any significant damage. 

  1. Earthquakes, March-April, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, Waverly J.

    1993-01-01

    Worldwide, only one major earthquake (7.0earthquake, a magnitude 7.2 shock, struck the Santa Cruz Islands region in the South Pacific on March 6. Earthquake-related deaths occurred in the Fiji Islands, China, and Peru.

  2. Earthquakes, March-April 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Two major earthquakes (7.0-7.9) occurred during this reporting period: a magnitude 7.6 in Costa Rica on April 22 and a magntidue 7.0 in the USSR on April 29. Destructive earthquakes hit northern Peru on April 4 and 5. There were no destructive earthquakes in the United States during this period. 

  3. Earthquakes, May-June 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the United States, a magnitude 5.8 earthquake in southern California on June 28 killed two people and caused considerable damage. Strong earthquakes hit Alaska on May 1 and May 30; the May 1 earthquake caused some minor damage. 

  4. Earthquakes, September-October 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    The months of September and October were somewhat quiet seismically speaking. One major earthquake, magnitude (M) 7.7 occurred in Iran on September 16. In Germany, a magntidue 5.0 earthquake caused damage and considerable alarm to many people in parts of that country. In the United States, the largest earthquake occurred along the California-Nevada border region. 

  5. Earthquakes, March-April 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    Earthquakes caused fatalities in Mexico and Sicily; injuries and damage were sustained in eastern Kazakh SSR and Yugoslavia. There were four major earthquakes; one south of Honshu, Japan, two in the Kuril Islands region, and one in the Soviet Union. The United States experienced a number of earthquakes, but only very minor damage was reported. 

  6. Earthquakes, September-October 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    The fatalities in the United States were caused by two earthquakes in southern Oregon on September 21. These earthquakes, both with magnitude 6.0 and separated in time by about 2 hrs, led to the deaths of two people. One of these deaths was apparently due to a heart attack induced by the earthquake

  7. Organizational changes at Earthquakes & Volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Primary responsibility for the preparation of Earthquakes & Volcanoes within the Geological Survey has shifted from the Office of Scientific Publications to the Office of Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Engineering (OEVE). As a consequence of this reorganization, Henry Spall has stepepd down as Science Editor for Earthquakes & Volcanoes(E&V).

  8. Turkish Children's Ideas about Earthquakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simsek, Canan Lacin

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

  9. PAGER--Rapid assessment of an earthquake?s impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, D.J.; Jaiswal, K.; Marano, K.D.; Bausch, D.; Hearne, M.

    2010-01-01

    PAGER (Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response) is an automated system that produces content concerning the impact of significant earthquakes around the world, informing emergency responders, government and aid agencies, and the media of the scope of the potential disaster. PAGER rapidly assesses earthquake impacts by comparing the population exposed to each level of shaking intensity with models of economic and fatality losses based on past earthquakes in each country or region of the world. Earthquake alerts--which were formerly sent based only on event magnitude and location, or population exposure to shaking--now will also be generated based on the estimated range of fatalities and economic losses.

  10. Forecasters of earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maximova, Lyudmila

    1987-07-01

    For the first time Soviet scientists have set up a bioseismological proving ground which will stage a systematic extensive experiment of using birds, ants, mountain rodents including marmots, which can dig holes in the Earth's interior to a depth of 50 meters, for the purpose of earthquake forecasting. Biologists have accumulated extensive experimental data on the impact of various electromagnetic fields, including fields of weak intensity, on living organisms. As far as mammals are concerned, electromagnetic waves with frequencies close to the brain's biorhythms have the strongest effect. How these observations can be used to forecast earthquakes is discussed.

  11. Earthquakes in New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fratto, E. S.; Ebel, J.E.; Kadinsky-Cade, K.

    1990-01-01

    New England has a long history of earthquakes. Some of the first explorers were startled when they experienced strong shaking and rumbling of the earth below their feet. they soon learned from the Indians that this was not an uncommon occurrence in the New World. the Plymouth Pilgrims felt their first earthquake in 1638. that first shock rattled dishes, doors, and buildings. The shaking so frightened those working in the fields that they threw down their tools and ran panic-stricken through the countryside. 

  12. The 1976 Tangshan earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fang, Wang

    1979-01-01

    The Tangshan earthquake of 1976 was one of the largest earthquakes in recent years. It occurred on July 28 at 3:42 a.m, Beijing (Peking) local time, and had magnitude 7.8, focal depth of 15 kilometers, and an epicentral intensity of XI on the New Chinese Seismic Intensity Scale; it caused serious damage and loss of life in this densely populated industrial city. Now, with the help of people from all over China, the city of Tangshan is being rebuild. 

  13. Headaches prior to earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, L. L.

    1988-06-01

    In two surveys of headaches it was noted that their incidence had increased significantly within 48 h prior to earthquakes from an incidence of 17% to 58% in the first survey using correlated samples and from 20.4% to 44% in the second survey using independent samples. It is suggested that an increase in positive air ions from rock compression may trigger head pain via a decrease in brain levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin. The findings are presented as preliminary, with the hope of generating further research efforts in areas more prone to earthquakes.

  14. Earthquakes, November-December 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    There were two major earthquakes (7.0≤M<8.0) during the last two months of the year, a magntidue 7.5 earthquake on December 12 in the Flores region, Indonesia, and a magnitude 7.0 earthquake on December 20 in the Banda Sea. Earthquakes caused fatalities in China and Indonesia. The greatest number of deaths (2,500) for the year occurred in Indonesia. In Switzerland, six people were killed by an accidental explosion recoreded by seismographs. In teh United States, a magnitude 5.3 earthquake caused slight damage at Big Bear in southern California. 

  15. Earthquakes; March-April 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    There were no major earthquakes (magnitude 7.0-7.9) in March or April; however, there were earthquake fatalities in Chile, Iran, and Venezuela and approximately 35 earthquake-related injuries were reported around the world. In the United States a magnitude 6.0 earthquake struck the Idaho-Utah border region. Damage was estimated at about a million dollars. The shock was felt over a wide area and was the largest to hit the continental Untied States since the San Fernando earthquake of February 1971. 

  16. HIV testing in India.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Srikanth; Pereira, Michael; Tripathy, Sriram Prasad

    2012-06-01

    The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) has initiated programs for HIV/AIDS control in India. Algorithms for HIV testing have been developed for India. NACO programs have resulted in HIV situation improving over the last decade.

  17. The 2004 Parkfield, CA Earthquake: A Teachable Moment for Exploring Earthquake Processes, Probability, and Earthquake Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafka, A.; Barnett, M.; Ebel, J.; Bellegarde, H.; Campbell, L.

    2004-12-01

    The occurrence of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake provided a unique "teachable moment" for students in our science course for teacher education majors. The course uses seismology as a medium for teaching a wide variety of science topics appropriate for future teachers. The 2004 Parkfield earthquake occurred just 15 minutes after our students completed a lab on earthquake processes and earthquake prediction. That lab included a discussion of the Parkfield Earthquake Prediction Experiment as a motivation for the exercises they were working on that day. Furthermore, this earthquake was recorded on an AS1 seismograph right in their lab, just minutes after the students left. About an hour after we recorded the earthquake, the students were able to see their own seismogram of the event in the lecture part of the course, which provided an excellent teachable moment for a lecture/discussion on how the occurrence of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake might affect seismologists' ideas about earthquake prediction. The specific lab exercise that the students were working on just before we recorded this earthquake was a "sliding block" experiment that simulates earthquakes in the classroom. The experimental apparatus includes a flat board on top of which are blocks of wood attached to a bungee cord and a string wrapped around a hand crank. Plate motion is modeled by slowly turning the crank, and earthquakes are modeled as events in which the block slips ("blockquakes"). We scaled the earthquake data and the blockquake data (using how much the string moved as a proxy for time) so that we could compare blockquakes and earthquakes. This provided an opportunity to use interevent-time histograms to teach about earthquake processes, probability, and earthquake prediction, and to compare earthquake sequences with blockquake sequences. We were able to show the students, using data obtained directly from their own lab, how global earthquake data fit a Poisson exponential distribution better

  18. Creating a Global Building Inventory for Earthquake Loss Assessment and Risk Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.

    2008-01-01

    contribution of building stock, its relative vulnerability, and distribution are vital components for determining the extent of casualties during an earthquake. It is evident from large deadly historical earthquakes that the distribution of vulnerable structures and their occupancy level during an earthquake control the severity of human losses. For example, though the number of strong earthquakes in California is comparable to that of Iran, the total earthquake-related casualties in California during the last 100 years are dramatically lower than the casualties from several individual Iranian earthquakes. The relatively low casualties count in California is attributed mainly to the fact that more than 90 percent of the building stock in California is made of wood and is designed to withstand moderate to large earthquakes (Kircher, Seligson and others, 2006). In contrast, the 80 percent adobe and or non-engineered masonry building stock with poor lateral load resisting systems in Iran succumbs even for moderate levels of ground shaking. Consequently, the heavy death toll for the 2003 Bam, Iran earthquake, which claimed 31,828 lives (Ghafory-Ashtiany and Mousavi, 2005), is directly attributable to such poorly resistant construction, and future events will produce comparable losses unless practices change. Similarly, multistory, precast-concrete framed buildings caused heavy casualties in the 1988 Spitak, Armenia earthquake (Bertero, 1989); weaker masonry and reinforced-concrete framed construction designed for gravity loads with soft first stories dominated losses in the Bhuj, India earthquake of 2001 (Madabhushi and Haigh, 2005); and adobe and weak masonry dwellings in Peru controlled the death toll in the Peru earthquake of 2007 (Taucer, J. and others, 2007). Spence (2007) after conducting a brief survey of most lethal earthquakes since 1960 found that building collapses remains a major cause of earthquake mortality and unreinforced masonry buildings are one of the mos

  19. "Making the child understand:" socialization of emotion in urban India.

    PubMed

    Raval, Vaishali V; Martini, Tanya S

    2011-12-01

    Using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, this study examined mothers' socialization of child emotion in suburban middle-class families in Gujarat, India. In particular, a community sample of 602 children, 6 to 8 years, was screened for emotional/behavioral problems using a parent-report measure standardized with this population. Based on the screening, four groups of children were formed: those with internalizing problems (n = 31), externalizing problems (n = 32), and somatic complaints (n = 25), and an asymptomatic control group (n = 32). Mothers of children across groups completed a previously pilot-tested, forced-choice, self-report questionnaire of their emotions and behaviors in response to their children's anger, sadness, and physical pain, and an individual open-ended interview further exploring their socialization behaviors, immediate goals, and expectations from their children. Quantitative data revealed that mothers of children in internalizing, externalizing, and somatic complaints groups reported more negative emotions (anger, disappointment, embarrassment, restlessness) and punitive/ minimizing behaviors than the control group, with the somatic-complaints group also reporting less sympathy and emotion-/ problem-focused behaviors than the control group. Qualitative data provided a culturally grounded overarching framework to understand emotion socialization in this sample, and suggested variation across groups with respect to the type of mothers' behaviors, along with expectations for appropriate behavior.

  20. Earthquake hazard hunt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCabe, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The Earthquake Hazard Hunt should begin at home, with all family members participating. Foresight, imagination, and commonsense are all that are needed as you go from room to room and imagine what would happen when the Earth and house started to shake. 

  1. ALMA measures Calama earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, R.; Shillue, B.

    2010-04-01

    On 4 March 2010, the ALMA system response to an extraordinarily large disturbance was measured when a magnitude 6.3 earthquake struck near Calama, Chile, relatively close to the ALMA site. Figures 1 through 4 demonstrate the remarkable performance of the ALMA system to a huge disturbance that was more than 100 times the specification for correction accuracy.

  2. Earthquake Prediction is Coming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes (1) several methods used in earthquake research, including P:S ratio velocity studies, dilatancy models; and (2) techniques for gathering base-line data for prediction using seismographs, tiltmeters, laser beams, magnetic field changes, folklore, animal behavior. The mysterious Palmdale (California) bulge is discussed. (CS)

  3. Earthquake damage to schools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCullough, Heather

    1994-01-01

    These unusual slides show earthquake damage to school and university buildings around the world. They graphically illustrate the potential danger to our schools, and to the welfare of our children, that results from major earthquakes. The slides range from Algeria, where a collapsed school roof is held up only by students' desks; to Anchorage, Alaska, where an elementary school structure has split in half; to California and other areas, where school buildings have sustained damage to walls, roofs, and chimneys. Interestingly, all the United States earthquakes depicted in this set of slides occurred either on a holiday or before or after school hours, except the 1935 tremor in Helena, Montana, which occurred at 11:35 am. It undoubtedly would have caused casualties had the schools not been closed days earlier by Helena city officials because of a damaging foreshock. Students in Algeria, the People's Republic of China, Armenia, and other stricken countries were not so fortunate. This set of slides represents 17 destructive earthquakes that occurred in 9 countries, and covers more than a century--from 1886 to 1988. Two of the tremors, both of which occurred in the United States, were magnitude 8+ on the Richter Scale, and four were magnitude 7-7.9. The events represented by the slides (see table below) claimed more than a quarter of a million lives.

  4. Road Damage Following Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Ground shaking triggered liquefaction in a subsurface layer of water-saturated sand, producing differential lateral and vertical movement in a overlying carapace of unliquified sand and slit, which moved from right to left towards the Pajaro River. This mode of ground failure, termed lateral spreading, is a principal cause of liquefaction-related earthquake damage caused by the Oct. 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: S.D. Ellen, U.S. Geological Survey

  5. Fractal dynamics of earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Bak, P.; Chen, K.

    1995-05-01

    Many objects in nature, from mountain landscapes to electrical breakdown and turbulence, have a self-similar fractal spatial structure. It seems obvious that to understand the origin of self-similar structures, one must understand the nature of the dynamical processes that created them: temporal and spatial properties must necessarily be completely interwoven. This is particularly true for earthquakes, which have a variety of fractal aspects. The distribution of energy released during earthquakes is given by the Gutenberg-Richter power law. The distribution of epicenters appears to be fractal with dimension D {approx} 1--1.3. The number of after shocks decay as a function of time according to the Omori power law. There have been several attempts to explain the Gutenberg-Richter law by starting from a fractal distribution of faults or stresses. But this is a hen-and-egg approach: to explain the Gutenberg-Richter law, one assumes the existence of another power-law--the fractal distribution. The authors present results of a simple stick slip model of earthquakes, which evolves to a self-organized critical state. Emphasis is on demonstrating that empirical power laws for earthquakes indicate that the Earth`s crust is at the critical state, with no typical time, space, or energy scale. Of course the model is tremendously oversimplified; however in analogy with equilibrium phenomena they do not expect criticality to depend on details of the model (universality).

  6. Simulation of earthquake ground motions in the eastern U.S. using deterministic physics-based and stochastic approaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Hartzell, Stephen; Sun, Xiaodan; Mendoza, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake ground motion recordings are scarce in the central and eastern U.S. (CEUS) for large magnitude events and at close distances. We use two different simulation approaches, a deterministic physics-based model and a stochastic model, to simulate recordings from the 2011 Mineral, Virginia, 5.8 earthquake in the CEUS. We then use the 2001 Bhuj, India, 7.6 earthquake as a tectonic analog for a large CEUS earthquake and modify our simulations to develop models for generation of large magnitude earthquakes in the CEUS. Both models show a good fit to the observations from 0.1 to 10 Hz, and show a faster fall-off with distances beyond 500 km for the acceleration spectra compared to ground motion prediction models (GMPEs) for a 7.6 event.

  7. WGCEP Historical California Earthquake Catalog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Felzer, Karen R.; Cao, Tianqing

    2008-01-01

    This appendix provides an earthquake catalog for California and the surrounding area. Our goal is to provide a listing for all known M > 5.5 earthquakes that occurred from 1850-1932 and all known M > 4.0 earthquakes that occurred from 1932-2006 within the region of 31.0 to 43.0 degrees North and -126.0 to -114.0 degrees West. Some pre-1932 earthquakes 4 5, before the Northern California network was online. Some earthquakes from 1900-1932, and particularly from 1910-1932 are also based on instrumental readings, but the quality of the instrumental record and the resulting analysis are much less precise than for later listings. A partial exception is for some of the largest earthquakes, such as the San Francisco earthquake of April 18, 1906, for which global teleseismic records (Wald et al. 1993) and geodetic measurements (Thatcher et al. 1906) have been used to help determine magnitudes.

  8. Episodic tremor triggers small earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    It has been suggested that episodic tremor and slip (ETS), the weak shaking not associated with measurable earthquakes, could trigger nearby earthquakes. However, this had not been confirmed until recently. Vidale et al. monitored seismicity in the 4-month period around a 16-day episode of episodic tremor and slip in March 2010 in the Cascadia region. They observed five small earthquakes within the subducting slab during the ETS episode. They found that the timing and locations of earthquakes near the tremor suggest that the tremor and earthquakes are related. Furthermore, they observed that the rate of earthquakes across the area was several times higher within 2 days of tremor activity than at other times, adding to evidence of a connection between tremor and earthquakes. (Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, doi:10.1029/2011GC003559, 2011)

  9. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  10. The India Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2012-01-01

    Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

  11. Earthquake Apparent Stress Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayeda, K.; Walter, W. R.

    2003-04-01

    There is currently a disagreement within the geophysical community on the way earthquake energy scales with magnitude. One set of recent papers finds evidence that energy release per seismic moment (apparent stress) is constant (e.g. Choy and Boatwright, 1995; McGarr, 1999; Ide and Beroza, 2001). Another set of recent papers finds the apparent stress increases with magnitude (e.g. Kanamori et al., 1993 Abercrombie, 1995; Mayeda and Walter, 1996; Izutani and Kanamori, 2001). The resolution of this issue is complicated by the difficulty of accurately accounting for and determining the seismic energy radiated by earthquakes over a wide range of event sizes in a consistent manner. We have just started a project to reexamine this issue by applying the same methodology to a series of datasets that spans roughly 10 orders in seismic moment, M0. We will summarize recent results using a coda envelope methodology of Mayeda et al, (2003) which provide the most stable source spectral estimates to date. This methodology eliminates the complicating effects of lateral path heterogeneity, source radiation pattern, directivity, and site response (e.g., amplification, f-max and kappa). We find that in tectonically active continental crustal areas the total radiated energy scales as M00.25 whereas in regions of relatively younger oceanic crust, the stress drop is generally lower and exhibits a 1-to-1 scaling with moment. In addition to answering a fundamental question in earthquake source dynamics, this study addresses how one would scale small earthquakes in a particular region up to a future, more damaging earthquake. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  12. ETHNOBOTANICAL ASPECTS OF SOME PLANTS OF ARAVALLI HILLS IN NORTH GUJARAT

    PubMed Central

    Punjani, Bhasker L.

    2002-01-01

    The Aravalli ranges run along the Sabarkantha district is the ancient region of India, inhibited by tribals living in close vicinity of enriched forest. The present paper contains various ethnobotanical aspects of some plant species used by the tribals for their day-to day requirement. The paper includes the first hand information collected through tribal informants, medicinemen and tribal people of several villages during the field trips in the region for last three years in different seasons. The paper provides an account of the ethnobotanical uses for basic necessities and welfare of tribal life, medicine and hygiene, fuel fodder, fibres food, shelter, dye, oil and other miscellaneous purposes. PMID:22557066

  13. The 1868 Hayward Earthquake Alliance: A Case Study - Using an Earthquake Anniversary to Promote Earthquake Preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocher, T. M.; Garcia, S.; Aagaard, B. T.; Boatwright, J. J.; Dawson, T.; Hellweg, M.; Knudsen, K. L.; Perkins, J.; Schwartz, D. P.; Stoffer, P. W.; Zoback, M.

    2008-12-01

    Last October 21st marked the 140th anniversary of the M6.8 1868 Hayward Earthquake, the last damaging earthquake on the southern Hayward Fault. This anniversary was used to help publicize the seismic hazards associated with the fault because: (1) the past five such earthquakes on the Hayward Fault occurred about 140 years apart on average, and (2) the Hayward-Rodgers Creek Fault system is the most likely (with a 31 percent probability) fault in the Bay Area to produce a M6.7 or greater earthquake in the next 30 years. To promote earthquake awareness and preparedness, over 140 public and private agencies and companies and many individual joined the public-private nonprofit 1868 Hayward Earthquake Alliance (1868alliance.org). The Alliance sponsored many activities including a public commemoration at Mission San Jose in Fremont, which survived the 1868 earthquake. This event was followed by an earthquake drill at Bay Area schools involving more than 70,000 students. The anniversary prompted the Silver Sentinel, an earthquake response exercise based on the scenario of an earthquake on the Hayward Fault conducted by Bay Area County Offices of Emergency Services. 60 other public and private agencies also participated in this exercise. The California Seismic Safety Commission and KPIX (CBS affiliate) produced professional videos designed forschool classrooms promoting Drop, Cover, and Hold On. Starting in October 2007, the Alliance and the U.S. Geological Survey held a sequence of press conferences to announce the release of new research on the Hayward Fault as well as new loss estimates for a Hayward Fault earthquake. These included: (1) a ShakeMap for the 1868 Hayward earthquake, (2) a report by the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics forecasting the number of employees, employers, and wages predicted to be within areas most strongly shaken by a Hayward Fault earthquake, (3) new estimates of the losses associated with a Hayward Fault earthquake, (4) new ground motion

  14. Thrusting of the Hindu Kush over the Southeastern Tadjik Basin, Afghanistan: Evidence from two large earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abers, Geoffrey; Bryan, Carol; Roecker, Steven; McCaffrey, Robert

    1988-02-01

    We infer from the mechanisms and depths of two large earthquakes that the Hindu Kush is actively thrusting northwest over the Tadjik basin and that the basin is closing rather than being displaced to the west. Teleseismic body waves were used to determine focal mechanisms and depths for the two largest shallow earthquakes on the southern edge of the basin. The two earthquakes, on June 24, 1972 (mb=6.0), and December 16, 1982 (mb=6.2), have seismic moments of 2 × 1018 N-m and 6 × 1018 N-m, respectively. Focal mechanisms of both events indicate almost pure thrust faulting with nodal planes striking northeast-southwest. The inferred fault planes dip southeast, at 20° for the first event and 50° for the second. The P axes for both events are oblique to the direction of relative motion between India and Asia, suggesting that the Pamir is overthrusting the basin to the west. Depths for both earthquakes are between 20 and 25 km and place them well below the Tadjik basin sediments. The depths and steep fault planes suggest that these earthquakes represent a downdip extension within the basement of shallow folding and thrusting seen in the sediments northwest of the events. Thus convergence in Afghanistan between India and Eurasia is taken up along southeast dipping thrust faults north of the Hindu Kush as well as by northward subduction under the southern part of the range.

  15. Turkish Compulsory Earthquake Insurance (TCIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdik, M.; Durukal, E.; Sesetyan, K.

    2009-04-01

    Through a World Bank project a government-sponsored Turkish Catastrophic Insurance Pool (TCIP) is created in 2000 with the essential aim of transferring the government's financial burden of replacing earthquake-damaged housing to international reinsurance and capital markets. Providing coverage to about 2.9 Million homeowners TCIP is the largest insurance program in the country with about 0.5 Billion USD in its own reserves and about 2.3 Billion USD in total claims paying capacity. The total payment for earthquake damage since 2000 (mostly small, 226 earthquakes) amounts to about 13 Million USD. The country-wide penetration rate is about 22%, highest in the Marmara region (30%) and lowest in the south-east Turkey (9%). TCIP is the sole-source provider of earthquake loss coverage up to 90,000 USD per house. The annual premium, categorized on the basis of earthquake zones type of structure, is about US90 for a 100 square meter reinforced concrete building in the most hazardous zone with 2% deductible. The earthquake engineering related shortcomings of the TCIP is exemplified by fact that the average rate of 0.13% (for reinforced concrete buildings) with only 2% deductible is rather low compared to countries with similar earthquake exposure. From an earthquake engineering point of view the risk underwriting (Typification of housing units to be insured, earthquake intensity zonation and the sum insured) of the TCIP needs to be overhauled. Especially for large cities, models can be developed where its expected earthquake performance (and consequently the insurance premium) can be can be assessed on the basis of the location of the unit (microzoned earthquake hazard) and basic structural attributes (earthquake vulnerability relationships). With such an approach, in the future the TCIP can contribute to the control of construction through differentiation of premia on the basis of earthquake vulnerability.

  16. Backtrack modeling to locate the origin of tar balls depositing along the west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Suneel, V; Ciappa, A; Vethamony, P

    2016-11-01

    Tar ball (TB) deposition along the West Coast of India (WCI) is a common phenomenon during the southwest monsoon season, particularly along the coast of Goa and Gujarat, and it is a major concern to the stake holders. Our earlier studies showed that the source oil for the TBs deposited on the Goa coast in August 2010 is the tanker wash, and the source for subsequent TBs deposited on the Gujarat coast during July 2012 and June 2013 and Goa coast in May 2013 is from Bombay High (BH) oil fields. In the present study, the TBs that were deposited during May 2013 and May 2014 on the Goa coast were backtracked through a trajectory model, primarily to simulate their pathways and identify the reason for the occurrence of TBs only in May, and eventually to identify the origin and the source. The backtracking results re-confirmed that the TBs deposited in 2010 were originated from the tanker routes and that of both 2013 and 2014 TBs from the BH oil fields. The climatology of wind and surface circulation showed that the TBs deposited on the Goa coast during May/June only are from the oil fields and those during August from the tanker route. The results of backtracking simulations showed that the residence time of the oil residues/TBs is approximately 22days for August 2010 TBs, ≈30days for May 2013 TBs and 65days for May 2014 TBs. The residence time (in water) of TBs that deposit (on the coast) in the month of May could be as much as 7months, and could be around one month if deposit in August, primarily because of winds and hydrodynamic conditions of the Arabian Sea. PMID:27328397

  17. Backtrack modeling to locate the origin of tar balls depositing along the west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Suneel, V; Ciappa, A; Vethamony, P

    2016-11-01

    Tar ball (TB) deposition along the West Coast of India (WCI) is a common phenomenon during the southwest monsoon season, particularly along the coast of Goa and Gujarat, and it is a major concern to the stake holders. Our earlier studies showed that the source oil for the TBs deposited on the Goa coast in August 2010 is the tanker wash, and the source for subsequent TBs deposited on the Gujarat coast during July 2012 and June 2013 and Goa coast in May 2013 is from Bombay High (BH) oil fields. In the present study, the TBs that were deposited during May 2013 and May 2014 on the Goa coast were backtracked through a trajectory model, primarily to simulate their pathways and identify the reason for the occurrence of TBs only in May, and eventually to identify the origin and the source. The backtracking results re-confirmed that the TBs deposited in 2010 were originated from the tanker routes and that of both 2013 and 2014 TBs from the BH oil fields. The climatology of wind and surface circulation showed that the TBs deposited on the Goa coast during May/June only are from the oil fields and those during August from the tanker route. The results of backtracking simulations showed that the residence time of the oil residues/TBs is approximately 22days for August 2010 TBs, ≈30days for May 2013 TBs and 65days for May 2014 TBs. The residence time (in water) of TBs that deposit (on the coast) in the month of May could be as much as 7months, and could be around one month if deposit in August, primarily because of winds and hydrodynamic conditions of the Arabian Sea.

  18. The Earthquake That Tweeted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, D.

    2011-12-01

    Advances in mobile technology and social networking are enabling new behaviors that were not possible even a few short years ago. When people experience a tiny earthquake, it's more likely they're going to reach for their phones and tell their friends about it than actually take cover under a desk. With 175 million Twitter accounts, 750 million Facebook users and more than five billion mobile phones in the world today, people are generating terrific amounts of data simply by going about their everyday lives. Given the right tools and guidance these connected individuals can act as the world's largest sensor network, doing everything from reporting on earthquakes to anticipating global crises. Drawing on the author's experience as a user researcher and experience designer, this presentation will discuss these trends in crowdsourcing the collection and analysis of data, and consider their implications for how the public encounters the earth sciences in their everyday lives.

  19. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  20. Pain after earthquake

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction On 6 April 2009, at 03:32 local time, an Mw 6.3 earthquake hit the Abruzzi region of central Italy causing widespread damage in the City of L Aquila and its nearby villages. The earthquake caused 308 casualties and over 1,500 injuries, displaced more than 25,000 people and induced significant damage to more than 10,000 buildings in the L'Aquila region. Objectives This observational retrospective study evaluated the prevalence and drug treatment of pain in the five weeks following the L'Aquila earthquake (April 6, 2009). Methods 958 triage documents were analysed for patients pain severity, pain type, and treatment efficacy. Results A third of pain patients reported pain with a prevalence of 34.6%. More than half of pain patients reported severe pain (58.8%). Analgesic agents were limited to available drugs: anti-inflammatory agents, paracetamol, and weak opioids. Reduction in verbal numerical pain scores within the first 24 hours after treatment was achieved with the medications at hand. Pain prevalence and characterization exhibited a biphasic pattern with acute pain syndromes owing to trauma occurring in the first 15 days after the earthquake; traumatic pain then decreased and re-surged at around week five, owing to rebuilding efforts. In the second through fourth week, reports of pain occurred mainly owing to relapses of chronic conditions. Conclusions This study indicates that pain is prevalent during natural disasters, may exhibit a discernible pattern over the weeks following the event, and current drug treatments in this region may be adequate for emergency situations. PMID:22747796

  1. Do Earthquakes Shake Stock Markets?

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Susana; Karali, Berna

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how major earthquakes affected the returns and volatility of aggregate stock market indices in thirty-five financial markets over the last twenty years. Results show that global financial markets are resilient to shocks caused by earthquakes even if these are domestic. Our analysis reveals that, in a few instances, some macroeconomic variables and earthquake characteristics (gross domestic product per capita, trade openness, bilateral trade flows, earthquake magnitude, a tsunami indicator, distance to the epicenter, and number of fatalities) mediate the impact of earthquakes on stock market returns, resulting in a zero net effect. However, the influence of these variables is market-specific, indicating no systematic pattern across global capital markets. Results also demonstrate that stock market volatility is unaffected by earthquakes, except for Japan.

  2. Do Earthquakes Shake Stock Markets?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how major earthquakes affected the returns and volatility of aggregate stock market indices in thirty-five financial markets over the last twenty years. Results show that global financial markets are resilient to shocks caused by earthquakes even if these are domestic. Our analysis reveals that, in a few instances, some macroeconomic variables and earthquake characteristics (gross domestic product per capita, trade openness, bilateral trade flows, earthquake magnitude, a tsunami indicator, distance to the epicenter, and number of fatalities) mediate the impact of earthquakes on stock market returns, resulting in a zero net effect. However, the influence of these variables is market-specific, indicating no systematic pattern across global capital markets. Results also demonstrate that stock market volatility is unaffected by earthquakes, except for Japan. PMID:26197482

  3. Geological indicators of a suspected seismic source from Peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Yogendra; John, Biju; P, Ganapathy G.; S, Divyalakshmi K.

    2014-05-01

    An increase in seismicity in Peninsular India during the last few decades has initiated various studies for identifying seismogenic structures and their behaviour. Even though few earthquakes occurred at well defined structures many of them occurred at unexpected locations where no previous seismicity reported. However, studies subsequent to the 1993 Latur earthquake as well as the studies at different parts of peninsular India, have led to the identification of pre-existing faults that have activated in the past. Studies elsewhere in the cratonic hinderland also show that the damaging earthquakes occur on pre-existing faults with a recurrence period of tens of thousands of year Studies subsequent to 1989 Wadakkancheri earthquake (M=4.3) identified Desamangalam fault which are capable of generating earthquakes. However, it is noted that a number of later events are occurring much south of the Desamangalam fault. We identified a set of NW-SE trending lineaments which are influencing the drainage pattern of the area. A network of paleochannels is also observed in the remote sensing analysis and field studies in this area. Regionally these lineaments meeting one of the major lineaments in central Kerala called Periyar lineament, in the south. Charnockite rocks constitutes the major rock type of the region. These rocks at places developed strong foliation similar to the lineament direction. Detailed field studies identified oblique movement (reverse and strike slip component) along NW-SE trending faults which are dipping south-west. The studies also find NNE-SSW trending vertical faults showing strike-slip movement. The damage zones of each of these faults bears different mineral precipitations and gouge injections of episodic nature. The presence of loose gouge may indicate the faulting is a much later development in the brittle regime. The sense of movement of the observed faults may indicate that the various river/drainage abandonment observed in the area are due to

  4. Foreshocks of strong earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmi, A. V.; Sobisevich, L. E.; Sobisevich, A. L.; Lavrov, I. P.

    2014-07-01

    The specific enhancement of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) electromagnetic oscillations a few hours prior to the strong earthquakes, which was previously mentioned in the literature, motivated us to search for the distinctive features of the mechanical (foreshock) activity of the Earth's crust in the epicentral zones of the future earthquakes. Activation of the foreshocks three hours before the main shock is revealed, which is roughly similar to the enhancement of the specific electromagnetic ULF emission. It is hypothesized that the round-the-world seismic echo signals from the earthquakes, which form the peak of energy release 2 h 50 min before the main events, act as the triggers of the main shocks due to the cumulative action of the surface waves converging to the epicenter. It is established that the frequency of the fluctuations in the foreshock activity decreases at the final stages of the preparation of the main shocks, which probably testifies to the so-called mode softening at the approach of the failure point according to the catastrophe theory.

  5. Earthquakes and plate tectonics.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1982-01-01

    Earthquakes occur at the following three kinds of plate boundary: ocean ridges where the plates are pulled apart, margins where the plates scrape past one another, and margins where one plate is thrust under the other. Thus, we can predict the general regions on the earth's surface where we can expect large earthquakes in the future. We know that each year about 140 earthquakes of magnitude 6 or greater will occur within this area which is 10% of the earth's surface. But on a worldwide basis we cannot say with much accuracy when these events will occur. The reason is that the processes in plate tectonics have been going on for millions of years. Averaged over this interval, plate motions amount to several mm per year. But at any instant in geologic time, for example the year 1982, we do not know, exactly where we are in the worldwide cycle of strain build-up and strain release. Only by monitoring the stress and strain in small areas, for instance, the San Andreas fault, in great detail can we hope to predict when renewed activity in that part of the plate tectonics arena is likely to take place. -from Author

  6. Sand Volcano Following Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Sand boil or sand volcano measuring 2 m (6.6 ft.) in length erupted in median of Interstate Highway 80 west of the Bay Bridge toll plaza when ground shaking transformed loose water-saturated deposit of subsurface sand into a sand-water slurry (liquefaction) in the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. Vented sand contains marine-shell fragments. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: J.C. Tinsley, U.S. Geological Survey)

  7. Housing Damage Following Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    An automobile lies crushed under the third story of this apartment building in the Marina District after the Oct. 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. The ground levels are no longer visible because of structural failure and sinking due to liquefaction. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: J.K. Nakata, U.S. Geological Survey.

  8. Deep India meets deep Asia: Lithospheric indentation, delamination and break-off under Pamir and Hindu Kush (Central Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kufner, Sofia-Katerina; Schurr, Bernd; Sippl, Christian; Yuan, Xiaohui; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Akbar, Arib s./of Mohammad; Ischuk, Anatoly; Murodkulov, Shohrukh; Schneider, Felix; Mechie, James; Tilmann, Frederik

    2016-02-01

    Subduction of buoyant continental lithosphere is one of the least understood plate-tectonic processes. Yet under the Pamir-Hindu Kush, at the northwestern margin of the India-Asia collision zone, unusual deep earthquakes and seismic velocity anomalies suggest subduction of Asian and Indian lithosphere. Here, we report new precise earthquake hypocenters, detailed tomographic images and earthquake source mechanisms, which allow distinguishing a narrow sliver of Indian lithosphere beneath the deepest Hindu Kush earthquakes and a broad, arcuate slab of Asian lithosphere beneath the Pamir. We suggest that this double subduction zone arises by contrasting modes of convergence under the Pamir and Hindu Kush, imposed by the different mechanical properties of the three types of lithosphere involved. While the buoyant northwestern salient of Cratonic India bulldozes into Cratonic Asia, forcing delamination and rollback of its lithosphere, India's thinned western continental margin separates from Cratonic India and subducts beneath Asia. This torn-off narrow plate sliver forms a prominent high-velocity anomaly down to the mantle transition zone. Our images show that its uppermost section is thinned or already severed and that intermediate depth earthquakes cluster at the neck connecting it to the deeper slab, providing a rare glimpse at the ephemeral process of slab break-off.

  9. Impact of Community Interventions on the Social Representation of Depression in Rural Gujarat.

    PubMed

    Mindlis, I; Schuetz-Mueller, J; Shah, S; Appasani, R; Coleman, A; Katz, C L

    2015-09-01

    There is a pressing need to develop community interventions that will address stigma against mental illness in rural India. This cross-sectional study will compare social representations of depression in villages where educational programs have targeted mental illness and stigma versus control villages. Participants from the villages exposed to the educational interventions (n = 146) will be compared with a sample from six control villages (n = 187) in the same geographic region, using a structured questionnaire. The impact of the intervention as a predictor for questionnaire score will be assessed along with socio-demographic variables. The intervention villages showed higher levels of literacy regarding depression and lower levels of stigma, after adjusting for all other socio-demographic variables. While some demographic factors associated with the knowledge and attitudes towards depression are not modifiable, our research provides evidence in favor of the positive influence a community grassroots intervention can have on mental health literacy in rural settings.

  10. Earthquakes, September-October 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    There were two major (magnitudes 7.0-7.9) earthquakes during this reporting period; a magnitude (M) 7.3 in Algeria where many people were killed or injured and extensive damage occurred, and an M=7.2 in the Loyalty Islands region of the South Pacific. Japan was struck by a damaging earthquake on September 24, killing two people and causing injuries. There were no damaging earthquakes in the United States. 

  11. Earthquakes; July-August 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    July and August were somewhat active seismically speaking, compared to previous months of this year. There were seven earthquakes having magnitudes of 6.5 or greater. The largest was a magnitudes of 6.5 or greater. The largest was a magnitude 8.0 earthquake south of Sumbawa Island on August 19 that killed at least 111. The United States experienced a number of earthquakes during this period, but only one, in California, caused some minor damage. 

  12. Earthquakes, November-December 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    There were three major earthquakes (7.0-7.9) during the last two months of the year: a magntidue 7.0 on November 19 in Columbia, a magnitude 7.4 in the Kuril Islands on December 22, and a magnitude 7.1 in the South Sandwich Islands on December 27. Earthquake-related deaths were reported in Colombia, Yemen, and Iran. there were no significant earthquakes in the United States during this reporting period. 

  13. Proceedings of lifeline earthquake engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Cassaro, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the Lifeline Earthquake Engineering Conference. Topics covered include: Overview of Lifeline Earthquake Engineering; Transportation Lifelines; Seismic Retrofit and Strengthening of Transportation Lifelines; Electric Power Lifelines; Communications Lifelines; Water Delivery and Sewer Lifelines; Seismic Hazards Evaluation; Risk and Reliability Analysis of Lifelines; Lifeline Experience During Earthquakes and System Behavior; Seismic Analysis and Design of Lifelines; Vulnerability of Lifelines; and Vulnerability Reduction, Mitigation Planning, and Emergency Response.

  14. Tsunami Generation from the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satake, K.

    2005-12-01

    The tsunami caused by the December 26, 2004, Sumatra earthquake (Mw 9.1) propagated across the Indian Ocean and caused the worst tsunami disaster. Factors contributed to the tragedy include the giant size of the earthquake, absence of both tsunami warning system and long-term forecast of future earthquakes in the Indian Ocean. Seismological developments since 1960, when the Chilean earthquake (Mw 9.5) caused Pacific-wide tsunami damage, make it possible to estimate the earthquake source parameters within minutes after the occurrence and utilize it for the tsunami warning purposes. The length of the tsunami source of the December Sumatra-Andaman earthquake is enigmatic. The aftershock zone extended from west of Sumatra through Nicobar Islands all the way to Andaman Islands; the total length is over 1,200 km. The seismic wave analyses indicate the southern half ruptured in rather rapidly while the northern half did slowly. Sea level changes in Andaman and Nicobar Islands indicate that the coseismic crustal deformation extended to Andaman Islands. The tsunami source size was estimated to be about 700 km long from the tsunami arrival times recorded on tide gauges, but the northern end was not well constrained. The tsunami heights in Indian Ocean, captured by Jason-1 and other satellites, support that the tsunami source was about 1,100 km long. For more accurate tsunami computations requires detailed shallow bathymetry data. To document the 2004 tsunami, many scientists from all over the world visited the affected coasts. From Japan alone, several survey teams visited coasts of Indonesia, Thailand, Myanmar, India and Sri Lanka, with collaborators in each country. The tsunami heights in Sumatra Island, particularly around Band Aceh, were mostly larger than 20 m with the maximum of 30 m. The tsunami heights along the Andaman Sea coast were highly variable; they were 5 to 15 m in Thailand but less than 3 m in Myanmar. In fact, the tsunami damage and casualties, reportedly

  15. Earthquakes, July-August 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    There were two major earthquakes (7.0≤M<8.0) during this reporting period. A magnitude 7.5 earthquake occurred in Kyrgyzstan on August 19 and a magnitude 7.0 quake struck the Ascension Island region on August 28. In southern California, aftershocks of the magnitude 7.6 earthquake on June 28, 1992, continued. One of these aftershocks caused damage and injuries, and at least one other aftershock caused additional damage. Earthquake-related fatalities were reportred in Kyrgzstan and Pakistan. 

  16. Earthquakes, May-June 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The months of May and June were somewhat quiet, seismically speaking. There was one major earthquake (7.0-7.9) off the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. The most destructive earthquake during this reporting period was in southern Iran on June 11 which caused fatalities and extensive damage. Peru also experienced a destructive earthquake on June 22 which caused fatalities and damage. In the United States, a number of earthquakes were experienced, but none caused significant damage. 

  17. Earthquakes in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stover, C.

    1977-01-01

    To supplement data in the report Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE), the National earthquake Information Service (NEIS) also publishes a quarterly circular, Earthquakes in the United States. This provides information on the felt area of U.S earthquakes and their intensity. The main purpose is to describe the larger effects of these earthquakes so that they can be used in seismic risk studies, site evaluations for nuclear power plants, and answering inquiries by the general public.

  18. The Different Faces and Common Drivers of Groundwater Depletion in India - Challenges of Measurement, Modeling and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, R.; Lall, U.; Siegfried, T. U.; Narula, K.; Modi, V.

    2009-12-01

    Despite widespread acknowledgment of the emerging groundwater crisis facing India, quantitative estimates of the magnitude and rate of depletion have been made difficult by the lack of reliable and systematic hydrological data. In this regard, the recent estimates of groundwater mass loss made using NASA Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Satellites (Rodel et al 2009, Tiwari et al 2009) are a great step forward. The relatively low spatial resolution of these estimates, however, can hide extreme instances of local depletion and significantly underestimate the severity of the crisis. We illustrate using real piezometric data from observation wells in three regions of India that capture the different faces of groundwater over-depletion: Mehsana, Gujarat, in west India, where water tables have plummeted by about 90 meters over the last three decades, risking irreversible saline intrusion; Telangana, which overlies a shallow hard rock region and where over-extraction does not necessarily involve long-term groundwater loss; and the North West. While the latter region is the focus of the recent GRACE estimates, the first two hot spots are completely missed in that method. We discuss some of the common socio-economic drivers of over-depletion, particularly skewed incentives of crop choice and energy use, and a novel proposal for corrective policy reforms.

  19. Identification of soil erosion risk areas for conservation planning in different states of India.

    PubMed

    Sharda, V N; Mandal, Debashis; Ojasvi, P R

    2013-03-01

    Assessment of soil erosion risks, especially in the developing countries, is a challenging task mainly due to non-availability or insufficiency of relevant data. In this paper, the soil erosion risks have been estimated by integrating the spatial data on potential erosion rates and soil loss tolerance limits for conservation planning at state level in India. The erosion risk classes have been prioritized based upon the difference between the prevailing erosion rates and the permissible erosion limits. The analysis revealed that about 50% of total geographical area (TGA) of India, falling in five priority erosion risk classes, requires different intensity of conservation measures though about 91% area suffers from potential erosion rates varying from < 5 to > 40 t ha(-1) yr(-1). Statewise analysis indicated that Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan share about 75% of total area under priority Class 1 (6.4 M ha) though they account for only 19.4% of the total area (36.2 M ha) under very severe potential erosion rate category (> 40 t ha(-1)yr(-1)). It was observed that about 75% of total geographical area (TGA) in the states of Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Kerala and Punjab does not require any specific soil conservation measure as the potential erosion rates are well within the tolerance limits. The developed methodology can be successfully employed for prioritization of erosion risk areas at watershed, region or country level.

  20. Molecular characterisation of Aspergillus flavus isolates from peanut fields in India using AFLP.

    PubMed

    Singh, Diwakar; Radhakrishnan, T; Kumar, Vinod; Bagwan, N B; Basu, M S; Dobaria, J R; Mishra, Gyan P; Chanda, S V

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin contamination of peanut, due to infection by Aspergillus flavus, is a major problem of rain-fed agriculture in India. In the present study, molecular characterisation of 187 Aspergillus flavus isolates, which were sampled from the peanut fields of Gujarat state in India, was performed using AFLP markers. On a pooled cluster analysis, the markers could successfully discriminate among the 'A', 'B' and 'G' group A. flavus isolates. PCoA analysis also showed equivalent results to the cluster analysis. Most of the isolates from one district could be clustered together, which indicated genetic similarity among the isolates. Further, a lot of genetic variability was observed within a district and within a group. The results of AMOVA test revealed that the variance within a population (84%) was more than that between two populations (16%). The isolates, when tested by indirect competitive ELISA, showed about 68.5% of them to be atoxigenic. Composite analysis between the aflatoxin production and AFLP data was found to be ineffective in separating the isolate types by aflatoxigenicity. Certain unique fragments, with respect to individual isolates, were also identified that may be used for development of SCAR marker to aid in rapid and precise identification of isolates.

  1. Descriptive epidemiology of equine influenza in India (2008-2009): temporal and spatial trends.

    PubMed

    Virmani, Nitin; Bera, Bidhan C; Gulati, Baldev R; Karuppusamy, Shanmugasundaram; Singh, Birendra K; Kumar Vaid, Rajesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Kumar, Rajendra; Malik, Parveen; Khurana, Sandeep K; Singh, Jitender; Manuja, Anju; Dedar, Ramesh; Gupta, Ashok K; Yadav, Suresh C; Chugh, Parmod K; Narwal, Partap S; Thankur, Vinod L N; Kaul, Rakesh; Kanani, Amit; Rautmare, Sunil S; Singh, Raj K

    2010-01-01

    Equine influenza is a contagious viral disease that affects all members of the family Equidae, i.e., horses, donkeys and mules. The authors describe the pattern of equine influenza outbreaks in a number of states of India from July 2008 to June 2009. The disease was first reported in June 2008 in Katra (Jammu and Kashmir) and spread to ten other states within a year. All outbreaks of equine influenza in the various states were confirmed by laboratory investigations (virus isolation and/or serological confirmation based on haemagglutination inhibition [HI] assays of paired samples) before declaring them as equine influenza virus-affected state(s). The virus (H3N8) was reported from various locations in the country including Katra, Mysore (Karnataka), Ahmedabad (Gujarat), Gopeshwar and Uttarkashi (Uttarakhand) and was isolated in 9- to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. The virus was confirmed as H3N8 by HI assays with standard serum and amplification of full-length haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Serum samples (n = 4 740) of equines from 13 states in India screened by HI revealed 1074 (22.65%) samples as being positive for antibodies to equine influenza virus (H3N8). PMID:21120800

  2. A survey on oral hygiene methods practiced by patients attending Dentistry Department at a Tertiary Care Hospital from Central Gujarat

    PubMed Central

    Goryawala, S. N.; Chavda, Paragkumar; Udhani, Sneha; Pathak, Naiya V.; Pathak, Shivang; Ojha, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Oral hygiene is important not only for maintaining health of teeth and gingivae in an individual but also for good and uneventful regeneration and healing of tissues, when one has undergone one or other dental treatments. This makes it important to have an understanding of oral hygiene practices employed by the population. Materials and Methodology: This descriptive cross-sectional hospital-based survey was carried out to know oral hygiene methods practiced by patients who visited Department of Dentistry at a Tertiary Care Hospital attached to medical college from Central Gujarat. While examining and recording their history, their mode of oral hygiene practice was also noted. Recorded data were entered in Microsoft Excel and analyzed in SPSS Statistics Version 17.0. The study reports proportions of the variables under study in percentages. Results: The patients ranged from 4 to 80 years in age with equal numbers from both genders. The number of participants using modern and scientific material and instrument for oral hygiene was good. However, majority of them performed it only once a day, and none after every meal or at bed time. Conclusion: There is a need to improve the frequency of oral hygiene procedure among the studied population as well as use of dental floss needs to be increased. PMID:27114949

  3. An ongoing earthquake sequence near Dhaka, Bangladesh, from regional recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, M.; Mondal, D. R.; Akhter, S. H.; Kim, W.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquakes in and around the syntaxial region between the continent-continent collision of the Himalayan arc and oceanic subduction of the Sunda arc result primarily from the convergence of India and Eurasia-Sunda plates along two fronts. The northern front, the convergence of the Indian and Eurasian plates, has produced the Himalayas. The eastern front, the convergence of the Indian and Sunda plates, ranges from ocean-continent subduction at the Andaman Arc and Burma Arc, and transitions to continent-continent collision to the north at the Assam Syntaxis in northeast India. The India-Sunda convergence at the Burma Arc is extremely oblique. The boundary-normal convergence rate is ~17 mm/yr while the boundary-parallel rate is ~45 mm/yr including the well-known Sagaing strike-slip fault, which accommodates about half the shear component. This heterogeneous tectonic setting produces multiple earthquake sources that need to be considered when assessing seismic hazard and risk in this region. The largest earthquakes, just as in other subduction systems, are expected to be interplate events that occur on the low-angle megathrusts, such as the Mw 9.2 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and the 1762 earthquake along the Arakan margin. These earthquakes are known to produce large damage over vast areas, but since they account for large fault motions they are relatively rare. The majority of current seismicity in the study area is intraplate. Most of the seismicity associated with the Burma Arc subduction system is in the down-going slab, including the shallow-dipping part below the megathrust flooring the accretionary wedge. The strike of the wedge is ~N-S and Dhaka lies at its outer limit. One particular source relevant to seismic risk in Dhaka is illuminated by a multi-year sequence of earthquakes in Bangladesh less than 100 km southeast of Dhaka. The population in Dhaka (now at least 15 million) has been increasing dramatically due to rapid urbanization. The vulnerability

  4. The Shillong Plateau and the great 1897 Assam earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, Philip; Bilham, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Previous analysis of triangulation data of the Survey of India concluded that the great 1897 Assam earthquake occurred on a south dipping fault near the northern edge of the Shillong Plateau, which was named the Oldham fault. This attribution has been questioned on geological and geodetic grounds. We refine the triangulation data, adding recently discovered observations, and demonstrate that they require average slip of 25 ± 5 m on a fault that dips south at ˜40° beneath the plateau. The best fitting solution to the geodetic observations gives a rupture length of 79 km. However, the Chedrang fault, immediately to the west of the Oldham fault, appears to have slipped as a subvertical tear fault during or shortly after the 1897 earthquake, with over 10 m of down-to-the-west normal-sense slip. This observation suggests that the western end of the main rupture approached within a few kilometers of the Chedrang fault, giving a length of 95 km for the rupture. This range of parameters gives a magnitude 8.15earthquake. The triangulation data cannot be satisfied by slip on the north dipping faults that border the southern edge of the Shillong Plateau nor by slip on a south dipping fault that has been postulated in the Brahmaputra Valley. GPS velocities show that up to 5 mm/yr of shortening is taken up across the plateau and its borders; this suggests, via moment-frequency relations, that the interval between great earthquakes in the region is several thousand years but that earthquakes of magnitude 7 or greater should occur roughly once per century.

  5. Self-Organized Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, J. B.; Holliday, J. R.; Turcotte, D. L.; Klein, W.

    2011-12-01

    Self-Organized Criticality was proposed by the Per Bak et al. [1] as a means of explaining scaling laws observed in driven natural systems, usually in (slowly) driven threshold systems. The example used by Bak was a simple cellular automaton model of a sandpile, in which grains of sand were slowly dropped (randomly) onto a flat plate. After a period of time, during which the 'critical state' was approached, a series of self-similar avalanches would begin. Scaling exponents for the frequency-area statistics of the sandpile avalanches were found to be approximately 1, a value that characterizes 'flicker noise' in natural systems. SOC is associated with a critical point in the phase diagram of the system, and it was found that the usual 2-scaling field theory applies. A model related to SOC is the Self-Organized Spinodal (SOS), or intermittent criticality model. Here a slow but persistent driving force leads to quasi-periodic approach to, and retreat from, the classical limit of stability, or spinodal. Scaling exponents for this model can be related to Gutenberg-Richter and Omori exponents observed in earthquake systems. In contrast to SOC models, nucleation, both classical and non-classical types, is possible in SOS systems. Tunneling or nucleation rates can be computed from Langer-Klein-Landau-Ginzburg theories for comparison to observations. Nucleating droplets play a role similar to characteristic earthquake events. Simulations of these systems reveals much of the phenomenology associated with earthquakes and other types of "burst" dynamics. Whereas SOC is characterized by the full scaling spectrum of avalanches, SOS is characterized by both system-size events above the nominal frequency-size scaling curve, and scaling of small events. Applications to other systems including integrate-and-fire neural networks and financial crashes will be discussed. [1] P. Bak, C. Tang and K. Weisenfeld, Self-Organized Criticality, Phys. Rev. Lett., 59, 381 (1987).

  6. Anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor "foreshocks", since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years.

  7. Anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor "foreshocks", since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years. PMID:25156190

  8. Earthquakes Threaten Many American Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Nancy E.

    2010-01-01

    Millions of U.S. children attend schools that are not safe from earthquakes, even though they are in earthquake-prone zones. Several cities and states have worked to identify and repair unsafe buildings, but many others have done little or nothing to fix the problem. The reasons for ignoring the problem include political and financial ones, but…

  9. Earthquakes, July-August, 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    In the United States, on August 6, central California experienced a moderately strong earthquake, which injured several people and caused some damage. A number of earthquakes occurred in other parts of the United States but caused very little damage. 

  10. Heavy tails and earthquake probabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellsworth, William L.

    2012-01-01

    The 21st century has already seen its share of devastating earthquakes, some of which have been labeled as “unexpected,” at least in the eyes of some seismologists and more than a few journalists. A list of seismological surprises could include the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands; 2008 Wenchuan, China; 2009 Haiti; 2011 Christchurch, New Zealand; and 2011 Tohoku, Japan, earthquakes

  11. Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1–10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor “foreshocks”, since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years. PMID:25156190

  12. Earthquakes; May-June 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    The months of May and June were somewhat quiet seismically speaking. There was only on significant earthquake, a magnitude 7.2 on June 22 in teh Tonga Islands. In teh United States, the two largest earthquakes occurred in California and on Hawaii. 

  13. Make an Earthquake: Ground Shaking!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savasci, Funda

    2011-01-01

    The main purposes of this activity are to help students explore possible factors affecting the extent of the damage of earthquakes and learn the ways to reduce earthquake damages. In these inquiry-based activities, students have opportunities to develop science process skills and to build an understanding of the relationship among science,…

  14. Earthquakes March-April 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, Waverly J.

    1992-01-01

    The months of March and April were quite active seismically speaking. There was one major earthquake (7.0Earthquake-related deaths were reported in Iran, Costa Rica, Turkey, and Germany.

  15. Earthquake Preparedness Checklist for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    A brochure provides a checklist highlighting the important questions and activities that should be addressed and undertaken as part of a school safety and preparedness program for earthquakes. It reminds administrators and other interested parties on what not to forget in preparing schools for earthquakes, such as staff knowledge needs, evacuation…

  16. Earthquake Scaling Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. H.; Boettcher, M.; Richardson, E.

    2002-12-01

    Using scaling relations to understand nonlinear geosystems has been an enduring theme of Don Turcotte's research. In particular, his studies of scaling in active fault systems have led to a series of insights about the underlying physics of earthquakes. This presentation will review some recent progress in developing scaling relations for several key aspects of earthquake behavior, including the inner and outer scales of dynamic fault rupture and the energetics of the rupture process. The proximate observations of mining-induced, friction-controlled events obtained from in-mine seismic networks have revealed a lower seismicity cutoff at a seismic moment Mmin near 109 Nm and a corresponding upper frequency cutoff near 200 Hz, which we interpret in terms of a critical slip distance for frictional drop of about 10-4 m. Above this cutoff, the apparent stress scales as M1/6 up to magnitudes of 4-5, consistent with other near-source studies in this magnitude range (see special session S07, this meeting). Such a relationship suggests a damage model in which apparent fracture energy scales with the stress intensity factor at the crack tip. Under the assumption of constant stress drop, this model implies an increase in rupture velocity with seismic moment, which successfully predicts the observed variation in corner frequency and maximum particle velocity. Global observations of oceanic transform faults (OTFs) allow us to investigate a situation where the outer scale of earthquake size may be controlled by dynamics (as opposed to geologic heterogeneity). The seismicity data imply that the effective area for OTF moment release, AE, depends on the thermal state of the fault but is otherwise independent of fault's average slip rate; i.e., AE ~ AT, where AT is the area above a reference isotherm. The data are consistent with β = 1/2 below an upper cutoff moment Mmax that increases with AT and yield the interesting scaling relation Amax ~ AT1/2. Taken together, the OTF

  17. Earthquake Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    IAEMIS (Integrated Automated Emergency Management Information System) is the principal tool of an earthquake preparedness program developed by Martin Marietta and the Mid-America Remote Sensing Center (MARC). It is a two-component set of software, data and procedures to provide information enabling management personnel to make informed decisions in disaster situations. The NASA-developed program ELAS, originally used to analyze Landsat data, provides MARC with a spatially-oriented information management system. Additional MARC projects include land resources management, and development of socioeconomic data.

  18. Earthquake Loss Estimation Uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolova, Nina; Bonnin, Jean; Larionov, Valery; Ugarov, Aleksander

    2013-04-01

    The paper addresses the reliability issues of strong earthquakes loss assessment following strong earthquakes with worldwide Systems' application in emergency mode. Timely and correct action just after an event can result in significant benefits in saving lives. In this case the information about possible damage and expected number of casualties is very critical for taking decision about search, rescue operations and offering humanitarian assistance. Such rough information may be provided by, first of all, global systems, in emergency mode. The experience of earthquakes disasters in different earthquake-prone countries shows that the officials who are in charge of emergency response at national and international levels are often lacking prompt and reliable information on the disaster scope. Uncertainties on the parameters used in the estimation process are numerous and large: knowledge about physical phenomena and uncertainties on the parameters used to describe them; global adequacy of modeling techniques to the actual physical phenomena; actual distribution of population at risk at the very time of the shaking (with respect to immediate threat: buildings or the like); knowledge about the source of shaking, etc. Needless to be a sharp specialist to understand, for example, that the way a given building responds to a given shaking obeys mechanical laws which are poorly known (if not out of the reach of engineers for a large portion of the building stock); if a carefully engineered modern building is approximately predictable, this is far not the case for older buildings which make up the bulk of inhabited buildings. The way population, inside the buildings at the time of shaking, is affected by the physical damage caused to the buildings is not precisely known, by far. The paper analyzes the influence of uncertainties in strong event parameters determination by Alert Seismological Surveys, of simulation models used at all stages from, estimating shaking intensity

  19. Earthquake Scaling, Simulation and Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, Michael Karl

    Earthquakes are among the most devastating natural events faced by society. In 2011, just two events, the magnitude 6.3 earthquake in Christcurch New Zealand on February 22, and the magnitude 9.0 Tohoku earthquake off the coast of Japan on March 11, caused a combined total of $226 billion in economic losses. Over the last decade, 791,721 deaths were caused by earthquakes. Yet, despite their impact, our ability to accurately predict when earthquakes will occur is limited. This is due, in large part, to the fact that the fault systems that produce earthquakes are non-linear. The result being that very small differences in the systems now result in very big differences in the future, making forecasting difficult. In spite of this, there are patterns that exist in earthquake data. These patterns are often in the form of frequency-magnitude scaling relations that relate the number of smaller events observed to the number of larger events observed. In many cases these scaling relations show consistent behavior over a wide range of scales. This consistency forms the basis of most forecasting techniques. However, the utility of these scaling relations is limited by the size of the earthquake catalogs which, especially in the case of large events, are fairly small and limited to a few 100 years of events. In this dissertation I discuss three areas of earthquake science. The first is an overview of scaling behavior in a variety of complex systems, both models and natural systems. The focus of this area is to understand how this scaling behavior breaks down. The second is a description of the development and testing of an earthquake simulator called Virtual California designed to extend the observed catalog of earthquakes in California. This simulator uses novel techniques borrowed from statistical physics to enable the modeling of large fault systems over long periods of time. The third is an evaluation of existing earthquake forecasts, which focuses on the Regional

  20. How Do Age and Tooth Loss Affect Oral Health Impacts and Quality of Life? A Study Comparing Two State Samples of Gujarat and Rajasthan

    PubMed Central

    Jain, M.; Kaira, L. S.; Sikka, G.; Singh, SK.; Gupta, A.; Sharma, R.; Sawla, L.; Mathur, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Age and tooth loss are expected to have a complex relationship with oral health-related quality of life. So the purpose of this study was to explain the impact of age and tooth loss on oral health-related quality of life using the short form 14-item oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) among two population samples of Gujarat and Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 1441 subjects collected from two major cities of Gujarat and Rajasthan. Both questionnaire approaches using OHIP-14 scale and clinical examination were conducted in accordance with WHO criteria using type III procedure on the same day. Chi square test, ANOVA and stepwise multiple regression analysis were applied using SPSS software version 15.0. Results: With the increase of age, OHIP mean score in both states increased, but that among Rajasthan state was higher, depicting poor oral health. Whereas, in the remaining 23–27 number of teeth both states showed higher OHIP mean, however again the score was much higher among Rajasthan subjects showing worse oral hygiene. Hence, overall all mean OHIP score for Gujarat was lower indicating good oral health; whereas, that among Rajasthan was higher indicating poor oral health-related quality of life. Conclusion: Both age and tooth loss are associated with each other, but they have an independent effect on the oral health-related quality of life. Thus, all studied populations with complete natural dentition showed good oral health-related quality of life. PMID:23066478

  1. Are Earthquakes a Critical Phenomenon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, O.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes, granular avalanches, superconducting vortices, solar flares, and even stock markets are known to evolve through power-law distributed events. During decades, the formalism of equilibrium phase transition has coined these phenomena as critical, which implies that they are also unpredictable. This work revises these ideas and uses earthquakes as the paradigm to demonstrate that slowly driven systems evolving through uncorrelated and power-law distributed avalanches (UPLA) are not necessarily critical systems, and therefore not necessarily unpredictable. By linking the correlation length to the pdf of the distribution, and comparing it with the one obtained at a critical point, a condition of criticality is introduced. Simulations in the classical Olami-Feder-Christensen (OFC) earthquake model confirm the findings, showing that earthquakes are not a critical phenomenon. However, one single catastrophic earthquake may show critical properties and, paradoxically, the emergence of this temporal critical behaviour may eventually carry precursory signs of catastrophic events.

  2. Earthquake Simulator Finds Tremor Triggers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul

    2015-03-27

    Using a novel device that simulates earthquakes in a laboratory setting, a Los Alamos researcher has found that seismic waves-the sounds radiated from earthquakes-can induce earthquake aftershocks, often long after a quake has subsided. The research provides insight into how earthquakes may be triggered and how they recur. Los Alamos researcher Paul Johnson and colleague Chris Marone at Penn State have discovered how wave energy can be stored in certain types of granular materials-like the type found along certain fault lines across the globe-and how this stored energy can suddenly be released as an earthquake when hit by relatively small seismic waves far beyond the traditional “aftershock zone” of a main quake. Perhaps most surprising, researchers have found that the release of energy can occur minutes, hours, or even days after the sound waves pass; the cause of the delay remains a tantalizing mystery.

  3. Testing earthquake source inversion methodologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, M.; Mai, P.M.; Schorlemmer, D.

    2011-01-01

    Source Inversion Validation Workshop; Palm Springs, California, 11-12 September 2010; Nowadays earthquake source inversions are routinely performed after large earthquakes and represent a key connection between recorded seismic and geodetic data and the complex rupture process at depth. The resulting earthquake source models quantify the spatiotemporal evolution of ruptures. They are also used to provide a rapid assessment of the severity of an earthquake and to estimate losses. However, because of uncertainties in the data, assumed fault geometry and velocity structure, and chosen rupture parameterization, it is not clear which features of these source models are robust. Improved understanding of the uncertainty and reliability of earthquake source inversions will allow the scientific community to use the robust features of kinematic inversions to more thoroughly investigate the complexity of the rupture process and to better constrain other earthquakerelated computations, such as ground motion simulations and static stress change calculations.

  4. Exaggerated Claims About Earthquake Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafka, Alan L.; Ebel, John E.

    2007-01-01

    The perennial promise of successful earthquake prediction captures the imagination of a public hungry for certainty in an uncertain world. Yet, given the lack of any reliable method of predicting earthquakes [e.g., Geller, 1997; Kagan and Jackson, 1996; Evans, 1997], seismologists regularly have to explain news stories of a supposedly successful earthquake prediction when it is far from clear just how successful that prediction actually was. When journalists and public relations offices report the latest `great discovery' regarding the prediction of earthquakes, seismologists are left with the much less glamorous task of explaining to the public the gap between the claimed success and the sober reality that there is no scientifically proven method of predicting earthquakes.

  5. Testing an earthquake prediction algorithm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kossobokov, V.G.; Healy, J.H.; Dewey, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    A test to evaluate earthquake prediction algorithms is being applied to a Russian algorithm known as M8. The M8 algorithm makes intermediate term predictions for earthquakes to occur in a large circle, based on integral counts of transient seismicity in the circle. In a retroactive prediction for the period January 1, 1985 to July 1, 1991 the algorithm as configured for the forward test would have predicted eight of ten strong earthquakes in the test area. A null hypothesis, based on random assignment of predictions, predicts eight earthquakes in 2.87% of the trials. The forward test began July 1, 1991 and will run through December 31, 1997. As of July 1, 1995, the algorithm had forward predicted five out of nine earthquakes in the test area, which success ratio would have been achieved in 53% of random trials with the null hypothesis.

  6. Early Earthquakes of the Americas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, James

    2004-11-01

    Robert Kovach's second book looks at the interplay of earthquake and volcanic events, archeology, and history in the Americas. Throughout history, major earthquakes have caused the deaths of millions of people and have damaged countless cities. Earthquakes undoubtedly damaged prehistoric cities in the Americas, and evidence of these events could be preserved in archeological records. Kovach asks, Did indigenous native cultures-Indians of the Pacific Northwest, Aztecs, Mayas, and Incas-document their natural history? Some events have been explicitly documented, for example, in Mayan codices, but many may have been recorded as myth and legend. Kovach's discussions of how early cultures dealt with fearful events such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are colorful, informative, and entertaining, and include, for example, a depiction of how the Maya would talk to maize plants in their fields during earthquakes to reassure them.

  7. Earthquake hazards: a national threat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    Earthquakes are one of the most costly natural hazards faced by the Nation, posing a significant risk to 75 million Americans in 39 States. The risks that earthquakes pose to society, including death, injury, and economic loss, can be greatly reduced by (1) better planning, construction, and mitigation practices before earthquakes happen, and (2) providing critical and timely information to improve response after they occur. As part of the multi-agency National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has the lead Federal responsibility to provide notification of earthquakes in order to enhance public safety and to reduce losses through effective forecasts based on the best possible scientific information.

  8. The CATDAT damaging earthquakes database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.; Vervaeck, A.

    2011-08-01

    The global CATDAT damaging earthquakes and secondary effects (tsunami, fire, landslides, liquefaction and fault rupture) database was developed to validate, remove discrepancies, and expand greatly upon existing global databases; and to better understand the trends in vulnerability, exposure, and possible future impacts of such historic earthquakes. Lack of consistency and errors in other earthquake loss databases frequently cited and used in analyses was a major shortcoming in the view of the authors which needed to be improved upon. Over 17 000 sources of information have been utilised, primarily in the last few years, to present data from over 12 200 damaging earthquakes historically, with over 7000 earthquakes since 1900 examined and validated before insertion into the database. Each validated earthquake includes seismological information, building damage, ranges of social losses to account for varying sources (deaths, injuries, homeless, and affected), and economic losses (direct, indirect, aid, and insured). Globally, a slightly increasing trend in economic damage due to earthquakes is not consistent with the greatly increasing exposure. The 1923 Great Kanto (214 billion USD damage; 2011 HNDECI-adjusted dollars) compared to the 2011 Tohoku (>300 billion USD at time of writing), 2008 Sichuan and 1995 Kobe earthquakes show the increasing concern for economic loss in urban areas as the trend should be expected to increase. Many economic and social loss values not reported in existing databases have been collected. Historical GDP (Gross Domestic Product), exchange rate, wage information, population, HDI (Human Development Index), and insurance information have been collected globally to form comparisons. This catalogue is the largest known cross-checked global historic damaging earthquake database and should have far-reaching consequences for earthquake loss estimation, socio-economic analysis, and the global reinsurance field.

  9. Tethyan subducted slabs under India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Voo, Rob; Spakman, Wim; Bijwaard, Harmen

    1999-08-01

    Tomographic imaging of the mantle under Tibet, India and the adjacent Indian Ocean reveals several zones of relatively high P-wave velocities at various depths. Under the Hindu Kush region in northeastern Afghanistan and southern Tajikistan, a regional northward-dipping slab is seen in the entire upper 600 km of the mantle and is apparently still attached to the lithosphere of the Indian plate. Under northern Pakistan this same slab shows a roll-over structure with the deeper portion overturned and dipping southward, as can also be seen in the distribution of earthquake hypocenters. Farther east-southeast (e.g., in the vicinity of Nepal), a well-resolved anomaly below 450 km depth is connected to the slab under the Hindu Kush, but seems to be separated from the lithosphere above 350 km. These upper-mantle anomalies are interpreted as the remnants of delaminated sub-continental lithosphere that went down when Greater India continued to converge northward with Asia after ˜45 Ma. The deeper high-velocity anomalies under the Indian sub-continent appear clearly separated from the shallower ones as well as from each other, and are inferred to represent remnants of oceanic lithospheric slabs that have sunk into the lower mantle and were subsequently overridden by the Indian plate. They occur at depths between 1000 and 2300 km and occasionally descend down to the core-mantle boundary. The anomalies form three parallel WNW-ESE striking zones. We interpret the two southern zones as remnants of oceanic lithosphere that was subducted when the Neo-Tethys Ocean closed between India and Tibet in the Cretaceous and earliest Tertiary. The northern deep-mantle zone under northern Afghanistan, the Himalayas and the Lhasa block in southern Tibet may represent the last-subducted remnant of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean, which is thought to have closed before the Hauterivian stage of the Early Cretaceous. The middle zone continues southeastward as a rather straight high-velocity zone towards

  10. Evaluation of Critical Infrastructure in the Event of Earthquake: A Case Study of Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    prasad, Suraj

    2016-04-01

    With changing paradigms of disaster preparedness, the safety and security of critical infrastructure in the event of a geo-hazard has become increasingly important. In a developing and densely populated country like India, which is vulnerable to many different geo-hazards, a lack of clear policy directive regarding safety of such infrastructure could be especially damaging both in terms of life and property. The problem is most acute in India's mega cities, where inefficient infrastructure means that facilities like transportation, communication, and electricity generation are obsolete and vulnerable to sudden disruptions. The present study takes the case of the National Capital Territory of Delhi and attempts to examine the critical infrastructures of the city in the event of an earthquake. Delhi lies in a very active seismic zone with various faults in and around the city. The Government of India has classified Delhi in Zone 4 (High Risk Zone) based on past and expected seismic activities in the Indo-Gangetic Plains. With a population of over 20 Million in the Urban Agglomeration of Delhi, any major earthquake in an already overstretched infrastructure could have a devastating impact. This study will test the critical infrastructures of the city in terms of their disaster preparedness and suggest ways and measures to increase the same. Keywords: Geo-hazards, Critical Infrastructure, vulnerable, Earthquakes, Delhi

  11. The Disadvantage to the Rural Population in Earthquake Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, M.

    2014-12-01

    Scenario calculations show that the rural population is more vulnerable to earthquake disasters because of their comparatively weak building stock. For calculating damage due to strong ground shaking, the building stock is modeled separately for different countries and in each country separately in three settlement size classes. It is generally understood that cities contain more buildings that are resistant to strong shaking than villages. A corollary of this observation is that villagers are more likely to be killed by their collapsing homes than city dwellers. The quantitative excess of the vulnerability of villagers compared to city dwellers varies as a function of the following parameters: (1) Country, (2) epicentral distance, and (3) earthquake magnitude, in addition to the quality of the built environment. For estimating quantitatively the difference of mortality in villages compared to cities, we used the building stock as modeled in the earthquake loss estimating tool QLARM. For the scenario calculations, the epicenters and depths of recent large or damaging earthquakes were selected and their magnitudes were set to M7.5, in cases where the magnitude of the historic event had been smaller. The countries for which we estimated the excess rural mortality included: Algeria, China, Greece, Guatemala, India, Iran, Mexico and Turkey. In all of these countries and for all distances the mortality rate was found to be larger in the villages. Depending on the parameters (1), (2) and (3), the percentage of fatalities in villages was higher by 20% to 97% than in cities. In the case of Greece, where the QLARM data are the most detailed, a clear function of the per cent of fatalities as a function of settlement size emerged. Because indigenous peoples live typically in small settlements, these findings mean that the indigenous population is exposed to a greater earthquake risk than the average population. Although it is understandable that earthquake risk mitigation has

  12. Plateau `pop-up' in the great 1897 Assam earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilham, Roger; England, Philip

    2001-04-01

    The great Assam earthquake of 12 June 1897 reduced to rubble all masonry buildings within a region of northeastern India roughly the size of England, and was felt over an area exceeding that of the great 1755 Lisbon earthquake. Hitherto it was believed that rupture occurred on a north-dipping Himalayan thrust fault propagating south of Bhutan. But here we show that the northern edge of the Shillong plateau rose violently by at least 11m during the Assam earthquake, and that this was due to the rupture of a buried reverse fault approximately 110km in length and dipping steeply away from the Himalaya. The stress drop implied by the rupture geometry and the prodigious fault slip of 18 +/- 7m explains epicentral accelerations observed to exceed 1g vertically and surface velocities exceeding 3ms-1 (ref. 1). This quantitative observation of active deformation of a `pop-up' structure confirms that faults bounding such structures can penetrate the whole crust. Plateau uplift in the past 2-5 million years has caused the Indian plate to contract locally by 4 +/- 2mmyr-1, reducing seismic risk in Bhutan but increasing the risk in northern Bangladesh.

  13. GPS Analyses of the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S. A.; Gudmundsson, Ólafur

    2005-03-01

    The Sumatra, Indonesia, earthquake on 26 December 2004 was one of the most devastating earthquakes in history. With a magnitude of Mw = 9.3 (revised based on normal-mode amplitudes by Stein and Okal, http://www.earth.northwestern.edu/people/seth/research/sumatra.html), it is the second largest earthquake recorded since 1900. It occurred about 100 km off the west coast of northern Sumatra, where the relatively dense Indo-Australian plate moves beneath the lighter Burma plate, resulting in stress accumulation. The average relative velocity of the two plates is about 6 cm/yr. On 26 December 2004, however, the two plates moved by a distance of several meters, releasing the stress accumulated over hundreds of years. The result was a devastating tsunami that hit coastlines across the Indian Ocean, killing about 300,000 people in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Burma, Malaysia, Somalia, and other countries (Guardian, 29 January 2005, http://www.guardian.co.uk/tsunami/story/0,15671,1380895,00.html).

  14. Ground observation of electromagnetic emissions related to clusters of earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vikram; Singh, Birbal

    2010-05-01

    ULF-VLF data obtained from three ground based experiments working at Agra station (geograph. Lat. 27.20N, Long. 780E) in India namely measurement of ultra low frequency (ULF) magnetic field emissions using a 3-component search coil magnetometer, vertical component of very low frequency (VLF) electric field emissions with a borehole antenna, and phase and amplitude of fixed frequency VLF transmitter signals using AbsPAL receiver are analysed in search of possible precursors of two major seismic activities that occurred in Sumatra (Indonesia) during post-tsunami period between January and April, 2005. These two major seismic events occurred as clusters of earthquakes during 27-29 January and 28-30 March, 2005. The results show that barring borehole all the experiments showed precursors due to these clusters of earthquakes. Such precursors were not seen in the case of isolated large magnitude earthquakes. Further, the precursory duration was influenced by the magnetic storm which occurred about a week before the clusters. The mechanism of ULF propagation to long distances between Sumatra and Agra, and perturbations in the ionosphere before the clusters are discussed.

  15. India: Degree Verification Fees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Grady

    2004-01-01

    According to the USEFI (United States Education Foundation in India) Web site, (www.fulbright-india.org/eas/eas-general.htm), there are currently 74,603 Indian students in the United States. This immense cultural and educational exchange brings with it both rewards and difficulties for the students and the institutions who enroll them. One of the…

  16. The Myths of India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Frederick A.

    1988-01-01

    Stating that superficial stereotypes hinder the understanding of people and places, Day presents several well-known over-generalizations about India. Attempts to update readers about recent changes within the country while dispelling some popular myths. Discusses India's large population, poverty, economic growth, women's roles, and culture, along…

  17. An Epidemiological Study of Child Marriages in a Rural Community of Gujarat

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Yogita P.; Bhanderi, Dinesh J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: India has the maximum number of child marriages (CMs; < 18 years) because of the size of its population, and in 47% of all marriages the bride is a child. Children who are married at young age are exposed to multiple risks pertaining to their physical, mental, and social health. Aims: (i) To estimate the prevalence of CM in rural population. (ii) To study the determinants and health effects of CM. (iii) To assess the awareness among the married women regarding the health implications of CM. Settings and Design: Community-based cross-sectional study conducted in Ardi village of Anand district. Materials and Methods: All the married women of the village were surveyed to find out the prevalence of CM. For collection of other relevant information, only those women having a married life of less than 10years were interviewed using semicoded and pretested questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 17.0 software. Statistical Analysis Used: Proportions, ratios, χ2 test, and Fisher's exact test. Results: The prevalence of CM was found to be 71.5%. Caste and spouse's education were revealed as important determinants for CM. CM was found to be significantly associated with mother's age at birth of first child, delayed antenatal care (ANC), spontaneous abortion, preterm delivery, low birth weight (LBW), health problems in new born baby, faulty feeding practices, lack of knowledge regarding family welfare methods, and health implications of CM. Conclusion: Exceptionally high prevalence of CM in rural community and its serious health consequences warrant stricter enforcement of legislation, better educational opportunities for girls, and easy access to quality health services. PMID:26435597

  18. Influence of Earthquake Parameters on Tsunami Wave Height and Inundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulangara Madham Subrahmanian, D.; Sri Ganesh, J.; Venkata Ramana Murthy, M.; V, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    After Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT) on 26th December, 2004, attempts are being made to assess the threat of tsunami originating from different sources for different parts of India. The Andaman - Sumatra trench is segmented by transcurrent faults and differences in the rate of subduction which is low in the north and increases southward. Therefore key board model with initial deformation calculated using different strike directions, slip rates, are used. This results in uncertainties in the earthquake parameters. This study is made to identify the location of origin of most destructive tsunami for Southeast coast of India and to infer the influence of the earthquake parameters in tsunami wave height travel time in deep ocean as well as in the shelf and inundation in the coast. Five tsunamigenic sources were considered in the Andaman - Sumatra trench taking into consideration the tectonic characters of the trench described by various authors and the modeling was carried out using TUNAMI N2 code. The model results were validated using the travel time and runup in the coastal areas and comparing the water elevation along Jason - 1's satellite track. The inundation results are compared from the field data. The assessment of the tsunami threat for the area south of Chennai city the metropolitan city of South India shows that a tsunami originating in Car Nicobar segment of the Andaman - Sumatra subduction zone can generate the most destructive tsunami. Sensitivity analysis in the modelling indicates that fault length influences the results significantly and the tsunami reaches early and with higher amplitude. Strike angle is also modifying the tsunami followed by amount of slip.

  19. Power quality in India

    SciTech Connect

    Deodar, P.S.

    1995-12-01

    This article is a summary of a Faraday Memorial Lecture on the state of power quality and reliability and its impact on the pace of India`s industrial growth and development. Poor quality is hurting industrial competitiveness and therefore their efforts to become a global supplier of goods. In this information age, there is a fast growth of computer usage in industry, commerce, business, trade, finance, healthcare, etc. These sensitive electronic products need clean and consistent power from the utility, and India`s State Electricity Board and other utilities simply cannot deliver it. The users, however, are ultimately response for the health and the safe operation of their equipment. Bad power quality available in India and the clean power requirement of the Informatic infrastructure are the two unfortunate realities of today`s electronic age.

  20. 2010 Chile Earthquake Aftershock Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barientos, Sergio

    2010-05-01

    The Mw=8.8 earthquake off the coast of Chile on 27 February 2010 is the 5th largest megathrust earthquake ever to be recorded and provides an unprecedented opportunity to advance our understanding of megathrust earthquakes and associated phenomena. The 2010 Chile earthquake ruptured the Concepcion-Constitucion segment of the Nazca/South America plate boundary, south of the Central Chile region and triggered a tsunami along the coast. Following the 2010 earthquake, a very energetic aftershock sequence is being observed in an area that is 600 km along strike from Valparaiso to 150 km south of Concepcion. Within the first three weeks there were over 260 aftershocks with magnitude 5.0 or greater and 18 with magnitude 6.0 or greater (NEIC, USGS). The Concepcion-Constitucion segment lies immediately north of the rupture zone associated with the great magnitude 9.5 Chile earthquake, and south of the 1906 and the 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes. The last great subduction earthquake in the region dates back to the February 1835 event described by Darwin (1871). Since 1835, part of the region was affected in the north by the Talca earthquake in December 1928, interpreted as a shallow dipping thrust event, and by the Chillan earthquake (Mw 7.9, January 1939), a slab-pull intermediate depth earthquake. For the last 30 years, geodetic studies in this area were consistent with a fully coupled elastic loading of the subduction interface at depth; this led to identify the area as a mature seismic gap with potential for an earthquake of magnitude of the order 8.5 or several earthquakes of lesser magnitude. What was less expected was the partial rupturing of the 1985 segment toward north. Today, the 2010 earthquake raises some disturbing questions: Why and how the rupture terminated where it did at the northern end? How did the 2010 earthquake load the adjacent segment to the north and did the 1985 earthquake only partially ruptured the plate interface leaving loaded asperities since

  1. Seismic hazard evaluation of the Oman India pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.W.; Thenhaus, P.C.; Mullee, J.E.; Preston, R.

    1996-12-31

    The proposed Oman India pipeline will traverse approximately 1,135 km of the northern Arabian Sea floor and adjacent continental shelves at depths of over 3 km on its route from Ra`s al Jifan, Oman, to Rapar Gadhwali, India. The western part of the route crosses active faults that form the transform boundary between the Arabian and Indian tectonic plates. The eastern terminus of the route lies in the vicinity of the great (M {approximately} 8) 1829 Kutch, India earthquake. A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis was used to estimate the values of peak ground acceleration (PGA) with return periods of 200, 500 and 1,000 years at selected locations along the pipeline route and the submarine Indus Canyon -- a possible source of large turbidity flows. The results defined the ground-shaking hazard along the pipeline route and Indus Canyon for evaluation of risks to the pipeline from potential earthquake-induced geologic hazards such as liquefaction, slope instability, and turbidity flows. 44 refs.

  2. Fracking, wastewater disposal, and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    In the modern oil and gas industry, fracking of low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in a considerable increase in the production of oil and natural gas, but these fluid-injection activities also can induce earthquakes. Earthquakes induced by fracking are an inevitable consequence of the injection of fluid at high pressure, where the intent is to enhance permeability by creating a system of cracks and fissures that allow hydrocarbons to flow to the borehole. The micro-earthquakes induced during these highly-controlled procedures are generally much too small to be felt at the surface; indeed, the creation or reactivation of a large fault would be contrary to the goal of enhancing permeability evenly throughout the formation. Accordingly, the few case histories for which fracking has resulted in felt earthquakes have been due to unintended fault reactivation. Of greater consequence for inducing earthquakes, modern techniques for producing hydrocarbons, including fracking, have resulted in considerable quantities of coproduced wastewater, primarily formation brines. This wastewater is commonly disposed by injection into deep aquifers having high permeability and porosity. As reported in many case histories, pore pressure increases due to wastewater injection were channeled from the target aquifers into fault zones that were, in effect, lubricated, resulting in earthquake slip. These fault zones are often located in the brittle crystalline rocks in the basement. Magnitudes of earthquakes induced by wastewater disposal often exceed 4, the threshold for structural damage. Even though only a small fraction of disposal wells induce earthquakes large enough to be of concern to the public, there are so many of these wells that this source of seismicity contributes significantly to the seismic hazard in the United States, especially east of the Rocky Mountains where standards of building construction are generally not designed to resist shaking from large earthquakes.

  3. The threat of silent earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cervelli, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Not all earthquakes shake the ground. The so-called silent types are forcing scientists to rethink their understanding of the way quake-prone faults behave. In rare instances, silent earthquakes that occur along the flakes of seaside volcanoes may cascade into monstrous landslides that crash into the sea and trigger towering tsunamis. Silent earthquakes that take place within fault zones created by one tectonic plate diving under another may increase the chance of ground-shaking shocks. In other locations, however, silent slip may decrease the likelihood of destructive quakes, because they release stress along faults that might otherwise seem ready to snap.

  4. Earthquake history of South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    An estimated $23 million damage was caused by one of the great earthquakes in United States history in 1886. Charleston, S.C, and nearby cities suffered most of the damage, although points as far as 160 km away were strongly shaken. Many of the 20 earthquakes of intensity V or greater (Modified Mercalli scale) that centered within South Carolina occurred near Charleston. A 1924 shock in the western part of the State was felt over 145,000 km2. Several earthquakes outside the State borders were felt strongly in South Carolina. 

  5. Seismology: dynamic triggering of earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Gomberg, Joan; Johnson, Paul

    2005-10-01

    After an earthquake, numerous smaller shocks are triggered over distances comparable to the dimensions of the mainshock fault rupture, although they are rare at larger distances. Here we analyse the scaling of dynamic deformations (the stresses and strains associated with seismic waves) with distance from, and magnitude of, their triggering earthquake, and show that they can cause further earthquakes at any distance if their amplitude exceeds several microstrain, regardless of their frequency content. These triggering requirements are remarkably similar to those measured in the laboratory for inducing dynamic elastic nonlinear behaviour, which suggests that the underlying physics is similar.

  6. Earthquake damage to transportation systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCullough, Heather

    1994-01-01

    Earthquakes represent one of the most destructive natural hazards known to man. A large magnitude earthquake near a populated area can affect residents over thousands of square kilometers and cause billions of dollars in property damage. Such an event can kill or injure thousands of residents and disrupt the socioeconomic environment for months, sometimes years. A serious result of a large-magnitude earthquake is the disruption of transportation systems, which limits post-disaster emergency response. Movement of emergency vehicles, such as police cars, fire trucks and ambulances, is often severely restricted. Damage to transportation systems is categorized below by cause including: ground failure, faulting, vibration damage, and tsunamis.

  7. Earthquakes, November-December 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    In the United States, the largest earthquake during this reporting period was a magntidue 6.6 in the Andreanof Islands, which are part of the Aleutian Islands chain, on November 4 that caused some minor damage. Northern California was struck by a magnitude 4.8 earthquake on November 22 causing moderate damage in the Willits area. This was the most damaging quake in the United States during the year. Two major earthquakes of magntidues 7.0 or above to 14 for the year. 

  8. Identification of novel mutations in HEXA gene in children affected with Tay Sachs disease from India.

    PubMed

    Mistri, Mehul; Tamhankar, Parag M; Sheth, Frenny; Sanghavi, Daksha; Kondurkar, Pratima; Patil, Swapnil; Idicula-Thomas, Susan; Gupta, Sarita; Sheth, Jayesh

    2012-01-01

    Tay Sachs disease (TSD) is a neurodegenerative disorder due to β-hexosaminidase A deficiency caused by mutations in the HEXA gene. The mutations leading to Tay Sachs disease in India are yet unknown. We aimed to determine mutations leading to TSD in India by complete sequencing of the HEXA gene. The clinical inclusion criteria included neuroregression, seizures, exaggerated startle reflex, macrocephaly, cherry red spot on fundus examination and spasticity. Neuroimaging criteria included thalamic hyperdensities on CT scan/T1W images of MRI of the brain. Biochemical criteria included deficiency of hexosaminidase A (less than 2% of total hexosaminidase activity for infantile patients). Total leukocyte hexosaminidase activity was assayed by 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine lysis and hexosaminidase A activity was assayed by heat inactivation method and 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine-6-sulphate lysis method. The exons and exon-intron boundaries of the HEXA gene were bidirectionally sequenced using an automated sequencer. Mutations were confirmed in parents and looked up in public databases. In silico analysis for mutations was carried out using SIFT, Polyphen2, MutationT@ster and Accelrys Discovery Studio softwares. Fifteen families were included in the study. We identified six novel missense mutations, c.340 G>A (p.E114K), c.964 G>A (p.D322N), c.964 G>T (p.D322Y), c.1178C>G (p.R393P) and c.1385A>T (p.E462V), c.1432 G>A (p.G478R) and two previously reported mutations. c.1277_1278insTATC and c.508C>T (p.R170W). The mutation p.E462V was found in six unrelated families from Gujarat indicating a founder effect. A previously known splice site mutation c.805+1 G>C and another intronic mutation c.672+30 T>G of unknown significance were also identified. Mutations could not be identified in one family. We conclude that TSD patients from Gujarat should be screened for the common mutation p.E462V.

  9. Identification of novel mutations in HEXA gene in children affected with Tay Sachs disease from India.

    PubMed

    Mistri, Mehul; Tamhankar, Parag M; Sheth, Frenny; Sanghavi, Daksha; Kondurkar, Pratima; Patil, Swapnil; Idicula-Thomas, Susan; Gupta, Sarita; Sheth, Jayesh

    2012-01-01

    Tay Sachs disease (TSD) is a neurodegenerative disorder due to β-hexosaminidase A deficiency caused by mutations in the HEXA gene. The mutations leading to Tay Sachs disease in India are yet unknown. We aimed to determine mutations leading to TSD in India by complete sequencing of the HEXA gene. The clinical inclusion criteria included neuroregression, seizures, exaggerated startle reflex, macrocephaly, cherry red spot on fundus examination and spasticity. Neuroimaging criteria included thalamic hyperdensities on CT scan/T1W images of MRI of the brain. Biochemical criteria included deficiency of hexosaminidase A (less than 2% of total hexosaminidase activity for infantile patients). Total leukocyte hexosaminidase activity was assayed by 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine lysis and hexosaminidase A activity was assayed by heat inactivation method and 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine-6-sulphate lysis method. The exons and exon-intron boundaries of the HEXA gene were bidirectionally sequenced using an automated sequencer. Mutations were confirmed in parents and looked up in public databases. In silico analysis for mutations was carried out using SIFT, Polyphen2, MutationT@ster and Accelrys Discovery Studio softwares. Fifteen families were included in the study. We identified six novel missense mutations, c.340 G>A (p.E114K), c.964 G>A (p.D322N), c.964 G>T (p.D322Y), c.1178C>G (p.R393P) and c.1385A>T (p.E462V), c.1432 G>A (p.G478R) and two previously reported mutations. c.1277_1278insTATC and c.508C>T (p.R170W). The mutation p.E462V was found in six unrelated families from Gujarat indicating a founder effect. A previously known splice site mutation c.805+1 G>C and another intronic mutation c.672+30 T>G of unknown significance were also identified. Mutations could not be identified in one family. We conclude that TSD patients from Gujarat should be screened for the common mutation p.E462V. PMID:22723944

  10. Twitter earthquake detection: Earthquake monitoring in a social world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earle, Paul; Bowden, Daniel C.; Guy, Michelle R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. Rapid detection and qualitative assessment of shaking events are possible because people begin sending public Twitter messages (tweets) with in tens of seconds after feeling shaking. Here we present and evaluate an earthquake detection procedure that relies solely on Twitter data. A tweet-frequency time series constructed from tweets containing the word "earthquake" clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a short-term-average, long-term-average algorithm. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector finds 48 globally-distributed earthquakes with only two false triggers in five months of data. The number of detections is small compared to the 5,175 earthquakes in the USGS global earthquake catalog for the same five-month time period, and no accurate location or magnitude can be assigned based on tweet data alone. However, Twitter earthquake detections are not without merit. The detections are generally caused by widely felt events that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. The detections are also fast; about 75% occur within two minutes of the origin time. This is considerably faster than seismographic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. The tweets triggering the detections also provided very short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking.

  11. Computer simulation of earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. C.

    1977-01-01

    In a computer simulation study of earthquakes a seismically active strike slip fault is represented by coupled mechanical blocks which are driven by a moving plate and which slide on a friction surface. Elastic forces and time independent friction are used to generate main shock events, while viscoelastic forces and time dependent friction add aftershock features. The study reveals that the size, length, and time and place of event occurrence are strongly influenced by the magnitude and degree of homogeneity in the elastic, viscous, and friction parameters of the fault region. For example, periodically reoccurring similar events are observed in simulations with near-homogeneous parameters along the fault, whereas seismic gaps are a common feature of simulations employing large variations in the fault parameters. The study also reveals correlations between strain energy release and fault length and average displacement and between main shock and aftershock displacements.

  12. The Kashmir Earthquake Experience.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Shabir A; Halwai, Manzoor A; Mir, Mohammed R; Wani, Zaid A; Butt, M F; Bhat, Masood I; Hamid, Arshiya

    2007-02-01

    On October 8, 2005, a major earthquake measuring 7.6 on the Richter scale struck the Himalayan region of Kashmir. Around 90,000 people died in the mass disaster. The Bone and Joint Hospital in Kashmir found itself in a relatively unique situation of having to deal with the orthopedic morbidity generated by this quake. The hospital received 468 patients over a period of 10 days, out of which 463 were received over the initial 5 days. The admission for a single day peaked at 153 patients on the third day. Due to the unprecedented admission in terms of numbers the hospital utilized outreach methods to streamline admission by sending out specialists to the affected areas. Manpower was judiciously utilized to concentrate specialist advise where required. Besides documenting the pattern of trauma, this paper throws light on some unforeseen problems faced in dealing with a large number of patients far exceeding the normal capacity of the hospital.

  13. Nonextensive models for earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Silva, R; França, G S; Vilar, C S; Alcaniz, J S

    2006-02-01

    We have revisited the fragment-asperity interaction model recently introduced by Sotolongo-Costa and Posadas [Phy. Rev. Lett. 92, 048501 (2004)] by considering a different definition for mean values in the context of Tsallis nonextensive statistics and introducing a scale between the earthquake energy and the size of fragment epsilon proportional to r3. The energy-distribution function (EDF) deduced in our approach is considerably different from the one obtained in the above reference. We have also tested the viability of this EDF with data from two different catalogs (in three different areas), namely, the NEIC and the Bulletin Seismic of the Revista Brasileira de Geofísica. Although both approaches provide very similar values for the nonextensive parameter , other physical quantities, e.g., energy density, differ considerably by several orders of magnitude.

  14. Reconsidering earthquake scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, J.; Wech, A.; Creager, K.; Obara, K.; Agnew, D.

    2016-06-01

    The relationship (scaling) between scalar moment, M0, and duration, T, potentially provides key constraints on the physics governing fault slip. The prevailing interpretation of M0-T observations proposes different scaling for fast (earthquakes) and slow (mostly aseismic) slip populations and thus fundamentally different driving mechanisms. We show that a single model of slip events within bounded slip zones may explain nearly all fast and slow slip M0-T observations, and both slip populations have a change in scaling, where the slip area growth changes from 2-D when too small to sense the boundaries to 1-D when large enough to be bounded. We present new fast and slow slip M0-T observations that sample the change in scaling in each population, which are consistent with our interpretation. We suggest that a continuous but bimodal distribution of slip modes exists and M0-T observations alone may not imply a fundamental difference between fast and slow slip.

  15. An Evaluation of Coverage and Compliance of Mass Drug Administration 2006 for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in Endemic Areas of Gujarat

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pradeep; Prajapati, PB; Saxena, Deepak; Kavishwar, Abhay B; Kurian, George

    2008-01-01

    Background: Mass drug administration (MDA) means once-in-a-year administration of diethyl carbamazine (DEC) tablet to all people (excluding children under 2 years, pregnant women and severely ill persons) in identified endemic areas. It aims at cessation of transmission of lymphatic filariasis. Objective: What has been the coverage and compliance of MDA in Gujarat during the campaign in December 2006? Study Design: Cross-sectional population based house-to-house visit. Setting: Urban and rural areas in Gujarat identified as endemic for filariasis where MDA 2006 was undertaken. Study Variables: Exploratory - Rural and urban districts; Outcome - coverage, compliance, actual coverage, side effects. Analysis: Percentage and proportions. Results: Twenty-six clusters, each comprising 32 households from six endemic districts, yielded an eligible population of 4164. The coverage rate was 85.2% with variation across different areas. The compliance with drug ingestion was 89% with a gap of 11% to be targeted by intensive IEC. The effective coverage (75.8%) was much below the target (85%). Side effects of DEC were minimum, transient and drug-specific. Overall coverage was marginally better in rural areas. The causes of poor coverage and compliance have been discussed and relevant suggestions have been made. PMID:19966995

  16. Sichuan Earthquake in China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Sichuan earthquake in China occurred on May 12, 2008, along faults within the mountains, but near and almost parallel the mountain front, northwest of the city of Chengdu. This major quake caused immediate and severe damage to many villages and cities in the area. Aftershocks pose a continuing danger, but another continuing hazard is the widespread occurrence of landslides that have formed new natural dams and consequently new lakes. These lakes are submerging roads and flooding previously developed lands. But an even greater concern is the possible rapid release of water as the lakes eventually overflow the new dams. The dams are generally composed of disintegrated rock debris that may easily erode, leading to greater release of water, which may then cause faster erosion and an even greater release of water. This possible 'positive feedback' between increasing erosion and increasing water release could result in catastrophic debris flows and/or flooding. The danger is well known to the Chinese earthquake response teams, which have been building spillways over some of the new natural dams.

    This ASTER image, acquired on June 1, 2008, shows two of the new large landslide dams and lakes upstream from the town of Chi-Kua-Kan at 32o12'N latitude and 104o50'E longitude. Vegetation is green, water is blue, and soil is grayish brown in this enhanced color view. New landslides appear bright off-white. The northern (top) lake is upstream from the southern lake. Close inspection shows a series of much smaller lakes in an elongated 'S' pattern along the original stream path. Note especially the large landslides that created the dams. Some other landslides in this area, such as the large one in the northeast corner of the image, occur only on the mountain slopes, so do not block streams, and do not form lakes.

  17. Earthquake Apparent Stress Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, W. R.; Mayeda, K.; Ruppert, S.

    2002-12-01

    There is currently a disagreement within the geophysical community on the way earthquake energy scales with magnitude. One set of recent papers finds evidence that energy release per seismic moment (apparent stress) is constant (e.g. Choy and Boatwright, 1995; McGarr, 1999; Ide and Beroza, 2001). Another set of recent papers finds the apparent stress increases with magnitude (e.g. Kanamori et al., 1993 Abercrombie, 1995; Mayeda and Walter, 1996; Izutani and Kanamori, 2001). The resolution of this issue is complicated by the difficulty of accurately accounting for and determining the seismic energy radiated by earthquakes over a wide range of event sizes in a consistent manner. We have just started a project to reexamine this issue by analyzing aftershock sequences in the Western U.S. and Turkey using two different techniques. First we examine the observed regional S-wave spectra by fitting with a parametric model (Walter and Taylor, 2002) with and without variable stress drop scaling. Because the aftershock sequences have common stations and paths we can examine the S-wave spectra of events by size to determine what type of apparent stress scaling, if any, is most consistent with the data. Second we use regional coda envelope techniques (e.g. Mayeda and Walter, 1996; Mayeda et al, 2002) on the same events to directly measure energy and moment. The coda techniques corrects for path and site effects using an empirical Green function technique and independent calibration with surface wave derived moments. Our hope is that by carefully analyzing a very large number of events in a consistent manner using two different techniques we can start to resolve this apparent stress scaling issue. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Stress evolution and earthquake sequence of the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Peiyu; Hu, Caibo; Shi, Yaolin

    2015-04-01

    The India-Eurasia's collision produces N-S compression and results in large thrust fault in the southern edge of the Tibetan Plateau. Differential eastern flow of the lower crust of the plateau leads to large strike-slip faults and normal faults within the plateau. From 1904 to 2014, more than 30 earthquakes of Mw > 6.5 occurred sequentially in this distinctive tectonic environment. How did the stresses evolve during the last 110 years, how did the earthquakes interact with each other? Can this knowledge help us to forecast the future seismic hazards? In this essay, we tried to simulate the evolution of the stress field and the earthquake sequence in the Tibetan plateau within the last 110 years with a 2-D finite element model. Given an initial state of stress, the boundary condition was constrained by the present-day GPS observation, which was assumed as a constant rate during the 110 years. We calculated stress evolution year by year, and earthquake would occur if stress exceed the crustal strength. Stress changes due to each large earthquake in the sequence was calculated and contributed to the stress evolution. A key issue is the choice of initial stress state of the modeling, which is actually unknown. Usually, in the study of earthquake triggering, people assume the initial stress is zero, and only calculate the stress changes by large earthquakes - the Coulomb failure stress changes (Δ CFS). To some extent, this simplified method is a powerful tool because it can reveal which fault or which part of a fault becomes more risky or safer relatively. Nonetheless, it has not utilized all information available to us. The earthquake sequence reveals, though far from complete, some information about the stress state in the region. If the entire region is close to a self-organized critical or subcritical state, earthquake stress drop provides an estimate of lower limit of initial state. For locations no earthquakes occurred during the period, initial stress has to be

  19. The next new Madrid earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, W.

    1988-01-01

    Scientists who specialize in the study of Mississippi Valley earthquakes say that the region is overdue for a powerful tremor that will cause major damage and undoubtedly some casualties. The inevitability of a future quake and the lack of preparation by both individuals and communities provided the impetus for this book. It brings together applicable information from many disciplines: history, geology and seismology, engineering, zoology, politics and community planning, economics, environmental science, sociology, and psychology and mental health to provide a perspective of the myriad impacts of a major earthquake on the Mississippi Valley. The author addresses such basic questions as What, actually, are earthquakes How do they occur Can they be predicted, perhaps even prevented He also addresses those steps that individuals can take to improve their chances for survival both during and after an earthquake.

  20. Seismology: Remote-controlled earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Gavin

    2016-04-01

    Large earthquakes cause other quakes near and far. Analyses of quakes in Pakistan and Chile suggest that such triggering can occur almost instantaneously, making triggered events hard to detect, and potentially enhancing the associated hazards.

  1. Geochemical challenge to earthquake prediction.

    PubMed Central

    Wakita, H

    1996-01-01

    The current status of geochemical and groundwater observations for earthquake prediction in Japan is described. The development of the observations is discussed in relation to the progress of the earthquake prediction program in Japan. Three major findings obtained from our recent studies are outlined. (i) Long-term radon observation data over 18 years at the SKE (Suikoen) well indicate that the anomalous radon change before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake can with high probability be attributed to precursory changes. (ii) It is proposed that certain sensitive wells exist which have the potential to detect precursory changes. (iii) The appearance and nonappearance of coseismic radon drops at the KSM (Kashima) well reflect changes in the regional stress state of an observation area. In addition, some preliminary results of chemical changes of groundwater prior to the 1995 Kobe (Hyogo-ken nanbu) earthquake are presented. PMID:11607665

  2. Earthquakes, September-October, 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    In the United States, California experienced the strongest earthquake in that State since 1971. The quake, a M=6.8, occurred on October 15, in Baja California, Mexico, near the California border and caused injuries and damage. 

  3. Earthquakes; March-April, 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    In the United States, a number of earthquakes were experienced, the most damaging one in southern California on March 15. The aftershocks continued in southeastern Alaska but caused no additional damage. 

  4. Electrostatics in sandstorms and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbrot, Troy; Thyagu, Nirmal; Paehtz, Thomas; Herrmann, Hans

    2010-11-01

    We present new data demonstrating (1) that electrostatic charging in sandstorms is a necessary outcome in a class of rapid collisional flows, and (2) that electrostatic precursors to slip events - long reported in earthquakes - can be reproduced in the laboratory.

  5. Earthquakes, May-June, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, Waverly J.

    1992-01-01

    The months of May and June were very active in terms of earthquake occurrence. Six major earthquakes (7.0earthquakes included a magnitude 7.1 in Papua New Guinea on May 15, a magnitude 7.1 followed by a magnitude 7.5 in the Philippine Islands on May 17, a magnitude 7.0 in the Cuba region on May 25, and a magnitude 7.3 in the Santa Cruz Islands of the Pacific on May 27. In the United States, a magnitude 7.6 earthquake struck in southern California on June 28 followed by a magnitude 6.7 quake about three hours later.

  6. Sociological aspects of earthquake prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1979-01-01

    Henry Spall talked recently with Denis Mileti who is in the Department of Sociology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo. Dr. Mileti is a sociologst involved with research programs that study the socioeconomic impact of earthquake prediction. 

  7. Clinical trials in India.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Rituparna; M, Raghavendra

    2007-07-01

    The concept of outsourcing for the development and global studies on new drugs has become widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry due to its cost and uncertainty. India is going to be the most preferred location for contract pharma research and development due to its huge treatment naïve population, human resources, technical skills, adoption/amendment/implementation of rules/laws by regulatory authorities, and changing economic environment. But still 'miles to go' to fulfill the pre-requisites to ensure India's success. In spite of all the pitfalls, the country is ambitious and optimist to attract multinational pharmaceutical companies to conduct their clinical trials in India.

  8. Post-earthquake dilatancy recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, C. H.

    1974-01-01

    Geodetic measurements of the 1964 Niigata, Japan earthquake and of three other examples are briefly examined. They show exponentially decaying subsidence for a year after the quakes. The observations confirm the dilatancy-fluid diffusion model of earthquake precursors and clarify the extent and properties of the dilatant zone. An analysis using one-dimensional consolidation theory is included which agrees well with this interpretation.

  9. Mitigating earthquakes; the federal role

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Press, F.

    1977-01-01

    With rapid approach of a capability to make reliable earthquake forecasts, it essential that the Federal Government play a strong, positive role in formulating and implementing plans to reduce earthquake hazards. Many steps are being taken in this direction, with the President looking to the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) in his Executive Office to provide leadership in establishing and coordinating Federal activities. 

  10. Two models for earthquake forerunners

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mjachkin, V.I.; Brace, W.F.; Sobolev, G.A.; Dieterich, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    Similar precursory phenomena have been observed before earthquakes in the United States, the Soviet Union, Japan, and China. Two quite different physical models are used to explain these phenomena. According to a model developed by US seismologists, the so-called dilatancy diffusion model, the earthquake occurs near maximum stress, following a period of dilatant crack expansion. Diffusion of water in and out of the dilatant volume is required to explain the recovery of seismic velocity before the earthquake. According to a model developed by Soviet scientists growth of cracks is also involved but diffusion of water in and out of the focal region is not required. With this model, the earthquake is assumed to occur during a period of falling stress and recovery of velocity here is due to crack closure as stress relaxes. In general, the dilatancy diffusion model gives a peaked precursor form, whereas the dry model gives a bay form, in which recovery is well under way before the earthquake. A number of field observations should help to distinguish between the two models: study of post-earthquake recovery, time variation of stress and pore pressure in the focal region, the occurrence of pre-existing faults, and any changes in direction of precursory phenomena during the anomalous period. ?? 1975 Birkha??user Verlag.

  11. Mapping Tectonic Stress Using Earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Richard; Townend, John; Vignaux, Tony

    2005-11-23

    An earthquakes occurs when the forces acting on a fault overcome its intrinsic strength and cause it to slip abruptly. Understanding more specifically why earthquakes occur at particular locations and times is complicated because in many cases we do not know what these forces actually are, or indeed what processes ultimately trigger slip. The goal of this study is to develop, test, and implement a Bayesian method of reliably determining tectonic stresses using the most abundant stress gauges available - earthquakes themselves.Existing algorithms produce reasonable estimates of the principal stress directions, but yield unreliable error bounds as a consequence of the generally weak constraint on stress imposed by any single earthquake, observational errors, and an unavoidable ambiguity between the fault normal and the slip vector.A statistical treatment of the problem can take into account observational errors, combine data from multiple earthquakes in a consistent manner, and provide realistic error bounds on the estimated principal stress directions.We have developed a realistic physical framework for modelling multiple earthquakes and show how the strong physical and geometrical constraints present in this problem allow inference to be made about the orientation of the principal axes of stress in the earth's crust.

  12. Hydrological signatures of earthquake strain

    SciTech Connect

    Muir-Wood, R.; King, G.C.P. |

    1993-12-01

    The character of the hydrological changes that follow major earthquakes has been investigated and found to be dependent on the style of faulting. The most significant response is found to accompany major normal fault earthquakes. Increases in spring and river discharges peak a few days after the earthquake, and typically, excesss flow is sustained for a period of 6-12 months. In contrast, hydrological changes accompanying pure reverse fault earthquakes are either undetected or indicate lowering of well levels and spring flows. Strike-slip and oblique-slip fault movements are associated with a mixture of responses but appear to release no more than 10% of the water volume of the same sized normal fault event. For two major normal fault earthquakes in the western United States (those of Hebgen Lake on August 17, 1959, and Borah Peak on October 28, 1983), there is sufficient river flow information to allow the magnitude and extent of the postseismic discharge to be quantified. The discharge has been converted to a rainfall equivalent, which is found to exceed 100 mm close to the fault and to remain above 10 mm at distances greater than 50 km. Results suggest that water-filled craks are ubiquitous throughout the brittle continental crust and that these cracks open and close throughout the earthquake cycle. The existence of tectonically induced fluid flows on the scale that we demonstrate has major implications for our understanding of the mechanical and chemical behavior of crustal rocks.

  13. Earthquakes - Volcanoes (Causes and Forecast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, E.

    2009-04-01

    EARTHQUAKES - VOLCANOES (CAUSES AND FORECAST) ELIAS TSIAPAS RESEARCHER NEA STYRA, EVIA,GREECE TEL.0302224041057 tsiapas@hol.gr The earthquakes are caused by large quantities of liquids (e.g. H2O, H2S, SO2, ect.) moving through lithosphere and pyrosphere (MOHO discontinuity) till they meet projections (mountains negative projections or projections coming from sinking lithosphere). The liquids are moved from West Eastward carried away by the pyrosphere because of differential speed of rotation of the pyrosphere by the lithosphere. With starting point an earthquake which was noticed at an area and from statistical studies, we know when, where and what rate an earthquake may be, which earthquake is caused by the same quantity of liquids, at the next east region. The forecast of an earthquake ceases to be valid if these components meet a crack in the lithosphere (e.g. limits of lithosphere plates) or a volcano crater. In this case the liquids come out into the atmosphere by the form of gasses carrying small quantities of lava with them (volcano explosion).

  14. Global earthquake fatalities and population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Savage, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Modern global earthquake fatalities can be separated into two components: (1) fatalities from an approximately constant annual background rate that is independent of world population growth and (2) fatalities caused by earthquakes with large human death tolls, the frequency of which is dependent on world population. Earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (and 50,000) have increased with world population and obey a nonstationary Poisson distribution with rate proportional to population. We predict that the number of earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (50,000) will increase in the 21st century to 8.7±3.3 (20.5±4.3) from 4 (7) observed in the 20th century if world population reaches 10.1 billion in 2100. Combining fatalities caused by the background rate with fatalities caused by catastrophic earthquakes (>100,000 fatalities) indicates global fatalities in the 21st century will be 2.57±0.64 million if the average post-1900 death toll for catastrophic earthquakes (193,000) is assumed.

  15. Building with Earthquakes in Mind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangieri, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Earthquakes are some of the most elusive and destructive disasters humans interact with on this planet. Engineering structures to withstand earthquake shaking is critical to ensure minimal loss of life and property. However, the majority of buildings today in non-traditional earthquake prone areas are not built to withstand this devastating force. Understanding basic earthquake engineering principles and the effect of limited resources helps students grasp the challenge that lies ahead. The solution can be found in retrofitting existing buildings with proper reinforcements and designs to deal with this deadly disaster. The students were challenged in this project to construct a basic structure, using limited resources, that could withstand a simulated tremor through the use of an earthquake shake table. Groups of students had to work together to creatively manage their resources and ideas to design the most feasible and realistic type of building. This activity provided a wealth of opportunities for the students to learn more about a type of disaster they do not experience in this part of the country. Due to the fact that most buildings in New York City were not designed to withstand earthquake shaking, the students were able to gain an appreciation for how difficult it would be to prepare every structure in the city for this type of event.

  16. Assessment of the Relative Largest Earthquake Hazard Level in the NW Himalaya and its Adjacent Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsapanos, Theodoros M.; Yadav, R. B. S.; Olasoglou, Efthalia M.; Singh, Mayshree

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the level of the largest earthquake hazard is assessed in 28 seismic zones of the NW Himalaya and its vicinity, which is a highly seismically active region of the world. Gumbel's third asymptotic distribution (hereafter as GIII) is adopted for the evaluation of the largest earthquake magnitudes in these seismic zones. Instead of taking in account any type of Mmax, in the present study we consider the ω value which is the largest earthquake magnitude that a region can experience according to the GIII statistics. A function of the form Θ(ω, RP6.0) is providing in this way a relatively largest earthquake hazard scale defined by the letter K(K index). The return periods for the ω values (earthquake magnitudes) 6 or larger (RP6.0) are also calculated. According to this index, the investigated seismic zones are classified into five groups and it is shown that seismic zones 3 (Quetta of Pakistan), 11 (Hindukush), 15 (northern Pamirs), and 23 (Kangra, Himachal Pradesh of India) correspond to a "very high" K index which is 6.

  17. Earthquakes and trauma: review of triage and injury-specific, immediate care.

    PubMed

    Gautschi, Oliver P; Cadosch, Dieter; Rajan, Gunesh; Zellweger, René

    2008-01-01

    Earthquakes present a major threat to mankind. Increasing knowledge about geophysical interactions, progressing architectural technology, and improved disaster management algorithms have rendered modern populations less susceptible to earthquakes. Nevertheless, the mass casualties resulting from earthquakes in Great Kanto (Japan), Ancash (Peru), Tangshan (China), Guatemala, Armenia, and Izmit (Turkey) or the recent earthquakes in Bhuj (India), Bam (Iran), Sumatra (Indonesia) and Kashmir (Pakistan) indicate the devastating effect earthquakes can have on both individual and population health. Appropriate preparation and implementation of crisis management algorithms are of utmost importance to ensure a large-scale medical-aid response is readily available following a devastating event. In particular, efficient triage is vital to optimize the use of limited medical resources and to effectively mobilize these resources so as to maximize patient salvage. However, the main priorities of disaster rescue teams are the rescue and provision of emergency care for physical trauma. Furthermore, the establishment of transport evacuation corridors, a feature often neglected, is essential in order to provide the casualties with a chance for survival. The optimal management of victims under such settings is discussed, addressing injuries of the body and psyche by means of simple diagnostic and therapeutic procedures globally applicable and available.

  18. Progress in Understanding the Pre-Earthquake Associated Events by Analyzing IR Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Taylor, Patrick; Bryant, Nevin

    2004-01-01

    We present latest result in understanding the potential relationship between tectonic stress, electro-chemical and thermodynamic processes in the Earths crust and atmosphere with an increase in IR flux as a potential signature of electromagnetic (EM) phenomena that are related to earthquake activity, either pre-, co- or post seismic. Thermal infra-red (TIR) surveys performed by the polar orbiting (NOAA/AVHRR MODIS) and geosynchronous weather satellites (GOES, METEOSAT) gave an indication of the appearance (from days to weeks before the event) of "anomalous" space-time TIR transients that are associated with the location (epicenter and local tectonic structures) and time of a number of major earthquakes with M>5 and focal depths less than 50km. We analyzed broad category of associated pre-earthquake events, which provided evidence for changes in surface temperature, surface latent heat flux, chlorophyll concentrations, soil moisture, brightness temperature, emissivity of surface, water vapour in the atmosphere prior to the earthquakes occurred in Algeria, India, Iran, Italy, Mexico and Japan. The cause of such anomalies has been mainly related to the change of near-surface thermal properties due to complex lithosphere-hydrosphere-atmospheric interactions. As final results we present examples from the most recent (2000-2004) worldwide strong earthquakes and the techniques used to capture the tracks of EM emission mid-IR anomalies and a methodology for practical future use of such phenomena in the early warning systems.

  19. Modern Mammals dispersion linked to the Paleocene Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and early Eocene climatic optimum, new insights from India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khozyem, H. M.; Adatte, T.; Keller, G.; Spangenberg, J.; Bajpai, S.; Samant, B.

    2012-12-01

    The Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 55.9Ma)) is globally related with the extinction of deep benthic foraminifera, the diversification of both planktic foraminifera and modern mammals. In India, the tempo and timing of modern mammal dispersion, their association with the PETM or EECO (Early Eocene Climatic Optimum) and the India-Asia collision remain uncertain. Four Indian sections (Giral, Bhavnagar, Vastan and Tadkeshware lignite mines) have been studied using sedimentology, micropaleontology, mineralogy (bulk and clay mineralogy) and geochemistry (stable isotopes, major and trace elements, organic matter). Both PETM and ETM2 (second Eocene Thermal Maximum, 53.7Ma), a short-lived warming episode that followed the PETM, are globally marked by a pronounced δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg negative excursion. Both isotopic excursions have been recognized in the Vastan and Tarkeswhar lignite mines (Cambay basin, Gujarat) associated with the main mammal bearing level. The lower shift is located above the first lignite seam and corresponds to the transition from continental to shallow marine conditions. The upper excursion appears to be linked to the ETM2 and corresponds to a second marine incursion containing bivalves, benthic (Nummulites burdigalensis) and planktic foraminifera located below the second lignite seam. A very pronounced δ13Corg peak has been detected in the Giral lignite mine (Barmer, Rajhastan) around 6m above the vertebrate bearing level and may correspond to the PETM. This correlation is confirmed by palynological data and more particularly by a dinoflagellate acme that globally characterizes the PETM interval. Our micropaleontological data combined with stable carbone isotopes indicate the presence of both PETM and ETM2 events and constrain the age of the early mammals in northwestern India in between these two thermal events in the early Eocene. These new data will significantly improve the ongoing debate on whether mammals originated in or out of

  20. Evidence for Ancient Mesoamerican Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovach, R. L.; Garcia, B.

    2001-12-01

    Evidence for past earthquake damage at Mesoamerican ruins is often overlooked because of the invasive effects of tropical vegetation and is usually not considered as a casual factor when restoration and reconstruction of many archaeological sites are undertaken. Yet the proximity of many ruins to zones of seismic activity would argue otherwise. Clues as to the types of damage which should be soughtwere offered in September 1999 when the M = 7.5 Oaxaca earthquake struck the ruins of Monte Alban, Mexico, where archaeological renovations were underway. More than 20 structures were damaged, 5 of them seriously. Damage features noted were walls out of plumb, fractures in walls, floors, basal platforms and tableros, toppling of columns, and deformation, settling and tumbling of walls. A Modified Mercalli Intensity of VII (ground accelerations 18-34 %b) occurred at the site. Within the diffuse landward extension of the Caribbean plate boundary zone M = 7+ earthquakes occur with repeat times of hundreds of years arguing that many Maya sites were subjected to earthquakes. Damage to re-erected and reinforced stelae, walls, and buildings were witnessed at Quirigua, Guatemala, during an expedition underway when then 1976 M = 7.5 Guatemala earthquake on the Motagua fault struck. Excavations also revealed evidence (domestic pttery vessels and skeleton of a child crushed under fallen walls) of an ancient earthquake occurring about the teim of the demise and abandonment of Quirigua in the late 9th century. Striking evidence for sudden earthquake building collapse at the end of the Mayan Classic Period ~A.D. 889 was found at Benque Viejo (Xunantunich), Belize, located 210 north of Quirigua. It is argued that a M = 7.5 to 7.9 earthquake at the end of the Maya Classic period centered in the vicinity of the Chixoy-Polochic and Motagua fault zones cound have produced the contemporaneous earthquake damage to the above sites. As a consequences this earthquake may have accelerated the

  1. The Electronic Encyclopedia of Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benthien, M.; Marquis, J.; Jordan, T.

    2003-12-01

    The Electronic Encyclopedia of Earthquakes is a collaborative project of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), the Consortia of Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering (CUREE) and the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS). This digital library organizes earthquake information online as a partner with the NSF-funded National Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Digital Library (NSDL) and the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). When complete, information and resources for over 500 Earth science and engineering topics will be included, with connections to curricular materials useful for teaching Earth Science, engineering, physics and mathematics. Although conceived primarily as an educational resource, the Encyclopedia is also a valuable portal to anyone seeking up-to-date earthquake information and authoritative technical sources. "E3" is a unique collaboration among earthquake scientists and engineers to articulate and document a common knowledge base with a shared terminology and conceptual framework. It is a platform for cross-training scientists and engineers in these complementary fields and will provide a basis for sustained communication and resource-building between major education and outreach activities. For example, the E3 collaborating organizations have leadership roles in the two largest earthquake engineering and earth science projects ever sponsored by NSF: the George E. Brown Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (CUREE) and the EarthScope Project (IRIS and SCEC). The E3 vocabulary and definitions are also being connected to a formal ontology under development by the SCEC/ITR project for knowledge management within the SCEC Collaboratory. The E3 development system is now fully operational, 165 entries are in the pipeline, and the development teams are capable of producing 20 new, fully reviewed encyclopedia entries each month. Over the next two years teams will

  2. A cross-sectional, randomized cluster sample survey of household vulnerability to extreme heat among slum dwellers in ahmedabad, india.

    PubMed

    Tran, Kathy V; Azhar, Gulrez S; Nair, Rajesh; Knowlton, Kim; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Mavalankar, Dileep; Hess, Jeremy

    2013-06-18

    Extreme heat is a significant public health concern in India; extreme heat hazards are projected to increase in frequency and severity with climate change. Few of the factors driving population heat vulnerability are documented, though poverty is a presumed risk factor. To facilitate public health preparedness, an assessment of factors affecting vulnerability among slum dwellers was conducted in summer 2011 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Indicators of heat exposure, susceptibility to heat illness, and adaptive capacity, all of which feed into heat vulnerability, was assessed through a cross-sectional household survey using randomized multistage cluster sampling. Associations between heat-related morbidity and vulnerability factors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering effects. Age, preexisting medical conditions, work location, and access to health information and resources were associated with self-reported heat illness. Several of these variables were unique to this study. As sociodemographics, occupational heat exposure, and access to resources were shown to increase vulnerability, future interventions (e.g., health education) might target specific populations among Ahmedabad urban slum dwellers to reduce vulnerability to extreme heat. Surveillance and evaluations of future interventions may also be worthwhile.

  3. 77 FR 62523 - Scientific Earthquake Studies Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... the USGS's participation in the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program. The Committee will... direction of the Earthquake Hazards Program. Meetings of the Scientific Earthquake Studies Advisory... Geological Survey Scientific Earthquake Studies Advisory Committee AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey....

  4. Volunteers in the earthquake hazard reduction program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    With this in mind, I organized a small workshop for approximately 30 people on February 2 and 3, 1978, in Menlo Park, Calif. the purpose of the meeting was to discuss methods of involving volunteers in a meaningful way in earthquake research and in educating the public about earthquake hazards. The emphasis was on earthquake prediction research, but the discussions covered the whole earthquake hazard reduction program. Representatives attended from the earthquake research community, from groups doing socioeconomic research on earthquake matters, and from a wide variety of organizations who might sponsor volunteers. 

  5. Earthquakes with non--double-couple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Frohlich, C

    1994-05-01

    Seismological observations confirm that the pattern of seismic waves from some earthquakes cannot be produced by slip along a planar fault surface. More than one physical mechanism is required to explain the observed varieties of these non-double-couple earthquakes. The simplest explanation is that some earthquakes are complex, with stress released on two or more suitably oriented, nonparallel fault surfaces. However, some shallow earthquakes in volcanic and geothermal areas require other explanations. Current research focuses on whether fault complexity explains most observed non-double-couple earthquakes and to what extent ordinary earthquakes have non-double-couple components.

  6. Comparison of two large earthquakes: the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake and the 2011 East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Otani, Yuki; Ando, Takayuki; Atobe, Kaori; Haiden, Akina; Kao, Sheng-Yuan; Saito, Kohei; Shimanuki, Marie; Yoshimoto, Norifumi; Fukunaga, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Between August 15th and 19th, 2011, eight 5th-year medical students from the Keio University School of Medicine had the opportunity to visit the Peking University School of Medicine and hold a discussion session titled "What is the most effective way to educate people for survival in an acute disaster situation (before the mental health care stage)?" During the session, we discussed the following six points: basic information regarding the Sichuan Earthquake and the East Japan Earthquake, differences in preparedness for earthquakes, government actions, acceptance of medical rescue teams, earthquake-induced secondary effects, and media restrictions. Although comparison of the two earthquakes was not simple, we concluded that three major points should be emphasized to facilitate the most effective course of disaster planning and action. First, all relevant agencies should formulate emergency plans and should supply information regarding the emergency to the general public and health professionals on a normal basis. Second, each citizen should be educated and trained in how to minimize the risks from earthquake-induced secondary effects. Finally, the central government should establish a single headquarters responsible for command, control, and coordination during a natural disaster emergency and should centralize all powers in this single authority. We hope this discussion may be of some use in future natural disasters in China, Japan, and worldwide.

  7. Physical Environment and Social Context: An Approach to Planning for Rural Settlement in Gujarat. Development Series Report 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Jay A.; Vijayan, K.

    Provisional conclusions concerning the interpenetration of social and physical aspects of rural planning research, conducted by the School of Planning (Ahmedabad, India) are considered in this report. Three principal elements whose implementation and maintenance determine physical development are identified: (1) improvements in infrastructure; (2)…

  8. History of Nuclear India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  9. Computer simulation of earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. C.

    1976-01-01

    Two computer simulation models of earthquakes were studied for the dependence of the pattern of events on the model assumptions and input parameters. Both models represent the seismically active region by mechanical blocks which are connected to one another and to a driving plate. The blocks slide on a friction surface. In the first model elastic forces were employed and time independent friction to simulate main shock events. The size, length, and time and place of event occurrence were influenced strongly by the magnitude and degree of homogeniety in the elastic and friction parameters of the fault region. Periodically reoccurring similar events were frequently observed in simulations with near homogeneous parameters along the fault, whereas, seismic gaps were a common feature of simulations employing large variations in the fault parameters. The second model incorporated viscoelastic forces and time-dependent friction to account for aftershock sequences. The periods between aftershock events increased with time and the aftershock region was confined to that which moved in the main event.

  10. The music of earthquakes and Earthquake Quartet #1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Earthquake Quartet #1, my composition for voice, trombone, cello, and seismograms, is the intersection of listening to earthquakes as a seismologist and performing music as a trombonist. Along the way, I realized there is a close relationship between what I do as a scientist and what I do as a musician. A musician controls the source of the sound and the path it travels through their instrument in order to make sound waves that we hear as music. An earthquake is the source of waves that travel along a path through the earth until reaching us as shaking. It is almost as if the earth is a musician and people, including seismologists, are metaphorically listening and trying to understand what the music means.

  11. Association of common mental disorder symptoms with health and healthcare factors among women in rural western India: results of a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, Nisha; Byatt, Nancy; Prabhakaran, Anusha; Moore Simas, Tiffany A; Vankar, Jagdish; O'Keefe, Eileen; Allison, Jeroan; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Information about common mental disorders (CMD) is needed to guide policy and clinical interventions in low-income and middle-income countries. This study's purpose was to characterise the association of CMD symptoms with 3 inter-related health and healthcare factors among women from rural western India based on a representative, cross-sectional survey. Setting Surveys were conducted in the waiting area of various outpatient clinics at a tertiary care hospital and in 16 rural villages in the Anand district of Gujarat, India. Participants 700 Gujarati-speaking women between the ages of 18–45 years who resided in the Anand district of Gujarat, India, were recruited in a quasi-randomised manner. Primary and secondary outcomes measures CMD symptoms, ascertained using WHO's Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20), were associated with self-reported (1) number of healthcare visits in the prior year; (2) health status and (3) portion of yearly income expended on healthcare. Results Data from 658 participants were used in this analysis; 19 surveys were excluded due to incompleteness, 18 surveys were excluded because the participants were visiting hospitalised patients and 5 surveys were classified as outliers. Overall, 155 (22·8%) participants screened positive for CMD symptoms (SRQ-20 score ≥8) with most (81.9%) not previously diagnosed despite contact with healthcare provider in the prior year. On adjusted analyses, screening positive for CMD symptoms was associated with worse category in self-reported health status (cumulative OR=9.39; 95% CI 5·97 to 14·76), higher portion of household income expended on healthcare (cumulative OR=2·31; 95% CL 1·52 to 3.52) and increased healthcare visits in the prior year (incidence rate ratio=1·24; 95% CI 1·07 to 1·44). Conclusions The high prevalence of potential CMD among women in rural India that is unrecognised and associated with adverse health and financial indicators highlights the individual and public

  12. Toward real-time regional earthquake simulation of Taiwan earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Liu, Q.; Tromp, J.; Komatitsch, D.; Liang, W.; Huang, B.

    2013-12-01

    We developed a Real-time Online earthquake Simulation system (ROS) to simulate regional earthquakes in Taiwan. The ROS uses a centroid moment tensor solution of seismic events from a Real-time Moment Tensor monitoring system (RMT), which provides all the point source parameters including the event origin time, hypocentral location, moment magnitude and focal mechanism within 2 minutes after the occurrence of an earthquake. Then, all of the source parameters are automatically forwarded to the ROS to perform an earthquake simulation, which is based on a spectral-element method (SEM). We have improved SEM mesh quality by introducing a thin high-resolution mesh layer near the surface to accommodate steep and rapidly varying topography. The mesh for the shallow sedimentary basin is adjusted to reflect its complex geometry and sharp lateral velocity contrasts. The grid resolution at the surface is about 545 m, which is sufficient to resolve topography and tomography data for simulations accurate up to 1.0 Hz. The ROS is also an infrastructural service, making online earthquake simulation feasible. Users can conduct their own earthquake simulation by providing a set of source parameters through the ROS webpage. For visualization, a ShakeMovie and ShakeMap are produced during the simulation. The time needed for one event is roughly 3 minutes for a 70 sec ground motion simulation. The ROS is operated online at the Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica (http://ros.earth.sinica.edu.tw/). Our long-term goal for the ROS system is to contribute to public earth science outreach and to realize seismic ground motion prediction in real-time.

  13. Earthquake and Tsunami booklet based on two Indonesia earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Y.; Aci, M.

    2014-12-01

    Many destructive earthquakes occurred during the last decade in Indonesia. These experiences are very important precepts for the world people who live in earthquake and tsunami countries. We are collecting the testimonies of tsunami survivors to clarify successful evacuation process and to make clear the characteristic physical behaviors of tsunami near coast. We research 2 tsunami events, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and 2010 Mentawai slow earthquake tsunami. Many video and photographs were taken by people at some places in 2004 Indian ocean tsunami disaster; nevertheless these were few restricted points. We didn't know the tsunami behavior in another place. In this study, we tried to collect extensive information about tsunami behavior not only in many places but also wide time range after the strong shake. In Mentawai case, the earthquake occurred in night, so there are no impressive photos. To collect detail information about evacuation process from tsunamis, we contrived the interview method. This method contains making pictures of tsunami experience from the scene of victims' stories. In 2004 Aceh case, all survivors didn't know tsunami phenomena. Because there were no big earthquakes with tsunami for one hundred years in Sumatra region, public people had no knowledge about tsunami. This situation was highly improved in 2010 Mentawai case. TV programs and NGO or governmental public education programs about tsunami evacuation are widespread in Indonesia. Many people know about fundamental knowledge of earthquake and tsunami disasters. We made drill book based on victim's stories and painted impressive scene of 2 events. We used the drill book in disaster education event in school committee of west Java. About 80 % students and teachers evaluated that the contents of the drill book are useful for correct understanding.

  14. Earthquake Archaeology: a logical approach?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, I. S.; Buck, V. A.

    2001-12-01

    Ancient earthquakes can leave their mark in the mythical and literary accounts of ancient peoples, the stratigraphy of their site histories, and the structural integrity of their constructions. Within this broad cross-disciplinary tramping ground, earthquake geologists have tended to focus on those aspects of the cultural record that are most familiar to them; the physical effects of seismic deformation on ancient constructions. One of the core difficulties with this 'earthquake archaeology' approach is that recent attempts to isolate structural criteria that are diagnostic or strongly suggestive of a seismic origin are undermined by the recognition that signs of ancient seismicity are generally indistinguishable from non-seismic mechanisms (poor construction, adverse geotechnical conditions). We illustrate the difficulties and inconsistencies in current proposed 'earthquake diagnostic' schemes by reference to two case studies of archaeoseismic damage in central Greece. The first concerns fallen columns at various Classical temple localities in mainland Greece (Nemea, Sounio, Olympia, Bassai) which, on the basis of observed structural criteria, are earthquake-induced but which are alternatively explained by archaeologists as the action of human disturbance. The second re-examines the almost type example of the Kyparissi site in the Atalanti region as a Classical stoa offset across a seismic surface fault, arguing instead for its deformation by ground instability. Finally, in highlighting the inherent ambiguity of archaeoseismic data, we consider the value of a logic-tree approach for quantifying and quantifying our uncertainities for seismic-hazard analysis.

  15. Earthquake Planning for Government Continuity

    PubMed

    PERRY; LINDELL

    1997-01-01

    / The problem of assuring government operational continuity following earthquakes has been given little research attention. Recent earthquake experience has documented that government organizations without a public safety mission do incur damaged facilities and routinely see increases in public demands following an earthquake. Impediments to service delivery associated with such dam-ages can be minimized if agencies address earthquake plan elements likely to enhance postimpact functioning, including: the potential to relocate operations, protection for the workplace, possession of an organizational inventory, emergency instructions for employees, the ability to use volunteers, and communication capacity. Factors associated with the adoption of these plan elements were studied in one county government and its municipal county seat in the southwestern United States. A census of departments within these jurisdictions was asked to complete a questionnaire reporting the level of planning activity relative to each of these plan elements. It was found that the overall level of preparedness was low, but statistically significantly related to agency size, perceived risk, and information seeking. The implications of these findings underscore the potential for disruption to government service delivery and permit the identification of potential avenues for increasing levels of preparedness.KEY WORDS: Emergency planning; Earthquakes; Government preparedness PMID:8939788

  16. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Northeast India Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ranjit; Sharma, M. L.; Wason, H. R.

    2016-08-01

    Northeast India bounded by latitudes 20°-30°N and longitudes 87°-98°E is one of the most seismically active areas in the world. This region has experienced several moderate-to-large-sized earthquakes, including the 12 June, 1897 Shillong earthquake ( M w 8.1) and the 15 August, 1950 Assam earthquake ( M w 8.7) which caused loss of human lives and significant damages to buildings highlighting the importance of seismic hazard assessment for the region. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the region has been carried out using a unified moment magnitude catalog prepared by an improved General Orthogonal Regression methodology (Geophys J Int, 190:1091-1096, 2012; Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Northeast India region, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee, 2013) with events compiled from various databases (ISC, NEIC,GCMT, IMD) and other available catalogs. The study area has been subdivided into nine seismogenic source zones to account for local variation in tectonics and seismicity characteristics. The seismicity parameters are estimated for each of these source zones, which are input variables into seismic hazard estimation of a region. The seismic hazard analysis of the study region has been performed by dividing the area into grids of size 0.1° × 0.1°. Peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration ( S a) values (for periods of 0.2 and 1 s) have been evaluated at bedrock level corresponding to probability of exceedance (PE) of 50, 20, 10, 2 and 0.5 % in 50 years. These exceedance values correspond to return periods of 100, 225, 475, 2475, and 10,000 years, respectively. The seismic hazard maps have been prepared at the bedrock level, and it is observed that the seismic hazard estimates show a significant local variation in contrast to the uniform hazard value suggested by the Indian standard seismic code [Indian standard, criteria for earthquake-resistant design of structures, fifth edition, Part

  17. Using Third-Party Inspectors in Building Energy Codes Enforcement in India

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Kumar, Pradeep; Van Wie, Laura; Bhatt, Vatsal

    2013-01-31

    India is experiencing fast income growth and urbanization, and this leads to unprecedented increases in demand for building energy services and resulting energy consumption. In response to rapid growth in building energy use, the Government of India issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which is consistent with and based on the 2001 Energy Conservation Act. ECBC implementation has been voluntary since its enactment and a few states have started to make progress towards mandatory implementation. Rajasthan is the first state in India to adopt ECBC as a mandatory code. The State adopted ECBC with minor additions on March 28, 2011 through a stakeholder process; it became mandatory in Rajasthan on September 28, 2011. Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh have started to draft an implementation roadmap and build capacity for its implementation. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) plans to encourage more states to adopt ECBC in the near future, including Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Delhi. Since its inception, India has applied the code on a voluntary basis, but the Government of India is developing a strategy to mandate compliance. Implementing ECBC requires coordination between the Ministry of Power and the Ministry of Urban Development at the national level as well as interdepartmental coordination at the state level. One challenge is that the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), the enforcement entities of building by-laws, lack capacity to implement ECBC effectively. For example, ULBs in some states might find the building permitting procedures to be too complex; in other cases, lack of awareness and technical knowledge on ECBC slows down the amendment of local building by-laws as well as ECBC implementation. The intent of this white paper is to share with Indian decision-makers code enforcement approaches: through code officials, third-party inspectors, or a hybrid approach. Given the limited capacity and human

  18. Mammal Dispersion linked to The Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM): New Insights from India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khozyem, H.; Adatte, T.; Keller, G.; Spangenberg, J. E.; Bajpai, S.; Samant, B.; Mathur, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 55.5Ma) is globally related with the extinction of deep benthic foraminifera, the diversification of both plancktic foraminifera and mammals. In India, the tempo and timing of mammals dispersion, their association with the PETM or EECO (Early Eocene Climatic Optimum) and the India- Asia collision remain uncertain (Smith et al., 2006 Clementz, 2010). Three sections located in north and northwest India have been studied using sedimentology, micropaleontology, mineralogy (bulk and clay mineralogy) and geochemistry (stable isotopes, major and trace elements, organic matter). Both PETM and ETM2 (second Eocene Thermal Maximum, 53.7Ma), a short-lived warming episode that followed the PETM, are globally marked by a pronounced δ13Ccarb and org negative peak. Both isotopic excursions have been recognized in the Vastan and Tarkeswhar lignite mines (Cambay basin, Gujarat), above the main mammals bearing level. The lower shift is located above the first lignite seam (=lignite 2 of Sahni et al, 2004, 2009) and corresponds to the transition from continental to shallow marine conditions marked by benthic foraminifera and bivalves. The upper excursion appears to be linked to the ETM2 and corresponds to a second marine incursion containing bivalves, benthic (Nummulites burdigalensis) and planktic foraminifera located below the second lignite seam (lignite 1 of Sahni et al, 2004, 2009). A single but very pronounced δ13Corg peak has been detected in the Giral Lignite mine (Barmer, Rajhastan), around 6m above the vertebrates bearing level and may correspond to the PETM. This correlation is confirmed by palynological data (Tripathi et al., 2009, Sahni et al., 2004, 2009) and more particularly by an acme in the dinoflagellate Apectodinium that globally characterizes the PETM interval (Sluijs et al. 2007). Our micropaleontological data combined with stable carbone isotopes indicate the presence of both PETM and ETM2 events and constrain the

  19. Earthquakes & Volcanoes, Volume 23, Number 6, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Gordon, David W.

    1993-01-01

    Earthquakes and Volcanoes is published bimonthly by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide current information on earthquakes and seismology, volcanoes, and related natural hazards of interest to both generalized and specialized readers.

  20. The October 12, 1992, Dahshur, Egypt, Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenhaus, P.C.; Celebi, M.; Sharp, R.V.

    1993-01-01

    We were part of an international reconnaissance team that investigated the Dahsur earthquake. This article summarizes our findings and points out how even a relatively moderate sized earthquake can cause widespread damage and a large number of casualities. 

  1. Earthquakes and the urban environment. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Berlin, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    Because of the complex nature of earthquake effects, current investigations encompass many disciplines, including those of both the physical and social sciences. Research activities center on such diversified topics as earthquake mechanics, earthquake prediction and control, the prompt and accurate detection of tsunamis (seismic sea waves), earthquake-resistant construction, seismic building code improvements, land use zoning, earthquake risk and hazard perception, disaster preparedness, plus the study of the concerns and fears of people who have experienced the effects of an earthquake. This monograph attempts to amalgamate recent research input comprising the vivifying components of urban seismology at a level useful to those having an interest in the earthquake and its effects upon an urban environment. Volume 2 contains chapters on earthquake prediction, control, building design and building response.

  2. Earthquakes and the urban environment. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Berlin, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    Because of the complex nature of earthquake effects, current investigations encompass many disciplines, including those of both the physical and social sciences. Research activities center on such diversified topics as earthquake mechanics, earthquake prediction and control, the prompt and accurate detection of tsunamis (seismic sea waves), earthquake-resistant construction, seismic building code improvements, land use zoning, earthquake risk and hazard perception, disaster preparedness, plus the study of the concerns and fears of people who have experienced the effects of an earthquake. This monograph attempts to amalgamate recent research input comprising the vivifying components of urban seismology at a level useful to those having an interest in the earthquake and its effects upon an urban environment. Volume 1 contains chapters on earthquake parameters and hazards.

  3. India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickler, Paul

    This curriculum packet on politics and international relations in India contains an essay, three lessons and a variety of charts, maps, and additional readings to support the unit. The essay is entitled "India 1994: The Peacock and the Vulture." The lessons include: (1) "The Kashmir Dispute"; (2) "India: Domestic Order and International Affairs, A…

  4. Active tectonics and earthquake potential of the Myanmar region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Sieh, Kerry; Tun, Soe Thura; Lai, Kuang-Yin; Myint, Than

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes geomorphologic evidence for the principal neotectonic features of Myanmar and its immediate surroundings. We combine this evidence with published structural, geodetic, and seismic data to present an overview of the active tectonic architecture of the region and its seismic potential. Three tectonic systems accommodate oblique collision of the Indian plate with Southeast Asia and extrusion of Asian territory around the eastern syntaxis of the Himalayan mountain range. Subduction and collision associated with the Sunda megathrust beneath and within the Indoburman range and Naga Hills accommodate most of the shortening across the transpressional plate boundary. The Sagaing fault system is the predominant locus of dextral motion associated with the northward translation of India. Left-lateral faults of the northern Shan Plateau, northern Laos, Thailand, and southern China facilitate extrusion of rocks around the eastern syntaxis of the Himalaya. All of these systems have produced major earthquakes within recorded history and continue to present major seismic hazards in the region.

  5. Revisiting the November 27, 1945 Makran (Mw=8.2) interplate earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarifi, Z.; Raeesi, M.

    2012-04-01

    Makran Subduction Zone (MSZ) in southern Iran and southwestern Pakistan is a zone of convergence, where the remnant oceanic crust of Arabian plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian plate with a rate of less than 30 mm/yr. The November 27, 1945 earthquake (Mw=8.2) in eastern section of Makran followed by a tsunami, at some points 15 meters high. More than 4000 victims and widespread devastation along the coastal area of Pakistan, Iran, Oman and India are reported for this earthquake. We have collected the old seismograms of the 1945 earthquake and its largest following earthquake (August 5, 1947, Mw=7.3) from a number of stations around the globe. Using ISS data, we relocated these two events. We used the teleseismic body-waveform inversion code of Kikuchi and Kanamori to determine the slip distribution of these two earthquakes for the first time. The results show that the extent of rupture of the 1945 earthquake is larger than what previously had been approximated in other studies. The slip distribution suggests two distinct sets of asperities with different behavior in the west close to Pasni and in the east close to Ormara. The highest slip was obtained for an area between these two cities which shows geological evidence of rapid uplift. To associate this behavior with the structure of slab interface we studied the TPGA (Trench Parallel Free-air Gravity Anomaly) and TPBA (Trench Parallel Bouguer Anomaly) in MSZ. The results of TPGA does not show the expected phenomenon, which is the correlation of asperities with the area of highly negative TPGA. However, TPBA can make correlation between the observed slip distribution and the structure of slab interface. Using the topography and gravity profiles perpendicular to trench and along the MSZ, we could observe the segmentation in the slab interface. This confirms that we barely expect that the whole interface releases energy in one single megathrust earthquake. Current seismicity in MSZ, although sparse, can fairly

  6. St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Robert A.; Steckel, Phyllis; Schweig, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    St. Louis has experienced minor earthquake damage at least 12 times in the past 200 years. Because of this history and its proximity to known active earthquake zones, the St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project will produce digital maps that show variability of earthquake hazards in the St. Louis area. The maps will be available free via the internet. They can be customized by the user to show specific areas of interest, such as neighborhoods or transportation routes.

  7. Earthquake-dammed lakes in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.

    1981-05-01

    Eleven small lakes were formed by landslides caused by the 1929 Buller earthquake; four others were formed by other historic earthquakes in New Zealand. At least nine other New Zealand lakes are also dammed by landslides and were probably formed by prehistoric earthquakes. When recognized by morphology, synchronous age, and areal distribution, earthquake-dammed lakes could provide an estimate of paleoseismicity for the past few hundred or thousand years.

  8. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing based microbial diversity assessment of Lasundra hot spring, India.

    PubMed

    Mangrola, Amit V; Dudhagara, Pravin; Koringa, Prakash; Joshi, C G; Patel, Rajesh K

    2015-06-01

    This is the first report on the metagenomic approach for unveiling the microbial diversity of Lasundra hot spring, Gujarat State, India. High-throughput sequencing of community DNA was performed on an Ion Torrent PGM platform. Metagenome consisted of 606,867 sequences represent 98,567,305 bps size with an average length of 162 bps and 46% G + C content. Metagenome sequence information is available at EBI under EBI Metagenomic database with accession no. ERP009313. MG-RAST assisted community analysis revealed that 99.21% sequences were bacterial origin, 0.43% was fit to eukaryotes and 0.11% belongs to archaea. A total of 29 bacterial, 20 eukaryotic and 4 archaeal phyla were detected. Abundant genera were Bacillus (86.7%), Geobacillus (2.4%), Paenibacillus (1.0%), Clostridium (0.7%) and Listeria (0.5%), that represent 91.52% in metagenome. In functional analysis, Cluster of Orthologous Group (COG) based annotation revealed that 45.4% was metabolism connected and 19.6% falls in poorly characterized group. Subsystem based annotation approach suggests that the 14.0% was carbohydrates, 7.0% was protein metabolism and 3.0% genes for various stress responses together with the versatile presence of commercially useful traits. PMID:26484181

  9. A LIFE CRISIS AND ITS MANAGEMENT A CASE STUDY FROM NORTH INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Pfleiderer, Beatrix

    1985-01-01

    The behaviour of so called traditional patients has been the topic of anthropological research for the last thirty years. Myths have been and constructed and rejected, one being that patients with chronic and less incapacitating illness see rather traditional healers than allopathic medical treatment. The case study with which we are concerned in this paper is the illness of a young girl who is the age in which she is expected to accept a marriage contract. Since she is obviously not willing to do she adopts an illness behaviour which enables her to postpone all role expectations of her age group. She performs a behaviour which is socially accepted and guarantees all the support from her family which she needs and requires. The paper investigates the causes, reason and development of her spirit possession and relates it to the cultural grammar of the patient's group of reference. The data of this case study were obtained at a Muslim shrine in Gujarat, India. PMID:22557510

  10. Social capital and basic goods: the cautionary tale of drinking water in India.

    PubMed

    Motiram, Sripad; Osberg, Lars

    2010-01-01

    This study uses micro-data from the 1998-99 Indian Time Use Survey (ITUS; covering 77,593 persons in 18,591 households in Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Orissa, and Haryana) to argue that time use data provides a natural metric for measuring "social capital" building activities and for distinguishing between the relative importance of "bonding" into groups or "bridging" within communities. The study examines the correlation between inequality in landownership, caste status, measures of local social capital, and whether or not a household will have to collect water. In India, the probability that a rural household fetches water is 4.8% and 9.1% lower in communities in which the average time spent on social interaction and community-based activities at the district-level doubles, but it is 18.9% greater when the time in group-based activities doubles. Inequalities in landownership and home ownership are associated with considerably larger differences in local tap water availability.

  11. Assessing Institutional Ethics Committees in India Using the IRB-RAT.

    PubMed

    Chenneville, Tiffany; Menezes, Lynette; Bylsma, Lauren M; Mann, Angela; Kosambiya, Jayendrakumar; Baxi, Rajendra

    2014-10-01

    Institutional ethics committees (IECs) are currently still in their infancy in low- to middle-income countries (LMICs), which may have important implications with regard to the oversight of the protection of human participants. Understanding how these IECs currently function is a critical first step in helping LMICs build infrastructures that support the protection of research participants and improve the scientific quality of health research worldwide. We assessed the functioning of the IECs at two medical colleges in Gujarat, India, by administering the Institutional Review Board Researcher's Assessment Tool (IRB-RAT) to 42 IEC and faculty members. The IRB-RAT includes eight scales assessing various domains related to how investigators and members perceive their ethics committees. Results from t tests revealed significant differences between ideal ratings and descriptive ratings on each of the IRB-RAT scales with ideal ratings being higher than current descriptive ratings on all of the scales (<.001). These findings suggest areas that can be targeted for improvement and also provide important information about the values of Indian IECs.

  12. EARTHQUAKES - VOLCANOES (Causes - Forecast - Counteraction)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2014-05-01

    Earthquakes and volcanoes are caused by: 1)Various liquid elements (e.g. H20, H2S, S02) which emerge from the pyrosphere and are trapped in the space between the solid crust and the pyrosphere (Moho discontinuity). 2)Protrusions of the solid crust at the Moho discontinuity (mountain range roots, sinking of the lithosphere's plates). 3)The differential movement of crust and pyrosphere. The crust misses one full rotation for approximately every 100 pyrosphere rotations, mostly because of the lunar pull. The above mentioned elements can be found in small quantities all over the Moho discontinuity, and they are constantly causing minor earthquakes and small volcanic eruptions. When large quantities of these elements (H20, H2S, SO2, etc) concentrate, they are carried away by the pyrosphere, moving from west to east under the crust. When this movement takes place under flat surfaces of the solid crust, it does not cause earthquakes. But when these elements come along a protrusion (a mountain root) they concentrate on its western side, displacing the pyrosphere until they fill the space created. Due to the differential movement of pyrosphere and solid crust, a vacuum is created on the eastern side of these protrusions and when the aforementioned liquids overfill this space, they explode, escaping to the east. At the point of their escape, these liquids are vaporized and compressed, their flow accelerates, their temperature rises due to fluid friction and they are ionized. On the Earth's surface, a powerful rumbling sound and electrical discharges in the atmosphere, caused by the movement of the gasses, are noticeable. When these elements escape, the space on the west side of the protrusion is violently taken up by the pyrosphere, which collides with the protrusion, causing a major earthquake, attenuation of the protrusions, cracks on the solid crust and damages to structures on the Earth's surface. It is easy to foresee when an earthquake will occur and how big it is

  13. Earthquakes - Volcanoes (Causes - Forecast - Counteraction)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2013-04-01

    Earthquakes and volcanoes are caused by: 1)Various liquid elements (e.g. H20, H2S, S02) which emerge from the pyrosphere and are trapped in the space between the solid crust and the pyrosphere (Moho discontinuity). 2)Protrusions of the solid crust at the Moho discontinuity (mountain range roots, sinking of the lithosphere's plates). 3)The differential movement of crust and pyrosphere. The crust misses one full rotation for approximately every 100 pyrosphere rotations, mostly because of the lunar pull. The above mentioned elements can be found in small quantities all over the Moho discontinuity, and they are constantly causing minor earthquakes and small volcanic eruptions. When large quantities of these elements (H20, H2S, SO2, etc) concentrate, they are carried away by the pyrosphere, moving from west to east under the crust. When this movement takes place under flat surfaces of the solid crust, it does not cause earthquakes. But when these elements come along a protrusion (a mountain root) they concentrate on its western side, displacing the pyrosphere until they fill the space created. Due to the differential movement of pyrosphere and solid crust, a vacuum is created on the eastern side of these protrusions and when the aforementioned liquids overfill this space, they explode, escaping to the east. At the point of their escape, these liquids are vaporized and compressed, their flow accelerates, their temperature rises due to fluid friction and they are ionized. On the Earth's surface, a powerful rumbling sound and electrical discharges in the atmosphere, caused by the movement of the gasses, are noticeable. When these elements escape, the space on the west side of the protrusion is violently taken up by the pyrosphere, which collides with the protrusion, causing a major earthquake, attenuation of the protrusions, cracks on the solid crust and damages to structures on the Earth's surface. It is easy to foresee when an earthquake will occur and how big it is

  14. Earthquakes - Volcanoes (Causes - Forecast - Counteraction)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2015-04-01

    Earthquakes and volcanoes are caused by: 1) Various liquid elements (e.g. H20, H2S, S02) which emerge from the pyrosphere and are trapped in the space between the solid crust and the pyrosphere (Moho discontinuity). 2) Protrusions of the solid crust at the Moho discontinuity (mountain range roots, sinking of the lithosphere's plates). 3) The differential movement of crust and pyrosphere. The crust misses one full rotation for approximately every 100 pyrosphere rotations, mostly because of the lunar pull. The above mentioned elements can be found in small quantities all over the Moho discontinuity, and they are constantly causing minor earthquakes and small volcanic eruptions. When large quantities of these elements (H20, H2S, SO2, etc) concentrate, they are carried away by the pyrosphere, moving from west to east under the crust. When this movement takes place under flat surfaces of the solid crust, it does not cause earthquakes. But when these elements come along a protrusion (a mountain root) they concentrate on its western side, displacing the pyrosphere until they fill the space created. Due to the differential movement of pyrosphere and solid crust, a vacuum is created on the eastern side of these protrusions and when the aforementioned liquids overfill this space, they explode, escaping to the east. At the point of their escape, these liquids are vaporized and compressed, their flow accelerates, their temperature rises due to fluid friction and they are ionized. On the Earth's surface, a powerful rumbling sound and electrical discharges in the atmosphere, caused by the movement of the gasses, are noticeable. When these elements escape, the space on the west side of the protrusion is violently taken up by the pyrosphere, which collides with the protrusion, causing a major earthquake, attenuation of the protrusions, cracks on the solid crust and damages to structures on the Earth's surface. It is easy to foresee when an earthquake will occur and how big it is

  15. Incubation of Chile's 1960 Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, B. F.; Cisternas, M.; Salgado, I.; Machuca, G.; Lagos, M.; Eipert, A.; Shishikura, M.

    2003-12-01

    Infrequent occurrence of giant events may help explain how the 1960 Chile earthquake attained M 9.5. Although old documents imply that this earthquake followed great earthquakes of 1575, 1737 and 1837, only three earthquakes of the past 1000 years produced geologic records like those for 1960. These earlier earthquakes include the 1575 event but not 1737 or 1837. Because the 1960 earthquake had nearly twice the seismic slip expected from plate convergence since 1837, much of the strain released in 1960 may have been accumulating since 1575. Geologic evidence for such incubation comes from new paleoseismic findings at the R¡o Maullin estuary, which indents the Pacific coast at 41.5§ S midway along the 1960 rupture. The 1960 earthquake lowered the area by 1.5 m, and the ensuing tsunami spread sand across lowland soils. The subsidence killed forests and changed pastures into sandy tidal flats. Guided by these 1960 analogs, we inferred tsunami and earthquake history from sand sheets, tree rings, and old maps. At Chuyaquen, 10 km upriver from the sea, we studied sand sheets in 31 backhoe pits on a geologic transect 1 km long. Each sheet overlies the buried soil of a former marsh or meadow. The sand sheet from 1960 extends the entire length of the transect. Three earlier sheets can be correlated at least half that far. The oldest one, probably a tsunami deposit, surrounds herbaceous plants that date to AD 990-1160. Next comes a sandy tidal-flat deposit dated by stratigraphic position to about 1000-1500. The penultimate sheet is a tsunami deposit younger than twigs from 1410-1630. It probably represents the 1575 earthquake, whose accounts of shaking, tsunami, and landslides rival those of 1960. In that case, the record excludes the 1737 and 1837 events. The 1737 and 1837 events also appear missing in tree-ring evidence from islands of Misquihue, 30 km upriver from the sea. Here the subsidence in 1960 admitted brackish tidal water that defoliated tens of thousands of

  16. Understanding and responding to earthquake hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, C. A.; Lundgren, P. R.; Madsen, S. N.; Rundle, J. B.

    2002-01-01

    Advances in understanding of the earthquake cycle and in assessing earthquake hazards is a topic of great importance. Dynamic earthquake hazard assessments resolved for a range of spatial scales and time scales will allow a more systematic approach to prioritizing the retrofitting of vulnerable structures, relocating populations at risk, protecting lifelines, preparing for disasters, and educating the public.

  17. Earthquakes in the New Zealand Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Cleland

    1995-01-01

    Presents a thorough overview of earthquakes in New Zealand, discussing plate tectonics, seismic measurement, and historical occurrences. Includes 10 figures illustrating such aspects as earthquake distribution, intensity, and fissures in the continental crust. Tabular data includes a list of most destructive earthquakes and descriptive effects…

  18. Earthquakes: A Teacher's Package for K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association, Washington, DC.

    Like rain, an earthquake is a natural occurrence which may be mild or catastrophic. Although an earthquake may last only a few seconds, the processes that cause it have operated within the earth for millions of years. Until recently, the cause of earthquakes was a mystery and the subject of fanciful folklore to people all around the world. This…

  19. Modeling, Forecasting and Mitigating Extreme Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Le Mouel, J.; Soloviev, A.

    2012-12-01

    Recent earthquake disasters highlighted the importance of multi- and trans-disciplinary studies of earthquake risk. A major component of earthquake disaster risk analysis is hazards research, which should cover not only a traditional assessment of ground shaking, but also studies of geodetic, paleoseismic, geomagnetic, hydrological, deep drilling and other geophysical and geological observations together with comprehensive modeling of earthquakes and forecasting extreme events. Extreme earthquakes (large magnitude and rare events) are manifestations of complex behavior of the lithosphere structured as a hierarchical system of blocks of different sizes. Understanding of physics and dynamics of the extreme events comes from observations, measurements and modeling. A quantitative approach to simulate earthquakes in models of fault dynamics will be presented. The models reproduce basic features of the observed seismicity (e.g., the frequency-magnitude relationship, clustering of earthquakes, occurrence of extreme seismic events). They provide a link between geodynamic processes and seismicity, allow studying extreme events, influence of fault network properties on seismic patterns and seismic cycles, and assist, in a broader sense, in earthquake forecast modeling. Some aspects of predictability of large earthquakes (how well can large earthquakes be predicted today?) will be also discussed along with possibilities in mitigation of earthquake disasters (e.g., on 'inverse' forensic investigations of earthquake disasters).

  20. Izmit, Turkey 1999 Earthquake Interferogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is an interferogram that was created using pairs of images taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The images, acquired at two different times, have been combined to measure surface deformation or changes that may have occurred during the time between data acquisition. The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-2) on 13 August 1999 and 17 September 1999 and were combined to produce these image maps of the apparent surface deformation, or changes, during and after the 17 August 1999 Izmit, Turkey earthquake. This magnitude 7.6 earthquake was the largest in 60 years in Turkey and caused extensive damage and loss of life. Each of the color contours of the interferogram represents 28 mm (1.1 inches) of motion towards the satellite, or about 70 mm (2.8 inches) of horizontal motion. White areas are outside the SAR image or water of seas and lakes. The North Anatolian Fault that broke during the Izmit earthquake moved more than 2.5 meters (8.1 feet) to produce the pattern measured by the interferogram. Thin red lines show the locations of fault breaks mapped on the surface. The SAR interferogram shows that the deformation and fault slip extended west of the surface faults, underneath the Gulf of Izmit. Thick black lines mark the fault rupture inferred from the SAR data. Scientists are using the SAR interferometry along with other data collected on the ground to estimate the pattern of slip that occurred during the Izmit earthquake. This then used to improve computer models that predict how this deformation transferred stress to other faults and to the continuation of the North Anatolian Fault, which extends to the west past the large city of Istanbul. These models show that the Izmit earthquake further increased the already high probability of a major earthquake near Istanbul.