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  1. Association of Adiposity with Pulse Pressure Amongst Gujarati Indian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Wasim A; Patel, Minal; Singh, SK

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aim: The current study was conducted to determine the effect of adiposity on vascular distensibility in Gujarati Indian adolescents as research indicating the pathogenesis of hypertension among overweight and/or obese Indian adolescents is scant and ethnic differences exist in the pathogenesis of hypertension Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 488 Gujarati Indian adolescents of 16-19 years age group. Adiposity was assessed in terms of BMI, Body Fat %, Fat Mass, Fat Mass Index and Waist Circumference. Arterial blood pressure was recorded and pulse pressure (PP) was calculated using the standard equation based on the difference between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Pearson’s correlation coefficient was determined to find the association between the markers of adiposity and SBP, DBP and PP. Result: A significant positive correlationship was found between adiposity and PP in boys. However, no significant correlationship was found between adiposity and PP in girls. Conclusion: An increase in total as well as visceral adiposity is probably associated with a decrease in vascular distensibility in the Gujarati Indian adolescent boys but not in girls, thus indicating a protective role of female sex hormone estrogen which has been shown earlier to protect the vasculature from atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction which occurs with increase in adiposity. PMID:21031107

  2. Association of adiposity with pulse pressure amongst gujarati Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Wasim A; Patel, Minal; Singh, Sk

    2010-07-01

    The current study was conducted to determine the effect of adiposity on vascular distensibility in Gujarati Indian adolescents as research indicating the pathogenesis of hypertension among overweight and/or obese Indian adolescents is scant and ethnic differences exist in the pathogenesis of hypertension A cross-sectional study was conducted on 488 Gujarati Indian adolescents of 16-19 years age group. Adiposity was assessed in terms of BMI, Body Fat %, Fat Mass, Fat Mass Index and Waist Circumference. Arterial blood pressure was recorded and pulse pressure (PP) was calculated using the standard equation based on the difference between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Pearson's correlation coefficient was determined to find the association between the markers of adiposity and SBP, DBP and PP. A significant positive correlationship was found between adiposity and PP in boys. However, no significant correlationship was found between adiposity and PP in girls. An increase in total as well as visceral adiposity is probably associated with a decrease in vascular distensibility in the Gujarati Indian adolescent boys but not in girls, thus indicating a protective role of female sex hormone estrogen which has been shown earlier to protect the vasculature from atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction which occurs with increase in adiposity.

  3. Sleep deprivation predisposes gujarati Indian adolescents to obesity.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Wasim A; Patel, Minal; Singh, Sk

    2009-07-01

    Recent studies on various populations indicate that lack of sleep is one of the potential risk factors predisposing the youth to obesity. Since there is a significant rise in obesity among Indian youth and because research indicating the role of sleep in development of obesity among Indian population is scant, the current study was undertaken to assess the effect of sleep duration on adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents. A randomized cross-sectional study was done on 489 voluntarily participating Indian adolescents in the age group of 16-19 years. Participants were grouped into two categories 1). Adequate Sleep Duration at Night (more than seven hours, ASDN) and 2) Inadequate Sleep Duration at Night (less than seven hours, IASDN) as reported by the participants. The participants were later assessed for adiposity in terms of BMI, BF %, FM, FMI and waist circumference, meal frequency per day and physical activity status. In both boys as well as girls, the BMI, BF%, FM and FMI were significantly lower in the ASDN group than the IASDN group. However, there was an insignificant difference in the meal frequency and physical activity status between the ASDN and IASDN group. Inadequate sleep duration increases adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents but further studies are required to find out the mechanisms through which sleep affects adiposity in this population.

  4. Sleep Deprivation Predisposes Gujarati Indian Adolescents to Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Wasim A; Patel, Minal; Singh, SK

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aim: Recent studies on various populations indicate that lack of sleep is one of the potential risk factors predisposing the youth to obesity. Since there is a significant rise in obesity among Indian youth and because research indicating the role of sleep in development of obesity among Indian population is scant, the current study was undertaken to assess the effect of sleep duration on adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents. Materials and Methods: A randomized cross-sectional study was done on 489 voluntarily participating Indian adolescents in the age group of 16-19 years. Participants were grouped into two categories 1). Adequate Sleep Duration at Night (more than seven hours, ASDN) and 2) Inadequate Sleep Duration at Night (less than seven hours, IASDN) as reported by the participants. The participants were later assessed for adiposity in terms of BMI, BF %, FM, FMI and waist circumference, meal frequency per day and physical activity status. Results: In both boys as well as girls, the BMI, BF%, FM and FMI were significantly lower in the ASDN group than the IASDN group. However, there was an insignificant difference in the meal frequency and physical activity status between the ASDN and IASDN group. Conclusion: Inadequate sleep duration increases adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents but further studies are required to find out the mechanisms through which sleep affects adiposity in this population. PMID:20049294

  5. Association of Sleep Duration with Arterial Blood Pressure Profile of Gujarati Indian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Wasim A; Patel, Minal; Singh, SK

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aim: Recently, National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey-1 data analysis found short sleep duration as a risk factor for hypertension in the U.S. population. However, since ethnic differences exist in the aetiopathogenesis of diseases, the current study was undertaken to study the effect of sleep duration on the blood pressure profile of Gujarati Indian adolescents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 489 Gujarati Indian adolescents of age group 16-19 years studying in school and colleges in the local population. The participants were assessed for their sleep duration, physical activity status, body composition, blood pressure profile and cardiovascular reactivity. The sleep duration was reported by the subjects as the number of hours they slept on most of the nights in a week over the last one year. The observations of the study were then analyzed after grouping them into: 1) Adequate Sleep Duration at Night, ASDN (≥7 hrs) and 2) Inadequate Sleep Duration at Night, ISDN (<7 hrs) groups. Student's unpaired t-test was used to study if any significant difference (P< 0.05) existed between the groups. Results: No significant difference was found in Systolic blood pressure, Diastolic blood pressure, Pulse pressure and Mean arterial pressure between the ASDN group and the ISDN group. Physical activity status also did not differ between the two groups. However, adolescents of ISDN group showed a significantly higher level of adiposity and cardiovascular reactivity as compared to adolescents of ASDN group. Conclusion: Although short sleep duration is associated with a higher level of adiposity and cardiovascular reactivity in Gujarati Indian adolescents, it does not affect the resting blood pressure profile of these adolescents. However, longitudinal studies would be required to observe if the changes in adiposity and cardiovascular reactivity affect these adolescents in later life. PMID:20606936

  6. Association of sleep duration with arterial blood pressure profile of gujarati Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Wasim A; Patel, Minal; Singh, Sk

    2010-01-01

    Recently, National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey-1 data analysis found short sleep duration as a risk factor for hypertension in the U.S. population. However, since ethnic differences exist in the aetiopathogenesis of diseases, the current study was undertaken to study the effect of sleep duration on the blood pressure profile of Gujarati Indian adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 489 Gujarati Indian adolescents of age group 16-19 years studying in school and colleges in the local population. The participants were assessed for their sleep duration, physical activity status, body composition, blood pressure profile and cardiovascular reactivity. The sleep duration was reported by the subjects as the number of hours they slept on most of the nights in a week over the last one year. The observations of the study were then analyzed after grouping them into: 1) Adequate Sleep Duration at Night, ASDN (>/=7 hrs) and 2) Inadequate Sleep Duration at Night, ISDN (<7 hrs) groups. Student's unpaired t-test was used to study if any significant difference (P< 0.05) existed between the groups. No significant difference was found in Systolic blood pressure, Diastolic blood pressure, Pulse pressure and Mean arterial pressure between the ASDN group and the ISDN group. Physical activity status also did not differ between the two groups. However, adolescents of ISDN group showed a significantly higher level of adiposity and cardiovascular reactivity as compared to adolescents of ASDN group. Although short sleep duration is associated with a higher level of adiposity and cardiovascular reactivity in Gujarati Indian adolescents, it does not affect the resting blood pressure profile of these adolescents. However, longitudinal studies would be required to observe if the changes in adiposity and cardiovascular reactivity affect these adolescents in later life.

  7. Effect of gender on the association of adiposity with cardiovascular reactivity in Gujarati Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Wasim A; Patel, Minal; Singh, S K

    2011-01-01

    Studies have reported that both gender and adiposity influence cardiovascular reactivity amongst adolescents. However, not much is known about the effect of gender on the association of adiposity with cardiovascular reactivity. The current study was conducted to learn how gender affects the association of adiposity with cardiovascular reactivity in the Gujarati Indian adolescents so as to develop preventive strategies for the local population. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 428 (Girls-173, Boys-255) Gujarati Indian adolescents of age group 16-19 years. Adiposity was assessed in terms of Body Mass Index (BMI), Body Fat Percentage (BF %), Fat Mass (FM), Fat Mass Index (FMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). Percentage Rise in Pulse Rate (%RPR) and Percentage Rise in Diastolic Blood Pressure (%RDBP) during Isometric Handgrip Test were used to assess the cardiovascular reactivity to acute sympathetic stress. Pearson's correlation coefficient was determined to find the association of adiposity with cardiovascular reactivity. Boys were found to have a significantly larger WC, higher physical fitness and greater %RDBP in comparison to girls while girls had a significantly higher BF% and FMI in comparison to boys. In both boys and girls, BMI, BF%, FMI and WC showed significant positive association with %RDBP with stronger correlationship found in girls. Girls also showed a significant negative correlationship between physical fitness and vascular reactivity. It could thus be concluded that gender affected the association of adiposity with vascular reactivity in Gujarati Indian adolescent such that girls tend to have a larger correlationship between adiposity and vascular reactivity than boys which is most likely due to lower physical fitness.

  8. Association of physical activity and physical fitness with blood pressure profile in Gujarati Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Wasim A; Patel, Minal C; Singh, S K

    2011-01-01

    The current study was conducted to determine how physical activity level and physical fitness affects the blood pressure profile of Gujarati Indian adolescents so as to help in developing preventive strategies for the local population as ethnic differences exist in the aetiopathogenesis of hypertension. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 485 Gujarati Indian adolescent boys and girls of age group 16-19 years. Physical activity level was assessed using Johnson Space Center/NASA Physical Activity Rating Scale and VO2 max was used to assess the physical fitness. Body composition was assessed in terms of Body Mass Index, Fat Mass Index and Waist Circumference. Blood Pressure was measured by oscillometry. One-way ANOVA was used to study if any significant differences (P<0.05) existed in the blood pressure profile between the high, moderate and low physical activity groups. Pearson's correlation coefficient was determined to assess the relationship between VO2 max and blood pressure profile. In girls, physical activity level was not found to have a significant effect on the blood pressure profile. In boys, systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were found to be significantly higher in Moderate Physical Activity Group as compared to Low Physical Activity Group. PVO2 max was found to have a significant negative correlationship with SBP, DBP and MAP in girls and a significant negative correlationship with SBP, PP and MAP in boys. It could thus be concluded that a better physical fitness rather than a higher physical activity level could keep the blood pressure in check in the Gujarati Indian adolescents.

  9. Association of sleep duration with blood glucose level of Gujarati Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Patel, Minal C; Shaikh, Wasim A; Singh, S K

    2012-01-01

    Recently studies conducted in various parts of the world indicate short sleep duration as a novel risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes. However, ethnic differences exist in the etiopathogenesis of diseases, the current study was undertaken to study the effect of sleep duration on the blood glucose level of Gujarati Indian adolescents. A randomized, non-experimental, cross-sectional study was done on the voluntary participants n = 332 Gujarati adolescent boys and girls of age group 13-20 years studying at the schools and colleges in the Anand district. The participants were assessed for their sleep duration, body composition and blood glucose level. The sleep duration was reported by the subjects as the number of hours they slept on most of the nights in a week over the last one-year. The observations of the study were then analyzed after grouping them into: 1) Adequate sleep duration at night, ASDN (> or = 7 hrs) and 2) Inadequate sleep duration at night, ISDN (< 7 hrs) groups. One-way ANOVA and post hoc Tuky-Krammer test were used for finding significant differences (P < 0.05) between groups. No significant difference was found in all parameters of body composition and fasting blood glucose level between the ASDN group and ISDN group in both boys and girls. However, gender difference exists in the body composition and blood glucose level. The current study indicates that inadequate sleep duration at night (< 7 hrs) does not affect the blood glucose level of the Gujarati Indian adolescents of age group 13-20 years.

  10. Arterial blood pressure is inversely associated with vascular sympathetic reactivity (isometric handgrip exercise) in Gujarati Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Wasim A; Patel, Minal; Shah, Hasmukh D; Nimbalkar, Archana S; Patel, Nilesh; Singh, S K

    2014-01-01

    Studies conducted earlier have found that vascular sympathetic reactivity to isometric handgrip exercise is either low or high in adolescents with higher blood pressure (Hypertensives) as compared to adolescents with relatively lower blood pressure (Normotensive). The current study was conducted to determine the correlation of vascular sympathetic reactivity to isometric handgrip exercise with blood pressure in Gujarati Indian adolescents so as to understand the pathogenesis and/consequences of Hypertension in this population. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 651 Gujarati Indian adolescents (285 girls, 366 boys) of age group 13-19 years. Blood pressure was measured by oscillometry and vascular sympathetic reactivity (Percentage rise in Diastolic Blood Pressure, %RDBP) was assessed using isometric handgrip test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was determined to study the correlation between %RDBP and blood pressure. In both girls and boys, %RDBP showed significant negative correlation with resting SBP, DBP and MAP. The study thus indicates that an inverse association exist between arterial blood pressure and vascular sympathetic reactivity to isometric handgrip exercise in Gujarati Indian adolescents.

  11. A study of sutural bones in Gujarati (Indian) crania.

    PubMed

    Pal, G P; Bhagwat, S S; Routal, R V

    1986-03-01

    370 adult crania were examined to find the incidence of sutural bones in Gujarati (Indian) crania and to compare it with other populations to establish the distance between them. The mean measure of difference between Indian and other populations was statistically significant. Comparison of cranial capacity in skulls with and without sutural bones showed no significant difference, and this is interpreted as indicating that sutural bones are not formed secondary to stress.

  12. British Gujarati Indian immigrants' and British Caucasians' beliefs about health and illness.

    PubMed

    Jobanputra, Rena; Furnham, Adrian

    2005-12-01

    This study examined cultural differences in beliefs about health and illness to explore differences in younger and older British Caucasians' and British Gujarati Indian immigrants' beliefs about health and illness. This study required a matched group consisting of first- and second-generation Gujarati Indian immigrants and native British Caucasians to complete a questionnaire assessing their beliefs concerning health and illness. Factor analysis of the health beliefs questionnaire identified six clear factors accounting for 36.04% of the variance. Subsequent ANCOVAs conducted on the factor scores, partialling out the demographic differences between the participants, revealed that Gujarati Indian immigrants agreed with items reflecting supernatural explanations of ill health more than indigenous British Caucasian participants. Older Indian immigrants also rated chance-related factors as more important than older Caucasian immigrants. There were no significant differences between the Gujarati Indian immigrants and British Caucasians in terms of attributions made to psychological factors and self-responsibility, social factors and life circumstances, medical treatment and physical vulnerability and the external environment. Findings are discussed in relation to the model proposed by Helman (2001) and the impact of migration on health beliefs systems; practical implications of the findings are also highlighted.

  13. The Influence of Gujarati and Tamil L1s on Indian English: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltshire, Caroline R.; Harnsberger, James D.

    2006-01-01

    English as spoken as a second language in India has developed distinct sound patterns in terms of both segmental and prosodic characteristics. We investigate the differences between two groups varying in native language (Gujarati, Tamil) to evaluate to what extent Indian English (IE) accents are based on a single target phonological-phonetic…

  14. The Influence of Gujarati and Tamil L1s on Indian English: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltshire, Caroline R.; Harnsberger, James D.

    2006-01-01

    English as spoken as a second language in India has developed distinct sound patterns in terms of both segmental and prosodic characteristics. We investigate the differences between two groups varying in native language (Gujarati, Tamil) to evaluate to what extent Indian English (IE) accents are based on a single target phonological-phonetic…

  15. Nutrient intake of first generation Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Diwan, Sadhna

    2002-10-01

    To examine the nutrient intake of Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants in the U.S. and the influence of length of residence in the U.S. and socioeconomic status (SES) on their macronutrient intake. Subjects were male (n = 90) and female (n = 99) Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants over the age of 45. Each participant completed a 24-hour dietary recall. Dietary recalls were analyzed using Food Processor nutrient analysis software. Participants were classified into recent immigrants (<10 years length of residence in the U.S.) and long-term immigrants (>10 years length of residence in the U.S.) and into low, medium and high education groups, based on highest level of education achieved, to examine the influence of these variables on their macronutrient intake. The macronutrient contributions to the total energy intake of these Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants were as follows: carbohydrate 57%, protein 12% and total fat 33%. The diets were low in cholesterol (<100 mg/day) and high in dietary fiber (>/=25 g/day). Reported intakes of vitamin D, calcium (women only), potassium (women only), copper and zinc were less than two-thirds of the recommendations. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in macronutrient intake were observed based on length of residence in the U.S. and SES. Regression analysis indicates age, total energy intake, length of residence in the U.S. and SES to have a significant influence on the nutrient intake of these Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants. The nutrient intakes of these Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants indicate both inadequacies and excesses of select macro and micronutrients. These nutrient inadequacies and excesses can impact overall health and risk of chronic diseases of these individuals. Further investigation of the influence of the diets of these immigrants on their health is warranted.

  16. Sebaceous adenomas in an MYH associated polyposis patient of Indian (Gujarati) origin.

    PubMed

    Ajith Kumar, Vadakke Kanakath; Gold, June Anne; Mallon, Eleanor; Thomas, Shyamala; Hodgson, Shirley V

    2008-01-01

    MYH associated polyposis is an autosomal recessive polyposis syndrome with a high risk of large bowel cancer, caused by mutations in the DNA repair gene MYH. Founder mutations have been described in different ethnic groups. Muir Torre Syndrome is the association of internal malignancies with sebaceous gland tumours; Lynch Syndrome/Hereditary Non Polyposis Cancer is the best known cause. There has been a previous report of sebaceous gland tumours in an Italian patient with MYH associated polyposis. We describe a man of Indian (Gujarati) descent who has MYH associated polyposis and multiple sebaceous adenomas of the skin.

  17. The inverted Y-chromosome polymorphism in the Gujarati Muslim Indian population of South Africa has a single origin.

    PubMed

    Spurdle, A; Jenkins, T

    1992-01-01

    Y-specific polymorphisms were studied in Gujarati Muslim Indians possessing a Y-chromosome pericentric inversion [inv(Y)] in an attempt to prove a common genetic origin for the inversion. The p49a/TaqI and p49a/PvuII haplotypes were determined for 9 normal and 8 inv(Y) Gujarati Muslim men. Men with the inversion possessed identical TaqI and PvuII profiles, as opposed to 7 different TaqI and 8 different PvuII haplotypes observed in the 9 normal men. These results provide conclusive evidence for a common genetic origin of the inverted Y chromosome observed in this Gujarati Muslim community.

  18. Are Gujarati Asian Indians 'older' for their 'vascular age' as compared to their 'Chronological age'?

    PubMed

    Sharma, K H; Sahoo, S; Shah, K H; Patel, A K; Jadhav, N D; Parmar, M M; Patel, K H

    2015-02-01

    South Asians are known to carry higher burden of cardiovascular diseases when compared with their Caucasian counterparts. This study was designed to evaluate whether vascular age is advanced for Gujarati Asian Indians as matched to their chronological age in apparently healthy, asymptomatic population. We have also assessed the contributing risk factors for premature vascular ageing. It was cross-sectional study of 2483 individuals of Gujarat state in Western India having no past or present history of major illness including cardiovascular diseases. The vascular age of the population was calculated using Framingham vascular age calculator. A relationship between risk factor prevalence and vascular ageing was evaluated using univariate analysis of variance. The mean chronological age of the study population was 46.8 (±10.35) years whereas mean vascular age was 53.34 (±16.05) years, and the difference (6.54±9.5) between both was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Contributory risk factors for advanced vascular age apart from chronological age (75.4%) and male gender (66.2%) were the presence of dyslipidemia (60.4%) hypertension (57.34%) and increased waist circumference (WC) (male 39.7%, female 29%). Results of regression analysis showed that vascular age progression was highly associated with blood pressure (19.9, 95% CI: 14.34-27.63), followed by smoking (15.23, 95% CI: 8.4-27.59), and blood sugar (12.97, 95% CI: 3.48-48.25). The Gujarati Asian Indians are subjected to premature vascular ageing and henceforth routine screening for vascular age and risk factors prevalence is strongly advocated in this ethnic group. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Love and desire amongst middle-class Gujarati Indians in the UK and India.

    PubMed

    Twamley, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes findings from an ethnographic study exploring understandings of love and intimacy amongst young heterosexual middle-class Indians of Gujarati origin in the UK and India. A two-site comparative study was used to enable an understanding of how social and economic contexts shape cultural constructions of intimate relationships and sexuality. Focusing on attitudes to 'love at first sight', this paper shows that, for Indian participants, love based on physical attraction denotes a lesser kind of love. A relationship based on 'physical love' is not expected to last, since it has been formed without regard to family and status concerns. Even couples who meet outside of the arranged marriage system demonstrate the quality of their love by not having sex with one another before marriage. In the UK, however, participants view love as properly spontaneous. Love at first sight is considered desirable and demonstrates how the relationship must be based on love only, without any concern for (for example) material gain. This spontaneous love entails both physical attraction and emotional connection - an early transition to sex, usually before marriage, was seen as both desirable and inevitable.

  20. Age and Sex Specific Reference Intervals for Modifiable Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases for Gujarati Asian Indians

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Sibasis; Shah, Komal H.; Konat, Ashwati R.; Sharma, Kamal H.; Tripathi, Payal

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to establish age and sex specific percentile reference data for cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI in apparently healthy and disease-free Gujarati population. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 3265 apparently healthy and disease-free individuals of both genders residing in Gujarat state. Fasting samples of blood were used for biochemical estimations of lipids and sugar. The measurement of BMI and blood pressure was also done according to the standard guidelines. Age and gender specific 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles were obtained. Results. The mean values of lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in males as compared to female population. Age-wise distribution trends showed increase in the risk factors from the 2nd decade until the 5th to 6th decade in most of the cases, where loss of premenopausal protection in females was also observed. Specific trends according to gender and age were observed in percentile values of various parameters. Conclusion. The outcome of current study will contribute significantly to proposing clinically important reference values of various lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI that could be used to screen the asymptomatic Gujarati Indian population with a propensity of developing dyslipidemia, diabetes, blood pressure, and obesity. PMID:26824054

  1. Age and Sex Specific Reference Intervals for Modifiable Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases for Gujarati Asian Indians.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Sibasis; Shah, Komal H; Konat, Ashwati R; Sharma, Kamal H; Tripathi, Payal

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to establish age and sex specific percentile reference data for cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI in apparently healthy and disease-free Gujarati population. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 3265 apparently healthy and disease-free individuals of both genders residing in Gujarat state. Fasting samples of blood were used for biochemical estimations of lipids and sugar. The measurement of BMI and blood pressure was also done according to the standard guidelines. Age and gender specific 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles were obtained. Results. The mean values of lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in males as compared to female population. Age-wise distribution trends showed increase in the risk factors from the 2nd decade until the 5th to 6th decade in most of the cases, where loss of premenopausal protection in females was also observed. Specific trends according to gender and age were observed in percentile values of various parameters. Conclusion. The outcome of current study will contribute significantly to proposing clinically important reference values of various lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI that could be used to screen the asymptomatic Gujarati Indian population with a propensity of developing dyslipidemia, diabetes, blood pressure, and obesity.

  2. Developing a Conceptually Equivalent Type 2 Diabetes Risk Score for Indian Gujaratis in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Naina; Stone, Margaret; Barber, Shaun; Gray, Laura; Davies, Melanie; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To apply and assess the suitability of a model consisting of commonly used cross-cultural translation methods to achieve a conceptually equivalent Gujarati language version of the Leicester self-assessment type 2 diabetes risk score. Methods. Implementation of the model involved multiple stages, including pretesting of the translated risk score by conducting semistructured interviews with a purposive sample of volunteers. Interviews were conducted on an iterative basis to enable findings to inform translation revisions and to elicit volunteers' ability to self-complete and understand the risk score. Results. The pretest stage was an essential component involving recruitment of a diverse sample of 18 Gujarati volunteers, many of whom gave detailed suggestions for improving the instructions for the calculation of the risk score and BMI table. Volunteers found the standard and level of Gujarati accessible and helpful in understanding the concept of risk, although many of the volunteers struggled to calculate their BMI. Conclusions. This is the first time that a multicomponent translation model has been applied to the translation of a type 2 diabetes risk score into another language. This project provides an invaluable opportunity to share learning about the transferability of this model for translation of self-completed risk scores in other health conditions. PMID:27703985

  3. Developing a Conceptually Equivalent Type 2 Diabetes Risk Score for Indian Gujaratis in the UK.

    PubMed

    Patel, Naina; Willis, Andrew; Stone, Margaret; Barber, Shaun; Gray, Laura; Davies, Melanie; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To apply and assess the suitability of a model consisting of commonly used cross-cultural translation methods to achieve a conceptually equivalent Gujarati language version of the Leicester self-assessment type 2 diabetes risk score. Methods. Implementation of the model involved multiple stages, including pretesting of the translated risk score by conducting semistructured interviews with a purposive sample of volunteers. Interviews were conducted on an iterative basis to enable findings to inform translation revisions and to elicit volunteers' ability to self-complete and understand the risk score. Results. The pretest stage was an essential component involving recruitment of a diverse sample of 18 Gujarati volunteers, many of whom gave detailed suggestions for improving the instructions for the calculation of the risk score and BMI table. Volunteers found the standard and level of Gujarati accessible and helpful in understanding the concept of risk, although many of the volunteers struggled to calculate their BMI. Conclusions. This is the first time that a multicomponent translation model has been applied to the translation of a type 2 diabetes risk score into another language. This project provides an invaluable opportunity to share learning about the transferability of this model for translation of self-completed risk scores in other health conditions.

  4. Paan and Gutka Use in the United States: A Pilot Study in Bangladeshi and Indian-Gujarati Immigrants in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Changrani, Jyotsna; Gany, Francesca M.; Cruz, Gustavo; Kerr, Ross; Katz, Ralph

    2007-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco and areca nut are popular with South Asians and South Asian immigrants, most commonly used as paan and gutka. Their regular use leads to oral cancer. The South Asian community in the U.S. is rapidly growing, where paan and gutka are readily available. The study was the first exploration of the migration of the paan and gutka habits, and their use in the U.S. A 108-item questionnaire on paan and gutka usage and beliefs was administered to 138 first-generation Bangladeshi and Indian-Gujarati immigrant adults at community sites in the New York metropolitan area. Forty-five percent Indian-Gujaratis reported ever-regular paan use; of which 5% are current users. Thirty-one percent reported ever-regular gutka use; of which 77% are current users. Thirty-five percent Bangladeshis reported ever-regular paan use; of which 70% arc current users. Nine percent reported ever-regular gutka use; of which 67% are current users. Bangladeshis are more likely to identify paan as causing oral cancer. Indian-Gujaratis are more likely to identify gutka as causing oral cancer. Between the two communities, there were significant differences in paan and gutfca usage, migration effects, and oral career risk perception. There is a need for comprehensive migration studies on the determinants of usage, and for community-specific interventions for these carcinogenic products. PMID:17492057

  5. Paan and Gutka Use in the United States: A Pilot Study in Bangladeshi and Indian-Gujarati Immigrants in New York City.

    PubMed

    Changrani, Jyotsna; Gany, Francesca M; Cruz, Gustavo; Kerr, Ross; Katz, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco and areca nut are popular with South Asians and South Asian immigrants, most commonly used as paan and gutka. Their regular use leads to oral cancer. The South Asian community in the U.S. is rapidly growing, where paan and gutka are readily available. The study was the first exploration of the migration of the paan and gutka habits, and their use in the U.S.A 108-item questionnaire on paan and gutka usage and beliefs was administered to 138 first-generation Bangladeshi and Indian-Gujarati immigrant adults at community sites in the New York metropolitan area. Forty-five percent Indian-Gujaratis reported ever-regular paan use; of which 5% are current users. Thirty-one percent reported ever-regular gutka use; of which 77% are current users. Thirty-five percent Bangladeshis reported ever-regular paan use; of which 70% arc current users. Nine percent reported ever-regular gutka use; of which 67% are current users. Bangladeshis are more likely to identify paan as causing oral cancer. Indian-Gujaratis are more likely to identify gutka as causing oral cancer.Between the two communities, there were significant differences in paan and gutfca usage, migration effects, and oral career risk perception. There is a need for comprehensive migration studies on the determinants of usage, and for community-specific interventions for these carcinogenic products.

  6. Novel indexes for diagnosing metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy Gujarati Asian Indians: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Hasit; Shah, Komal; Patel, Priyanka; Prajapati, Jayesh; Parmar, Meena; Doshi, Dhaval; Chaurushia, Shardul

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of four novel indexes-triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio, weight height ratio (WHtR), lipid accumulation product (LAP) and visceral adiposity index (VAI) with conventional components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in order to identify a single index for the diagnosis of MetS in Gujarati Indian population. This observational and cross sectional study involved a total of 3329 healthy adults of 18-79 years of age. Demographic and clinical data such as body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure were measured along with the levels of lipids and fasting blood glucose. The overall prevalence of MetS was 34.32%, which was almost double in older individuals (45.5% vs. 20.8%) and slightly higher in males (37% vs. 31.2%). In comparison to individual components of MetS, three novel indexes-VAI, LAP and TG/HDL-C ratio showed superior diagnostic efficacy yielding an area under curve of 0.856, 0.821 and 0.821 respectively. The optimal cut-offs for VAI, LAP and TG/HDL Ratios for male, females, young and old population are (79.71, 88.12, 75.42, 87.4), (35.62, 34.73, 35.88, 34.7) and (2.249, 3.16, 2.49, 2.79) respectively. The diagnostic effectiveness of novel markers was unaffected by the age and gender of an individual. However, the efficacy of WHtR was comparable with the other conventional markers. Three novel markers-LAP, VAI and TG/HDL-C ratio could be effectively used as a single 'Surrogate marker' for screening of asymptomatic Gujarati Asian Indians with MetS. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Influence of lean body-mass index versus that of fat mass index on blood pressure of gujarati school going adolescents.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vivek; Sinah, S K

    2014-01-01

    There are so many studies associating blood pressure in children and adolescents with body fatness i.e. stating that high body fat is associated with high blood pressure in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine that which portion of the body mass index, fat or fat free mass index is more influencing the blood pressure in Gujarati Indian adolescents. 733 schoolchildren of 10-18 years of both genders were chosen for this study. The body fat percentage and blood pressure were measured and on the basis of body mass and fat mass, fat free mass index and various other indices were calculated. The association of fat mass index and fat free mass index with blood pressure was computed using correlations. The relationship of BMI with mean blood pressure of boys (R = .326) was more strong than that in girls (R = .149). The blood pressure was having more strong positive correlation with lean body mass index than that with fat mass index in all subjects (R = 0.230 versus R = 0.184), boys (R = 0.285 versus R = 0.242), & girls (R = 0.179 versus R = -0.081). Fat free mass index has more strong association with blood pressure than fat mass index in the adolescent population irrespective of gender. However as far as prevention of hypertension is concerned, reducing body fat (rather than only body weight) may remain an important measure to prevent hypertension as body fat mass is reducible while lean body mass may not be reducible and, in long term, obesity itself can lead to hypertension by various mechanisms.

  8. Day-to-day discrimination and health among Asian Indians: a population-based study of Gujarati men and women in Metropolitan Detroit.

    PubMed

    Yoshihama, Mieko; Bybee, Deborah; Blazevski, Juliane

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between experiences of day-to-day discrimination and two measures of health among Gujaratis, one of the largest ethnic groups of Asian Indians in the U.S. Data were collected via computer-assisted telephone interviews with a random sample of Gujarati men and women aged 18-64 in Metropolitan Detroit (N = 423). Using structural equation modeling, we tested two gender-moderated models of the relationship between day-to-day discrimination and health, one using the single-item general health status and the other using the 4-item emotional wellbeing measure. For both women and men, controlling for socio-demographic and other relevant characteristics, the experience of day-to-day discrimination was associated with worse emotional wellbeing. However, day-to-day discrimination was associated with the single-item self-rated general health status only for men. This study identified not only gender differences in discrimination-health associations but also the importance of using multiple questions in assessing perceived health status.

  9. Indian Adolescent Mental Health. OTA Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    The Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs is considering legislation to improve mental health services to American Indians and Alaska Natives. This report is in response to the Committee's request for information on the mental health needs of Indian adolescents and the services available to them. The section on mental health problems among…

  10. Difficulties experienced by a Gujarati geriatric psychiatrist in interviewing Gujarati elders in Gujarati.

    PubMed

    Shah, A

    1999-12-01

    The population of ethnic elders is increasing. A series of 12 Gujarati elderly patients seen by a Gujarati psychogeriatrician are studied using a descriptive methodology. Some difficulties in interviewing these individuals in Gujarati are observed. Further research is needed in this area. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Cultural Identity and Acculturation Preferences among South Asian Adolescents in Britain: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The study reported in this article is part of a wider research project on the adaptation of South Asians in Britain. It examines and compares the acculturation attitudes and cultural identity of Indian and Pakistani second-generation adolescents Indian (Punjabi Sikh and Gujarati Hindu) and Pakistani (Muslim) in Britain. The research project…

  12. Cultural Identity and Acculturation Preferences among South Asian Adolescents in Britain: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The study reported in this article is part of a wider research project on the adaptation of South Asians in Britain. It examines and compares the acculturation attitudes and cultural identity of Indian and Pakistani second-generation adolescents Indian (Punjabi Sikh and Gujarati Hindu) and Pakistani (Muslim) in Britain. The research project…

  13. Stereotypes of American Indians in Adolescent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Nancy Lynn

    1988-01-01

    Reviews several adolescent novels by and about American Indians published in the 1970s and 1980s, including historical and contemporary fiction. Concludes that many books are available which do not stereotype Native Americans. (MM)

  14. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in an elderly immigrant Gujarati population in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Lindesay, J; Jagger, C; Mlynik-Szmid, A; Sinorwala, A; Peet, S; Moledina, F

    1997-12-01

    The principal aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the performance of a Gujarati version of the MMSE as a screening instrument for dementia. The effect of ethnicity on MMSE performance was also examined. Two-stage cross-cultural survey. Elderly immigrant Gujarati and British-born white communities in Leicester. First stage: 149 Gujaratis and 148 whites. Second stage: 27 Gujaratis and 42 whites. English and Gujarati versions of the MMSE, validated against clinical diagnosis following psychiatric interview (ICD-10 criteria). Mean MMSE scores were lower in the Gujarati group, but most of this difference was due to the effects of age, education and visual impairment. Ethnic group had an independent effect on three orientation items; when these were omitted, there was no difference in the mean MMSE scores of the groups after adjustment for age, education and visual impairment. The MMSE performed comparably in both groups as a screen for moderate-severe dementia, but was less efficient at detecting milder and less certain cases in the Gujarati group. The estimated prevalence of confirmed dementia was higher in the Gujarati group, but this was not statistically significant. This Gujarati version of the MMSE performed adequately as a screen for dementia in this immigrant community population. Further evaluation of its performance is required in larger community samples, clinical samples and in native Indian Gujaratis.

  15. American Indian Adolescents and Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buser, Juleen K.

    2010-01-01

    School counselors play an important role in identifying and intervening with students struggling with disordered eating (e.g., Bardick et al., 2004). Research has shown that American Indian adolescents report higher rates of certain disordered eating behaviors than other racial groups. The literature on the prevalence and etiology of disordered…

  16. American Indian Adolescents and Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buser, Juleen K.

    2010-01-01

    School counselors play an important role in identifying and intervening with students struggling with disordered eating (e.g., Bardick et al., 2004). Research has shown that American Indian adolescents report higher rates of certain disordered eating behaviors than other racial groups. The literature on the prevalence and etiology of disordered…

  17. Suicide among American Indian adolescents: an overview.

    PubMed

    Berlin, I N

    1987-01-01

    Suicide has become a major concern of many Indian tribes and pueblos, as the rates in these tribes have increased dramatically in the last decade. One of the critical research questions is how to explain the vastly different rates of adolescent suicide among tribes. Research has identified some common patterns in experience and behavior among Indian adolescent suicides; these patterns are similar in many ways to those found in Los Angeles suicide research of Teicher (1979). Chronic versus acute stress factors in suicide are examined. Recent research has also identified a number of factors characterizing tribes with high suicide rates; these include failure to adhere to traditional ways of living, to traditional religion, and to clans and societies, and the resulting chaotic family structure and adult alcoholism. The roles of adoption of Indian children, boarding schools, and high unemployment in many tribes are also discussed. Suicide prevention and intervention programs are briefly described.

  18. Globalization and Food Prestige among Indian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Maxfield, Amanda; Patil, Shailaja; Cunningham, Solveig A

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a foundation for understanding how globalization and changing food environments are linked to cultural models of food prestige in adolescents. We used methods from cognitive anthropology, including free lists, pile sorts, and consensus modeling, to explore the meanings that Indian adolescents attribute to foods. Adolescents (n = 29) were asked to free list foods eaten outside and inside the home. Different adolescents (n = 65) were asked to pile sort and rank 30 foods identified during the free lists according to which foods are the most prestigious, traditional, routine, and advertised on television. We found that adolescents overwhelmingly believed nontraditional foods to be the most prestigious. Nonlocal foods, both from foreign countries and other regions of India, as well as foods eaten outside the home, were also considered prestigious.

  19. American Indian Adolescent Inhalant Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurman, Pamela Jumper; Green, Vicki A.

    1997-01-01

    A study of inhalant use among 87 American Indian boarding school students aged 10-18 found that inhalant use was negatively related to participation in traditional tribal activities for both males and females and was also related to measures of cognitive ability and cognitive egocentrism for males. (Contains 43 references.) (SV)

  20. Indian Literature and the Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stensland, Anna Lee

    American culture differs from British culture largely due to the historical relationship of the European-American with the Native American. Some contributions of the American Indian culture include state names (Tennessee, Massachusetts, Delaware, and Connecticut), city names (Omaha, Yankton, Yakima, and Peorial), political concepts from the League…

  1. Indian Literature and the Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stensland, Anna Lee

    American culture differs from British culture largely due to the historical relationship of the European-American with the Native American. Some contributions of the American Indian culture include state names (Tennessee, Massachusetts, Delaware, and Connecticut), city names (Omaha, Yankton, Yakima, and Peorial), political concepts from the League…

  2. A study of non-metric (qualitative) variation in Gujarati crania.

    PubMed

    Pal, G P; Routal, R V; Bhagwat, S S

    1988-03-01

    Three hundred and seventy adult skulls (284 crania of unknown sex, 58 males and 28 females) from Gujarat State of India were examined for the incidence of non-metric variants and compared with other populations to establish the distance between them. In general the Gujarati incidences are of similar order to those in other series. The mean measures of divergence between Gujarati and other populations were all statistically significant (P less than 0.001). The Gujarati differed most from Australian Aborigines, but only slightly from the Burma, Punjab and Egypt samples. From the same material side and sex dimorphism was also tested to ascertain that how far sides and sexes can be pooled in Indian sample for making comparison between populations. In Gujarati population out of 22 cranial variants only four show sex difference and in case of bilateral traits, none of the variant has shown significant (P less than 0.05) side to side difference.

  3. Pulmonary function studies in Gujarati subjects.

    PubMed

    Rao, N M; Mavlankar, M G; Kulkarni, P K; Kashyap, S K

    1992-01-01

    In this study a multiple regression equation for prediction of ventilatory pulmonary function tests (FVC, FEV1%, FEF25-75% and PEFR) is developed in average healthy non-smoker male and female Gujarati subjects. The average adult female values showed a reduction varying from 21.0 to 29.0% compared to adult male subjects. There is a deviation of the present study values from other studies in Indian subjects and values from European studies are higher than the present values. This study demonstrated that the present regression equation is the most ideal and appropriate for prediction of pulmonary function values in Gujarati subjects either for assessing physical fitness in normal subjects or for determining the pattern of ventilatory impairment in respiratory disease patients. The pulmonary function values assessed by substituting the average age, height and weight of females in male regression equation revealed lower values in females ranging from 14.0 to 19.0% attributable only due to difference in sex.

  4. Rural female adolescence: Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Kumari, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the life conditions of female adolescents in India and issues such as health, discrimination in nutrition and literacy, child labor, early marriage, juvenile delinquency, and violence against girls in rural areas of India. Data are obtained from interview samples conducted among 12 villages in north India. Female adolescents suffer from a variety of poverty-ridden village life conditions: caste oppression, lack of facilities, malnutrition, educational backwardness, early marriage, domestic burden, and gender neglect. Girls carry a heavy work burden. Adolescence in rural areas is marked by the onset of puberty and the thrust into adulthood. Girls have no independent authority to control their sexuality or reproduction. Girls are expected to get married and produce children. Control of female sexuality is shifted from the father to the husband. There is a strong push to marry girls soon after menstruation, due to the burden of imposing strict restrictions on female sexuality, the desire to reduce the burden of financial support, and the need to ensure social security for daughters. Girls may not go out alone or stay outside after dark. Many rural parents fear that education and freedom would ruin their daughter. Girls develop a low self-image. Rural villages have poor sanitation, toilet facilities, and drainage systems. Girls are ignorant of health and sex education and lack access to education. The neglect of female children includes malnutrition, sex bias, and early marriage. In 1981, almost 4 out of every 100 girls had to work. 5.527 million girls 5-14 years old were child laborers. Girls are veiled, footbound, circumcised, and burnt by dowry hungry in-laws. Female delinquents are subjected to sexual harassment and sometime to sexual abuse while in custody. Cows are treated better in rural India than women. Gender disparity is caused by the perpetuation of patriarchal masculine values.

  5. Understanding sexuality among Indian urban school adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ramadugu, Shashikumar; Ryali, VSSR; Srivastava, K.; Bhat, P. S.; Prakash, J.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Adolescence is a very exciting phase of life fraught with many challenges like sexuality. Understanding them is important in helping the adolescents grow up healthily. Aims: To ascertain the attitudes and knowledge about sexuality among school-going adolescents. Settings and Design: Students in two urban schools of an Indian city from class IX to XII were administered a self-reporting questionnaire on matters related to sexuality. Materials and Methods: Requisite ethical clearances were taken as also the consent of the parents and students before administration of the questionnaire. The authors clarified doubts to adolescents. Statistical analysis: Statistical package for social sciences. Results: The incidence of having sexual contact was 30.08% for boys and 17.18% for girls. 6.31% boys and 1.31% girls reported having had experienced sexual intercourse. Friends constituted the main sexual partners for both boys and girls. Sexual abuse had been reported by both girls and boys. These and other findings are discussed in the article. Conclusions: Adolescent school students are involved in sexual activity, but lack adequate knowledge in this regard. Students, teachers, and parents need to understand various aspects of sexuality to be able to help adolescents’ healthy sexual development. PMID:22969181

  6. The impact of a community-based health education programme on oral cancer risk factor awareness among a Gujarati community.

    PubMed

    Siddique, I; Mitchell, D A

    2013-08-01

    To determine any differences in oral cancer risk factor awareness and behaviour among first and second generation Gujarati muslims and to investigate the impact of a community-based health education programme on oral cancer risk factor awareness. Respondents completed a confidential, bilingual questionnaire in English and Gujarati regarding alcohol, tobacco, paan, sopari, paan masala and gutka use before and after a community-based health education programme on oral cancer risk factors. Community Health Fair. Indian Muslim Welfare Association, Batley, West Yorkshire. Ninety-six male and female Gujarati muslims aged 16 to 81 years. Quantitative results on oral cancer risk factor awareness before and after a health education programme. Quantitative figures obtained from the questionnaire with regards to alcohol, tobacco, paan, sopari, paan masala and gutka usage. There were very low levels of alcohol consumption among Gujarati muslims. First generation Gujarati males consumed significantly more tobacco than second generation Gujarati males, difference in proportion 0.30 (0.03 to 0.56, p = 0.03). There was complete absence of paan use among Gujarati females. First generation Gujarati males consumed significantly higher amounts of sopari compared with their male counterparts in the second generation (p = 0.003). There were very low rates of paan masala use. Only first generation Gujarati males consumed gutka. Significantly more first generation males and females correctly identified all oral cancer risk factors after the health education intervention compared with baseline (difference 0.40, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.57, p = <0.001). Significantly more second generation males and females correctly identified all oral cancer risk factors after the health education intervention compared with baseline (difference 0.45, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.61, p = <0.001). Our study demonstrated significant differences in oral cancer risk factor awareness and practices among first and second generation

  7. Indian mental concepts on children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sitholey, Prabhat; Agarwal, Vivek; Vrat, Satya

    2013-01-01

    Ancient Indian mental concepts of children and adolescents are very similar to the contemporary modern concepts. The ancient concepts were based on a very positive regard for the children's development, education and future independence, adult role and contribution to society. Children were wanted and considered precious. The children were categorized in to 4 different varnas based on their intelligence, abilities, merit and aptitude and educated accordingly, away from their home, at Gurukuls. They had universal right to education. Girls received attention equal to boys. The boys were expected to earn their livelihood, while the girls were expected to be homemakers. Graduation of the young person at the end of education and return to home marked the emancipation from adolescence. Children's physical and mental health and its disorders were given due attention. Aetiology and treatment of physical and mental disorders was in accordance with the overall scientific development of those times. PMID:23858268

  8. American Indian Adolescent Girls: Vulnerability to Sex Trafficking, Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center offers harm reduction programming to at-risk adolescent American Indian girls, including outreach, case management, advocacy, healthy sexuality education, and support groups. To evaluate program impact, participants are assessed at intake and every 6 months afterward for current vulnerability to…

  9. Trends in the Use of Inhalants among American Indian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauvais, Fred; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A survey of four large samples of Native American adolescents, conducted since 1975, shows that inhalant use is much higher for Indian than for non-Indian youth, is increasing, begins at an early age, is often associated with use of other drugs, and is influenced by peer and family attitudes. (JHZ)

  10. Protective factors in American Indian communities and adolescent violence.

    PubMed

    Pu, Jia; Chewning, Betty; St Clair, Iyekiyapiwin Darlene; Kokotailo, Patricia K; Lacourt, Jeanne; Wilson, Dale

    2013-09-01

    With their distinct cultural heritage and rural boundaries, American Indian reservation communities offer a unique opportunity to explore protective factors that help buffer adolescents from potential risk behaviors such as violence. Prior published research on Indian communities has not explored three potential protective factors for violence-parental monitoring of adolescents and friends, adolescents' self-efficacy to avoid fighting, and adolescents' interest in learning more about their traditional culture. This paper explores the relationship between these factors and reduced risk of reported violence. In 1998, 630 American Indian students in grades 6-12 were surveyed in five Midwestern, rural Indian reservation schools. Path analysis was used to identify the direct and indirect association of the three potential protective factors with reduced violence behavior. There were significant gender differences both in perceived parental monitoring and in adolescents' self-efficacy. For female adolescents, parental monitoring had the strongest inverse relationship with female adolescents' involvement in violence. Female adolescents' self-efficacy and their interest in learning more about their culture were also inversely associated with violence and therefore potentially important protectors. Male adolescents who reported more interest in learning the tribe's culture had better self-efficacy to avoid violence. However, self-efficacy did not successfully predict their reported involvement in peer violence. These findings support exploring gender differences, parental monitoring, self-efficacy training as well as cultural elements in future violence intervention studies. Further investigation is needed to identify protective factors for risk behaviors among male adolescents and test the generalizability to non-reservation based adolescents.

  11. American Indian adolescent girls: vulnerability to sex trafficking, intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Alexandra Sandi

    2012-01-01

    The Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center offers harm reduction programming to at-risk adolescent American Indian girls, including outreach, case management, advocacy, healthy sexuality education, and support groups. To evaluate program impact, participants are assessed at intake and every 6 months afterward for current vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation, violence, and addiction. Evaluation results indicate frequent exposure to sex traffickers and suggest that harm reduction methods can help girls reduce risk of commercial sexual exploitation.

  12. Relationship between academic motivation and mathematics achievement among Indian adolescents in Canada and India.

    PubMed

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between academic motivation-intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation-and mathematics achievement among 363 Indian adolescents in India and 355 Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation were not statistically significantly related to mathematics achievement among Indian adolescents in India. In contrast, both intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation were statistically significantly related to mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. While intrinsic motivation was a statistically significant positive predictor of mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada, extrinsic motivation was a statistically significant negative predictor of mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. Amotivation was not statistically significantly related to mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. Implications of the findings for pedagogy and practice are discussed.

  13. East Indian Families Raising ABCD Adolescents: Cultural and Generational Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulsen, Shruti S.

    2009-01-01

    Immigration is a process fraught with both challenges and opportunities for families. In particular, East Indian families with U.S.-born adolescents experience the challenges of bridging cultures across generational divides; they are perceived by others as confused, identity less, and conflicted or as American-Born, Confused Desis (ABCDs). This…

  14. General Strain Theory and Substance Use among American Indian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Despite the well-established finding that American Indian adolescents are at a greater risk of illicit substance use and abuse than the general population, few generalist explanations of deviance have been extended to American Indian substance use. Using a popular generalist explanation of deviance, General Strain Theory, we explore the predictive utility of this model with a subsample of American Indian adolescents from waves one and two of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add-Health). Overall, we find mixed support for the utility of General Strain Theory to account for American Indian adolescent substance use. While exposure to recent life events, a common measure of stress exposure, was found to be a robust indicator of substance use, we found mixed support for the thesis that negative affect plays a key role in mediating the link between strain and substance use. However, we did find evidence that personal and social resources serve to condition the link between stress exposure and substance use, with parental control, self-restraint, religiosity, and exposure to substance using peers each serving to moderate the association between strain and substance use, albeit in more complex ways than expected. PMID:23826511

  15. Anxiety, stress, depression, and psychosocial functioning of Indian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kamlesh; Junnarkar, Mohita; Sharma, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lifetime prevalence of depression and anxiety increases from 1% of the population under age 12 years to ~17%-25% of the population by the end of adolescence. The greatest increase in new cases occurs between 15-18 years. Indian empirical studies have reported a prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in the range between 14.4% and 31.7%; thus, affecting psychosocial functioning. Aims: The objectives of the current study were to (i) examine the psychometric properties of the DASS and SDQ on Indian adolescents, (ii) explore the role of socio- demographic variablesand (iii) examine if there was any difference between school going and school dropouts. Methodology: Data from 1812 students, aged 12-19 years was collected with mean age = 15.67 years (SD =1.41 years). The participants were administered a booklet containing demographic questionnaire and psychometric scales such as DASS-21 (Henry & Crawford, 2005; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1999) and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997). Statistical Analysis: Structure validation, correlational analysis and multivariate analysis. Results and Conclusions: The results of validation indicated that English and Hindi version of 3 factor model of DASS and 2 factor model of SDQ was an acceptable model fit. It was noted that early adolescents were high on prosocial behaviour whereas late adolescents were high on difficulties score. Females were higher than males on prosocial behaviour. Adolescents residing in rural areas differed from their urban counterparts on prosocial behaviour and anxiety. Government school going adolescents differed from private school going adolescents on prosocial behaviour, stress and anxiety. Negative perception of relationship with family affected adolescents difficulties score, depression and stress. Similarly, negative perception of self-concept leads to higher difficulties score and lower prosocial behaviour score. The school going adolescents differed from non-school going

  16. Oral mucosa lesions in Mazahua Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Banderas, J A; Toshikasu, O; González, M

    1999-01-01

    The epidemiologic data on oral lesions in native Indians remain unknown in many countries around the world. This paper reports the prevalence and distribution of oral congenital anomalies and pathologic lesions found in a survey of 107 schoolchildren (ages 12 to 17), from two isolated communities in the ethnographic Mazahua area in the State of Mexico. The main entities identified were: pigmented lesions (47.6%), lingual anomalies (17.4%) and developmental tooth alterations (6.9%). The remaining 24.4% of the lesions were gingival inflammatory hyperplasia, partial ankilosis of the tongue, lichen planus, focal epithelial hyperplasia and the double lip. The most frequent localization was lips and tongue. These findings suggest the high prevalence of oral anomalies in this Indian population. Therefore, we suggest that health programs should emphasize the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of these pathologies in Indians groups.

  17. Parenting and Adolescent Identity: A Study of Indian Families in New Delhi and Geneva

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapru, Saloni

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the ancestral and acculturated cultural meanings in immigrant Indian parenting and adolescent identity using the independence-interdependence dimension as the focus. Forty Indian parents and their adolescents in Delhi, India, and Geneva, Switzerland, were interviewed using open-ended questions and scenarios. Adolescents also…

  18. Parenting and Adolescent Identity: A Study of Indian Families in New Delhi and Geneva

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapru, Saloni

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the ancestral and acculturated cultural meanings in immigrant Indian parenting and adolescent identity using the independence-interdependence dimension as the focus. Forty Indian parents and their adolescents in Delhi, India, and Geneva, Switzerland, were interviewed using open-ended questions and scenarios. Adolescents also…

  19. Going global: Indian adolescents' eating patterns.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Nida I; Patil, Shailaja S; Halli, Shiva; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Cunningham, Solveig A

    2016-10-01

    To describe adolescents' eating patterns of traditional, global/non-local and mixed foods, and the factors that may influence food consumption, access and preferences, in a globalizing city. A representative sample of school-going adolescents completed a cross-sectional survey including an FFQ designed to identify traditional and global foods. Student's t test and ordinal logistic regression were used to examine weekly food intake, including differences between boys and girls and between adolescents attending private and public schools. Vijayapura city, Karnataka State, India. Adolescents (n 399) aged 13-16 years. Compared with dietary guidelines, adolescents consumed fruit, green leafy vegetables, non-green leafy vegetables and dairy less frequently than recommended and consumed energy-dense foods more frequently than recommended. Traditional but expensive foods (fruits, dairy, homemade sweets and added fat) were more frequently consumed by private-school students, generally from wealthier, more connected families, than by public-school students; the latter more frequently consumed both traditional (tea, coffee, eggs) and mixed foods (snack and street foods; P≤0·05). Girls reported more frequent consumption of global/non-local packaged and ready-to-eat foods, non-green leafy vegetables and added fat than boys (P≤0·05). Boys reported more frequent consumption of eggs and street foods than girls (P≤0·05). Adolescents' eating patterns in a globalizing city reflect a combination of global/non-local and traditional foods, access and preferences. As global foods continue to appear in low- and middle-income countries, understanding dietary patterns and preferences can inform efforts to promote diversity and healthfulness of foods.

  20. Effects of Nonverbally Communicated Personal Warmth on the Intelligence Test Performance of Indian and Eskimo Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinfeld, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    Nonverbal cues which enthnographic analysis suggested were central to communicating personal warmth to Indian and Eskimo adolescents did produce significant changes on intelligence test performance. (Author/KM)

  1. Aggression in schools: psychosocial outcomes of bullying among Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Malhi, Prahbhjot; Bharti, Bhavneet; Sidhu, Manjit

    2014-11-01

    To examine the prevalence of school bullying and to investigate the behavioral, emotional, socio-economic and demographic correlates of bullying behaviors among Indian school going adolescents. Self-reports on bullying involvement were collected from 9th to 10th class students (N = 209; Mean = 14.82 y, SD = 0.96) from Government and Private schools of a north Indian city. Four groups of adolescents were identified: bullies, victims, bully-victims, and non-involved students. The self concept of the child was measured by the Indian adaptation of the Piers Harris Children's Self Concept Scale (CSCS) and emotional and behavioral difficulties by the Youth self report measure of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The overall prevalence of any kind of bullying behavior was 53 %. One-fifth (19.2 %) of the children were victims of bullying. Boys were more likely to be bully-victims (27.9 %) and girls were more likely to be victims (21.6 %). Bullying status was significantly related to the total self concept scores of the students (F = 5.12, P = 0.002). Victimized adolescents reported the lowest self concept scores. Bully-victims had a higher risk for conduct problems and hyperactivity and were the most likely to have academic difficulties. Bullies had relatively better school grades and high self esteem but had higher risk for hyperactivity and conduct problems as compared to controls. Bullying and victimization was widespread among the Indian school going youth. Given the concurrent psychosocial adjustment problems associated with bullying, there is an urgent need for developing intervention programs and sensitizing school personnel.

  2. Suicide among American Indian Adolescents. Some Facts about the Rising Rate of Suicide among American Indian Adolescents; Information on Causes and Warning Signs; and Examples of Effective Efforts and Prevention Resources. Linkages for Indian Child Welfare Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Irving N.

    Suicide among American Indian adolescents has increased by almost 1000% over the past 20 years to become, as in Anglo society, the second most frequent cause of death in the 10 to 20 year old age group. The two major causes of adolescent suicide are acute stress and chronic depression. Environmental factors contributing to American Indian suicides…

  3. Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation, and Academic Achievement among Indian Adolescents in Canada and India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Freeman, John G.; Klinger, Don A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships among intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and academic achievement for the Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada in comparison to their counterparts in India. Descriptive discriminant analysis indicated that the Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada had higher intrinsic…

  4. Native American Indian Adolescents: Response to a Culturally Tailored, School-Based Substance Abuse Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patchell, Beverly A.

    2011-01-01

    Native American Indian adolescent substance abuse has been a longstanding health concern. There are few culturally tailored interventions for mild to moderate substance users. The purpose of this study was to measure the response of Native American Indian adolescents from the Plains tribal groups to a school-based culturally tailored substance…

  5. Native American Indian Adolescents: Response to a Culturally Tailored, School-Based Substance Abuse Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patchell, Beverly A.

    2011-01-01

    Native American Indian adolescent substance abuse has been a longstanding health concern. There are few culturally tailored interventions for mild to moderate substance users. The purpose of this study was to measure the response of Native American Indian adolescents from the Plains tribal groups to a school-based culturally tailored substance…

  6. Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation, and Academic Achievement among Indian Adolescents in Canada and India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Freeman, John G.; Klinger, Don A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships among intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and academic achievement for the Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada in comparison to their counterparts in India. Descriptive discriminant analysis indicated that the Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada had higher intrinsic…

  7. From Early to Late Adolescence: American Indian Youths' Behavioral Trajectories and Their Major Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiffman, Arlene Rubin; Alexander-Eitzman, Benjamin; Silmere, Hiie; Osborne, Victoria; Brown, Eddie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This article identifies behavioral trajectories of American Indian adolescents and examines their predictors. Method: A total of 401 urban and reservation American Indian adolescents were interviewed yearly from 2001 to 2004 (with 341 youths, or 85%, retained to 2004, and 385 completing at least two interviews). The Youth Self-Report…

  8. Coming-of-age among contemporary American Indians as portrayed in adolescent fiction.

    PubMed

    Markstrom-Adams, C

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the dominant themes evident in contemporary novels involving American Indian adolescents. Nine novels written between 1971 and 1986 are reviewed. In contrast to earlier novels, those reviewed here reflect greater realism toward and less stereotyping of American Indians. Several themes in the novels are reflective of problems and issues confronting adolescents from a variety of backgrounds. The more salient themes, however, are specific to American Indian culture, including the prejudice and discrimination experienced by American Indians, the hopelessness and helplessness of an American minority group, racially mixed marriages of parents, alienation from non-Indian peers, Indian and Anglo friendships, the search for a sense of self, recapturing Indian traditions, and Indian spirituality.

  9. Prevalence of polycystic ovarian syndrome in Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nidhi, Ram; Padmalatha, Venkatram; Nagarathna, Raghuram; Amritanshu, Ram

    2011-08-01

    PCOS is a common female endocrine disorder with prevalence ranging from 2.2% to 26%. Most reports have studied adult women with age ranged from 18 to 45 years. The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of PCOS in Indian adolescents. We prospectively studied 460 girls aged 15 to 18 years from a residential college in Andhra Pradesh, South India, who underwent clinical examination. Out of which 72 girls with oligomenorrhea and/or hirsutism were invited for biochemical, hormonal, and ultrasonographic evaluation for diagnosis of PCOS by Rotterdam criteria. PCOS was defined as the presence of any two of the three features: (1) Oligo/amenorrhea: absence of menstruation for 45 days or more and/or ≤8 menses per year. (2) Clinical hyperandrogenism: Modified Ferriman and Gallway (mFG) score of 6 or higher. (3) Polycystic ovaries: presence of >10 cysts, 2-8 mm in diameter, usually combined with increased ovarian volume of >10 cm(3), and an echo-dense stroma in pelvic ultrasound scan. Out of 460 girls, one (0.22%) had oligo/amenorrhea with clinical hyperandrogenism, 29 (6.30%) had oligomenorrhea with polycystic ovaries, one (0.22%) had polycystic ovaries with clinical hyperandrogenism and 11 (2.39%) had oligomenorrhea with polycystic ovaries in the presence of clinical hyperandrogenism. Thus 42 (9.13%) girls satisfied Rotterdam's criteria for PCOS, which increased to 50.46 (10.97%) when imputed data were included. Prevalence of PCOS in Indian adolescents is 9.13%.This draws attention to the issue of early diagnosis in adolescent girls. 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Depressive symptoms among reservation-based pregnant American Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Golda S; Baker, Elena Varipatis; Mullany, Britta C; Barlow, Allison; Goklish, Novalene; Hastings, Ranelda; Thurm, Audrey E; Speakman, Kristen; Reid, Raymond; Walkup, John

    2008-07-01

    To examine rates and correlates of depressive symptoms among pregnant reservation-based American Indian (AI) adolescents from the Southwestern United States (N = 53). Data were derived from a study evaluating a home-visiting program designed to promote positive parenting among young families. Participants included a volunteer, convenience sample of expectant mothers who completed behavioral and mental health self-report questionnaires. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Three risk domains were analyzed in relation to depressive symptoms: sociodemographics, family relations, and psychosocial functioning. Forty-seven percent of expectant mothers scored at or above the widely accepted clinical cutoff score of 16 on the CES-D; 30% scored at or above 20, a score more likely to reflect elevated depressive symptoms among adolescents; and almost 20% scored at or above 28 (one standard deviation above the mean), a score suggestive of clinical depression. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with less use of public assistance, external locus of control, less social support, and lower self-esteem. Data suggest that a large proportion of pregnant AI adolescents reported elevated depressive symptoms, though rates are similar to non-pregnant AI adolescent samples.

  11. Urban American Indian Adolescent Girls: Framing Sexual Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Martyn, Kristy K.; Momper, Sandra L.; Loveland-Cherry, Carol J.; Low, Lisa Kane

    2014-01-01

    Purpose American Indian (AI) adolescent girls have higher rates of sexual activity, births and STIs compared to the national average. The purpose of this study was to explore factors that influence urban adolescent AI girls' sexual risk behavior (SRB). Design A qualitative study was conducted using grounded theory methodology to reveal factors and processes that influence SRB. Methods Talking circles, individual interviews, and event history calendars were used with 20 urban AI 15-19 year old girls to explore influences on their sexual behavior. Findings The generated theory, Framing Sexual Risk Behavior, describes both social and structural factors and processes that influenced the girls' sexual behaviors. The theory extends Bronfenbrenner's ecological model by identifying microsystem, mesosystem, and macrosystem influences on sexual behavior, including: Microsystem: Being “Normal,” Native, and Having Goals; Mesosystem: Networks of Family and Friends, Environmental Influences, and Sex Education; and Macrosystem: Tribal Traditions/History and Federal Policy. Discussion Urban AI girls reported similar social and structural influences on SRB as urban adolescents from other racial and ethnic groups. However, differences were noted in the family structure, cultural heritage, and unique history of AIs. Implications for Practice This theory can be used in culturally responsive practice with urban AI girls. PMID:24803532

  12. Identity Formation of American Indian Adolescents: Local, National, and Global Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markstrom, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    A conceptual model is presented that approaches identity formation of American Indian adolescents according to 3 levels of social contextual influence--local, national, and global--relative to types of identity, dynamics of identity, and sources of influence. Ethnic identity of American Indians is embedded within the local cultural milieu and…

  13. Identity Formation of American Indian Adolescents: Local, National, and Global Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markstrom, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    A conceptual model is presented that approaches identity formation of American Indian adolescents according to 3 levels of social contextual influence--local, national, and global--relative to types of identity, dynamics of identity, and sources of influence. Ethnic identity of American Indians is embedded within the local cultural milieu and…

  14. Alcohol Abuse in Urban Indian Adolescents and Women: A Longitudinal Study for Assessment and Risk Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, R. Dale; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A 10-year study identified risk factors and measured prevalence of alcohol abuse, drug abuse, and psychopathology in 523 urban American Indian adolescents and 276 urban Indian women. Describes study aims, research design, methods, sample characteristics, assessment instruments, substance use prevalence, and methodological issues related to…

  15. Coming-of-Age among Contemporary American Indians as Portrayed in Adolescent Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markstrom-Adams, Carol

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed nine contemporary novels (1971-86) to examine dominant themes evident in contemporary novels involving American Indian adolescents. In contrast to earlier novels, these contemporary novels reflected greater realism toward and less stereotyping of American Indians. Most salient themes dealt with prejudice and discrimination, hopelessness…

  16. A Psychological Autopsy of an Indian Adolescent Suicide with Implications for Community Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Joseph D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This psychological autopsy of the suicidal death of an adolescent Indian boy includes a brief family background, a history of his difficulties, and a report of his psychological evaluation. The report includes an analysis of the resources currently available in Indian communities. (Author)

  17. Characteristics and rates of mental health problems among Indian and White adolescents in two English cities.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Nisha; Svirydzenka, Nadzeya; Dugard, Pat; Singh, Swaran P; Vostanis, Panos

    2013-07-01

    Sampling techniques for national surveys have constrained the statistical power in estimating prevalence rates of child mental health problems in minority ethnic groups. To establish the prevalence rates of mental health problems in ethnic Indian adolescents in England and compare these with matched White adolescents living in the same areas. A cross-sectional survey with oversampling of Indian adolescents aged 13-15 years of age. The sample size was 2900 (71% response rate) with 1087 (37%) Indian and 414 (14%) White adolescents. Ethnically Indian adolescents had lower rates of all types of mental health problems (5% v. 13% and 21% v. 30% for abnormal Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire scores, respectively) and substance misuse (18% v. 57%, 5% v.15% and 6% v. 9% for regular alcohol, smoking and drug use, respectively), with the exception of eating disorders, compared with their White counterparts. The odds of an abnormal score on the mental health questionnaires were worse for White compared with Indian children irrespective of sociodemographic variables. Factors relating to how Indian adolescents are parented or their social support networks may be influencing their mental health and may warrant further investigation.

  18. Correlates of hypertension among urban Asian Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ruchika; Misra, Anoop; Agarwal, Sunil K; Vikram, Naval

    2010-12-01

    Primary hypertension has become increasingly common in children but remains largely understudied, underdiagnosed and undertreated. This study examines the relationship between hypertension in adolescents and various markers of obesity, serum lipid levels, fasting blood glucose (FBG), haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and family history of hypertension. DESIGN/SETTINGS: A cross-sectional population-based study of 1022 students aged 14-19 years in New Delhi, India. MAIN OUTCOME/EXPOSURES: Those with age, gender and height specific blood pressure >95th percentile (derived from study data) or >130/85 mm Hg were considered hypertensive. Various markers of obesity, FBG, HbA1c and serum lipid levels were divided into quartiles and the odds ratios of hypertension calculated for the highest quartiles with reference to the lowest. Hypertension was seen in 65 (6.4%) adolescents (2.7% isolated systolic, 2.0% isolated diastolic and 1.7% both). The odds of having hypertension were higher for those in the highest versus lowest quartiles of various measures of obesity such as body mass index (OR 2.90; 95% CI 1.40 to 6.12) and waist circumference (OR 5.21; 95% CI 2.14 to 12.17). A parental history of hypertension was associated with diastolic hypertension in the child (OR 2.21; 95% CI 1.13 to 4.33); the odds ratio decreased after simultaneous adjustment for salt intake (OR 1.98; 95% CI 1.00 to 3.94). In a multivariable model with backward elimination, waist circumference and triglycerides were the strongest predictors of hypertension, further suggesting that the relationship is stronger with central than peripheral obesity. Hypertension in Asian Indian adolescents is associated with obesity, higher serum lipids and a family history of hypertension.

  19. Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents and Native American Indians: Factorial Validity Generalization for Ojibwe Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.

    2006-01-01

    Replication of the core syndrome factor structure of the "Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents" (ASCA; P.A. McDermott, N.C. Marston, & D.H. Stott, 1993) is reported for a sample of 183 Native American Indian (Ojibwe) children and adolescents from North Central Minnesota. The six ASCA core syndromes produced an identical…

  20. Examining Correlates of Methamphetamine and Other Drug Use in Pregnant American Indian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Allison; Mullany, Britta C.; Neault, Nicole; Davis, Yvonne; Billy, Trudy; Hastings, Ranelda; Coho-Mescal, Valerie; Lake, Kristin; Powers, Julia; Clouse, Emily; Reid, Raymond; Walkup, John T.

    2010-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) adolescents have high rates of pregnancy, as well as alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and, increasingly, methamphetamine (meth) use. The progression of adolescent drug use to meth use could have devastating impacts on AI communities, particularly when youth are simultaneously at risk for teen childbearing. In…

  1. Perceptions of healthy eating amongst Indian adolescents in India and Canada.

    PubMed

    Correa, Natasha; Rajaraman, Divya; Swaminathan, Sumathi; Vaz, Mario; Jayachitra, K G; Lear, Scott A; Punthakee, Zubin

    2017-09-01

    Dietary patterns have contributed to the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity among Indian adolescents. Yet there are limited studies on their perspectives on healthy eating. The purpose of this study was to understand perceptions and attitudes of Indian-origin adolescents in India and Canada that may contribute to healthy eating behaviour. Qualitative data collection and analysis of 13 focus group discussions (FGD) was conducted among 34 boys and 39 girls (total number of participants: 73) of different weight and socioeconomic status (SES) in rural and urban India, and urban Canada aged 11-18 years. All adolescents perceived homemade foods, and foods high in vitamins, minerals and fiber as healthy. Rural Indian adolescents also identified contaminant-free food as important. Opinions differed regarding the health value of consuming meat, and amongst Canadian adolescents, the health impact of Western versus Indian diets. Identified benefits of healthy eating included improved energy for Indians, and disease prevention for Canadians and urban Indians. Identified barriers across all settings included peers; and availability, access and affordability of unhealthy foods. Urban Indians and Canadian girls also reported academic stress and lack of time as barriers. Canadian girls reported limited parental supervision during mealtimes as an additional barrier. Facilitators to healthy eating included parents, friends and personal preferences for healthy foods. This study suggests potential targets for family-based and school-based education programs and policies to improve dietary habits of Indian and Indo-Canadian adolescents which include, culturally focused nutrition education and guidelines, academic stress management strategies, parental education, food hygiene regulations and restriction on the sale and advertising of unhealthy foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Perceptions of ceremonial and nonceremonial uses of tobacco by American-Indian adolescents in California.

    PubMed

    Unger, Jennifer B; Soto, Claradina; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2006-04-01

    American-Indian adolescents have the highest tobacco use prevalence of all ethnic groups in the United States. Although much has been written about the role of tobacco in traditional Native-American cultures, little is known about modern-day perceptions of tobacco among American-Indian adolescents. This study conducted focus groups of 40 American-Indian adolescents in urban and rural areas of Southern California. Participants discussed the role of traditional ceremonial tobacco use in their lives, the use of commercial tobacco as a substitute for sacred tobacco, the perceived safety of traditional versus commercial tobacco, and the perceptions of American-Indian imagery in tobacco advertising. Many American-Indian adolescents may be introduced to traditional tobacco use at early ages. Smoking is viewed as a sign of respect for the elders, but there are acceptable ways for adolescents to participate in ceremonies without inhaling smoke. Commercial cigarettes often are substituted for homegrown tobacco at ceremonies and events. Traditional tobacco was perceived as less dangerous than commercial tobacco because it does not contain chemical additives. However, respondents still perceived that smoking traditional tobacco and breathing tobacco smoke conferred health hazards. Participants found the use of American-Indian imagery in tobacco advertising offensive and stereotypical. Indian casinos were mentioned frequently as places where smoking occurred. Continued health education efforts are needed to decrease habitual use of commercial tobacco products and secondhand smoke exposure among American-Indian youth. Further research is needed to identify ways for American-Indian youth to participate in their cultural traditions while minimizing their risk for tobacco-related diseases.

  3. Children's mental health services and ethnic diversity: Gujarati families' perspectives of service provision for mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Nisha; Vostanis, Panos; Abuateya, Hala; Jewson, Nick

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore Gujarati parents' and adolescents' perceptions of child and adolescent mental health services and how these should be improved to best meet their needs. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out with 15 parents and 15 young people, recruited from a community centre. Overall, the quality of the service appeared more important than its responsiveness to culture or ethnicity for both young people and their parents. These findings indicate the need for further evidence and debate on whether Black and ethnic minority families should be treated as though they are a homogenous group.

  4. Health Information in Gujarati (ગુજરાતી)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/gujarati.html Health Information in Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) To ...

  5. Factors Associated With American Indian and White Adolescent Drug Selling in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, David; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2014-01-01

    Relatively few studies have examined the correlates of adolescent drug selling in America, with most of these studies focusing on urban settings. The present study examines the risk and protective factors associated with drug selling among American Indian and white adolescents residing in a rural Northwestern state in the United States. Using survey data collected in 2010-2012, we conduct logistic regression analyses exploring the correlates of drug selling (n=568). Generally, we found support for prior explanations of drug selling, but identified some important race-specific differences. Specifically, we found that stress exposure was a risk factor for American Indians, but not whites. Conversely, academic achievement served as a protective factor for white adolescents but not American Indians. Our findings suggest that the race gap in rural drug selling can be explained by considering differences in social bonds, stress exposure, and exposure to substance using family and friends. PMID:26120365

  6. Ethnic Identity Development of Second-Generation Indian American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maira, Sunaina

    In-depth interviews were conducted with 7 second-generation Indian American students between 17 and 21 years of age to study their ethnic identity formation. Respondents were college students who came from families that represented the earlier waves of post-1965 Indian immigrants, highly educated middle- and upper-class professionals. The…

  7. Risk and Protective Factors for Depression and Health Outcomes in American Indian and Alaska Native Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, David D.

    2001-01-01

    A study examined whether protective factors reduce the effects of depression in American Indian and Alaska Native adolescents. Surveys of 2,034 Native high school students from 33 states indicated that depression moderately influenced self-perceived health status and that caring and connectedness counteracted the risk factors from depression that…

  8. Familistic Attitudes and Marriage Role Expectations of American Indian and White Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Robert William

    The major purpose of the research was the exploration of familistic attitudes and marriage role expectations of American Indian and White adolescents as related to grade, age, sex, race, tribal affiliation, place of residence, academic achievement, future educational plans, parents' marital status, and language spoken in the home. Subjects were…

  9. Lab Coats versus Business Suits: A Study of Career Preferences among Indian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thatchenkery, Sruthi; Koizumi, Naoru

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine whether the primary factors motivating the career plans of high-achieving Indian adolescents vary between academic specializations. Particular attention is to be paid to differences between science and business students. Design/methodology/approach: The study surveyed approximately 2,700 secondary school…

  10. Family, Community, and School Influences on Resilience among American Indian Adolescents in the Upper Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFromboise, Teresa D.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Oliver, Lisa; Whitbeck, Les B.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines resilience among a sample of American Indian adolescents living on or near reservations in the upper Midwest. Data are from a baseline survey of 212 youth (115 boys and 97 girls) who were enrolled in the fifth through eighth grades. Based upon the definition of resilience, latent class analyses were conducted to identify youth…

  11. Preference for Social Support by Indian Street Children and Adolescents in Stressful Life Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Anubha; Verma, Suman

    This study had three aims: (1) to identify stressful situations faced by Indian children and adolescents working on the streets; (2) to study their preference for social support when faced with stress; and (3) to identify gender differences in social support preferences. One hundred 8- to 18-year-olds, working as beggars, vendors, or ragpickers,…

  12. The Dream Catcher Meditation: a therapeutic technique used with American Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Robbins, R

    2001-01-01

    This article describes a short-term treatment insight-oriented model for American Indian adolescents, called Dream Catcher Meditation. It is aimed at helping clients' express unconscious conflicts and to facilitate differentiation and healthy mutuality. Though its duration can vary, twelve sessions are outlined here. Session descriptions include goals and sample questions. Also included are anecdotal material and reflections about cultural relevancy.

  13. Psychosocial Aspects of Body Mass and Body Image among Rural American Indian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Denise L.; Sontag, Lisa M.; Salvato, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the psychosocial risks associated with body weight (BMI) and body image in a southeastern, rural Lumbee American Indian community. A total of 134 adolescents (57% female) were surveyed over 2 years at ages of 13 and 15 years. On average, boys (55%) were more likely to be overweight or obese than were girls (31%). BMI was…

  14. Psychosocial Aspects of Body Mass and Body Image among Rural American Indian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Denise L.; Sontag, Lisa M.; Salvato, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the psychosocial risks associated with body weight (BMI) and body image in a southeastern, rural Lumbee American Indian community. A total of 134 adolescents (57% female) were surveyed over 2 years at ages of 13 and 15 years. On average, boys (55%) were more likely to be overweight or obese than were girls (31%). BMI was…

  15. Lab Coats versus Business Suits: A Study of Career Preferences among Indian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thatchenkery, Sruthi; Koizumi, Naoru

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine whether the primary factors motivating the career plans of high-achieving Indian adolescents vary between academic specializations. Particular attention is to be paid to differences between science and business students. Design/methodology/approach: The study surveyed approximately 2,700 secondary school…

  16. Factorial Structure of the CES-D among American Indian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Rhonda Wiegman; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined factor structure of Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale among American Indian adolescents attending boarding school. Found that Depressed and Somatic factors were highly correlated and should be collapsed into one factor. No differences in factor structure were found by gender. (Author/NB)

  17. Family Structure and Adolescent Alcohol Use Problems: Extending Popular Explanations to American Indians.

    PubMed

    Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle; Eitle, David J

    2013-11-01

    Competing explanations of the relationship between family structure and alcohol use problems are examined using a sample of American Indian adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Living in a single-parent family is found to be a marker for the unequal distribution of stress exposure and parental alcohol use, but the effects of other family structures like non-parent families and the presence of under 21-year-old extended family or non-family members emerge or remain as risk or protective factors for alcohol use problems after a consideration of SES, family processes, peer socialization, and social stress. In particular, a non-parent family structure that has not been considered in prior research emerged as a protective family structure for American Indian adolescent alcohol use problems.

  18. Reliability of third molar development for age estimation in Gujarati population: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Neha; Jain, Sandeep; Kumar, Manish; Rupakar, Pratik; Choyal, Kanaram; Prajapati, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Age assessment may be a crucial step in postmortem profiling leading to confirmative identification. In children, Demirjian's method based on eight developmental stages was developed to determine maturity scores as a function of age and polynomial functions to determine age as a function of score. Of this study was to evaluate the reliability of age estimation using Demirjian's eight teeth method following the French maturity scores and Indian-specific formula from developmental stages of third molar with the help of orthopantomograms using the Demirjian method. Dental panoramic tomograms from 30 subjects each of known chronological age and sex were collected and were evaluated according to Demirjian's criteria. Age calculations were performed using Demirjian's formula and Indian formula. Statistical analysis used was Chi-square test and ANOVA test and the P values obtained were statistically significant. There was an average underestimation of age with both Indian and Demirjian's formulas. The mean absolute error was lower using Indian formula hence it can be applied for age estimation in present Gujarati population. Also, females were ahead of achieving dental maturity than males thus completion of dental development is attained earlier in females. Greater accuracy can be obtained if population-specific formulas considering the ethnic and environmental variation are derived performing the regression analysis.

  19. Reliability of third molar development for age estimation in Gujarati population: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Neha; Jain, Sandeep; Kumar, Manish; Rupakar, Pratik; Choyal, Kanaram; Prajapati, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Background: Age assessment may be a crucial step in postmortem profiling leading to confirmative identification. In children, Demirjian's method based on eight developmental stages was developed to determine maturity scores as a function of age and polynomial functions to determine age as a function of score. Aim: Of this study was to evaluate the reliability of age estimation using Demirjian's eight teeth method following the French maturity scores and Indian-specific formula from developmental stages of third molar with the help of orthopantomograms using the Demirjian method. Materials and Methods: Dental panoramic tomograms from 30 subjects each of known chronological age and sex were collected and were evaluated according to Demirjian's criteria. Age calculations were performed using Demirjian's formula and Indian formula. Statistical analysis used was Chi-square test and ANOVA test and the P values obtained were statistically significant. Results: There was an average underestimation of age with both Indian and Demirjian's formulas. The mean absolute error was lower using Indian formula hence it can be applied for age estimation in present Gujarati population. Also, females were ahead of achieving dental maturity than males thus completion of dental development is attained earlier in females. Conclusion: Greater accuracy can be obtained if population-specific formulas considering the ethnic and environmental variation are derived performing the regression analysis. PMID:26005298

  20. Multi-Dimensional Adolescent Treatment with American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husted, John; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Managed by the Sisseton-Wahpeton Dakotah Nation, O'Inazin provides culturally relevant inpatient counseling for troubled adolescents with antisocial and self-defeating behaviors. Of 290 adolescent inpatients in 1991-92, those who completed the program were more likely to remain in school and improve their grades than were noncompleters. Both…

  1. Sexual dimorphism in foot length ratios among North Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Passi, Neelam; DiMaggio, John A

    2015-11-01

    Determination of sex along with other parameters of identification like stature, age and ancestry is one of the foremost criteria in establishing the biological profile of an individual. The present study was conducted to analyze the sex differences in the foot length ratios in a North Indian adolescent population. The study was conducted on 149 females and 154 males aged from 13 to 18 years. Foot length measurements were taken from pternion to the most anterior part of each toe and designated as T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively for first to fifth toes on both the feet in each participant using standard methods and techniques. A total of ten ratios (T1:T2, T1:T3, T1:T4, T1:T5, T2:T3, T2:T4, T2:T5, T3:T4, T3:T5, and T4:T5) were thus, obtained and the same were analyzed for sex differences using Student's t-test. Stature was measured in each participant and Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to find the correlation between various foot length ratios, age and stature. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was employed to test the sexing accuracy of the variables. P-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Foot length dimensions from each toe (T1 to T5) and stature were found to be significantly higher in males than females. The foot length ratios did not show any statistically significant correlation with stature. Statistically significant sex differences were exhibited by ratios between T1 and T2 (p = 0.002), T1 and T3 (p = 0.001), T1 and T4 (p < 0.001), T1 and T5 (p = 0.001), and T2 and T4 (p = 0.014). Maximum sex differences were evident for foot length ratio between T1 and T4 (63.4%), and minimum for the ratio between T2 and T4 (56.5%). Though foot length measurements are significantly larger in males, its utility in sex differentiation may be limited owing to its direct correlation with stature of an individual. It has been observed that the foot length ratios are independent of stature and thus

  2. High incidence of Meckel's syndrome in Gujarati Indians.

    PubMed

    Young, I D; Rickett, A B; Clarke, M

    1985-08-01

    Five probable cases of Meckel's syndrome have been ascertained retrospectively through the Leicestershire Perinatal Mortality Survey for the years 1976 to 1982. All of these babies were born to Hindu parents originating from the Gujarat State in India, suggesting that Meckel's syndrome is particularly common among this ethnic group, with a gene frequency of approximately 0.028.

  3. Haplotype-resolved genome sequencing of a Gujarati Indian individual.

    PubMed

    Kitzman, Jacob O; Mackenzie, Alexandra P; Adey, Andrew; Hiatt, Joseph B; Patwardhan, Rupali P; Sudmant, Peter H; Ng, Sarah B; Alkan, Can; Qiu, Ruolan; Eichler, Evan E; Shendure, Jay

    2011-01-01

    Haplotype information is essential to the complete description and interpretation of genomes, genetic diversity and genetic ancestry. Although individual human genome sequencing is increasingly routine, nearly all such genomes are unresolved with respect to haplotype. Here we combine the throughput of massively parallel sequencing with the contiguity information provided by large-insert cloning to experimentally determine the haplotype-resolved genome of a South Asian individual. A single fosmid library was split into a modest number of pools, each providing ∼3% physical coverage of the diploid genome. Sequencing of each pool yielded reads overwhelmingly derived from only one homologous chromosome at any given location. These data were combined with whole-genome shotgun sequence to directly phase 94% of ascertained heterozygous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) into long haplotype blocks (N50 of 386 kilobases (kbp)). This method also facilitates the analysis of structural variation, for example, to anchor novel insertions to specific locations and haplotypes.

  4. Patterns of substance use initiation among young adolescents in a Northern Plains American Indian tribe.

    PubMed

    Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Kaufman, Carol E; Keane, Ellen M; Crow, Cecelia Big; Shangreau, Carly; Mitchell, Christina M

    2012-09-01

    Substantial evidence documents problematic substance use in Northern Plains American Indian communities. Studies suggest that disparities can be traced to disproportionate rates of early substance use, but most evidence comes from the retrospective reports of adults or older adolescents. To use a prospective longitudinal design to examine substance use initiation patterns as they emerge among young American Indian adolescents. Four waves of data were collected across three consecutive school years from middle school students on a Northern Plains reservation (N = 450). Discrete-time survival analyses were used to estimate risks of initiation of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana from age 10 to 13. Risk for cigarette initiation was relatively high at age 10 and stable until age 13. Marijuana risk was low at age 10 but increased sharply by age 12. Alcohol initiation lagged, not surpassing risk for cigarette initiation until age 13 and remaining below risk for marijuana initiation throughout middle school. Hazards for girls trended higher than those for boys across all substances, but differences did not reach significance. Initiation patterns among these American Indian adolescents differed from patterns reported in other US groups, particularly with respect to deviation from the sequence characterized the initiation of marijuana before alcohol that is predicted by the gateway theory. Findings suggest that prevention efforts with youth in this community should begin early with a primary focus on marijuana use. They also suggest the importance of examining sequences of substance initiation among youth in other American Indian communities.

  5. Progress in Gujarati Document Processing and Character Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dholakia, Jignesh; Negi, Atul; Mohan, S. Rama

    Gujarati is an Indic script similar in appearance to other Indo-Aryan scripts. Printed Gujarati script has a rich literary heritage. From an OCR perspective it needs a different treatment due to some of its peculiarities. Research on Gujarati OCR is a recent development as compared to OCR research on many other Indic scripts. Here, in this chapter we present a detailed account of the state of the art of Gujarati document analysis and character recognition. We begin with approaches to zone boundary detection, necessary for the isolation of words and character segmentation and recognition. We show results of various feature extraction techniques such as fringe maps, discrete cosine transform, and wavelets. Zone information and aspect ratios are also used for classification. We present recognition results with two types of classifiers, viz., nearest neighbor classifier and artificial neural networks. Results of experiments wherein various combinations of feature extraction methods with classifiers are also presented. We find that general regression neural network with wavelets feature gives best results with significant time saving in training. Since Indic scripts require syllabic reconstruction from OCR components, a procedure for text generation from the recognized glyph sequences and a method for post-processing is also described.

  6. Managing Bilingual Interaction in a Gujarati Complementary School in Leicester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Bhatt, Arvind; Bhojani, Nirmala; Creese, Angela

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on teacher-student interaction in two Gujarati complementary school classrooms in one school in the East Midlands city of Leicester, UK. To date, little work has been published on interaction in complementary schools, and little is therefore known about the cultures of learning and teaching in such contexts. Our study of…

  7. The Stereotype of the Indian in Adolescent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troy, Anne

    Studies of teaching materials have shown that the American Indian has not been given fair representation in American history. Too often portrayed as inaccurate are such subjects as tribal entities and cultures, listings of current tribes and reservations, descriptions of languages and areas of occupation, foods, attire, and dates of historical…

  8. Validation of Gujarati Version of ABILOCO-Kids Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Diwan, Jasmin; Patel, Pankaj; Bansal, Ankita B.

    2015-01-01

    Background ABILOCO-Kids is a measure of locomotion ability for children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 6 to 15 years & is available in English & French. Aim To validate the Gujarati version of ABILOCO-Kids questionnaire to be used in clinical research on Gujarati population. Materials and Methods ABILOCO-Kids questionnaire was translated into Gujarati from English using forward-backward-forward method. To ensure face & content validity of Gujarati version using group consensus method, each item was examined by group of experts having mean experience of 24.62 years in field of paediatric and paediatric physiotherapy. Each item was analysed for content, meaning, wording, format, ease of administration & scoring. Each item was scored by expert group as either accepted, rejected or accepted with modification. Procedure was continued until 80% of consensus for all items. Concurrent validity was examined on 55 children with Cerebral Palsy (6-15 years) of all Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS) level & all clinical types by correlating score of ABILOCO-Kids with Gross Motor Functional Measure & GMFCS. Result In phase 1 of validation, 16 items were accepted as it is; 22 items accepted with modification & 3 items went for phase 2 validation. For concurrent validity, highly significant positive correlation was found between score of ABILOCO-Kids & total GMFM (r=0.713, p<0.005) & highly significant negative correlation with GMFCS (r= -0.778, p<0.005). Conclusion Gujarati translated version of ABILOCO-Kids questionnaire has good face & content validity as well as concurrent validity which can be used to measure caregiver reported locomotion ability in children with CP. PMID:26557603

  9. Validation of Gujarati Version of ABILOCO-Kids Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Diwan, Shraddha; Diwan, Jasmin; Patel, Pankaj; Bansal, Ankita B

    2015-10-01

    ABILOCO-Kids is a measure of locomotion ability for children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 6 to 15 years & is available in English & French. To validate the Gujarati version of ABILOCO-Kids questionnaire to be used in clinical research on Gujarati population. ABILOCO-Kids questionnaire was translated into Gujarati from English using forward-backward-forward method. To ensure face & content validity of Gujarati version using group consensus method, each item was examined by group of experts having mean experience of 24.62 years in field of paediatric and paediatric physiotherapy. Each item was analysed for content, meaning, wording, format, ease of administration & scoring. Each item was scored by expert group as either accepted, rejected or accepted with modification. Procedure was continued until 80% of consensus for all items. Concurrent validity was examined on 55 children with Cerebral Palsy (6-15 years) of all Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS) level & all clinical types by correlating score of ABILOCO-Kids with Gross Motor Functional Measure & GMFCS. In phase 1 of validation, 16 items were accepted as it is; 22 items accepted with modification & 3 items went for phase 2 validation. For concurrent validity, highly significant positive correlation was found between score of ABILOCO-Kids & total GMFM (r=0.713, p<0.005) & highly significant negative correlation with GMFCS (r= -0.778, p<0.005). Gujarati translated version of ABILOCO-Kids questionnaire has good face & content validity as well as concurrent validity which can be used to measure caregiver reported locomotion ability in children with CP.

  10. A cross-cultural study of self-image: Indian, American, Australian, and Irish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, P

    1978-03-01

    Planning for research and youth welfare programs in every developed and developing country is essential if man envisages the normalization of sick adolescents. Adolescent unit programs are needed in India, as in all parts of the United States, and should be an integral part of medical institutes in every university. Actually, the problem of generation gap, ego identity, and subcultures (i.e., peer group pressure) creating negative attitudes in youth is one of the most explosive problems that behavioral scientists face in the modern era. The present project is an attempt to study the self-image, ego strength, self-esteem, or level of psychological well-being of a normal adolescent group of Indians and to compare this with youth of three other nationalities-American, Irish, and Australian. To measure the self-esteem of an individual, 11 areas of conflict including impulse control, emotional tone, body and self-image, social attitudes, morals, sexual attitudes, family relations, external mastery, vocational and educational goals, psychopathology, and superior adjustment have been examined. The Hindi version of the Offer Self-image Questionnaire has been used. The sample consists of 400 boys and 400 girls, ages 14 to 18, of middle class socioeconomic status; the educational level is high school/intermediate. It is concluded that American and Australian adolescents, in general, have higher self-esteem or ego strength than do Indian and Irish adolescents, respectively.

  11. A new Gujarati language logMAR visual acuity chart: development and validation.

    PubMed

    Sailoganathan, Ananth; Siderov, John; Osuobeni, Ebi

    2013-10-01

    Gujarati is the main spoken language of a large proportion of the population of India. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new Minimum Angle of Resolution (logMAR) visual acuity chart in the Gujarati language. A new Gujarati visual acuity chart was designed to logMAR specifications using Gujarati optotypes experimentally selected to have similar relative letter legibility under spherical and cylindrical defocus. The chart validation study was carried out using 153 adult subjects in a large clinical setting in India. Subjects who were literate in English and Gujarati participated in the study. Visual acuity was measured with the new Gujarati logMAR chart and a modified Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study-(m-ETDRS) logMAR chart. The method of presentation was randomized between the charts. Repeat visual acuity was measured on a subsequent day with a second version of the Gujarati logMAR chart. The Gujarati chart correlated highly with the m-ETDRS logMAR chart (r² = 0.974). The mean visual acuity difference (Gujarati - m-ETDRS logMAR) was equal to three letters (-0.06 logMAR). The Gujarati logMAR chart also proved to be highly repeatable (r² = 0.994, test-retest) with 95% CI of ± 0.04 logMAR. The new Gujarati logMAR visual acuity chart provides a valid and repeatable tool for the measurement of visual acuity in native Gujarati language speakers.

  12. A new Gujarati language logMAR visual acuity chart: Development and validation

    PubMed Central

    Sailoganathan, Ananth; Siderov, John; Osuobeni, Ebi

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Gujarati is the main spoken language of a large proportion of the population of India. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new Minimum Angle of Resolution (logMAR) visual acuity chart in the Gujarati language. Materials and Methods: A new Gujarati visual acuity chart was designed to logMAR specifications using Gujarati optotypes experimentally selected to have similar relative letter legibility under spherical and cylindrical defocus. The chart validation study was carried out using 153 adult subjects in a large clinical setting in India. Subjects who were literate in English and Gujarati participated in the study. Visual acuity was measured with the new Gujarati logMAR chart and a modified Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study-(m-ETDRS) logMAR chart. The method of presentation was randomized between the charts. Repeat visual acuity was measured on a subsequent day with a second version of the Gujarati logMAR chart. Results: The Gujarati chart correlated highly with the m-ETDRS logMAR chart (r2 = 0.974). The mean visual acuity difference (Gujarati – m-ETDRS logMAR) was equal to three letters (–0.06 logMAR). The Gujarati logMAR chart also proved to be highly repeatable (r2 = 0.994, test-retest) with 95% CI of ± 0.04 logMAR. Conclusions: The new Gujarati logMAR visual acuity chart provides a valid and repeatable tool for the measurement of visual acuity in native Gujarati language speakers. PMID:24212306

  13. The influence of family and culture on physical activity among female adolescents from the Indian diaspora.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Subha; Crocker, Peter R E

    2009-04-01

    In this study we explored the role of personal, familial, and cultural attitudes and social norms for physical activity (PA) on actual PA behavior among female adolescents of the Indian diaspora. Six girls, 15 to 19 years of age, from a spiritual center participated in interviews and a focus group. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Participants were high in familism, and felt that PA was important for physical and mental health, and to strengthen relationships with family. Fathers and brothers were considered most influential on PA patterns. Differentiated gender roles in PA emerged: boys were deemed more aggressive and competitive, and girls were perceived to promote fun-based learning environments. The importance of religion and spirituality as influences on PA emerged among participants with strong affinities for Indian cultures. Results show that cultural heritage impacts PA norms, attitudes, and patterns, and must be considered when evaluating adolescent PA participation in multicultural societies.

  14. A longitudinal study of self-esteem, cultural identity, and academic success among American Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Mitchell, Christina M; Spicer, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Latent growth curve modeling was used to estimate developmental trajectories of self-esteem and cultural identity among American Indian high school students and to explore the relationships of these trajectories to personal resources, problem behaviors, and academic performance at the end of high school. The sample included 1,611 participants from the Voices of Indian Teens project, a 3-year longitudinal study of adolescents from 3 diverse American Indian cultural groups in the western United States. Trajectories of self-esteem were clearly related to academic achievement; cultural identity, in contrast, was largely unrelated, with no direct effects and only very small indirect effects. The relationships between self-esteem and success were mediated by personal resources and problem behaviors.

  15. A longitudinal study of self-esteem, cultural identity, and academic success among American Indian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Mitchell, Christina M.; Spicer, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Latent growth curve modeling was used to estimate developmental trajectories of self-esteem and cultural identity among American Indian high school students and to explore the relationships of these trajectories to personal resources, problem behaviors, and academic performance at the end of high school. The sample included 1,611 participants from the Voices of Indian Teens project, a three-year longitudinal study of adolescents from three diverse American Indian cultural groups in the western U.S. Trajectories of self-esteem were clearly related to academic achievement; cultural identity, in contrast, was largely unrelated, with no direct effects and only very small indirect effects. The relationships between self-esteem and success were mediated by personal resources and problem behaviors. PMID:19209979

  16. Relations among Ethnic Identity, Parenting Style, and Adolescent Psychosocial Outcomes in European American and East Indian Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhadha, Bakhtawar

    The challenges of identity formation are particularly difficult for minority youth because of the clash of traditional culture and the host culture. This study examined the effects of parenting style, acculturation, and parent and adolescent ethnic identity on the self-esteem and school performance of East Indian and European American adolescents.…

  17. Testing Self-Determination Theory via Nigerian and Indian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, Kennon M.; Abad, Neetu; Omoile, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    We tested the generalizability of five propositions derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000) using school-aged adolescents living in India (N = 926) and Nigeria (N = 363). Consistent with past U.S. research, perceived teacher autonomy-support predicted students' basic need-satisfaction in the classroom and also predicted…

  18. Ethnic differences in quality of life in adolescents among Chinese, Malay and Indians in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tze Pin; Lim, Lionel Chee Chong; Jin, Aizhen; Shinfuku, N

    2005-09-01

    Health-related quality of life in adolescents and ethnic and cultural differences are not well characterized. We used the Quality of Life Questionnaire for Adolescents (QOLQA) to examine ethnic differences in reported QOL scores among Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicities in Singapore. The 70-item QOLQA measuring five QOL domains (physical, psychological, independence, social and environmental) was administered to a random sample of 1363 school-children aged 10-15 years, representative of the ethnic composition of Singapore adolescents (Chinese 72%, Malays 20% and Indians 8%). Indians reported the highest overall QOL (mean 3.71 +/- SD 0.54) compared to Chinese (3.59 +/- 0.43), p < 0.05, and Malays (3.58 +/- 0.44), p < 0.05. In particular, Indians had significantly higher psychological QOL scores (3.73 +/- 0.61) compared to Chinese (3.55 +/- 0.54), p < 0.01. On the other hand, Chinese scored highest on physical and independence domains (3.97 +/- 0.54), p < 0.01 compared to Malays (3.82 +/- 0.55). There were no statistically significant gender differences in QOL scores. QOL declined significantly from age 10 to 15 for overall score, psychological, physical (p < 0.01) and environmental (p < 0.05). Lower socio-economic status and the self-report of a significant health problem were significantly associated with lower overall QOL and most domains. These ethnic differences persisted after adjusting for differences in socio-economic and health status. Psychometric properties and known group construct validity appeared to be similar across different ethnic groups, but compared to Chinese (r = 0.39) or Malays (r = 0.39), Indians showed a higher correlation of psychological scores with physical score (r = 0.59) and with other domain scores. Significant ethnic differences in reported adolescent quality of life among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore that are independent of socioeconomic and health status suggest important cultural differences.

  19. Family and Friend Influence on Urban-Dwelling American Indian Adolescent Girl's Sexual Risk Behavior.

    PubMed

    Saftner, Melissa A

    2016-09-01

    Previous research with American Indian (AI) adolescent sexual risk behavior primarily focused on reservation-dwelling youth despite 70% of AIs living off Native lands. Using grounded theory methodology, I sampled 20 adolescent AI girls via talking circles and interviews to explore the perceptions of AI adolescent girls living in an urban, Midwest area about the influence of family and friends on their sexual behavior. Similar to research with other racial groups, participants cited their family and friends as a major influence. Five unique themes emerged related to family and friend influence. Urban-dwelling AI girls rely on their female family members and peers for information related to sex and receive varying messages from their networks of family and friends, which often overlap. AI youth have unique family groups yet have some similarities to other ethnic groups with regard to family and friend relationships that may allow for enhanced intervention development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Knowledge, uptake and availability of health and social services among Asian Gujarati and white elderly persons.

    PubMed

    Lindesay, J; Jagger, C; Hibbett, M J; Peet, S M; Moledina, F

    1997-01-01

    To investigate factors affecting the uptake of health and social services by elderly Asian Gujarati. Four hundred and five Hindu Gujaratis and 381 whites aged 65 years and over residing in Leicester were randomly sampled from the Leicestershire District FHSA list by a computerized method based on linguistic analysis of the patient's name. One hundred and fifty Hindu Gujaratis and 152 whites were interviewed with response rates of 72% for the Asian Gujaratis and 80% for the white groups. The outcome measures were the activities of daily living (ADLs), incontinence, auditory/ visual deficits, cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment (measured by the Mini-mental State Examination), depression, use of GP and hospital services, knowledge of community health and social services, willingness to use, suitability and cultural accessibility. The poorer uptake of services by elderly Asian Gujarati could not be explained by better health. They were significantly more likely to be dependent in six of the 14 ADLs and had higher rates of diabetes and impaired vision. Significantly more Asian Gujaratis than whites lived with others (84 versus 52%, p < 0.0001) with a greater availability of alternative sources of help and support. The knowledge and understanding of services were significantly poorer in the Gujarati group; fewer Asian Gujaratis knew how to apply for services and of those applying, fewer had been successful. Where services had been obtained, the levels of dissatisfaction were higher in the Gujarati group. The literacy rates were low in the Gujarati sample with 79% being unable to read or write in English and 27% unable to read or write in their mother tongue. The lower uptake of services by elderly Asian Gujarati is not the result of better health but may be explained by greater family support together with a lack of knowledge of and dissatisfaction with what is available. Health services will need to reappraise and revise some of their practices if they are to

  1. Age of onset of first alcohol intoxication and subsequent alcohol use among urban American Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Henry, Kimberly L; McDonald, James N; Oetting, Eugene R; Walker, Patricia Silk; Walker, R Dale; Beauvais, Fred

    2011-03-01

    The objective was to assess the effect of early onset intoxication on subsequent alcohol involvement among urban American Indian youth. The data come from the American Indian Research (AIR) project, a panel study of urban Indian youth residing in King County, Washington. Data were collected annually from the adolescent and his/her primary caregiver from the 1988-89 school year to the 1996-97 school year, providing a total of nine waves of data. Early intoxication (by age 14) was related to delinquency, family history of alcohol abuse or dependence, poverty, broken family structure, less family cohesiveness, and more family conflict. The effects of these characteristics were, therefore, partialed out in testing effects of early intoxication on later alcohol involvement. Two-part latent growth models of alcohol use and alcohol problems were specified. Effects of early onset intoxication on these trajectories, as well as lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence by the transition to young adulthood, were examined. Findings indicate that adolescents who experienced their first intoxication early (by age 14), used alcohol more heavily from the ages of 16 to 18, experienced more problems related to the alcohol's use from the ages of 16 to 18, and were more likely to have a diagnosed alcohol disorder by the final wave of data collection. Congruent with similar studies in the general population, early intoxication appears to be associated with a deleterious course of alcohol involvement during adolescence and into the transition to young adulthood among urban American Indian youth. Implications for prevention are discussed.

  2. Substance Use Profiles of Urban American Indian Adolescents: A Latent Class Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kulis, Stephen S; Jager, Justin; Ayers, Stephanie L; Lateef, Husain; Kiehne, Elizabeth

    2016-07-28

    A growing majority of American Indian adolescents now live in cities and are at high risk of early and problematic substance use and its negative health effects. This study used latent class analysis to empirically derive heterogeneous patterns of substance use among urban American Indian adolescents, examined demographic correlates of the resulting latent classes, and tested for differences among the latent classes in other risk behavior and prosocial outcomes. The study employed a representative sample of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade American Indian adolescents (n = 2,407) in public or charter schools in metropolitan areas of Arizona in 2012. Latent class analysis examined eight types of last 30 day substance use. Four latent classes emerged: a large group of "nonusers" (69%); a substantial minority using alcohol, tobacco, and/or marijuana [ATM] (17%); a smaller group of polysubstance users consuming, alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, other illicit drugs, and prescription or OTC drugs in combination (6%); and a "not alcohol" group reporting combinations of tobacco, marijuana, and prescription drug use, but rarely alcohol use (4%). The latent classes varied by age and grade level, but not by other demographic characteristics, and aligned in highly consistent patterns on other non-substance use outcomes. Polysubstance users reported the most problematic and nonusers the least problematic outcomes, with ATM and "not alcohol" users in the middle. Urban AI adolescent substance use occurs in three somewhat distinctive patterns of combinations of recent alcohol and drug consumption, covarying in systematic ways with other problematic risk behaviors and attitudes.

  3. Parental efficacy, parental monitoring efficacy, and monitoring among Asian-Indian parents of adolescents living in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Chitra; Montemayor, Raymond

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between parental efficacy and a new concept entitled parental monitoring efficacy, and to examine the association between parental monitoring efficacy and monitoring. We conducted two studies on two samples of Asian-Indian parents and adolescents living in Chennai, India. In the first study of 241 parents of adolescents in grades, 9-12, we constructed a new measure of parental efficacy that included two factors. The first factor, responding competently to negative adolescent behavior was more strongly predictive of parental monitoring efficacy than the second factor, instilling positive behavior. In the second study of 215 parents and adolescents in grades 10 and 12, parental monitoring efficacy predicted monitoring, especially adolescent disclosure and parental control. The importance of parental control as a monitoring technique among traditional Indian parents was discussed.

  4. Developing Bilingualism in a Two-Year Old Gujarati-English Learning Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Jane M.

    This document is a report on English acquisition by a 2-year old Gujarati-speaking child. Overall language development is dealt with only partially. Two aspects of this development are concentrated on. These are (1) phonological accomodation of English and Gujarati in a changing and increasing system, and (2) concentration of English lexemes in…

  5. Evaluation of surrogate markers for insulin resistance for defining metabolic syndrome in urban Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garg, M K; Tandon, Nikhil; Marwaha, R K; Singh, Yashpal

    2014-04-01

    To compare parameters of insulin resistance, with special reference to McAuley index, in urban Indian adolescents, and to establish their cut-off values for defining metabolic syndrome. Cross-sectional study. Schools located in four different geographical zones of Delhi, India. 695 apparently healthy adolescents grouped as normal weight (298), overweight (205) and obese (192). Cut-off point for indices of insulin resistance was assessed by fasting insulin, insulin glucose ratio, and other methods (HOMA model, QUICKI, McAuley index) to define metabolic syndrome. The McAuley index increased progressively from normal weight to obese adolescents in both sexes. McAuley index was significantly lower in adolescents with metabolic syndrome (5.36 ± 1.28 vs. 7.05 ± 1.88; P<0.001). McAuley index had the highest area under curve of receiver operator characteristics [0.82 (0.02)] as compared to other indices of insulin resistance. McAuley index of 6.23 had the highest specificity (88%) with sensitivity of 63.3% for diagnosing metabolic syndrome, whereas insulin glucose ratio had the highest sensitivity (79.7%) but low (55.5%) specificity. McAuley index was negatively correlated with height (r= -0.257, P=<0.001), weight (r= -0.537, P=<0.001), body mass index (r= -0.579, P<0.001), waist circumference (r= -0.542, p<0.001), and waist hip ratio (r= -0.268, P<0.001). Among various parameters of insulin resistance, McAuley index had the highest specificity, and insulin glucose ratio had the highest sensitivity in diagnosing metabolic syndrome in urban Indian adolescents.

  6. Emergency department utilization among American Indian adolescents who made a suicide attempt: a screening opportunity.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Elizabeth D; Tingey, Lauren; Lee, Angelita; Suttle, Rosemarie; Barlow, Allison; Cwik, Mary

    2014-03-01

    Reservation-based American Indian adolescents are at significant risk for suicide. Preventive approaches have not focused on medical service utilization patterns on reservations, which are typically limited to one local emergency department (ED). Patterns of ED utilization before suicide attempts were evaluated to identify opportunities for screening and intervention. Cross-sectional study of Apache adolescents (aged 13-19 years) who attempted suicide and consented to medical chart review. Lifetime presenting problems for Indian Health Service ED visits before the index suicide attempt were extracted and coded. A total of 1,424 ED visits from 72 Apache adolescents were extracted (median lifetime visits, n = 18). In the year before the attempt, 82% (n = 59) of participants had had an ED visit for any reason and 26% (n = 19) for a psychiatric reason, including suicidal thoughts or self-harm. Service utilization data suggest that EDs are critical locations for reservation-based suicide prevention. Suicide screening for all ED patients could increase early identification and treatment of this at-risk group. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Mediational Role of Academic Motivation in the Association between School Self-Concept and School Achievement among Indian Adolescents in Canada and India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the mediational role of academic motivation in the association between school self-concept and school achievement among 355 Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada and 363 Indian adolescents in India. Surveys were administered among Grades 9-12 students in Canada and India to assess their academic self-concepts, academic…

  8. Mediational Role of Academic Motivation in the Association between School Self-Concept and School Achievement among Indian Adolescents in Canada and India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the mediational role of academic motivation in the association between school self-concept and school achievement among 355 Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada and 363 Indian adolescents in India. Surveys were administered among Grades 9-12 students in Canada and India to assess their academic self-concepts, academic…

  9. Inhalant abuse by adolescents: a new challenge for Indian physicians.

    PubMed

    Basu, Debasish; Jhirwal, Om Prakash; Singh, Jaspreet; Kumar, Suresh; Mattoo, Surendra K

    2004-06-01

    Inhalant abuse has been commonly reported especially in the young during the last decades globally. The reason for the relative paucity of literature from India may be attributed to a lack of knowledge about this growing problem among health professionals. A series of five cases of inhalant abuse is described in order to understand this growing public health concern. Most of the cases started inhalant abuse during adolescence. All patients except one abused typewriter erasing fluid and thinner which contains toluene. All the patients reported using inhalants as addictive substance because of their easy accessibility, cheap price, their faster onset of action and the regular 'high' that it provided. Whereas several features of inhalant dependence were fulfilled, no physical withdrawal signs were observed. The diagnosis of inhalant abuse can be difficult and relies almost entirely on clinical judgment. Treatment is generally supportive.

  10. Identifying Protective Factors to Promote Health in American Indian and Alaska Native Adolescents: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Henson, Michele; Sabo, Samantha; Trujillo, Aurora; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to protective factors, conditions that protect against the occurrence of an undesirable outcome or promote the occurrence of a desirable outcome within an adolescent's environment, can foster healthy adolescent behaviors and reduce adult morbidity and mortality. Yet, little is known about the nature and effect of protective factors on the positive social and health outcomes among American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) adolescents. We conducted a review of the literature to identify the protective factors associated with positive health outcomes among AIAN adolescents. We consulted Elsevier Science Direct, ERIC EBSCOhost, PubMed, and the Web of Science databases. A total of 3421 articles were encountered. Excluded publications were those that did not focus on AIAN adolescents (n = 3341), did not identify protective factors (n = 56), were not original research studies (n = 8), or were not written in the English language. We identified nine categories of protective factors positively associated with health and social outcomes, including: current and/or future aspirations, personal wellness, positive self-image, self-efficacy, non-familial connectedness, family connectedness, positive opportunities, positive social norms, and cultural connectedness. Such factors positively influenced adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and substance use; delinquent and violent behavior; emotional health including depression, suicide attempt; resilience; and academic success. Protective factors spanned multiple domains of the socio-ecological model. Strengths-based health promotion efforts that leverage local, innate protective factors and work with AIANs to create environments rich in protective factors are key to improving the health and wellbeing of AIAN adolescents.

  11. Gender, Race, and Delinquent Behavior: An Extension of Power-Control Theory to American Indian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Eitle, David; Niedrist, Fallon; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2014-01-01

    Research testing Hagan's power-control theory has largely been tested with samples of non-Hispanic whites. We extend prior research by testing the theory's merits with a sample of American Indian (AI) adolescents. Overall, we find mixed support for the theory's merits. However, we find that our measure of patriarchy is a robust predictor of AI female delinquent activity. We also find that a grandparent in the household serves to greatly reduce involvement in violent behavior among AI females. Compared to a sample of non-Hispanic whites, these results reveal the importance of testing explanations of deviant behavior across racial and ethnic groups.

  12. Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescents in South Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, H.; Pavithra, U. S.; Abraham, R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To record prevalence of malocclusion among 2,400 adolescents in Karnataka state, India and to define difference in malocclusion status in urban and rural population. Design: Randomized cross-sectional study. Setting: School students of Karnataka state, 24 August 2011 to 30 March 2012. Participants: School students in the age group of 13-17 years. Materials and Methods: Each individual was assessed for occlusal traits - sagittal occlusion, overjet, overbite, crowding, midline diastema, and crossbite. Statistical Analysis Used: Examinations were computerized and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16. Chi-square test was used for computing statistical significance. Results: 87.79% of population had malocclusion. Out of which 89.45% had class I, 8.37% had class II, and 2.14% had class III malocclusion. Normal overjet and overbite was seen in 48.22 and 49.87% of subjects, respectively. Frequency of crowding was 58.12% and 15.43% of subjects had midline diastema. Anterior crossbite was present in 8.48% and posterior crossbite in 0.99%. Urban population had twice the class II sagittal occlusion, and increased overjet as compared to rural population. Conclusions: Malocclusion is widely spread among population of Karnataka state, with greater prevalence in urban population. Early exfoliation of deciduous teeth and refined diet can be considered as viable etiological factors. PMID:24778988

  13. Psycho-Social Behaviour of Urban Indian Adolescent Girls during menstruation.

    PubMed

    Goel, Manish Kumar; Kundan, Mittal

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence in females signifies the transition from girlhood to womanhood and is marked with the onset of menarche. Indian society is interwoven into a set of traditions, myths and misconceptions, especially regarding menstruation and related issues. The present study was conducted to assess knowledge and psycho-social behavior related to menstruation among adolescent girls in urban Haryana (state), India. A total of 478 adolescent girls in the age group of 15 -19 years from three educational institutes of Rohtak city were selected randomly. It was a community-based, descriptive, cross-sectional questionnaire based study, and a pre-tested, pre-coded, closed ended questionnaire was used. Feeling of sickness was the most common (in more than two-third of subjects) followed by irritability and emotional disturbances. More than 3/4(th) of the subjects did not worship during menstruation, 45% were not allowed in kitchen and nearly one-fourth followed dietary restrictions. More than 16% subjects thought menstruation to be a sign of onset of a disease and little more than 7 % thought it to be a curse. Girls preferred to discuss their menstruation related problems either with their mothers or with their friends. Girls have inaccurate and partial information regarding menstruation. There is a need of early intervention in the area of adolescent psycho-social behavior during menstruation.

  14. A clinical study of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents from North Indian children and adolescents clinic.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Satyakam; Agarwal, Vivek; Sitholey, Prabhat; Arya, Amit

    2014-04-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common group of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. But few studies on specific anxiety disorders in children and adolescents are available in India. Therefore, this study was planned to identify anxiety disorders in children and adolescents in an Indian psychiatry outpatient setting and elicit its phenomenology and co-morbidities. 1465 persons were screened using screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED) scale. The screen positive patients were assessed and diagnosis of anxiety disorders was established according to DSM-IV-TR. Detailed assessment of the phenomenology of anxiety disorders was done by K-SADS-PL. 42 (2.86%) patients had different anxiety disorders. Out of which 16 (38.1%) patients had obsessive compulsive disorder, 10 (23.81%) patients with specific phobias, 6 (14.29%) patients with generalized anxiety disorder, 4 (9.52%) patients with social anxiety disorder and 3 (7.14%) patients each with separation anxiety disorder and panic disorder. Co-morbidities were found in 54% of patients with anxiety disorders. Dissociative disorder, specific phobias and social anxiety disorder were the common co-morbidities. Anxiety disorders are less commonly found in clinic settings (2.86%). No case of posttraumatic stress disorder or acute stress reaction was found in this study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Depression Symptoms Associated with Cannabis Dependence in an Adolescent American Indian Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Gilder, David A.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Depression and substance use disorders, including cannabis dependence, arise during adolescence, are frequently co-morbid, and represent major health burdens in the general U.S. population. Yet little is known about the association of depression symptoms with cannabis and other substance use and use disorders in Native American adolescents. Objective To investigate the comorbidity of cannabis use and depression symptoms in Native American adolescents. Methods This study used the Children’s Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (Adolescent Version) to obtain lifetime DSM-III-R diagnoses from a community sample of 202 (98 boys, 104 girls) American Indian adolescents living on contiguous reservations. Results Thirteen percent of boys and 38% of girls had a lifetime DSM-III-R major depression disorder (MDD) independent of substance use. Fifteen percent of boys and 41% of girls had a major depression episode (MDE) either coincident with or independent of cannabis use. MDE and several individual depression symptoms were significantly associated with cannabis dependence in boys but not in girls. The median ages of onset of MDE were the same in the boys and girls who had experienced both depression and cannabis use. Conclusions These findings suggest that the association of depression with cannabis dependence is more significant in boys than girls in this population of adolescents. Scientific Significance Understanding co-morbidity between depression and cannabis use is important in order to disentangle the etiological relationship between the two and also for designing more effective treatment and prevention strategies, particularly in Native Americans who are at high risk for both disorders. PMID:23082832

  16. Pathways to care: narratives of American Indian adolescents entering substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Novins, Douglas K; Spicer, Paul; Fickenscher, Alexandra; Pescosolido, Bernice

    2012-06-01

    Using data from 89 American Indian adolescents and guided by the Network Episode Model, this paper analyses pathways to residential substance abuse treatment and their correlates. These adolescents were recruited at admission to a tribally-operated substance abuse treatment program in the southern United States from October 1998 to May 2001. Results from the qualitative analyses of these adolescent's pathways to care narratives indicated that 35% ultimately agreed with the decision for their entry into treatment; 41% were Compelled to enter treatment by others, usually by their parents, parole officers, and judges; and 24% did not describe a clear pathway to care. In the multinomial logistic regression model examining correlates of these pathways to care classifications, adolescents who described pathways indicative of agreement also reported greater readiness for treatment than the adolescents who described compelled or no clear pathways to care. Adolescents who described a Compelled pathway were less likely to meet diagnostic criteria for Conduct Disorder and described fewer social network ties. We were unable to find a relationship between pathways classifications and referral source, suggesting these narratives were subjective constructions of pathways to care rather than a factual representation of this process. In the final logistic regression model examining correlates of treatment completion, articulating a pathway to care, whether it was one of agreement or of being compelled into treatment, predicted a greater likelihood of completing treatment. Overall, these narratives and their correlates are highly consistent with the Network-Episode Model's emphasis on the interaction of self, situation, and social network in shaping the treatment seeking process, demonstrating the applicability of this model to understanding the treatment seeking process in this special population and suggests important considerations for understanding the dynamics of service

  17. Security of attachment in children and adolescents-An Indian experience.

    PubMed

    Kayastha, Priya; Hirisave, Uma; Natarajan, Gitanjali; Goyal, Gitanjali

    2010-12-01

    Security of attachment plays a key role in a caregiver's relationship with the child. Though this construct is studied extensively during infancy, early and middle childhood in the west, there are only a few Indian studies available on early childhood. The present article reports three studies which examine security of attachment in middle childhood and adolescence using the Security Scale developed by Kerns et al. (2000). In all three studies, the data were collected from a cross sectional sample. Normal school going children formed the sample in studies I and II, whereas study III had both a normal and a clinical group of children. Findings from studies I and II indicate secure attachment of children and adolescents with their parents. In study III, the normal group of children showed better security of attachment as compared to the clinical group of children. The authors of the present study highlight the applicability of the security scale in an Indian setting and suggest further research on standardization of the tool and its clinical utility. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Protecting against hopelessness and suicidality in sexually abused American Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pharris, M D; Resnick, M D; Blum, R W

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors protective against the adverse health correlates of sexual abuse in reservation-based American Indian and Alaskan Native adolescents. Data were taken from the National American Indian Adolescent Health Survey administered in 1988-1990 to 13,923 youths. Included in this analysis were 991 females and 166 males who reported a history of sexual abuse. Chi-square analysis was used to identify significant protective factors in sexually abused youths who did not report suicidality or hopelessness. Discriminant function analysis was used to determine which factors distinguished this group from those who experienced adverse health correlates. Separate multivariate analyses for boys and girls demonstrated that for girls, family attention, positive feelings toward school, parental expectations, and caring exhibited by family, adults, and tribal leaders were associated with absence of suicidality and hopelessness. For suicidality in boys, significant protective factors were enjoyment of school, involvement in traditional activities, strong academic performance, and caring exhibited by family, adults, school people, and tribal leaders. No significant protective factors against hopelessness were identified for boys. To minimize hopelessness and suicidal involvement among youth who have been sexually abused, strategies should be planned, implemented, and evaluated that support family caring and connectedness, strengthen school attachment and performance, and improve tribal connectedness.

  19. Trajectories of substance use among young American Indian adolescents: patterns and predictors.

    PubMed

    Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Asdigian, Nancy L; Kaufman, Carol E; Big Crow, Cecelia; Shangreau, Carly; Keane, Ellen M; Mousseau, Alicia C; Mitchell, Christina M

    2014-03-01

    Substance use often begins earlier among American Indians compared to the rest of the United States, a troubling reality that puts Native youth at risk for escalating and problematic use. We need to understand more fully patterns of emergent substance use among young American Indian adolescents, risk factors associated with escalating use trajectories, and protective factors that can be parlayed into robust prevention strategies. We used growth mixture modeling with longitudinal data from middle-school students on a Northern Plains reservation (Wave 1 N = 381, M age at baseline = 12.77, 45.6% female) to identify subgroups exhibiting different trajectories of cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use. We explored how both risk (e.g., exposure to stressful events, deviant peers) and protective (e.g., positive parent-child relationships, cultural identity) factors were related to these trajectories. For all substances, most youth showed trajectories characterized by low rates of substance use (nonuser classes), but many also showed patterns characterized by high and/or escalating use. Across substances, exposure to stress, early puberty, and deviant peer relationships were associated with the more problematic patterns, while strong relationships with parents and prosocial peers were associated with nonuser classes. Our measures of emergent cultural identity were generally unrelated to substance use trajectory classes among these young adolescents. The findings point to the importance of early substance use prevention programs for American Indian youth that attenuate the impact of exposure to stressful events, redirect peer relationships, and foster positive parent influences. They also point to the need to explore more fully how cultural influences can be captured.

  20. New standardized visual acuity charts in Hindi and Gujarati.

    PubMed

    Khamar, B M; Vyas, U H; Desai, T M

    1996-09-01

    Conventional Snellen visual acuity chart has unequal difficulty score and irregular progression in letter size causing jumping effect at different visual acuity levels. There is also increase in number of letters from above downwards. Consequently one or two mistakes per line has different meaning of visual acuity at different levels. We designed a new visual acuity chart of fourteen lines in Hindi and Gujarati to facilitate standardization in visual acuity measurement. These charts are designed for use at six meter distance, and the illumination is provided from front. These charts provide a standardized way of measuring visual acuity using local languages.

  1. Understanding the Lived Experience of a Sioux Indian Male Adolescent: Toward the Pedagogy of Hermeneutical Phenomenology in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeong-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is a resurgence of interests in phenomenology in education. This article sheds light on the importance of hermeneutical phenomenology in teaching and learning based on the lived experience of a Sioux Indian adolescent boy, elicited from an ethnographic case study conducted at an alternative high school in the US. Employing…

  2. Consistency in the Reporting of Sensitive Behaviors by Adolescent American Indian Women: A Comparison of Interviewing Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullany, Britta; Barlow, Allison; Neault, Nicole; Billy, Trudy; Hastings, Ranelda; Coho-Mescal, Valerie; Lorenzo, Sherilyn; Walkup, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Computer-assisted interviewing techniques have increasingly been used in program and research settings to improve data collection quality and efficiency. Little is known, however, regarding the use of such techniques with American Indian (AI) adolescents in collecting sensitive information. This brief compares the consistency of AI adolescent…

  3. Understanding the Lived Experience of a Sioux Indian Male Adolescent: Toward the Pedagogy of Hermeneutical Phenomenology in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeong-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is a resurgence of interests in phenomenology in education. This article sheds light on the importance of hermeneutical phenomenology in teaching and learning based on the lived experience of a Sioux Indian adolescent boy, elicited from an ethnographic case study conducted at an alternative high school in the US. Employing…

  4. Trier’s Social Stress Test for children: testing the methodology for Indian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaveni, GV; Veena, SR; Jones, A; Bhat, DS; Malathi, MP; Hellhammer, D; Srinivasan, K; Upadya, H; Kurpad, AV; Fall, CHD

    2014-01-01

    Objective Abnormal cortisol and autonomic stress responses may increase risks of adult chronic disease. With its growing burden of chronic disease, India is an important setting to determine mechanisms for this, but the utility of existing psychological stressors for research in this population is unknown. We tested the Trier Social Stress Test for children (TSST-C), developed for European children, in a cohort of Indian adolescents. Design Cohort study Setting Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India. Subjects Adolescent children (N=273, 134 males; mean age 13.6 years) selected from an ongoing birth cohort. Methods The children performed 5-minutes each of public speaking and mental arithmetic tasks in front of two unfamiliar ‘evaluators’, which formed the stressor (TSST-C). Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured at baseline and at regular intervals after the TSST-C. Continuous measurements of heart rate, finger blood pressure (BP), stroke volume, cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) were carried out before, during and for 10 minutes after the TSST-C using a finger cuff. Results TSST-C was completed in 269 children. Cortisol concentrations (mean increment (SD): 6.1 (6.9) ng/ml), and heart rate (4.6 (10.1) bpm), systolic (24.2 (11.6) mmHg) and diastolic BP (16.5 (7.3) mmHg), cardiac output (0.6 (0.7) L/min), stroke volume (4.0 (5.6) ml) and SVR (225 (282) dyn.s/cm5) increased significantly from baseline after inducing stress (P<0.001 for all). Conclusions The TSST-C produces stress responses in Indian adolescents of a sufficient magnitude to be a useful tool for examining stress physiology and its relationships to disease outcomes in this population. PMID:24986282

  5. Assessment of cardiovascular response to treadmill exercise in normal healthy Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pande, Sushma S; Pande, Santosh R; Dhore, Rajendra B; Daphale, Ajay V; Parate, Vrushali R; Patel, Shishir S; Agrekar, Sushil H

    2012-01-01

    The study aims to assess the cardiovascular response to treadmill exercise test in healthy Indian adolescents. A group of 50 healthy adolescents took part in the study. Cardiovascular response was assessed by using treadmill exercise test as per Bruce protocol. Pulse rate, blood pressure and ECG were recorded before, during and after undertaking the treadmill test. Mean age and body mass index (BMI) were 18.7 +/- 0.51 yrs. and 21.4 +/- 3.44 kg/m2 respectively. Karl Pearson Correlation analysis showed highly significant negative correlation between BMI and exercise time (r = -0.598, P<0.001) and between resting DBP and Exercise Time (r = -0.424, P<0.002). While BMI and DBP showed highly significant positive correlation (r = 0.463, P<0.001). During exercise pulse and SBP rose and DBP fell. SBP rose from mean 122 to 175 (rise by 53 mm of Hg) and DBP fell from mean 78 to 65 (fall by 13 mm of Hg). One min recovery pulse was 156 indicating 22% fall from target heart rate. All the parameters returned to near resting value at 6 min recovery. In 30% students DBP showed exaggerated response i.e. rise during exercise. These students had more BMI and higher resting DBP as compared to other students, which could be the reason for exaggerated response in these participants. In ECG there were no significant ST/T changes during exercise or recovery period. This study provides normal data for small sample of healthy Indian adolescents when subjected to treadmill exercise test.

  6. Pathways to Care: Narratives of American Indian Adolescents Entering Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Novins, Douglas K.; Spicer, Paul; Fickenscher, Alexandra; Pescosolido, Bernice

    2012-01-01

    Using data from 89 American Indian adolescents and guided by the Network Episode Model, this paper analyses pathways to residential substance abuse treatment and their correlates. These adolescents were recruited at admission to a tribally-operated substance abuse treatment program in the southern United States from October 1998 to May 2001. Results from the qualitative analyses of these adolescent’s pathways to care narratives indicated that 35% ultimately agreed with the decision for their entry into treatment; 41% were compelled to enter treatment by others, usually by their parents, parole officers, and judges; and 24% did not describe a clear pathway to care. In the multinomial logistic regression model examining correlates of these pathways to care classifications, adolescents who described pathways indicative of agreement also reported greater readiness for treatment than the adolescents who described compelled or no clear pathways to care. Adolescents who described a compelled pathway were less likely to meet diagnostic criteria for Conduct Disorder and described fewer social network ties. We were unable to find a relationship between pathways classifications and referral source, suggesting these narratives were subjective constructions of pathways to care rather than a factual representation of this process. In the final logistic regression model examining correlates of treatment completion, articulating a pathway to care, whether it was one of agreement or of being compelled into treatment, predicted a greater likelihood of completing treatment. Overall, these narratives and their correlates are highly consistent with the Network-Episode Model’s emphasis on the interaction of self, situation, and social network in shaping the treatment seeking process, demonstrating the applicability of this model to understanding the treatment seeking process in this special population and suggests important considerations for understanding the dynamics of service

  7. Assessment of Smartphone Addiction in Indian Adolescents: A Mixed Method Study by Systematic-review and Meta-analysis Approach.

    PubMed

    Davey, Sanjeev; Davey, Anuradha

    2014-12-01

    There is a considerable debate on addiction and abuse to Smartphone among adolescents and its consequent impact on their health; not only in a global context, but also specifically in the Indian population; considering that Smartphone's, globally occupy more than 50% of mobile phones market and more precise quantification of the associated problems is important to facilitate understanding in this field. As per PRISMA (2009) guidelines, extensive search of various studies in any form from a global scale to the more narrow Indian context using two key search words: "Smartphone's addiction" and "Indian adolescents" was done using websites of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed, Global Health, Psyc-INFO, Biomed-Central, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, world library - World-Cat, Indian libraries such as National Medical Library of India from 1 January, 1995 to March 31, 2014 first for systematic-review. Finally, meta-analysis on only Indian studies was done using Med-Calc online software capable of doing meta-analysis of proportions. A total of 45 articles were considered in systematic-review from whole world; later on 6 studies out of these 45 related to Smartphone's addiction in India were extracted to perform meta-analysis, in which total 1304 participants (range: 165-335) were enrolled. The smartphone addiction magnitude in India ranged from 39% to 44% as per fixed effects calculated (P < 0.0001). Smartphone addiction among Indian teens can not only damage interpersonal skills, but also it can lead to significant negative health risks and harmful psychological effects on Indian adolescents.

  8. School Bonding As a Moderator of the Effect of Peer Influences on Alcohol Use Among American Indian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dickens, Danielle D.; Dieterich, Sara E.; Henry, Kimberly L.; Beauvais, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Previous research suggests that substance use among American Indian youth is associated with disproportionate rates of morbidity and substance misuse. Additional work to understand risk and protective factors for alcohol use is needed. The current study examined the role of school bonding in buffering the effect of peer alcohol use on a student’s own alcohol use among American Indian adolescents. Method: The present study is part of a larger examination of alcohol use among American Indian youth. Survey data were collected from middle and high school students during the 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 school years from 37 school districts in the United States. The sample consisted of 2,582 students ages 11–19years: 1,606 were younger than 16, and 976 were age 16 or older. All students self-identified as American Indian or Alaskan Native. The sample was approximately equally divided by gender (49% male). Results: For all students, peer alcohol use was a risk factor for (a) lifetime alcohol use and (b) level of alcohol use among users. School bonding was associated with a lower likelihood of lifetime alcohol use for adolescents younger than age 16 and a lower level of use among users for all adolescents. School bonding emerged as a protective factor that buffers against peer alcohol use among adolescent alcohol users younger than 16. Conclusions: Results of the study demonstrate the influence of exposure to alcohol-using peers and the protective role of school bonding on alcohol use among American Indian adolescents. Implications for prevention are discussed. PMID:22630798

  9. International note: what factors are associated with reading, mathematics, and science literacy of Indian adolescents? A multilevel examination.

    PubMed

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2014-06-01

    A sample of 15-year-olds in India took part in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) for the first time in 2010. The PISA reading, mathematics, and science literacy scores of Indian adolescents were considerably lower than their counterparts in most PISA participating countries. In order to explore potential reasons for this, the present study, therefore, drawing on data from the fourth cycle of PISA and employing multilevel modeling, examined the relations of student- and school-level factors to reading, mathematics, and science literacy among 4826 15-year-old students from 213 schools in India. Gender, metacognitive learning strategies, students' positive attitudes toward school, and students' positive perceptions of classroom climate were found to be significantly associated with Indian adolescents' performance on the PISA assessment. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gender, Race, and Delinquent Behavior: An Extension of Power-Control Theory to American Indian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, David; Niedrist, Fallon; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2014-01-01

    Research testing Hagan’s power-control theory has largely been tested with samples of non-Hispanic whites. We extend prior research by testing the theory’s merits with a sample of American Indian (AI) adolescents. Overall, we find mixed support for the theory’s merits. However, we find that our measure of patriarchy is a robust predictor of AI female delinquent activity. We also find that a grandparent in the household serves to greatly reduce involvement in violent behavior among AI females. Compared to a sample of non-Hispanic whites, these results reveal the importance of testing explanations of deviant behavior across racial and ethnic groups. PMID:25342866

  11. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology: patterns among American Indian adolescents in substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Deters, Pamela B; Novins, Douglas K; Fickenscher, Alexandra; Beals, Jan

    2006-07-01

    In this study the authors examined the prevalence and correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and trauma symptomatology among a sample of 89 American Indian adolescents in a residential substance abuse treatment program. These youths reported an average of 4.1 lifetime traumas, with threat of injury and witnessing injury being most common; molestation, rape, and sexual attack were least common. Approximately 10% of participants met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for full PTSD, and about 14% met the criteria for subthreshold PTSD. Molestation (including rape and sexual attack), experiencing 6 or more traumas, and a diagnosis of abuse of or dependence on stimulants were significantly associated with PTSD. Findings indicated that trauma was a pervasive phenomenon among this population, with sexual traumas being particularly stigmatizing, resulting in high rates of posttraumatic symptomatology, specifically PTSD.

  12. Assessment of Smartphone Addiction in Indian Adolescents: A Mixed Method Study by Systematic-review and Meta-analysis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Sanjeev; Davey, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    There is a considerable debate on addiction and abuse to Smartphone among adolescents and its consequent impact on their health; not only in a global context, but also specifically in the Indian population; considering that Smartphone's, globally occupy more than 50% of mobile phones market and more precise quantification of the associated problems is important to facilitate understanding in this field. As per PRISMA (2009) guidelines, extensive search of various studies in any form from a global scale to the more narrow Indian context using two key search words: “Smartphone's addiction” and “Indian adolescents” was done using websites of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed, Global Health, Psyc-INFO, Biomed-Central, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, world library - World-Cat, Indian libraries such as National Medical Library of India from 1 January, 1995 to March 31, 2014 first for systematic-review. Finally, meta-analysis on only Indian studies was done using Med-Calc online software capable of doing meta-analysis of proportions. A total of 45 articles were considered in systematic-review from whole world; later on 6 studies out of these 45 related to Smartphone's addiction in India were extracted to perform meta-analysis, in which total 1304 participants (range: 165-335) were enrolled. The smartphone addiction magnitude in India ranged from 39% to 44% as per fixed effects calculated (P < 0.0001). Smartphone addiction among Indian teens can not only damage interpersonal skills, but also it can lead to significant negative health risks and harmful psychological effects on Indian adolescents. PMID:25709785

  13. Teacher Reflections and Praxis: A Case Study of Indian Teachers of English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarani, Sakilahmed A. R.

    2012-01-01

    This case study engaged Gujarati English as Foreign Language (EFL) teachers in video-based reflection with the goal of increasing their reflective abilities and uncovering their understandings about reflective teaching practices in the Indian pedagogical and cultural context. The study aimed to explore, and gain a deeper understanding of how…

  14. Teacher Reflections and Praxis: A Case Study of Indian Teachers of English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarani, Sakilahmed A. R.

    2012-01-01

    This case study engaged Gujarati English as Foreign Language (EFL) teachers in video-based reflection with the goal of increasing their reflective abilities and uncovering their understandings about reflective teaching practices in the Indian pedagogical and cultural context. The study aimed to explore, and gain a deeper understanding of how…

  15. THE EFFECT OF A CULTURALLY TAILORED SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION INTERVENTION WITH PLAINS INDIAN ADOLESCENTS.

    PubMed

    Patchell, Beverly A; Robbins, Leslie K; Lowe, John A; Hoke, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effects of incorporating tribal specific cultural beliefs into a tailored substance abuse prevention intervention for at risk rural Oklahoma Native American Indian (NAI) Plains adolescents. The 10 hour Native American Talking Circle Intervention, a school-based, group substance abuse prevention program, was implemented over a 8.5 week period and evaluated using a one group, pretest-posttest design. Measurements were from the Native Self-Reliance Questionnaire and the Substance Problems Scale from Global Appraisal of Individual Needs-Quick (GAIN-Q). One-tailed, paired sample t-tests demonstrated significant increase in self-reliance, from 86.227 to 92.204 (t (43) = -2.580, p = .007) and a decrease in substance abuse/use, from 2.265 to 1.265 (t (33) = 1.844, p = .007). The Native Talking Circle Intervention based on tribal-specific values and beliefs was shown to be effective with substance abuse/use at-risk NAI Plains tribal adolescents.

  16. Illicit peyote use among American Indian adolescents in substance abuse treatment: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Fickenscher, Alexandra; Novins, Douglas K; Manson, Spero M

    2006-01-01

    Few studies to date have addressed illicit (i.e., nonceremonial) peyote use among American Indians (AIs). Participants were 89 AI adolescents admitted to a tribally operated residential substance abuse treatment program (RSATP) between 1998 and 2001. The RSATP is designed to provide specialized treatment of patients with substance use and other comorbid psychiatric disorders and is infused with a culturally sensitive approach to treatment. The participants completed a series of interviews that collected information on psychiatric diagnostic status, history of substance use, and ethnic identity. The majority of participants were male (65%), did not come from a two-parent household (75%), reported a mean use of 5.4 substances, and met full criteria for a median of 2.9 substance use disorders. Of 89 clients, 10 (11.2%) reported illicit use of peyote. The vast majority of these youth (n = 8) reported using peyote only once or twice in their lifetime. Illicit peyote users did not differ from nonusers in terms of age, gender, other substance use, prevalence of either other substance abuse/dependence or other nonsubstance use psychiatric disorders. However, illicit peyote users were more likely to report low levels of social support, low levels of self-esteem, and low identification with AI culture yet comparable involvement in AI traditional practices. The results of this exploratory study suggest that illicit peyote use is uncommon among AI adolescents with serious substance abuse problems.

  17. BIS-11A -Hindi version: A preliminary study of impulsivity in rural and urban Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Singh, Paramjeet; Solanki, R K; Bhatnagar, P S

    2008-04-01

    Despite of there being a pressing need to gauge impulsivity scores, there is no behavioral instrument in India to assess the impulsivity in adolescents. No earlier studies have been done in India to access impulsivity in adolescents. Even in western countries, no study has been done in rural setting to access impulsivity, although segment of rural population is small in western nations with major population residing in urban areas. To translate BIS-11A into Hindi from English in a culturally sensitive manner and to do preliminary study in rural and urban areas. First translation of BIS-11 (as it is meant for adults) and cultural substitution resulted in Hindi adult version. Adolescent version was derived from adult version by replacing adult activities with adolescent activities. BIS-11 English version was translated into Hindi and a back translation was made. As BIS-11 was developed for adults, answering some of the questions poses challenges for adolescents, so to be used with adolescents, questions that do not fit into adolescent age group were substituted keeping in view the activities of adolescents. Besides, questions that were not suitable as per the Indian culture were modified. Initially, these changes were made hypothetically by discussion among the authors and later a group of 48 school students were interviewed about the questions. Based on the interviews of students a final version was prepared. Translation, back translation, cultural substitution -hypothetically, and in school by discussion were carried out. The questionnaire was given to 120 urban high school students (in Jaipur, northern India) and 50 rural students (at Kanota, 25 km from Jaipur, northern India) and the scores were calculated as per the scoring method provided with original BIS-11. T-test (two-tailed, two sample unequal variance, i.e., type 3) was used. T-test (two-tailed, two sample unequal variance, i.e., type 3) found no significant difference between impulsivity scores of

  18. Patient and Provider Factors Associated With American Indian and Alaska Native Adolescent Tobacco Use Screening

    PubMed Central

    Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y.; Suchy-Dicey, Astrid M.; Garroutte, Eva M.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco use is the leading behavioral cause of death among adults 25 years or older. American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) communities confront some of the highest rates of tobacco use and of its sequelae. Primary care–based screening of adolescents is an integral step in the reduction of tobacco use, yet remains virtually unstudied. We examined whether delivery of tobacco screening in primary care visits is associated with patient and provider characteristics among AI/AN adolescents. Methods We used a cross-sectional analysis to examine tobacco screening among 4757 adolescent AI/AN patients served by 56 primary care providers at a large tribally managed health system between October 1, 2011 and May 31, 2014. Screening prevalence was examined in association with categorical patient characteristics (gender, age, clinic visited, insurance coverage) and provider characteristics (gender, age, tenure) using multilevel logistic regressions with individual provider identity as the nesting variable. Results Thirty-seven percent of eligible patients were screened. Gender of both providers and patients was associated with screening. Male providers delivered screening more often than female providers (odds ratio [OR] 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.7–3.9). Male patients had 20% lower odds of screening receipt (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.7–0.9) than female patients, independent of patient age and provider characteristics. Individual provider identity significantly contributed to variability in the mixed-effects model (variance component 2.2; 95% CI 1.4–3.4), suggesting individual provider effect. Conclusions Low tobacco screening delivery by female providers and the low receipt of screening among younger, male patients may identify targets for screening interventions. PMID:26319931

  19. Exploring binge drinking and drug use among American Indians: data from adolescent focus groups.

    PubMed

    Tingey, Lauren; Cwik, Mary; Goklish, Novalene; Alchesay, Melanie; Lee, Angelita; Strom, Rachel; Suttle, Rosemarie; Walkup, John; Barlow, Allison

    2012-09-01

    Risk factors for binge substance use and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) are similar, suggesting the importance of exploring how binge substance use and self-injury interrelate. To gain insight from a sample of American Indian (AI) adolescents regarding how binge drinking and drug use function in their lives, including as overlapping forms of self-injury, and to identify community-based ideas for dual prevention strategies. A total of N = 58 White Mountain Apache (Apache) adolescents participated in ten mixed gender (n = 33 males, 55.9%) focus group discussions. Results were interpreted and categorized by Apache researchers and compared to Nock's behavioral model of NSSI. Participants reported substance use most commonly with "family" and "friends," "at a house," or "around the community." Substance use was not confined to a particular time of day, and often occurred "at school." Commonly endorsed reasons fell into two main categories: "to avoid problems" or "to reduce negative feelings," versus "to be cool" or "to feel part of a group." All adolescents but one thought that some youths use substances excessively as a way to harm/injure themselves (n = 25 responses). Prevention approaches included encouraging healthy relationships, teaching about consequences of use, providing alternative recreation, and changing/enforcing laws on the reservation. Tribal-specific data support the idea that binge substance use sometimes functions as a form of self-injury. Home/school environments are critical prevention settings, in addition to improved law enforcement and increased recreation. Understanding possible shared root causes and functions of binge substance use and self-injury may advance integrated prevention approaches.

  20. Rigorous evaluation of a pregnancy prevention program for American Indian youth and adolescents: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tingey, Lauren; Chambers, Rachel; Goklish, Novalene; Larzelere, Francene; Lee, Angelita; Suttle, Rosemarie; Rosenstock, Summer; Lake, Kristin; Barlow, Allison

    2017-02-27

    American Indian adolescents have one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy and repeat teen births in the US. Substance use is a significant risk factor for unprotected sex, and American Indian adolescents have the highest substance use-related morbidity and mortality of any US racial group. Despite these disparities, there are no existing, evidence-based programs for pregnancy prevention that have been rigorously evaluated among American Indian teens. The proposed study is a randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a comprehensive sexual and reproductive health program developed in partnership with an American Indian community. Participants will be American Indians ages 11-19 and their parent or trusted adult, randomized to receive the control condition or intervention called Respecting the Circle of Life: Mind, Body and Spirit. The intervention includes eight lessons delivered to self-selected peer groups during a summer basketball camp and one lesson delivered to the youth and parent/trusted adult together within 3 months after camp. All lessons are administered by trained community health workers from the participating American Indian community. Youth and parent/trusted adult participants will complete assessments at baseline, 3, 9, 12, 24 and 36 months post-intervention completion. The primary outcome variables are sexual/reproductive health knowledge, sexual initiation, condom use self-efficacy and intent to use a condom at next sex as changed from baseline to post-intervention between intervention and control participants. Selected primary outcomes are applicable to all study participants. Currently there are no sexual and reproductive health programs designed specifically for American Indian youth that have been rigorously evaluated and found to have an evidence base. Respecting the Circle of Life is highly innovative by incorporating lesson delivery into a summer basketball camp and involving parents or other trusted adults in curriculum

  1. Project Eagle: techniques for multi-family psycho-educational group therapy with gifted American Indian adolescents and their parents.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Rockey; Tonemah, Stuart; Robbins, Sharla

    2002-01-01

    This article describes Project Eagle, a model for short-term psycho-educational therapy with gifted and talented American Indian adolescents and their parents. Descriptions of Project Eagle s program organization as well as its culturally relevant techniques and activities are provided. The program evaluation includes: participant ratings of the activities, cultural relevance, feelings of being respected, interaction with parents and overall effectiveness of the program. Additional qualitative analysis provides information regarding the program s impact upon participants.

  2. Prevention and Treatment of Vitamin D and Calcium Deficiency in Children and Adolescents: Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Khadilkar, Anuradha; Khadilkar, Vaman; Chinnappa, Jagdish; Rathi, Narendra; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Balasubramanian, S; Parekh, Bakul; Jog, Pramod

    2017-07-15

    Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is being increasingly reported from India from all age-groups. Reports suggest that VDD affects all age groups, from neonates to adolescents. Further, habitually low calcium intakes are also reported in Indian children. Given the multiple guidelines, peculiarities of Indian circumstances, changing lifestyles, and lack of fortification, the Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) felt the need for a Practice Guideline for Pediatricians for the prevention and treatment of vitamin D and calcium deficiency in children and adolescents. The 'Guideline for Vitamin D and Calcium in Children' committee was formed by the IAP in September 2016. A consultative committee meeting was held in November 2016 in Mumbai. Evidence from Indian and international studies and other previous published recommendations, which were pertinent to the Indian circumstances, were collated for the preparation of these guidelines. To present a practice guideline for pediatricians for the prevention and treatment of deficiency of vitamin D and calcium in the Indian context. For the prevention of rickets in premature infants, 400 IU of vitamin D and 150-220 mg/kg of calcium, and in neonates, 400 IU of vitamin D and 200 mg of calcium are recommended daily. For prevention of rickets and hypocalcemia in infants (after neonatal period) upto 1 year of age, and from 1-18 years, 400 IU and 600 IU vitamin D/day and 250-500 mg/day and 600-800 mg/day of calcium, respectively, are recommended. For treatment of rickets in premature neonates, infants upto 1 year and from 1-18 years, 1000 IU, 2000 IU and 3000-6000 IU of vitamin D daily, respectively, and elemental calcium of 70-80 mg/kg/day in premature neonates and 500-800 mg daily for all children over that age are recommended. Larger doses of vitamin D may be given from 3 months to 18 years of age as 60,000 IU/week for 6 weeks.

  3. Comparative study of bone mineral density, calcium, and vitamin D status in the Gujarati and white populations of Leicester.

    PubMed

    Hamson, C; Goh, L; Sheldon, P; Samanta, A

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate differences in bone mineral density (BMD), calcium, and vitamin D status between the Gujarati (South Asian) and white populations resident in Leicester and to determine whether this was linked to lifestyle factors. An observational cross sectional study of randomly selected Gujarati and white volunteers aged from 20-40 years. City of Leicester. Subjects were randomly selected by age (20-40 years) and ethnicity. A total of 262 individuals volunteered to participate, of which 201 (51 white females, 71 Gujarati females, 37 white males, 42 Gujarati males) were eligible for the study. Results of questionnaire, BMD at the hip and lumbar spine, and measurement of serum calcium, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Male and female white subjects were significantly taller and heavier than their Gujarati counterparts. There was a statistically significant difference in BMD both at the spine (p<0.001) and hip (p<0.001) between the white and Gujarati females with the Gujaratis having a lower BMD. There was a trend for Gujarati males to have a lower BMD at the hip and spine than their white counterparts but these figures did not reach statistical significance. The intensity of cigarette smoking and the amount of alcohol consumption were both higher in the white male and female subjects. Sunlight exposure (>4 hours per day) was significantly higher in white subjects compared with Gujaratis. There were no significant differences in the mean level of serum calcium or alkaline phosphatase between the Gujaratis and whites. A significantly higher proportion (p<0.001) of the Gujarati men and women had a vitamin D level that was not measurable (that is, below the lower limit of the laboratory range of normal). Of those who had a measurable level (that is, in the normal range) mean levels of vitamin D were lower (p<0.05) in the Gujarati men and women. The present study is the first of its kind to note a low BMD in Gujarati subjects of South Asian origin

  4. Comparative study of bone mineral density, calcium, and vitamin D status in the Gujarati and white populations of Leicester

    PubMed Central

    Hamson, C; Goh, L; Sheldon, P; Samanta, A

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate differences in bone mineral density (BMD), calcium, and vitamin D status between the Gujarati (South Asian) and white populations resident in Leicester and to determine whether this was linked to lifestyle factors. Design: An observational cross sectional study of randomly selected Gujarati and white volunteers aged from 20–40 years. Setting: City of Leicester. Participants: Subjects were randomly selected by age (20–40 years) and ethnicity. A total of 262 individuals volunteered to participate, of which 201 (51 white females, 71 Gujarati females, 37 white males, 42 Gujarati males) were eligible for the study. Main outcome measures: Results of questionnaire, BMD at the hip and lumbar spine, and measurement of serum calcium, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Results: Male and female white subjects were significantly taller and heavier than their Gujarati counterparts. There was a statistically significant difference in BMD both at the spine (p<0.001) and hip (p<0.001) between the white and Gujarati females with the Gujaratis having a lower BMD. There was a trend for Gujarati males to have a lower BMD at the hip and spine than their white counterparts but these figures did not reach statistical significance. The intensity of cigarette smoking and the amount of alcohol consumption were both higher in the white male and female subjects. Sunlight exposure (>4 hours per day) was significantly higher in white subjects compared with Gujaratis. There were no significant differences in the mean level of serum calcium or alkaline phosphatase between the Gujaratis and whites. A significantly higher proportion (p<0.001) of the Gujarati men and women had a vitamin D level that was not measurable (that is, below the lower limit of the laboratory range of normal). Of those who had a measurable level (that is, in the normal range) mean levels of vitamin D were lower (p<0.05) in the Gujarati men and women. Conclusion: The present

  5. Evaluation of body composition and its association with cardio respiratory fitness in south Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vivek Kumar; Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Arunachalam, Vinayathan

    2013-01-01

    Anthropometry is generally considered as the single most easily obtainable, inexpensive, and noninvasive method that reflects body composition and VO2(max) is an indication of the physical fitness of the subject. There is a paucity of data on t3he age related changes in the body composition parameters and VO2(max), and the association between them in the Indian adolescent population. Hence, the present study was conceived to assess and find the association between these parameters in the students in the age group of 12-17 years. Body composition was assessed using anthropometric measures (Height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and skin fold thickness) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) was assessed using estimated VO2(max) from Rockport Walk Fitness Test. We observed that the anthropometric measures were normal for the respective age groups and VO2(max) (mL/kg/min) in all the age groups in both the genders were in superior category according to Heywood classification. We observed higher body fat percentage (BF%) in girls of all the age groups compared to the boys and higher fat free mass (FFM) and VO2(max) in the boys of all age groups when compared to girls. VO2(max) showed a strong correlation with FFM (r = 0.891, P < 0.001) and a weak correlation with BF% (r = -0.322, P < 0.0001). Optimal body composition and CRF can be attributed to the regular structured physical activity of one hour duration daily and the provision of adequate nutrition. FFM can be put forth as a stronger determinant of CRF than BF% in the adolescents.

  6. Consistency in the reporting of sensitive behaviors by adolescent American Indian women: a comparison of interviewing methods.

    PubMed

    Mullany, Britta; Barlow, Allison; Neault, Nicole; Billy, Trudy; Hastings, Ranelda; Coho-Mescal, Valerie; Lorenzo, Sherilyn; Walkup, John T

    2013-01-01

    Computer-assisted interviewing techniques have increasingly been used in program and research settings to improve data collection quality and efficiency. Little is known, however, regarding the use of such techniques with American Indian (AI) adolescents in collecting sensitive information. This brief compares the consistency of AI adolescent mothers' reporting of sensitive sexual and drug use behaviors gathered through three distinct interviewing techniques: computer-assisted (ACASI), self-administered questionnaire (SAQ), and face-to-face interview (FTFI). Endorsement of drug use and reporting of sexual activity was highest for ACASI, followed by SAQ, and was significantly lower for FTFI. Relatively strong agreement was measured between ACASI and SAQ, and relatively poor agreement was measured between the ACASI and FTFI. Findings support the use of computer-assisted interviewing techniques with AI adolescents, and implications for future research are discussed.

  7. Alcohol Use Among American Indian High School Youths From Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Latent Markov Model*

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Christina M.; Beals, Janette; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh

    2008-01-01

    Objective: We explored patterns of alcohol use among American Indian youths as well as concurrent predictors and developmental outcomes 6 years later. Method: This study used six semi-annual waves of data collected across 3 years from 861 American Indian youths, ages 14-20 initially, from two western tribes. Using a latent Markov model, we examined patterns of change in latent states of adolescent alcohol use in the past 6 months, combining these states of alcohol use into three latent statuses that described patterns of change across the 3 years: abstainers, inconsistent drinkers, and consistent drinkers. We then explored how the latent statuses differed, both initially and in young adulthood (ages 20-26). Results: Both alcohol use and nonuse were quite stable across time, although we also found evidence of change. Despite some rather troubling drinking patterns as teens, especially among consistent drinkers, most of the youths had achieved important tasks of young adulthood. But patterns of use during adolescence were related to greater levels of substance use in young adulthood. Conclusions: Latent Markov modeling provided a useful categorization of alcohol use that more finely differentiated those youths who would otherwise have been considered inconsistent drinkers. Findings also suggest that broad-based interventions during adolescence may not be the most important ones; instead, programs targeting later alcohol and other drug use may be a more strategic use of often limited resources. PMID:18781241

  8. Alcohol use among American Indian high school youths from adolescence and young adulthood: a latent Markov model.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Christina M; Beals, Janette; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh

    2008-09-01

    We explored patterns of alcohol use among American Indian youths as well as concurrent predictors and developmental outcomes 6 years later. This study used six semi-annual waves of data collected across 3 years from 861 American Indian youths, ages 14-20 initially, from two western tribes. Using a latent Markov model, we examined patterns of change in latent states of adolescent alcohol use in the past 6 months, combining these states of alcohol use into three latent statuses that described patterns of change across the 3 years: abstainers, inconsistent drinkers, and consistent drinkers. We then explored how the latent statuses differed, both initially and in young adulthood (ages 20-26). Both alcohol use and nonuse were quite stable across time, although we also found evidence of change. Despite some rather troubling drinking patterns as teens, especially among consistent drinkers, most of the youths had achieved important tasks of young adulthood. But patterns of use during adolescence were related to greater levels of substance use in young adulthood. Latent Markov modeling provided a useful categorization of alcohol use that more finely differentiated those youths who would otherwise have been considered inconsistent drinkers. Findings also suggest that broad-based interventions during adolescence may not be the most important ones; instead, programs targeting later alcohol and other drug use may be a more strategic use of often limited resources.

  9. Association of family income supplements in adolescence with development of psychiatric and substance use disorders in adulthood among an American Indian population.

    PubMed

    Costello, E Jane; Erkanli, Alaattin; Copeland, William; Angold, Adrian

    2010-05-19

    In a natural experiment in which some families received income supplements, prevalence of adolescent behavioral symptoms decreased significantly. These adolescents are now young adults. To examine the effects of income supplements in adolescence and adulthood on the prevalence of adult psychiatric disorders. Quasi-experimental, longitudinal. A representative sample of children aged 9, 11, or 13 years in 1993 (349 [25%] of whom are American Indian) were assessed for psychiatric and substance use disorders through age 21 years (1993-2006). Of the 1420 who participated in 1993, 1185 were interviewed as adults. From 1996, when a casino opened on the Indian reservation, every American Indian but no non-Indians received an annual income supplement that increased from $500 to around $9000. Prevalence of adult psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 3 age cohorts, adjusted for age, sex, length of time in the family home, and number of Indian parents. As adults, significantly fewer Indians than non-Indians had a psychiatric disorder (106 Indians [weighted 30.2%] vs 337 non-Indians [weighted 36.0%]; odds ratio [OR], 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30-0.72; P = .001), particularly alcohol and cannabis abuse, dependence, or both. The youngest age-cohort of Indian youth had the longest exposure to the family income. Interactions between race/ethnicity and age cohort were significant. Planned comparisons showed that fewer of the youngest Indian age-cohort had any psychiatric disorder (31.4%) than the Indian middle cohort (41.7%; OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.24-0.78; P = .005) or oldest cohort (41.3%; OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.51-0.94; P = .01) or the youngest non-Indian cohort (37.1%; OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.48-0.90; P = .008). Study hypotheses were not upheld for nicotine or other drugs, or emotional or behavioral disorders. The income supplement received in adulthood had no impact on adult psychopathology

  10. Association of family income supplements in adolescence with development of psychiatric and substance use disorders in adulthood among an American Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Costello, E. Jane; Erkanli, Alaattin; Copeland, William; Angold, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Context In a natural experiment in which some families received income supplements, adolescent behavioral symptoms fell significantly. These adolescents are now young adults. Objective To examine the effects of income supplements in adolescence and adulthood on the prevalence of adult psychiatric disorders. Design Quasi-experimental, longitudinal. Population and setting A representative sample of 1420 children ages 9, 11, or 13 in 1993 (25%, n=349, American-Indian) were assessed for psychiatric and substance use disorders (SUD) through age 21 (1993–2006). From 1996, when a casino opened on the Indian reservation, every American-Indian but no Non-Indians received an annual income supplement that increased from $500 to around $9000. Main outcome measures Rates of adult psychiatric disorders and SUD based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders1 in 3 age cohorts, adjusted for age, sex, length of time in the family home, and number of Indian parents. Results As adults, significantly fewer Indians than non-Indians had a psychiatric disorder (Indians, 30.2%, non-Indians, 36.0%, Odds Ratio (OR) 0.46, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.30, 0.72, p=.001), particularly alcohol and cannabisabuse and/or dependence. The youngest age-cohort of Indian youth had the longest exposure to the family income. Interactions between race/ethnicity and age-cohort were significant. Planned comparisons showed that fewer of the youngest Indian age-cohort had any psychiatric disorder (31.4%) than the Indian middle cohort (41.7%, OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.24, 0.78, p=.005) or oldest cohort (41.4%, OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.51, 0.94, p=.012) or the youngest non-Indian cohort (37.1%, 0.66, 95% CI 0.48, 0.90 p=.008). Study hypotheses were not upheld for nicotine or other drugs, or emotional or behavioral disorders. The income supplement received in adulthood had no impact on adult psychopathology. Conclusions Lower rates of psychopathology in American-Indian youth following a family income

  11. EXPLAINING THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN GENDER AND SUBSTANCE USE AMONG AMERICAN INDIAN ADOLESCENTS: AN APPLICATION OF POWER-CONTROL THEORY.

    PubMed

    Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluates the utility of Hagan's power-control theory for explaining substance use behaviors for a sample of American Indian adolescent males and females. Consistent with the theory, we found that patriarchal family form and the affective bond between father and daughter were significant predictors of female substance use behaviors. Compared to results from an analysis of non-Hispanic whites, these results reveal the importance of testing generalist explanations of deviant behavior across racial and ethnic groups. Our findings encourage a more in depth consideration of the gendered nature of work, it's association with socialization and control in American Indian families, and it's impact on gender differences in substance use and delinquent behaviors.

  12. EXPLAINING THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN GENDER AND SUBSTANCE USE AMONG AMERICAN INDIAN ADOLESCENTS: AN APPLICATION OF POWER-CONTROL THEORY

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the utility of Hagan’s power-control theory for explaining substance use behaviors for a sample of American Indian adolescent males and females. Consistent with the theory, we found that patriarchal family form and the affective bond between father and daughter were significant predictors of female substance use behaviors. Compared to results from an analysis of non-Hispanic whites, these results reveal the importance of testing generalist explanations of deviant behavior across racial and ethnic groups. Our findings encourage a more in depth consideration of the gendered nature of work, it’s association with socialization and control in American Indian families, and it’s impact on gender differences in substance use and delinquent behaviors. PMID:27313337

  13. Social contextual risk factors for stimulant use among adolescent American Indians.

    PubMed

    Spillane, Nichea S; Weyandt, Lisa; Oster, Danielle; Treloar, Hayley

    2017-10-01

    Stimulants are the most common and efficacious treatment for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). We examined the relationship between stimulant misuse and social factors that could be malleable to prevention among American Indian (AI) adolescents. Participants were AI students (N=3498) sampled from 33 schools in 11 states. Participants completed the American Drug and Alcohol Survey. A multilevel analytic approach was used to evaluate the effects of participant-level (level 1) variables (i.e., gender, grade, peer, school, family, stimulant prescribed by doctor) on lifetime and current simulant use to 'get high.' Nearly 7% of our sample had been prescribed stimulants and nearly 6% of the sample reported using stimulants to get high. Age [OR=1.22; 95% CI=1.09, 1.36, p<0.001], perception of peer substance use [OR=1.19; 95% CI=1.14, 1.23, p<0.001], parental monitoring [OR=0.96; 95% CI=0.92, 1.99, p=0.04], and stimulants prescribed by a doctor [OR=8.79, 95% CI=5.86, 13.18, p<0.001] were associated with ever using stimulants to get high. Perception of peer substance use, [b=0.09, SE=0.02, p<0.001, 95%CI [0.05, 0.13], and having stimulants prescribed by a doctor, [b=0.58, SE=0.21, p=0.006, 95%CI [0.17, 0.99], were associated with frequency of past month use to get high. There was also a significant quadratic effect for parental monitoring, suggesting that low and high levels were associated with increased stimulant use. Our results suggest a need for prevention efforts to be directed to AI youth who are prescribed stimulants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Entrepreneurship education: A strength-based approach to substance use and suicide prevention for American Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tingey, Lauren; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Goklish, Novalene; Ingalls, Allison; Craft, Todd; Sprengeler, Feather; McGuire, Courtney; Barlow, Allison

    2016-01-01

    American Indian (AI) adolescents suffer the largest disparities in substance use and suicide. Predominating prevention models focus primarily on risk and utilize deficit-based approaches. The fields of substance use and suicide prevention research urge for positive youth development frameworks that are strength based and target change at individual and community levels. Entrepreneurship education is an innovative approach that reflects the gap in available programs. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a youth entrepreneurship education program in partnership with one AI community. We detail the curriculum, process evaluation results, and the randomized controlled trial evaluating its efficacy for increasing protective factors. Lessons learned may be applicable to other AI communities.

  15. Impact of restricted marital practices on genetic variation in an endogamous Gujarati group

    PubMed Central

    Pemberton, Trevor J.; Li, Fang-Yuan; Hanson, Erin K.; Mehta, Niyati U.; Choi, Sunju; Ballantyne, Jack; Belmont, John W.; Rosenberg, Noah A.; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Patel, Pragna I.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have examined the influence on patterns of human genetic variation of a variety of cultural practices. In India, centuries-old marriage customs have introduced extensive social structuring into the contemporary population, potentially with significant consequences for genetic variation. Social stratification in India is evident as social classes that are defined by endogamous groups known as castes. Within a caste, there exist endogamous groups known as gols (marriage circles), each of which comprises a small number of exogamous gotra (lineages). Thus, while consanguinity is strictly avoided and some randomness in mate selection occurs within the gol, gene flow is limited with populations outside the gol. Gujarati Patels practice this form of “exogamic endogamy.” We have analyzed genetic variation in one such group of Gujarati Patels, the Chha Gaam Patels (CGP), who comprise individuals from six villages. Population structure analysis of 1,200 autosomal loci offers support for the existence of distinctive multilocus genotypes in the CGP with respect to both non-Gujaratis and other Gujaratis, and indicates that CGP individuals are genetically very similar. Analysis of Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial haplotypes provides support for both patrilocal and patrilineal practices within the gol, and a low-level of female gene flow into the gol. Our study illustrates how the practice of gol endogamy has introduced fine-scale genetic structure into the population of India, and contributes more generally to an understanding of the way in which marriage practices affect patterns of genetic variation. PMID:22729696

  16. The Perception of Pathologically-Disordered Phonation by Gujarati, English, and Spanish Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Christina M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of linguistic experience on the perception of pathologically-disordered voices using 18 listeners of American English, which has allophonic breathiness, 12 listeners of Gujarati, which contrasts breathy and modal vowels, and 18 listeners of Spanish, which has neither allophonic nor phonemic breathiness.…

  17. Impact of restricted marital practices on genetic variation in an endogamous Gujarati group.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, Trevor J; Li, Fang-Yuan; Hanson, Erin K; Mehta, Niyati U; Choi, Sunju; Ballantyne, Jack; Belmont, John W; Rosenberg, Noah A; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Patel, Pragna I

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies have examined the influence on patterns of human genetic variation of a variety of cultural practices. In India, centuries-old marriage customs have introduced extensive social structuring into the contemporary population, potentially with significant consequences for genetic variation. Social stratification in India is evident as social classes that are defined by endogamous groups known as castes. Within a caste, there exist endogamous groups known as gols (marriage circles), each of which comprises a small number of exogamous gotra (lineages). Thus, while consanguinity is strictly avoided and some randomness in mate selection occurs within the gol, gene flow is limited with groups outside the gol. Gujarati Patels practice this form of "exogamic endogamy." We have analyzed genetic variation in one such group of Gujarati Patels, the Chha Gaam Patels (CGP), who comprise individuals from six villages. Population structure analysis of 1,200 autosomal loci offers support for the existence of distinctive multilocus genotypes in the CGP with respect to both non-Gujaratis and other Gujaratis, and indicates that CGP individuals are genetically very similar. Analysis of Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial haplotypes provides support for both patrilocal and patrilineal practices within the gol, and a low-level of female gene flow into the gol. Our study illustrates how the practice of gol endogamy has introduced fine-scale genetic structure into the population of India, and contributes more generally to an understanding of the way in which marriage practices affect patterns of genetic variation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Biliteracy in a Monolingual School System? English and Gujarati in South London.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenner, Charmian

    2000-01-01

    Draws on research with 4-7-year-olds in a South London primary school to provide a longitudinal case study of one child's relationship to mother tongue literacy within the classroom. Findings demonstrate how the child, from the age of 4, actively combined Gujarati and English to enhance her literacy learning and to construct text that synthesized…

  19. The Perception of Pathologically-Disordered Phonation by Gujarati, English, and Spanish Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Christina M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of linguistic experience on the perception of pathologically-disordered voices using 18 listeners of American English, which has allophonic breathiness, 12 listeners of Gujarati, which contrasts breathy and modal vowels, and 18 listeners of Spanish, which has neither allophonic nor phonemic breathiness.…

  20. The perception of pathologically-disordered phonation by Gujarati, English, and Spanish listeners.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Christina M

    2011-09-01

    This study investigates the influence of linguistic experience on the perception of pathologically-disordered voices using 18 listeners of American English, which has allophonic breathiness, 12 listeners of Gujarati, which contrasts breathy and modal vowels, and 18 listeners of Spanish, which has neither allophonic nor phonemic breathiness. Listeners rated the similarity of pairs of pathologically-disordered voices. Multidimensional scaling was used to determine the properties that were most correlated with perception for each listener group. Results showed that Gujaratis' perception was correlated with the difference between the amplitude of the first (HI*) and second (H2*) harmonic (HI*-H2*), which is associated with the production of phonation in Gujarati. English listeners' judgments were correlated with the measure HI*-H2* and cepstral peak prominence, and Spanish listeners' judgments were correlated with HI*-H2 and HI*-AI* (the amplitude of the principal harmonic near the first formant). When compared to Esposito (2006), which asked the same listeners to rate the similarity of breathy and modal vowels from Mazatec, results showed that Gujarati listeners classified the pathologically-disordered stimuli in the same way that they classified the Mazatec stimuli, while English and Spanish listeners perceived the pathologically-disordered stimuli and the Mazatec stimuli in slightly different ways.

  1. Psychological disturbance and its associations in the children of the Gujarati community.

    PubMed

    Hackett, L; Hackett, R; Taylor, D C

    1991-07-01

    The infrequent referral of Asian children to child psychiatry clinics was noted. By administering Rutter's scale A2 to samples of Gujarati and English parents with children between the ages of 4 and 7 years a lower rate of disturbance was demonstrated among the Asian sample providing an explanation for the original observation. Family and child-rearing factors associated with disturbance were identified.

  2. Najar or Bhut-Evil eye or ghost affliction: Gujarati views about illness causation.

    PubMed

    Spiro, Alison M

    2005-04-01

    This paper examines the supernatural beliefs of najar (evil eye) and bhut (ghost) and their roles in illness causation in Gujarati families in Britain today. The data arose unexpectedly in an ethnography of child rearing patterns carried out in Harrow, North West London and a short period of observation in Ahmedabad, India. I used anthropological methods of participant observation and unstructured interviews, which were transcribed using pseudonyms. The study group involved 70 Hindu and Jain Gujarati households with children and the fieldwork was conducted over a period of four years. Many of the individuals studied had migrated from India to East Africa before coming to the UK in the 1970s, but maintain links with both countries through kinship ties, marriage and rituals. I set out to study the continuity of women's roles in the transmission of religious and moral values, the rituals of childhood, views about infant feeding, and parenting relationships within joint families. The beliefs of najar and bhut in poor, rural settings in India have been described, but these Gujarati beliefs in Britain have not been well documented. This study indicates that najar and bhut continue to be a concern of women in most Gujarati families in Britain today and across all socio-economic groups, not confined to those on the 'bread-line', as have been previously suggested. These beliefs align themselves with Hindu ideas of the soul and reincarnation: powerful forces residing outside the body. An understanding of these beliefs could be informative to health professionals working with Gujarati communities in the UK.

  3. Reliability and validity study of the Gujarati version of the Oswestry Disability Index 2.1a.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sweni; Balaganapathy, M

    2017-06-02

    Among all musculoskeletal disorders back pain is the most common reason for functional limitation in working age. It is due to low back pain (LBP) that the ODI has become one of the principal outcome measures for evaluation of disability and has been widely used in research as well as in clinical practice. So far, validated Gujarati version of the ODI 2.1a has not been reported. To accomplish the translation and validation of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) version 2.1a into the Gujarati language. Cross-sectional study. The validation of the ODI-Gujarati was tested in 120 patients diagnosed with non-specific LBP, who were receiving physiotherapy at a clinic in Gujarat, India. Data was collected at on initial visit and after 48 hours. During both visits, patients completed the Oswestry Disability Index-Gujarati (ODI-G), Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire-Gujarati (RMDQ-G), and Visual Analogue Scale-Pain (VAS-P). Internal consistency was measured by Cronbach's alpha. The Gujarati version indicated high internal consistency (α= 0.96). Test-retest reliability was measured by intra-class correlation coefficient and it revealed very high correlation (ICC = 0.92). Construct validity was confirmed by strong correlation with RMDQ-G (r= 0.76), and concurrent validity indicated moderate correlation with VAS-P (r= 0.50). Factor analysis explained that the ODI was loaded on 1 factor. The Oswestry disability index version 2.1a was successfully translated into Gujarati language, showing excellent psychometric properties. Therefore, it can be used in evaluating the disability amongst Gujarati population with LBP for both clinical and research purposes.

  4. Comparison of BMI and percentage of body fat of Indian and German children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Janewa, Vanessa Schönfeld; Ghosh, Arnab; Scheffler, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Today, serious health problems as overweight and obesity are not just constricted to the developed world, but also increase in the developing countries (Prentice 2006, Ramachandram et al. 2002). Focusing on this issue, BMI and percentage of body fat were compared in 2094 schoolchildren from two cross-sectional studies from India and Germany investigated in 2008 and 2009. The German children are in all age groups significantly taller, whereas the Indian children show higher values in BMI (e.g. 12 years: Indian: around 22 kg/m2; German: around 19 kg/m2) and in the percentage of body fat (e.g. 12 years: Indian: around 27%; German: around 18-20%) in most of the investigated age groups. The Indian children have significantly higher BMI between 10 and 13 (boys) respectively 14 years (girls). Indian children showed significant higher percentage of body fat between 10 and 15 years (boys) and between 8 and 16 years (girls). The difference in overweight between Indian and German children was strongest at 11 (boys) and 12 (girls) years: 70% of the Indian but 20% of the German children were classified as overweight. In countries such as India that undergo nutritional transition, a rapid increase in obesity and overweight is observed. In contrast to the industrialized countries, the risk of overweight in developing countries is associated with high socioeconomic status. Other reasons of the rapid increase of overweight in the developing countries caused by different environmental or genetic factors are discussed.

  5. Quality of care in American Indian child and adolescent behavioral health: A pilot study of patient and family perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Podlogar, Matthew C.; Novins, Douglas K.

    2015-01-01

    Research regarding the quality of behavioral health care for American Indian (AI) children and adolescents is extremely limited, and no study has considered the qualitative perspectives of the AI children receiving such services or that of their families. This pilot study investigated AI patient and family perspectives of what quality of care means to them. Data were drawn from interviews of parents (n = 15), and the youth (if they were age 11 or older; n = 11) of 16 children and adolescents who received treatment at three behavioral health programs serving AI communities. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed for key themes that related to treatment structure, process, and outcomes. According to these participants, the principal indicator of treatment quality was “being able to trust the clinician.” The most valued treatment outcomes for improvement were the youth’s “self-efficacy and self-worth,” “functioning in school,” and “relationship with the family.” Future research is needed on how to best integrate these domains into specific and objective indicators for standardized quality of care assessments of AI child and adolescent behavioral health services. PMID:25961647

  6. Ethnic pride, biculturalism, and drug use norms of urban American Indian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kulis, Stephen; Napoli, Maria; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how strength of ethnic identity, multiethnic identity, and other indicators of biculturalism relate to the drug use norms of urban American Indian middle school students. The article distinguishes categories of norms that may affect drug use. Regression analysis of self-reports by 434 American Indian seventh graders attending middle schools in a large southwestern U.S. city indicated that students who had a more intense sense of ethnic pride adhered more strongly to certain antidrug norms than those who did not. Whereas American Indian students with better grades in school held consistently stronger antidrug norms, there were few differences by gender, socioeconomic status, or age. These results have implications in social work practice for better understanding and strengthening the protective aspects of American Indian culture in drug prevention efforts. PMID:21399737

  7. Subclinical depression in Urban Indian adolescents: Prevalence, felt needs, and correlates

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Meghna; Manjula, M.; Vijay Sagar, K. John

    2016-01-01

    Background: Subclinical depression in adolescents constitutes a risk factor for future clinical depression and hence warrants examination. However, there is a paucity of research that documents subclinical depression among adolescents in India. Objectives: (a) To investigate the prevalence of subclinical depression in urban school-going adolescents; (b) to investigate the problems and felt needs of these adolescents; (c) to examine depression-related variables; and (d) to examine the relationships between socio-demographic and depression-related variables. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred adolescents (ages 13–18 years) of English-medium schools of Bangalore city were assessed using standardized self-report measures. Results: Academic difficulties were the most frequently reported problem, followed by interpersonal issues. Of the sample, 18% adolescents were identified as endorsing subclinical depression. Adolescents in the present study scored higher on measures of depression and negative cognitions than their Western counterparts. In addition, girls were found to be at higher risk for experiencing depressive symptoms and negative cognitions, lower social problem-solving skills, and more problematic interpersonal relationships as compared to boys. Conclusion: Identification of subclinical depression constitutes an important goal, as it places an adolescent at risk of considerable vulnerability and impairment. PMID:28196996

  8. Socioeconomic Disparities in Maternity Care among Indian Adolescents, 1990–2006

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Chandan; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Singh, Lucky

    2013-01-01

    Background India, with a population of more than 1.21 billion, has the highest maternal mortality in the world (estimated to be 56000 in 2010); and adolescent (aged 15–19) mortality shares 9% of total maternal deaths. Addressing the maternity care needs of adolescents may have considerable ramifications for achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG)–5. This paper assesses the socioeconomic differentials in accessing full antenatal care and professional attendance at delivery by adolescent mothers (aged 15–19) in India during 1990–2006. Methods and Findings Data from three rounds of the National Family Health Survey of India conducted during 1992–93, 1998–99, and 2005–06 were analyzed. The Cochran-Armitage and Chi-squared test for linear and non-linear time trends were applied, respectively, to understand the trend in the proportion of adolescent mothers utilizing select maternity care services during 1990–2006. Using pooled multivariate logistic regression models, the probability of select maternal healthcare utilization among women by key socioeconomic characteristics was appraised. After adjusting for potential socio-demographic and economic characteristics, the likelihood of adolescents accessing full antenatal care increased by only 4% from 1990 to 2006. However, the probability of adolescent women availing themselves of professional attendance at delivery increased by 79% during the same period. The study also highlights the desolate disparities in maternity care services among adolescents across the most and the least favoured groups. Conclusion Maternal care interventions in India need focused programs for rural, uneducated, poor adolescent women so that they can avail themselves of measures to delay child bearing, and for better antenatal consultation and delivery care in case of pregnancy. This study strongly advocates the promotion of a comprehensive ‘adolescent scheme’ along the lines of ‘Continuum of Maternal, Newborn and

  9. Higher Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Adolescent and Young Adult Girls Belonging to Different Indian Tribes with Varied Socio-Sexual Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kirti; Kathait, Atul; Jain, Asha; Kujur, Karmila; Raghuwanshi, Shirish; Bharti, Alok Chandra; Saklani, Asha Chandola; Das, Bhudev Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer in Indian women, no study has been done in tribal populations whose socio-sexual lifestyle is different. Therefore, HPV screening has been carried out in pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adult tribal girls using self-collected urine samples. Methods 20–35 ml self-collected midstream urine samples were obtained from a total of 2278 healthy tribal girls (9–25 years) comprising pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adults from three Indian states: Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. β-globin positive 2034 samples were employed for HPV detection and genotyping. Results The overall prevalence of HPV infection in tribal girls was 12.9% (262/2034). More than 65% (172/262) of them were infected with HR-HPV types of which HPV16 was the most predominant type (54%). Young adult girls aged 18–25 years showed a significantly higher prevalence of HPV infection (19.2%; OR = 3.36; 95% CI 2.97–6.34, P<0.001) as compared to that in adolescent (11.4%; OR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.20–2.76, P<0.01) or pre-adolescent girls (6.6%). Conclusion This is a first study showing significantly a very high prevalence of HPV infection in adolescent and young adult tribal girls possibly due to different socio-sexual behavior, indicating a serious health concern for Indian tribal women. PMID:25954813

  10. Occlusal morphology of permanent mandibular first and second molars in Gujarati population.

    PubMed

    Dholia, Bhavik; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha

    2015-01-01

    Dental identification has been used since long time for disaster victim identification protocol. There is a difference of opinion regarding whether ethnicity influences dental morphology or not. Few studies have shown the associations between these dental features and crown traits in humans using quantitative methods. The present study is an attempt to find correlation of occlusal morphology of Gujarati population with forensic Odontology. To study different occlusal morphology of permanent mandibular first and second molars in Gujarati Population. This study comprised of a total of 100 participants of Gujarati origin, selected by random sampling method. Total number of cusps and groove patterns of mandibular first and second molar were examined clinically and photographs of the same were taken. A descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and Student t-test were used for analysis of data. Mandibular first molar with 5 cusps in 71%, 4 cusps in 18% and 6 cusps in 11% were noted in the study. Mandibular first molars with "+" groove pattern in 39.5% and "Y" groove pattern in 60.5% were recorded. Mandibular second molar with 5 cusps in 6.5% and 4 cusps in 93.5% were recorded in the study. Mandibular second molars with "+" groove pattern in 93.5% and "Y" groove pattern in 6.5% were recorded. The most common occlusal morphology in permanent mandibular first molar is "5 cusp" and "Y" groove pattern in about 47% and for second molar is "4 cusp" and "+" groove pattern in 88.5% of Gujarati population. It may be concluded that variation in degree of expression and frequency of teeth in dentitions of different populations is different, which may help in forensic identification.

  11. Occlusal morphology of permanent mandibular first and second molars in Gujarati population

    PubMed Central

    Dholia, Bhavik; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental identification has been used since long time for disaster victim identification protocol. There is a difference of opinion regarding whether ethnicity influences dental morphology or not. Few studies have shown the associations between these dental features and crown traits in humans using quantitative methods. The present study is an attempt to find correlation of occlusal morphology of Gujarati population with forensic Odontology. Aim: To study different occlusal morphology of permanent mandibular first and second molars in Gujarati Population. Materials and Methods: This study comprised of a total of 100 participants of Gujarati origin, selected by random sampling method. Total number of cusps and groove patterns of mandibular first and second molar were examined clinically and photographs of the same were taken. A descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and Student t-test were used for analysis of data. Results: Mandibular first molar with 5 cusps in 71%, 4 cusps in 18% and 6 cusps in 11% were noted in the study. Mandibular first molars with “+” groove pattern in 39.5% and “Y” groove pattern in 60.5% were recorded. Mandibular second molar with 5 cusps in 6.5% and 4 cusps in 93.5% were recorded in the study. Mandibular second molars with “+” groove pattern in 93.5% and “Y” groove pattern in 6.5% were recorded. Conclusion: The most common occlusal morphology in permanent mandibular first molar is “5 cusp” and “Y” groove pattern in about 47% and for second molar is “4 cusp” and “+” groove pattern in 88.5% of Gujarati population. It may be concluded that variation in degree of expression and frequency of teeth in dentitions of different populations is different, which may help in forensic identification. PMID:26005303

  12. Prevalence and Predictors of Metabolic Syndrome in Young Asymptomatic Gujarati Population

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sharad R.; Shah, Komal H.; Acharya, Himanshu N.; Barot, Kaushik; Sharma, Kamal H.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors leading to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its predictors in young and apparently healthy Gujarati individuals. Methods. This population based cross-sectional study involved a total of 1500 healthy adults of 20–40 years of age. Demographic details and clinical data such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure were measured along with the estimations of lipoprotein (a), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), total lipid, LDL/HDL ratio, TC/HDL ratio, and fasting blood glucose (FBS). Results. Overall in young Gujarati population (20–40 years) prevalence rates of MS were 16.0% (male: 21.5%; female: 10.8%) where the metabolic abnormalities increased with advanced age as 9.56% of the young population (20–30 years) had MS, in contrast to the 24.57% in the old (31–40 years). Odds ratio analysis had indicated BMI (1.120; 95% CI: 1.077–1.163; P < 0.0001) as the strongest risk factor for MS closely followed by advancing age (1.100; 95% CI: 1.061–1.139; P < 0.0001) levels. Conclusion. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in young Gujarati population reinforces the need for early life style intervention and awareness programs in this ethnic group. PMID:26464869

  13. Prevalence and Predictors of Metabolic Syndrome in Young Asymptomatic Gujarati Population.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sharad R; Shah, Komal H; Acharya, Himanshu N; Barot, Kaushik; Sharma, Kamal H

    2015-01-01

    Background. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors leading to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its predictors in young and apparently healthy Gujarati individuals. Methods. This population based cross-sectional study involved a total of 1500 healthy adults of 20-40 years of age. Demographic details and clinical data such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure were measured along with the estimations of lipoprotein (a), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), total lipid, LDL/HDL ratio, TC/HDL ratio, and fasting blood glucose (FBS). Results. Overall in young Gujarati population (20-40 years) prevalence rates of MS were 16.0% (male: 21.5%; female: 10.8%) where the metabolic abnormalities increased with advanced age as 9.56% of the young population (20-30 years) had MS, in contrast to the 24.57% in the old (31-40 years). Odds ratio analysis had indicated BMI (1.120; 95% CI: 1.077-1.163; P < 0.0001) as the strongest risk factor for MS closely followed by advancing age (1.100; 95% CI: 1.061-1.139; P < 0.0001) levels. Conclusion. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in young Gujarati population reinforces the need for early life style intervention and awareness programs in this ethnic group.

  14. Body Image and its Relation with Body Mass Index among Indian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Vaishali R; Kulkarni, Aditi A

    2017-08-24

    To evaluate association of body mass index with perception and attitude towards body weight, shape and body image among adolescents. This cross sectional study was done on 1811 adolescents. Attitude towards body image was assessed by using a self-administered Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Perceived body shape was measured using the Stunkard scale. Adolescents showed significant difference (P<0.005) in perceptions and behaviors related to appearance, fitness, health, body areas and weight in various body mass index and socioeconomic categories. Girls articulated significantly higher (P<0.005) body dissatisfaction than boys. Adolescents have major concerns regarding body image. Attitudes and perceptions towards body image differ with sex, body mass index and socioeconomic class.

  15. Chronic arthritis in children and adolescents in two Indian health service user populations

    PubMed Central

    Mauldin, Joyce; Cameron, H Dan; Jeanotte, Diane; Solomon, Glenn; Jarvis, James N

    2004-01-01

    Background High prevalence rates for rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthopathies, and systemic lupus erythematosus have been described in American Indian and Alaskan Native adults. The impact of these diseases on American Indian children has not been investigated. Methods We used International Classification of Diseases-9 (ICD-9) codes to search two Indian Health Service (IHS) patient registration databases over the years 1998–2000, searching for individuals 19 years of age or younger with specific ICD-9-specified diagnoses. Crude estimates for disease prevalence were made based on the number of individuals identified with these diagnoses within the database. Results Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) / juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) was the most frequent diagnosis given. The prevalence rate for JRA in the Oklahoma City Area was estimated as 53 per 100,000 individuals at risk, while in the Billings Area, the estimated prevalence was nearly twice that, at 115 per 100,000. These rates are considerably higher than those reported in the most recent European studies. Conclusion Chronic arthritis in childhood represents an important, though unrecognized, chronic health challenge within the American Indian population living in the United States. PMID:15333136

  16. Comparison of Cephalometric Hard and Soft Tissues 
of Adolescents with Angle Class II Division 1 Malocclusion between Northern Chinese Population and Northern Indian Population.

    PubMed

    Rana, Naman; Qu, Yin Ying; Wei, Yao; Liu, Lin

    To determine if there was a difference in hard and soft tissue between northern Chinese and northern Indian adolescents with Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion. A total of 40 Angle Class II division 1 patients, including 20 boys and 20 girls aged 10 to 13 years with no prior treatment, were selected from northern China and northern India, respectively. Overall, 80 cephalometric data were analysed based on two-sample t-test with SPSS software. The Chinese subjects had larger anterior facial height and mandibular plane angle. Analysis of dentoalveolar complex showed that the Chinese subjects had more proclined incisors, protruding upper lips and more upper posterior tooth height than that of the Indian subjects. The length of the maxilla and mandible was larger in the Indian subjects than that of the Chinese subjects, but the length of mandible was not significantly different between the two groups. Compared with the Indian subjects, the Chinese subjects with Class II division 1 malocclusion had less prognathic maxillas, more protruding lips, steeper mandibular plane angles and more proclined maxillary incisors. Within the same gender, the Indian boys had more protruded faces and Indian girls had more protruded maxillas, steeper mandibular plane angles and fuller lips.

  17. Linear Growth and Fat and Lean Tissue Gain during Childhood: Associations with Cardiometabolic and Cognitive Outcomes in Adolescent Indian Children

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Veena, Sargoor R.; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Osmond, Clive; Fall, Caroline H. D.

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine how linear growth and fat and lean tissue gain during discrete age periods from birth to adolescence are related to adolescent cardiometabolic risk factors and cognitive ability. Methods Adolescents born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy from an Indian birth cohort (N = 486, age 13.5 years) had detailed anthropometry and measurements of body fat (fat%), fasting plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations, blood pressure and cognitive function. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. These outcomes were examined in relation to birth measurements and statistically independent measures (conditional SD scores) representing linear growth, and fat and lean tissue gain during birth-1, 1–2, 2–5, 5–9.5 and 9.5–13.5 years in 414 of the children with measurements at all these ages. Results Birth length and linear growth at all ages were positively associated with current height. Fat gain, particularly during 5–9.5 years was positively associated with fat% at 13.5 years (0.44 SD per SD [99.9% confidence interval: 0.29,0.58]). Greater fat gain during mid-late childhood was associated with higher systolic blood pressure (5–9.5 years: 0.23 SD per SD [0.07,0.40]) and HOMA-IR (5–9.5 years: 0.24 [0.08,0.40], 9.5–13.5 years: 0.22 [0.06,0.38]). Greater infant growth (up to age 2 years) in linear, fat or lean components was unrelated to cardiometabolic risk factors or cognitive function. Conclusion This study suggests that factors that increase linear, fat and lean growth in infancy have no adverse cardiometabolic effects in this population. Factors that increase fat gain in mid-late childhood may increase cardiometabolic risk, without any benefit to cognitive abilities. PMID:26575994

  18. Determinants of Socioeconomic Inequalities in Traumatic Dental Injuries among Urban Indian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess socioeconomic inequalities in traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) in adolescents in New Delhi and examine the role of material, psychosocial and behavioural factors in explaining these inequalities. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study of 1386 adolescents aged between 12–15 years residing in three diverse areas of New Delhi. A non-invasive clinical examination was used to estimate the prevalence of TDIs, and an interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to gather relevant behavioural and socio-demographic data. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the association between area based socioeconomic position and TDIs. Results The overall prevalence of TDIs was 10.9%. Social inequalities in the prevalence of TDIs were observed across the adolescent population according to their area of residence. Socio-economic group differences in the prevalence of TDIs remained statistically significant after adjusting for demographic factors, material resources, social capital, social support and health affecting behaviours (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.75–6.46 and OR 3.99, 95% CI 1.86–8.56 for adolescents from resettlement areas and urban slums respectively in comparison to middle class adolescents). Different psychosocial, material and socio-demographic variables did not attenuate the estimates for the relationship between area socioeconomic position and TDIs. Conclusion Area of residence was a strong predictor of TDIs in adolescents with a higher prevalence in more deprived areas. Social inequalities in TDIs were not explained by psychosocial and behavioural variables. Health promoting policies aimed at improving the physical environment in which adolescents reside might be instrumental in reducing the prevalence of TDIs and associated inequalities. PMID:26479873

  19. Age estimation in Indian children and adolescents in the NCR region of Haryana: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Swati; Mehendiratta, Monica; Rehani, Shweta; Kumra, Madhumani; Nagpal, Ruchi; Gupta, Ramakant

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Age estimation is a preliminary step in the identification of an individual. It is a crucial and often most critical step for forensic experts. The assessment has been standardized utilizing common dental diagnostic x-rays, but most such age-estimating systems are European population-based and their applicability has not been determined in the context of the Indian population. Aims and Objectives: To assess the applicability and to compare the methods of dental age estimation by Demirjian's method and the same method as modified by Willems (i.e. the Willems method) in Indian children of the National Capital Region (NCR). Also, to find a correlation among skeletal maturity using the Cervical vertebrae maturation index (CVMI), dental maturity, and chronological age in the same population. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using dental radiographs of 70 orthodontic patients (37 males, 33 females) in the age range 9-16 years selected by simple random sampling. pantomogram were used to estimate dental age by Demirjian's method and the Willems method using their scoring tables. Lateral cephalograms were used to estimate skeletal maturity using CVMI. The latter was compared with Demirjian's stage for mandibular left second molar. Results: Overestimation of age among males by 0.856 years and 0.496 years was found by Demirjian's and the Willems methods, respectively. Among females, both the methods underestimated the age by 0.31 years and 0.45 years, respectively. Demirjian's stage G corresponded to CVMI stage 3 in males and stage 2 in females. Conclusion: In our study, the Willems method has proved to be more accurate for age estimation among Indian males, and Demirjian's method for Indian females. A statistically significant association appeared between Demirjian's stages and CVMI among both males and females. Our study recommends the derivation of a regression formula by studying a larger section of the Indian population

  20. Supplementation with iron and folic acid enhances growth in adolescent Indian girls.

    PubMed

    Kanani, S J; Poojara, R H

    2000-02-01

    The prevalence of anemia is high in adolescent girls in India, with over 70% anemic. Iron-folic acid (IFA) supplements have been shown to enhance adolescent growth elsewhere in the world. To confirm these results in India, a study was conducted in urban areas of Vadodora, India to investigate the effect of IFA supplements on hemoglobin, hunger and growth in adolescent girls 10-18 y of age. Results show that there was a high demand for IFA supplements and >90% of the girls consumed 85 out of 90 tablets provided. There was an increment of 17.3 g/L hemoglobin in the group of girls receiving IFA supplements, whereas hemoglobin decreased slightly in girls in the control group. Girls and parents reported that girls increased their food intake. A significant weight gain of 0.83 kg was seen in the intervention group, whereas girls in the control group showed little weight gain. The growth increment was greater in the 10- to 14-y-old age group than in the 15- to 18-y-old group, as expected, due to rapid growth during the adolescent spurt. IFA supplementation is recommended for growth promotion among adolescents who are underweight.

  1. Breastfeeding in Infancy Is Associated with Body Mass Index in Adolescence: A Retrospective Cohort Study Comparing American Indians/Alaska Natives and Non-Hispanic Whites.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Kapoor, Anna; Omidpanah, Adam; Nelson, Lonnie A; Kuo, Alice A; Harris, Raymond; Buchwald, Dedra S

    2017-07-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives have the highest obesity prevalence in the United States, but the influence of early childhood variables on body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)) is not well understood. Previous studies have investigated the association between breastfeeding in infancy and offspring BMI, but rarely included American Indians and Alaska Natives. This study investigated the association between breastfeeding in infancy and BMI in American Indians and Alaska Native and non-Hispanic white adolescents and young adults. Longitudinal analysis based on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (1994 to 2008). Adolescent respondents who self-identified as American Indians and Alaska Native or non-Hispanic white, and whose parents completed the parental questionnaire, reported their height and weight. The final sample included 655 American Indians and Alaska Native and 10,305 non-Hispanic white respondents. Generalized estimating equations were used to measure the mean differences, 95% CIs, and P values of the association between breastfeeding in infancy and offspring BMI in adolescence, stratifying by race, and adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables. The length of breastfeeding was inversely associated with BMI in both populations. American Indians and Alaska Natives that were breastfed for 6 to 12 months or for more than 12 months had a mean BMI of 2.69 (95% CI -3.46 to -1.92; P<0.01) and 1.54 (95% CI -2.75 to -0.33; P<0.05) units lower than those that were never breastfed. Non-Hispanic whites that were breastfed for 3 to 6 months, 6 to 12 months, or more than 12 months had a mean BMI of 0.71 (95% CI -0.93 to -0.50; P<0.01), 0.68 (95% CI -0.87 to -0.50; P<0.01), and 0.85 (95% CI -1.09 to -0.62; P<0.01) units lower than those that were never breastfed. The association between the length of breastfeeding and offspring BMI varied by race (P<0.01). Breastfeeding in infancy is associated with lower

  2. Journeys of the Circle: a culturally congruent life skills intervention for adolescent Indian drinking.

    PubMed

    Marlatt, G Alan; Larimer, Mary E; Mail, Patricia D; Hawkins, Elizabeth H; Cummins, Lillian Huang; Blume, Arthur W; Lonczak, Heather S; Burns, Kelly M; Chan, Karen K; Cronce, Jessica M; La Marr, C June; Radin, Sandra; Forquera, Ralph; Gonzales, Rebecca; Tetrick, Crystal; Gallion, Steve

    2003-08-01

    There has been an increasing call for and development of culturally appropriate substance prevention/intervention for ethnic minorities in schools and communities, especially among reservation and in urban American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) communities. Past attempts to intervene in and reduce misuse of alcohol and other drugs have not had great success. The Journeys of the Circle Project utilized innovative programs with a strong emphasis on historic cultural traditions.

  3. Resilience among Urban American Indian Adolescents: Exploration into the Role of Culture, Self-Esteem, Subjective Well-Being, and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumblingbear-Riddle, Glenna; Romans, John S. C.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of enculturation, self-esteem, subjective well-being, and social support on resilience among urban American Indian (AI) adolescents from a South Central region of the U.S. were explored. Of the 196 participants, 114 (58.2%) were female and 82 (41.8%) were male (ages 14-18 years). Thirty-three percent of the variance in resilience was…

  4. Community-Based Participatory Research to Improve Preconception Health among Northern Plains American Indian Adolescent Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jennifer; Mousseau, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sacred Beginnings is a community-based participatory research project that examines the effectiveness of a culturally appropriate preconception health educational intervention developed by tribal community members and elders. The primary goal is to increase knowledge of preconception health and its benefits among adolescent females and…

  5. Indian Adolescents' Cyber Aggression Involvement and Cultural Values: The Moderation of Peer Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michelle F.; Kamble, Shanmukh V.; Soudi, Shruti P.

    2015-01-01

    Although research on cyberbullying and cyber aggression is growing, little attention has been given to examinations of these behaviors among adolescents in Asian countries, particularly in India. The present study examined the relationships among cyber aggression involvement and cultural values (i.e. individualism, collectivism), along with peer…

  6. Indian Adolescents' Cyber Aggression Involvement and Cultural Values: The Moderation of Peer Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michelle F.; Kamble, Shanmukh V.; Soudi, Shruti P.

    2015-01-01

    Although research on cyberbullying and cyber aggression is growing, little attention has been given to examinations of these behaviors among adolescents in Asian countries, particularly in India. The present study examined the relationships among cyber aggression involvement and cultural values (i.e. individualism, collectivism), along with peer…

  7. HPV knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among Northern Plains American Indian adolescents, parents, young adults, and health professionals.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Grimminger, Delf; Frerichs, Leah; Black Bird, Arlene E; Workman, Karen; Dobberpuhl, Mitchell; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2013-06-01

    Native American women in the Northern Plains have a high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and high incidence of cervical disease and cervical cancer. HPV vaccination coverage is shown to be lower among nonwhite populations and disparity populations. We assessed HPV knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs towards HPV and HPV vaccination during a community-based participatory research project among tribal youth, young adults, parents, and health professionals. In 2009, we recruited a total of 73 individuals to participate in four tribal focus groups: tribal health providers, (n=10), Indian Health Service providers (n=7), young adult women ages 19-26 (n=22), girls (14-18) (n=18), and parents (n=16). Of these, 62 (84.93 %) completed a survey, which included 10 healthcare providers, 22 young adults, 14 teens, and 16 parents. We employed a qualitative thematic analysis of focus group transcript data and conducted frequency analysis of survey data, which were both reviewed and triangulated by a Community Advisory Board. Based on the results of this study, the tribal community advisory board identified local tribal settings for interventions to increase HPV vaccination coverage through health education classes and a school-based vaccination clinic. In addition to tribal community-wide education events to increase awareness of HPV disease, the HPV vaccine, provider-specific training was identified as a potential intervention. These community-based focus group findings underscore the importance of locally and cultural tailored educational interventions to further increase HPV knowledge and HPV vaccination among disparate populations like American Indian adolescent and young adult women.

  8. The Normative Environment for Drug Use: Comparisons among American Indian and White Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dieterich, Sara E.; Swaim, Randall C.; Beauvais, Fred

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of descriptive norms, injunctive norms, perceived outcome expectancies, and ethnicity on marijuana and inhalant use among 2334 American Indian and white high school students who lived on or near reservations in the United States. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted with survey data collected during the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 school years. Results suggest differences between ethnicities in the influence of the normative environment and outcome expectancies on both marijuana and inhalant use. Study limitations are noted, and future research is suggested. PMID:23768429

  9. Dialectical behavior therapy with American Indian/Alaska Native adolescents diagnosed with substance use disorders: combining an evidence based treatment with cultural, traditional, and spiritual beliefs.

    PubMed

    Beckstead, D Joel; Lambert, Michael J; DuBose, Anthony P; Linehan, Marsha

    2015-12-01

    This pilot study examined pre to post-change of patients in a substance use residential treatment center that incorporated Dialectical Behavior Therapy with specific cultural, traditional and spiritual practices for American Indian/Alaska Native adolescents. Specifically, the incorporation of cultural, spiritual and traditional practices was done while still maintaining fidelity to the evidence based treatment (DBT). 229 adolescents participated in the study and were given the Youth Outcome Questionnaire-Self-Report version at pre-treatment and post-treatment and the total scores were compared. The results of the research study showed that 96% of adolescents were either "recovered" or "improved" using clinical significant change criteria. Additionally, differences between the group's pre-test scores and post-test scores were statistically significant using a matched standard T-test comparison. Finally, the effect size that was calculated using Cohen's criteria was found to be large. The results are discussed in terms of the implication for integrating western and traditional based methods of care in addressing substance use disorders and other mental health disorders with American Indian/Alaska Native adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Relationship of lean mass and obesity in Indian urban children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Garg, M. K.; Marwaha, Raman K.; Mahalle, Namita; Tandon, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    Background: The association of obesity and lean mass (LM) has not been examined well in children and adolescents, and it remains controversial. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of body mass index (BMI) categories and regional obesity with total and regional LM in children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 1408 children and adolescents (boys 58.9%; girls 41.1%) divided according to BMI (normal weight 79.5%, overweight 16.0%, and obese 4.5%) were included in this cross-sectional study. Total and regional LM and fat mass were measured by DXA. Leg and arm fat-to-total fat ratio (LATR) indicative of subcutaneous fat and trunk fat-to-total fat ratio (TTR), an indicator of visceral fat, were calculated. Results: Mean age of the study population was 13.2 ± 2.7 years (boys - 13.0 ± 2.7; girls - 13.4 ± 2.8 years). Total LM (TLM) and its regional distribution were higher in overweight and obese groups when compared with those with normal BMI in both genders. TLM was comparable between overweight and obese in both genders. TLM per unit of fat progressively decreased from normal to obese categories. The difference in LM per unit fat between BMI categories persisted after adjustment for age, height, and sexual maturity score. TLM increased across the quartiles of TTR, but decreased with an increment in subcutaneous fat (quartiles of LATR). Conclusions: Obese children and adolescents apparently have higher LM than normal BMI children, but have lower LM per unit of fat. Subcutaneous fat had a negative impact and visceral fat had a positive impact on TLM. PMID:27867879

  11. Effect of Gratitude Educational Intervention on Well-Being Indicators among North Indian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, Pulkit; Singh, Kamlesh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to study the impact of a gratitude building intervention on adolescents' gratitude and well-being indicators. The sample comprised 177 students aged 11--14 years (M[subscript Age] = 12.29 years, SD = 0.67, 58% male) attending two schools in North India. Using quasi-experimental design, participating classrooms from…

  12. Effect of Gratitude Educational Intervention on Well-Being Indicators among North Indian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, Pulkit; Singh, Kamlesh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to study the impact of a gratitude building intervention on adolescents' gratitude and well-being indicators. The sample comprised 177 students aged 11--14 years (M[subscript Age] = 12.29 years, SD = 0.67, 58% male) attending two schools in North India. Using quasi-experimental design, participating classrooms from…

  13. American Indian Youth Suicide Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFromboise, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the prevalence of suicide and suicidal ideation among American Indian adolescents. Unique risk and protective factors, and historical trauma and associated symptoms, are explored in the context of American Indian adolescent suicide. The need for culturally-sensitive interventions are necessary, and an example of a…

  14. American Indian Youth Suicide Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFromboise, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the prevalence of suicide and suicidal ideation among American Indian adolescents. Unique risk and protective factors, and historical trauma and associated symptoms, are explored in the context of American Indian adolescent suicide. The need for culturally-sensitive interventions are necessary, and an example of a…

  15. Exploring sexual risk taking among American Indian adolescents through protection motivation theory.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Rachel; Tingey, Lauren; Mullany, Britta; Parker, Sean; Lee, Angelita; Barlow, Allison

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines decision-making around sexual behavior among reservation-based American Indian youth. Focus group discussions were conducted with youth ages 13-19 years old. Through these discussions, we explored youth's knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to sexual risk taking through the lens of the protection motivation theory to inform the adaptation of an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention. Findings suggest that condom use self-efficacy and HIV prevention knowledge is low, vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections is lacking and alcohol plays a significant role in sexual risk taking in this population. In addition, parental monitoring and peer influence may contribute to or protect against sexual risk taking. Results suggest that future HIV prevention interventions should be delivered to gender-specific peer groups, include a parental component, teach sexual health education and communication skills, integrate substance-use prevention, and work to remove stigma around obtaining and using condoms.

  16. Haemostatic factors, lipoproteins and long-term mortality in a multi-ethnic population of Gujarati, African-Caribbean and European origin.

    PubMed

    Anderson, S G; Hutchings, D C; Heald, A H; Anderson, C D; Sanders, T A B; Cruickshank, J K

    2014-09-01

    To examine the relations between haemostatic factors and lipoproteins with mortality in British Europeans, African-Caribbeans (AfC) and Gujarati Indians. A prospective cohort study of 331 subjects (40-79 years), followed-up over 26 years for mortality. Apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1), apolipoprotein-B (Apo-B), factor VII coagulant activity (FVIIc), fibrinogen and von Willebrand Factor (vWF) were measured at baseline in 118 Europeans, 100 AfC and 113 Gujaratis. Aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) was measured in 174 participants. 147 (44.4%) subjects died during a median of 24 years follow-up with 69 cardiovascular deaths. Women at baseline had higher, and AfC males the lowest FVIIc and Apo-A1 levels. Baseline age-sex and ethnicity adjusted FVIIc levels were higher in those who died (131.0 vs. 117.4%; P = 0.048). In similarly adjusted partial correlations, Apo-A1 was inversely related to arterial stiffness (ρ = -0.23, P = 0.04). Over the 26 years follow-up, participants below the median (i.e. with lower concentration) of FVIIc, Fibrinogen, Apo-B and vWF had better survival rates than those with higher concentrations; those with higher concentrations of Apo-A1 had better survival. In Cox multivariable regression analyses including sex, ethnicity and aPWV, independently increased risk of all-cause mortality came only from SBP (per 5 mmHg); P = 0.011), age (per year); P < 0.0001 and FVIIc at 7% (per 10-unit; HR 1.07 (1.02, 1.12); P = 0.008. Separately, Apo-A1 (HR 0.12 (0.02, 0.75; P = 0.029) was independently associated with a very significant 88% reduction in all-cause mortality. Despite a relatively small sample size, long-term follow-up suggests an independent effect of the prothrombotic state (via FVIIc) and apo-A1 (a constituent of HDL) on mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Parent's Guide to Achievement Matters Most: Maryland's Plan for PreK-12 Education, 2002-2003. (Gujarati).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    To raise the achievement of every student in the state, Maryland implemented "Achievement Matters Most," a new plan for public elementary and secondary schools that sets goals in the areas of achievement, teaching, testing, safety, and family involvement in schools. This Gujarati-language guide for parents outlines the goals and…

  18. Secular Trends in Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity from 2006 to 2009 in Urban Asian Indian Adolescents Aged 14-17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Deepak Kumar; Shah, Priyali; Misra, Anoop; Bharadwaj, Swati; Gulati, Seema; Gupta, Nidhi; Sharma, Rekha; Pandey, Ravindra M.; Goel, Kashish

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the secular trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity among urban Asian Indian adolescents in New Delhi (North India). The data were derived from cross-sectional sampling of children, 3493 in year 2006 and 4908 in year 2009, aged 14–17 years studying in privately-funded and government-funded schools. Age, gender and Asian Indian-specific cut offs of body mass index (BMI) were used to define overweight and obesity. The prevalence of obesity increased significantly from 9.8% in 2006 to 11.7% in 2009 (p<0.01), whereas underweight decreased from 11.3% to 3.9% (p<0.001). There was a significantly higher risk of being overweight (OR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.15–1.42) and obese (OR 1.44; 95% CI, 1.24–1.66) in year 2009 than 2006, after adjusting for age, gender and type of school. Males and privately-funded school children had significantly higher increase in prevalence and risk of being overweight and obese over the three years. In conclusion, this study showed an increasing trend in prevalence of overweight and obesity in urban Asian Indian adolescents. More specifically, the study showed the association of this increasing trend of overweight and obesity prevalence with male gender and high socio-economic status, calling for an urgent need for immediate and targeted preventive measures. PMID:21383840

  19. Vegetarianism and growth in Urdu, Gujarati, and Punjabi children in Britain.

    PubMed Central

    Rona, R J; Chinn, S; Duggal, S; Driver, A P

    1987-01-01

    As part of a nutritional surveillance system of primary school children the relation between growth and vegetarianism in the Urdu, Gujarati, and Punjabi groups was explored. The aim of the analysis was to ascertain if vegetarian children from ethnic minorities are at a disadvantage in terms of nutritional status within their group of origin. Data for 80.7% of 473 Urdu children, 86.6% of 551 Gujarati children, and 84.4% of 1265 Punjabi children were available for the analysis. No significant differences in weight-for-height and triceps skinfold were found between vegetarians and non-vegetarians even after adjustment for potential confounding variables. Vegetarian girls tended to be shorter than non-vegetarian girls in all Asian groups, although this difference reached a statistically significant level (p less than 0.01) only in the Urdu group. Although our findings should be interpreted with caution they indicate that health visitors and other health staff should be aware of the possible contribution of vegetarianism to the nutritional status of Asian girls. PMID:3443817

  20. Vegetarianism and growth in Urdu, Gujarati, and Punjabi children in Britain.

    PubMed

    Rona, R J; Chinn, S; Duggal, S; Driver, A P

    1987-09-01

    As part of a nutritional surveillance system of primary school children the relation between growth and vegetarianism in the Urdu, Gujarati, and Punjabi groups was explored. The aim of the analysis was to ascertain if vegetarian children from ethnic minorities are at a disadvantage in terms of nutritional status within their group of origin. Data for 80.7% of 473 Urdu children, 86.6% of 551 Gujarati children, and 84.4% of 1265 Punjabi children were available for the analysis. No significant differences in weight-for-height and triceps skinfold were found between vegetarians and non-vegetarians even after adjustment for potential confounding variables. Vegetarian girls tended to be shorter than non-vegetarian girls in all Asian groups, although this difference reached a statistically significant level (p less than 0.01) only in the Urdu group. Although our findings should be interpreted with caution they indicate that health visitors and other health staff should be aware of the possible contribution of vegetarianism to the nutritional status of Asian girls.

  1. Root canal morphology of mandibular first premolar in a gujarati population - an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Jain, Atul; Bahuguna, Rachana

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about root canal morphology and its frequent variations can exert considerable influence on the success of endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to survey the root canal morphology of mandibular first premolar teeth in a Gujarati population by decalcification and clearing technique. One hundred thirty eight extracted mandibular first premolar teeth were collected from a Gujarati population. After decalcifying and clearing, the teeth were examined for tooth length, number of cusps and roots, number and shape of canal orifices and canal types. The average length of mandibular first premolar teeth was 21.2 mm. All the teeth had 2 cusps. One hundred thirty four teeth (97.1%) had one root, and just 4 teeth (2.89%) had two roots. Mesial invagination of root was found in 21 teeth (15.21%). One canal orifice was found in 122 teeth (88.4%) and two canal orifices in 16 teeth (11.59%). Shape of orifices was found to be round in 46 teeth (33.33%), oval in 72 teeth (52.17%) and flattened ribbion in 20 teeth (14.49%). According to Vertucci's classification, Type I canal system was found in 93 teeth (67.39%), Types II,III,IV,V,and VI in 11 teeth (7.97%), 5 teeth (3.62%), 4 teeth (2.89%), 24 teeth (17.39%), and 1 tooth (0.72%) respectively. Mandibular first premolar teeth were mostly found to have one root and Type I canal system.

  2. Emotional, behavioral and cognitive profile, and quality of life of Indian children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Puri, Kriti; Sapra, Savita; Jain, Vandana

    2013-11-01

    The psychological stress associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D) may be higher in children from developing world due to limited health resources. The aims of the study were to assess the quality of life (QoL), emotional well-being, behavioral, and cognitive profile of children/adolescents with T1D diagnosed at least 6 months prior. Forty-nine children with T1D, aged 6-18 years were assessed using DAWN Youth QoL questionnaire, WHO-5 Well-Being Index, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and Malin's Intelligence Scale for Indian children (MISIC). The association of the scores was studied with age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES), frequency of hypoglycemia, HbA1c, and age of onset and duration of T1D. The mean (standard deviation (SD)) for DAWN QoL, WHO-5, CBCL, and MISIC scores was 24.7 (16.7), 74.6 (19.4), 52.6 (8.8), and 96.0 (11.2), respectively. The significant associations noted were: Elevated HbA1c with poorer emotional well-being; higher negative impact on 'symptoms of disease' and 'future prospects' sub-areas of QoL; shorter duration of disease with more behavioral issues; lower maternal education with more 'withdrawn/depressed' behaviors and 'worry about future prospects'; and lower SES with lower MISIC scores. Earlier onset (age <5 years) was associated with fewer behavioral problems and less negative impact on QoL. Children with recent diagnosis, older age at onset, lower maternal educational level, elevated HbA1c, or belonging to lower SES were identified to have higher prevalence of various psychological and cognitive problems. In resource-limited settings, these children should be prioritized for behavioral and cognitive evaluation.

  3. Digital radiographic evaluation of hand-wrist bone maturation and prediction of age in South Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Rezwana Begum; Reddy, M Asha Lata; Jain, Megha; Singh, Johar Rajvinder; Sanghvi, Praveen; Thetay, Anshuj Ajay Rao

    2014-09-01

    In the growing years, indicators of the level of maturational development of the individual provide the best means for evaluating biologic age and the associated timing of skeletal growth. The relative stage of maturity of a child may be determined by comparing the child's hand-wrist radiograph to the known standards of skeletal development. In this study, we assessed various levels of skeletal maturation and also identified the relationship between chronological age (CA) and maturation stage using the hand-wrist radiographs in adolescents of Indian origin. Three hundred and thirty hand-wrist digital radiographs of individuals aged 8 to 18 years were evaluated for skeletal maturity levels using Fishman's method. The data was analysed using the SPSS software package (version 12, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Regression analysis was performed for calculating bone age of both males and females. Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficients were estimated separately for males and females to assess the relation between CA and maturation level. An association between skeletal maturation indicator stages and CA (r = 0.82) was significant. Interestingly, female subjects were observed to be advanced in skeletal maturity compared to males. Regression equations were derived to calculate bone age in males, females and the whole sample. The results of this study showed significant association between hand-wrist skeletal maturation levels and CA. Digital radiographic assessment of hand-wrist skeletal maturation can be used as a better choice for predicting average bone age of an individual because of its simplicity, reliability and lesser radiation exposure.

  4. Resilience among urban American Indian adolescents: exploration into the role of culture, self-esteem, subjective well-being, and social support.

    PubMed

    Stumblingbear-Riddle, Glenna; Romans, John S C

    2012-01-01

    The effects of enculturation, self-esteem, subjective well-being, and social support on resilience among urban American Indian (AI) adolescents from a South Central region of the U.S. were explored. Of the 196 participants, 114 (58.2%) were female and 82 (41.8%) were male (ages 14-18 years). Thirty-three percent of the variance in resilience was accounted for by enculturation, self-esteem, and social support, while 34% of the variance in resilience was contributed by enculturation, subjective well-being, and social support. However, social support from friends remained the strongest predictor.

  5. Evaluation of skeletal maturation using mandibular third molar development in Indian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Nishit; Patel, Dolly; Mehta, Falguni; Gupta, Bhaskar; Zaveri, Grishma; Shah, Unnati

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was done with the following objectives: to estimate dental maturity using the Demirjian Index (DI) for the mandibular third molar; to investigate the relationship between dental maturity and skeletal maturity among growing patients; to evaluate the use of the mandibular third molar as an adjunctive tool for adolescent growth assessment in combination with the cervical vertebrae; to evaluate the clinical value of the third molar as a growth evaluation index. Materials and Methods: Samples were derived from panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms of 615 subjects (300 males and 315 females) of ages ranging 9-18 years, and estimates of dental maturity (DI) and skeletal maturity [cervical vertebrae maturation indicators (CVMI)] were made. Results: A highly significant association (r = 0.81 for males and r = 0.72 for females) was found between DI and CVMI. DI Stage B corresponded to Stage 2 of CVMI (prepeak of pubertal growth spurt) in both sexes. In males, DI stages C and D represent the peak of the pubertal growth spurt. In females, stages B and C show that the peak of the pubertal growth spurt has not been passed. DI stage E in females and DI Stage F in males correlate that the peak of the pubertal growth spurt has been passed. Conclusion: A highly significant association exists between DI and CVMI. Mandibular third molar DI stages are reliable adjunctive indicators of skeletal maturity. PMID:27555733

  6. Exposure to Maternal Gestational Diabetes Is Associated With Higher Cardiovascular Responses to Stress in Adolescent Indians

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R.; Jones, Alexander; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Osmond, Clive; Karat, Samuel C.; Kurpad, Anura V.; Fall, Caroline H. D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Altered endocrinal and autonomic nervous system responses to stress may link impaired intra-uterine growth with later cardiovascular disease. Objective: To test the hypothesis that offspring of gestational diabetic mothers (OGDM) have high cortisol and cardiosympathetic responses during the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Design: Adolescents from a birth cohort in India (n = 213; mean age, 13.5 y), including 26 OGDM, 22 offspring of diabetic fathers (ODF), and 165 offspring of nondiabetic parents (controls) completed 5 minutes each of public speaking and mental arithmetic tasks in front of two unfamiliar “evaluators” (TSST-C). Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured at baseline and at regular intervals after the TSST-C. Heart rate, blood pressure (BP), stroke volume, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance were measured continuously at baseline, during the TSST-C, and for 10 minutes after the test using a finger cuff; the beat-to-beat values were averaged for these periods. Results: Cortisol and cardiosympathetic parameters increased from baseline during stress (P < .001). OGDM had greater systolic BP (mean difference, 5.6 mm Hg), cardiac output (0.5 L/min), and stroke volume (4.0 mL) increases and a lower total peripheral resistance rise (125 dyn · s/cm5) than controls during stress. ODF had greater systolic BP responses than controls (difference, 4.1 mm Hg); there was no difference in other cardiosympathetic parameters. Cortisol responses were similar in all three groups. Conclusions: Maternal diabetes during pregnancy is associated with higher cardiosympathetic stress responses in the offspring, which may contribute to their higher cardiovascular disease risk. Further research may confirm stress-response programming as a predictor of cardiovascular risk in OGDM. PMID:25478935

  7. Exposure to maternal gestational diabetes is associated with higher cardiovascular responses to stress in adolescent indians.

    PubMed

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Jones, Alexander; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Osmond, Clive; Karat, Samuel C; Kurpad, Anura V; Fall, Caroline H D

    2015-03-01

    Altered endocrinal and autonomic nervous system responses to stress may link impaired intra-uterine growth with later cardiovascular disease. To test the hypothesis that offspring of gestational diabetic mothers (OGDM) have high cortisol and cardiosympathetic responses during the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Adolescents from a birth cohort in India (n = 213; mean age, 13.5 y), including 26 OGDM, 22 offspring of diabetic fathers (ODF), and 165 offspring of nondiabetic parents (controls) completed 5 minutes each of public speaking and mental arithmetic tasks in front of two unfamiliar "evaluators" (TSST-C). Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured at baseline and at regular intervals after the TSST-C. Heart rate, blood pressure (BP), stroke volume, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance were measured continuously at baseline, during the TSST-C, and for 10 minutes after the test using a finger cuff; the beat-to-beat values were averaged for these periods. Cortisol and cardiosympathetic parameters increased from baseline during stress (P < .001). OGDM had greater systolic BP (mean difference, 5.6 mm Hg), cardiac output (0.5 L/min), and stroke volume (4.0 mL) increases and a lower total peripheral resistance rise (125 dyn · s/cm(5)) than controls during stress. ODF had greater systolic BP responses than controls (difference, 4.1 mm Hg); there was no difference in other cardiosympathetic parameters. Cortisol responses were similar in all three groups. Maternal diabetes during pregnancy is associated with higher cardiosympathetic stress responses in the offspring, which may contribute to their higher cardiovascular disease risk. Further research may confirm stress-response programming as a predictor of cardiovascular risk in OGDM.

  8. Safety Culture in Indian Hospitals: A Cultural Adaptation of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Patel, Saharsh; Wu, Albert W

    2016-06-01

    Patient safety is increasingly recognized as a global health concern because of a staggering number of health care-related injuries and deaths. Although many hospitals are attempting to promote a patient safety agenda, there are relatively few options to track progress. The aims of this study were to translate and culturally adapt the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) into Gujarati and to provide evidence for its reliability and validity in hospitals in Gujarat, India. We also present preliminary data on the safety culture in these organizations. The first phase was the cultural adaptation and translation of the SAQ into Gujarati. The second phase was a cross-sectional survey of safety attitudes in 4 private hospitals. The survey was distributed to 424 health care workers and elicited an overall response rate of 79%. The questionnaire showed acceptable reliability and preliminary evidence for construct validity among health care workers in 4 private hospitals of varying size. The initial culture score results showed outcomes similar to international standards, with two-thirds of the respondents describing teamwork climate positively and more than half of the respondents describing safety climate positively. This study reveals promising initial results for patient safety culture in India, but further study is needed. The development and validation of the SAQ-Gujarati allow additional hospitals to evaluate their patient safety culture. As the first rendition of the SAQ to an Indian setting, the tool could help to initiate safety discourse and improve the potential for institutions to provide feedback to their staff members.

  9. Who is Offering and How Often? Gender Differences in Drug Offers among American Indian Adolescents of the Southwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayle, Andrea Dixon; Kulis, Stephen; Okamoto, Scott K.; Tann, Sheila S.; LeCroy, Craig Winston; Dustman, Patricia; Burke, Aimee M.

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study examined gender differences in the patterns of drug offers among a sample of 71 American Indian middle school students. Participants responded to an inventory of drug-related problem situations specific to the cultural contexts of Southwestern American Indian youth. They were asked to consider the frequency of drug offers…

  10. Population distance between Dakshina Kannada (South India) and Gujarati (North India) population using infracranial nonmetric traits.

    PubMed

    Nayak, S R; Kumar, Madhan; Krishnamurthy, A; Prabhu, Latha V; D'Costa, Sujatha; Ramanathan, Lakshmi A; Potu, Bhagath K; Gorantla, Vasavi R

    2007-01-01

    Infracranial nonmetric variations have been considered for determining population distance between different regions and continents, in recent times. We studied different infracranial nonmetric traits from the Dakshina Kannada (South India) region to compare with the data available from the Gujarati (North India) region. The mean measure of divergence between the two different geographic regions showed significant variation. In our study, the incidence like i) Allen's fossa of the femur, ii) plaque formation in the upper end of the femur, iii) exostosis in trochanteric fosse of femur, iv) third trochanter of femur, v) os trigonum of talus, vi) medial talar facet, vii) peroneal tubercle of calcaneus, viii) bipartite transverse foramen in the cervical vertebra, too showed significant side difference.

  11. Analysis of gingival biopsies in the Gujarati population: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha; Sutariya, Rakesh; Nagamahita, V; Dholia, Bhavik; Shah, Vandana

    2014-01-01

    Biopsy is an important diagnostic tool used in the diagnosis of lesions ranging from simple non-neoplastic, tumor-like lesions to malignancies, and is often the only way to diagnose oral lesions and diseases. The gingiva is the most common site for some kind of irritation or low-grade injury, resulting in localized overgrowths that are considered to be reactive and non-neoplastic lesions. This aim of this study is to analyze the frequency and distribution of gingival lesions in the Gujarati population. In this retrospective study, gingival biopsies submitted for a period of five years were included. Microscopic slides of all the cases were reviewed by two observers for confirmation of the diagnosis. Among the 106 cases of gingival biopsies, the most frequent category of lesions encountered was the non-neoplastic category, which accounted for 73.58% of the cases. Both benign and malignant neoplasms constituted 26.42% of the cases. Among the non-neoplastic lesions, Pyogenic granuloma was the most frequent lesion (38.46%), followed by fibrous hyperplasia (20.51%), inflammatory hyperplasia (19.23%), and Epulis (8.97%). Neoplasms accounted for 26.42% of the gingival biopsies (92.85% benign and 7.15% malignant). Among the benign neoplastic lesions, Fibroma (30.76%) and Fibrolipoma (26.92%) were the most frequent, followed by peripheral ossifying fibroma (23.08%) and peripheral giant cell granuloma (11%). It is difficult to compare studies carried out in various countries due to differences in people's attitudes toward oral health and the accessibility of various population groups to biopsy services. Nevertheless, this study has provided some information about the frequency and distribution of biopsied gingival lesions in the Gujarati population over a period of five years.

  12. Root Canal Morphology of Mandibular First Premolar in a Gujarati Population - an In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Atul; Bahuguna, Rachana

    2011-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about root canal morphology and its frequent variations can exert considerable influence on the success of endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to survey the root canal morphology of mandibular first premolar teeth in a Gujarati population by decalcification and clearing technique. Methods: One hundred thirty eight extracted mandibular first premolar teeth were collected from a Gujarati population. After decalcifying and clearing, the teeth were examined for tooth length, number of cusps and roots, number and shape of canal orifices and canal types. Results: The average length of mandibular first premolar teeth was 21.2 mm. All the teeth had 2 cusps. One hundred thirty four teeth (97.1%) had one root, and just 4 teeth (2.89%) had two roots. Mesial invagination of root was found in 21 teeth (15.21%). One canal orifice was found in 122 teeth (88.4%) and two canal orifices in 16 teeth (11.59%). Shape of orifices was found to be round in 46 teeth (33.33%), oval in 72 teeth (52.17%) and flattened ribbion in 20 teeth (14.49%). According to Vertucci's classification, Type I canal system was found in 93 teeth (67.39%), Types II,III,IV,V,and VI in 11 teeth (7.97%), 5 teeth (3.62%), 4 teeth (2.89%), 24 teeth (17.39%), and 1 tooth (0.72%) respectively. Conclusion: Mandibular first premolar teeth were mostly found to have one root and Type I canal system. PMID:22013473

  13. The experiences and needs of Gujarati Hindu patients and partners in the first month after a myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Webster, Rosemary A; Thompson, David R; Mayou, Richard A

    2002-02-01

    South Asian people living in the United Kingdom are at increased risk of coronary heart disease, have higher mortality rates and are less likely to be treated when compared to the white population. There is, however, little information about the experiences and needs of this group after discharge from hospital. To explore the experiences and needs of Gujarati Hindu patients and their partners in the first month after a myocardial infarction. Using a qualitative research approach, semi-structured interviews were conducted by a Gujarati-speaking researcher with 35 patients and their partners at home during early convalescence. A number of categories emerged from the data which pertained to a lack of information and advice, poor performance of activity, little lifestyle adjustment, poor expectations, lack of future plans, strong family support, dissatisfaction with the family doctor, and a significant belief in fate. Experiences and health care needs of Gujarati Hindu patients with myocardial infarction appear different to those of non-Asians. Cardiac aftercare and rehabilitation services should take account of such information

  14. Problem-Solving Coping and Social Support as Mediators of Academic Stress and Suicidal Ideation Among Malaysian and Indian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aqeel; Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Ahmad, Roslee; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif; Mahalle, Salwa

    2016-02-01

    This study examined whether productive coping styles and social support were significant mediators of the relationship between academic stress and suicidal ideation. The survey was performed on a sample of 300 Malaysian and 300 Indian college students. The participants completed psychological assessments of productive coping styles, social support, academic stress, and suicidal ideation. Significant cultural and demographic differences emerged. Indian students reported higher suicidal ideation and academic stress than did Malaysian students, and Malaysian students received more social support and had better problem-solving coping styles than did Indian students. Overall, students who were male, non-religious, and from low-income families reported more academic stress and more suicidal ideation. Productive coping styles and overall social support strongly affected the relationship between academic stress and suicidal ideation among both countries' participants.

  15. Obstetric and neonatal outcomes of adolescent primiparous singleton pregnancies: a cohort study in the South of Reunion Island, Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Iacobelli, Silvia; Robillard, Pierre-Yves; Gouyon, Jean-Bernard; Hulsey, Thomas C; Barau, Georges; Bonsante, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    To describe the maternal and neonatal outcomes of a large cohort of adolescent pregnancies in a tertiary care hospital at Reunion Island. Retrospective study of all primiparous singleton pregnancies over 10.5 years. Adolescent (<18 years) were compared to 18-29 years pregnancies. The maternal outcomes were obstetric illness, labor complications, and way of delivery. Neonatal outcomes were preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age, birth asphyxia, need for mechanical ventilation, and mortality. We analyzed 1839 adolescent pregnancies and 11,445 controls. Adolescents had worse prenatal care than older mothers, (4.4 vs. 1.4%; p < 0.0001), higher rates of smoking and alcohol assumption (13 vs. 11% and 0.7 vs. 0.4%, both p < 0.05). They showed less pregnancy-related illness and labor complications and higher rates of normal vaginal delivery (80 vs. 69%; p < 0.0001), without increased risk of episiotomy or postpartum hemorrhage. Offspring mortality, preterm birth, and LBW were higher in adolescent pregnancies (3.3 vs. 2.2%; p = 0.001, 14 vs. 12%; p = 0.0008; 17 vs. 14%; p = 0.002). In this population, adolescents had an obstetrical outcome better than controls, but their offspring short-term outcomes were unfavorable. Furthers studies are needed to better elucidate the link between adolescent pregnancy and impaired neonatal outcome.

  16. Project Eagle: Techniques for Multi-Family Psycho-Educational Group Therapy with Gifted American Indian Adolescents and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Rockey; Tonemah, Stuart; Robbins, Sharla

    2002-01-01

    A culturally relevant group therapy model for gifted American Indian students and their parents uses non-didactic facilitation to focus on cultural identity, play, self-disclosure, parental involvement, silence, cognitive processing, emotional expression, and social responsibility. Evaluation results indicate the program builds self-esteem, pride…

  17. Project Eagle: Techniques for Multi-Family Psycho-Educational Group Therapy with Gifted American Indian Adolescents and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Rockey; Tonemah, Stuart; Robbins, Sharla

    2002-01-01

    A culturally relevant group therapy model for gifted American Indian students and their parents uses non-didactic facilitation to focus on cultural identity, play, self-disclosure, parental involvement, silence, cognitive processing, emotional expression, and social responsibility. Evaluation results indicate the program builds self-esteem, pride…

  18. The effect of community-based health education intervention on management of menstrual hygiene among rural Indian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Dongre, A R; Deshmukh, P R; Garg, B S

    2007-01-01

    To study the effect of a community-based health education intervention on awareness and behaviour change of rural adolescent girls regarding their management of menstrual hygiene. A participatory-action study was undertaken in Primary Health Centres in 23 villages in Anji, in the Wardha district of Maharashtra state. Study subjects were unmarried rural adolescent girls (12-19 years). We conducted a needs assessment for health messages with this target audience, using a triangulated research design of quantitative (survey) and qualitative (focus group discussions) methods. Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH) guidelines were used to develop a pre-tested, handmade flip book containing needs-based key messages about the management of menstrual hygiene. The messages were delivered at monthly meetings of village-based groups of adolescent girls, called Kishori Panchayat. After 3 years, the effect of the messages was assessed using a combination of quantitative (survey) and qualitative (trend analysis) methods. After 3 years, significantly more adolescent girls (55%) were aware of menstruation before its initiation compared with baseline (35%). The practice of using ready-made pads increased significantly from 5% to 25% and reuse of cloth declined from 85% to 57%. The trend analysis showed that adolescent girls perceived a positive change in their behaviour and level of awareness. The present community health education intervention strategy could bring significant changes in the awareness and behaviour of rural adolescent girls regarding management of their menstrual hygiene.

  19. Prevalence and severity of morbidity among Gujarati Asian elders: a controlled comparison.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, S; Patel, N; Coats, M; Greig, C; Gilley, J; Bangham, C; Stacey, S

    1991-03-01

    Asian elders make relatively heavy use of health services: this may be due to higher levels of morbidity, but controlled comparisons have not been carried out. A comparison of the prevalence and severity of chronic diseases and use of health services of Asian and indigenous elders was made. A sample of 59 Gujarati Asians of mean age 62.9 years and 59 indigenous subjects of mean age 63.9 years of whom 42% (25 in each group) were female drawn from a general practice was studied. Asian subjects had a higher prevalence of diagnosed diseases, with the exception of chronic obstructive airways disease, but lower risk of falls and urinary incontinence. Asian subjects had higher life satisfaction scores and lower prevalence of depressed mood. Asian women were more likely to have had contact with primary care services. Both Asian men and women had more frequent hospital admissions, but similar levels of out-patient attendance. Body mass index, blood pressure and shoulder joint range of movement were similar for both Asians and the indigenous population. Asian subjects had significantly lower peak expiratory flow rates and hand grip strength. Asian elders have a higher risk of chronic diseases, but the impact of disease (indicated by life satisfaction, mood, and common disabilities) is less than among the indigenous population. Lower peak expiratory flow rates and grip strength among Asian elders are of concern since they may lead to premature arrival at age-related thresholds of physical capacity essential for independence in activities of daily living.

  20. Dietary Pattern of Schoolgoing Adolescents in Urban Baroda, India

    PubMed Central

    Kotecha, P.V.; Baxi, R.K.; Mazumdar, V.S.; Shobha, Misra; Mehta, K.G.; Mansi, Diwanji; Ekta, Modi

    2013-01-01

    Diet plays a very important role in growth and development of adolescents, during which the development of healthy eating habits is of supreme importance. There is a dual burden of undernutrition and overnutrition in this age-group. The study assessed the food habits, food preferences, and dietary pattern of schoolgoing urban adolescents in Baroda, India. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in this study. A quantitative survey was carried out using a pre-tested self-administered structured questionnaire among 1,440 students from class 6 to 12 in 7 English medium and 23 Gujarati medium schools. Focus group discussions, 5 each with adolescent boys and girls, were held, along with 5 focus group discussions with teachers of Gujarati and English medium schools. Nearly 80% of adolescents had consumed regular food, like dal, rice, chapati, and vegetables, including green leafy vegetables. Nearly 50% of them had consumed chocolates, and about one-third consumed fast foods. Nearly 60% of adolescents had their breakfast daily while the remaining missed taking breakfast daily. Nearly one-third of adolescents were missing a meal once or twice a week. A large majority had consumed regular foods. However, more than half of them had consumed chocolates, soft drinks, and over one-third had taken fast foods. PMID:24592590

  1. Dietary pattern of schoolgoing adolescents in urban Baroda, India.

    PubMed

    Kotecha, P V; Patel, Sangita V; Baxi, R K; Mazumdar, V S; Shobha, Misra; Mehta, K G; Mansi, Diwanji; Ekta, Modi

    2013-12-01

    Diet plays a very important role in growth and development of adolescents, during which the development of healthy eating habits is of supreme importance. There is a dual burden of undernutrition and overnutrition in this age-group. The study assessed the food habits, food preferences, and dietary pattern of schoolgoing urban adolescents in Baroda, India. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in this study. A quantitative survey was carried out using a pre-tested self-administered structured questionnaire among 1,440 students from class 6 to 12 in 7 English medium and 23 Gujarati medium schools. Focus group discussions, 5 each with adolescent boys and girls, were held, along with 5 focus group discussions with teachers of Gujarati and English medium schools. Nearly 80% of adolescents had consumed regular food, like dal, rice, chapati, and vegetables, including green leafy vegetables. Nearly 50% of them had consumed chocolates, and about one-third consumed fast foods. Nearly 60% of adolescents had their breakfast daily while the remaining missed taking breakfast daily. Nearly one-third of adolescents were missing a meal once or twice a week. A large majority had consumed regular foods. However, more than half of them had consumed chocolates, soft drinks, and over one-third had taken fast foods.

  2. Parental determinants of metabolic syndrome among adolescent Asian Indians: A cross-sectional analysis of parent-offspring trios.

    PubMed

    Baxi, Rahul; Vasan, Senthil K; Hansdak, Samuel; Samuel, Prasanna; Jeyaseelan, Visali; Geethanjali, Finney S; Murray, Ruth R; Venkatesan, Padmanaban; Thomas, Nihal

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between parental metabolic syndrome (MS) and the risk of MS and associated abnormalities in adolescent offspring. This cross-sectional study was performed on 304 adolescents (12-16 years; 236 children with at least one parent and 124 father-mother-child trios) recruited from four schools representing different socioeconomic strata from Vellore, India. Anthropometric data was collected and blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipids were measured. The prevalence of MS in adolescent offspring, fathers, and mothers was 3.3%, 52.5%, and 48.7% respectively. The most commonly observed metabolic abnormality among adolescents was lower high-density lipoprotein. Maternal waist circumference (WC) was strongly correlated with adolescent body mass index (P = 0.007), WC (P < 0.001), serum triglycerides (P = 0.02), and systolic (P = 0.005) and diastolic (P = 0.01) blood pressure. Maternal MS status was significantly associated with a greater risk of central obesity (WC odds ratio [OR] 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-3.17) in offspring. Both parents having MS conferred a significant effect on the child's WC (OR 1.21; 95% CI 1.72-2.07) and increased risk of MS (OR 6.19; 95% CI 1.64-23.26). This study highlights the possible heritable parental components that may contribute to the MS phenotype in offspring: MS in adolescent offspring is related to parental MS status, and maternal traits reflect offspring adiposity and metabolic traits more strongly than paternal factors. Therefore, adolescent children of parents with MS should be targets for primordial prevention of cardiometabolic disease. © 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Tobacco use in Bollywood movies, tobacco promotional activities and their association with tobacco use among Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Arora, Monika; Mathur, Neha; Gupta, Vinay K; Nazar, Gaurang P; Reddy, K Srinath; Sargent, James D

    2012-09-01

    Smoking in Hollywood movies is a known risk factor for teen smoking in the USA and Europe, but little is known about the association between exposure to tobacco use in Bollywood movies and teen tobacco use in India. A cross-sectional sample of 3956 adolescents (eighth and ninth grades, ages 12-16 years) from 12 randomly selected New Delhi schools was surveyed in 2009, assessing tobacco use status, receptivity to tobacco promotions (based on owning or being willing to wear tobacco-branded merchandise) and exposure to tobacco use in movies. Quartiles of exposure to tobacco use in popular Bollywood movies released from 2006 to 2008 (n=59) were determined by content coding them for tobacco use and querying the adolescents whether they had seen each one. Logistic regression was used to control for covariates including age, gender, parent education, school performance, sensation-seeking propensity, family and peer tobacco use, and authoritative parenting. Altogether, the 59 movies contained 412 tobacco use occurrences. The prevalence of ever tobacco use among adolescents was 5.3%. Compared with low-exposure adolescents (quartile 1), the adjusted odds of ever tobacco use among high-exposure adolescents (quartile 4) was 2.3 (95% CI 1.3 to 3.9). Being receptive to tobacco promotions was also associated with higher adjusted odds of ever tobacco use, 2.0 (95% CI 1.4 to 3.0). Watching tobacco use in Bollywood movies and receptivity to tobacco promotional activities were both independently associated with ever tobacco use among adolescents in India, with ORs being similar to the studies of adolescents elsewhere.

  4. Tobacco use in Bollywood movies, tobacco promotional activities and their association with tobacco use among Indian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Neha; Gupta, Vinay K; Nazar, Gaurang P; Reddy, K Srinath; Sargent, James D

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking in Hollywood movies is a known risk factor for teen smoking in the USA and Europe, but little is known about the association between exposure to tobacco use in Bollywood movies and teen tobacco use in India. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 3956 adolescents (eighth and ninth grades, ages 12–16 years) from 12 randomly selected New Delhi schools was surveyed in 2009, assessing tobacco use status, receptivity to tobacco promotions (based on owning or being willing to wear tobacco-branded merchandise) and exposure to tobacco use in movies. Quartiles of exposure to tobacco use in popular Bollywood movies released from 2006 to 2008 (n=59) were determined by content coding them for tobacco use and querying the adolescents whether they had seen each one. Logistic regression was used to control for covariates including age, gender, parent education, school performance, sensation-seeking propensity, family and peer tobacco use, and authoritative parenting. Results Altogether, the 59 movies contained 412 tobacco use occurrences. The prevalence of ever tobacco use among adolescents was 5.3%. Compared with low-exposure adolescents (quartile 1), the adjusted odds of ever tobacco use among high-exposure adolescents (quartile 4) was 2.3 (95% CI 1.3 to 3.9). Being receptive to tobacco promotions was also associated with higher adjusted odds of ever tobacco use, 2.0 (95% CI 1.4 to 3.0). Conclusion Watching tobacco use in Bollywood movies and receptivity to tobacco promotional activities were both independently associated with ever tobacco use among adolescents in India, with ORs being similar to the studies of adolescents elsewhere. PMID:21730099

  5. Explaining overweight and obesity in children and adolescents of Asian Indian origin: the Calcutta childhood obesity study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arnab

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its associated factors among Bengalee children and adolescents in the Kolkata, India. A total of 1061 Bengalee school children and adolescents (610 boys and 451 girls) participated and were divided into three age groups: Group I = 8-11 years; Group II = 12-15 years and Group III = 16-18 years. Overweight and obesity were defined as: Overweight (between ≥85 th and <95 th percentile) and obesity (≥95 th percentile). Multivariate regression analyses (adjusted for age and sex) of body mass index (BMI) revealed that about 18% (R2 = 0.185) of total variance of BMI could be explained by monthly family income, participants think obese, consumption of too much junk foodstuffs, breakfast skip, extra consumption of salt, and computer hours. Sedentary lifestyles, including increasing fast food preferences may be responsible for increasing occurrence of pediatric and adolescent obesity in this population.

  6. The first 12 weeks following discharge from hospital: the experience of Gujarati South Asian survivors of acute myocardial infarction and their families.

    PubMed

    Webster, Rosemary A; Thompson, David R; Davidson, Patricia M

    2003-10-01

    The period following discharge from hospital after an acute myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with vulnerability and psychosocial and physical morbidity for many survivors and their families. It is reported that people experience interpersonal, family and financial problems, self-care obstacles, work and physical difficulties. Culture and ethnicity undeniably influence the illness experience and the process of recovery and adjustment. This study investigated the perceptions of Gujarati survivors of acute MI and their families in Leicester, United Kingdom in the first 12 weeks following discharge in order to develop a profile of their health seeking beliefs and needs. Thirty-one interviews with 19 Gujarati MI survivors and their families (representing approximately 31 hours of dialogue) were analysed using grounded theory. Qualitative data revealed a period of vulnerability not only for survivors but also their families as they processed recent events and faced the future. Data analysis revealed nine interrelated themes describing the post-discharge experience for Gujarati survivors and their families. Data revealed that normal life was often markedly changed by the MI experience. Reflection, contemplation and resignation characterize this period of vulnerability. Overwhelmingly, data analysis revealed that the Gujarati culture, beliefs and customs influenced the recovery experience.

  7. Elevated Blood Pressure and Its Associated Risk Factors among Adolescents of a North Indian City - A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Senthamizh; Masood, Jamal; Srivastava, Anand Kumar; Mishra, Prabhaker

    2017-01-01

    Amidst the uncertainty in childhood blood pressure (BP) thresholds, besides the ambiguity in levels and duration of BP elevation causing organ damage, hypertension is present in substantial number of asymptomatic children and adolescents with only a few studies disclosing the setup. With projection of deaths due to noncommunicable diseases in 2030 rising to 52 million, it is necessary to know about the knowledge of present adolescents about BP and its modifiable risk factors. (1) To assess the prevalence of elevated BP among adolescents and to ascertain the associated risk factors. (2) To assess adolescent's knowledge about BP and its modifiable factors. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on school going adolescents of Lucknow, from September 2014 to August 2015. BP, height, and weight were measured following standard protocols, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention charts for finding respective cut-off values and oral questionnaire for assessing lifestyle risk factors were used. Chi-square, unpaired t-test, and logistic regression were used. Of the 1041 participants, elevated BP (BP percentile ≥90) was prevalent in 24.2%. On regression, factors such as obesity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.6-9.4), low fruit diet (aOR = 3.3, 95% CI = 2.1-5.4), and frequent junk food consumption (aOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3-2.8) raised the odds of elevated BP while it was lowered by being physically active (aOR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.46-0.97). Of 86.3% of children (n = 898) who were fathomed of BP, only less than third (33% and 21.9%) acquainted of BP raising and lowering practices, respectively. Prevalence of high BP is colossal with only a few children knowing its amendable nature. Strenuous efforts targeting detrimental behaviors and imparting the sense of healthy lifestyle enhancing practices are vital to control this epidemic.

  8. The Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (BMSLSS): Reliability, validity, and gender invariance in an Indian adolescent sample.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Jayana; Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the internal consistency reliability, factorial, convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity, as well as gender invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (BMSLSS; Seligson, Huebner, & Valois, 2003) in a sample of 445 adolescents (Mage = 16.04 years) hailing from the southernmost state of India, Kerala. The study also examined the test-retest reliability (n = 392) of the BMSLSS. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient suggested that the BMSLSS was reliable. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated the factorial validity of the BMSLSS. Bivariate correlational analyses provided support for the convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of the BMSLSS. The test-retest reliability coefficient indicated the temporal stability of the BMSLSS. Finally, multi-group confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the gender invariance of the BMSLSS. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Elevated Blood Pressure and Its Associated Risk Factors among Adolescents of a North Indian City - A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Senthamizh; Masood, Jamal; Srivastava, Anand Kumar; Mishra, Prabhaker

    2017-01-01

    Context: Amidst the uncertainty in childhood blood pressure (BP) thresholds, besides the ambiguity in levels and duration of BP elevation causing organ damage, hypertension is present in substantial number of asymptomatic children and adolescents with only a few studies disclosing the setup. With projection of deaths due to noncommunicable diseases in 2030 rising to 52 million, it is necessary to know about the knowledge of present adolescents about BP and its modifiable risk factors. Aims: (1) To assess the prevalence of elevated BP among adolescents and to ascertain the associated risk factors. (2) To assess adolescent's knowledge about BP and its modifiable factors. Settings and Design: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on school going adolescents of Lucknow, from September 2014 to August 2015. Subjects and Methods: BP, height, and weight were measured following standard protocols, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention charts for finding respective cut-off values and oral questionnaire for assessing lifestyle risk factors were used. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square, unpaired t-test, and logistic regression were used. Results: Of the 1041 participants, elevated BP (BP percentile ≥90) was prevalent in 24.2%. On regression, factors such as obesity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.6–9.4), low fruit diet (aOR = 3.3, 95% CI = 2.1–5.4), and frequent junk food consumption (aOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3–2.8) raised the odds of elevated BP while it was lowered by being physically active (aOR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.46–0.97). Of 86.3% of children (n = 898) who were fathomed of BP, only less than third (33% and 21.9%) acquainted of BP raising and lowering practices, respectively. Conclusions: Prevalence of high BP is colossal with only a few children knowing its amendable nature. Strenuous efforts targeting detrimental behaviors and imparting the sense of healthy lifestyle enhancing practices are vital to control

  10. Indian Government and Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starblanket, Noel V.

    1981-01-01

    Accountability for Indian education must be shared among the chiefs and their councils, the Indian leaders at all levels, parents and students. This may be accomplished by Indian control of Indian education. Available from: Department of Educational Foundations, 5-109 Education North, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2G5. (ERB)

  11. Indian Writers and Indian Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stensland, Anna Lee

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of popular Indian stereotypes and counter-stereotypes in literature, based on the thesis that the introduction of the literature of the American Indian, traditional and modern, will help to increase the Indian child's pride in his culture and add to the understanding of the non-Indian child. (EH)

  12. Indian Government and Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starblanket, Noel V.

    1981-01-01

    Accountability for Indian education must be shared among the chiefs and their councils, the Indian leaders at all levels, parents and students. This may be accomplished by Indian control of Indian education. Available from: Department of Educational Foundations, 5-109 Education North, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2G5. (ERB)

  13. Stressful Life Events, Ethnic Identity, Historical Trauma, and Participation in Cultural Activities: Associations with Smoking Behaviors among American Indian Adolescents in California

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Claradina; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction American Indian (AI) adolescents have the highest prevalence of commercial tobacco use of any ethnic group in the United States. This study examines ethnic identity (EI), participation in cultural activities, and stressful life events (SLEs) as correlates of smoking and examines historical trauma (HT) as a mediator of these associations. Methods California AI youth (N= 969, ages 13–19, recruited from 49 tribal youth organizations and cultural activities in urban and reservation areas in California) completed a tobacco survey. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model examining HT as a potential mediator of the associations of EI, participation in cultural activities, and SLEs with cigarette smoking. Results Model fit was adequate. EI, participation in cultural activities, and SLEs predicted HT. HT mediated the associations of participation in cultural activities and SLEs with past-month smoking. Stronger EI predicted greater past-month smoking and this effect was mediated by greater HT. The direct effects from HT to both smoking outcomes were positive and the direct effect from EI to past-month smoking was negative. Conclusions HT is a risk factor for cigarette smoking both directly and in mediating the links of EI, cultural activities, and SLEs. More efforts are needed to help AI youth to process these thoughts and empower themselves to contribute to their own lives and those of their families and communities without resorting to unhealthy addictive behaviors such as commercial tobacco use. PMID:26103424

  14. Respecting the circle of life: one year outcomes from a randomized controlled comparison of an HIV risk reduction intervention for American Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tingey, Lauren; Mullany, Britta; Chambers, Rachel; Hastings, Ranelda; Lee, Angelita; Parker, Anthony; Barlow, Allison; Rompalo, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Potential for widespread transmission of HIV/AIDS among American Indian (AI) adolescents exists, yet no evidence-based interventions (EBIs) have been adapted and evaluated with this population. Intensive psychoeducation may improve knowledge and decision-making which could potentially translate to reductions in HIV risk behaviors. A peer group randomized controlled comparison of an adapted EBI vs. control was delivered over an eight-day summer basketball camp in one reservation-based tribal community to adolescents ages 13-19. Outcome data were gathered immediately post-camp and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Self-selected peer groups were randomized to intervention (n = 138) or control (n = 129) conditions for a total sample of 267 participants (56.2% female), mean age 15.1 years (SD = 1.7). Intervention participants had better condom use self-efficacy post-camp (Adjusted Mean Difference [AMD] = -0.75, p < 0.005) and at 6 (AMD = -0.44, p < 0.005) and 12 months (AMD = -0.23, p < 0.05) follow-up. Intervention participants also had higher HIV prevention and transmission knowledge (post-camp: AMD = 0.07, p < 0.01; 6 months: AMD = 0.06, p < 0.01) were more likely to believe condoms prevent sexually transmitted infections (post-camp: RR = 1.41, p < 0.005; 6 months: RR = 1.34, p < 0.05), to talk with an adult about HIV/AIDS (post-camp: RR=1.78, p < 0.005; 6 months: RR = 1.14, p < 0.005), had higher partner negotiation efficacy related to substance use during sex (post-camp: AMD = 0.37, p < 0.01), and were more likely to intend to use a condom (post-camp: RR = 1.39, p < 0.01). The adapted intervention had short- and medium-term impacts on AI adolescent risk for HIV/AIDS, but attenuated at 12 months. Intervention delivery through a community-based camp is feasible and acceptable with strong retention. Additional study is needed to evaluate the adapted intervention's impact on sexual risk behaviors and if booster sessions and parent involvement translate to long-term impacts.

  15. Salt taste threshold and its relation to blood pressure in normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents amongst indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nikam, Lalita Harish

    2015-01-01

    To study Salt Taste Threshold (STT) and its relation to Blood pressure (BP) in normotensive adolescents, age and BMI matched 60 subjects of 18-20 years were segregated on basis of family history of hypertension, documented risk factor for development of hypertension. Student's unpaired t-test showed that STT and BP values were significantly higher in Hypertensive offspring group than Control. Pearson Chi Square test with 60 mM Nacl as cut-off point showed highly significant association of STT in hypertensive offspring group. A significant positive correlation was found between STT and BP by Pearson correlation analysis. Family history of hypertension is strongly linked to reduced salt taste sensitivity. This reinforces rationale that both conditions may be genetically linked though causal relation cannot be established. STT can be used as significant marker to screen 'salt sensible' subjects that eventually will develop hypertension and can be advised healthy habits early or prophylactically treated.

  16. PROMOTING HEALING AND RESTORING TRUST:POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVING BEHAVIORAL HEALTH CARE FOR AMERICAN INDIAN/ALASKA NATIVE ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Goodkind, Jessica R.; Ross-Toledo, Kimberly; John, Susie; Hall, Janie Lee; Ross, Lucille; Freeland, Lance; Coletta, Ernest; Becenti-Fundark, Twila; Poola, Charlene; Begay-Roanhorse, Regina; Lee, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    American Indian/Alaska Native youth represent the strength and continued survival of many Nations and Tribes. However, they currently experience numerous health disparities and challenges, including the highest rate of suicide among 15 to 24 year-olds in the United States. Our comprehensive review of the literature on the mental health of AI/AN youth highlighted seven focal causes of behavioral health disparities: 1) high levels of violence and trauma exposure and traumatic loss, 2) past and current oppression, racism, and discrimination, 3) underfunded systems of care, 4) disregard for effective indigenous practices in service provision, policy, and funding, 5) overreliance on evidence-based practices, 6) lack of cultural competence among systems of care and providers, and 7) barriers to care. Seven policy recommendations that recognize the importance of moving beyond exclusive reliance on western models of care and that seek to foster transformation of individuals, families, communities, behavioral health service systems of care, and social structures are presented, supported, and discussed. PMID:20857331

  17. Wisconsin Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurie, Nancy Oestreich

    Wisconsin encompasses an astonishingly representative illustration of the total historical development of federal Indian policy and Indian reactions to it. Wisconsin's Indian population (at least 25,000 people) is the third largest east of the Mississippi River and offers great diversity (3 major linguistic stocks, 6 broad tribal affiliations, and…

  18. Wisconsin Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurie, Nancy Oestreich

    Wisconsin encompasses an astonishingly representative illustration of the total historical development of federal Indian policy and Indian reactions to it. Wisconsin's Indian population (at least 25,000 people) is the third largest east of the Mississippi River and offers great diversity (3 major linguistic stocks, 6 broad tribal affiliations, and…

  19. The influence of culture on diabetes self-management: perspectives of Gujarati Muslim men who reside in northwest England.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Elizabeth; Carter, Bernie; Pettigrew, Judith

    2008-03-01

    To present the findings of a study which explored the influence of culture on (type 2) diabetes self-management in Gujarati Muslim men who reside in northwest England. This study was informed by an embodied perspective of culture, in which culture is grounded in the body and self. This contrasts with some contemporary health research and policy which adopts an oversimplified perspective, portraying culture as static and deterministic and being responsible for non-adherent self-management behaviours. A case-study approach was used, which combined interview and participant observation methods. Data were collected from Gujarati Muslim men about their lived experiences of diabetes self-management. These accounts, along with further narrative data from 'significant other' participants, were analysed over several cycles. Two central concepts guide the results: embodied culture and dynamic culture. These concepts reflect the subjective and contextual nature of culture and are illustrated in the themes 'past experiences and socio-economic factors', 'social and gendered roles' and 'personal choice and contextual factors'. The findings highlight that the complexity of life means that culture never exists in isolation, but is one of the many factors that a man negotiates to inform his diabetes self-management. We draw attention to the dissonance between the way culture is presented in some government policy and research, and the way it is understood in an embodied approach. The National Service Framework for Diabetes advocates the provision of individualized culturally appropriate care, and in this paper, we make suggestions as to how an embodied approach can be incorporated within the framework. Nurses have an integral role in implementing the National Service Framework for Diabetes. This paper contributes to the debate about how nurses can best deliver this framework to a diverse patient population.

  20. Entry risk into the juvenile justice system: African American, American Indian, Asian American, European American, and Hispanic children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Chen, Pan

    2010-06-01

    Findings on disproportionate minority contact remain mixed. Few empirical studies have examined to what extent entry risk into juvenile justice varies across ethnic/racial groups, and to what extent childhood aggressive behaviors foretell later deviance and entry risk. In the current study, we sought to address these shortcomings by implementing a survival analysis on a representative sample of youth followed from age 8 to 18. The sample included N = 2,754 lower to lower-middle SES youth from five different ethnic/racial groups (African American, American Indian, Asian American, European American, and Hispanic youth), part of a large-scale violence prevention effort. Aggressive behaviors were rated by teachers during elementary school, entry risk into juvenile justice was measured by official data, while SES was based on census data. Developmental entry risk into the juvenile justice system peaked at age 14 and subsequently declined. No differences were found across the four racial groups; however, Hispanic youth were at elevated risk (by 73%). Only childhood physical aggressive behavior increased entry risk (by 87%); this was above and beyond a 'simple' maturational liability we found and net any effects by sex, race/ethnicity, and SES. Some evidence suggested disproportionate minority contact, but only for Hispanic youth. Entry risk was invariant by race, but differed for males versus females and for youth from relatively higher socioeconomic status (SES) strata compared to youth from lower ones. Intervention efforts should target physically aggressive children during the elementary school years; however, some of the evidence also suggests that there exists a 'maturational liability' developmentally over time, between the ages of 8 and 18, independent of any of the focal predictors tested.

  1. Relations between PTSD and distress dimensions in an Indian child/adolescent sample following the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Contractor, Ateka A; Mehta, Panna; Tiamiyu, Mojisola F; Hovey, Joseph D; Geers, Andrew L; Charak, Ruby; Tamburrino, Marijo B; Elhai, Jon D

    2014-08-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder's (PTSD) four-factor dysphoria model has substantial empirical support (reviewed in Elhai & Palmieri, Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25, 849-854, 2011; Yufik & Simms, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 764-776, 2010). However, debatable is whether the model's dysphoria factor adequately captures all of PTSD's emotional distress (e.g., Marshall et al., Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119(1), 126-135, 2010), which is relevant to understanding the assessment and psychopathology of PTSD. Thus, the present study assessed the factor-level relationship between PTSD and emotional distress in 818 children/adolescents attending school in the vicinity of the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks. The effective sample had a mean age of 12.85 years (SD = 1.33), with the majority being male (n = 435, 53.8 %). PTSD and emotional distress were measured by the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index (PTSD-RI) and Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) assessed the PTSD and BSI-18 model fit; Wald tests assessed hypothesized PTSD-distress latent-level relations; and invariance testing examined PTSD-distress parameter differences using age, gender and direct exposure as moderators. There were no moderating effects for the PTSD-distress structural parameters. BSI-18's depression and somatization factors related more to PTSD's dysphoria than PTSD's avoidance factor. The results emphasize assessing for specificity and distress variance of PTSD factors on a continuum, rather than assuming dysphoria factor's complete accountability for PTSD's inherent distress. Additionally, PTSD's dysphoria factor related more to BSI-18's depression than BSI-18's anxiety/somatization factors; this may explain PTSD's comorbidity mechanism with depressive disorders.

  2. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels and its relationship with components of polycystic ovary syndrome in Indian adolescent women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    PubMed

    Ganie, Mohd Ashraf; Hassan, Saqib; Nisar, Sobia; Shamas, Nasir; Rashid, Aafia; Ahmed, Ishfaq; Douhat, Syed; Mudassar, Syed; Jan, Vicar M; Rashid, Fouzia

    2014-11-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a risk marker for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), limited data are available on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels and its relationship with components of PCOS especially in Indian women. The objective was to determine serum hs-CRP concentration in adolescent women with and without PCOS and to assess possible correlations of serum hs-CRP levels with components of PCOS in Indian women. One hundred and sixty women with PCOS and sixty non-PCOS women having normal menstrual cycles were included. Clinical assessment included anthropometry, Ferriman-Gallwey (FG) score and blood pressure (BP) measurement. Laboratory evaluation included estimation of T4, TSH, LH, FSH, total testosterone, prolactin, cortisol, 17OHP, hs-CRP, lipid profile, and insulin, and glucose after 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) and glucose intolerance was calculated. FG score, LH, FSH, total Testosterone, HOMA-IR and QUICKI were significantly different among women with or without PCOS (p < 0.01). Although hs-CRP levels showed a higher trend in women having PCOS, there was no significant difference between the groups (p > 0.05). A significant and positive correlation was found between hs-CRP and body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.308, p < 0.01) among PCOS group. The results in Indian adolescent women suggest that hs-CRP levels may not per se be associated with PCOS, rather can be related to fat mass in this subset of subjects.

  3. Impact of intensive school-based nutrition education and lifestyle interventions on insulin resistance, β-cell function, disposition index, and subclinical inflammation among Asian Indian adolescents: a controlled intervention study.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Neha; Misra, Anoop; Shah, Priyali; Gulati, Seema; Bhatt, Suryaprakash; Sharma, Suresh; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan

    2011-04-01

    The present study was designed to assess the impact of intensive and repetitive nutrition education and lifestyle interventions on insulin resistance, β-cell function, disposition index (DI), and subclinical inflammation in Asian Indian adolescents (15-17 years) residing in North India. In this prospective study, two matched schools were randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 56; 31 boys and 25 girls) or control group (n = 50; 30 boys and 20 girls). The intervention consisted of seven components: (1) Dissemination of health-related information through lectures and focused group discussions, (2) planning of activities such as quizzes, (3) individual counseling of students, (4) promotion of physical activity, (5) change in the canteen menu to healthier alternatives, (6) conducting health camps involving parents and teachers, and (7) training of student volunteers for sustainability of the program in school. Impact of intervention was studied on surrogate markers of insulin resistance, β-cell function, disposition index, and subclinical inflammation. At 6 months follow-up, significantly higher (P = 0.037) mean value of homeostasis model assessment denoting β-cell function (HOMA-βCF) was seen in the intervention group compared to the control group, whereas high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was significantly lowered (P < 0.001). The increase (30.3 ± 73.4; P < 0.037) observed in the DI in adolescents in the intervention group was significantly higher compared to the control group. The Pearson's coefficient of correlation in the intervention group showed that the Δ-decrease in mean waist circumference was significantly correlated (r = 0.267, P < 0.05) with Δ-decrease in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The intervention model developed by us could be used for amelioration of insulin resistance with potential of preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus in Asian Indian adolescents.

  4. Indian Legends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting American Indian legends, this material provides insight into the cultural background of the Dakota, Ojibwa, and Winnebago people. Written in a straightforward manner, each of the eight legends is associated with an Indian group. The legends included here are titled as follows: Minnesota is Minabozho's Land (Ojibwa); How We Got the…

  5. A study of the emotional effects of tooth loss in an edentulous Gujarati population and its association with depression.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rupal J; Diwan, Fatema J; Diwan, Munira J; Chauhan, Vishal J; Agrawal, Hemal S; Patel, Ghanshyam C

    2015-01-01

    To fully estimate the burden of illness due to edentulism and establish valid treatment outcomes measures in this regard, it is equally important to study its psychosocial repercussions. The aim was to conduct a study to explore the emotional reactions to tooth loss, screen for current depressive symptoms and test for association between the two; among an edentulous Gujarati population. A total of 147 edentulous people visiting the Prosthodontics Department were surveyed. A questionnaire (based on previous studies) to test the emotional reactions to tooth loss and Nine Item-Patient Health Questionnaire to test for depression were used. The data were analyzed using the Chi-square (χ (2)) test with the help of SPSS v. 18.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Totally, 100 out of 147 edentulous people returned the questionnaire of which 58% experienced difficulties in accepting tooth loss and 37% felt unprepared for its effects. Those with difficulties accepting tooth loss had a greater effect on self esteem and social life, had more reservation about discussing tooth loss and was more likely to experience depression. Both groups were satisfied with dentures, had no problem meeting their friends or partners without dentures and leaving out dentures at night. About 58% of edentulous people had difficulties accepting tooth loss, which was unrelated to denture satisfaction. Respondents appeared to be restricted in social activities mainly due to functional limitations. Those with difficulties accepting tooth loss were more likely to experience depression.

  6. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of palatal rugae patterns in Gujarati population: A retrospective, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Jayasankar; Banker, Alka; Bhattacharya, Amit; Gandhi, Radha; Patel, Nupur; Parikh, Sarthak

    2016-01-01

    Palatal rugae are irregular and nonidentical mucosal elevations seen on the anterior third of palate. They are arranged in transverse direction on either side of the median palatine raphe (MPR) and are protected from high temperature and trauma because of their rational position in the oral cavity. Their number and patterns are not uniform in all the individuals, and they appear to vary in different population subsets. The study of palatal rugae is termed as "Rugoscopy" or "Palatoscopy", and it finds its application in various fields such as anthropology, orthodontics, forensic sciences; including forensic odonto-stomatology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative parameters of palatal rugae using pre-orthodontic study models of Gujarati samples. (1) To identify the predominant palatal arch forms in the study samples. (2) To evaluate and correlate the rugae count in both male and female samples with the different palatal arch forms. (3) To assess the symmetry and/or asymmetry in rugae count between the right and left side. (4) To analyze and correlate the qualitative characters such as size, shape, direction, and unification in male and female study samples. One hundred pre-orthodontic maxillary dental stone casts of patients with an age range of 17-25 years were selected. The outlines of the rugae were traced using microtip graphite pencil and examined using magnifying glass for different patterns. The quantity and quality of rugae patterns were recorded according to Thomas et al. classification and the data were statistically analyzed by the statistician using SPSS program. Overall, 962 rugae were observed in the study sample. The mean rugae count was 9.86 in males and 9.38 in females. The left side rugae count was more than the right side in both the sexes and it was not statistically significant. Fifty-six percent of the samples showed asymmetry in rugae count between the right and left. Class B palatal arch form was the most

  7. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of palatal rugae patterns in Gujarati population: A retrospective, cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Jayasankar; Banker, Alka; Bhattacharya, Amit; Gandhi, Radha; Patel, Nupur; Parikh, Sarthak

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Palatal rugae are irregular and nonidentical mucosal elevations seen on the anterior third of palate. They are arranged in transverse direction on either side of the median palatine raphe (MPR) and are protected from high temperature and trauma because of their rational position in the oral cavity. Their number and patterns are not uniform in all the individuals, and they appear to vary in different population subsets. The study of palatal rugae is termed as “Rugoscopy” or “Palatoscopy”, and it finds its application in various fields such as anthropology, orthodontics, forensic sciences; including forensic odonto-stomatology. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative parameters of palatal rugae using pre-orthodontic study models of Gujarati samples. Objectives: (1) To identify the predominant palatal arch forms in the study samples. (2) To evaluate and correlate the rugae count in both male and female samples with the different palatal arch forms. (3) To assess the symmetry and/or asymmetry in rugae count between the right and left side. (4) To analyze and correlate the qualitative characters such as size, shape, direction, and unification in male and female study samples. Materials and Methods: One hundred pre-orthodontic maxillary dental stone casts of patients with an age range of 17–25 years were selected. The outlines of the rugae were traced using microtip graphite pencil and examined using magnifying glass for different patterns. The quantity and quality of rugae patterns were recorded according to Thomas et al. classification and the data were statistically analyzed by the statistician using SPSS program. Results: Overall, 962 rugae were observed in the study sample. The mean rugae count was 9.86 in males and 9.38 in females. The left side rugae count was more than the right side in both the sexes and it was not statistically significant. Fifty-six percent of the samples showed asymmetry in rugae

  8. Indian Summer

    SciTech Connect

    Galindo, E.

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

  9. A study of the emotional effects of tooth loss in an edentulous Gujarati population and its association with depression

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rupal J.; Diwan, Fatema J.; Diwan, Munira J.; Chauhan, Vishal J.; Agrawal, Hemal S.; Patel, Ghanshyam C.

    2015-01-01

    Context: To fully estimate the burden of illness due to edentulism and establish valid treatment outcomes measures in this regard, it is equally important to study its psychosocial repercussions. Aims: The aim was to conduct a study to explore the emotional reactions to tooth loss, screen for current depressive symptoms and test for association between the two; among an edentulous Gujarati population. Settings and Design: A total of 147 edentulous people visiting the Prosthodontics Department were surveyed. Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire (based on previous studies) to test the emotional reactions to tooth loss and Nine Item-Patient Health Questionnaire to test for depression were used. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using the Chi-square (χ2) test with the help of SPSS v. 18.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Results: Totally, 100 out of 147 edentulous people returned the questionnaire of which 58% experienced difficulties in accepting tooth loss and 37% felt unprepared for its effects. Those with difficulties accepting tooth loss had a greater effect on self esteem and social life, had more reservation about discussing tooth loss and was more likely to experience depression. Both groups were satisfied with dentures, had no problem meeting their friends or partners without dentures and leaving out dentures at night. Conclusion: About 58% of edentulous people had difficulties accepting tooth loss, which was unrelated to denture satisfaction. Respondents appeared to be restricted in social activities mainly due to functional limitations. Those with difficulties accepting tooth loss were more likely to experience depression. PMID:26929519

  10. AGE-Related Differences of Novel Atherosclerotic Risk Factors and Angiographic Profile Among Gujarati Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Jayesh; Joshi, Hasit; Sahoo, Sibasis; Virpariya, Kapil; Parmar, Meena; Shah, Komal

    2015-06-01

    Although numerous risk factors have been established to predict the development of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), the risk factor profile may be different between the younger and older individuals. To analyse the frequency and pattern of atherogenic risk factors and angiographic profiles in age-stratified Gujarati patients with ACS. ACS patients undergoing coronary angiography at U.N. Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research, Gujarat, India between January 2008 and December 2012 were classified in to two age groups with 40y as cut-off. Patients were assessed for conventional risk factors (diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, smoking, obesity), novel risk factors (high sensitivity C-reactive protein, lipoprotein (a), homocysteine), and angiographic profiles.The statistical difference between two age groups was determined by Student's t-test for continuous variables and Chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. A total of 200 patients, 100 patients ≤40 y of age and 100 patients >40 y of age, were evaluated. Older patients had higher frequency of hypertension (32 vs. 16%, p=0.008), while family history of coronary artery disease was more common among younger patients (19 vs. 9%, p=0.041). The incidence of diabetes, dyslipidaemia, smoking and tobacco chewing did not vary significantly between the two groups. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly higher in the younger group (p<0.05). Lipoprotein (a), homocysteine and high-sensitivity C reactive protein levels were comparable between two age groups. Multi-vessel coronary artery disease was more common among older group. The most commonly affected coronary artery was the left anterior descending artery among younger patients (44%) and the left circumflex artery among older patients (38.1%). Young patients with ACS had different atherosclerotic risk profile and less extensive coronary artery disease as compared to older counterparts. Emphasis

  11. Clinical Audit on “Evaluation of Special Issues in Adolescents with Cancer Treated in an Adult Cancer Setting”: An Indian Experience

    PubMed Central

    Salins, Naveen S; Vallath, Nandini; Varkey, Prince; Ranganath, Kavya; Nayak, Malathi G

    2012-01-01

    Background: Adolescents with cancer form a distinct group with special care needs. These patients are often cared in an adult supportive care setting where the special needs of adolescents are not met. Aim: To identify special issues in adolescents with cancer and to determine whether special needs of adolescents are met in an adult cancer setting Materials and Methods: 10 adolescents with cancer were randomly chosen and retrospectively studied for physical, psychoscocial and emotional issues using an internally validated tool. Results: Pain was the most common physical symptom seen in all 10 patients. 3 out of 10 patients were involved in decision making, 3 out of 10 patients had identity issues and 4 out of 10 patients had peer group isolation issues. Only 3 were aware of diagnosis and none were aware of treatment outcomes and mortality. 4 out of 10 had anxiety and depression and 3 out of 10 had body image issues. Sexuality, spiritual and existential issues were not explored in any of the patients studied. Conclusion: The outcomes of the study were in an adult oncology setting there was a poor recognition of key adolescent issues such as sexuality, body image, identity and peer group isolation. The psychosocial supports to these adolescents were minimal and spiritual and existential issues were not explored. The inferences drawn from this study suggested a need for multidisciplinary team approach oriented in handling adolescent care needs and preferably to have a dedicated space that will help the peer group to interact, bond and cope better with the illness. PMID:23439995

  12. "Starting Stories" among Older Northern Plains American Indian Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Christopher E.

    2009-01-01

    American Indian adults have the highest smoking rate of any racial group in the nation. By the turn of the 21st century, smoking rates for the general adult population were reported to be 24%. Among adolescents in the United States, 34.8% of high school students reported they currently smoked in 1999. In comparison, American Indian adults report…

  13. "Starting Stories" among Older Northern Plains American Indian Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Christopher E.

    2009-01-01

    American Indian adults have the highest smoking rate of any racial group in the nation. By the turn of the 21st century, smoking rates for the general adult population were reported to be 24%. Among adolescents in the United States, 34.8% of high school students reported they currently smoked in 1999. In comparison, American Indian adults report…

  14. Black Identities: West Indian Immigrant Dreams and American Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Mary C.

    This study of the attitudes and status of West Indian immigrants in the United States, based on interviews with 59 West Indian immigrants, 83 adolescent and young adult children of immigrants, 27 African Americans, 25 White Americans, and 6 coworkers of immigrants shows the changes that occur as immigrants confront the realities of U.S. life. West…

  15. Black Identities: West Indian Immigrant Dreams and American Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Mary C.

    This study of the attitudes and status of West Indian immigrants in the United States, based on interviews with 59 West Indian immigrants, 83 adolescent and young adult children of immigrants, 27 African Americans, 25 White Americans, and 6 coworkers of immigrants shows the changes that occur as immigrants confront the realities of U.S. life. West…

  16. Preferred Drug Resistance Strategies of Urban American Indian Youth of the Southwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulis, Stephen; Brown, Eddie F.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the drug resistance strategies that urban American Indian adolescents consider the best and worst ways to respond to offers of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Focus group data were collected from 11 female and 9 male American Indian adolescents attending urban middle schools in the southwest. The youth were presented with…

  17. Preferred Drug Resistance Strategies of Urban American Indian Youth of the Southwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulis, Stephen; Brown, Eddie F.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the drug resistance strategies that urban American Indian adolescents consider the best and worst ways to respond to offers of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Focus group data were collected from 11 female and 9 male American Indian adolescents attending urban middle schools in the southwest. The youth were presented with…

  18. Indian Orphanages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marilyn Irvin

    With their traditional tribal and kinship ties, Native Americans had lived for centuries without the concept of an unwanted child. But besieged by reservation life and boarding school acculturation, many tribes, with the encouragement of whites, came to accept the need for orphanages. This book tells the story of Indian orphanages within the…

  19. Effectiveness of a Group-Based Culturally Tailored Lifestyle Intervention Program on Changes in Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes among Asian Indians in the United States.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rupal M; Misra, Ranjita; Raj, Sudha; Balasubramanyam, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    This study used an experimental, pretest-posttest control group repeated measures design to evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based culturally appropriate lifestyle intervention program to reduce the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) among Gujarati Asian Indians (AIs) in an urban community in the US. Participants included 70 adult AIs in the greater Houston metropolitan area. The primary outcomes were reduction in weight and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and improvement in physical activity. Participants were screened for risk factors and randomly assigned to a 12-week group-based lifestyle intervention program (n = 34) or a control group (n = 36) that received standard print material on diabetes prevention. Participants also completed clinical measures and self-reported questionnaires about physical activity, social, and lifestyle habits at 0, 3, and 6 months. No significant baseline differences were noted between groups. While a significant decline in weight and increase in physical activity was observed in all participants, the intervention group lowered their HbA1c (p < 0.0005) and waist circumference (p = 0.04) significantly as compared to the control group. Findings demonstrated that participation in a culturally tailored, lifestyle intervention program in a community setting can effectively reduce weight, waist circumference, and HbA1c among Gujarati AIs living in the US.

  20. Effectiveness of a Group-Based Culturally Tailored Lifestyle Intervention Program on Changes in Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes among Asian Indians in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Sudha; Balasubramanyam, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    This study used an experimental, pretest-posttest control group repeated measures design to evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based culturally appropriate lifestyle intervention program to reduce the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) among Gujarati Asian Indians (AIs) in an urban community in the US. Participants included 70 adult AIs in the greater Houston metropolitan area. The primary outcomes were reduction in weight and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and improvement in physical activity. Participants were screened for risk factors and randomly assigned to a 12-week group-based lifestyle intervention program (n = 34) or a control group (n = 36) that received standard print material on diabetes prevention. Participants also completed clinical measures and self-reported questionnaires about physical activity, social, and lifestyle habits at 0, 3, and 6 months. No significant baseline differences were noted between groups. While a significant decline in weight and increase in physical activity was observed in all participants, the intervention group lowered their HbA1c (p < 0.0005) and waist circumference (p = 0.04) significantly as compared to the control group. Findings demonstrated that participation in a culturally tailored, lifestyle intervention program in a community setting can effectively reduce weight, waist circumference, and HbA1c among Gujarati AIs living in the US. PMID:28168201

  1. Health Care Disparities and Language Use at Home among Latino, Asian American, and American Indian Adolescents: Findings from the California Health Interview Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Lahiff, Maureen; Barreto, Rose M.; Shin, Sunny; Chen, Wan-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Using the 2001 California Health Interview Survey, this study compared health status, medical insurance, and having a usual source of care for 2,230 ethnic minority adolescents based on language use at home: Group 1, English only; Group 2, both English and another language; and Group 3, exclusively another language. Adjusting for demographic…

  2. AGE-Related Differences of Novel Atherosclerotic Risk Factors and Angiographic Profile Among Gujarati Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Hasit; Sahoo, Sibasis; Virpariya, Kapil; Parmar, Meena; Shah, Komal

    2015-01-01

    Context Although numerous risk factors have been established to predict the development of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), the risk factor profile may be different between the younger and older individuals. Aim To analyse the frequency and pattern of atherogenic risk factors and angiographic profiles in age-stratified Gujarati patients with ACS. Materials and Methods ACS patients undergoing coronary angiography at U.N. Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research, Gujarat, India between January 2008 and December 2012 were classified in to two age groups with 40y as cut-off. Patients were assessed for conventional risk factors (diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, smoking, obesity), novel risk factors (high sensitivity C-reactive protein, lipoprotein (a), homocysteine), and angiographic profiles.The statistical difference between two age groups was determined by Student’s t-test for continuous variables and Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables. Results A total of 200 patients, 100 patients ≤40 y of age and 100 patients >40 y of age, were evaluated. Older patients had higher frequency of hypertension (32 vs. 16%, p=0.008), while family history of coronary artery disease was more common among younger patients (19 vs. 9%, p=0.041). The incidence of diabetes, dyslipidaemia, smoking and tobacco chewing did not vary significantly between the two groups. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly higher in the younger group (p<0.05). Lipoprotein (a), homocysteine and high-sensitivity C reactive protein levels were comparable between two age groups. Multi-vessel coronary artery disease was more common among older group. The most commonly affected coronary artery was the left anterior descending artery among younger patients (44%) and the left circumflex artery among older patients (38.1%). Conclusion Young patients with ACS had different atherosclerotic risk profile and less extensive coronary

  3. Telepsychiatry for Treating Rural American Indian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savin, Daniel; Garry, Mark T.; Zuccaro, Paula; Novins, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Of all of the medical specialties, child and adolescent psychiatry has the most severe shortage of practitioners. This shortage is even more pronounced in economically disadvantaged and rural areas. The American Indian population is younger, more economically disadvantaged, and more rural than the general U.S. population (United States Census…

  4. Telepsychiatry for Treating Rural American Indian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savin, Daniel; Garry, Mark T.; Zuccaro, Paula; Novins, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Of all of the medical specialties, child and adolescent psychiatry has the most severe shortage of practitioners. This shortage is even more pronounced in economically disadvantaged and rural areas. The American Indian population is younger, more economically disadvantaged, and more rural than the general U.S. population (United States Census…

  5. Food and Nutrition Education in Private Indian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathi, Neha; Riddell, Lynn; Worsley, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The current Indian secondary school curriculum has been criticised for its failure to deliver relevant skills-based food and nutrition education for adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to understand the views of adolescents, their parents, teachers and school principals on the present food and nutrition curriculum and the role of…

  6. Food and Nutrition Education in Private Indian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathi, Neha; Riddell, Lynn; Worsley, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The current Indian secondary school curriculum has been criticised for its failure to deliver relevant skills-based food and nutrition education for adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to understand the views of adolescents, their parents, teachers and school principals on the present food and nutrition curriculum and the role of…

  7. Effects of controlled school-based multi-component model of nutrition and lifestyle interventions on behavior modification, anthropometry and metabolic risk profile of urban Asian Indian adolescents in North India.

    PubMed

    Singhal, N; Misra, A; Shah, P; Gulati, S

    2010-04-01

    To study the effectiveness of a multi-component intervention model of nutrition and lifestyle education on behavior modification, anthropometry and metabolic risk profile of urban Asian-Indian adolescents in North India. Two schools matched for student strength and middle socioeconomic strata were randomly allocated to intervention and control group. Changes in nutrition-related knowledge, attitude, lifestyle practices, food frequency and body image of eleventh-grade students (15-17 years) in both schools were tested using a validated questionnaire. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were made using standard methods. Segmental body composition analysis was carried out using an 8-electrode multifrequency bioelectrical impedance method of body fat estimation. At 6 months follow-up, significant improvement in several domains of knowledge was observed in intervention children (n=99; males=60; females=39) as compared with control school children (n=102; males=61; females=41). In the intervention group, significantly lower proportion of children consumed aerated drinks (15.1%; P<0.001) and energy-dense unhealthy foods (8.9%; P=0.03), whereas significantly higher proportion brought tiffin (packed lunch) to school (14.9%; P=0.004) and brought a fruit in their tiffin (30.7%; P<0.001) as compared with the control group. Significant decrease in mean waist circumference (P=0.02, 95% confidence interval (CI)=-2.43,-0.17), sagittal abdominal diameter (P<0.001, 95% CI=-0.82,-0.09), waist-to-hip ratio (P=0.02, 95% CI=-0.03,-0.004) and fasting blood glucose (P=0.05, 95% CI=-0.09, 5.00) was seen in intervention as compared with control school children. Multi-component model of nutrition and lifestyle education was successful in improving the nutrition-related knowledge, eating habits and lifestyle practices, and resulted in beneficial changes in anthropometric and biochemical profiles of the Asian Indian adolescents. This model should be applied on countrywide basis to

  8. Wyoming Indians, Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming Indians provides concepts, activities, Indian stories, and resources for elementary school students. Indian values and contributions are summarized. Concepts include the incorrectness of the term "Indian," the Indians' democratic society and sophisticated culture, historical events, and conflicts with whites over the…

  9. Wyoming Indians, Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming Indians provides concepts, activities, Indian stories, and resources for elementary school students. Indian values and contributions are summarized. Concepts include the incorrectness of the term "Indian," the Indians' democratic society and sophisticated culture, historical events, and conflicts with whites over the…

  10. Circle of Life: Rationale, Design, and Baseline Results of an HIV Prevention Intervention Among Young American Indian Adolescents of the Northern Plains

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Christina M.; Beals, Janette; Desserich, Jennifer A.; Wheeler, Cindy; Keane, Ellen M.; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Sam, Angela; Sedey, Cory

    2015-01-01

    In spite of significant disparities in sexual health outcomes for American Indian youth, no studies exist examining the effectiveness of HIV-prevention interventions. Circle of Life is an HIV-prevention intervention specifically developed for American Indian middle-school youth. We describe the rationale, methodology, and baseline results of a longitudinal randomized trial of Circle of Life conducted among American Indian youth aged 11–15 in a reservation community. The innovative design includes two pre-intervention waves to determine patterns of behavior prior to the intervention that might be associated with a differential impact of the intervention on sexual risk. We used one-way analysis of variance and chi-square tests to test for significant differences between randomized group assignment at each baseline wave and generalized estimating equations (GEE) to test significant differences in the rate of change in outcomes by group longitudinally. We present the collaborative and adaptive strategies for consenting, assenting, and data collection methodology in this community. Achieved response rates are comparable to other similar studies. Results from the two baseline waves indicate that few outcomes significantly varied by randomized intervention assignment. Ten percent of youth reported having had sex at Wave 1, rising to 15% at Wave 2. Among those who had had sex, the majority (>70%) reported using a condom at last sex. The project is well positioned to carry out the longitudinal assessments of the intervention to determine the overall impact of the Circle of Life and the differential impact by pre-intervention patterns of behavior across youth. PMID:19798577

  11. Circle of life: rationale, design, and baseline results of an HIV prevention intervention among young American Indian adolescents of the Northern Plains.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Carol E; Mitchell, Christina M; Beals, Janette; Desserich, Jennifer A; Wheeler, Cindy; Keane, Ellen M; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Sam, Angela; Sedey, Cory

    2010-03-01

    In spite of significant disparities in sexual health outcomes for American Indian youth, no studies exist examining the effectiveness of HIV-prevention interventions. Circle of Life is an HIV-prevention intervention specifically developed for American Indian middle-school youth. We describe the rationale, methodology, and baseline results of a longitudinal randomized trial of Circle of Life conducted among American Indian youth aged 11-15 in a reservation community. The innovative design includes two pre-intervention waves to determine patterns of behavior prior to the intervention that might be associated with a differential impact of the intervention on sexual risk. We used one-way analysis of variance and chi-square tests to test for significant differences between randomized group assignment at each baseline wave and generalized estimating equations (GEE) to test significant differences in the rate of change in outcomes by group longitudinally. We present the collaborative and adaptive strategies for consenting, assenting, and data collection methodology in this community. Achieved response rates are comparable to other similar studies. Results from the two baseline waves indicate that few outcomes significantly varied by randomized intervention assignment. Ten percent of youth reported having had sex at Wave 1, rising to 15% at Wave 2. Among those who had had sex, the majority (>70%) reported using a condom at last sex. The project is well positioned to carry out the longitudinal assessments of the intervention to determine the overall impact of the Circle of Life and the differential impact by pre-intervention patterns of behavior across youth.

  12. A frequency survey of sugary foods and drinks consumption in school children and adolescents in a West Indian island--Antigua.

    PubMed

    Vignarajah, S

    1997-10-01

    In 1991, the pattern of sugar consumption in samples of 172 12-year-old children and 231 15-19-year-old adolescents was studied. Twenty-four hour dietary records of five consecutive days were obtained from each subject. The frequency of total sugary food and drink episodes for children was 3.16 and 3.71 for adolescents. This was mainly accounted for by the consumption of sugary items at meals for both age groups. Students mostly consumed sweetened drinks at meals, especially at breakfast and ate sugary foods between meal times, particularly between lunch and dinner. Sweetened tea and juice were the most popular drinks and confectionery was the most popular snack food.

  13. Indian Studies Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Cy, Sr.; And Others

    A product of the Indian Studies Curriculum Committee and the Indian Studies Staff, this manual on the Indians of Southeast Alaska constitutes a useable classroom tool designed for the cross-cultural program in the Juneau School District. Objectives of this Indian Studies Program are identified as: to increase knowledge, awareness, and positive…

  14. Indian Studies Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Cy, Sr.; And Others

    A product of the Indian Studies Curriculum Committee and the Indian Studies Staff, this manual on the Indians of Southeast Alaska constitutes a useable classroom tool designed for the cross-cultural program in the Juneau School District. Objectives of this Indian Studies Program are identified as: to increase knowledge, awareness, and positive…

  15. American Indians Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snipp, C. Matthew

    This paper reviews American Indian demography and the political and economic conditions on Indian reservations. After collapsing during the 19th century, the American Indian population grew gradually during the early 20th century, approaching 2 million in 1990. American Indians are heavily concentrated in the West, northern Midwest, and Oklahoma;…

  16. Jim Crow, Indian Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svingen, Orlan J.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews history of voting rights for Indians and discusses a 1986 decision calling for election reform in Big Horn County, Montana, to eliminate violations of the voting rights of the county's Indian citizens. Notes that positive effects--such as election of the county's first Indian commissioner--co-exist with enduring anti-Indian sentiment. (JHZ)

  17. American Indian Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Edward, Ed.

    Written for teachers instructing both Indian and non-Indian students, the handbook provides information on American Indians in California. The handbook is presented in six chapters. Chapter 1 is devoted to terminoloy (e.g., American Indian, Native American, tribe, band, rancheria, and chief). Chapter 2 details historic and cultural changes related…

  18. Indians of the Dakotas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A brief history of Indian tribes in the States of North and South Dakota is presented. Discussion centers around individual Indian tribes, such as Chippewas and Sioux, which are representative of early and modern Indian life in these States. A section devoted to Indians in these states today offers an indication of the present condition of the…

  19. American Indian Sports Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxendine, Joseph B.

    This book chronicles the story of sports among American Indians. Part 1 examines the nature and role of games in traditional Indian life, with five chapters on: Indian concepts of sport; ball games; foot racing; other sports; children's play; and games of chance. Part 2 looks at the emergence of Indians in modern sport, with five chapters on:…

  20. Preventing substance abuse in American Indian and Alaska native youth: promising strategies for healthier communities.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Elizabeth H; Cummins, Lillian H; Marlatt, G Alan

    2004-03-01

    Substance abuse has had profoundly devastating effects on the health and well-being of American Indians and Alaska Natives. A wide variety of intervention methods has been used to prevent or stem the development of alcohol and drug problems in Indian youth, but there is little empirical research evaluating these efforts. This article is an overview of the published literature on substance use prevention among Indian adolescents, providing background epidemiological information, a review of programs developed specifically for Indian adolescents, and recommendations for the most promising prevention strategies currently in practice.

  1. The occurrence and pattern of ameloblastoma in children and adolescents: an Indian institutional study of 41 years and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bansal, S; Desai, R S; Shirsat, P; Prasad, P; Karjodkar, F; Andrade, N

    2015-06-01

    Ameloblastoma in the paediatric age group is considered a rarity and it accounts for approximately 10-15% of all reported cases. This study assessed the clinical, radiological, and histopathological features of 39 cases of ameloblastoma in Indian children aged less than 18 years, seen over a 41-year period (1971-2011) in the Department of Oral Pathology, Nair Hospital Dental College, India. Out of 256 diagnosed cases of ameloblastoma, 39 (15.2%) occurred in patients ranging in age from 4.5 to 18 years (mean age 13.6 years; male-to-female ratio 2:1). All of the tumours were intraosseous, with a marked predilection for the mandible (97.4%), the body-angle-ramus being the most commonly involved site. Radiographically, 23 cases presented as unilocular radiolucency. Histologically, 20 cases presented as solid and 19 as unicystic ameloblastoma. The interesting finding of 10 solid ameloblastoma presenting as unilocular radiolucency and five cases of unicystic ameloblastoma manifesting as multilocular radiolucency suggests that solid ameloblastomas should be included in the differential diagnosis of unilocular radiolucency of the jaw in the paediatric age group. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A GUJARATI REFERENCE GRAMMAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARDONA, GEORGE

    THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR WAS WRITTEN TO FILL THE NEED FOR AN UP-TO-DATE ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN LANGUAGE SUITABLE FOR LANGUAGE LEARNERS AS WELL AS LINGUISTS. THE AUTHOR LISTS IN THE INTRODUCTION THOSE STUDIES PREVIOUS TO THIS ONE WHICH MAY BE OF INTEREST TO THE READER. INCLUDED IN HIS ANALYSIS OF THE LANGUAGE ARE MAJOR CHAPTERS ON--(1) PHONOLOGY, (2)…

  3. A GUJARATI REFERENCE GRAMMAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARDONA, GEORGE

    THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR WAS WRITTEN TO FILL THE NEED FOR AN UP-TO-DATE ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN LANGUAGE SUITABLE FOR LANGUAGE LEARNERS AS WELL AS LINGUISTS. THE AUTHOR LISTS IN THE INTRODUCTION THOSE STUDIES PREVIOUS TO THIS ONE WHICH MAY BE OF INTEREST TO THE READER. INCLUDED IN HIS ANALYSIS OF THE LANGUAGE ARE MAJOR CHAPTERS ON--(1) PHONOLOGY, (2)…

  4. Digital radiographic evaluation of mandibular third molar for age estimation in young adults and adolescents of South Indian population using modified Demirjian's method

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Rezwana Begum; Koganti, Ravichandra; Kalyan, Siva V.; Tircouveluri, Saritha; Singh, Johar Rajvinder; Srinivasulu, Enganti

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, it has become increasingly important to determine the age of living people for a variety of reasons, including identifying criminal and legal responsibility and for many other social events such as birth certificate, marriage, beginning a job, joining the army and retirement Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the developmental stages of mandibular third molar for estimation of dental age (DA) in different age groups and to evaluate the possible correlation between DA and chronological age (CA) in South Indian population. Materials and Methods: Digital orthopantomography of 330 subjects (165 males, 165 females) who fit the study and the criteria were obtained. Assessment of mandibular third molar development was performed using Demirjian et al., modified method and DA was assessed using tooth specific stages. Results and Discussion: The present study showed a significant correlation between DA and CA in both males and females. Third molar development commenced around 9 years and root completion takes place around 18.9 years in males and in females 9 years and 18.6 years respectively. Demirjian modified method underestimated the mean age of males by 0.8 years and females by 0.5 years and also showed that females mature earlier than males in selected population. Conclusion: Digital radiographic assessment of mandibular third molar development can be used to generate mean DA using Demirjian modified method and also the estimated age range for an individual of unknown CA. Since the Demirjian method is based on French-Canadian population, to enhance the accuracy of forensic age estimates based on third molar development, the use of population-specific standards is recommended. PMID:25177143

  5. HIV/AIDS Protective Factors among Urban American Indian Youths

    PubMed Central

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Nieri, Tanya; Stiffman, Arlene Rubin

    2011-01-01

    This research examined how family and individual factors influence three HIV/AIDS risk behaviors: having more than one sexual partner in the last three months, substance use at last sexual intercourse, and condom non-use at last sexual intercourse. The sample includes 89 sexually active American Indian adolescents living in a large Southwestern city. Logistic regression results revealed that family communication acts as a protective factor against HIV risk through a lower reported substance use during last sexual intercourse, but it did not appear to affect the number of multiple recent sex partners. Family and personal involvement in American Indian cultural activities, both low on average, had no effect on the outcomes. This study helps to fill the gap in knowledge on sexual health risk and protective factors among American Indian adolescents, an understudied group, and provides implications for intervention with American Indian youths and their families. PMID:17242528

  6. Correlates of overweight and obesity among American Indian/Alaska Native and Non-Hispanic White children and adolescents: National Survey of Children's Health, 2007.

    PubMed

    Ness, Maria; Barradas, Danielle T; Irving, Jennifer; Manning, Susan E

    2012-12-01

    Risk factors for overweight and obesity may be different for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children compared to children of other racial/ethnic backgrounds, as obesity prevalence among AI/AN children remains much higher. Using data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, behavioral (child's sport team participation, vigorous physical activity, television viewing, and computer use), household (parental physical activity, frequency of family meals, rules limiting television viewing, and television in the child's bedroom), neighborhood (neighborhood support, perceived community and school safety, and presence of parks, sidewalks, and recreation centers in the neighborhood), and sociodemographic (child's age and sex, household structure, and poverty status) correlates of overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥85th percentile for age and sex) were assessed among 10-17 year-old non-Hispanic white (NHW) and AI/AN children residing in Alaska, Arizona, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, and South Dakota (n = 5,372). Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 29.0 % among NHW children and 48.3 % among AI/AN children in this sample. Viewing more than 2 h of television per day (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.0; 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-2.8), a lack of neighborhood support (aOR = 1.9; 95 % CI = 1.1-3.5), and demographic characteristics were significantly associated with overweight/obesity in the pooled sample. Lack of sport team participation was significantly associated with overweight/obesity only among AI/AN children (aOR = 2.7; 95 % CI = 1.3-5.2). Culturally sensitive interventions targeting individual predictors, such as sports team participation and television viewing, in conjunction with neighborhood-level factors, may be effective in addressing childhood overweight/obesity among AI/AN children. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  7. Improvising on an Indian Flute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Martha Mead

    1984-01-01

    The Indian flute can be used by teachers to supplement classroom study of Indian culture. Indians used it as a personal instrument. Describes how an Indian flute can be made, and suggests improvising bird calls and melodies on it. (CS)

  8. Improvising on an Indian Flute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Martha Mead

    1984-01-01

    The Indian flute can be used by teachers to supplement classroom study of Indian culture. Indians used it as a personal instrument. Describes how an Indian flute can be made, and suggests improvising bird calls and melodies on it. (CS)

  9. 75 FR 1384 - Indian Health Professions Preparatory, Indian Health Professions Pregraduate and Indian Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Indian Health Professions Preparatory, Indian Health Professions Pregraduate and Indian Health Professions Scholarship Programs Announcement Type: Initial. CFDA Numbers: 93...

  10. Modern Indian Psychology. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryde, John F.

    Written on the basis of senior Indian verbal relatings collected over a 23-year span, this revised edition on modern Indian psychology incorporates suggestions from Indian students and their teachers, Indian and non-Indian social studies experts, and other Indian people. The book contains 6 major divisions: (1) "Culture and Indian…

  11. Modern Indian Psychology. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryde, John F.

    Written on the basis of senior Indian verbal relatings collected over a 23-year span, this revised edition on modern Indian psychology incorporates suggestions from Indian students and their teachers, Indian and non-Indian social studies experts, and other Indian people. The book contains 6 major divisions: (1) "Culture and Indian…

  12. Indian Graphic Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stump, Sarain

    1979-01-01

    Noting Indian tribes had invented ways to record facts and ideas, with graphic symbols that sometimes reached the complexity of hieroglyphs, this article illustrates and describes Indian symbols. (Author/RTS)

  13. The Indian Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Augusta

    1969-01-01

    Appraisal of Boas'"Introduction to Handbook of American Indian Languages (1911), and Powell's "Indian Linguistic Famlies of America North of Mexico (1891), as reissued by University of Nebraska, Lincoln. (AF)

  14. The Indian Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Augusta

    1969-01-01

    Appraisal of Boas'"Introduction to Handbook of American Indian Languages (1911), and Powell's "Indian Linguistic Famlies of America North of Mexico (1891), as reissued by University of Nebraska, Lincoln. (AF)

  15. Indians in Minneapolis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Richard G.

    The League of Women Voters of Minneapolis decided in May of 1967 to examine public and private agencies in the city of Minneapolis to determine agency perception of Indian problems, and to assess how well the various agencies were dealing with problems related to the Indian population of the city. In addition, 100 Indians were randomly selected…

  16. National Indian Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Karen Kay

    2006-01-01

    This report includes information from the National Indian Education Study of American Indian/Alaska Native students in grades 4 and 8 on the 2005 National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) in reading and mathematics. The national sample includes both public and private schools (i.e. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Defense Education…

  17. Indians of North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A brief historical review of the Cherokee Indians from the mid-sixteenth century to modern day depicts an industrious tribe adversely affected by the settlement movement only to make exceptional economic advancements with the aid of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Civic pride and self-leadership among the Cherokee Indians in North Carolina has…

  18. Indian Law Enforcement History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etheridge, David

    Written as a tribute to American Indian law enforcement officers and the Indian Criminal Justice System, this monographh details the history of the legislative, judicial, financial, and cultural problems associated with the development of Indian law enforcement. Citing numerous court cases, pieces of legislation, and individual and organizational…

  19. INDIANS OF SOUTH DAKOTA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ARTICHOKER, JOHN, JR.

    USING A QUESTION AND ANSWER FORMAT, THIS DOCUMENT ATTEMPTS TO EXPLAIN MANY FACETS OF THE PROBLEMS FACING THE SOUTH DAKOTA INDIANS, PARTICULARLY THOSE SIOUX INDIANS WHO HAVE RETAINED THEIR CUSTOMS AND CULTURE WHETHER LIVING ON OR OFF THE RESERVATIONS. A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE DACOTAH INDIANS AND THEIR EVENTUAL RESTRICTION TO RESERVATIONS PROVIDES THE…

  20. Indians into Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beiswenger, James N.

    Located at the University of North Dakota School of Medicine, Indians Into Medicine (INMED) is a multi-faceted program providing academic, financial, and personal support for Indian students preparing for health careers. The program has the following goals: (1) increase awareness and motivation among Indian students with the potential for health…

  1. Canada's Indians. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James

    Over a half million people in Canada today are identifiably of Native ancestry, legally categorized as Inuit (Eskimos), status Indians, or nonstatus Indians. Status Indians comprise 573 bands with total membership of about 300,000 people, most of whom live on 2,242 reserves. They are the direct responsibility of the federal government and have…

  2. Canada's Indians. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James

    Over a half million people in Canada today are identifiably of Native ancestry, legally categorized as Inuit (Eskimos), status Indians, or nonstatus Indians. Status Indians comprise 573 bands with total membership of about 300,000 people, most of whom live on 2,242 reserves. They are the direct responsibility of the federal government and have…

  3. A Cultural Network Model: Perspectives from an Urban-American Indian Youth Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Red Horse, John G.; Red Horse, Yvonne A.

    A program for adolescent American Indian girls, under the auspices of the Social Work Division of the Minneapolis Public Schools, evolved to become a linkage model between human services and American Indian families, focusing upon interrelationships among structure, behavior, and cultural pattern maintenance. Growth and development among Indian…

  4. Drug Abuse Among Indian Children: Inhalant Abuse Among Young Native Americans. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oetting, E. R.; Goldstein, George S.

    Because of the relatively high rate of drug use among American Indian adolescents, this project was planned to survey the use of drugs, especially inhalants, by American Indian children aged 9-12. As a means of gathering data, interviews were rejected in favor of a simply-worded survey administered to over 1000 children in 9 Southwestern tribes.…

  5. Psychodynamic Therapy and Culture in the Treatment of Incest of a West Indian Immigrant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrasher, Shirley P.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses treatment of an adult West Indian female who was the victim of incest during childhood and adolescence. Studies of West Indians provide a knowledge base for incorporation into appropriate and culture-specific treatment techniques. Winnicott's psychodynamic constructs of object relations theory is used as the organizing framework for…

  6. The Use of a Qualitative Approach in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Prevention among American Indian Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Grace Xuequin; Toubbeh, Jamil; Cline, Janette; Chisholm, Anita

    1998-01-01

    Examines American-Indian adolescents' perceptions of risk factors and effects associated with alcohol use during pregnancy, and age-related prevention strategies for fetal alcohol syndrome. Results indicate peer pressure, influences of adult drinking behaviors, stressful family environment, and acceptance of alcohol use in Indian community may be…

  7. Why Do British Indian Children Have an Apparent Mental Health Advantage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Anna; Patel, Vikram; Leon, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies document a mental health advantage in British Indian children, particularly for externalising problems. The causes of this advantage are unknown. Methods: Subjects were 13,836 White children and 361 Indian children aged 5-16 years from the English subsample of the British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Surveys. The…

  8. Education and Identity Conflict Among Cree Indian Youth: A Preliminary Report, Annex 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wintrob, Ronald M.; Sindell, Peter S.

    The purpose of this document is to report on the ways in which formal education of Cree Indian youths influences the development of their psychological identities. The sample for the study was comprised of 109 adolescent Cree Indians from the Mistassini and Waswanipi bands located in north central Quebec. These youths attended elementary and high…

  9. The Use of a Qualitative Approach in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Prevention among American Indian Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Grace Xuequin; Toubbeh, Jamil; Cline, Janette; Chisholm, Anita

    1998-01-01

    Examines American-Indian adolescents' perceptions of risk factors and effects associated with alcohol use during pregnancy, and age-related prevention strategies for fetal alcohol syndrome. Results indicate peer pressure, influences of adult drinking behaviors, stressful family environment, and acceptance of alcohol use in Indian community may be…

  10. Haemoglobinopathies, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and allied problems in the Indian subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjea, J. B.

    1966-01-01

    The present world-wide interest in haemoglobinopathies and allied disorders has given rise to a very considerable literature over the past two decades. This communication reviews this literature in so far as it refers to the Indian subcontinent. The most common abnormality is thalassaemia, which has been discovered in all regions under consideration: India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan and Ceylon. Haemoglobins S, D and E are also quite common: Hb S has been found mostly in the aboriginal tribes, Hb D in Gujaratis and Punjabis and Hb E in Bengalis, Assamese and Nepalese. A few instances of haemoglobins F, H, J, K, L and M have also been reported. However, there remain many population groups to be investigated. Studies of the distribution of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency are also reviewed, and the correlation between the various haemoglobin disorders and various environmental factors is discussed, but it is pointed out that the relevant data are still insufficient to allow any definite conclusions to be drawn. PMID:5338376

  11. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts.

    PubMed

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry.

  12. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

  13. Immigrant Pupil Rage in Liminality: A West Indian Consideration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cayonne, John

    1982-01-01

    Problems and issues encountered in adolescent West Indians' adjustment to living and learning in Canada are discussed, including parent-child separation, physical and social environment, home-school values conflicts, language habits and problems, rural-urban differences, and student reactions to these influences. Suggestions are made for assisting…

  14. Elders as Teachers of Youth in American Indian Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Jim

    2000-01-01

    Two books by and about American Indians demonstrate the positive impact of warm and caring relationships between elders and youth. Elders in these stories convey to children important lessons about life, death, traditions, heritage, and family; positively affect the identity development and emotional maturity of the adolescent protagonists; and…

  15. Adaptation and Implementation of Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools with American Indian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodkind, Jessica R.; LaNoue, Marianna D.; Milford, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    American Indian adolescents experience higher rates of suicide and psychological distress than the overall U.S. adolescent population, and research suggests that these disparities are related to higher rates of violence and trauma exposure. Despite elevated risk, there is limited empirical information to guide culturally appropriate treatment of…

  16. Adaptation and Implementation of Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools with American Indian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodkind, Jessica R.; LaNoue, Marianna D.; Milford, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    American Indian adolescents experience higher rates of suicide and psychological distress than the overall U.S. adolescent population, and research suggests that these disparities are related to higher rates of violence and trauma exposure. Despite elevated risk, there is limited empirical information to guide culturally appropriate treatment of…

  17. Partnering in research: a national research trial exemplifying effective collaboration with American Indian Nations and the Indian Health Service.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Jennifer Q; Copeland, Kenneth C; Daniel, Mary R; Erb-Alvarez, Julie A; Felton, Beverly A; Khan, Sohail I; Saunkeah, Bobby R; Wharton, David F; Payan, Marisa L

    2014-12-15

    Despite the fact that numerous major public health problems have plagued American Indian communities for generations, American Indian participation in health research traditionally has been sporadic in many parts of the United States. In 2002, the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma) and 5 Oklahoma American Indian research review boards (Oklahoma City Area Indian Health Service, Absentee Shawnee Tribe, Cherokee Nation, Chickasaw Nation, and Choctaw Nation) agreed to participate collectively in a national research trial, the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescence and Youth (TODAY) Study. During that process, numerous lessons were learned and processes developed that strengthened the partnerships and facilitated the research. Formal Memoranda of Agreement addressed issues related to community collaboration, venue, tribal authority, preferential hiring of American Indians, and indemnification. The agreements aided in uniting sovereign nations, the Indian Health Service, academics, and public health officials to conduct responsible and ethical research. For more than 10 years, this unique partnership has functioned effectively in recruiting and retaining American Indian participants, respecting cultural differences, and maintaining tribal autonomy through prereview of all study publications and local institutional review board review of all processes. The lessons learned may be of value to investigators conducting future research with American Indian communities. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Partnering in Research: A National Research Trial Exemplifying Effective Collaboration With American Indian Nations and the Indian Health Service

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Jennifer Q.; Copeland, Kenneth C.; Daniel, Mary R.; Erb-Alvarez, Julie A.; Felton, Beverly A.; Khan, Sohail I.; Saunkeah, Bobby R.; Wharton, David F.; Payan, Marisa L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that numerous major public health problems have plagued American Indian communities for generations, American Indian participation in health research traditionally has been sporadic in many parts of the United States. In 2002, the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma) and 5 Oklahoma American Indian research review boards (Oklahoma City Area Indian Health Service, Absentee Shawnee Tribe, Cherokee Nation, Chickasaw Nation, and Choctaw Nation) agreed to participate collectively in a national research trial, the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescence and Youth (TODAY) Study. During that process, numerous lessons were learned and processes developed that strengthened the partnerships and facilitated the research. Formal Memoranda of Agreement addressed issues related to community collaboration, venue, tribal authority, preferential hiring of American Indians, and indemnification. The agreements aided in uniting sovereign nations, the Indian Health Service, academics, and public health officials to conduct responsible and ethical research. For more than 10 years, this unique partnership has functioned effectively in recruiting and retaining American Indian participants, respecting cultural differences, and maintaining tribal autonomy through prereview of all study publications and local institutional review board review of all processes. The lessons learned may be of value to investigators conducting future research with American Indian communities. PMID:25389367

  19. Sleep Problems, Suicidality and Depression among American Indian Youth

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; McCall, Vaughn W; Anderson, Andrea; Bryant, Alfred; Bell, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    Study background Mental health and sleep problems are important public health concerns among adolescents yet little is known about the relationship between sleep, depressive symptoms, and suicidality among American Indian youth. Methods This study examined the impact of sleep and other factors on depressive symptoms and suicidality among Lumbee American Indian adolescents (N=80) ages 11–18. Results At the bivariate level, sleepiness, was associated with depression but not with suicidality. Time in bed (TIB) was not associated with depression, but more TIB decreased the likelihood of suicidality. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with increased likelihood of suicidality. At the multivariate level, sleepiness, suicidality, and self-esteem were associated with depression. TIB and depressive symptoms were the only variables associated with suicidality. Conclusion In working with American Indian youth, it may be helpful to consider sleep patterns as part of a comprehensive assessment process for youth who have or are at risk for depression and suicide. PMID:25309936

  20. 76 FR 165 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin (``Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1992... CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary...

  1. 76 FR 42722 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Assistant... of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (IGRA), Public Law 100-497, 25 U.S.C. 2710, the Secretary...

  2. 75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary... section 11 of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (IGRA), Public Law 100-497, 25 U.S.C. 2710, the...

  3. The Indian Child Welfare Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Katy Jo

    The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (I.C.W.A.) is federal legislation which preempts state law whenever Indian children may be removed from their families. The I.C.W.A. permits Indian tribal courts to decide the future of Indian children, establishes minimum federal standards for removal of Indian children from their families, requires that…

  4. Influence of vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms on tuberculosis among Gujarati Asians in west London: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, R J; Llewelyn, M; Toossi, Z; Patel, P; Pasvol, G; Lalvani, A; Wright, D; Latif, M; Davidson, R N

    2000-02-19

    Susceptibility to disease after infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is influenced by environmental and host genetic factors. Vitamin D metabolism leads to activation of macrophages and restricts the intracellular growth of M. tuberculosis. This effect may be influenced by polymorphisms at three sites in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene. We investigated the interaction between serum vitamin D (25-hydroxycholecalciferol) concentrations and VDR genotype on susceptibility to tuberculosis. This study was a hospital-based case-control analysis of Asians of Gujarati origin, a mainly vegetarian immigrant population with a high rate of tuberculosis. We typed three VDR polymorphisms (defined by the presence of restriction endonuclease sites for Taq1, Bsm1, and Fok1) in 91 of 126 untreated patients with tuberculosis and 116 healthy contacts who had been sensitised to tuberculosis. Serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol was recorded in 42 contacts and 103 patients. 25-hydroxycholecalciferol deficiency was associated with active tuberculosis (odds ratio 2.9 [95% CI 1.3-6.5], p=0.008), and undetectable serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (<7 nmol/L) carried a higher risk of tuberculosis (9.9 [1.3-76.2], p=0.009). Although there was no significant independent association between VDR genotype and tuberculosis, the combination of genotype TT/Tt and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol deficiency was associated with disease (2.8 [1.2-6.5]) and the presence of genotype ff or undetectable serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol was strongly associated with disease (5.1 [1.4-18.4]). 25-hydroxycholecalciferol deficiency may contribute to the high occurrence of tuberculosis in this population. Polymorphisms in the VDR gene also contribute to susceptibility when considered in combination with 25-hydroxycholecalciferol deficiency.

  5. Impact of disease control and co-existing risk factors on heart rate variability in Gujarati type 2 diabetics: An observational study.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Jayesh Dalpatbhai; Basida, Sanket D; Mehta, Hemant B; Panjwani, Sunil J; Gadhavi, Bhakti P; Patel, Pathik

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a proven threat of cardiac dysautonomia with paucity of studies from India. Poor disease control makes it further worse with co-existence of hypertension in majority. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a validated noninvasive tool to assess cardiac autonomic status. We studied HRV parameters of type 2 diabetics looking for effects of disease control and other co-existing risk factors. Ninety-eight hypertensive and forty normotensive under-treatment, Gujarati type 2 diabetics were evaluated for disease control and risk stratification. Five minutes resting, HRV was measured by Variowin HR, software-based instrument, using standard protocols to record time domain, frequency domain, and Poincare plot HRV parameters. They were compared between subgroups for the difference with P < 0.05 defining statistical significance. All HRV parameters were reduced in type 2 diabetics, having mean age 56 years, mean duration 6 years with poor glycemic but comparatively better pressure control. HRV parameters were significantly not different in good compared to poor glycemics or in subjects with optimum pressure control than those without it. Results did not differ significantly, by the presence of individual cardiovascular risk factor in diabetics except resting heart rate. Our findings of HRV suggest that type 2 diabetics with poor glycemic control do not have a significant difference of cardiac dysautonomia by pressure control, glycemic control, and absence of risk cardiovascular factor. It suggests diabetes as a major cause for cardiac dysautonomia, residual risk despite treatment and need for HRV screening, strict glycemic control, and further studies.

  6. Impact of disease control and co-existing risk factors on heart rate variability in Gujarati type 2 diabetics: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Jayesh Dalpatbhai; Basida, Sanket D.; Mehta, Hemant B.; Panjwani, Sunil J.; Gadhavi, Bhakti P.; Patel, Pathik

    2016-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a proven threat of cardiac dysautonomia with paucity of studies from India. Poor disease control makes it further worse with co-existence of hypertension in majority. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a validated noninvasive tool to assess cardiac autonomic status. Aim: We studied HRV parameters of type 2 diabetics looking for effects of disease control and other co-existing risk factors. Materials and Methods: Ninety-eight hypertensive and forty normotensive under–treatment, Gujarati type 2 diabetics were evaluated for disease control and risk stratification. Five minutes resting, HRV was measured by Variowin HR, software-based instrument, using standard protocols to record time domain, frequency domain, and Poincare plot HRV parameters. They were compared between subgroups for the difference with P < 0.05 defining statistical significance. Results: All HRV parameters were reduced in type 2 diabetics, having mean age 56 years, mean duration 6 years with poor glycemic but comparatively better pressure control. HRV parameters were significantly not different in good compared to poor glycemics or in subjects with optimum pressure control than those without it. Results did not differ significantly, by the presence of individual cardiovascular risk factor in diabetics except resting heart rate. Conclusion: Our findings of HRV suggest that type 2 diabetics with poor glycemic control do not have a significant difference of cardiac dysautonomia by pressure control, glycemic control, and absence of risk cardiovascular factor. It suggests diabetes as a major cause for cardiac dysautonomia, residual risk despite treatment and need for HRV screening, strict glycemic control, and further studies. PMID:27843848

  7. A common G10430A mutation (Gly 60 Ser) in the factor IX gene describes the presence of moderate and mild hemophilia B in the majority of the Gujarati population.

    PubMed

    Quadros, Leera; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Shetty, Shrimati

    2007-05-01

    Hemophilia B is an X-linked recessively inherited bleeding disorder afflicting humans across all socio-economic as well as racial groups. A wide range of mutations showing high heterogeneity has been reported in different populations. Thus, it has been difficult to adopt a cost-effective strategy for the genetic diagnosis of hemophilia B families. We report the presence of a common G10430A mutation in exon d of the factor IX gene, wherein the highly conserved Gly 60 residue of the first epidermal growth like domain was changed to Ser in 22 out of 22 moderately severe to mild hemophilia B patients originating from Gujarat. None of the eight Gujarati severe hemophilia B patients, 30 normal Gujarati men, and 20 moderately severe to mild hemophilia B patients belonging to other communities showed the presence of this mutation. This mutation occurred in the same haplotype background thereby suggesting a 'founder effect.' The direct detection of this G10430A mutation can be used for accurate carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis in mild to moderate factor-IX-deficient patients belonging to the Gujarat state of western India.

  8. The Indian Nose.

    PubMed

    Nagarkar, Purushottam; Pezeshk, Ronnie A; Rohrich, Rod J

    2016-11-01

    Despite the growing number of rhinoplasty procedures being performed on Indian patients, there is a very limited body of literature regarding nuances of the Indian rhinoplasty. The authors review the spectrum of nasal phenotypes that fall under the category of the Indian nose; goals of rhinoplasty in these patients; operative techniques that can be used to address them; and, importantly, the specific pitfalls to be avoided in these groups.

  9. Allele and genotype frequency of a genetic variant in ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene affecting glycemic response to metformin in South Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Vilvanathan, Saranya; Gurusamy, Umamaheswaran; Mukta, V.; Das, Ashok Kumar; Chandrasekaran, Adithan

    2014-01-01

    Allele and genotype frequency of a genetic variant in ATM gene affecting glycemic response to metformin in South Indian population. Context: The novel polymorphism in ATM gene (rs11212617), which is implicated to have association with metformin response, exhibits inter-ethnic variability in the allele and genotype frequency distribution. Aims and Design: The objective of the present study is to establish the allele and genotype frequency of rs11212617 single nucleotide polymorphism in ATM gene, in South Indian population and to find if this variant has any role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in 2 cohorts of populations, 112 healthy volunteers and 118 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes by phenol-chloroform method and genotyping was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction using TaqMan assay. Results: In South Indian population, the frequency of major A allele was 0.65 and the minor C allele was 0.35. AA and CC are the homozygous genotypes with frequency of 0.39 and 0.09 respectively. The frequency of heterozygous genotype AC (0.52) was found to be higher than the homozygotes. There was no significant difference in the frequency distribution in the diabetic population, which implies that this variant does not have any causative role in the disease etiology. The frequency distributions were found to be significantly different from the distributions in other ethnic populations such as Caucasians, Chinese, Japanese and Africans. But there was no significant difference when compared with the Gujarati Indians of Houston. Conclusion: The frequency distribution of this novel variant in South Indian population forms a framework for further gene disease association studies to establish the association of this variant with metformin response. Our study could not find any association of this variant with respect to the disease

  10. The American Indian: A Natural Philosopher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Robert P.

    1978-01-01

    Describes American Indian philosophy, Indian attitudes on man's place in the cosmos, Indian socio-political practice, Indian moral values and community philosophy, and the differences between "white" and Indian culture. (RK)

  11. The American Indian: A Natural Philosopher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Robert P.

    1978-01-01

    Describes American Indian philosophy, Indian attitudes on man's place in the cosmos, Indian socio-political practice, Indian moral values and community philosophy, and the differences between "white" and Indian culture. (RK)

  12. An American Indian Anthology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tvedten, Benet, Comp.

    The anthology is intended to be a discovery for the many Americans whose superficial knowledge of the American Indians has been derived from history books, Hollywood films, and other stereotyped views of the Indian culture. Understanding and appreciation of a particular culture can be found in the stories and poetry of the people. This small…

  13. Suicide in American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    This book reviews present knowledge about suicidal behavior in American Indians, prevention efforts in Native communities, and recommendations for understanding suicidal behavior and developing suicide prevention efforts. Data from Canadian aboriginal groups is also included. Chapter 1 explains why suicide in American Indians is of concern to…

  14. America's Indian Statues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gridley, Marion E., Comp.

    A comprehensive compilation of facts and photographs of statues honoring or memorializing the American Indians is presented in this paperback. The vignettes accompanying the photographs are the result of extensive research. Examples of the American Indian statues include "The Signal of Peace,""The Protest,"" The Medicine Man,""Appeal to the Great…

  15. An American Indian Anthology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tvedten, Benet, Comp.

    The anthology is intended to be a discovery for the many Americans whose superficial knowledge of the American Indians has been derived from history books, Hollywood films, and other stereotyped views of the Indian culture. Understanding and appreciation of a particular culture can be found in the stories and poetry of the people. This small…

  16. American Indian Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    One Feather, Gerald

    With the emergence of reservation based community colleges (th Navajo Community College and the Dakota Community Colleges), the American Indian people, as decision makers in these institutions, are providing Indians with the technical skills and cultural knowledge necessary for self-determination. Confronted with limited numbers of accredited…

  17. Indians of Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Briefly describing each tribe within Arizona's four major American Indian groups, this handbook presents information relative to the cultural background and socioeconomic development of the following tribes: (1) Athapascan Tribes (Navajos and Apaches); (2) Pueblo Indians (Hopis); (3) Desert Rancheria Tribes (Pimas, Yumas, Papagos, Maricopas,…

  18. Yakima Indian Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Study of Migrant and Indian Education, Toppenish, WA.

    This booklet was prepared by the Yakima Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs, to provide information to the public on the history and customs of the Yakima Indian Nation, as well as explaining life on the Reservation today. The events mentioned range from 1775 to July 1, 1971. Since this document only skims the surface of Yakima culture and history,…

  19. Indians in Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollow, Kitty, Ed.; Heuving, Jeanne, Ed.

    Every student in high school is faced with the question of what to do after graduation. American Indian students, whether on or off reservations, need ideas as to what is available to them. This compilation of interviews with 10 individuals who are maintaining their "Indian identity" and making contributions in the working world provides…

  20. Writing American Indian History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noley, Grayson B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  1. Writing American Indian History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noley, Grayson B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  2. Contemporary American Indian Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Sidner

    2009-01-01

    In his keynote address to the Fifth Annual American Indian Studies Consortium in 2005 David Wilkins began by commenting on earlier attempts to formally organize such a gathering in ways that might help establish and accredit Indian studies programs. He said he had the sense that the thrust of earlier meetings "was really an opportunity for Native…

  3. The American Indian Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, George

    This guide provides a basic source of historical and contemporary Indian information from an American Indian perspective and includes study questions at the end of each section. The primary function of this guide is to be a quick-study reference handbook. Basic questions essential to understanding current problems and issues of American Indians…

  4. Pima Indian Legends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Anna Moore

    The stated purpose of this book is to preserve in writing some of the Pima Indian legends that had been verbally passed from generation to generation in the past. This collection of 23 legends, which were originally used to instruct the young people of the tribe, presents in story form various aspects of American Indian life--including…

  5. Indian Tribes of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gridley, Marion E.

    The lives and locations of early American Indian tribes are the subject of this book for children of junior high school age. The tribal life patterns which had developed to suit the climates lived in, prior to the arrival of the Europeans, are described. Thus, the livelihood of Indians in 5 different sections of the United States and Canada--the…

  6. The (East) Indian Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Josephine

    The focus of this paper is on the social, cultural, and psychological problems women of East Indian origin share with other immigrant women in Canada. Also examined are problems that are unique to the East Indian woman and the ways in which she deals with the challenges, conflicting cultural values, and expectations that confront her. The…

  7. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  8. Indians in Indian Fiction: The Shadow of the Trickster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velie, Alan R.

    1984-01-01

    Studies mythic dimension of protagonists in novels by American Indian authors Scott Momaday and James Welch. Illustrates discrepancies between White readers' beliefs about Indians and Indian myths of the trickster and how mythologies affect interpretation of the novels. Contrasts use of myth by Indian authors Leslie Silko and Gerald Vizenor. (LFL)

  9. Factors Associated with American Indian Cigarette Smoking in Rural Settings

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, Felicia; Nandy, Karabi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on the prevalence, factors and patterns of cigarette smoking among rural California American Indian (AI) adults. Methods: Thirteen Indian health clinic registries formed the random household survey sampling frame (N = 457). Measures included socio-demographics, age at smoking initiation, intention to quit, smoking usage, smoking during pregnancy, health effects of smoking, suicide attempts or ideation, history of physical abuse, neglect and the role of the environment (smoking at home and at work). Statistical tests included Chi Square and Fisher’s Exact test, as well as multiple logistic regression analysis among never, former, and current smokers. Results: Findings confirm high smoking prevalence among male and female participants (44% and 37% respectively). American Indians begin smoking in early adolescence (age 14.7). Also, 65% of current smokers are less than 50% Indian blood and 76% of current smokers have no intention to quit smoking. Current and former smokers are statistically more likely to report having suicidal ideation than those who never smoked. Current smokers also report being neglected and physically abused in childhood and adolescence, are statistically more likely to smoke ½ pack or less (39% vs. 10% who smoke 1+ pack), smoke during pregnancy, and have others who smoke in the house compared with former and never smokers. Conclusion: Understanding the factors associated with smoking will help to bring about policy changes and more effective programs to address the problem of high smoking rates among American Indians. PMID:21695023

  10. Translation and validation of brief patient health questionnaire against DSM IV as a tool to diagnose major depressive disorder in Indian patients.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, P H; Rajadhyaksha, S S; Suvarna, V R

    2007-01-01

    Depression is frequently encountered in the primary care setting but is often unrecognized and hence untreated. There is a need for a uniform user-friendly screening instrument for depression for primary healthcare personnel in India. Translation and validation of the brief patient health questionnaire (BPHQ) as a screening tool for depression in major Indian languages. This was a prospective study conducted at 18 sites, in psychiatric and general clinics. The English version of the BPHQ was translated into 11 Indian languages. The translations were reviewed by experts and volunteers and proofread for the final translated BPHQ. The validation exercise included more than 3000 subjects. A psychiatrist and a psychiatry social worker / coordinator conducted the study under the supervision of the principal investigator. For each language, the presence or absence of major depressive disorder (MDD) as diagnosed with the help of a patient-completed BPHQ and the psychiatrist DSM-IV diagnosis was matched. The kappa coefficient was used as a measure of inter-observer agreement between the two diagnostic methods. Seven languages failed the primary validation exercise. These translations were reviewed and the updated versions, after proofreading were re-run for validation. The self-administered BPHQ was successfully translated and validated for diagnosis of MDD against DSM-IV diagnosis made by a psychiatrist, in English, Hindi, Marathi oriya, Malayalam, Assamese, Gujarati, Kannada, Telugu, Bengali and Tamil. BPHQ is a simple, quick and reliable instrument, which facilitates rapid and accurate diagnosis of depression in the primary care setting in our country.

  11. 75 FR 38834 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ...: 2010-16214] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian... Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary--Policy and Economic Development, Washington, DC 20240, (202) 219-4066. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Under Section 11 of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988...

  12. 75 FR 38833 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... Doc No: 2010-16213] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact..., Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary--Policy and Economic Development...

  13. 75 FR 68618 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... the Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewas (``Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of... CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary...

  14. Information About Indians of Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toothman, Maryann; Jensen, Denise

    An intermediate or junior high level unit on Indians indigenous to Iowa focuses on history, culture, and cultural conflict between the Indians and white Americans. Many of the materials can be adapted for use in other states or for a more general unit on American Indians. Twenty lessons cover the location of Iowa; prehistoric Iowa; Indian society…

  15. Some Resources in Indian Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marken, Jack W.

    This paper discusses some of the resources in the literature by and about the American Indian and lists numerous anthologies and bibliographies in this area. More than 40 publications are listed, including "Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian,""American Indian Almanac,""Ethnographic Bibliography of North America,""American Indian Prose…

  16. The American Indian Development Bank?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottinger, Richard

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, the Indian Finance Corporation Act died in committee for lack of Indian support. A model for an American Indian Development Bank is proposed, based on the International Finance Corporation of the World Bank. Two case studies illustrate how this model can meet Indian economic development needs. (SV)

  17. Information About Indians of Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toothman, Maryann; Jensen, Denise

    An intermediate or junior high level unit on Indians indigenous to Iowa focuses on history, culture, and cultural conflict between the Indians and white Americans. Many of the materials can be adapted for use in other states or for a more general unit on American Indians. Twenty lessons cover the location of Iowa; prehistoric Iowa; Indian society…

  18. Federal Financing of Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loon, Eric Van

    Since over 200 million Federal dollars are disbursed annually for American Indian education under Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), Elementary Secondary Education Act Title I, Indian Education Act Title IV, and Johnson O'Malley programs, it is difficult to understand the dismal state of Indian education. However, factors contributing to abuse of…

  19. Indian concepts on sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

  20. [Indian workers in Oman].

    PubMed

    Longuenesse, E

    1985-01-01

    Until recently Oman was a country of emigration, but by 1980 an estimated 200,000 foreign workers were in the country due to the petroleum boom. Almost 1/3 of the estimated 300,000 Indian workers in the Gulf states were in Oman, a country whose colonial heritage was closely tied to that of India and many of whose inhabitants still speak Urdu. The number of work permits granted to Indians working in the private sector in Oman increased from 47,928 in 1976 to 80,787 in 1980. An estimated 110,000 Indians were working in Oman in 1982, the great majority in the construction and public works sector. A few hundred Indian women were employed by the government of Oman, as domestics, or in other capacities. No accurate data is available on the qualifications of Indian workers in Oman, but a 1979 survey suggested a relatively low illiteracy rate among them. 60-75% of Indians in Oman are from the state of Kerala, followed by workers from the Punjab and the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Bombay. Indian workers are recruited by specialized agencies or by friends or relatives already employed in Oman. Employers in Oman prefer to recruit through agencies because the preselection process minimizes hiring of workers unqualified for their posts. Officially, expenses of transportation, visas, and other needs are shared by the worker and the employer, but the demand for jobs is so strong that the workers are obliged to pay commissions which amount to considerable sums for stable and well paying jobs. Wages in Oman are however 2 to 5 times the level in India. Numerous abuses have been reported in recruitment practices and in failure of employers in Oman to pay the promised wages, but Indian workers have little recourse. At the same level of qualifications, Indians are paid less then non-Omani Arabs, who in turn receive less than Oman nationals. Indians who remain in Oman long enough nevertheless are able to support families at home and to accumulate considerable

  1. Indian concepts on sexuality.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality.

  2. Adolescent Images of Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falchikov, Nancy

    1989-01-01

    Examined extent to which Scottish adolescents (N=40) were influenced by negative images of adolescence present in the culture, investigating self-images by means of Q sort. Eleven factors emerged from analysis, six of which met criterion that distinguishes common factors. Little evidence was found to suggest that adolescents were influenced by…

  3. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b) Land...

  4. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b) Land...

  5. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b) Land...

  6. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b) Land...

  7. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b) Land...

  8. U.S. Food Guide Pyramid food group intake by Asian Indian immigrants in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, S S; Diwan, S; Cohen, D L

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the food group intake and the dietary quality of middle-aged and older Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants (45 years or older) living in two urban metropolitan areas in the U.S. Participants (90 men, 99 females) completed a 24-hour dietary recall, which was used to determine if they met the daily food group intake guidelines of the U.S. Food Guide Pyramid. The overall quality of their reported dietary intake was determined using the Healthy Eating Index based on their nutrient and food group intake. Both men and women met the daily number of servings recommendations for the grains (men: 9.3 servings/day; women: 6.9 servings/day) and vegetables (men: 4.5 servings/day; women: 3.6 servings/day) groups, but did not meet the recommendations for fruits, dairy and meats groups. The total score on the Healthy Eating Index of the diets of these participants was 73, indicative of a dietary intake that does not meet the established U.S. dietary guidelines. These immigrants should be educated about appropriate food choices (ethnic and non-ethnic) within each of the U.S. Food Guide Pyramid food groups to improve the overall quality of their dietary intakes.

  9. Indian Craniometric Variability and Affinities

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Pathmanathan; Bulbeck, David; Pathmanathan, Gayathiri; Rathee, Suresh Kanta

    2013-01-01

    Recently published craniometric and genetic studies indicate a predominantly indigenous ancestry of Indian populations. We address this issue with a fuller coverage of Indian craniometrics than any done before. We analyse metrical variability within Indian series, Indians' sexual dimorphism, differences between northern and southern Indians, index-based differences of Indian males from other series, and Indians' multivariate affinities. The relationship between a variable's magnitude and its variability is log-linear. This relationship is strengthened by excluding cranial fractions and series with a sample size less than 30. Male crania are typically larger than female crania, but there are also shape differences. Northern Indians differ from southern Indians in various features including narrower orbits and less pronounced medial protrusion of the orbits. Indians resemble Veddas in having small crania and similar cranial shape. Indians' wider geographic affinities lie with “Caucasoid” populations to the northwest, particularly affecting northern Indians. The latter finding is confirmed from shape-based Mahalanobis-D distances calculated for the best sampled male and female series. Demonstration of a distinctive South Asian craniometric profile and the intermediate status of northern Indians between southern Indians and populations northwest of India confirm the predominantly indigenous ancestry of northern and especially southern Indians. PMID:24455409

  10. Tourism and Indian Exploitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Lawrence

    1977-01-01

    A cursory review of Federal support to the Eastern Cherokees shows that the Cherokee Historical Association and not the Cherokee Indians are the recipients and beneficiaries of many Federal grants. (JC)

  11. Indians on the Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamail, Milton H.

    1977-01-01

    Although the Kickapoo have actively sought to preserve their culture at Nacimiento in Coahuila, Mexico, evidence of an eroding culture is found at Eagle Pass, Texas where American Indian migrant workers reside temporarily. (JC)

  12. Indian Summer for Wayfarers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltenbronn, Kyra

    1977-01-01

    A recreational program involving hiking and camping emphasizes teaching young participants through archeology and adventure experiences about American Indians, their technology, and their means of survival in the wilderness. (JD)

  13. Ishi: A Yahi Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Yahi Indians were part of a larger tribal group called the Yana. The Yahi way of life, along with the lives of many other California Indian groups, changed when European and U.S. settlers came to California. In 1872 Ishi and his family were the last of the Yahi living in the Deer Creek (California) area. By 1911 Ishi was the last surviving…

  14. 25 CFR 31.3 - Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. 31.3 Section 31.3... Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. Indian and non-Indian children who are not eligible for... of maintenance in the school attended, when their presence will not exclude Indian pupils...

  15. Problems of Adolescents and Youths: Symposium IV C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagaraja, Jaya; Suppiah, Chandraseagran

    This symposium contains reports on: (1) a study of drug abuse among adolescents in India, by Jaya Nagaraja; and (2) a case study of factors contributing to drug addiction among Malaysian youth, by Chandraseagran Suppiah. Based on a sample of 1,000 adolescents attending metropolitan city colleges, findings of the Indian study concern psychological…

  16. Research in child and adolescent psychiatry in India

    PubMed Central

    Shastri, Priyavadan Chandrakant; Shastri, Jay P.; Shastri, Dimple

    2010-01-01

    The primary source for this annotation on child and adolescent psychiatry is Indian Journal of Psychiatry. Articles covering various dimensions of child and adolescent mental health were searched from its electronic data base to discuss relevant articles. Literature was mainly in the form of original research articles, review articles, case reports, editorials, orations and presidential address. PMID:21836681

  17. Problems of Adolescents and Youths: Symposium IV C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagaraja, Jaya; Suppiah, Chandraseagran

    This symposium contains reports on: (1) a study of drug abuse among adolescents in India, by Jaya Nagaraja; and (2) a case study of factors contributing to drug addiction among Malaysian youth, by Chandraseagran Suppiah. Based on a sample of 1,000 adolescents attending metropolitan city colleges, findings of the Indian study concern psychological…

  18. Rural Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Age, Gender, and Ethnic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Stephanie A.; Girvan, James T.

    A survey of health risk behaviors was administered to a representative sample of 7,776 Idaho students in grades 8-12. Respondents were 86% White, 6% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian, and 2% Black. These rural adolescents reported that they had engaged in some health risk behaviors at rates comparable to those of other U.S. adolescents: 57%…

  19. Indian Ocean Triple Junction

    SciTech Connect

    Tapscott, C.R.; Patriat, P.; Fisher, R.L.; Sclater, J.G.; Hoskins, H.; Parsons, B.

    1980-09-10

    The boundaries of three major plates (Africa, India, and Antarctica) meet in a triple junction in the Indian Ocean near 25 /sup 0/S, 70 /sup 0/E. Using observed bathymetry and magnetic anomalies, we locate the junction to within 5 km and show that it is a ridge-ridge-ridge type. Relative plate motion is N60 /sup 0/E at 50 mm/yr (full rate) across the Central Indian Ridge, N47 /sup 0/E at 60 mm/yr across the Southeast Indian Ridge, and N3 /sup 0/W at 15 mm/yr across te Southwest Indian Ridge; the observed velocity triangle is closed. Poles of instantaneous relative plate motion are determined for all plate pairs. The data in the South Atlantic and Indian oceans are consistent with a rigid African plate without significant internal deformation. Two of the ridges at the triple junction are normal midocean spreading centers with well-defined median valleys. The Southwest Indian Ridge, however, has a peculiar morphology near the triple junction, that of an elongate triangular deep, with the triple junction at its apex. The floor of the deep represents crust formed at the Southwest Indian Ridge, and the morphology is a consequence of the evolution of the triple junction and is similar to that at the Galapagos Triple Junction. Though one cannot determine with precision the stability conditions at the triple junction, the development of the junction over the last 10 m.y. can be mapped, and the topographic expressions of the triple junction traces may be detected on the three plates.

  20. Parent–Adolescent Communication About Sex in Rural India: U.S.–India Collaboration to Prevent Adolescent HIV

    PubMed Central

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Soletti, Asha Banu; Burnette, Denise; Sharma, Shilpi; Leavitt, Sarah; McCarthy, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we examine parent–adolescent communication about sex among rural Indian youth and their parents. We conducted in-depth interviews (N = 40) with mothers, fathers, and adolescent boys and girls aged 14 to 18 years in a rural community in Maharashtra, India. In the context of key cultural factors, including gender-related norms, we explore issues of sexual health and critically assess widely held beliefs that Indian parents are unwilling or unable to discuss sex-related topics with their children. Our findings suggest that despite communication barriers, e.g., lack of knowledge and cultural proscriptions, Indian families are interested in and willing to communicate about sex-related topics. Future research should seek to determine the viability of family-based HIV prevention interventions for Indian adolescents. PMID:22232297

  1. Resources for Teaching About American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn

    1987-01-01

    Lists selected resources for teaching about American Indians available from the ERIC database. Topics of resources include Navajo history, Pacific Northwest history, Indians of Oklahoma, Indian traditions, Plains Indian culture, and Pawnee history. (AEM)

  2. Young Once, Indian Forever: Youth Gangs in Indian Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, James; Lim, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Not unlike mainstream society of the United States, Indian Country faces new challenges regarding the values, mores, and behavior of its young people. Since their first encounters with European explorers, American Indians have fought to preserve their culture and traditions. Federal policies that addressed the "Indian problem" by…

  3. Young Once, Indian Forever: Youth Gangs in Indian Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, James; Lim, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Not unlike mainstream society of the United States, Indian Country faces new challenges regarding the values, mores, and behavior of its young people. Since their first encounters with European explorers, American Indians have fought to preserve their culture and traditions. Federal policies that addressed the "Indian problem" by…

  4. The Horse and the Plains Indian. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuessler, Raymond

    Produced by the Montana Council for Indian Education as part of its Indian Culture Series, the five short articles in the book explain how the Plains Indians got horses in legend and in fact. The stories describe the behavior codes, rules, cultural and social significance, and eventual cessation of horse raids, and the ceremony and tradition…

  5. The Horse and the Plains Indian. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuessler, Raymond

    Produced by the Montana Council for Indian Education as part of its Indian Culture Series, the five short articles in the book explain how the Plains Indians got horses in legend and in fact. The stories describe the behavior codes, rules, cultural and social significance, and eventual cessation of horse raids, and the ceremony and tradition…

  6. Indian Control of Indian Education: Authority and Responsibility for Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkness, Verna J.

    Officially recognized in 1973, the "Indian Control of Indian Education" policy articulated philosophy, goals, principles, and directions designed to create an effective educational climate for Canada Natives. The policy acknowledged the need to improve educational opportunities for Indians as a preparation for total living, as a means of…

  7. Teaching about Indians? Use the Real Stuff!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldkamp-Price, Betsy; Smith, David Lee

    1994-01-01

    Provides suggestions for teaching students about American Indians. Teachers need to learn more about Indians; confront misconceptions and stereotypes; have students make Indian crafts and foods; play Indian games; learn about contemporary Indian culture; be critical of resources; and contact local Indian or cultural groups. (MDM)

  8. 78 FR 10203 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Chippewa-Cree Tribe of the Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation... Chippewa-Cree Indians of the Rocky Boy's Reservation and the State of Montana submitted a Class III...

  9. 77 FR 30550 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake Paiute Indian Tribe and the... Pyramid Lake Paiute Indian Tribe and the State of Nevada became effective upon publication of the...

  10. Association of American Indian Physicians

    MedlinePlus

    Association of American Indian Physicians Apply Log In Facebook Twitter YouTube About Mission Board of Directors Staff ... of AAIP student programs. Join Renew Programs The Association of American Indian Physicians provides educational programs, health ...

  11. Indian Ocean proposed drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curray, Joseph R.

    1984-04-01

    Tentative plans for the Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) are for the drilling vessel SEDCO/BP 471 (Eos, March 13, 1984, p. 97) to work in the Indian Ocean during all or parts of 1987 and 1988. The Indian Ocean Advisory Panel of ODP solicits letters of intent or proposals for possible scientific ocean drilling during that period. All areas within the Indian Ocean and any important problems, including tectonics, nature of the lithosphere, paleoceanography, and sedimentary processes will be considered.Please send proposals, with appropriate charts and copies of pertinent data, in triplicate to the Office of Joint Oceanographic Institutions Deep Earth Sampling (JOIDES Office, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149) and, if possible, also send one copy to the chairman or to any other members of the panel. Proposals and letters received before September 1 will be reviewed at the panel meeting scheduled for the first week of September.

  12. Title IV: Improving Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Kipp A.

    The Indian Education Act of 1972, Title IV, has improved Native American education by emphasizing Native American control; it comes after 400 years of Euro-American involvement in Indian education during which assimilation was the primary goal. In 1568 Jesuit priests began "civilizing" and Christianizing the "savage" Indians;…

  13. 77 FR 5566 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact Taking Effect. SUMMARY: This publishes notice of the Tribal-State... Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary--Policy and Economic Development, Washington, DC 20240...

  14. 76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect. SUMMARY: This publishes notice of the Tribal-State... Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary--Policy and Economic Development, Washington, DC 20240...

  15. 77 FR 41200 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes approval by the Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the State of California and the Federated...

  16. Facts about American Indian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian College Fund, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As a result of living in remote rural areas, American Indians living on reservations have limited access to higher education. One-third of American Indians live on reservations, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. According to the most recent U.S. government statistics, the overall poverty rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives, including…

  17. Indian-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-03

    rights. ! In June, the Chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff , Gen. Peter Pace, met with top Indian officials in New Delhi to discuss expanding U.S...France’s Areva may be better poised to take advantage of the Indian market. Moreover, U.S. nuclear suppliers will likely balk at entering the Indian market

  18. Literature of the Indian Subcontinent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimock, Edward C., Jr.

    Indian literature is intimately bound up with the Indian religious system. The earliest sacred writings are the Vedas. In addition to being poetry on nature, and later on, ritual formulae for controlling the universe, the Vedas have philosophical speculation. A large part of classical Indian literature consists of writing commentaries on…

  19. [Presidential Message on Indian Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Richard

    President Nixon's message pointed out the deprivation and the injustices which the American Indians have suffered for centuries. It was noted that now is the time to break with the past and create conditions for a new era in which the Indian future is determined by Indian acts and decisions. The relationship between the Federal Government and the…

  20. Indian and Chinese cosmologies reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Mahdihassan, S

    1985-01-01

    Indian and Chinese cosmic elements are five. They originate from a common source, Bralrma in Indian and Thai-chi in Chinese. The first created element is Mu = Tree, not wood, and life-form itself, immovable but moves everything else = Akaska in Indian cosmology. Dryness = Metal in Chinese, Moisture = Earth. Fire as Heat and Water as Cold, are common to both systems.

  1. The Indian Mineral Development Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Antoinette

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the objectives of the Indian Mineral Development Act of 1982 (IMDA) and the possible effects it may have on Indian mineral development. Explains how the provisions of IMDA work to provide Indian tribes with greater flexibility for the development and sale of their mineral resources. (ML)

  2. Indian Child Welfare in Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull Knife Memorial Coll., Lame Deer, MT.

    This report is based upon a 1985-86 survey conducted by the Dull Knife Memorial College Indian Child Welfare Project. A series of workshops were conducted throughout Montana to acquaint providers of services for abused and neglected Indian children with the requirements of and issues associated with the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978.…

  3. A History of Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyhner, Jon; Eder, Jeanne

    The goal of assimilating American Indians into an alien culture seemed inevitable as superior weaponry and foreign diseases conquered the Indians. Only in the 20th century has serious consideration been given to allowing Indians to choose their own destiny. Using many excerpts from historical accounts, this book describes educational efforts by…

  4. The Indian Mineral Development Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Antoinette

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the objectives of the Indian Mineral Development Act of 1982 (IMDA) and the possible effects it may have on Indian mineral development. Explains how the provisions of IMDA work to provide Indian tribes with greater flexibility for the development and sale of their mineral resources. (ML)

  5. 77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Deemed Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III... Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. On October 31, 2012, the Coyote Valley Band of Pomo Indians and the State of California submitted Amendment I to the Class III compact approved on December...

  6. The American Indian: A Microcourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Norman; And Others

    Designed for secondary students and dealing with the concept of ethnicity in an urban setting, this microcourse on the American Indian presents general information on American Indians and an in-depth study of Indians within the Chicago, Illinois area. Included in this curriculum guide are: seven specific behavioral objectives; course content (some…

  7. Indian Siddis: African descendants with Indian admixture.

    PubMed

    Shah, Anish M; Tamang, Rakesh; Moorjani, Priya; Rani, Deepa Selvi; Govindaraj, Periyasamy; Kulkarni, Gururaj; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Mustak, Mohammed S; Bhaskar, L V K S; Reddy, Alla G; Gadhvi, Dharmendra; Gai, Pramod B; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Patterson, Nick; Reich, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2011-07-15

    The Siddis (Afro-Indians) are a tribal population whose members live in coastal Karnataka, Gujarat, and in some parts of Andhra Pradesh. Historical records indicate that the Portuguese brought the Siddis to India from Africa about 300-500 years ago; however, there is little information about their more precise ancestral origins. Here, we perform a genome-wide survey to understand the population history of the Siddis. Using hundreds of thousands of autosomal markers, we show that they have inherited ancestry from Africans, Indians, and possibly Europeans (Portuguese). Additionally, analyses of the uniparental (Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA) markers indicate that the Siddis trace their ancestry to Bantu speakers from sub-Saharan Africa. We estimate that the admixture between the African ancestors of the Siddis and neighboring South Asian groups probably occurred in the past eight generations (∼200 years ago), consistent with historical records. Copyright © 2011 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. CALIFORNIA INDIAN EDUCATION, REPORT OF THE FIRST ALL-INDIAN STATEWIDE CONFERENCE ON CALIFORNIA INDIAN EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FORBES, JACK D.

    A CONFERENCE ON CALIFORNIA INDIAN EDUCATION WAS HELD IN MARCH, 1967, AT STANISLAUS STATE COLLEGE. THE CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS INCLUDE ADMINISTRATORS AND TEACHERS FROM REPRESENTATIVE SCHOOLS WITH A HIGH PROPORTION OF INDIAN STUDENTS IN CALIFORNIA, ANTHROPOLOGISTS AND SOCIAL SCIENTISTS FROM VARIOUS COLLEGES, AND INDIANS FROM REPRESENTATIVE AREAS…

  9. INDIAN EDUCATION WORKSHOPS. PART I - EDUCATION OF INDIAN ADULTS. PART II - COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN INDIAN EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEE, NICHOLAS, ED.; ROESSEL, ROBERT A., JR., ED.

    DURING THE SUMMER OF 1962, THE INDIAN EDUCATION CENTER OF ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY OFFERED TWO COURSES--EDUCATION OF THE INDIAN ADULT AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN INDIAN EDUCATION. PAPERS WRITTEN BY STUDENTS IN THE COURSES AND REPORTS OF GUEST SPEAKERS ARE PRESENTED IN THIS VOLUME. TOPICS COVERED INCLUDE ADULT EDUCATION THROUGH PARENT-TEACHER…

  10. Northwest Coast Indian Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Thomas; Knecht, Elizabeth

    The visual art forms of the Northwest Coast Indian Tribes of Alaska (Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian) share common distinctive design elements (formline, ovoid, U-form, and curvilinear shapes) which are referred to as the "Northern Style." Designs represent events or characters taken from the oral tradition of song and legend.…

  11. Problems of Indian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linton, Marigold

    Previous approaches to the learning problems of American Indian children are viewed as inadequate. An alternative is suggested which emphasizes the problem solution strategies which these children bring to the school situation. Solutions were analyzed in terms of: (1) their probability; (2) their efficiency at permitting a present problem to be…

  12. Indian Astronomy: History of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, R.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    From the time of A macronryabhat under dota (ca AD 500) there appeared in India a series of Sanskrit treatises on astronomy. Written always in verse, and normally accompanied by prose commentaries, these served to create an Indian tradition of mathematical astronomy which continued into the 18th century. There are as well texts from earlier centuries, grouped under the name Jyotishaveda macronn d...

  13. Northwest Coast Indian Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Thomas; Knecht, Elizabeth

    The visual art forms of the Northwest Coast Indian Tribes of Alaska (Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian) share common distinctive design elements (formline, ovoid, U-form, and curvilinear shapes) which are referred to as the "Northern Style." Designs represent events or characters taken from the oral tradition of song and legend.…

  14. Early Indian People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doermann, Elisabeth

    1979-01-01

    Using bits and pieces of the past such as charred bits of wood from campfires, broken pieces of clay pots, stone spearpoints and arrowheads, and shell or copper ornaments, the archaeologist tries to put together the story of early Indian people in the Minnesota region. A short story, one of eight articles, re-creates the kill of an Itasca bison…

  15. Indian Reserved Water Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Frank M.

    1986-01-01

    Traces the distribution, ownership, and water usage associated with lands in the Colville Reservation in Washington State. Cites specific cases which addressed the reserved water rights doctrine. Assesses the impact of court decisions on insuring water rights for Indians living on the Colville Reservation. (ML)

  16. Experiencing Indian Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Carol; And Others

    Intended to provide for the reader a new road to study India, the booklet encourages students to experience the languages of India as an avenue to learning something about its people. The workbook introduces the reader to the languages of India; shows through activities and research the contributions of Indian languages to English; and provides a…

  17. Tests for American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ. Test Collection.

    The revised annotated bibliography describes 29 standardized tests appropriate for use with American Indians from preschool through high school levels, furnishing authors, copyright date, appropriate age level, physical format (microfiche), and publisher. A separate listing provides names, addresses, and telephone numbers of 11 major U.S.…

  18. The Urban Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Winona DuBray

    The document presents six articles that provide a glimpse of the uniqueness of American Indian cultural conflict, focusing on aspects of the culture which warrant special attention. Since there are over 100 tribes, an effort was made to enumerate commonalities amongst the tribal cultures in looking at issues raised in the urban areas throughout…

  19. Downriver Indians' Legends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; Exline, Jesse

    Yurok Indian legends in Yurok Unifon text include English translations of the entire texts in order to produce fluent reading for English speakers and a continuous text for Yurok readers. Although corresponding sentences are numbered, translation is not word-for-word or sentence-for-sentence. The five stories refer to a time when animals could…

  20. Prison Reform and Indians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Charles

    1976-01-01

    Briefly describing the history of prison reform and the American Indian, this article argues that the "professed" humanitarian philosophy of the reformers would not have been extended to "peoples languishing in prison or sequestered on reservations had it not been expedient for the business interests of the larger society". (JC)

  1. Great Indian Chiefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastron, Allen

    Brief biographies and pen and ink portraits of over 40 chiefs and other distinguised American Indians comprise this book. Each page contains a full page portrait and a biography that notes tribal affiliation, important dates, geographical location, major accomplishments, and dealings with other tribes, white settlers, and the United States or…

  2. American Indian Recipes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting some 60 to 70 Native American recipes, this document includes a brief introduction and a suggested reading list (15 citations related to American Indian foods). The introduction identifies five regional Native American cuisines as follows: in the Southwest, peppers and beans were made into chili, soups, guacamole, and barbecue sauces by…

  3. Indian School Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Basil H.

    This autobiography relates the experiences of a young Ojibway boy who was taken from his family in 1939 at age 10 and placed in a Jesuit boarding school in northern Ontario, Canada. St. Peter Claver (later Garnier) or "Spanish," as the Indian school was known, was home to approximately 135 boys. Most of the students, who ranged in age…

  4. Downriver Indians' Legends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; Exline, Jesse

    Yurok Indian legends in Yurok Unifon text include English translations of the entire texts in order to produce fluent reading for English speakers and a continuous text for Yurok readers. Although corresponding sentences are numbered, translation is not word-for-word or sentence-for-sentence. The five stories refer to a time when animals could…

  5. Marsden Hartley: "Indian Fantasy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    Uses Marsden Hartley's "Indian Fantasy" to explore with students in grades 7-9 the variety of expressive qualities of an early twentieth-century U.S. artist working abroad. Presents lesson objectives, instructional strategies, evaluation criteria, and background information about the artist and painting. (GEA)

  6. Indians of Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    Maps, photographs, and illustrations are included in this introductory history of Indians in Washington state. The tribal groups of the area are classified by geographic and cultural region as Coastal, Puget Sound, and Plateau tribes, and the majority of the resource booklet provides information about the history and culture of each group.…

  7. Eastern American Indian Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Robert K.

    Identification of social and cultural commonalities among American Indians of the eastern U.S. reveal 4 geographical areas--(1) the eastern seaboard (the largest group in both number of distinct groups and population); (2) the inland area; (3) Louisiana (a combination of inland and seaboard characteristics); (4) the eastern Great Lakes area…

  8. Indians of Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Brief descriptions of the historical and cultural background of the Navajo, Apache, Hopi, Pima, Papago, Yuma, Maricopa, Mohave, Cocopah, Havasupai, Hualapai, Yavapai, and Paiute Indian tribes of Arizona are presented. Further information is given concerning the educational, housing, employment, and economic development taking place on the…

  9. Indian Wisdom Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanche, Jerry D.

    Rather than simply recreating a real or imagined event or experience for entertainment purposes, the wisdom stories of the American Indians were sophisticated teaching devices that kept alive the history and traditions of the tribe at the same time that they instructed the young tribe members in the areas of history, geography, nature study, and…

  10. Indian School Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Basil H.

    This autobiography relates the experiences of a young Ojibway boy who was taken from his family in 1939 at age 10 and placed in a Jesuit boarding school in northern Ontario, Canada. St. Peter Claver (later Garnier) or "Spanish," as the Indian school was known, was home to approximately 135 boys. Most of the students, who ranged in age…

  11. Indians of the Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Brief descriptions of the historical and cultural background of the Bannock, Cayuse, Coeur d'Alene, Kutenia, Kalispel, Palouse, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Yakima, Spokane, Klamath, Sanpoil, Nespelem, Colville, Quinault, Quileute, Makahs, Klallam, Lummi, Cowlit, Puyallup, Nisqually, and Nez Perce Indian tribes of the Northwestern United States are…

  12. Indians as Archaeologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badhorse, Beverly

    1993-01-01

    Describes a cooperative program between Fort Belknap College, in northern Montana, and an archeological firm designed to provide Native American students with hands-on experience in research and excavation of Indian artifacts. Reviews benefits of the partnership with respect to student experience and knowledge of ancient cultures. (MAB)

  13. English for American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slager, William R., Ed.; Madsen, Betty M., Ed.

    The present issue of "English for American Indians" follows the format and approach of the Spring 1970 issue. (See ED 040 396.) In the lead article, Evelyn Hatch surveys some of the research in first language acquisition and points out its implications for second language teaching. Her main thesis is that with the best of intentions,…

  14. American Indian Recipes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting some 60 to 70 Native American recipes, this document includes a brief introduction and a suggested reading list (15 citations related to American Indian foods). The introduction identifies five regional Native American cuisines as follows: in the Southwest, peppers and beans were made into chili, soups, guacamole, and barbecue sauces by…

  15. Indians of New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The booklet gives a general introduction to American Indians in New Mexico. Covering historical background and present status, reports are given for these tribes: the 19 Pueblos (i.e., Acoma, Cochiti, Isleta, Jemez, Laguna, and Zuni), the Jicarilla and Mescalero Apaches, and the Navajos. Also included are 26 places of interest such as Acoma…

  16. Early Indian People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doermann, Elisabeth

    1979-01-01

    Using bits and pieces of the past such as charred bits of wood from campfires, broken pieces of clay pots, stone spearpoints and arrowheads, and shell or copper ornaments, the archaeologist tries to put together the story of early Indian people in the Minnesota region. A short story, one of eight articles, re-creates the kill of an Itasca bison…

  17. Indians of North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Published by the U.S. Department of the Interior, this brief booklet on the historical development of the Cherokee Nation emphasizes the Tribe's relationship with the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its improved economy. Citing tourism as the major tribal industry, tribal enterprises are named and described (a 61 unit motor court in existence since…

  18. Improvement in nutrition-related knowledge and behaviour of urban Asian Indian school children: findings from the 'Medical education for children/Adolescents for Realistic prevention of obesity and diabetes and for healthy aGeing' ( MARG) intervention study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Priyali; Misra, Anoop; Gupta, Nidhi; Hazra, Daya Kishore; Gupta, Rajeev; Seth, Payal; Agarwal, Anand; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Jain, Arvind; Kulshreshta, Atul; Hazra, Nandita; Khanna, Padmamalika; Gangwar, Prasann Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Tallikoti, Pooja; Mohan, Indu; Bhargava, Rooma; Sharma, Rekha; Gulati, Seema; Bharadwaj, Swati; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Goel, Kashish

    2010-08-01

    Increasing prevalence of childhood obesity calls for comprehensive and cost-effective educative measures in developing countries such as India. School-based educative programmes greatly influence children's behaviour towards healthy living. We aimed to evaluate the impact of a school-based health and nutritional education programme on knowledge and behaviour of urban Asian Indian school children. Benchmark assessment of parents and teachers was also done. We educated 40 196 children (aged 8-18 years), 25 000 parents and 1500 teachers about health, nutrition, physical activity, non-communicable diseases and healthy cooking practices in three cities of North India. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to assess randomly selected 3128 children, 2241 parents and 841 teachers before intervention and 2329 children after intervention. Low baseline knowledge and behaviour scores were reported in 75-94 % government and 48-78 % private school children, across all age groups. A small proportion of government school children gave correct answers about protein (14-17 %), carbohydrates (25-27 %) and saturated fats (18-32 %). Private school children, parents and teachers performed significantly better than government school subjects (P < 0.05). Following the intervention, scores improved in all children irrespective of the type of school (P < 0.001). A significantly higher improvement was observed in younger children (aged 8-11 years) as compared with those aged 12-18 years, in females compared with males and in government schools compared with private schools (P < 0.05 for all). Major gaps exist in health and nutrition-related knowledge and behaviour of urban Asian Indian children, parents and teachers. This successful and comprehensive educative intervention could be incorporated in future school-based health and nutritional education programmes.

  19. Enculturation and attitudes toward intimate partner violence and gender roles in an asian Indian population: implications for community-based prevention.

    PubMed

    Yoshihama, Mieko; Blazevski, Juliane; Bybee, Deborah

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationships among enculturation, attitudes supporting intimate partner violence (IPV-supporting attitudes), and gender role attitudes among one of the largest Asian Indian population groups in the US. Data were collected via computer-assisted telephone interviews with a random sample of Gujarati men and women aged 18-64 in Metropolitan Detroit. Using structural equation modeling, we modeled the effects of three components of enculturation (behavior, values, and community participation) on gender role attitudes and IPV-supporting attitudes among married respondents (N = 373). Analyses also accounted for the effects of respondent age, education, religious service attendance, perceived financial difficulty, and lengths of residence in the US. The second-order, overall construct of enculturation was the strongest predictor of IPV-supporting attitudes (standardized B = 0.61), but not gender role attitudes. Patriarchal gender role attitudes were positively associated with IPV-supporting attitudes (B = 0.49). In addition to the overall effect of the enculturation construct, two of the components of enculturation had specific effects. "Enculturation-values" had a specific positive indirect association with IPV-supporting attitudes, through its relationship with patriarchal gender role attitudes. However, "enculturation-community participation" was negatively associated with IPV-supporting attitudes, suggesting the importance of community-based prevention of IPV among this immigrant population group.

  20. Ethnic Identity, Sense of Community, and Psychological Well-Being among Northern Plains American Indian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Carter, Jessica S.

    2011-01-01

    Limited research has examined how ethnic identity and sense of community may be associated with psychological well-being in American Indian adolescents. Via survey data, we examined the relationships among ethnic identity, sense of community, psychosomatic symptoms, positive affect, and feelings of depression with students from a tribal high…

  1. The Changing Patterns of Drug Use among American Indian Students over the Past Thirty Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauvais, Fred; Jumper-Thurman, Pamela; Burnside, Martha

    2008-01-01

    Drug use among American Indian (AI) youth continues at higher levels than those found among other youth. While the rates are higher, the patterns of increases and decreases over the past 30-year period have been similar, indicating that AI youth are part of the larger adolescent culture. There is a set of secular influences that affect the rates…

  2. General Strain Theory and Delinquency: Extending a Popular Explanation to American Indian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eitle, David; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence that American Indian (AI) adolescents are disproportionately involved in crime and delinquent behavior, there exists scant research exploring the correlates of crime among this group. We posit that Agnew's General Strain Theory (GST) is well suited to explain AI delinquent activity. Using the National Longitudinal Study of…

  3. A Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Depression in Rural American Indian Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Listug-Lunde, Lori; Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy; Collins, John

    2013-01-01

    Rural American Indian (AI) middle school students with depressive symptoms who participated in a culturally modified version of the Adolescent Coping with Depression (CWD-A) course (n = 8) reported significant improvement in depressive symptoms at post-intervention and at 3-month follow-up. There was also a nonsignificant but clinically relevant…

  4. Postpartum Depression Prevention for Reservation-Based American Indians: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Barlow, Allison; Goklish, Novalene; Hastings, Ranelda; Baker, Elena Varipatis; Mullany, Britta; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Walkup, John

    2012-01-01

    Background: Postpartum depression is a devastating condition that affects a significant number of women and their offspring. Few preventive interventions have targeted high risk youth, such as American Indians (AIs). Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of a depression prevention program for AI adolescents and young adults. Methods: Expectant AI…

  5. "In Our Voice": Lessons Learned from a Cardiovascular Disease Curriculum for American Indian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, D.; Burgoyne, K.; Vallie, D. La; Buchwald, D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: American Indian children and adolescents are at risk for obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, elevated cholesterol, and smoking, all of which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To address these health issues, we developed, implemented, and evaluated a culturally appropriate cardiovascular disease curriculum…

  6. General Strain Theory and Delinquency: Extending a Popular Explanation to American Indian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eitle, David; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence that American Indian (AI) adolescents are disproportionately involved in crime and delinquent behavior, there exists scant research exploring the correlates of crime among this group. We posit that Agnew's General Strain Theory (GST) is well suited to explain AI delinquent activity. Using the National Longitudinal Study of…

  7. Postpartum Depression Prevention for Reservation-Based American Indians: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Barlow, Allison; Goklish, Novalene; Hastings, Ranelda; Baker, Elena Varipatis; Mullany, Britta; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Walkup, John

    2012-01-01

    Background: Postpartum depression is a devastating condition that affects a significant number of women and their offspring. Few preventive interventions have targeted high risk youth, such as American Indians (AIs). Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of a depression prevention program for AI adolescents and young adults. Methods: Expectant AI…

  8. "In Our Voice": Lessons Learned from a Cardiovascular Disease Curriculum for American Indian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, D.; Burgoyne, K.; Vallie, D. La; Buchwald, D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: American Indian children and adolescents are at risk for obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, elevated cholesterol, and smoking, all of which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To address these health issues, we developed, implemented, and evaluated a culturally appropriate cardiovascular disease curriculum…

  9. Understanding gender roles in teen pregnancy prevention among American Indian youth.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jessica D; McMahon, Tracey R; Griese, Emily R; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2014-11-01

    To examine the impact of gender norms on American Indian (AI) adolescents' sexual health behavior. The project collected qualitative data at a reservation site and an urban site through 24 focus groups and 20 key informant interviews. The reasons that AI youth choose to abstain or engage in sexual intercourse and utilize contraception vary based on gender ideologies defined by the adolescent's environment. These include social expectations from family and peers, defined roles within relationships, and gender empowerment gaps. Gender ideology plays a large role in decisions about contraception and sexual activity for AI adolescents, and it is vital to include redefinitions of gender norms within AI teen pregnancy prevention program.

  10. INDIAN PEAKS WILDERNESS, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, Robert C.; Speltz, Charles N.

    1984-01-01

    The Indian Peaks Wilderness northwest of Denver is partly within the Colorado Mineral Belt, and the southeast part of it contains all the geologic characteristics associated with the several nearby mining districts. Two deposits have demonstrated mineral resources, one of copper and the other of uranium; both are surrounded by areas with probable potential. Two other areas have probable resource potential for copper, gold, and possibly molydenum. Detailed gravity and magnetic studies in the southeast part of the Indian Peaks Wilderness might detect in the subsurface igneous bodies that may be mineralized. Physical exploration such as drilling would be necessary to determine more precisely the copper resources at the Roaring Fork locality and uranium resources at Wheeler Basin.

  11. Indian scales and inventories

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, S.

    2010-01-01

    This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, traits and processes. As an illustrative sample, this article assembles a bibliographic survey of about 105 out of 2582 research papers (4.07%) scanned through 51 back dated volumes covering 185 issues related to clinimetry as reviewed across a span of over fifty years (1958-2009) in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. A content analysis of the contributions across distinct categories of mental measurements is explained before linkages are proposed for future directions along these lines. PMID:21836709

  12. General Strain Theory and Delinquency: Extending a Popular Explanation to American Indian Youth*

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, David; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2014-01-01

    Despite evidence that American Indian adolescents are disproportionately involved in crime and delinquent behavior, there exists scant research exploring the correlates of crime among this group. We posit that Agnew’s (1992) General Strain Theory (GST) is well suited to explain American Indian delinquent activity. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined a subsample of American Indian students—a study that represents, to the best of our knowledge, the initial published test of GST principles used to explain AI delinquent behavior. Overall, we find mixed support for the core principles of GST applying to AI delinquent behavior. We also found evidence that some of the personal and social resources identified by Agnew condition the strain-delinquent behavior relationship, albeit, sometimes in ways that are not entirely consistent with GST. PMID:27217594

  13. Predictors of maternal health services utilization by poor, rural women: a comparative study in Indian States of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Vora, Kranti Suresh; Koblinsky, Sally A; Koblinsky, Marge A

    2015-07-31

    India leads all nations in numbers of maternal deaths, with poor, rural women contributing disproportionately to the high maternal mortality ratio. In 2005, India launched the world's largest conditional cash transfer scheme, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), to increase poor women's access to institutional delivery, anticipating that facility-based birthing would decrease deaths. Indian states have taken different approaches to implementing JSY. Tamil Nadu adopted JSY with a reorganization of its public health system, and Gujarat augmented JSY with the state-funded Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY) scheme, contracting with private physicians for delivery services. Given scarce evidence of the outcomes of these approaches, especially in states with more optimal health indicators, this cross-sectional study examined the role of JSY/CY and other healthcare system and social factors in predicting poor, rural women's use of maternal health services in Gujarat and Tamil Nadu. Using the District Level Household Survey (DLHS)-3, the sample included 1584 Gujarati and 601 Tamil rural women in the lowest two wealth quintiles. Multivariate logistic regression analyses examined associations between JSY/CY and other salient health system, socio-demographic, and obstetric factors with three outcomes: adequate antenatal care, institutional delivery, and Cesarean-section. Tamil women reported greater use of maternal healthcare services than Gujarati women. JSY/CY participation predicted institutional delivery in Gujarat (AOR = 3.9), but JSY assistance failed to predict institutional delivery in Tamil Nadu, where mothers received some cash for home births under another scheme. JSY/CY assistance failed to predict adequate antenatal care, which was not incentivized. All-weather road access predicted institutional delivery in both Tamil Nadu (AOR = 3.4) and Gujarat (AOR = 1.4). Women's education predicted institutional delivery and Cesarean-section in Tamil Nadu, while husbands

  14. Forging an Indian Partnership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    partnership. 100. Stephen Cohen, remarks at the Brookings Institution Conference, “Does the Elephant Dance ? A Discussion on Contemporary Indian Foreign...part of its foreign policy since independence. Throughout the Cold War, India was an essential member of the nonaligned movement , a collection of...continue to solidify as China grows and flexes its muscles across the Asian continent. Consequently, this relationship will be driven as much by

  15. Native Indian Teachers: A Key to Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkness, Verna J.

    1986-01-01

    Indian teachers are critical to the realization of quality education for the Indian population. Indians would be effective teachers of Indian identity, traditions, language, and psychology in addition to the usual subjects. Home-school and community-school relationships would likely improve if Native Indian staff were a significant presence in the…

  16. Will the "Real" Indians Please Stand Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pewewardy, Cornel

    1998-01-01

    Explores what it means to be an American Indian in an era in which nearly half of the identifiable Indians live off the reservations and in urban areas. As the principal definition of "Indian-ness" today, the issue of blood quantum leads to misunderstandings. Being an Indian, to the author, is being a person connected to a tribe. (SLD)

  17. American Indian youths' perceptions of their environment and their reports of depressive symptoms and alcohol/marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Nails, A Mercedes; Mullis, Ronald L; Mullis, Ann K

    2009-01-01

    The role of neighborhood and school environments in adolescent development has been explored over the years, yet few have examined these relationships with an American Indian sample. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of American Indian adolescents' sense of safety in their neighborhood and school environments and how this relates to their experience of depressive symptoms and alcohol/marijuana use. The data were drawn from a southwestern state's dataset containing survey results of adolescent well-being. Responses from a total of 148 American Indian 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students were analyzed. The findings indicated that neighborhood safety, especially the presence of crime and drug sales, was the strongest predictor of depressive symptoms and alcohol/marijuana use. Implications for future research and work with this population are discussed.

  18. 2 CFR 25.335 - Indian Tribe (or “Federally recognized Indian Tribe”).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indian Tribe (or âFederally recognized....335 Indian Tribe (or “Federally recognized Indian Tribe”). Indian Tribe (or “Federally recognized Indian Tribe”) means any Indian Tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community, including any...

  19. 2 CFR 25.335 - Indian Tribe (or “Federally recognized Indian Tribe”).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Indian Tribe (or âFederally recognized....335 Indian Tribe (or “Federally recognized Indian Tribe”). Indian Tribe (or “Federally recognized Indian Tribe”) means any Indian Tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community, including any...

  20. 2 CFR 25.335 - Indian Tribe (or “Federally recognized Indian Tribe”).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Indian Tribe (or âFederally recognized....335 Indian Tribe (or “Federally recognized Indian Tribe”). Indian Tribe (or “Federally recognized Indian Tribe”) means any Indian Tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community, including any...

  1. The Indian Health Service approach to alcoholism among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, E R; Mason, R D; Eddy, P; Smith, E M; Burns, T R

    1988-01-01

    The transfer to the Indian Health Service (IHS) of 158 alcohol treatment programs that had been administered by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism began in 1978. Today, approximately 300 alcohol and substance abuse treatment programs offer services to American Indians, among them primary residential treatment, halfway houses, outreach, and aftercare. This system provides a national network upon which additional activities may be established. Along with increasing its attention to health promotion and disease prevention, the IHS has moved toward the prevention of alcoholism. A variety of preventive programs are in place that emphasize improved self-image, value and attitude clarification, decision-making, and physical and emotional effects of alcohol and substance abuse. Many begin as Head Start programs and continue through adulthood. In 1986, after consulting with both academic and tribal experts, the IHS devised a strategic plan for alcoholism control that stresses comprehensive care and prevention activities; it serves as a guide for further program development. The Secretary of Health and Human Services created a Task Force on Indian Alcoholism in 1986 to serve as a coordinating body for activities carried out by the IHS and other agencies and units of the Department. Passage of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act in 1986 added resources for the development of adolescent treatment centers and, more importantly, for community-based pre- and post-residential care for youths and their families. Concomitant with these initiatives have been several instances of increased attention by various tribes to the problem of alcoholism. The IHS strategic plan, together with the Secretary's initiative, the Anti-Drug Act, and tribal actions, has added substantial momentum to efforts directed at controlling alcoholism among American Indians. Although the mortality rate from alcoholism is about four times greater for the American Indian population than for the entire U

  2. 76 FR 58076 - Designation of the Indian Mujahideen, Also Known as Indian Mujahedeen, Also Known as Indian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... Known as Islamic Security Force-Indian Mujahideen (ISF-IM), as a Foreign Terrorist Organization Pursuant... known as Indian Mujahidin, also known as Islamic Security Force-Indian Mujahideen (ISF-IM). Therefore,...

  3. Indian Ocean analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Gary

    1992-01-01

    The background and goals of Indian Ocean thermal sampling are discussed from the perspective of a national project which has research goals relevant to variation of climate in Australia. The critical areas of SST variation are identified. The first goal of thermal sampling at this stage is to develop a climatology of thermal structure in the areas and a description of the annual variation of major currents. The sampling strategy is reviewed. Dense XBT sampling is required to achieve accurate, monthly maps of isotherm-depth because of the high level of noise in the measurements caused by aliasing of small scale variation. In the Indian Ocean ship routes dictate where adequate sampling can be achieved. An efficient sampling rate on available routes is determined based on objective analysis. The statistical structure required for objective analysis is described and compared at 95 locations in the tropical Pacific and 107 in the tropical Indian Oceans. XBT data management and quality control methods at CSIRO are reviewed. Results on the mean and annual variation of temperature and baroclinic structure in the South Equatorial Current and Pacific/Indian Ocean Throughflow are presented for the region between northwest Australia and Java-Timor. The mean relative geostrophic transport (0/400 db) of Throughflow is approximately 5 x 106 m3/sec. A nearly equal volume transport is associated with the reference velocity at 400 db. The Throughflow feeds the South Equatorial Current, which has maximum westward flow in August/September, at the end of the southeasterly Monsoon season. A strong semiannual oscillation in the South Java Current is documented. The results are in good agreement with the Semtner and Chervin (1988) ocean general circulation model. The talk concludes with comments on data inadequacies (insufficient coverage, timeliness) particular to the Indian Ocean and suggestions on the future role that can be played by Data Centers, particularly with regard to quality

  4. Mutation analysis of β-thalassemia in East-Western Indian population: a recent molecular approach

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Parth S; Shah, Nidhi D; Ray, Hari Shankar P; Khatri, Nikunj B; Vaghasia, Ketan K; Raval, Rutvik J; Shah, Sandip C; Rao, Mandava V

    2017-01-01

    Background β-Thalassemia is the most prevalent genetic disorder in India. Its traits and coinheritance vary from mild to severe conditions, resulting in thalassemia minor, intermediate, and major, depending upon many factors. Purpose The objective of this study was to identify the incidence of β-thalassemia traits, their coinheritance, and mutations, as well as to support the patients already diagnosed with β-thalassemia in East-Western Indian population for better management. Patients and methods Seventy-five referral cases for β-thalassemia were analyzed for various β-thalassemia traits, heterozygosity, and homozygosity conditions. Blood phenotypic parameters using cell counter and capillary electrophoresis were investigated. Analyses of eight common mutations of thalassemia in India were carried out using polymerase chain reaction-amplification refractory mutation system, end point polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing methods. Results Of these (75) referral cases from East-Western Indian region, 68 were positive for β-thalassemia (90.67%). The majority of case types were of β-thalassemia minor (49, 65.33%), followed by HbE traits (6, 8.0%) and β-thalassemia major, including heterozygous and homozygous (5, 6.66%; 4, 5.33%) types and then HbE homozygous (2, 2.66%), as well as one each of the HbE/β-thalassemia and HbD/β-thalassemia (1, 1.34%) combination. Mutation analysis also revealed that the highest frequency of mutation was c.92+5G>C (41, 60.29%) followed by deletion 619bp (9, 13.23%) and c.79G>A (8, 11.76%) in our study group. Five cases (nos. 24, 27, 33, 58, and 71) exhibited coinheritance between β0/β+ (2), β0/β D (1), and c.124_127delTTCT/β+ or β0(2) affecting the Rajasthani and Gujarati populations in our study of the Western region of India. Conclusion We strongly recommend these Western populations for genetic screening before adopting reproductive technologies and interracial marital relations. PMID:28546763

  5. Pregnancy complications in Sioux Indians.

    PubMed

    Petersen, L P; Leonardson, G; Wingert, R I; Stanage, W; Gergen, J; Gilmore, H T

    1984-10-01

    The poor health status of Sioux Indians residing on reservations in South Dakota has been recognized for many years. The present report documents evidence of a high incidence of socioeconomic health-related disorders and pregnancy-related complications by comparing 342 pregnant white women and 405 pregnant Sioux Indian women. In collaboration with the Aberdeen Area Indian Health Service, beginning in 1976, a program was initiated to identify, assess risks, and provide patient management for pregnant Sioux Indians. This prenatal consultative program has proved effective in the reduction of fetal and infant mortality.

  6. Clean Water Indian Set-Aside Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Water Indian Set-Aside Grant Program (CWISA) provides funding to Indian tribes and Alaska Native Villages for wastewater infrastructure. The CWISA program is administered in cooperation with the Indian Health Service (IHS).

  7. Adaptation and implementation of cognitive behavioral intervention for trauma in schools with American Indian youth.

    PubMed

    Goodkind, Jessica R; Lanoue, Marianna D; Milford, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    American Indian adolescents experience higher rates of suicide and psychological distress than the overall U.S. adolescent population, and research suggests that these disparities are related to higher rates of violence and trauma exposure. Despite elevated risk, there is limited empirical information to guide culturally appropriate treatment of trauma and related symptoms. We report a pilot study of an adaptation to the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools in a sample of 24 American Indian adolescents. Participants experienced significant decreases in anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and avoidant coping strategies, as well as a marginally significant decrease in depression symptoms. Improvements in anxiety and depression were maintained 6 months postintervention; improvements in posttraumatic stress disorder and avoidant coping strategies were not.

  8. 34 CFR 300.21 - Indian and Indian tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian and Indian tribe. 300.21 Section 300.21 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  9. Indian Tales of the Northern Rockies. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Old Coyote, Sally; Toineeta, Joy Yellowtail

    Part of the Montana Council for Indian Education's Indian Culture Series, the book contains six folk stories recorded on reservations and by headstart teachers. The stories are: "The Owl", a Gros Ventre tale; "How the Robin Got a Red Breast", from the Flathead Tribe; "Old Man Coyote and the Wild Geese", a Crow Indian…

  10. Indian Tales of the Northern Rockies. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Old Coyote, Sally; Toineeta, Joy Yellowtail

    Part of the Montana Council for Indian Education's Indian Culture Series, the book contains six folk stories recorded on reservations and by headstart teachers. The stories are: "The Owl", a Gros Ventre tale; "How the Robin Got a Red Breast", from the Flathead Tribe; "Old Man Coyote and the Wild Geese", a Crow Indian…

  11. 34 CFR 300.21 - Indian and Indian tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Indian and Indian tribe. 300.21 Section 300.21 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  12. 34 CFR 300.21 - Indian and Indian tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Indian and Indian tribe. 300.21 Section 300.21 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN...

  13. Thoughts on the Indian Dilemma: Backgrounding the "Indian Problem"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muskrat, Joseph

    1973-01-01

    Argues that the core of the Indians' problem is the inability of their community to achieve a sense of control over its own destiny, and explores ways in which the Indians can organize to gain the necessary internal cohesion, resources, and capabilities in order to create a satisfactory position within American society. (JM)

  14. American Indian Intellectualism and the New Indian Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Lynn, Elizabeth

    1996-01-01

    Critically reviews modern writings about American Indians, focusing on Indian romance novels, children's stories, biographies, works by "urban mixed-bloods," and the "art for art's sake" stance. Views non-Native works as irrelevant and most Native writings as self-centered or escapist. Calls for Native intellectuals to…

  15. Adult social roles and alcohol use among American Indians.

    PubMed

    Greene, Kaylin M; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David

    2014-09-01

    American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, and full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians.

  16. Epidemiology and treatment of osteoporosis in women: an Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Mandlik, Rubina M

    2015-01-01

    The number of women with osteoporosis, ie, with reduced bone mass and the disruption of bone architecture, is increasing in India. While data on prevalence of osteoporosis among women in India come from studies conducted in small groups spread across the country, estimates suggest that of the 230 million Indians expected to be over the age of 50 years in 2015, 20%, ie, ~46 million, are women with osteoporosis. Thus, osteoporosis is a major public health problem in Indian women. Low calcium intakes with extensive prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, increasing longevity, sex inequality, early menopause, genetic predisposition, lack of diagnostic facilities, and poor knowledge of bone health have contributed toward the high prevalence of osteoporosis. Bone health may be optimized by creating an environment to achieve peak bone mass during adolescence, maintenance of healthy bone throughout the life cycle, and prevention of bone loss postmenopausal. In Indian women, calcium, vitamin D, and bisphosphonates are the commonest first-line therapies used. The use of other drugs such as hormone replacement therapy, estrogen agonists, calcitonin, parathyroid hormone, and denosumab is decided as per the affordability and availability of treatment options. Major gaps still remain in the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis, thus highlighting the need for more structured research in this area. This review focuses on the epidemiology of osteoporosis in Indian women and available treatments. PMID:26527900

  17. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  18. Indian women cry foul.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Thirteen organizations in Bombay issued a position statement on women's reproductive health and family planning as part of a national Planned Parenthood Foundation 1990's meeting on new contraception. The statement asserted that women needed to have an understanding of their bodies, wanted contraceptives that would not harm physiological functions, and desired men's and women's joint responsibility for reproduction. Women's groups voiced a concern about women gaining awareness of their ability to control their own health and contraception. The Indian government has been concerned with population control since 1952 and has stressed reducing the birth rate rather than providing for people's needs. The Indian government has followed the advice of Western nations and promoted the IUD during the 1960s, vasectomies during the 1970s, female sterilization during the 1980s, and long acting contraceptives during the 1990s. Government policy after the 1970s that focused on women's methods was viewed as coercive. Women's groups such as Stree Shakti Sanghatana, Saheli, and Chingari and the Andhra Pradesh Civil Liberties Union protested the Indian's governments promotion of injectable contraceptives such as NET-EN which were considered hazardous to women's health. Women's groups asked for legislative action, which helped to focus discussion and debate on the issues of the side effects of contraception. The concern was raised that people needed to be made aware of the issues and that the NET-EN campaign was only a dialogue among experts. Women's groups have focused on creating understanding about family planning rather than on simplistic labeling of harmful contraception. Demands should be put in a positive framework that redefines couple relationships, explores a variety of expressions of sexuality, and asserts the primacy of women's decision making about reproduction.

  19. Ethical issues in child and adolescent psychotherapy: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Avinash

    2010-01-01

    Child and adolescent psychotherapy has made great progress in recent years. With this progress, ethical issues have emerged that need to be addressed in the Indian setting. This article looks at various ethical issues in child and adolescent psychotherapy specific to Indian practitioners. The involvement of parents in psychotherapy often blurs therapeutic boundaries and issues related to confidentiality. Practitioners working in hospital and school settings are faced with similar problems. The advent of the internet and e-mail has resulted in new concerns for psychiatrists, related to communication via those media. Issues related to parenting, culture and development patterns, along with personal issues for the therapist, have been discussed.

  20. Historicizing Indian psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Amit Ranjan

    2005-01-01

    Our historical endeavour to map Indian psychiatry has largely remained linear, positivistic and evolutionary. Whether it starts from the ancient times or modern, it shows our past as a tale of victory for the western science, without questioning the borrowed paradigm. The use of historical methods for serious enquiry of psychiatry has been ignored. Emergence of a new genre of historicism that is critical of both colonialism and psychiatry as a universal science, has raised hopes to critically review the emergence of psychiatric knowledge. PMID:20711299